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Sample records for hazard classification system

  1. A complete electrical hazard classification system and its application

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Lloyd B; Cartelli, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace, NFPA 70E, and relevant OSHA electrical safety standards evolved to address the hazards of 60-Hz power that are faced primarily by electricians, linemen, and others performing facility and utility work. This leaves a substantial gap in the management of electrical hazards in Research and Development (R&D) and specialized high voltage and high power equipment. Examples include lasers, accelerators, capacitor banks, electroplating systems, induction and dielectric heating systems, etc. Although all such systems are fed by 50/60 Hz alternating current (ac) power, we find substantial use of direct current (dc) electrical energy, and the use of capacitors, inductors, batteries, and radiofrequency (RF) power. The electrical hazards of these forms of electricity and their systems are different than for 50160 Hz power. Over the past 10 years there has been an effort to develop a method of classifying all of the electrical hazards found in all types of R&D and utilization equipment. Examples of the variation of these hazards from NFPA 70E include (a) high voltage can be harmless, if the available current is sufficiently low, (b) low voltage can be harmful if the available current/power is high, (c) high voltage capacitor hazards are unique and include severe reflex action, affects on the heart, and tissue damage, and (d) arc flash hazard analysis for dc and capacitor systems are not provided in existing standards. This work has led to a comprehensive electrical hazard classification system that is based on various research conducted over the past 100 years, on analysis of such systems in R&D, and on decades of experience. Initially, national electrical safety codes required the qualified worker only to know the source voltage to determine the shock hazard. Later, as arc flash hazards were understood, the fault current and clearing time were needed. These items are still insufficient to fully characterize all types of

  2. The development of the globally harmonized system (GHS) of classification and labelling of hazardous chemicals.

    PubMed

    Winder, Chris; Azzi, Rola; Wagner, Drew

    2005-10-17

    The hazards of chemicals can be classified using classification criteria that are based on physical, chemical and ecotoxicological endpoints. These criteria may be developed be iteratively, based on scientific or regulatory processes. A number of national and international schemes have been developed over the past 50 years, and some, such as the UN Dangerous Goods system or the EC system for hazardous substances, are in widespread use. However, the unnecessarily complicated multiplicity of existing hazard classifications created much unnecessary confusion at the user level, and a recommendation was made at the 1992 Rio Earth summit to develop a globally harmonized chemical hazard classification and compatible labelling system, including material safety data sheets and easily understandable symbols, that could be used for manufacture, transport, use and disposal of chemical substances. This became the globally harmonized system for the Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). The developmental phase of the GHS is largely complete. Consistent criteria for categorising chemicals according to their toxic, physical, chemical and ecological hazards are now available. Consistent hazard communication tools such as labelling and material safety data sheets are also close to finalisation. The next phase is implementation of the GHS. The Intergovernmental Forum for Chemical Safety recommends that all countries implement the GHS as soon as possible with a view to have the system fully operational by 2008. When the GHS is in place, the world will finally have one system for classification of chemical hazards. PMID:16039045

  3. The evaluation and hazard classification of toxicological information for Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System material safety data sheets.

    PubMed

    Côté, R; Davis, H; Dimock, C; Korpan, M; Loewen, K; Segal, L M

    1998-02-01

    Hazardous materials used occupationally in Canada are subject to the legislated requirements of the Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS). This paper describes the administrative framework of WHMIS and how toxicological data are evaluated to determine if a substance triggers WHMIS classification for the toxicological endpoints of acute toxicity, skin irritation, eye irritation, corrosion, dermal sensitization, respiratory sensitization, chronic toxicity, mutagenicity, teratogenicity/embryotoxicity, and carcinogenicity. Problems encountered with the information on material safety data sheets are also discussed for each of the toxicological endpoints. PMID:9629597

  4. The evaluation and hazard classification of toxicological information for workplace hazardous materials information system material safety data sheets

    PubMed

    Cote; Davis; Dimock; Korpan; Loewen; Segal

    1998-02-01

    Hazardous materials used occupationally in Canada are subject to the legislated requirements of the Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS). This paper describes the administrative framework of WHMIS and how toxicological data are evaluated to determine if a substance triggers WHMIS classification for the toxicological endpoints of acute toxicity, skin irritation, eye irritation, corrosion, dermal sensitization, respiratory sensitization, chronic toxicity, mutagenicity, teratogenicity/embryotoxicity, and carcinogenicity. Problems encountered with the information on material safety data sheets are also discussed for each of the toxicological endpoints. Copyright 1998 Academic Press. PMID:9618324

  5. Hazard Classification of Household Chemical Products in Korea according to the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and labeling of Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to review the validity of the need for the application of the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS) to household chemical products in Korea. The study also aimed to assess the severity of health and environmental hazards of household chemical products using the GHS. Methods 135 products were classified as ‘cleaning agents and polishing agents’ and 98 products were classified as ‘bleaches, disinfectants, and germicides.’ The current status of carcinogenic classification of GHS and carcinogenicity was examined for 272 chemical substances contained in household chemical products by selecting the top 11 products for each of the product categories. In addition, the degree of toxicity was assessed through analysis of whether the standard of the Republic of Korea’s regulations on household chemical products had been exceeded or not. Results According to GHS health and environmental hazards, “acute toxicity (oral)” was found to be the highest for two product groups, ‘cleaning agents and polishing agents’, and ‘bleaches, disinfectants, and germicides’ (result of classification of 233 household chemical products) at 37.8% and 52.0% respectively. In an analysis of carcinogenicity assuming a threshold of IARC 2B for the substances in household chemical products, we found ‘cleaning agents and polishing agents’ to contain 12 chemical substances and ‘bleaches, disinfectants, and germicides’ 11 chemical substances. Conclusion Some of the household chemical products were found to have a high hazard level including acute toxicity and germ cell mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and reproductive toxicity. Establishing a hazard information delivery system including the application of GHS to household chemical products in Korea is urgent as well. PMID:24472347

  6. Early warning, warning or alarm systems for natural hazards? A generic classification.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sättele, Martina; Bründl, Michael; Straub, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Early warning, warning and alarm systems have gained popularity in recent years as cost-efficient measures for dangerous natural hazard processes such as floods, storms, rock and snow avalanches, debris flows, rock and ice falls, landslides, flash floods, glacier lake outburst floods, forest fires and even earthquakes. These systems can generate information before an event causes loss of property and life. In this way, they mainly mitigate the overall risk by reducing the presence probability of endangered objects. These systems are typically prototypes tailored to specific project needs. Despite their importance there is no recognised system classification. This contribution classifies warning and alarm systems into three classes: i) threshold systems, ii) expert systems and iii) model-based expert systems. The result is a generic classification, which takes the characteristics of the natural hazard process itself and the related monitoring possibilities into account. The choice of the monitoring parameters directly determines the system's lead time. The classification of 52 active systems moreover revealed typical system characteristics for each system class. i) Threshold systems monitor dynamic process parameters of ongoing events (e.g. water level of a debris flow) and incorporate minor lead times. They have a local geographical coverage and a predefined threshold determines if an alarm is automatically activated to warn endangered objects, authorities and system operators. ii) Expert systems monitor direct changes in the variable disposition (e.g crack opening before a rock avalanche) or trigger events (e.g. heavy rain) at a local scale before the main event starts and thus offer extended lead times. The final alarm decision incorporates human, model and organisational related factors. iii) Model-based expert systems monitor indirect changes in the variable disposition (e.g. snow temperature, height or solar radiation that influence the occurrence probability

  7. A hazard and risk classification system for catastrophic rock slope failures in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanns, R.; Oppikofer, T.; Anda, E.; Blikra, L. H.; Böhme, M.; Bunkholt, H.; Dahle, H.; Devoli, G.; Eikenæs, O.; Fischer, L.; Harbitz, C. B.; Jaboyedoff, M.; Loew, S.; Yugsi Molina, F. X.

    2012-04-01

    The Geological Survey of Norway carries out systematic geologic mapping of potentially unstable rock slopes in Norway that can cause a catastrophic failure. As catastrophic failure we describe failures that involve substantial fragmentation of the rock mass during run-out and that impact an area larger than that of a rock fall (shadow angle of ca. 28-32° for rock falls). This includes therefore rock slope failures that lead to secondary effects, such as a displacement wave when impacting a water body or damming of a narrow valley. Our systematic mapping revealed more than 280 rock slopes with significant postglacial deformation, which might represent localities of large future rock slope failures. This large number necessitates prioritization of follow-up activities, such as more detailed investigations, periodic monitoring and permanent monitoring and early-warning. In the past hazard and risk were assessed qualitatively for some sites, however, in order to compare sites so that political and financial decisions can be taken, it was necessary to develop a quantitative hazard and risk classification system. A preliminary classification system was presented and discussed with an expert group of Norwegian and international experts and afterwards adapted following their recommendations. This contribution presents the concept of this final hazard and risk classification that should be used in Norway in the upcoming years. Historical experience and possible future rockslide scenarios in Norway indicate that hazard assessment of large rock slope failures must be scenario-based, because intensity of deformation and present displacement rates, as well as the geological structures activated by the sliding rock mass can vary significantly on a given slope. In addition, for each scenario the run-out of the rock mass has to be evaluated. This includes the secondary effects such as generation of displacement waves or landslide damming of valleys with the potential of later

  8. THE CLASSIFICATION OF HAZARDOUS OCCUPATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Hayhurst, E. R.

    1916-01-01

    In this paper Doctor Hayhurst describes the six classifications for hazardous occupations which were employed in a survey made in Ohio. He also explains, by text and diagram, the process of analyzing, upon a standard formula, the hazard of an individual case. PMID:18009453

  9. Children's misunderstandings of hazard warning signs in the new globally harmonized system for classification and labeling.

    PubMed

    Latham, Garry; Long, Tony; Devitt, Patric

    2013-12-01

    Accidental chemical poisoning causes more than 35 000 child deaths every year across the world, and it leads to disease, disability, and suffering for many more children. Children's ignorance of dangers and their failure to interpret hazard warning signs as intended contribute significantly to this problem. A new Globally Harmonized System for Classification and Labeling is being implemented internationally with a view to unifying the current multiple and disparate national systems. This study was designed to establish a productive, effective means of teaching the new GHS warning signs to primary school children (aged 7-11 years). A pre-test, post-test, follow-up test design was employed, with a teaching intervention informed by a Delphi survey of expert opinion. Children from one school formed the experimental group (n = 49) and a second school provided a control group (n = 23). Both groups showed a gain in knowledge from pre-test to post-test, the experimental group with a larger gain but which was not statistically significant. However, longer-term retention of knowledge, as shown by the follow-up test, was statistically significantly greater in the experimental group (p = 0.001). The employment of teaching to match children's preferred learning styles, and the use of active learning were found to be related to improved retention of knowledge. Part of the study involved eliciting children's interpretation of standard hazard warning symbols, and this provoked considerable concern over the potential for dangerous misinterpretation with disastrous consequences. This article focuses on the reasons for such misconception and the action required to address this successfully in testing the intervention. PMID:23964825

  10. Towards a hazard classification system for large rock slope failures in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanns, Reginald L.; Anda, Einar; Henderson, Iain; Dahle, Halgeir; Saintot, Aline; Harald Blikra, Lars; Bøhme, Martina; Dehls, John; Redfield, Thomas; Eiken, Trond

    2010-05-01

    Systematic rock slope analyses carried out in Norway in three different provinces in the past years has revealed more than 200 rock slopes with significant postglacial deformation, which might present localities of large future rock slope failures. This large number makes a prioritization of follow up activities necessary which was based in the past on a qualitative hazard and risk assessment. However, to compare sites so that political and financial decisions can be taken it might be useful to develop both a quantitative hazard and risk classification based on formulas. This contribution focuses on the hazard classification only. Historical experience and possible future rockslide scenarios in Norway indicate that hazard assessment of large rock slope failures is not only restricted to a magnitude, intensity and probability analyses of the rockslide event. The most critical part are the secondary effects resulting in generation of tsunamis or landslide damming of valleys with the potential of later outburst floods increasing significantly the size of the affected area. In addition, the probability analyses is not restricted to a frequency analyses as multiple rockslides have occurred within one century on a single slope while other slopes have frequencies below the recurrence of several thousand years or even higher than glacial cycles, however both frequency do not indicate necessarily which slope will fail next. Intensity estimation is in general the easiest estimate as complete destruction in the area of impact can be assessed for fast rockslides in general. The hazard assessment leading towards a hazard classification will therefore include the assessment of a potential for displacement wave and/or landslide dam formation within the magnitude analyses. The most difficult task is the probability analyses and the best approach seems to be a likelihood assessment of the occurrence of a future event for a given time period. This includes the frequency analyses of

  11. Global harmonisation of classification and labelling of hazardous chemicals.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Iona S

    2002-03-10

    The Globally Harmonised System (GHS) for classification and labelling will provide an internationally agreed system for hazard classification of chemical products and for communication of those hazards. Under the system, chemicals will be classified according to their physical (e.g. flammability), health/toxicological and environmental hazards. The toxicological endpoints used in the system are acute toxicity, irritation or corrosivity, sensitisation, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, reproductive toxicity and chronic or repeat dose toxicity. The intended target audiences are those concerned with transport of dangerous goods, consumers, workers and emergency responders. Labels and safety data sheets (SDS) are the core tools of the GHS hazard communication system, and the harmonised labelling elements are symbols (within a pictogram), signal words and hazard statements. The GHS will use a building block approach in which application may vary according to the circumstances, type of product, and stage of life cycle, allowing selection of the elements appropriate to the needs of the various end users. PMID:11869813

  12. NEC Hazardous classification and compliance regarding the surface moisture monitor measurement system

    SciTech Connect

    Bussell, J.H., WHC

    1996-06-12

    The National Electrical Code, NFPA 70, and National Fire Protection Association requirements for use of Surface Moisture Monitor Systems in classified locations are discussed. The design and configuration of the surface moisture monitor are analyzed with respect to how they comply with requirements of the National Electrical Code requirements, articles 500-504.

  13. A comparison of mandatory and voluntary approaches to the implementation of Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) in the management of hazardous chemicals.

    PubMed

    Ta, Goh Choo; Mokhtar, Mazlin Bin; Peterson, Peter John; Yahaya, Nadzri Bin

    2011-01-01

    The European Union (EU) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have applied different approaches to facilitate the implementation of the UN Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). The EU applied the mandatory approach by gazetting the EU Regulation 1272/2008 incorporating GHS elements on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures in 2008; whereas the WHO utilized a voluntary approach by incorporating GHS elements in the WHO guidelines entitled 'WHO Recommended Classification of Pesticides by Hazard' in 2009. We report on an analysis of both the mandatory and voluntary approaches practised by the EU and the WHO respectively, with close reference to the GHS 'purple book'. Our findings indicate that the mandatory approach practiced by the EU covers all the GHS elements referred to in the second revised edition of the GHS 'purple book'. Hence we can conclude that the EU has implemented the GHS particularly for industrial chemicals. On the other hand, the WHO guidelines published in 2009 should be revised to address concerns raised in this paper. In addition, both mandatory and voluntary approaches should be carefully examined because the classification results may be different. PMID:22020020

  14. Hazard interaction analysis for multi-hazard risk assessment: a systematic classification based on hazard-forming environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, B.; Siu, Y. L.; Mitchell, G.

    2015-12-01

    This paper develops a systematic hazard interaction classification based on the geophysical environment that natural hazards arise from - the hazard-forming environment. According to their contribution to natural hazards, geophysical environmental factors in the hazard-forming environment were categorized into two types. The first are relatively stable factors which construct the precondition for the occurrence of natural hazards, whilst the second are trigger factors, which determine the frequency and magnitude of hazards. Different combinations of geophysical environmental factors induce different hazards. Based on these geophysical environmental factors for some major hazards, the stable factors are used to identify which kinds of natural hazards influence a given area, and trigger factors are used to classify the relationships between these hazards into four types: independent, mutex, parallel and series relationships. This classification helps to ensure all possible hazard interactions among different hazards are considered in multi-hazard risk assessment. This can effectively fill the gap in current multi-hazard risk assessment methods which to date only consider domino effects. In addition, based on this classification, the probability and magnitude of multiple interacting natural hazards occurring together can be calculated. Hence, the developed hazard interaction classification provides a useful tool to facilitate improved multi-hazard risk assessment.

  15. Hazard interaction analysis for multi-hazard risk assessment: a systematic classification based on hazard-forming environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Baoyin; Siu, Yim Ling; Mitchell, Gordon

    2016-03-01

    This paper develops a systematic hazard interaction classification based on the geophysical environment that natural hazards arise from - the hazard-forming environment. According to their contribution to natural hazards, geophysical environmental factors in the hazard-forming environment were categorized into two types. The first are relatively stable factors which construct the precondition for the occurrence of natural hazards, whilst the second are trigger factors, which determine the frequency and magnitude of hazards. Different combinations of geophysical environmental factors induce different hazards. Based on these geophysical environmental factors for some major hazards, the stable factors are used to identify which kinds of natural hazards influence a given area, and trigger factors are used to classify the relationships between these hazards into four types: independent, mutex, parallel and series relationships. This classification helps to ensure all possible hazard interactions among different hazards are considered in multi-hazard risk assessment. This can effectively fill the gap in current multi-hazard risk assessment methods which to date only consider domino effects. In addition, based on this classification, the probability and magnitude of multiple interacting natural hazards occurring together can be calculated. Hence, the developed hazard interaction classification provides a useful tool to facilitate improved multi-hazard risk assessment.

  16. Hazard classification assessment for the High Voltage Initiator

    SciTech Connect

    Cogan, J.D.

    1994-04-19

    An investigation was conducted to determine whether the High Voltage Initiator (Sandia p number 395710; Navy NAVSEA No. 6237177) could be assigned a Department of Transportation (DOT) hazard classification of ``IGNITERS, 1.4G, UN0325`` under Code of Federal Regulations, 49 CFR 173.101, when packaged per Mound drawing NXB911442. A hazard classification test was performed, and the test data led to a recommended hazard classification of ``IGNITERS, 1.4G, UN0325,`` based on guidance outlined in DOE Order 1540.2 and 49 CFR 173.56.

  17. Hazard classification criteria for non-nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Mahn, J.A.; Walker, S.A.

    1997-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories` Integrated Risk Management Department has developed a process for establishing the appropriate hazard classification of a new facility or operation, and thus the level of rigor required for the associated authorization basis safety documentation. This process is referred to as the Preliminary Hazard Screen. DOE Order 5481.1B contains the following hazard classification for non-nuclear facilities: high--having the potential for onsite or offsite impacts to large numbers of persons or for major impacts to the environment; moderate--having the potential for considerable onsite impacts but only minor offsite impacts to people or the environment; low--having the potential for only minor onsite and negligible offsite impacts to people or the environment. It is apparent that the application of such generic criteria is more than likely to be fraught with subjective judgment. One way to remove the subjectivity is to define health and safety classification thresholds for specific hazards that are based on the magnitude of the hazard, rather than on a qualitative assessment of possible accident consequences. This paper presents the results of such an approach to establishing a readily usable set of non-nuclear facility hazard classifications.

  18. 42 CFR 84.52 - Respiratory hazards; classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respiratory hazards; classification. 84.52 Section 84.52 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE...

  19. Hazardous materials incineration system

    SciTech Connect

    Hladun, K.W.

    1982-03-23

    A hazardous materials incineration system is disclosed which includes a solid waste combustor of the inclined, oscillating or rocking type and a liquid waste combustor suitable to incinerate wastes in liquid form. The combustion products from both the solid waste combustor and the liquid waste combustor are fed to an afterburner which is equipped with burners to maintain elevated temperatures throughout the length of the afterburner chamber. The products of combustion exit the afterburner into a conditioning unit which eliminates larger particulate matter, cools the combustion products and releases certain additives into the moving gas stream prior to entry into a baghouse. All neutralized salts are withdrawn at the baghouse and the gaseous baghouse effluent is directed to a further aqueous liquor contact apparatus prior to exhausting to atmosphere through a forced draft stack system.

  20. Consensus of classification trees for skin sensitisation hazard prediction.

    PubMed

    Asturiol, D; Casati, S; Worth, A

    2016-10-01

    Since March 2013, it is no longer possible to market in the European Union (EU) cosmetics containing new ingredients tested on animals. Although several in silico alternatives are available and achievements have been made in the development and regulatory adoption of skin sensitisation non-animal tests, there is not yet a generally accepted approach for skin sensitisation assessment that would fully substitute the need for animal testing. The aim of this work was to build a defined approach (i.e. a predictive model based on readouts from various information sources that uses a fixed procedure for generating a prediction) for skin sensitisation hazard prediction (sensitiser/non-sensitiser) using Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) results as reference classifications. To derive the model, we built a dataset with high quality data from in chemico (DPRA) and in vitro (KeratinoSens™ and h-CLAT) methods, and it was complemented with predictions from several software packages. The modelling exercise showed that skin sensitisation hazard was better predicted by classification trees based on in silico predictions. The defined approach consists of a consensus of two classification trees that are based on descriptors that account for protein reactivity and structural features. The model showed an accuracy of 0.93, sensitivity of 0.98, and specificity of 0.85 for 269 chemicals. In addition, the defined approach provides a measure of confidence associated to the prediction. PMID:27458072

  1. Neuromuscular disease classification system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sáez, Aurora; Acha, Begoña; Montero-Sánchez, Adoración; Rivas, Eloy; Escudero, Luis M.; Serrano, Carmen

    2013-06-01

    Diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases is based on subjective visual assessment of biopsies from patients by the pathologist specialist. A system for objective analysis and classification of muscular dystrophies and neurogenic atrophies through muscle biopsy images of fluorescence microscopy is presented. The procedure starts with an accurate segmentation of the muscle fibers using mathematical morphology and a watershed transform. A feature extraction step is carried out in two parts: 24 features that pathologists take into account to diagnose the diseases and 58 structural features that the human eye cannot see, based on the assumption that the biopsy is considered as a graph, where the nodes are represented by each fiber, and two nodes are connected if two fibers are adjacent. A feature selection using sequential forward selection and sequential backward selection methods, a classification using a Fuzzy ARTMAP neural network, and a study of grading the severity are performed on these two sets of features. A database consisting of 91 images was used: 71 images for the training step and 20 as the test. A classification error of 0% was obtained. It is concluded that the addition of features undetectable by the human visual inspection improves the categorization of atrophic patterns.

  2. 21 CFR 7.41 - Health hazard evaluation and recall classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health hazard evaluation and recall classification..., and Industry Responsibilities § 7.41 Health hazard evaluation and recall classification. (a) An evaluation of the health hazard presented by a product being recalled or considered for recall will...

  3. Pyrotechnic hazards classification and evaluation program. Phase 3, segments 1-4: Investigation of sensitivity test methods and procedures for pyrotechnic hazards evaluation and classification, part A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The findings, conclusions, and recommendations relative to the investigations conducted to evaluate tests for classifying pyrotechnic materials and end items as to their hazard potential are presented. Information required to establish an applicable means of determining the potential hazards of pyrotechnics is described. Hazard evaluations are based on the peak overpressure or impulse resulting from the explosion as a function of distance from the source. Other hazard classification tests include dust ignition sensitivity, impact ignition sensitivity, spark ignition sensitivity, and differential thermal analysis.

  4. Rock slope instabilities in Norway: First systematic hazard and risk classification of 22 unstable rock slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhme, Martina; Hermanns, Reginald L.; Oppikofer, Thierry; Penna, Ivanna

    2016-04-01

    Unstable rock slopes that can cause large failures of the rock-avalanche type have been mapped in Norway for almost two decades. Four sites have earlier been characterized as high-risk objects based on expertise of few researchers. This resulted in installing continuous monitoring systems and set-up of an early-warning system for those four sites. Other unstable rock slopes have not been ranked related to their hazard or risk. There are ca. 300 other sites known of which 70 sites were installed for periodic deformation measurements using multiple techniques (Global Navigation Satellite Systems, extensometers, measurement bolts, and others). In 2012 a systematic hazard and risk classification system for unstable rock slopes was established in Norway and the mapping approach adapted to that in 2013. Now, the first 22 sites were classified for hazard, consequences and risk using this classification system. The selection of the first group of sites to be classified was based on an assumed high hazard or risk and importance given to the sites by Norwegian media and the public. Nine of the classified 22 unstable rock slopes are large sites that deform inhomogeneously or are strongly broken up in individual blocks. This suggests that different failure scenarios are possible that need to be analyzed individually. A total of 35 failure scenarios for those nine unstable rock slopes were considered. The hazard analyses were based on 9 geological parameters defined in the classification system. The classification system will be presented based on the Gamanjunni unstable rock slope. This slope has a well developed back scarp that exposes 150 m preceding displacement. The lateral limits of the unstable slope are clearly visible in the morphology and InSAR displacement data. There have been no single structures observed that allow sliding kinematically. The lower extend of the displacing rock mass is clearly defined in InSAR data and by a zone of higher rock fall activity. Yearly

  5. Aircraft Operations Classification System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harlow, Charles; Zhu, Weihong

    2001-01-01

    Accurate data is important in the aviation planning process. In this project we consider systems for measuring aircraft activity at airports. This would include determining the type of aircraft such as jet, helicopter, single engine, and multiengine propeller. Some of the issues involved in deploying technologies for monitoring aircraft operations are cost, reliability, and accuracy. In addition, the system must be field portable and acceptable at airports. A comparison of technologies was conducted and it was decided that an aircraft monitoring system should be based upon acoustic technology. A multimedia relational database was established for the study. The information contained in the database consists of airport information, runway information, acoustic records, photographic records, a description of the event (takeoff, landing), aircraft type, and environmental information. We extracted features from the time signal and the frequency content of the signal. A multi-layer feed-forward neural network was chosen as the classifier. Training and testing results were obtained. We were able to obtain classification results of over 90 percent for training and testing for takeoff events.

  6. New methodology for hazardous waste classification using fuzzy set theory Part I. Knowledge acquisition.

    PubMed

    Musee, N; Lorenzen, L; Aldrich, C

    2008-06-15

    In the literature on hazardous waste classification, the criteria used are mostly based on physical properties, such as quantity (weight), form (solids, liquid, aqueous or gaseous), the type of processes generating them, or a set of predefined lists. Such classification criteria are inherently inadequate to account for the influence of toxic and hazard characteristics of the constituent chemicals in the wastes, as well as their exposure potency in multimedia environments, terrestrial mammals and other biota. Second, none of these algorithms in the literature has explicitly presented waste classification by examining the contribution of individual constituent components of the composite wastes. In this two-part paper, we propose a new automated algorithm for waste classification that takes into account physicochemical and toxicity effects of the constituent chemicals to humans and ecosystems, in addition, to the exposure potency and waste quantity. In part I, available data on the physicochemical and toxicity properties of individual chemicals in humans and ecosystems, their exposure potency in environmental systems and the effect of waste quantity are described, because they fundamentally contribute to the final waste ranking. Knowledge acquisition in this study was accomplished through the extensive review of published and specialized literature to establish facts necessary for the development of fuzzy rule-bases. Owing to the uncertainty and imprecision of various forms of data (both quantitative and qualitative) essential for waste classification, and the complexity resulting from knowledge incompleteness, the use of fuzzy set theory for the aggregation and computation of waste classification ranking index is proposed. A computer-aided intelligent decision tool is described in part II of this paper and the functionality of the fuzzy waste classification algorithm is illustrated through nine worked examples. PMID:18082951

  7. 7 CFR Appendix A to Subpart E of... - Hazard Potential Classification for Civil Works Projects

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hazard Potential Classification for Civil Works... (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC ENGINEERING, ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES... Subpart E of Part 1724—Hazard Potential Classification for Civil Works Projects The source for...

  8. 7 CFR Appendix A to Subpart E of... - Hazard Potential Classification for Civil Works Projects

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hazard Potential Classification for Civil Works... (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC ENGINEERING, ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES... Subpart E of Part 1724—Hazard Potential Classification for Civil Works Projects The source for...

  9. 7 CFR Appendix A to Subpart E of... - Hazard Potential Classification for Civil Works Projects

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hazard Potential Classification for Civil Works... (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC ENGINEERING, ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES... Subpart E of Part 1724—Hazard Potential Classification for Civil Works Projects The source for...

  10. 7 CFR Appendix A to Subpart E of... - Hazard Potential Classification for Civil Works Projects

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hazard Potential Classification for Civil Works... (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC ENGINEERING, ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES... Subpart E of Part 1724—Hazard Potential Classification for Civil Works Projects The source for...

  11. 7 CFR Appendix A to Subpart E of... - Hazard Potential Classification for Civil Works Projects

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hazard Potential Classification for Civil Works... (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC ENGINEERING, ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES... Subpart E of Part 1724—Hazard Potential Classification for Civil Works Projects The source for...

  12. 16 CFR 1500.85 - Exemptions from classification as banned hazardous substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exemptions from classification as banned hazardous substances. 1500.85 Section 1500.85 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES AND ARTICLES; ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS § 1500.85 Exemptions...

  13. 16 CFR 1500.85 - Exemptions from classification as banned hazardous substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exemptions from classification as banned hazardous substances. 1500.85 Section 1500.85 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES AND ARTICLES; ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS § 1500.85 Exemptions...

  14. CLASSIFICATION FRAMEWORK FOR COASTAL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Classification Framework for Coastal Systems. EPA/600/R-04/061. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Atlantic Ecology Division, Narragansett, RI, Gulf Ecology Division, Gulf Bree...

  15. Seismic event classification system

    DOEpatents

    Dowla, F.U.; Jarpe, S.P.; Maurer, W.

    1994-12-13

    In the computer interpretation of seismic data, the critical first step is to identify the general class of an unknown event. For example, the classification might be: teleseismic, regional, local, vehicular, or noise. Self-organizing neural networks (SONNs) can be used for classifying such events. Both Kohonen and Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) SONNs are useful for this purpose. Given the detection of a seismic event and the corresponding signal, computation is made of: the time-frequency distribution, its binary representation, and finally a shift-invariant representation, which is the magnitude of the two-dimensional Fourier transform (2-D FFT) of the binary time-frequency distribution. This pre-processed input is fed into the SONNs. These neural networks are able to group events that look similar. The ART SONN has an advantage in classifying the event because the types of cluster groups do not need to be pre-defined. The results from the SONNs together with an expert seismologist's classification are then used to derive event classification probabilities. 21 figures.

  16. Seismic event classification system

    DOEpatents

    Dowla, Farid U.; Jarpe, Stephen P.; Maurer, William

    1994-01-01

    In the computer interpretation of seismic data, the critical first step is to identify the general class of an unknown event. For example, the classification might be: teleseismic, regional, local, vehicular, or noise. Self-organizing neural networks (SONNs) can be used for classifying such events. Both Kohonen and Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) SONNs are useful for this purpose. Given the detection of a seismic event and the corresponding signal, computation is made of: the time-frequency distribution, its binary representation, and finally a shift-invariant representation, which is the magnitude of the two-dimensional Fourier transform (2-D FFT) of the binary time-frequency distribution. This pre-processed input is fed into the SONNs. These neural networks are able to group events that look similar. The ART SONN has an advantage in classifying the event because the types of cluster groups do not need to be pre-defined. The results from the SONNs together with an expert seismologist's classification are then used to derive event classification probabilities.

  17. Final Hazard Classification for the FFTF Solid Waste Cask

    SciTech Connect

    HIMES, D.A.

    2002-07-03

    The Solid Waste Cask (SWC) (a major component of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) spent fuel offload system) is a shielded, bottom-loading cask containing an internal hoist system used to transfer irradiated fuel or non-fuel components from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell (IEM Cell) to the Cask Loading Station (CLS). The SWC is assumed to be loaded with 7 irradiated fuel assemblies in a Core Component Container (CCC) having maximum average burn-ups of 150,000 MWd/MTHM. Results show that the fuel handling activities with the SWC loaded with 7 irradiated fuel assemblies in a CCC should be classified as a Category 3 hazard. This conclusion is consistent with the relative simplicity of the system and passive nature of the barriers for purposes of determining the graded approach specified in DOE-STD-1027-92 (DOE 1992).

  18. Rocket propulsion hazard summary: Safety classification, handling experience and application to space shuttle payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pennington, D. F.; Man, T.; Persons, B.

    1977-01-01

    The DOT classification for transportation, the military classification for quantity distance, and hazard compatibility grouping used to regulate the transportation and storage of explosives are presented along with a discussion of tests used in determining sensitivity of propellants to an impact/shock environment in the absence of a large explosive donor. The safety procedures and requirements of a Scout launch vehicle, Western and Eastern Test Range, and the Minuteman, Delta, and Poseidon programs are reviewed and summarized. Requirements of the space transportation system safety program include safety reviews from the subsystem level to the completed payload. The Scout safety procedures will satisfy a portion of these requirements but additional procedures need to be implemented to comply with the safety requirements for Shuttle operation from the Eastern Test Range.

  19. Classification systems for stalking behavior.

    PubMed

    Racine, Christopher; Billick, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Stalking is a complex behavioral phenomenon that is unique in that it necessarily involves a prolonged dyadic relationship between both a perpetrator and a victim. Since criminalization of stalking behavior in the 1990s, different conceptual typologies have attempted to classify this behavior to assess risk and aid in management decisions. The authors reviewed the current literature regarding the most recent and accepted stalking classification systems. The three predominant stalker typologies currently in use include Zona's stalker-victim types, Mullen's stalker typology, and the RECON stalker typology. Of these, the RECON classification system alone was developed in an attempt to separate stalkers into groups based on previously known risk factors for behaviorally based phenomenon such as propensity for violence. Understanding and simplifying these classification systems may enhance the potential that new research will lead to evidence-based management and treatment strategies in the stalking situation. PMID:23980606

  20. Hazard ranking systems for chemical wastes and chemical waste sites. Hazardous waste ranking systems

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, R.D.; Parker, F.L.; Crutcher, M.R.

    1991-12-31

    Hazardous materials and substances have always existed in the environment. Mankind has evolved to live with some degree of exposure to toxic materials. Until recently the risk has been from natural toxins or natural background radiation. While rapid technological advances over the past few decades have improved the lifestyle of our society, they have also dramatically increased the availability, volume and types of synthetic and natural hazardous materials. Many of their effects are as yet uncertain. Products and manufacturing by-products that no longer serve a useful purpose are deemed wastes. For some waste products land disposal will always be their ultimate fate. Hazardous substances are often included in the waste products. One needs to classify wastes by degree of hazard (risk). Risk (degree of probability of loss) is usually defined for risk assessment as probability of an occurrence times the consequences of the occurrence. Perhaps even more important than the definition of risk is the choice of a risk management strategy. The choice of strategy will be strongly influenced by the decision criteria used. Those decision criteria could be utility (the greatest happiness of the greatest number), rights or technology based or some combination of the three. It is necessary to make such choices about the definition of risks and criteria for management. It is clear that these are social (i.e., political) and value choices and science has little to say on this matter. This is another example of what Alvin Weinberg has named Transcience where the subject matter is scientific and technical but the choices are social, political and moral. This paper shall deal only with the scientific and technical aspects of the hazardous waste problem to create a hazardous substances classification system.

  1. Screening tests for hazard classification of complex waste materials--selection of methods.

    PubMed

    Weltens, R; Vanermen, G; Tirez, K; Robbens, J; Deprez, K; Michiels, L

    2012-12-01

    In this study we describe the development of an alternative methodology for hazard characterization of waste materials. Such an alternative methodology for hazard assessment of complex waste materials is urgently needed, because the lack of a validated instrument leads to arbitrary hazard classification of such complex waste materials. False classification can lead to human and environmental health risks and also has important financial consequences for the waste owner. The Hazardous Waste Directive (HWD) describes the methodology for hazard classification of waste materials. For mirror entries the HWD classification is based upon the hazardous properties (H1-15) of the waste which can be assessed from the hazardous properties of individual identified waste compounds or--if not all compounds are identified--from test results of hazard assessment tests performed on the waste material itself. For the latter the HWD recommends toxicity tests that were initially designed for risk assessment of chemicals in consumer products (pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, biocides, food, etc.). These tests (often using mammals) are not designed nor suitable for the hazard characterization of waste materials. With the present study we want to contribute to the development of an alternative and transparent test strategy for hazard assessment of complex wastes that is in line with the HWD principles for waste classification. It is necessary to cope with this important shortcoming in hazardous waste classification and to demonstrate that alternative methods are available that can be used for hazard assessment of waste materials. Next, by describing the pros and cons of the available methods, and by identifying the needs for additional or further development of test methods, we hope to stimulate research efforts and development in this direction. In this paper we describe promising techniques and argument on the test selection for the pilot study that we have performed on different types of

  2. Screening tests for hazard classification of complex waste materials - Selection of methods

    SciTech Connect

    Weltens, R.; Vanermen, G.; Tirez, K.; Robbens, J.; Deprez, K.; Michiels, L.

    2012-12-15

    In this study we describe the development of an alternative methodology for hazard characterization of waste materials. Such an alternative methodology for hazard assessment of complex waste materials is urgently needed, because the lack of a validated instrument leads to arbitrary hazard classification of such complex waste materials. False classification can lead to human and environmental health risks and also has important financial consequences for the waste owner. The Hazardous Waste Directive (HWD) describes the methodology for hazard classification of waste materials. For mirror entries the HWD classification is based upon the hazardous properties (H1-15) of the waste which can be assessed from the hazardous properties of individual identified waste compounds or - if not all compounds are identified - from test results of hazard assessment tests performed on the waste material itself. For the latter the HWD recommends toxicity tests that were initially designed for risk assessment of chemicals in consumer products (pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, biocides, food, etc.). These tests (often using mammals) are not designed nor suitable for the hazard characterization of waste materials. With the present study we want to contribute to the development of an alternative and transparent test strategy for hazard assessment of complex wastes that is in line with the HWD principles for waste classification. It is necessary to cope with this important shortcoming in hazardous waste classification and to demonstrate that alternative methods are available that can be used for hazard assessment of waste materials. Next, by describing the pros and cons of the available methods, and by identifying the needs for additional or further development of test methods, we hope to stimulate research efforts and development in this direction. In this paper we describe promising techniques and argument on the test selection for the pilot study that we have performed on different types of

  3. Hazards Data Distribution System (HDDS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Brenda; Lamb, Rynn

    2015-01-01

    When emergencies occur, first responders and disaster response teams often need rapid access to aerial photography and satellite imagery that is acquired before and after the event. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Hazards Data Distribution System (HDDS) provides quick and easy access to pre- and post-event imagery and geospatial datasets that support emergency response and recovery operations. The HDDS provides a single, consolidated point-of-entry and distribution system for USGS-hosted remotely sensed imagery and other geospatial datasets related to an event response. The data delivery services are provided through an interactive map-based interface that allows emergency response personnel to rapidly select and download pre-event ("baseline") and post-event emergency response imagery.

  4. The Hazard Notification System (HANS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snedigar, S. F.; Venezky, D. Y.

    2009-12-01

    The Volcano Hazards Program (VHP) has developed a Hazard Notification System (HANS) for distributing volcanic activity information collected by scientists to airlines, emergency services, and the general public. In the past year, data from HANS have been used by airlines to make decisions about diverting or canceling flights during the eruption of Mount Redoubt. HANS was developed to provide a single system that each of the five U.S. volcano observatories could use for communicating and storing volcanic information about the 160+ potentially active U.S. volcanoes. The data that cover ten tables and nearly 100 fields are now stored in similar formats, and the information can be released in styles requested by our agency partners, such as the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Currently, HANS has about 4500 reports stored; on average, two - three reports are added daily. HANS (at its most basic form) consists of a user interface for entering data into one of many release types (Daily Status Reports, Weekly Updates, Volcano Activity Notifications, etc.); a database holding previous releases as well as observatory information such as email address lists and volcano boilerplates; and a transmission system for formatting releases and sending them out by email or other web related system. The user interface to HANS is completely web based, providing access to our observatory scientists from any online PC. The underlying database stores the observatory information and drives the observatory and program websites' dynamic updates and archived information releases. HANS also runs scripts for generating several different feeds including the program home page Volcano Status Map. Each observatory has the capability of running an instance of HANS. There are currently three instances of HANS and each instance is synchronized to all other instances using a master-slave environment. Information can be entered on any node; slave nodes transmit data to the master node

  5. Preliminary Considerations for Classifying Hazards of Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J.; Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Miner, Paul S.; Szatkowski, George N.; Ulrey, Michael L.; DeWalt, Michael P.; Spitzer, Cary R.

    2007-01-01

    The use of unmanned aircraft in national airspace has been characterized as the next great step forward in the evolution of civil aviation. To make routine and safe operation of these aircraft a reality, a number of technological and regulatory challenges must be overcome. This report discusses some of the regulatory challenges with respect to deriving safety and reliability requirements for unmanned aircraft. In particular, definitions of hazards and their classification are discussed and applied to a preliminary functional hazard assessment of a generic unmanned system.

  6. Hazardous material analysis and coding system (HAZMZCS). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, J.W.

    1991-06-01

    A new hazardous material classification system is being implemented. It consists of 55 Hazardous Characteristic Codes (HCC). The HCC will provide critical information needed to effectively manage, store and ship hazardous materials such as poisons, pesticides, radioactive materials, oxidizers, corrosive liquids and explosives. With implementation of new automated Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) Warehousing and Shipping Procedures (DWASP), DLA depot receiving personnel will be required to assign the HCC if it it missing from pertinent documents. Without the HCC, the DWASP system will not assign a depot storage location. Because the new HCC must be assigned quickly and accurately, an expert systems approach offers a feasible and practical means for providing this support. Accordingly, the Hazardous Material Analysis and Coding System (HAZMACS) was developed. HAZMACS is a PC-based expert system which queries the user about the known characteristics of suspected hazardous material and assigns an HCC based on the user's responses. HAZMACS consists of a main knowledge base file which chains to any of 13 other hazard-specific knowledge base files.

  7. Assessing the potential hazard of chemical substances for the terrestrial environment. Development of hazard classification criteria and quantitative environmental indicators.

    PubMed

    Tarazona, J V; Fresno, A; Aycard, S; Ramos, C; Vega, M M; Carbonell, G

    2000-03-20

    Hazard assessment constitutes an essential tool in order to evaluate the potential effects of chemical substances on organisms and ecosystems. It includes as a first step, hazard identification, which must detect the potential dangers of the substance (i.e. the kind of effects that the substance may produce), and a second step to quantify each danger and to set the expected dose/response relationships. Hazard assessment plays a key role in the regulation of chemical substances, including pollution control and sustainable development. However, the aquatic environment has largely received more attention than terrestrial ecosystems. This paper presents the extrapolation of several basic concepts from the aquatic to the terrestrial compartment, and suggests possibilities for their regulatory use. Two specific proposals are discussed. The first focuses on the scientific basis of the hazard identification-classification criteria included in the EU regulations and their extrapolation to the terrestrial environment. The second focuses on the OECD programme for environmental indicators and the development of a soil pollution pressure indicator to quantify the potential hazards for the soil compartment and its associated terrestrial ecosystem related to the toxic chemicals applied deliberately (i.e. pesticides) or not (i.e. heavy metals in sludge-based fertilisers; industrial spills) to the soil. PMID:10803544

  8. [Petroleum substances--human health hazards. I. Classification of petroleum substances on the list of dangerous substances and assessment of existing hazards].

    PubMed

    Konieczko, Katarzyna

    2006-01-01

    Complex products derived from petroleum are widely used as fuels, greases, solvents, and intermediates in many branches of industry. Petroleum exposure-related human health hazards, observed in occupationally exposed people and in the general population, are a serious sanitary problem. Complex and variable composition of individual petroleum products makes the actual assessment of human health hazards difficult. Potential hazards, and resulting classification of individual petroleum substance groups, are discussed in the presented work. This should prove to be helpful to work safety and hygiene services as well as to supervising institutions, mainly the sanitary inspection, in a proper assessment of the hazards, and consequently in taking appropriate preventive actions. In Part I., general issues concerning the hazard assessment and legal aspects of petroleum substances classification are presented. In Part. II., individual groups of petroleum substances are discussed with respect to health hazards, resulting from both physicochemical properties and toxicity, and their classification based on this analysis is suggested. PMID:17133920

  9. Stream classification using hierarchical artificial neural networks: A fluvial hazard management tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besaw, Lance E.; Rizzo, Donna M.; Kline, Michael; Underwood, Kristen L.; Doris, Jeffrey J.; Morrissey, Leslie A.; Pelletier, Keith

    2009-06-01

    SummaryWatershed managers and planners have long sought decision-making tools for forecasting changes in stream-channels over large spatial and temporal scales. In this research, we apply non-parametric, clustering and classification artificial neural networks to assimilate large amounts of disparate data types for use in fluvial hazard management decision-making. Two types of artificial neural networks (a counterpropagation algorithm and a Kohonen self-organizing map) are used in hierarchy to predict reach-scale stream geomorphic condition, inherent vulnerability and sensitivity to adjustments using expert knowledge in combination with a variety of geomorphic assessment field data. Seven hundred and eighty-nine Vermont stream reaches (+7500 km) have been assessed by the Vermont Agency of Natural Resources' geomorphic assessment protocols, and are used in the development of this work. More than 85% of the reach-scale stream geomorphic condition and inherent vulnerability predictions match expert evaluations. The method's usefulness as a QA/QC tool is discussed. The Kohonen self-organizing map clusters the 789 reaches into groupings of stream sensitivity (or instability). By adjusting the weight of input variables, experts can fine-tune the classification system to better understand and document similarities/differences among expert opinions. The use of artificial neural networks allows for an adaptive watershed management approach, does not require the development of site-specific, physics-based, stream models (i.e., is data-driven), and provides a standardized approach for classifying river network sensitivity in various contexts.

  10. The Road Ahead for Library Classification Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Joan S.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses knowledge organization tools in the context of seven challenges facing library classification systems. Highlights include revisions to the Dewey Decimal Classification, the Windows-based CD-ROM version of Dewey, support for machine-assisted classification, multilingual use of Dewey, use of Dewey as a general knowledge organization and…

  11. Soil classifications systems review. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    Systems used to classify soils are discussed and compared. Major types of classification systems that are reviewed include natural systems, technical systems, the FAO/UNESCO world soil map, soil survey map units, and numerical taxonomy. Natural Classification systems discussed in detail are the United States system, Soil Taxonomy, and the Russian and Canadian systems. Included in the section on technical classification systems are reviews on the AASHO and Unified (ASTM) classification systems. The review of soil classification systems was conducted to establish improved availability of accurate ground thermal conductivity and other heat transfer related properties information. These data are intended to help in the design of closed-loop ground heat exchange systems.

  12. Sustainable System for Residual Hazards Management

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin M. Kostelnik; James H. Clarke; Jerry L. Harbour

    2004-06-01

    Hazardous, radioactive and other toxic substances have routinely been generated and subsequently disposed of in the shallow subsurface throughout the world. Many of today’s waste management techniques do not eliminate the problem, but rather only concentrate or contain the hazardous contaminants. Residual hazards result from the presence of hazardous and/or contaminated material that remains on-site following active operations or the completion of remedial actions. Residual hazards pose continued risk to humans and the environment and represent a significant and chronic problem that require continuous longterm management (i.e. >1000 years). To protect human health and safeguard the natural environment, a sustainable system is required for the proper management of residual hazards. A sustainable system for the management of residual hazards will require the integration of engineered, institutional and land-use controls to isolate residual contaminants and thus minimize the associated hazards. Engineered controls are physical modifications to the natural setting and ecosystem, including the site, facility, and/or the residual materials themselves, in order to reduce or eliminate the potential for exposure to contaminants of concern (COCs). Institutional controls are processes, instruments, and mechanisms designed to influence human behavior and activity. System failure can involve hazardous material escaping from the confinement because of system degradation (i.e., chronic or acute degradation) or by externalintrusion of the biosphere into the contaminated material because of the loss of institutional control. An ongoing analysis of contemporary and historic sites suggests that the significance of the loss of institutional controls is a critical pathway because decisions made during the operations/remedial action phase, as well as decisions made throughout the residual hazards management period, are key to the longterm success of the prescribed system. In fact

  13. Space vehicle propulsion systems: Environmental space hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Disimile, P. J.; Bahr, G. K.

    1990-01-01

    The hazards that exist in geolunar space which may degrade, disrupt, or terminate the performance of space-based LOX/LH2 rocket engines are evaluated. Accordingly, a summary of the open literature pertaining to the geolunar space hazards is provided. Approximately 350 citations and about 200 documents and abstracts were reviewed; the documents selected give current and quantitative detail. The methodology was to categorize the various space hazards in relation to their importance in specified regions of geolunar space. Additionally, the effect of the various space hazards in relation to spacecraft and their systems were investigated. It was found that further investigation of the literature would be required to assess the effects of these hazards on propulsion systems per se; in particular, possible degrading effects on exterior nozzle structure, directional gimbals, and internal combustion chamber integrity and geometry.

  14. Autoclass: An automatic classification system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutz, John; Cheeseman, Peter; Hanson, Robin

    1991-01-01

    The task of inferring a set of classes and class descriptions most likely to explain a given data set can be placed on a firm theoretical foundation using Bayesian statistics. Within this framework, and using various mathematical and algorithmic approximations, the AutoClass System searches for the most probable classifications, automatically choosing the number of classes and complexity of class descriptions. A simpler version of AutoClass has been applied to many large real data sets, has discovered new independently-verified phenomena, and has been released as a robust software package. Recent extensions allow attributes to be selectively correlated within particular classes, and allow classes to inherit, or share, model parameters through a class hierarchy. The mathematical foundations of AutoClass are summarized.

  15. Mobile machine hazardous working zone warning system

    DOEpatents

    Schiffbauer, William H.; Ganoe, Carl W.

    1999-01-01

    A warning system is provided for a mobile working machine to alert an individual of a potentially dangerous condition in the event the individual strays into a hazardous working zone of the machine. The warning system includes a transmitter mounted on the machine and operable to generate a uniform magnetic field projecting beyond an outer periphery of the machine in defining a hazardous working zone around the machine during operation thereof. A receiver, carried by the individual and activated by the magnetic field, provides an alarm signal to alert the individual when he enters the hazardous working zone of the machine.

  16. Mobile machine hazardous working zone warning system

    DOEpatents

    Schiffbauer, W.H.; Ganoe, C.W.

    1999-08-17

    A warning system is provided for a mobile working machine to alert an individual of a potentially dangerous condition in the event the individual strays into a hazardous working zone of the machine. The warning system includes a transmitter mounted on the machine and operable to generate a uniform magnetic field projecting beyond an outer periphery of the machine in defining a hazardous working zone around the machine during operation. A receiver, carried by the individual and activated by the magnetic field, provides an alarm signal to alert the individual when he enters the hazardous working zone of the machine. 3 figs.

  17. Mobile machine hazardous working zone warning system

    SciTech Connect

    Schiffbauer, W.H.; Ganoe, C.W.

    1996-12-31

    A warning system is provided for a mobile working machine to alert an individual of a potentially dangerous condition in the event the individual strays into a hazardous working zone of the machine. The warning system includes a transmitter mounted on the machine and operable to generate a uniform magnetic field projecting beyond an outer periphery of the machine in defining a hazardous working zone around the machine during operation thereof. A receiver, carried by the individual and activated by the magnetic field, provides an alarm signal to alert the individual when he enters the hazardous working zone of the machine.

  18. HAZARDOUS MATERIALS INFORMATION EXCHANGE SYSTEM-HMIX

    EPA Science Inventory

    This system provides emergency response, contingency planning personnel, and others involved in the hazardous materials community with a communication mechanism. It featured workshops, symposia, instructional material and literature, toll-free telephone numbers and online databas...

  19. Early identification systems for emerging foodborne hazards.

    PubMed

    Marvin, H J P; Kleter, G A; Prandini, A; Dekkers, S; Bolton, D J

    2009-05-01

    This paper provides a non-exhausting overview of early warning systems for emerging foodborne hazards that are operating in the various places in the world. Special attention is given to endpoint-focussed early warning systems (i.e. ECDC, ISIS and GPHIN) and hazard-focussed early warning systems (i.e. FVO, RASFF and OIE) and their merit to successfully identify a food safety problem in an early stage is discussed. Besides these early warning systems which are based on monitoring of either disease symptoms or hazards, also early warning systems and/or activities that intend to predict the occurrence of a food safety hazard in its very beginning of development or before that are described. Examples are trend analysis, horizon scanning, early warning systems for mycotoxins in maize and/or wheat and information exchange networks (e.g. OIE and GIEWS). Furthermore, recent initiatives that aim to develop predictive early warning systems based on the holistic principle are discussed. The assumption of the researchers applying this principle is that developments outside the food production chain that are either directly or indirectly related to the development of a particular food safety hazard may also provide valuable information to predict the development of this hazard. PMID:18272277

  20. JANNAF 17th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Gannaway, Mary T. (Editor); Rognan, Melanie (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    Volume 1, the first of two volumes is a compilation of 16 unclassified/unlimited technical papers presented at the 17th meeting of the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee (PSHS) held jointly with the 35th Combustion Subcommittee (CS) and Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee (APS). The meeting was held on 7 - 11 December 1998 at Raytheon Systems Company and the Marriott Hotel, Tucson, AZ. Topics covered include projectile and shaped charge jet impact vulnerability of munitions; thermal decomposition and cookoff behavior of energetic materials; damage and hot spot initiation mechanisms with energetic materials; detonation phenomena of solid energetic materials; and hazard classification, insensitive munitions, and propulsion systems safety.

  1. Advancing Towards a Universal Soil Classification System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Phillip R.; Hempel, Jon; Micheli, Erika; McBratney, Alex

    2014-05-01

    Within the variability of soils across the globe, there are common soil attributes that pedologists have used to group soil within taxonomic classifications. Classification systems are necessary for the communication of information about soils. There are many national classification systems used within designated countries and two classification systems used globally, the US Soil Taxonomy and the World Reference Base. There is a great need for soil scientists to develop one common language or taxonomic system to communicate information within soil science as well as to other scientists in other disciplines. The International Union of Soil Sciences Working Group for Universal Soil Classification was officially established by an IUSS Council decision in August of 2010 at the World Congress of Soil Science in Brisbane, Australia. The charge for the Working Group includes development of common standards for methods and terminology in soil observations and investigations and the development of a universal soil classification system. The Universal Soil Classification Working Group was established and the initial meeting was held at Purdue University in West Lafayette, Indiana USA. The Working Group has evaluated the current national systems and the two international systems to identify gaps in knowledge. Currently, it was determined that gaps in knowledge exists in cold soil, hydromorphic, salt affected, anthropengic, and tropical soil groups. Additionally, several members of the Working Group have utilized taxonomic distance calculations from large databases to determine the clusters of similar taxonomic groupings utilizing the classification. Additionally, the databases are being used to make allocations into logical groups to recognize "Great Soil Groups". The great soil groups will be equivalent to great groups level from Soil Taxonomy along with similar levels in the World Reference Base, Australian Soil Classification and other defined soil classification systems

  2. Space vehicle propulsion systems - Environmental space hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahr, G. K.; Disimile, P. J.

    1990-01-01

    An evaluation of hazards which exist in geo-lunar space and have the potential to negatively affect a long-term mission-oriented spacecraft systems is presented based on published data. The hazards are categorized as pervasive (radiation), incident specific (meteoroids and thermal shock), and chemically corrosive (monatomic oxygen). It appears that the number one priority should be the development of new materials; and the secondary concern should be the development of fabrication techniques for the exterior hull, so that incident specific hazards can be minimized in an active fashion. The pervasive hazard can be dealt with by exploring on-board circuit technology with ancillary monitoring systems. Effects of thermal shock on the exterior nozzle, directional gimbals, and internal combustion chamber geometry seem to need more investigation.

  3. JANNAF 19th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Kuckels, Melanie C. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    This volume, the first of two volumes is a compilation of 25 unclassified/unlimited-distribution technical papers presented at the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) 19th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee (PSHS) meeting held jointly with the 37th Combustion Subcommittee (CS) and 25th Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee (APS), and 1st Modeling and Simulation Subcommittee (MSS) meetings. The meeting was held 13-17 November 2000 at the Naval Postgraduate School and Hyatt Regency Hotel, Monterey, California. Topics covered at the PSHS meeting include: impact and thermal vulnerability of gun propellants; thermal decomposition and cookoff behavior of energetic materials; violent reaction and detonation phenomena of solid energetic materials subjected to shock and impact loading; and hazard classification, and insensitive munitions testing of propellants and propulsion systems.

  4. JANNAF 18th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Gannaway, Mary T. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This volume, the first of two volumes is a compilation of 18 unclassified/unlimited-distribution technical papers presented at the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) 18th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee (PSHS) meeting held jointly with the 36th Combustion Subcommittee (CS) and 24th Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee (APS) meetings. The meeting was held 18-21 October 1999 at NASA Kennedy Space Center and The DoubleTree Oceanfront Hotel, Cocoa Beach, Florida. Topics covered at the PSHS meeting include: shaped charge jet and kinetic energy penetrator impact vulnerability of gun propellants; thermal decomposition and cookoff behavior of energetic materials; violent reaction; detonation phenomena of solid energetic materials subjected to shock and impact stimuli; and hazard classification, insensitive munitions, and propulsion systems safety.

  5. Discriminant forest classification method and system

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Barry Y.; Hanley, William G.; Lemmond, Tracy D.; Hiller, Lawrence J.; Knapp, David A.; Mugge, Marshall J.

    2012-11-06

    A hybrid machine learning methodology and system for classification that combines classical random forest (RF) methodology with discriminant analysis (DA) techniques to provide enhanced classification capability. A DA technique which uses feature measurements of an object to predict its class membership, such as linear discriminant analysis (LDA) or Andersen-Bahadur linear discriminant technique (AB), is used to split the data at each node in each of its classification trees to train and grow the trees and the forest. When training is finished, a set of n DA-based decision trees of a discriminant forest is produced for use in predicting the classification of new samples of unknown class.

  6. A hazard control system for robot manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Ruth Chiang; Rad, Adrian

    1991-01-01

    A robot for space applications will be required to complete a variety of tasks in an uncertain, harsh environment. This fact presents unusual and highly difficult challenges to ensuring the safety of astronauts and keeping the equipment they depend on from becoming damaged. The systematic approach being taken to control hazards that could result from introducing robotics technology in the space environment is described. First, system safety management and engineering principles, techniques, and requirements are discussed as they relate to Shuttle payload design and operation in general. The concepts of hazard, hazard category, and hazard control, as defined by the Shuttle payload safety requirements, is explained. Next, it is shown how these general safety management and engineering principles are being implemented on an actual project. An example is presented of a hazard control system for controlling one of the hazards identified for the Development Test Flight (DTF-1) of NASA's Flight Telerobotic Servicer, a teleoperated space robot. How these schemes can be applied to terrestrial robots is discussed as well. The same software monitoring and control approach will insure the safe operation of a slave manipulator under teleoperated or autonomous control in undersea, nuclear, or manufacturing applications where the manipulator is working in the vicinity of humans or critical hardware.

  7. Hazard property classification of waste according to the recent propositions of the EC using different methods.

    PubMed

    Hennebert, Pierre; van der Sloot, Hans A; Rebischung, Flore; Weltens, Reinhilde; Geerts, Lieve; Hjelmar, Ole

    2014-10-01

    Hazard classification of waste is a necessity, but the hazard properties (named "H" and soon "HP") are still not all defined in a practical and operational manner at EU level. Following discussion of subsequent draft proposals from the Commission there is still no final decision. Methods to implement the proposals have recently been proposed: tests methods for physical risks, test batteries for aquatic and terrestrial ecotoxicity, an analytical package for exhaustive determination of organic substances and mineral elements, surrogate methods for the speciation of mineral elements in mineral substances in waste, and calculation methods for human toxicity and ecotoxicity with M factors. In this paper the different proposed methods have been applied to a large assortment of solid and liquid wastes (>100). Data for 45 wastes - documented with extensive chemical analysis and flammability test - were assessed in terms of the different HP criteria and results were compared to LoW for lack of an independent classification. For most waste streams the classification matches with the designation provided in the LoW. This indicates that the criteria used by LoW are similar to the HP limit values. This data set showed HP 14 'Ecotoxic chronic' is the most discriminating HP. All wastes classified as acute ecotoxic are also chronic ecotoxic and the assessment of acute ecotoxicity separately is therefore not needed. The high number of HP 14 classified wastes is due to the very low limit values when stringent M factors are applied to total concentrations (worst case method). With M factor set to 1 the classification method is not sufficiently discriminating between hazardous and non-hazardous materials. The second most frequent hazard is HP 7 'Carcinogenic'. The third most frequent hazard is HP 10 'Toxic for reproduction' and the fourth most frequent hazard is HP 4 "Irritant - skin irritation and eye damage". In a stepwise approach, it seems relevant to assess HP 14 first, then, if

  8. Pyrotechnic hazards classification and evaluation program. Phase 2, segment 3: Test plan for determining hazards associated with pyrotechnic manufacturing processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A comprehensive test plan for determining the hazards associated with pyrotechnic manufacturing processes is presented. The rationale for each test is based on a systematic analysis of historical accounts of accidents and a detailed study of the characteristics of each manufacturing process. The most hazardous manufacturing operations have been determined to be pressing, mixing, reaming, and filling. The hazard potential of a given situation is evaluated in terms of the probabilities of initiation, communication, and transition to detonation (ICT). The characteristics which affect the ICT probabilities include the ignition mechanisms which are present either in normal or abnormal operation, the condition and properties of the pyrotechnic material, and the configuration of the processing equipment. Analytic expressions are derived which describe the physical conditions of the system, thus permitting a variety of processes to be evaluated in terms of a small number of experiments.

  9. Preliminary Hazards Assessment: Iron disulfide purification system

    SciTech Connect

    1991-07-30

    A process for the purification (washing) of iron disulfide (FeS{sub 2}) powder is conducted in the Northeast corner (Area 353) of the main plant building (Building 100). This location is about 130 feet from the fenced boundary of the Partnership School/Child Development Center. In the first steps of the process, raw iron disulfide powder is ground and separated by particle size. The ground and sized powder is then purified in a three-step acid washing process using both hydrochloric acid (HCI) and hydrofluoric (HF) acid. The iron disulfide process is an intermittent batch process conducted four to eight times a year. This study is a Preliminary Hazards Assessment (PHA) to assess the hazards associated with the iron disulfide process. This is a preliminary study and will be used to determine if additional safety analysis is necessary. The scope of the PHA includes assessment of the process steps of grinding, size classification, and purification. The purpose is to identify major hazards and determine if the current and newly added safeguards are adequate for operation. The PHA also lists recommendations for additional safety features that should be added to reduce the risks of operation.

  10. 77 FR 43002 - Hazardous Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 Hazardous Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste... changes to appendix IX of part 261 are effective July 23, 2012. The Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments... Environmental protection, Hazardous waste, Recycling, and Reporting and recordkeeping requirements....

  11. Classification systems for natural resource management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kleckner, Richard L.

    1981-01-01

    Resource managers employ various types of resource classification systems in their management activities such as inventory, mapping, and data analysis. Classification is the ordering or arranging of objects into groups or sets on the basis of their relationships, and as such, provide the resource managers with a structure for organizing their needed information. In addition of conforming to certain logical principles, resource classifications should be flexible, widely applicable to a variety of environmental conditions, and useable with minimal training. The process of classification may be approached from the bottom up (aggregation) or the top down (subdivision) or a combination of both, depending on the purpose of the classification. Most resource classification systems in use today focus on a single resource and are used for a single, limited purpose. However, resource managers now must employ the concept of multiple use in their management activities. What they need is an integrated, ecologically based approach to resource classification which would fulfill multiple-use mandates. In an effort to achieve resource-data compatibility and data sharing among Federal agencies, and interagency agreement has been signed by five Federal agencies to coordinate and cooperate in the area of resource classification and inventory.

  12. The Multidimensional Audioconferencing Classification System (MACS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cookson, Peter S.; Chang, Yu-bi

    1995-01-01

    Describes the development of the Multidimensional Audioconferencing Classification System (MACS), an instrument for the tabulation, analysis, and interpretation of audioconferencing instructional interactions. MACS draws on three theoretical and empirical streams: (1) systematic small group interaction analysis; (2) systematic classroom…

  13. QA CLASSIFICATION ANALYSIS OF GROUND SUPPORT SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    D. W. Gwyn

    1996-10-29

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to determine if the permanent function Ground Support Systems (CI: BABEEOOOO) are quality-affecting items and if so, to establish the appropriate Quality Assurance (QA) classification.

  14. 46 CFR 111.106-7 - Classification of adjacent spaces with access to hazardous locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations on OSVs § 111... by reference, see § 110.10-1). (b) A differential pressure-monitoring device or a...

  15. Hazard ranking systems for chemical wastes and chemical waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, R.D.; Parker, F.L. ); Crutcher, M.R. and Associates, Inc., Columbia, IL )

    1991-01-01

    Hazardous materials and substances have always existed in the environment. Mankind has evolved to live with some degree of exposure to toxic materials. Until recently the risk has been from natural toxins or natural background radiation. While rapid technological advances over the past few decades have improved the lifestyle of our society, they have also dramatically increased the availability, volume and types of synthetic and natural hazardous materials. Many of their effects are as yet uncertain. Products and manufacturing by-products that no longer serve a useful purpose are deemed wastes. For some waste products land disposal will always be their ultimate fate. Hazardous substances are often included in the waste products. One needs to classify wastes by degree of hazard (risk). Risk (degree of probability of loss) is usually defined for risk assessment as probability of an occurrence times the consequences of the occurrence. Perhaps even more important than the definition of risk is the choice of a risk management strategy. The choice of strategy will be strongly influenced by the decision criteria used. Those decision criteria could be utility (the greatest happiness of the greatest number), rights or technology based or some combination of the three. It is necessary to make such choices about the definition of risks and criteria for management. It is clear that these are social (i.e., political) and value choices and science has little to say on this matter. This is another example of what Alvin Weinberg has named Transcience where the subject matter is scientific and technical but the choices are social, political and moral. This paper shall deal only with the scientific and technical aspects of the hazardous waste problem to create a hazardous substances classification system.

  16. Toxic chemical hazard classification and risk acceptance guidelines for use in DOE facilities. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, D.K.; Davis, J.S.; Prowse, J.; Hoffman, P.W.

    1995-03-24

    The concentration-limit guidelines presented in this document apply to airborne releases of chemicals evaluated with respect to human health effects for the purposes of hazard classification and categorization, risk assessment and safety analysis. They apply to all DOE facilities and operations involving the use of potentially hazardous chemicals. The guidelines do not address other nonradiological hazards such as fire, pressure releases (including explosions), and chemical reactivity, but the guidelines are applicable to hazardous chemical releases resulting from these events. This report presents the subcommittee`s evaluation and recommendations regarding analyses of accidentally released toxic chemicals. The premise upon which these recommendations are based is that the mechanism of action of toxic chemicals is fundamentally different from that associated with radionuclides, with the exception of carcinogens. The recommendations reported herein are restricted to the airborne pathway because in an accident scenario this typically represents the most immediately significant route of public exposure. However, the subcommittee recognizes that exposure to chemicals through other pathways, in particular waterborne, can have significant impacts on human health and the environment. Although there are a number of chemicals for which absorption through the skin can contribute measurably to the total dose in chronic (e.g., occupational) exposure situations, this pathway has not been considered for the acute exposure scenarios considered in this report. Later studies. will address these issues if it appears desirable.

  17. The evaluation of an analytical protocol for the determination of substances in waste for hazard classification.

    PubMed

    Hennebert, Pierre; Papin, Arnaud; Padox, Jean-Marie; Hasebrouck, Benoît

    2013-07-01

    The classification of waste as hazardous could soon be assessed in Europe using largely the hazard properties of its constituents, according to the the Classification, Labelling and Packaging (CLP) regulation. Comprehensive knowledge of the component constituents of a given waste will therefore be necessary. An analytical protocol for determining waste composition is proposed, which includes using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) screening methods to identify major elements and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) screening techniques to measure organic compounds. The method includes a gross or indicator measure of 'pools' of higher molecular weight organic substances that are taken to be less bioactive and less hazardous, and of unresolved 'mass' during the chromatography of volatile and semi-volatile compounds. The concentration of some elements and specific compounds that are linked to specific hazard properties and are subject to specific regulation (examples include: heavy metals, chromium(VI), cyanides, organo-halogens, and PCBs) are determined by classical quantitative analysis. To check the consistency of the analysis, the sum of the concentrations (including unresolved 'pools') should give a mass balance between 90% and 110%. Thirty-two laboratory samples comprising different industrial wastes (liquids and solids) were tested by two routine service laboratories, to give circa 7000 parameter results. Despite discrepancies in some parameters, a satisfactory sum of estimated or measured concentrations (analytical balance) of 90% was reached for 20 samples (63% of the overall total) during this first test exercise, with identified reasons for most of the unsatisfactory results. Regular use of this protocol (which is now included in the French legislation) has enabled service laboratories to reach a 90% mass balance for nearly all the solid samples tested, and most of liquid samples (difficulties were caused in some samples from polymers in solution and

  18. Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2013-01-01

    In this article, Renee Clary and James Wandersee describe the beginnings of "Classification," which lies at the very heart of science and depends upon pattern recognition. Clary and Wandersee approach patterns by first telling the story of the "Linnaean classification system," introduced by Carl Linnacus (1707-1778), who is…

  19. A corrosivity classification system for geothermal resources

    SciTech Connect

    Conover, Marshall F.

    1982-10-08

    The most important difference between traditional steam systems and those that utilize geothermal fluids is the potential for corrosion of metals. The recently developed sourcebook ''Materials Selection Guidelines for Geothermal Energy Utilization Systems'' is expected to facilitate corrosion engineering decision making and reduce the cost of geothermal systems where new resources are similar to those presented by the corrosivity classification system.

  20. The evaluation of an analytical protocol for the determination of substances in waste for hazard classification

    SciTech Connect

    Hennebert, Pierre; Papin, Arnaud; Padox, Jean-Marie; Hasebrouck, Benoît

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: • Knowledge of wastes in substances will be necessary to assess HP1–HP15 hazard properties. • A new analytical protocol is proposed for this and tested by two service laboratories on 32 samples. • Sixty-three percentage of the samples have a satisfactory analytical balance between 90% and 110%. • Eighty-four percentage of the samples were classified identically (Seveso Directive) for their hazardousness by the two laboratories. • The method, in progress, is being normalized in France and is be proposed to CEN. - Abstract: The classification of waste as hazardous could soon be assessed in Europe using largely the hazard properties of its constituents, according to the the Classification, Labelling and Packaging (CLP) regulation. Comprehensive knowledge of the component constituents of a given waste will therefore be necessary. An analytical protocol for determining waste composition is proposed, which includes using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) screening methods to identify major elements and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC–MS) screening techniques to measure organic compounds. The method includes a gross or indicator measure of ‘pools’ of higher molecular weight organic substances that are taken to be less bioactive and less hazardous, and of unresolved ‘mass’ during the chromatography of volatile and semi-volatile compounds. The concentration of some elements and specific compounds that are linked to specific hazard properties and are subject to specific regulation (examples include: heavy metals, chromium(VI), cyanides, organo-halogens, and PCBs) are determined by classical quantitative analysis. To check the consistency of the analysis, the sum of the concentrations (including unresolved ‘pools’) should give a mass balance between 90% and 110%. Thirty-two laboratory samples comprising different industrial wastes (liquids and solids) were tested by two routine service laboratories, to give circa 7000 parameter

  1. Hazard Classification of the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd D. Christensen

    2012-05-01

    The Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is constructing a new facility to replace remote-handled low-level radioactive waste disposal capability for INL and Naval Reactors Facility operations. Current disposal capability at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) will continue until the facility is full or closed for remediation (estimated at approximately fiscal year 2015). Development of a new onsite disposal facility is the highest ranked alternative and will provide RH-LLW disposal capability and will ensure continuity of operations that generate RH-LLW for the foreseeable future. As a part of establishing a safety basis for facility operations, the facility will be categorized according to DOE-STD-1027-92. This classification is important in determining the scope of analyses performed in the safety basis and will also dictate operational requirements of the completed facility. This paper discusses the issues affecting hazard classification in this nuclear facility and impacts of the final hazard categorization.

  2. Rapid deployable global sensing hazard alert system

    DOEpatents

    Cordaro, Joseph V; Tibrea, Steven L; Shull, Davis J; Coleman, Jerry T; Shuler, James M

    2015-04-28

    A rapid deployable global sensing hazard alert system and associated methods of operation are provided. An exemplary system includes a central command, a wireless backhaul network, and a remote monitoring unit. The remote monitoring unit can include a positioning system configured to determine a position of the remote monitoring unit based on one or more signals received from one or more satellites located in Low Earth Orbit. The wireless backhaul network can provide bidirectional communication capability independent of cellular telecommunication networks and the Internet. An exemplary method includes instructing at least one of a plurality of remote monitoring units to provide an alert based at least in part on a location of a hazard and a plurality of positions respectively associated with the plurality of remote monitoring units.

  3. A statistical approach to root system classification

    PubMed Central

    Bodner, Gernot; Leitner, Daniel; Nakhforoosh, Alireza; Sobotik, Monika; Moder, Karl; Kaul, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Plant root systems have a key role in ecology and agronomy. In spite of fast increase in root studies, still there is no classification that allows distinguishing among distinctive characteristics within the diversity of rooting strategies. Our hypothesis is that a multivariate approach for “plant functional type” identification in ecology can be applied to the classification of root systems. The classification method presented is based on a data-defined statistical procedure without a priori decision on the classifiers. The study demonstrates that principal component based rooting types provide efficient and meaningful multi-trait classifiers. The classification method is exemplified with simulated root architectures and morphological field data. Simulated root architectures showed that morphological attributes with spatial distribution parameters capture most distinctive features within root system diversity. While developmental type (tap vs. shoot-borne systems) is a strong, but coarse classifier, topological traits provide the most detailed differentiation among distinctive groups. Adequacy of commonly available morphologic traits for classification is supported by field data. Rooting types emerging from measured data, mainly distinguished by diameter/weight and density dominated types. Similarity of root systems within distinctive groups was the joint result of phylogenetic relation and environmental as well as human selection pressure. We concluded that the data-define classification is appropriate for integration of knowledge obtained with different root measurement methods and at various scales. Currently root morphology is the most promising basis for classification due to widely used common measurement protocols. To capture details of root diversity efforts in architectural measurement techniques are essential. PMID:23914200

  4. A statistical approach to root system classification.

    PubMed

    Bodner, Gernot; Leitner, Daniel; Nakhforoosh, Alireza; Sobotik, Monika; Moder, Karl; Kaul, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Plant root systems have a key role in ecology and agronomy. In spite of fast increase in root studies, still there is no classification that allows distinguishing among distinctive characteristics within the diversity of rooting strategies. Our hypothesis is that a multivariate approach for "plant functional type" identification in ecology can be applied to the classification of root systems. The classification method presented is based on a data-defined statistical procedure without a priori decision on the classifiers. The study demonstrates that principal component based rooting types provide efficient and meaningful multi-trait classifiers. The classification method is exemplified with simulated root architectures and morphological field data. Simulated root architectures showed that morphological attributes with spatial distribution parameters capture most distinctive features within root system diversity. While developmental type (tap vs. shoot-borne systems) is a strong, but coarse classifier, topological traits provide the most detailed differentiation among distinctive groups. Adequacy of commonly available morphologic traits for classification is supported by field data. Rooting types emerging from measured data, mainly distinguished by diameter/weight and density dominated types. Similarity of root systems within distinctive groups was the joint result of phylogenetic relation and environmental as well as human selection pressure. We concluded that the data-define classification is appropriate for integration of knowledge obtained with different root measurement methods and at various scales. Currently root morphology is the most promising basis for classification due to widely used common measurement protocols. To capture details of root diversity efforts in architectural measurement techniques are essential. PMID:23914200

  5. Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System tutorial

    SciTech Connect

    Twitchell, K.E.; Skinner, N.L.

    1993-07-01

    This manual is the tutorial for the Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System (HSSDS), an online, comprehensive system of information on alternatives to hazardous solvents and related subjects. The HSSDS data base contains product information, material safety data sheets, toxicity reports, usage reports, biodegradable data, product chemical element lists, and background information on solvents. HSSDS use TOPIC{reg_sign} to search for information based on a query defined by the user. TOPIC provides a full text retrieval of unstructured source documents. In this tutorial, a series of lessons is provided that guides the user through basic steps common to most queries performed with HSSDS. Instructions are provided for both window-based and character-based applications.

  6. 42 CFR 412.620 - Patient classification system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patient classification system. 412.620 Section 412... Inpatient Rehabilitation Hospitals and Rehabilitation Units § 412.620 Patient classification system. (a) Classification methodology. (1) A patient classification system is used to classify patients in...

  7. 42 CFR 412.513 - Patient classification system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patient classification system. 412.513 Section 412... Long-Term Care Hospitals § 412.513 Patient classification system. (a) Classification methodology. CMS... LTC-DRG classification system provides a LTC-DRG, and an appropriate weighting factor, for those...

  8. 75 FR 57686 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... Cord, Scottsburg (64 FR 3869, January 26, 1999). On April 22, 2010, the Agency was notified that..., 2010. The Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 amended section 3010 of the Resource... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous...

  9. 75 FR 58346 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste...) certain solid wastes generated by its Longview, Texas, facility from the lists of hazardous wastes. EPA... petitioned waste on human health and the environment. DATES: Comments must be received on or before...

  10. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR MUCK HANDLING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) muck handling system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (QARD) (DOE 1998). This QA classification incorporates the current MGR design and the results of the ''Preliminary Preclosure Design Basis Event Calculations for the Monitored Geologic Repository (CRWMS M and O 1998a).

  11. Space debris hazard to defense systems

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1996-05-01

    Natural and man-made debris are argued to present hazards to space systems, but recent data indicate that at low altitudes, the impact rates from small particles may have been overestimated by an order of magnitude. At high altitudes, small particles only present an impact hazard to large satellites; they would not support a cascade. Large particles would apparently produce a cascade only on time scales of centuries or millennia. Radar and optical data should be capable of resolving these uncertainties, but their observations are, as yet, inconsistent. While independent analytic and numerical estimates of collision and cascade rates agree, given consistent inputs, different groups produced significantly different estimates of debris growth rates. This note examines the basis for these discrepancies.

  12. Modified Hazard Ranking System/Hazard Ranking System for sites with mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes: Software documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Stenner, R.D.; Peloquin, R.A.; Hawley, K.A.

    1986-11-01

    The mHRS/HRS software package was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under contract with the Department of Energy (DOE) to provide a uniform method for DOE facilities to use in performing their Conservation Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Phase I Modified Hazard Ranking System or Hazard Ranking System evaluations. The program is designed to remove the tedium and potential for error associated with the performing of hand calculations and the interpreting of information on tables and in reference books when performing an evaluation. The software package is designed to operate on a microcomputer (IBM PC, PC/XT, or PC/AT, or a compatible system) using either a dual floppy disk drive or a hard disk storage system. It is written in the dBASE III language and operates using the dBASE III system. Although the mHRS/HRS software package was developed for use at DOE facilities, it has direct applicability to the performing of CERCLA Phase I evaluations for any facility contaminated by hazardous waste. The software can perform evaluations using either the modified hazard ranking system methodology developed by DOE/PNL, the hazard ranking system methodology developed by EPA/MITRE Corp., or a combination of the two. This document is a companion manual to the mHRS/HRS user manual. It is intended for the programmer who must maintain the software package and for those interested in the computer implementation. This manual documents the system logic, computer programs, and data files that comprise the package. Hardware and software implementation requirements are discussed. In addition, hand calculations of three sample situations (problems) with associated computer runs used for the verification of program calculations are included.

  13. Quantifying the effectiveness of early warning systems for natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sättele, M.; Bründl, M.; Straub, D.

    2015-07-01

    Early warning systems (EWS) are increasingly applied as preventive measures within an integrated risk management approach for natural hazards. At present, common standards and detailed guidelines for the evaluation of their effectiveness are lacking. To support decision-makers in the identification of optimal risk mitigation measures, a three-step framework approach for the evaluation of EWS is presented. The effectiveness is calculated in function of the technical and the inherent reliability of the EWS. The framework is applicable to automated and non-automated EWS and combinations thereof. To address the specifics and needs of a wide variety of EWS designs, a classification of EWS is provided, which focuses on the degree of automations encountered in varying EWS. The framework and its implementation are illustrated through a series of example applications of EWS in an alpine environment.

  14. Quantifying the effectiveness of early warning systems for natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sättele, M.; Bründl, M.; Straub, D.

    2016-01-01

    Early warning systems (EWSs) are increasingly applied as preventive measures within an integrated risk management approach for natural hazards. At present, common standards and detailed guidelines for the evaluation of their effectiveness are lacking. To support decision-makers in the identification of optimal risk mitigation measures, a three-step framework approach for the evaluation of EWSs is presented. The effectiveness is calculated in function of the technical and the inherent reliability of the EWS. The framework is applicable to automated and non-automated EWSs and combinations thereof. To address the specifics and needs of a wide variety of EWS designs, a classification of EWSs is provided, which focuses on the degree of automations encountered in varying EWSs. The framework and its implementation are illustrated through a series of example applications of EWS in an alpine environment.

  15. An Evaluation of a Degree Classification System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molinero, C. Mar; Portilla, L. E.

    1993-01-01

    Employs a sample of 140 graduates from 2 subject areas (economics and accounting/management science) at Southampton University (England) to investigate the university's degree classification system using various statistical analysis techniques. Since students perform best in core subjects, those with little variety in degree courses have…

  16. Hazard classification for the supercritical water oxidation test bed. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos, A.G.

    1994-10-01

    A hazard classification of ``routinely accepted by the public`` has been determined for the operation of the supercritical water oxidation test bed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This determination is based on the fact that the design and proposed operation meet or exceed appropriate national standards so that the risks are equivalent to those present in similar activities conducted in private industry. Each of the 17 criteria for hazards ``routinely accepted by the public,`` identified in the EG and G Idaho, Inc., Safety Manual, were analyzed. The supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) test bed will treat simulated mixed waste without the radioactive component. It will be designed to operate with eight test wastes. These test wastes have been chosen to represent a broad cross-section of candidate mixed wastes anticipated for storage or generation by DOE. In particular, the test bed will generate data to evaluate the ability of the technology to treat chlorinated waste and other wastes that have in the past caused severe corrosion and deposition in SCWO reactors.

  17. Common occupational classification system - revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Stahlman, E.J.; Lewis, R.E.

    1996-05-01

    Workforce planning has become an increasing concern within the DOE community as the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER/WM or EM) seeks to consolidate and refocus its activities and the Office of Defense Programs (DP) closes production sites. Attempts to manage the growth and skills mix of the EM workforce while retaining the critical skills of the DP workforce have been difficult due to the lack of a consistent set of occupational titles and definitions across the complex. Two reasons for this difficulty may be cited. First, classification systems commonly used in industry often fail to cover in sufficient depth the unique demands of DOE`s nuclear energy and research community. Second, the government practice of contracting the operation of government facilities to the private sector has introduced numerous contractor-specific classification schemes to the DOE complex. As a result, sites/contractors report their workforce needs using unique classification systems. It becomes difficult, therefore, to roll these data up to the national level necessary to support strategic planning and analysis. The Common Occupational Classification System (COCS) is designed to overcome these workforce planning barriers. The COCS is based on earlier workforce planning activities and the input of technical, workforce planning, and human resource managers from across the DOE complex. It provides a set of mutually-exclusive occupation titles and definitions that cover the broad range of activities present in the DOE complex. The COCS is not a required record-keeping or data management guide. Neither is it intended to replace contractor/DOE-specific classification systems. Instead, the system provides a consistent, high- level, functional structure of occupations to which contractors can crosswalk (map) their job titles.

  18. Fish detection and classification system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tidd, Richard A.; Wilder, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    Marine biologists traditionally determine the presence and quantities of different types of fish by dragging nets across the bottom, and examining their contents. This method, although accurate, kills the collected fish, damages their habitat, and consumes large quantities of resources. This paper presents an alternative, a machine vision system capable of determining the presence of fish species. Illumination presents a unique problem in this environment, and the design of an effective illumination system is discussed. The related issues of object orientation and measurement are also discussed and resolved. Capturing images of fish in murky water also presents challenges. An adaptive thresholding technique is required to appropriately segment the fish from the background in these images. Mode detection, and histogram analysis are useful tools in determining these localized thresholds. It is anticipated that this system, created in conjunction with the Rutgers Institute for Marine and Coastal Science, will effectively classify fish in the estuarine environment.

  19. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR CANISTER TRANSFER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    S.E. Salzman

    1999-08-30

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) canister transfer system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  20. Classification of the MGR Assembly Transfer System

    SciTech Connect

    S.E. Salzman

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) assembly transfer system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  1. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SITE COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) site communications system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  2. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR HEALTH SAFETY SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) health safety system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  3. Classification of the MGR Administration System

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) administration system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/9O-55Qy Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  4. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SITE WATER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) site water system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  5. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface fire protection system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  6. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SUBSURFACE EXCAVATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface excavation system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  7. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SITE OPERATIONS SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) site operations system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  8. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR BACKFILL EMPLACEMENT SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) backfill emplacement system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  9. 42 CFR 412.513 - Patient classification system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Long-Term Care Hospitals § 412.513 Patient classification system. (a) Classification methodology. CMS... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patient classification system. 412.513 Section...

  10. Classification, pathogenesis, and treatment of systemic vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Griffith, M E; Gaskin, G; Pusey, C D

    1996-09-01

    Patients with systemic vasculitis (SV), especially Wegener's granulomatosis and microscopic polyangiitis, regularly present with renal involvement. Although considered a rare disease, either the incidence of SV is increasing or it is being increasingly recognized. Accurate classification systems are required to allow comparison of data from different groups investigating and treating these patients. Systemic vasculitis is known to be an autoimmune disease, but the mechanisms of pathogenesis have not been established, despite many studies on this topic in recent years. Most of this work has been done in vitro, although development of animal models is underway. Patient and renal survival have improved with aggressive immunosuppressive treatment, but morbidity is high and controversies remain in establishing the most effective regimens with minimum adverse effects. In this review we discuss the classification of SV, review the current knowledge of pathogenic mechanisms, and consider the relative merits of different treatment protocols. PMID:8903093

  11. Robots, systems, and methods for hazard evaluation and visualization

    DOEpatents

    Nielsen, Curtis W.; Bruemmer, David J.; Walton, Miles C.; Hartley, Robert S.; Gertman, David I.; Kinoshita, Robert A.; Whetten, Jonathan

    2013-01-15

    A robot includes a hazard sensor, a locomotor, and a system controller. The robot senses a hazard intensity at a location of the robot, moves to a new location in response to the hazard intensity, and autonomously repeats the sensing and moving to determine multiple hazard levels at multiple locations. The robot may also include a communicator to communicate the multiple hazard levels to a remote controller. The remote controller includes a communicator for sending user commands to the robot and receiving the hazard levels from the robot. A graphical user interface displays an environment map of the environment proximate the robot and a scale for indicating a hazard intensity. A hazard indicator corresponds to a robot position in the environment map and graphically indicates the hazard intensity at the robot position relative to the scale.

  12. A Classification and Salary System for Professional Administrative Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Sigmund G.

    1977-01-01

    A detailed description of one institution's approach is offered for a classification system, a starting salary system, a consistent way of treating promotional increases, and a method of avoiding salary inequities. The Classification Questionnaire is included. (LBH)

  13. Intelligent Computer Vision System for Automated Classification

    SciTech Connect

    Jordanov, Ivan; Georgieva, Antoniya

    2010-05-21

    In this paper we investigate an Intelligent Computer Vision System applied for recognition and classification of commercially available cork tiles. The system is capable of acquiring and processing gray images using several feature generation and analysis techniques. Its functionality includes image acquisition, feature extraction and preprocessing, and feature classification with neural networks (NN). We also discuss system test and validation results from the recognition and classification tasks. The system investigation also includes statistical feature processing (features number and dimensionality reduction techniques) and classifier design (NN architecture, target coding, learning complexity and performance, and training with our own metaheuristic optimization method). The NNs trained with our genetic low-discrepancy search method (GLPtauS) for global optimisation demonstrated very good generalisation abilities. In our view, the reported testing success rate of up to 95% is due to several factors: combination of feature generation techniques; application of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), which appeared to be very efficient for preprocessing the data; and use of suitable NN design and learning method.

  14. Proposed clinical internal carotid artery classification system

    PubMed Central

    Abdulrauf, Saleem I; Ashour, Ahmed M; Marvin, Eric; Coppens, Jeroen; Kang, Brian; Hsieh, Tze Yu Yeh; Nery, Breno; Penanes, Juan R; Alsahlawi, Aysha K; Moore, Shawn; Al-Shaar, Hussam Abou; Kemp, Joanna; Chawla, Kanika; Sujijantarat, Nanthiya; Najeeb, Alaa; Parkar, Nadeem; Shetty, Vilaas; Vafaie, Tina; Antisdel, Jastin; Mikulec, Tony A; Edgell, Randall; Lebovitz, Jonathan; Pierson, Matt; Pires de Aguiar, Paulo Henrique; Buchanan, Paula; Di Cosola, Angela; Stevens, George

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Numerical classification systems for the internal carotid artery (ICA) are available, but modifications have added confusion to the numerical systems. Furthermore, previous classifications may not be applicable uniformly to microsurgical and endoscopic procedures. The purpose of this study was to develop a clinically useful classification system. Materials and Methods: We performed cadaver dissections of the ICA in 5 heads (10 sides) and evaluated 648 internal carotid arteries with computed tomography angiography. We identified specific anatomic landmarks to define the beginning and end of each ICA segment. Results: The ICA was classified into eight segments based on the cadaver and imaging findings: (1) Cervical segment; (2) cochlear segment (ascending segment of the ICA in the temporal bone) (relation of the start of this segment to the base of the styloid process: Above, 425 sides [80%]; below, 2 sides [0.4%]; at same level, 107 sides [20%]; P < 0.0001) (relation of cochlea to ICA: Posterior, 501 sides [85%]; posteromedial, 84 sides [14%]; P < 0.0001); (3) petrous segment (horizontal segment of ICA in the temporal bone) starting at the crossing of the eustachian tube superolateral to the ICA turn in all 10 samples; (4) Gasserian-Clival segment (ascending segment of ICA in the cavernous sinus) starting at the petrolingual ligament (PLL) (relation to vidian canal on imaging: At same level, 360 sides [63%]; below, 154 sides [27%]; above, 53 sides [9%]; P < 0.0001); in this segment, the ICA projected medially toward the clivus in 275 sides (52%) or parallel to the clivus with no deviation in 256 sides (48%; P < 0.0001); (5) sellar segment (medial loop of ICA in the cavernous sinus) starting at the takeoff of the meningeal hypophyseal trunk (ICA was medial into the sella in 271 cases [46%], lateral without touching the sella in 127 cases [23%], and abutting the sella in 182 cases [31%]; P < 0.0001); (6) sphenoid segment (lateral loop of ICA within the

  15. 14 CFR 417.409 - System hazard controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... or release of energy or hazardous materials; (2) Ensure each hazard control used to provide fault... one inhibit. A launch operator must prevent inadvertent activation of hazard control devices such as... to electrical or mechanical systems that can release electrical or mechanical energy during...

  16. 14 CFR 417.409 - System hazard controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... or release of energy or hazardous materials; (2) Ensure each hazard control used to provide fault... one inhibit. A launch operator must prevent inadvertent activation of hazard control devices such as... to electrical or mechanical systems that can release electrical or mechanical energy during...

  17. 14 CFR 417.409 - System hazard controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... or release of energy or hazardous materials; (2) Ensure each hazard control used to provide fault... one inhibit. A launch operator must prevent inadvertent activation of hazard control devices such as... to electrical or mechanical systems that can release electrical or mechanical energy during...

  18. 14 CFR 417.409 - System hazard controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... or release of energy or hazardous materials; (2) Ensure each hazard control used to provide fault... one inhibit. A launch operator must prevent inadvertent activation of hazard control devices such as... to electrical or mechanical systems that can release electrical or mechanical energy during...

  19. Hazardous chemical tracking system (HAZ-TRAC)

    SciTech Connect

    Bramlette, J D; Ewart, S M; Jones, C E

    1990-07-01

    Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO) developed and implemented a computerized hazardous chemical tracking system, referred to as Haz-Trac, for use at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Haz-Trac is designed to provide a means to improve the accuracy and reliability of chemical information, which enhances the overall quality and safety of ICPP operations. The system tracks all chemicals and chemical components from the time they enter the ICPP until the chemical changes form, is used, or becomes a waste. The system runs on a Hewlett-Packard (HP) 3000 Series 70 computer. The system is written in COBOL and uses VIEW/3000, TurboIMAGE/DBMS 3000, OMNIDEX, and SPEEDWARE. The HP 3000 may be accessed throughout the ICPP, and from remote locations, using data communication lines. Haz-Trac went into production in October, 1989. Currently, over 1910 chemicals and chemical components are tracked on the system. More than 2500 personnel hours were saved during the first six months of operation. Cost savings have been realized by reducing the time needed to collect and compile reporting information, identifying and disposing of unneeded chemicals, and eliminating duplicate inventories. Haz-Trac maintains information required by the Superfund Amendment Reauthorization Act (SARA), the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA).

  20. The Hazards Data Distribution System update

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Brenda K.; Lamb, Rynn

    2010-01-01

    After a major disaster, a satellite image or a collection of aerial photographs of the event is frequently the fastest, most effective way to determine its scope and severity. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Emergency Operations Portal provides emergency first responders and support personnel with easy access to imagery and geospatial data, geospatial Web services, and a digital library focused on emergency operations. Imagery and geospatial data are accessed through the Hazards Data Distribution System (HDDS). HDDS historically provided data access and delivery services through nongraphical interfaces that allow emergency response personnel to select and obtain pre-event baseline data and (or) event/disaster response data. First responders are able to access full-resolution GeoTIFF images or JPEG images at medium- and low-quality compressions through ftp downloads. USGS HDDS home page: http://hdds.usgs.gov/hdds2/

  1. 76 FR 76677 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Proposed Exclusion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste... the potential impact of the petitioned waste on human health and the environment. The EPA's proposed decision to grant the petition is based on an evaluation of waste-specific information provided by...

  2. 75 FR 73972 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Removal of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... Company--Texas Operations, published on September 24, 2010, 75 FR 58315. We stated in that direct final... which will be based on the parallel proposed rule also published on September 24, 2010, 75 FR 58346. As... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous...

  3. 76 FR 59960 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Withdrawal of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... notice removes the proposed rule published in 76 FR 5110 (January 28, 2011) for public review and comment... Landfill (Gulf West) located in Anahuac, TX, published on January 28, 2011 (76 FR 5110). EPA subsequently... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous...

  4. 75 FR 60689 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Proposed Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... Refinery (Beaumont Refinery) to exclude (or delist) a certain solid waste generated by its Beaumont, Texas... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste... 3.0 in the evaluation of the impact of the petitioned waste on human health and the...

  5. Desicion Support System For Natural Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyazilov, E.

    2009-04-01

    recommendations should be reasonable. To resolve the above problems or to make them less significant it is necessary to develop decision support systems (DSS). DMs need not tables with initial data, analytical, forecasting and climatic information, but messages containing warnings on critical value accidence, information on probability of hazards, information on potential losses, and information on hazardous impacts and recommendations on decision making. DSS can do the following: take into account impacts on specific points and on the total area under consideration; allow for the effects of the environment on economic entities (objects) in any geographical region to be analyzed; distinguish impacts and changes caused both by different phenomena and by their combination; signal when objects are or can be in adverse environmental conditions, e.g. in the area affected by fog, storm, tropical cyclone or in the area where the probability of hazardous ice events is very high, etc. The main component of DSS is a knowledge base based on the following concept: if we know environmental conditions it is possible to predict potential impacts on the economy; if we know impacts it is possible to give a set of recommendations on how to prevent (reduce) losses or how to use natural resources most efficiently. Decision making criteria are safety of people and property, reduction of losses, increase of profit, materials saving, etc. Knowledge base is a set of rules formulated in a formalized way using if, that, else. If "Water level in S.-Petersburg >150 cm" that "To give out warning information "Hazards for building on coastal river Neva is possible" and recommendations "The valuable goods carry out in second floor" else "To switch another rule". To have a knowledge base in place it is necessary to: develop tools of identifying and getting knowledge from experts; arrange the information flow from available information systems (operational data, analyses, forecasts, climatic information) through

  6. Active polarimeter optical system laser hazard analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Augustoni, Arnold L.

    2005-07-01

    A laser hazard analysis was performed for the SNL Active Polarimeter Optical System based on the ANSI Standard Z136.1-2000, American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers and the ANSI Standard Z136.6-2000, American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers Outdoors. The Active Polarimeter Optical System (APOS) uses a pulsed, near-infrared, chromium doped lithium strontium aluminum fluoride (Cr:LiSAF) crystal laser in conjunction with a holographic diffuser and lens to illuminate a scene of interest. The APOS is intended for outdoor operations. The system is mounted on a height adjustable platform (6 feet to 40 feet) and sits atop a tripod that points the beam downward. The beam can be pointed from nadir to as much as 60 degrees off of nadir producing an illuminating spot geometry that can vary from circular (at nadir) to elliptical in shape (off of nadir). The JP Innovations crystal Cr:LiSAF laser parameters are presented in section II. The illuminating laser spot size is variable and can be adjusted by adjusting the separation distance between the lens and the holographic diffuser. The system is adjusted while platform is at the lowest level. The laser spot is adjusted for a particular spot size at a particular distance (elevation) from the laser by adjusting the separation distance (d{sub diffuser}) to predetermined values. The downward pointing angle is also adjusted before the platform is raised to the selected operation elevation.

  7. Bacteriological hazards of disposable bedpan systems

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, G. L.

    1973-01-01

    A system using disposable papier maché bedpans and urinals in hospital has advantages of ease of handling for the nurse and cleanliness for the patient. Disposal of the bedpans and their contents is by destruction and flushing to waste. Some bacteriological hazards of this process in the Haigh Sluicemaster and J.M.L. Clinimatic machines are assessed, particularly the dispersal of the contents in spray and aerosol during opening, closing, and running the machines. Various safety devices were tested and some deficiencies are discussed. A major defect in the system is the need at present for a bedpan carrier or support which is not disposable and requires cleaning and disinfection. Minor problems include ordering and storing bulky items, possibly the texture of the bedpans themselves, and perhaps the effect of the bulk of paper discharged into the sewage system. At present the system seems unsuitable for use in infectious disease hospitals and has some deficiencies in use in general wards. The improvements suggested would greatly increase its acceptability which should then be completely re-assessed. To this end the examination of improved models using totally disposable bedpans is proceeding. Images PMID:4696834

  8. Bacteriological hazards of disposable bedpan systems.

    PubMed

    Gibson, G L

    1973-02-01

    A system using disposable papier maché bedpans and urinals in hospital has advantages of ease of handling for the nurse and cleanliness for the patient. Disposal of the bedpans and their contents is by destruction and flushing to waste. Some bacteriological hazards of this process in the Haigh Sluicemaster and J.M.L. Clinimatic machines are assessed, particularly the dispersal of the contents in spray and aerosol during opening, closing, and running the machines. Various safety devices were tested and some deficiencies are discussed.A major defect in the system is the need at present for a bedpan carrier or support which is not disposable and requires cleaning and disinfection. Minor problems include ordering and storing bulky items, possibly the texture of the bedpans themselves, and perhaps the effect of the bulk of paper discharged into the sewage system. At present the system seems unsuitable for use in infectious disease hospitals and has some deficiencies in use in general wards. The improvements suggested would greatly increase its acceptability which should then be completely re-assessed. To this end the examination of improved models using totally disposable bedpans is proceeding. PMID:4696834

  9. Synthetic vitreous fibers: a review of toxicology research and its impact on hazard classification.

    PubMed

    Hesterberg, T W; Hart, G A

    2001-01-01

    Because the inhalation of asbestos, a naturally occurring, inorganic fibrous material, is associated with lung fibrosis and thoracic cancers, concerns have been raised about the possible health effects of synthetic vitreous fibers (SVFs). SVFs include a very broad variety of inorganic fibrous materials with an amorphous molecular structure. Traditionally, SVFs have been divided into three subcategories based on composition: fiberglass, mineral wool (rock, stone, and slag wools), and refractory ceramic fiber. For more than 50 years, the toxicologic potential of SVFs has been researched extensively using human epidemiology and a variety of laboratory studies. Here we review the research and its impact on hazard classification and regulation of SVFs. Large, ongoing epidemiology studies of SVF manufacturing workers have provided very little evidence of harmful effects in humans. Several decades of research using rodents exposed by inhalation have confirmed that SVF pulmonary effects are determined by the "Three D's", fiber dose (lung), dimension, and durability. Lung dose over time is determined by fiber deposition and biopersistence in the lung. Deposition is inversely related to fiber diameter. Biopersistence is directly related to fiber length and inversely related to fiber dissolution and fragmentation rates. Inhaled short fibers are cleared from the lung relatively quickly by mobile phagocytic cells, but long fibers persist until they dissolve or fragment. In contrast to asbestos, most of the SVFs tested in rodent inhalation studies cleared rapidly from the lung (were nonbiopersistent) and were innocuous. However, several relativley biopersistent SVFs induced chronic inflammation, lung scarring (fibrosis), and thoracic neoplasms. Thus, biopersistence of fibers is now generally recognized as a key determinant of the toxicologic potential of SVFs. In vitro dissolution of fibers in simulated extracellular fluid correlates fairly well with fiber biopersistence in the

  10. Extensions to the Speech Disorders Classification System (SDCS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Fourakis, Marios; Hall, Sheryl D.; Karlsson, Heather B.; Lohmeier, Heather L.; McSweeny, Jane L.; Potter, Nancy L.; Scheer-Cohen, Alison R.; Strand, Edythe A.; Tilkens, Christie M.; Wilson, David L.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes three extensions to a classification system for paediatric speech sound disorders termed the Speech Disorders Classification System (SDCS). Part I describes a classification extension to the SDCS to differentiate motor speech disorders from speech delay and to differentiate among three sub-types of motor speech disorders.…

  11. A system for heart sounds classification.

    PubMed

    Redlarski, Grzegorz; Gradolewski, Dawid; Palkowski, Aleksander

    2014-01-01

    The future of quick and efficient disease diagnosis lays in the development of reliable non-invasive methods. As for the cardiac diseases - one of the major causes of death around the globe - a concept of an electronic stethoscope equipped with an automatic heart tone identification system appears to be the best solution. Thanks to the advancement in technology, the quality of phonocardiography signals is no longer an issue. However, appropriate algorithms for auto-diagnosis systems of heart diseases that could be capable of distinguishing most of known pathological states have not been yet developed. The main issue is non-stationary character of phonocardiography signals as well as a wide range of distinguishable pathological heart sounds. In this paper a new heart sound classification technique, which might find use in medical diagnostic systems, is presented. It is shown that by combining Linear Predictive Coding coefficients, used for future extraction, with a classifier built upon combining Support Vector Machine and Modified Cuckoo Search algorithm, an improvement in performance of the diagnostic system, in terms of accuracy, complexity and range of distinguishable heart sounds, can be made. The developed system achieved accuracy above 93% for all considered cases including simultaneous identification of twelve different heart sound classes. The respective system is compared with four different major classification methods, proving its reliability. PMID:25393113

  12. A System for Heart Sounds Classification

    PubMed Central

    Redlarski, Grzegorz; Gradolewski, Dawid; Palkowski, Aleksander

    2014-01-01

    The future of quick and efficient disease diagnosis lays in the development of reliable non-invasive methods. As for the cardiac diseases – one of the major causes of death around the globe – a concept of an electronic stethoscope equipped with an automatic heart tone identification system appears to be the best solution. Thanks to the advancement in technology, the quality of phonocardiography signals is no longer an issue. However, appropriate algorithms for auto-diagnosis systems of heart diseases that could be capable of distinguishing most of known pathological states have not been yet developed. The main issue is non-stationary character of phonocardiography signals as well as a wide range of distinguishable pathological heart sounds. In this paper a new heart sound classification technique, which might find use in medical diagnostic systems, is presented. It is shown that by combining Linear Predictive Coding coefficients, used for future extraction, with a classifier built upon combining Support Vector Machine and Modified Cuckoo Search algorithm, an improvement in performance of the diagnostic system, in terms of accuracy, complexity and range of distinguishable heart sounds, can be made. The developed system achieved accuracy above 93% for all considered cases including simultaneous identification of twelve different heart sound classes. The respective system is compared with four different major classification methods, proving its reliability. PMID:25393113

  13. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SITE-GENERATED HAZAROUS NONHAZARDOUS & SANITARY WASTE DISPOSAL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) site generated hazardous, non-hazardous and sanitary waste disposal system system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  14. The interobserver reliability of classification systems for radial head fractures: the Hotchkiss modification of the Mason classification and the AO classification systems

    PubMed Central

    Sheps, David M.; Kiefer, Krystina R.L.; Boorman, Richard S.; Donaghy, John; Lalani, Aleem; Walker, Richard; Hildebrand, Kevin A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Radial head fractures are common injuries, and there is little information on the reliability of classification systems for such injuries. The purpose of our study was to report the interobserver reliability of 2 commonly used classification systems: the Hotchkiss modification of the Mason classification and the AO classification systems. Methods We compiled the radiographs from a cohort series of 43 patients with radial head fractures, and 5 observers classified the radiographs according to both classification systems. Additionally, we collapsed the systems, with types II and III combined for the Hotchkiss classification and the final digit dropped for the AO classification. We calculated percent agreement, the κ statistic and the associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results The mean percent agreement was 72.3% (95% CI 65.8%–78.9%) for the Hotchkiss classification and 37.7% (95% CI 30.5%–44.9%) for the AO classification. The κ statistic was 0.585 (0.541–0.661) for the Hotchkiss classification and 0.261 (0.240–0.350) for the AO classification. The mean percent agreement was 89.3% (86.6%–92.0%) for the consolidated Hotchkiss classification and 67.4% (54.6%–80.3%) for the consolidated AO classification. The κ statistic was 0.760 (0.691–0.805) for the consolidated Hotchkiss classification and 0.455 (0.372–0.521) for the consolidated AO classification. Conclusion The interobserver reliability for the Hotchkiss modification of the Mason classification was moderate, and that for the AO classification was fair according to the criteria of Landis and Koch. Collapsing the Hotchkiss classification improved the reliability to substantial, and collapsing the AO system improved reliability to the lower end of moderate. PMID:19680511

  15. Explosives Classifications Tracking System User Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Genoni, R.P.

    1993-10-01

    The Explosives Classification Tracking System (ECTS) presents information and data for U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) explosives classifications of interest to EM-561, Transportation Management Division, other DOE facilities, and contractors. It is intended to be useful to the scientist, engineer, and transportation professional, who needs to classify or transport explosives. This release of the ECTS reflects upgrading of the software which provides the user with an environment that makes comprehensive retrieval of explosives related information quick and easy. Quarterly updates will be provided to the ECTS throughout its development in FY 1993 and thereafter. The ECTS is a stand alone, single user system that contains unclassified, publicly available information, and administrative information (contractor names, product descriptions, transmittal dates, EX-Numbers, etc.) information from many sources for non-decisional engineering and shipping activities. The data is the most up-to-date and accurate available to the knowledge of the system developer. The system is designed to permit easy revision and updating as new information and data become available. These, additions and corrections are welcomed by the developer. This user manual is intended to help the user install, understand, and operate the system so that the desired information may be readily obtained, reviewed, and reported.

  16. Adaptive environment classification system for hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Lamarche, Luc; Giguère, Christian; Gueaieb, Wail; Aboulnasr, Tyseer; Othman, Hisham

    2010-05-01

    An adaptive sound classification framework is proposed for hearing aid applications. The long-term goal is to develop fully trainable instruments in which both the acoustical environments encountered in daily life and the hearing aid settings preferred by the user in each environmental class could be learned. Two adaptive classifiers are described, one based on minimum distance clustering and one on Bayesian classification. Through unsupervised learning, the adaptive systems allow classes to split or merge based on changes in the ongoing acoustical environments. Performance was evaluated using real-world sounds from a wide range of acoustical environments. The systems were first initialized using two classes, speech and noise, followed by a testing period when a third class, music, was introduced. Both systems were successful in detecting the presence of an additional class and estimating its underlying parameters, reaching a testing accuracy close to the target rates obtained from best-case scenarios derived from non-adaptive supervised versions of the classifiers (about 3% lower performance). The adaptive Bayesian classifier resulted in a 4% higher overall accuracy upon splitting adaptation than the minimum distance classifier. Merging accuracy was found to be the same in the two systems and within 1%-2% of the best-case supervised versions. PMID:21117761

  17. Hazard banding in compliance with the new Globally Harmonised System (GHS) for use in control banding tools.

    PubMed

    Arnone, Mario; Koppisch, Dorothea; Smola, Thomas; Gabriel, Stefan; Verbist, Koen; Visser, Remco

    2015-10-01

    Many control banding tools use hazard banding in risk assessments for the occupational handling of hazardous substances. The outcome of these assessments can be combined with advice for the required risk management measures (RMMs). The Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) has resulted in a change in the hazard communication elements, i.e. Hazard (H) statements instead of Risk-phrases. Hazard banding schemes that depend on the old form of safety information have to be adapted to the new rules. The purpose of this publication is to outline the rationales for the assignment of hazard bands to H statements under the GHS. Based on this, this publication proposes a hazard banding scheme that uses the information from the safety data sheets as the basis for assignment. The assignment of hazard bands tiered according to the severity of the underlying hazards supports the important principle of substitution. Additionally, the set of assignment rules permits an exposure-route-specific assignment of hazard bands, which is necessary for the proposed route-specific RMMs. Ideally, all control banding tools should apply the same assignment rules. This GHS-compliant hazard banding scheme can hopefully help to establish a unified hazard banding strategy in the various control banding tools. PMID:26206396

  18. Public Document Room file classification system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    This listing contains detailed descriptions of the file classification system for documents available from the Public Document Room (PDR) of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. As a public service branch of the agency, the PDR maintains facilities for receiving, processing, storing, and retrieving documents which NRC generates or receives in performing its regulatory function. Unlike a library, the PDR does not maintain collections of formally published materials, such as books, monographs, serials, periodicals, or general indexes. The documents on file at the PDR can be reports, written records of meetings (transcripts), existing or proposed regulations, the text of licenses or their amendments, and correspondence.

  19. Gender classification system in uncontrolled environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Pingping; Zhang, Yu-Jin; Duan, Fei

    2011-01-01

    Most face analysis systems available today perform mainly on restricted databases of images in terms of size, age, illumination. In addition, it is frequently assumed that all images are frontal and unconcealed. Actually, in a non-guided real-time supervision, the face pictures taken may often be partially covered and with head rotation less or more. In this paper, a special system supposed to be used in real-time surveillance with un-calibrated camera and non-guided photography is described. It mainly consists of five parts: face detection, non-face filtering, best-angle face selection, texture normalization, and gender classification. Emphases are focused on non-face filtering and best-angle face selection parts as well as texture normalization. Best-angle faces are figured out by PCA reconstruction, which equals to an implicit face alignment and results in a huge increase of the accuracy for gender classification. Dynamic skin model and a masked PCA reconstruction algorithm are applied to filter out faces detected in error. In order to fully include facial-texture and shape-outline features, a hybrid feature that is a combination of Gabor wavelet and PHoG (pyramid histogram of gradients) was proposed to equitable inner texture and outer contour. Comparative study on the effects of different non-face filtering and texture masking methods in the context of gender classification by SVM is reported through experiments on a set of UT (a company name) face images, a large number of internet images and CAS (Chinese Academy of Sciences) face database. Some encouraging results are obtained.

  20. [Globally harmonized system of classification and labelling of chemicals (GHS) and its implementation in Japan].

    PubMed

    Miyagawa, Muneyuki

    2010-01-01

    The Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) is a set of recommendations by the United Nations, first issued in 2003 as a communication tool for the sound management of chemicals, comprising harmonized classification criteria for physical, health and environmental hazards, a unified format for material safety data sheets (MSDS), and labeling elements including pictograms and hazard statements preassigned to each classification category. The GHS has been introduced into Japan and implemented in the regulatory framework for chemical safety. The Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) adopted the GHS, and the GHS-based JIS rules have become the Japanese standards for labels and MSDS. The use of the JIS format for labels and MSDS is recommended by several competent authorities in Japan although mostly on a voluntary basis. In the workplace, however, GHS-based JIS labels and MSDS have become legal requirements by the Industrial Safety and Health Law since 2006; namely, issuing MSDS in such a format is mandatory for the 640 specified chemicals and also labeling for the 99 targeted chemicals*. Although the GHS provides definitions and classification criteria for 10 classes of health hazards (acute toxicity, skin and eye corrosion/irritation, sensitization, germ cell mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, reproductive toxicity, specific target organ toxicity single/repeated exposures, and aspiration hazard), it does not provide actual classification of chemicals, so that competent authorities and industries need to classify a number of chemicals and/or mixtures. Weight-of-evidence judgment and/or expert judgment would be necessary in many cases. In this paper, the outline of the GHS classification is described and problems of the GHS and its implementation are discussed. PMID:20134103

  1. 14 CFR 417.409 - System hazard controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false System hazard controls. 417.409 Section 417.409 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Ground Safety § 417.409 System hazard controls. (a) General. A launch operator must establish...

  2. Guidance on classification for reproductive toxicity under the globally harmonized system of classification and labelling of chemicals (GHS).

    PubMed

    Moore, Nigel P; Boogaard, Peter J; Bremer, Susanne; Buesen, Roland; Edwards, James; Fraysse, Benoit; Hallmark, Nina; Hemming, Helena; Langrand-Lerche, Carole; McKee, Richard H; Meisters, Marie-Louise; Parsons, Paul; Politano, Valerie; Reader, Stuart; Ridgway, Peter; Hennes, Christa

    2013-11-01

    The Globally Harmonised System of Classification (GHS) is a framework within which the intrinsic hazards of substances may be determined and communicated. It is not a legislative instrument per se, but is enacted into national legislation with the appropriate legislative instruments. GHS covers many aspects of effects upon health and the environment, including adverse effects upon sexual function and fertility or on development. Classification for these effects is based upon observations in humans or from properly designed experiments in animals, although only the latter is covered herein. The decision to classify a substance based upon experimental data, and the category of classification ascribed, is determined by the level of evidence that is available for an adverse effect on sexual function and fertility or on development that does not arise as a secondary non-specific consequence of other toxic effect. This document offers guidance on the determination of level of concern as a measure of adversity, and the level of evidence to ascribe classification based on data from tests in laboratory animals. PMID:24274377

  3. Modified hazard ranking system for sites with mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes. User manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Hawley, K.A.; Peloquin, R.A.; Stenner, R.D.

    1986-04-01

    This document describes both the original Hazard Ranking System and the modified Hazard Ranking System as they are to be used in evaluating the relative potential for uncontrolled hazardous substance facilities to cause human health or safety problems or ecological or environmental damage. Detailed instructions for using the mHRS/HRS computer code are provided, along with instructions for performing the calculations by hand. Uniform application of the ranking system will permit the DOE to identify those releases of hazardous substances that pose the greatest hazard to humans or the environment. However, the mHRS/HRS by itself cannot establish priorities for the allocation of funds for remedial action. The mHRS/HRS is a means for applying uniform technical judgment regarding the potential hazards presented by a facility relative to other facilities. It does not address the feasibility, desirability, or degree of cleanup required. Neither does it deal with the readiness or ability of a state to carry out such remedial action, as may be indicated, or to meet other conditions prescribed in CERCLA. 13 refs., 13 figs., 27 tabs.

  4. Self-contained clothing system provides protection against hazardous environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Self-contained clothing system protects personnel against hazardous environments. The clothing has an environmental control system and a complete protection envelope consisting of an outer garment, inner garment, underwear, boots, gloves, and helmet.

  5. Guide for Oxygen Hazards Analyses on Components and Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoltzfus, Joel M.; Dees, Jesse; Poe, Robert F.

    1996-01-01

    Because most materials, including metals, will burn in an oxygen-enriched environment, hazards are always present when using oxygen. Most materials will ignite at lower temperatures in an oxygen-enriched environment than in air, and once ignited, combustion rates are greater in the oxygen-enriched environment. Many metals burn violently in an oxygen-enriched environment when ignited. Lubricants, tapes, gaskets, fuels, and solvents can increase the possibility of ignition in oxygen systems. However, these hazards do not preclude the use of oxygen. Oxygen may be safely used if all the materials in a system are not flammable in the end-use environment or if ignition sources are identified and controlled. These ignition and combustion hazards necessitate a proper oxygen hazards analysis before introducing a material or component into oxygen service. The objective of this test plan is to describe the White Sands Test Facility oxygen hazards analysis to be performed on components and systems before oxygen is introduced and is recommended before implementing the oxygen component qualification procedure. The plan describes the NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility method consistent with the ASTM documents for analyzing the hazards of components and systems exposed to an oxygen-enriched environment. The oxygen hazards analysis is a useful tool for oxygen-system designers, system engineers, and facility managers. Problem areas can be pinpointed before oxygen is introduced into the system, preventing damage to hardware and possible injury or loss of life.

  6. 42 CFR 412.620 - Patient classification system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patient classification system. 412.620 Section 412... MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment for Inpatient Rehabilitation Hospitals and Rehabilitation Units § 412.620 Patient classification system....

  7. Guide for Hydrogen Hazards Analysis on Components and Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beeson, Harold; Woods, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    The physical and combustion properties of hydrogen give rise to hazards that must be considered when designing and operating a hydrogen system. One of the major concerns in the use of hydrogen is that of fire or detonation because of hydrogen's wide flammability range, low ignition energy, and flame speed. Other concerns include the contact and interaction of hydrogen with materials, such as the hydrogen embrittlement of materials and the formation of hydrogen hydrides. The low temperature of liquid and slush hydrogen bring other concerns related to material compatibility and pressure control; this is especially important when dissimilar, adjoining materials are involved. The potential hazards arising from these properties and design features necessitate a proper hydrogen hazards analysis before introducing a material, component, or system into hydrogen service. The objective of this guide is to describe the NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility hydrogen hazards analysis method that should be performed before hydrogen is used in components and/or systems. The method is consistent with standard practices for analyzing hazards. It is recommended that this analysis be made before implementing a hydrogen component qualification procedure. A hydrogen hazards analysis is a useful tool for hydrogen-system designers, system and safety engineers, and facility managers. A hydrogen hazards analysis can identify problem areas before hydrogen is introduced into a system-preventing damage to hardware, delay or loss of mission or objective, and possible injury or loss of life.

  8. Classification and certification requirements for floating production systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bowie, R.D.; Richardson, K.L.

    1995-12-31

    Floating Production Systems (FPSs) can be either, custom built or a converted semi-submersible, tanker or barge. The paper describes the necessary steps to be taken for the Classification and Certification of FPSs and FPSOS. The paper outlines the latest Classification and certification requirements for both semi-submersible and ship type FPSS. Classification and regulatory requirements for the Hull Structure, Stability, Station Keeping, Shipboard and Production Systems are discussed.

  9. Designing a Classification System for Internet Offenders: Doing Cognitive Distortions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hundersmarck, Steven F.; Durkin, Keith F.; Delong, Ronald L.

    2007-01-01

    Televised features such as NBC's "To Catch a Predator" have highlighted the growing problem posed by Internet sexual predators. This paper reports on the authors' attempts in designing a classification system for Internet offenders. The classification system was designed based on existing theory, understanding the nature of Internet offenders and…

  10. A Curriculum-Based Classification System for Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuyler, Gwyer

    2003-01-01

    Proposes and tests a community college classification system based on curricular characteristics and their association with institutional characteristics. Seeks readily available data correlates to represent percentage of a college's course offerings that are in the liberal arts. A simple two-category classification system using total enrollment…

  11. HYDROCARBON CONTINUOUS MONITORING SYSTEMS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATOR EMISSIONS MEASUREMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has sponsored an extended laboratory and field evaluation of continuous emission monitoring systems available to measure hydrocarbon emissions from hazardous waste incinerators. erformance tests of calibration drift, calibration error, res...

  12. Dust Hazard Management in the Outer Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seal, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Most robotic missions to the outer solar system must grapple with the hazards posed by the dusty rings of the gas giants. Early assessments of these hazards led simply to ring avoidance due to insufficient data and high uncertainties on the dust population present in such rings. Recent approaches, principal among them the Cassini dust hazard management strategy, provide useful results from detailed modeling of spacecraft vulnerabilities and dust hazard regions, which along with the range of mission trajectories are used to to assess the risks posed by each passage through a zone of potential hazard. This paper shows the general approach used to implement the analysis for Cassini, with recommendations for future outer planet missions.

  13. The Geohazard Safety Classification: how resilience could play a role in the geo-hydrological hazards assessment of school buildings.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazzi, Veronica; Morelli, Stefano; Casagli, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    The impacts of adverse events related to geological hazards are unevenly distributed among communities and groups of individuals concentrated in restricted workplaces. Their consequent safety level is the result of differential exposures to these events and of diversified levels of preparation to them. Nowadays, the exposure and coping ability as co-determinants of people's safety are of particular interest for institutions managing the schools systems. According to the disaster risk reduction experts, the geo-hydrological processes can be mitigated with knowledge and planning, physical and environmental protection measures, and response preparedness. UNISDR is promoting a global culture of safety and resilience through the integration of disaster risk reduction in school curricula. The Comprehensive School Safety (CSS) framework is intended to advance the goals of the Worldwide Initiative for Safe Schools and the Global Alliance for Disaster Risk Reduction and Resilience in the Education Sector, and to promote school safety as a priority area of post-2015 frameworks for sustainable development, risk reduction and resilience. In Italy, according the latest ministerial survey (June 2010), there are 41,902 school buildings. Their alarming condition in terms of safety for their daily occupants is reflected by 39 fatalities ascribable to structural failures in the last 21 years. In 95% of these cases victims are a sad tribute due to natural phenomena. A rigorous evaluation of the total risk of a school building, as defined by the well known risk equation (R=HxVxE), would require a complete probability density function describing the exposure to specific types of events of all the pupils and personnel in the school. In addition, the probability that the inhabitants are present in the school during an event should be estimated depending on the time of day, day of week, or month of the year, as well as on local holiday schedules. The inclusion of resilience as a component

  14. Towards a Collaborative Intelligent Tutoring System Classification Scheme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harsley, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel classification scheme for Collaborative Intelligent Tutoring Systems (CITS), an emergent research field. The three emergent classifications of CITS are unstructured, semi-structured, and fully structured. While all three types of CITS offer opportunities to improve student learning gains, the full extent to which these…

  15. Landslide hazards and systems analysis: A Central European perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klose, Martin; Damm, Bodo; Kreuzer, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Part of the problem with assessing landslide hazards is to understand the variable settings in which they occur. There is growing consensus that hazard assessments require integrated approaches that take account of the coupled human-environment system. Here we provide a synthesis of societal exposure and vulnerability to landslide hazards, review innovative approaches to hazard identification, and lay a focus on hazard assessment, while presenting the results of historical case studies and a landslide time series for Germany. The findings add to a growing body of literature that recognizes societal exposure and vulnerability as a complex system of hazard interactions that evolves over time as a function of social change and development. We therefore propose to expand hazard assessments by the framework and concepts of systems analysis (e.g., Liu et al., 2007) Results so far have been promising in ways that illustrate the importance of feedbacks, thresholds, surprises, and time lags in the evolution of landslide hazard and risk. In densely populated areas of Central Europe, landslides often occur in urbanized landscapes or on engineered slopes that had been transformed or created intentionally by human activity, sometimes even centuries ago. The example of Germany enables to correlate the causes and effects of recent landslides with the historical transition of urbanization to urban sprawl, ongoing demographic change, and some chronic problems of industrialized countries today, including ageing infrastructures or rising government debts. In large parts of rural Germany, the combination of ageing infrastructures, population loss, and increasing budget deficits starts to erode historical resilience gains, which brings especially small communities to a tipping point in their efforts to risk reduction. While struggling with budget deficits and demographic change, these communities are required to maintain ageing infrastructures that are particularly vulnerable to

  16. Pyrotechnic hazards classification and evaluation program test report. Heat flux study of deflagrating pyrotechnic munitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fassnacht, P. O.

    1971-01-01

    A heat flux study of deflagrating pyrotechnic munitions is presented. Three tests were authorized to investigate whether heat flux measurements may be used as effective hazards evaluation criteria to determine safe quantity distances for pyrotechnics. A passive sensor study was conducted simultaneously to investigate their usefulness in recording events and conditions. It was concluded that heat flux measurements can effectively be used to evaluate hazards criteria and that passive sensors are an inexpensive tool to record certain events in the vicinity of deflagrating pyrotechnic stacks.

  17. 21 CFR 7.41 - Health hazard evaluation and recall classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... 7.41 Section 7.41 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures... situation that could expose humans or animals to a health hazard. Any conclusion shall be supported...

  18. 21 CFR 7.41 - Health hazard evaluation and recall classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... 7.41 Section 7.41 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures... situation that could expose humans or animals to a health hazard. Any conclusion shall be supported...

  19. 21 CFR 7.41 - Health hazard evaluation and recall classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... 7.41 Section 7.41 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures... situation that could expose humans or animals to a health hazard. Any conclusion shall be supported...

  20. 21 CFR 7.41 - Health hazard evaluation and recall classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... 7.41 Section 7.41 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures... situation that could expose humans or animals to a health hazard. Any conclusion shall be supported...

  1. Destructive Interactions Between Mitigation Strategies and the Causes of Unexpected Failures in Natural Hazard Mitigation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, S. J.; Fearnley, C. J.

    2013-12-01

    Large investments in the mitigation of natural hazards, using a variety of technology-based mitigation strategies, have proven to be surprisingly ineffective in some recent natural disasters. These failures reveal a need for a systematic classification of mitigation strategies; an understanding of the scientific uncertainties that affect the effectiveness of such strategies; and an understanding of how the different types of strategy within an overall mitigation system interact destructively to reduce the effectiveness of the overall mitigation system. We classify mitigation strategies into permanent, responsive and anticipatory. Permanent mitigation strategies such as flood and tsunami defenses or land use restrictions, are both costly and 'brittle': when they malfunction they can increase mortality. Such strategies critically depend on the accuracy of the estimates of expected hazard intensity in the hazard assessments that underpin their design. Responsive mitigation strategies such as tsunami and lahar warning systems rely on capacities to detect and quantify the hazard source events and to transmit warnings fast enough to enable at risk populations to decide and act effectively. Self-warning and voluntary evacuation is also usually a responsive mitigation strategy. Uncertainty in the nature and magnitude of the detected hazard source event is often the key scientific obstacle to responsive mitigation; public understanding of both the hazard and the warnings, to enable decision making, can also be a critical obstacle. Anticipatory mitigation strategies use interpretation of precursors to hazard source events and are used widely in mitigation of volcanic hazards. Their critical limitations are due to uncertainties in time, space and magnitude relationships between precursors and hazard events. Examples of destructive interaction between different mitigation strategies are provided by the Tohoku 2011 earthquake and tsunami; recent earthquakes that have impacted

  2. Potential environmental impacts of light-emitting diodes (LEDs): metallic resources, toxicity, and hazardous waste classification.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seong-Rin; Kang, Daniel; Ogunseitan, Oladele A; Schoenung, Julie M

    2011-01-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are advertised as environmentally friendly because they are energy efficient and mercury-free. This study aimed to determine if LEDs engender other forms of environmental and human health impacts, and to characterize variation across different LEDs based on color and intensity. The objectives are as follows: (i) to use standardized leachability tests to examine whether LEDs are to be categorized as hazardous waste under existing United States federal and California state regulations; and (ii) to use material life cycle impact and hazard assessment methods to evaluate resource depletion and toxicity potentials of LEDs based on their metallic constituents. According to federal standards, LEDs are not hazardous except for low-intensity red LEDs, which leached Pb at levels exceeding regulatory limits (186 mg/L; regulatory limit: 5). However, according to California regulations, excessive levels of copper (up to 3892 mg/kg; limit: 2500), Pb (up to 8103 mg/kg; limit: 1000), nickel (up to 4797 mg/kg; limit: 2000), or silver (up to 721 mg/kg; limit: 500) render all except low-intensity yellow LEDs hazardous. The environmental burden associated with resource depletion potentials derives primarily from gold and silver, whereas the burden from toxicity potentials is associated primarily with arsenic, copper, nickel, lead, iron, and silver. Establishing benchmark levels of these substances can help manufacturers implement design for environment through informed materials substitution, can motivate recyclers and waste management teams to recognize resource value and occupational hazards, and can inform policymakers who establish waste management policies for LEDs. PMID:21138290

  3. Immune System Toxicity and Immunotoxicity Hazard Identification

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to chemicals may alter immune system health, increasing the risk of infections, allergy and autoimmune diseases. The chapter provides a concise overview of the immune system, host factors that affect immune system heal, and the effects that xenobiotic exposure may have ...

  4. A system for analysis and classification of voice communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Older, H. J.; Jenney, L. L.; Garland, L.

    1973-01-01

    A method for analysis and classification of verbal communications typically associated with manned space missions or simulations was developed. The study was carried out in two phases. Phase 1 was devoted to identification of crew tasks and activities which require voice communication for accomplishment or reporting. Phase 2 entailed development of a message classification system and a preliminary test of its feasibility. The classification system permits voice communications to be analyzed to three progressively more specific levels of detail and to be described in terms of message content, purpose, and the participants in the information exchange. A coding technique was devised to allow messages to be recorded by an eight-digit number.

  5. AVOIDING FAILURE OF LEACHATE COLLECTION SYSTEMS AT HAZARDOUS WASTE LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Failure of leachate collection systems is expected to be a problem in the operation of hazardous waste disposal facilities, just as failure of drainage systems has been a problem at agricultural sites. The principal failure mechanisms include sedimentation, clogging by biological...

  6. Compute Element and Interface Box for the Hazard Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villalpando, Carlos Y.; Khanoyan, Garen; Stern, Ryan A.; Some, Raphael R.; Bailey, Erik S.; Carson, John M.; Vaughan, Geoffrey M.; Werner, Robert A.; Salomon, Phil M.; Martin, Keith E.; Spaulding, Matthew D.; Luna, Michael E.; Motaghedi, Shui H.; Trawny, Nikolas; Johnson, Andrew E.; Ivanov, Tonislav I.; Huertas, Andres; Whitaker, William D.; Goldberg, Steven B.

    2013-01-01

    The Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) program is building a sensor that enables a spacecraft to evaluate autonomously a potential landing area to generate a list of hazardous and safe landing sites. It will also provide navigation inputs relative to those safe sites. The Hazard Detection System Compute Element (HDS-CE) box combines a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) board for sensor integration and timing, with a multicore computer board for processing. The FPGA does system-level timing and data aggregation, and acts as a go-between, removing the real-time requirements from the processor and labeling events with a high resolution time. The processor manages the behavior of the system, controls the instruments connected to the HDS-CE, and services the "heavy lifting" computational requirements for analyzing the potential landing spots.

  7. A proposed ecosystem services classification system to support green accounting

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are a multitude of actual or envisioned, complete or incomplete, ecosystem service classification systems being proposed to support Green Accounting. Green Accounting is generally thought to be the formal accounting attempt to factor environmental production into National ...

  8. Improvement of the classification system for wheelchair rugby: athlete priorities.

    PubMed

    Altmann, Viola C; Hart, Anne L; van Limbeek, Jacques; Vanlandewijck, Yves C

    2014-10-01

    A representative sample (N=302) of the wheelchair rugby population responded to a survey about the classification system based on prioritized items by International Wheelchair Rugby Federation members. Respondents stated, "The classification system is accurate but needs adjustments" (56%), "Any athlete with tetraequivalent impairment should be allowed to compete" (72%), "Athletes with cerebral palsy and other coordination impairments should be classified with a system different than the current one" (75%), and "The maximal value for trunk should be increased from 1.0 to 1.5" (67%). A minority stated, "Wheelchair rugby should only be open to spinal cord injury and other neurological conditions" (36%) and "There should be a 4.0 class" (33%). Results strongly indicated that athletes and stakeholders want adjustments to the classification system in two areas: a focus on evaluation of athletes with impairments other than loss of muscle power caused by spinal cord injury and changes in classification of trunk impairment. PMID:25211483

  9. Remote inspection system for hazardous sites

    SciTech Connect

    Redd, J.; Borst, C.; Volz, R.A.; Everett, L.J.

    1999-04-01

    Long term storage of special nuclear materials poses a number of problems. One of these is a need to inspect the items being stored from time to time. Yet the environment is hostile to man, with significant radiation exposure resulting from prolonged presence in the storage facility. This paper describes research to provide a remote inspection capability, which could lead to eliminating the need for humans to enter a nuclear storage facility. While there are many ways in which an RI system might be created, this paper describes the development of a prototype remote inspection system, which utilizes virtual reality technology along with robotics. The purpose of this system is to allow the operator to establish a safe and realistic telepresence in a remote environment. In addition, it was desired that the user interface for the system be as intuitive to use as possible, thus eliminating the need for extensive training. The goal of this system is to provide a robotic platform with two cameras, which are capable of providing accurate and reliable stereographic images of the remote environment. One application for the system is that it might be driven down the corridors of a nuclear storage facility and utilized to inspect the drums inside, all without the need for physical human presence. Thus, it is not a true virtual reality system providing simulated graphics, but rather an augmented reality system, which performs remote inspection of an existing, real environment.

  10. The development of an MSS satellite imagery classification expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engle, S. W.

    1985-01-01

    Unsupervised image classification of Landsat MSS imagery entails a significant part of the remote sensing, image analysis effort. Expert systems, a technology developed in the field of artificial intelligence, offers the potential to automate this process, thus greatly increasing the efficiency with which an analyst can perform unsupervised image classification and making the knowledge of the image analyst available to a community of nonexperts. Such a system, under development at the NASA/Ames Research Center, is described and planned enhancements are discussed.

  11. A Classification System for Peri-implant Diseases and Conditions.

    PubMed

    Sarmiento, Hector L; Norton, Michael R; Fiorellini, Joseph P

    2016-01-01

    Peri-implant bone levels are influenced by pathologic and nonpathologic conditions. The understanding of peri-implant disease has evolved over the past several decades, and the classification of peri-implantitis has been limited to descriptions of disease progression or those involving soft and/or hard tissues (peri-implant mucositis or peri-implantitis). However, no classification system has been established based on etiology. The objective of this study was to identify various etiologies for peri-implantitis and to establish a classification system based on the pathogenesis. The results indicate that the majority of bone loss was related to biofilm, followed by iatrogenic factors, exogenous irritants, absence of keratinized tissue, and extrinsic pathology. The proposed classification system will allow the clinician to properly diagnose peri-implant diseases in relation to etiology. These conditions may respond differently to applied therapies. PMID:27560674

  12. A UAV System for Observing Volcanoes and Natural Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saggiani, G.; Persiani, F.; Ceruti, A.; Tortora, P.; Troiani, E.; Giuletti, F.; Amici, S.; Buongiorno, M.; Distefano, G.; Bentini, G.; Bianconi, M.; Cerutti, A.; Nubile, A.; Sugliani, S.; Chiarini, M.; Pennestri, G.; Petrini, S.; Pieri, D.

    2007-12-01

    Fixed or rotary wing manned aircraft are currently the most commonly used platforms for airborne reconnaissance in response to natural hazards, such as volcanic eruptions, oil spills, wild fires, earthquakes. Such flights are very often undertaken in hazardous flying conditions (e.g., turbulence, downdrafts, reduced visibility, close proximity to dangerous terrain) and can be expensive. To mitigate these two fundamental issues-- safety and cost--we are exploring the use of small (less than 100kg), relatively inexpensive, but effective, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for this purpose. As an operational test, in 2004 we flew a small autonomous UAV in the airspace above and around Stromboli Volcano. Based in part on this experience, we are adapting the RAVEN UAV system for such natural hazard surveillance missions. RAVEN has a 50km range, with a 3.5m wingspan, main fuselage length of 4.60m, and maximum weight of 56kg. It has autonomous flight capability and a ground control Station for the mission planning and control. It will carry a variety of imaging devices, including a visible camera, and an IR camera. It will also carry an experimental Fourier micro-interferometer based on MOEMS technology, (developed by IMM Institute of CNR), to detect atmospheric trace gases. Such flexible, capable, and easy-to-deploy UAV systems may significantly shorten the time necessary to characterize the nature and scale of the natural hazard threats if used from the outset of, and systematically during, natural hazard events. When appropriately utilized, such UAVs can provide a powerful new hazard mitigation and documentation tool for civil protection hazard responders. This research was carried out under the auspices of the Italian government, and, in part, under contract to NASA at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  13. Acuity systems dialogue and patient classification system essentials.

    PubMed

    Harper, Kelle; McCully, Crystal

    2007-01-01

    Obtaining resources for quality patient care is a major responsibility of nurse leaders and requires accurate information in the political world of budgeting. Patient classification systems (PCS) assist nurse managers in controlling cost and improving patient care while appropriately using financial resources. This paper communicates acuity systems development, background, flaws, and components while discussing a few tools currently available. It also disseminates the development of a new acuity tool, the Patient Classification System. The PCS tool, developed in a small rural hospital, uses 5 broad concepts: (1) medications, (2) complicated procedures, (3) education, (4) psychosocial issues, and (5) complicated intravenous medications. These concepts embrace a 4-tiered scale that differentiates significant patient characteristics and assists in staffing measures for equality in patient staffing and improving quality of care and performance. Data obtained through use of the PCS can be used by nurse leaders to effectively and objectively lobby for appropriate patient care resources. Two questionnaires distributed to registered nurses on a medical-surgical unit evaluated the nurses' opinion of the 5 concepts and the importance for establishing patient acuity for in-patient care. Interrater reliability among nurses was 87% with the author's acuity tool. PMID:17909428

  14. Hazard analysis of Clostridium perfringens in the Skylab Food System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourland, C. T.; Huber, C. S.; Kiser, P. R.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Rowley, D. B.

    1974-01-01

    The Skylab Food System presented unique microbiological problems because food was warmed in null-gravity and because the heat source was limited to 69.4 C (to prevent boiling in null-gravity). For these reasons, the foods were manufactured using critical control point techniques of quality control coupled with appropriate hazard analyses. One of these hazard analyses evaluated the threat from Clostridium perfringens. Samples of food were inoculated with C. perfringens and incubated for 2 h at temperatures ranging from 25 to 55 C. Generation times were determined for the foods at various temperatures. Results of these tests were evaluated taking into consideration: food-borne disease epidemiology, the Skylab food manufacturing procedures, and the performance requirements of the Skylab Food System. Based on this hazard analysis, a limit for C. perfringens of 100/g was established for Skylab foods.

  15. System for detection of hazardous events

    DOEpatents

    Kulesz, James J.; Worley, Brian A.

    2006-05-23

    A system for detecting the occurrence of anomalies, includes a plurality of spaced apart nodes, with each node having adjacent nodes, each of the nodes having one or more sensors associated with the node and capable of detecting anomalies, and each of the nodes having a controller connected to the sensors associated with the node. The system also includes communication links between adjacent nodes, whereby the nodes form a network. Each controller is programmed to query its adjacent nodes to assess the status of the adjacent nodes and the communication links.

  16. System For Detection Of Hazardous Events

    DOEpatents

    Kulesz, James J [Oak Ridge, TN; Worley, Brian A [Knoxville, TN

    2005-08-16

    A system for detecting the occurrence of anomalies, includes a plurality of spaced apart nodes, with each node having adjacent nodes, each of the nodes having one or more sensors associated with the node and capable of detecting anomalies, and each of the nodes having a controller connected to the sensors associated with the node. The system also includes communication links between adjacent nodes, whereby the nodes form a network. Each controller is programmed to query its adjacent nodes to assess the status of the adjacent nodes and the communication links.

  17. Current Efforts to Develop Alternate "TB 700-2" Test Protocols for the Hazard Classification of Large Rocket Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Daniel F.; Bennett, Robert R.; Graham, Kenneth J.; Boggs, Thomas L.; Atwood, Alice I.; Butcher, A. Garn

    2002-04-01

    When the Department of Defense (DoD) revised Technical Bulletin (TB) 700-2, NAVSEAINST 8020.8B, TO 11A-1-47, DLAR 8220.12 hazard classification guidelines in January 1998, it significantly changed the procedures used to determine the explosive classification of rocket motors, to be shipped or placed in DoD storage facilities. The revised test protocols outlined in this document, (hereafter referred to as TB 700-2) are far more conservative and costly to implement than the previous ones. These changes could have a profound impact on the solid rocket community and in particular those involved with the research and development and manufacture of large (less than or = 304.8-millimeter (less than or = 12-inch)) diameter solid rocket motors (SRMs). The ramifications may include higher development costs and limitations on performance improvements. This paper outlines current efforts of the solid rocket community to develop acceptable alternate test protocols for large rocket motors that could fulfill the intent of TB 700-2 and be considered by the Department of Defense Explosive Safety Board (DDESB) for incorporation into a future revision to TB 700-2.

  18. Current Efforts to Develop Alternate "TB 700-2" Test Protocols for the Hazard Classification of Large Rocket Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Daniel F.; Bennett, Robert R.; Graham, Kenneth J.; Boggs, Thomas L.; Atwood, Alice I.

    1998-01-01

    When the Department of Defense (DoD) revised Technical Bulletin (TB) 700-2, NAVSEAINST 8020.8B, TO 11A-1-47, DLAR 8220.12 hazard classification guidelines in January 1998 1, it significantly changed the procedures used to determine the explosive classification of rocket motors, to be shipped or placed in DoD storage facilities. The revised test protocols outlined in this document, (hereafter referred to as TB 700-2) are far more conservative and costly to implement than the previous ones. These changes could have a profound impact on the solid rocket community and in particular those involved with the research and development and manufacture of large (greater than or equal 304.8-millimeter (greater than or equal l2-inch)) diameter solid rocket motors (SRMs). The ramifications may include higher development costs and limitations on performance improvements. This paper outlines current efforts of the solid rocket community to develop acceptable alternate test protocols for large rocket motors that could fulfill the intent of TB 700-2 and be considered by the Department of Defense Explosive Safety Board (DDESB) for incorporation into a future revision to TB 700-2.

  19. Current Efforts to Develop Alternate "TB700-2" Test Protocols for the Hazard Classification of Large Rocket Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Daniel F.; Bennett, Robert R.; Graham, Kenneth J.; Boggs, Thomas L.; Atwood, Alice I.

    2001-09-01

    When the Department of Defense (DoD) revised Technical Bulletin (TB) 700-2, NAVSEAINST 8020.8B, TO 11A-1-47, DLAR 8220.12 hazard classification guidelines in January 1998 1, it significantly changed the procedures used to determine the explosive classification of rocket motors, to be shipped or placed in DoD storage facilities. The revised test protocols outlined in this document, (hereafter referred to as TB 700-2) are far more conservative and costly to implement than the previous ones. These changes could have a profound impact on the solid rocket community and in particular those involved with the research and development and manufacture of large (equal to or greater than) 304.8-millimeter (equal to or greater than 12-inch diameter solid rocket motors (SRMs). The ramifications may include higher development costs and limitations on performance improvements. This paper outlines current efforts of the solid rocket community to develop acceptable alternate test protocols for large rocket motors that could fulfill the intent of TB 700-2 and be considered by the Department of Defense Explosive Safety Board (DDESB) for incorporation into a future revision to TB 700-2.

  20. Comparison of the clinical applicability of Miller's classification system to Kumar and Masamatti's classification system of gingival recession

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashish; Gupta, Geeti; Puri, Komal; Bansal, Mansi; Jain, Deept; Khatri, Manish; Masamatti, Sujata Surendra

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aims of the present study were to (i) Find the percentage of recession cases that could be classified by application of Miller's and/or Kumar and Masamatti's classification of gingival recession, and (ii) compare the percentage of clinical applicability of Miller's criteria and Kumar and Masamatti's criteria to the total recessions present. Materials and Methods: A total of 104 patients (1089 recession cases) were included in the study wherein they were classified using both Miller's and Kumar and Masamatti's classification systems of gingival recession. Percentage comparison of the application of both classification systems was done. Results: Data analysis showed that though all the cases of the recession were classified by Kumar and Masamatti's classification, only 34.61% cases were classified by Miller's classification. 19.10% cases were completely (having only labial/buccal recession) classified. In 15.51% (out of 34.61%) cases, only buccal recession was classified according to Miller's criteria and included in this category, although these cases had both buccal and lingual/palatal recessions. Furthermore, 29.75% cases of recession with interdental loss and marginal tissue loss coronal to mucogingival junction (MGJ) remained uncategorized by Miller's classification; categorization of palatal/lingual recession was possible with Kumar and Masamatti's classification. Conclusion: The elaborative evaluation of both buccal and palatal/lingual recession by the Kumar and Masamatti's classification system can be used to overcome the limitations of Miller's classification system, especially the cases with interdental loss and having marginal tissue loss coronal to MGJ. PMID:26644724

  1. The 2010 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC): A Classification System Gets an Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmel, Alissa; Cosca, Theresa

    2010-01-01

    Making sense of occupational data isn't always easy. But the task is less daunting when the data are well organized. For Federal occupational statistics, the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system establishes that organization. And a recent revision to the SOC means that the data will be current, in addition to being well organized. The…

  2. Mitigation of earthquake hazards using seismic base isolation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.Y.

    1994-06-01

    This paper deals with mitigation of earthquake hazards using seismic base-isolation systems. A numerical algorithm is described for system response analysis of isolated structures with laminated elastomer bearings. The focus of this paper is on the adaptation of a nonlinear constitutive equation for the isolation bearing, and the treatment of foundation embedment for the soil-structure-interaction analysis. Sample problems are presented to illustrate the mitigating effect of using base-isolation systems.

  3. FIELD TEST OF THE PROPOSED REVISED HAZARD RANKING SYSTEM (HRS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA) requires the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to revise the Hazard Ranking System (HRS) so that, to the maximum extent feasible, it accurately assesses the relative risks associated with actual or potent...

  4. Hazardous-Waste Data Management System extract tape. Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-15

    The file contains data compiled for the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, using the Hazardous Waste Data Management System (HWDMS) database. Notification of Regulated Waste Activity, EPA Form 8700-12 was used to collect the data. The file was updated with information compiled from the Application for a Hazardous Waste Permit-Part A, EPA form 8700-23. The data includes each facility name, EPA Identification number, addresses, owner and operator information, facility contact name and phone number. The data also indicate whether a facility is a generator, treatment/storer/disposer, and/or transporter of hazardous waste. Also included is a listing of wastes handled, taken from 40CFR Pt. 261, SIC codes, Permit Process Codes, Permit Issuance data, and non-sensitive compliance and enforcement data. Data is included for all Regions and states except for Mississippi, which has already been implemented in RCRIS. PLEASE NOTE: The computer tape product consists of two separate tape files: the Hazardous Waste Data Management System (HWDMS) database, and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Information System (RCRIS) database. RCRIS is replacing HWDMS as the official RCRA notification database. During the first year of RCRIS implementation, both systems will be operational. As a state converts to RCRIS from HWDMS, the HWDMS data for that state is archived; the current plan is to archive all data that is stored in HWDMS by the end of 1991. In order to have a complete record of all RCRA notification data, the User must have both tapes.

  5. Environmental Hazards and Systems Schools. Technical Report No. 81.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dexter, Arthur

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the feasibility of incorporating certain protective concepts into selected systems-constructed schools. These concepts were to be incorporated at a minimal cost increase, with minimal sacrifice of amenities, and with no detrimental effect on facility configuration. The environmental hazards taken into…

  6. Automatic systems and the low-level wind hazard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaeffer, Dwight R.

    1987-01-01

    Automatic flight control systems provide means for significantly enhancing survivability in severe wind hazards. The technology required to produce the necessary control algorithms is available and has been made technically feasible by the advent of digital flight control systems and accurate, low-noise sensors, especially strap-down inertial sensors. The application of this technology and these means has not generally been enabled except for automatic landing systems, and even then the potential has not been fully exploited. To fully exploit the potential of automatic systems for enhancing safety in wind hazards requires providing incentives, creating demand, inspiring competition, education, and eliminating prejudicial disincentitives to overcome the economic penalties associated with the extensive and riskly development and certification of these systems. If these changes will come about at all, it will likely be through changes in the regulations provided by the certifying agencies.

  7. A classification-free word-spotting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilopoulos, Nikos; Kavallieratou, Ergina

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a classification-free Word-Spotting system, appropriate for the retrieval of printed historical document images is proposed. The system skips many of the procedures of a common approach. It does not include segmentation, feature extraction or classification. Instead it treats the queries as compact shapes and uses image processing techniques in order to localize a query in the document images. Our system was tested on a historical document collection with many problems and a Google book, printed in 1675. Moreover, some comparative results are given for a traditional word spotting system.

  8. Development of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (1997)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    To address the need for a standardized system to classify the gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy, the authors developed a five-level classification system analogous to the staging and grading systems used in medicine. Nominal group process and Delphi survey consensus methods were used to examine content validity and revise the…

  9. Particle classification, chemistry and mineralogy of bottom ash from a hazardous waste incinerator in Sauget, IL

    SciTech Connect

    Killeen, K.J. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    A study was conducted of a suite of hazardous waste bottom ash samples produced at a rotary kiln incinerator in Sauget, Illinois. The Incinerator burns hazardous waste in many forms, including paint products, solvents and contaminated soils. Thin sections of ash from the primary incineration process were studied. Techniques used were petrography with an optical microscope and chemical analysis with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) that is equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). Ash particles were classified according to size, shape, mineralogy and texture. Thin sections consisted of two general particle sizes. The largest particles were between 0.4 cm and 1 cm in length; small particles were less than 0.4 cm. X-ray maps were produced of each particle type in order to determine their chemical content and to verify minerals identified by light microscopy. Twelve different types of large particles and over twenty-five smaller particle types have been classified. Large particles were classified by percent glass content, gas bubble content, mineralogy, mineral size and shape, and relative abundance. The most common of the large particle types has a glass content grater than 50%, trapped gas bubble content of less than 25%, rounded mineral inclusions of quartz and plagioclase feldspar of up to 10%, and 1 to 2% as yet identified minerals. X-ray maps of the glass show that it is composed primarily of Si and O, with trace amounts of Na, Mg, Al, Cl, P, Ca, Ti, Fe, and F. Metals appear both diffused in the glass itself and in various mineral clusters. Rutile was detected in several particles, and may be a residue from the burning of paint products. The quartz and plagioclase grains, as well as diatomaceous earth particles are most likely byproducts of contaminated soils burned in the incinerator. Various melt textures were also observed and are interpreted to have formed during incineration.

  10. U.S. Geological Survey library classification system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sasscer, R. Scott

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Library classification system has been designed for earth science libraries. It is a tool for assigning call numbers to earth science and allied pure science materials in order to collect these materials into related subject groups on the library shelves and arrange them alphabetically by author and title. The classification can be used as a retrieval system to access materials through the subject and geographic numbers. The classification scheme has been developed over the years since 1904 to meet the ever-changing needs of increased specialization and the development of new areas of research in the earth sciences. The system contains seven schedules: * Subject schedule * Geological survey schedule * Earth science periodical schedule * Government document periodical schedule * General science periodical schedule * Earth science map schedule * Geographic schedule Introduction provides detailed instructions on the construction of call numbers for works falling into the framework of the classification schedules. The tables following the introduction can be quickly accessed through the use of the newly expanded subject index. The purpose of this publication is to provide the earth science community with a classification and retrieval system for earth science materials, to offer sufficient explanation of its structure and use, and to enable library staff and clientele to classify or access research materials in a library collection.

  11. Overview of Classification Systems in Peripheral Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hardman, Rulon L.; Jazaeri, Omid; Yi, J.; Smith, M.; Gupta, Rajan

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD), secondary to atherosclerotic disease, is currently the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world. While PAD is common, it is estimated that the majority of patients with PAD are undiagnosed and undertreated. The challenge to the treatment of PAD is to accurately diagnose the symptoms and determine treatment for each patient. The varied presentations of peripheral vascular disease have led to numerous classification schemes throughout the literature. Consistent grading of patients leads to both objective criteria for treating patients and a baseline for clinical follow-up. Reproducible classification systems are also important in clinical trials and when comparing medical, surgical, and endovascular treatment paradigms. This article reviews the various classification systems for PAD and advantages to each system. PMID:25435665

  12. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR WASTE HANDLING BUILDING VENTILATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    2000-11-02

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) waste handling building ventilation system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Preclosure Safety and Systems Engineering Section. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 2000). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 2000). This QA classification incorporates the current MGR design and the results of the ''Design Basis Event Frequency and Dose Calculation for Site Recommendation'' (CRWMS M&O 2000a) and ''Bounding Individual Category 1 Design Basis Event Dose Calculation to Support Quality Assurance Classification'' (Gwyn 2000).

  13. Implementing the North American Industry Classification System at BLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, James A.; Murphy, John B.

    2001-01-01

    The United States, Canada, and Mexico developed the North American Industry Classification System, which captures new and emerging industries, uses a unified concept to define industries, and is a consistent and comparable tool for measuring the nations' economies. Despite initial conversion difficulties, the new system will be a more accurate way…

  14. What's behind the Biological Classification System in Use Today?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, William C.

    2010-01-01

    Whether students should memorize classification schemes (taxonomies) is a column in itself, but the author can address the role that this system plays in the study of biology. To that end, it will help to address how the system developed over time. And toward "that" end, you will do a simple activity to start. (Contains 3 figures.)

  15. Transmission tower classification based on landslide risk Map generated by Geographical Information System (GIS) at Cameron Highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    K, Hazwani N.; O, Rohayu C.; U, Fathoni; Baharuddin, I. N. Z.; A, Azwin Z.

    2013-06-01

    Transmission tower is usually locates at remote area which is covered by hilly topography. Landslide is mainly occurring at hilly area and causing failure to the tower structure. This phenomenon subsequently will affect the national electricity supply. A landslide risk hazard map is generated using Geographical Information System (GIS). Risk classification is introduced to initiate the monitoring process along Jor-Bintang transmission line, Cameron Highland, Pahang. The classification has been divided into three categories, which are low, medium and high. This method can be applied in slope monitoring activities since all towers have been classified based on their risk level. Therefore, maintenance schedule can be planned smoothly and efficiently.

  16. Transmission tower classification based on landslide risk map generated by Geographical Information System (GIS) at Cameron Highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    K, Hazwani N.; O, Rohayu C.; U, Fathoni; Baharuddin, Inz

    2013-06-01

    Transmission tower is usually locates at remote area which is covered by hilly topography. Landslide is mainly occurring at hilly area and causing failure to the tower structure. This phenomenon subsequently will affect the national electricity supply. A landslide risk hazard map is generated using Geographical Information System (GIS). Risk classification is introduced to initiate the monitoring process along Jor-Bintang transmission line, Cameron Highland, Pahang. The classification has been divided into three categories, which are low, medium and high. This method can be applied in slope monitoring activities since all towers have been classified based on their risk level. Therefore, maintenance schedule can be planned smoothly and efficiently.

  17. 76 FR 55846 - Hazardous Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste: Carbon Dioxide...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... Listing of Hazardous Waste: Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Streams in Geologic Sequestration Activities AGENCY...) to conditionally exclude carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) streams that are hazardous from the definition of... Recovery Act (RCRA) to conditionally exclude carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) streams that are hazardous from...

  18. Hazard analysis of a computer based medical diagnostic system.

    PubMed

    Chudleigh, M F

    1994-07-01

    Medical screening of sectors of the population is now a routine and vital part of health care: an example is cervical smear testing. There is currently significant interest in the possible introduction of semi-automated microscopy systems for cervical cytology and one such experimental system is now undergoing laboratory trials. A collaborative project has been set up to demonstrate the benefits and constraints that arise from applying safety-critical methods developed in other domains to such a diagnostic system. We have carried out a system hazard analysis, successfully using the HAZOP technique adapted from the petrochemical industry. PMID:7988111

  19. Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oza, Nikunj

    2012-03-01

    A supervised learning task involves constructing a mapping from input data (normally described by several features) to the appropriate outputs. A set of training examples— examples with known output values—is used by a learning algorithm to generate a model. This model is intended to approximate the mapping between the inputs and outputs. This model can be used to generate predicted outputs for inputs that have not been seen before. Within supervised learning, one type of task is a classification learning task, in which each output is one or more classes to which the input belongs. For example, we may have data consisting of observations of sunspots. In a classification learning task, our goal may be to learn to classify sunspots into one of several types. Each example may correspond to one candidate sunspot with various measurements or just an image. A learning algorithm would use the supplied examples to generate a model that approximates the mapping between each supplied set of measurements and the type of sunspot. This model can then be used to classify previously unseen sunspots based on the candidate’s measurements. The generalization performance of a learned model (how closely the target outputs and the model’s predicted outputs agree for patterns that have not been presented to the learning algorithm) would provide an indication of how well the model has learned the desired mapping. More formally, a classification learning algorithm L takes a training set T as its input. The training set consists of |T| examples or instances. It is assumed that there is a probability distribution D from which all training examples are drawn independently—that is, all the training examples are independently and identically distributed (i.i.d.). The ith training example is of the form (x_i, y_i), where x_i is a vector of values of several features and y_i represents the class to be predicted.* In the sunspot classification example given above, each training example

  20. Binary classification of real sequences by discrete-time systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaliski, M. E.; Johnson, T. L.

    1979-01-01

    This paper considers a novel approach to coding or classifying sequences of real numbers through the use of (generally nonlinear) finite-dimensional discrete-time systems. This approach involves a finite-dimensional discrete-time system (which we call a real acceptor) in cascade with a threshold type device (which we call a discriminator). The proposed classification scheme and the exact nature of the classification problem are described, along with two examples illustrating its applicability. Suggested approaches for further research are given.

  1. A concept of a space hazard counteraction system: Astronomical aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shustov, B. M.; Rykhlova, L. V.; Kuleshov, Yu. P.; Dubov, Yu. N.; Elkin, K. S.; Veniaminov, S. S.; Borovin, G. K.; Molotov, I. E.; Naroenkov, S. A.; Barabanov, S. I.; Emel'yanenko, V. V.; Devyatkin, A. V.; Medvedev, Yu. D.; Shor, V. A.; Kholshevnikov, K. V.

    2013-07-01

    The basic science of astronomy and, primarily, its branch responsible for studying the Solar System, face the most important practical task posed by nature and the development of human civilization—to study space hazards and to seek methods of counteracting them. In pursuance of the joint Resolution of the Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) and the RAS (Russian Academy of Sciences) Space Council of June 23, 2010, the RAS Institute of Astronomy in collaboration with other scientific and industrial organizations prepared a draft concept of the federal-level program targeted at creating a system of space hazard detection and counteraction. The main ideas and astronomical content of the concept are considered in this article.

  2. An updated evolutionary classification of CRISPR-Cas systems.

    PubMed

    Makarova, Kira S; Wolf, Yuri I; Alkhnbashi, Omer S; Costa, Fabrizio; Shah, Shiraz A; Saunders, Sita J; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Brouns, Stan J J; Charpentier, Emmanuelle; Haft, Daniel H; Horvath, Philippe; Moineau, Sylvain; Mojica, Francisco J M; Terns, Rebecca M; Terns, Michael P; White, Malcolm F; Yakunin, Alexander F; Garrett, Roger A; van der Oost, John; Backofen, Rolf; Koonin, Eugene V

    2015-11-01

    The evolution of CRISPR-cas loci, which encode adaptive immune systems in archaea and bacteria, involves rapid changes, in particular numerous rearrangements of the locus architecture and horizontal transfer of complete loci or individual modules. These dynamics complicate straightforward phylogenetic classification, but here we present an approach combining the analysis of signature protein families and features of the architecture of cas loci that unambiguously partitions most CRISPR-cas loci into distinct classes, types and subtypes. The new classification retains the overall structure of the previous version but is expanded to now encompass two classes, five types and 16 subtypes. The relative stability of the classification suggests that the most prevalent variants of CRISPR-Cas systems are already known. However, the existence of rare, currently unclassifiable variants implies that additional types and subtypes remain to be characterized. PMID:26411297

  3. Control Decisions for Flammable Gas Hazards in Waste Transfer Systems

    SciTech Connect

    KRIPPS, L.J.

    2000-06-28

    This report describes the control decisions for flammable gas hazards in waste transfer systems (i.e., waste transfer piping and waste transfer-associated structures) made at control decision meetings on November 30, 1999a and April 19, 2000, and their basis. These control decisions, and the analyses that support them, will be documented in an amendment to the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) (CHG 2000a) and Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) (CHG 2000b) to close the Flammable Gas Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) (Bacon 1996 and Wagoner 1996). Following the Contractor Tier I review of the FSAR and TSR amendment, it will be submitted to the US. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) for review and approval. The control decision meeting on November 30, 1999 to address flammable gas hazards in waste transfer systems followed the control decision process and the criteria for control decisions described in Section 3.3.1.5 of the FSAR. The control decision meeting agenda, attendance list, and introductory and background presentations are included in Attachments 1 through 4. The control decision discussions on existing and other possible controls for flammable gas hazards in waste transfer systems and the basis for selecting or not selecting specific controls are summarized in this report.

  4. Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System reference manual. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Branham-Haar, K.A.; Twitchell, K.E.

    1993-07-01

    Concern for the environment, in addition to Federal regulation, mandate the replacement of hazardous solvents with safer cleaning agents. Manufacturers are working to produce these replacement solvents. As these products are developed, potential users need to be informed of their availability. To promote the use of these new products instead of traditional solvents, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has developed the Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System (HSSDS). The HSSDS provides a comprehensive system of information on alternatives to hazardous solvents and related subjects, and it makes that information available to solvent users, industrial hygienists, and process engineers. The HSSDS uses TOPIC{reg_sign}, a text retrieval system produced by Verity, Inc., to allow a user to search for information on a particular subject. TOPIC{reg_sign} produces a listing of the retrieved documents and allows the use to examine the documents individually and to use the information contained in them. This reference manual does not replace the comprehensive TOPIC{reg_sign} user documentation (available from Verity, Inc.), or the HSSDS Tutorial (available from the INEL). The purpose of this reference manual is to provide enough instruction on TOPIC{reg_sign} so the user may begin accessing the data contained in the HSSDS.

  5. Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oza, Nikunj C.

    2011-01-01

    A supervised learning task involves constructing a mapping from input data (normally described by several features) to the appropriate outputs. Within supervised learning, one type of task is a classification learning task, in which each output is one or more classes to which the input belongs. In supervised learning, a set of training examples---examples with known output values---is used by a learning algorithm to generate a model. This model is intended to approximate the mapping between the inputs and outputs. This model can be used to generate predicted outputs for inputs that have not been seen before. For example, we may have data consisting of observations of sunspots. In a classification learning task, our goal may be to learn to classify sunspots into one of several types. Each example may correspond to one candidate sunspot with various measurements or just an image. A learning algorithm would use the supplied examples to generate a model that approximates the mapping between each supplied set of measurements and the type of sunspot. This model can then be used to classify previously unseen sunspots based on the candidate's measurements. This chapter discusses methods to perform machine learning, with examples involving astronomy.

  6. Changing Patient Classification System for Hospital Reimbursement in Romania

    PubMed Central

    Radu, Ciprian-Paul; Chiriac, Delia Nona; Vladescu, Cristian

    2010-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the effects of the change in the diagnosis-related group (DRG) system on patient morbidity and hospital financial performance in the Romanian public health care system. Methods Three variables were assessed before and after the classification switch in July 2007: clinical outcomes, the case mix index, and hospital budgets, using the database of the National School of Public Health and Health Services Management, which contains data regularly received from hospitals reimbursed through the Romanian DRG scheme (291 in 2009). Results The lack of a Romanian system for the calculation of cost-weights imposed the necessity to use an imported system, which was criticized by some clinicians for not accurately reflecting resource consumption in Romanian hospitals. The new DRG classification system allowed a more accurate clinical classification. However, it also exposed a lack of physicians’ knowledge on diagnosing and coding procedures, which led to incorrect coding. Consequently, the reported hospital morbidity changed after the DRG switch, reflecting an increase in the national case mix index of 25% in 2009 (compared with 2007). Since hospitals received the same reimbursement over the first two years after the classification switch, the new DRG system led them sometimes to change patients' diagnoses in order to receive more funding. Conclusion Lack of oversight of hospital coding and reporting to the national reimbursement scheme allowed the increase in the case mix index. The complexity of the new classification system requires more resources (human and financial), better monitoring and evaluation, and improved legislation in order to achieve better hospital resource allocation and more efficient patient care. PMID:20564769

  7. Radiological Hazard of Spallation Products in Accelerator-Driven System

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, M.; Stankovskii, A.; Artisyuk, V.; Korovin, Yu.; Shmelev, A.; Titarenko, Yu.

    2002-09-15

    The central issue underlying this paper is related to elucidating the hazard of radioactive spallation products that might be an important factor affecting the design option of accelerator-driven systems (ADSs). Hazard analysis based on the concept of Annual Limit on Intake identifies alpha-emitting isotopes of rare earths (REs) (dysprosium, gadolinium, and samarium) as the dominant contributors to the overall toxicity of traditional (W, Pb, Pb-Bi) targets. The matter is addressed from several points of view: code validation to simulate their yields, choice of material for the neutron producing targets, and challenging the beam type. The paper quantitatively determines the domain in which the toxicity of REs exceeds that of polonium activation products broadly discussed now in connection with advertising lead-bismuth technology for the needs of ADSs.

  8. A simplified classification and repair system for sinus membrane perforations.

    PubMed

    Fugazzotto, Paul A; Vlassis, James

    2003-10-01

    A classification and repair system is presented for the management of sinus membrane perforations, based upon membrane location and severity. The results of 19 consecutively treated cases are presented. All cases of sinus membrane perforation were appropriately managed, resulting in successful sinus augmentation therapy, implant placement, and restoration. All implants were functioning successfully at the time of statistical compilation. PMID:14653401

  9. Image interpretation for a multilevel land use classification system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The potential use is discussed of three remote sensors for developing a four level land use classification system. Three types of imagery for photointerpretation are presented: ERTS-1 satellite imagery, high altitude photography, and medium altitude photography. Suggestions are given as to which remote sensors and imagery scales may be most effectively employed to provide data on specific types of land use.

  10. Exercise-Associated Collapse in Endurance Events: A Classification System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, William O.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a classification system devised for exercise-associated collapse in endurance events based on casualties observed at six Twin Cities Marathons. Major diagnostic criteria are body temperature and mental status. Management protocol includes fluid and fuel replacement, temperature correction, and leg cramp treatment. (Author/SM)

  11. Nursing Classification System: Foundation for Personnel Planning and Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Rosemary L.; Mable, Richard J.

    1983-01-01

    This article demonstrates the usefulness of the Nursing Classification System (NCS) as an operational planning and control tool. Here the authors introduce and illustrate the concept of workload indexing, a means by which the NCS assists in defining staffing needs and monitoring workload and performance. (SSH)

  12. The Nature of the Physical Microenvironment: An Expanded Classification System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wachs, Theodore D.

    1989-01-01

    Develops a classification system for the physical environment based on 3 dimensions of stimulation. Intercorrelations of physical and social environmental measures obtained for 88 infants of 12 months supported the validity of the decision rule that nonresponsive animate stimulation is primarily physical rather than social. (RJC)

  13. A patient classification system for emergency events in home care.

    PubMed

    Sienkiewicz, Josephine; Wilkinson, Ginny; Cubbage, Betsy

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the development of a uniform classification system that provides a way for home care agencies to classify patient priority needs for evacuation, transport, supportive care, and use of staffing resources in an emergency/disaster situation/bioterroristic event. PMID:17556919

  14. Hazardous substance management system (HSMS): Full ``cradle to grave`` implementation at Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, San Diego

    SciTech Connect

    Krake, J.N.; Taylor, M.J.; Boss, R.D.; Senhen, L.A.

    1998-08-01

    The Hazardous Substance Management System (HSMS) is an automated system for `cradle to grave` tracking and managing of hazardous material (HM) and hazardous waste (HW). This paper describes the procedure for disposition of hazardous material as waste, the pilot transfer of hazardous waste, and how the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, San Diego (SSC SD) has successfully implemented HSMS to track HM and HW from cradle to grave.

  15. Digital warning system for geologic hazards in Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, M. J.; Stefansson, R.; Hvannberg, E. Th.; Jonsson, B. G.; Halldorsson, P.; Magnusson, H. S.; Gudmundsson, G. B.; Thorbjarnardottir, B. S.; Gunnarsdottir, S.; Sveinbjornsson, H.

    2003-04-01

    The Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) monitors and maintains an automated network of 42 digital seismic stations, which provides near real-time seismicity measurements for an area encompassing terrestrial and near-shore regions of Iceland (see http://www.vedur.is/ja). Additionally, digital data are received continuously from six borehole strain meters and 17 differential GPS stations. Collectively, these geophysical data allow unique insight into tectonic processes responsible for earthquake and volcanic activity in Iceland. To enable more precise, verifiable short- and long-term forecasts of geologic hazard potential in Iceland, the IMO is currently developing an Internet-based warning system. In this presentation, we describe the conceptual and technical design of the warning system and supporting geo-database. Specifically, we (i) explain how IMO data are stored to allow fast information retrieval via the Internet; (ii) summarise the design of the user interface, data options and display formats, and the software responsible for handling data requests; and (iii) illustrate how the warning system is providing unique overview capabilities that permit advanced recognition of anomalous geologic processes. The main advantage of the warning system is the ease and speed at which multi-parameter historic and real-time geophysical data can be evaluated on-screen. Besides the ability to visualise processed field data, a resource database is accessible from the system interface. This database comprises digital information in the form of scientific publications, customised hazard summaries, pre-processed information for civil defence purposes, and annotated map and image resources. Although the warning system will be used primarily by the IMO, it is anticipated that allied research institutions, civil defence personnel, and the public will benefit from Internet access to geophysical data and related hazard information. However, to ensure clear and effective information

  16. Balancing reservoir creation and seismic hazard in enhanced geothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gischig, V.; Wiemer, S.; Alcolea, A.

    2014-09-01

    Fracture shear-dilatancy is an essential process for enhancing the permeability of deep geothermal reservoirs, and is usually accompanied by the radiation of seismic waves. However, the hazard and risk perspective of induced seismicity research typically focuses only on the question of how to reduce the occurrence of induced earthquakes. Here we present a quantitative analysis of seismic hazard as a function of the two key factors defining an enhanced geothermal system: The permeability enhancement, and the size of the stimulated reservoir. Our model has two coupled components: (1) a pressure diffusion model and (2) a stochastic seismicity model. Permeability is increased in the source area of each induced earthquake depending on the amount of slip, which is determined by the magnitude. We show that the few largest earthquakes (i.e. 5-10 events with M ≥ 1.5) contribute more than half of the total reservoir stimulation. The results further indicate that planning and controlling of reservoir engineering operations may be compromised by the considerable variability of maximum observed magnitude, reservoir size, the Gutenberg-Richter b-value and Shapiro's seismogenic index (i.e. a measure of seismic reactivity of a reservoir) that arises from the intrinsic stochastic nature of induced seismicity. We also find that injection volume has a large impact on both reservoir size and seismic hazard. Injection rate and injection scheme have a negligible effect. The impact of site-specific parameters on seismicity and reservoir properties is greater than that of the injected volume. In particular, conditions that lead to high b-values-possibly a low differential stress level-have a high impact on seismic hazard, but also reduce the efficiency of the stimulation in terms of permeability enhancement. Under such conditions, target reservoir permeability can still be achieved without reaching an unacceptable level of seismic hazard, if either the initial reservoir permeability is

  17. On a production system using default reasoning for pattern classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, Matthew R.; Lowe, Carlyle M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses an unconventional application of a production system to a problem involving belief specialization. The production system reduces a large quantity of low-level descriptions into just a few higher-level descriptions that encompass the problem space in a more tractable fashion. This classification process utilizes a set of descriptions generated by combining the component hierarchy of a physical system with the semantics of the terminology employed in its operation. The paper describes an application of this process in a program, constructed in C and CLIPS, that classifies signatures of electromechanical system configurations. The program compares two independent classifications, describing the actual and expected system configurations, in order to generate a set of contradictions between the two.

  18. Creating a Canonical Scientific and Technical Information Classification System for NCSTRL+

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiffany, Melissa E.; Nelson, Michael L.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the new subject classification system for the NCSTRL+ project. NCSTRL+ is a canonical digital library (DL) based on the Networked Computer Science Technical Report Library (NCSTRL). The current NCSTRL+ classification system uses the NASA Scientific and Technical (STI) subject classifications, which has a bias towards the aerospace, aeronautics, and engineering disciplines. Examination of other scientific and technical information classification systems showed similar discipline-centric weaknesses. Traditional, library-oriented classification systems represented all disciplines, but were too generalized to serve the needs of a scientific and technically oriented digital library. Lack of a suitable existing classification system led to the creation of a lightweight, balanced, general classification system that allows the mapping of more specialized classification schemes into the new framework. We have developed the following classification system to give equal weight to all STI disciplines, while being compact and lightweight.

  19. 75 FR 51671 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... sludge from the list of hazardous wastes under 40 CFR 261.31 and 261.32 (see 70 FR 41358). EPA is... also eligible for exclusion and remain hazardous wastes until excluded. See 66 FR 27266 (May 16, 2001... Tokusen's petitioned waste. EPA applied the Delisting Risk Assessment Software (DRAS) described in 65...

  20. Transportation of hazardous materials in Arizona. Volume 2. Hazardous materials data base management system: development and programs

    SciTech Connect

    Pijawka, K.D.; Radwan, A.E.; Shieh, F.Y.; Soesilo, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The document describes the steps undertaken to develop the Data Base Management Systems (DBMS) for the transportation of hazardous materials and hazardous wastes in Arizona. It includes the selection of computer hardware and software, the design of the data base input and output form, the development of the necessary command procedures to produce statistical relationships, the step-by-step procedure to access and operate the DBMS, and, finally, the listing of command procedures.

  1. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR OFF-SITE UTILITIES SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) offsite utilities system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  2. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SUBSURFACE WATER COLLECTION/REMOVAL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface water collection/removal system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  3. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SUBSURFACE CLOSURE AND SEAL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface closure and seal system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOERW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  4. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR GENERAL SITE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) general site transportation system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  5. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR MAINTENANCE AND SUPPLY SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) maintenance and supply system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  6. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SAFEGUARDS AND SECURITY SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) safeguards and security system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  7. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SUBSURFACE WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface water distribution system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  8. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SUBSURFACE EMPLACEMENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface emplacement transportation system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333PY ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  9. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR OPERATIONS MONITORING AND CONTROL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) Operations Monitoring and Control System structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P7 ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  10. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SUBSURFACE COMPRESSED AIR SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface compressed air system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  11. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SITE COMPRESSED AIR SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) site compressed air system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  12. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR WASTE TREATMENT BUILDING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    S.E. Salzman

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) waste treatment building system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  13. Preparing for the Use of Classification in Online Cataloging Systems and in Online Catalogs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochrane, Pauline A.; Markey, Karen

    1985-01-01

    Presents overview of library classification and automation (1940-84), including use of Dewey Decimal and Library of Congress classification in online cataloging systems. Highlights include classification number access in existing online catalogs, functions of classification records, specifications for authority file records, and the nature of…

  14. Topographical mapping system for radiological and hazardous environments acceptance testing

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, G.A.; Dochat, G.R.

    1997-12-01

    During the summer of 1996, the Topographical Mapping System (TMS) for hazardous and radiological environments and its accompanying three-dimensional (3-D) visualization tool, the Interactive Computer-Enhanced Remote-Viewing System (ICERVS), were delivered to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL and Mechanical Technology, Inc., performed final acceptance testing of the TMS during the next eight months. The TMS was calibrated and characterized during this period. This paper covers the calibration, characterization, and acceptance testing of the TMS. Development of the TMS and ICERVS was initiated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for the purpose of characterization and remediation of underground storage tanks (USTs) at DOE sites across the country. DOE required a 3-D, topographical mapping system suitable for use in hazardous and radiological environments. The intended application is the mapping of the interior of USTs as part of DOE`s waste characterization and remediation efforts and to obtain baseline data on the content of the storage tank interiors as well as data on changes in the tank contents and levels brought about by waste remediation steps. Initially targeted for deployment at the Hanford Washington site, the TMS is designed to be a self-contained, compact, and reconfigurable system that is capable of providing rapid, variable-resolution mapping information in poorly characterized workspaces with a minimum of operator intervention.

  15. Topographical mapping system for radiological and hazardous environments acceptance testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Gary A.; Dochat, G. R.

    1997-09-01

    During the summer of 1996, the topographical mapping system (TMS) for hazardous and radiological environments and its accompanying three-dimensional (3-D) visualization tool, the interactive computer-enhanced remote-viewing system (ICERVS), were delivered to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL and Mechanical Technology, Inc., performed final acceptance testing of the TMS during the next eight months. The TMS was calibrated and characterized during this period. This paper covers the calibration, characterization, and acceptance testing of the TMS. Development of the TMS and the ICERVS was initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for the purpose of characterization and remediation of underground storage tanks (USTs) at DOE sites across the country. DOE required a 3-D, topographical mapping system suitable for use in hazardous and radiological environments. The intended application is the mapping of the interior of USTs as part of DOE's waste characterization and remediation efforts and to obtain baseline data on the content of the storage tank interiors as well as data on changes in the tank contents and levels brought about by waste remediation steps. Initially targeted for deployment at the Hanford Washington site, the TMS is designed to be a self-contained, compact, reconfigurable system that is capable of providing rapid, variable-resolution mapping information in poorly characterized workspaces with a minimum of operator intervention.

  16. Expert systems for the transportation of hazardous and radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Luce, C.E.; Clover, J.C.; Ferrada, J.J.

    1994-10-01

    Under the supervision of the Transportation Technologies Group which is in the Chemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, an expert system prototype for the transportation and packaging of hazardous and radioactive materials has been designed and developed. The development of the expert system prototype focused on using the combination of hypermedia elements and the Visual Basic{trademark} programming language. Hypermedia technology uses software that allows the user to interact with the computing environment through many formats: text, graphics, audio, and full-motion video. With the use of hypermedia, a user-friendly prototype has been developed to sort through numerous transportation regulations, thereby leading to the proper packaging for the materials. The expert system performs the analysis of regulations that an expert in shipping information would do; only the expert system performs the work more quickly. Currently, enhancements in a variety of categories are being made to the prototype. These include further expansion of non-radioactive materials, which includes any material that is hazardous but not radioactive; and the addition of full-motion video, which will depict regulations in terms that are easy to understand and which will show examples of how to handle the materials when packaging them.

  17. The WHO classification of tumors of the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Kleihues, Paul; Louis, David N; Scheithauer, Bernd W; Rorke, Lucy B; Reifenberger, Guido; Burger, Peter C; Cavenee, Webster K

    2002-03-01

    The new World Health Organization (WHO) classification of nervous system tumors, published in 2000, emerged from a 1999 international consensus conference of neuropathologists. New entities include chordoid glioma of the third ventricle, cerebellar liponeurocytoma, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, and perineurioma. Several histological variants were added, including tanycytic ependymoma, large cell medulloblastoma, and rhabdoid meningioma. The WHO grading scheme was updated and, for meningiomas, extensively revised. In recognition of the emerging role of molecular diagnostic approaches to tumor classification, genetic profiles have been emphasized, as in the distinct subtypes of glioblastoma and the already clinically useful 1p and 19q markers for oligodendroglioma and 22q/INI1 for atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors. In accord with the new WHO Blue Book series, the actual classification is accompanied by extensive descriptions and illustrations of clinicopathological characteristics of each tumor type, including molecular genetic features, predictive factors, and separate chapters on inherited tumor syndromes. The 2000 WHO classification of nervous system tumors aims at being used and implemented by the neuro-oncology and biomedical research communities worldwide. PMID:11895036

  18. Proposed Classification of Auriculotemporal Nerve, Based on the Root System

    PubMed Central

    Komarnitki, Iulian; Tomczyk, Jacek; Ciszek, Bogdan; Zalewska, Marta

    2015-01-01

    The topography of the auriculotemporal nerve (ATN) root system is the main criterion of this nerve classification. Previous publications indicate that ATN may have between one and five roots. Most common is a one- or two-root variant of the nerve structure. The problem of many publications is the inconsistency of nomenclature which concerns the terms “roots”, “connecting branches”, or “branches” that are used to identify the same structures. This study was performed on 80 specimens (40 adults and 40 fetuses) to propose a classification based on: (i) the number of roots, (ii) way of root division, and (iii) configuration of interradicular fibers that form the ATN trunk. This new classification is a remedy for inconsistency of nomenclature of ATN in the infratemporal fossa. This classification system has proven beneficial when organizing all ATN variants described in previous studies and could become a helpful tool for surgeons and dentists. Examination of ATN from the infratemporal fossa of fetuses (the youngest was at 18 weeks gestational age) showed that, at that stage, the nerve is fully developed. PMID:25856464

  19. Fire hazard and other safety concerns of photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Shiradkar, Narendra S.

    2012-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) modules are usually considered safe and reliable. But in case of grid-connected PV systems that are becoming popular, the issue of fire safety of PV modules is becoming increasingly important due to the employed high voltages of 600 to 1000 V. The two main factors, i.e., open circuiting of the dc circuit and of the bypass diodes and ground faults that are responsible for the fire in the PV systems, have been discussed in detail along with numerous real life examples. Recommendations are provided for preventing the fire hazards such as designing the PV array mounting system to minimize the chimney effect, having proper bypass and blocking diodes, and interestingly, having an ungrounded PV system.

  20. Multispectral data acquisition and classification - Statistical models for system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, F. O.; Park, S. K.

    1978-01-01

    In this paper we relate the statistical processes that are involved in multispectral data acquisition and classification to a simple radiometric model of the earth surface and atmosphere. If generalized, these formulations could provide an analytical link between the steadily improving models of our environment and the performance characteristics of rapidly advancing device technology. This link is needed to bring system analysis tools to the task of optimizing remote sensing and (real-time) signal processing systems as a function of target and atmospheric properties, remote sensor spectral bands and system topology (e.g., image-plane processing), radiometric sensitivity and calibration accuracy, compensation for imaging conditions (e.g., atmospheric effects), and classification rates and errors.

  1. General classification handbook for floodplain vegetation in large river systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieck, Jennifer J.; Ruhser, Janis; Hoy, Erin E.; Robinson, Larry R.

    2015-01-01

    This handbook describes the General Wetland Vegetation Classification System developed as part of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ Upper Mississippi River Restoration (UMRR) Program, Long Term Resource Monitoring (LTRM) element. The UMRR is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the states of Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, and Wisconsin. The classification system consists of 31 general map classes and has been used to create systemic vegetation data layers throughout the diverse Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS), which includes the commercially navigable reaches of the Mississippi River from Minneapolis, Minnesota, in the north to Cairo, Illinois, in the south, the Illinois River, and navigable portions of the Kaskaskia, Black, St. Croix, and Minnesota Rivers. In addition, this handbook describes the evolution of the General Wetland Vegetation Classification System, discusses the process of creating a vegetation data layer, and describes each of the 31 map classes in detail. The handbook also acts as a pictorial guide to each of the map classes as they may appear in the field, as well as on color-infrared imagery. This version is an update to the original handbook published in 2004.

  2. Automatic counterfeit protection system code classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Beusekom, Joost; Schreyer, Marco; Breuel, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    Wide availability of cheap high-quality printing techniques make document forgery an easy task that can easily be done by most people using standard computer and printing hardware. To prevent the use of color laser printers or color copiers for counterfeiting e.g. money or other valuable documents, many of these machines print Counterfeit Protection System (CPS) codes on the page. These small yellow dots encode information about the specific printer and allow the questioned document examiner in cooperation with the manufacturers to track down the printer that was used to generate the document. However, the access to the methods to decode the tracking dots pattern is restricted. The exact decoding of a tracking pattern is often not necessary, as tracking the pattern down to the printer class may be enough. In this paper we present a method that detects what CPS pattern class was used in a given document. This can be used to specify the printer class that the document was printed on. Evaluation proved an accuracy of up to 91%.

  3. Classification of Microarray Data Using Kernel Fuzzy Inference System

    PubMed Central

    Kumar Rath, Santanu

    2014-01-01

    The DNA microarray classification technique has gained more popularity in both research and practice. In real data analysis, such as microarray data, the dataset contains a huge number of insignificant and irrelevant features that tend to lose useful information. Classes with high relevance and feature sets with high significance are generally referred for the selected features, which determine the samples classification into their respective classes. In this paper, kernel fuzzy inference system (K-FIS) algorithm is applied to classify the microarray data (leukemia) using t-test as a feature selection method. Kernel functions are used to map original data points into a higher-dimensional (possibly infinite-dimensional) feature space defined by a (usually nonlinear) function ϕ through a mathematical process called the kernel trick. This paper also presents a comparative study for classification using K-FIS along with support vector machine (SVM) for different set of features (genes). Performance parameters available in the literature such as precision, recall, specificity, F-measure, ROC curve, and accuracy are considered to analyze the efficiency of the classification model. From the proposed approach, it is apparent that K-FIS model obtains similar results when compared with SVM model. This is an indication that the proposed approach relies on kernel function.

  4. Fire hazard and other safety concerns of PV systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2011-09-01

    Photovoltaic modules are usually considered safe and reliable. But in case of grid-connected PV systems that are becoming very popular, the issue of fire safety of PV modules is becoming increasingly important due to the employed high voltages of 600 V to 1000 V. The two main factors i.e. open circuiting of the bypass diode and ground fault that are responsible for the fire in the PV systems have been discussed in detail along with numerous real life examples. Recommendations are provided for preventing the fire hazards such as having at least class C fire rated PV modules, proper bypass and blocking diodes and interestingly, having an ungrounded PV system.

  5. Portable medical status system. [potential hazards in the use of the telecare system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, O. C.

    1976-01-01

    The hazards inherent in the Portable Medical Status System are identified, and the measures taken to reduce them to an acceptable level are described. Identification of these hazards is a prerequisite to use of the system on humans in the earth environment. One hazard which is insufficiently controlled and which is considered a constraint to use on humans is the level of current possible in the electrodes for the EEG (electroencephalograph) circuitry. It exceeds the maximum specified. A number of procedural and design recommendations for enhancement of safety are made.

  6. New Site Coefficients and Site Classification System Used in Recent Building Seismic Code Provisions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dobry, R.; Borcherdt, R.D.; Crouse, C.B.; Idriss, I.M.; Joyner, W.B.; Martin, G.R.; Power, M.S.; Rinne, E.E.; Seed, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    Recent code provisions for buildings and other structures (1994 and 1997 NEHRP Provisions, 1997 UBC) have adopted new site amplification factors and a new procedure for site classification. Two amplitude-dependent site amplification factors are specified: Fa for short periods and Fv for longer periods. Previous codes included only a long period factor S and did not provide for a short period amplification factor. The new site classification system is based on definitions of five site classes in terms of a representative average shear wave velocity to a depth of 30 m (V?? s). This definition permits sites to be classified unambiguously. When the shear wave velocity is not available, other soil properties such as standard penetration resistance or undrained shear strength can be used. The new site classes denoted by letters A - E, replace site classes in previous codes denoted by S1 - S4. Site classes A and B correspond to hard rock and rock, Site Class C corresponds to soft rock and very stiff / very dense soil, and Site Classes D and E correspond to stiff soil and soft soil. A sixth site class, F, is defined for soils requiring site-specific evaluations. Both Fa and Fv are functions of the site class, and also of the level of seismic hazard on rock, defined by parameters such as Aa and Av (1994 NEHRP Provisions), Ss and S1 (1997 NEHRP Provisions) or Z (1997 UBC). The values of Fa and Fv decrease as the seismic hazard on rock increases due to soil nonlinearity. The greatest impact of the new factors Fa and Fv as compared with the old S factors occurs in areas of low-to-medium seismic hazard. This paper summarizes the new site provisions, explains the basis for them, and discusses ongoing studies of site amplification in recent earthquakes that may influence future code developments.

  7. Nasal Septal Deviations: A Systematic Review of Classification Systems

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Jeffrey; Certal, Victor; Chang, Edward T.; Camacho, Macario

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To systematically review the international literature for internal nasal septal deviation classification systems and summarize them for clinical and research purposes. Data Sources. Four databases (including PubMed/MEDLINE) were systematically searched through December 16, 2015. Methods. Systematic review, adhering to PRISMA. Results. After removal of duplicates, this study screened 952 articles for relevance. A final comprehensive review of 50 articles identified that 15 of these articles met the eligibility criteria. The classification systems defined in these articles included C-shaped, S-shaped, reverse C-shaped, and reverse S-shaped descriptions of the septal deviation in both the cephalocaudal and anteroposterior dimensions. Additional studies reported use of computed tomography and categorized deviation based on predefined locations. Three studies graded the severity of septal deviations based on the amount of deflection. The systems defined in the literature also included an evaluation of nasal septal spurs and perforations. Conclusion. This systematic review ascertained that the majority of the currently published classification systems for internal nasal septal deviations can be summarized by C-shaped or reverse C-shaped, as well as S-shaped or reverse S-shaped deviations in the anteroposterior and cephalocaudal dimensions. For imaging studies, predefined points have been defined along the septum. Common terminology can facilitate future research. PMID:26933510

  8. Classification of residential areas according to physical vulnerability to natural hazards: a case study of Çanakkale, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Başaran-Uysal, Arzu; Sezen, Funda; Ozden, Süha; Karaca, Oznur

    2014-01-01

    The selection of new settlement areas and the construction of safe buildings, as well as rendering built-up areas safe, are of great importance in mitigating the damage caused by natural disasters. Most cities in Turkey are unprepared for natural hazards. In this paper, Çanakkale, located in a first-degree seismic zone and sprawled around the Sartçay Delta, is examined in terms of its physical vulnerability to natural hazards. Residential areas are analysed using GIS (geographic information system) and remote-sensing technologies in relation to selected indicators. Residential areas of the city are divided into zones according to an evaluation of geological characteristics, the built-up area's features, and urban infrastructure, and four risk zones are determined. The results of the analysis show that the areas of the city suitable for housing are very limited. In addition, the historical centre and the housing areas near Sartçay stream are shown to be most problematic in terms of natural disasters and sustainability. PMID:24325245

  9. Overview of proposed revisions to the superfund hazard ranking system.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, S; Ortiz, A

    1989-06-01

    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 required the federal government to establish criteria for setting priorities among releases of hazardous substances, pollutants, and contaminants. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency responded by developing the Hazard Ranking System (HRS), which is a scoring system used to establish the National Priorities List (NPL). The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 required EPA to amend the HRS so it will more accurately assess relative risks and take into account certain specific elements of risk. On December 23, 1988, EPA published in the Federal Register the proposed rule to revise the HRS. EPA expects to issue the final rule in 1990 after reviewing public comments. This paper describes the proposed revisions and summarizes major technical findings that support the revisions. As a result of the HRS revisions, there may be some changes in the types of sites that score high enough to be placed on the NPL. A projection of those changes is discussed. PMID:2754440

  10. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SUBSURFACE DEVELOPMENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface development transportation structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P7 ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).