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1

Unacceptable Risk: Earthquake Hazard Mitigation in One California School District. Hazard Mitigation Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Earthquakes are a perpetual threat to California's school buildings. School administrators must be aware that hazard mitigation means much more than simply having a supply of water bottles in the school; it means getting everyone involved in efforts to prevent tragedies from occurring in school building in the event of an earthquake. The PTA in…

California State Office of Emergency Services, Sacramento.

2

Numerical study on tsunami hazard mitigation using a submerged breakwater.  

PubMed

Most coastal structures have been built in surf zones to protect coastal areas. In general, the transformation of waves in the surf zone is quite complicated and numerous hazards to coastal communities may be associated with such phenomena. Therefore, the behavior of waves in the surf zone should be carefully analyzed and predicted. Furthermore, an accurate analysis of deformed waves around coastal structures is directly related to the construction of economically sound and safe coastal structures because wave height plays an important role in determining the weight and shape of a levee body or armoring material. In this study, a numerical model using a large eddy simulation is employed to predict the runup heights of nonlinear waves that passed a submerged structure in the surf zone. Reduced runup heights are also predicted, and their characteristics in terms of wave reflection, transmission, and dissipation coefficients are investigated. PMID:25215334

Ha, Taemin; Yoo, Jeseon; Han, Sejong; Cho, Yong-Sik

2014-01-01

3

Collective action for community-based hazard mitigation: a case study of Tulsa project impact  

E-print Network

-term mitigation goals, assess natural and technological hazards, facilitate rational decision- making (e.g., scientific knowledge and social consensus basis), integrate fragmented mitigation efforts with day-to-day community life, fill in the gaps... of interorganizational networks on improving local preparedness during the pre-disaster periods (Gillespie, Colignon, Banerjee, Murty, and Rogge, 1993) or the organizational effectiveness of Local Emergency Planning Committee (Lindell 1994; Lindell and Whitney, 1995...

Lee, Hee Min

2005-11-01

4

Washington Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Washington State has participated in the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) since its inception in 1995. We have participated in the tsunami inundation hazard mapping, evacuation planning, education, and outreach efforts that generally characterize the NTHMP efforts. We have also investigated hazards of significant interest to the Pacific Northwest. The hazard from locally generated earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone, which threatens tsunami inundation in less than hour following a magnitude 9 earthquake, creates special problems for low-lying accretionary shoreforms in Washington, such as the spits of Long Beach and Ocean Shores, where high ground is not accessible within the limited time available for evacuation. To ameliorate this problem, we convened a panel of the Applied Technology Council to develop guidelines for construction of facilities for vertical evacuation from tsunamis, published as FEMA 646, now incorporated in the International Building Code as Appendix M. We followed this with a program called Project Safe Haven (http://www.facebook.com/ProjectSafeHaven) to site such facilities along the Washington coast in appropriate locations and appropriate designs to blend with the local communities, as chosen by the citizens. This has now been completed for the entire outer coast of Washington. In conjunction with this effort, we have evaluated the potential for earthquake-induced ground failures in and near tsunami hazard zones to help develop cost estimates for these structures and to establish appropriate tsunami evacuation routes and evacuation assembly areas that are likely to to be available after a major subduction zone earthquake. We intend to continue these geotechnical evaluations for all tsunami hazard zones in Washington.

Walsh, T. J.; Schelling, J.

2012-12-01

5

Contributions of Nimbus 7 TOMS Data to Volcanic Study and Hazard Mitigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nimbus TOMS data have led to advancements among many volcano-related scientific disciplines, from the initial ability to quantify SO2 clouds leading to derivations of eruptive S budgets and fluxes, to tracking of individual clouds, assessing global volcanism and atmospheric impacts. Some of the major aspects of TOMS-related research, listed below, will be reviewed and updated: (1) Measurement of volcanic SO2 clouds: Nimbus TOMS observed over 100 individual SO2 clouds during its mission lifetime; large explosive eruptions are now routinely and reliably measured by satellite. (2) Eruption processes: quantification of SO2 emissions have allowed assessments of eruption sulfur budgets, the evaluation of "excess" sulfur, and inferences of H2S emissions. (3) Detection of ash: TOMS data are now used to detect volcanic particulates in the atmosphere, providing complementary analyses to infrared methods of detection. Paired TOMS and AVHRR studies have provided invaluable information on volcanic cloud compositions and processes. (4) Cloud tracking and hazard mitigation: volcanic clouds can be considered gigantic tracers in the atmosphere, and studies of the fates of these clouds have led to new knowledge of their physical and chemical dispersion in the atmosphere for predictive models. (5) Global trends: the long term data set has provided researchers an unparalleled record of explosive volcanism, and forms a key component in assessing annual to decadal trends in global S emissions. (6) Atmospheric impacts: TOMS data have been linked to independent records of atmospheric change, in order to compare cause and effect processes following a massive injection of SO2 into the atmosphere. (7) Future TOMS instruments and applications: Nimbus TOMS has given way to new satellite platforms, with several wavelength and resolution modifications. New efforts to launch a geostationary TOMS could provide unprecedented observations of volcanic activity.

Krueger, Arlin J.; Bluth, G. J. S.; Schaefer, S. A.

1998-01-01

6

Predictability and extended-range prognosis in natural hazard risk mitigation process: A case study over west Greece  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural hazards pose an increasing threat to society and new innovative techniques or methodologies are necessary to be developed, in order to enhance the risk mitigation process in nowadays. It is commonly accepted that disaster risk reduction is a vital key for future successful economic and social development. The systematic improvement accuracy of extended-range prognosis products, relating with monthly and seasonal predictability, introduced them as a new essential link in risk mitigation procedure. Aiming at decreasing the risk, this paper presents the use of seasonal and monthly forecasting process that was tested over west Greece from September to December, 2013. During that season significant severe weather events occurred, causing significant impact to the local society (severe storms/rainfalls, hail, flash floods, etc). Seasonal and monthly forecasting products from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) depicted, with probabilities stratified by terciles, areas of Greece where significant weather may occur. As atmospheric natural hazard early warning systems are able to deliver warnings up to 72 hours in advance, this study illustrates that extended-range prognosis could be introduced as a new technique in risk mitigation. Seasonal and monthly forecast products could highlight extended areas where severe weather events may occur in one month lead time. In addition, a risk mitigation procedure, that extended prognosis products are adopted, is also presented providing useful time to preparedness process at regional administration level.

Matsangouras, Ioannis T.; Nastos, Panagiotis T.

2014-05-01

7

Earthquake Hazard Mitigation Strategy in Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of the active tectonic setting of the region, the risks of geological hazards inevitably increase in Indonesian Archipelagoes and other ASIAN countries. Encouraging community living in the vulnerable area to adapt with the nature of geology will be the most appropriate strategy for earthquake risk reduction. Updating the Earthquake Hazard Maps, enhancement ofthe existing landuse management , establishment of public education strategy and method, strengthening linkages among stake holders of disaster mitigation institutions as well as establishement of continues public consultation are the main strategic programs for community resilience in earthquake vulnerable areas. This paper highlights some important achievements of Earthquake Hazard Mitigation Programs in Indonesia, together with the difficulties in implementing such programs. Case examples of Yogyakarta and Bengkulu Earthquake Mitigation efforts will also be discussed as the lesson learned. The new approach for developing earthquake hazard map which is innitiating by mapping the psychological aspect of the people living in vulnerable area will be addressed as well.

Karnawati, D.; Anderson, R.; Pramumijoyo, S.

2008-05-01

8

Playing against nature: improving earthquake hazard mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The great 2011 Tohoku earthquake dramatically demonstrated the need to improve earthquake and tsunami hazard assessment and mitigation policies. The earthquake was much larger than predicted by hazard models, and the resulting tsunami overtopped coastal defenses, causing more than 15,000 deaths and $210 billion damage. Hence if and how such defenses should be rebuilt is a challenging question, because the defences fared poorly and building ones to withstand tsunamis as large as March's is too expensive,. A similar issue arises along the Nankai Trough to the south, where new estimates warning of tsunamis 2-5 times higher than in previous models raise the question of what to do, given that the timescale on which such events may occur is unknown. Thus in the words of economist H. Hori, "What should we do in face of uncertainty? Some say we should spend our resources on present problems instead of wasting them on things whose results are uncertain. Others say we should prepare for future unknown disasters precisely because they are uncertain". Thus society needs strategies to mitigate earthquake and tsunami hazards that make economic and societal sense, given that our ability to assess these hazards is poor, as illustrated by highly destructive earthquakes that often occur in areas predicted by hazard maps to be relatively safe. Conceptually, we are playing a game against nature "of which we still don't know all the rules" (Lomnitz, 1989). Nature chooses tsunami heights or ground shaking, and society selects the strategy to minimize the total costs of damage plus mitigation costs. As in any game of chance, we maximize our expectation value by selecting the best strategy, given our limited ability to estimate the occurrence and effects of future events. We thus outline a framework to find the optimal level of mitigation by balancing its cost against the expected damages, recognizing the uncertainties in the hazard estimates. This framework illustrates the role of the uncertainties and the need to candidly assess them. It can be applied to exploring policies under various hazard scenarios and mitigating other natural hazards.ariation in total cost, the sum of expected loss and mitigation cost, as a function of mitigation level. The optimal level of mitigation, n*, minimizes the total cost. The expected loss depends on the hazard model, so the better the hazard model, the better the mitigation policy (Stein and Stein, 2012).

Stein, S. A.; Stein, J.

2012-12-01

9

Mitigation of Hazardous Comets and Asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; 1. Recent progress in interpreting the nature of the near-Earth object population W. Bottke, A. Morbidelli and R. Jedicke; 2. Earth impactors: orbital characteristics and warning times S. R. Chesley and T. B. Spahr; 3. The role of radar in predicting and preventing asteroid and comet collisions with Earth S. J. Ostro and J. D. Giorgini; 4. Interior structures for asteroids and cometary nuclei E. Asphaug; 5. What we know and don't know about surfaces of potentially hazardous small bodies C. R. Chapman; 6. About deflecting asteroids and comets K. A. Holsapple; 7. Scientific requirements for understanding the near-Earth asteroid population A. W. Harris; 8. Physical properties of comets and asteroids inferred from fireball observations M. D. Martino and A. Cellino; 9. Mitigation technologies and their requirements C. Gritzner and R. Kahle; 10. Peering inside near-Earth objects with radio tomography W. Kofman and A. Safaeinili; 11. Seismological imvestigation of asteroid and comet interiors J. D. Walker and W. F. Huebner; 12. Lander and penetrator science for near-Earth object mitigation studies A. J. Ball, P. Lognonne, K. Seiferlin, M. Patzold and T. Spohn; 13. Optimal interpretation and deflection of Earth-approaching asteroids using low-thrust electric propulsion B. A. Conway; 14. Close proximity operations at small bodies: orbiting, hovering, and hopping D. J. Scheeres; 15. Mission operations in low gravity regolith and dust D. Sears, M. Franzen, S. Moore, S. Nichols, M. Kareev and P. Benoit; 16. Impacts and the public: communicating the nature of the impact hazard D. Morrison, C. R. Chapman, D. Steel and R. P. Binzel; 17. Towards a program to remove the threat of hazardous NEOs M. J. S. Belton.

Belton, Michael J. S.; Morgan, Thomas H.; Samarasinha, Nalin H.; Yeomans, Donald K.

2011-03-01

10

Mitigation of Hazardous Comets and Asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; 1. Recent progress in interpreting the nature of the near-Earth object population W. Bottke, A. Morbidelli and R. Jedicke; 2. Earth impactors: orbital characteristics and warning times S. R. Chesley and T. B. Spahr; 3. The role of radar in predicting and preventing asteroid and comet collisions with Earth S. J. Ostro and J. D. Giorgini; 4. Interior structures for asteroids and cometary nuclei E. Asphaug; 5. What we know and don't know about surfaces of potentially hazardous small bodies C. R. Chapman; 6. About deflecting asteroids and comets K. A. Holsapple; 7. Scientific requirements for understanding the near-Earth asteroid population A. W. Harris; 8. Physical properties of comets and asteroids inferred from fireball observations M. D. Martino and A. Cellino; 9. Mitigation technologies and their requirements C. Gritzner and R. Kahle; 10. Peering inside near-Earth objects with radio tomography W. Kofman and A. Safaeinili; 11. Seismological imvestigation of asteroid and comet interiors J. D. Walker and W. F. Huebner; 12. Lander and penetrator science for near-Earth object mitigation studies A. J. Ball, P. Lognonne, K. Seiferlin, M. Patzold and T. Spohn; 13. Optimal interpretation and deflection of Earth-approaching asteroids using low-thrust electric propulsion B. A. Conway; 14. Close proximity operations at small bodies: orbiting, hovering, and hopping D. J. Scheeres; 15. Mission operations in low gravity regolith and dust D. Sears, M. Franzen, S. Moore, S. Nichols, M. Kareev and P. Benoit; 16. Impacts and the public: communicating the nature of the impact hazard D. Morrison, C. R. Chapman, D. Steel and R. P. Binzel; 17. Towards a program to remove the threat of hazardous NEOs M. J. S. Belton.

Belton, Michael J. S.; Morgan, Thomas H.; Samarasinha, Nalin H.; Yeomans, Donald K.

2004-11-01

11

The National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) is a state\\/Federal partnership that was created to reduce the impacts of tsunamis to U.S. Coastal areas. It is a coordinated effort between the states of Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington and four Federal agencies: the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the U.S. Geological Survey

E. N. Bernard

2004-01-01

12

California Earthquakes: Science, Risks, and the Politics of Hazard Mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Politics" should be the lead word in the sub-title of this engrossing study of the emergence and growth of the California and federal earthquake hazard reduction infrastructures. Beginning primarily with the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, scientists, engineers, and other professionals cooperated and clashed with state and federal officials, the business community, " boosters," and the general public to create programs, agencies, and commissions to support earthquake research and hazards mitigation. Moreover, they created a "regulatory-state" apparatus that governs human behavior without sustained public support for its creation. The public readily accepts that earthquake research and mitigation are government responsibilities. The government employs or funds the scientists, engineers, emergency response personnel, safety officials, building inspectors, and others who are instrumental in reducing earthquake hazards. This book clearly illustrates how, and why all of this came to pass.

Shedlock, Kaye M.

13

WHC natural phenomena hazards mitigation implementation plan  

SciTech Connect

Natural phenomena hazards (NPH) are unexpected acts of nature which pose a threat or danger to workers, the public or to the environment. Earthquakes, extreme winds (hurricane and tornado),snow, flooding, volcanic ashfall, and lightning strike are examples of NPH at Hanford. It is the policy of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to design, construct and operate DOE facilitiesso that workers, the public and the environment are protected from NPH and other hazards. During 1993 DOE, Richland Operations Office (RL) transmitted DOE Order 5480.28, ``Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation,`` to Westinghouse Hanford COmpany (WHC) for compliance. The Order includes rigorous new NPH criteria for the design of new DOE facilities as well as for the evaluation and upgrade of existing DOE facilities. In 1995 DOE issued Order 420.1, ``Facility Safety`` which contains the same NPH requirements and invokes the same applicable standards as Order 5480.28. It will supersede Order 5480.28 when an in-force date for Order 420.1 is established through contract revision. Activities will be planned and accomplished in four phases: Mobilization; Prioritization; Evaluation; and Upgrade. The basis for the graded approach is the designation of facilities/structures into one of five performance categories based upon safety function, mission and cost. This Implementation Plan develops the program for the Prioritization Phase, as well as an overall strategy for the implemention of DOE Order 5480.2B.

Conrads, T.J.

1996-09-11

14

EVALUATION OF FOAMS FOR MITIGATING AIR POLLUTION FROM HAZARDOUS SPILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

This program has been conducted to evaluate commercially available water base foams for mitigating the vapors from hazardous chemical spills. Foam systems were evaluated in the laboratory to define those foam properties which are important in mitigating hazardous vapors. Larger s...

15

The National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) is a state/Federal partnership that was created to reduce the impacts of tsunamis to U.S. Coastal areas. It is a coordinated effort between the states of Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington and four Federal agencies: the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the National Science Foundation (NSF). NOAA has led the effort to forge a solid partnership between the states and the Federal agencies because of it's responsibility to provide tsunami warning services to the nation. The successful partnership has established a mitigation program in each state that is developing tsunami resilient coastal communities. Inundation maps are now available for many of the coastal communities of Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington. These maps are used to develop evacuation plans and, in the case of Oregon, for land use management. The NTHMP mapping technology is now being applied to FEMA's Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs). The NTHMP has successfully upgraded the warning capability in NOAA so that earthquakes can be detected within 5 minutes and tsunamis can be detected in the open ocean in real time. Deep ocean reporting of tsunamis has already averted one unnecessary evacuation of Hawaii and demonstrated that real-time tsunami forecasting is now possible. NSF's new Network for Earthquake Engineering (NEES) program has agreed to work with the NTHMP to focus tsunami research on national needs. An overview of the NTHMP will be given including a discussion of accomplishments and a progress report on NEES and FIRM activities.

Bernard, E. N.

2004-12-01

16

Estimating Environmental Benefits of Natural Hazard Mitigation with Benefit Transfer: Results from a Benefit-Cost Analysis of FEMA Hazard Mitigation Grants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes methods, data, and results associated with the first major attempt to evaluate the environmental benefits of FEMA natural hazards mitigation grants. The study relied heavily on the refinement of benefit transfer methods. Categories of benefits include water quality for recreational and commercial fishing, drinking water, outdoor recreation, hazardous waste, wetlands and aesthetic, health and safety benefits. Environmental

John C. Whitehead; Adam Z. Rose

2007-01-01

17

76 FR 61070 - Disaster Assistance; Hazard Mitigation Grant Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agriculture. Wildfire and Erosion Under the NPRM, vegetation management related to wildfire and erosion hazard mitigation measures...the NPRM's possible effects on the eligibility...for the wildfire and erosion vegetation management...

2011-10-03

18

Destructive Interactions Between Mitigation Strategies and the Causes of Unexpected Failures in Natural Hazard Mitigation Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large investments in the mitigation of natural hazards, using a variety of technology-based mitigation strategies, have proven to be surprisingly ineffective in some recent natural disasters. These failures reveal a need for a systematic classification of mitigation strategies; an understanding of the scientific uncertainties that affect the effectiveness of such strategies; and an understanding of how the different types of strategy within an overall mitigation system interact destructively to reduce the effectiveness of the overall mitigation system. We classify mitigation strategies into permanent, responsive and anticipatory. Permanent mitigation strategies such as flood and tsunami defenses or land use restrictions, are both costly and 'brittle': when they malfunction they can increase mortality. Such strategies critically depend on the accuracy of the estimates of expected hazard intensity in the hazard assessments that underpin their design. Responsive mitigation strategies such as tsunami and lahar warning systems rely on capacities to detect and quantify the hazard source events and to transmit warnings fast enough to enable at risk populations to decide and act effectively. Self-warning and voluntary evacuation is also usually a responsive mitigation strategy. Uncertainty in the nature and magnitude of the detected hazard source event is often the key scientific obstacle to responsive mitigation; public understanding of both the hazard and the warnings, to enable decision making, can also be a critical obstacle. Anticipatory mitigation strategies use interpretation of precursors to hazard source events and are used widely in mitigation of volcanic hazards. Their critical limitations are due to uncertainties in time, space and magnitude relationships between precursors and hazard events. Examples of destructive interaction between different mitigation strategies are provided by the Tohoku 2011 earthquake and tsunami; recent earthquakes that have impacted population centers with poor enforcement of building codes, unrealistic expectations of warning systems or failures to understand local seismic damage mechanisms; and the interaction of land use restriction strategies and responsive warning strategies around lahar-prone volcanoes. A more complete understanding of the interactions between these different types of mitigation strategy, especially the consequences for the expectations and behaviors of the populations at risk, requires models of decision-making under high levels of both uncertainty and danger. The Observation-Orientation-Decision-Action (OODA) loop model (Boyd, 1987) may be a particularly useful model. It emphasizes the importance of 'orientation' (the interpretation of observations and assessment of their significance for the observer and decision-maker), the feedback between decisions and subsequent observations and orientations, and the importance of developing mitigation strategies that are flexible and so able to respond to the occurrence of the unexpected. REFERENCE: Boyd, J.R. A Discourse on Winning and Losing [http://dnipogo.org/john-r-boyd/

Day, S. J.; Fearnley, C. J.

2013-12-01

19

Mitigation of earthquake hazards using seismic base isolation systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper deals with mitigation of earthquake hazards using seismic base-isolation systems. A numerical algorithm is described for system response analysis of isolated structures with laminated elastomer bearings. The focus of this paper is on the adaptation of a nonlinear constitutive equation for the isolation bearing, and the treatment of foundation embedment for the soil-structure-interaction analysis. Sample problems are presented to illustrate the mitigating effect of using base-isolation systems.

Wang, C.Y.

1994-06-01

20

Reaggregation Times of Potentially Hazardous Object Fragments After a Hazard Mitigation Impulse  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine re-accretion times for potentially hazardous objects following the outcome of mitigation strategies, by modeling the disruption and re-aggregation of polyhedron-element rubble piles after the application of an impulsive applied velocity field.

D. G. Korycansky; C. S. Plesko

2010-01-01

21

The year 2000 marked the 20th anniversary of Cooperative Studies in Earthquake Engineering and Hazard Mitigation between the United States of America and the People's Republic of China under Annex III to the  

E-print Network

FOREWORD The year 2000 marked the 20th anniversary of Cooperative Studies in Earthquake Engineering and Hazard Mitigation between the United States of America and the People's Republic of China under Annex III earthquake scien- tists and engineers in the two countries. To commemorate this 20th anniversary, the China

Spencer Jr., B.F.

22

Mitigation options for accidental releases of hazardous gases  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this paper is to review and compare technologies available for mitigation of unconfined releases of toxic and flammable gases. These technologies include: secondary confinement, deinventory, vapor barriers, foam spraying, and water sprays/monitors. Guidelines for the design and/or operation of effective post-release mitigation systems and case studies involving actual industrial mitigation systems are also presented.

Fthenakis, V.M.

1995-05-01

23

77 FR 24505 - Hazard Mitigation Assistance for Wind Retrofit Projects for Existing Residential Buildings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FEMA-2012-0007] Hazard Mitigation Assistance for Wind Retrofit Projects for Existing Residential...comments on Hazard Mitigation Assistance for Wind Retrofit Projects for Existing Residential...such activity is the implementation of wind retrofit projects to protect existing...

2012-04-24

24

Natural hazard phenomena and mitigation -- 1996. PVP-Volume 330  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains paper to be presented in five sessions under the title Natural Hazard Phenomena and Mitigation at the 1996 Joint ASME/ICPVT Pressure vessel and Piping Conference held July 21--26, 1996 in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Three areas are presented in this volume: seismic design and design criteria, impact and dynamic load designs, and structural designs. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

Chang, S.J. [ed.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Wang, C.Y. [ed.] [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Chen, W.W. [ed.] [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Mok, G.C. [ed.] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Lin, C.W. [ed.

1996-12-01

25

New Approaches to Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Demonstrated in Oregon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries and Oregon Emergency Management collaborated over the last four years to increase tsunami preparedness for residents and visitors to the Oregon coast. Utilizing support from the National Tsunami Hazards Mitigation Program (NTHMP), new approaches to outreach and tsunami hazard assessment were developed and then applied. Hazard assessment was approached by first doing two pilot studies aimed at calibrating theoretical models to direct observations of tsunami inundation gleaned from the historical and prehistoric (paleoseismic/paleotsunami) data. The results of these studies were then submitted to peer-reviewed journals and translated into 1:10,000-12,000-scale inundation maps. The inundation maps utilize a powerful new tsunami model, SELFE, developed by Joseph Zhang at the Oregon Health & Science University. SELFE uses unstructured computational grids and parallel processing technique to achieve fast accurate simulation of tsunami interactions with fine-scale coastal morphology. The inundation maps were simplified into tsunami evacuation zones accessed as map brochures and an interactive mapping portal at http://www.oregongeology.org/tsuclearinghouse/. Unique in the world are new evacuation maps that show separate evacuation zones for distant versus locally generated tsunamis. The brochure maps explain that evacuation time is four hours or more for distant tsunamis but 15-20 minutes for local tsunamis that are invariably accompanied by strong ground shaking. Since distant tsunamis occur much more frequently than local tsunamis, the two-zone maps avoid needless over evacuation (and expense) caused by one-zone maps. Inundation mapping for the entire Oregon coast will be complete by ~2014. Educational outreach was accomplished first by doing a pilot study to measure effectiveness of various approaches using before and after polling and then applying the most effective methods. In descending order, the most effective methods were: (1) door-to-door (person-to-person) education, (2) evacuation drills, (3) outreach to K-12 schools, (4) media events, and (5) workshops targeted to key audiences (lodging facilities, teachers, and local officials). Community organizers were hired to apply these five methods to clusters of small communities, measuring performance by before and after polling. Organizers were encouraged to approach the top priority, person-to-person education, by developing Community Emergency Response Teams (CERT) or CERT-like organizations in each community, thereby leaving behind a functioning volunteer-based group that will continue the outreach program and build long term resiliency. One of the most effective person-to-person educational tools was the Map Your Neighborhood program that brings people together so they can sketch the basic layout of their neighborhoods to depict key earthquake and tsunami hazards and mitigation solutions. The various person-to-person volunteer efforts and supporting outreach activities are knitting communities together and creating a permanent culture of tsunami and earthquake preparedness. All major Oregon coastal population centers will have been covered by this intensive outreach program by ~2014.

Priest, G. R.; Rizzo, A.; Madin, I.; Lyles Smith, R.; Stimely, L.

2012-12-01

26

GO/NO-GO - When is medical hazard mitigation acceptable for launch?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Medical support of spaceflight missions is composed of complex tasks and decisions that dedicated to maintaining the health and performance of the crew and the completion of mission objectives. Spacecraft represent one of the most complex vehicles built by humans, and are built to very rigorous design specifications. In the course of a Flight Readiness Review (FRR) or a mission itself, the flight surgeon must be able to understand the impact of hazards and risks that may not be completely mitigated by design alone. Some hazards are not mitigated because they are never actually identified. When a hazard is identified, it must be reduced or waivered. Hazards that cannot be designed out of the vehicle or mission, are usually mitigated through other means to bring the residual risk to an acceptable level. This is possible in most engineered systems because failure modes are usually predictable and analysis can include taking these systems to failure. Medical support of space missions is complicated by the inability of flight surgeons to provide "exact" hazard and risk numbers to the NASA engineering community. Taking humans to failure is not an option. Furthermore, medical dogma is mostly comprised of "medical prevention" strategies that mitigate risk by examining the behaviour of a cohort of humans similar to astronauts. Unfortunately, this approach does not lend itself well for predicting the effect of a hazard in the unique environment of space. This presentation will discuss how Medical Operations uses an evidence-based approach to decide if hazard mitigation strategies are adequate to reduce mission risk to acceptable levels. Case studies to be discussed will include: 1. Risk of electrocution risk during EVA 2. Risk of cardiac event risk during long and short duration missions 3. Degraded cabin environmental monitoring on the ISS. Learning Objectives 1.) The audience will understand the challenges of mitigating medical risk caused by nominal and off-nominal mission events. 2.) The audience will understand the process by which medical hazards are identified and mitigated before launch. 3.) The audience will understand the roles and responsibilities of all the other flight control positions in participating in the process of reducing hazards and reducing medical risk to an acceptable level.

Hamilton, Douglas R.; Polk, James D.

2005-01-01

27

Estimating the value of foresight: aggregate analysis of natural hazard mitigation benefits and costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hazard mitigation planners claim that foresighted present actions and investments produce significant future benefits. However, they have difficulty in supporting their claims, since previously their evidence typically was derived from individual case studies. Constituents and decision makers are often sceptical, believing that individual cases are either inapplicable to their situation or non-randomly selected to support a particular view. Planners need

David R. Godschalk; Adam Rose; Elliott Mittler; Keith Porter; Carol Taylor West

2009-01-01

28

Mitigating mountain hazards in Austria - legislation, risk transfer, and awareness building  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Embedded in the overall concept of integral risk management, mitigating mountain hazards is pillared by land use regulations, risk transfer, and information. In this paper aspects on legislation related to natural hazards in Austria are summarised, with a particular focus on spatial planning activities and hazard mapping, and possible adaptations focussing on enhanced resilience are outlined. Furthermore, the system of risk transfer is discussed, highlighting the importance of creating incentives for risk-aware behaviour, above all with respect to individual precaution and insurance solutions. Therefore, the issue of creating awareness through information is essential, which is presented subsequently. The study results in recommendations of how administrative units on different federal and local levels could increase the enforcement of regulations related to the minimisation of natural hazard risk. Moreover, the nexus to risk transfer mechanisms is provided, focusing on the current compensation system in Austria and some possible adjustments in order to provide economic incentives for (private) investments in mitigation measures, i.e. local structural protection. These incentives should be supported by delivering information on hazard and risk target-oriented to any stakeholder involved. Therefore, coping strategies have to be adjusted and the interaction between prevention and precaution has to be highlighted. The paper closes with recommendations of how these efforts could be achieved, with a particular focus on the situation in the Republic of Austria.

Holub, M.; Fuchs, S.

2009-04-01

29

Tsunami hazard mitigation in tourism in the tropical and subtropical coastal areas: a case study in the Ryukyu Islands, southwest of Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Life and economy (including tourism) in tropical and subtropical coastal areas, such as Okinawa Prefecture (Ryukyu) are highly relying on the sea. The sea has both "gentle" side to give people healing and "dangerous" side to kill people. If we are going to utilise the sea for marine tourism such as constructing resort facilities on the oceanfront, we should know all of the sea, including the both sides of the sea: especially the nature of tsunamis. And also we islanders should issue accurate information about the sea towards outsiders, especially tourists visiting the island. We have already learned a lesson about this issue from the Sumatra tsunami in 2004. However, measures against the tsunami disaster by marine tourism industry are still inadequate in these areas. The goal of tsunami hazard mitigation for those engaged in tourism industry in tropical and subtropical coastal areas should be as follows. (1) Preparedness against tsunamis: "Be aware of the characteristics of tsunamis." "Prepare tsunamis when you feel an earthquake." "Prepare tsunamis when an earthquake takes place somewhere in the world." (2) Maintenance of an exact tsunami hazard map under quantitative analyses of the characteristics of tsunamis: "Flooding areas by tsunami attacks are dependent not only on altitude but also on amplification and inundation due to the seafloor topography near the coast and the onland topographic relief." "Tsunami damage happens repeatedly." (3) Maintenance of a tsunami disaster prevention manual and training after the manual: "Who should do what in case of tsunamis?" "How should the resort hotel employees lead the guests to the safe place?" Such a policy for disaster prevention is discussed in the class of the general education of "Ocean Sciences" in University of the Ryukyus (UR) and summer school for high school students. The students (most of them are from Okinawa Prefecture) consider, discuss and make reports about what to do in case of tsunamis as an islander. Especially, students of Department of Tourism Sciences (DTS) are keen on the discussion and make excellent reports/proposals. Here, the author would also like to introduce some of them in the presentation.

Matsumoto, T.

2006-12-01

30

ANALYSIS AND MITIGATION OF X-RAY HAZARD GENERATED FROM HIGH INTENSITY LASER-TARGET INTERACTIONS  

SciTech Connect

Interaction of a high intensity laser with matter may generate an ionizing radiation hazard. Very limited studies have been made, however, on the laser-induced radiation protection issue. This work reviews available literature on the physics and characteristics of laser-induced X-ray hazards. Important aspects include the laser-to-electron energy conversion efficiency, electron angular distribution, electron energy spectrum and effective temperature, and bremsstrahlung production of X-rays in the target. The possible X-ray dose rates for several femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser systems used at SLAC, including the short pulse laser system for the Matter in Extreme Conditions Instrument (peak power 4 TW and peak intensity 2.4 x 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}) were analysed. A graded approach to mitigate the laser-induced X-ray hazard with a combination of engineered and administrative controls is also proposed.

Qiu, R.; Liu, J.C.; Prinz, A.A.; Rokni, S.H.; Woods, M.; Xia, Z.; /SLAC; ,

2011-03-21

31

Standards and Guidelines for Numerical Models for Tsunami Hazard Mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An increased number of nations around the workd need to develop tsunami mitigation plans which invariably involve inundation maps for warning guidance and evacuation planning. There is the risk that inundation maps may be produced with older or untested methodology, as there are currently no standards for modeling tools. In the aftermath of the 2004 megatsunami, some models were used to model inundation for Cascadia events with results much larger than sediment records and existing state-of-the-art studies suggest leading to confusion among emergency management. Incorrectly assessing tsunami impact is hazardous, as recent events in 2006 in Tonga, Kythira, Greece and Central Java have suggested (Synolakis and Bernard, 2006). To calculate tsunami currents, forces and runup on coastal structures, and inundation of coastlines one must calculate the evolution of the tsunami wave from the deep ocean to its target site, numerically. No matter what the numerical model, validation (the process of ensuring that the model solves the parent equations of motion accurately) and verification (the process of ensuring that the model used represents geophysical reality appropriately) both are an essential. Validation ensures that the model performs well in a wide range of circumstances and is accomplished through comparison with analytical solutions. Verification ensures that the computational code performs well over a range of geophysical problems. A few analytic solutions have been validated themselves with laboratory data. Even fewer existing numerical models have been both validated with the analytical solutions and verified with both laboratory measurements and field measurements, thus establishing a gold standard for numerical codes for inundation mapping. While there is in principle no absolute certainty that a numerical code that has performed well in all the benchmark tests will also produce correct inundation predictions with any given source motions, validated codes reduce the level of uncertainty in their results to the uncertainty in the geophysical initial conditions. Further, when coupled with real--time free--field tsunami measurements from tsunameters, validated codes are the only choice for realistic forecasting of inundation; the consequences of failure are too ghastly to take chances with numerical procedures that have not been validated. We discuss a ten step process of benchmark tests for models used for inundation mapping. The associated methodology and algorithmes have to first be validated with analytical solutions, then verified with laboratory measurements and field data. The models need to be published in the scientific literature in peer-review journals indexed by ISI. While this process may appear onerous, it reflects our state of knowledge, and is the only defensible methodology when human lives are at stake. Synolakis, C.E., and Bernard, E.N, Tsunami science before and beyond Boxing Day 2004, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 364 1845, 2231--2263, 2005.

Titov, V.; Gonzalez, F.; Kanoglu, U.; Yalciner, A.; Synolakis, C. E.

2006-12-01

32

Geo-electromagnetic research aids geo-hazard mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some 100 Earth scientists from nine different nations recently gathered in Lerici, Italy; for the Second International Workshop on Geo-Electro-Magnetism. While this was not a thematic meeting, most of the 40 papers presented focused on applications of electromagnetic methods to natural or man-made hazards such as known faults, seismically active regions, volcanoes, landslides, and environmental or civil engineering problems. Anomaly and main field studies, both field investigations and theoretical techniques, were also well represented.

Chiappini, M.; Carmisciano, C.; Faggioni, O.

33

Numerical and probabilistic analysis of asteroid and comet impact hazard mitigation  

SciTech Connect

The possibility of asteroid and comet impacts on Earth has received significant recent media and scientific attention. Still, there are many outstanding questions about the correct response once a potentially hazardous object (PHO) is found. Nuclear munitions are often suggested as a deflection mechanism because they have a high internal energy per unit launch mass. However, major uncertainties remain about the use of nuclear munitions for hazard mitigation. There are large uncertainties in a PHO's physical response to a strong deflection or dispersion impulse like that delivered by nuclear munitions. Objects smaller than 100 m may be solid, and objects at all sizes may be 'rubble piles' with large porosities and little strength. Objects with these different properties would respond very differently, so the effects of object properties must be accounted for. Recent ground-based observations and missions to asteroids and comets have improved the planetary science community's understanding of these objects. Computational power and simulation capabilities have improved such that it is possible to numerically model the hazard mitigation problem from first principles. Before we know that explosive yield Y at height h or depth -h from the target surface will produce a momentum change in or dispersion of a PHO, we must quantify energy deposition into the system of particles that make up the PHO. Here we present the initial results of a parameter study in which we model the efficiency of energy deposition from a stand-off nuclear burst onto targets made of PHO constituent materials.

Plesko, Catherine S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Weaver, Robert P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Huebner, Walter F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-09-09

34

Earthquake and Volcanic Hazard Mitigation and Capacity Building in Sub-Saharan Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The East African Rift System (EARS) is a classic example of active continental rifting, and a natural laboratory setting to study initiation and early stage evolution of continental rifts. The EARS is at different stages of development that varies from relatively matured rift (16 mm/yr) in the Afar to a weakly extended Okavango Delta in the south with predicted opening velocity < 3 mm/yr. Recent studies in the region helped researchers to highlight the length and timescales of magmatism and faulting, the partitioning of strain between faulting and magmatism, and their implications for the development of along-axis segmentation. Although the human resource and instrument coverage is sparse in the continent, our understanding of rift processes and deep structure has improved in the last decade after the advent of space geodesy and broadband seismology. The recent major earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and mega dike intrusions that occurred along the EARS attracted several earth scientist teams across the globe. However, most African countries traversed by the rift do not have the full capacity to monitor and mitigate earthquake and volcanic hazards. Few monitoring facilities exist in some countries, and the data acquisition is rarely available in real-time for mitigation purpose. Many sub-Saharan Africa governments are currently focused on achieving the millennium development goals with massive infrastructure development scheme and urbanization while impending natural hazards of such nature are severely overlooked. Collaborations with overseas researchers and other joint efforts by the international community are opportunities to be used by African institutions to best utilize limited resources and to mitigate earthquake and volcano hazards.

Ayele, A.

2012-04-01

35

Next-Generation GPS Station for Hazards Mitigation (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our objective is to better forecast, assess, and mitigate natural hazards, including earthquakes, tsunamis, and extreme storms and flooding through development and implementation of a modular technology for the next-generation in-situ geodetic station to support the flow of information from multiple stations to scientists, mission planners, decision makers, and first responders. The same technology developed under NASA funding can be applied to enhance monitoring of large engineering structures such as bridges, hospitals and other critical infrastructure. Meaningful warnings save lives when issued within 1-2 minutes for destructive earthquakes, several tens of minutes for tsunamis, and up to several hours for extreme storms and flooding, and can be provided by on-site fusion of multiple data types and generation of higher-order data products: GPS/GNSS and accelerometer measurements to estimate point displacements, and GPS/GNSS and meteorological measurements to estimate moisture variability in the free atmosphere. By operating semi-autonomously, each station can then provide low-latency, high-fidelity and compact data products within the constraints of narrow communications bandwidth that often accompanies natural disasters. We have developed a power-efficient, low-cost, plug-in Geodetic Module for fusion of data from in situ sensors including GPS, a strong-motion accelerometer module, and a meteorological sensor package, for deployment at existing continuous GPS stations in southern California; fifteen stations have already been upgraded. The low-cost modular design is scalable to the many existing continuous GPS stations worldwide. New on-the-fly data products are estimated with 1 mm precision and accuracy, including three-dimensional seismogeodetic displacements for earthquake, tsunami and structural monitoring and precipitable water for forecasting extreme weather events such as summer monsoons and atmospheric rivers experienced in California. Unlike more traditional approaches where data are collected and analyzed from a network of stations at a central processing facility, we are embedding these capabilities in the Geodetic Module's processor for in situ analysis and data delivery through TCP/IP to avoid single points of failure during emergencies. We are infusing our technology to several local and state groups, including the San Diego County Office of Emergency Services for earthquake and tsunami early warnings, UC San Diego Health Services for hospital monitoring and early warning, Caltrans for bridge monitoring, and NOAA's Weather Forecasting Offices in San Diego and Los Angeles Counties for forecasting extreme weather events. We describe our overall system and the ongoing efforts at technology infusion.

Bock, Y.

2013-12-01

36

Evaluating fuel complexes for fire hazard mitigation planning in the southeastern United States.  

SciTech Connect

Fire hazard mitigation planning requires an accurate accounting of fuel complexes to predict potential fire behavior and effects of treatment alternatives. In the southeastern United States, rapid vegetation growth coupled with complex land use history and forest management options requires a dynamic approach to fuel characterization. In this study we assessed potential surface fire behavior with the Fuel Characteristic Classification System (FCCS), a tool which uses inventoried fuelbed inputs to predict fire behavior. Using inventory data from 629 plots established in the upper Atlantic Coastal Plain, South Carolina, we constructed FCCS fuelbeds representing median fuel characteristics by major forest type and age class. With a dry fuel moisture scenario and 6.4 km h{sub 1} midflame wind speed, the FCCS predicted moderate to high potential fire hazard for the majority of the fuelbeds under study. To explore fire hazard under potential future fuel conditions, we developed fuelbeds representing the range of quantitative inventorydata for fuelbed components that drive surface fire behavior algorithms and adjusted shrub species composition to represent 30% and 60% relative cover of highly flammable shrub species. Results indicate that the primary drivers of surface fire behavior vary by forest type, age and surface fire behavior rating. Litter tends to be a primary or secondary driver in most forest types. In comparison to other surface fire contributors, reducing shrub loading results in reduced flame lengths most consistently across forest types. FCCS fuelbeds and the results from this project can be used for fire hazard mitigation planning throughout the southern Atlantic Coastal Plain where similar forest types occur. The approach of building simulated fuelbeds across the range of available surface fuel data produces sets of incrementally different fuel characteristics that can be applied to any dynamic forest types in which surface fuel conditions change rapidly.

Andreu, Anne G.; Shea, Dan; Parresol, Bernard, R.; Ottmar, Roger, D.

2012-01-01

37

Looking Before We Leap: Recent Results From An Ongoing Quantitative Investigation Of Asteroid And Comet Impact Hazard Mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The asteroid and comet impact hazard is now part of public consciousness, as demonstrated by movies, Super Bowl commercials, and popular news stories. However, there is a popular misconception that hazard mitigation is a solved problem. Many people think, `we'll just nuke it.' There are, however, significant scientific questions remaining in the hazard mitigation problem. Before we can say with

Catherine Plesko; R. P. Weaver; D. G. Korycansky; W. F. Huebner

2010-01-01

38

EFFECTS OF USING NUMERICAL SIMULATION FOR PLANNING OF TSUNAMI HAZARD MITIGATION  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A plan of tsunami hazard mitigation is discussed for a business establishment in the predicted inundation area of Nankai earthquake tsunami, based on a public hazard map. That is compared with the one based on a numerical simulation. It is difficult to obtaine the detailed inundation depth and arrival time from the public hazard map. Thus, effective countermeasure may not be taken by the business establishment. It results the large damage of the business establishment. On the contrary, the detailed information is obtained by using numerical simulation. It is possible for the business establishment to make an effective plan for hazard reduction. Thus, use of numerical simulation is effective for planning of tsunami hazard mitigation and business continuity planning.

Kitamura, Fukutaro; Shigihara, Yoshinori; Fujima, Koji

39

Threshold effects of hazard mitigation in coastal human-environmental systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite improved scientific insight into physical and social dynamics related to natural disasters, the financial cost of extreme events continues to rise. This paradox is particularly evident along developed coastlines, where future hazards are projected to intensify with consequences of climate change, and where the presence of valuable infrastructure exacerbates risk. By design, coastal hazard mitigation buffers human activities against the variability of natural phenomena such as storms. But hazard mitigation also sets up feedbacks between human and natural dynamics. This paper explores developed coastlines as exemplary coupled human-environmental systems in which hazard mitigation is the key coupling mechanism. Results from a simplified numerical model of an agent-managed seawall illustrate the nonlinear effects that economic and physical thresholds can impart into coastal human-environmental system dynamics. The scale of mitigation action affects the time frame over which human activities and natural hazards interact. By accelerating environmental changes observable in some settings over human timescales of years to decades, climate change may temporarily strengthen the coupling between human and environmental dynamics. However, climate change could ultimately result in weaker coupling at those human timescales as mitigation actions increasingly engage global-scale systems.

Lazarus, E. D.

2014-01-01

40

Spatio-temporal patterns of hazards and their use in risk assessment and mitigation. Case study of road accidents in Romania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Road accidents are among the leading causes of death in many world countries, partly as an inherent consequence of the increasing mobility of today society. The World Health Organization estimates that 1.3 million people died in road accidents in 2011, which means 186 deaths per million. The tragic picture is completed by millions of peoples experiencing different physical injuries or by the enormous social and economic costs that these events imply. Romania has one of the most unsafe road networks within the European Union, with annual averages of 9400 accidents, 8300 injuries and almost 2680 fatalities (2007-2012). An average of 141 death per million is more than twice the average fatality rate in European Union (about 60 death per million). Other specific indicators (accidents or fatalities reported to the road length, vehicle fleet size, driving license owners or adult population etc.) are even worst in the same European context. Road accidents are caused by a complex series of factors, some of them being a relatively constant premise, while others act as catalyzing factors or triggering agent: road features and quality, vehicle technical state, weather conditions, human related factors etc. All these lead to a complex equation with too many unknown variables, making almost impossible a probabilistic approach. However, the high concentration of accidents in a region or in some road sectors is caused by the existence of a specific context, created by factors with permanent or repetitive character, and leads to the idea of a spatial autocorrelation between locations of different adjoining accident. In the same way, the increasing frequency of road accidents and of their causes repeatability in different periods of the year would allow to identify those black timeframes with higher incidence of road accidents. Identifying and analyzing the road blackspots (hotspots) and black zones would help to improve road safety by acting against the common causes that create the spatial or temporal clustering of crash accidents. Since the 1990's, Geographical Informational Systems (GIS) became a very important tool for traffic and road safety management, allowing not only the spatial and multifactorial analysis, but also graphical and non-graphical outputs. The current paper presents an accessible GIS methodology to study the spatio-temporal pattern of injury related road accidents, to identify the high density accidents zones, to make a cluster analysis, to create multicriterial typologies, to identify spatial and temporal similarities and to explain them. In this purpose, a Geographical Information System was created, allowing a complex analysis that involves not only the events, but also a large set of interrelated and spatially linked attributes. The GIS includes the accidents as georeferenced point elements with a spatially linked attribute database: identification information (date, location details); accident type; main, secondary and aggravating causes; data about driver; vehicle information; consequences (damages, injured peoples and fatalities). Each attribute has its own number code that allows both the statistical analysis and the spatial interrogation. The database includes those road accidents that led to physical injuries and loss of human lives between 2007 and 2012 and the spatial analysis was realized using TNTmips 7.3 software facilities. Data aggregation and processing allowed creating the spatial pattern of injury related road accidents through Kernel density estimation at three different levels (national - Romania; county level - Iasi County; local level - Iasi town). Spider graphs were used to create the temporal pattern or road accidents at three levels (daily, weekly and monthly) directly related to their causes. Moreover the spatial and temporal database relates the natural hazards (glazed frost, fog, and blizzard) with the human made ones, giving the opportunity to evaluate the nature of uncertainties in risk assessment. At the end, this paper provides a clustering methodology based on several environmenta

Catalin Stanga, Iulian

2013-04-01

41

Arbitrary Death: An Empirical Study of Mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Supreme Court has long viewed mitigation evidence as key to saving the death penalty from constitutional challenge. Mitigation evidence about a capital defendant’s life history, combined with other procedural protections, is thought to alleviate arbitrariness in juries’ decisions of whether a defendant deserves to die. This Article presents original empirical research studying that hypothesis. Interviews with thirty mitigation specialists

Emily Hughes

2012-01-01

42

The Diversity of Large Earthquakes and Its Implications for Hazard Mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the advent of broadband seismology and GPS, significant diversity in the source radiation spectra of large earthquakes has been clearly demonstrated. This diversity requires different approaches to mitigate hazards. In certain tectonic environments, seismologists can forecast the future occurrence of large earthquakes within a solid scientific framework using the results from seismology and GPS. Such forecasts are critically important for long-term hazard mitigation practices, but because stochastic fracture processes are complex, the forecasts are inevitably subject to large uncertainty, and unexpected events will continue to surprise seismologists. Recent developments in real-time seismology will help seismologists to cope with and prepare for tsunamis and earthquakes. Combining a better understanding of earthquake diversity with modern technology is the key to effective and comprehensive hazard mitigation practices.

Kanamori, Hiroo

2014-05-01

43

G188 Research Paper Volcano Tourism: Hazards and Mitigation  

E-print Network

Valley area of California, including the Long Valley Caldera, the Mono-Inyo Craters, and Mammoth Mountain through volunteer efforts or monetary donations. Long Valley Caldera The Long Valley Caldera was formed of the Long Valley Caldera and volcanic features in the vicinity. Figure reproduced from USGS Volcano Hazards

Polly, David

44

Fourth DOE Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation Conference: Proceedings. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This conference allowed an interchange in the natural phenomena area among designers, safety professionals, and managers. The papers presented in Volume I of the proceedings are from sessions I - VIII which cover the general topics of: DOE standards, lessons learned and walkdowns, wind, waste tanks, ground motion, testing and materials, probabilistic seismic hazards, risk assessment, base isolation and energy dissipation, and lifelines and floods. Individual papers are indexed separately. (GH)

Not Available

1993-12-31

45

Disaster Management and Community Planning, and Public Participation: How to Achieve Sustainable Hazard Mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper offers first a brief historical overview of disaster management planning. Second, it reviews Australian and American research findings and show that they urge the field of disaster management to shift its focus from response and recovery to sustainable hazard mitigation. It is argued that in order for this shift to occur, it is necessary to integrate disaster management

Laurie Pearce

2003-01-01

46

Adaptation Options Strategies for Hazards and Vulnerability Mitigation: An International Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The broad objective of this special issue of Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change is to address some of the gaps in our knowledge and understanding of the policies, programs, and measures that might be applied to natural hazards and their impacts in an era of climate change. Given the global impacts of climate change and world-wide pattern of

C. Emdad Haque; Ian Burton

2005-01-01

47

Adaptation Options Strategies for Hazards and Vulnerability Mitigation: An International Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The broad objective of this special issue of Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change is to address some of the gaps in our knowledge and understanding of the policies, programs, and measures that might be applied to natural hazards and their impacts in an era of climate change. Given the global impacts of climate change and world-wide pattern of

C. EMDAD HAQUE; Ian Burton

48

System integrated considerations for multi-hazard mitigation, preparedness and response in World Expo compound  

E-print Network

". The fact that design of World Trade Center Towers did not consider potential release of combustion energySystem integrated considerations for multi-hazard mitigation, preparedness and response in World, societal and monumental importance. The proposed World Expo compound in Shanghai represents such a facility

Shinozuka, Masanobu

49

Interdisciplinary approach for Tsunami Hazard Mitigation in Algeria (West Mediterranean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous tsunamis occurred in the West Mediterranean with magnitudes ranging from m=-1 to m=2 (Imamura-Iida scale). In Algeria, tsunamis are reported from the 14th century to 2003. Northern Algeria is located at the border between the African and the Eurasian plate. Destructive earthquakes with magnitude greater than 6.7 occurred 3 times in the last century. The North Algeria western region is characterized by the Murdjadjo anticline. A destructive earthquake hit Oran city on October 1790 (Intensity: X, West of Algeria). A tsunami was triggered in the Alboran sea. The Spanish and North Africa coasts were flooded. Run-up’s of 2 meters in height are reported in historical documents (Lopez Marinas and Salord, 1990). Here, the 1790 Alboran tsunami is studied from a modelling approach. The tsunami source is determined from the Okada equations and the tsunami propagation is estimated from the SWAN code (Mader, 2004). Results show that active thrust faulting related to the Murdjadjo structure is responsible for the tsunami. In the central part of Algeria, the Algiers city (capital of Algeria) was the location of destructive earthquakes (Intensity: X) that were followed by tsunamis in 1365 and in 1773. Flooding and run-up’s of 2 meters in height are reported in historical documents for the 1365 event. The central part of Algeria is the site of the Sahel anticline. A tsunami modelling is also performed considering the Sahel fault system as a potential tsunami source. Results show that it takes less than 15 minutes for the tsunami waves to reach the Spanish coast. Run-up’s are estimated lower than 2 meters in height. Discrepancies are attributed to the resolution of the bathymetry and the limits of the modelling. In the eastern region, historical reports also reveal run-up’s up to 5 meters in height after a tsunami triggered by a destructive earthquake in 1856 in Jijel city (intensity: VIII). From tsunami catalogs, seismic and tsunami data are plotted using a tsunami vulnerability parameter. The vulnerability index is estimated from the tsunami intensity and the seismic intensity using the Papadopoulos and the EMS scale. Results show that in Algeria, tsunami damages are minor relative to seismic damages. Since the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman tsunami, intergovernmental coordinated groups are working on an Indian and a Mediterranean tsunami alert system. To reduce vulnerability and increase resilience, it is very important to implement an efficiency warning system and a communication policy for fast urbanized coastal cities. In that context, lessons from the pacific case study are of major interest. Chile is marked by a very high seismic and tsunami hazard. The Iquique area is a threaten zone for a potential earthquake of magnitude greater than 8 and a local tsunami that could generate run-up’s up to 20 meters in height. In addition to the Pacific Tsunami Warning centre based in Hawaii, the Chile has elaborated a local tsunami warning centre. The Chilean case study is presented in discussion to highlight some lessons that may serve as an example for fast urbanized coastal cities that have to face local tsunamis.

Amir, L. A.; Cisternas, A.; Vigneresse, J. D.

2009-12-01

50

Assessment of indirect losses and costs of emergency for project planning of alpine hazard mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By virtue of augmented settling in hazardous areas and increased asset values, natural disasters such as floods, landslides and rockfalls cause high economic losses in Alpine lateral valleys. Especially in small municipalities, indirect losses, mainly stemming from a breakdown of transport networks, and costs of emergency can reach critical levels. A quantification of these losses is necessary to estimate the worthiness of mitigation measures, to determine the appropriate level of disaster assistance and to improve risk management strategies. There are comprehensive approaches available for assessing direct losses. However, indirect losses and costs of emergency are widely not assessed and the empirical basis for estimating these costs is weak. To address the resulting uncertainties of project appraisals, a standardized methodology has been developed dealing with issues of local economic effects and emergency efforts needed. In our approach, the cost-benefit-analysis for technical mitigation of the Austrian Torrent and Avalanche Control (TAC) will be optimized and extended using the 2005-debris flow as a design event, which struggled a small town in the upper Inn valley in southwest Tyrol (Austria). Thereby, 84 buildings were affected, 430 people were evacuated and due to this, the TAC implemented protection measures for 3.75 million Euros. Upgrading the method of the TAC and analyzing to what extent the cost-benefit-ratio is about to change, is one of the main objectives of this study. For estimating short-run indirect effects and costs of emergency on the local level, data was collected via questionnaires, field mapping, guided interviews, as well as intense literature research. According to this, up-to-date calculation methods were evolved and the cost-benefit-analysis of TAC was recalculated with these new-implemented results. The cost-benefit-ratio will be more precise and specific and hence, the decision, which mitigation alternative will be carried out. Based on this, the worthiness of the mitigation measures can be determined in more detail and the proper level of emergency assistance can be calculated more adequately. By dint of this study, a better data basis will be created evaluating technical and non-technical mitigation measures, which is useful for government agencies, insurance companies and research.

Amenda, Lisa; Pfurtscheller, Clemens

2013-04-01

51

Mitigation of EMU Cut Glove Hazard from Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris Impacts on ISS Handrails  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent cut damages sustained on crewmember gloves during extravehicular activity (ISS) onboard the International Space Station (ISS) have been caused by contact with sharp edges or a pinch point according to analysis of the damages. One potential source are protruding sharp edged crater lips from micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) impacts on metallic handrails along EVA translation paths. A number of hypervelocity impact tests were performed on ISS handrails, and found that mm-sized projectiles were capable of inducing crater lip heights two orders of magnitude above the minimum value for glove abrasion concerns. Two techniques were evaluated for mitigating the cut glove hazard of MMOD impacts on ISS handrails: flexible overwraps which act to limit contact between crewmember gloves and impact sites, and; alternate materials which form less hazardous impact crater profiles. In parallel with redesign efforts to increase the cut resilience of EMU gloves, the modifications to ISS handrails evaluated in this study provide the means to significantly reduce cut glove risk from MMOD impact craters

Ryan, Shannon; Christiansen, Eric L.; Davis, Bruce A.; Ordonez, Erick

2009-01-01

52

The U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program: Successes in Tsunami Preparedness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Formed in 1995 by Congressional Action, the National Tsunami Hazards Mitigation Program (NTHMP) provides the framework for tsunami preparedness activities in the United States. The Program consists of the 28 U.S. coastal states, territories, and commonwealths (STCs), as well as three Federal agencies: the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). Since its inception, the NTHMP has advanced tsunami preparedness in the United States through accomplishments in many areas of tsunami preparedness: - Coordination and funding of tsunami hazard analysis and preparedness activities in STCs; - Development and execution of a coordinated plan to address education and outreach activities (materials, signage, and guides) within its membership; - Lead the effort to assist communities in meeting National Weather Service (NWS) TsunamiReady guidelines through development of evacuation maps and other planning activities; - Determination of tsunami hazard zones in most highly threatened coastal communities throughout the country by detailed tsunami inundation studies; - Development of a benchmarking procedure for numerical tsunami models to ensure models used in the inundation studies meet consistent, NOAA standards; - Creation of a national tsunami exercise framework to test tsunami warning system response; - Funding community tsunami warning dissemination and reception systems such as sirens and NOAA Weather Radios; and, - Providing guidance to NOAA's Tsunami Warning Centers regarding warning dissemination and content. NTHMP activities have advanced the state of preparedness of United States coastal communities, and have helped save lives and property during recent tsunamis. Program successes as well as future plans, including maritime preparedness, are discussed.

Whitmore, P.; Wilson, R. I.

2012-12-01

53

Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The United States spends approximately four million dollars each year searching for near-Earth objects (NEOs). The objective is to detect those that may collide with Earth. The majority of this funding supports the operation of several observatories that scan the sky searching for NEOs. This, however, is insufficient in detecting the majority of NEOs that may present a tangible threat to humanity. A significantly smaller amount of funding supports ways to protect the Earth from such a potential collision or "mitigation." In 2005, a Congressional mandate called for NASA to detect 90 percent of NEOs with diameters of 140 meters of greater by 2020. Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies identifies the need for detection of objects as small as 30 to 50 meters as these can be highly destructive. The book explores four main types of mitigation including civil defense, "slow push" or "pull" methods, kinetic impactors and nuclear explosions. It also asserts that responding effectively to hazards posed by NEOs requires national and international cooperation. Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies is a useful guide for scientists, astronomers, policy makers and engineers.

2010-01-01

54

A GIS Framework for Mitigating Volcanic and Hydrothermal Hazards at Yellowstone National Park and Vicinity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yellowstone National Park encompasses one of Earth's largest systems of volcanic, seismic, and hydrothermal activity. These active hydrothermal and volcanic systems, and associated seismicity have the possibility for future violent events and pose potential hazards to park visitors and infrastructure. Depending on the nature and magnitude of a particular hazardous event, from small-localized hydrothermal steam explosions to very large volcanic eruptions of ash and lava, and the particular time and season when it might occur, 70,000 to more than 100,000 people could be affected. Although the most violent events are the least likely, their occurrence could affect a broader region or even continent-wide areas. The Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO) was created to monitor these hazards. A Geographic Information System (GIS) is one of the tools YVO is using to assess and monitor hazards. A GIS provides a central storage location for data such as: location and distribution of lava flows, ash deposits, and pyroclastic flows, seismicity, Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) and other geodetic data, and instrument locations, legacy surveys, and park infrastructure. The system also provides tools for the creation of deformation surfaces, hazard buffers, hazard modeling, and portrayal of complex hazard information to local officials and the public. Continued monitoring by YVO will facilitate recognition of premonitory indications before a volcanic eruption. GIS will play a role in both the monitoring and mitigation of the hazards in Yellowstone National Park and vicinity by facilitating advance preparation for responses to potential hazards from future volcanic eruptions or hydrothermal explosions and can help mitigate their effects on the park, its staff and visitors.

Robinson, J. E.; Flynn, K.; Christiansen, R. L.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Smith, R. B.; Heasler, H.; Morgan, L. A.; Nathenson, M.; Mastin, L. G.; Muffler, L.

2007-12-01

55

The influence of hazard models on GIS-based regional risk assessments and mitigation policies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geographic information systems (GIS) are important tools for understanding and communicating the spatial distribution of risks associated with natural hazards in regional economies. We present a GIS-based decision support system (DSS) for assessing community vulnerability to natural hazards and evaluating potential mitigation policy outcomes. The Land Use Portfolio Modeler (LUPM) integrates earth science and socioeconomic information to predict the economic impacts of loss-reduction strategies. However, the potential use of such systems in decision making may be limited when multiple but conflicting interpretations of the hazard are available. To explore this problem, we conduct a policy comparison using the LUPM to test the sensitivity of three available assessments of earthquake-induced lateral-spread ground failure susceptibility in a coastal California community. We find that the uncertainty regarding the interpretation of the science inputs can influence the development and implementation of natural hazard management policies. Copyright ?? 2006 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

Bernknopf, R.L.; Rabinovici, S.J.M.; Wood, N.J.; Dinitz, L.B.

2006-01-01

56

Mitigation of Flooding and Cyclone Hazard in Orissa, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Storm surges generated by the strong tangential wind stressesand normal atmospheric pressure gradients at the sea surface due to tropical cyclones (TC'S)have been studied with the goal of detecting any significant and systematic changes due to climatechange. Cyclone and storm surge data for the 19th and 20th centuries for the Bay of Bengalcoast of the state of Orissa in India

P. Chittibabu; S. K. Dube; J. B. Macnabb; T. S. Murty; A. D. Rao; U. C. Mohanty; P. C. Sinha

2004-01-01

57

Developing a Long-term Hazard Mitigation Plan for Consequent Volcanic Sedimentation Hazards at Santiaguito Dome Complex, Guatemala  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous volcanic activity at Santiaguito, accompanied by seasonal monsoons, results in sediment inputs downslope into the Río Ixpatz and Río Samalá river channels. This threatens the lives and economic stability in populated downstream areas of Guatemala's coastal slope, a region responsible for major contributions to Guatemala's foreign exchange earnings. The changing riverbeds are host to sediment and water quality problems; subsequent flooding threatens villages, nearby cropland, infrastructure, and transportation. Current research suggests that the volcanic activity results in costs equal to millions of US dollars per year. Mitigation efforts are needed to protect lives, fertile land, and valuable crops located along the river valleys and plains in the down-slope region of the volcano. The goal of this work is to build a GIS database for the areas affected by Santiaguito to facilitate the development of a long-range (several decades) plan for hazard mitigation and infrastructure development. The GIS will include multiple TM images which have been used to quantify activity and downslope aggradation patterns (Matias et al, this meeting), digital topography obtained from IGN and USGS/VDAP, land use maps and infrastructure overlays from IGN, Guatemala, and volcanic hazard zonation maps from INSIVUMEH, Guatemala. We expect to also use LAHARZ (Iverson, R.M., Schilling, S.S., Vallance, J.W., GSA Bulletin, 1998) to supplement GIS analysis. Additionally, we plan to work with local agencies within Guatemala to improve the current mitigation strategy which mainly involves extensive annual river and near-bridge dredging and is reactive on short time scales.

Bunzendahl, E.; Bluth, G. J.; Rose, W. I.; Reif, S. L.; Matias, O.

2001-12-01

58

Lidar and Electro-Optics for Atmospheric Hazard Sensing and Mitigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper provides an overview of the research and development efforts of the Lidar and Electro-Optics element of NASA's Aviation Safety Program. This element is seeking to improve the understanding of the atmospheric environments encountered by aviation and to provide enhanced situation awareness for atmospheric hazards. The improved understanding of atmospheric conditions is specifically to develop sensor signatures for atmospheric hazards. The current emphasis is on kinetic air hazards such as turbulence, aircraft wake vortices, mountain rotors, and windshear. Additional efforts are underway to identify and quantify the hazards arising from multi-phase atmospheric conditions including liquid and solid hydrometeors and volcanic ash. When the multi-phase conditions act as obscurants that result in reduced visual awareness, the element seeks to mitigate the hazards associated with these diminished visual environments. The overall purpose of these efforts is to enable safety improvements for air transport class and business jet class aircraft as the transition to the Next Generation Air Transportation System occurs.

Clark, Ivan O.

2012-01-01

59

Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE): Aerospace Propulsion Hazard Mitigation Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A major hazard posed by the propulsion system of hypersonic and space vehicles is the possibility of fire or explosion in the vehicle environment. The hazard is mitigated by minimizing or detecting, in the vehicle environment, the three ingredients essential to producing fire: fuel, oxidizer, and an ignition source. The Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) consisted of a linear aerospike rocket engine integrated into one-half of an X-33-like lifting body shape, carried on top of an SR-71 aircraft. Gaseous hydrogen and liquid oxygen were used as propellants. Although LASRE is a one-of-a-kind experimental system, it must be rated for piloted flight, so this test presented a unique challenge. To help meet safety requirements, the following propulsion hazard mitigation systems were incorporated into the experiment: pod inert purge, oxygen sensors, a hydrogen leak detection algorithm, hydrogen sensors, fire detection and pod temperature thermocouples, water misting, and control room displays. These systems are described, and their development discussed. Analyses, ground test, and flight test results are presented, as are findings and lessons learned.

Mizukami, Masashi; Corpening, Griffin P.; Ray, Ronald J.; Hass, Neal; Ennix, Kimberly A.; Lazaroff, Scott M.

1998-01-01

60

The asteroid and comet impact hazard: risk assessment and mitigation options.  

PubMed

The impact of extraterrestrial matter onto Earth is a continuous process. On average, some 50,000 tons of dust are delivered to our planet every year. While objects smaller than about 30 m mainly disintegrate in the Earth's atmosphere, larger ones can penetrate through it and cause damage on the ground. When an object of hundreds of meters in diameter impacts an ocean, a tsunami is created that can devastate coastal cities. Further, if a km-sized object hit the Earth it would cause a global catastrophe due to the transport of enormous amounts of dust and vapour into the atmosphere resulting in a change in the Earth's climate. This article gives an overview of the near-Earth asteroid and comet (near-Earth object-NEO) impact hazard and the NEO search programmes which are gathering important data on these objects. It also points out options for impact hazard mitigation by using deflection systems. It further discusses the critical constraints for NEO deflection strategies and systems as well as mitigation and evacuation costs and benefits. Recommendations are given for future activities to solve the NEO impact hazard problem. PMID:16670908

Gritzner, Christian; Dürfeld, Kai; Kasper, Jan; Fasoulas, Stefanos

2006-08-01

61

Impact hazard mitigation: understanding the effects of nuclear explosive outputs on comets and asteroids  

SciTech Connect

The NASA 2007 white paper ''Near-Earth Object Survey and Deflection Analysis of Alternatives'' affirms deflection as the safest and most effective means of potentially hazardous object (PHO) impact prevention. It also calls for further studies of object deflection. In principle, deflection of a PHO may be accomplished by using kinetic impactors, chemical explosives, gravity tractors, solar sails, or nuclear munitions. Of the sudden impulse options, nuclear munitions are by far the most efficient in terms of yield-per-unit-mass launched and are technically mature. However, there are still significant questions about the response of a comet or asteroid to a nuclear burst. Recent and ongoing observational and experimental work is revolutionizing our understanding of the physical and chemical properties of these bodies (e.g ., Ryan (2000) Fujiwara et al. (2006), and Jedicke et al. (2006)). The combination of this improved understanding of small solar-system bodies combined with current state-of-the-art modeling and simulation capabilities, which have also improved dramatically in recent years, allow for a science-based, comprehensive study of PHO mitigation techniques. Here we present an examination of the effects of radiation from a nuclear explosion on potentially hazardous asteroids and comets through Monte Carlo N-Particle code (MCNP) simulation techniques. MCNP is a general-purpose particle transport code commonly used to model neutron, photon, and electron transport for medical physics reactor design and safety, accelerator target and detector design, and a variety of other applications including modeling the propagation of epithermal neutrons through the Martian regolith (Prettyman 2002). It is a massively parallel code that can conduct simulations in 1-3 dimensions, complicated geometries, and with extremely powerful variance reduction techniques. It uses current nuclear cross section data, where available, and fills in the gaps with analytical models where data are not available. MCNP has undergone extensive verification and validation and is considered the gold-standard for particle transport. (Forrest B. Brown, et al., ''MCNP Version 5,'' Trans. Am. Nucl. Soc., 87, 273, November 2002.) Additionally, a new simulation capability using MCNP has become available to this collaboration. The first results of this new capability will also be presented.

Clement, Ralph R C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Plesko, Catherine S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bradley, Paul A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Conlon, Leann M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

62

Assessing the Relationship Between Hazard Mitigation Plan Quality and Rural Status in a Cohort of 57 Counties from 3 States in the Southeastern U.S.  

E-print Network

Rural counties face unique challenges with regard to disaster vulnerability and resilience. We compared the quality of hazard mitigation plans (HMPs) completed in accordance with provisions of the Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000 from 21 urban and 36...

Horney, Jennifer A.; Naimi, Ashley I.; Lyles, Ward; Simon, Matt; Salvesen, David; Berke, Philip

2013-08-13

63

Rio Soliette (haiti): AN International Initiative for Flood-Hazard Assessment and Mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural catastrophic events are one of most critical aspects for health and economy all around the world. However, the impact in a poor region can impact more dramatically than in others countries. Isla Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic), one of the poorest regions of the planet, has repeatedly been hit by catastrophic natural disasters that caused incalculable human and economic losses. After the catastrophic flood event occurred in the basin of River Soliette on May 24th, 2004, the General Direction for Development and Cooperation of the Italian Department of Foreign Affairs funded an international cooperation initiative (ICI) coordinated by the University of Bologna, that involved Haitian and Dominican institutions.Main purpose of the ICI was hydrological and hydraulic analysis of the May 2004 flood event aimed at formulating a suitable and affordable flood risk mitigation plan, consisting of structural and non-structural measures. In this contest, a topographic survey was necessary to realize the hydrological model and to improve the knowledge in some areas candidates to be site for mitigation measures.To overcome the difficulties arising from the narrowness of funds, surveyors and limited time available for the survey, only GPS technique have been used, both for framing aspects (using PPP approach), and for geometrical survey of the river by means of river cross-sections and detailed surveys in two areas (RTK technique). This allowed us to reconstruct both the river geometry and the DTM's of two expansion areas (useful for design hydraulic solutions for mitigate flood-hazard risk).

Gandolfi, S.; Castellarin, A.; Barbarella, M.; Brath, A.; Domeneghetti, A.; Brandimarte, L.; Di Baldassarre, G.

2013-01-01

64

2009 ERUPTION OF REDOUBT VOLCANO: Lahars, Oil, and the Role of Science in Hazards Mitigation (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In March, 2009, Redoubt Volcano erupted for the third time in 45 years. More than 19 explosions produced ash plumes to 60,000 ft asl, lahar flows of mud and ice down the Drift river ~30 miles to the coast, and tephra fall up to 1.5 mm onto surrounding communities. The eruption had severe impact on many operations. Airlines were forced to cancel or divert hundreds of international and domestic passenger and cargo flights, and Anchorage International airport closed for over 12 hours. Mudflows and floods down the Drift River to the coast impacted operations at the Drift River Oil Terminal (DROT) which was forced to shut down and ultimately be evacuated. Prior mitigation efforts to protect the DROT oil tank farm from potential impacts associated with a major eruptive event were successful, and none of the 148,000 barrels of oil stored at the facility was spilled or released. Nevertheless, the threat of continued eruptive activity at Redoubt, with the possibility of continued lahar flows down the Drift River alluvial fan, required an incident command post be established so that the US Coast Guard, Alaska Dept. of Environmental Conservation, and the Cook Inlet Pipeline Company could coordinate a response to the potential hazards. Ultimately, the incident command team relied heavily on continuous real-time data updates from the Alaska Volcano Observatory, as well as continuous geologic interpretations and risk analysis by the USGS Volcanic Hazards group, the State Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys and the University of Alaska Geophysical Institute, all members of the collaborative effort of the Alaska Volcano Observatory. The great success story that unfolded attests to the efforts of the incident command team, and their reliance on real-time scientific analysis from scientific experts. The positive results also highlight how pre-disaster mitigation and monitoring efforts, in concert with hazards response planning, can be used in a cooperative industry / multi-agency effort to positively affect hazards mitigation. The final outcomes from this potentially disastrous event included: 1) no on-site personnel were injured; 2) no detrimental environmental impacts associated with the oil terminal occurred; and 3) incident command personnel, together with numerous industry representatives, were able to make well-informed, although costly decisions that resulted in safe removal of the oil from the storage facilities. The command team’s efforts also furthered the process of restarting the Cook Inlet oil production after a forced five month shutdown.

Swenson, R.; Nye, C. J.

2009-12-01

65

Probing Aircraft Flight Test Hazard Mitigation for the Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails & Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) Research Team  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails & Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) Project Integration Manager requested in July 2012 that the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) form a team to independently assess aircraft structural failure hazards associated with the ACCESS experiment and to identify potential flight test hazard mitigations to ensure flight safety. The ACCESS Project Integration Manager subsequently requested that the assessment scope be focused predominantly on structural failure risks to the aircraft empennage raft empennage.

Kelly, Michael J.

2013-01-01

66

Solutions Network Formulation Report. NASA's Potential Contributions using ASTER Data in Marine Hazard Mitigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 28-foot storm surge from Hurricane Katrina pushed inland along bays and rivers for a distance of 12 miles in some areas, contributing to the damage or destruction of about half of the fleet of boats in coastal Mississippi. Most of those boats had sought refuge in back bays and along rivers. Some boats were spared damage because the owners chose their mooring site well. Gulf mariners need a spatial analysis tool that provides guidance on the safest places to anchor their boats during future hurricanes. This product would support NOAA s mission to minimize the effects of coastal hazards through awareness, education, and mitigation strategies and could be incorporated in the Coastal Risk Atlas decision support tool.

Fletcher, Rose

2010-01-01

67

Topical issues on performance categorization of structures, systems and components for natural phenomena hazards mitigation  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), under contract to the United States Department of Energy (DOE), has been providing assistance in the development of criteria, standards, and guidelines for designing and evaluating DOE facilities subjected to natural phenomena hazards (NPHs). The NPH design/evaluation guideline document, UCRL-15910 is one of the documents that resulted from this assistance. Even though UCRL-15910 is referred in the General Design Criteria DOE 6430.1A, it is not uniformly applied in the design/evaluation process of DOE facilities. To achieve uniform application of this document, and also to provide a comprehensive NPH mitigation program, an order, DOE 5480.NPH, has recently been developed that requires placing structures, systems, and components (SSCs) comprising DOE facilities into five performance categories (PC) based on importance, mission, cost, and safety considerations. DOE 5480.NPH refers to a standard, DOE-STD-1021-92 (under development) that will provide criteria and guidelines for the selection of SSC performance category. An interim version of this standard has been recently proposed for trial use. The details of the topical issues that were considered in developing this proposed standard, as well as the issues that should be considered before the standard is finalized, are discussed and presented in this report Facilities owned, operated or administered by DOE vary widely in mission, complexity, and hazard potential. NPH mitigation of these facilities involves an array of rules, policies, orders, and standards, which must be considered in the development of performance categorization criteria. The interrelationship among these documents, as these relate to SSC performance categorization, is discussed in Section 2.0 of this report.

Hossain, Q.A.; Nelson, T.A.; Murray, R.C.

1992-12-01

68

Making the Handoff from Earthquake Hazard Assessments to Effective Mitigation Measures (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This year has witnessed a barrage of large earthquakes worldwide with the resulting damages ranging from inconsequential to truly catastrophic. We cannot predict when earthquakes will strike, but we can build communities that are resilient to strong shaking as well as to secondary hazards such as landslides and liquefaction. The contrasting impacts of the magnitude-7 earthquake that struck Haiti in January and the magnitude-8.8 event that struck Chile in April underscore the difference that mitigation and preparedness can make. In both cases, millions of people were exposed to severe shaking, but deaths in Chile were measured in the hundreds rather than the hundreds of thousands that perished in Haiti. Numerous factors contributed to these disparate outcomes, but the most significant is the presence of strong building codes in Chile and their total absence in Haiti. The financial cost of the Chilean earthquake still represents an unacceptably high percentage of that nation’s gross domestic product, a reminder that life safety is the paramount, but not the only, goal of disaster risk reduction measures. For building codes to be effective, both in terms of lives saved and economic cost, they need to reflect the hazard as accurately as possible. As one of four federal agencies that make up the congressionally mandated National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) develops national seismic hazard maps that form the basis for seismic provisions in model building codes through the Federal Emergency Management Agency and private-sector practitioners. This cooperation is central to NEHRP, which both fosters earthquake research and establishes pathways to translate research results into implementation measures. That translation depends on the ability of hazard-focused scientists to interact and develop mutual trust with risk-focused engineers and planners. Strengthening that interaction is an opportunity for the next generation of earthquake scientists and engineers. In addition to the national maps, the USGS produces more detailed urban seismic hazard maps that communities have used to prioritize retrofits and design critical infrastructure that can withstand large earthquakes. At a regional scale, the USGS and its partners in California have developed a time-dependent earthquake rupture forecast that is being used by the insurance sector, which can serve to distribute risk and foster mitigation if the right incentives are in place. What the USGS and partners are doing at the urban, regional, and national scales, the Global Earthquake Model project is seeking to do for the world. A significant challenge for engaging the public to prepare for earthquakes is making low-probability, high-consequence events real enough to merit personal action. Scenarios help by starting with the hazard posed by a specific earthquake and then exploring the fragility of the built environment, cascading failures, and the real-life consequences for the public. To generate such a complete picture takes multiple disciplines working together. Earthquake scenarios are being used both for emergency management exercises and much broader public preparedness efforts like the Great California ShakeOut, which engaged nearly 7 million people.

Applegate, D.

2010-12-01

69

Remote Sensing for Hazard Mitigation and Resource Protection in Pacific Latin America: New NSF sponsored initiative at Michigan Tech  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though much of the developing world has the potential to gain significantly from remote sensing techniques in terms of public health and safety and, eventually, economic development, they lack the resources required to advance the development and practice of remote sensing. Both developed and developing countries share a mutual interest in furthering remote sensing capabilities for natural hazard mitigation and

W. I. Rose; G. J. Bluth; J. S. Gierke; E. Gross

2005-01-01

70

Rockfall hazard assessment, risk quantification, and mitigation options for reef cove resort development, False Cape, Queensland, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GIS and 2-D rock fall simulations were used as the primary tools during a rock fall hazard assessment and analyses for a major resort and township development near Cairns, Queensland in Australia. The methods used included 1) the development of a digital elevation model (DEM); undertaking rock fall trajectory analyses to determine the end points of rockfalls, the distribution of kinetic energy for identified rock fall runout Zones, and 3) undertaking event tree analyses based on a synthesis of all data in order to establish Zones with the highest risk of fatalities. This paper describes the methodology used and the results of this work. Recommendations to mitigate the hazard included having exclusions zones with no construction, scaling (including trim blasting), construction of berms and rockfall catch fences. Keywords: GIS, rockfall simulation, rockfall runout Zones, mitigation options INTRODUCTION False Cape is located on the east side of the Trinity inlet near Cairns (Figure 1). Construction is underway for a multi-million dollar development close the beach front. The development will ultimately cover about 1.5 km of prime coast line. The granite slopes above the development are steep and are covered with a number of large, potentially unstable boulders. Sheet jointing is present in the in-situ bedrock and these combined with other tectonic joint sets have provided a key mechanism for large side down slope on exposed bedrock. With each rock fall (evidence by boulders strew in gullies, over the lower parts of the slope, and on the beach) the failure mechanism migrates upslope. In order for the Developer to proceed with construction he needs to mitigate the identified rock fall hazard. The method used to study the hazard and key finding are presented in this paper. Discussion is provided in the conclusion on mitigation options. KEY METHODS USED TO STUDY THE HAZARD In summary the methods used to study the hazard for the False Cape project include; 1. The development of a digital elevation model (DEM) used to delineate rock fall runout Zones [1] that included the spatial location of boulder fields mapped within Zones(Figure 2). A Zone is defined as an area above the development on steep sided slopes where falling rocks are channeled into gullies / and or are contained between topographic features such as ridges and spurs that extend down the mountainside. These natural barriers generally ensure that falling rocks do not fall or roll into adjacent Zones; 2. The use of ‘Flow Path Tracing Tool' in Arc GIS spatial analyst to confirm typical descents of boulders in Zones. These were shown to correlated strongly with the endpoints of boulders observed within the development and major clusters of boulders on the beach front; 3. The use of 2-D rockfall trajectory analyses [2] using sections cut along typical 3-D trajectory paths mapped out in ARC GIS per Zone. Sections along typical paths in Zones simulated, to some degree, the 3-D affect or path of rocks as they bounce roll down slope (Figure 3); 4. The calibration of rockfall input parameters (coefficients of normal and tangential restitution, slope roughness, friction angle, etc.) using field identified endpoints and size of fallen rock and boulder; and 5. Undertaking risk evolutions in order to quantify the potential risk for each independent rockfall Zone. KEY FINDINGS FROM THE STUDIES The key findings from the study include; 1. Multiple potentially unstable in-situ boulders (some in excess of several thousand tonnes) are present above the development. 2. Similar geological structures (dykes, jointing, etc.) are present in the boulders on the beach front and within the development exposed in-situ bedrock located above the development. Measurement and comparison of the orientation of these geological structures present in boulders with that observed in the in-situ bedrock provided strong evidence that that the boulders have mitigated down slope. 3. Eight discrete Rockfall Runout Zones were identified using the digital elevation model set up in ARC GIS (Figure 4). The bound

Schlotfeldt, P.

2009-04-01

71

Volcanic hazard in Mexico: a comprehensive on-line database for risk mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Researchers are currently working on several key aspects of the Mexican volcanoes, such as remote sensing, field data of old and recent volcaniclastic deposits, structural framework, monitoring (rainfall data and visual observation of lahars), and laboratory experiment (analogue models and numerical simulations - fall3D, titan2D). Each investigation is focused on specific processes, but it is fundamental to visualize the global status of the volcano in order to understand its behavior and to mitigate future hazards. The Mexican Volcanoes @nline represents a novel initiative aimed to collect, on a systematic basis, the complete set of data obtained so far on the volcanoes, and to continuously update the database with new data. All the information is compiled from published works and updated frequently. Maps, such as the geological map of the Mexican volcanos and the associated hazard zonation, as well as point data, such as stratigraphic sections, sedimentology and diagrams of rainfall intensities, are presented in Google Earth format in order to be easily accessed by the scientific community and the general public. An important section of this online database is the presentation of numerical simulations results for ash dispersion associated with the principal Mexican active volcanoes. Daily prediction of ash flow dispersion (based on real-time data from CENAPRED and the Mexican Meteorological Service), as well as large-scale high-resolution subduction simulations performed on HORUS (the Computational Geodynamics Laboratory's supercomputer) represent a central part of the Mexican Volcanos @nline database. The Mexican Volcanoes @nline database is maintained by the Computational Geodynamics Laboratory and it is based entirely on Open Source software. The website can be visited at: http://www.geociencias.unam.mx/mexican_volcanoes.

Manea, Marina; Constantin Manea, Vlad; Capra, Lucia; Bonasia, Rosanna

2013-04-01

72

Integrated Tsunami Data Supports Forecast, Warning, Research, Hazard Assessment, and Mitigation (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With nearly 230,000 fatalities, the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was the deadliest tsunami in history, illustrating the importance of developing basinwide warning systems. Key to creating these systems is easy access to quality-controlled, verified data on past tsunamis. It is essential that warning centers, emergency managers, and modelers can determine if and when similar events have occurred. Following the 2004 tsunami, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) began examining all aspects of the tsunami data archive to help answer questions regarding the frequency and severity of past tsunamis. Historical databases span insufficient time to reveal a region’s full tsunami hazard, so a global database of citations to articles on tsunami deposits was added to the archive. NGDC further expanded the archive to include high-resolution tide gauge data, deep-ocean sensor data, and digital elevation models used for propagation and inundation modeling. NGDC continuously reviews the data for accuracy, making modifications as new information is obtained. These added databases allow NGDC to provide the tsunami data necessary for warning guidance, hazard assessments, and mitigation efforts. NGDC is also at the forefront of standards-based Web delivery of integrated science data through a variety of tools, from Web-form interfaces to interactive maps. The majority of the data in the tsunami archive are discoverable online. Scientists, journalists, educators, planners, and emergency managers are among the many users of these public domain data, which may be used without restriction provided that users cite data sources.

Dunbar, P. K.; Stroker, K. J.

2009-12-01

73

Mitigation of EMU Glove Cut Hazard by MMOD Impact Craters on Exposed ISS Handrails  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent cut damages to crewmember extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) gloves during extravehicular activity (EVA) onboard the International Space Station (ISS) has been found to result from contact with sharp edges or pinch points rather than general wear or abrasion. One possible source of cut-hazards are protruding sharp edged crater lips from impact of micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) particles on external metallic handrails along EVA translation paths. During impact of MMOD particles at hypervelocity an evacuation flow develops behind the shock wave, resulting in the formation of crater lips that can protrude above the target surface. In this study, two methods were evaluated to limit EMU glove cut-hazards due to MMOD impact craters. In the first phase, four flexible overwrap configurations are evaluated: a felt-reusable surface insulation (FRSI), polyurethane polyether foam with beta-cloth cover, double-layer polyurethane polyether foam with beta-cloth cover, and multi-layer beta-cloth with intermediate Dacron netting spacers. These overwraps are suitable for retrofitting ground equipment that has yet to be flown, and are not intended to protect the handrail from impact of MMOD particles, rather to act as a spacer between hazardous impact profiles and crewmember gloves. At the impact conditions considered, all four overwrap configurations evaluated were effective in limiting contact between EMU gloves and impact crater profiles. The multi-layer beta-cloth configuration was the most effective in reducing the height of potentially hazardous profiles in handrail-representative targets. In the second phase of the study, four material alternatives to current aluminum and stainless steel alloys were evaluated: a metal matrix composite, carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP), fiberglass, and a fiber metal laminate. Alternative material handrails are intended to prevent the formation of hazardous damage profiles during MMOD impact and are suitable for flight hardware yet to be constructed. Of the four materials evaluated, only the fiberglass formed a less hazardous damage profile than the baseline metallic target. Although the CFRP laminate did not form any noticeable crater lip, brittle protruding fibers are considered a puncture risk. In parallel with EMU glove redesign efforts, modifications to metallic ISS handrails such as those evaluated in this study provide the means to significantly reduce cut-hazards from MMOD impact craters.

Christiansen, Eric L.; Ryan, Shannon

2009-01-01

74

Health hazards and mitigation of chronic poisoning from arsenic in drinking water: Taiwan experiences.  

PubMed

There are two endemic areas of long-term exposure to arsenic from drinking water in Taiwan. Residents in the southwestern and northeastern endemic areas started using high-arsenic artesian well water in the early 1910s and late 1940s, respectively. Public water supply system using surface water was implemented in southwestern and northeastern endemic areas in the 1970s and 1990s, respectively. Systemic health hazards of long-term exposure to arsenic in drinking water have been intensively investigated since the 1960s, especially after 1985 in Taiwan. Several diseases have been well documented to be associated with chronic arsenic poisoning from drinking water showing a dose-response relation. They include characteristic skin lesions like hyperpigmentation or depigmentation, hyperkeratosis in palms and soles, and Bowen disease, peripheral vascular disease (specifically blackfoot disease), ischemic heart disease, cerebral infarction, microvascular diseases, abnormal peripheral microcirculation, carotid atherosclerosis, QT prolongation and increased dispersion in electrocardiography, hypertension, goiter, diabetes mellitus, cataract (specifically posterior subcapsular lens opacity), pterygium, slow neural conduction, retarded neurobehavioral development, erectile dysfunction, and cancers of the skin, lung, urinary bladder, kidney, and liver. The method of choice to mitigate arsenic poisoning through drinking water is to use safe drinking water from uncontaminated sources. PMID:24552958

Chen, Chien-Jen

2014-01-01

75

Looking Before We Leap: Recent Results From An Ongoing Quantitative Investigation Of Asteroid And Comet Impact Hazard Mitigation.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The asteroid and comet impact hazard is now part of public consciousness, as demonstrated by movies, Super Bowl commercials, and popular news stories. However, there is a popular misconception that hazard mitigation is a solved problem. Many people think, `we'll just nuke it.’ There are, however, significant scientific questions remaining in the hazard mitigation problem. Before we can say with certainty that an explosive yield Y at height of burst h will produce a momentum change in or dispersion of a potentially hazardous object (PHO), we need to quantify how and where energy is deposited into the rubble pile or conglomerate that may make up the PHO. We then need to understand how shock waves propagate through the system, what causes them to disrupt, and how long gravitationally bound fragments take to recombine. Here we present numerical models of energy deposition from an energy source into various materials that are known PHO constituents, and rigid body dynamics models of the recombination of disrupted objects. In the energy deposition models, we explore the effects of porosity and standoff distance as well as that of composition. In the dynamical models, we explore the effects of fragment size and velocity distributions on the time it takes for gravitationally bound fragments to recombine. Initial models indicate that this recombination time is relatively short, as little as 24 hours for a 1 km sized PHO composed of 1000 meter-scale self-gravitating fragments with an initial velocity field of v/r = 0.001 1/s.

Plesko, Catherine; Weaver, R. P.; Korycansky, D. G.; Huebner, W. F.

2010-10-01

76

Natural Hazards and Effects on Local Populations: Applications of NSF MARGINS research to hazards mitigation in Central America  

E-print Network

mitigation in Central America Jeffrey S. Marshall, Geological Sciences Department, Cal Poly Pomona University, T., eds., National Science Foundation ­ MARGINS Program Workshop Report: Central America Seismogenic: The combined focus of two MARGINS research initiatives in Central America (Subduction Factory and SIEZE

Marshall, Jeffrey S.

77

Seismicity and seismotectonics of southern Ghana: lessons for seismic hazard mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ghana is located on the West African craton and is far from the major earthquake zone of the world. It is therefore largely considered a stable region. However, the southern part of the country is seismically active. Records of damaging earthquakes in Ghana date as far back as 1615. A study on the microseismic activity in southern Ghana shows that the seismic activity is linked with active faulting between the east-west trending Coastal boundary fault and a northeast-southwest trending Akwapim fault zone. Epicentres of most of the earthquakes have been located close to the area where the two major faults intersect. This can be related to the level of activity of the faults. Some of the epicentres have been located offshore and can be associated with the level of activity of the coastal boundary fault. A review of the geological and instrumental recordings of earthquakes in Ghana show that earthquakes have occurred in the past and are still liable to occur within the vicinity of the intersection of the Akwapim fault zone and the Coastal boundary fault. Data from both historical and instrumental records indicate that the most seismically active areas in Ghana are the west of Accra, where the Akwapim fault zone and the Coastal boundary fault intersect. There are numerous minor faults in the intersection area between the Akwapim fault zone and the Coastal boundary fault. This mosaic of faults has a major implication for seismic activity in the area. Earthquake disaster mitigation measures are being put in place in recent times to reduce the impact of any major event that may occur in the country. The National Disaster Management Organization has come out with a building guide to assist in the mitigation effort of earthquake disasters and floods in the country. The building guide clearly stipulates the kind of material to be used, the proportion, what should go into the foundation for one or two storey building, the electrical materials to be used and many others.

Amponsah, Paulina

2014-05-01

78

Laboratory scale studies on mitigation of high 222Rn concentrations in air and water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In view of the occasional occurrence of high 222Rn concentrations in air and water under certain circumstances, and in view of the potential health hazards of increased levels of 222Rn in respirable air and in potable water, mitigation of such high 222Rn concentration has become of primary concern. To facilitate the study of the efficiency of the various 222Rn mitigating factors simple laboratory systems were used. Altered alkali granite was used as radon source to enrich air and a piece of pitchblende was used as radon source to enrich water samples. Both enriched media will then be subjected to the mitigation treatments. Charcoal canister technique along with gamma spectrometry were used to measure 222Rn concentrations in air before and after the different mitigating treatments. These were: use of ventilation, radon barriers such as geo-membranes and aluminum sheet, and sealant such as epoxy and vinyl tape. Regarding high levels of 222Rn in air ventilation was the most efficient mitigating factor. Standard liquid scintillation counting was used to measure 222Rn concentrations in water before and after the different mitigation treatments. These were: use of aeration, activated charcoal and heating. Regarding high levels of 222Rn in water, aeration using bubblers and large volume of air was most effective in removing radon from water in a short time. However all the mitigating factors proved effective, in different degrees in decreasing 222Rn concentrations in the respective media. The result from these studies are in general agreement with reports in the literature. It can be concluded then that the different 222Rn mitigating factors can be tested and compared effectively under controlled conditions using simple laboratory scale systems.

Mamoon, A.; Gomma, M. A.; Sohsah, M.

2004-01-01

79

Environmental Hazards 6 (2005) 3949 Mitigation of the heat island effect in urban New Jersey  

E-print Network

Montclair State University, USA d Barnard College, USA Abstract Implementation of urban heat island (UHI Ltd. Keywords: Urban heat island; Mitigation; New Jersey 1. Introduction The urban heat island (UHI

80

Evaluation and mitigation of lightning hazards to the space shuttle Solid Rocket Motors (SRM)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective was to quantify electric field strengths in the Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) propellant in the event of a worst case lightning strike. Using transfer impedance measurements for selected lightning protection materials and 3D finite difference modeling, a retrofit design approach for the existing dielectric grain cover and railcar covers was evaluated and recommended for SRM segment transport. A safe level of 300 kV/m was determined for the propellant. The study indicated that a significant potential hazard exists for unprotected segments during rail transport. However, modified railcar covers and grain covers are expected to prevent lightning attachment to the SRM and to reduce the levels to several orders of magnitude below 300 kV/m.

Rigden, Gregory J.; Papazian, Peter B.

1988-01-01

81

Exploratory Studies Facility Subsurface Fire Hazards Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA) is to confirm the requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) are sufficient to minimize the potential for: The occurrence of a fire or related event; A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees, the public or the environment; Vital U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards; Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE; and Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

Richard C. Logan

2002-03-28

82

Exploratory Studies Facility Subsurface Fire Hazards Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA) is to confirm the requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) are sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire or related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees, the public or the environment. (3) Vital US. Department of Energy (DOE) programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. (5) Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

J. L. Kubicek

2001-09-07

83

Advances in Remote Sensing Approaches for Hazard Mitigation and Natural Resource Protection in Pacific Latin America: A Workshop for Advanced Graduate Students, Post- Doctoral Researchers, and Junior Faculty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Though much of the developing world has the potential to gain significantly from remote sensing techniques in terms of public health and safety, they often lack resources for advancing the development and practice of remote sensing. All countries share a mutual interest in furthering remote sensing capabilities for natural hazard mitigation and resource development. With National Science Foundation support from the Partnerships in International Research and Education program, we are developing a new educational system of applied research and engineering for advancing collaborative linkages among agencies and institutions in Pacific Latin American countries (to date: Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, and Ecuador) in the development of remote sensing tools for hazard mitigation and water resources management. The project aims to prepare students for careers in science and engineering through their efforts to solve suites of problems needing creative solutions: collaboration with foreign agencies; living abroad immersed in different cultures; and adapting their academic training to contend with potentially difficult field conditions and limited resources. The ultimate goal of integrating research with education is to encourage cross-disciplinary, creative, and critical thinking in problem solving and foster the ability to deal with uncertainty in analyzing problems and designing appropriate solutions. In addition to traditional approaches for graduate and undergraduate research, we have built new educational systems of applied research and engineering: (1) the Peace Corp/Master's International program in Natural Hazards which features a 2-year field assignment during service in the U.S. Peace Corps, (2) the Michigan Tech Enterprise program for undergraduates, which gives teams of students from different disciplines the opportunity to work for three years in a business-like setting to solve real-world problems, and (3) a unique university exchange program in natural hazards (E-Haz). Advancements in research have been made, for example, in using thermal remote sensing methods for studying vent and eruptive processes, and in fusing RADARSAT with ASTER imagery to delineate lineaments in volcanic terrains for siting water wells. While these and other advancements are developed in conjunction with our foreign counterparts, the impacts of this work can be broadened through more comprehensive dissemination activities. Towards this end, we are in the planning phase of a Pan American workshop on applications of remote sensing techniques for natural hazards and water resources management. The workshop will be at least two weeks, sometime in July/August 2009, and involve 30-40 participants, with balanced participation from the U.S. and Latin America. In addition to fundamental aspects of remote sensing and digital image processing, the workshop topics will be presented in the context of new developments for studying volcanic processes and hazards and for characterizing groundwater systems.

Gierke, J. S.; Rose, W. I.; Waite, G. P.; Palma, J. L.; Gross, E. L.

2008-12-01

84

Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment: the Seaside, Oregon Pilot Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A pilot study of Seaside, Oregon is underway, to develop methodologies for probabilistic tsunami hazard assessments that can be incorporated into Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs) developed by FEMA's National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). Current NFIP guidelines for tsunami hazard assessment rely on the science, technology and methodologies developed in the 1970s; although generally regarded as groundbreaking and state-of-the-art for its time, this approach is now superseded by modern methods that reflect substantial advances in tsunami research achieved in the last two decades. In particular, post-1990 technical advances include: improvements in tsunami source specification; improved tsunami inundation models; better computational grids by virtue of improved bathymetric and topographic databases; a larger database of long-term paleoseismic and paleotsunami records and short-term, historical earthquake and tsunami records that can be exploited to develop improved probabilistic methodologies; better understanding of earthquake recurrence and probability models. The NOAA-led U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP), in partnership with FEMA, USGS, NSF and Emergency Management and Geotechnical agencies of the five Pacific States, incorporates these advances into site-specific tsunami hazard assessments for coastal communities in Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon and Washington. NTHMP hazard assessment efforts currently focus on developing deterministic, "credible worst-case" scenarios that provide valuable guidance for hazard mitigation and emergency management. The NFIP focus, on the other hand, is on actuarial needs that require probabilistic hazard assessments such as those that characterize 100- and 500-year flooding events. There are clearly overlaps in NFIP and NTHMP objectives. NTHMP worst-case scenario assessments that include an estimated probability of occurrence could benefit the NFIP; NFIP probabilistic assessments of 100- and 500-yr events could benefit the NTHMP. The joint NFIP/NTHMP pilot study at Seaside, Oregon is organized into three closely related components: Probabilistic, Modeling, and Impact studies. Probabilistic studies (Geist, et al., this session) are led by the USGS and include the specification of near- and far-field seismic tsunami sources and their associated probabilities. Modeling studies (Titov, et al., this session) are led by NOAA and include the development and testing of a Seaside tsunami inundation model and an associated database of computed wave height and flow velocity fields. Impact studies (Synolakis, et al., this session) are led by USC and include the computation and analyses of indices for the categorization of hazard zones. The results of each component study will be integrated to produce a Seaside tsunami hazard map. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the project and an update on progress, while the above-referenced companion presentations will provide details on the methods used and the preliminary results obtained by each project component.

Gonzalez, F. I.; Geist, E. L.; Synolakis, C.; Titov, V. V.

2004-12-01

85

Linear Aerospike SR71 Experiment (LASRE): Aerospace Propulsion Hazard Mitigation Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major hazard posed by the propulsion system ofhypersonic and space vehicles is the possibility of fire orexplosion in the vehicle environment. The hazard ismitigated by minimizing or detecting, in the vehicleenvironment, the three ingredients essential toproducing fire: fuel, oxidizer, and an ignition source.The Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE)consisted of a linear aerospike rocket engine integratedinto one-half of an X-33-like

Masashi Mizukami; Griffin P. Corpening; Ronald J. Ray; Neal Hass; Kimberly A. Ennix; Scott M. Lazaroff

1998-01-01

86

Utilization of geoindicators for rapid assessment of coastal-hazard risk and mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geoindicators provide a management tool for rapid assessment of natural hazard risk potential, either as a supplement to long-term environmental auditing and monitoring, or for initial coastal assessment as in developing countries. Using examples of barrier island and bluffed coasts, indicators of process\\/response are examined regionally, locally, and site-specifically; the latter being the primary indicators of property-threatening hazards. Tabled evaluation

David M. Bush; William J. Neal; Robert S. Young; Orrin H. Pilkey

1999-01-01

87

Hawaiian cultural influences on support for lava flow hazard mitigation measures during the January 1960 eruption of K?lauea volcano, Kapoho, Hawai‘i  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1960, K?lauea volcano in Hawaii erupted, destroying most of the village of Kapoho and forcing evacuation of its approximately 300 residents. A large and unprecedented social science survey was undertaken during the eruption to develop an understanding of human behavior, beliefs, and coping strategies among the adult evacuees ( n = 160). Identical studies were also performed in three control towns located at varying distances from the eruption site ( n = 478). During these studies data were collected that characterized ethnic grouping and attitudes toward Hawaiian cultural issues such as belief in Pele and two lava flow mitigation measures—use of barriers and bombs to influence the flow of lava, but the data were never published. Using these forgotten data, we examined the relationship between Hawaiian cultural issues and attitudes toward the use of barriers and bombs as mitigation strategies to protect Kapoho. On average, 72% of respondents favored the construction of earthen barriers to hold back or divert lava and protect Kapoho, but far fewer agreed with the military's use of bombs (14%) to protect Kapoho. In contrast, about one-third of respondents conditionally agreed with the use of bombs. It is suggested that local participation in the bombing strategy may explain the increased conditional acceptance of bombs as a mitigation tool, although this can not be conclusively demonstrated. Belief in Pele and being of Hawaiian ethnicity did not reduce support for the use of barriers, but did reduce support for bombs in both bombing scenarios. The disparity in levels of acceptance of barriers versus bombing and of one bombing strategy versus another suggests that historically public attitudes toward lava flow hazard mitigation strategies were complex. A modern comparative study is needed before the next damaging eruption to inform debates and decisions about whether or not to interfere with the flow of lava. Recent changes in the current eruption of K?lauea make this a timely topic.

Gregg, C. E.; Houghton, B. F.; Paton, D.; Swanson, D. A.; Lachman, R.; Bonk, W. J.

2008-05-01

88

Remote Sensing for Hazard Mitigation and Resource Protection in Pacific Latin America: New NSF sponsored initiative at Michigan Tech.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Though much of the developing world has the potential to gain significantly from remote sensing techniques in terms of public health and safety and, eventually, economic development, they lack the resources required to advance the development and practice of remote sensing. Both developed and developing countries share a mutual interest in furthering remote sensing capabilities for natural hazard mitigation and resource development, and this common commitment creates a solid foundation upon which to build an integrated education and research project. This will prepare students for careers in science and engineering through their efforts to solve a suite of problems needing creative solutions: collaboration with foreign agencies; living abroad immersed in different cultures; and adapting their academic training to contend with potentially difficult field conditions and limited resources. This project makes two important advances: (1) We intend to develop the first formal linkage among geoscience agencies from four Pacific Latin American countries (Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua and Ecuador), focusing on the collaborative development of remote sensing tools for hazard mitigation and water resource development; (2) We will build a new educational system of applied research and engineering, using two existing educational programs at Michigan Tech: a new Peace Corp/Master's International (PC/MI) program in Natural Hazards which features a 2-year field assignment, and an "Enterprise" program for undergraduates, which gives teams of geoengineering students the opportunity to work for three years in a business-like setting to solve real-world problems This project will involve 1-2 post-doctoral researchers, 3 Ph.D., 9 PC/MI, and roughly 20 undergraduate students each year.

Rose, W. I.; Bluth, G. J.; Gierke, J. S.; Gross, E.

2005-12-01

89

Piloted Simulation to Evaluate the Utility of a Real Time Envelope Protection System for Mitigating In-Flight Icing Hazards  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The utility of the Icing Contamination Envelope Protection (ICEPro) system for mitigating a potentially hazardous icing condition was evaluated by 29 pilots using the NASA Ice Contamination Effects Flight Training Device (ICEFTD). ICEPro provides real time envelope protection cues and alerting messages on pilot displays. The pilots participating in this test were divided into two groups; a control group using baseline displays without ICEPro, and an experimental group using ICEPro driven display cueing. Each group flew identical precision approach and missed approach procedures with a simulated failure case icing condition. Pilot performance, workload, and survey questionnaires were collected for both groups of pilots. Results showed that real time assessment cues were effective in reducing the number of potentially hazardous upset events and in lessening exposure to loss of control following an incipient upset condition. Pilot workload with the added ICEPro displays was not measurably affected, but pilot opinion surveys showed that real time cueing greatly improved their situation awareness of a hazardous aircraft state.

Ranaudo, Richard J.; Martos, Borja; Norton, Bill W.; Gingras, David R.; Barnhart, Billy P.; Ratvasky, Thomas P.; Morelli, Eugene

2011-01-01

90

The respiratory health hazards of volcanic ash: a review for volcanic risk mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies of the respiratory health effects of different types of volcanic ash have been undertaken only in the last 40 years, and mostly since the eruption of Mt. St. Helens in 1980. This review of all published clinical, epidemiological and toxicological studies, and other work known to the authors up to and including 2005, highlights the sparseness of studies on acute health effects after eruptions and the complexity of evaluating the long-term health risk (silicosis, non-specific pneumoconiosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) in populations from prolonged exposure to ash due to persistent eruptive activity. The acute and chronic health effects of volcanic ash depend upon particle size (particularly the proportion of respirable-sized material), mineralogical composition (including the crystalline silica content) and the physico-chemical properties of the surfaces of the ash particles, all of which vary between volcanoes and even eruptions of the same volcano, but adequate information on these key characteristics is not reported for most eruptions. The incidence of acute respiratory symptoms (e.g. asthma, bronchitis) varies greatly after ashfalls, from very few, if any, reported cases to population outbreaks of asthma. The studies are inadequate for excluding increases in acute respiratory mortality after eruptions. Individuals with pre-existing lung disease, including asthma, can be at increased risk of their symptoms being exacerbated after falls of fine ash. A comprehensive risk assessment, including toxicological studies, to determine the long-term risk of silicosis from chronic exposure to volcanic ash, has been undertaken only in the eruptions of Mt. St. Helens (1980), USA, and Soufrière Hills, Montserrat (1995 onwards). In the Soufrière Hills eruption, a long-term silicosis hazard has been identified and sufficient exposure and toxicological information obtained to make a probabilistic risk assessment for the development of silicosis in outdoor workers and the general population. A more systematic approach to multi-disciplinary studies in future eruptions is recommended, including establishing an archive of ash samples and a website containing health advice for the public, together with scientific and medical study guidelines for volcanologists and health-care workers.

Horwell, Claire J.; Baxter, Peter J.

2006-07-01

91

Assessing NEO hazard mitigation in terms of astrodynamics and propulsion systems requirements.  

PubMed

Uncertainties associated with assessing valid near-Earth object (NEO) threats and carrying out interception missions place unique and stringent burdens on designing mission architecture, astrodynamics, and spacecraft propulsion systems. A prime uncertainty is associated with the meaning of NEO orbit predictability regarding Earth impact. Analyses of past NEO orbits and impact probabilities indicate uncertainties in determining if a projected NEO threat will actually materialize within a given time frame. Other uncertainties regard estimated mass, composition, and structural integrity of the NEO body. At issue is if one can reliably estimate a NEO threat and its magnitude. Parameters that determine NEO deflection requirements within various time frames, including the terminal orbital pass before impact, and necessary energy payloads, are quantitatively discussed. Propulsion system requirements for extending space capabilities to rapidly interact with NEOs at ranges of up to about 1 AU (astronomical unit) from Earth are outlined. Such missions, without gravitational boosts, are deemed critical for a practical and effective response to mitigation. If an impact threat is confirmed on an immediate orbital pass, the option for interactive reconnaissance, and interception, and subsequent NEO orbit deflection must be promptly carried out. There also must be an option to abort the mitigation mission if the NEO is subsequently found not to be Earth threatening. These options require optimal decision latitude and operational possibilities for NEO threat removal while minimizing alarm. Acting too far in advance of the projected impact could induce perturbations that ultimately exacerbate the threat. Given the dilemmas, uncertainties, and limited options associated with timely NEO mitigation within a decision making framework, currently available propulsion technologies that appear most viable to carry out a NEO interception/mitigation mission within the greatest margin of control and reliability are those based on a combined (bimodal) nuclear thermal/nuclear electric propulsion platform. Elements of required and currently available performance characteristics for nuclear and electric propulsion systems are also discussed. PMID:15220155

Remo, John L

2004-05-01

92

Hazardous near Earth asteroid mitigation campaign planning based on uncertain information on fundamental asteroid characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given a limited warning time, an asteroid impact mitigation campaign would hinge on uncertainty-based information consisting of remote observational data of the identified Earth-threatening object, general knowledge of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs), and engineering judgment. Due to these ambiguities, the campaign credibility could be profoundly compromised. It is therefore imperative to comprehensively evaluate the inherent uncertainty in deflection and plan the campaign accordingly to ensure successful mitigation. This research demonstrates dual-deflection mitigation campaigns consisting of primary (instantaneous/quasi-instantaneous) and secondary (slow-push) deflection missions, where both deflection efficiency and campaign credibility are taken into account. The results of the dual-deflection campaign analysis show that there are trade-offs between the competing aspects: the launch cost, mission duration, deflection distance, and the confidence in successful deflection. The design approach is found to be useful for multi-deflection campaign planning, allowing us to select the best possible combination of missions from a catalogue of campaign options, without compromising the campaign credibility.

Sugimoto, Y.; Radice, G.; Ceriotti, M.; Sanchez, J. P.

2014-10-01

93

A perspective multidisciplinary geological approach for mitigation of effects due to the asbestos hazard  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asbestos-bearing rock sequences constitute a remarkable natural hazard that poses important threat to human health and may be at the origin of diseases such as asbestosis, mesothelioma and lung cancer). Presently, asbestos is classified as Category 1 carcinogen by world health authorities. Although regulatory agencies in many countries prohibit or restrict the use of asbestos, and discipline the environmental asbestos

Gianluca Vignaroli; Federico Rossetti; Girolamo Belardi; Andrea Billi

2010-01-01

94

Volcanic Ash Image Products from MODIS for Aviation Safety and Natural Hazard Mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-spectral volcanic ash image products have been developed using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data from the NASA Terra spacecraft (Ellrod and Im 2003). Efforts are now underway to integrate these new products into the MODIS Data Retrieval System at NESDIS, for use in the operational Hazard Mapping System (HMS). The images will be used at the Washington Volcanic Ash

G. Stephens; G. P. Ellrod; J. Im

2003-01-01

95

Making the Handoff from Earthquake Hazard Assessments to Effective Mitigation Measures (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This year has witnessed a barrage of large earthquakes worldwide with the resulting damages ranging from inconsequential to truly catastrophic. We cannot predict when earthquakes will strike, but we can build communities that are resilient to strong shaking as well as to secondary hazards such as landslides and liquefaction. The contrasting impacts of the magnitude-7 earthquake that struck Haiti in

D. Applegate

2010-01-01

96

Debris flood hazard documentation and mitigation on the Tilcara alluvial fan (Quebrada de Humahuaca, Jujuy province, North-West Argentina)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For some decades, mass wasting processes such as landslides and debris floods have been threatening villages and transportation routes in the Rio Grande Valley, named Quebrada de Humauhuaca. One of the most significant examples is the urban area of Tilcara, built on a large alluvial fan. In recent years, debris flood phenomena have been triggered in the tributary valley of the Huasamayo Stream and reached the alluvial fan on a decadal basis. In view of proper development of the area, hazard and risk assessment together with risk mitigation strategies are of paramount importance. The need is urgent also because the Quebrada de Humahuaca was recently included in the UNESCO World Cultural Heritage. Therefore, the growing tourism industry may lead to uncontrolled exploitation and urbanization of the valley, with a consequent increase of the vulnerability of the elements exposed to risk. In this context, structural and non structural mitigation measures not only have to be based on the understanding of natural processes, but also have to consider environmental and sociological factors that could hinder the effectiveness of the countermeasure works. The hydrogeological processes are described with reference to present-day hazard and risk conditions. Considering the socio-economic context, some possible interventions are outlined, which encompass budget constraints and local practices. One viable solution would be to build a protecting dam upstream of the fan apex and an artificial channel, in order to divert the floodwaters in a gully that would then convey water and sediments into the Rio Grande, some kilometers downstream of Tilcara. The proposed remedial measures should employ easily available and relatively cheap technologies and local workers, incorporating low environmental and visual impacts issues, in order to ensure both the future conservation of the site and its safe exploitation for inhabitants and tourists.

Marcato, G.; Bossi, G.; Rivelli, F.; Borgatti, L.

2012-06-01

97

Detecting Slow Deformation Signals Preceding Dynamic Failure: A New Strategy For The Mitigation Of Natural Hazards (SAFER)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rock slope monitoring is a major aim in territorial risk assessment and mitigation. The high velocity that usually characterizes the failure phase of rock instabilities makes the traditional instruments based on slope deformation measurements not applicable for early warning systems. On the other hand the use of acoustic emission records has been often a good tool in underground mining for slope monitoring. Here we aim to identify the characteristic signs of impending failure, by deploying a "site specific" microseismic monitoring system on an unstable patch of the Madonna del Sasso landslide on the Italian Western Alps designed to monitor subtle changes of the mechanical properties of the medium and installed as close as possible to the source region. The initial characterization based on geomechanical and geophysical tests allowed to understand the instability mechanism and to design the monitoring systems to be placed. Stability analysis showed that the stability of the slope is due to rock bridges. Their failure progress can results in a global slope failure. Consequently the rock bridges potentially generating dynamic ruptures need to be monitored. A first array consisting of instruments provided by University of Turin, has been deployed on October 2013, consisting of 4 triaxial 4.5 Hz seismometers connected to a 12 channel data logger arranged in a 'large aperture' configuration which encompasses the entire unstable rock mass. Preliminary data indicate the occurrence of microseismic swarms with different spectral contents. Two additional geophones and 4 triaxial piezoelectric accelerometers able to operate at frequencies up to 23 KHz will be installed during summer 2014. This will allow us to develop a network capable of recording events with Mw < 0.5 and frequencies between 700 Hz and 20 kHz. Rock physical and mechanical characterization along with rock deformation laboratory experiments during which the evolution of related physical parameters under simulated conditions of stress and fluid content will be also studied and theoretical modelling will allow to come up with a full hazard assessment and test new methodologies for a much wider scale of applications within EU.

Vinciguerra, Sergio; Colombero, Chiara; Comina, Cesare; Ferrero, Anna Maria; Mandrone, Giuseppe; Umili, Gessica; Fiaschi, Andrea; Saccorotti, Gilberto

2014-05-01

98

Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Devices, Potential Navigational Hazards and Mitigation Measures  

SciTech Connect

On April 15, 2008, the Department of Energy (DOE) issued a Funding Opportunity Announcement for Advanced Water Power Projects which included a Topic Area for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Market Acceleration Projects. Within this Topic Area, DOE identified potential navigational impacts of marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy technologies and measures to prevent adverse impacts on navigation as a sub-topic area. DOE defines marine and hydrokinetic technologies as those capable of utilizing one or more of the following resource categories for energy generation: ocean waves; tides or ocean currents; free flowing water in rivers or streams; and energy generation from the differentials in ocean temperature. PCCI was awarded Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-08GO18177 from the DOE to identify the potential navigational impacts and mitigation measures for marine hydrokinetic technologies. A technical report addressing our findings is available on this Science and Technology Information site under the Product Title, "Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Technologies: Potential Navigational Impacts and Mitigation Measures". This product is a brochure, primarily for project developers, that summarizes important issues in that more comprehensive report, identifies locations where that report can be downloaded, and identifies points of contact for more information.

Cool, Richard, M.; Hudon, Thomas, J.; Basco, David, R.; Rondorf, Neil, E.

2009-12-01

99

Advances in Remote Sensing Approaches for Hazard Mitigation and Natural Resource Protection in Pacific Latin America: A Workshop for Advanced Graduate Students, Post Doctoral Researchers, and Junior Faculty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though much of the developing world has the potential to gain significantly from remote sensing techniques in terms of public health and safety, they often lack resources for advancing the development and practice of remote sensing. All countries share a mutual interest in furthering remote sensing capabilities for natural hazard mitigation and resource development. With National Science Foundation support from

J. S. Gierke; W. I. Rose; G. P. Waite; J. L. Palma; E. L. Gross

2008-01-01

100

A probabilistic framework for hazard assessment and mitigation of induced seismicity related to deep geothermal systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Slip on tectonic faults take place over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales as earthquakes, continuous aseismic creep, or transient creep events. Shallow creep events on continental strike-slip faults can occur spontaneously, or are coupled with earthquake afterslip, or are triggered by nearby earthquakes. Despite more than five decades of observations, the mechanism of shallow creep events and their implications for seismic hazard are still not fully understood. To understand the mechanism of creep events, we developed a physics-based numerical model to simulate shallow creep events on a strike-slip fault with rate-and-state frictional properties (Wei et al., 2013). We show that the widely used synoptic model (Scholz, 1998) cannot reproduce both rapid afterslip and frequent creep events as observed on the Superstition Hills fault in the Salton Trough after the 1987 Mw 6.6 earthquake. Rather, an unstable layer embedded in the shallow stable zone is required to match the geodetic observations of the creep behavior. Using the strike-slip fault model, we studied the triggering process of creep events, by either static or dynamic, or combined stress perturbations induced on the fault by nearby earthquakes. Preliminary results show that static stress perturbations in the effective normal stress on a system with spontaneous creep events can advance or delay creep events. The magnitude and timing of perturbations determines the clock change of creep events. The magnitude and interval of creep events changes permanently after static stress perturbation. Dynamic stress perturbations in effective normal stress can advance the timings of creep events when the perturbation temporally decreases the effective normal stress. A threshold exists for instantaneous triggering. The size of triggered slip increases as the dynamic perturbation increases in the direction of less normal stress. The system returns to pre-perturbation state after a long period of no slip. The length of the recovery time depends on the size of triggered slip therefore the magnitude and duration of perturbation. Perturbations that temporally increase effective normal stress do not have significant influence on the timings of future creep events. We applied our theoretical models to the Salton Trough, California, where both shallow creep events and earthquakes are common. We systematically analyzed the level of dynamic and static triggering from nearby earthquakes for the last 30 years, including moderate (> M5) to large (>M6) earthquakes. By incorporating these triggering to our fault model, we are trying to understand 1) which mechanism is dominant, static or dynamic; 2) whether a critical threshold exists, like in the generic model with synthetic dynamic perturbations for the instantaneous triggering of shallow creep events in Salton Trough; 3) the effect of fault orientation with respect to the incoming seismic waves. By developing state-of-the-art models and constraining parameters with rich datasets from Southern California, we aim to transition from a conceptual understanding of fault creep towards a quantitative and predictive understanding of the physical mechanism of creep events on continental strike-slip faults.

Wiemer, S.; Bachmann, C. E.; Allmann, B.; Giardini, D.; Woessner, J.; Catalli, F.; Mena Carbrera, B.

2011-12-01

101

Using Darwin's theory of atoll formation to improve tsunami hazard mitigation in the Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is 130 years since Charles Darwin's death and 176 years since he his penned his subsidence theory of atoll formation on 12th April 1836 during the voyage of the Beagle through the Pacific. This theory, founded on the premise of a subsiding volcano and the corresponding upward growth of coral reef, was astonishing for the time considering the absence of an underpinning awareness of plate tectonics. Furthermore, with the exception of the occasional permutation and opposing idea his theory has endured and has an enviable longevity amongst paradigms in geomorphology. In his theory, Darwin emphasised the generally circular morphology of the atoll shape and surprisingly, the validity of this simple morphological premise has never been questioned. There are however, few atolls in the Pacific Ocean that attain such a simple morphology with most manifesting one or more arcuate 'bight-like' structures (ABLSs). These departures from the circular form complicate his simplistic model and are indicative of geomorphological processes in the Pacific Ocean which cannot be ignored. ABLSs represent the surface morphological expression of major submarine failures of atoll volcanic foundations. Such failures can occur during any stage of atoll formation and are a valuable addition to Darwin's theory because they indicate the instability of the volcanic foundations. It is widely recognized in the research community that sector/flank collapses of island edifices are invariably tsunamigenic and yet we have no clear understanding of how significant such events are in the tsunami hazard arena. The recognition of ABLSs however, now offers scientists the opportunity to establish a first order database of potential local and regional tsunamigenic sources associated with the sector/flank collapses of island edifices. We illustrate the talk with examples of arcuate 'bight-like' structures and associated tsunamis in atoll and atoll-like environments. The implications for our understanding of tsunami hazards are profound. In essence, at present we are seriously under-estimating the significance of locally and regionally generated tsunamis throughout the entire Pacific Ocean, but we now have the opportunity to enhance our understanding of such events.

Goff, J. R.; Terry, J. P.

2012-12-01

102

The Evolution of Operational Satellite Based Remote Sensing in Support of Weather Analysis, Nowcasting, and Hazard Mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mission of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Environmental Data Information Service (NESDIS) is to provide timely access to global environmental data from satellites and other sources to promote, protect, and enhance America’s economy, security, environment, and quality of life. To fulfill its responsibilities, NESDIS acquires and manages America’s operational environmental satellites, operates the NOAA National Data Centers, provides data and information services including Earth system monitoring, performs official assessments of the environment, and conducts related research. The Nation’s fleet of operational environmental satellites has proven to be very critical in the detection, analysis, and forecast of natural or man-made phenomena. These assets have provided for the protection of people and property while safeguarding the Nation’s commerce and enabling safe and effective military operations. This presentation will take the audience through the evolution of operational satellite based remote sensing in support of weather forecasting, nowcasting, warning operations, hazard detection and mitigation. From the very first experiments involving radiation budget to today’s fleet of Geostationary and Polar Orbiting satellites to tomorrow’s constellation of high resolution imagers and hyperspectral sounders, environmental satellites sustain key observations for current and future generations.

Hughes, B. K.

2010-12-01

103

Probing Aircraft Flight Test Hazard Mitigation for the Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) Research Team . Volume 2; Appendices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) Project Integration Manager requested in July 2012 that the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) form a team to independently assess aircraft structural failure hazards associated with the ACCESS experiment and to identify potential flight test hazard mitigations to ensure flight safety. The ACCESS Project Integration Manager subsequently requested that the assessment scope be focused predominantly on structural failure risks to the aircraft empennage (horizontal and vertical tail). This report contains the Appendices to Volume I.

Kelly, Michael J.

2013-01-01

104

State of Colorado Wildfire Hazard  

E-print Network

State of Colorado Wildfire Hazard Mitigation Plan Colorado Multi-Hazards Mitigation Plan July 2002 and importance of the August 1995 Wildfire Hazard Mitigation Plan and its predecessors as foundation documents on which to build and judge progress in wildfire hazard mitigation. The text version of the 1995 Plan

105

Multi-scale earthquake hazard and risk in the Chinese mainland and countermeasures for the preparedness, mitigation, and management: an overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquake hazard and risk in the Chinese mainland exhibit multi-scale characteristics. Temporal scales from centuries to months, spatial scales from the whole mainland to specific engineering structures, and energy scales from great disastrous earthquakes to small earthquakes causing social disturbance and economic loss, feature the complexity of earthquake disasters. Coping with such complex challenge, several research and application projects have been undertaken since recent years. Lessons and experiences of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake contributed much to the launching and conducting of these projects. Understandings of the scientific problems and technical approaches taken in the mainstream studies in the Chinese mainland have no significant difference from those in the international scientific communities, albeit using of some of the terminologies have "cultural differences" - for instance, in the China Earthquake Administration (CEA), the terminology "earthquake forecast/prediction (study)" is generally used in a much broader sense, mainly indicating time-dependent seismic hazard at different spatio-temporal scales. Several scientific products have been produced serving the society in different forms. These scientific products have unique academic merits due to the long-term persistence feature and the forward forecast nature, which are all essential for the evaluation of the technical performance and the falsification of the scientific ideas. On the other hand, using the language of the "actor network theory (ANT)" in science studies (or the sociology of science), at present, the hierarchical "actors' network", making the science transformed to the actions of the public and government for the preparedness, mitigation, and management of multi-scale earthquake disasters, is still in need of careful construction and improvement.

Wu, Z.; Jiang, C.; Ma, T.

2012-12-01

106

Numerical study of water mitigation effects on blast wave  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mitigating effect of a water wall on the generation and propagation of blast waves of a nearby explosive has been investigated using a numerical approach. A multimaterial Eulerian finite element technique is used to study the influence of the design parameters, such as the water-to-explosive weight ratio, the water wall thickness, the air-gap and the cover area ratio of water on the effectiveness of the water mitigation concept. In the computational model, the detonation gases are modelled with the standard Jones Wilkins Lee (JWL) equation of state. Water, on the other hand, is treated as a compressible fluid with the Mie Gruneisen equation of state model. The validity of the computational model is checked against a limited amount of available experimental data, and the influence of mesh sizes on the convergence of results is also discussed. From the results of the extensive numerical experiments, it is deduced that firstly, the presence of an air-gap reduces the effectiveness of the water mitigator. Secondly, the higher the water-to-explosive weight ratio, the more significant is the reduction in peak pressure of the explosion. Typically, water-to-explosive weight ratios in the range of 1 3 are found to be most practical.

Cheng, M.; Hung, K. C.; Chong, O. Y.

2005-11-01

107

Mitigating Hazards Through Continuing Design: The Birth and Evolution of a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

ften, researchers study organizations in which design is largely in place and the design process is shrouded in the distant past. However, the design process can have dramatic implications for how organizations function. This paper reports a specific attempt to design one organizational subunit, a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), to function under difficult circumstances. The founders aimed to create

Peter Madsen; Vinit Desai; Karlene Roberts; Daniel Wong

2006-01-01

108

3-D seismic structure of the Kachchh, Gujarat, and its implications for the earthquake hazard mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several pieces of studies on the January 26, 2001, Bhuj earthquake (Mw 7.6) revealed that the mainshock was triggered on the\\u000a hidden unmapped fault in the western part of Indian stable continental region that caused a huge loss in the entire Kachchh\\u000a rift basin of Gujarat, India. Occurrences of infrequent earthquakes of Mw 7.6 due to existence of hidden and

A. P. SinghO; O. P. Mishra; B. K. Rastogi; Dinesh Kumar

2011-01-01

109

IRIDIUM SATELLITE SIGNALS: A CASE STUDY IN INTERFERENCE CHARACTERIZATION AND MITIGATION FOR  

E-print Network

IRIDIUM SATELLITE SIGNALS: A CASE STUDY IN INTERFERENCE CHARACTERIZATION AND MITIGATION FOR RADIO of the Iridium System. So astronomers are now studying a variety of diverse approaches to mitigating the effects-detection approaches to the identification and mitigation of RFI originating from the Iridium System. OBSERVATIONS

Lewis, Brian Murray

110

RAGE Hydrocode Modeling of Asteroid Mitigation: new simulations with parametric studies for uncertainty quantification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are performing detailed hydrodynamic simulations of the interaction from a strong explosion with sample Asteroid objects. The purpose of these simulations is to apply modern hydrodynamic codes that have been well verified and validated (V&V) to the problem of mitigating the hazard from a potentially hazardous object (PHO), an asteroid or comet that is on an Earth crossing orbit. The code we use for these simulations is the RAGE code from Los Alamos National Laboratory [1-6]. Initial runs were performed using a spherical object. Next we ran simulations using the shape form from a known asteroid: 25143 Itokawa. This particular asteroid is not a PHO but we use its shape to consider the influence of non-spherical objects. The initial work was performed using 2D cylindrically symmetric simulations and simple geometries. We then performed a major fully 3D simulation. For an Itokawa size object (~500 m) and an explosion energies ranging from 0.5 - 1 megatons, the velocities imparted to all of the PHO "rocks" in all cases were many m/s. The velocities calculated were much larger than escape velocity and would preclude re-assembly of the fragments. The dispersion of the asteroid remnants is very directional from a surface burst, with all fragments moving away from the point of the explosion. This detail can be used to time the intercept for maximum movement off the original orbit. Results from these previous studies will be summarized for background. In the new work presented here we show a variety of parametric studies around these initial simulations. We modified the explosion energy by +/- 20% and varied the internal composition from a few large "rocks" to several hundred smaller rocks. The results of these parametric studies will be presented. We have also extended our work [6],[7] to stand-off nuclear bursts and will present the initial results for the energy deposition by a generic source into the non-uniform composition asteroid. The goal of this new work is to obtain an "optimal stand-off" distance from detailed radiation transport-hydrodynamic simulations from generic explosion properties. The initial results of these two studies will also be presented. References [1] Gitting, Weaver et al 'The RAGE radiation-hydrodynamics Code,' Comp. Sci. Disc. 1 (2008) 015005 November 21, 2008 [2] Huebner, W.F. et al, 'The Engagement Space for Countermeasures Against Potentially Hazardous Objects (PHOs),' International Conference in Asteroid and Comet Hazards, 2009 held at the Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg 21-25-September 2009. [3] Gisler, Weaver, Mader, & Gittings, Two and three dimensional asteroid impact simulations, Computing in Science & Engineering, 6, 38 (2004). [4] NASA geometry courtesy of S.J. Osto et al. (2002) in Asteroids Book 3 [5] Itokawa image courtesy of JAXA: http://www.isas.jaxa.jp/e/snews/2005/1102.shtml#pic001 [6] Plesko, C et al "Looking Before we Leap: Recent Results from an Ongoing, Quantitative Investigation of Asteroid and Comet Impact Hazard Mitigation" Division of Planetary Sciences 2010. [7] Plesko, C et. al. "Numerical Models of Asteroid and Comet Impact Hazard Mitigation by Nuclear Stand-Off Burst." Planetary Defense Conference 2011.

Weaver, R.; Plesko, C. S.; Gisler, G. R.

2013-12-01

111

A design study on complexity reduced multipath mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global navigation satellite systems, e.g. the current GPS and the future European Galileo system, are frequently used in car navigation systems or smart phones to determine the position of a user. The calculation of the mobile position is based on the signal propagation times between the satellites and the mobile terminal. At least four time of arrival (TOA) measurements from four different satellites are required to resolve the position uniquely. Further, the satellites need to be line-of-sight to the receiver for exact position calculation. However, in an urban area, the direct path may be blocked and the resulting multipath propagation causes errors in the order of tens of meters for each measurement. and in the case of non-line-of-sight (NLOS), positive errors in the order of hundreds of meters. In this paper an advanced algorithm for multipath mitigation known as CRMM is presented. CRMM features reduced algorithmic complexity and superior performance in comparison with other state of the art multipath mitigation algorithms. Simulation results demonstrate the significant improvements in position calculation in environments with severe multipath propagation. Nevertheless, in relation to traditional algorithms an increased effort is required for real-time signal processing due to the large amount of data, which has to be processed in parallel. Based on CRMM, we performed a comprehensive design study including a design space exploration for the tracking unit hardware part, and prototype implementation for hardware complexity estimation.

Wasenmüller, U.; Brack, T.; Groh, I.; Staudinger, E.; Sand, S.; Wehn, N.

2012-09-01

112

44 CFR 78.5 - Flood Mitigation Plan development.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION ASSISTANCE § 78.5 Flood Mitigation Plan development. A...

2010-10-01

113

44 CFR 78.5 - Flood Mitigation Plan development.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION ASSISTANCE § 78.5 Flood Mitigation Plan development. A...

2011-10-01

114

44 CFR 78.5 - Flood Mitigation Plan development.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION ASSISTANCE § 78.5 Flood Mitigation Plan development. A...

2012-10-01

115

44 CFR 78.5 - Flood Mitigation Plan development.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION ASSISTANCE § 78.5 Flood Mitigation Plan development. A...

2013-10-01

116

Natural Hazard Mitigation thru Water Augmentation Strategies to Provide Additional Snow Pack for Water Supply and Hydropower Generation in Drought Stressed Alps/Mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate variability and change are clearly stressing water supplies in high alpine regions of the Earth. These recent long-term natural hazards present critical challenges to policy makers and water managers. This paper addresses strategies to use enhanced scientific methods to mitigate the problem. Recent rapid depletions of glaciers and intense droughts throughout the world have created a need to reexamine modern water augmentation technologies for enhancing snow pack in mountainous regions. Today’s reliance on clean efficient hydroelectric power in the Alps and the Rocky Mountains poses a critical need for sustainable snow packs and high elevation water supplies through out the year. Hence, the need to make natural cloud systems more efficient precipitators during the cold season through anthropogenic weather modification techniques. The Bureau of Reclamation, US Department of the Interior, has spent over $39M in research from 1963 to 1990 to develop the scientific basis for snow pack augmentation in the headwaters of the Colorado, American, and Columbia River Basins in the western United States, and through USAID in Morocco in the High Atlas Mountains. This paper presents a brief summary of the research findings and shows that even during drought conditions potential exists for significant, cost-effective enhancement of water supplies. Examples of ground based propane and AgI seeding generators, cloud physics studies of supercooled cloud droplets and ice crystal characteristics that indicate seeding potential will be shown. Hypothetical analyses of seeding potential in 17 western states from Montana to California will be presented based on observed SNOTEL snow water equivalent measurements, and distributed by elevation and observed winter precipitation. Early studies indicated from 5 to 20% increases in snow pack were possible, if winter storm systems were seeded effectively. If this potential was realized in drought conditions observed in 2003, over 1.08 million acre feet (1.33 x 10**9 m3) of additional water could be captured by seeding efficiently and effectively in just 10 storms. Recent projects sponsored by the National Science Foundation, NOAA, and the States of Wyoming, Utah and Nevada, and conducted by the National Center for Atmospheric Research will be discussed briefly. Examples of conditions in extreme droughts of the Western United States will be presented that show potential to mitigate droughts in these regions through cloud seeding. Implications for American and European hydropower generation and sustainable water supplies will be discussed.

Matthews, D.; Brilly, M.

2009-12-01

117

Investigative Studies of Plasma Torch Hazards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential health hazards from a medium output plasma torch used in a biological laboratory were investigated, and some industrial applications of higher output plasma torches were surveyed. Exposures to intense ultraviolet radiation, noise, and noxious gases and fumes were measured. Biological experiments on animals and human skin were performed to evaluate the reaction to ultraviolet energy, and thermocouples were used

Charles H. Powell; Leon Goldman; Marcus M. Key

1968-01-01

118

Mitigating Resistance to Teaching Science Through Inquiry: Studying Self  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the report of a qualitative emergent-design study of 2 different Web-enhanced science methods courses for preservice elementary teachers in which an experiential learning strategy, labeled “using yourself as a learning laboratory,” was implemented. Emergent grounded theory indicated this strategy, when embedded in a course organized as an inquiry with specified action foci, contributed to mitigating participants’ resistance to learning and teaching through inquiry. Enroute to embracing inquiry, learners experienced stages resembling the stages of grief one experiences after a major loss. Data sources included participant observation, electronic artifacts in WebCT, and interviews. Findings are reported in 3 major sections: “Action Foci Common to Both Courses,” “Participants’ Growth and Change,” and “Challenges and Tradeoffs.”

Spector, Barbara; Burkett, Ruth S.; Leard, Cyndy

2007-04-01

119

Recent Developments in Earthquake Hazards Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In recent years, there has been great progress understanding the underlying causes of earthquakes, as well as forecasting\\u000a their occurrence and preparing communities for their damaging effects. Plate tectonic theory explains the occurrence of earthquakes\\u000a at discrete plate boundaries, such as subduction zones and transform faults, but diffuse plate boundaries are also common.\\u000a Seismic hazards are distributed over a broad

Walter D. Mooney; Susan M. White

120

Applications of geographical information systems and remote sensing in natural disaster hazard assessment and mitigation in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographic Information Systems (GISs) provide a powerful tool in managing and analysing spatial data. Geographic Information System has been applied successfully to large variety of fields, one field of particular interest is the field of disaster mitigation. The island of Taiwan is well known for the typhoons and earthquakes which in recent past has claimed lives and caused significant damage.

Hew C. Merrett; William W. Chen

2012-01-01

121

Caribbean Tsunami and Earthquake Hazards Studies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal provides information on the seismicity and plate tectonics of the active boundary between the North American plate and the northeast corner of the Caribbean plate, and the research program being conducted there by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). There are links to maps and remote imagery of the plate boundary and the Caribbean Trench, and to publications and news articles on seismic and tsunami hazards, seafloor mapping, plate interactions, and submarine slides. There is also a movie that describes the geologic background and USGS research efforts in the area.

122

From structural investigation towards multi-parameter early warning systems: geophysical contributions to hazard mitigation at the landslide of Gschliefgraben (Gmunden, Upper Austria)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In December 2007 the large landslide system inside the Gschliefgraben valley (located at the east edge of the Traun lake, Upper Austria), known over centuries for its repeated activity, was reactivated. Although a hazard zone map was already set up in 1974, giving rise to a complete prohibition on building, some hundreds of people are living on the alluvial fan close to the lake. Consequently, in frame of the first emergency measures, 55 building had to be evacuated. Within the first phase of mitigation, measures were focused on property and infrastructure protection. Around 220 wells and one deep channel were implemented to drain the sliding mass. Additionally a big quantity of sliding material was removed close to the inhabited areas. Differential GPS and water level measurements were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the measures, which led to a significant slowdown of the movement. Soon after the suspension of the evacuation several investigations, including drilling, borehole logging and complex geophysical measurements were performed to investigate the structure of the landslide area in order to evaluate maximum hazard scenarios as a basis for planning further measures. Based on these results, measuring techniques for an adapted, future early warning system are currently being tested. This emergency system should enable local stakeholders to take appropriate and timely measures in case of a future event thus lessening the impact of a future disaster significantly. Within this tree-step-plan the application of geophysical methodologies was an integral part of the research and could considerably contribute to the success. Several innovative approaches were implemented which will be described in more detail within the talk. Airborne multi-sensor geophysical surveying is one of new and progressive approaches which can remarkably contribute to effectively analyse triggering processes of large landslides and to better predict their hazard. It was tested in Gschliefgraben earthflow and landslide complex in September 2009. Several parameters, such as vegetation thickness, soil moisture, potassium and thorium content (gamma ray) or four layer resistivity were the principal studied parameters. These parameters were compared with the landslide inventory map of Gschliefgraben developed from differential airborne laser scan terrain models. Since mass wasting is usually triggered by rising water pore pressure due to heavy rainfall or seismic tremors, often supported by changes in the shape, structure, and hydrology of a slope or vegetation cover. As the electrical resistivity of the subsurface mainly depends on porosity, saturation, pore fluid conductivity and clay content, the geoelectric method is a reliable method to investigate the structure of the landslide and surrounding and could be an emerging tool for observing those triggering factors. Therefore, first a multi-electrode geoelectrical survey was performed in a broader area of the active earthflow to verify the subsurface structure and to optimise the location for a monitoring system, followed by the installacion of the geoelectric monitoring system Geomon4D in September 2009. The monitoring profiles were complemented by an automatic DMS inclinometer to correlate measured resistivity values with displacement rates. Since the installation, the system works continuously and data is processed on a daily basis at the monitoring centre in Vienna. These works were supported by the 7th FP project "Safeland - Living with the landslide risk in Europe".

Supper, Robert; Baron, Ivo; Jochum, Birgit; Ita, Anna; Winkler, Edmund; Motschka, Klaus; Moser, Günter

2010-05-01

123

Experimental Studies of Mitigation Materials for Blast Induced TBI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this experimental study is to compare the effects of various materials obstructing the flow of a blast wave and the ability of the given material to reduce the damage caused by the blast. Several methods of energy transfer in blast wave flows are known or expected including: material interfaces with impedance mismatches, density changes in a given material, internal shearing, and particle fracture. The theory applied to this research is that the greatest energy transfer within the obstructing material will yield the greatest mitigation effects to the blast. Sample configurations of foam were varied to introduce material interfaces and filler materials with varying densities and impedances (liquids and powders). The samples were loaded according to a small scale blast produced by an explosive driven shock tube housing gram-range charges. The transmitted blast profiles were analyzed for variations in impulse characteristics and frequency components as compared to standard free field profiles. The results showed a rounding effect of the transmitted blast profile for all samples with the effects of the low density fillers surpassing all others tested.

Alley, Matthew; Son, Steven

2009-06-01

124

Experimental Studies of Mitigation Materials for Blast Induced Tbi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this experimental study is to compare the effects of various materials obstructing the flow of a blast wave and the ability of the material to reduce the damage caused by the blast. Several methods of energy transfer in blast wave flows are expected including: material interfaces with impedance mismatches, density changes in a given material, internal shearing, and particle fracture. Our hypothesis is that the greatest energy transfer within the obstructing material will yield the greatest mitigation effects to the blast. Sample configurations of foam were varied to introduce material interfaces and filler materials with varying densities and impedances (liquids and powders). The samples were dynamically loaded using a small scale blast produced by an explosive driven shock tube housing gram-scale explosive charges. The transmitted blast profiles were analyzed for variations in impulse characteristics and frequency components as compared to standard free field profiles. The results showed a rounding effect of the transmitted blast profile for all samples with the effects of the high density fillers surpassing all others tested. These results lead to a conclusion that low porosity, high density materials offer superior attenuation by reducing air blast features and spatially distributing the transmitted wave.

Alley, M. D.; Son, S. F.; Christou, G.; Goel, R.; Young, L.

2009-12-01

125

Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment: the Seaside, Oregon Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot study of Seaside, Oregon is underway, to develop methodologies for probabilistic tsunami hazard assessments that can be incorporated into Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs) developed by FEMA's National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). Current NFIP guidelines for tsunami hazard assessment rely on the science, technology and methodologies developed in the 1970s; although generally regarded as groundbreaking and state-of-the-art for

F. I. Gonzalez; E. L. Geist; C. Synolakis; V. V. Titov

2004-01-01

126

Integrated Data Products to Forecast, Mitigate, and Educate for Natural Hazard Events Based on Recent and Historical Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Immediately following a damaging or fatal natural hazard event there is interest to access authoritative data and information. The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) maintains and archives a comprehensive collection of natural hazards data. The NGDC global historic event database includes all tsunami events, regardless of intensity, as well as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions that caused fatalities, moderate damage, or generated a tsunami. Examining the past record provides clues to what might happen in the future. NGDC also archives tide gauge data from stations operated by the NOAA/NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services and the NOAA Tsunami Warning Centers. In addition to the tide gauge data, NGDC preserves deep-ocean water-level, 15-second sampled data as collected by the Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami (DART) buoys. Water-level data provide evidence of sea-level fluctuation and possible inundation events. NGDC houses an extensive collection of geologic hazards photographs available online as digital images. Visual media provide invaluable pre- and post-event data for natural hazards. Images can be used to illustrate inundation and possible damage or effects. These images are organized by event or hazard type (earthquake, volcano, tsunami, landslide, etc.), along with description and location. They may be viewed via interactive online maps and are integrated with historic event details. The planning required to achieve collection and dissemination of hazard event data is extensive. After a damaging or fatal event, NGDC begins to collect and integrate data and information from many people and organizations into the hazards databases. Sources of data include the U.S. NOAA Tsunami Warning Centers, the U.S. Geological Survey, the U.S. NOAA National Data Buoy Center, the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC), Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism Program, news organizations, etc. NGDC then works to promptly distribute data and information for the appropriate audience. For example, when a major tsunami occurs, all of the related tsunami data are combined into one timely resource. NGDC posts a publicly accessible online report which includes: 1) event summary; 2) eyewitness and instrumental recordings from preliminary field surveys; 3) regional historical observations including similar past events and effects; 4) observed water heights and calculated tsunami travel times; and 5) near-field effects. This report is regularly updated to incorporate the most recent news and observations. Providing timely access to authoritative data and information ultimately benefits researchers, state officials, the media and the public.

McCullough, H. L.; Dunbar, P. K.; Varner, J. D.

2011-12-01

127

Integration of Tsunami Analysis Tools into a GIS Workspace – Research, Modeling, and Hazard Mitigation efforts Within NOAA’s Center for Tsunami Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s \\u000a \\u000a (NOAA) Center for Tsunami Research \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a (NCTR) uses geospatial data and GIS analysis techniques in support of building an accurate \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a tsunami forecasting system for the US Tsunami Warning Centers. \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The resulting forecast products can be integrated into applications and visualizations to assess hazard risk and provide mitigation\\u000a for US coastal communities ranging from small towns

Nazila Merati; Christopher Chamberlin; Christopher Moore; Vasily Titov; Tiffany C. Vance

128

Mitigation of hazards from future lahars from Mount Merapi in the Krasak River channel near Yogyakarta, central Java  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Procedures for reducing hazards from future lahars and debris flows in the Krasak River channel near Yogyakarta, Central Java, Indonesia, include (1) determining the history of the location, size, and effects of previous lahars and debris flows, and (2) decreasing flow velocities. The first may be accomplished by geologic field mapping along with acquiring information by interviewing local residents, and the second by increasing the cross sectional area of the river channel and constructing barriers in the flow path.

Ege, John R.; Sutikno

1983-01-01

129

Using fine-scale fuel measurements to assess wildland fuels, potential fire behavior and hazard mitigation treatments in the southeastern USA.  

SciTech Connect

The inherent spatial and temporal heterogeneity of fuelbeds in forests of the southeastern United States may require fine scale fuel measurements for providing reliable fire hazard and fuel treatment effectiveness estimates. In a series of five papers, an intensive, fine scale fuel inventory from the Savanna River Site in the southeastern United States is used for building fuelbeds and mapping fire behavior potential, evaluating fuel treatment options for effectiveness, and providing a comparative analysis of landscape modeled fire behavior using three different data sources including the Fuel Characteristic Classification System, LANDFIRE, and the Southern Wildfire Risk Assessment. The research demonstrates that fine scale fuel measurements associated with fuel inventories repeated over time can be used to assess broad scale wildland fire potential and hazard mitigation treatment effectiveness in the southeastern USA and similar fire prone regions. Additional investigations will be needed to modify and improve these processes and capture the true potential of these fine scale data sets for fire and fuel management planning.

Ottmar, Roger, D.; Blake, John, I.; Crolly, William, T.

2012-01-01

130

Effects of stand-off bursts on rubble-pile targets: Evaluation of a hazardous asteroid mitigation strategy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore the aftereffects of stand-off burst mitigation on kilometer-scale rubble pile asteroids. We use a simple model of X-ray energy deposition to calculate the impulse transferred to the target, in particular to burst-facing blocks on the target surface. The impulse allows us to estimate an initial velocity field for the blocks on the outer side of the target facing the burst. We model the dynamics using an N-body polyhedron program built on the Open Dynamics Engine, a "physics engine" that integrates the dynamical equations for objects of general shapes and includes collision detection, friction, and dissipation. We tested several different models for target objects: rubble piles with different mass distributions, a "brick-pile" made of closely fitting blocks and zero void space, and a non-spherical "contact binary" rubble pile. Objects were bound together by self-gravity and friction/inelastic restitution with no other cohesive forces. Our fiducial cases involved objects of m=3.5×1012 kg (corresponding to a radius of 0.7 km for the bulk object), an X-ray yield of 1 megaton, and stand-off burst distances of R=0.8-2.5 km from the target center of mass. Kilometer-scale rubble piles are robust to stand-off bursts of a yield (Y˜1 megaton) that would be sufficient to provide an effective velocity change (?v˜0.05ms-1). Disaggregation involving some tens of percent of the target mass happens immediately after the impulse; the bulk of the object re-accretes on a few gravitational timescales, and the final deflected target contains over 95% (typically, 98-99%) of the original mass. Off-center components of the mitigation impulse and the target mass distribution cause a small amount of induced spin and off-axis components of velocity change. The off-axis velocity component amounts to an angular deviation of ˜ 0.05-0.1 radians from the nominal impulse vector, which may be important for mitigation planning.

Korycansky, D. G.; Plesko, C. S.

2012-04-01

131

A study on seismicity and seismic hazard for Karnataka State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a detailed study on the seismic pattern of the state of Karnataka and also quantifies the seismic hazard for the entire state. In the present work, historical and instrumental seismicity data for Karnataka (within 300 km from Karnataka political boundary) were compiled and hazard analysis was done based on this data. Geographically, Karnataka forms a part of peninsular India which is tectonically identified as an intraplate region of Indian plate. Due to the convergent movement of the Indian plate with the Eurasian plate, movements are occurring along major intraplate faults resulting in seismic activity of the region and hence the hazard assessment of this region is very important. Apart from referring to seismotectonic atlas for identifying faults and fractures, major lineaments in the study area were also mapped using satellite data. The earthquake events reported by various national and international agencies were collected until 2009. Declustering of earthquake events was done to remove foreshocks and aftershocks. Seismic hazard analysis was done for the state of Karnataka using both deterministic and probabilistic approaches incorporating logic tree methodology. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) at rock level was evaluated for the entire state considering a grid size of 0.05° × 0.05°. The attenuation relations proposed for stable continental shield region were used in evaluating the seismic hazard with appropriate weightage factors. Response spectra at rock level for important Tier II cities and Bangalore were evaluated. The contour maps showing the spatial variation of PGA values at bedrock are presented in this work.

Sitharam, T. G.; James, Naveen; Vipin, K. S.; Raj, K. Ganesha

2012-04-01

132

Hazards analysis and prediction from remote sensing and GIS using spatial data mining and knowledge discovery: a case study for landslide hazard zonation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the particular geographical location and geological condition, Taiwan suffers from many natural hazards which often cause series property damages and life losses. To reduce the damages and casualty, an effective real-time system for hazard prediction and mitigation is necessary. In this study, a case study for Landslide Hazard Zonation (LHZ) is tested in accordance with Spatial Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery (SDMKD) from database. Many different kinds of geospatial data, such as the terrain elevation, land cover types, the distance to roads and rivers, geology maps, NDVI, and monitoring rainfall data etc., are collected into the database for SDMKD. In order to guarantee the data quality, the spatial data cleaning is essential to remove the noises, errors, outliers, and inconsistency hiding in the input spatial data sets. In this paper, the Kriging interpolation is used to calibrate the QPESUMS rainfall data to the rainfall observations from rain gauge stations to remove the data inconsistency. After the data cleaning, the artificial neural networks (ANNs) is applied to generate the LHZ map throughout the test area. The experiment results show that the accuracy of LHZ is about 92.3% with the ANNs analysis, and the landslides induced by heavy-rainfall can be mapped efficiently from remotely sensed images and geospatial data using SDMKD technologies.

Hsu, Pai-Hui; Su, Wen-Ray; Chang, Chy-Chang

2011-11-01

133

Precision pointing control for SPICA: risk mitigation phase study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SPICA (Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics) is an astronomical mission optimized for mid- and far-infrared astronomy with a 3-m class telescope which is cryogenically cooled to be less than 6 K. The SPICA mechanical cooling system is indispensable for the mission but, generates micro-vibrations which could affect to the pointing stability performances. Activities to be undertaken during a risk mitigation phase (RMP) include consolidation of micro-vibration control design for the satellite, as well as a number of breadboarding activities centered on technologies that are critical to the success of the mission. This paper presents the RMP activity results on the microvibration control design.

Mitani, Shinji; Kawakatsu, Yasuhiro; Sakai, Shin-ichiro; Murakami, Naomi; Yamawaki, Toshihiko; Mizutani, Tadahito; Komatsu, Keiji; Kataza, Hirokazu; Enya, Keigo; Nakagawa, Takao

2014-08-01

134

A CASE STUDY OF HAZARDOUS WASTES IN CLASS I LANDFILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

This study documents the average concentration, estimated daily deposition, and partitioning of 17 metal species in hazardous wastes discharged to five Class I landfill sites in the greater Los Angeles area. These sites receive a combined estimated daily volume of 2.3 x 10 to the...

135

The use of questionnaires for acquiring information on public perception of natural hazards and risk mitigation - a review of current knowledge and practice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Questionnaires are popular and fundamental tools for acquiring information on public knowledge and perception of natural hazards. Questionnaires can provide valuable information to emergency management agencies for developing risk management procedures. Although many natural hazards researchers describe results generated from questionnaires, few explain the techniques used for their development and implementation. Methodological detail should include, as a minimum, response format (open/closed questions), mode of delivery, sampling technique, response rate and access to the questionnaire to allow reproduction of or comparison with similar studies. This article reviews current knowledge and practice for developing and implementing questionnaires. Key features include questionnaire design, delivery mode, sampling techniques and data analysis. In order to illustrate these aspects, a case study examines methods chosen for the development and implementation of questionnaires used to obtain information on knowledge and perception of volcanic hazards in a tourist region in southern Iceland. Face-to-face interviews highlighted certain issues with respect to question structure and sequence. Recommendations are made to overcome these problems before the questionnaires are applied in future research projects. In conclusion, basic steps that should be disclosed in the literature are provided as a checklist to ensure that reliable, replicable and valid results are produced from questionnaire based hazard knowledge and risk perception research.

Bird, D. K.

2009-07-01

136

Household hazardous waste quantification, characterization and management in China's cities: a case study of Suzhou.  

PubMed

A four-stage systematic tracking survey of 240 households was conducted from the summer of 2011 to the spring of 2012 in a Chinese city of Suzhou to determine the characteristics of household hazardous waste (HHW) generated by the city. Factor analysis and a regression model were used to study the major driving forces of HHW generation. The results indicate that the rate of HHW generation was 6.16 (0.16-31.74, 95% CI) g/person/day, which accounted for 2.23% of the household solid waste stream. The major waste categories contributing to total HHW were home cleaning products (21.33%), medicines (17.67%) and personal care products (15.19%). Packaging and containers (one-way) and products (single-use) accounted for over 80% of total HHW generation, implying a considerable potential to mitigate HHW generation by changing the packaging design and materials used by manufacturing enterprises. Strong correlations were observed between HHW generation (g/person/day) and the driving forces group of "household structure" and "consumer preferences" (among which the educational level of the household financial manager has the greatest impact). Furthermore, the HHW generation stream in Suzhou suggested the influence of another set of variables, such as local customs and culture, consumption patterns, and urban residential life-style. This study emphasizes that HHW should be categorized at its source (residential households) as an important step toward controlling the HHW hazards of Chinese cities. PMID:25022547

Gu, Binxian; Zhu, Weimo; Wang, Haikun; Zhang, Rongrong; Liu, Miaomiao; Chen, Yangqing; Wu, Yi; Yang, Xiayu; He, Sheng; Cheng, Rong; Yang, Jie; Bi, Jun

2014-11-01

137

HOUSEHOLD HAZARDOUS WASTE CHARACTERIZATION STUDY FOR PALM BEACH COUNTY, FLORIDA: A MITE PROGRAM EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The objectives of the Household hazardous Waste Characterization Study (the HHW Study) were to quantify the annual household hazardous waste (HHW) tonnages disposed in Palm Beach County, Florida's (the county) residential solid waste (characterized in this study as municipal soli...

138

Acid rain mitigation study. Volume III: Industrial boilers and processes. Final report Feb 80Feb 81  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report gives results of a 4-month study of existing industrial sources of SOâ emissions in the Acid Rain Mitigation Study (ARMS) region, including all the states east of the Mississippi River, as well as MN, IA, MO, AR, LA, ND, SD, NE, KS, OK, and TX. Study aims were to: (1) identify and characterize existing industrial sources of SOâ

J. G. Ball; C. A. Muela; J. L. Meling

1982-01-01

139

A European effort towards the development of tools for tsunami hazard and risk assessment and mitigation, and tsunami early warning: the EC-funded TRANSFER project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TRANSFER (acronym for "Tsunami Risk ANd Strategies For the European Region") is a European Community funded project being coordinated by the University of Bologna (Italy) and involving 29 partners in Europe, Turkey and Israel. The main objectives of the project can be summarised as: 1) improving our understanding of tsunami processes in the Euro-Mediterranean region, 2) contributing to the tsunami hazard, vulnerability and risk assessment, 3) identifying the best strategies for reduction of tsunami risk, 4) focussing on the gaps and needs for the implementation of an efficient tsunami early warning system (TEWS) in the Euro-Mediterranean area, which is a high-priority task in consideration that no tsunami early warning system is today in place in the Euro- Mediterranean countries. This paper briefly outlines the results that were obtained in the first year of life of the project and the activities that are currently carried out and planned for the future. In particular, we will emphasize the efforts made so far in the following directions. 1) The improvement of existing numerical models for tsunami generation, propagation and impact, and the possible development of new ones. Existing numerical models have been already applied to selected benchmark problems. At the same time, the project is making an important effort in the development of standards for inundation maps in Europe. 2) The project Consortium has selected seven test areas in different countries facing the Mediterranean Sea and the eastern Atlantic Ocean, where innovative probabilistic and statistical approaches for tsunami hazard assessment, up-to-date and new methods to compute inundation maps are being and will be applied. For the same test areas, tsunami scenario approaches are being developed, vulnerability and risk assessed, prevention and mitigation measures defined also by the advice of end users that are organised in an End User Group. 3) A final key aspect is represented by the dissemination of the project data and results to the largest possible public. The two privileged means are and will be the project web site (http://www.transferproject.eu) and a web-based GIS database integrating existing data and new project data, ranging from tsunami catalogues to inventories of seismic and non-seismic sources, from topographies and bathymetries at different scales and resolutions to layers containing tsunami inundation maps. Hopefully, this paper will stimulate a discussion and an exchange of experiences with tsunami scientists from different regions of the world.

Tinti, S.; Armigliato, A.

2007-12-01

140

Satellite Monitoring of Ash and Sulphur Dioxide for the mitigation of Aviation Hazards: Part II. Validation of satellite-derived Volcanic Sulphur Dioxide Levels.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull in the spring of 2010 turned the attention of both the public and the scientific community to the susceptibility of the European airspace to the outflows of large volcanic eruptions. The ash-rich plume from Eyjafjallajökull drifted towards Europe and caused major disruptions of European air traffic for several weeks affecting the everyday life of millions of people and with a strong economic impact. This unparalleled situation revealed limitations in the decision making process due to the lack of information on the tolerance to ash of commercial aircraft engines as well as limitations in the ash monitoring and prediction capabilities. The European Space Agency project Satellite Monitoring of Ash and Sulphur Dioxide for the mitigation of Aviation Hazards, was introduced to facilitate the development of an optimal End-to-End System for Volcanic Ash Plume Monitoring and Prediction. This system is based on comprehensive satellite-derived ash plume and sulphur dioxide [SO2] level estimates, as well as a widespread validation using supplementary satellite, aircraft and ground-based measurements. The validation of volcanic SO2 levels extracted from the sensors GOME-2/MetopA and IASI/MetopA are shown here with emphasis on the total column observed right before, during and after the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruptions. Co-located ground-based Brewer Spectrophotometer data extracted from the World Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation Data Centre, WOUDC, were compared to the different satellite estimates. The findings are presented at length, alongside a comprehensive discussion of future scenarios.

Koukouli, MariLiza; Balis, Dimitris; Dimopoulos, Spiros; Clarisse, Lieven; Carboni, Elisa; Hedelt, Pascal; Spinetti, Claudia; Theys, Nicolas; Tampellini, Lucia; Zehner, Claus

2014-05-01

141

Interventionist and participatory approaches to flood risk mitigation decisions: two case studies in the Italian Alps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood risk mitigation decisions pose key challenges not only from a technical but also from a social, economic and political viewpoint. There is an increasing demand for improving the quality of these processes by including different stakeholders - and especially by involving the local residents in the decision making process - and by guaranteeing the actual improvement of local social capacities during and after the decision making. In this paper we analyse two case studies of flood risk mitigation decisions, Malborghetto-Valbruna and Vipiteno-Sterzing, in the Italian Alps. In both of them, mitigation works have been completed or planned, yet following completely different approaches especially in terms of responses of residents and involvement of local authorities. In Malborghetto-Valbruna an 'interventionist' approach (i.e. leaning towards a top down/technocratic decision process) was used to make decisions after the flood event that affected the municipality in the year 2003. In Vipiteno-Sterzing, a 'participatory' approach (i.e. leaning towards a bottom-up/inclusive decision process) was applied: decisions about risk mitigation measures were made by submitting different projects to the local citizens and by involving them in the decision making process. The analysis of the two case studies presented in the paper is grounded on the results of two research projects. Structured and in-depth interviews, as well as questionnaire surveys were used to explore residents' and local authorities' orientations toward flood risk mitigation. Also a SWOT analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) involving key stakeholders was used to better understand the characteristics of the communities and their perception of flood risk mitigation issues. The results highlight some key differences between interventionist and participatory approaches, together with some implications of their adoption in the local context. Strengths and weaknesses of the two approaches, as well as key challenges for the future are also discussed.

Bianchizza, C.; Del Bianco, D.; Pellizzoni, L.; Scolobig, A.

2012-04-01

142

Insights from EMF Associated Agricultural and Forestry Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Studies  

SciTech Connect

Integrated assessment modeling (IAM) as employed by the Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) generally involves a multi-sector appraisal of greenhouse gas emission (GHGE) mitigation alternatives and climate change effects typically at the global level. Such a multi-sector evaluation encompasses potential climate change effects and mitigative actions within the agricultural and forestry (AF) sectors. In comparison with many of the other sectors covered by IAM, the AF sectors may require somewhat different treatment due to their critical dependence upon spatially and temporally varying resource and climatic conditions. In particular, in large countries like the United States, forest production conditions vary dramatically across the landscape. For example, some areas in the southern US present conditions favorable to production of fast growing, heat tolerant pine species, while more northern regions often favor slower-growing hardwood and softwood species. Moreover, some lands are currently not suitable for forest production (e.g., the arid western plains). Similarly, in agriculture, the US has areas where citrus and cotton can be grown and other areas where barley and wheat are more suitable. This diversity across the landscape causes differential GHGE mitigation potential in the face of climatic changes and/or responses to policy or price incentives. It is difficult for a reasonably sized global IAM system to reflect the full range of sub-national geographic AF production possibilities alluded to above. AF response in the face of climate change altered temperature precipitation regimes or mitigation incentives will likely involve region-specific shifts in land use and agricultural/forest production. This chapter addresses AF sectoral responses in climate change mitigation analysis. Specifically, we draw upon US-based studies of AF GHGE mitigation possibilities that incorporate sub-national detail drawing largely on a body of studies done by the authors in association with EMF activities. We discuss characteristics of AF sectoral responses that could be incorporated in future IAM efforts in climate change policy.

McCarl, Bruce A.; Murray, Brian; Kim, Man-Keun; Lee, Heng-Chi; Sands, Ronald D.; Schneider, Uwe

2007-11-19

143

Thermal hazard studies for dicumyl peroxide by DSC and TAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

A differential\\u000a scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal activity monitor (TAM) were used to\\u000a study the thermo-kinetic parameters for dicumyl peroxide (DCPO) at various\\u000a concentrations. The potential thermal hazards of intermediates and end products\\u000a whose concentrations were at approximately 50, 70, 94 and 99.3 mass%, respectively,\\u000a in the process of operating DCPO were investigated. Thermoanalytical curves\\u000a indicate that the average heat

H. Y. Hou; T. S. Liao; Y S Duh; C M Shu

2006-01-01

144

44 CFR 78.6 - Flood Mitigation Plan approval process.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION ASSISTANCE § 78.6 Flood Mitigation Plan approval process. The...

2010-10-01

145

44 CFR 78.6 - Flood Mitigation Plan approval process.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION ASSISTANCE § 78.6 Flood Mitigation Plan approval process. The...

2013-10-01

146

44 CFR 78.6 - Flood Mitigation Plan approval process.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION ASSISTANCE § 78.6 Flood Mitigation Plan approval process. The...

2012-10-01

147

44 CFR 78.6 - Flood Mitigation Plan approval process.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION ASSISTANCE § 78.6 Flood Mitigation Plan approval process. The...

2011-10-01

148

Long-Term Mitigation Strategies and Marginal Abatement Cost Curves: A Case Study on Brazil  

E-print Network

, waste recycling, forest manage- ment, etc. Policy makers have to compare and assess these differentLong-Term Mitigation Strategies and Marginal Abatement Cost Curves: A Case Study on Brazil Adrien World Bank, Washington D.C., USA 3The World Bank, Brasilia, Brazil Abstract Decision makers facing

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

149

Versatile gas gun target assembly for studying blast wave mitigation in materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has become a serious problem for military personnel returning from recent conflicts. This has increased interest in investigating blast mitigating materials for use in helmets. In this paper we describe a new versatile target assembly that is used with an existing gas gun for studying these materials.

Bartyczak, S.; Mock, W., Jr.

2012-03-01

150

A preliminary study on the mechanism of harmful algal bloom mitigation by use of sophorolipid treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate a new method of mitigating the deleterious effect of harmful algal blooms (HABs), the inhibition of the glycolipid biosurfactant sophorolipid on three common harmful algae Alexandrium tamarense, Heterosigma akashiwo and Cochlodinium polykrikoides was studied. The optimum preparation condition for sophorolipid, the inhibition capability of sophorolipid and the interaction mechanism of sophorolipid on the three algal species

Xiao-Xia Sun; Joong-Ki Choi; Eun-Ki Kim

2004-01-01

151

EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF MITIGATION MATERIALS FOR BLAST INDUCED TBI  

E-print Network

The objective of this experimental study is to compare the effects of various materials obstructing the flow of a blast wave and the ability of the given material to reduce the damage caused by the blast. Several methods ...

Young, Laurence Retman

152

Mitigating Resistance to Teaching Science through Inquiry: Studying Self  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the report of a qualitative emergent-design study of 2 different Web-enhanced science methods courses for preservice elementary teachers in which an experiential learning strategy, labeled "using yourself as a learning laboratory," was implemented. Emergent grounded theory indicated this strategy, when embedded in a course organized as an…

Spector, Barbara; Burkett, Ruth S.; Leard, Cyndy

2007-01-01

153

A study of shock mitigating materials in a split Hopkinson bar configuration. Phase 1  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) designs mechanical systems with electronics that must survive high shock environments. These mechanical systems include penetrators that must survive soil, rock, and ice penetration, nuclear transportation casks that must survive transportation environments, and laydown weapons that must survive delivery impact of 125 fps. These mechanical systems contain electronics that may operate during and after the high shock environment and that must be protected from the high shock environments. A study has been started to improve the packaging techniques for the advanced electronics utilized in these mechanical systems because current packaging techniques are inadequate for these more sensitive electronics. In many cases, it has been found that the packaging techniques currently used not only do not mitigate the shock environment but actually amplify the shock environment. An ambitious goal for this packaging study is to avoid amplification and possibly attenuate the shock environment before it reaches the electronics contained in the various mechanical systems. As part of the investigation of packaging techniques, a two phase study of shock mitigating materials is being conducted. The purpose of the first phase reported here is to examine the performance of a joint that consists of shock mitigating material sandwiched in between steel and to compare the performance of the shock mitigating materials. A split Hopkinson bar experimental configuration simulates this joint and has been used to study the shock mitigating characteristics of seventeen, unconfined materials. The nominal input for these tests is an incident compressive wave with 50 fps peak (1,500 {micro}{var_epsilon} peak) amplitude and a 100 {micro}s duration (measured at 10% amplitude).

Bateman, V.I.; Brown, F.A.; Hansen, N.R.

1998-06-01

154

Methodological Issues In Forestry Mitigation Projects: A CaseStudy Of Kolar District  

SciTech Connect

There is a need to assess climate change mitigationopportunities in forest sector in India in the context of methodologicalissues such as additionality, permanence, leakage, measurement andbaseline development in formulating forestry mitigation projects. A casestudy of forestry mitigation project in semi-arid community grazing landsand farmlands in Kolar district of Karnataka, was undertaken with regardto baseline and project scenariodevelopment, estimation of carbon stockchange in the project, leakage estimation and assessment ofcost-effectiveness of mitigation projects. Further, the transaction coststo develop project, and environmental and socio-economic impact ofmitigation project was assessed.The study shows the feasibility ofestablishing baselines and project C-stock changes. Since the area haslow or insignificant biomass, leakage is not an issue. The overallmitigation potential in Kolar for a total area of 14,000 ha under variousmitigation options is 278,380 tC at a rate of 20 tC/ha for the period2005-2035, which is approximately 0.67 tC/ha/yr inclusive of harvestregimes under short rotation and long rotation mitigation options. Thetransaction cost for baseline establishment is less than a rupee/tC andfor project scenario development is about Rs. 1.5-3.75/tC. The projectenhances biodiversity and the socio-economic impact is alsosignificant.

Ravindranath, N.H.; Murthy, I.K.; Sudha, P.; Ramprasad, V.; Nagendra, M.D.V.; Sahana, C.A.; Srivathsa, K.G.; Khan, H.

2007-06-01

155

Feasibility study of tank leakage mitigation using subsurface barriers  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) to satisfy manage and dispose of the waste currently stored in the underground storage tanks. The retrieval element of TWRS includes a work scope to develop subsurface impermeable barriers beneath SSTs. The barriers could serve as a means to contain leakage that may result from waste retrieval operations and could also support site closure activities by facilitating cleanup. Three types of subsurface barrier systems have emerged for further consideration: (1) chemical grout, (2) freeze walls, and (3) desiccant, represented in this feasibility study as a circulating air barrier. This report contains analyses of the costs and relative risks associated with combinations retrieval technologies and barrier technologies that from 14 alternatives. Eight of the alternatives include the use of subsurface barriers; the remaining six nonbarrier alternative are included in order to compare the costs, relative risks and other values of retrieval with subsurface barriers. Each alternative includes various combinations of technologies that can impact the risks associated with future contamination of the groundwater beneath the Hanford Site to varying degrees. Other potential risks associated with these alternatives, such as those related to accidents and airborne contamination resulting from retrieval and barrier emplacement operations, are not quantitatively evaluated in this report.

Treat, R.L.; Peters, B.B.; Cameron, R.J.; McCormak, W.D.; Trenkler, T.; Walters, M.F. [Ensearch Environmental, Inc. (United States); Rouse, J.K.; McLaughlin, T.J. [Bovay Northwest, Inc., Richland, WA (United States); Cruse, J.M. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-09-21

156

A Study of the Hazards of Impulse Currents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Correlation of research from scientific laboratories in Europe and America, together with accident records obtained from several nations, permits tentative criteria for the hazard from short shocks and impulse discharges. The hazard from short shocks, those obtainable from both power frequency circuits and apparatus capable of producing impulses, is believed primarily to exist because of the energy contained in the

Charles F. Dalziel

1953-01-01

157

The use of questionnaires for acquiring information on public perception of natural hazards and risk mitigation - a review of current knowledge and practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Questionnaires are popular and fundamental tools for acquiring information on public knowledge and perception of natural hazards. Questionnaires can provide valuable information to emergency management agencies for developing risk management procedures. Although many natural hazards researchers describe results generated from questionnaires, few explain the techniques used for their development and implementation. Methodological detail should include, as a minimum, response format

D. K. Bird

2009-01-01

158

Land use /Land Cover Approaches as Instruments of Natural Hazard Mitigation in the Manjira River Sub-Basin, Andhra Pradesh, India.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid industrialization during the last three decades had a profound adverse effect on the land use / land cover practices in , and the water quality, of the Manjira River sub-basin, Medak district, Andhra Pradesh, India. As water interacts with all other components of the environment, such as geology, soils, weather and climate, flora and fauna, the pollution of water has affected both biophysical and socioeconomic and cultural environments. The area of study is the catchment of Nakkavagu (stream) in the Manjira river system, which lies between long. 78 05' - 78 25' E., and the lat. 17 25'- and 17 45' N., and covers an area of 734 sq.km. Remote Sensing and GIS techniques have been employed to identify and quantify measures for mitigating the adverse impacts of the industrialization and for being prepared for extreme weather events. The methodology employed in the present study involves the generation of various thematic layers like slope, hydrogeomorphology and land use / land cover maps using Land sat MSS, IRS IA LISS II and IRS ID LISS III and PAN merged data in EASI / PACE 6.3 ver. Platform. By overlaying all the above thematic maps, action plan maps are generated to device various ways and means of rolling back the degradation of the environment, and to develop low -cost, people - participatory strategies ( such as, agricultural practices, use of water bodies and land under urbanization, structural and non-structural, particularly vegetation methods, etc.) of reducing the vulnerability of the population for extreme weather events.

THATIPARTI, V. L.

2001-05-01

159

Proceedings Hazards and Disasters  

E-print Network

to vulnerable populations, risk and decision making in hurricanes, recovery and reconstruction ROUND: AN ASSESSMENT OF LOCAL HAZARD MITIGATION PLANS IN CALIFORNIA UNDER DMA 2000 OF CHANGE............ 10 John A. Cross A DYNAMIC MODEL OF HOUSEHOLD HURRICANE EVACUATIONS ............... 13

Wang, Hai

160

Feasibility Study of Radiometry for Airborne Detection of Aviation Hazards  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiometric sensors for aviation hazards have the potential for widespread and inexpensive deployment on aircraft. This report contains discussions of three aviation hazards - icing, turbulence, and volcanic ash - as well as candidate radiometric detection techniques for each hazard. Dual-polarization microwave radiometry is the only viable radiometric technique for detection of icing conditions, but more research will be required to assess its usefulness to the aviation community. Passive infrared techniques are being developed for detection of turbulence and volcanic ash by researchers in this country and also in Australia. Further investigation of the infrared airborne radiometric hazard detection approaches will also be required in order to develop reliable detection/discrimination techniques. This report includes a description of a commercial hyperspectral imager for investigating the infrared detection techniques for turbulence and volcanic ash.

Gimmestad, Gary G.; Papanicolopoulos, Chris D.; Richards, Mark A.; Sherman, Donald L.; West, Leanne L.; Johnson, James W. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

161

STUDY ON AIR INGRESS MITIGATION METHODS IN THE VERY HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS COOLED REACTOR (VHTR)  

SciTech Connect

An air-ingress accident followed by a pipe break is considered as a critical event for a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR). Following helium depressurization, it is anticipated that unless countermeasures are taken, air will enter the core through the break leading to oxidation of the in-core graphite structure. Thus, without mitigation features, this accident might lead to severe exothermic chemical reactions of graphite and oxygen. Under extreme circumstances, a loss of core structural integrity may occur along with excessive release of radiological inventory. Idaho National Laboratory under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy is performing research and development (R&D) that focuses on key phenomena important during challenging scenarios that may occur in the VHTR. Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) studies to date have identified the air ingress event, following on the heels of a VHTR depressurization, as very important (Oh et al. 2006, Schultz et al. 2006). Consequently, the development of advanced air ingress-related models and verification and validation (V&V) requirements are part of the experimental validation plan. This paper discusses about various air-ingress mitigation concepts applicable for the VHTRs. The study begins with identifying important factors (or phenomena) associated with the air-ingress accident by using a root-cause analysis. By preventing main causes of the important events identified in the root-cause diagram, the basic air-ingress mitigation ideas can be conceptually derived. The main concepts include (1) preventing structural degradation of graphite supporters; (2) preventing local stress concentration in the supporter; (3) preventing graphite oxidation; (4) preventing air ingress; (5) preventing density gradient driven flow; (4) preventing fluid density gradient; (5) preventing fluid temperature gradient; (6) preventing high temperature. Based on the basic concepts listed above, various air-ingress mitigation methods are proposed in this study. Among them, the following two mitigation ideas are extensively investigated using computational fluid dynamic codes (CFD): (1) helium injection in the lower plenum, and (2) reactor enclosure opened at the bottom. The main idea of the helium injection method is to replace air in the core and the lower plenum upper part by buoyancy force. This method reduces graphite oxidation damage in the severe locations of the reactor inside. To validate this method, CFD simulations are addressed here. A simple 2-D CFD model is developed based on the GT-MHR 600MWt design. The simulation results showed that the helium replace the air flow into the core and significantly reduce the air concentration in the core and bottom reflector potentially protecting oxidation damage. According to the simulation results, even small helium flow was sufficient to remove air in the core, mitigating the air-ingress successfully. The idea of the reactor enclosure with an opening at the bottom changes overall air-ingress mechanism from natural convection to molecular diffusion. This method can be applied to the current system by some design modification of the reactor cavity. To validate this concept, this study also uses CFD simulations based on the simplified 2-D geometry. The simulation results showed that the enclosure open at the bottom can successfully mitigate air-ingress into the reactor even after on-set natural circulation occurs.

Chang H. Oh

2011-03-01

162

Land Use/Land Cover Approaches as Instruments of Natural Hazard Mitigation in the Manjira River Sub-Basin, Andhra Pradesh, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid industrialization during the last three decades had a profound adverse effect on the land use/land cover practices in, and the water quality, of the Manjira River sub-basin, Medak District, Andhra Pradesh, India. As water interacts with all other components of the environment, such as, geology, soils, weather and climate, flora and fauna, the pollution of water has affected both biophysical and socioeconomic and cultural environments. The area of study is the catchment of Nakkavagu (stream) in the Manjira river system, which lies between long. 78 05' - 78 25' E., and the lat. 17 25' - 17 45' N., and covers an area of 734 sq. km. Remote sensing and GIS techniques have been employed to identify and quantify measures for mitigating the adverse impacts of the industrialization and for being prepared for extreme weather events. The methodology employed in the present study involves the generation of various thematic layers like slope, hydrogeomorphology and land use / land cover maps using Landsat MSS, IRS 1A LISS II and IRS 1D LISS III and PAN merged data in EASI/PACE 6.3 ver. platform. By overlaying all the above thematic maps, action plan maps are generated to devise various ways and means of rolling back the degradation of the environment, and to develop low-cost, people-participatory strategies (such as, agricultural practices, use of water bodies and land under urbanization, structural and non-structural, particularly vegetation methods, etc.) of reducing the vulnerability of the population for extreme weather events.

Lakshmi, T. V.; Reddy, M. A.; Anjaneyulu, Y.

2001-05-01

163

The Value of Linking Mitigation and Adaptation: A Case Study of Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are two principal strategies for managing climate change risks: mitigation and adaptation. Until recently, mitigation\\u000a and adaptation have been considered separately in both climate change science and policy. Mitigation has been treated as an\\u000a issue for developed countries, which hold the greatest responsibility for climate change, while adaptation is seen as a priority\\u000a for the South, where mitigative capacity

Jessica M. Ayers; Saleemul Huq

2009-01-01

164

The asteroid impact threat: instrumentation for mitigation precursor and demo missions, a study from the NEOShield project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NEOShield project [1], started in January 2012, has been funded by the European Union for a period of 3.5 years. The primary aim of the project is to study in detail the three most promising techniques to mitigate the asteroid impact risk: the kinetic impactor, blast deflection, and the gravity tractor, and to devise feasible demonstration missions. NEOShield also aims to address the issue of a still missing international agreement on how to deal with the impact threat and how to organize, prepare, and implement mitigation plans. Within the NEOShield consortium, the LESIA is the leading institute for what concerns the physical characterization of near- Earth objects (NEOs). We are currently studying which is the appropriate instrumentation for both mitigation precursor missions and mitigation demo missions.

Perna, D.; Barucci, M. A.; Fulchignoni, M.; Fornasier, S.

2013-09-01

165

Nonpoint-Source Agricultural Hazard Index: A Case Study of the Province of Cremona, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports the results of a study aimed at the evaluation of the hazard level of farming activities in the province of Cremona, Italy, with particular reference to groundwater. The applied methodology employs a parametric approach based on the definition of potential hazard indexes (nonpoint-source agricultural hazard indexes, NPSAHI). Two categories of parameters were considered: the hazard factors (HF), which represent all farming activities that cause or might cause an impact on groundwater (use of fertilizers and pesticides, application of livestock and poultry manure, food industry wastewater, and urban sludge), and the control factors (CF), which adapt the hazard factor to the characteristics of the site (geographical location, slope, agronomic practices, and type of irrigation). The hazard index (HI) can be calculated multiplying the hazard factors by the control factors and, finally, the NPSAHI are obtained dividing HI into classes on a percentile basis using a scale ranging from 1 to 10. Organization, processing, and display of all data layers were performed using the geographical information system (GIS) ArcView and its Spatial Analyst extension. Results show that the potential hazard of groundwater pollution by farming activities in the province of Cremona falls mainly in the fifth class (very low hazard).

Trevisan, Marco; Padovani, Laura; Capri, Ettore

2000-11-01

166

Factors in Perception of Tornado Hazard: An Exploratory Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Administered questionnaire on tornado hazard to 142 adults. Results indicated that subject's gender and education level were best predictors of perceived probability of tornado recurrence; that ratings of severity of potential damage were related to education level; and that gender accounted for significant percentage of variance in anxiety…

de Man, Anton; Simpson-Housley, Paul

1987-01-01

167

A Study on Predicting Hazard Factors for Safe Driving  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an algorithm for detecting objects representing potential hazards to drivers based on the combination of local information derived from optical flows and global information obtained from the host vehicle's status. The algorithm uses artificial neural networks to infer the degree of danger posed by moving objects in dynamic images taken with a vehicle-mounted camera. This approach allows

Hiroshi Takahashi; Daisuke Ukishima; Kazuhiko Kawamoto; Kaoru Hirota

2007-01-01

168

Major hazard pipelines: a comparative study of onshore transmission accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Failures of pipelines conveying dangerous substances can pose major risks. Identification of pipeline hazards associated with the different pipeline system functions is essential for risk analysis and historical data are of great importance. Incident data are analysed, following a review of official sources, by failure mechanism, size and function of the systems in two types of transmission networks around the

Georgios A. Papadakis

1999-01-01

169

Studies on Hazard Characterization for Performance-based Structural Design  

E-print Network

) and event-based simulation techniques were used to characterize the hurricane wind hazard along the Texas coast. A total of 10,000 years of synthetic hurricane wind speed records were generated for each zip-code in Texas and were used to statistically...

Wang, Yue

2010-07-14

170

Natural Hazards Review  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Natural Hazards Review is accessible from the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). "Civil engineers, geologists, scientists and researchers involved in various aspects of construction will find the broad scope of the journal helpful for developing design strategies to mitigate natural hazards." ASCE non-members are required to complete an online form to access the articles.

2004-01-01

171

Hazardous waste cleanup: A case study for developing efficient programs  

SciTech Connect

As officials in Pacific Basin Countries develop laws and policies for cleaning up hazardous wastes, experiences of countries with such instruments in place may be instructive. The United States has addressed cleanups of abandoned hazardous waste sites through the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The US Congress enacted CERCLA in 1980. The task of cleaning up waste sites became larger and more costly than originally envisioned and as a result, Congress strengthened and expanded CERCLA in 1986. Today, many industry representatives, environmentalists, and other interested parties say the program is still costly and ineffective, and Congress is responding through a reauthorization process to change the law once again. Because the law and modifications to it can affect company operations and revenues, industries want to know the potential consequences of such changes. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) recently developed a baseline for one economic sector -- the US energy industry -- against which impacts of proposed changes to CERCLA could be measured. Difficulties encountered in locating and interpreting the data for developing that baseline suggest that legislation should not only provide for meeting its stated goals (e.g., protection of human health and the environment) but also allow for its efficient evaluation over time. This lesson can be applied to any nation contemplating hazardous waste cleanup laws and policies.

Elcock, D.; Puder, M.G.

1995-06-01

172

Seismic hazard studies for the High Flux Beam Reactor at Brookhaven National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of a calculation to determine the site specific seismic hazard appropriate for the deep soil site at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) which is to be used in the risk assessment studies being conducted for the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR). The calculations use as input the seismic hazard defined for the bedrock outcrop by a study conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Variability in site soil properties were included in the calculations to obtain the seismic hazard at the ground surface and compare these results with those using the generic amplification factors from the LLNL study. 9 refs., 8 figs.

Costantino, C.J.; Heymsfield, E. (City Coll., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering); Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))

1991-01-01

173

Hazard mitigation related to water and sediment fluxes in the Yellow River basin, China, based on comparable basins of the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Yellow River, north-central China, and comparative rivers of the western United States, the Rio Grande and the Colorado River, derive much of their flows from melting snow at high elevations, but derive most of their se diment loads from semiarid central parts of the basins. The three rivers are regulated by larg e reservoirs that store water and sediment, causing downstream channel scour and, farthe r downstream, flood hazard owing to re- deposition of sediment. Potential approaches to reducing continui ng bed aggradation and increasing flood hazard along the lower Yellow Ri ver include flow augmentation, retirement of irrigation that decreases flows and increas es erosion, and re-routing of the middle Yellow River to bypass large sediment i nputs of the Loess Plateau.

Osterkamp, W. R.; Gray, J. R.

2003-01-01

174

15 CFR 923.25 - Shoreline erosion/mitigation planning.  

...COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM...923.25 Shoreline erosion/mitigation planning...adversely affected by such erosion. This planning process...broader context of coastal hazard mitigation...

2014-01-01

175

15 CFR 923.25 - Shoreline erosion/mitigation planning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM...923.25 Shoreline erosion/mitigation planning...adversely affected by such erosion. This planning process...broader context of coastal hazard mitigation...

2012-01-01

176

15 CFR 923.25 - Shoreline erosion/mitigation planning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM...923.25 Shoreline erosion/mitigation planning...adversely affected by such erosion. This planning process...broader context of coastal hazard mitigation...

2011-01-01

177

15 CFR 923.25 - Shoreline erosion/mitigation planning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM...923.25 Shoreline erosion/mitigation planning...adversely affected by such erosion. This planning process...broader context of coastal hazard mitigation...

2013-01-01

178

Modeling effects of urban heat island mitigation strategies on heat-related morbidity: a case study for Phoenix, Arizona, USA.  

PubMed

A zero-dimensional energy balance model was previously developed to serve as a user-friendly mitigation tool for practitioners seeking to study the urban heat island (UHI) effect. Accordingly, this established model is applied here to show the relative effects of four common mitigation strategies: increasing the overall (1) emissivity, (2) percentage of vegetated area, (3) thermal conductivity, and (4) albedo of the urban environment in a series of percentage increases by 5, 10, 15, and 20% from baseline values. In addition to modeling mitigation strategies, we present how the model can be utilized to evaluate human health vulnerability from excessive heat-related events, based on heat-related emergency service data from 2002 to 2006. The 24-h average heat index is shown to have the greatest correlation to heat-related emergency calls in the Phoenix (Arizona, USA) metropolitan region. The four modeled UHI mitigation strategies, taken in combination, would lead to a 48% reduction in annual heat-related emergency service calls, where increasing the albedo is the single most effective UHI mitigation strategy. PMID:19633989

Silva, Humberto R; Phelan, Patrick E; Golden, Jay S

2010-01-01

179

Natural Hazards Observer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Natural Hazards Center of the University of Colorado Boulder offers a free online professional hazards publication called the Natural Hazards Observer. Readers will find information on current disaster issues; new international, national, and local disaster management, mitigation, and education programs; hazards research; political and policy developments; new information sources; upcoming conferences; and recent publications. The January 2003 issue (the latest of the bimonthly publication, which dates back to 1996) includes reports with titles such as Congress Passes Inland Flood Warning Bill and Dam Safety Act Passed. Those interested can view the issues online, download and view them, and even search their content by various parameters.

1996-01-01

180

A combined approach to physical vulnerability of large cities exposed to natural hazards - the case study of Arequipa, Peru  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arequipa, the second largest city in Peru with almost one million inhabitants, is exposed to various natural hazards, such as earthquakes, landslides, flash floods, and volcanic eruptions. This study focuses on the vulnerability and response of housing, infrastructure and lifelines in Arequipa to flash floods and eruption induced hazards, notably lahars from El Misti volcano. We propose a combined approach for assessing physical vulnerability in a large city based on: (1) remote sensing utilizing high-resolution imagery (SPOT5, Google Earth Pro, Bing, Pléïades) to map the distribution and type of land use, properties of city blocks in terms of exposure to the hazard (elevation above river level, distance to channel, impact angle, etc.); (2) in situ survey of buildings and critical infrastructure (e.g., bridges) and strategic resources (e.g., potable water, irrigation, sewage); (3) information gained from interviews with engineers involved in construction works, previous crises (e.g., June 2001 earthquake) and risk mitigation in Arequipa. Remote sensing and mapping at the scale of the city has focused on three pilot areas, along the perennial Rio Chili valley that crosses the city and oasis from north to south, and two of the east-margin tributaries termed Quebrada (ravine): San Lazaro crossing the northern districts and Huarangal crossing the northeastern districts. Sampling of city blocks through these districts provides varying geomorphic, structural, historical, and socio-economic characteristics for each sector. A reconnaissance survey included about 900 edifices located in 40 city blocks across districts of the pilot areas, distinct in age, construction, land use and demographics. A building acts as a structural system and its strength and resistance to flashfloods and lahars therefore highly depends on the type of construction and the used material. Each building surveyed was assigned to one of eight building categories based on physical criteria (dominant building materials, number of floors, percentage and quality of openings, etc). Future steps in this study include mapping potential impacts from flash flood and lahars as a function of frequency of occurrence and magnitude. For this purpose, we will regroup the eight building types identified in Arequipa to obtain a reduced number of vulnerability categories. Fragility functions will then be established for each vulnerability category and hazard relating percentage damage to parameters such as flow velocity, depth, and dynamic and hydrostatic pressure. These functions will be applied to flow simulations for each of the three river channels considered with the final goal to determine potential losses, identify areas of particularly high risk and to prepare plans for evacuation, relocation and rehabilitation. In the long term, this investigation aims to contribute towards a multi-hazard risk analysis including earthquake- and other volcanic hazards, e.g. ashfall and pyroclastic flows, all by considering the cascading effects of a hazard chain. We also plan to address the consequences of failure of two artificial lake dams located 40 and 70 km north of the city. A lake breakout flood or lahar would propagate beyond the city and would call for an immediate response including contingency plans and evacuation practices.

Thouret, Jean-Claude; Ettinger, Susanne; Zuccaro, Giulio; Guitton, Mathieu; Martelli, Kim; Degregorio, Daniela; Nardone, Stefano; Santoni, Olivier; Magill, Christina; Luque, Juan Alexis; Arguedas, Ana

2013-04-01

181

Assessing sensitivity of Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) to fault parameters: Sumatra case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Slip rate data and fault geometry are two important inputs in determining seismic hazard, because they are used to estimate earthquake recurrence intervals which strongly influence the hazard level in an area. However, the uncertainty of slip-rates and geometry of the fault are rarely considered in any probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA), which is surprising given the estimates of slip-rates can vary significantly from different data sources (e.g. geological vs. Geodetic). We use the PSHA method to assess the sensitivity of seismic hazard to fault slip-rates along the Great Sumatran Fault in Sumatra, Indonesia. We will consider the epistemic uncertainty of fault slip rate by employing logic trees to include alternative slip rate models. The weighting of the logic tree is determined by the probability density function of the slip rate estimates using the approach of Zechar and Frankel (2009). We consider how the PSHA result accounting for slip rate uncertainty differs from that for a specific slip rate by examining hazard values as a function of return period and distance from the fault. We also consider the geometry of the fault, especially the top and the bottom of the rupture area within a fault, to study the effect from different depths. Based on the results of this study, in some cases the uncertainty in fault slip-rates, fault geometry and maximum magnitude have a significant effect on hazard level and area impacted by earthquakes and should be considered in PSHA studies.

Omang, A.; Cummins, P. R.; Horspool, N.; Hidayati, S.

2012-12-01

182

BICAPA case study of natural hazards that trigger technological disasters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Industrial facilities are vulnerable to natural disasters. Natural disasters and technological accidents are not always singular or isolated events. The example in this paper show that they can occur in complex combinations and/or in rapid succession, known as NaTech disasters, thereby triggering multiple impacts. This analysis indicates that NaTech disasters have the potential to trigger hazmat releases and other types of technological accidents. Climate changes play an important role in prevalence and NATECH triggering mechanisms. Projections under the IPCC IS92 a scenario (similar to SRES A1B; IPCC, 1992) and two GCMs indicate that the risk of floods increases in central and eastern Europe. Increase in intense short-duration precipitation is likely to lead to increased risk of flash floods. (Lehner et al., 2006). It is emergent to develop tools for the assessment of risks due to NATECH events in the industrial processes, in a framework starting with the characterization of frequency and severity of natural disasters and continuing with complex analysis of industrial processes, to risk assessment and residual functionality analysis. The Ponds with dangerous technological residues are the most vulnerable targets of natural hazards. Technological accidents such as those in Baia Mare, (from January to March 2000) had an important international echo. Extreme weather phenomena, like those in the winter of 2000 in Baia Mare, and other natural disasters such as floods or earthquakes, can cause a similar disaster at Târn?veni in Transylvania Depression. During 1972 - 1978 three decanting ponds were built on the Chemical Platform Târn?veni, now SC BICAPA SA, for disposal of the hazardous-wastes resulting from the manufacture of sodium dichromate, inorganic salts, sludge from waste water purification and filtration, wet gas production from carbide. The ponds are located on the right bank of the river Târnava at about 35-50m from the flooding defense dam. The total amount of toxic waste stored in the three ponds is about 2500 tons, equivalent at 128 tons expressed in hexavalent chromium. The ponds contour dikes are strongly damaged in many places, their safety is jeopardized by leakages, sliding slopes and ravens. The upstream dike has an increased failure risk. The upstream dike has an increased failure risk. In that section the coefficients of safety are under the allowable limit, both in static applications, and the earthquake. The risk of failure is very high also due to the dikes slopes. The risk becomes higher in case of heavy rainfall, floods or an earthquake.

Boca, Gabriela; Ozunu, Alexandru; Nicolae Vlad, Serban

2010-05-01

183

Echo-sounding method aids earthquake hazard studies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dramatic examples of catastrophic damage from an earthquake occurred in 1989, when the M 7.1 Lorna Prieta rocked the San Francisco Bay area, and in 1994, when the M 6.6 Northridge earthquake jolted southern California. The surprising amount and distribution of damage to private property and infrastructure emphasizes the importance of seismic-hazard research in urbanized areas, where the potential for damage and loss of life is greatest. During April 1995, a group of scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Tennessee, using an echo-sounding method described below, is collecting data in San Antonio Park, California, to examine the Monte Vista fault which runs through this park. The Monte Vista fault in this vicinity shows evidence of movement within the last 10,000 years or so. The data will give them a "picture" of the subsurface rock deformation near this fault. The data will also be used to help locate a trench that will be dug across the fault by scientists from William Lettis & Associates.

U.S. Geological Survey

1995-01-01

184

Concerns about climate change mitigation projects: summary of findings from case studies in Brazil, India, Mexico and South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of joint implementation as a way to implement climate change mitigation projects in another country has been controversial ever since its inception. Developing countries have raised numerous issues at the project-specific technical level and broader concerns having to do with equity and burden sharing. This paper summarizes the findings of studies for Brazil, India, Mexico and South Africa,

Jayant A. Sathaye; Kenneth Andrasko; Willy Makundi; Emilio Lebre La Rovere; N. H. Ravindranath; Anandi Melli; Anita Rangachari; Mireya Imaz; Carlos Gay; Rafael Friedmann; Beth Goldberg; Clive van Horen; Gillian Simmonds; Gretchen Parker

1999-01-01

185

Concerns About Climate Change Mitigation Projects: Summary of Findings from Case Studies in Brazil, India, Mexico, and South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of joint implementation as a way to implement climate change mitigation projects in another country has been controversial ever since its inception. Developing countries have raised numerous issues at the project-specific technical level, and broader concerns having to do with equity and burden sharing. This paper summarizes the findings of studies for Brazil, India, Mexico and South Africa,

Jayant A. Sathaye; Kenneth Andrasko; Willy Makundi; Emilio Lebre La Rovere; N. H. Ravinandranath; Anandi Melli; Anita Rangachari; Mireya Amaz; Carlos Gay; Rafael Friedmann; Beth Goldberg; Clive van Horen; Gillina Simmonds; Gretchen Parker

1998-01-01

186

A simulator study investigating how motorcyclists approach side-road hazards.  

PubMed

The most common form of motorcycle collision in the UK occurs when another road user fails to give way and pulls out from a side road in front of an oncoming motorcyclist. While research has considered these collisions from the car driver's perspective, no research to date has addressed how motorcyclists approach these potential hazards. This study conducted a detailed analysis of motorcyclist speed and road position on approach to side-roads in a simulated suburban setting. Novice, Experienced and Advanced riders rode two laps of a simulated route, encountering five side-roads on each lap. On the second lap, a car emerged from the first side-road in a typical 'looked but failed to see' accident scenario. Three Experienced riders and one Novice rider collided with the hazard. The Advanced rider group adopted the safest strategy when approaching side-roads, with a lane position closer to the centre of the road and slower speeds. In contrast, Experienced riders chose faster speeds, often over the speed limit, especially when approaching junctions with good visibility. Rider behaviour at non-hazard junctions was compared between laps, to investigate if riders modified their behaviour after experiencing the hazard. Whilst all riders were generally more cautious after the hazard, the Advanced riders modified their behaviour more than the other groups after the hazard vehicle had pulled out. The results suggest that advanced training can lead to safer riding styles that are not acquired by experience alone. PMID:23182782

Crundall, Elizabeth; Stedmon, Alex W; Saikayasit, Rossukorn; Crundall, David

2013-03-01

187

Google Earth Views of Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis Pilot Study, Seaside, Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual globes such as Google Earth provide immediate geographic context for research data for coastal hazard planning. We present Google Earth views of data from a Tsunami Pilot Study conducted within and near Seaside and Gearhart, Oregon, as part of FEMA's Flood Insurance Rate Map Modernization Program (Tsunami Pilot Study Working Group, 2006). Two goals of the pilot study were

F. L. Wong; A. J. Venturato; E. L. Geist

2006-01-01

188

Studying and Improving Human Response to Natural Hazards: Lessons from the Virtual Hurricane Lab  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most critical challenges facing communities in areas prone to natural hazards is how to best encourage residents to invest in individual and collective actions that would reduce the damaging impact of low-probability, high-consequence, environmental events. Unfortunately, what makes this goal difficult to achieve is that the relative rarity natural hazards implies that many who face the risk of natural hazards have no previous experience to draw on when making preparation decisions, or have prior experience that provides misleading guidance on how best to prepare. For example, individuals who have experienced strings of minor earthquakes or near-misses from tropical cyclones may become overly complacent about the risks that extreme events actually pose. In this presentation we report the preliminary findings of a program of work that explores the use of realistic multi-media hazard simulations designed for two purposes: 1) to serve as a basic research tool for studying of how individuals make decisions to prepare for rare natural hazards in laboratory settings; and 2) to serve as an educational tool for giving people in hazard-prone areas virtual experience in hazard preparation. We demonstrate a prototype simulation in which participants experience the approach of a virtual hurricane, where they have the opportunity to invest in different kinds of action to protect their home from damage. As the hurricane approaches participants have access to an “information dashboard” in which they can gather information about the storm threat from a variety of natural sources, including mock television weather broadcasts, web sites, and conversations with neighbors. In response to this information they then have the opportunity to invest in different levels of protective actions. Some versions of the simulation are designed as games, where participants are rewarded based on their ability to make the optimal trade-off between under and over-preparing for the threat. From a basic research perspective the data provide valuable potential insights into the dynamics of information gathering prior to hurricane impacts, as well as laboratory in which we can study how both information gathering and responses varies in responses to controlled variations in such factors as the complexity of forecast information. From an applied perspective the simulations provide an opportunity for residents in hazard-prone areas to learn about different kinds of information and receive feedback on their potential biases prior to an actual encounter with a hazard. The presentation concludes with a summary of some of the basic research findings that have emerged from the hurricane lab to date, as well as a discussion of the prospects for extending the technology to a broad range of environmental hazards.

Meyer, R.; Broad, K.; Orlove, B. S.

2010-12-01

189

Mitigating urban heat island effects in high-density cities based on sky view factor and urban morphological understanding: a study of Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

The urban heat island (UHI) effect is one of the most studied topics in many mega cities because of rapid urbanization. The literature review showed a significant correlation between sky view factor (SVF) and UHI. However, this climate knowledge has low impact on urban planning process to mitigate UHI. More studies should be devoted to ways of mitigating UHI based

Chao Yuan; Liang Chen

2011-01-01

190

Assessment of environmental impact on air quality by cement industry and mitigating measures: a case study.  

PubMed

In this study, environmental impact on air quality was evaluated for a typical Cement Industry in Nigeria. The air pollutants in the atmosphere around the cement plant and neighbouring settlements were determined using appropriate sampling techniques. Atmospheric dust and CO2 were prevalent pollutants during the sampling period; their concentrations were recorded to be in the range of 249-3,745 mg/m3 and 2,440-2,600 mg/m3, respectively. Besides atmospheric dust and CO2, the air pollutants such as NOx, SOx and CO were in trace concentrations, below the safe limits approved by FEPA that are 0.0062-0.093 mg/m3 NOx, 0.026 mg/m3 SOx and 114.3 mg/m3 CO, respectively. Some cost-effective mitigating measures were recommended that include the utilisation of readily available and low-cost pozzolans material to produce blended cement, not only could energy efficiency be improved, but carbon dioxide emission could also be minimised during clinker production; and the installation of an advance high-pressure grinding rolls (clinker-roller-press process) to maximise energy efficiency to above what is obtainable from the traditional ball mills and to minimise CO2 emission from the power plant. PMID:19067202

Kabir, G; Madugu, A I

2010-01-01

191

Underground Coal-Fires in Xinjiang, China: A Continued Effort in Applying Geophysics to Solve a Local Problem and to Mitigate a Global Hazard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spontaneous uncontrolled coal seam fires are a well known phenomenon that causes severe environmental problems and severe impact on natural coal reserves. Coal fires are a worldwide phenomenon, but in particular in Xinjiang, that covers 17.3 % of Chinas area and hosts approx 42 % of its coal resources. In Xinjiang since more than 50 years a rigorous strategy for fire fighting on local and regional scale is persued. The Xinjiang Coalfield Fire Fighting Bureau (FFB) has developed technologies and methods to deal with any known fire. Many fires have been extinguished already, but the problem is still there if not even growing. This problem is not only a problem for China due to the loss of valuable energy resources, but it is also a worldwide threat because of the generation of substantial amounts of greenhouse gases. Through the FFB, China is struggling to overcome this, but the activities could be much enhanced by the continuation of the already successful conjoint operations. The last ten years have seen two successful cooperative projects between China and Germany on the field of coal-fire fighting, namely the German Technical Cooperation Project on Coal Fire in Xinjiang and the Sino-German Coal Fire Research Initiative funded by the corresponding ministeries of both countries. A persistent task in the fire fighting is the identification and supervision of areas with higher risks for the ignition of coal fires, the exploration of already ignited fire zones to extinguish the fires and the monitoring of extinguished fires to detect as early as possible process that may foster re-ignition. This can be achieved by modeling both the structures and the processes that are involved. This has also been a promising part of the past cooperation projects, yet to be transformed into a standard application of fire fighting procedures. In this contribution we describe the plans for a new conjoint project between China and Germany where on the basis of field investigations and laboratory measurements realistic dynamical models of fire-zones are constructed to increase the understanding of particular coal-fires, to interpret the surface signatures of the coal-fire in terms of location and propagation and to estimate the output of hazardous exhaust products to evaluate the economic benefit of fire extinction.

Wuttke, M. W.; Halisch, M.; Tanner, D. C.; Cai, Z. Y.; Zeng, Q.; Wang, C.

2012-04-01

192

Voltage Sag Mitigation Strategies for an Indian Power Systems: A Case Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under modern deregulated environment, both utilities and customers are concerned with the power quality improvement but with different objectives/interests. The utility reconfigure its power network and install mitigation devices, if needed, to improve power quality. The paper presents a strategy for selecting cost-effective solutions to mitigate voltage sags, the most frequent power quality disturbance. In this paper, mitigation device(s) is/are inducted in the optimal network topology at suitable places for their better effectiveness for further improvement in power quality. The optimal placement is looked from utility perspectives for overall benefit. Finally, their performance is evaluated on the basis of reduction in total number of voltage sags, reduction in total number of process trips and reduction in total financial losses due to voltage sags.

Goswami, A. K.; Gupta, C. P.; Singh, G. K.

2014-08-01

193

Ocean thermal conversion (OTEC) project bottom cable protection study: environmental characteristics and hazards analysis  

SciTech Connect

Seafloor cable-protection criteria and technology as applied to the four proposed OTEC plant sites and cable routes at Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam and Florida were examined. Study of environmental characteristics for each site covered: (A) natural factors of location, tide and currents, wind and wave, bottom soil type and seafloor movement; and (B) man-made factors such as ship traffic, fishing activities, ocean mining, government regulations. These characteristics were studied to determine the hazards which are potential sources of damage to a cable system. Hazards include: chafe and corrosion, hydrodynamic forces due to wave and current action, mudslides, earthquakes, trawler and/or dredge action and ship anchors. An analysis of the history of submarine-cable failures was conducted. Included are the probabilities of damage related to water depth. Probabilities become minimal for all hazards in water depths of 1500 feet and more. Chafe and corrosion had the highest probability of causing damage to a seafloor cable compared to the other hazards. Because of the hazards present at all sites, cable burial is recommended as the best means of protection.

Chern, C.; Tudor, W.

1981-10-01

194

Seismic hazard analysis application of methodology, results, and sensitivity studies. Volume 4  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Site Specific Spectra Project, this report seeks to identify the sources of and minimize uncertainty in estimates of seismic hazards in the Eastern United States. Findings are being used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to develop a synthesis among various methods that can be used in evaluating seismic hazard at the various plants in the Eastern United States. In this volume, one of a five-volume series, we discuss the application of the probabilistic approach using expert opinion. The seismic hazard is developed at nine sites in the Central and Northeastern United States, and both individual experts' and synthesis results are obtained. We also discuss and evaluate the ground motion models used to develop the seismic hazard at the various sites, analyzing extensive sensitivity studies to determine the important parameters and the significance of uncertainty in them. Comparisons are made between probabilistic and real spectral for a number of Eastern earthquakes. The uncertainty in the real spectra is examined as a function of the key earthquake source parameters. In our opinion, the single most important conclusion of this study is that the use of expert opinion to supplement the sparse data available on Eastern United States earthquakes is a viable approach for determining estimted seismic hazard in this region of the country. 29 refs., 15 tabs.

Bernreuter, D. L

1981-08-08

195

Study of the environmental hazard caused by the oil shale industry solid waste.  

PubMed

The environmental hazard was studied of eight soil and solid waste samples originating from a region of Estonia heavily polluted by the oil shale industry. The samples were contaminated mainly with oil products (up to 7231mg/kg) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; up to 434mg/kg). Concentrations of heavy metals and water-extractable phenols were low. The toxicities of the aqueous extracts of solid-phase samples were evaluated by using a battery of Toxkit tests (involving crustaceans, protozoa, rotifers and algae). Waste rock and fresh semi-coke were classified as of "high acute toxic hazard", whereas aged semi-coke and most of the polluted soils were classified as of "acute toxic hazard". Analysis of the soil slurries by using the photobacterial solid-phase flash assay showed the presence of particle-bound toxicity in most samples. In the case of four samples out of the eight, chemical and toxicological evaluations both showed that the levels of PAHs, oil products or both exceeded their respective permitted limit values for the living zone (20mg PAHs/kg and 500mg oil products/kg); the toxicity tests showed a toxic hazard. However, in the case of three samples, the chemical and toxicological hazard predictions differed markedly: polluted soil from the Erra River bank contained 2334mg oil/kg, but did not show any water-extractable toxicity. In contrast, spent rock and aged semi-coke that contained none of the pollutants in hazardous concentrations, showed adverse effects in toxicity tests. The environmental hazard of solid waste deposits from the oil shale industry needs further assessment. PMID:11387023

Põllumaa, L; Maloveryan, A; Trapido, M; Sillak, H; Kahru, A

2001-01-01

196

Mini-Sosie high-resolution seismic method aids hazards studies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Mini-Sosie high-resolution seismic method has been effective in imaging shallow-structure and stratigraphic features that aid in seismic-hazard and neotectonic studies. The method is not an alternative to Vibroseis acquisition for large-scale studies. However, it has two major advantages over Vibroseis as it is being used by the USGS in its seismic-hazards program. First, the sources are extremely portable and can be used in both rural and urban environments. Second, the shifting-and-summation process during acquisition improves the signal-to-noise ratio and cancels out seismic noise sources such as cars and pedestrians. -from Authors

Stephenson, W. J.; Odum, J.; Shedlock, K. M.; Pratt, T. L.; Williams, R. A.

1992-01-01

197

Natural phenomena hazards site characterization criteria  

SciTech Connect

The criteria and recommendations in this standard shall apply to site characterization for the purpose of mitigating Natural Phenomena Hazards (wind, floods, landslide, earthquake, volcano, etc.) in all DOE facilities covered by DOE Order 5480.28. Criteria for site characterization not related to NPH are not included unless necessary for clarification. General and detailed site characterization requirements are provided in areas of meteorology, hydrology, geology, seismology, and geotechnical studies.

Not Available

1994-03-01

198

An Independent Evaluation of the FMEA/CIL Hazard Analysis Alternative Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present instruments of safety and reliability risk control for a majority of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) programs/projects consist of Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Hazard Analysis (HA), Critical Items List (CIL), and Hazard Report (HR). This extensive analytical approach was introduced in the early 1970's and was implemented for the Space Shuttle Program by NHB 5300.4 (1D-2. Since the Challenger accident in 1986, the process has been expanded considerably and resulted in introduction of similar and/or duplicated activities in the safety/reliability risk analysis. A study initiated in 1995, to search for an alternative to the current FMEA/CIL Hazard Analysis methodology generated a proposed method on April 30, 1996. The objective of this Summer Faculty Study was to participate in and conduct an independent evaluation of the proposed alternative to simplify the present safety and reliability risk control procedure.

Ray, Paul S.

1996-01-01

199

Study on the urban heat island mitigation effect achieved by converting to grass-covered parking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The urban heat island mitigation effect of conversion from asphalt-covered parking areas to grass-covered ones is estimated by observation and calculation. The mean surface temperature in a parking lot is calculated from a thermal image captured by an infrared camera. The sensible heat flux in each parking space is calculated based on the surface heat budget. The reduction in the

Hideki Takebayashi; Masakazu Moriyama

2009-01-01

200

Flood hazards studies in the Mississippi River basin using remote sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Spring 1973 Mississippi River flood was investigated using remotely sensed data from ERTS-1. Both manual and automatic analyses of the data indicated that ERTS-1 is extremely useful as a regional tool for flood mamagement. Quantitative estimates of area flooded were made in St. Charles County, Missouri and Arkansas. Flood hazard mapping was conducted in three study areas along the Mississippi River using pre-flood ERTS-1 imagery enlarged to 1:250,000 and 1:100,000 scale. Initial results indicate that ERTS-1 digital mapping of flood prone areas can be performed at 1:62,500 which is comparable to some conventional flood hazard map scales.

Rango, A.; Anderson, A. T.

1974-01-01

201

Urban Vulnerability Assessment to Seismic Hazard through Spatial Multi-Criteria Analysis. Case Study: the Bucharest Municipality/Romania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the context of an explosive increase in value of the damage caused by natural disasters, an alarming challenge in the third millennium is the rapid growth of urban population in vulnerable areas. Cities are, by definition, very fragile socio-ecological systems with a high level of vulnerability when it comes to environmental changes and that are responsible for important transformations of the space, determining dysfunctions shown in the state of the natural variables (Parker and Mitchell, 1995, The OFDA/CRED International Disaster Database). A contributing factor is the demographic dynamic that affects urban areas. The aim of this study is to estimate the overall vulnerability of the urban area of Bucharest in the context of the seismic hazard, by using environmental, socio-economic, and physical measurable variables in the framework of a spatial multi-criteria analysis. For this approach the capital city of Romania was chosen based on its high vulnerability due to the explosive urban development and the advanced state of degradation of the buildings (most of the building stock being built between 1940 and 1977). Combining these attributes with the seismic hazard induced by the Vrancea source, Bucharest was ranked as the 10th capital city worldwide in the terms of seismic risk. Over 40 years of experience in the natural risk field shows that the only directly accessible way to reduce the natural risk is by reducing the vulnerability of the space (Adger et al., 2001, Turner et al., 2003; UN/ISDR, 2004, Dayton-Johnson, 2004, Kasperson et al., 2005; Birkmann, 2006 etc.). In effect, reducing the vulnerability of urban spaces would imply lower costs produced by natural disasters. By applying the SMCA method, the result reveals a circular pattern, signaling as hot spots the Bucharest historic centre (located on a river terrace and with aged building stock) and peripheral areas (isolated from the emergency centers and defined by precarious social and economic conditions). In effect, the example of Bucharest demonstrates how the results shape the ‘vulnerability to seismic hazard profile of the city, based on which decision makers could develop proper mitigation strategies. To sum up, the use of an analytical framework as the standard Spatial Multi-Criteria Analysis (SMCA) - despite all difficulties in creating justifiable weights (Yeh et al., 1999) - results in accurate estimations of the state of the urban system. Although this method was often mistrusted by decision makers (Janssen, 2001), we consider that the results can represent, based on precisely the level of generalization, a decision support framework for policy makers to critically reflect on possible risk mitigation plans. Further study will lead to the improvement of the analysis by integrating a series of daytime and nighttime scenarios and a better definition of the constructed space variables.

Armas, Iuliana; Dumitrascu, Silvia; Bostenaru, Maria

2010-05-01

202

A web-based tool for ranking landslide mitigation measures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the research done in the European project SafeLand "Living with landslide risk in Europe: Assessment, effects of global change, and risk management strategies", a compendium of structural and non-structural mitigation measures for different landslide types in Europe was prepared, and the measures were assembled into a web-based "toolbox". Emphasis was placed on providing a rational and flexible framework applicable to existing and future mitigation measures. The purpose of web-based toolbox is to assist decision-making and to guide the user in the choice of the most appropriate mitigation measures. The mitigation measures were classified into three categories, describing whether the mitigation measures addressed the landslide hazard, the vulnerability or the elements at risk themselves. The measures considered include structural measures reducing hazard and non-structural mitigation measures, reducing either the hazard or the consequences (or vulnerability and exposure of elements at risk). The structural measures include surface protection and control of surface erosion; measures modifying the slope geometry and/or mass distribution; measures modifying surface water regime - surface drainage; measures mo¬difying groundwater regime - deep drainage; measured modifying the mechanical charac¬teristics of unstable mass; transfer of loads to more competent strata; retaining structures (to modify slope geometry and/or to transfer stress to compe¬tent layer); deviating the path of landslide debris; dissipating the energy of debris flows; and arresting and containing landslide debris or rock fall. The non-structural mitigation measures, reducing either the hazard or the consequences: early warning systems; restricting or discouraging construction activities; increasing resistance or coping capacity of elements at risk; relocation of elements at risk; sharing of risk through insurance. The measures are described in the toolbox with fact sheets providing a brief description, guidance on design, schematic details, practical examples and references for each mitigation measure. Each of the measures was given a score on its ability and applicability for different types of landslides and boundary conditions, and a decision support matrix was established. The web-based toolbox organizes the information in the compendium and provides an algorithm to rank the measures on the basis of the decision support matrix, and on the basis of the risk level estimated at the site. The toolbox includes a description of the case under study and offers a simplified option for estimating the hazard and risk levels of the slide at hand. The user selects the mitigation measures to be included in the assessment. The toolbox then ranks, with built-in assessment factors and weights and/or with user-defined ranking values and criteria, the mitigation measures included in the analysis. The toolbox includes data management, e.g. saving data half-way in an analysis, returning to an earlier case, looking up prepared examples or looking up information on mitigation measures. The toolbox also generates a report and has user-forum and help features. The presentation will give an overview of the mitigation measures considered and examples of the use of the toolbox, and will take the attendees through the application of the toolbox.

Lacasse, S.; Vaciago, G.; Choi, Y. J.; Kalsnes, B.

2012-04-01

203

Earthquakes and faults in the Krahnjkar area Review of hazards and recommended further studies  

E-print Network

Earthquakes and faults in the Kárahnjúkar area Review of hazards and recommended further studies in the Kárahnjúkar area 6. Strike-slip faults at Kárahnjukar 7. Potential future faulting and earthquakes 8. Future in the Kárahnjukar area due to earthquakes and faults, taking into consideration relevant new geological observations

Sigmundsson, Freysteinn

204

A study of real-time identification and monitoring of barge-carried hazardous commodities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to increased terrorist threats related to hazardous material movements on the U.S. inland waterway system, towing vessel operators and fleet area managers, at specified reporting points, are required to notify the U.S. Coast Guard's Inland River Vessel Movement Center (IRVMC) of the movement of barges loaded with certain dangerous cargo (CDC). The objective of this study is to

Yangrong Ling; Mingzhou Jin; Michael R. Hilliard; John M. Usher

2009-01-01

205

A PRELIMINARY FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR AN OFFSHORE HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION FACILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes a feasibility study of using an existing offshore oil platform, being offered to the Government, as a site for incineration of hazardous wastes and related research. The platform, located in the Gulf of Mexico about 100 km south of Mobile, AL, has potential ...

206

Hazardous waste management in educational and research centers: a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hazardous waste management (HWM) practice at Tehran University of Medical Sciences Central Campus, Iran, was investigated in this study. Four schools were selected and the required information such as type and amount of wastes, temporary storage methods, waste discharge frequency, and final waste disposal methods using sampling, questionnaires, interviews with laboratory staff, and reference to available documents were gathered.

M. S. Hassanvand; K. Naddafi; R. Nabizadeh; F. Momeniha; A. Mesdaghinia; K. Yaghmaeian

2011-01-01

207

Study of earthquake hazards in New York and adjacent states  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last five years, Lamont-Doherty has installed a network of 30 short period seismic stations in New York State and adjacent parts of New Jersey and Vermont to study the seismicity, stress, earthquake source properties, and crustal structure in this area. The data indicate that seismic activity in New York is concentrated in the northern, western, and southeastern parts

M. Sbar; Y. Aggarwal; L. R. Sykes

1977-01-01

208

Development based climate change adaptation and mitigation—conceptual issues and lessons learned in studies in developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract,This paper discusses the conceptual basis for linking development,policies and climate change,adaptation and mitigation and suggests an analytical approach,that can be applied to studies in developing,countries. The approach,is centred on a broad set of policy evaluation criteria that merge,traditional economic,and sectoral goals and broader social issues related to health and income,distribution. The approach,is inspired by institutional economics and development paradigms

Kirsten Halsnæs Æ Jan Verhagen

209

Development based climate change adaptation and mitigation—conceptual issues and lessons learned in studies in developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the conceptual basis for linking development policies and climate change adaptation and mitigation and\\u000a suggests an analytical approach that can be applied to studies in developing countries. The approach is centred on a broad\\u000a set of policy evaluation criteria that merge traditional economic and sectoral goals and broader social issues related to\\u000a health and income distribution. The

Kirsten Halsnæs; Jan Verhagen

2007-01-01

210

Seismic Hazard and Risk Assessment for Georgia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Risks of natural hazards caused by natural disaster are closely related to the development process of society. The high level of natural disasters in many countries makes necessary to work out the national programs and strategy. The main goal of these programs is to reduce the natural disasters risk and caused losses. Risk mitigation is the cornerstone of the approach to reduce the nation's vulnerability to disasters from natural hazards. So proper investigation and assessment of natural hazards and vulnerability of the element at risk to hazards is very important for an effective and proper assessment of risk. This work issues a call for advance planning and action to reduce natural disaster risks, notably seismic risk through the investigation of vulnerability and seismic hazard for Georgia. Firstly, detail inventory map of element at risk was created. Here elements at risk are comprised of buildings and population. Secondly, seismic hazard maps were calculated based on modern approach of selecting and ranking global and regional ground motion prediction equation for region. Thirdly, on the bases of empirical data that was collected for some earthquake intensity based vulnerability study were completed for Georgian buildings. Finally, probabilistic seismic risk assessment in terms of structural damage and casualties were calculated for the territory of Georgia using obtained results. This methodology gave prediction of damage and casualty for a given probability of recurrence, based on a probabilistic seismic hazard model, population distribution, inventory, and vulnerability of buildings.

Tsereteli, Nino; Varazanashvili, Otar; Arabidze, Vakhtang; Gugeshashvili, Tengiz; Mukhadze, Teimuraz; Gvencadze, Aleksandre

2014-05-01

211

A Study of Airline Passenger Susceptibility to Atmospheric Turbulence Hazard  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple, generic, simulation math model of a commercial airliner has been developed to study the susceptibility of unrestrained passengers to large, discrete gust encounters. The math model simulates the longitudinal motion to vertical gusts and includes (1) motion of an unrestrained passenger in the rear cabin, (2) fuselage flexibility, (3) the lag in the downwash from the wing to the tail, and (4) unsteady lift effects. Airplane and passenger response contours are calculated for a matrix of gust amplitudes and gust lengths of a simulated mountain rotor. A comparison of the model-predicted responses to data from three accidents indicates that the accelerations in actual accidents are sometimes much larger than the simulated gust encounters.

Stewart, Eric C.

2000-01-01

212

Mitigation Evaluations: A Survey of Current Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the scope and components of mitigation assessments in a first effort to develop some guidelines for conducting mitigation evaluations. Using the mitigation evaluations survey (MES) we developed for this research, we surveyed 266 psychologists about the characteristics and content of mitigation evaluations. A high percentage of participants endorsed each of the 14 content areas presented in the

Michelle E. Barnett; Stanley L. Brodsky; Tess M. S. Neal

2011-01-01

213

Mitigation of indirect environmental effects of GM crops.  

PubMed

Currently, the UK has no procedure for the approval of novel agricultural practices that is based on environmental risk management principles. Here, we make a first application of the 'bow-tie' risk management approach in agriculture, for assessment of land use changes, in a case study of the introduction of genetically modified herbicide tolerant (GMHT) sugar beet. There are agronomic and economic benefits, but indirect environmental harm from increased weed control is a hazard. The Farm Scale Evaluation (FSE) trials demonstrated reduced broad-leaved weed biomass and seed production at the field scale. The simplest mitigation measure is to leave a proportion of rows unsprayed in each GMHT crop field. Our calculations, based on FSE data, show that a maximum of 2% of field area left unsprayed is required to mitigate weed seed production and 4% to mitigate weed biomass production. Tilled margin effects could simply be mitigated by increasing the margin width from 0.5 to 1.5 m. Such changes are cheap and simple to implement in farming practices. This case study demonstrates the usefulness of the bow-tie risk management approach and the transparency with which hazards can be addressed. If adopted generally, it would help to enable agriculture to adopt new practices with due environmental precaution. PMID:17439853

Pidgeon, J D; May, M J; Perry, J N; Poppy, G M

2007-06-22

214

Mitigation of indirect environmental effects of GM crops  

PubMed Central

Currently, the UK has no procedure for the approval of novel agricultural practices that is based on environmental risk management principles. Here, we make a first application of the ‘bow-tie’ risk management approach in agriculture, for assessment of land use changes, in a case study of the introduction of genetically modified herbicide tolerant (GMHT) sugar beet. There are agronomic and economic benefits, but indirect environmental harm from increased weed control is a hazard. The Farm Scale Evaluation (FSE) trials demonstrated reduced broad-leaved weed biomass and seed production at the field scale. The simplest mitigation measure is to leave a proportion of rows unsprayed in each GMHT crop field. Our calculations, based on FSE data, show that a maximum of 2% of field area left unsprayed is required to mitigate weed seed production and 4% to mitigate weed biomass production. Tilled margin effects could simply be mitigated by increasing the margin width from 0.5 to 1.5?m. Such changes are cheap and simple to implement in farming practices. This case study demonstrates the usefulness of the bow-tie risk management approach and the transparency with which hazards can be addressed. If adopted generally, it would help to enable agriculture to adopt new practices with due environmental precaution. PMID:17439853

Pidgeon, J.D; May, M.J; Perry, J.N; Poppy, G.M

2007-01-01

215

Reviewing and visualising relationships between anthropic processes and natural hazards within a multi-hazard framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we present a broad overview of the interaction relationships between 17 anthropic processes and 21 different natural hazard types. Anthropic processes are grouped into seven categories (subsurface extraction, subsurface addition, land use change, explosions, hydrological change, surface construction processes, miscellaneous). Natural hazards are grouped into six categories (geophysical, hydrological, shallow earth processes, atmospheric, biophysical and space). A wide-ranging review based on grey- and peer-reviewed literature from many scientific disciplines identified 54 relationships where anthropic processes have been noted to trigger natural hazards. We record case studies for all but three of these relationships. Based on the results of this review, we find that the anthropic processes of deforestation, explosions (conventional and nuclear) and reservoir construction could trigger the widest range of different natural hazard types. We also note that within the natural hazards, landslides and earthquakes are those that could be triggered by the widest range of anthropic processes. This work also examines the possibility of anthropic processes (i) resulting in an increased occurrence of a particular hazard interaction (e.g., deforestation could result in an increased interaction between storms and landslides); and (ii) inadvertently reducing the likelihood of a natural hazard or natural hazard interaction (e.g., poor drainage or deforestation reducing the likelihood of wildfires triggered by lightning). This study synthesises, using accessible visualisation techniques, the large amounts of anthropic process and natural hazard information from our review. In it we have outlined the importance of considering anthropic processes within any analysis of hazard interactions, and we reinforce the importance of a holistic approach to natural hazard assessment, mitigation and management.

Gill, Joel C.; Malamud, Bruce D.

2014-05-01

216

Respiratory hazards in hard metal workers: a cross sectional study.  

PubMed Central

A cross sectional study was conducted on 513 employees at three hard metal plants: 425 exposed workers (351 men, 74 women) and 88 controls (69 men, 19 women). Cough and sputum were more frequent in workers engaged in "soft powder" and presintering workshops compared with controls (12.5% and 16.5% v 3.5%). Spirometric abnormalities were more frequent among women in sintering and finishing workshops compared with control women (56.8% v 23.8%) and abnormalities of carbon monoxide test were more frequent in exposed groups than in controls; this difference was more pronounced in women (31.4% v 5.6%) than in men (18.5% v 13%). No significant correlation was observed between duration of exposure and age adjusted lung function tests. Slight abnormalities of chest radiographs (0/1, 1/1 according to ILO classification) were more frequent in exposed men than controls (12.8% v 1.9%) and mostly in soft powder workers. In subjects with abnormal chest radiographs FVC, FEV1 and carbon monoxide indices (fractional uptake of CO or CO transfer index or both) were lower compared with those with normal chest radiographs. Although relatively mild, the clinical, radiological, and functional abnormalities uncovered call for a regular supervision of workers exposed to hard metal dust. PMID:2787666

Meyer-Bisch, C; Pham, Q T; Mur, J M; Massin, N; Moulin, J J; Teculescu, D; Carton, B; Pierre, F; Baruthio, F

1989-01-01

217

Hazards theory and the Bhopal tragedy  

SciTech Connect

The recent industrial tragedy in Bhopal, India is placed within the framework of a general theory of hazards that could explain it. In that tragedy, resulting from an accidental release of toxic chemicals from Union Carbide of India's pesticide production facility, over 2500 persons lost their lives and thousands more face possible long-term negative effects on their health and livelihood. The Bhopal tragedy is a painful reminder of disturbing facts about the hazards of global technologies in the 20th century. For the poor and disadvantaged of the Third World, these technologies are ostensibly designed to intervene in the hazards process and improve the overall quality of life. Yet evidence suggests that just the opposite may in fact be occurring. The environment may be becoming more hazardous as a result of interventions, and this hazardousness may itself be disproportionately placed on the shoulders of the poor and disadvantaged of Third World nations. A theory of hazards is proposed in which the possibility of detecting environmental threats forms a key concept for explaining the rise of hazardousness and vulnerability among the poor. Without basic detection capabilities, it is argued that all other social attempts to reduce or mitigate the potential for harm from hazards in the environment automatically fail and leave persons exposed to increased risks. This dissertation links a case study of the Bhopal tragedy and hazards theory to suggestions for enhancing the possibility of detecting hazards. If the Bhopal tragedy is not to repeat itself, hard decisions must be made concerning the irreversibilities, catastrophic potentials, and dependencies created by technologies. These decisions reflect the inevitable tradeoffs that are made in assessing issues of long term safety or harm.

Bogard, W.C.

1986-01-01

218

Examination of Icing Induced Loss of Control and Its Mitigations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Factors external to the aircraft are often a significant causal factor in loss of control (LOC) accidents. In today s aviation world, very few accidents stem from a single cause and typically have a number of causal factors that culminate in a LOC accident. Very often the "trigger" that initiates an accident sequence is an external environment factor. In a recent NASA statistical analysis of LOC accidents, aircraft icing was shown to be the most common external environmental LOC causal factor for scheduled operations. When investigating LOC accident or incidents aircraft icing causal factors can be categorized into groups of 1) in-flight encounter with super-cooled liquid water clouds, 2) take-off with ice contamination, or 3) in-flight encounter with high concentrations of ice crystals. As with other flight hazards, icing induced LOC accidents can be prevented through avoidance, detection, and recovery mitigations. For icing hazards, avoidance can take the form of avoiding flight into icing conditions or avoiding the hazard of icing by making the aircraft tolerant to icing conditions. Icing detection mitigations can take the form of detecting icing conditions or detecting early performance degradation caused by icing. Recovery from icing induced LOC requires flight crew or automated systems capable of accounting for reduced aircraft performance and degraded control authority during the recovery maneuvers. In this report we review the icing induced LOC accident mitigations defined in a recent LOC study and for each mitigation describe a research topic required to enable or strengthen the mitigation. Many of these research topics are already included in ongoing or planned NASA icing research activities or are being addressed by members of the icing research community. These research activities are described and the status of the ongoing or planned research to address the technology needs is discussed

Reehorst, Andrew L.; Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Colantonio, Renato O.

2010-01-01

219

Google Earth Views of Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis Pilot Study, Seaside, Oregon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Virtual globes such as Google Earth provide immediate geographic context for research data for coastal hazard planning. We present Google Earth views of data from a Tsunami Pilot Study conducted within and near Seaside and Gearhart, Oregon, as part of FEMA's Flood Insurance Rate Map Modernization Program (Tsunami Pilot Study Working Group, 2006). Two goals of the pilot study were to develop probabilistic 100- year and 500-year tsunami inundation maps using Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) and to provide recommendations for improved tsunami hazard assessment guidelines. The Seaside area was chosen because it is typical of many coastal communities along the Cascadia subduction zone that extends from Cape Mendocino, California, to the Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington. State and local stakeholders also expressed considerable interest in mapping the tsunami threat to this area. The study was an interagency effort by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Geological Survey, and FEMA, in collaboration with the University of Southern California, Middle East Technical University, Portland State University, Horning Geoscience, Northwest Hydraulics Consultants, and the Oregon Department of Geological and Mineral Industries. The pilot study report will be augmented by a separate geographic information systems (GIS) data publication that provides model data and results. In addition to traditional GIS data formats, Google Earth kmz files are available to provide rapid visualization of the data against the rich base map provided by the interface. The data include verbal and geologic observations of historic tsunami events, newly constructed DEMs, historic shorelines, earthquake sources, models of tsunami wave heights, and maps of the estimated 100- and 500-year probabilistic floods. Tsunami Pilot Study Working Group, 2006, Seaside, Oregon Tsunami Pilot Study - Modernization of FEMA Flood Hazard Maps: U.S. Geological Survey Open-file Report 2006-1234, http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1234/.

Wong, F. L.; Venturato, A. J.; Geist, E. L.

2006-12-01

220

Cox proportional hazards models have more statistical power than logistic regression models in cross-sectional genetic association studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross-sectional genetic association studies can be analyzed using Cox proportional hazards models with age as time scale, if age at onset of disease is known for the cases and age at data collection is known for the controls. We assessed to what degree and under what conditions Cox proportional hazards models have more statistical power than logistic regression models in

Jeroen B van der Net; A Cecile J W Janssens; Marinus J C Eijkemans; John J P Kastelein; Eric J G Sijbrands; Ewout W Steyerberg

2008-01-01

221

Assessment and indirect adjustment for confounding by smoking in cohort studies using relative hazards models.  

PubMed

Workers' smoking histories are not measured in many occupational cohort studies. Here we discuss the use of negative control outcomes to detect and adjust for confounding in analyses that lack information on smoking. We clarify the assumptions necessary to detect confounding by smoking and the additional assumptions necessary to indirectly adjust for such bias. We illustrate these methods using data from 2 studies of radiation and lung cancer: the Colorado Plateau cohort study (1950-2005) of underground uranium miners (in which smoking was measured) and a French cohort study (1950-2004) of nuclear industry workers (in which smoking was unmeasured). A cause-specific relative hazards model is proposed for estimation of indirectly adjusted associations. Among the miners, the proposed method suggests no confounding by smoking of the association between radon and lung cancer-a conclusion supported by adjustment for measured smoking. Among the nuclear workers, the proposed method suggests substantial confounding by smoking of the association between radiation and lung cancer. Indirect adjustment for confounding by smoking resulted in an 18% decrease in the adjusted estimated hazard ratio, yet this cannot be verified because smoking was unmeasured. Assumptions underlying this method are described, and a cause-specific proportional hazards model that allows easy implementation using standard software is presented. PMID:25245043

Richardson, David B; Laurier, Dominique; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K; Tchetgen, Eric Tchetgen; Cole, Stephen R

2014-11-01

222

New Seismic Hazard study in Spain Aimed at the revision of the Spanish Building Code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a global overview of the recent study carried out in Spain for the new hazard map, which final goal is the revision of the Building Code in our country (NCSE-02). The study was carried our for a working group joining experts from The Instituto Geografico Nacional (IGN) and the Technical University of Madrid (UPM) , being the different phases of the work supervised by an expert Committee integrated by national experts from public institutions involved in subject of seismic hazard. The PSHA method (Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment) has been followed, quantifying the epistemic uncertainties through a logic tree and the aleatory ones linked to variability of parameters by means of probability density functions and Monte Carlo simulations. In a first phase, the inputs have been prepared, which essentially are: 1) a project catalogue update and homogenization at Mw 2) proposal of zoning models and source characterization 3) calibration of Ground Motion Prediction Equations (GMPE's) with actual data and development of a local model with data collected in Spain for Mw < 5.5. In a second phase, a sensitivity analysis of the different input options on hazard results has been carried out in order to have criteria for defining the branches of the logic tree and their weights. Finally, the hazard estimation was done with the logic tree shown in figure 1, including nodes for quantifying uncertainties corresponding to: 1) method for estimation of hazard (zoning and zoneless); 2) zoning models, 3) GMPE combinations used and 4) regression method for estimation of source parameters. In addition, the aleatory uncertainties corresponding to the magnitude of the events, recurrence parameters and maximum magnitude for each zone have been also considered including probability density functions and Monte Carlo simulations The main conclusions of the study are presented here, together with the obtained results in terms of PGA and other spectral accelerations SA (T) for return periods of 475, 975 and 2475 years. The map of the coefficient of variation (COV) are also represented to give an idea of the zones where the dispersion among results are the highest and the zones where the results are robust.

Rivas-Medina, A.; Benito, B.; Cabañas, L.; Martínez-Solares, J. M.; Ruíz, S.; Gaspar-Escribano, J. M.; Carreño, E.; Crespo, M.; García-Mayordomo, J.

2013-05-01

223

Mitigation potential of horizontal ground coupled heat pumps for current and future climatic conditions: UK environmental modelling and monitoring studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An increased uptake of alternative low or non-CO2 emitting energy sources is one of the key priorities for policy makers to mitigate the effects of environmental change. Relatively little work has been undertaken on the mitigation potential of Ground Coupled Heat Pumps (GCHPs) despite the fact that a GCHP could significantly reduce CO2 emissions from heating systems. It is predicted that under climate change the most probable scenario is for UK temperatures to increase and for winter rainfall to become more abundant; the latter is likely to cause a general rise in groundwater levels. Summer rainfall may reduce considerably, while vegetation type and density may change. Furthermore, recent studies underline the likelihood of an increase in the number of heat waves. Under such a scenario, GCHPs will increasingly be used for cooling as well as heating. These factors will affect long-term performance of horizontal GCHP systems and hence their economic viability and mitigation potential during their life span ( 50 years). The seasonal temperature differences encountered in soil are harnessed by GCHPs to provide heating in the winter and cooling in the summer. The performance of a GCHP system will depend on technical factors (heat exchanger (HE) type, length, depth, and spacing of pipes), but also it will be determined to a large extent by interactions between the below-ground parts of the system and the environment (atmospheric conditions, vegetation and soil characteristics). Depending on the balance between extraction and rejection of heat from and to the ground, the soil temperature in the neighbourhood of the HE may fall or rise. The GROMIT project (GROund coupled heat pumps MITigation potential), funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (UK), is a multi-disciplinary research project, in collaboration with EarthEnergy Ltd., which aims to quantify the CO2 mitigation potential of horizontal GCHPs. It considers changing environmental conditions and combines model predictions of soil moisture content and soil temperature with measurements at different GCHP locations over the UK. The combined effect of environment dynamics and horizontal GCHP technical properties on long-term GCHP performance will be assessed using a detailed land surface model (JULES: Joint UK Land Environment Simulator, Meteorological Office, UK) with additional equations embedded describing the interaction between GCHP heat exchangers and the surrounding soil. However, a number of key soil physical processes are currently not incorporated in JULES, such as groundwater flow, which, especially in lowland areas, can have an important effect on the heat flow between soil and HE. Furthermore, the interaction between HE and soil may also cause soil vapour and moisture fluxes. These will affect soil thermal conductivity and hence heat flow between the HE and the surrounding soil, which will in turn influence system performance. The project will address these issues. We propose to drive an improved version of JULES (with equations to simulate GCHP exchange embedded), with long-term gridded (1 km) atmospheric, soil and vegetation data (reflecting current and future environmental conditions) to reliably assess the mitigation potential of GCHPs over the entire domain of the UK, where uptake of GCHPs has been low traditionally. In this way we can identify areas that are most suitable for the installation of GCHPs. Only then recommendations can be made to local and regional governments, for example, on how to improve the mitigation potential in less suitable areas by adjusting GCHP configurations or design.

García González, Raquel; Verhoef, Anne; Vidale, Pier Luigi; Gan, Guohui; Wu, Yupeng; Hughes, Andrew; Mansour, Majdi; Blyth, Eleanor; Finch, Jon; Main, Bruce

2010-05-01

224

CMMAD usability case study in support of countermine and hazard sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During field trials, operator usability data were collected in support of lane clearing missions and hazard sensing for two robot platforms with Robot Intelligence Kernel (RIK) software and sensor scanning payloads onboard. The tests featured autonomous and shared robot autonomy levels where tasking of the robot used a graphical interface featuring mine location and sensor readings. The goal of this work was to provide insights that could be used to further technology development. The efficacy of countermine and hazard systems in terms of mobility, search, path planning, detection, and localization were assessed. Findings from objective and subjective operator interaction measures are reviewed along with commentary from soldiers having taken part in the study who strongly endorse the system.

Walker, Victor G.; Gertman, David I.

2010-04-01

225

Mini-Sosie High-Resolution Seismic Method aids hazards studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dramatic example of just how catastrophic earthquake damage can be occurred in 1989, when a nationally televised World Series game in San Francisco was preempted by the M 7.1 Loma Prieta earthquake. The surprising amount and distribution of damage reinforce the importance of seismic-hazard studies in urban areas, where potential for damage and loss of life is greatest. Unfortunately, many large urban centers developed before the advent of seismic-hazard microzonation mapping, ground-response building codes, and standardized air-photo reconnaissance. Decades of building, paving, and utility installation have modified the land surface to the extent that surficial geologic expression of faults and evidence of prehistoric earthquakes are either inaccessible or totally obliterated.

Stephenson, W. J.; Odum, J.; Shedlock, K. M.; Pratt, T. L.; Williams, R. A.

226

49 CFR 195.579 - What must I do to mitigate internal corrosion?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...What must I do to mitigate internal corrosion? 195.579 Section 195.579...TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Corrosion Control § 195.579 What must I do to mitigate internal corrosion? (a) General. If you...

2011-10-01

227

49 CFR 195.579 - What must I do to mitigate internal corrosion?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...What must I do to mitigate internal corrosion? 195.579 Section 195.579...TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Corrosion Control § 195.579 What must I do to mitigate internal corrosion? (a) General. If you...

2010-10-01

228

49 CFR 195.579 - What must I do to mitigate internal corrosion?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...What must I do to mitigate internal corrosion? 195.579 Section 195.579...TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Corrosion Control § 195.579 What must I do to mitigate internal corrosion? (a) General. If you...

2012-10-01

229

49 CFR 195.579 - What must I do to mitigate internal corrosion?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...What must I do to mitigate internal corrosion? 195.579 Section 195.579...TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Corrosion Control § 195.579 What must I do to mitigate internal corrosion? (a) General. If you...

2013-10-01

230

Status of volcanic hazard studies for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations  

SciTech Connect

Volcanism studies of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) region are concerned with hazards of future volcanism with respect to underground disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The hazards of silicic volcanism are judged to be negligible; hazards of basaltic volcanism are judged through research approaches combining hazard appraisal and risk assessment. The NTS region is cut obliquely by a N-NE trending belt of volcanism. This belt developed about 8 Myr ago following cessation of silicic volcanism and contemporaneous with migration of basaltic activity toward the southwest margin of the Great Basin. Two types of fields are present in the belt: (1) large-volume, long-lived basalt and local rhyolite fields with numerous eruptive centers and (2) small-volume fields formed by scattered basaltic scoria cones. Late Cenozoic basalts of the NTS region belong to the second field type. Monogenetic basalt centers of this region were formed mostly by Strombolian eruptions; Surtseyean activity has been recognized at three centers. Geochemically, the basalts of the NTS region are classified as straddle A-type basalts of the alkalic suite. Petrological studies indicate a volumetric dominance of evolved hawaiite magmas. Trace- and rare-earth-element abundances of younger basalt (<4 Myr) of the NTS region and southern Death Valley area, California, indicate an enrichment in incompatible elements, with the exception of rubidium. The conditional probability of recurring basaltic volcanism and disruption of a repository by that event is bounded by the range of 10{sup -8} to 10{sup -10} as calculated for a 1-yr period. Potential disruptive and dispersal effects of magmatic penetration of a repository are controlled primarily by the geometry of basalt feeder systems, the mechanism of waste incorporation in magma, and Strombolian eruption processes.

Crowe, B.M.; Vaniman, D.T.; Carr, W.J.

1983-03-01

231

Economics of Tsunami Mitigation in the Pacific Northwest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The death total in a major Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ) tsunami may be comparable to the Tohoku tsunami - tens of thousands. To date, tsunami risk reduction activities have been almost exclusively hazard mapping and evacuation planning. Reducing deaths in locations where evacuation to high ground is impossible in the short time between ground shaking and arrival of tsunamis requires measures such as vertical evacuation facilities or engineered pathways to safe ground. Yet, very few, if any, such tsunami mitigation projects have been done. In contrast, many tornado safe room and earthquake mitigation projects driven entirely or in largely by life safety have been done with costs in the billions of dollars. The absence of tsunami mitigation measures results from the belief that tsunamis are too infrequent and the costs too high to justify life safety mitigation measures. A simple analysis based on return periods, death rates, and the geographic distribution of high risk areas for these hazards demonstrates that this belief is incorrect: well-engineered tsunami mitigation projects are more cost-effective with higher benefit-cost ratios than almost all tornado or earthquake mitigation projects. Goldfinger's paleoseismic studies of CSZ turbidites indicate return periods for major CSZ tsunamis of about 250-500 years (USGS Prof. Paper 1661-F in press). Tsunami return periods are comparable to those for major earthquakes at a given location in high seismic areas and are much shorter than those for tornados at any location which range from >4,000 to >16,000 years for >EF2 and >EF4 tornadoes, respectively. The average earthquake death rate in the US over the past 100-years is about 1/year, or about 30/year including the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. The average death rate for tornadoes is about 90/year. For CSZ tsunamis, the estimated average death rate ranges from about 20/year (10,000 every 500 years) to 80/year (20,000 every 250 years). Thus, the long term deaths rates from tsunamis, earthquakes and tornadoes are comparable. High hazard areas for tornadoes and earthquakes cover ~40% and ~15% of the contiguous US, ~1,250,000 and ~500,000 square miles, respectively. In marked contrast, tsunami life safety risk is concentrated in communities with significant populations in areas where evacuation to high ground is impossible: probably <4,000 square miles or <0.1% of the US. The geographic distribution of life safety risk profoundly affects the economics of tsunami life safety mitigation projects. Consider a tsunami life safety project which saves an average of one life per year (500 lives per 500 years). Using FEMA's value of human life (5.8 million), 7% discount rate and a 50-year project useful lifetime, the net present value of avoided deaths is 80 million. Thus, the benefit-cost ratio would be about 16 or about 80 for tsunami mitigation projects which cost 5 million or 1 million, respectively. These rough calculations indicate that tsunami mitigation projects in high risk locations are economically justified. More importantly, these results indicate that national and local priorities for natural hazard mitigation should be reconsidered, with tsunami mitigation given a very high priority.

Goettel, K. A.; Rizzo, A.; Sigrist, D.; Bernard, E. N.

2011-12-01

232

Using respondents' uncertainty scores to mitigate hypothetical bias in community-based health insurance studies.  

PubMed

Community-based health insurance has been implemented in several developing countries to help the poor to gain access to adequate health-care services. Assessing what the poor are willing to pay is of paramount importance for policymaking. The contingent valuation method, which relies on a hypothetical market, is commonly used for this purpose. But the presence of the hypothetical bias that is most often inherent in this method tends to bias the estimates upward and compromises policymaking. This paper uses respondents' uncertainty scores in an attempt to mitigate hypothetical bias in community-based health insurance in one rural setting in Cameroon. Uncertainty scores are often employed in single dichotomous choice surveys. An originality of the paper is to use such an approach in a double-bounded dichotomous choice survey. The results suggest that this instrument is effective at decreasing the mean WTP. PMID:22160944

Donfouet, Hermann Pythagore Pierre; Mahieu, Pierre-Alexandre; Malin, Eric

2013-04-01

233

Study on FPGA SEU Mitigation for Readout Electronics of DAMPE BGO Calorimeter  

E-print Network

The BGO calorimeter, which provides a wide measurement range of the primary cosmic ray spectrum, is a key sub-detector of Dark Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE). The readout electronics of calorimeter consists of 16 pieces of Actel ProASIC Plus FLASH-based FPGA, of which the design-level flip-flops and embedded block RAMs are single event upset (SEU) sensitive in the harsh space environment. Therefore to comply with radiation hardness assurance (RHA), SEU mitigation methods, including partial triple modular redundancy (TMR), CRC checksum, and multi-domain reset are analyzed and tested by the heavy-ion beam test. Composed of multi-level redundancy, a FPGA design with the characteristics of SEU tolerance and low resource consumption is implemented for the readout electronics.

Zhongtao Shen; Changqing Feng; Shanshan Gao; Deliang Zhang; Di Jiang; Shubin Liu; Qi An

2014-06-16

234

Impurity Pellet Injector for Disruption Mitigation Studies in DIII-D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The DIII-D impurity pellet injector, formerly lithium pellet injector, has been recommissioned primarily for the purpose of disruption mitigation experiments. The first pellet injected into a H-mode plasma was a solid 1 mm cylindrical carbon pellet which completely ablated in the pedestal and did not cause a disruption. More than 90% of carbon which reached the pedestal was assimilated into the core on a transport time scale of ˜10 ms, roughly doubling plasma carbon content. We will report on planned experiments involving injection of low-Z shell pellets made of polystyrene which contain a dispersive payload of tracer material: boron dust in cylinders or 10 atm argon gas in spherical pellets. The goal in both cases being delivery of large quantities of electrons to the core before triggering a thermal quench. Another experiment to be reported involves injecting small carbon pellets during the current quench phase of a disruption to attempt probing the properties of runaway electrons.

James, A. N.; Hollmann, E. M.; Yu, J. H.; Evans, T. E.; Jackson, G. L.; Parks, P. B.

2008-11-01

235

Study on FPGA SEU Mitigation for Readout Electronics of DAMPE BGO Calorimeter  

E-print Network

The BGO calorimeter, which provides a wide measurement range of the primary cosmic ray spectrum, is a key sub-detector of Dark Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE). The readout electronics of calorimeter consists of 16 pieces of Actel ProASIC Plus FLASH-based FPGA, of which the design-level flip-flops and embedded block RAMs are single event upset (SEU) sensitive in the harsh space environment. Therefore to comply with radiation hardness assurance (RHA), SEU mitigation methods, including partial triple modular redundancy (TMR), CRC checksum, and multi-domain reset are analyzed and tested by the heavy-ion beam test. Composed of multi-level redundancy, a FPGA design with the characteristics of SEU tolerance and low resource consumption is implemented for the readout electronics.

Shen, Zhongtao; Gao, Shanshan; Zhang, Deliang; Jiang, Di; Liu, Shubin; An, Qi

2014-01-01

236

First-phase study design for the US Navy Radon Assessment and Mitigation Program (NAVRAMP)  

SciTech Connect

In 1988, the US Navy initiated a worldwide multi-year program for the assessment and mitigation of radon inside buildings under its control. During the first two years of the program, radon levels in residences occupied by Navy personnel and their dependents are being surveyed. Also being surveyed are all schools, child care centers, hospitals, and brigs in addition to a small random sample of bachelor quarters. Passive alpha-track detectors, numbering about 25,000, are being used as monitoring devices. A substantial fraction of the monitors (20%) are being used for quality assurance. Data management programs have been developed to record the chain of custody of the monitors and handle the associated questionnaire data. Program objectives and implementation emphasize quality assurance, records maintenance, and monitor placement and retrieval. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

Wilson, D.L.; Gammage, R.B.; Matthews, T.G.

1990-01-01

237

Cost-benefit analysis of alternative LNG vapor-mitigation measures. Topical report, September 14, 1987-January 15, 1991  

SciTech Connect

A generalized methodology is presented for comparing the costs and safety benefits of alternative hazard mitigation measures for a large LNG vapor release. The procedure involves the quantification of the risk to the public before and after the application of LNG vapor mitigation measures. In the study, risk was defined as the product of the annual accident frequency, estimated from a fault tree analysis, and the severity of the accident. Severity was measured in terms of the number of people who may be exposed to 2.5% or higher concentration. The ratios of the annual costs of the various mitigation measures to their safety benefits (as determined by the differences between the risk before and after mitigation measure implementation), were then used to identify the most cost-effective approaches to vapor cloud mitigation.

Atallah, S.

1992-06-25

238

Prediction of Ungauged River Basin for Hydro Power Potential and Flood Risk Mitigation; a Case Study at Gin River, Sri Lanka  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most of the primary civilizations of the world emerged in or near river valleys or floodplains. The river channels and floodplains are single hydrologic and geomorphic system. The failure to appreciate the integral connection between floodplains and channel underlies many socioeconomic and environmental problems in river management today. However it is a difficult task of collecting reliable field hydrological data. Under such situations either synthetic or statistically generated data were used for hydraulic engineering designing and flood modeling. The fundamentals of precipitation-runoff relationship through synthetic unit hydrograph for Gin River basin were prepared using the method of the Flood Studies Report of the National Environmental Research Council, United Kingdom (1975). The Triangular Irregular Network model was constructed using Geographic Information System (GIS) to determine hazard prone zones. The 1:10,000 and 1:50,000 topography maps and field excursions were also used for initial site selection of mini-hydro power units and determine flooding area. The turbines output power generations were calculated using the parameters of net head and efficiency of turbine. The peak discharge achieves within 4.74 hours from the onset of the rainstorm and 11.95 hours time takes to reach its normal discharge conditions of Gin River basin. Stream frequency of Gin River is 4.56 (Junctions/ km2) while the channel slope is 7.90 (m/km). The regional coefficient on the catchment is 0.00296. Higher stream frequency and gentle channel slope were recognized as the flood triggering factors of Gin River basin and other parameters such as basins catchment area, main stream length, standard average annual rainfall and soil do not show any significant variations with other catchments of Sri Lanka. The flood management process, including control of flood disaster, prepared for a flood, and minimize it impacts are complicated in human population encroached and modified floodplains. Thus modern GIS technology has been productively executed to prepare hazard maps based on the flood modeling and also it would be further utilized for disaster preparedness and mitigation activities. Five suitable hydraulic heads were recognized for mini-hydro power sites and it would be the most economical and applicable flood controlling hydraulic engineering structure considering all morphologic, climatic, environmental and socioeconomic proxies of the study area. Mini-hydro power sites also utilized as clean, eco friendly and reliable energy source (8630.0 kW). Finally Francis Turbine can be employed as the most efficiency turbine for the selected sites bearing in mind of both technical and economical parameters.

Ratnayake, A. S.

2011-12-01

239

ERTS-1 flood hazard studies in the Mississippi River Basin. [Missouri, Mississippi, and Arkansas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Spring 1973 Mississippi River flood was investigated using remotely sensed data from ERTS-1. Both manual and automatic analyses of the data indicate that ERTS-1 is extremely useful as a regional tool for flood and floodplain management. The maximum error of such flood area measurements is conservatively estimated to be less than five percent. Change detection analysis indicates that the flood had major impacts on soil moisture, land pattern stability, and vegetation stress. Flood hazard identification was conducted using photointerpretation techniques in three study areas along the Mississippi River using pre-flood ERTS-1 imagery down to 1:100,000 scale. Flood prone area boundaries obtained from ERTS-1 were generally in agreement with flood hazard maps produced by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the U.S. Geological Survey although the latter are somewhat more detailed because of their larger scale. Initial results indicate that ERTS-1 digital mapping of the flood-prone areas can be performed at least 1:62,500 which is comparable to conventional flood hazard map scales.

Rango, A.; Anderson, A. T.

1974-01-01

240

Utilization and results of hazard and operability studies in a petroleum refinery  

SciTech Connect

The petroleum refining industry has been performing hazard analyses in process units to some extent since at least 1988 and in earnest since 1990, when the American Petroleum Institute published Recommended Practice No. 750, [open quotes]Process Hazards Management.[close quotes] The Hazard and Operability Study (HAZOPS) is the most widely used of the various analysis techniques available, in part because this highly structured technique is easy to teach and well-suited for continuous process units. The results of HAZOPS fall into two broad categories, tangible and intangible. The tangible results are obvious: worksheets which detail event scenarios for potential process deviations, and action items, or recommendations for changes to process equipment of procedures. In many cases, the action items address issues which have a purely economic impact or which are procedural in nature, involving little or no capital investment. The intangible results or products of a HAZOPS include: the training and knowledge gained by the team participants, and better utilization of limited capital funds resulting from more detailed up-front engineering when a HAZOPS is required prior to funding. An aggressive HAZOPS schedule also aids facilities in planning resources for process safety information updates where the necessary P ID's or PFD's are out-of-date. This paper details the experiences with HAZOPS at Chevron USA Products Company's Pascagoula, Mississippi Refinery. The manner in which HAZOPS are performed, the types of results obtained, and the benefits of the HAZOPS program are discussed. 8 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Pully, A.S. (Chevron USA Products Co., Pascagoula, MS (United States))

1993-04-01

241

Hydrogen Hazards Assessment Protocol (HHAP): Approach and Methodology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the approach and methodology to develop a assessment protocol for hydrogen hazards. Included in the presentation are the reasons to perform hazards assessment, the types of hazard assessments that exist, an analysis of hydrogen hazards, specific information about the Hydrogen Hazards Assessment Protocol (HHAP). The assessment is specifically tailored for hydrogen behavior. The end product of the assesment is a compilation of hazard, mitigations and associated factors to facilitate decision making and achieve the best practice.

Woods, Stephen

2009-01-01

242

Hazardous-Materials Robot  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remotely controlled mobile robot used to locate, characterize, identify, and eventually mitigate incidents involving hazardous-materials spills/releases. Possesses number of innovative features, allowing it to perform mission-critical functions such as opening and unlocking doors and sensing for hazardous materials. Provides safe means for locating and identifying spills and eliminates risks of injury associated with use of manned entry teams. Current version of vehicle, called HAZBOT III, also features unique mechanical and electrical design enabling vehicle to operate safely within combustible atmosphere.

Stone, Henry W.; Edmonds, Gary O.

1995-01-01

243

Evaluation of the fire and explosion hazards of oil-shale mining and processing. Volume 1. Analytical studies and accident scenarios. Open file report, 16 June 1977-15 July 1983  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this research were to identify and evaluate potential fire and explosion hazards in oil-shale mining and processing by laboratory testing to provide recommendations for mitigation safety monitoring and to establish a basis for regulation. A series of scenarios were developed describing hypothetical fire and explosion incidents that might occur in oil-shale mining. The objectives were achieved through the following accomplishments: (1) It was found that fire and explosion properties of oil shale increase with oil shale richness and decreasing particle size. (2) Data from dust loading study in several mines showed that the total potential yield of combustibles was about one-tenth the amount required to fuel a propagating explosion. (3) Aging of oil shale dusts over a period of several years reduces the content of volatile combustibles and the corresponding fire and explosion properties. (4) Data and information from the completed program indicate that the hazard of dust explosions is less severe than the hazard of fire in mine muck piles. Laboratory data were used to relate fire and explosivity properties of oil shales to those of coals and other carbonaceous materials and to assist in the identification and evaluation of potential hazardous situations that may be encountered in oil shale mining and processing.

Crookston, R.B.; Atwood, M.T.; Williams, R.E.; McGuire, M.E.

1983-07-15

244

Thermal study of payload module for the next-generation infrared space telescope SPICA in risk mitigation phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) is a pre-project of JAXA in collaboration with ESA to be launched around 2025. The SPICA mission is to be launched into a halo orbit around the second Lagrangian point in the Sun-Earth system, which allows us to use effective radiant cooling in combination with a mechanical cooling system in order to cool a 3m large IR telescope below 6K. The use of 4K / 1K-class Joule-Thomson coolers is proposed in order to cool the telescope and provide a 4K / 1K temperature region for Focal Plane Instruments (FPIs). This paper introduces details of the thermal design study for the SPICA payload module in the Risk-Mitigation-Phase (RMP), in which the activity is focused on mitigating the mission's highest risks. As the result of the RMP activity, most of all the goals have been fully satisfied and the thermal design of the payload module has been dramatically improved.

Shinozaki, Keisuke; Sato, Yoichi; Sawada, Kenichiro; Ando, Makiko; Sugita, Hiroyuki; Yamawaki, Toshihiko; Mizutani, Tadahito; Komatsu, Keiji; Okazaki, Shun; Ogawa, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Takao; Matsuhara, Hideo; Takada, Makoto; Okabayashi, Akinobu; Tsunematsu, Shoji; Narasaki, Katsuhiro

2014-08-01

245

Study of cover source mismatch in steganalysis and ways to mitigate its impact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a steganalysis detector trained on one cover source is applied to images from a different source, generally the detection error increases due to the mismatch between both sources. In steganography, this situation is recognized as the so-called cover source mismatch (CSM). The drop in detection accuracy depends on many factors, including the properties of both sources, the detector construction, the feature space used to represent the covers, and the steganographic algorithm. Although well recognized as the single most important factor negatively affecting the performance of steganalyzers in practice, the CSM received surprisingly little attention from researchers. One of the reasons for this is the diversity with which the CSM can manifest. On a series of experiments in the spatial and JPEG domains, we refute some of the common misconceptions that the severity of the CSM is tied to the feature dimensionality or their "fragility." The CSM impact on detection appears too difficult to predict due to the effect of complex dependencies among the features. We also investigate ways to mitigate the negative effect of the CSM using simple measures, such as by enlarging the diversity of the training set (training on a mixture of sources) and by employing a bank of detectors trained on multiple different sources and testing on a detector trained on the closest source.

Kodovský, Jan; Sedighi, Vahid; Fridrich, Jessica

2014-02-01

246

Implications of Adhesion Studies for Dust Mitigation on Thermal Control Surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments measuring the adhesion forces under ultrahigh vacuum conditions (10 (exp -10) torr) between a synthetic volcanic glass and commonly used space exploration materials have recently been described. The glass has a chemistry and surface structure typical of the lunar regolith. It was found that Van der Waals forces between the glass and common spacecraft materials was negligible. Charge transfer between the materials was induced by mechanically striking the spacecraft material pin against the glass plate. No measurable adhesion occurred when striking the highly conducting materials, however, on striking insulating dielectric materials the adhesion increased dramatically. This indicates that electrostatic forces dominate over Van der Waals forces under these conditions. The presence of small amounts of surface contaminants was found to lower adhesive forces by at least two orders of magnitude, and perhaps more. Both particle and space exploration material surfaces will be cleaned by the interaction with the solar wind and other energetic processes and stay clean because of the extremely high vacuum (10 (exp -12) torr) so the atomically clean adhesion values are probably the relevant ones for the lunar surface environment. These results are used to interpret the results of dust mitigation technology experiments utilizing textured surfaces, work function matching surfaces and brushing. They have also been used to reinterpret the results of the Apollo 14 Thermal Degradation Samples experiment.

Gaier, James R.; Berkebile, Stephen P.

2012-01-01

247

Macroscopic to microscopic studies of flue gas desulfurization byproducts for acid mine drainage mitigation  

SciTech Connect

The use of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems to reduce SO{sub 2} emissions has resulted in the generation of large quantities of byproducts. These and other byproducts are being stockpiled at the very time that alkaline materials having high neutralization potential are needed to mitigate acid mine drainage (AMD). FGD byproducts are highly alkaline materials composed primarily of unreacted sorbents (lime or limestone and sulfates and sulfites of Ca). The American Coal Ash Association estimated that approximately 20 million tons of FGD material were generated by electric power utilities equipped with wet lime-limestone PGD systems in 1993. Less than 5% of this material has been put to beneficial use for agricultural soil amendments and for the production of wallboard and cement. Four USGS projects are examining FGD byproduct use to address these concerns. These projects involve (1) calculating the volume of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproduct generation and their geographic locations in relation to AMD, (2) determining byproduct chemistry and mineralogy, (3) evaluating hydrology and geochemistry of atmospheric fluidized bed combustion byproduct as soil amendment in Ohio, and (4) analyzing microbial degradation of gypsum in anoxic limestone drains in West Virginia.

Robbins, E.I.; Kalyoncu, R.S.; Finkelman, R.B.; Matos, G.R.; Barsotti, A.F. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States); Haefner, R.J.; Rowe, G.L. Jr. [Geological Survey, Columbus, OH (United States); Savela, C.E.; Eddy, J.I. [Natural Resources Conservation Service, Morgantown, WV (United States)

1996-12-31

248

First Production of C60 Nanoparticle Plasma Jet for Study of Disruption Mitigation for ITER  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unique fast response and large mass-velocity delivery of nanoparticle plasma jets (NPPJs) provide a novel application for ITER disruption mitigation, runaway electrons diagnostics and deep fueling. NPPJs carry a much larger mass than usual gases. An electromagnetic plasma gun provides a very high injection velocity (many km/s). NPPJ has much higher ram pressure than any standard gas injection method and penetrates the tokamak confining magnetic field. Assimilation is enhanced due to the NP large surface-to-volume ratio. Radially expanding NPPJs help achieving toroidal uniformity of radiation power. FAR-TECH's NPPJ system was successfully tested: a coaxial plasma gun prototype (˜35 cm length, 96 kJ energy) using a solid state TiH2/C60 pulsed power cartridge injector produced a hyper-velocity (>4 km/s), high-density (>10^23 m-3), C60 plasma jet in ˜0.5 ms, with ˜1-2 ms overall response-delivery time. We present the TiH2/C60 cartridge injector output characterization (˜180 mg of sublimated C60 gas) and first production results of a high momentum C60 plasma jet (˜0.6 g.km/s).

Bogatu, I. N.; Thompson, J. R.; Galkin, S. A.; Kim, J. S.; Brockington, S.; Case, A.; Messer, S. J.; Witherspoon, F. D.

2012-10-01

249

Mapping Europe's Seismic Hazard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the rift that cuts through the heart of Iceland to the complex tectonic convergence that causes frequent and often deadly earthquakes in Italy, Greece, and Turkey to the volcanic tremors that rattle the Mediterranean, seismic activity is a prevalent and often life-threatening reality across Europe. Any attempt to mitigate the seismic risk faced by society requires an accurate estimate of the seismic hazard.

Giardini, Domenico; Wössner, Jochen; Danciu, Laurentiu

2014-07-01

250

Awareness of occupational hazards and use of safety measures among welders: a cross-sectional study from eastern Nepal  

PubMed Central

Objective The proper use of safety measures by welders is an important way of preventing and/or reducing a variety of health hazards that they are exposed to during welding. There is a lack of knowledge about hazards and personal protective equipments (PPEs) and the use of PPE among the welders in Nepal is limited. We designed a study to assess welders’ awareness of hazards and PPE, and the use of PPE among the welders of eastern Nepal and to find a possible correlation between awareness and use of PPE among them. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study of 300 welders selected by simple random sampling from three districts of eastern Nepal was conducted using a semistructured questionnaire. Data regarding age, education level, duration of employment, awareness of hazards, safety measures and the actual use of safety measures were recorded. Results Overall, 272 (90.7%) welders were aware of at least one hazard of welding and a similar proportion of welders were aware of at least one PPE. However, only 47.7% used one or more types of PPE. Education and duration of employment were significantly associated with the awareness of hazards and of PPE and its use. The welders who reported using PPE during welding were two times more likely to have been aware of hazards (OR=2.52, 95% CI 1.09 to 5.81) and five times more likely to have been aware of PPE compared with the welders who did not report the use of PPE (OR=5.13, 95% CI 2.34 to 11.26). Conclusions The welders using PPE were those who were aware of hazards and PPE. There is a gap between being aware of hazards and PPE (90%) and use of PPE (47%) at work. Further research is needed to identify the underlying factors leading to low utilisation of PPE despite the welders of eastern Nepal being knowledgeable of it. PMID:24889850

Budhathoki, Shyam Sundar; Singh, Suman Bahadur; Sagtani, Reshu Agrawal; Niraula, Surya Raj; Pokharel, Paras Kumar

2014-01-01

251

State of Tsunami Mitigation in the U.S. states and territories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On March 11, 2011, the west coast of the United States was vividly reminded of the hazard that sits about hundred miles off the coast. Coastal populations could have less than 15 minutes to evacuate from a Cascadia-induced tsunami. The 2011 Japanese tsunami provides many lessons on when mitigation works and when mitigation fails. Emergency managers, policy makers, scientists, and the public have many options when it comes to mitigation strategies. Topics covered by this presentation range from understanding the effects of probability and possibility on mitigation strategies to the existing and emerging mitigation strategies being used by coastal States and Federal partners to mitigate the tsunami hazard.

Rizzo, A.

2012-12-01

252

Development and Evaluation of a Program of Study in Hazardous Materials Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A course of study in Hazardous Materials Management has been developed at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. A year of general chemistry and a semester survey organic chemistry course are prerequisites for three new courses: CHE 201--Environmental Toxicology, CHE 202--Environmental Regulations, and CHE 203--Sampling, Analysis, Treatment, and Disposal. The new courses have been designed to be chemically rigorous, yet to contain material accessible to a non-technical audience. At least three cycles have been offered for each course to a largely favorable student response.

Tirri, Lawrence; Manning, Bradford; Johnson, Brian J.

1996-04-01

253

The logistics of managing hazardous waste: a case study analysis in the UK retail sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years there has been a marked increase in the use of hazardous materials in retail activities, resulting in heightened concern about hazardous wastes ending up in landfill. In response, environmental legislation has been enacted to increase re-use and recycling by placing responsibility on producers and distributors for the collection, treatment and recovery of hazardous waste. This has had

Maria K. Triantafyllou; Tom J. Cherrett

2010-01-01

254

A seismic landslide hazard analysis with topographic effect, a case study in the 99 Peaks region, Central Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been known that ground motion amplitude will be amplified at mountaintops; however, such topographic effects are not included in conventional landslide hazard models. In this study, a modified procedure that considers the topographic effects is proposed to analyze the seismic landslide hazard. The topographic effect is estimated by back analysis. First, a 3D dynamic numerical model with irregular topography is constructed. The theoretical topographic amplification factors are derived from the dynamic numerical model. The ground motion record is regarded as the reference motion in the plane area. By combining the topographic amplification factors with the reference motions, the amplified acceleration time history and amplified seismic intensity parameters are obtained. Newmark’s displacement model is chosen to perform the seismic landslide hazard analysis. By combining the regression equation and the seismic parameter of peak ground acceleration and Arias intensity, the Newmark’s displacement distribution is generated. Subsequently, the calculated Newmark’s displacement maps are transformed to the hazard maps. The landslide hazard maps of the 99 Peaks region, Central Taiwan are evaluated. The actual landslide inventory maps triggered by the 21 September 1999, Chi-Chi earthquake are compared with the calculated hazard maps. Relative to the conventional procedure, the results show that the proposed procedures, which include the topographic effect can obtain a better result for seismic landslide hazard analysis.

Peng, Wen-Fei; Wang, Chein-Lee; Chen, Shih-Tsu; Lee, Shing-Tsz

2009-04-01

255

Prevalent cases in observational studies of cancer survival: do they bias hazard ratio estimates?  

PubMed

Observational epidemiological studies often include prevalent cases recruited at various times past diagnosis. This left truncation can be dealt with in non-parametric (Kaplan-Meier) and semi-parametric (Cox) time-to-event analyses, theoretically generating an unbiased hazard ratio (HR) when the proportional hazards (PH) assumption holds. However, concern remains that inclusion of prevalent cases in survival analysis results inevitably in HR bias. We used data on three well-established breast cancer prognosticators - clinical stage, histopathological grade and oestrogen receptor (ER) status - from the SEARCH study, a population-based study including 4470 invasive breast cancer cases (incident and prevalent), to evaluate empirically the effectiveness of allowing for left truncation in limiting HR bias. We found that HRs of prognostic factors changed over time and used extended Cox models incorporating time-dependent covariates. When comparing Cox models restricted to subjects ascertained within six months of diagnosis (incident cases) to models based on the full data set allowing for left truncation, we found no difference in parameter estimates (P=0.90, 0.32 and 0.95, for stage, grade and ER status respectively). Our results show that use of prevalent cases in an observational epidemiological study of breast cancer does not bias the HR in a left truncation Cox survival analysis, provided the PH assumption holds true. PMID:19401693

Azzato, E M; Greenberg, D; Shah, M; Blows, F; Driver, K E; Caporaso, N E; Pharoah, P D P

2009-06-01

256

Properties of Hazards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A Hazard is any physical, biological or chemical agent that poses a threat to human health. You can get exposed to hazards due to the way you live, the job you do, or the environment you are surrounded by. This "Properties of Hazards" module has five instructional units. Follow the links above in order. Each lesson contains study material for one day. Learn more about just how close you are to environmental health hazards and how they can affect you.

2001-01-01

257

Thermal hazard analysis for cumene hydroperoxide by DSC and TAM Tsu-Kaung Miao1  

E-print Network

1 Thermal hazard analysis for cumene hydroperoxide by DSC and TAM Tsu- Kaung Miao1 , Chi-Min Shu1 or damage can be alleviated by analyzing the specific chemical with adequate instruments, such as DSC be controlled or mitigated under an acceptable level. This study compared both DSC and TAM to test

Chen, Shu-Ching

258

44 CFR 201.4 - Standard State Mitigation Plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and critical facilities located in the identified hazard areas. (3) A Mitigation Strategy that provides the State's blueprint for reducing the losses identified in the risk assessment. This section shall include: (i) A description of State...

2010-10-01

259

44 CFR 201.4 - Standard State Mitigation Plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and critical facilities located in the identified hazard areas. (3) A Mitigation Strategy that provides the State's blueprint for reducing the losses identified in the risk assessment. This section shall include: (i) A description of State...

2011-10-01

260

Application of a Data Mining Model and It's Cross Application for Landslide Hazard Analysis: a Case Study in Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with landslide hazard analysis and cross-application using Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing data for Cameron Highland, Penang Island and Selangor in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to cross-apply and verify a spatial probabilistic model for landslide hazard analysis. Landslide locations were identified in the study area from interpretation of aerial photographs and field surveys. Topographical/geological data and satellite images were collected and processed using GIS and image processing tools. There are ten landslide inducing parameters which are considered for the landslide hazard analysis. These parameters are topographic slope, aspect, curvature and distance from drainage, all derived from the topographic database; geology and distance from lineament, derived from the geologic database; landuse from Landsat satellite images; soil from the soil database; precipitation amount, derived from the rainfall database; and the vegetation index value from SPOT satellite images. These factors were analyzed using an artificial neural network model to generate the landslide hazard map. Each factor's weight was determined by the back-propagation training method. Then the landslide hazard indices were calculated using the trained back-propagation weights, and finally the landslide hazard map was generated using GIS tools. Landslide hazard maps were drawn for these three areas using artificial neural network model derived not only from the data for that area but also using the weight for each parameters, one of the statistical model, calculated from each of the other two areas (nine maps in all) as a cross-check of the validity of the method. For verification, the results of the analyses were compared, in each study area, with actual landslide locations. The verification results showed sufficient agreement between the presumptive hazard map and the existing data on landslide areas.

Pradhan, Biswajeet; Lee, Saro; Shattri, Mansor

261

Vertical Field of View Reference Point Study for Flight Path Control and Hazard Avoidance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Researchers within the eXternal Visibility System (XVS) element of the High-Speed Research (HSR) program developed and evaluated display concepts that will provide the flight crew of the proposed High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) with integrated imagery and symbology to permit path control and hazard avoidance functions while maintaining required situation awareness. The challenge of the XVS program is to develop concepts that would permit a no-nose-droop configuration of an HSCT and expanded low visibility HSCT operational capabilities. This study was one of a series of experiments exploring the 'design space' restrictions for physical placement of an XVS display. The primary experimental issues here was 'conformality' of the forward display vertical position with respect to the side window in simulated flight. 'Conformality' refers to the case such that the horizon and objects appear in the same relative positions when viewed through the forward windows or display and the side windows. This study quantified the effects of visual conformality on pilot flight path control and hazard avoidance performance. Here, conformality related to the positioning and relationship of the artificial horizon line and associated symbology presented on the forward display and the horizon and associated ground, horizon, and sky textures as they would appear in the real view through a window presented in the side window display. No significant performance consequences were found for the non-conformal conditions.

Comstock, J. Raymond, Jr.; Rudisill, Marianne; Kramer, Lynda J.; Busquets, Anthony M.

2002-01-01

262

Distinguishing Realistic Military Blasts from Firecrackers in Mitigation Studies of Blast Induced Traumatic Brain Injury  

SciTech Connect

In their Contributed Article, Nyein et al. (1,2) present numerical simulations of blast waves interacting with a helmeted head and conclude that a face shield may significantly mitigate blast induced traumatic brain injury (TBI). A face shield may indeed be important for future military helmets, but the authors derive their conclusions from a much smaller explosion than typically experienced on the battlefield. The blast from the 3.16 gm TNT charge of (1) has the following approximate peak overpressures, positive phase durations, and incident impulses (3): 10 atm, 0.25 ms, and 3.9 psi-ms at the front of the head (14 cm from charge), and 1.4 atm, 0.32 ms, and 1.7 psi-ms at the back of a typical 20 cm head (34 cm from charge). The peak pressure of the wave decreases by a factor of 7 as it traverses the head. The blast conditions are at the threshold for injury at the front of the head, but well below threshold at the back of the head (4). The blast traverses the head in 0.3 ms, roughly equal to the positive phase duration of the blast. Therefore, when the blast reaches the back of the head, near ambient conditions exist at the front. Because the headform is so close to the charge, it experiences a wave with significant curvature. By contrast, a realistic blast from a 2.2 kg TNT charge ({approx} an uncased 105 mm artillery round) is fatal at an overpressure of 10 atm (4). For an injury level (4) similar to (1), a 2.2 kg charge has the following approximate peak overpressures, positive phase durations, and incident impulses (3): 2.1 atm, 2.3 ms, and 18 psi-ms at the front of the head (250 cm from charge), and 1.8 atm, 2.5 ms, and 16.8 psi-ms at the back of the head (270 cm from charge). The peak pressure decreases by only a factor of 1.2 as it traverses the head. Because the 0.36 ms traversal time is much smaller than the positive phase duration, pressures on the head become relatively uniform when the blast reaches the back of the head. The larger standoff implies that the headform locally experiences a nearly planar blast wave. Also, the positive phase durations and blast impulses are much larger than those of (1). Consequently, the blast model used in (1) is spatially and temporally very different from a military blast. It would be useful to repeat the calculations using military blast parameters. Finally, (1) overlooks a significant part of (5). On page 1 and on page 3, (1) states that (5) did not consider helmet pads. But pages pages 3 and 4 of (5) present simulations of blast wave propagation across an ACH helmeted head form with and without pads. (5) states that when the pads are present, the 'underwash' of air under the helmet is blocked when compared to the case without. (1) reaches this same conclusion, but reports it as a new result rather than a confirmation of that already found in (5).

Moss, W C; King, M J; Blackman, E G

2011-01-21

263

Economic optimization of natural hazard protection - conceptual study of existing approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Risk-based planning of protection measures against natural hazards has become a common practice in many countries. The selection procedure aims at identifying an economically efficient strategy with regard to the estimated costs and risk (i.e. expected damage). A correct setting of the evaluation methodology and decision criteria should ensure an optimal selection of the portfolio of risk protection measures under a limited state budget. To demonstrate the efficiency of investments, indicators such as Benefit-Cost Ratio (BCR), Marginal Costs (MC) or Net Present Value (NPV) are commonly used. However, the methodologies for efficiency evaluation differ amongst different countries and different hazard types (floods, earthquakes etc.). Additionally, several inconsistencies can be found in the applications of the indicators in practice. This is likely to lead to a suboptimal selection of the protection strategies. This study provides a general formulation for optimization of the natural hazard protection measures from a socio-economic perspective. It assumes that all costs and risks can be expressed in monetary values. The study regards the problem as a discrete hierarchical optimization, where the state level sets the criteria and constraints, while the actual optimization is made on the regional level (towns, catchments) when designing particular protection measures and selecting the optimal protection level. The study shows that in case of an unlimited budget, the task is quite trivial, as it is sufficient to optimize the protection measures in individual regions independently (by minimizing the sum of risk and cost). However, if the budget is limited, the need for an optimal allocation of resources amongst the regions arises. To ensure this, minimum values of BCR or MC can be required by the state, which must be achieved in each region. The study investigates the meaning of these indicators in the optimization task at the conceptual level and compares their suitability. To illustrate the theoretical findings, the indicators are tested on a hypothetical example of five regions with different risk levels. Last but not least, political and societal aspects and limitations in the use of the risk-based optimization framework are discussed.

Spackova, Olga; Straub, Daniel

2013-04-01

264

Natural phenomena hazards, Hanford Site, Washington  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the natural phenomena hazard loads for use in implementing DOE Order 5480.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation, and supports development of double-shell tank systems specifications at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The natural phenomena covered are seismic, flood, wind, volcanic ash, lightning, snow, temperature, solar radiation, suspended sediment, and relative humidity.

Conrads, T.J.

1998-09-29

265

Case study: Mapping tsunami hazards associated with debris flow into a reservoir  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Debris-flow generated impulse waves (tsunamis) pose hazards in lakes, especially those used for hydropower or recreation. We describe a method for assessing tsunami-related hazards for the case in which inundation by coherent water waves, rather than chaotic splashing, is of primary concern. The method involves an experimentally based initial condition (tsunami source) and a Boussinesq model for tsunami propagation and inundation. Model results are used to create hazard maps that offer guidance for emergency planners and responders. An example application explores tsunami hazards associated with potential debris flows entering Baker Lake, a reservoir on the flanks of the Mount Baker volcano in the northwestern United States. ?? 2006 ASCE.

Walder, J.S.; Watts, P.; Waythomas, C.F.

2006-01-01

266

Playing against nature: formulating cost-effective natural hazard policy given uncertainty  

E-print Network

Playing against nature: formulating cost- effective natural hazard policy given uncertainty Tohoku://www.earth.northwestern.edu/people/seth/research/eqrec.html #12;Developing strategies to mitigate risks posed by natural hazards depends on estimating the hazard and the balance between the costs and benefits of mitigation. The major uncertainty is the probabilities

267

Status of volcanic hazard studies for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. Volume II  

SciTech Connect

Volcanic hazard investigations during FY 1984 focused on five topics: the emplacement mechanism of shallow basalt intrusions, geochemical trends through time for volcanic fields of the Death Valley-Pancake Range volcanic zone, the possibility of bimodal basalt-rhyolite volcanism, the age and process of enrichment for incompatible elements in young basalts of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) region, and the possibility of hydrovolcanic activity. The stress regime of Yucca Mountain may favor formation of shallow basalt intrusions. However, combined field and drill-hole studies suggest shallow basalt intrusions are rare in the geologic record of the southern Great Basin. The geochemical patterns of basaltic volcanism through time in the NTS region provide no evidence for evolution toward a large-volume volcanic field or increases in future rates of volcanism. Existing data are consistent with a declining volcanic system comparable to the late stages of the southern Death Valley volcanic field. The hazards of bimodal volcanism in this area are judged to be low. The source of a 6-Myr pumice discovered in alluvial deposits of Crater Flat has not been found. Geochemical studies show that the enrichment of trace elements in the younger rift basalts must be related to an enrichment of their mantle source rocks. This geochemical enrichment event, which may have been metasomatic alteration, predates the basalts of the silicic episode and is, therefore, not a young event. Studies of crater dimensions of hydrovolcanic landforms indicate that the worst case scenario (exhumation of a repository at Yucca Mountain by hydrovolcanic explosions) is unlikely. Theoretical models of melt-water vapor explosions, particularly the thermal detonation model, suggest hydrovolcanic explosion are possible at Yucca Mountain. 80 refs., 21 figs., 5 tabs.

Crowe, B.M.; Wohletz, K.H.; Vaniman, D.T.; Gladney, E.; Bower, N.

1986-01-01

268

Remedial Action Assessment System (RAAS): Evaluation of selected feasibility studies of CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act) hazardous waste sites  

SciTech Connect

Congress and the public have mandated much closer scrutiny of the management of chemically hazardous and radioactive mixed wastes. Legislative language, regulatory intent, and prudent technical judgment, call for using scientifically based studies to assess current conditions and to evaluate and select costeffective strategies for mitigating unacceptable situations. The NCP requires that a Remedial Investigation (RI) and a Feasibility Study (FS) be conducted at each site targeted for remedial response action. The goal of the RI is to obtain the site data needed so that the potential impacts on public health or welfare or on the environment can be evaluated and so that the remedial alternatives can be identified and selected. The goal of the FS is to identify and evaluate alternative remedial actions (including a no-action alternative) in terms of their cost, effectiveness, and engineering feasibility. The NCP also requires the analysis of impacts on public health and welfare and on the environment; this analysis is the endangerment assessment (EA). In summary, the RI, EA, and FS processes require assessment of the contamination at a site, of the potential impacts in public health or the environment from that contamination, and of alternative RAs that could address potential impacts to the environment. 35 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Whelan, G. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Hartz, K.E.; Hilliard, N.D. (Beck (R.W.) and Associates, Seattle, WA (USA))

1990-04-01

269

The Relative Severity of Single Hazards within a Multi-Hazard Framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we present a description of the relative severity of single hazards within a multi-hazard framework, compiled through examining, quantifying and ranking the extent to which individual hazards trigger or increase the probability of other hazards. Hazards are broken up into six major groupings (geophysical, hydrological, shallow earth processes, atmospheric, biophysical and space), with the interactions for 21 different hazard types examined. These interactions include both one primary hazard triggering a secondary hazard, and one primary hazard increasing the probability of a secondary hazard occurring. We identify, through a wide-ranging review of grey- and peer-review literature, >90 interactions. The number of hazard-type linkages are then summed for each hazard in terms of their influence (the number of times one hazard type triggers another type of hazard, or itself) and their sensitivity (the number of times one hazard type is triggered by other hazard types, or itself). The 21 different hazards are then ranked based on (i) influence and (ii) sensitivity. We found, by quantification and ranking of these hazards, that: (i) The strongest influencers (those triggering the most secondary hazards) are volcanic eruptions, earthquakes and storms, which when taken together trigger almost a third of the possible hazard interactions identified; (ii) The most sensitive hazards (those being triggered by the most primary hazards) are identified to be landslides, volcanic eruptions and floods; (iii) When sensitivity rankings are adjusted to take into account the differential likelihoods of different secondary hazards being triggered, the most sensitive hazards are found to be landslides, floods, earthquakes and ground heave. We believe that by determining the strongest influencing and the most sensitive hazards for specific spatial areas, the allocation of resources for mitigation measures might be done more effectively.

Gill, Joel C.; Malamud, Bruce D.

2013-04-01

270

Consumption hazards of cattle liver infected with Fasciola spp.: II. Experimental study on rats.  

PubMed

This study evaluated and revealed the consumption hazards of cattle liver infected with Fasciola spp. and revealed its effects on the serum estimation of liver enzyme (ALT) on experimental rats. A total of42 Wister albino rats were classified into 7 groups. Four groups were fed on raw and cooked cattle liver with various intensity of Fasciola spp. infection. Two groups were fed on raw and cooked normal cattle liver (positive control), and one group served as negative control. Histopathology of the rats' liver revealed hydropic degeneration, congestion with dilatation of the central vein and sinusoids and focal areas of necrosis. The intestine samples showed degenerative changes and necrobiosis of the villar epithelium with inflammatory cell infiltration. Moreover, a slight increase was noticed in the liver enzyme ALT which is known to be an important marker of liver destruction. PMID:24640879

El-Tellawy, Farouk M; Khalifa, Refaat M; El-Kader, Mona K Abd; Mohamed, Amany O; Ahmed, Noha S

2013-12-01

271

Case studies. [hazardous effects of early medical use of X-rays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The characteristics of the technology assessment process which were manifested in response to the hazardous effects of early medical uses of X-rays are considered. Other topics discussed include: controlling the potential hazards of government-sponsored technology, genetic technology, community level impacts of expanded underground coal mining, and an integrated strategy for aircraft/airport noise abatement.

1975-01-01

272

A Case Study of the Spatial Distribution of Seismic Hazard (El Salvador)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The republic of El Salvador in Central America is an area of high seismic hazard where at least twelve destructive earthquakes have occurred this century alone. The principal sources of seismic hazard are earthquakes associated with the subduction of the Cocos plate in the Middle America Trench and upper-crustal earthquakes in the chain of Quaternary volcanoes that runs across the

J. Bommer; C. McQUEEN; W. Salazar; S. Scott; G. Woo

1998-01-01

273

RESPIROMETRIC STUDIES ON THE IMPACT OF HUMIC SUBSTANCES ON THE ACTIVATED SLUDGE TREATMENT: MITIGATION OF AN INHIBITORY EFFECT CAUSED BY DIESEL OIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the results of aerobic respirometric studies on the application of humic substances (humate) to mitigate an inhibitory effect of petroleum hydrocarbons (diesel oil) on the returned activated sludge (RAS) in sewage from a municipal treatment plant. Initial results of the respirometric tests and non?linear regression analysis showed that diesel oil had an inhibitory effect on the activity

J. Kochany

2008-01-01

274

Natural Hazards, Second Edition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural disaster loss is on the rise, and the vulnerability of the human and physical environment to the violent forces of nature is increasing. In many parts of the world, disasters caused by natural hazards such as earthquakes, floods, landslides, drought, wildfires, intense windstorms, tsunami, and volcanic eruptions have caused the loss of human lives, injury, homelessness, and the destruction of economic and social infrastructure. Over the last few years, there has been an increase in the occurrence, severity, and intensity of disasters, culminating with the devastating tsunami of 26 December 2004 in South East Asia.Natural hazards are often unexpected or uncontrollable natural events of varying magnitude. Understanding their mechanisms and assessing their distribution in time and space are necessary for refining risk mitigation measures. This second edition of Natural Hazards, (following a first edition published in 1991 by Cambridge University Press), written by Edward Bryant, associate dean of science at Wollongong University, Australia, grapples with this crucial issue, aspects of hazard prediction, and other issues. The book presents a comprehensive analysis of different categories of hazards of climatic and geological origin.

Rouhban, Badaoui

275

Mitigation: Interfaces between NASA, Risk Managers, and the Public Clark R. Chapman1,2  

E-print Network

Mitigation," Vail CO, 26 June 2006. Summary: Threat mitigation, in the disaster management community the public, officials, and disaster management agencies; strategic planning must guide response. NASA must's responsibility. I. NEO Threat Mitigation: All- Hazards Disaster Management Strategy The Congressional mandate

Chapman, Clark R.

276

Further RAGE modeling of asteroid mitigation: surface and subsurface explosions in porous objects  

SciTech Connect

Disruption or mitigation of a potentially hazardous object (PHO) by a high-energy subsurface burst is considered. This is just one possible method of impact-hazard mitigation. We present RAGE hydrocode models of the shock-generated disruption of PHOs by subsurface nuclear bursts using scenario-specific models from realistic RADAR shape models. We will show 2D and 3D models for the disruption by a large energy source at the center of such PHO models ({approx}100 kt-10 Mt) specifically for the shape of the asteroid 25143 Itokawa. We study the effects of non-uniform composition (rubble pile), shallow buried bursts for the optimal depth of burial and porosity.

Weaver, Robert P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Plesko, Catherine S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dearholt, William R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-03

277

Seismic Hazard Analysis in EL Paso/juarez Area from Study of Young Fault Scarps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The El Paso-Juarez metropolitan area contains a known record of active faulting, but also has one of the most poorly known paleoseismic records. The scarcity of data means that nearly 2 million people are exposed to a seismic hazard with little known on the actual risk. Active faults are known along the eastern side of the Franklin Mountains as well as young ruptures within the Hueco Bolson in East El Paso, yet the only fault with paleoseismic studies is the East Franklin's fault. Recent population increases in the El Paso region have led to a construction boom in east El Paso, and many of these construction sites cross known Quaternary fault ruptures. This research project contains two potential components: 1) An exploratory component: students can use existing fault maps and high resolution aerial photography to seek out sites where active construction sites might be unearthing exposures of young fault ruptures. The study is exploratory, and involves carefully mapping using field GIS systems to document areas for potential study, map possible faults, etc. 2) An active fault study in an urbanized environment: The east Franklins fault is a known active fault. The scarp is exposed near trans-mountain road, and along some side streets in NE El Paso. Potential studies include careful mapping of fault scarp topographic profiles, and mapping surface traces.

ashenfelter, K. R.

2012-12-01

278

TECHNOLOGY SAFETY DATA SHEETS: THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY'S INNOVATIVE EFFORTS TO MITIGATE OR ELIMINATE HAZARDS DURING DESIGN AND TO INFORM WORKERS ABOUT THE RISKS OF NEW TECHNOLOGIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technology Safety Data Sheets (TSDSs) are novel instruments for communicating safety and health informa- tion about a new environmental remediation technology. As originally conceived, TSDSs would be used by work- ers who operate and maintain the technology, safety and health professionals charged with protecting personnel on hazardous waste sites, and regulators who must write permits for technologies on state Superfund

Bruce E. Lippy

279

Doser study in Maryland coastal plain: Use of lime doser to mitigate stream acidification. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the 1991 doser study was to determine the efficacy of automated lime slurry dosers to neutralize acidic pulses and improve water quality in Bacon Ridge Branch and Mattawoman Creek; measure physicochemical responses of Bacon Ridge Branch, Mattawoman Creek and Faulkner Branch to rain events and determine the use of the above three streams, North River, and Tull Branch for spawning by yellow perch, white perch, alewife and blueback herring.

Hall, L.W.; Fischer, S.A.; Killen, W.D.; Ziegenfuss, M.C.; Klauda, R.J.

1992-07-01

280

Studies on lithium salts to mitigate ASR-induced expansion in new concrete: a critical review  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a critical review of the research work conducted so far on the suppressive effects of lithium compounds on expansion due to alkali-silica reaction (ASR) in concrete and on the mechanism or mechanisms by which lithium inhibits the expansion. After a thorough examination of the existing literature regarding lithium salts in controlling ASR expansion, a summary of research findings is provided. It shows that all the lithium salts studied, including LiF, LiCl, LiBr, LiOH, LiOH.H{sub 2}O, LiNO{sub 3}, LiNO{sub 2}, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Li{sub 2}HPO{sub 4}, and Li{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}, are effective in suppressing ASR expansion in new concrete, provided they are used at the appropriate dosages. Among these compounds, LiNO{sub 3} appears to be the most promising one. Although the mechanism(s) for the suppressive effects of lithium are not well understood, several mechanisms have been proposed. A detailed discussion about these existing mechanisms is provided in the paper. Finally, some recommendations for future studies are identified.

Feng, X. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of New Brunswick, PO Box 4400, Fredericton, NB E3B 5A3 (Canada)]. E-mail: k488i@unb.ca; Thomas, M.D.A. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of New Brunswick, PO Box 4400, Fredericton, NB E3B 5A3 (Canada); Bremner, T.W. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of New Brunswick, PO Box 4400, Fredericton, NB E3B 5A3 (Canada); Balcom, B.J. [MRI Center, University of New Brunswick, PO Box 4400, Fredericton, NB E3B 5A3 (Canada); Folliard, K.J. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

2005-09-01

281

MicroRNA-based strategy to mitigate the risk of gain-of-function influenza studies  

PubMed Central

Recent gain-of-function studies in influenza A virus H5N1 strains revealed that as few as three amino-acid changes in the hemagglutinin protein confer the capacity for viral transmission between ferrets1, 2. As transmission between ferrets is considered a surrogate indicator of transmissibility between humans, these studies raised concerns about the risks of gain-of-function influenza A virus research. Here we present an approach to strengthen the biosafety of gain-of-function influenza experiments. We exploit species-specific endogenous small RNAs to restrict influenza A virus tropism. In particular, we found that the microRNA miR-192 was expressed in primary human respiratory tract epithelial cells as well as mouse lungs but absent from the ferret respiratory tract. Incorporation of miR-192 target sites into influenza A virus did not prevent influenza replication and transmissibility in ferrets, but did attenuate influenza pathogenicity in mice. This molecular biocontainment approach should be applicable beyond influenza A virus to minimize the risk of experiments involving other pathogenic viruses. PMID:23934176

Kimble, Brian; Sutton, Troy; Shapiro, Jillian S.; Finch, Courtney; Angel, Matthew; Chua, Mark A.; Gonzalez-Reiche, Ana Silvia; Xu, Kemin; Perez, Daniel; Garcia-Sastre, Adolfo; tenOever, Benjamin R.

2013-01-01

282

Vulnerability studies and integrated assessments for hazard risk reduction in Pittsburgh, PA (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today's environmental problems stretch beyond the bounds of most academic disciplines, and thus solutions require an interdisciplinary approach. For instance, the scientific consensus is changes in the frequency and severity of many types of extreme weather events are increasing (IPCC 2012). Yet despite our efforts to reduce greenhouse gases, we continue to experience severe weather events such as Superstorm Sandy, record heat and blizzards, and droughts. These natural hazards, combined with increased vulnerability and exposure, result in longer-lasting disruptions to critical infrastructure and business continuity throughout the world. In order to protect both our lives and the economy, we must think beyond the bounds of any one discipline to include an integrated assessment of relevant work. In the wake of recent events, New York City, Washington, DC, Chicago, and a myriad of other cities have turned to their academic powerhouses for assistance in better understanding their vulnerabilities. This talk will share a case study of the state of integrated assessments and vulnerability studies of energy, transportation, water, real estate, and other main sectors in Pittsburgh, PA. Then the talk will use integrated assessment models and other vulnerability studies to create coordinated sets of climate projections for use by the many public agencies and private-sector organizations in the region.

Klima, K.

2013-12-01

283

The Impact Hazard in the Context of Other Natural Hazards and Predictive Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hazard due to impact of asteroids and comets has been recognized as analogous, in some ways, to other infrequent but consequential natural hazards (e.g. floods and earthquakes). Yet, until recently, astronomers and space agencies have felt no need to do what their colleagues and analogous agencies must do in order the assess, quantify, and communicate predictions to those with a practical interest in the predictions (e.g. public officials who must assess the threats, prepare for mitigation, etc.). Recent heightened public interest in the impact hazard, combined with increasing numbers of "near misses" (certain to increase as Spaceguard is implemented) requires that astronomers accept the responsibility to place their predictions and assessments in terms that may be appropriately considered. I will report on preliminary results of a multi-year GSA/NCAR study of "Prediction in the Earth Sciences: Use and Misuse in Policy Making" in which I have represented the impact hazard, while others have treated earthquakes, floods, weather, global climate change, nuclear waste disposal, acid rain, etc. The impact hazard presents an end-member example of a natural hazard, helping those dealing with more prosaic issues to learn from an extreme. On the other hand, I bring to the astronomical community some lessons long adopted in other cases: the need to understand the policy purposes of impact predictions, the need to assess potential societal impacts, the requirements to very carefully assess prediction uncertainties, considerations of potential public uses of the predictions, awareness of ethical considerations (e.g. conflicts of interest) that affect predictions and acceptance of predictions, awareness of appropriate means for publicly communicating predictions, and considerations of the international context (especially for a hazard that knows no national boundaries).

Chapman, C. R.

1998-09-01

284

Exposure to Volcanic Hazards, and Influence on Perception: A Case Study in Japan, Ten Years After the Unzen Fugendake Eruption  

E-print Network

of any direct exposure to volcanic eruption, the children' perception seems to tend towards some1 Exposure to Volcanic Hazards, and Influence on Perception: A Case Study in Japan, Ten Years After direct exposure of the eruption, whereas indirectly exposed respondents did not show any sign of it

Boyer, Edmond

285

Correction: Determination of metal ion content of beverages and estimation of target hazard quotients: a comparative study  

PubMed Central

This is a correction to the following paper: Hague T, Petroczi A, Andrews PR, Barker J, Naughton DP: Determination of metal ion content of beverages and estimation of target hazard quotients: a comparative study. Chem Central J 2008, 2:13.

2010-01-01

286

Land use and management change under climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies: a U.S. case study  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examine the effects of crop management adaptation and climate mitigation strategies on land use and land management, plus on related environmental and economic outcomes. We find that crop management adaptation (e.g. crop mix, new species) increases Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 1.7 % under a more severe climate projection while a carbon price reduces total forest and agriculture GHG annual flux by 15 % and 9 %, respectively. This shows that trade-offs are likely between mitigation and adaptation. Climate change coupled with crop management adaptation has small and mostly negative effects on welfare; mitigation, which is implemented as a carbon price starting at $15 per metric ton carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent with a 5 % annual increase rate, bolsters welfare carbon payments. When both crop management adaptation and carbon price are implemented the effects of the latter dominates.

Mu, Jianhong E.; Wein, Anne; McCarl, Bruce

2013-01-01

287

Evaluation of impacts and mitigation assessments for the UMTRA Project: Gunnison and Durango pilot studies. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates the impacts assessment and proposed mitigations provided in environmental documents concerning the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The projected impacts and proposed mitigations identified in UMTRA Project environmental documents were evaluated for two UMTRA Project sites. These sites are Gunnison and Durango, which are representative of currently active and inactive UMTRA Project sites, respectively. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation was prepared for the remedial action at Durango and Gunnison as well as for the provision of an alternate water supply system at Gunnison. Additionally, environmental analysis was completed for mill site demolition Gunnison, and for a new road related to the Durango remedial action. The results in this report pertain only to the impact assessments prepared by the Regulatory Compliance staff as a part of the NEPA compliance requirements. Similarly, the mitigative measures documented are those that were identified during the NEPA process.

Beranich, S.J. [Southwest Environmental, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-08-24

288

Natural Hazards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces students to a variety of natural hazards, emphasizing that when people understand these threats they are better able to avoid or reduce their potential impacts. First, the class discusses what they know about natural hazards and natural disasters. Then, working in pairs, they research particular hazards; the threats they pose and where and when those threats are most pronounced. Following this research period, the class assembles what they have learned into a general overview of natural hazards nationwide. Following the second class discussion, students work in pairs again to explore the hazards that affect particular towns, cities, or regions of the country. In doing so, they learn more about how and why certain natural hazards impact specific areas, as well as what people are doing to minimize the threats these hazards pose.

2006-01-01

289

EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS IN THE OFFSHORE ENVIRONMENT.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report discusses earthquake effects and potential hazards in the marine environment, describes and illustrates methods for the evaluation of earthquake hazards, and briefly reviews strategies for mitigating hazards. The report is broadly directed toward engineers, scientists, and others engaged in developing offshore resources. The continental shelves have become a major frontier in the search for new petroleum resources. Much of the current exploration is in areas of moderate to high earthquake activity. If the resources in these areas are to be developed economically and safely, potential earthquake hazards must be identified and mitigated both in planning and regulating activities and in designing, constructing, and operating facilities. Geologic earthquake effects that can be hazardous to marine facilities and operations include surface faulting, tectonic uplift and subsidence, seismic shaking, sea-floor failures, turbidity currents, and tsunamis.

Page, Robert A.; Basham, Peter W.

1985-01-01

290

Tsunami Hazard Maps of Alaska Communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys participate in the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program by evaluating and mapping potential inundation of selected coastal communities in Alaska. The communities are selected in coordination with the Alaska Division of Emergency Services on the basis of location, infrastructure, availability of bathymetric and topographic data, and willingness for a community to use the results for hazard mitigation. We work in cooperation with the NOAA/PMEL Center for Tsunami Inundation Mapping Efforts, which assists in developing bathymetric and topographic data grids for the area of interest. Three communities in the vicinity of Kodiak were the first for which we produced inundation maps. The work is under way for Homer, Seldovia, and possibly other communities along Kachemak Bay. We use numerical modeling as a primary research tool to study tsunami waves generated by earthquake sources. We consider several hypothetical tsunami scenarios with a potential to generate tsunami waves that can affect the coastal communities. The nonlinear shallow-water wave equations are solved with a finite-difference method. We use embedded grids that increase in resolution from the source area to the target community. State and local emergency planners will use results of the numerical modeling combined with historical observations to develop evacuation plans and to educate the public for reducing risk from future tsunamis.

Suleimani, E.; Hansen, R.; Combellick, R.

2002-12-01

291

44 CFR 65.16 - Standard Flood Hazard Determination Form and Instructions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND...Section 528 of the National Flood Insurance Reform Act of 1994 (42...special flood hazards and in which flood insurance under this title is...

2012-10-01

292

44 CFR 65.16 - Standard Flood Hazard Determination Form and Instructions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND...Section 528 of the National Flood Insurance Reform Act of 1994 (42...special flood hazards and in which flood insurance under this title is...

2011-10-01

293

Mitigating GHG emissions from agriculture under climate change constrains - a case study for the State of Saxony, Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mitigating greenhouse gas (N2O, CO2, CH4) emissions from agricultural soils under conditions of projected climate change (IPCC SRES scenarios) is a prerequisite to limit global warming. In this study we used the recently developed regional biogeochemical ecosystem model LandscapeDNDC (Haas et al., 2012, Landscape Ecology) and two time slices for present day (1998 - 2018) and future climate (2078-2098) (regional downscale of IPCC SRES A1B climate simulation) and compared a business as usual agricultural management scenario (winter rape seed - winter barley - winter wheat rotation; fertilization: 170 / 150 / 110 kg-N mineral fertilizer; straw harvest barley/wheat: 90 %) with scenarios where either one or all of the following options were realized: no-till, residue return to fields equal 100%, reduction of fertilization rate s were left on the field or reduction of N fertilization by 10%. The spatial domain is the State of Saxony (1 073 523 hectares of arable land), a typical region for agricultural production in Central Europe. The simulations are based on a high resolution polygonal datasets (5 517 agricultural grid cells) for which relevant information on soil properties is available. The regionalization of the N2O emissions was validated against the IPCC Tier I methodology resulting in N2O emissions of 1 824 / 1 610 / 1 180 [t N2O-N yr-1] for of the baseline years whereas the simulations results in 6 955 / 6 039 / 2 207 [t N2O-N yr-1] for the first three years of the baseline scenarios and ranging between 621 and 6 955 [t N2O-N yr-1] within the following years (mean of 2 923). The influence of climate change (elevated mean temperature of approx. 2°C and minor changes in precipitation) results in an increase of 259 [t N2O-N yr-1] (mean 3 182) or approx. 9 percent on average (with a minimum of 618 and a maximum of 6 553 [t N2O-N yr-1]). Focusing on the mitigation , the recarbonization did result in an increase of soil carbon stocks of 2 585 [kg C/ha] within the simulation time span (with 161 868 [kg C/ha] at the initial stage and 164 453 [kg C/ha] at the end of the 21 years of simulation, mean at 163 444). The study present a fully compensation of the carbon sequestration due to the incorporation of the residues by a steady increase of soil N2O emissions due to additional nitrogen supply by the mineralization of organic material (residues). For the derivation of a sustainable land use, the study presents an optimal scenario to keep the yields high while increasing soil C and reducing gaseous N losses and leaching.

Haas, E.; Kiese, R.; Klatt, S.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

2012-12-01

294

Flood hazard studies in Central Texas using orbital and suborbital remote sensing machinery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Central Texas is subject to infrequent, unusually intense rainstorms which cause extremely rapid runoff from drainage basins developed on the deeply dissected limestone and marl bedrock of the Edwards Plateau. One approach to flood hazard evaluation in this area is a parametric model relating flood hydrograph characteristics to quantitative geomorphic properties of the drainage basins. The preliminary model uses multiple regression techniques to predict potential peak flood discharge from basin magnitude, drainage density, and ruggedness number. After mapping small catchment networks from remote sensing imagery, input data for the model are generated by network digitization and analysis by a computer assisted routine of watershed analysis. The study evaluated the network resolution capabilities of the following data formats: (1) large-scale (1:24,000) topographic maps, employing Strahler's "method of v's," (2) standard low altitude black and white aerial photography (1:13,000 and 1:20,000 scales), (3) NASA - generated aerial infrared photography at scales ranging from 1:48,000 to 1:123,000, and (4) Skylab Earth Resources Experiment Package S-190A and S-190B sensors (1:750,000 and 1:500,000 respectively).

Baker, V. R.; Holz, R. K.; Patton, P. C.

1975-01-01

295

Can hazardous waste become a raw material? The case study of an aluminium residue: a review.  

PubMed

The huge number of research studies carried out during recent decades focused on finding an effective solution for the waste treatment, have allowed some of these residues to become new raw materials for many industries. Achieving this ensures a reduction in energy and natural resources consumption, diminishing of the negative environmental impacts and creating secondary and tertiary industries. A good example is provided by the metallurgical industry, in general, and the aluminium industry in this particular case. The aluminium recycling industry is a beneficial activity for the environment, since it recovers resources from primary industry, manufacturing and post-consumer waste. Slag and scrap which were previously considered as waste, are nowadays the raw material for some highly profitable secondary and tertiary industries. The most recent European Directive on waste establishes that if waste is used as a common product and fulfils the existing legislation for this product, then this waste can be defined as 'end-of-waste'. The review presented here, attempts to show several proposals for making added-value materials using an aluminium residue which is still considered as a hazardous waste, and accordingly, disposed of in secure storage. The present proposal includes the use of this waste to manufacture glass, glass-ceramic, boehmite and calcium aluminate. Thus the waste might effectively be recovered as a secondary source material for various industries. PMID:22071175

López-Delgado, Aurora; Tayibi, Hanan

2012-05-01

296

Studies of edge localized mode mitigation with new active in-vessel saddle coils in ASDEX Upgrade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ASDEX Upgrade tokamak is currently being enhanced with a set of in-vessel saddle coils for non-axisymmetric perturbations aiming at mitigation or suppression of edge localized modes (ELMs). Results obtained during the first experimental campaign are reported. With n = 2 magnetic perturbations, it is observed that type-I ELMs can be replaced by benign small ELM activity with strongly reduced energy loss from the confined plasma and power load to the divertor. During these phases with ELM mitigation, no density reduction (density 'pump-out') is observed. ELM mitigation has, so far, been observed in plasmas with different shape and different heating mixes and, therefore, different momentum input. The ELM mitigation regime can be accessed with resonant and non-resonant perturbation field configurations. The main threshold requirement appears to be a critical minimum plasma edge density which depends on plasma current. So far it is not possible to distinguish whether this is an edge collisionality threshold or a critical fraction of the Greenwald density limit.

Suttrop, W.; Barrera, L.; Herrmann, A.; McDermott, R. M.; Eich, T.; Fischer, R.; Kurzan, B.; Lang, P. T.; Mlynek, A.; Pütterich, T.; Rathgeber, S. K.; Rott, M.; Vierle, T.; Viezzer, E.; Willensdorfer, M.; Wolfrum, E.; Zammuto, I.; ASDEX Upgrade Team

2011-12-01

297

Development and application of the EPIC model for carbon cycle, greenhouse-gas mitigation, and biofuel studies  

SciTech Connect

This chapter provides a comprehensive review of the EPIC model in relation to carbon cycle, greenhouse-gas mitigation, and biofuel applications. From its original capabilities and purpose (i.e., quantify the impacts or erosion on soil productivity), the EPIC model has evolved into a comprehensive terrestrial ecosystem model for simulating with more or less process-level detail many ecosystem processes such as weather, hydrology, plant growth and development, carbon cycle (including erosion), nutrient cycling, greenhouse-gas emissions, and the most complete set of manipulations that can be implemented on a parcel of land (e.g. tillage, harvest, fertilization, irrigation, drainage, liming, burning, pesticide application). The chapter also provides details and examples of the latest efforts in model development such as the coupled carbon-nitrogen model, a microbial denitrification model with feedback to the carbon decomposition model, updates on calculation of ecosystem carbon balances, and carbon emissions from fossil fuels. The chapter has included examples of applications of the EPIC model in soil carbon sequestration, net ecosystem carbon balance, and biofuel studies. Finally, the chapter provides the reader with an update on upcoming improvements in EPIC such as the additions of modules for simulating biochar amendments, sorption of soluble C in subsoil horizons, nitrification including the release of N2O, and the formation and consumption of methane in soils. Completion of these model development activities will render an EPIC model with one of the most complete representation of biogeochemical processes and capable of simulating the dynamic feedback of soils to climate and management in terms not only of transient processes (e.g., soil water content, heterotrophic respiration, N2O emissions) but also of fundamental soil properties (e.g. soil depth, soil organic matter, soil bulk density, water limits).

Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Mcgill, William B.; Williams, J.R.

2012-06-01

298

Age-Related Health Hazards in Old Patients with First-Time Referral to a Rheumatologist: A Descriptive Study  

PubMed Central

Objective. To study the prevalence of generic age-related health hazards in elderly patient referred to a rheumatologist. Methods. Patients aged 75 or older referred to a specialized gerontorheumatological outpatient service over a period of 2 years were studied prospectively to determine the prevalence of comorbidities, a history of falls, inactivity, cognitive dysfunction, loneliness, and depression in this patient group. Results. A group of 154 patients were included in the study. Comorbidities were observed in 88% of the patients. At least one fall was reported in the last year by 44% of the patients; 44% of the patients reported low levels of health-enhancing physical activity. Depressed mood and loneliness were elevated in 30% and 31% of the patients, respectively. Mild or moderate cognitive impairment was observed in 13% of the patients. Conclusion. Patients in this study were characterized by poor physical ability, high levels of pain, and high prevalence of age-related health hazards. PMID:22216411

van Lankveld, W.; Fransen, M.; van den Hoogen, F.; den Broeder, Alfons

2011-01-01

299

Integrated multi-parameters Probabilistic Seismic Landslide Hazard Analysis (PSLHA): the case study of Ischia island, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ischia island is a large, complex, partly submerged, active volcanic field located about 20 km east to the Campi Flegrei, a major active volcano-tectonic area near Naples. The island is morphologically characterized in its central part by the resurgent block of Mt. Epomeo, controlled by NW-SE and NE-SW trending fault systems, by mountain stream basin with high relief energy and by a heterogeneous coastline with alternation of beach and tuff/lava cliffs in a continuous reshape due to the weather and sea erosion. The volcano-tectonic process is a main factor for slope stability, as it produces seismic activity and generated steep slopes in volcanic deposits (lava, tuff, pumice and ash layers) characterized by variable strength. In the Campi Flegrei and surrounding areas the possible occurrence of a moderate/large seismic event represents a serious threat for the inhabitants, for the infrastructures as well as for the environment. The most relevant seismic sources for Ischia are represented by the Campi Flegrei caldera and a 5 km long fault located below the island north coast. However those sources are difficult to constrain. The first one due to the on-shore and off-shore extension not yet completely defined. The second characterized only by few large historical events is difficult to parameterize in the framework of probabilistic hazard approach. The high population density, the presence of many infrastructures and the more relevant archaeological sites associated with the natural and artistic values, makes this area a strategic natural laboratory to develop new methodologies. Moreover Ischia represents the only sector, in the Campi Flegrei area, with documented historical landslides originated by earthquake, allowing for the possibility of testing the adequacy and stability of the method. In the framework of the Italian project MON.I.C.A (infrastructural coastlines monitoring) an innovative and dedicated probabilistic methodology has been applied to identify the areas with higher susceptibility of landslide occurrence due to the seismic effect. The (PSLHA) combines the probability of exceedance maps for different GM parameters with the geological and geomorphological information, in terms of critical acceleration and dynamic stability factor. Generally the maps are evaluated for Peak Ground Acceleration, Velocity or Intensity, are well related with anthropic infrastructures (e.g. streets, building, etc.). Each ground motion parameter represents a different aspect in the hazard and has a different correlation with the generation of possible damages. Many works pointed out that other GM like Arias and Housner intensity and the absolute displacement could represent a better choice to analyse for example the cliffs stability. The selection of the GM parameter is of crucial importance to obtain the most useful hazard maps. However in the last decades different Ground Motion Prediction Equations for a new set of GM parameters have been published. Based on this information a series of landslide hazard maps can be produced. The new maps will lead to the identification of areas with highest probability of landslide induced by an earthquake. In a strategic site like Ischia this new methodologies will represent an innovative and advanced tool for the landslide hazard mitigation.

Caccavale, Mauro; Matano, Fabio; Sacchi, Marco; Mazzola, Salvatore; Somma, Renato; Troise, Claudia; De Natale, Giuseppe

2014-05-01

300

Towards Practical, Real-Time Estimation of Spatial Aftershock Probabilities: A Feasibility Study in Earthquake Hazard  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now widely accepted that the goal of deterministic earthquake prediction is unattainable in the short term and may even be forbidden by nonlinearity in the generating dynamics. This nonlinearity does not, however, preclude the estimation of earthquake probability and, in particular, how this probability might change in space and time; earthquake hazard estimation might be possible in the

P. Morrow; J. McCloskey; S. Steacy

2001-01-01

301

CASE STUDIES ADDENDUM: 1-8. REMEDIAL RESPONSE AT HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

In response to the threat to human health and the environment posed by numerous uncontrolled hazardous waste sites across the country, new remedial action technologies are evolving and known technologies are being retrofitted and adapted for use in cleaning up these sites. The re...

302

CASE STUDIES 1-23: REMEDIAL RESPONSE AT HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

In response to the threat to human health and the environment posed by numerous uncontrolled hazardous waste sites across the country, new remedial action technologies are evolving and known technologies are being retrofitted and adapted for use in cleaning up these sites. This r...

303

Property values and potentially hazardous production facilities: a case study of the Kanawha Valley, West Virginia  

SciTech Connect

Multiple regression analysis was applied to a new cross section data set for the Kanawha Valley, West Virginia single-family residential housing market to test the hypotheses that (1) individuals are willing to pay for freedom from exposure to hazardous materials released in an acute pollution event at a chemical plant and (2) there is an announcement effect on local property values following an actual catastrophic hazardous-materials incident elsewhere. Property-value models were constructed to test the first hypothesis. Each model is a hedonic equation that relates residential property values (measured by sale prices) to a measure of the risk of exposure to hazardous materials as well as other factors that influence the value of housing. Results of OLS estimation of the models provided support for the hypothesis that individuals are willing to pay for reductions in their exposure to hazardous materials and that the market capitalizes this value into residential property values. In tests of the second hypothesis property-value models were estimated to determine if Kanawha Valley property values fell following the announcement of the December 3, 1984 catastrophic leak of methyl isocyanate from a Union Carbide plant in Bhopal, India. Results of these tests provide empirical evidence that the announcement of this event did have a depressing effect on area property values.

Baker, M.D.

1986-01-01

304

Evaluation of the potential retinal hazards from optical radiation generated by electric welding and cutting arcs December 1975April 1977. Nonionizing radiation protection special study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A special study of the potential retinal hazards from direct viewing of various welding processes was conducted by the US Army Environmental Hygiene Agency as part of a cooperative effort with the American Welding Safety Committee on Safety and Health of the Project Committee on Radiation. It was determined that potentially hazardous levels of visible radiation were emitted by all

W. J. Marshall; D. H. Sliney; T. L. Lyon; N. P. Krial; P. F. Del Valle

1977-01-01

305

Red blood cell alloimmunization mitigation strategies.  

PubMed

Hemolytic transfusion reactions due to red blood cell (RBC) alloantibodies are a leading cause of transfusion-associated death. In addition to reported deaths, RBC alloantibodies also cause significant morbidity in the form of delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions. These alloantibodies may also cause morbidity in the form of anemia, with compatible RBC units at times being unable to be located for highly alloimmunized patients, or in the form of hemolytic disease of the newborn. Thus, preventing RBC alloantibodies from developing in the first place, or mitigating the dangers of existing RBC alloantibodies, would decrease transfusion-associated morbidity and mortality. A number of human studies have evaluated the impact on RBC alloimmunization rates of providing partially phenotypically or genotypically matched RBCs for transfusion, and a number of animal studies have evaluated the impact of single variables on RBC alloimmunization. The goal of this review is to take a comprehensive look at existing human and animal data on RBC alloimmunization, focusing on strategies that may mitigate this serious hazard of transfusion. Potential factors that impact initial RBC alloimmunization, on both the donor and recipient sides, will be discussed. These factors include, but are not limited to, exposure to the antigen and an ability of the recipient's immune system to present that antigen. Beyond these basic factors, coexisting "danger signals," which may come from the donor unit itself or which may be present in the recipient, also likely play a role in determining which transfusion recipients may become alloimmunized after RBC antigen exposure. In addition, to better understanding factors that influence the development of RBC alloantibodies, this review will also briefly discuss strategies to decrease the dangers of existing RBC alloantibodies. PMID:24928468

Hendrickson, Jeanne E; Tormey, Christopher A; Shaz, Beth H

2014-07-01

306

Mitigating Radiation Effects on ICs at Device and Architectural Levels: the SpaceWire Router Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mitigation of radiation effects on integrated circuits is discussed in this paper with reference to the design of hardware macrocells for reliable high-speed networking based on the SpaceWire standard target applications include on-board distributed control systems for aerospace, military, avionics or automotive scenarios. Due to CMOS technology scaling, digital ICs are becoming more susceptible to radiation effects, both total

Esa Petri; Sergio Saponara; Marco Tonarelli; Iacopo Del Corona; Luca Fanucci; Pierangelo Terreni

2007-01-01

307

Studies of edge localized mode mitigation with new active in-vessel saddle coils in ASDEX Upgrade  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ASDEX Upgrade tokamak is currently being enhanced with a set of in-vessel saddle coils for non-axisymmetric perturbations aiming at mitigation or suppression of edge localized modes (ELMs). Results obtained during the first experimental campaign are reported. With n = 2 magnetic perturbations, it is observed that type-I ELMs can be replaced by benign small ELM activity with strongly reduced

W Suttrop; L Barrera; A Herrmann; R M McDermott; T Eich; R Fischer; B Kurzan; P T Lang; A Mlynek; T Pütterich; S K Rathgeber; M Rott; T Vierle; E Viezzer; M Willensdorfer; E Wolfrum; I Zammuto

2011-01-01

308

Case studies in risk assessment for hazardous waste burning cement kilns  

SciTech Connect

In November of 1994, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued its final Strategy for Hazardous Waste Minimization and Combustion. In the Strategy, EPA outlined the role of risk assessment in assuring the safe operation of hazardous waste combustion facilities. In accordance with the goals of the Strategy, the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission performed screening analyses for two cement companies that supplement with hazardous waste-derived fuel. The methodology employed was that outlined in the Guidance for Performing Screening Level Risk Analyses at Combustion Facilities Burning Hazardous Wastes. A tiered screening approach, allowing progression from a generic worst-case risk assessment to an increasingly more detailed site-specific risk assessment, was developed for applying EPA`s methodology. Interactive spreadsheets, consisting of approximately 50 fate and transport equations and an additional 30 algorithms for estimating human health risks by indirect and direct pathways, were developed for performing the screening analyses. Exposure scenarios included adult and child residents, subsistence farmers (dairy and beef), and a subsistence fisher. Residents were assumed to consume soil and vegetables and to inhale contaminated air. Farmers were assumed to consume soil, vegetables, beef and/or milk (as appropriate) and to inhale contaminated air. In addition to inhaling contaminated air, the fisher was assumed to consume soil, vegetables and fish. The subsistence fisher scenario dominated the estimated risks posed by the two cement companies evaluated. As expected, indirect pathways contributed the majority of the risk. In conclusion, the results indicate that the cumulative (indirect and direct) cancer risks and non-cancer hazard indices did not exceed target levels of 1E{minus}05 and 0.5, respectively.

Fraiser, L.H.; Lund, L.G.; Tyndall, K.H. [Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC), Austin, TX (United States)

1996-12-31

309

U.S. Postal Service radon assessment and mitigation program. Progress report, September 1993--November 1994  

SciTech Connect

In 1992, the US Postal Service (USPS) entered into an Interagency Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) whereby DOE would provide technical assistance in support of the USPS Radon Assessment and Mitigation Program. To aid in this effort, DOE tasked the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP), which is managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for DOE under contract AC05-84OR21400. Since that time, HAZWRAP has developed and finalized the sampling protocol, mitigation diagnostic protocol, and the quality assurance and quality control procedures. These procedures were validated during the Protocol Validation (1992-1993) and Pilot Study (1993-1994) phases of the program. To date, HAZWRAP has performed approximately 16,000 radon measurements in 250 USPS buildings. Mitigation diagnostics have been performed in 27 buildings. Thus far, 13% of the measurements have been above the Environmental Protection Agency action level of 4 pCi/L. This report summarizes the pilot program radon testing data and mitigation diagnostic data for 22 sites and contains recommendations for mitigation diagnostics.

Velazquez, L.E.; Petty, J.L. Jr.

1994-12-31

310

Migration, environmental hazards, and health outcomes in China.  

PubMed

China's rapid economic growth has had a serious impact on the environment. Environmental hazards are major sources of health risk factors. The migration of over 200 million people to heavily polluted urban areas is likely to be significantly detrimental to health. Based on data from the 2009 national household survey "Chinese Attitudes toward Inequality and Distributive Injustice" (N = 2866) and various county-level and municipal indicators, we investigate the disparities in subjective exposure to environmental hazards and associated health outcomes in China. This study focuses particularly on migration-residency status and county-level socio-economic development. We employ multiple regressions that account for the complex multi-stage survey design to assess the associations between perceived environmental hazards and individual and county-level indicators and between perceived environmental hazards and health outcomes, controlling for physical and social environments at multiple levels. We find that perceived environmental hazards are associated with county-level industrialization and economic development: respondents living in more industrialized counties report greater exposure to environmental hazards. Rural-to-urban migrants are exposed to more water pollution and a higher measure of overall environmental hazard. Perceived environmental risk factors severely affect the physical and mental health of the respondents. The negative effects of perceived overall environmental hazard on physical health are more detrimental for rural-to-urban migrants than for urban residents. The research findings call for restructuring the household registration system in order to equalize access to public services and mitigate adverse environmental health effects, particularly among the migrant population. PMID:23273408

Chen, Juan; Chen, Shuo; Landry, Pierre F

2013-03-01

311

CAMPUS CHILD CARE CENTER Tiered Initial Study and  

E-print Network

CAMPUS CHILD CARE CENTER Tiered Initial Study and Mitigated Negative Declaration State 530-752-2432 #12;#12;CAMPUS CHILD CARE CENTER i TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 PROJECT INFORMATION 1 2, & Seismicity 51 #12;ii CAMPUS CHILD CARE CENTER 7.7 Hazards & Hazardous Materials 55 7.8 Hydrology & Water

California at Davis, University of

312

Using Geology to Improve Flood Hazard Management on Alluvial Fans -- an Example From Laughlin, Nevada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of the piedmont of the Newberry Mountains near Laughlin, Nevada, demonstrates that geologic information can improve the scientific basis of flood-hazard management on alluvial fans in desert areas. Comparison of geologic information against flood insurance rate maps (FIRMs) reveals flaws in conventional methods for flood hazard delineation in this setting. Geologic evidence indicates that large parts of the Newberry piedmont have been isolated from significant flooding for at least the past 10,000 years. This contrasts with existing FIRMs that include large tracts of nonflood prone land in the 100-year and 500-year flood hazard zones and exclude areas of indisputably flood prone land from the regulatory flood plain. From the basis of the geology, flood hazards on at least one-third of the piedmont are mischaracterized on the regulatory maps. The formal incorporation of geologic data into flood hazard studies on desert piedmonts could significantly reduce this type of discrepancy and substantially reduce the scope, hence cost, of more elaborate engineering studies and hazard mitigation strategies. The results of this study affirm the value of new Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) recommendations for characterizing alluvial fan flood hazards and support an argument for mandating geological studies in the regulatory process.

House, P. Kyle

2005-12-01

313

Pulsed focused ultrasound treatment of muscle mitigates paralysis-induced bone loss in the adjacent bone: a study in a mouse model.  

PubMed

Bone loss can result from bed rest, space flight, spinal cord injury or age-related hormonal changes. Current bone loss mitigation techniques include pharmaceutical interventions, exercise, pulsed ultrasound targeted to bone and whole body vibration. In this study, we attempted to mitigate paralysis-induced bone loss by applying focused ultrasound to the midbelly of a paralyzed muscle. We employed a mouse model of disuse that uses onabotulinumtoxinA-induced paralysis, which causes rapid bone loss in 5 d. A focused 2 MHz transducer applied pulsed exposures with pulse repetition frequency mimicking that of motor neuron firing during walking (80 Hz), standing (20 Hz), or the standard pulsed ultrasound frequency used in fracture healing (1 kHz). Exposures were applied daily to calf muscle for 4 consecutive d. Trabecular bone changes were characterized using micro-computed tomography. Our results indicated that application of certain focused pulsed ultrasound parameters was able to mitigate some of the paralysis-induced bone loss. PMID:24857416

Poliachik, Sandra L; Khokhlova, Tatiana D; Wang, Yak-Nam; Simon, Julianna C; Bailey, Michael R

2014-09-01

314

Reliability studies of incident coding systems in high hazard industries: A narrative review of study methodology.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the current literature on incident coding system reliability and discusses the methods applied in the conduct and measurement of reliability. The search strategy targeted three electronic databases using a list of search terms and the results were examined for relevance, including any additional relevant articles from the bibliographies. Twenty five papers met the relevance criteria and their methods are discussed. Disagreements in the selection of methods between reliability researchers are highlighted as are the effects of method selection on the outcome of the trials. The review provides evidence that the meaningfulness of and confidence in results is directly affected by the methodologies employed by the researcher during the preparation, conduct and analysis of the reliability study. Furthermore, the review highlights the heterogeneity of methodologies employed by researchers measuring reliability of incident coding techniques, reducing the ability to critically compare and appraise techniques being considered for the adoption of report coding and trend analysis by client organisations. It is recommended that future research focuses on the standardisation of reliability research and measurement within the incident coding domain. PMID:22867800

Olsen, Nikki S

2013-03-01

315

Determinants of Spatial and Temporal Patterns in Compensatory Wetland Mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development projects that impact wetlands commonly require compensatory mitigation, usually through creation or restoration of wetlands on or off the project site. Over the last decade, federal support has increased for third-party off-site mitigation methods. At the same time, regulators have lowered the minimum impact size that triggers the requirement for compensatory mitigation. Few studies have examined the aggregate impact of individual wetland mitigation projects. No previous study has compared the choice of mitigation method by regulatory agency or development size. We analyze 1058 locally and federally permitted wetland mitigation transactions in the Chicago region between 1993 and 2004. We show that decreasing mitigation thresholds have had striking effects on the methods and spatial distribution of wetland mitigation. In particular, the observed increase in mitigation bank use is driven largely by the needs of the smallest impacts. Conversely, throughout the time period studied, large developments have rarely used mitigation banking, and have been relatively unaffected by changing regulatory focus and banking industry growth. We surmise that small developments lack the scale economies necessary for feasible permittee responsible mitigation. Finally, we compare the rates at which compensation required by both county and federal regulators is performed across major watershed boundaries. We show that local regulations prohibiting cross-county mitigation lead to higher levels of cross- watershed mitigation than federal regulations without cross-county prohibitions. Our data suggest that local control over wetland mitigation may prioritize administrative boundaries over hydrologic function in the matter of selecting compensation sites.

Bendor, Todd; Brozovi?, Nicholas

2007-09-01

316

Ground fissure hazards in USA and China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tremendous losses were caused by ground fissure hazard both in USA and China. Six states of southwestern USA and seven provinces of central China were affected by the destructive ground fissures. The aseismic ground fissure hazards usually take place in land subsidence area. The comparison of the two countries’ ground fissures were given including ground fissure formation, evolution, mechanics of destruction and countermeasures against them. The destructive ground fissures occurred about a half century earlier in USA than in China. The mechanisms of various ground fissures were analyzed with interdisciplinary studies. It has been found that the preexisted faults are serving as the bases of forming modern ground fissure, and human activities, e.g. over pumping ground water, or oil, can accelerate the creeping of the fissures and make them destructive to many kinds of civil engineering. The countermeasures to mitigate ground fissure hazard were put forward, not only in science and technology but also in social administration. The successful practices in the two countries were introduced as examples.

da-Yu, Geng; Li, Zhong-Sheng

2000-07-01

317

Pollution control and hazardous materials in a printed wiring board shop: A case study. Report for October 1988-June 1992  

SciTech Connect

Environmental protection issues are making headlines daily. Some concerns are well founded while others are based on myth and/or fear. As inhabitants of this planet everyone must do their best to be wise stewards or our environment. The Electronics Prototype Section, Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division (NAWCWPNS), China Lake, California, have taken the responsibility of environmental stewardship seriously. 'This case study details their efforts to protect themselves and the environment from the hazardous materials used to fabricate printed wiring boards. This report discusses previous practices and the solutions developed to ensure a cleaner environment. Additionally, this report contains encountered problems and future plans. Industrial Sewer System(ISS), Printed Wiring Boards(PWB), Process controls, Oxidizers, Corrosive, Toxic, Hazardous waste, Ozone depleting chemicals, Wastewater treatment, Domestic Sewer System (DSS).

Breitengross, R.A.

1993-12-01

318

Unauthorised development and seismic hazard vulnerability: a study of squatters and engineers in Istanbul, Turkey.  

PubMed

Many cities in developing nations have experienced an influx of poor migrants in search of work. This population influx has often been accommodated through land squatting, irregular construction and unauthorised housing. For the urban poor, this has resulted in immediate affordable housing; however, this housing frequently has long-term vulnerability to natural hazards. This article examines the ways in which squatters in Istanbul, Turkey, understand the seismic vulnerability of their unauthorised housing. Distrust of professional engineers and contractors has led Istanbul squatters to believe that self-built housing will not only be less costly but also safer than commercially built housing. The impact of residents' risk perceptions on their vulnerability to natural hazards is examined through a comparison of social attitudes regarding safe housing and the quality of unauthorised construction. This comparison highlights how squatters' risk perceptions necessitate innovative means of reducing vulnerability in unauthorised neighbourhoods of developing cities. PMID:18958909

Green, Rebekah A

2008-09-01

319

Modeling, Forecasting and Mitigating Extreme Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent earthquake disasters highlighted the importance of multi- and trans-disciplinary studies of earthquake risk. A major component of earthquake disaster risk analysis is hazards research, which should cover not only a traditional assessment of ground shaking, but also studies of geodetic, paleoseismic, geomagnetic, hydrological, deep drilling and other geophysical and geological observations together with comprehensive modeling of earthquakes and forecasting extreme events. Extreme earthquakes (large magnitude and rare events) are manifestations of complex behavior of the lithosphere structured as a hierarchical system of blocks of different sizes. Understanding of physics and dynamics of the extreme events comes from observations, measurements and modeling. A quantitative approach to simulate earthquakes in models of fault dynamics will be presented. The models reproduce basic features of the observed seismicity (e.g., the frequency-magnitude relationship, clustering of earthquakes, occurrence of extreme seismic events). They provide a link between geodynamic processes and seismicity, allow studying extreme events, influence of fault network properties on seismic patterns and seismic cycles, and assist, in a broader sense, in earthquake forecast modeling. Some aspects of predictability of large earthquakes (how well can large earthquakes be predicted today?) will be also discussed along with possibilities in mitigation of earthquake disasters (e.g., on 'inverse' forensic investigations of earthquake disasters).

Ismail-Zadeh, A.; Le Mouel, J.; Soloviev, A.

2012-12-01

320

Environmental hazards and stress: evidence from the Texas City Stress and Health Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Substantial research has suggested that exposure to environmental health hazards, such as polluting industrial activity, has deleterious effects on psychological and physiological well-being. However, one gap in the existing literature is comparative analysis of objective and subjective exposure’s relative association with various measurable outcomes of exposure.Methods:These relationships were explored within a community sample of 2604 respondents living near a large

M K Peek; M P Cutchin; D Freeman; R P Stowe; J S Goodwin

2009-01-01

321

SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT ENGINEERED CONTAINER RETRIEVAL AND TRANSFER SYSTEM PRELMINARY DESIGN HAZARD AND OPERABILITY STUDY  

SciTech Connect

This Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) study addresses the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System (ECRTS) preliminary design for retrieving sludge from underwater engineered containers located in the 105-K West (KW) Basin, transferring the sludge as a sludge-water slurry (hereafter referred to as 'slurry') to a Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC) located in a Modified KW Basin Annex, and preparing the STSC for transport to T Plant using the Sludge Transport System (STS). There are six, underwater engineered containers located in the KW Basin that, at the time of sludge retrieval, will contain an estimated volume of 5.2 m{sup 3} of KW Basin floor and pit sludge, 18.4 m{sup 3} of 105-K East (KE) Basin floor, pit, and canister sludge, and 3.5 m{sup 3} of settler tank sludge. The KE and KW Basin sludge consists of fuel corrosion products (including metallic uranium, and fission and activation products), small fuel fragments, iron and aluminum oxide, sand, dirt, operational debris, and biological debris. The settler tank sludge consists of sludge generated by the washing of KE and KW Basin fuel in the Primary Clean Machine. A detailed description of the origin of sludge and its chemical and physical characteristics can be found in HNF-41051, Preliminary STP Container and Settler Sludge Process System Description and Material Balance. In summary, the ECRTS retrieves sludge from the engineered containers and hydraulically transfers it as a slurry into an STSC positioned within a trailer-mounted STS cask located in a Modified KW Basin Annex. The slurry is allowed to settle within the STSC to concentrate the solids and clarify the supernate. After a prescribed settling period the supernate is decanted. The decanted supernate is filtered through a sand filter and returned to the basin. Subsequent batches of slurry are added to the STSC, settled, and excess supernate removed until the prescribed quantity of sludge is collected. The sand filter is then backwashed into the STSC. The STSC and STS cask are then inerted and transported to T Plant.

CARRO CA

2011-07-15

322

Geologic and Geophysicsal Studies of Natural Hazards and Risks in the Gulf of Peter the Great, Japan Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The area of the Gulf of Peter the Great is socially, economically and culturally one of the most important regions for the Russian Far East. At the same time, there have been reported palpable natural hazards, which pose a real threat to local infrastructure. Complex field team of the Gramaberg VNIIOkeangeologia institute carried out geological and geophysical studies of natural hazards in the water area and coastal zone of the gulf in the summer and autumn of 2012. The research program included - geodetic deformation monitoring of the coastal zone by the HDS 3000 Leica tachometer; - echo sounding of the underwater part of the coastal slope by the LCX-37C depth sounder equipped with active external 12-channel GPS Lowrance antenna LGC-3000; - high-frequency acoustic profiling by GeoPulse Subbotom Profilier with oscillator frequency of 12.2 kHz for the study of bottom sediments to a depth of 40 m; - hydromagnetic measurements by SeaSPY Marine Magnetics magnetometer for investigation of deep geological structure; - sonar measurements by GEO SM C-MAX, 325 kHz frequency emitters for studying seafloor features; - studies of the water column (sensing and sampling); - bottom sediment sampling. Analytic work was performed by mass spectrometry, atomic absorption spectrophotometry, chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, gamma spectrometry and included the following. For water - the content of Fe, Mn, Cd, As, Pb, Cu, Co, Ni, Cr, Zn, Hg in solution and in suspension, polycyclic aromatic compounds, organochlorine pesticides, oil, methane. For sediments - grade analysis, mineralogical analysis of sand, determination of Fe, Mn, Cd, As, Pb, Cu, Co, Ni, Cr, Zn, Hg content; identification of petroleum products, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, the specific activity of Cs-137. As a result, a set of geological maps was composed: maps of pre-Quaternary and Quaternary rocks and deposits, lithological map, geomorphological map, map of engineering geological zoning, map of the major hydro- and lithodynamic processes, hydraulic and geochemical maps and sections, seismotectonic map, map of endogenous geodynamics map exogenous geological processes, map assess the overall geo-ecological situations etc. As a result of the first stage of these studies we identified the following significant hazards and risks faced by the region: 1. Seismic hazards - along seismoactivity faults in the region. 2. Tsunami hasards in the coasts of Amursky, Ussuriysky and other gulf of the region. 3. Destruction of shore, including landslides, in many littoral zones of the region. 4. Avalanche sedimentation in Amursky, Ussuriysky gulfs. 5. Gas emissions in bottom of the shelf zone. 6. Industrial pollution in aquatories near industrial centres. Estimation of hazards and risks in the Gulf of Peter the Great will be continued.

Anokhin, Vladimir; Shcherbakov, Viktor; Motychko, Viktor; Slinchenkov, Vladimir; Sokolov, Georgy; Kotov, Sergey; Kartashov, Sergey

2013-04-01

323

Climate hazards in drylands: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Virtually all types of natural hazard occur in drylands, but climate hazards assume a greater relative importance in these highly dynamic environments. Here, we present a review of climate hazards research with a specifically drylands focus, distinguishing between hazards that are a direct manifestation of atmospheric processes and those that are indirectly driven by atmospheric conditions. About a billion poor rural inhabitants of drylands whose livelihoods are directly dependent on the physical environment face particularly high levels of risk from climate hazards, some of which are widely predicted to become more frequent, more widespread and/or more intense with climate change in many parts of the world during the twenty-first century. Recognising the particular characteristics of these hazards is an essential precursor to the development of dryland-centred policy options that can help mitigation and preparedness strategies and hence improve the well-being of dryland populations.

Middleton, N. J.; Sternberg, T.

2013-11-01

324

GUIDELINES FOR THE USE OF CHEMICALS IN REMOVING HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE DISCHARGES  

EPA Science Inventory

This report was undertaken to develop guidelines on the use of various chemical and biological agents to mitigate discharge of hazardous substances. Eight categories of mitigative agents and their potential uses in removing hazardous substances discharged on land and in waterways...

325

Afghanistan Earthquake Hazards Mapped  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of efforts to build capacity within Afghanistan for studying, preparing for, and responding to earthquakes, the U.S. Geological Survey has released a map of potential earthquake hazards within the country.

Zielinski, Sarah

2007-06-01

326

Choking Hazards  

MedlinePLUS

... Meal and Snack Patterns and Ideas More Information Food Safety Choking Hazards Some foods are easy for your ... Ordering Materials >>> Email Updates Related Resources Dietary Guidelines Food Safety Food and Nutrient Data USDA Center for Nutrition ...

327

Coastal Hazards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on hurricanes and tsunamis and uses these topics to address other parts of the science curriculum. In addition to a discussion on beach erosion, a poster is provided that depicts these natural hazards that threaten coastlines. (DDR)

Vandas, Steve

1998-01-01

328

Reproductive Hazards  

MedlinePLUS

... and female reproductive systems play a role in pregnancy. Problems with these systems can affect fertility and ... a reproductive hazard can cause different effects during pregnancy, depending on when she is exposed. During the ...

329

Comparative hazard identification of nano- and micro-sized cerium oxide particles based on 28-day inhalation studies in rats.  

PubMed

There are many uncertainties regarding the hazard of nanosized particles compared to the bulk material of the parent chemical. Here, the authors assess the comparative hazard of two nanoscale (NM-211 and NM-212) and one microscale (NM-213) cerium oxide materials in 28-day inhalation toxicity studies in rats (according to Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development technical guidelines). All three materials gave rise to a dose-dependent pulmonary inflammation and lung cell damage but without gross pathological changes immediately after exposure. Following NM-211 and NM-212 exposure, epithelial cell injury was observed in the recovery groups. There was no evidence of systemic inflammation or other haematological changes following exposure of any of the three particle types. The comparative hazard was quantified by application of the benchmark concentration approach. The relative toxicity was explored in terms of three exposure metrics. When exposure levels were expressed as mass concentration, nanosized NM-211 was the most potent material, whereas when expression levels were based on surface area concentration, micro-sized NM-213 material induced the greatest extent of pulmonary inflammation/damage. Particles were equipotent based on particle number concentrations. In conclusion, similar pulmonary toxicity profiles including inflammation are observed for all three materials with little quantitative differences. Systemic effects were virtually absent. There is little evidence for a dominant predicting exposure metric for the observed effects. PMID:23768316

Gosens, Ilse; Mathijssen, Liesbeth E A M; Bokkers, Bas G H; Muijser, Hans; Cassee, Flemming R

2014-09-01

330

Natural hazards society is born  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new professional society for natural hazards is being founded. The objectives of the International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Hazards (NHS) are to promote research in all aspects of natural hazards, the distribution of preparedness and emergency-response plans for all countries, and the formulation and implementation of education programs on hazards prevention and mitigation.The founding organizational meeting was held August 17, 1988 in Ensenada, Mexico. About 100 scientists from 14 countries were at this meeting. A constitution and bylaws for the society were adopted and the following officers were elected: President, M. I. El-Sabh, University of Quebec, Canada Vice-president, G. Pararas-Carayannis, International Tsunami Information Center, Honolulu, Hawaii Secretary, T. S. Murty, Institute of Ocean Sciences, Sidney, Canada Treasurer, S. Venkatesh, Atmospheric Environment Service, Downsview, Canada Representatives-at-Large, S. F. Farreras, CICESE, Ensenada, Mexico; S. K. Ghosh, Indian Meteorological Department, New Delhi, India; and F. S. Liu, Academic Sinica, Qindao, PRC.

El-Sabh, M. I.

331

Hazard symbol Hazard Description Risk phrases  

E-print Network

and even death R23, R24, R25, R39, R48 / R26, R27, R28, R39 #12;Hazard Group Hazard Symbol Hazard letterHazard Group Hazard symbol Hazard letter Description Risk phrases associated with this group H1 E

Siddharthan, Advaith

332

Mitigation Action Plan  

SciTech Connect

This Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) focuses on mitigation commitments stated in the Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) and the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1). Specific commitments and mitigation implementation actions are listed in Appendix A-Mitigation Actions, and form the central focus of this MAP. They will be updated as needed to allow for organizational, regulatory, or policy changes. It is the intent of DOE to comply with all applicable federal, state, and local environmental, safety, and health laws and regulations. Eighty-six specific commitments were identified in the SEIS and associated ROD which pertain to continued operation of NPR-1 with petroleum production at the Maximum Efficient Rate (MER). The mitigation measures proposed are expected to reduce impacts as much as feasible, however, as experience is gained in actual implementation of these measures, some changes may be warranted.

Not Available

1994-02-01

333

USGS National Seismic Hazard Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of resources provides seismic hazard assessments and information on design values and mitigation for the U.S. and areas around the world. Map resources include the U.S. National and Regional probabilistic ground motion map collection, which covers the 50 states, Puerto Rico, and selected countries. These maps display peak ground acceleration (PGA) values, and are used as the basis for seismic provisions in building codes and for new construction. There is also a custom mapping and analysis tool, which enables users to re-plot these maps for area of interest, get hazard values using latitude/longitude or zip code, find predominant magnitudes and distances, and map the probability of given magnitude within a certain distance from a site. The ground motion calculator, a Java application, determines hazard curves, uniform hazard response spectra, and design parameters for sites in the 50 states and most territories. There is also a two-part earthquake hazards 'primer', which provides links to hazard maps and frequently-asked-questions, and more detailed information for building and safety planners.

334

Studying geodesy and earthquake hazard in and around the New Madrid Seismic Zone  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Workshop on New Madrid Geodesy and the Challenges of Understanding Intraplate Earthquakes; Norwood, Massachusetts, 4 March 2011 Twenty-six researchers gathered for a workshop sponsored by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and FM Global to discuss geodesy in and around the New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ) and its relation to earthquake hazards. The group addressed the challenge of reconciling current geodetic measurements, which show low present-day surface strain rates, with paleoseismic evidence of recent, relatively frequent, major earthquakes in the region. The workshop presentations and conclusions will be available in a forthcoming USGS open-file report (http://pubs.usgs.gov).

Boyd, Oliver Salz; Magistrale, Harold

2011-01-01

335

Hazardous Substances and Hazardous Waste  

MedlinePLUS

... diluted The substance is very toxic (for example, arsenic). Coming into contact with a substance is called ... to hazardous substances. Also, small children often eat soil or household materials that may be contaminated, such ...

336

Natural and Man-Made Hazards in the Cayman Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Located in the western Caribbean Sea to the northwest of Jamaica, the Cayman Islands are a British overseas territory comprised of three islands: Grand Cayman, Cayman Brac, and Little Cayman. These three islands occupy around 250 km2 of land area. In this work, historical and recent data were collected and classified to identify and rank the natural and man-made hazards that may potentially affect the Cayman Islands and determine the level of exposure of Grand Cayman to these events. With this purpose, we used the vulnerability assessment methodology developed by the North Caroline Department of Environment and Natural Resources. The different degrees of physical vulnerability for each hazard were graphically interpreted with the aid of maps using a relative scoring system. Spatial maps were generated showing the areas of different levels of exposure to multi-hazards. The more important natural hazard to which the Cayman Islands are exposed is clearly hurricanes. To a lesser degree, the islands may be occasionally exposed to earthquakes and tsunamis. Explosions or leaks of the Airport Texaco Fuel Depot and the fuel pipeline at Grand Cayman are the most significant man-made hazards. Our results indicate that there are four areas in Grand Cayman with various levels of exposure to natural and man-made hazards: The North Sound, Little Sound and Eastern West Bay (Area 1) show a very high level of exposure; The Central Mangroves, Central Bodden Town, Central George Town and the West Bay (Area 2) have high level of exposure; The Northwestern West Bay, Western Georgetown-Bodden Town, and East End-North Side (Area 3) are under moderate levels of exposure. The remainder of the island shows low exposure (Area 4). It is important to underline that this study presents a first evaluation of the main natural and man-made hazards that may affect the Cayman Islands. The maps generated will be useful tools for emergency managers and policy developers and will increase the overall awareness of decision makers for disasters prevention and mitigation plans. Our results constitute the basis of future mitigation risk projects in the islands. Areas showing the level of exposure to natural and man-made hazards at Grand Cayman.

Novelo-Casanova, D. A.; Suarez, G.

2010-12-01

337

Contributions to the Characterization and Mitigation of Rotorcraft Brownout  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rotorcraft brownout, the condition in which the flow field of a rotorcraft mobilizes sediment from the ground to generate a cloud that obscures the pilot's field of view, continues to be a significant hazard to civil and military rotorcraft operations. This dissertation presents methodologies for: (i) the systematic mitigation of rotorcraft brownout through operational and design strategies and (ii) the quantitative characterization of the visual degradation caused by a brownout cloud. In Part I of the dissertation, brownout mitigation strategies are developed through simulation-based brownout studies that are mathematically formulated within a numerical optimization framework. Two optimization studies are presented. The first study involves the determination of approach-to-landing maneuvers that result in reduced brownout severity. The second study presents a potential methodology for the design of helicopter rotors with improved brownout characteristics. The results of both studies indicate that the fundamental mechanisms underlying brownout mitigation are aerodynamic in nature, and the evolution of a ground vortex ahead of the rotor disk is seen to be a key element in the development of a brownout cloud. In Part II of the dissertation, brownout cloud characterizations are based upon the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), a metric commonly used in the optics community for the characterization of imaging systems. The use of the MTF in experimentation is examined first, and the application of MTF calculation and interpretation methods to actual flight test data is described. The potential for predicting the MTF from numerical simulations is examined second, and an initial methodology is presented for the prediction of the MTF of a brownout cloud. Results from the experimental and analytical studies rigorously quantify the intuitively-known facts that the visual degradation caused by brownout is a space and time-dependent phenomenon, and that high spatial frequency features, i.e., fine-grained detail, are obscured before low spatial frequency features, i.e., large objects. As such, the MTF is a metric that is amenable to Handling Qualities (HQ) analyses.

Tritschler, John Kirwin

338

Environmental hazards and stress: evidence from the Texas City Stress and Health Study  

PubMed Central

Background Substantial research has suggested that exposure to environmental health hazards, such as polluting industrial activity, has deleterious effects on psychological and physiological well-being. However, one gap in the existing literature is comparative analysis of objective and subjective exposure's relative association with various measurable outcomes of exposure. Methods These relationships were explored within a community sample of 2604 respondents living near a large petrochemical complex in Texas City, Texas, USA. Objective exposure was investigated using distance of residence from a cluster of petrochemical plants and subjective exposure using residents' concern about potential health effects from those plants. Regression models were then used to examine how each type of exposure predicts perceived stress, physiological markers of stress and perceived health. Results Results suggest that objective exposure was associated primarily with markers of physiological stress (interleukin-6 and viral reactivation), and subjective exposure (concern about petrochemical health risk) was associated with variables assessing perceived health. Conclusions From the analysis, it can be inferred that, in the context of an environmental hazard of this type, subjective exposure may be at least as important a predictor of poor health outcomes as objective exposure. PMID:19282316

Peek, MK; Cutchin, MP; Freeman, D; Stowe, RP; Goodwin, JS

2013-01-01

339

Evaluation of soil bioassays for use at Washington state hazardous waste sites: A pilot study  

SciTech Connect

The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) is developing guidelines to assess soil toxicity at hazardous waste sites being investigated under the Washington Model Toxics Control Act Cleanup Regulation. To evaluate soil toxicity, Ecology selected five bioassay protocols -- Daphnia, Earthworm, Seedling, Fathead Minnow, and Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay Xenopus (FETAX) -- for use as screening level assessment tools at six State hazardous waste sites. Sites contained a variety of contaminants including metals, creosote, pesticides, and petroleum products (leaking underground storage tanks). Three locations, representing high, medium, and low levels of contamination, were samples at each site. In general, the high contaminant samples resulted in the highest toxic response in all bioassays. The order of site toxicity, as assessed by overall toxic response, is creosote, petroleum products, metals, and pesticides. Results indicate that human health standards, especially for metals, may not adequately protect some of the species tested. The FETAX bioassay had the greatest overall number of toxic responses and lowest variance. The seedling and Daphnia bioassays had lower and similar overall toxic response results, followed by the earthworm and fathead minnow. Variability was markedly highest for the seedling. The Daphnia and fathead minnow variability were similar to the FETAX level, while the earthworm variability was slightly higher.

Blakley, N.; Norton, D.; Stinson, M. [Washington Department of Ecology, Olympia, WA (United States); Boyer, R. [WCFWRU, Seattle, WA (United States). School of Fisheries

1994-12-31

340

Structural master plan of flood mitigation measures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood protection is one of the practical methods in damage reduction. Although it not possible to be completely protected from flood disaster but major part of damages can be reduced by mitigation plans. In this paper, the optimum flood mitigation master plan is determined by economic evaluation in trading off between the construction costs and expected value of damage reduction as the benefits. Size of the certain mitigation alternative is also be obtained by risk analysis by accepting possibility of flood overtopping. Different flood mitigation alternatives are investigated from various aspects in the Dez and Karun river floodplain areas as a case study in south west of IRAN. The results show that detention dam and flood diversion are the best alternatives of flood mitigation methods as well as enforcing the flood control purpose of upstream multipurpose reservoirs. Dyke and levees are not mostly justifiable because of negative impact on down stream by enhancing routed flood peak discharge magnitude and flood damages as well.

Heidari, A.

2009-01-01

341

Natural Hazards Journal of the International Society  

E-print Network

1 23 Natural Hazards Journal of the International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation cyclone intensity forecasting and its impact on storm surge I.-I. Lin, Gustavo J. Goni, John A. Knaff exclusively by Springer Science+Business Media B.V.. This e-offprint is for personal use only and shall

342

Mitigation Monitoring Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Report (SEIR) (September 1992) for the Proposed Renewal of the Contract between the United States Department of Energy and The Regents of the University of California for the Operation and Management of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory identifies the environmental impacts associated with renewing the contract and specifies a series of measures designed to mitigate adverse impacts to the environment. This Mitigation Monitoring Plan describes the procedures the University will use to implement the mitigation measures adopted in connection with the approval of the Contract.

Not Available

1992-09-01

343

Volcanic Hazard Education through Virtual Field studies of Vesuvius and Laki Volcanoes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcanic eruptions pose significant hazards to human populations and have the potential to cause significant economic impacts as shown by the recent ash-producing eruptions in Iceland. Demonstrating both the local and global impact of eruptions is important for developing an appreciation of the scale of hazards associated with volcanic activity. In order to address this need, Web-based virtual field exercises at Vesuvius volcano in Italy and Laki volcano in Iceland have been developed as curriculum enhancements for undergraduate geology classes. The exercises are built upon previous research by the authors dealing with the 79 AD explosive eruption of Vesuvius and the 1783 lava flow eruption of Laki. Quicktime virtual reality images (QTVR), video clips, user-controlled Flash animations and interactive measurement tools are used to allow students to explore archeological and geological sites, collect field data in an electronic field notebook, and construct hypotheses about the impacts of the eruptions on the local and global environment. The QTVR images provide 360o views of key sites where students can observe volcanic deposits and formations in the context of a defined field area. Video sequences from recent explosive and effusive eruptions of Carribean and Hawaiian volcanoes are used to illustrate specific styles of eruptive activity, such as ash fallout, pyroclastic flows and surges, lava flows and their effects on the surrounding environment. The exercises use an inquiry-based approach to build critical relationships between volcanic processes and the deposits that they produce in the geologic record. A primary objective of the exercises is to simulate the role of a field volcanologist who collects information from the field and reconstructs the sequence of eruptive processes based on specific features of the deposits. Testing of the Vesuvius and Laki exercises in undergraduate classes from a broad spectrum of educational institutions shows a preference for the web-based interactive tools compared with traditional paper-based laboratory exercises. The exercises are freely accessible for undergraduate classes such as introductory geology, geologic hazards, or volcanology. Accompany materials, such as lecture-based Powerpoint presentations about Vesuvius and Laki, are also being developed for instructors to better integrate the web-based exercises into their existing curriculum.

Carey, S.; Sigurdsson, H.

2011-12-01

344

Automated Standard Hazard Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current system used to generate standard hazard reports is considered cumbersome and iterative. This study defines a structure for this system's process in a clear, algorithmic way so that standard hazard reports and basic hazard analysis may be completed using a centralized, web-based computer application. To accomplish this task, a test server is used to host a prototype of the tool during development. The prototype is configured to easily integrate into NASA's current server systems with minimal alteration. Additionally, the tool is easily updated and provides NASA with a system that may grow to accommodate future requirements and possibly, different applications. Results of this project's success are outlined in positive, subjective reviews complete by payload providers and NASA Safety and Mission Assurance personnel. Ideally, this prototype will increase interest in the concept of standard hazard automation and lead to the full-scale production of a user-ready application.

Stebler, Shane

2014-01-01

345

a Comparison of the Blast & Fragment Mitigation Performance of Several Structurally Weak Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structurally weak materials are attractive for explosive blast and fragment mitigation applications because they break up easily into small particles and do not present secondary fragment hazards. Several materials have been investigated under a mitigation research programme aimed at developing a predictive capability. Experiments with 2.5 kg-20 kg charges confirmed earlier small scale results that porosity and particle density are

Douglas Kirkpatrick; Andrew Argyle; Katharine Harrison; James Leggett

2007-01-01

346

Study to determine the possible hazard of methylmercury in seafood to the fetus in utero. Final report, 1980-1985  

SciTech Connect

This study was conducted to determine the possible hazards of methylmercury (MeHg) in seafood to the fetus in utero. Hair and blood samples of pregnant women in New Bedford, MA, Manta, Ecuador, and Mancora, Peru (all areas of high seafood consumption) were examined. These samples were collected and studied at various stages of gestation and during pre- and post-natal periods. In some cases, blood and hair samples of some of the infants born to these women were also examined. The women of Manta and Mancora showed higher levels of MeHg than the women in New Bedford. However, no health hazards could be linked to any of the infants from the ingestion of MeHg in marine fish. Although no human data exist, experimental evidence suggests marine fish may contain elements that reduce the toxicity of MeHg and it's possible that selenium contributes to the protective effect of fish vs. grain diets. Tables of MeHg levels in the study groups are attached to the report.

Marsh, D.O.; Turner, M.D.; Smith, J.C.

1985-12-01

347

Mitigation win-win  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Win-win messages regarding climate change mitigation policies in agriculture tend to oversimplify farmer motivation. Contributions from psychology, cultural evolution and behavioural economics should help to design more effective policy.

Moran, Dominic; Lucas, Amanda; Barnes, Andrew

2013-07-01

348

Dust Mitigation Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A document describes the development and demonstration of an apparatus, called a dust mitigation vehicle, for reducing the amount of free dust on the surface of the Moon. The dust mitigation vehicle would be used to pave surfaces on the Moon to prevent the dust from levitating or adhering to surfaces. The basic principle of operation of these apparatuses is to use a lens or a dish mirror to concentrate solar thermal radiation onto a small spot to heat lunar regolith. In the case of the prototype dust mitigation vehicle, a Fresnel lens was used to heat a surface layer of regolith sufficiently to sinter or melt dust grains into a solid mass. The prototype vehicle has demonstrated paving rates up to 1.8 square meters per day. The proposed flight design of the dust mitigation vehicle is also described.

Cardiff, Eric H.

2011-01-01

349

September 2004 Flood Event in Southwestern Bangladesh: A Study of its Nature, Causes, and Human Perception and Adjustments to a New Hazard  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the nature and causes of September 2004 hazardous flood that affected the dry and drought prone southwestern\\u000a region of Bangladesh. It also examines human perception of this new hazard and their methods of adjustments to its negative\\u000a impacts. Field research for this study includes personal interviews of 453 victim families living in four thanas (lowest administrative\\u000a units)

Abu Muhammad Shajaat Ali

2007-01-01

350

Respirometric studies on the impact of humic substances on the activated sludge treatment: mitigation of an inhibitory effect caused by diesel oil.  

PubMed

This paper describes the results of aerobic respirometric studies on the application of humic substances (humate) to mitigate an inhibitory effect of petroleum hydrocarbons (diesel oil) on the returned activated sludge (RAS) in sewage from a municipal treatment plant. Initial results of the respirometric tests and non-linear regression analysis showed that diesel oil had an inhibitory effect on the activity of biomass and that kinetic data complied with the Haldane model for inhibitory wastes. Humate addition significantly enhanced the oxygen uptake by RAS. Application of humate at the dose of 2000 mg 1(-1) to the sewage contaminated with 10 mg l(-1) of diesel oil resulted in almost complete recovery of the biomass oxygen uptake. Non-linear regression analysis of the respirometric data indicated that this system complied with the Monod model for non-inhibitory wastes. Thus, the application of humic substances to mitigate the inhibitory effects of oil spills in wastewater treatment plants seems to be an attractive alternative to the treatments using activated carbon or specialized sorbents. PMID:18942578

Lipczynska-Kochany, E; Kochany, J

2008-10-01

351

Climate change induced heat wave hazard in eastern Africa: Dar Es Salaam (Tanzania) and Addis Ababa (Ethiopia) case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Last decades, new records were set in the world for tornadoes, drought, wind, floods, wildfires and hot temperatures, testifying unusual weather and climate patterns with increasing frequency and intensity of extreme weather events. Extreme heat events are natural hazards affecting many regions in the world, nevertheless limited work has been done on the analysis and effects of extreme heat events in Africa, that is considered a continent particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. In fact, the increase of temperature expected in the African continent during the 21st century is larger than the global mean warming, being about 3° to 4° C, about 1.5 times the global temperature increase (Christensen et al., 2007; Gualdi et al., 2012), with the subtropical regions projected to warm more than the tropical regions. Observations and downscaled model simulations (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 IPCC scenarios) are analyzed to describe heat wave characteristics in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) and Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), spanning the last five decades as well as that projected for the 21st century. Observed data are daily maximum and minimum temperature collected in the period 1961-2011; downscaled model simulations span up to 2050. Heat waves are defined following a peak over threshold approach by statistical comparison to historical meteorological baselines (site dependent), using a fixed absolute threshold. Projected future warming in the Dar es Salaam and Addis Ababa shows a further increase in the heat waves parameters. Heat wave duration and hot days number are strictly correlated showing that the temperature rise could generate not only an increase of heat waves number but mainly a longer average duration, that can strongly affect the resilience capacity of the population, particularly the elder people. In fact, the impacts of heat waves on the society are determined also by temporal duration (Stephenson, 2008), in addition to their frequency, in fact the capacity of adaptation can be reduced with prolonged exposure to high temperature and humidity. The expected persistence of long-lived heat waves lasting approximately 1.5-2 weeks is clearly longer with respect to the climatological period (1961-1990). During 100 years, short lived but more intense waves are more than doubled in duration. It is evident the needs for the national health services to develop strategies for the mitigation of the heat wave effects, to enhance the resilience of the population, particularly the elder people.

Capuano, Paolo; Sellerino, Mariangela; Di Ruocco, Angela; Kombe, Wilbard; Yeshitela, Kumelachew

2013-04-01

352

Flood hazard and flood risk assessment using a time series of satellite images: a case study in Namibia.  

PubMed

In this article, the use of time series of satellite imagery to flood hazard mapping and flood risk assessment is presented. Flooded areas are extracted from satellite images for the flood-prone territory, and a maximum flood extent image for each flood event is produced. These maps are further fused to determine relative frequency of inundation (RFI). The study shows that RFI values and relative water depth exhibit the same probabilistic distribution, which is confirmed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The produced RFI map can be used as a flood hazard map, especially in cases when flood modeling is complicated by lack of available data and high uncertainties. The derived RFI map is further used for flood risk assessment. Efficiency of the presented approach is demonstrated for the Katima Mulilo region (Namibia). A time series of Landsat-5/7 satellite images acquired from 1989 to 2012 is processed to derive RFI map using the presented approach. The following direct damage categories are considered in the study for flood risk assessment: dwelling units, roads, health facilities, and schools. The produced flood risk map shows that the risk is distributed uniformly all over the region. The cities and villages with the highest risk are identified. The proposed approach has minimum data requirements, and RFI maps can be generated rapidly to assist rescuers and decisionmakers in case of emergencies. On the other hand, limitations include: strong dependence on the available data sets, and limitations in simulations with extrapolated water depth values. PMID:24372226

Skakun, Sergii; Kussul, Nataliia; Shelestov, Andrii; Kussul, Olga

2014-08-01

353

Main natural hazards and vulnerability studies for some historical constructions and urban sectors of Valparaiso City (Chile)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Project "MAR VASTO" ("Risk Management in Valparaíso/Manejo de Riesgos en Valparaíso, Servicios Técnicos", 2007) started in March 2007, with coordination of ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Environment), participation of several partners (Italy: University of Ferrara, Faculties of Architecture and Engineering; University of Padua, Faculty of Engineering; Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics of Trieste; Chile: Valparaíso Technical University Federico Santa Maria, Civil Works Department; Santiago University of Chile, Division Structures Constructions Geotechnics), and support of local stakeholders. Being Valparaíso included since 2003 in the UNESCO Word Heritage List of protected sites, the project main goals are the following: to collect, analyze and elaborate the existing information, with a satisfying evaluation of main hazards; to develop a GIS digital archive, well organized, user-friendly and easy to be implemented in the future, providing maps and scenarios of specific and multiple risk; to provide a vulnerability analysis for three historical churches (San Francisco del Baron, Las Hermanitas de la Providencia, La Matríz, made by various materials - masonry, concrete, wood and adobe - and located in different city sites) and for a building stock in the Cerro Cordillera (partially inside the UNESCO area), analyzing more than 200 constructions; to suggest guidelines for future urban planning and strengthening interventions. In the framework of the MAR VASTO Project, the most important hazards have been investigated carried out. With regard to seismic hazard, "state-of-the-art" information has been provided by Chilean partners and stakeholders, using materials of several studies and stored in original earthquake reports, local newspapers and magazines. The activities performed by the Italian team regarded the definition, for the city of Valparaiso, of earthquake scenarios and maps based on the neo-deterministic approach. With regard to tsunami, the information has been provided by SHOA (Servicio Hidrografico y Oceanografico de la Armada de Chile). Tsunami scenarios and inundation maps (for both the 1906 and 1985 earthquakes) have been evaluated by the Italian team, taking into account also worse scenarios (namely the 1730 seismic event). Landslide hazard (identifying main flow areas and pointing out most affected zones, with a deeper investigation in the Cerro Cordillera, pilot area for the MAR VASTO Project) and fire hazard have been also evaluated. Finally, a GIS database has been developed, to store the hazard maps produced in the project. In addition, the GIS database has been verified by using the data obtained by a DGPS survey, performed during the in situ work in Valparaiso. In the framework of the MAR VASTO Project a building stock located in the Cerro Cordillera, partially inside the UNESCO area, has been investigated. The work done in the above said Cerro Cordillera sector by the Italian team can be considered a pilot experience which would be enlarged to all the Valparaiso City area in the framework of the town planning, actually in progress.

Romanelli, F.

2009-04-01

354

Applications of a Forward-Looking Interferometer for the On-board Detection of Aviation Weather Hazards  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Forward-Looking Interferometer (FLI) is a new instrument concept for obtaining measurements of potential weather hazards to alert flight crews. The FLI concept is based on high-resolution Infrared (IR) Fourier Transform Spectrometry (FTS) technologies that have been developed for satellite remote sensing, and which have also been applied to the detection of aerosols and gases for other purposes. It is being evaluated for multiple hazards including clear air turbulence (CAT), volcanic ash, wake vortices, low slant range visibility, dry wind shear, and icing, during all phases of flight. Previous sensitivity and characterization studies addressed the phenomenology that supports detection and mitigation by the FLI. Techniques for determining the range, and hence warning time, were demonstrated for several of the hazards, and a table of research instrument parameters was developed for investigating all of the hazards discussed above. This work supports the feasibility of detecting multiple hazards with an FLI multi-hazard airborne sensor, and for producing enhanced IR images in reduced visibility conditions; however, further research must be performed to develop a means to estimate the intensities of the hazards posed to an aircraft and to develop robust algorithms to relate sensor measurables to hazard levels. In addition, validation tests need to be performed with a prototype system.

West, Leanne; Gimmestad, Gary; Smith, William; Kireev, Stanislav; Cornman, Larry B.; Schaffner, Philip R.; Tsoucalas, George

2008-01-01

355

A Preliminary Study of Some Health Hazards in the Plasma Jet Process  

PubMed Central

A brief technical description is given of the plasma jet process, and reference is made to its likely practical applications in industry. An opportunity has been taken during experiments with a prototype plasma jet to assess some of the health hazards which might arise from these industrial applications and to indicate the type of precautions which should be observed in practice. Measurements and analysis of the noise emitted during the operation of a jet showed that the sound intensities ranged from 79·5 to 90·5 dB (re 0·0002 dynes/cm.2) per octave band between 300 and 10,000 cycles/second. Three male volunteers exposed to the noise for a period of one hour were subsequently found to have a mean temporary threshold shift of 19 dB at 4,000 cycles/second. Air sampling and analysis for ozone and nitrogen dioxide in the near vicinity of the jet gave a negative result for the former substance but demonstrated that the latter contaminant was present in concentrations ranging from 0·1 to 9·6 p.p.m. Images PMID:13961129

Hickish, D. E.; Challen, P. J. R.

1963-01-01

356

A performance improvement case study in aircraft maintenance and its implications for hazard identification.  

PubMed

Aircraft maintenance is a highly regulated, safety critical, complex and competitive industry. There is a need to develop innovative solutions to address process efficiency without compromising safety and quality. This paper presents the case that in order to improve a highly complex system such as aircraft maintenance, it is necessary to develop a comprehensive and ecologically valid model of the operational system, which represents not just what is meant to happen, but what normally happens. This model then provides the backdrop against which to change or improve the system. A performance report, the Blocker Report, specific to aircraft maintenance and related to the model was developed gathering data on anything that 'blocks' task or check performance. A Blocker Resolution Process was designed to resolve blockers and improve the current check system. Significant results were obtained for the company in the first trial and implications for safety management systems and hazard identification are discussed. Statement of Relevance: Aircraft maintenance is a safety critical, complex, competitive industry with a need to develop innovative solutions to address process and safety efficiency. This research addresses this through the development of a comprehensive and ecologically valid model of the system linked with a performance reporting and resolution system. PMID:20099178

Ward, Marie; McDonald, Nick; Morrison, Rabea; Gaynor, Des; Nugent, Tony

2010-02-01

357

Study of the seismicity temporal variation for the current seismic hazard evaluation in Val d'Agri, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines the temporal variation of the seismicity in the Val d'Agri (Southern Italy) and adjacent areas, for the current seismic hazard evaluation. The temporal variation of the seismicity is expressed as time series of the number of earthquakes, the b value of the frequency magnitude distribution of Gutenberg-Richter relationship and the seismic energy released in the form of log E2/3. The analysis was performed by the means of a new research tool that includes visualizing techniques, which helps the interactive exploration and the interpretation of temporal variation changes. The obtained time series show a precursory seismicity pattern, characterized by low and high, probability periods, which preceded earthquakes of magnitude M ? 4.0. 75% of the examined cases were successfully correlated and 25 of them resulted false. The average duration of the low and the high probability periods is 10.6 and 13.8 months long respectively. These results indicate that the seismicity temporal variation monitoring in given area and the recognition of the low and high probability periods, can contribute to the evaluation, in regular monthly intervals, of the current status seismic hazard.

Baskoutas, I.; Papadopoulos, G. A.; D'Alessandro, A.

2014-06-01

358

High-Dimensional Additive Hazards Regression for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Using Microarray Data: A Comparative Study  

PubMed Central

Microarray technology results in high-dimensional and low-sample size data sets. Therefore, fitting sparse models is substantial because only a small number of influential genes can reliably be identified. A number of variable selection approaches have been proposed for high-dimensional time-to-event data based on Cox proportional hazards where censoring is present. The present study applied three sparse variable selection techniques of Lasso, smoothly clipped absolute deviation and the smooth integration of counting, and absolute deviation for gene expression survival time data using the additive risk model which is adopted when the absolute effects of multiple predictors on the hazard function are of interest. The performances of used techniques were evaluated by time dependent ROC curve and bootstrap .632+ prediction error curves. The selected genes by all methods were highly significant (P < 0.001). The Lasso showed maximum median of area under ROC curve over time (0.95) and smoothly clipped absolute deviation showed the lowest prediction error (0.105). It was observed that the selected genes by all methods improved the prediction of purely clinical model indicating the valuable information containing in the microarray features. So it was concluded that used approaches can satisfactorily predict survival based on selected gene expression measurements. PMID:24982876

Hamidi, Omid; Tapak, Lily; Jafarzadeh Kohneloo, Aarefeh; Sadeghifar, Majid

2014-01-01

359

Augmented Reality Cues and Elderly Driver Hazard Perception  

PubMed Central

Objective Evaluate the effectiveness of augmented reality (AR) cues in improving driving safety in elderly drivers who are at increased crash risk due to cognitive impairments. Background Cognitively challenging driving environments pose a particular crash risk for elderly drivers. AR cueing is a promising technology to mitigate risk by directing driver attention to roadway hazards. This study investigates whether AR cues improve or interfere with hazard perception in elderly drivers with age-related cognitive decline. Methods Twenty elderly (Mean= 73 years, SD= 5 years), licensed drivers with a range of cognitive abilities measured by a speed of processing (SOP) composite participated in a one-hour drive in an interactive, fixed-base driving simulator. Each participant drove through six, straight, six-mile-long rural roadway scenarios following a lead vehicle. AR cues directed attention to potential roadside hazards in three of the scenarios, and the other three were uncued (baseline) drives. Effects of AR cueing were evaluated with respect to: 1) detection of hazardous target objects, 2) interference with detecting nonhazardous secondary objects, and 3) impairment in maintaining safe distance behind a lead vehicle. Results AR cueing improved the detection of hazardous target objects of low visibility. AR cues did not interfere with detection of nonhazardous secondary objects and did not impair ability to maintain safe distance behind a lead vehicle. SOP capacity did not moderate those effects. Conclusion AR cues show promise for improving elderly driver safety by increasing hazard detection likelihood without interfering with other driving tasks such as maintaining safe headway. PMID:23829037

Schall, Mark C.; Rusch, Michelle L.; Lee, John D.; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Thomas, Geb; Aksan, Nazan; Rizzo, Matthew

2013-01-01

360

Natural Hazards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA's Earth Observatory Web site's newest addition, Natural Hazards, is a continually updated resource of remarkable photography taken from the satellite MODIS (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) of visible natural disasters around the globe of things such as the thick cloud of pollution currently over India and the dozen ravaging bush fires in Australia. Each page contains a high-resolution image of the event, a description of what is taking place, and links to any related images.

2002-01-01

361

Communicating an uncertain increase in earthquake hazard: a case study from Sumatra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Immediately after the 26 Dec. 2004 Sumatra - Andaman Islands earthquake, we computed the stress changes due to it on the Sunda Trench to the south of the Dec. rupture plane and on the Sumatra Fault which runs down the center of the island. Our results clearly showed a significant increase in stress of up to 9 bars on both structures; stress changes of about 0.1 bars had been shown to trigger large earthquakes in other regions. Additionally, evidence from the Nankai Trough offshore Japan demonstrated that subduction zone earthquakes are often linked, with many events apparently triggering neighboring earthquakes in the following 1-2 years, and an earthquake on the Sunda Trench had the clear potential to generate another tsunami. These results led to a serious discussion about our responsibilities as scientists, on the one hand we were certain that the seismic risk on the island of Sumatra had increased, on the other we were very aware of the uncertainties in the application of the results, particularly with respect to timing. We also expected that publication would lead to considerable media attention and we were concerned that our results would be misinterpreted as a "prediction"; this indeed turned out to be the case. The research was published on 17 March and a triggered M=8.7 event occurred on the Sunda Trench, in the area of concern, 11 days later. Although the timescale in this instance was clearly too short to affect preparedness, its occurrence strongly suggested that our decision to publish was correct. We have since shown that the March event, in turn, increased stress farther south along the subduction zone, again leading to an unquantifiable increase in seismic hazard. The media response to this work has been mixed, with international organizations echoing our call for urgent moves towards improving preparedness and local ones (e.g. the Jakarta Post) debunking the work.

Steacy, S.; McCloskey, J.; Nalbant, S.

2005-12-01

362

Minimizing hazardous waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hazardous waste minimization is a broad term often associated with pollution prevention, saving the environment or protecting Mother Earth. Some associate hazardous waste minimization with saving money. Thousands of hazardous materials are used in processes every day, but when these hazardous materials become hazardous wastes, dollars must be spent for disposal. When hazardous waste is reduced, an organization will spend

DeClue

1996-01-01

363

Turbine building hazards  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the aftermath of the turbine overspeed event and the ensuing fires and explosions in the turbine building at Salem Unit 2 on November 9, 1991, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) initiated studies on turbine overspeed events and turbine building hazards. The turbine overspeed study has been discussed in an article

H. L. Ornstein; F. J. Zarzuela

1993-01-01

364

A rapid and hazardous reagent free protocol for genomic DNA extraction suitable for genetic studies in plants.  

PubMed

Protocols for genomic DNA extraction from plants are generally lengthy, since they require that tissues be ground in liquid nitrogen, followed by a precipitation step, washing and drying of the DNA pellet, etc. This represents a major challenge especially when several hundred samples must be screened/analyzed within a working day. There is therefore a need for a rapid and simple procedure, which will produce DNA quality suitable for various analyses. Here, we describe a time and cost efficient protocol for genomic DNA isolation from plants suitable for all routine genetic screening/analyses. The protocol is free from hazardous reagents and therefore safe to be executed by non-specialists. With this protocol more than 100 genomic DNA samples could manually be extracted within a working day, making it a promising alternative in genetic studies of large-scale genomic screening projects. PMID:18781397

Kotchoni, Simeon O; Gachomo, Emma W

2009-07-01

365

Landsat TM and ETM+ Time Sequence of Lahar Hazards on Fuego Volcano, Guatemala  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcanic hazards pose a threat to a large number of the world's population, especially secondary hazards due to remobilization of volcanic material such as landslides and lahars. Many hazard-prone areas would benefit by remote sensing tools for hazard mitigation. In this study, we propose to use remote sensing and GIS techniques to map these hazard prone areas around Fuego volcano, Guatemala and provide information to local organizations to assist in mitigation. Fuego is a steep sided volcano with a history of large eruptive events, including the well-studied 1974 eruption, that have extruded a large amount of material onto the upper reaches of its watersheds. The volcano is well studied, but historically more emphasis has been placed on eruption processes. A study of the way material moves down Fuego and to the extent that it moves is needed to help mitigate the range of potential hazards. We propose an in-depth remote sensing survey to map the hazard-prone areas. The study will consist of processing 20 years (15 cloud-free images) of Landsat TM and ETM+ data to look at changes in landforms and vegetation. Vegetation indices will be calculated to locate areas devoid of vegetation and a masking process will be used These area changes will be related to field measurements to create GIS to measure the area of these zones. layers denoting geometry changes in the channels around Fuego. These changes will be loaded into a GIS, along with regional climate data, DEMs, hydrologic data, infrastructure, and information about the known volcanic activity recorded in the area by the local volcanologists. Modeling of lahars using LAHARZ and climate data will also be done to determine an estimate of the amount of material moved and to what distances it can be transported. A field survey undertaken in January 2003 acquired GPS ground truth data of landslide boundaries and channel volumes for the GIS. The deposits that were seen in the channels 10 km from the source of the sediment ranged in thickness from 1.5-8 m.

Reif, S. L.; Bluth, G. J.; Rose, W. I.; Matias, O.

2003-12-01

366

Reproductive Hazards in the Lab Reproductive Hazards  

E-print Network

Reproductive Hazards in the Lab Reproductive Hazards The term reproductive hazard refers to agents (radiation, x-rays, chemicals or biologicals) that affect the reproductive health of women or men to have healthy children. Reproductive hazards may have harmful effects on libido, sexual behavior, or sperm

de Lijser, Peter

367

The Handling of Hazard Data on a National Scale: A Case Study from the British Geological Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews how hazard data and geological map data have been combined by the British Geological Survey (BGS) to produce a set of GIS-based national-scale hazard susceptibility maps for the UK. This work has been carried out over the last 9 years and as such reflects the combined outputs of a large number of researchers at BGS. The paper

Katherine R. Royse

2011-01-01

368

Lunar mission safety and rescue: Hazards analysis and safety requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results are presented of the hazards analysis which was concerned only with hazards to personnel and not with loss of equipment or property. Hazards characterization includes the definition of a hazard, the hazard levels, and the hazard groups. The analysis methodology is described in detail. The methodology was used to prepare the top level functional flow diagrams, to perform the first level hazards assessment, and to develop a list of conditions and situations requiring individual hazard studies. The 39 individual hazard study results are presented in total.

1971-01-01

369

Preparedness and Mitigation Systems for Asian Tsunami-Type Hazards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The devastating impact of the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami (also known as the Asian tsunami) on coastal communities has been widely reported in the media. The tsunami has so traumatized the public that governments are under pressure to spend vast amounts of money for warning and protective measures against the tsunamis. It should not, however, be forgotten that

U. Aswathanarayana

2005-01-01

370

LEAD-BASED PAINT HAZARD-MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES: FINAL REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

Lead-based paints (LEP) and primers have been used in the past by the Department of Defense (DoD) to protect steel structures from corrosion. DoD owns about 200 million sq ft of steel structures with lead-based paint (such as bridges, aircraft hangars, water tanks, etc.). The DoD...

371

Effects of hazardous and harmful alcohol use on HIV incidence and sexual behaviour: a cohort study of Kenyan female sex workers  

PubMed Central

Aims To investigate putative links between alcohol use, and unsafe sex and incident HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods A cohort of 400 HIV-negative female sex workers was established in Mombasa, Kenya. Associations between categories of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the incidence at one year of unsafe sex, HIV and pregnancy were assessed using Cox proportional hazards models. Violence or STIs other than HIV measured at one year was compared across AUDIT categories using multivariate logistic regression. Results Participants had high levels of hazardous (17.3%, 69/399) and harmful drinking (9.5%, 38/399), while 36.1% abstained from alcohol. Hazardous and harmful drinkers had more unprotected sex and higher partner numbers than abstainers. Sex while feeling drunk was frequent and associated with lower condom use. Occurrence of condom accidents rose step-wise with each increase in AUDIT category. Compared with non-drinkers, women with harmful drinking had 4.1-fold higher sexual violence (95% CI adjusted odds ratio [AOR]?=?1.9-8.9) and 8.4 higher odds of physical violence (95% CI AOR?=?3.9-18.0), while hazardous drinkers had 3.1-fold higher physical violence (95% CI AOR?=?1.7-5.6). No association was detected between AUDIT category and pregnancy, or infection with Syphilis or Trichomonas vaginalis. The adjusted hazard ratio of HIV incidence was 9.6 comparing women with hazardous drinking to non-drinkers (95% CI?=?1.1-87.9). Conclusions Unsafe sex, partner violence and HIV incidence were higher in women with alcohol use disorders. This prospective study, using validated alcohol measures, indicates that harmful or hazardous alcohol can influence sexual behaviour. Possible mechanisms include increased unprotected sex, condom accidents and exposure to sexual violence. Experimental evidence is required demonstrating that interventions to reduce alcohol use can avert unsafe sex. PMID:24708844

2014-01-01

372

Communicating uncertainties in natural hazard forecasts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural hazards research seeks to help society develop strategies that appropriately balance risks and mitigation costs in addressing potential imminent threats and possible longer-term hazards. However, because scientists have only limited knowledge of the future, they must also communicate the uncertainties in what they know about the hazards. How to do so has been the subject of extensive recent discussion [Sarewitz et al., 2000; Oreskes, 2000; Pilkey and Pilkey-Jarvis, 2006]. One approach is General Colin Powell's charge to intelligence officers [Powell, 2012]: “Tell me what you know. Tell me what you don't know. Then tell me what you think. Always distinguish which is which.” In dealing with natural hazards, the last point can be modified to “which is which and why.” To illustrate this approach, it is helpful to consider some successful and unsuccessful examples [Stein, 2010; Stein et al., 2012].

Stein, Seth; Geller, Robert J.

2012-09-01

373

Art hazards.  

PubMed

The diseases associated with art forms range from trauma (vibration syndrome, flying objects, etc) and heat exposure, to heavy metal and solvent exposure. Specific substances such as ozone, cadmium, and molybdenum have unique diseases associated with them. Sadly, artists may not have the medical knowledge to know how to deal with or avoid hazards. They and their immediate families often may be at risk. Many artists are not educated in what protective gear to use and do not have the money to purchase the specialized equipment for their particular work, or they refuse to wear protective gear because they are uncomfortable in the conditions encountered in the workplace. Education is often required for the use of the protective gear (respiratory, eyewear, contact protection). To make matters worse, artists are poorly protected from toxins. Government regulations are not adequate to protect self-employed artists. Laws regulating children's exposure do not address long-term toxicity. Most artists with acute problems present to the ED first. An awareness of the occupational hazards to which self-employed artists are exposed will prevent the treating physician from overlooking important clues. When an artist presents with unusual symptoms, the physician must get a complete occupational history and must have the patient bring a list or samples of any substances to which he or she has been exposed. In essence, artists are a group of enthusiastic, hardworking people that can be protected by a keen awareness of these basic principles by the treating physician. PMID:7605537

Lesser, S H; Weiss, S J

1995-07-01

374

The use of hazards analysis in the development of training  

SciTech Connect

When training for a job in which human error has the potential of producing catastrophic results, an understanding of the hazards that may be encountered is of paramount importance. In high consequence activities, it is important that the training program be conducted in a safe environment and yet emphasize the potential hazards. Because of the high consequence of a human error the use of a high-fidelity simulation is of great importance to provide the safe environment the worker needs to learn and hone required skills. A hazards analysis identifies the operation hazards, potential human error, and associated positive measures that aid in the mitigation or prevention of the hazard. The information gained from the hazards analysis should be used in the development of training. This paper will discuss the integration of information from the hazards analysis into the development of simulation components of a training program.

Houghton, F.K.

1998-03-01

375

Crossing Hazard Functions in Common Survival Models  

PubMed Central

Crossing hazard functions have extensive applications in modeling survival data. However, existing studies in the literature mainly focus on comparing crossed hazard functions and estimating the time at which the hazard functions cross, and there is little theoretical work on conditions under which hazard functions from a model will have a crossing. In this paper, we investigate crossing status of hazard functions from the proportional hazards (PH) model, the accelerated hazard (AH) model, and the accelerated failure time (AFT) model. We provide and prove conditions under which the hazard functions from the AH and the AFT models have no crossings or a single crossing. A few examples are also provided to demonstrate how the conditions can be used to determine crossing status of hazard functions from the three models. PMID:20613974

Zhang, Jiajia; Peng, Yingwei

2010-01-01

376

Hazards of Mercury.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Common concern for the protection and improvement of the environment and the enhancement of human health and welfare underscore the purpose of this special report on the hazards of mercury directed to the Secretary's Pesticide Advisory Committee, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. The report summarizes the findings of a ten-member study

Environmental Research, 1971

1971-01-01

377

How Hazardous Substances Affect People  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity helps students gain an appreciation for how scientists determine the human health effects of hazardous substances. Students also demonstrate how hazardous substances can affect the health of test animals. They will discover that toxicology is the study of the effects of poisons on living organisms and that scientists conduct a variety of studies to discover toxicological information about hazardous substances. Students will also learn about two of the most common types of studies, which are epidemiological studies, matching disease and other adverse health effects in humans with possible causes, and animal toxicological studies.

378

Interference Mitigation Where We Stand,  

E-print Network

Interference Mitigation ­ Where We Stand, Where We Might Go Steve Ellingson & Kyehun Lee Virginia Mitigation · Haystack Deuterium Array / 327 MHz Line Detection · Combination of techniques (See Rogers talk

Ellingson, Steven W.

379

High Precision Astrometry in Asteroid Mitigation - the NEOShield Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the currently known Near Earth Objects (NEOs), roughly 1400 are classified as being potentially hazardous asteroids. The recent Chelyabinsk event has shown that these objects can pose a real threat to mankind. We illustrate that high precision asteroid astrometry plays a vital role in determining potential impact risks, selecting targets for deflection demonstration missions and evaluating mitigation mission success. After a brief introduction to the NEO-Shield project, an international effort initiated by the European Commission to investigate aspects of NEO mitigation in a comprehensive fashion, we discuss current astrometric performances, requirements and possible issues with NEO risk assessment and deflection demonstration missions.

Eggl, S.; Ivantsov, A.; Hestroffer, D.; Perna, D.; Bancelin, D.; Thuillot, W.

2013-11-01

380

Inundation mapping a study based on December 2004 Tsunami Hazard along Chennai coast, Southeast India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tsunami impact study has been undertaken along Chennai coast starting from Pulicat to Kovalam. The study area Chennai coast is mainly devoted to prepare large scale action plan maps on tsunami inundation incorporating land use details derived from satellite data along with cadastral data using a GIS tool. Under tsunami inundation mapping along Chennai coast an integrated approach was adopted

C. Satheesh Kumar; P. Arul Murugan; R. R. Krishnamurthy; B. Prabhu Doss Batvari; M. V. Ramanamurthy; T. Usha; Y. Pari

2008-01-01

381

wind engineering & natural disaster mitigation  

E-print Network

wind engineering & natural disaster mitigation #12;wind engineering & natural disaster mitigation Investment WindEEE Dome at Advanced Manufacturing Park $31million Insurance Research Lab for Better Homes $8million Advanced Facility for Avian Research $9million #12;wind engineering & natural disaster mitigation

Denham, Graham

382

Empirical study of correlated survival times for recurrent events with proportional hazards margins and the effect of correlation and censoring  

PubMed Central

Background In longitudinal studies where subjects experience recurrent incidents over a period of time, such as respiratory infections, fever or diarrhea, statistical methods are required to take into account the within-subject correlation. Methods For repeated events data with censored failure, the independent increment (AG), marginal (WLW) and conditional (PWP) models are three multiple failure models that generalize Cox’s proportional hazard model. In this paper, we revise the efficiency, accuracy and robustness of all three models under simulated scenarios with varying degrees of within-subject correlation, censoring levels, maximum number of possible recurrences and sample size. We also study the methods performance on a real dataset from a cohort study with bronchial obstruction. Results We find substantial differences between methods and there is not an optimal method. AG and PWP seem to be preferable to WLW for low correlation levels but the situation reverts for high correlations. Conclusions All methods are stable in front of censoring, worsen with increasing recurrence levels and share a bias problem which, among other consequences, makes asymptotic normal confidence intervals not fully reliable, although they are well developed theoretically. PMID:23883000

2013-01-01

383

On-farm multi-contamination of pigs by food-borne bacterial zoonotic hazards: an exploratory study.  

PubMed

Application of risk analysis to control pork-borne zoonoses on farms is a major aim of the current European food safety legislation. The prevalence, levels of contamination and variations in pig contaminations according to herds and batches must therefore be studied to define relevant methods for control of zoonoses. The aims of this exploratory study were to provide information on the prevalence and levels of infection of finisher/fattening pigs by Campylobacter spp., Clostridium perfringens, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica and Staphylococcus aureus, and to quantify the respective effects of batches and herds. One hundred and twenty-seven pooled fresh feces samples and 120 pooled cutaneous swab samples were tested from 37 batches in 14 farrowing-to-finishing farms. Campylobacter spp. was identified in all fecal samples on farms whereas L. monocytogenes was never found. C. perfringens was identified in 48% of samples, Salmonella in 2%, and S. aureus in 48%. The decomposition of variance of on-farm prevalence and levels of contamination and a general linear model showed a systematically significant effect of herd, and an effect of batch only for levels of contamination with Campylobacter and C. perfringens and for prevalence of S. aureus. The contamination status of pigs seems to be mainly explained by herd status linked to poor biosecurity measures. Further studies are needed to explain such correlations in order to define farm indicators for food-borne zoonotic hazards. PMID:20655671

Fosse, J; Laroche, M; Oudot, N; Seegers, H; Magras, C

2011-01-10

384

Hazard identification of environmental pollutants by combining results from ecological and biomarker studies: an example  

EPA Science Inventory

Objective: Linking exposures from environmental pollutants with adverse health effects is difficult because these exposures are usually low-dose and ill-defined. According to several investigators, a series of multidisciplinary, multilevel studies is needed to address this prob...

385

Outreach Programs, Peer Pressure, and Common Sense: What Motivates Homeowners to Mitigate Wildfire Risk?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, altered forest conditions, climate change, and the increasing numbers of homes built in fire prone areas has meant that wildfires are affecting more people. An important part of minimizing the potential negative impacts of wildfire is engaging homeowners in mitigating the fire hazard on their land. It is therefore important to understand what makes homeowners more or less willing to take action. The research presented here comes from a study that interviewed a total of 198 homeowners in six communities in the western United States about the activities they had undertaken to mitigate their fire risk, the factors that contributed to their decisions, and their future intentions. The current paper reports on findings from the first half of the longitudinal study, after 3 years we will return to interview the current homeowner on the same properties to assess maintenance actions and facilitating and limiting factors. Overall we found a body of individuals who understand the fire risk, are taking numerous mitigation actions, and think that these actions have reduced their risk. These homeowners typically did not expect the government to do it for them: they wanted information about what to do and, in some cases, assistance with the work, but saw taking care of their property primarily as their responsibility. Responses also show that key information sources and motivating factors vary by location and that it is not inherently necessary to have relationships between community members to create defensible space.

McCaffrey, Sarah M.; Stidham, Melanie; Toman, Eric; Shindler, Bruce

2011-09-01

386

CASE STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT TO REMOVE VOLATILE ORGANICS. VOLUME 1  

EPA Science Inventory

Case studies are presented for treatment of refinery wastes in a pilot-scale thin-film evaporator, the removal of volatiles from industrial wastewater for two steam strippers, and the removal of semivolatiles from water by steam stripping followed by liquid-phase carbon adsorptio...

387

CASE STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT TO REMOVE VOLATILE ORGANICS. VOLUME 2  

EPA Science Inventory

Case studies are presented in the report for treatment of refinery wastes in a pilot-scale thin-film evaporator, the removal of volatiles from industrial wastewater for two steam strippers, and the removal of semivolatiles from water by steam stripping followed by liquid-phase ca...

388

[Silicosis hazard of silica dusts in diamond mining industry (experimental study)].  

PubMed

Slow progressing experimental coniosis was induced by exposure to two samples of silica dust that was obtained from diamond openwork in "Mir" quarry of Yakutia. Moderate fibrogenicity of the dusts studied results from relatively low portions of silica and from metals oxides admixtures. PMID:11503228

Mironova, G E; Bezrukavnikova, L M; Kuz'mina, L P

2001-01-01

389

Earthquake hazard studies in New York State and adjacent areas. Final report, April 1976June 1982  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory (LDGO) currently operates a network of 38 short period seismic stations in the states of New York, New jersey and Vermont. It is part of the larger Northeastern United States Seismic Network (NEUSSN) operated by several university groups in New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and New England. These networks provide a wealth of data to study seismicity,

Kufka

1983-01-01

390

43 CFR 10005.8 - Mitigation obligations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...COMMISSION'S MITIGATION AND CONSERVATION PLAN § 10005.8 Mitigation...undertake a wide range of general planning and mitigation activities...components of the mitigation and conservation plan and of the planning process used to...

2011-10-01

391

43 CFR 10005.8 - Mitigation obligations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COMMISSION'S MITIGATION AND CONSERVATION PLAN § 10005.8 Mitigation...undertake a wide range of general planning and mitigation activities...components of the mitigation and conservation plan and of the planning process used to...

2012-10-01

392

43 CFR 10005.8 - Mitigation obligations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...COMMISSION'S MITIGATION AND CONSERVATION PLAN § 10005.8 Mitigation...undertake a wide range of general planning and mitigation activities...components of the mitigation and conservation plan and of the planning process used to...

2013-10-01

393

Environmental hazard mapping using GIS and AHP - A case study of Dong Trieu District in Quang Ninh Province, Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, Vietnamese economy has been growing up rapidly and caused serious environmental quality plunging, especially in industrial and mining areas. It brings an enormous threat to a socially sustainable development and the health of human beings. Environmental quality assessment and protection are complex and dynamic processes, since it involves spatial information from multi-sector, multi-region and multi-field sources and needs complicated data processing. Therefore, an effective environmental protection information system is needed, in which considerable factors hidden in the complex relationships will become clear and visible. In this paper, the authors present the methodology which was used to generate environmental hazard maps which are applied to the integration of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Geographical Information system (GIS). We demonstrate the results that were obtained from the study area in Dong Trieu district. This research study has contributed an overall perspective of environmental quality and identified the devastated areas where the administration urgently needs to establish an appropriate policy to improve and protect the environment.

Anh, N. K.; Phonekeo, V.; My, V. C.; Duong, N. D.; Dat, P. T.

2014-02-01

394

In vivo chlorophyll fluorescence study of hazardous waste site vegetation under field and controlled conditions  

SciTech Connect

Cattail (Typha sp.) and Arrow Arum (Peltandra virginica) were studied to determine the effects of cadmium and nickel contamination in a freshwater tidal marsh. An in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence instrument was used in the field to estimate photosynthetic capacity. No definitive effects on photosynthesis were observed. A laboratory study was then designed to determine whether fluorescence could detect sublethal impacts of cadmium and whether tolerant plants had developed in the contaminated area. Arrow Arum seeds collected from a reference wetland and from the contaminated wetland were grown in horticultural vermiculite with cadmium concentrations of 0, 1, 2, 5 and 10 mg/L. Results indicate that, regardless of seed origin, fluorescence can detect an effect at cadmium levels at which there are no visual signs of stress. However, the plants from the contaminated wetland exhibited reduced growth, and deformities in several individuals.

Mayasich, S.A.; Zygmont, N.J. (Roy F. Weston, Inc., Edison, NJ (United States) CDM Federal Programs Corp., South Plainfield, NJ (United States))

1993-06-01

395

Feasibility study of detection of hazardous airborne pollutants using passive open-path FTIR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years open-path FTIR systems (active and passive) have demonstrated great potential and success for monitoring air pollution, industrial stack emissions, and trace gas constituents in the atmosphere. However, most of the studies were focused mainly on monitoring gaseous species and very few studies have investigated the feasibility of detecting bio-aerosols and dust by passive open-path FTIR measurements. The goal of the present study was to test the feasibility of detecting a cloud of toxic aerosols by a passive mode open-path FTIR. More specifically, we are focusing on the detection of toxic organophosphorous nerve agents for which we use Tri-2-ethyl-hexyl-phosphate as a model compound. We have determined the compounds' optical properties, which were needed for the radiative calculations, using a procedure developed in our laboratory. In addition, measurements of the aerosol size distribution in an airborne cloud were performed, which provided the additional input required for the radiative transfer model. This allowed simulation of the radiance signal that would be measured by the FTIR instrument and hence estimation of the detection limit of such a cloud. Preliminary outdoor measurements have demonstrated the possibility of detecting such a cloud using two detection methods. However, even in a simple case consisting of the detection of a pure airborne cloud, detection is not straightforward and reliable identification of the compound would require more advanced methods than simple correlation with spectral library.

Segal-Rosenheimer, M.; Dubowski, Y.; Jahn, C.; Schäfer, K.; Gerl, G.; Linker, R.

2010-04-01

396

Burnout hazard in teachers results of a clinical-psychological intervention study  

PubMed Central

Background The study investigates whether established in-patient therapy for teachers with burnout results in long-acting success and whether gender gaps and differences between teachers of different school levels exist. According to our knowledge, our study is the most extensive inpatient intervention study on the burnout of a defined occupational group, i.e., teachers. Methods 200 teachers participated, 150 took part in a later performed katamnestic survey. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used and work-related data were recorded. The days of incapacity for work and the percentage of teachers endangered by burnout decreased, which supports the long-term success of the treatment. Results Significant differences between males and females and between teacher levels were found. However, the differences between teacher levels only showed up before treatment. Because males only underwent treatment at a more severe stage, further efforts in persuading males to start therapy earlier are needed. Conclusions The proven and long-term success of the performed intervention could have greater effects if people, especially males, undergo treatment more frequently. Our results are based on selectively high proposition of teachers of advanced age. Thus it is possible that the long term effect of the intervention, particularly on retirement age, is greater when the intervention is started earlier. Regular burnout tests could help to identify risk cases among teachers at an early stage and to offer a therapeutic intervention. PMID:22192422

2011-01-01

397

Genetic k-Means Clustering Approach for Mapping Human Vulnerability to Chemical Hazards in the Industrialized City: A Case Study of Shanghai, China  

PubMed Central

Reducing human vulnerability to chemical hazards in the industrialized city is a matter of great urgency. Vulnerability mapping is an alternative approach for providing vulnerability-reducing interventions in a region. This study presents a method for mapping human vulnerability to chemical hazards by using clustering analysis for effective vulnerability reduction. Taking the city of Shanghai as the study area, we measure human exposure to chemical hazards by using the proximity model with additionally considering the toxicity of hazardous substances, and capture the sensitivity and coping capacity with corresponding indicators. We perform an improved k-means clustering approach on the basis of genetic algorithm by using a 500 m × 500 m geographical grid as basic spatial unit. The sum of squared errors and silhouette coefficient are combined to measure the quality of clustering and to determine the optimal clustering number. Clustering result reveals a set of six typical human vulnerability patterns that show distinct vulnerability dimension combinations. The vulnerability mapping of the study area reflects cluster-specific vulnerability characteristics and their spatial distribution. Finally, we suggest specific points that can provide new insights in rationally allocating the limited funds for the vulnerability reduction of each cluster. PMID:23787337

Shi, Weifang; Zeng, Weihua

2013-01-01

398

The Integrated Hazard Analysis Integrator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hazard analysis addresses hazards that arise in the design, development, manufacturing, construction, facilities, transportation, operations and disposal activities associated with hardware, software, maintenance, operations and environments. An integrated hazard is an event or condition that is caused by or controlled by multiple systems, elements, or subsystems. Integrated hazard analysis (IHA) is especially daunting and ambitious for large, complex systems such as NASA s Constellation program which incorporates program, systems and element components that impact others (International Space Station, public, International Partners, etc.). An appropriate IHA should identify all hazards, causes, controls and verifications used to mitigate the risk of catastrophic loss of crew, vehicle and/or mission. Unfortunately, in the current age of increased technology dependence, there is the tendency to sometimes overlook the necessary