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1

Unacceptable Risk: Earthquake Hazard Mitigation in One California School District. Hazard Mitigation Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Earthquakes are a perpetual threat to California's school buildings. School administrators must be aware that hazard mitigation means much more than simply having a supply of water bottles in the school; it means getting everyone involved in efforts to prevent tragedies from occurring in school building in the event of an earthquake. The PTA in…

California State Office of Emergency Services, Sacramento.

2

Study proposes wholesale change in thinking about natural hazards mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The “lollapaloozas,” the major natural catastrophes, are getting bigger and bigger, and it is time to confront this growing problem by dramatically changing the way that society approaches natural hazard mitigation, conducts itself in relation to the natural environment, and accepts responsibility for activities that could lead to or increase disasters, according to Dennis Mileti, principal investigator of a new study on natural hazards, and director of the Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center at the University of Colorado at Boulder.Since 1989, the United States has been struck by seven of the nation's 10 most costly natural disasters, including the 1994 Northridge earthquake in California that caused $25 billion in damages. Also since 1989, the financial cost of natural hazards in the United States—which includes floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, and wildfires, as well as landslides, heat, and fog—has frequently averaged $1 billion per week, a price that some experts say will continue rising. Internationally, the Kobe, Japan, earthquake cost more than $100 billion and is the most financially costly disaster in world history None of these figures include indirect losses related to natural disasters, such as lost economic productivity

Showstack, Randy

3

Mitigating lightning hazards  

SciTech Connect

A new draft document provides guidance for assessing and mitigating the effects of lightning hazards on a Department of Energy (or any other) facility. Written by two Lawrence Livermore Engineers, the document combines lightning hazard identification and facility categorization with a new concept, the Lightning Safety System, to help dispel the confusion and mystery surrounding lightning and its effects. The guidance is of particular interest to DOE facilities storing and handling nuclear and high-explosive materials. The concepts presented in the document were used to evaluate the lightning protection systems of the Device Assembly Facility at the Nevada Test Site.

Hasbrouck, R.

1996-05-01

4

Washington Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Washington State has participated in the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) since its inception in 1995. We have participated in the tsunami inundation hazard mapping, evacuation planning, education, and outreach efforts that generally characterize the NTHMP efforts. We have also investigated hazards of significant interest to the Pacific Northwest. The hazard from locally generated earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone, which threatens tsunami inundation in less than hour following a magnitude 9 earthquake, creates special problems for low-lying accretionary shoreforms in Washington, such as the spits of Long Beach and Ocean Shores, where high ground is not accessible within the limited time available for evacuation. To ameliorate this problem, we convened a panel of the Applied Technology Council to develop guidelines for construction of facilities for vertical evacuation from tsunamis, published as FEMA 646, now incorporated in the International Building Code as Appendix M. We followed this with a program called Project Safe Haven (http://www.facebook.com/ProjectSafeHaven) to site such facilities along the Washington coast in appropriate locations and appropriate designs to blend with the local communities, as chosen by the citizens. This has now been completed for the entire outer coast of Washington. In conjunction with this effort, we have evaluated the potential for earthquake-induced ground failures in and near tsunami hazard zones to help develop cost estimates for these structures and to establish appropriate tsunami evacuation routes and evacuation assembly areas that are likely to to be available after a major subduction zone earthquake. We intend to continue these geotechnical evaluations for all tsunami hazard zones in Washington.

Walsh, T. J.; Schelling, J.

2012-12-01

5

Landslide hazard mitigation in North America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Active landslides throughout the states and territories of the United States result in extensive property loss and 25-50 deaths per year. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a long history of detailed examination of landslides since the work of Howe (1909) in the San Juan Mountains of Colorado. In the last four decades, landslide inventory maps and landslide hazard maps have depicted landslides of different ages, identified fresh landslide scarps, and indicated the direction of landslide movement for different regions of the states of Colorado, California, and Pennsylvania. Probability-based methods improve landslide hazards assessments. Rainstorms, earthquakes, wildfires, and volcanic eruptions can trigger landslides. Improvements in remote sensing of rainfall make it possible to issue landslide advisories and warnings for vulnerable areas. From 1986 to 1995, the USGS issued hazard warnings based on rainfall in the San Francisco Bay area. USGS workers also identified rainfall thresholds triggering landslides in Puerto Rico, Hawaii, Washington, and the Blue Ridge Mountains of central Virginia. Detailed onsite monitoring of landslides near highways in California and Colorado aided transportation officials. The USGS developed a comprehensive, multi-sector, and multi-agency strategy to mitigate landslide hazards nationwide. This study formed the foundation of the National Landslide Hazards Mitigation Strategy. The USGS, in partnership with the U.S. National Weather Service and the State of California, began to develop a real-time warning system for landslides from wildfires in Southern California as a pilot study in 2005.

Wieczorek, G. F.; Leahy, P. P.

2008-01-01

6

Contributions of Nimbus 7 TOMS Data to Volcanic Study and Hazard Mitigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nimbus TOMS data have led to advancements among many volcano-related scientific disciplines, from the initial ability to quantify SO2 clouds leading to derivations of eruptive S budgets and fluxes, to tracking of individual clouds, assessing global volcanism and atmospheric impacts. Some of the major aspects of TOMS-related research, listed below, will be reviewed and updated: (1) Measurement of volcanic SO2 clouds: Nimbus TOMS observed over 100 individual SO2 clouds during its mission lifetime; large explosive eruptions are now routinely and reliably measured by satellite. (2) Eruption processes: quantification of SO2 emissions have allowed assessments of eruption sulfur budgets, the evaluation of "excess" sulfur, and inferences of H2S emissions. (3) Detection of ash: TOMS data are now used to detect volcanic particulates in the atmosphere, providing complementary analyses to infrared methods of detection. Paired TOMS and AVHRR studies have provided invaluable information on volcanic cloud compositions and processes. (4) Cloud tracking and hazard mitigation: volcanic clouds can be considered gigantic tracers in the atmosphere, and studies of the fates of these clouds have led to new knowledge of their physical and chemical dispersion in the atmosphere for predictive models. (5) Global trends: the long term data set has provided researchers an unparalleled record of explosive volcanism, and forms a key component in assessing annual to decadal trends in global S emissions. (6) Atmospheric impacts: TOMS data have been linked to independent records of atmospheric change, in order to compare cause and effect processes following a massive injection of SO2 into the atmosphere. (7) Future TOMS instruments and applications: Nimbus TOMS has given way to new satellite platforms, with several wavelength and resolution modifications. New efforts to launch a geostationary TOMS could provide unprecedented observations of volcanic activity.

Krueger, Arlin J.; Bluth, G. J. S.; Schaefer, S. A.

1998-01-01

7

Predictability and extended-range prognosis in natural hazard risk mitigation process: A case study over west Greece  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural hazards pose an increasing threat to society and new innovative techniques or methodologies are necessary to be developed, in order to enhance the risk mitigation process in nowadays. It is commonly accepted that disaster risk reduction is a vital key for future successful economic and social development. The systematic improvement accuracy of extended-range prognosis products, relating with monthly and seasonal predictability, introduced them as a new essential link in risk mitigation procedure. Aiming at decreasing the risk, this paper presents the use of seasonal and monthly forecasting process that was tested over west Greece from September to December, 2013. During that season significant severe weather events occurred, causing significant impact to the local society (severe storms/rainfalls, hail, flash floods, etc). Seasonal and monthly forecasting products from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) depicted, with probabilities stratified by terciles, areas of Greece where significant weather may occur. As atmospheric natural hazard early warning systems are able to deliver warnings up to 72 hours in advance, this study illustrates that extended-range prognosis could be introduced as a new technique in risk mitigation. Seasonal and monthly forecast products could highlight extended areas where severe weather events may occur in one month lead time. In addition, a risk mitigation procedure, that extended prognosis products are adopted, is also presented providing useful time to preparedness process at regional administration level.

Matsangouras, Ioannis T.; Nastos, Panagiotis T.

2014-05-01

8

Risk perception and volcanic hazard mitigation: Individual and social perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses how people's interpretation of their experience of volcanic hazards and public volcanic hazard education programs influences their risk perception and whether or not they adopt measures that can mitigate their risk. Drawing on four studies of volcanic risk perception and preparedness, the paper first examines why experiencing volcanic hazards need not necessarily motivate people to prepare for

Douglas Paton; Leigh Smith; Michele Daly; David Johnston

2008-01-01

9

Satellite imagery for volcanic hazards mitigation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) seeks to foster cooperation to increase the usefulness and accessibility of satellite imagery. In 1997, CEOS initiated the Disaster Management Support Project to assess the present and potential use of satellite-derived information for volcanic hazards mitigation. The final report of the CEOS Volcanic Hazards Working Group reviews current use of satellite data for mitigation of volcanic hazards. The report specifies the minimum spectral channels needed for effective remote sensing of volcanic hazards, together with recommendations for threshold and optimum spatial and temporal resolutions.

Helz, R. T.; Ellrod, G. A.; Wadge, G.

2002-01-01

10

An economic and geographic appraisal of a spatial natural hazard risk: a study of landslide mitigation rules  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Efficient mitigation of natural hazards requires a spatial representation of the risk, based upon the geographic distribution of physical parameters and man-related development activities. Through such a representation, the spatial probability of landslides based upon physical science concepts is estimated for Cincinnati, Ohio. Mitigation programs designed to reduce loss from landslide natural hazards are then evaluated. An optimum mitigation rule is suggested that is spatially selective and is determined by objective measurements of hillside slope and properties of the underlying soil. -Authors

Bernknopf, R. L.; Brookshire, D. S.; Campbell, R. H.; Shapiro, C. D.

1988-01-01

11

Earthquake Hazard Mitigation Strategy in Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of the active tectonic setting of the region, the risks of geological hazards inevitably increase in Indonesian Archipelagoes and other ASIAN countries. Encouraging community living in the vulnerable area to adapt with the nature of geology will be the most appropriate strategy for earthquake risk reduction. Updating the Earthquake Hazard Maps, enhancement ofthe existing landuse management , establishment of public education strategy and method, strengthening linkages among stake holders of disaster mitigation institutions as well as establishement of continues public consultation are the main strategic programs for community resilience in earthquake vulnerable areas. This paper highlights some important achievements of Earthquake Hazard Mitigation Programs in Indonesia, together with the difficulties in implementing such programs. Case examples of Yogyakarta and Bengkulu Earthquake Mitigation efforts will also be discussed as the lesson learned. The new approach for developing earthquake hazard map which is innitiating by mapping the psychological aspect of the people living in vulnerable area will be addressed as well.

Karnawati, D.; Anderson, R.; Pramumijoyo, S.

2008-05-01

12

Playing against nature: improving earthquake hazard mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The great 2011 Tohoku earthquake dramatically demonstrated the need to improve earthquake and tsunami hazard assessment and mitigation policies. The earthquake was much larger than predicted by hazard models, and the resulting tsunami overtopped coastal defenses, causing more than 15,000 deaths and $210 billion damage. Hence if and how such defenses should be rebuilt is a challenging question, because the defences fared poorly and building ones to withstand tsunamis as large as March's is too expensive,. A similar issue arises along the Nankai Trough to the south, where new estimates warning of tsunamis 2-5 times higher than in previous models raise the question of what to do, given that the timescale on which such events may occur is unknown. Thus in the words of economist H. Hori, "What should we do in face of uncertainty? Some say we should spend our resources on present problems instead of wasting them on things whose results are uncertain. Others say we should prepare for future unknown disasters precisely because they are uncertain". Thus society needs strategies to mitigate earthquake and tsunami hazards that make economic and societal sense, given that our ability to assess these hazards is poor, as illustrated by highly destructive earthquakes that often occur in areas predicted by hazard maps to be relatively safe. Conceptually, we are playing a game against nature "of which we still don't know all the rules" (Lomnitz, 1989). Nature chooses tsunami heights or ground shaking, and society selects the strategy to minimize the total costs of damage plus mitigation costs. As in any game of chance, we maximize our expectation value by selecting the best strategy, given our limited ability to estimate the occurrence and effects of future events. We thus outline a framework to find the optimal level of mitigation by balancing its cost against the expected damages, recognizing the uncertainties in the hazard estimates. This framework illustrates the role of the uncertainties and the need to candidly assess them. It can be applied to exploring policies under various hazard scenarios and mitigating other natural hazards.ariation in total cost, the sum of expected loss and mitigation cost, as a function of mitigation level. The optimal level of mitigation, n*, minimizes the total cost. The expected loss depends on the hazard model, so the better the hazard model, the better the mitigation policy (Stein and Stein, 2012).

Stein, S. A.; Stein, J.

2012-12-01

13

Mitigation of Hazardous Comets and Asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; 1. Recent progress in interpreting the nature of the near-Earth object population W. Bottke, A. Morbidelli and R. Jedicke; 2. Earth impactors: orbital characteristics and warning times S. R. Chesley and T. B. Spahr; 3. The role of radar in predicting and preventing asteroid and comet collisions with Earth S. J. Ostro and J. D. Giorgini; 4. Interior structures for asteroids and cometary nuclei E. Asphaug; 5. What we know and don't know about surfaces of potentially hazardous small bodies C. R. Chapman; 6. About deflecting asteroids and comets K. A. Holsapple; 7. Scientific requirements for understanding the near-Earth asteroid population A. W. Harris; 8. Physical properties of comets and asteroids inferred from fireball observations M. D. Martino and A. Cellino; 9. Mitigation technologies and their requirements C. Gritzner and R. Kahle; 10. Peering inside near-Earth objects with radio tomography W. Kofman and A. Safaeinili; 11. Seismological imvestigation of asteroid and comet interiors J. D. Walker and W. F. Huebner; 12. Lander and penetrator science for near-Earth object mitigation studies A. J. Ball, P. Lognonne, K. Seiferlin, M. Patzold and T. Spohn; 13. Optimal interpretation and deflection of Earth-approaching asteroids using low-thrust electric propulsion B. A. Conway; 14. Close proximity operations at small bodies: orbiting, hovering, and hopping D. J. Scheeres; 15. Mission operations in low gravity regolith and dust D. Sears, M. Franzen, S. Moore, S. Nichols, M. Kareev and P. Benoit; 16. Impacts and the public: communicating the nature of the impact hazard D. Morrison, C. R. Chapman, D. Steel and R. P. Binzel; 17. Towards a program to remove the threat of hazardous NEOs M. J. S. Belton.

Belton, Michael J. S.; Morgan, Thomas H.; Samarasinha, Nalin H.; Yeomans, Donald K.

2004-11-01

14

Mitigation of Hazardous Comets and Asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; 1. Recent progress in interpreting the nature of the near-Earth object population W. Bottke, A. Morbidelli and R. Jedicke; 2. Earth impactors: orbital characteristics and warning times S. R. Chesley and T. B. Spahr; 3. The role of radar in predicting and preventing asteroid and comet collisions with Earth S. J. Ostro and J. D. Giorgini; 4. Interior structures for asteroids and cometary nuclei E. Asphaug; 5. What we know and don't know about surfaces of potentially hazardous small bodies C. R. Chapman; 6. About deflecting asteroids and comets K. A. Holsapple; 7. Scientific requirements for understanding the near-Earth asteroid population A. W. Harris; 8. Physical properties of comets and asteroids inferred from fireball observations M. D. Martino and A. Cellino; 9. Mitigation technologies and their requirements C. Gritzner and R. Kahle; 10. Peering inside near-Earth objects with radio tomography W. Kofman and A. Safaeinili; 11. Seismological imvestigation of asteroid and comet interiors J. D. Walker and W. F. Huebner; 12. Lander and penetrator science for near-Earth object mitigation studies A. J. Ball, P. Lognonne, K. Seiferlin, M. Patzold and T. Spohn; 13. Optimal interpretation and deflection of Earth-approaching asteroids using low-thrust electric propulsion B. A. Conway; 14. Close proximity operations at small bodies: orbiting, hovering, and hopping D. J. Scheeres; 15. Mission operations in low gravity regolith and dust D. Sears, M. Franzen, S. Moore, S. Nichols, M. Kareev and P. Benoit; 16. Impacts and the public: communicating the nature of the impact hazard D. Morrison, C. R. Chapman, D. Steel and R. P. Binzel; 17. Towards a program to remove the threat of hazardous NEOs M. J. S. Belton.

Belton, Michael J. S.; Morgan, Thomas H.; Samarasinha, Nalin H.; Yeomans, Donald K.

2011-03-01

15

Third DOE natural phenomena hazards mitigation conference  

SciTech Connect

This conference on Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation has been organized into 15 presentation, panel, and poster sessions. The sessions included an overview of activities at DOE Headquarters; natural phenomena hazards tasks underway for DOE; two sessions on codes, standards, orders, criteria, and guidelines; two sessions on seismic hazards; equipment qualification; wind; PRA and margin assessments; modifications, retrofit, and restart; underground structures with a panel discussion; seismic analysis; seismic evaluation and design; and a poster session. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

Not Available

1991-01-01

16

The National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) is a state\\/Federal partnership that was created to reduce the impacts of tsunamis to U.S. Coastal areas. It is a coordinated effort between the states of Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington and four Federal agencies: the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the U.S. Geological Survey

E. N. Bernard

2004-01-01

17

Second DOE natural phenomena hazards mitigation conference  

SciTech Connect

This conference has been organized into ten presentation sessions which include an overview of the DOE Natural Phenomena Guidelines, Seismic Analysis, Seismic Design, Modifying Existing Facilities, DOE Orders, Codes, and Standards (2 sessions), Seismic Hazard (2 sessions), and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (2 sessions). Two poster sessions were also included in the program to provide a different forum for communication of ideas. Over the past fourteen years, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Nuclear Systems Safety Program, has been working with the US Department of Energy, Office of Safety Appraisals and their predecessors in the area of natural phenomena hazards. During this time we have developed seismic, extreme wind/tornado, and flood hazard models for DOE sites in the United States. Guidelines for designing and evaluating DOE facilities for natural phenomena have been developed and are in interim use throughout the DOE community. A series of state-of-the practice manuals have also been developed to aid the designers. All of this material is listed in the Natural Phenomena Hazards Bibliography included in these proceedings. This conference provides a mechanism to disseminate current information on natural phenomena hazards and their mitigation. It provides an opportunity to bring together members of the DOE community to discuss current projects, to share information, and to hear practicing members of the structural engineering community discuss their experiences from past natural phenomena, future trends, and any changes to building codes. Each paper or poster presented is included in these proceedings. We have also included material related to the luncheon and dinner talks.

Not Available

1989-01-01

18

Monitoring active fault creep as a tool in seismic hazard mitigation. Insights from creepmeter study at Chihshang, Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1998 we installed five creepmeters across the Chihshang Fault, the active plate suture in eastern Taiwan. Daily creepmeter data indicated decreasing creeping rate from 1999 to 2003, suggesting increasing seismic hazard. The fault was ruptured by the Chengkung earthquake ( Mw=6.6) on 10 December 2003. Through extrapolation of our earlier creep data of 1986-1991 and 1992-1997, we evaluate the minimum deficit in aseismic creep shortening as 106 or 46 mm (respectively) before this earthquake. The near-surface co-seismic shortening was limited, but the total shortening resulting from the earthquake, including post-seismic creep, was about 97 mm. This suggests that near the surface most of the detectable deficit has been absorbed by this earthquake and subsequent creep. We thus point out that creepmeter installation and monitoring bring a powerful tool in seismic hazard mitigation. To cite this article: J.-C. Lee et al., C. R. Geoscience 337 (2005).

Lee, Jian-Cheng; Angelier, Jacques; Chu, Hao-Tsu; Hu, Jyr-Ching; Jeng, Fu-Shu

2005-09-01

19

EVALUATION OF FOAMS FOR MITIGATING AIR POLLUTION FROM HAZARDOUS SPILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

This program has been conducted to evaluate commercially available water base foams for mitigating the vapors from hazardous chemical spills. Foam systems were evaluated in the laboratory to define those foam properties which are important in mitigating hazardous vapors. Larger s...

20

Influence of behavioral biases on the assessment of multi-hazard risks and the implementation of multi-hazard risks mitigation measures: case study of multi-hazard cyclone shelters in Tamil Nadu, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In December 2004, a multiple hazards event devastated the Tamil Nadu province of India. The Sumatra -Andaman earthquake with a magnitude of Mw=9.1-9.3 caused the Indian Ocean tsunami with wave heights up to 30 m, and flooding that reached up to two kilometers inland in some locations. More than 7,790 persons were killed in the province of Tamil Nadu, with 206 in its capital Chennai. The time lag between the earthquake and the tsunami's arrival in India was over an hour, therefore, if a suitable early warning system existed, a proper means of communicating the warning and shelters existing for people would exist, than while this would not have prevented the destruction of infrastructure, several thousands of human lives would have been saved. India has over forty years of experience in the construction of cyclone shelters. With additional efforts and investment, these shelters could be adapted to other types of hazards such as tsunamis and flooding, as well as the construction of new multi-hazard cyclone shelters (MPCS). It would therefore be possible to mitigate one hazard such as cyclones by the construction of a network of shelters while at the same time adapting these shelters to also deal with, for example, tsunamis, with some additional investment. In this historical case, the failure to consider multiple hazards caused significant human losses. The current paper investigates the patterns of the national decision-making process with regards to multiple hazards mitigation measures and how the presence of behavioral and cognitive biases influenced the perceptions of the probabilities of multiple hazards and the choices made for their mitigation by the national decision-makers. Our methodology was based on the analysis of existing reports from national and international organizations as well as available scientific literature on behavioral economics and natural hazards. The results identified several biases in the national decision-making process when the construction of cyclone shelters was being undertaken. The availability heuristics caused a perception of low probability of tsunami following an earthquake, as the last large similar event happened over a hundred years ago. Another led to a situation when decisions were taken on the basis of experience and not statistical evidence, namely, experience showed that the so-called "Ring of Fire" generates underground earthquakes and tsunamis in the Pacific Ocean. This knowledge made decision-makers to neglect the numerical estimations about probability of underground earthquake in the Indian Ocean even though seismologists were warning about probability of a large underground earthquake in the Indian Ocean. The bounded rationality bias led to misperception of signals from the early warning center in the Pacific Ocean. The resulting limited concern resulted in risk mitigation measures that considered cyclone risks, but much less about tsunami. Under loss aversion considerations, the decision-makers perceived the losses connected with the necessary additional investment as being greater than benefits from mitigating a less probable hazard.

Komendantova, Nadejda; Patt, Anthony

2013-04-01

21

Destructive Interactions Between Mitigation Strategies and the Causes of Unexpected Failures in Natural Hazard Mitigation Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large investments in the mitigation of natural hazards, using a variety of technology-based mitigation strategies, have proven to be surprisingly ineffective in some recent natural disasters. These failures reveal a need for a systematic classification of mitigation strategies; an understanding of the scientific uncertainties that affect the effectiveness of such strategies; and an understanding of how the different types of strategy within an overall mitigation system interact destructively to reduce the effectiveness of the overall mitigation system. We classify mitigation strategies into permanent, responsive and anticipatory. Permanent mitigation strategies such as flood and tsunami defenses or land use restrictions, are both costly and 'brittle': when they malfunction they can increase mortality. Such strategies critically depend on the accuracy of the estimates of expected hazard intensity in the hazard assessments that underpin their design. Responsive mitigation strategies such as tsunami and lahar warning systems rely on capacities to detect and quantify the hazard source events and to transmit warnings fast enough to enable at risk populations to decide and act effectively. Self-warning and voluntary evacuation is also usually a responsive mitigation strategy. Uncertainty in the nature and magnitude of the detected hazard source event is often the key scientific obstacle to responsive mitigation; public understanding of both the hazard and the warnings, to enable decision making, can also be a critical obstacle. Anticipatory mitigation strategies use interpretation of precursors to hazard source events and are used widely in mitigation of volcanic hazards. Their critical limitations are due to uncertainties in time, space and magnitude relationships between precursors and hazard events. Examples of destructive interaction between different mitigation strategies are provided by the Tohoku 2011 earthquake and tsunami; recent earthquakes that have impacted population centers with poor enforcement of building codes, unrealistic expectations of warning systems or failures to understand local seismic damage mechanisms; and the interaction of land use restriction strategies and responsive warning strategies around lahar-prone volcanoes. A more complete understanding of the interactions between these different types of mitigation strategy, especially the consequences for the expectations and behaviors of the populations at risk, requires models of decision-making under high levels of both uncertainty and danger. The Observation-Orientation-Decision-Action (OODA) loop model (Boyd, 1987) may be a particularly useful model. It emphasizes the importance of 'orientation' (the interpretation of observations and assessment of their significance for the observer and decision-maker), the feedback between decisions and subsequent observations and orientations, and the importance of developing mitigation strategies that are flexible and so able to respond to the occurrence of the unexpected. REFERENCE: Boyd, J.R. A Discourse on Winning and Losing [http://dnipogo.org/john-r-boyd/

Day, S. J.; Fearnley, C. J.

2013-12-01

22

Probabilistic Techniques, GIS and Remote Sensing in Landslide Hazard Mitigation: A Case Study from Sikkim Himalayas, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landslides form one of the most devastating natural hazards in the Sikkim State of India. This natural hazard alone causes severe damage to properties and human lives. The identified conditioning factors include adverse rock types (mica schist, phyllite, granite gneiss and calc schist), multiple joint sets, active tectonism, and very high annual precipitation (3539 mm). The triggering factors are mainly

D. Ramakrishnan; M. K. Ghose; R. Vinu Chandran; A. Jeyaram

2005-01-01

23

Physical Disability and Earthquake Hazard Mitigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report addresses the needs of disabled persons in earthquakes and provides data that will inform public policy in the natural hazards and disability areas. The work recognizes that populations-at-risk are not homogeneous, undifferentiated masses but r...

H. Hahn K. J. Tierney W. J. Petak

1987-01-01

24

Volcanic hazards and their mitigation: progress and problems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A review of hazards mitigation approaches and techniques indicates that significant advances have been made in hazards assessment, volcano monioring, and eruption forecasting. For example, the remarkable accuracy of the predictions of dome-building events at Mount St. Helens since June 1980 is unprecedented. Yet a predictive capability for more voluminous and explosive eruptions still has not been achieved. Studies of magma-induced seismicity and ground deformation continue to provide the most systematic and reliable data for early detection of precursors to eruptions and shallow intrusions. In addition, some other geophysical monitoring techniques and geochemical methods have been refined and are being more widely applied and tested. Comparison of the four major volcanic disasters of the 1980s (Mount St. Helens, U.S.A. (1980), El Chichon, Mexico (1982); Galunggung, Indonesia (1982); and Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia (1985)) illustrates the importance of predisaster geoscience studies, volcanic hazards assessments, volcano monitoring, contingency planning, and effective communications between scientists and authorities. -from Author

Tilling, R. I.

1989-01-01

25

Collaborative Monitoring and Hazard Mitigation at Fuego Volcano, Guatemala  

Microsoft Academic Search

A portable, digital sensor network has been installed to closely monitor changing activity at Fuego volcano, which takes advantage of an international collaborative effort among Guatemala, U.S. and Canadian universities, and the Peace Corps. The goal of this effort is to improve the understanding shallow internal processes, and consequently to more effectively mitigate volcanic hazards. Fuego volcano has had more

J. J. Lyons; G. J. Bluth; W. I. Rose; M. Patrick; J. B. Johnson; J. Stix

2007-01-01

26

Third DOE natural phenomena hazards mitigation conference. Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

This conference on Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation has been organized into 15 presentation, panel, and poster sessions. The sessions included an overview of activities at DOE Headquarters; natural phenomena hazards tasks underway for DOE; two sessions on codes, standards, orders, criteria, and guidelines; two sessions on seismic hazards; equipment qualification; wind; PRA and margin assessments; modifications, retrofit, and restart; underground structures with a panel discussion; seismic analysis; seismic evaluation and design; and a poster session. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

Not Available

1991-12-31

27

Rainfall-triggered landslides, anthropogenic hazards, and mitigation strategies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rainfall-triggered landslides are part of a natural process of hillslope erosion that can result in catastrophic loss of life and extensive property damage in mountainous, densely populated areas. As global population expansion on or near steep hillslopes continues, the human and economic costs associated with landslides will increase. Landslide hazard mitigation strategies generally involve hazard assessment mapping, warning systems, control structures, and regional landslide planning and policy development. To be sustainable, hazard mitigation requires that management of natural resources is closely connected to local economic and social interests. A successful strategy is dependent on a combination of multi-disciplinary scientific and engineering approaches, and the political will to take action at the local community to national scale.

Larsen, M. C.

2008-01-01

28

77 FR 24505 - Hazard Mitigation Assistance for Wind Retrofit Projects for Existing Residential Buildings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FEMA-2012-0007] Hazard Mitigation Assistance for Wind Retrofit Projects for Existing Residential...comments on Hazard Mitigation Assistance for Wind Retrofit Projects for Existing Residential...such activity is the implementation of wind retrofit projects to protect existing...

2012-04-24

29

National Landslide Hazards Mitigation Strategy: A Framework for Loss Reduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report outlines the key elements of a comprehensive and effective national strategy for reducing losses from landslides nationwide and provides an assessment of the status, needs, and associated costs of this strategy. Topics include the rising costs resulting from landslide damage, the role of the federal government in mitigating this hazard, and some features of the new strategy such as partnerships among government, academia and the private sector, expanded research, and making use of technological advantages.

30

Seismic hazard assessment and mitigation in India: an overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indian subcontinent is characterized by various tectonic units viz., Himalayan collision zone in North, Indo-Burmese arc in north-east, failed rift zones in its interior in Peninsular Indian shield and Andaman Sumatra trench in south-east Indian Territory. During the last about 100 years, the country has witnessed four great and several major earthquakes. Soon after the occurrence of the first great earthquake, the Shillong earthquake ( M w: 8.1) in 1897, efforts were started to assess the seismic hazard in the country. The first such attempt was made by Geological Survey of India in 1898 and since then considerable progress has been made. The current seismic zonation map prepared and published by Bureau of Indian Standards, broadly places seismic risk in different parts of the country in four major zones. However, this map is not sufficient for the assessment of area-specific seismic risks, necessitating detailed seismic zoning, that is, microzonation for earthquake disaster mitigation and management. Recently, seismic microzonation studies are being introduced in India, and the first level seismic microzonation has already been completed for selected urban centres including, Jabalpur, Guwahati, Delhi, Bangalore, Ahmadabad, Dehradun, etc. The maps prepared for these cities are being further refined on larger scales as per the requirements, and a plan has also been firmed up for taking up microzonation of 30 selected cities, which lie in seismic zones V and IV and have a population density of half a million. The paper highlights the efforts made in India so far towards seismic hazard assessment as well as the future road map for such studies.

Verma, Mithila; Bansal, Brijesh K.

2013-07-01

31

GO/NO-GO - When is medical hazard mitigation acceptable for launch?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Medical support of spaceflight missions is composed of complex tasks and decisions that dedicated to maintaining the health and performance of the crew and the completion of mission objectives. Spacecraft represent one of the most complex vehicles built by humans, and are built to very rigorous design specifications. In the course of a Flight Readiness Review (FRR) or a mission itself, the flight surgeon must be able to understand the impact of hazards and risks that may not be completely mitigated by design alone. Some hazards are not mitigated because they are never actually identified. When a hazard is identified, it must be reduced or waivered. Hazards that cannot be designed out of the vehicle or mission, are usually mitigated through other means to bring the residual risk to an acceptable level. This is possible in most engineered systems because failure modes are usually predictable and analysis can include taking these systems to failure. Medical support of space missions is complicated by the inability of flight surgeons to provide "exact" hazard and risk numbers to the NASA engineering community. Taking humans to failure is not an option. Furthermore, medical dogma is mostly comprised of "medical prevention" strategies that mitigate risk by examining the behaviour of a cohort of humans similar to astronauts. Unfortunately, this approach does not lend itself well for predicting the effect of a hazard in the unique environment of space. This presentation will discuss how Medical Operations uses an evidence-based approach to decide if hazard mitigation strategies are adequate to reduce mission risk to acceptable levels. Case studies to be discussed will include: 1. Risk of electrocution risk during EVA 2. Risk of cardiac event risk during long and short duration missions 3. Degraded cabin environmental monitoring on the ISS. Learning Objectives 1.) The audience will understand the challenges of mitigating medical risk caused by nominal and off-nominal mission events. 2.) The audience will understand the process by which medical hazards are identified and mitigated before launch. 3.) The audience will understand the roles and responsibilities of all the other flight control positions in participating in the process of reducing hazards and reducing medical risk to an acceptable level.

Hamilton, Douglas R.; Polk, James D.

2005-01-01

32

Collaborative Monitoring and Hazard Mitigation at Fuego Volcano, Guatemala  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A portable, digital sensor network has been installed to closely monitor changing activity at Fuego volcano, which takes advantage of an international collaborative effort among Guatemala, U.S. and Canadian universities, and the Peace Corps. The goal of this effort is to improve the understanding shallow internal processes, and consequently to more effectively mitigate volcanic hazards. Fuego volcano has had more than 60 historical eruptions and nearly-continuous activity make it an ideal laboratory to study volcanic processes. Close monitoring is needed to identify base-line activity, and rapidly identify and disseminate changes in the activity which might threaten nearby communities. The sensor network is comprised of a miniature DOAS ultraviolet spectrometer fitted with a system for automated plume scans, a digital video camera, and two seismo-acoustic stations and portable dataloggers. These sensors are on loan from scientists who visited Fuego during short field seasons and donated use of their sensors to a resident Peace Corps Masters International student from Michigan Technological University for extended data collection. The sensor network is based around the local volcano observatory maintained by Instituto National de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Metrologia e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH). INSIVUMEH provides local support and historical knowledge of Fuego activity as well as a secure location for storage of scientific equipment, data processing, and charging of the batteries that power the sensors. The complete sensor network came online in mid-February 2007 and here we present preliminary results from concurrent gas, seismic, and acoustic monitoring of activity from Fuego volcano.

Lyons, J. J.; Bluth, G. J.; Rose, W. I.; Patrick, M.; Johnson, J. B.; Stix, J.

2007-05-01

33

Composite Materials for Hazard Mitigation of Reactive Metal Hydrides.  

SciTech Connect

In an attempt to mitigate the hazards associated with storing large quantities of reactive metal hydrides, polymer composite materials were synthesized and tested under simulated usage and accident conditions. The composites were made by polymerizing vinyl monomers using free-radical polymerization chemistry, in the presence of the metal hydride. Composites with vinyl-containing siloxane oligomers were also polymerized with and without added styrene and divinyl benzene. Hydrogen capacity measurements revealed that addition of the polymer to the metal hydride reduced the inherent hydrogen storage capacity of the material. The composites were found to be initially effective at reducing the amount of heat released during oxidation. However, upon cycling the composites, the mitigating behavior was lost. While the polymer composites we investigated have mitigating potential and are physically robust, they undergo a chemical change upon cycling that makes them subsequently ineffective at mitigating heat release upon oxidation of the metal hydride. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the following people who participated in this project: Ned Stetson (U.S. Department of Energy) for sponsorship and support of the project. Ken Stewart (Sandia) for building the flow-through calorimeter and cycling test stations. Isidro Ruvalcaba, Jr. (Sandia) for qualitative experiments on the interaction of sodium alanate with water. Terry Johnson (Sandia) for sharing his expertise and knowledge of metal hydrides, and sodium alanate in particular. Marcina Moreno (Sandia) for programmatic assistance. John Khalil (United Technologies Research Corp) for insight into the hazards of reactive metal hydrides and real-world accident scenario experiments. Summary In an attempt to mitigate and/or manage hazards associated with storing bulk quantities of reactive metal hydrides, polymer composite materials (a mixture of a mitigating polymer and a metal hydride) were synthesized and tested under simulated usage and accident conditions. Mitigating the hazards associated with reactive metal hydrides during an accident while finding a way to keep the original capability of the active material intact during normal use has been the focus of this work. These composites were made by polymerizing vinyl monomers using free-radical polymerization chemistry, in the presence of the metal hydride, in this case a prepared sodium alanate (chosen as a representative reactive metal hydride). It was found that the polymerization of styrene and divinyl benzene could be initiated using AIBN in toluene at 70 degC. The resulting composite materials can be either hard or brittle solids depending on the cross-linking density. Thermal decomposition of these styrene-based composite materials is lower than neat polystyrene indicating that the chemical nature of the polymer is affected by the formation of the composite. The char-forming nature of cross-linked polystyrene is low and therefore, not an ideal polymer for hazard mitigation. To obtain composite materials containing a polymer with higher char-forming potential, siloxane-based monomers were investigated. Four vinyl-containing siloxane oligomers were polymerized with and without added styrene and divinyl benzene. Like the styrene materials, these composite materials exhibited thermal decomposition behavior significantly different than the neat polymers. Specifically, the thermal decomposition temperature was shifted approximately 100 degC lower than the neat polymer signifying a major chemical change to the polymer network. Thermal analysis of the cycled samples was performed on the siloxane-based composite materials. It was found that after 30 cycles the siloxane-containing polymer composite material has similar TGA/DSC-MS traces as the virgin composite material indicating that the polymer is physically intact upon cycling. Hydrogen capacity measurements revealed that addition of the polymer to the metal hydride in the form of a composite material reduced the inherent hydrogen storage capacity of the material. This

Pratt, Joseph William; Cordaro, Joseph Gabriel; Sartor, George B.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Reeder, Craig L.

2012-02-01

34

Natural hazards phenomena mitigation with respect to seismic hazards at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility  

SciTech Connect

This report provides information on the seismic hazard for design of the proposed Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF), a facility designed for the disposal of wastes generated during the cleanup of Hanford Site aggregate areas. The preferred ERDF site is located south and east of 200 East and 200 West Areas. The Washington State Groundwater Protection Program (WAC 173-303-806 (4)(a)(xxi)) requires that the characteristics of local and regional hydrogeology be defined. A plan for that work has been developed (Weekes and Borghese 1993). In addition, WAC 173-303-282 provides regulatory guidance on siting a dangerous waste facility, and US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.28 requires consideration of natural phenomena hazards mitigation for DOE sites and facilities. This report provides information to evaluate the ERDF site with respect to seismic hazard. The ERDF will be a Corrective Action Management Unit (CAMU) as defined by 40 CFR 260.10.

Reidel, S.P.

1994-01-06

35

Mitigating mountain hazards in Austria - legislation, risk transfer, and awareness building  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Embedded in the overall concept of integral risk management, mitigating mountain hazards is pillared by land use regulations, risk transfer, and information. In this paper aspects on legislation related to natural hazards in Austria are summarised, with a particular focus on spatial planning activities and hazard mapping, and possible adaptations focussing on enhanced resilience are outlined. Furthermore, the system of risk transfer is discussed, highlighting the importance of creating incentives for risk-aware behaviour, above all with respect to individual precaution and insurance solutions. Therefore, the issue of creating awareness through information is essential, which is presented subsequently. The study results in recommendations of how administrative units on different federal and local levels could increase the enforcement of regulations related to the minimisation of natural hazard risk. Moreover, the nexus to risk transfer mechanisms is provided, focusing on the current compensation system in Austria and some possible adjustments in order to provide economic incentives for (private) investments in mitigation measures, i.e. local structural protection. These incentives should be supported by delivering information on hazard and risk target-oriented to any stakeholder involved. Therefore, coping strategies have to be adjusted and the interaction between prevention and precaution has to be highlighted. The paper closes with recommendations of how these efforts could be achieved, with a particular focus on the situation in the Republic of Austria.

Holub, M.; Fuchs, S.

2009-04-01

36

India's Initiative in Mitigating Tsunami and Storm Surge Hazard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soon after the occurrence of the most devastating tsunami caused by the 26th December, 2004 Sumatra earthquake, India took the initiative to set up an end to end system to mitigate tsunami and storm surge hazard. The system includes all the necessary elements: networking of seismic stations; deployment of ocean bottom pressure recorders; real time sea level monitoring stations; establishment of radar based monitoring stations for real time measurement of surface currents and waves; modeling for tsunamis and storm surges; generation of coastal inundation and vulnerability maps; operation of a tsunami and storm surges warning centre on 24×7 basis; capacity building and training of all the stakeholders and communication with the global community. This initiative was estimated to have a direct cost of US $30 million and was to be operative by August 2007. This has been achieved. The Indian National Centre for Ocean Information and Services (INCOIS), belonging to the Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES), located at Hyderabad, is the nodal agency for this program. The system fared well during the occurrence of September 12/13 2007 tsunamigenic earthquakes. One of the problems is delay in estimating the size of large earthquakes. Empirical approaches are being developed to quickly estimate the size of the earthquakes occurring in Sumatra -Andaman zone of tsunamigenic earthquakes.

Gupta, H.

2008-12-01

37

ANALYSIS AND MITIGATION OF X-RAY HAZARD GENERATED FROM HIGH INTENSITY LASER-TARGET INTERACTIONS  

SciTech Connect

Interaction of a high intensity laser with matter may generate an ionizing radiation hazard. Very limited studies have been made, however, on the laser-induced radiation protection issue. This work reviews available literature on the physics and characteristics of laser-induced X-ray hazards. Important aspects include the laser-to-electron energy conversion efficiency, electron angular distribution, electron energy spectrum and effective temperature, and bremsstrahlung production of X-rays in the target. The possible X-ray dose rates for several femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser systems used at SLAC, including the short pulse laser system for the Matter in Extreme Conditions Instrument (peak power 4 TW and peak intensity 2.4 x 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}) were analysed. A graded approach to mitigate the laser-induced X-ray hazard with a combination of engineered and administrative controls is also proposed.

Qiu, R.; Liu, J.C.; Prinz, A.A.; Rokni, S.H.; Woods, M.; Xia, Z.; /SLAC; ,

2011-03-21

38

Mitigation of unconfined releases of hazardous gases via liquid spraying  

SciTech Connect

The capability of water sprays in mitigating clouds of hydrofluoric acid (HF) has been demonstrated in the large-scale field experiments of Goldfish and Hawk, which took place at the DOE Nevada Test Site. The effectiveness of water sprays and fire water monitors to remove HF from vapor plume, has also been studied theoretically using the model HGSPRAY5 with the near-field and far-field dispersion described by the HGSYSTEM models. This paper presents options to select and evaluate liquid spraying systems, based on the industry experience and mathematical modeling.

Fthenakis, V.M.

1997-02-01

39

The seismic project of the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1997, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the five western States of Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington joined in a partnership called the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) to enhance the quality and quantity of seismic data provided to the NOAA tsunami warning centers in Alaska and Hawaii. The NTHMP funded a seismic project that now provides the warning centers with real-time seismic data over dedicated communication links and the Internet from regional seismic networks monitoring earthquakes in the five western states, the U.S. National Seismic Network in Colorado, and from domestic and global seismic stations operated by other agencies. The goal of the project is to reduce the time needed to issue a tsunami warning by providing the warning centers with high-dynamic range, broadband waveforms in near real time. An additional goal is to reduce the likelihood of issuing false tsunami warnings by rapidly providing to the warning centers parametric information on earthquakes that could indicate their tsunamigenic potential, such as hypocenters, magnitudes, moment tensors, and shake distribution maps. New or upgraded field instrumentation was installed over a 5-year period at 53 seismic stations in the five western states. Data from these instruments has been integrated into the seismic network utilizing Earthworm software. This network has significantly reduced the time needed to respond to teleseismic and regional earthquakes. Notably, the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center responded to the 28 February 2001 Mw 6.8 Nisqually earthquake beneath Olympia, Washington within 2 minutes compared to an average response time of over 10 minutes for the previous 18 years. ?? Springer 2005.

Oppenheimer, D. H.; Bittenbinder, A. N.; Bogaert, B. M.; Buland, R. P.; Dietz, L. D.; Hansen, R. A.; Malone, S. D.; McCreery, C. S.; Sokolowski, T. J.; Whitmore, P. M.; Weaver, C. S.

2005-01-01

40

Numerical and probabilistic analysis of asteroid and comet impact hazard mitigation  

SciTech Connect

The possibility of asteroid and comet impacts on Earth has received significant recent media and scientific attention. Still, there are many outstanding questions about the correct response once a potentially hazardous object (PHO) is found. Nuclear munitions are often suggested as a deflection mechanism because they have a high internal energy per unit launch mass. However, major uncertainties remain about the use of nuclear munitions for hazard mitigation. There are large uncertainties in a PHO's physical response to a strong deflection or dispersion impulse like that delivered by nuclear munitions. Objects smaller than 100 m may be solid, and objects at all sizes may be 'rubble piles' with large porosities and little strength. Objects with these different properties would respond very differently, so the effects of object properties must be accounted for. Recent ground-based observations and missions to asteroids and comets have improved the planetary science community's understanding of these objects. Computational power and simulation capabilities have improved such that it is possible to numerically model the hazard mitigation problem from first principles. Before we know that explosive yield Y at height h or depth -h from the target surface will produce a momentum change in or dispersion of a PHO, we must quantify energy deposition into the system of particles that make up the PHO. Here we present the initial results of a parameter study in which we model the efficiency of energy deposition from a stand-off nuclear burst onto targets made of PHO constituent materials.

Plesko, Catherine S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Weaver, Robert P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Huebner, Walter F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-09-09

41

Earthquake and Volcanic Hazard Mitigation and Capacity Building in Sub-Saharan Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The East African Rift System (EARS) is a classic example of active continental rifting, and a natural laboratory setting to study initiation and early stage evolution of continental rifts. The EARS is at different stages of development that varies from relatively matured rift (16 mm/yr) in the Afar to a weakly extended Okavango Delta in the south with predicted opening velocity < 3 mm/yr. Recent studies in the region helped researchers to highlight the length and timescales of magmatism and faulting, the partitioning of strain between faulting and magmatism, and their implications for the development of along-axis segmentation. Although the human resource and instrument coverage is sparse in the continent, our understanding of rift processes and deep structure has improved in the last decade after the advent of space geodesy and broadband seismology. The recent major earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and mega dike intrusions that occurred along the EARS attracted several earth scientist teams across the globe. However, most African countries traversed by the rift do not have the full capacity to monitor and mitigate earthquake and volcanic hazards. Few monitoring facilities exist in some countries, and the data acquisition is rarely available in real-time for mitigation purpose. Many sub-Saharan Africa governments are currently focused on achieving the millennium development goals with massive infrastructure development scheme and urbanization while impending natural hazards of such nature are severely overlooked. Collaborations with overseas researchers and other joint efforts by the international community are opportunities to be used by African institutions to best utilize limited resources and to mitigate earthquake and volcano hazards.

Ayele, A.

2012-04-01

42

Hazard Identification and Control Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document provides the results of the hazard evaluation and control study performed by the Hazard Integration Team, which is a multi-discipline team comprised of Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI) personnel. The Hazard Integration Team was chartered to revie...

D. A. Klein

2001-01-01

43

Hazard Identification and Control Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document provides the results of the hazard evaluation and control study performed by the Hazard Integration Team, which is a multi-discipline team comprised of Bechtel Hanford, Inc. personnel. The Hazard Integration Team was chartered to review and ...

D. A. Klein

2001-01-01

44

The influence of hazard models on GIS-based regional risk assessments and mitigation policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographic information systems (GIS) are important tools for understanding and communicating the spatial distribution of risks associated with natural hazards in regional economies. We present a GIS-based decision support system (DSS) called the Land Use Portfolio Modeler (US General Accounting Office, 1999) for assessing community vulnerability to natural hazards and evaluating potential mitigation policy outcomes. The Land Use Portfolio Modeler

Richard L. Bernknopf; Sharyl J. M. Rabinovici; Nathan J. Wood; Laura B. Dinitz

2005-01-01

45

Next-Generation GPS Station for Hazards Mitigation (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our objective is to better forecast, assess, and mitigate natural hazards, including earthquakes, tsunamis, and extreme storms and flooding through development and implementation of a modular technology for the next-generation in-situ geodetic station to support the flow of information from multiple stations to scientists, mission planners, decision makers, and first responders. The same technology developed under NASA funding can be applied to enhance monitoring of large engineering structures such as bridges, hospitals and other critical infrastructure. Meaningful warnings save lives when issued within 1-2 minutes for destructive earthquakes, several tens of minutes for tsunamis, and up to several hours for extreme storms and flooding, and can be provided by on-site fusion of multiple data types and generation of higher-order data products: GPS/GNSS and accelerometer measurements to estimate point displacements, and GPS/GNSS and meteorological measurements to estimate moisture variability in the free atmosphere. By operating semi-autonomously, each station can then provide low-latency, high-fidelity and compact data products within the constraints of narrow communications bandwidth that often accompanies natural disasters. We have developed a power-efficient, low-cost, plug-in Geodetic Module for fusion of data from in situ sensors including GPS, a strong-motion accelerometer module, and a meteorological sensor package, for deployment at existing continuous GPS stations in southern California; fifteen stations have already been upgraded. The low-cost modular design is scalable to the many existing continuous GPS stations worldwide. New on-the-fly data products are estimated with 1 mm precision and accuracy, including three-dimensional seismogeodetic displacements for earthquake, tsunami and structural monitoring and precipitable water for forecasting extreme weather events such as summer monsoons and atmospheric rivers experienced in California. Unlike more traditional approaches where data are collected and analyzed from a network of stations at a central processing facility, we are embedding these capabilities in the Geodetic Module's processor for in situ analysis and data delivery through TCP/IP to avoid single points of failure during emergencies. We are infusing our technology to several local and state groups, including the San Diego County Office of Emergency Services for earthquake and tsunami early warnings, UC San Diego Health Services for hospital monitoring and early warning, Caltrans for bridge monitoring, and NOAA's Weather Forecasting Offices in San Diego and Los Angeles Counties for forecasting extreme weather events. We describe our overall system and the ongoing efforts at technology infusion.

Bock, Y.

2013-12-01

46

Evaluating fuel complexes for fire hazard mitigation planning in the southeastern United States.  

SciTech Connect

Fire hazard mitigation planning requires an accurate accounting of fuel complexes to predict potential fire behavior and effects of treatment alternatives. In the southeastern United States, rapid vegetation growth coupled with complex land use history and forest management options requires a dynamic approach to fuel characterization. In this study we assessed potential surface fire behavior with the Fuel Characteristic Classification System (FCCS), a tool which uses inventoried fuelbed inputs to predict fire behavior. Using inventory data from 629 plots established in the upper Atlantic Coastal Plain, South Carolina, we constructed FCCS fuelbeds representing median fuel characteristics by major forest type and age class. With a dry fuel moisture scenario and 6.4 km h{sub 1} midflame wind speed, the FCCS predicted moderate to high potential fire hazard for the majority of the fuelbeds under study. To explore fire hazard under potential future fuel conditions, we developed fuelbeds representing the range of quantitative inventorydata for fuelbed components that drive surface fire behavior algorithms and adjusted shrub species composition to represent 30% and 60% relative cover of highly flammable shrub species. Results indicate that the primary drivers of surface fire behavior vary by forest type, age and surface fire behavior rating. Litter tends to be a primary or secondary driver in most forest types. In comparison to other surface fire contributors, reducing shrub loading results in reduced flame lengths most consistently across forest types. FCCS fuelbeds and the results from this project can be used for fire hazard mitigation planning throughout the southern Atlantic Coastal Plain where similar forest types occur. The approach of building simulated fuelbeds across the range of available surface fuel data produces sets of incrementally different fuel characteristics that can be applied to any dynamic forest types in which surface fuel conditions change rapidly.

Andreu, Anne G.; Shea, Dan; Parresol, Bernard, R.; Ottmar, Roger, D.

2012-01-01

47

Assessing the costs of hazard mitigation through landscape interventions in the urban structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we look at an issue rarely approached, the economic efficiency of natural hazard risk mitigation. The urban scale at which a natural hazard can impact leads to the importance of urban planning strategy in risk management. However, usually natural, engineering, and social sciences deal with it, and the role of architecture and urban planning is neglected. Climate change can lead to risks related to increased floods, desertification, sea level rise among others. Reducing the sealed surfaces in cities through green spaces in the crowded centres can mitigate them, and can be foreseen in restructuration plans in presence or absence of disasters. For this purpose we reviewed the role of green spaces and community centres such as churches in games, which can build the core for restructuration efforts, as also field and archive studies show. We look at the way ICT can contribute to organize the information from the building survey to economic computations in direct modeling or through games. The roles of game theory, agent based modeling and networks and urban public policies in designing decision systems for risk management are discussed. Games rules are at the same time supported by our field and archive studies, as well as research by design. Also we take into consideration at a rare element, which is the role of landscape planning, through the inclusion of green elements in reconstruction after the natural and man-made disasters, or in restructuration efforts to mitigate climate change. Apart of existing old city tissue also landscape can be endangered by speculation and therefore it is vital to highlight its high economic value, also in this particular case. As ICOMOS highlights for the 2014 congress, heritage and landscape are two sides of the same coin. Landscape can become or be connected to a community centre, the first being necessary for building a settlement, the second raising its value, or can build connections between landmarks in urban routes. For this reason location plays a role not only for mitigating the effects of hazards but also for increasing the value of land through vicinities. Games are only another way to build a model of the complex system which is the urban organism in this regard, and a model is easier to be analysed than the system while displaying its basic rules. The role of landscape of building roads of memory between landmarks in the reconstruction is yet to be investigated in a future proposed COST action.

Bostenaru-Dan, Maria; Aldea Mendes, Diana; Panagopoulos, Thomas

2014-05-01

48

The price of safety: costs for mitigating and coping with Alpine hazards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to limited public budgets and the need to economize, the analysis of costs of hazard mitigation and emergency management of natural hazards becomes increasingly important for public natural hazard and risk management. In recent years there has been a growing body of literature on the estimation of losses which supported to help to determine benefits of measures in terms of prevented losses. On the contrary, the costs of mitigation are hardly addressed. This paper thus aims to shed some light on expenses for mitigation and emergency services. For this, we analysed the annual costs of mitigation efforts in four regions/countries of the Alpine Arc: Bavaria (Germany), Tyrol (Austria), South Tyrol (Italy) and Switzerland. On the basis of PPP values (purchasing power parities), annual expenses on public safety ranged from EUR 44 per capita in the Free State of Bavaria to EUR 216 in the Autonomous Province of South Tyrol. To analyse the (variable) costs for emergency services in case of an event, we used detailed data from the 2005 floods in the Federal State of Tyrol (Austria) as well as aggregated data from the 2002 floods in Germany. The analysis revealed that multi-hazards, the occurrence and intermixture of different natural hazard processes, contribute to increasing emergency costs. Based on these findings, research gaps and recommendations for costing Alpine natural hazards are discussed.

Pfurtscheller, C.; Thieken, A. H.

2013-10-01

49

Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States is currently the only country with an active, government-sponsored effort to detect and track potentially hazardous near-Earth objects (NEOs). At congressional direction, NASA funds several ground-based observatories primarily dedicated ...

2009-01-01

50

The Diversity of Large Earthquakes and Its Implications for Hazard Mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the advent of broadband seismology and GPS, significant diversity in the source radiation spectra of large earthquakes has been clearly demonstrated. This diversity requires different approaches to mitigate hazards. In certain tectonic environments, seismologists can forecast the future occurrence of large earthquakes within a solid scientific framework using the results from seismology and GPS. Such forecasts are critically important for long-term hazard mitigation practices, but because stochastic fracture processes are complex, the forecasts are inevitably subject to large uncertainty, and unexpected events will continue to surprise seismologists. Recent developments in real-time seismology will help seismologists to cope with and prepare for tsunamis and earthquakes. Combining a better understanding of earthquake diversity with modern technology is the key to effective and comprehensive hazard mitigation practices.

Kanamori, Hiroo

2014-05-01

51

Spatio-temporal patterns of hazards and their use in risk assessment and mitigation. Case study of road accidents in Romania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Road accidents are among the leading causes of death in many world countries, partly as an inherent consequence of the increasing mobility of today society. The World Health Organization estimates that 1.3 million people died in road accidents in 2011, which means 186 deaths per million. The tragic picture is completed by millions of peoples experiencing different physical injuries or by the enormous social and economic costs that these events imply. Romania has one of the most unsafe road networks within the European Union, with annual averages of 9400 accidents, 8300 injuries and almost 2680 fatalities (2007-2012). An average of 141 death per million is more than twice the average fatality rate in European Union (about 60 death per million). Other specific indicators (accidents or fatalities reported to the road length, vehicle fleet size, driving license owners or adult population etc.) are even worst in the same European context. Road accidents are caused by a complex series of factors, some of them being a relatively constant premise, while others act as catalyzing factors or triggering agent: road features and quality, vehicle technical state, weather conditions, human related factors etc. All these lead to a complex equation with too many unknown variables, making almost impossible a probabilistic approach. However, the high concentration of accidents in a region or in some road sectors is caused by the existence of a specific context, created by factors with permanent or repetitive character, and leads to the idea of a spatial autocorrelation between locations of different adjoining accident. In the same way, the increasing frequency of road accidents and of their causes repeatability in different periods of the year would allow to identify those black timeframes with higher incidence of road accidents. Identifying and analyzing the road blackspots (hotspots) and black zones would help to improve road safety by acting against the common causes that create the spatial or temporal clustering of crash accidents. Since the 1990's, Geographical Informational Systems (GIS) became a very important tool for traffic and road safety management, allowing not only the spatial and multifactorial analysis, but also graphical and non-graphical outputs. The current paper presents an accessible GIS methodology to study the spatio-temporal pattern of injury related road accidents, to identify the high density accidents zones, to make a cluster analysis, to create multicriterial typologies, to identify spatial and temporal similarities and to explain them. In this purpose, a Geographical Information System was created, allowing a complex analysis that involves not only the events, but also a large set of interrelated and spatially linked attributes. The GIS includes the accidents as georeferenced point elements with a spatially linked attribute database: identification information (date, location details); accident type; main, secondary and aggravating causes; data about driver; vehicle information; consequences (damages, injured peoples and fatalities). Each attribute has its own number code that allows both the statistical analysis and the spatial interrogation. The database includes those road accidents that led to physical injuries and loss of human lives between 2007 and 2012 and the spatial analysis was realized using TNTmips 7.3 software facilities. Data aggregation and processing allowed creating the spatial pattern of injury related road accidents through Kernel density estimation at three different levels (national - Romania; county level - Iasi County; local level - Iasi town). Spider graphs were used to create the temporal pattern or road accidents at three levels (daily, weekly and monthly) directly related to their causes. Moreover the spatial and temporal database relates the natural hazards (glazed frost, fog, and blizzard) with the human made ones, giving the opportunity to evaluate the nature of uncertainties in risk assessment. At the end, this paper provides a clustering methodology based on several environmenta

Catalin Stanga, Iulian

2013-04-01

52

Landslide hazards and mitigation measures at Gangtok, Sikkim Himalaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landslides and other mass movements are serious geo-environmental hazards in the Himalayas. Massive landslides killing tens of thousands of people with catastrophic damages have occurred in the Eastern Himalayan State of Sikkim, which shares common borders with Tibet, Nepal, and Bhutan. This paper describes the investigations carried out on recent landslides in Gangtok, Sikkim, India, with emphasis on the triggering

Rajinder Bhasin; Eystein Grimstad; Jan Otto Larsen; Ashok K Dhawan; Rajbal Singh; S. K Verma; K Venkatachalam

2002-01-01

53

Looking before we leap: an ongoing, quantative investigation of asteroid and comet impact hazard mitigation  

SciTech Connect

There are many outstanding questions about the correct response to an asteroid or comet impact threat on Earth. Nuclear munitions are currently thought to be the most efficient method of delivering an impact-preventing impulse to a potentially hazardous object (PHO). However, there are major uncertainties about the response of PHOs to a nuclear burst, and the most appropriate ways to use nuclear munitions for hazard mitigation.

Plesko, Catherine S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Weaver, Robert P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bradley, Paul A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Huebner, Walter F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

54

Experimentally Benchmarked Numerical Approaches to Lightning Hazard Assessment and Mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A natural hazard that has been with us since the beginning of time is the lighting strike. Not only does it represent a direct hazard to humans but also to the facilities that they work within and the products they produce. The latter categories are of particular concern when they are related to potentially hazardous processes and products. For this reason experimental and numerical modelling techniques are developed to understand the nature of the hazards, to develop appropriate protective approaches which can be put in place and finally to gain assurance that the overall risks fall within national, international accepted standards and those appropriate to the special nature of the work. The latter is of particular importance when the processes and the products within such facilities have a potential susceptibility to lightning strike and where failure is deemed unacceptable. This paper covers examples of the modelling approaches applied to such facilities within which high consequence operations take place, together with the protection that is required for high consequence products. In addition examples are given of how the numerical techniques are benchmarked by supporting experimental programmes. Not only should such a safety rationale be laid down and agreed early for these facilities and products but that it is maintained during the inevitable changes that will occur during the design, development, production and maintenance phases. For example an 'improvement', as seen by a civil engineer or a facility manager, may well turn out to be detrimental to lightning safety. Constant vigilance is key to ensuring the maintenance of safety.

Jones, Malcolm; Newton, David

2013-04-01

55

Fourth DOE Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation Conference: Proceedings. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This conference allowed an interchange in the natural phenomena area among designers, safety professionals, and managers. The papers presented in Volume I of the proceedings are from sessions I - VIII which cover the general topics of: DOE standards, lessons learned and walkdowns, wind, waste tanks, ground motion, testing and materials, probabilistic seismic hazards, risk assessment, base isolation and energy dissipation, and lifelines and floods. Individual papers are indexed separately. (GH)

Not Available

1993-12-31

56

Department of Energy Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation Program  

SciTech Connect

This paper will present a summary of past and present accomplishments of the Natural Phenomena Hazards Program that has been ongoing at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory since 1975. The Natural Phenomena covered includes earthquake; winds, hurricanes, and tornadoes; flooding and precipitation; lightning; and volcanic events. The work is organized into four major areas (1) Policy, requirements, standards, and guidance (2) Technical support, research development, (3) Technology transfer, and (4) Oversight.

Murray, R.C.

1993-09-01

57

Disaster Management and Community Planning, and Public Participation: How to Achieve Sustainable Hazard Mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper offers first a brief historical overview of disaster management planning. Second, it reviews Australian and American research findings and show that they urge the field of disaster management to shift its focus from response and recovery to sustainable hazard mitigation. It is argued that in order for this shift to occur, it is necessary to integrate disaster management

Laurie Pearce

2003-01-01

58

Assessment of indirect losses and costs of emergency for project planning of alpine hazard mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By virtue of augmented settling in hazardous areas and increased asset values, natural disasters such as floods, landslides and rockfalls cause high economic losses in Alpine lateral valleys. Especially in small municipalities, indirect losses, mainly stemming from a breakdown of transport networks, and costs of emergency can reach critical levels. A quantification of these losses is necessary to estimate the worthiness of mitigation measures, to determine the appropriate level of disaster assistance and to improve risk management strategies. There are comprehensive approaches available for assessing direct losses. However, indirect losses and costs of emergency are widely not assessed and the empirical basis for estimating these costs is weak. To address the resulting uncertainties of project appraisals, a standardized methodology has been developed dealing with issues of local economic effects and emergency efforts needed. In our approach, the cost-benefit-analysis for technical mitigation of the Austrian Torrent and Avalanche Control (TAC) will be optimized and extended using the 2005-debris flow as a design event, which struggled a small town in the upper Inn valley in southwest Tyrol (Austria). Thereby, 84 buildings were affected, 430 people were evacuated and due to this, the TAC implemented protection measures for 3.75 million Euros. Upgrading the method of the TAC and analyzing to what extent the cost-benefit-ratio is about to change, is one of the main objectives of this study. For estimating short-run indirect effects and costs of emergency on the local level, data was collected via questionnaires, field mapping, guided interviews, as well as intense literature research. According to this, up-to-date calculation methods were evolved and the cost-benefit-analysis of TAC was recalculated with these new-implemented results. The cost-benefit-ratio will be more precise and specific and hence, the decision, which mitigation alternative will be carried out. Based on this, the worthiness of the mitigation measures can be determined in more detail and the proper level of emergency assistance can be calculated more adequately. By dint of this study, a better data basis will be created evaluating technical and non-technical mitigation measures, which is useful for government agencies, insurance companies and research.

Amenda, Lisa; Pfurtscheller, Clemens

2013-04-01

59

Interdisciplinary approach for Tsunami Hazard Mitigation in Algeria (West Mediterranean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous tsunamis occurred in the West Mediterranean with magnitudes ranging from m=-1 to m=2 (Imamura-Iida scale). In Algeria, tsunamis are reported from the 14th century to 2003. Northern Algeria is located at the border between the African and the Eurasian plate. Destructive earthquakes with magnitude greater than 6.7 occurred 3 times in the last century. The North Algeria western region is characterized by the Murdjadjo anticline. A destructive earthquake hit Oran city on October 1790 (Intensity: X, West of Algeria). A tsunami was triggered in the Alboran sea. The Spanish and North Africa coasts were flooded. Run-up’s of 2 meters in height are reported in historical documents (Lopez Marinas and Salord, 1990). Here, the 1790 Alboran tsunami is studied from a modelling approach. The tsunami source is determined from the Okada equations and the tsunami propagation is estimated from the SWAN code (Mader, 2004). Results show that active thrust faulting related to the Murdjadjo structure is responsible for the tsunami. In the central part of Algeria, the Algiers city (capital of Algeria) was the location of destructive earthquakes (Intensity: X) that were followed by tsunamis in 1365 and in 1773. Flooding and run-up’s of 2 meters in height are reported in historical documents for the 1365 event. The central part of Algeria is the site of the Sahel anticline. A tsunami modelling is also performed considering the Sahel fault system as a potential tsunami source. Results show that it takes less than 15 minutes for the tsunami waves to reach the Spanish coast. Run-up’s are estimated lower than 2 meters in height. Discrepancies are attributed to the resolution of the bathymetry and the limits of the modelling. In the eastern region, historical reports also reveal run-up’s up to 5 meters in height after a tsunami triggered by a destructive earthquake in 1856 in Jijel city (intensity: VIII). From tsunami catalogs, seismic and tsunami data are plotted using a tsunami vulnerability parameter. The vulnerability index is estimated from the tsunami intensity and the seismic intensity using the Papadopoulos and the EMS scale. Results show that in Algeria, tsunami damages are minor relative to seismic damages. Since the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman tsunami, intergovernmental coordinated groups are working on an Indian and a Mediterranean tsunami alert system. To reduce vulnerability and increase resilience, it is very important to implement an efficiency warning system and a communication policy for fast urbanized coastal cities. In that context, lessons from the pacific case study are of major interest. Chile is marked by a very high seismic and tsunami hazard. The Iquique area is a threaten zone for a potential earthquake of magnitude greater than 8 and a local tsunami that could generate run-up’s up to 20 meters in height. In addition to the Pacific Tsunami Warning centre based in Hawaii, the Chile has elaborated a local tsunami warning centre. The Chilean case study is presented in discussion to highlight some lessons that may serve as an example for fast urbanized coastal cities that have to face local tsunamis.

Amir, L. A.; Cisternas, A.; Vigneresse, J. D.

2009-12-01

60

Mitigation of EMU Cut Glove Hazard from Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris Impacts on ISS Handrails  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent cut damages sustained on crewmember gloves during extravehicular activity (ISS) onboard the International Space Station (ISS) have been caused by contact with sharp edges or a pinch point according to analysis of the damages. One potential source are protruding sharp edged crater lips from micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) impacts on metallic handrails along EVA translation paths. A number of hypervelocity impact tests were performed on ISS handrails, and found that mm-sized projectiles were capable of inducing crater lip heights two orders of magnitude above the minimum value for glove abrasion concerns. Two techniques were evaluated for mitigating the cut glove hazard of MMOD impacts on ISS handrails: flexible overwraps which act to limit contact between crewmember gloves and impact sites, and; alternate materials which form less hazardous impact crater profiles. In parallel with redesign efforts to increase the cut resilience of EMU gloves, the modifications to ISS handrails evaluated in this study provide the means to significantly reduce cut glove risk from MMOD impact craters

Ryan, Shannon; Christiansen, Eric L.; Davis, Bruce A.; Ordonez, Erick

2009-01-01

61

Potential impact of ash eruptions on dairy farms from a study of the effects on a farm in eastern Bay of Plenty, New Zealand; implications for hazard mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the impact ash fall would have on dairy farming, based on a study of ‘Tulachard’, a dairy farming\\u000a operation at Rerewhakaaitu, North Island, New Zealand. It includes analysis of the potential effects on the dairy shed and\\u000a milking machine, electrical supply and distribution, water supply and distribution, tractors and other farm vehicles, farm\\u000a buildings (haysheds, pump sheds,

Thomas M. Wilson; James W. Cole

2007-01-01

62

Developing a scientific procedure for community based hazard mapping and risk mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As an international exchange student from the Geological Sciences Department at San Diego State University (SDSU), I joined the KKN-PPM program at Universitas Gadjah Mada (UGM), Yogyakarta, Indonesia, in July 2011 for 12 days (July 4th to July 16th) of its two month duration (July 4th to August 25th). The KKN-PPM group I was attached was designated 154 and was focused in Plosorejo Village, Karanganyar, Kerjo, Central Java, Indonesia. The mission of KKN-PPM 154 was to survey Plosorejo village for existing landslides, to generate a simple hazard susceptibility map that can be understood by local villagers, and then to begin dissemination of that map into the community. To generate our susceptibility map we first conducted a geological survey of the existing landslides in the field study area, with a focus on determining landslide triggers and gauging areas for susceptibility for future landslides. The methods for gauging susceptibility included lithological observation, the presence of linear cracking, visible loss of structural integrity in structures such as villager homes, as well as collaboration with local residents and with the local rescue and response team. There were three color distinctions used in representing susceptibility which were green, where there is no immediate danger of landslide damage; orange, where transportation routes are at risk of being disrupted by landslides; and red, where imminent landslide potential puts a home in direct danger. The landslide inventory and susceptibility data was compiled into digital mediums such as CorelDraw, ArcGIS and Google Earth. Once a technical map was generated, we presented it to the village leadership for confirmation and modification based on their experience. Finally, we began to use the technical susceptibility map to draft evacuation routes and meeting points in the event of landslides, as well as simple susceptibility maps that can be understood and utilized by local villagers. Landslide mitigation projects that are being conducted alongside the community hazard map include marking evacuation routes with painted bamboo signs, creating a meaningful landslide awareness mural, and installing simple early warning systems that detect land movement and alert residents that evacuation routes should be used. KKN-PPM is scheduled to continue until August 25th, 2011. In the future, research will be done into using the model for community based hazard mapping outlined here in the Geological Sciences Department at SDSU to increase georisk awareness and improve mitigation of landslides in local areas of need such as Tijuana, Mexico.

Verrier, M.

2011-12-01

63

The NEOShield Project: Understanding the Mitigation-Relevant Physical Properties of Potentially Hazardous Asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NEOShield is a European-Union funded project to address impact hazard mitigation issues, coordinated by the German Aerospace Center, DLR. The NEOShield consortium consists of 13 research institutes, universities, and industrial partners from 6 countries and includes leading US and Russian space organizations. The primary aim of the 5.8 million euro, 3.5 year project, which commenced in January 2012, is to investigate in detail promising mitigation techniques, such as the kinetic impactor, blast deflection, and the gravity tractor, and devise feasible demonstration missions. Options for an international strategy for implementation when an actual impact threat arises will also be investigated. Our current scientific work is focused on examining the mitigation-relevant physical properties of the NEO population via observational data and laboratory experiments on asteroid surface analog materials. We are attempting to narrow the range of the expected properties of objects that are most likely to threaten the Earth and trigger space-borne mitigation attempts, and investigate how such objects would respond to different mitigation techniques. The results of our scientific work will flow into the technical phase of the project, during which detailed designs of feasible mitigation demonstration missions will be developed. We briefly describe the scope of the project and report on results obtained to date. Funded under EU FP7 program agreement no. 282703.

Harris, Alan W.; Drube, L.; Consortium, NEOShield

2012-10-01

64

A perspective multidisciplinary geological approach for mitigation of effects due to the asbestos hazard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Asbestos-bearing rock sequences constitute a remarkable natural hazard that poses important threat to human health and may be at the origin of diseases such as asbestosis, mesothelioma and lung cancer). Presently, asbestos is classified as Category 1 carcinogen by world health authorities. Although regulatory agencies in many countries prohibit or restrict the use of asbestos, and discipline the environmental asbestos exposure, the impact of asbestos on human life still constitutes a major problem. Naturally occurring asbestos includes serpentine and amphibole minerals characterised by fibrous morphology and it is a constituent of mineralogical associations typical of mafic and ultramafic rocks within the ophiolitic sequences. Release of fibres can occur both through natural processes (erosion) and through human activities requiring fragmentation of ophiolite rocks (quarrying, tunnelling, railways construction, etc.). As a consequence, vulnerability is increasing in sites where workers and living people are involved by dispersion of fibres during mining and milling of ophiolitic rocks. By analysing in the field different exposures of ophiolitic sequences from the Italian peninsula and after an extensive review of the existing literature, we remark the importance of the geological context (origin, tectonic and deformation history) of ophiolites as a first-order parameter in evaluating the asbestos hazard. Integrated structural, textural, mineralogical and petrological studies significantly improve our understanding of the mechanisms governing the nucleation/growth of fibrous minerals in deformation structures (both ductile and brittle) within the ophiolitic rocks. A primary role is recognised in the structural processes favouring the fibrous mineralization, with correlation existing between the fibrous parameters (such as mineralogical composition, texture, mechanics characteristics) and the particles released in the air (such as shape, size, and amount liberated during rock fragmentation). Accordingly, we are confident that definition of an analytical protocol based on the geological attributes of the asbestos-bearing rocks may constitute a propaedeutical tool to evaluate the asbestos hazard in natural environments. This approach may have important implications for mitigation effects of the asbestos hazard from the medical field to the engineering operations.

Vignaroli, Gianluca; Rossetti, Federico; Belardi, Girolamo; Billi, Andrea

2010-05-01

65

A portfolio approach to evaluating natural hazard mitigation policies: An Application to lateral-spread ground failure in Coastal California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the past, efforts to prevent catastrophic losses from natural hazards have largely been undertaken by individual property owners based on site-specific evaluations of risks to particular buildings. Public efforts to assess community vulnerability and encourage mitigation have focused on either aggregating site-specific estimates or adopting standards based upon broad assumptions about regional risks. This paper develops an alternative, intermediate-scale approach to regional risk assessment and the evaluation of community mitigation policies. Properties are grouped into types with similar land uses and levels of hazard, and hypothetical community mitigation strategies for protecting these properties are modeled like investment portfolios. The portfolios consist of investments in mitigation against the risk to a community posed by a specific natural hazard, and are defined by a community's mitigation budget and the proportion of the budget invested in locations of each type. The usefulness of this approach is demonstrated through an integrated assessment of earthquake-induced lateral-spread ground failure risk in the Watsonville, California area. Data from the magnitude 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake of 1989 are used to model lateral-spread ground failure susceptibility. Earth science and economic data are combined and analyzed in a Geographic Information System (GIS). The portfolio model is then used to evaluate the benefits of mitigating the risk in different locations. Two mitigation policies, one that prioritizes mitigation by land use type and the other by hazard zone, are compared with a status quo policy of doing no further mitigation beyond that which already exists. The portfolio representing the hazard zone rule yields a higher expected return than the land use portfolio does: However, the hazard zone portfolio experiences a higher standard deviation. Therefore, neither portfolio is clearly preferred. The two mitigation policies both reduce expected losses and increase overall expected community wealth compared to the status quo policy.

Bernknopf, R. L.; Dinitz, L. B.; Rabinovici, S. J. M.; Evans, A. M.

2001-01-01

66

Developing a Long-term Hazard Mitigation Plan for Consequent Volcanic Sedimentation Hazards at Santiaguito Dome Complex, Guatemala  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous volcanic activity at Santiaguito, accompanied by seasonal monsoons, results in sediment inputs downslope into the Río Ixpatz and Río Samalá river channels. This threatens the lives and economic stability in populated downstream areas of Guatemala's coastal slope, a region responsible for major contributions to Guatemala's foreign exchange earnings. The changing riverbeds are host to sediment and water quality problems; subsequent flooding threatens villages, nearby cropland, infrastructure, and transportation. Current research suggests that the volcanic activity results in costs equal to millions of US dollars per year. Mitigation efforts are needed to protect lives, fertile land, and valuable crops located along the river valleys and plains in the down-slope region of the volcano. The goal of this work is to build a GIS database for the areas affected by Santiaguito to facilitate the development of a long-range (several decades) plan for hazard mitigation and infrastructure development. The GIS will include multiple TM images which have been used to quantify activity and downslope aggradation patterns (Matias et al, this meeting), digital topography obtained from IGN and USGS/VDAP, land use maps and infrastructure overlays from IGN, Guatemala, and volcanic hazard zonation maps from INSIVUMEH, Guatemala. We expect to also use LAHARZ (Iverson, R.M., Schilling, S.S., Vallance, J.W., GSA Bulletin, 1998) to supplement GIS analysis. Additionally, we plan to work with local agencies within Guatemala to improve the current mitigation strategy which mainly involves extensive annual river and near-bridge dredging and is reactive on short time scales.

Bunzendahl, E.; Bluth, G. J.; Rose, W. I.; Reif, S. L.; Matias, O.

2001-12-01

67

L-Reactor Habitat Mitigation Study  

SciTech Connect

The L-Reactor Fish and Wildlife Resource Mitigation Study was conducted to quantify the effects on habitat of the L-Reactor restart and to identify the appropriate mitigation for these impacts. The completed project evaluated in this study includes construction of a 1000 acre reactor cooling reservoir formed by damming Steel Creek. Habitat impacts identified include a loss of approximately 3,700 average annual habitat units. This report presents a mitigation plan, Plan A, to offset these habitat losses. Plan A will offset losses for all species studied, except whitetailed deer. The South Carolina Wildlife and Marine Resources Department strongly recommends creation of a game management area to provide realistic mitigation for loss of deer habitats. 10 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs. (MHB)

Not Available

1988-02-01

68

Earthquake Scaling and Development of Ground Motion Prediction for Earthquake Hazard Mitigation in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For earthquake hazard mitigation toward risk management, integration study from development of source model to ground motion prediction is crucial. The simulation for high frequency component ( > 1 Hz) of strong ground motions in the near field was not well resolved due to the insufficient resolution in velocity structure. Using the small events as Green's functions (i.e. empirical Green's function (EGF) method) can resolve the problem of lack of precise velocity structure to replace the path effect evaluation. If the EGF is not available, a stochastic Green's function (SGF) method can be employed. Through characterizing the slip models derived from the waveform inversion, we directly extract the parameters needed for the ground motion prediction in the EGF method or the SGF method. The slip models had been investigated from Taiwan dense strong motion and global teleseismic data. In addition, the low frequency ( < 1 Hz) can obtained numerically by the Frequency-Wavenumber (FK) method. Thus, broadband frequency strong ground motion can be calculated by a hybrid method that combining a deterministic FK method for the low frequency simulation and the EGF or SGF method for high frequency simulation. Characterizing the definitive source parameters from the empirical scaling study can provide directly to the ground motion simulation. To give the ground motion prediction for a scenario earthquake, we compiled the earthquake scaling relationship from the inverted finite-fault models of moderate to large earthquakes in Taiwan. The studies show the significant involvement of the seismogenic depth to the development of rupture width. In addition to that, several earthquakes from blind fault show distinct large stress drop, which yield regional high PGA. According to the developing scaling relationship and the possible high stress drops for earthquake from blind faults, we further deploy the hybrid method mentioned above to give the simulation of the strong motion in displacement, velocity and acceleration. We now give this exercise to the high stress drop event, and the events, which might have potential seismic hazard to a specific site to give further estimation on seismic hazard evaluation.

Ma, K.; Yen, Y.

2011-12-01

69

Natural hazards phenomena mitigation with respect to seismic hazards at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report provides information on the seismic hazard for design of the proposed Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF), a facility designed for the disposal of wastes generated during the cleanup of Hanford Site aggregate areas. The preferred ERDF site is located south and east of 200 East and 200 West Areas. The Washington State Groundwater Protection Program (WAC 173-303-806 (4)(a)(xxi))

Reidel

1994-01-01

70

The Wenchuan, China M8.0 Earthquake: A Lesson and Implication for Seismic Hazard Mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Wenchuan, China M8.0 earthquake caused great damage and huge casualty. 69,197 people were killed, 374,176 people were injured, and 18,341 people are still missing. The estimated direct economic loss is about 126 billion U.S. dollar. The Wenchuan earthquake again demonstrated that earthquake does not kill people, but the built environments and induced hazards, landslides in particular, do. Therefore, it is critical to strengthen the built environments, such buildings and bridges, and to mitigate the induced hazards in order to avoid such disaster. As a part of the so-called North-South Seismic Zone in China, the Wenchuan earthquake occurred along the Longmen Shan thrust belt which forms a boundary between the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the Sichuan basin, and there is a long history (~4,000 years) of seismicity in the area. The historical records show that the area experienced high intensity (i.e., greater than IX) in the past several thousand years. In other words, the area is well-known to have high seismic hazard because of its tectonic setting and seismicity. However, only intensity VII (0.1 to 0.15g PGA) has been considered for seismic design for the built environments in the area. This was one of the main reasons that so many building collapses, particularly the school buildings, during the Wenchuan earthquake. It is clear that the seismic design (i.e., the design ground motion or intensity) is not adequate in the Wenchuan earthquake stricken area. A lesson can be learned from the Wenchuan earthquake on the seismic hazard and risk assessment. A lesson can also be learned from this earthquake on seismic hazard mitigation and/or seismic risk reduction.

Wang, Z.

2008-12-01

71

Lidar and Electro-Optics for Atmospheric Hazard Sensing and Mitigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper provides an overview of the research and development efforts of the Lidar and Electro-Optics element of NASA's Aviation Safety Program. This element is seeking to improve the understanding of the atmospheric environments encountered by aviation and to provide enhanced situation awareness for atmospheric hazards. The improved understanding of atmospheric conditions is specifically to develop sensor signatures for atmospheric hazards. The current emphasis is on kinetic air hazards such as turbulence, aircraft wake vortices, mountain rotors, and windshear. Additional efforts are underway to identify and quantify the hazards arising from multi-phase atmospheric conditions including liquid and solid hydrometeors and volcanic ash. When the multi-phase conditions act as obscurants that result in reduced visual awareness, the element seeks to mitigate the hazards associated with these diminished visual environments. The overall purpose of these efforts is to enable safety improvements for air transport class and business jet class aircraft as the transition to the Next Generation Air Transportation System occurs.

Clark, Ivan O.

2012-01-01

72

The asteroid and comet impact hazard: risk assessment and mitigation options.  

PubMed

The impact of extraterrestrial matter onto Earth is a continuous process. On average, some 50,000 tons of dust are delivered to our planet every year. While objects smaller than about 30 m mainly disintegrate in the Earth's atmosphere, larger ones can penetrate through it and cause damage on the ground. When an object of hundreds of meters in diameter impacts an ocean, a tsunami is created that can devastate coastal cities. Further, if a km-sized object hit the Earth it would cause a global catastrophe due to the transport of enormous amounts of dust and vapour into the atmosphere resulting in a change in the Earth's climate. This article gives an overview of the near-Earth asteroid and comet (near-Earth object-NEO) impact hazard and the NEO search programmes which are gathering important data on these objects. It also points out options for impact hazard mitigation by using deflection systems. It further discusses the critical constraints for NEO deflection strategies and systems as well as mitigation and evacuation costs and benefits. Recommendations are given for future activities to solve the NEO impact hazard problem. PMID:16670908

Gritzner, Christian; Dürfeld, Kai; Kasper, Jan; Fasoulas, Stefanos

2006-08-01

73

Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE): Aerospace Propulsion Hazard Mitigation Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A major hazard posed by the propulsion system of hypersonic and space vehicles is the possibility of fire or explosion in the vehicle environment. The hazard is mitigated by minimizing or detecting, in the vehicle environment, the three ingredients essential to producing fire: fuel, oxidizer, and an ignition source. The Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) consisted of a linear aerospike rocket engine integrated into one-half of an X-33-like lifting body shape, carried on top of an SR-71 aircraft. Gaseous hydrogen and liquid oxygen were used as propellants. Although LASRE is a one-of-a-kind experimental system, it must be rated for piloted flight, so this test presented a unique challenge. To help meet safety requirements, the following propulsion hazard mitigation systems were incorporated into the experiment: pod inert purge, oxygen sensors, a hydrogen leak detection algorithm, hydrogen sensors, fire detection and pod temperature thermocouples, water misting, and control room displays. These systems are described, and their development discussed. Analyses, ground test, and flight test results are presented, as are findings and lessons learned.

Mizukami, Masashi; Corpening, Griffin P.; Ray, Ronald J.; Hass, Neal; Ennix, Kimberly A.; Lazaroff, Scott M.

1998-01-01

74

Planning Ahead for Asteroid Hazard Mitigation, Phase 1: Parameter Space Exploration and Scenario Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mitigation of impact hazards resulting from Earth-approaching asteroids and comets has received much attention in the popular press. However, many questions remain about the near-term and long-term feasibility and appropriate application of all proposed methods. Recent and ongoing ground and space-based observations of small solar system body composition and dynamics have revolutionized our understanding of these bodies (e.g., Ryan (2000), Fujiwara et al. (2006), and Jedicke et al. (2006)). Ongoing increases in computing power and algorithm sophistication make it possible to calculate the response of these inhomogeneous objects to proposed mitigation techniques. Here we present the first phase of a comprehensive hazard mitigation planning effort undertaken by Southwest Research Institute and Los Alamos National Laboratory. We begin by reviewing the parameter space of the objects physical and chemical composition and trajectory. We then use the radiation hydrocode RAGE (Gittings et al. 2008), Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) radiation transport (see Clement et al., this conference), and N-body dynamics codes to explore the effects these variations in object properties have on the coupling of energy into the object from a variety of mitigation techniques, including deflection and disruption by nuclear and conventional munitions, and a kinetic impactor. Preliminary results for models of the deflection of a 100 m basalt sphere by a 100 kt nuclear burst (Bradley et al., LPSC 2009) are encouraging. A 40 cm/s velocity away from the burst is imparted to the objects center of mass without disruption. Further results will be presented at the meeting.

Plesko, C. Weaver, R.; Clement, R.; Bradley, P.; Huebner, W.

75

A hybrid strategy for batch process hazards analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a framework that addresses the three main parts of a process hazards analysis (PHA) studyhazard identification, hazard evaluation, and hazard mitigation. The framework utilizes a hybrid methodology that effectively combines a qualitative digraph model-based technique for performing hazard identification and a quantitative optimization-based technique for performing hazard evaluation and hazard mitigation. The systems

Shankar Viswanathan; Nilay Shah; Venkat Venkatasubramanian

2000-01-01

76

Impact Hazard Mitigation: Understanding the Effects of Nuclear Explosive Outputs on Comets and Asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA 2007 white paper "Near-Earth Object Survey and Deflection Analysis of Alternatives" affirms deflection as the safest and most effective means of potentially hazardous object (PHO) impact prevention. It also calls for further studies of object deflection. In principle, deflection of a PHO may be accomplished by using kinetic impactors, chemical explosives, gravity tractors, solar sails, or nuclear munitions. Of the sudden impulse options, nuclear munitions are by far the most efficient in terms of yield-per-unit-mass launched and are technically mature. However, there are still significant questions about the response of a comet or asteroid to a nuclear burst. Recent and ongoing observational and experimental work is revolutionizing our understanding of the physical and chemical properties of these bodies (e.g., Ryan (2000), Fujiwara et al. (2006), and Jedicke et al. (2006)). The combination of this improved understanding of small solar-system bodies combined with current state-of-the-art modeling and simulation capabilities, which have also improved dramatically in recent years, allow for a science-based, comprehensive study of PHO mitigation techniques. Here we present an examination of the effects of radiation from a nuclear explosion on potentially hazardous asteroids and comets through Monte Carlo N-Particle code (MCNP) simulation techniques. MCNP is a general-purpose particle transport code commonly used to model neutron, photon, and electron transport for medical physics, reactor design and safety, accelerator target and detector design, and a variety of other applications including modeling the propagation of epithermal neutrons through the Martian regolith (Prettyman 2002). It is a massively parallel code that can conduct simulations in 1-3 dimensions, complicated geometries, and with extremely powerful variance reduction techniques. It uses current nuclear cross section data, where available, and fills in the gaps with analytical models where data are not available. MCNP has undergone extensive verification and validation and is considered the gold-standard for particle transport. (Forrest B. Brown, et al., "MCNP Version 5," Trans. Am. Nucl. Soc., 87, 273, November 2002.) Additionally, a new simulation capability using MCNP has become available to this collaboration. The first results of this new capability will also be presented. In particular, we will show results of neutron and gamma-ray energy deposition and flux as a function of material depth, composition, density, geometry, and distance from the source (nuclear burst). We will also discuss the benefits and shortcomings of linear Monte Carlo. Finally, we will set the stage for the correct usage and limitations of these results in coupled radiation-hydrodynamic calculations (see Plesko et al, this conference).

Clement, R.

77

Impact hazard mitigation: understanding the effects of nuclear explosive outputs on comets and asteroids  

SciTech Connect

The NASA 2007 white paper ''Near-Earth Object Survey and Deflection Analysis of Alternatives'' affirms deflection as the safest and most effective means of potentially hazardous object (PHO) impact prevention. It also calls for further studies of object deflection. In principle, deflection of a PHO may be accomplished by using kinetic impactors, chemical explosives, gravity tractors, solar sails, or nuclear munitions. Of the sudden impulse options, nuclear munitions are by far the most efficient in terms of yield-per-unit-mass launched and are technically mature. However, there are still significant questions about the response of a comet or asteroid to a nuclear burst. Recent and ongoing observational and experimental work is revolutionizing our understanding of the physical and chemical properties of these bodies (e.g ., Ryan (2000) Fujiwara et al. (2006), and Jedicke et al. (2006)). The combination of this improved understanding of small solar-system bodies combined with current state-of-the-art modeling and simulation capabilities, which have also improved dramatically in recent years, allow for a science-based, comprehensive study of PHO mitigation techniques. Here we present an examination of the effects of radiation from a nuclear explosion on potentially hazardous asteroids and comets through Monte Carlo N-Particle code (MCNP) simulation techniques. MCNP is a general-purpose particle transport code commonly used to model neutron, photon, and electron transport for medical physics reactor design and safety, accelerator target and detector design, and a variety of other applications including modeling the propagation of epithermal neutrons through the Martian regolith (Prettyman 2002). It is a massively parallel code that can conduct simulations in 1-3 dimensions, complicated geometries, and with extremely powerful variance reduction techniques. It uses current nuclear cross section data, where available, and fills in the gaps with analytical models where data are not available. MCNP has undergone extensive verification and validation and is considered the gold-standard for particle transport. (Forrest B. Brown, et al., ''MCNP Version 5,'' Trans. Am. Nucl. Soc., 87, 273, November 2002.) Additionally, a new simulation capability using MCNP has become available to this collaboration. The first results of this new capability will also be presented.

Clement, Ralph R C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Plesko, Catherine S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bradley, Paul A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Conlon, Leann M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

78

Monitoring active volcanoes and mitigating volcanic hazards: the case for including simple approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simple approaches to problems brought about eruptions and their ensuing hazardous effects should be advocated and used by volcanologists while awaiting more sophisticated remedies. The expedients we advocate have all or many of the following attributes: only locally available materials are required; no extensive training of operators or installation is necessary; they are affordable and do not require foreign aid or exports; they are often labor intensive and are sustainable without outside assistance. Where appropriate, the involvement of local residents is advocated. Examples of simple expedients which can be used in forecasting or mitigating the effects of crises emphasize the relative ease and the less elaborate requirements with which simple approaches can be activated. Emphasis is on visual observations often by untrained observers, simple meteorogical measurements, observations of water level in lakes, temperature and chemistry of springs and fumaroles, new springs and collapse areas and observations of volcanic plumes. Simple methods are suggested which can be applied to mitigating damage from mudflows, nuées ardentes, tephra falls and gas discharge. A review in hindsight at Ruiz includes the use of both chemical indicators and simple mudflow alarms. Simple expedients are sufficiently effective that any expert volcanologist called to aid in a crisis must include them in the package of advice offered. Simple approaches are a critical and logical complement to highly technical solutions to hazardous situations.

Stoiber, Richard E.; Williams, Stanley N.

1990-07-01

79

Rio Soliette (haiti): AN International Initiative for Flood-Hazard Assessment and Mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural catastrophic events are one of most critical aspects for health and economy all around the world. However, the impact in a poor region can impact more dramatically than in others countries. Isla Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic), one of the poorest regions of the planet, has repeatedly been hit by catastrophic natural disasters that caused incalculable human and economic losses. After the catastrophic flood event occurred in the basin of River Soliette on May 24th, 2004, the General Direction for Development and Cooperation of the Italian Department of Foreign Affairs funded an international cooperation initiative (ICI) coordinated by the University of Bologna, that involved Haitian and Dominican institutions.Main purpose of the ICI was hydrological and hydraulic analysis of the May 2004 flood event aimed at formulating a suitable and affordable flood risk mitigation plan, consisting of structural and non-structural measures. In this contest, a topographic survey was necessary to realize the hydrological model and to improve the knowledge in some areas candidates to be site for mitigation measures.To overcome the difficulties arising from the narrowness of funds, surveyors and limited time available for the survey, only GPS technique have been used, both for framing aspects (using PPP approach), and for geometrical survey of the river by means of river cross-sections and detailed surveys in two areas (RTK technique). This allowed us to reconstruct both the river geometry and the DTM's of two expansion areas (useful for design hydraulic solutions for mitigate flood-hazard risk).

Gandolfi, S.; Castellarin, A.; Barbarella, M.; Brath, A.; Domeneghetti, A.; Brandimarte, L.; Di Baldassarre, G.

2013-01-01

80

2009 ERUPTION OF REDOUBT VOLCANO: Lahars, Oil, and the Role of Science in Hazards Mitigation (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In March, 2009, Redoubt Volcano erupted for the third time in 45 years. More than 19 explosions produced ash plumes to 60,000 ft asl, lahar flows of mud and ice down the Drift river ~30 miles to the coast, and tephra fall up to 1.5 mm onto surrounding communities. The eruption had severe impact on many operations. Airlines were forced to cancel or divert hundreds of international and domestic passenger and cargo flights, and Anchorage International airport closed for over 12 hours. Mudflows and floods down the Drift River to the coast impacted operations at the Drift River Oil Terminal (DROT) which was forced to shut down and ultimately be evacuated. Prior mitigation efforts to protect the DROT oil tank farm from potential impacts associated with a major eruptive event were successful, and none of the 148,000 barrels of oil stored at the facility was spilled or released. Nevertheless, the threat of continued eruptive activity at Redoubt, with the possibility of continued lahar flows down the Drift River alluvial fan, required an incident command post be established so that the US Coast Guard, Alaska Dept. of Environmental Conservation, and the Cook Inlet Pipeline Company could coordinate a response to the potential hazards. Ultimately, the incident command team relied heavily on continuous real-time data updates from the Alaska Volcano Observatory, as well as continuous geologic interpretations and risk analysis by the USGS Volcanic Hazards group, the State Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys and the University of Alaska Geophysical Institute, all members of the collaborative effort of the Alaska Volcano Observatory. The great success story that unfolded attests to the efforts of the incident command team, and their reliance on real-time scientific analysis from scientific experts. The positive results also highlight how pre-disaster mitigation and monitoring efforts, in concert with hazards response planning, can be used in a cooperative industry / multi-agency effort to positively affect hazards mitigation. The final outcomes from this potentially disastrous event included: 1) no on-site personnel were injured; 2) no detrimental environmental impacts associated with the oil terminal occurred; and 3) incident command personnel, together with numerous industry representatives, were able to make well-informed, although costly decisions that resulted in safe removal of the oil from the storage facilities. The command team’s efforts also furthered the process of restarting the Cook Inlet oil production after a forced five month shutdown.

Swenson, R.; Nye, C. J.

2009-12-01

81

Study of severe accident mitigation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study has been performed as part of the Severe Accident Risk Reduction Program (SARRP) to investigate the feasibility and costs of installing various systems designed to mitigate the effects of severe accidents in light water reactors (LWRs). The primary function of the systems is to maintain the integrity of the reactor containment in the event of a severe accident

R. Cherdack; C. Hess; K. Lee; D. Miller

1987-01-01

82

Seismic hazard studies in Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of earthquake activity and seismic hazard assessment of Egypt is very important due to the great and rapid spreading of large investments in national projects, especially the nuclear power plant that will be held in the northern part of Egypt. Although Egypt is characterized by low seismicity, it has experienced occurring of damaging earthquake effect through its history. The seismotectonic sitting of Egypt suggests that large earthquakes are possible particularly along the Gulf of Aqaba-Dead Sea transform, the Subduction zone along the Hellenic and Cyprean Arcs, and the Northern Red Sea triple junction point. In addition some inland significant sources at Aswan, Dahshour, and Cairo-Suez District should be considered. The seismic hazard for Egypt is calculated utilizing a probabilistic approach (for a grid of 0.5° × 0.5°) within a logic-tree framework. Alternative seismogenic models and ground motion scaling relationships are selected to account for the epistemic uncertainty. Seismic hazard values on rock were calculated to create contour maps for four ground motion spectral periods and for different return periods. In addition, the uniform hazard spectra for rock sites for different 25 periods, and the probabilistic hazard curves for Cairo, and Alexandria cities are graphed. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) values were found close to the Gulf of Aqaba and it was about 220 gal for 475 year return period. While the lowest (PGA) values were detected in the western part of the western desert and it is less than 25 gal.

Mohamed, Abuo El-Ela A.; El-Hadidy, M.; Deif, A.; Abou Elenean, K.

2012-12-01

83

Coastal Hazard Mitigation and Resource Protection in the North Central Florida Region.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study identifies and delineates hurricane hazard and regionally-significant natural areas within the North Central Florida Region. Based in part on the amount of development pressure occurring within or adjacent to these areas and their intrinsic nat...

1986-01-01

84

Probing Aircraft Flight Test Hazard Mitigation for the Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails & Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) Research Team  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails & Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) Project Integration Manager requested in July 2012 that the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) form a team to independently assess aircraft structural failure hazards associated with the ACCESS experiment and to identify potential flight test hazard mitigations to ensure flight safety. The ACCESS Project Integration Manager subsequently requested that the assessment scope be focused predominantly on structural failure risks to the aircraft empennage raft empennage.

Kelly, Michael J.

2013-01-01

85

Solutions Network Formulation Report. NASA's Potential Contributions using ASTER Data in Marine Hazard Mitigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 28-foot storm surge from Hurricane Katrina pushed inland along bays and rivers for a distance of 12 miles in some areas, contributing to the damage or destruction of about half of the fleet of boats in coastal Mississippi. Most of those boats had sought refuge in back bays and along rivers. Some boats were spared damage because the owners chose their mooring site well. Gulf mariners need a spatial analysis tool that provides guidance on the safest places to anchor their boats during future hurricanes. This product would support NOAA s mission to minimize the effects of coastal hazards through awareness, education, and mitigation strategies and could be incorporated in the Coastal Risk Atlas decision support tool.

Fletcher, Rose

2010-01-01

86

Making the Handoff from Earthquake Hazard Assessments to Effective Mitigation Measures (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This year has witnessed a barrage of large earthquakes worldwide with the resulting damages ranging from inconsequential to truly catastrophic. We cannot predict when earthquakes will strike, but we can build communities that are resilient to strong shaking as well as to secondary hazards such as landslides and liquefaction. The contrasting impacts of the magnitude-7 earthquake that struck Haiti in January and the magnitude-8.8 event that struck Chile in April underscore the difference that mitigation and preparedness can make. In both cases, millions of people were exposed to severe shaking, but deaths in Chile were measured in the hundreds rather than the hundreds of thousands that perished in Haiti. Numerous factors contributed to these disparate outcomes, but the most significant is the presence of strong building codes in Chile and their total absence in Haiti. The financial cost of the Chilean earthquake still represents an unacceptably high percentage of that nation’s gross domestic product, a reminder that life safety is the paramount, but not the only, goal of disaster risk reduction measures. For building codes to be effective, both in terms of lives saved and economic cost, they need to reflect the hazard as accurately as possible. As one of four federal agencies that make up the congressionally mandated National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) develops national seismic hazard maps that form the basis for seismic provisions in model building codes through the Federal Emergency Management Agency and private-sector practitioners. This cooperation is central to NEHRP, which both fosters earthquake research and establishes pathways to translate research results into implementation measures. That translation depends on the ability of hazard-focused scientists to interact and develop mutual trust with risk-focused engineers and planners. Strengthening that interaction is an opportunity for the next generation of earthquake scientists and engineers. In addition to the national maps, the USGS produces more detailed urban seismic hazard maps that communities have used to prioritize retrofits and design critical infrastructure that can withstand large earthquakes. At a regional scale, the USGS and its partners in California have developed a time-dependent earthquake rupture forecast that is being used by the insurance sector, which can serve to distribute risk and foster mitigation if the right incentives are in place. What the USGS and partners are doing at the urban, regional, and national scales, the Global Earthquake Model project is seeking to do for the world. A significant challenge for engaging the public to prepare for earthquakes is making low-probability, high-consequence events real enough to merit personal action. Scenarios help by starting with the hazard posed by a specific earthquake and then exploring the fragility of the built environment, cascading failures, and the real-life consequences for the public. To generate such a complete picture takes multiple disciplines working together. Earthquake scenarios are being used both for emergency management exercises and much broader public preparedness efforts like the Great California ShakeOut, which engaged nearly 7 million people.

Applegate, D.

2010-12-01

87

Using Robust Decision Making to Assess and Mitigate the Risks of Natural Hazards in Developing Countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) ranks fourth globally among coastal cities most vulnerable to climate change and already experiences extensive routine flooding. In the coming decades, increased precipitation, rising sea levels, and land subsidence could permanently inundate a large portion of the city's population, place the poor at particular risk, and threaten new economic development in low-lying areas. HCMC is not alone in facing the impacts of natural hazards exacerbated by uncertain future climate change, development, and other deep uncertainties. Assessing and managing these risks is a tremendous challenge, particularly in developing countries which face pervasive shortages of the data and models generally used to plan for such changes. Using HCMC as a case study, this talk will demonstrate how a scenario-based approach that uses robustness as a decision and planning element can help developing countries assess future climate risk and manage the risk of natural disasters. In contrast to traditional approaches which treat uncertainty with a small number of handcrafted scenarios, this talk will emphasize how robust decision making, which uses modeling to explore over thousands of scenarios, can identify potential vulnerabilities to HCMC's emerging flood risk management strategy and suggest potential responses. The talk will highlight several novel features of the collaboration with the HCMC Steering Committee for Flood Control. First, it examines several types of risk -- risk to the poor, risk to the non-poor, and risk to the economy -- and illustrates how management policies have different implications for these sectors. Second, it demonstrates how diverse and sometimes incomplete climate, hydrologic, socioeconomic, GIS, and other data and models can be integrated into a modeling framework to develop and evaluate many scenarios of flood risk. Third, it illustrates the importance of non-structural policies such as land use management and building design to manage flood risk. Finally, it demonstrates how an adaptive management strategy that evolves over time and implements management options in response to new information can more effectively mitigate risks from natural disasters than can static policies.; A scatter plot of risk to the poor and non-poor in 1000 different scenarios under eight different risk management options (differentiated by color).

Kalra, N.; Lempert, R. J.; Peyraud, S.

2012-12-01

88

Web-Based Geospatial Tools to Address Hazard Mitigation, Natural Resource Management, and Other Societal Issues  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Federal, State, and local government agencies in the United States face a broad range of issues on a daily basis. Among these are natural hazard mitigation, homeland security, emergency response, economic and community development, water supply, and health and safety services. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) helps decision makers address these issues by providing natural hazard assessments, information on energy, mineral, water and biological resources, maps, and other geospatial information. Increasingly, decision makers at all levels are challenged not by the lack of information, but by the absence of effective tools to synthesize the large volume of data available, and to utilize the data to frame policy options in a straightforward and understandable manner. While geographic information system (GIS) technology has been widely applied to this end, systems with the necessary analytical power have been usable only by trained operators. The USGS is addressing the need for more accessible, manageable data tools by developing a suite of Web-based geospatial applications that will incorporate USGS and cooperating partner data into the decision making process for a variety of critical issues. Examples of Web-based geospatial tools being used to address societal issues follow.

Hearn, Paul P., Jr.

2009-01-01

89

Impact of the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program on Operations of the Richard H. Hagemeyer Pacific Tsunami Warning Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first 7 years of the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) have had a significant positive impact on operations of the Richard H. Hagemeyer Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC). As a result of its seismic project, the amount and quality of real-time seismic data flowing into PTWC has increased dramatically, enabling more rapid, accurate, and detailed analyses of seismic

Charles S. McCreery; Pacific Tsunami

2005-01-01

90

Impact of the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program on Operations of the Richard H. Hagemeyer Pacific Tsunami Warning Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first 7 years of the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) have had a significant positive impact on operations of the Richard H. Hagemeyer Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC). As a result of its seismic project, the amount and quality of real-time seismic data flowing into PTWC has increased dramatically, enabling more rapid, accurate, and detailed analyses of seismic

Charles McCreery; Pacific Tsunami

91

In situ observation of dome instabilities at Merapi volcano, Indonesia: A new tool for volcanic hazard mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the mechanism and repetition frequency of dome instability events at high risk, dome building volcanoes located near densely populated areas is one crucial piece of information when dealing with volcanic hazard mitigation. Although some visual in situ observations of such processes have been made at Unzen volcano and on Montserrat, continuous monitoring of dome activity has been severely hampered

Matthias Hort; Malte Vöge; Ralf Seyfried; Antonius Ratdomopurbo

2006-01-01

92

Remote Sensing for Hazard Mitigation and Resource Protection in Pacific Latin America: New NSF sponsored initiative at Michigan Tech  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though much of the developing world has the potential to gain significantly from remote sensing techniques in terms of public health and safety and, eventually, economic development, they lack the resources required to advance the development and practice of remote sensing. Both developed and developing countries share a mutual interest in furthering remote sensing capabilities for natural hazard mitigation and

W. I. Rose; G. J. Bluth; J. S. Gierke; E. Gross

2005-01-01

93

Volcano Hazard Tracking and Disaster Risk Mitigation: A Detailed Gap Analysis from Data-Collection to User Implementation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcano Hazard Tracking and Disaster Risk Mitigation: A Detailed Gap Analysis from Data-Collection to User Implementation Dohy Faied, Aurora Sanchez (on behalf of SSP08 VAPOR Project Team) Dohy.Faied@masters.isunet.edu While numerous global initiatives exist to address the potential hazards posed by volcanic eruption events and assess impacts from a civil security viewpoint, there does not yet exist a single, unified, international system of early warning and hazard tracking for eruptions. Numerous gaps exist in the risk reduction cycle, from data collection, to data processing, and finally dissemination of salient information to relevant parties. As part of the 2008 International Space University's Space Studies Program, a detailed gap analysis of the state of volcano disaster risk reduction was undertaken, and this paper presents the principal results. This gap analysis considered current sensor technologies, data processing algorithms, and utilization of data products by various international organizations. Recommendations for strategies to minimize or eliminate certain gaps are also provided. In the effort to address the gaps, a framework evolved at system level. This framework, known as VIDA, is a tool to develop user requirements for civil security in hazardous contexts, and a candidate system concept for a detailed design phase. VIDA also offers substantial educational potential: the framework includes a centralized clearinghouse for volcanology data which could support education at a variety of levels. Basic geophysical data, satellite maps, and raw sensor data are combined and accessible in a way that allows the relationships between these data types to be explored and used in a training environment. Such a resource naturally lends itself to research efforts in the subject but also research in operational tools, system architecture, and human/machine interaction in civil protection or emergency scenarios.

Faied, D.; Sanchez, A.

2009-04-01

94

Exploratory Studies Facility Subsurface Fire Hazards Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objective of this Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA) is to confirm the requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) are sufficient to minimize the potential for: The occurrence...

R. C. Logan

2002-01-01

95

Improving Tsunami Hazard Mitigation and Preparedness Using Real-Time and Post-Tsunami Field Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The February 27, 2010 Chile and March 11, 2011 Japan tsunamis caused dramatic loss of life and damage in the near-source region, and notable impacts in distant coastal regions like California. Comprehensive real-time and post-tsunami field surveys and the availability of hundreds of videos within harbors and marinas allow for detailed documentation of these two events by the State of California Tsunami Program, which receives funding through the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. Although neither event caused significant inundation of dry land in California, dozens of harbors sustained damage totaling nearly $100-million. Information gathered from these events has guided new strategies in tsunami evacuation planning and maritime preparedness. Scenario-specific, tsunami evacuation "playbook" maps and guidance are being produced detailing inundation from tsunamis of various size and source location. These products help coastal emergency managers prepare local response plans when minor distant source tsunamis or larger tsunamis from local and regional sources are generated. In maritime communities, evaluation of strong tsunami currents and damage are being used to validate/calibrate numerical tsunami model currents and produce in-harbor hazard maps and identify offshore safety zones for potential boat evacuation when a tsunami Warning is issued for a distant source event. Real-time and post-tsunami field teams have been expanded to capture additional detailed information that can be shared in a more timely manner during and after an event through a state-wide clearinghouse. These new products and related efforts will result in more accurate and efficient emergency response by coastal communities, potentially reducing the loss of lives and property during future tsunamis.

Wilson, R. I.; Miller, K. M.

2012-12-01

96

Health hazards and mitigation of chronic poisoning from arsenic in drinking water: Taiwan experiences.  

PubMed

There are two endemic areas of long-term exposure to arsenic from drinking water in Taiwan. Residents in the southwestern and northeastern endemic areas started using high-arsenic artesian well water in the early 1910s and late 1940s, respectively. Public water supply system using surface water was implemented in southwestern and northeastern endemic areas in the 1970s and 1990s, respectively. Systemic health hazards of long-term exposure to arsenic in drinking water have been intensively investigated since the 1960s, especially after 1985 in Taiwan. Several diseases have been well documented to be associated with chronic arsenic poisoning from drinking water showing a dose-response relation. They include characteristic skin lesions like hyperpigmentation or depigmentation, hyperkeratosis in palms and soles, and Bowen disease, peripheral vascular disease (specifically blackfoot disease), ischemic heart disease, cerebral infarction, microvascular diseases, abnormal peripheral microcirculation, carotid atherosclerosis, QT prolongation and increased dispersion in electrocardiography, hypertension, goiter, diabetes mellitus, cataract (specifically posterior subcapsular lens opacity), pterygium, slow neural conduction, retarded neurobehavioral development, erectile dysfunction, and cancers of the skin, lung, urinary bladder, kidney, and liver. The method of choice to mitigate arsenic poisoning through drinking water is to use safe drinking water from uncontaminated sources. PMID:24552958

Chen, Chien-Jen

2014-01-01

97

Mitigation of EMU Glove Cut Hazard by MMOD Impact Craters on Exposed ISS Handrails  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent cut damages to crewmember extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) gloves during extravehicular activity (EVA) onboard the International Space Station (ISS) has been found to result from contact with sharp edges or pinch points rather than general wear or abrasion. One possible source of cut-hazards are protruding sharp edged crater lips from impact of micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) particles on external metallic handrails along EVA translation paths. During impact of MMOD particles at hypervelocity an evacuation flow develops behind the shock wave, resulting in the formation of crater lips that can protrude above the target surface. In this study, two methods were evaluated to limit EMU glove cut-hazards due to MMOD impact craters. In the first phase, four flexible overwrap configurations are evaluated: a felt-reusable surface insulation (FRSI), polyurethane polyether foam with beta-cloth cover, double-layer polyurethane polyether foam with beta-cloth cover, and multi-layer beta-cloth with intermediate Dacron netting spacers. These overwraps are suitable for retrofitting ground equipment that has yet to be flown, and are not intended to protect the handrail from impact of MMOD particles, rather to act as a spacer between hazardous impact profiles and crewmember gloves. At the impact conditions considered, all four overwrap configurations evaluated were effective in limiting contact between EMU gloves and impact crater profiles. The multi-layer beta-cloth configuration was the most effective in reducing the height of potentially hazardous profiles in handrail-representative targets. In the second phase of the study, four material alternatives to current aluminum and stainless steel alloys were evaluated: a metal matrix composite, carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP), fiberglass, and a fiber metal laminate. Alternative material handrails are intended to prevent the formation of hazardous damage profiles during MMOD impact and are suitable for flight hardware yet to be constructed. Of the four materials evaluated, only the fiberglass formed a less hazardous damage profile than the baseline metallic target. Although the CFRP laminate did not form any noticeable crater lip, brittle protruding fibers are considered a puncture risk. In parallel with EMU glove redesign efforts, modifications to metallic ISS handrails such as those evaluated in this study provide the means to significantly reduce cut-hazards from MMOD impact craters.

Christiansen, Eric L.; Ryan, Shannon

2009-01-01

98

A Portfolio Approach to Evaluating Natural Hazard Mitigation Policies: An Application to Lateral-Spread Ground Failure in Coastal California  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past, efforts to prevent catastrophic losses from natural hazards have largely been undertaken by individual property owners based on site—specific evaluations of risks to particular buildings. Public efforts to assess community vulnerability and encourage mitigation have focused on either aggregating site—specific estimates or adopting standards based upon broad assumptions about regional risks. This paper develops an alternative, intermediate—scale

Richard L. Bernknopf; Laura B. Dinitz; Sharyl J. M. Rabinovici; Alexander M. Evans

2001-01-01

99

Past, Present, and Future Challenges in Earthquake Hazard Mitigation of Indonesia: A Collaborative Work of Geological Agency Indonesia and Geoscience Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last decade, Indonesia has suffered from earthquakes disaster since four out of twelve of the world's large earthquakes with more than 1000 causalities occurred in Indonesia. The great Sumatra earthquake of December 26, 2004 followed by tsunami which cost 227,898 of lives has brought Indonesia and its active tectonic setting to the world's attention. Therefore the government of Indonesia encourages hazard mitigation efforts that are more focused on the pre-disaster phase. In response to government policy in earthquake disaster mitigation, Geological Agency Indonesia attempts to meet the need for rigorous earthquake hazard map throughout the country in provincial scale in 2014. A collaborative work with Geoscience Australia through short-term training missions; on-going training, mentoring, assistance and studying in Australia, under the auspices of Australia-Indonesia Facility for Disaster Reduction (AIFDR) have accelerated the execution of these maps. Since 2010 to date of collaboration, by using probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) method, provincial earthquake hazard maps of Central Java (2010), West Sulawesi, Gorontalo, and North Maluku (2011) have been published. In 2012, by the same method, the remaining provinces of Sulawesi Island, Papua, North Sumatera and Jambi will be published. In the end of 2014, all 33 Indonesian provinces hazard maps will be delivered. The future challenges are to work together with the stakeholders, to produce district scale maps and establish a national standard for earthquake hazard maps. Moreover, the most important consideration is to build the capacity to update, maintain and revise the maps as recent information available.

Hidayati, S.; Cummins, P. R.; Cipta, A.; Omang, A.; Griffin, J.; Horspool, N.; Robiana, R.; Sulaeman, C.

2012-12-01

100

California Real Time Network: Test Bed for Mitigation of Geological and Atmospheric Hazards within a Modern Data Portal Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global geological and atmospheric hazards such as earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamis, landslides, storms and floods continue to wreak havoc on the lives of millions of people worldwide. High precision geodetic observations of surface displacements and atmospheric water vapor are indispensable tools in studying natural hazards along side more traditional seismic and atmospheric measurements. The rapid proliferation of dense in situ GPS networks for crustal deformation studies such as the Earthscope Plate Boundary Observatory provides us with unique data sets. However, the full information content and timeliness of these observations have not been fully developed, in particular at higher frequencies than traditional daily continuous GPS position time series. Nor have scientists taken full advantage of the complementary nature of space-based and in situ observations in forecasting, assessing and mitigating natural hazards. The primary operating mode for in situ GPS networks has been daily download of GPS data sampled at a 15-30 s sample rate, and the production of daily position time series or hourly tropospheric zenith delay estimates. However, as continuous GPS networks are being upgraded to provide even higher-frequency information approaching the sampling rates (1-50 Hz) of modern GPS receivers, and with a latency of less than 1 second, new data processing approaches are being developed. Low-latency high-rate measurements are being applied to earthquake source modeling, early warning of natural hazards (geological and atmospheric), and structural monitoring. Since 2002, more than 80 CGPS stations in southern California have been upgraded to a 1 Hz sample rate, including stations from the SCIGN and PBO networks, and several large earthquakes have been recorded. The upgraded stations comprise the California Real Time Network (CRTN - http://sopac.ucsd.edu/projects/realtime/). This prototype network provides continuous 1 Hz (upgradable to 10 Hz at some stations) GPS relative displacements and troposphere delay estimates with a latency of less than 1 s. Steps are being taken to tie these higher-order data products to the global (ITRF) reference frame, and discussions are underway to extend this capability throughout California by upgrading more UNAVCO/PBO stations. With funding from NASA, CRTN provides a test bed for developing advanced in situ- based observation systems within a modern data portal environment, which can be extended seamlessly to the entire PBO region and to other plate boundaries. I describe a prototype early warning system for earthquakes using CRTN, which is also being deployed at other plate boundaries. I show how researchers can access advanced observations of displacements and troposphere delay in real-time and replay significant events within the GPS Explorer data portal and Geophysical Resource Web Services (GRWS) environment.

Bock, Y.

2008-12-01

101

Mitigation of Earthquake-Induced Catastrophic Landslide Hazard on Gentle Slopes by Surface Loading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Catastrophic landslides have occurred repeatedly on gentle slopes during past earthquakes in Japan, sometimes causing great loss of life and significant environmental damage. Reconnaissance reports on the October 23, 2004, Chuetsu earthquake in Niigata Prefecture, Japan, also include collapse of gentle slopes associated with damage to roads and railways which lost foundation support. Additionally, investigations of the spatial distribution and features of landslides triggered by the Chuetsu earthquake revealed that 23% of the landslides mapped within a 2.9 km radius around the major earthquake epicenter occurred on slopes with gradients between 10 and 20 degrees. Past experience demonstrated that such earthquake-induced catastrophic landslides occurred along shear surfaces in saturated cohesionless materials, and the main factor controlling the high mobility of the slide mass after failure was the gradual loss in shear strength with progressive shear displacement. Given the high rainfall prior the earthquake, it is likely that the same failure mechanism characterizes the catastrophic landslides triggered on gentle slopes during the October 23, 2004, Chuetsu event in Niigata Prefecture. Thus, we introduce a procedure based on application of an additional confining stress to the surface to increase the stability of gentle slopes in saturated cohesionless soils subject to catastrophic failure during earthquakes. This surface pressure is achieved by concrete plates tied back with prestressed steel anchors which penetrate through the soil well below the potential sliding surface. Results of a dynamic analysis of undrained seismic performance conducted for a gentle infinite slope that experienced different levels of increase in effective confining stress due to a uniform load applied normal to the surface, illustrate the effectiveness of this measure in mitigating the earthquake-induced catastrophic landslide hazards.

Trandafir, A. C.; Sidle, R. C.; Kamai, T.

2005-05-01

102

Looking Before We Leap: Recent Results From An Ongoing Quantitative Investigation Of Asteroid And Comet Impact Hazard Mitigation.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The asteroid and comet impact hazard is now part of public consciousness, as demonstrated by movies, Super Bowl commercials, and popular news stories. However, there is a popular misconception that hazard mitigation is a solved problem. Many people think, `we'll just nuke it.’ There are, however, significant scientific questions remaining in the hazard mitigation problem. Before we can say with certainty that an explosive yield Y at height of burst h will produce a momentum change in or dispersion of a potentially hazardous object (PHO), we need to quantify how and where energy is deposited into the rubble pile or conglomerate that may make up the PHO. We then need to understand how shock waves propagate through the system, what causes them to disrupt, and how long gravitationally bound fragments take to recombine. Here we present numerical models of energy deposition from an energy source into various materials that are known PHO constituents, and rigid body dynamics models of the recombination of disrupted objects. In the energy deposition models, we explore the effects of porosity and standoff distance as well as that of composition. In the dynamical models, we explore the effects of fragment size and velocity distributions on the time it takes for gravitationally bound fragments to recombine. Initial models indicate that this recombination time is relatively short, as little as 24 hours for a 1 km sized PHO composed of 1000 meter-scale self-gravitating fragments with an initial velocity field of v/r = 0.001 1/s.

Plesko, Catherine; Weaver, R. P.; Korycansky, D. G.; Huebner, W. F.

2010-10-01

103

PREDICTION/MITIGATION OF SUBSIDENCE DAMAGE TO HAZARDOUS WASTE LANDFILL COVERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Characteristics of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act hazardous waste landfills and of landfilled hazardous wastes have been described to permit development of models and other analytical techniques for predicting, reducing, and preventing landfill settlement and related cove...

104

Mitigating hazards to aircraft from drifting volcanic clouds by comparing and combining IR satellite data with forward transport models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcanic ash clouds in the upper atmosphere (>10km) present a significant hazard to the aviation community and in some cases cause near-disastrous situations for aircraft that inadvertently encounter them. The two most commonly used techniques for mitigating hazards to aircraft from drifting volcanic clouds are (1) using data from satellite observations and (2) the forecasting of dispersion and trajectories with numerical models. This dissertation aims to aid in the mitigation of this hazard by using Moderate Infrared Resolution Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) infrared (IR) satellite data to quantitatively analyze and constrain the uncertainties in the PUFF volcanic ash transport model. Furthermore, this dissertation has experimented with the viability of combining IR data with the PUFF model to increase the model's reliability. Comparing IR satellite data with forward transport models provides valuable information concerning the uncertainty and sensitivity of the transport models. A study analyzing the viability of combining satellite-based information with the PUFF model was also done. Factors controlling the cloud-shape evolution, such as the horizontal dispersion coefficient, vertical distribution of particles, the height of the cloud, and the location of the cloud were all updated based on observations from satellite data in an attempt to increase the reliability of the simulations. Comparing center of mass locations--calculated from satellite data--to HYSPLIT trajectory simulations provides insight into the vertical distribution of the cloud. A case study of the May 10, 2003 Anatahan Volcano eruption was undertaken to assess methods of calculating errors in PUFF simulations with respect to the transport and dispersion of the erupted cloud. An analysis of the factors controlling the cloud-shape evolution of the cloud in the model was also completed and compared to the shape evolution of the cloud observed in the IR satellite data. An accurate eruption length of 28 hours--based on satellite imagery--resulted in an error growth rate that decreased by 50% from the original simulation. Using a dispersion coefficient that was calculated from satellite imagery further improved the PUFF simulation. Results show that using satellite-based information in the PUFF model decreases the error growth of the simulation by as much as 60%. PUFF simulations were also compared to IR satellite data of four other eruptions: Augustine (2006), Cleveland (2001), Hekla (2000) and Soufriere Hills (2006). The Anatahan, Augustine and Cleveland eruptions produced clouds that were ash-rich. The Hekla and Soufriere Hills eruption produced clouds that were ice-rich. Mass retrievals performed on the satellite data for these eruptions were holistically compared to determine if the evolution of the ash clouds were dependent on the cloud species and the atmospheric environment into which they were ejected (arctic vs. tropical environments). Analysis show that the ice-rich clouds decrease in mass, area and optical depth more rapidly than the ash-rich clouds. Moreover, error growth rates of the simulated lowlatitude eruptions were linear, where as error growth rates of simulated high-latitude clouds were exponential. Results from this study provide some insight into possible implications for volcanic cloud simulations of ash and ice clouds in differing environments. Finally, a sensitivity analysis of the PUFF model was implemented. This part of the research generated collaborative research with the University of Alaska, Fairbanks/Alaska Volcano Observatory, where the PUFF model is housed. Transport simulations of the May 10, 2003 Anatahan volcanic cloud were done from the PUFF model's command line. Unlike the web-based version of PUFF, the command line is not publicly accessible but provides substantially more control over the user's definition of certain variables. Results of this study show it is viable and practical to continually update the PUFF simulation of a volcanic cloud's evolution and locatio

Matiella Novak, M. Alexandra

105

Catastrophic debris flows transformed from landslides in volcanic terrains : mobility, hazard assessment and mitigation strategies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Communities in lowlands near volcanoes are vulnerable to significant volcanic flow hazards in addition to those associated directly with eruptions. The largest such risk is from debris flows beginning as volcanic landslides, with the potential to travel over 100 kilometers. Stratovolcanic edifices commonly are hydrothermal aquifers composed of unstable, altered rock forming steep slopes at high altitudes, and the terrain surrounding them is commonly mantled by readily mobilized, weathered airfall and ashflow deposits. We propose that volcano hazard assessments integrate the potential for unanticipated debris flows with, at active volcanoes, the greater but more predictable potential of magmatically triggered flows. This proposal reinforces the already powerful arguments for minimizing populations in potential flow pathways below both active and selected inactive volcanoes. It also addresses the potential for volcano flank collapse to occur with instability early in a magmatic episode, as well as the 'false-alarm problem'-the difficulty in evacuating the potential paths of these large mobile flows. Debris flows that transform from volcanic landslides, characterized by cohesive (muddy) deposits, create risk comparable to that of their syneruptive counterparts of snow and ice-melt origin, which yield noncohesive (granular) deposits, because: (1) Volcano collapses and the failures of airfall- and ashflow-mantled slopes commonly yield highly mobile debris flows as well as debris avalanches with limited runout potential. Runout potential of debris flows may increase several fold as their volumes enlarge beyond volcanoes through bulking (entrainment) of sediment. Through this mechanism, the runouts of even relatively small collapses at Cascade Range volcanoes, in the range of 0.1 to 0.2 cubic kilometers, can extend to populated lowlands. (2) Collapse is caused by a variety of triggers: tectonic and volcanic earthquakes, gravitational failure, hydrovolcanism, and precipitation, as well as magmatic activity and eruptions. (3) Risk of collapse begins with initial magmatic activity and increases as intrusion proceeds. An archetypal debris flow from volcanic terrain occurred in Colombia with a tectonic earthquake (M 6.4) in 1994. The Rio Piez conveyed a catastrophic wave of debris flow over 100 kilometers, coalesced from multiple slides of surflcial material weakened both by weathering and by hydrothermal alteration in a large strato- volcano. Similar seismogenic flows occurred in Mexico in 1920 (M -6.5), Chile in 1960 (M 9.2), and Ecuador in 1987 (M 6.1 and 6.9). Velocities of wave fronts in two examples were 60 to 90 km/hr (17-25 meters per second) over the initial 30 kilometers. Volcano flank and sector collapses may produce untransformed debris avalanches, as occurred initially at Mount St. Helens in 1980. However, at least as common is direct transformation of the failed mass to a debris flow. At two other volcanoes in the Cascade Range-- Mount Rainier and Mount Baker--rapid transformation and high mobility were typical of most of at least 15 Holocene flows. This danger exists downstream from many stratovolcanoes worldwide; the population at risk is near 150,000 and increasing at Mount Rainier. The first step in preventing future catastrophes is documenting past flows. Deposits of some debris flows, however, can be mistaken for those of less-mobile debris avalanches on the basis of mounds formed by buoyed megaclasts. Megaclasts may record only the proximal phase of a debris flow that began as a debris avalanche. Runout may have extended much farther, and thus furore flow mobility may be underestimated. Processes and behaviors of megaclast-bearing paleoflows are best inferred from the intermegaclast matrix. Mitigation strategy can respond to volcanic flows regardless of type and trigger by: (1) Avoidance: Limit settlement in flow pathways to numbers that can be evacuated after event warnings (flow is occurring). (2) Instrumental even

Scott, Kevin M.; Macias, Jose Luis; Naranjo, Jose Antonio; Rodriguez, Sergio; McGeehin, John P.

2001-01-01

106

Seismicity and seismotectonics of southern Ghana: lessons for seismic hazard mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ghana is located on the West African craton and is far from the major earthquake zone of the world. It is therefore largely considered a stable region. However, the southern part of the country is seismically active. Records of damaging earthquakes in Ghana date as far back as 1615. A study on the microseismic activity in southern Ghana shows that the seismic activity is linked with active faulting between the east-west trending Coastal boundary fault and a northeast-southwest trending Akwapim fault zone. Epicentres of most of the earthquakes have been located close to the area where the two major faults intersect. This can be related to the level of activity of the faults. Some of the epicentres have been located offshore and can be associated with the level of activity of the coastal boundary fault. A review of the geological and instrumental recordings of earthquakes in Ghana show that earthquakes have occurred in the past and are still liable to occur within the vicinity of the intersection of the Akwapim fault zone and the Coastal boundary fault. Data from both historical and instrumental records indicate that the most seismically active areas in Ghana are the west of Accra, where the Akwapim fault zone and the Coastal boundary fault intersect. There are numerous minor faults in the intersection area between the Akwapim fault zone and the Coastal boundary fault. This mosaic of faults has a major implication for seismic activity in the area. Earthquake disaster mitigation measures are being put in place in recent times to reduce the impact of any major event that may occur in the country. The National Disaster Management Organization has come out with a building guide to assist in the mitigation effort of earthquake disasters and floods in the country. The building guide clearly stipulates the kind of material to be used, the proportion, what should go into the foundation for one or two storey building, the electrical materials to be used and many others.

Amponsah, Paulina

2014-05-01

107

Public perception of flood risks, flood forecasting and mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multidisciplinary and integrated approach to the flood mitigation decision making process should provide the best response of society in a flood hazard situation including preparation works and post hazard mitigation. In Slovenia, there is a great lack of data on social aspects and public response to flood mitigation measures and information management. In this paper, two studies of flood

M. Brilly; M. Polic

2005-01-01

108

Advances in Remote Sensing Approaches for Hazard Mitigation and Natural Resource Protection in Pacific Latin America: A Workshop for Advanced Graduate Students, Post- Doctoral Researchers, and Junior Faculty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Though much of the developing world has the potential to gain significantly from remote sensing techniques in terms of public health and safety, they often lack resources for advancing the development and practice of remote sensing. All countries share a mutual interest in furthering remote sensing capabilities for natural hazard mitigation and resource development. With National Science Foundation support from the Partnerships in International Research and Education program, we are developing a new educational system of applied research and engineering for advancing collaborative linkages among agencies and institutions in Pacific Latin American countries (to date: Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, and Ecuador) in the development of remote sensing tools for hazard mitigation and water resources management. The project aims to prepare students for careers in science and engineering through their efforts to solve suites of problems needing creative solutions: collaboration with foreign agencies; living abroad immersed in different cultures; and adapting their academic training to contend with potentially difficult field conditions and limited resources. The ultimate goal of integrating research with education is to encourage cross-disciplinary, creative, and critical thinking in problem solving and foster the ability to deal with uncertainty in analyzing problems and designing appropriate solutions. In addition to traditional approaches for graduate and undergraduate research, we have built new educational systems of applied research and engineering: (1) the Peace Corp/Master's International program in Natural Hazards which features a 2-year field assignment during service in the U.S. Peace Corps, (2) the Michigan Tech Enterprise program for undergraduates, which gives teams of students from different disciplines the opportunity to work for three years in a business-like setting to solve real-world problems, and (3) a unique university exchange program in natural hazards (E-Haz). Advancements in research have been made, for example, in using thermal remote sensing methods for studying vent and eruptive processes, and in fusing RADARSAT with ASTER imagery to delineate lineaments in volcanic terrains for siting water wells. While these and other advancements are developed in conjunction with our foreign counterparts, the impacts of this work can be broadened through more comprehensive dissemination activities. Towards this end, we are in the planning phase of a Pan American workshop on applications of remote sensing techniques for natural hazards and water resources management. The workshop will be at least two weeks, sometime in July/August 2009, and involve 30-40 participants, with balanced participation from the U.S. and Latin America. In addition to fundamental aspects of remote sensing and digital image processing, the workshop topics will be presented in the context of new developments for studying volcanic processes and hazards and for characterizing groundwater systems.

Gierke, J. S.; Rose, W. I.; Waite, G. P.; Palma, J. L.; Gross, E. L.

2008-12-01

109

A mission template for exploration and damage mitigation of potential hazard of Near Earth Asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Apophis Exploratory and Mitigation Platform (AEMP) concept was developed as a prototype mission to explore and potentially deflect the Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) 99942 Apophis. Deflection of the asteroid from the potential 2036 impact will be achieved using a gravity tractor technique, while a permanent deflection, eliminating future threats, will be imparted using a novel albedo manipulation technique. This mission will serve as an archetypal template for future missions to small NEAs and could be adapted to mitigate the threat of collision with other potential Earth-crossing objects.

Hyland, D. C.; Altwaijry, H. A.; Margulieux, R.; Doyle, J.; Sandberg, J.; Young, B.; Satak, N.; Lopez, J.; Ge, S.; Bai, X.

2010-10-01

110

Linear Aerospike SR71 Experiment (LASRE): Aerospace Propulsion Hazard Mitigation Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major hazard posed by the propulsion system ofhypersonic and space vehicles is the possibility of fire orexplosion in the vehicle environment. The hazard ismitigated by minimizing or detecting, in the vehicleenvironment, the three ingredients essential toproducing fire: fuel, oxidizer, and an ignition source.The Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE)consisted of a linear aerospike rocket engine integratedinto one-half of an X-33-like

Masashi Mizukami; Griffin P. Corpening; Ronald J. Ray; Neal Hass; Kimberly A. Ennix; Scott M. Lazaroff

1998-01-01

111

National Wetland Mitigation Banking Study: First Phase Report. Phase 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This interim report presents the accomplishments during phase one of the two phase National Wetland Mitigation Banking Study being conducted by the U.S. Army Engineers Institute for Water Resources. This report presents results of a nation wide inventory ...

R. Brumbaugh R. Reppert

1994-01-01

112

Interference Mitigation Studies for Texas Telephone and Power Distribution Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document demonstrates the effects of various parameters associated with a Sanguine System on the interference mitigation of Texas Telephone and Power Distribution Systems. Cost models are presented, which were developed from this parametric study, for...

J. D. Huber M. F. Genge

1973-01-01

113

Hawaiian cultural influences on support for lava flow hazard mitigation measures during the January 1960 eruption of K?lauea volcano, Kapoho, Hawai‘i  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1960, K?lauea volcano in Hawaii erupted, destroying most of the village of Kapoho and forcing evacuation of its approximately 300 residents. A large and unprecedented social science survey was undertaken during the eruption to develop an understanding of human behavior, beliefs, and coping strategies among the adult evacuees ( n = 160). Identical studies were also performed in three control towns located at varying distances from the eruption site ( n = 478). During these studies data were collected that characterized ethnic grouping and attitudes toward Hawaiian cultural issues such as belief in Pele and two lava flow mitigation measures—use of barriers and bombs to influence the flow of lava, but the data were never published. Using these forgotten data, we examined the relationship between Hawaiian cultural issues and attitudes toward the use of barriers and bombs as mitigation strategies to protect Kapoho. On average, 72% of respondents favored the construction of earthen barriers to hold back or divert lava and protect Kapoho, but far fewer agreed with the military's use of bombs (14%) to protect Kapoho. In contrast, about one-third of respondents conditionally agreed with the use of bombs. It is suggested that local participation in the bombing strategy may explain the increased conditional acceptance of bombs as a mitigation tool, although this can not be conclusively demonstrated. Belief in Pele and being of Hawaiian ethnicity did not reduce support for the use of barriers, but did reduce support for bombs in both bombing scenarios. The disparity in levels of acceptance of barriers versus bombing and of one bombing strategy versus another suggests that historically public attitudes toward lava flow hazard mitigation strategies were complex. A modern comparative study is needed before the next damaging eruption to inform debates and decisions about whether or not to interfere with the flow of lava. Recent changes in the current eruption of K?lauea make this a timely topic.

Gregg, C. E.; Houghton, B. F.; Paton, D.; Swanson, D. A.; Lachman, R.; Bonk, W. J.

2008-05-01

114

Tsunami Hazard in Western Mediterranean: Preliminary Study of Scenarios for the Balearic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the framework of the TRANSFER European project, in order to mitigate tsunami hazard in Western Mediterranean, we aim at producing inundation maps for the bay of Palma (Balearic) using numerical modeling. To this end we build a set of scenarios based on realistic tectonic sources able to generate tsunamis. Such a study has been carried out in order to

J. Roger; H. Hebert

2007-01-01

115

Remote Sensing for Hazard Mitigation and Resource Protection in Pacific Latin America: New NSF sponsored initiative at Michigan Tech.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Though much of the developing world has the potential to gain significantly from remote sensing techniques in terms of public health and safety and, eventually, economic development, they lack the resources required to advance the development and practice of remote sensing. Both developed and developing countries share a mutual interest in furthering remote sensing capabilities for natural hazard mitigation and resource development, and this common commitment creates a solid foundation upon which to build an integrated education and research project. This will prepare students for careers in science and engineering through their efforts to solve a suite of problems needing creative solutions: collaboration with foreign agencies; living abroad immersed in different cultures; and adapting their academic training to contend with potentially difficult field conditions and limited resources. This project makes two important advances: (1) We intend to develop the first formal linkage among geoscience agencies from four Pacific Latin American countries (Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua and Ecuador), focusing on the collaborative development of remote sensing tools for hazard mitigation and water resource development; (2) We will build a new educational system of applied research and engineering, using two existing educational programs at Michigan Tech: a new Peace Corp/Master's International (PC/MI) program in Natural Hazards which features a 2-year field assignment, and an "Enterprise" program for undergraduates, which gives teams of geoengineering students the opportunity to work for three years in a business-like setting to solve real-world problems This project will involve 1-2 post-doctoral researchers, 3 Ph.D., 9 PC/MI, and roughly 20 undergraduate students each year.

Rose, W. I.; Bluth, G. J.; Gierke, J. S.; Gross, E.

2005-12-01

116

Recent developments in modelling mitigation of accidental releases of hazardous gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process safety management guidelines suggest that a facility operator should investigate and document a plan for installing systems to detect, contain or mitigate accidental releases if such systems are not already in place. In addition, proposed EPA 112(r) regulations would require such investigation. This paper illustrates how mathematical modelling can aid such an evaluation. It describes how the HGSPRAY and

V. M. Fthenakis; D. N. Blewitt

1995-01-01

117

Piloted Simulation to Evaluate the Utility of a Real Time Envelope Protection System for Mitigating In-Flight Icing Hazards  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The utility of the Icing Contamination Envelope Protection (ICEPro) system for mitigating a potentially hazardous icing condition was evaluated by 29 pilots using the NASA Ice Contamination Effects Flight Training Device (ICEFTD). ICEPro provides real time envelope protection cues and alerting messages on pilot displays. The pilots participating in this test were divided into two groups; a control group using baseline displays without ICEPro, and an experimental group using ICEPro driven display cueing. Each group flew identical precision approach and missed approach procedures with a simulated failure case icing condition. Pilot performance, workload, and survey questionnaires were collected for both groups of pilots. Results showed that real time assessment cues were effective in reducing the number of potentially hazardous upset events and in lessening exposure to loss of control following an incipient upset condition. Pilot workload with the added ICEPro displays was not measurably affected, but pilot opinion surveys showed that real time cueing greatly improved their situation awareness of a hazardous aircraft state.

Ranaudo, Richard J.; Martos, Borja; Norton, Bill W.; Gingras, David R.; Barnhart, Billy P.; Ratvasky, Thomas P.; Morelli, Eugene

2011-01-01

118

Occupational hazards associated with endoscope high-level disinfection: Case vignettes, review of literature and recommendations for mitigation.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: High-level disinfection is crucial in preventing instrument-related infections. However, inadequate process and practice may expose technicians to chemicals and other hazards. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to describe the health effects related to high-level disinfection, the process of identifying hazards and safer practice recommendations. PARTICIPANTS: Two endoscope technicians with different clinical presentations were evaluated for workplace exposures. METHODS: In addition to acute clinical care, corroborative information was obtained through walkthrough and observing patients performing their daily tasks, interview of co-workers, environmental assessment and review of published literature. Recommendations for improvement and clinical follow up were made.RESULTS: Clinical evaluation and workplace assessment identified potential exposures to: denatonium benzoate, ortho-phthalaldehyde, proteinase subtilisin, and isopropyl alcohol. Environmental monitoring showed adequate ventilation but with potential for acute high-level exposure to high-level disinfectants. Ergonomic stressors and noise were addressed. Following work restrictions and work practice changes, both patients were able to return to work without recurrence of symptoms. CONCLUSION: The occupational hazards of working in an endoscopy disinfection unit include chemicals that are irritants and/or allergenic. In addition to bioengineering controls, administrative controls and proper respiratory and dermal protections may mitigate exposure and allow workers to continue working safely. PMID:23531579

Mobo, B H; Foster, L A; Rabesa, M J

2013-03-26

119

Exploratory Studies Facility Subsurface Fire Hazards Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA) is to confirm the requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) are sufficient to minimize the potential for: The occurrence of a fire or related event; A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees, the public or the environment; Vital U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards; Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE; and Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

Richard C. Logan

2002-03-28

120

Exploratory Studies Facility Subsurface Fire Hazards Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA) is to confirm the requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) are sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire or related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees, the public or the environment. (3) Vital US. Department of Energy (DOE) programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. (5) Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

J. L. Kubicek

2001-09-07

121

Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment: the Seaside, Oregon Pilot Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A pilot study of Seaside, Oregon is underway, to develop methodologies for probabilistic tsunami hazard assessments that can be incorporated into Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs) developed by FEMA's National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). Current NFIP guidelines for tsunami hazard assessment rely on the science, technology and methodologies developed in the 1970s; although generally regarded as groundbreaking and state-of-the-art for its time, this approach is now superseded by modern methods that reflect substantial advances in tsunami research achieved in the last two decades. In particular, post-1990 technical advances include: improvements in tsunami source specification; improved tsunami inundation models; better computational grids by virtue of improved bathymetric and topographic databases; a larger database of long-term paleoseismic and paleotsunami records and short-term, historical earthquake and tsunami records that can be exploited to develop improved probabilistic methodologies; better understanding of earthquake recurrence and probability models. The NOAA-led U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP), in partnership with FEMA, USGS, NSF and Emergency Management and Geotechnical agencies of the five Pacific States, incorporates these advances into site-specific tsunami hazard assessments for coastal communities in Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon and Washington. NTHMP hazard assessment efforts currently focus on developing deterministic, "credible worst-case" scenarios that provide valuable guidance for hazard mitigation and emergency management. The NFIP focus, on the other hand, is on actuarial needs that require probabilistic hazard assessments such as those that characterize 100- and 500-year flooding events. There are clearly overlaps in NFIP and NTHMP objectives. NTHMP worst-case scenario assessments that include an estimated probability of occurrence could benefit the NFIP; NFIP probabilistic assessments of 100- and 500-yr events could benefit the NTHMP. The joint NFIP/NTHMP pilot study at Seaside, Oregon is organized into three closely related components: Probabilistic, Modeling, and Impact studies. Probabilistic studies (Geist, et al., this session) are led by the USGS and include the specification of near- and far-field seismic tsunami sources and their associated probabilities. Modeling studies (Titov, et al., this session) are led by NOAA and include the development and testing of a Seaside tsunami inundation model and an associated database of computed wave height and flow velocity fields. Impact studies (Synolakis, et al., this session) are led by USC and include the computation and analyses of indices for the categorization of hazard zones. The results of each component study will be integrated to produce a Seaside tsunami hazard map. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the project and an update on progress, while the above-referenced companion presentations will provide details on the methods used and the preliminary results obtained by each project component.

Gonzalez, F. I.; Geist, E. L.; Synolakis, C.; Titov, V. V.

2004-12-01

122

Assessing NEO hazard mitigation in terms of astrodynamics and propulsion systems requirements.  

PubMed

Uncertainties associated with assessing valid near-Earth object (NEO) threats and carrying out interception missions place unique and stringent burdens on designing mission architecture, astrodynamics, and spacecraft propulsion systems. A prime uncertainty is associated with the meaning of NEO orbit predictability regarding Earth impact. Analyses of past NEO orbits and impact probabilities indicate uncertainties in determining if a projected NEO threat will actually materialize within a given time frame. Other uncertainties regard estimated mass, composition, and structural integrity of the NEO body. At issue is if one can reliably estimate a NEO threat and its magnitude. Parameters that determine NEO deflection requirements within various time frames, including the terminal orbital pass before impact, and necessary energy payloads, are quantitatively discussed. Propulsion system requirements for extending space capabilities to rapidly interact with NEOs at ranges of up to about 1 AU (astronomical unit) from Earth are outlined. Such missions, without gravitational boosts, are deemed critical for a practical and effective response to mitigation. If an impact threat is confirmed on an immediate orbital pass, the option for interactive reconnaissance, and interception, and subsequent NEO orbit deflection must be promptly carried out. There also must be an option to abort the mitigation mission if the NEO is subsequently found not to be Earth threatening. These options require optimal decision latitude and operational possibilities for NEO threat removal while minimizing alarm. Acting too far in advance of the projected impact could induce perturbations that ultimately exacerbate the threat. Given the dilemmas, uncertainties, and limited options associated with timely NEO mitigation within a decision making framework, currently available propulsion technologies that appear most viable to carry out a NEO interception/mitigation mission within the greatest margin of control and reliability are those based on a combined (bimodal) nuclear thermal/nuclear electric propulsion platform. Elements of required and currently available performance characteristics for nuclear and electric propulsion systems are also discussed. PMID:15220155

Remo, John L

2004-05-01

123

A mission template for exploration and damage mitigation of potential hazard of Near Earth Asteroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Apophis Exploratory and Mitigation Platform (AEMP) concept was developed as a prototype mission to explore and potentially\\u000a deflect the Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) 99942 Apophis. Deflection of the asteroid from the potential 2036 impact will be achieved\\u000a using a gravity tractor technique, while a permanent deflection, eliminating future threats, will be imparted using a novel\\u000a albedo manipulation technique. This

D. C. Hyland; H. A. Altwaijry; R. Margulieux; J. Doyle; J. Sandberg; B. Young; N. Satak; J. Lopez; S. Ge; X. Bai

2010-01-01

124

Looking before we leap: an ongoing, quantative investigation of asteroid and comet impact hazard mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many outstanding questions about the correct response to an asteroid or comet impact threat on Earth. Nuclear munitions are currently thought to be the most efficient method of delivering an impact-preventing impulse to a potentially hazardous object (PHO). However, there are major uncertainties about the response of PHOs to a nuclear burst, and the most appropriate ways to

Catherine S Plesko; Robert P Weaver; Paul A Bradley; Walter F Huebner

2010-01-01

125

Principles and technology for stepwise utilization of resources for mitigating deep mine heat hazards  

Microsoft Academic Search

As is well known, deep mines are hot. As mining depth increases, the temperature of the surrounding rock also increases. This seriously affects mine safety and production and has restricted the exploitation of deep coal resources. Therefore, reducing the working face temperature to improve working conditions by controlling these heat hazards is an urgent problem. Considering problems in cooling deep

Manchao HE; Xiuling CAO; Qiao XIE; Jiahua YANG; Ping QI; Qing YANG; Xueqian CHEN

2010-01-01

126

Making the Handoff from Earthquake Hazard Assessments to Effective Mitigation Measures (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This year has witnessed a barrage of large earthquakes worldwide with the resulting damages ranging from inconsequential to truly catastrophic. We cannot predict when earthquakes will strike, but we can build communities that are resilient to strong shaking as well as to secondary hazards such as landslides and liquefaction. The contrasting impacts of the magnitude-7 earthquake that struck Haiti in

D. Applegate

2010-01-01

127

Developing Oceanic Convective Products to Mitigate the Impact of Weather Hazards on Transoceanic Flights  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transoceanic flights will increase significantly in the next decade. To manage this increased demand for capacity, while maintaining safety, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is exploring whether the separation minima normally used between aircraft crossing oceanic regions can be reduced both horizontally and vertically. However, before reducing separation standards, the increased hazard of encountering convective weather over oceanic routes must

A. Nierow

2003-01-01

128

A Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Study of the Auckland Region, Part I: Propagation Modelling and Tsunami Hazard Assessment at the Shoreline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regional source tsunamis represent a potentially devastating threat to coastal communities in New Zealand, yet are infrequent events for which little historical information is available. It is therefore essential to develop robust methods for quantitatively estimating the hazards posed, so that effective mitigation measures can be implemented. We develop a probabilistic model for the tsunami hazard posed to the Auckland region of New Zealand from the Kermadec Trench and the southern New Hebrides Trench subduction zones. An innovative feature of our model is the systematic analysis of uncertainty regarding the magnitude-frequency distribution of earthquakes in the source regions. The methodology is first used to estimate the tsunami hazard at the coastline, and then used to produce a set of scenarios that can be applied to produce probabilistic maps of tsunami inundation for the study region; the production of these maps is described in part II. We find that the 2,500 year return period regional source tsunami hazard for the densely populated east coast of Auckland is dominated by events originating in the Kermadec Trench, while the equivalent hazard to the sparsely populated west coast is approximately equally due to events on the Kermadec Trench and the southern New Hebrides Trench.

Power, William; Wang, Xiaoming; Lane, Emily; Gillibrand, Philip

2013-09-01

129

Detecting Slow Deformation Signals Preceding Dynamic Failure: A New Strategy For The Mitigation Of Natural Hazards (SAFER)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rock slope monitoring is a major aim in territorial risk assessment and mitigation. The high velocity that usually characterizes the failure phase of rock instabilities makes the traditional instruments based on slope deformation measurements not applicable for early warning systems. On the other hand the use of acoustic emission records has been often a good tool in underground mining for slope monitoring. Here we aim to identify the characteristic signs of impending failure, by deploying a "site specific" microseismic monitoring system on an unstable patch of the Madonna del Sasso landslide on the Italian Western Alps designed to monitor subtle changes of the mechanical properties of the medium and installed as close as possible to the source region. The initial characterization based on geomechanical and geophysical tests allowed to understand the instability mechanism and to design the monitoring systems to be placed. Stability analysis showed that the stability of the slope is due to rock bridges. Their failure progress can results in a global slope failure. Consequently the rock bridges potentially generating dynamic ruptures need to be monitored. A first array consisting of instruments provided by University of Turin, has been deployed on October 2013, consisting of 4 triaxial 4.5 Hz seismometers connected to a 12 channel data logger arranged in a 'large aperture' configuration which encompasses the entire unstable rock mass. Preliminary data indicate the occurrence of microseismic swarms with different spectral contents. Two additional geophones and 4 triaxial piezoelectric accelerometers able to operate at frequencies up to 23 KHz will be installed during summer 2014. This will allow us to develop a network capable of recording events with Mw < 0.5 and frequencies between 700 Hz and 20 kHz. Rock physical and mechanical characterization along with rock deformation laboratory experiments during which the evolution of related physical parameters under simulated conditions of stress and fluid content will be also studied and theoretical modelling will allow to come up with a full hazard assessment and test new methodologies for a much wider scale of applications within EU.

Vinciguerra, Sergio; Colombero, Chiara; Comina, Cesare; Ferrero, Anna Maria; Mandrone, Giuseppe; Umili, Gessica; Fiaschi, Andrea; Saccorotti, Gilberto

2014-05-01

130

Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Devices, Potential Navigational Hazards and Mitigation Measures  

SciTech Connect

On April 15, 2008, the Department of Energy (DOE) issued a Funding Opportunity Announcement for Advanced Water Power Projects which included a Topic Area for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Market Acceleration Projects. Within this Topic Area, DOE identified potential navigational impacts of marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy technologies and measures to prevent adverse impacts on navigation as a sub-topic area. DOE defines marine and hydrokinetic technologies as those capable of utilizing one or more of the following resource categories for energy generation: ocean waves; tides or ocean currents; free flowing water in rivers or streams; and energy generation from the differentials in ocean temperature. PCCI was awarded Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-08GO18177 from the DOE to identify the potential navigational impacts and mitigation measures for marine hydrokinetic technologies. A technical report addressing our findings is available on this Science and Technology Information site under the Product Title, "Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Technologies: Potential Navigational Impacts and Mitigation Measures". This product is a brochure, primarily for project developers, that summarizes important issues in that more comprehensive report, identifies locations where that report can be downloaded, and identifies points of contact for more information.

Cool, Richard, M.; Hudon, Thomas, J.; Basco, David, R.; Rondorf, Neil, E.

2009-12-01

131

Advances in Remote Sensing Approaches for Hazard Mitigation and Natural Resource Protection in Pacific Latin America: A Workshop for Advanced Graduate Students, Post Doctoral Researchers, and Junior Faculty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though much of the developing world has the potential to gain significantly from remote sensing techniques in terms of public health and safety, they often lack resources for advancing the development and practice of remote sensing. All countries share a mutual interest in furthering remote sensing capabilities for natural hazard mitigation and resource development. With National Science Foundation support from

J. S. Gierke; W. I. Rose; G. P. Waite; J. L. Palma; E. L. Gross

2008-01-01

132

Studies Update Vinyl Chloride Hazards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Extensive study affirms that vinyl chloride is a potent animal carcinogen. Epidemiological studies show elevated rates of human cancers in association with extended contact with the compound. (Author/RE)

Rawls, Rebecca

1980-01-01

133

Mitigation of volcanic hazards to aviation: The need for real-time integration of multiple data sources (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The successful mitigation of volcanic hazards to aviation requires rapid interpretation and coordination of data from multiple sources, and communication of information products to a variety of end users. This community of information providers and information users include volcano observatories, volcanic ash advisory centers, meteorological watch offices, air traffic control centers, airline dispatch and military flight operations centers, and pilots. Each of these entities has capabilities and needs that are unique to their situations that evolve over a range of time spans. Prior to an eruption, information about probable eruption scenarios are needed in order to allow for contingency planning. Once a hazardous eruption begins, the immediate questions are where, when, how high, and how long will the eruption last? Following the initial detection of an eruption, the need for information changes to forecasting the movement of the volcanic cloud, determining whether ground operations will be affected by ash fall, and estimating how long the drifting volcanic cloud will remain hazardous. A variety of tools have been developed and/or improved over the past several years that provide additional data sources about volcanic hazards that is pertinent to the aviation sector. These include seismic and pressure sensors, ground-based radar and lidar, web cameras, ash dispersion models, and more sensitive satellite sensors that are capable of better detecting volcanic ash, gases and aerosols. Along with these improved capabilities come increased challenges in rapidly assimilating the available data sources, which come from a variety of data providers. In this presentation, examples from the recent large eruptions of Okmok, Kasatochi, and Sarychev Peak volcanoes will be used to demonstrate the challenges faced by hazard response agencies. These eruptions produced volcanic clouds that were dispersed over large regions of the Northern Hemisphere and were observed by pilots and detected by various satellite sensors for several weeks. The disruption to aviation caused by these eruptions further emphasizes the need to improve the real-time characterization of volcanic clouds (altitude, composition, particle size, and concentration) and to better understand the impacts of volcanic ash, gases and aerosols on aircraft, flight crews, and passengers.

Schneider, D. J.

2009-12-01

134

Current progress toward natural phenomena hazards mitigation for aging DOE structures, systems, and components  

SciTech Connect

This paper outlines a program under development to establish requirements, develop criteria and guidance for systematically evaluating the behavior of structures, systems, and components (SSC) in existing Department of Energy (DOE) facilities located across the United States when subjected to natural phenomena hazards (NPH). The requirements have been established in DOE Order 5480.28. Criteria are summarized in the implementing standards which accompany the order. An approach to implement the requirements for existing systems and components is currently being developed. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Murray, R.C. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

1993-05-01

135

Historical Mitigation Study of the Strawberry Valley Project, Utah.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

MESA Corporation conducted an historical mitigation study of the Strawberry Valley Project, Utah between March 15, and July 15, 1982. The Bureau of Reclamation proposes to breach the existing dam as part of water development plans for the Central Utah Pro...

D. Merrill D. L. Snyder J. Anderson

1982-01-01

136

Developing Oceanic Convective Products to Mitigate the Impact of Weather Hazards on Transoceanic Flights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transoceanic flights will increase significantly in the next decade. To manage this increased demand for capacity, while maintaining safety, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is exploring whether the separation minima normally used between aircraft crossing oceanic regions can be reduced both horizontally and vertically. However, before reducing separation standards, the increased hazard of encountering convective weather over oceanic routes must be considered. New evidence has shown that roughly half of the turbulence encounters over oceanic regions were likely associated with convective activity. This phenomenon, Convectively-Induced Turbulence (CIT), can occur several kilometers from convective cores. Operational decision-makers need to detect turbulence associated with oceanic convective activity to route or reroute aircraft safely. However, the only weather data consistently available is from satellite imagery, which can reveal potential areas of convection, but can't unambiguously isolate the hazardous regions from the benign regions. Being able to do this would improve routing and rerouting decisions. The FAA and other agencies are collaborating to develop oceanic convective products. The National Weather Service's Aviation Weather Center created a product that identifies thunderstorms by using the output from different satellite imagers. The technique exploits the difference between the 11-micron infrared (IR) channel and the 6.7-micron water vapor channel. The National Center for Atmospheric Research has developed a new product that maps cloud top temperatures drawn from IR satellite imagery and converts them to aircraft flight levels. In addition, the Naval Research Lab in Monterey, CA is developing cloud classification algorithms that will distinguish between cirrus and convective clouds. We have compared these new convective diagnostic techniques to long-range ground base lightning data and lightning data from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. We will present the results of the comparison at the meeting. Developing oceanic convective and turbulence nowcasting and short-term forecasting products would have a significant positive impact on flight operations since they would show possible locations of turbulence and wind shear associated with convection. These products would also increase airspace capacity by enabling the FAA to decrease oceanic aircraft separation standards while preserving safety. We wish to reduce the incidence of noncoordinated deviations (because of unexpected encounters with turbulence associated with convection), through greater situational awareness and more time for coordination. By helping pilots avoid areas of convective activity and associated turbulence over oceanic regions, these products have the potential to improve safety of flight and increase efficiency (e.g., facilitate routing and rerouting resulting in smaller flight track deviations and reduced fuel costs).

Nierow, A.

2003-12-01

137

Using Darwin's theory of atoll formation to improve tsunami hazard mitigation in the Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is 130 years since Charles Darwin's death and 176 years since he his penned his subsidence theory of atoll formation on 12th April 1836 during the voyage of the Beagle through the Pacific. This theory, founded on the premise of a subsiding volcano and the corresponding upward growth of coral reef, was astonishing for the time considering the absence of an underpinning awareness of plate tectonics. Furthermore, with the exception of the occasional permutation and opposing idea his theory has endured and has an enviable longevity amongst paradigms in geomorphology. In his theory, Darwin emphasised the generally circular morphology of the atoll shape and surprisingly, the validity of this simple morphological premise has never been questioned. There are however, few atolls in the Pacific Ocean that attain such a simple morphology with most manifesting one or more arcuate 'bight-like' structures (ABLSs). These departures from the circular form complicate his simplistic model and are indicative of geomorphological processes in the Pacific Ocean which cannot be ignored. ABLSs represent the surface morphological expression of major submarine failures of atoll volcanic foundations. Such failures can occur during any stage of atoll formation and are a valuable addition to Darwin's theory because they indicate the instability of the volcanic foundations. It is widely recognized in the research community that sector/flank collapses of island edifices are invariably tsunamigenic and yet we have no clear understanding of how significant such events are in the tsunami hazard arena. The recognition of ABLSs however, now offers scientists the opportunity to establish a first order database of potential local and regional tsunamigenic sources associated with the sector/flank collapses of island edifices. We illustrate the talk with examples of arcuate 'bight-like' structures and associated tsunamis in atoll and atoll-like environments. The implications for our understanding of tsunami hazards are profound. In essence, at present we are seriously under-estimating the significance of locally and regionally generated tsunamis throughout the entire Pacific Ocean, but we now have the opportunity to enhance our understanding of such events.

Goff, J. R.; Terry, J. P.

2012-12-01

138

Sea otter oil-spill mitigation study  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the study was to analyze the effectiveness of existing capture, transport, cleaning, and rehabilitation methods and develop new methods to reduce the impact of an accidental oil spill to California sea otters, resulting from the present conditions or from future Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) oil and gas development in State or Federal waters. In addition, the study investigated whether or not a systematic difference in thermal conductivity existed between the pelts of Alaska and California Sea otters. This was done to assure that conclusions drawn from the oiling experiments carried out at Hubbs Marine Research Institute, Tetra Tech, Inc. contributed to the overall study by preparing a literature review and report on the fate and effects of oil dispersants and chemically dispersed oil.

Davis, R.W.; Thomas, J.; Williams, T.M.; Kastelein, R.; Cornell, L.

1986-05-01

139

Volcanic Ash Image Products from MODIS for Aviation Safety and Natural Hazard Mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-spectral volcanic ash image products have been developed using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data from the NASA Terra spacecraft (Ellrod and Im 2003). Efforts are now underway to integrate these new products into the MODIS Data Retrieval System at NESDIS, for use in the operational Hazard Mapping System (HMS). The images will be used at the Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (W-VAAC) in the issuance of volcanic ash advisory statements to aircraft. In addition, the images will be made available to users in the global volcano and emergency management community via the World Wide Web. During the development process, good results (high detection rate with low ­false alarms­") were obtained from a tri-spectral combination of MODIS Infrared (IR) bands centered near 8.6, 11.0 and 12.0 ŸYm (Bands 29, 31, and 32). Optimum Red-Green-Blue false color composite images were developed to provide information on ash cloud location, as well as cloud phase and surface characteristics, to aid in interpretation both day and night. Information on volcanic ash derived from the tri-spectral product was displayed using the red color gun. This information was combined with visible (0.6 ŸYm) and near-IR (1.6 ŸYm) data for green and blue, respectively, during daylight periods. At night, the 8.6 ­V 11.0 ŸYm combination and 11.0 ŸYm band were used for the green and blue colors in the RGB product. Currently, raw MODIS data in five minute ­granules­" are processed for the following regions: (1) southern Alaska, (2) Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean, and (3) northern Andes region of South America. Image products are converted to Geo-spatial Information System (GIS) compatible formats for use in the HMS, and to Man-Computer Interactive Data Access System (McIDAS) ­Area File­" format for use in currently configured W-VAAC display systems. The installation of a high speed, fiber optic line from NASA Goddard Space Flight Center to the World Weather Building, Camp Springs, Maryland (scheduled for completion by Fall, 2003) will allow a full set of data to be processed from both Terra and Aqua spacecraft.

Stephens, G.; Ellrod, G. P.; Im, J.

2003-12-01

140

Probing Aircraft Flight Test Hazard Mitigation for the Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) Research Team . Volume 2; Appendices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) Project Integration Manager requested in July 2012 that the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) form a team to independently assess aircraft structural failure hazards associated with the ACCESS experiment and to identify potential flight test hazard mitigations to ensure flight safety. The ACCESS Project Integration Manager subsequently requested that the assessment scope be focused predominantly on structural failure risks to the aircraft empennage (horizontal and vertical tail). This report contains the Appendices to Volume I.

Kelly, Michael J.

2013-01-01

141

Scientific Animations for Tsunami Hazard Mitigation: The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center's YouTube Channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Outreach and education save lives, and the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) has a new tool--a YouTube Channel--to advance its mission to protect lives and property from dangerous tsunamis. Such outreach and education is critical for coastal populations nearest an earthquake since they may not get an official warning before a tsunami reaches them and will need to know what to do when they feel strong shaking. Those who live far enough away to receive useful official warnings and react to them, however, can also benefit from PTWC's education and outreach efforts. They can better understand a tsunami warning message when they receive one, can better understand the danger facing them, and can better anticipate how events will unfold while the warning is in effect. The same holds true for emergency managers, who have the authority to evacuate the public they serve, and for the news media, critical partners in disseminating tsunami hazard information. PTWC's YouTube channel supplements its formal outreach and education efforts by making its computer animations available 24/7 to anyone with an Internet connection. Though the YouTube channel is only a month old (as of August 2013), it should rapidly develop a large global audience since similar videos on PTWC's Facebook page have reached over 70,000 viewers during organized media events, while PTWC's official web page has received tens of millions of hits during damaging tsunamis. These animations are not mere cartoons but use scientific data and calculations to render graphical depictions of real-world phenomena as accurately as possible. This practice holds true whether the animation is a simple comparison of historic earthquake magnitudes or a complex simulation cycling through thousands of high-resolution data grids to render tsunami waves propagating across an entire ocean basin. PTWC's animations fall into two broad categories. The first group illustrates concepts about seismology and how it is critical to tsunami warning operations, such as those about earthquake magnitudes, how earthquakes are located, where and how often earthquakes occur, and fault rupture length. The second group uses the PTWC-developed tsunami forecast model, RIFT (Wang et al., 2012), to show how various historic tsunamis propagated through the world's oceans. These animations illustrate important concepts about tsunami behavior such as their speed, how they bend around and bounce off of seafloor features, how their wave heights vary from place to place and in time, and how their behavior is strongly influenced by the type of earthquake that generated them. PTWC's YouTube channel also includes an animation that simulates both seismic and tsunami phenomena together as they occurred for the 2011 Japan tsunami including actual sea-level measurements and proper timing for tsunami alert status, thus serving as a video 'time line' for that event and showing the time scales involved in tsunami warning operations. Finally, PTWC's scientists can use their YouTube channel to communicate with their colleagues in the research community by supplementing their peer-reviewed papers with video 'figures' (e.g., Wang et al., 2012).

Becker, N. C.; Wang, D.; Shiro, B.; Ward, B.

2013-12-01

142

Towards the Establishment of the Hawaii Integrated Seismic Network for Tsunami, Seismic, and Volcanic Hazard Mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NOAA Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) located in `Ewa Beach, Hawai`i, provides warnings to the State of Hawai`i regarding locally generated tsunamis. The USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) located in Hawai`i National Park monitors earthquakes on the island of Hawai`i in order to characterize volcanic and earthquake activity and hazards. In support of these missions, PTWC and HVO operate seismic networks for rapidly detecting and evaluating earthquakes for their tsunamigenic potential and volcanic risk, respectively. These existing seismic networks are comprised mostly of short-period vertical seismometers with analog data collection and transmission based on decades-old technology. The USGS National Strong Motion Program (NSMP) operates 31 accelerometers throughout the state, but none currently transmit their data in real time. As a result of enhancements to the U.S. Tsunami Program in the wake of the December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami disaster, PTWC is upgrading and expanding its seismic network using digital real-time telemetry from broadband and strong motion accelerometer stations. Through new cooperative agreements with partners including the USGS (HVO and NSMP), IRIS, University of Hawai`i, and Germany's GEOFON, the enhanced seismic network has been designed to ensure maximum benefit to all stakeholders. The Hawaii Integrated Seismic Network (HISN) will provide a statewide resource for tsunami, earthquake, and volcanic warnings. Furthermore, because all data will be archived by the IRIS Data Management Center (DMC), the HISN will become a research resource to greater scientific community. The performance target for the enhanced HISN is for PTWC to provide initial local tsunami warnings within 90 seconds of the earthquake origin time. This will be accomplished using real-time digital data transmission over redundant paths and by implementing contemporary analysis algorithms in real-time and near-real-time. Earthquake location, depth, and magnitude determination will be improved due to the better station coverage. More advanced seismic analysis techniques such as rapid characterization of the earthquake source will also be possible with HISN broadband data. Anticipated products from upgraded strong motion monitoring include ShakeMaps and earthquake rupture models. The HISN will ultimately consist of the following three types of stations: 12 broadband stations built to ANSS (Advanced National Seismic System) standards using STS-2 broadband seismometers and strong motion accelerometers, 15 new strong motion accelerometer stations, and at least 12 NSMP stations upgraded to real time digital communications. Combined with other existing broadband, short-period, and strong motion stations throughout Hawai`i, the HISN will greatly enhance seismic monitoring capabilities throughout the region. Although most seismicity in Hawai`i occurs under the Island of Hawai`i, large earthquakes do happen further up the island chain. Therefore, stations will be located on all major islands in order to optimize coverage. PTWC is currently finalizing site selection for new sites located on the islands of Kaua`i, O`ahu, Moloka`i, Lana`i, Maui, and Hawai`i. PTWC has begun installation of new stations and expects to have the entire HISN completed by late 2007 or early 2008.

Shiro, B. R.; Koyanagi, S. K.; Okubo, P. G.; Wolfe, C. J.

2006-12-01

143

Multi-scale earthquake hazard and risk in the Chinese mainland and countermeasures for the preparedness, mitigation, and management: an overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquake hazard and risk in the Chinese mainland exhibit multi-scale characteristics. Temporal scales from centuries to months, spatial scales from the whole mainland to specific engineering structures, and energy scales from great disastrous earthquakes to small earthquakes causing social disturbance and economic loss, feature the complexity of earthquake disasters. Coping with such complex challenge, several research and application projects have been undertaken since recent years. Lessons and experiences of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake contributed much to the launching and conducting of these projects. Understandings of the scientific problems and technical approaches taken in the mainstream studies in the Chinese mainland have no significant difference from those in the international scientific communities, albeit using of some of the terminologies have "cultural differences" - for instance, in the China Earthquake Administration (CEA), the terminology "earthquake forecast/prediction (study)" is generally used in a much broader sense, mainly indicating time-dependent seismic hazard at different spatio-temporal scales. Several scientific products have been produced serving the society in different forms. These scientific products have unique academic merits due to the long-term persistence feature and the forward forecast nature, which are all essential for the evaluation of the technical performance and the falsification of the scientific ideas. On the other hand, using the language of the "actor network theory (ANT)" in science studies (or the sociology of science), at present, the hierarchical "actors' network", making the science transformed to the actions of the public and government for the preparedness, mitigation, and management of multi-scale earthquake disasters, is still in need of careful construction and improvement.

Wu, Z.; Jiang, C.; Ma, T.

2012-12-01

144

A shape memory alloy-based reusable hysteretic damper for seismic hazard mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a special shape memory alloy-based hysteretic damper with distinctive features such as tunable hysteretic behavior and ability to withstand several design level earthquakes. Superelastic nitinol stranded wires are used for energy dissipation in this damping device, termed a reusable hysteretic damper (RHD). By adjusting its design parameters, the hysteretic behavior of the RHD can be modified to best fit the needs for passive structural control applications. Adjustable design parameters of the RHD include the inclination angle of the nitinol wires, pretension level, and friction effect. A simulation-based parametric study was carried out to examine the effects of these design parameters of the RHD on its energy dissipating performance. The effectiveness of the RHD in passive seismic response control of civil engineering structures is examined through a nonlinear dynamic analysis of a three-story steel frame building with and without an RHD. The simulation results suggest that it can effectively reduce the structural response of building structures subjected to strong earthquakes. With proper design, an RHD can be reused for several strong earthquakes without the need for repair, due to the high fatigue life of nitinol wires.

Zhang, Y.; Zhu, S.

2007-10-01

145

Regional governance and hazard information: the role of co-ordinated risk assessment and regional spatial accounting in wildfire hazard mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the threat of wildfire hanging over many communities in the Western and Southern United States, wildfire mitigation is evolving into a significant public responsibility for rural and urban edge county governments. Regional governance is an important piece of the effort to reduce wildfire risks although still weakly developed as a policy arena. This project explores two dimensions in which

Brian H. Muller; Li Yin

2010-01-01

146

Real-time monitoring of crustal deformation using large GPS geodetic networks - Japanese GEONET's potential as a natural hazards mitigation system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dense regional GPS geodetic networks have been successfully established to monitor crustal deformation and associated natural hazards. Procedures for early warning and rapid damage assessment, which are especially important in heavily populated areas, however, have, in most cases, not yet been fully incorporated into the data analysis of these networks. The GPS Earth Observation Network System (GEONET) in Japan, maintained by the Geographical Survey Institute (GSI), consists of an analysis center and an array of 1200 GPS stations that cover the entire country with an average spacing of about 20 km. In the past, precise site positions were calculated only once per day. Since 2001 GSI has been working toward real-time observations and analysis. Now, most sites sample at 1 Hz and transmit the measurements in real time to the analysis center. Using GEONET data from the time of the Mw=8.0 Tokachi-Oki earthquake (September 25, 2003) as a test case, this study focuses on a real-time applicable bootstrapping method to determine accurate absolute static and dynamic station motion. For this method we divide 121 stations from the northeastern part of Japan into 12 clusters; each cluster consists of 11 stations one of which is shared with the neighboring cluster. For each cluster, we calculate instantaneous baseline components for all stations of that cluster, using the Geodetics RTD software. Based on absolute (ITRF) coordinates of stations from clusters sufficiently remote from the epicenter we adjust the components of the shared stations and by means of the computed baselines then for all stations. This method thus yields absolute (ITRF) motion of stations within the epicentral region in real time. Using instantaneous position solutions from the day before and after the earthquake and comparing them to daily positions, we quantify error propagation introduced by our method. We find that for the sequence of 12 clusters spanning about 1000 km, RMS errors approximately double from the initial to the final cluster. Instantaneous coordinate accuracy is about 1-2 cm in the horizontal and 10-20 cm in the vertical, compared to the known ITRF coordinates of the stations. Theoretically this sequence can be extended to cover the entire Japanese archipelago keeping the above error rate. We conclude that coherent instantaneous (horizontal) position changes detected by a dense GPS network (like GEONET) could be used as part of an early warning system for mitigating natural hazards.

Yamagiwa, A.; Bock, Y.; Genrich, J.

2004-12-01

147

Avalanche Hazard Mitigation Strategies Assessed by Cost Effectiveness Analyses and Cost Benefit Analyses—evidence from Davos, Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper demonstrates the application of cost effectiveness analysis and cost benefit analysis to alternative avalanche\\u000a risk reduction strategies in Davos, Switzerland. The advantages as well as limitations of such analysis for natural hazards\\u000a planning are discussed with respect to 16 avalanche risk reduction strategies. Scenarios include risk reduction measures that\\u000a represent the main approaches to natural hazards planning in

Sven Fuchs; Magdalena Thöni; Maria Christina McAlpin; Urs Gruber; Michael Bründl

2007-01-01

148

Airborne gamma ray surveying in radon hazard evaluation: a case study from Norway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Geological Survey of Norway and Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority have established an approach to mapping radon hazards in Norway based on direct measurements of radon in indoor air, bedrock and drift geology mapping, and the mapping of radium in the ground using helicopter- and aeroplane-borne gamma-ray surveys. Existing indoor radon measurements are used to establish hazard profiles for the other three data sets. The multiple indications of hazard, from all four data sets, are then combined into a single hazard prognosis map. We have looked closely at the efficiency of the mapping method in the municipality of Gran (north of Oslo). The uranium rich alum shale and superficial deposits associated with it are the principal sources of indoor radon in the area. Small isolated granite bodies and local high permeability glacio-fluvial deposits contribute to the hazard picture. The method produces a liberal hazard map that encloses most of the known areas of severe radon contamination in dwellings and identifies additional uninhabited areas where similar levels of contamination can be expected (without mitigating action). The hazard evaluation in the Gran area is 81% efficient at enclosing high indoor radon measurements in the high hazard zone when this zone occupies 50% of the total geographic area. The probability of this distribution happening by chance is 0.054%. Of course, indoor radon measurements are the most valuable data set for establishing radon hazard levels accurately, but only where these measurements are abundant. In Norway such areas are very limited in spatial extent. We find airborne measurements to be the most effective supplementary data, followed in usefulness by knowledge of the bedrock geology and drift geology (at the 1:50,000 mapping scale). A further opportunity to test and refine our approach to radon hazard evaluation presents itself now with a new airborne gamma-ray survey over the Kongsberg region southwest of Oslo. The survey is currently underway over a geologically complex area known to be strongly affected by radon. A test of the approach in this area will be entirely independent of earlier studies and we are currently unaware of how well the hazard evaluation will perform. We expect to be able to show results from this survey during the meeting.

Smethurst, Mark A.; Liv Rudjord, Anne; Finne, Ingvild

2010-05-01

149

From structural investigation towards multi-parameter early warning systems: geophysical contributions to hazard mitigation at the landslide of Gschliefgraben (Gmunden, Upper Austria)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In December 2007 the large landslide system inside the Gschliefgraben valley (located at the east edge of the Traun lake, Upper Austria), known over centuries for its repeated activity, was reactivated. Although a hazard zone map was already set up in 1974, giving rise to a complete prohibition on building, some hundreds of people are living on the alluvial fan close to the lake. Consequently, in frame of the first emergency measures, 55 building had to be evacuated. Within the first phase of mitigation, measures were focused on property and infrastructure protection. Around 220 wells and one deep channel were implemented to drain the sliding mass. Additionally a big quantity of sliding material was removed close to the inhabited areas. Differential GPS and water level measurements were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the measures, which led to a significant slowdown of the movement. Soon after the suspension of the evacuation several investigations, including drilling, borehole logging and complex geophysical measurements were performed to investigate the structure of the landslide area in order to evaluate maximum hazard scenarios as a basis for planning further measures. Based on these results, measuring techniques for an adapted, future early warning system are currently being tested. This emergency system should enable local stakeholders to take appropriate and timely measures in case of a future event thus lessening the impact of a future disaster significantly. Within this tree-step-plan the application of geophysical methodologies was an integral part of the research and could considerably contribute to the success. Several innovative approaches were implemented which will be described in more detail within the talk. Airborne multi-sensor geophysical surveying is one of new and progressive approaches which can remarkably contribute to effectively analyse triggering processes of large landslides and to better predict their hazard. It was tested in Gschliefgraben earthflow and landslide complex in September 2009. Several parameters, such as vegetation thickness, soil moisture, potassium and thorium content (gamma ray) or four layer resistivity were the principal studied parameters. These parameters were compared with the landslide inventory map of Gschliefgraben developed from differential airborne laser scan terrain models. Since mass wasting is usually triggered by rising water pore pressure due to heavy rainfall or seismic tremors, often supported by changes in the shape, structure, and hydrology of a slope or vegetation cover. As the electrical resistivity of the subsurface mainly depends on porosity, saturation, pore fluid conductivity and clay content, the geoelectric method is a reliable method to investigate the structure of the landslide and surrounding and could be an emerging tool for observing those triggering factors. Therefore, first a multi-electrode geoelectrical survey was performed in a broader area of the active earthflow to verify the subsurface structure and to optimise the location for a monitoring system, followed by the installacion of the geoelectric monitoring system Geomon4D in September 2009. The monitoring profiles were complemented by an automatic DMS inclinometer to correlate measured resistivity values with displacement rates. Since the installation, the system works continuously and data is processed on a daily basis at the monitoring centre in Vienna. These works were supported by the 7th FP project "Safeland - Living with the landslide risk in Europe".

Supper, Robert; Baron, Ivo; Jochum, Birgit; Ita, Anna; Winkler, Edmund; Motschka, Klaus; Moser, Günter

2010-05-01

150

Recent Developments in Earthquake Hazards Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In recent years, there has been great progress understanding the underlying causes of earthquakes, as well as forecasting\\u000a their occurrence and preparing communities for their damaging effects. Plate tectonic theory explains the occurrence of earthquakes\\u000a at discrete plate boundaries, such as subduction zones and transform faults, but diffuse plate boundaries are also common.\\u000a Seismic hazards are distributed over a broad

Walter D. Mooney; Susan M. White

151

System Safety Hazards Assessment in Conceptual Program Trade Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Providing a program in the concept development phase with a method of determining system safety benefits of potential concepts has always been a challenge. Lockheed Martin Space and Strategic Missiles has developed a methodology for developing a relative system safety ranking using the potential hazards of each concept. The resulting output supports program decisions with system safety as an evaluation criterion with supporting data for evaluation. This approach begins with a generic hazards list that has been tailored for the program being studied and augmented with an initial hazard analysis. Each proposed concept is assessed against the list of program hazards and ranked in three derived areas. The hazards can be weighted to show those that are of more concern to the program. Sensitivities can be also be determined to test the robustness of the conclusions

Eben, Dennis M.; Saemisch, Michael K.

2003-01-01

152

Airflow Hazard Visualization for Helicopter Pilots: Flight Simulation Study Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Airflow hazards such as vortices or low level wind shear have been identified as a primary contributing factor in many helicopter accidents. US Navy ships generate airwakes over their decks, creating potentially hazardous conditions for shipboard rotorcraft launch and recovery. Recent sensor developments may enable the delivery of airwake data to the cockpit, where visualizing the hazard data may improve safety and possibly extend ship/helicopter operational envelopes. A prototype flight-deck airflow hazard visualization system was implemented on a high-fidelity rotorcraft flight dynamics simulator. Experienced helicopter pilots, including pilots from all five branches of the military, participated in a usability study of the system. Data was collected both objectively from the simulator and subjectively from post-test questionnaires. Results of the data analysis are presented, demonstrating a reduction in crash rate and other trends that illustrate the potential of airflow hazard visualization to improve flight safety.

Aragon, Cecilia R.; Long, Kurtis R.

2005-01-01

153

MITIGATION OF FAULT RUPTURE HAZARD TO WATER MAINS OF A MAJOR METROPOLITAN IN THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The City of Hayward is located in an area of high seismic hazard, primarily because the Hayward Fault runs through the center of the city. The Hayward Fault is one of the most active faults in the San Francisco Bay Area, and has an estimated probability of 28% of a major earthquake in the next 30 years. The expected

Ahmed NISAR; Douglas HONEGGER; Alex AMERI; Paul SUMMERS; Christopher HITCHCOCK; Anna LIU; Henry LOUIE; Jeffrey BACHHUBER

154

Comparison of flood hazard assessments on desert piedmonts and playas: A case study in Ivanpah Valley, Nevada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate and realistic characterizations of flood hazards on desert piedmonts and playas are increasingly important given the rapid urbanization of arid regions. Flood behavior in arid fluvial systems differs greatly from that of the perennial rivers upon which most conventional flood hazard assessment methods are based. Additionally, hazard assessments may vary widely between studies or even contradict other maps. This study's chief objective was to compare and evaluate landscape interpretation and hazard assessment between types of maps depicting assessments of flood risk in Ivanpah Valley, NV, as a case study. As a secondary goal, we explain likely causes of discrepancy between data sets to ameliorate confusion for map users. Four maps, including three different flood hazard assessments of Ivanpah Valley, NV, were compared: (i) a regulatory map prepared by FEMA, (ii) a soil survey map prepared by NRCS, (iii) a surficial geologic map, and (iv) a flood hazard map derived from the surficial geologic map, both of which were prepared by NBMG. GIS comparisons revealed that only 3.4% (33.9 km 2) of Ivanpah Valley was found to lie within a FEMA floodplain, while the geologic flood hazard map indicated that ~ 44% of Ivanpah Valley runs some risk of flooding (Fig. 2D). Due to differences in mapping methodology and scale, NRCS data could not be quantitatively compared, and other comparisons were complicated by differences in flood hazard class criteria and terminology between maps. Owing to its scale and scope of attribute data, the surficial geologic map provides the most useful information on flood hazards for land-use planning. This research has implications for future soil geomorphic mapping and flood risk mitigation on desert piedmonts and playas. The Ivanpah Valley study area also includes the location of a planned new international airport, thus this study has immediate implications for urban development and land-use planning near Las Vegas, NV.

Robins, Colin R.; Buck, Brenda J.; Williams, Amanda J.; Morton, Janice L.; House, P. Kyle; Howell, Michael S.; Yonovitz, Maureen L.

2009-02-01

155

Using fine-scale fuel measurements to assess wildland fuels, potential fire behavior and hazard mitigation treatments in the southeastern USA.  

SciTech Connect

The inherent spatial and temporal heterogeneity of fuelbeds in forests of the southeastern United States may require fine scale fuel measurements for providing reliable fire hazard and fuel treatment effectiveness estimates. In a series of five papers, an intensive, fine scale fuel inventory from the Savanna River Site in the southeastern United States is used for building fuelbeds and mapping fire behavior potential, evaluating fuel treatment options for effectiveness, and providing a comparative analysis of landscape modeled fire behavior using three different data sources including the Fuel Characteristic Classification System, LANDFIRE, and the Southern Wildfire Risk Assessment. The research demonstrates that fine scale fuel measurements associated with fuel inventories repeated over time can be used to assess broad scale wildland fire potential and hazard mitigation treatment effectiveness in the southeastern USA and similar fire prone regions. Additional investigations will be needed to modify and improve these processes and capture the true potential of these fine scale data sets for fire and fuel management planning.

Ottmar, Roger, D.; Blake, John, I.; Crolly, William, T.

2012-01-01

156

Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment: the Seaside, Oregon Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot study of Seaside, Oregon is underway, to develop methodologies for probabilistic tsunami hazard assessments that can be incorporated into Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs) developed by FEMA's National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). Current NFIP guidelines for tsunami hazard assessment rely on the science, technology and methodologies developed in the 1970s; although generally regarded as groundbreaking and state-of-the-art for

F. I. Gonzalez; E. L. Geist; C. Synolakis; V. V. Titov

2004-01-01

157

Change of seismic process under irradiation of the crust by electromagnetic discharge and the problem of seismic hazard mitigation.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of high-energy electromagnetic pulses emitted by a magnetohydrodynamic generator used as a source for deep electrical sounding of the crust on spatial-temporal structure of seismicity is explored. It has been shown that 2-6 days after effect of electromagnetic pulses there is statistically significant activation of relatively small earthquakes in the regions of study. The total seismic energy of initiated earthquakes is five- six orders of magnitude higher than the energy transmitted by the generator to the radiating dipole. The spatial correlation of earthquake density for each two contiguous years as a function of time was studied. Five-six years periodicity of changes in spatial distribution of seismicity was detected. It was shown that the effect of electromagnetic pulses increases the stability of the spatial distribution of earthquakes over time and simultaneously speeds up cycles of its transformation, which develop on stabilization background. The time change of the fractal dimension of the spatial epicenter's distribution was investigated too. It was found that the fractal dimensions fluctuates about a level 1.48 for the time period before the generator experiments. The beginning of the regular irradiation of the are under study by electromagnetic pulses is followed by gradual falloff in values of fractal dimension inside near field area of the radiating dipole. The decrease of the former is observed during all period of conducting of the electrical sounding. Therefore, the effect of electromagnetic pulses causes the increase of the spatial clustering of the earthquakes. Then fractal dimension gradually increases to a background level. Note that the time interval when the values of the fractal dimension were less that the background level, coincides with the time period in which increasing the stability of the spatial distribution of seismicity over time was observed. The results of the study show that action of high energy electromagnetic discharges radiated by the generators causes substantial changes of spatial temporal property of the seismic process of earthquake source zones and accelerates the release of energy stored in the crust due to the activity of natural tectonic processes, thus serving as a kind of trigger. Based on the energy balance assumption for the crust, we conclude that a man-made increase in part of the seismic energy radiated in the form of flow of relatively small earthquakes leads to an additional release of tectonic stresses, thereby diminishing the likelihood of catastrophic events (or at any rate, reduces the energy of such events). If this assumption will be confirmed by further investigations, the detected effect could be used to develop a technique of decrease of seismic hazard by artificial discharge of tectonic stress by actions of electromagnetic pulses on the crust in the earthquake source zones.

Velikhov, E. P.; Gliko, A. O.; Tarasov, N. T.

2008-12-01

158

Remote sensing applied in natural hazards mitigation - experiences from the international UNESCO/IUGS GARS-Program 1984 - 2002  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Worldwide resources of arable land, water, groundwater, forest and expanding human habitat are under increasing pressure almost anywhere. Especially the non- industrialised countries with their rapidly increasing population are facing severe problems from natural catastrophes such as landslides, volcanic and seismic hazards, soil degradation and shortage of water or flooding. Geo-environmental research can help to identify the causes for these events, define the rehabilitation and can lead to early warning systems. Remote sensing adds considerable knowledge by providing a wide variety of sensors applied form airborne and space platforms, the data of which, once analysed, can provide completely new observations on natural risk areas. The UNESCO/IUGS sponsored GARS Program since 1984 is conducting- joint research with institutions in industrialised and developing countries. As of today, more than 40 institutes and individuals worldwide have joined the GARS- Program. Results of their research are among others contributions toLandslide assessment qVolcanic risk qCoastal hazards qDesertification processes q Space organisations and financing institutions serving developing nations are requested to help to deploy new sensors to monitor geo-dynamic processes, providing free and direct data reception in all parts of the world in order to allow national institutes to develop their own early warning capabilities.

Bannert, D.

159

A study on seismicity and seismic hazard for Karnataka State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a detailed study on the seismic pattern of the state of Karnataka and also quantifies the seismic hazard for the entire state. In the present work, historical and instrumental seismicity data for Karnataka (within 300 km from Karnataka political boundary) were compiled and hazard analysis was done based on this data. Geographically, Karnataka forms a part of peninsular India which is tectonically identified as an intraplate region of Indian plate. Due to the convergent movement of the Indian plate with the Eurasian plate, movements are occurring along major intraplate faults resulting in seismic activity of the region and hence the hazard assessment of this region is very important. Apart from referring to seismotectonic atlas for identifying faults and fractures, major lineaments in the study area were also mapped using satellite data. The earthquake events reported by various national and international agencies were collected until 2009. Declustering of earthquake events was done to remove foreshocks and aftershocks. Seismic hazard analysis was done for the state of Karnataka using both deterministic and probabilistic approaches incorporating logic tree methodology. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) at rock level was evaluated for the entire state considering a grid size of 0.05° × 0.05°. The attenuation relations proposed for stable continental shield region were used in evaluating the seismic hazard with appropriate weightage factors. Response spectra at rock level for important Tier II cities and Bangalore were evaluated. The contour maps showing the spatial variation of PGA values at bedrock are presented in this work.

Sitharam, T. G.; James, Naveen; Vipin, K. S.; Raj, K. Ganesha

2012-04-01

160

RADON MITIGATION IN SCHOOLS: CASE STUDIES OF RADON MITIGATION SYSTEMS INSTALLED BY EPA IN FOUR MARYLAND SCHOOLS ARE PRESENTED  

EPA Science Inventory

The first part of this two-part paper discusses radon entry into schools, radon mitigation approaches for schools, and school characteristics (e.g., heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning -- HVAC-- system design and operation) that influence radon entry and mitigation system ...

161

Mitigation of climate change impacts on maize productivity in northeast of Iran: a simulation study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development and evaluation of mitigation strategies are fundamental to manage climate change risks. This study was built on\\u000a (1) quantifying the response of maize (Zea mays L.) grain yield to potential impacts of climate change and (2) investigating the effectiveness of changing sowing date of\\u000a maize as a mitigation option for Khorasan Province which is located in northeast of Iran.

Azam Lashkari; Amin Alizadeh; Ehsan Eyshi Rezaei; Mohammad Bannayan

2012-01-01

162

Volcanic Hazard Studies for the Yucca Mountain Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Volcanic hazard studies are ongoing to evaluate the risk of future volcanism with respect to siting of a repository for disposal of high-level radioactive waste at the Yucca Mountain site. Seven Quaternary basaltic volcanic centers are located a minimum d...

B. Crowe B. Turrin S. Wells F. Perry L. McFadden

1989-01-01

163

A CASE STUDY OF HAZARDOUS WASTES IN CLASS I LANDFILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

This study documents the average concentration, estimated daily deposition, and partitioning of 17 metal species in hazardous wastes discharged to five Class I landfill sites in the greater Los Angeles area. These sites receive a combined estimated daily volume of 2.3 x 10 to the...

164

K Basin Hazard Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The K East (KE)/K West (KW) Basins in the 100 K Area of the Hanford Site have been used for storage of irradiated N Reactor and single-pass reactor fuel. Remaining spent fuel is continuing to be stored underwater in racks and canisters in the basins while fuel retrieval activities proceed to remove the fuel from the basins. The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project is adding equipment to the facility in preparation for removing the fuel and sludge from the basins In preparing this hazard analysis, a variety of hazard analysis techniques were used by the K Basins hazard analysis team, including hazard and operability studies, preliminary hazard analyses, and ''what if'' analyses (WHC-SD-SNF-PHA-001, HNF-2032, HNF-2456, and HNF-SD-SNF-SAD-002). This document summarizes the hazard analyses performed as part of the safety evaluations for the various modification projects and combines them with the original hazard analyses to create a living hazard analysis document. As additional operational activities and modifications are developed, this document will be updated as needed to ensure it covers all the hazards at the K Basins in a summary form and to ensure the subsequent safety analysis is bounding. This hazard analysis also identifies the preliminary set of design features and controls that the facility could rely on to prevent or reduce the frequency or mitigate consequences of identified accident conditions based on their importance and significance to safety. The operational controls and institutional programs relied on for prevention or mitigation of an uncontrolled release are identified as potential technical safety requirements. All operational activities and energy sources at the K Basins are evaluated in this hazard analysis. Using a systematic approach, this document identifies hazards created by abnormal operating conditions and external events (e.g., earthquakes) that have the potential for causing undesirable consequences to the facility worker, the onsite individual, or the public. This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and complies with the requirements of 10 CFR 830.

SEMMENS, L.S.

2001-04-20

165

Mitigating mass movement caused by earthquakes and typhoons: a case study of central Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Typhoons caused huge damages to Taiwan at the average of 3.8 times a year in the last 100 years, according to Central Weather Bureau data. After the Chi-Chi earthquake of 1999 at the magnitude of Richard Scale 7.3, typhoons with huge rainfall would cause huge debris flow and deposits at river channels. As a result of earthquakes, loose debris falls and flows became significant hazards in central Taiwan. Analysis of rainfall data and data about the sites of slope failure show that damage from natural hazards was enhanced in the last 20 years, as a result of the Chi-Chi earthquake. There are three main types of mass movement in Central Taiwan: landslides, debris flows and gully erosion. Landslides occurred mainly along hill slopes and river channel banks. Many dams, check dams, housing structures and even river channels can be raised to as high as 60 meters as a result of stacking up floating materials of landslides. Debris flows occurred mainly through typhoon periods and activated ancient debris deposition. New gullies were thus developed from deposits loosened and shaken up by earthquakes. Extreme earthquakes and typhoon events occurred frequently in the last 20 years. This paper analyzes the geological and geomorphologic background for the precarious areas and typhoons in central Taiwan, to make a systematic understanding of mass movement harzards. The mechanism and relations of debris flows and rainfall data in central Taiwan are analyzed. Ways for mitigating mass movement threats are also proposed in this paper. Keywords: mass movement, earthquakes, typhoons, hazard mitigation, central Ta

Lin, Jiun-Chuan

2013-04-01

166

Satellite Monitoring of Ash and Sulphur Dioxide for the mitigation of Aviation Hazards: Part II. Validation of satellite-derived Volcanic Sulphur Dioxide Levels.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull in the spring of 2010 turned the attention of both the public and the scientific community to the susceptibility of the European airspace to the outflows of large volcanic eruptions. The ash-rich plume from Eyjafjallajökull drifted towards Europe and caused major disruptions of European air traffic for several weeks affecting the everyday life of millions of people and with a strong economic impact. This unparalleled situation revealed limitations in the decision making process due to the lack of information on the tolerance to ash of commercial aircraft engines as well as limitations in the ash monitoring and prediction capabilities. The European Space Agency project Satellite Monitoring of Ash and Sulphur Dioxide for the mitigation of Aviation Hazards, was introduced to facilitate the development of an optimal End-to-End System for Volcanic Ash Plume Monitoring and Prediction. This system is based on comprehensive satellite-derived ash plume and sulphur dioxide [SO2] level estimates, as well as a widespread validation using supplementary satellite, aircraft and ground-based measurements. The validation of volcanic SO2 levels extracted from the sensors GOME-2/MetopA and IASI/MetopA are shown here with emphasis on the total column observed right before, during and after the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruptions. Co-located ground-based Brewer Spectrophotometer data extracted from the World Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation Data Centre, WOUDC, were compared to the different satellite estimates. The findings are presented at length, alongside a comprehensive discussion of future scenarios.

Koukouli, MariLiza; Balis, Dimitris; Dimopoulos, Spiros; Clarisse, Lieven; Carboni, Elisa; Hedelt, Pascal; Spinetti, Claudia; Theys, Nicolas; Tampellini, Lucia; Zehner, Claus

2014-05-01

167

Satellite Monitoring of Ash and Sulphur Dioxide for the mitigation of Aviation Hazards: Part I. Validation of satellite-derived Volcanic Ash Levels.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2010 eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull attracted the attention of the public and the scientific community to the vulnerability of the European airspace to volcanic eruptions. Major disruptions in European air traffic were observed for several weeks surrounding the two eruptive episodes, which had a strong impact on the everyday life of many Europeans as well as a noticable economic loss of around 2-3 billion Euros in total. The eruptions made obvious that the decision-making bodies were not informed properly and timely about the commercial aircraft capabilities to ash-leaden air, and that the ash monitoring and prediction potential is rather limited. After the Eyjafjallajökull eruptions new guidelines for aviation, changing from zero tolerance to newly established ash threshold values, were introduced. Within this spirit, the European Space Agency project Satellite Monitoring of Ash and Sulphur Dioxide for the mitigation of Aviation Hazards, called for the creation of an optimal End-to-End System for Volcanic Ash Plume Monitoring and Prediction . This system is based on improved and dedicated satellite-derived ash plume and sulphur dioxide level assessments, as well as an extensive validation using auxiliary satellite, aircraft and ground-based measurements. The validation of volcanic ash levels extracted from the sensors GOME-2/MetopA, IASI/MetopA and MODIS/Terra and MODIS/Aqua is presented in this work with emphasis on the ash plume height and ash optical depth levels. Co-located aircraft flights, Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation [CALIPSO] soundings and well as European Aerosol Research Lidar Network [EARLINET] measurements were compared to the different satellite estimates for the those two eruptive episodes. The validation results are extremely promising with most satellite sensors performing quite well and within the estimated uncertainties compared to the comparative datasets. The findings are extensively presented here and future directions discussed in length.

Koukouli, MariLiza; Balis, Dimitris; Simopoulos, Spiros; Siomos, Nikos; Clarisse, Lieven; Carboni, Elisa; Wang, Ping; Siddans, Richard; Marenco, Franco; Mona, Lucia; Pappalardo, Gelsomina; Spinetti, Claudia; Theys, Nicolas; Tampellini, Lucia; Zehner, Claus

2014-05-01

168

SODIUM-POTASSIUM ALLOY. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF ITS HAZARDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

S>The thermal, chemical, and radiation hazards of liquid sodium--; potassium alloy (NaK) have been reviewed and the nature of the therapeutic ; problems has been evaluated. Experiments with an artificial indicator system ; were performed in a study of the penetration of test films by NaK. In the light ; of these investigations it is suggested that 1.0 to 2.5%

A. J. Finkel; W. B. Lyons

1958-01-01

169

A study of shock mitigating materials in a split Hopkinson bar configuration  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) designs mechanical systems with electronics that must survive high shock environments. These mechanical systems include penetrators that must survive soil, rock, and ice penetration, nuclear transportation casks that must survive transportation environments, and laydown weapons that must survive delivery impact of 125-fps. These mechanical systems contain electronics that may operate during and after the high shock environment and that must be protected from the high shock environments. A study has been started to improve the packaging techniques for the advanced electronics utilized in these mechanical systems because current packaging techniques are inadequate for these more sensitive electronics. In many cases, it has been found that the packaging techniques currently used not only do not mitigate the shock environment but actually amplify the shock environment. An ambitious goal for this packaging study is to avoid amplification and possibly attenuate the shock environment before it reaches the electronics contained in the various mechanical system. As part of the investigation of packaging techniques, a two part study of shock mitigating materials is being conducted. This paper reports the first part of the shock mitigating materials study. A study to compare three thicknesses (0.125, 0.250, and 0.500 in.) of seventeen, unconfined materials for their shock mitigating characteristics has been completed with a split Hopkinson bar configuration. The nominal input as measured by strain gages on the incident Hopkinson bar is 50 fps {at} 100 {micro}s for these tests. It is hypothesized that a shock mitigating material has four purposes: to lengthen the shock pulse, to attenuate the shock pulse, to mitigate high frequency content in the shock pulse, and to absorb energy. Both time domain and frequency domain analyses of the split Hopkinson bar data have been performed to compare the materials` achievement of these purposes.

Bateman, V.I.; Bell, R.G. III; Brown, F.A.; Hansen, N.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Design, Evaluation and Test Technology Center

1996-12-31

170

Channelized debris flow hazard mitigation through the use of flexible barriers: a simplified computational approach for a sensitivity analysis.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A channelized debris flow is usually represented by a mixture of solid particles of various sizes and water, flowing along a laterally confined inclined channel-shaped region up to an unconfined area where it slow down its motion and spreads out into a flat-shaped mass. The study of these phenomena is very difficult due to their short duration and unpredictability, lack of historical data for a given basin and complexity of the involved mechanical phenomena. The post event surveys allow for the identification of some depositional features and provide indication about the maximum flow height; however they lack information about development of the phenomena with time. For this purpose the monitoring of recursive events has been carried out by several Authors. Most of the studies, aimed at the determination of the characteristic features of a debris flow, were carried out in artificial channels, where the main involved variables were measured and other where controlled during the tests; however, some uncertainties remained and other scaled models where developed to simulate the deposition mechanics as well as to analyze the transportation mechanics and the energy dissipation. The assessment of the mechanical behavior of the protection structures upon impact with the flow as well as the energy associated to it are necessary for the proper design of such structures that, in densely populated area, can avoid victims and limit the destructive effects of such a phenomenon. In this work a simplified structural model, developed by the Authors for the safety assessment of retention barrier against channelized debris flow, is presented and some parametric cases are interpreted through the proposed approach; this model is developed as a simplified and efficient tool to be used for the verification of the supporting cables and foundations of a flexible debris flow barrier. The present analytical and numerical-based approach has a different aim of a FEM model. The computational experiences by using FEM modeling for these kind of structures, had shown that a large amount of time for both the geometrical setup of the model and its computation is necessary. The big effort required by FEM for this class of problems limits the actual possibility to investigate different geometrical configurations, load schemes etc. and it is suitable to represent a specific configuration but it does not allow for investigation of the influence of parameter changes. On the other hand parametrical analysis are common practice in geotechnical design for the quoted reasons. Consequently, the Authors felt the need to develop a simplified method (which is not yet available in our knowledge) that allow to perform several parametrical analysis in a limited time. It should be noted that, in this paper, no consideration regarding the mechanical and physical behavior of debris flows are carried out; the proposed model requires the input of parameters that must be acquired through a preliminary characterization of the design event. However, adopting the proposed tool, the designer will be able to perform sensitivity analysis that will help in quantify the influence of parameters variability as commonly occurs in geotechnical design.

Segalini, Andrea; Ferrero, Anna Maria; Brighenti, Roberto

2013-04-01

171

44 CFR 78.6 - Flood Mitigation Plan approval process.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flood Mitigation Plan approval process. 78.6 Section...SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION ASSISTANCE § 78.6 Flood...

2013-10-01

172

44 CFR 78.5 - Flood Mitigation Plan development.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flood Mitigation Plan development. 78.5 Section 78...SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION ASSISTANCE § 78.5 Flood...

2013-10-01

173

A simulation model for studying the role of pre-slaughter factors on the exposure of beef carcasses to human microbial hazards  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Monte Carlo simulation model was constructed for assessing the quantity of microbial hazards deposited on cattle carcasses under different pre-slaughter management regimens. The model permits comparison of industry-wide and abattoir-based mitigation strategies and is suitable for studying pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. Simulations are based on a hierarchical model structure that mimics important aspects of

D Jordan; S. A McEwen; A. M Lammerding; W. B McNab; J. B Wilson

1999-01-01

174

A STUDY ON GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND MITIGATION POTENTIALS IN AGRICULRE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, world food production and consumption are estimated from 2005 to 2030 using a model developed by General-to-specific modeling methodology. Based on the agricultural production, we estimated GHG emissions and mitigation potentials and evaluated mitigation countermeasures in agriculture. As a result, world crop and meat production will increase by 1.4 and 1.3 times respectively up to 2030. World GHG emissions from agriculture were 5.7 GtCO2eq in 2005. CH4 emission from enteric fermentation and N2O emission from nitrogen fertilizer contributed a large part of the emissions. In 2030, technical and economical mitigation potentials will be 2.0 GtCO2eq and 1.2 GtCO2eq respectively. The potentials correspond to 36% and 22% of total emissions in 2000. The countermeasures with highest effects will be water management in rice paddy such as "Midseason drainage" and "Off-season straw".

Hasegawa, Tomoko; Matsuoka, Yuzuru

175

Mitigating Hazards in School Facilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School safety is a human concern, one that every school and community must take seriously and strive continually to achieve. It is also a legal concern; schools can be held liable if they do not make good-faith efforts to provide a safe and secure school environment. How schools are built and maintained is an integral part of school safety and…

National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2008

2008-01-01

176

Probabilistic seismic hazard characterization and design parameters for the Pantex Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hazards Mitigation Center at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) updated the seismic hazard and design parameters at the Pantex Plant. The probabilistic seismic hazard (PSH) estimates were first updated using the latest available data and knowledge from LLNL (1993, 1998), Frankel et al. (1996), and other relevant recent studies from several consulting companies. Special attention was given to account

D. L. Bernreuter; W. Foxall; J. B. Savy

1998-01-01

177

Insights from EMF Associated Agricultural and Forestry Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Studies  

SciTech Connect

Integrated assessment modeling (IAM) as employed by the Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) generally involves a multi-sector appraisal of greenhouse gas emission (GHGE) mitigation alternatives and climate change effects typically at the global level. Such a multi-sector evaluation encompasses potential climate change effects and mitigative actions within the agricultural and forestry (AF) sectors. In comparison with many of the other sectors covered by IAM, the AF sectors may require somewhat different treatment due to their critical dependence upon spatially and temporally varying resource and climatic conditions. In particular, in large countries like the United States, forest production conditions vary dramatically across the landscape. For example, some areas in the southern US present conditions favorable to production of fast growing, heat tolerant pine species, while more northern regions often favor slower-growing hardwood and softwood species. Moreover, some lands are currently not suitable for forest production (e.g., the arid western plains). Similarly, in agriculture, the US has areas where citrus and cotton can be grown and other areas where barley and wheat are more suitable. This diversity across the landscape causes differential GHGE mitigation potential in the face of climatic changes and/or responses to policy or price incentives. It is difficult for a reasonably sized global IAM system to reflect the full range of sub-national geographic AF production possibilities alluded to above. AF response in the face of climate change altered temperature precipitation regimes or mitigation incentives will likely involve region-specific shifts in land use and agricultural/forest production. This chapter addresses AF sectoral responses in climate change mitigation analysis. Specifically, we draw upon US-based studies of AF GHGE mitigation possibilities that incorporate sub-national detail drawing largely on a body of studies done by the authors in association with EMF activities. We discuss characteristics of AF sectoral responses that could be incorporated in future IAM efforts in climate change policy.

McCarl, Bruce A.; Murray, Brian; Kim, Man-Keun; Lee, Heng-Chi; Sands, Ronald D.; Schneider, Uwe

2007-11-19

178

Interventionist and participatory approaches to flood risk mitigation decisions: two case studies in the Italian Alps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood risk mitigation decisions pose key challenges not only from a technical but also from a social, economic and political viewpoint. There is an increasing demand for improving the quality of these processes by including different stakeholders - and especially by involving the local residents in the decision making process - and by guaranteeing the actual improvement of local social capacities during and after the decision making. In this paper we analyse two case studies of flood risk mitigation decisions, Malborghetto-Valbruna and Vipiteno-Sterzing, in the Italian Alps. In both of them, mitigation works have been completed or planned, yet following completely different approaches especially in terms of responses of residents and involvement of local authorities. In Malborghetto-Valbruna an 'interventionist' approach (i.e. leaning towards a top down/technocratic decision process) was used to make decisions after the flood event that affected the municipality in the year 2003. In Vipiteno-Sterzing, a 'participatory' approach (i.e. leaning towards a bottom-up/inclusive decision process) was applied: decisions about risk mitigation measures were made by submitting different projects to the local citizens and by involving them in the decision making process. The analysis of the two case studies presented in the paper is grounded on the results of two research projects. Structured and in-depth interviews, as well as questionnaire surveys were used to explore residents' and local authorities' orientations toward flood risk mitigation. Also a SWOT analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) involving key stakeholders was used to better understand the characteristics of the communities and their perception of flood risk mitigation issues. The results highlight some key differences between interventionist and participatory approaches, together with some implications of their adoption in the local context. Strengths and weaknesses of the two approaches, as well as key challenges for the future are also discussed.

Bianchizza, C.; Del Bianco, D.; Pellizzoni, L.; Scolobig, A.

2012-04-01

179

Versatile gas gun target assembly for studying blast wave mitigation in materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has become a serious problem for military personnel returning from recent conflicts. This has increased interest in investigating blast mitigating materials for use in helmets. In this paper we describe a new versatile target assembly that is used with an existing gas gun for studying these materials.

Bartyczak, S.; Mock, W., Jr.

2012-03-01

180

Study of Control Parameters for Separation Mitigation Using an Asymmetric Single Dielectric Barrier Plasma Actuator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Separation mitigation using asymmetric dielectric barrier discharges is studied by considering the neutral gas flow past a flat plate at an angle of attack. A self-consistent plasma actuator model is employed to couple the electric force field to the mome...

D. V. Gaitonde K. P. Singh S. Roy

2006-01-01

181

A preliminary study on the mechanism of harmful algal bloom mitigation by use of sophorolipid treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate a new method of mitigating the deleterious effect of harmful algal blooms (HABs), the inhibition of the glycolipid biosurfactant sophorolipid on three common harmful algae Alexandrium tamarense, Heterosigma akashiwo and Cochlodinium polykrikoides was studied. The optimum preparation condition for sophorolipid, the inhibition capability of sophorolipid and the interaction mechanism of sophorolipid on the three algal species

Xiao-Xia Sun; Joong-Ki Choi; Eun-Ki Kim

2004-01-01

182

CASE STUDY OF RADON DIAGNOSTICS AND MITIGATION IN A NEW YORK STATE SCHOOL  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses a case study of radon diagnostics and mitigation performed by EPA in a New York State school building. esearch focused on active subslab depressurization (ASD) in the basement and, to a lesser degree, the potential for radon reduction in the basement and slab-...

183

Process support for risk mitigation: a case study of variability and resilience in vascular surgery  

PubMed Central

Objective To inform the design of IT support, the authors explored the characteristics and sources of process variability in a surgical care process that transcends multiple institutions and professional boundaries. Setting A case study of the care process in the Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm surveillance programme of three hospitals in Norway. Design Observational study of encounters between patients and surgeons accompanied by semistructured interviews of patients and key health personnel. Results Four process variety dimensions were identified. The captured process variations were further classified into intended and unintended variations according to the cause of the variations. Our main findings, however, suggest that the care process is best understood as systematised analysis and mitigation of risk. Even if major variations accommodated for the flexibility needed to achieve particular clinical aims and/or to satisfy patient preferences, other variations reflected healthcare actors' responses to risks arising from a lack of resilience in the existing system. On this basis, the authors outlined suggestions for a resilience-based approach by including awareness in workflow as well as feedback loops for adaptive learning. The authors suggest that IT process support should be designed to prevent process breakdowns with patient dropouts as well as to sustain risk-mitigating performance. Conclusion Process variation was in part induced by systemised risk mitigation. IT-based process support for monitoring processes such as that studied here should aim to ensure resilience and further mitigate risk to enhance patient safety.

Faxvaag, Arild; Seim, Andreas

2011-01-01

184

Issues in Transportation Noise Mitigation: Highway and Railway Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 11 papers in this report deal with the following areas: noise studies for the San Antonio 'Y' project; evaluation of T-profile highway noise barriers; noise-compatible development: a pilot demonstration project; determination of reference energy mean ...

G. S. Anderson J. J. Hajek C. T. Blaney M. T. Stahr R. A. Harris

1984-01-01

185

A study of shock mitigating materials in a split Hopkinson bar configuration. Phase 1  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) designs mechanical systems with electronics that must survive high shock environments. These mechanical systems include penetrators that must survive soil, rock, and ice penetration, nuclear transportation casks that must survive transportation environments, and laydown weapons that must survive delivery impact of 125 fps. These mechanical systems contain electronics that may operate during and after the high shock environment and that must be protected from the high shock environments. A study has been started to improve the packaging techniques for the advanced electronics utilized in these mechanical systems because current packaging techniques are inadequate for these more sensitive electronics. In many cases, it has been found that the packaging techniques currently used not only do not mitigate the shock environment but actually amplify the shock environment. An ambitious goal for this packaging study is to avoid amplification and possibly attenuate the shock environment before it reaches the electronics contained in the various mechanical systems. As part of the investigation of packaging techniques, a two phase study of shock mitigating materials is being conducted. The purpose of the first phase reported here is to examine the performance of a joint that consists of shock mitigating material sandwiched in between steel and to compare the performance of the shock mitigating materials. A split Hopkinson bar experimental configuration simulates this joint and has been used to study the shock mitigating characteristics of seventeen, unconfined materials. The nominal input for these tests is an incident compressive wave with 50 fps peak (1,500 {micro}{var_epsilon} peak) amplitude and a 100 {micro}s duration (measured at 10% amplitude).

Bateman, V.I.; Brown, F.A.; Hansen, N.R.

1998-06-01

186

Airflow Hazard Visualization for Helicopter Pilots: Flight Simulation Study Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airflow hazards such as vortices or low level wind shear have been identified as a primary contributing factor in many helicopter accidents. US Navy ships generate airwakes over their decks, creating potentially hazardous conditions for shipboard rotorcraft launch and recovery. Recent sensor developments may enable the delivery of airwake data to the cockpit, where visualizing the hazard data may improve

Cecilia R. Aragon; Kurtis R. Long

187

Mitigating Resistance to Teaching Science through Inquiry: Studying Self  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the report of a qualitative emergent-design study of 2 different Web-enhanced science methods courses for preservice elementary teachers in which an experiential learning strategy, labeled "using yourself as a learning laboratory," was implemented. Emergent grounded theory indicated this strategy, when embedded in a course organized as an…

Spector, Barbara; Burkett, Ruth S.; Leard, Cyndy

2007-01-01

188

Methodological Issues In Forestry Mitigation Projects: A CaseStudy Of Kolar District  

SciTech Connect

There is a need to assess climate change mitigationopportunities in forest sector in India in the context of methodologicalissues such as additionality, permanence, leakage, measurement andbaseline development in formulating forestry mitigation projects. A casestudy of forestry mitigation project in semi-arid community grazing landsand farmlands in Kolar district of Karnataka, was undertaken with regardto baseline and project scenariodevelopment, estimation of carbon stockchange in the project, leakage estimation and assessment ofcost-effectiveness of mitigation projects. Further, the transaction coststo develop project, and environmental and socio-economic impact ofmitigation project was assessed.The study shows the feasibility ofestablishing baselines and project C-stock changes. Since the area haslow or insignificant biomass, leakage is not an issue. The overallmitigation potential in Kolar for a total area of 14,000 ha under variousmitigation options is 278,380 tC at a rate of 20 tC/ha for the period2005-2035, which is approximately 0.67 tC/ha/yr inclusive of harvestregimes under short rotation and long rotation mitigation options. Thetransaction cost for baseline establishment is less than a rupee/tC andfor project scenario development is about Rs. 1.5-3.75/tC. The projectenhances biodiversity and the socio-economic impact is alsosignificant.

Ravindranath, N.H.; Murthy, I.K.; Sudha, P.; Ramprasad, V.; Nagendra, M.D.V.; Sahana, C.A.; Srivathsa, K.G.; Khan, H.

2007-06-01

189

Studies of millimeter-wave phenomenology for helicopter brownout mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unique ability of the millimeter-wave portion of the spectrum to penetrate typical visual obscurants has resulted in a wide range of possible applications for imagers in this spectrum. Of particular interest to the military community are imagers that can operate effectively in Degraded Visual Environments (DVE's) experienced by helicopter pilots when landing in dry, dusty environments, otherwise known as "brownout." One of the first steps to developing operational requirements for imagers in this spectrum is to develop a quantitative understanding of the phenomenology that governs imaging in these environments. While preliminary studies have been done in this area, quantitative, calibrated measurements of typical targets and degradation of target contrasts due to brownout conditions are not available. To this end, we will present results from calibrated, empirical measurements of typical targets of interest to helicopter pilots made in a representative desert environment. In addition, real-time measurements of target contrast reduction due to brownout conditions generated by helicopter downwash will be shown. These data were acquired using a W-band, dual-polarization radiometric scanner using optical-upconversion detectors.

Schuetz, Christopher A.; Stein, E. Lee, Jr.; Samluk, Jesse; Mackrides, Daniel; Wilson, John P.; Martin, Richard D.; Dillon, Thomas E.; Prather, Dennis W.

2009-09-01

190

Status of Volcanic Hazard Studies for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Volcanism studies of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) region are concerned with hazards of future volcanism with respect to underground disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The hazards of silicic volcanism are judged to be negligible; hazards of basaltic v...

B. M. Crowe D. T. Vaniman W. J. Carr

1983-01-01

191

Adaptive management for mitigating Cryptosporidium risk in source water: A case study in an agricultural catchment in South Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water-borne pathogens such as Cryptosporidium pose a significant human health risk and catchments provide the first critical pollution ‘barrier’ in mitigating risk in drinking water supply. In this paper we apply an adaptive management framework to mitigating Cryptosporidium risk in source water using a case study of the Myponga catchment in South Australia. Firstly, we evaluated the effectiveness of past

Brett A. Bryan; John Kandulu; Daniel A. Deere; Monique White; Jacqueline Frizenschaf; Neville D. Crossman

2009-01-01

192

The fujairah united arab emirates (uae) (ml = 5.1) earthquake of march 11, 2002 a reminder for the immediate need to develop and implement a national hazard mitigation strategy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On March 11, 2002, at mid nigh, the Fujairah Masafi region in the UAE was shaken by an earthquake of shallow depth and local magnitude m = 5.1 on Richter Scale. The earthquake occurred on Dibba fault in the UAE with epicenter of the earthquake at 20 km NW of Fujairha city. The focal depth was just 10 km. The earthquake was felt in most parts of the northern emirates: Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman, Ras Al-Khaima, and Um-Qwain. The "main shock" was followed in the following weeks by more than twenty five earthquakes with local magnitude ranging from m = 4 to m = 4.8. The location of those earthquakes was along Zagros Reverse Faulting System in the Iranian side the Arabian Gulf, opposite to the Shores of the UAE. Most of these earthquakes were shallow too and were actually felt by the people. However, there was another strong earthquake in early April 2002 in the same Masafi region with local magnitude m = 5.1 and focal depth 30 km, therefore it was not felt by the northern emirates residents. No major structural damages to buildings and lifeline systems were reported in the several cities located in the vicinity of the earthquake epicenter. The very small values of ground accelerations were not enough to test the structural integrity of tall building and major infrastructures. Future major earthquakes anticipated in the region in close vicinity of northern emirates, once they occur, and considering the noticeable local site effect of the emirates sandy soils of high water table levels, will surely put these newly constructed building into the real test. Even though there were no casualties in the March 11th event, but there was major fear as a result of the loud sound of rock rupture heard in the mountains close to Maafi, the noticeable disturbance of animals and birds minutes before the earthquake incident and during the incident, cracks in the a good number of Masafi buildings and major damages that occurred in "old" buildings of Fujairah Masafi area, the closest city to the epicenter of the earthquake. Indeed, the March 11, 2002 and "aftershocks" scared the citizens of Masafi and surrounding regions and ignited the attention of the public and government to the subject matter of earthquake hazard, specialty this earthquake came one year after the near by Indian m = 6.5 destructive Earthquake. Indeed the recent m = 6.2 June 22 destructive earthquake too that hit north west Iran, has again reminded the UAE public and government with the need to take quick and concrete measures to dtake the necessary steps to mitigate any anticipated earthquake hazard. This study reflects in some details on the following aspects related to the region and vicinity: geological and tectonic setting, seismicity, earthquake activity data base and seismic hazard assessment. Moreover, it documents the following aspects of the March 11, 2002 earthquake: tectonic, seismological, instrumental seismic data, aftershocks, strong motion recordings and response spectral and local site effect analysis, geotechnical effects and structural observations in the region affected by the earthquake. The study identifies local site ground amplification effects and liquefaction hazard potential in some parts of the UAE. Moreover, the study reflects on the coverage of the incident in the media, public and government response, state of earthquake engineering practice in the construction industry in the UAE, and the national preparedness and public awareness issues. However, it is concluded for this event that the mild damages that occurred in Masafi region were due to poor quality of construction, and lack of underestimating of the design base shear. Practical recommendations are suggested for the authorities to avoid damages in newly constructed buildings and lifelines as a result of future stronger earthquakes, in addition to recommendations on a national strategy for earthquake hazard mitigation in the UAE, which is still missing. The recommendations include the development and implementation of a design code for earthquake loading in the UAE,

Al-Homoud, A.

2003-04-01

193

Hazardous waste management in developing countries (India): a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hazardous waste management in the Medak district of Andhra Pradesh is in the initial stage of development. It is found from the survey that there are a total 111 hazardous waste generating units distributed in different industrial areas, viz. Bollarum, Bonthapallyand Patancheru. Since the wastes generated by the industries in the district are small, mostly on?site storage\\/disposal in lagoons, pits,

Inamul Haq; S. P. Chakrabarti

1997-01-01

194

Potential of the Theory of Compensation for Mitigating Public Opposition to Hazardous Waste Treatment Facility Siting: Some Evidence from Five Massachusetts Communities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The theory of economic compensation is explained. The way in which residents of five Massachusetts communities react to proposals directed at overcoming local opposition to siting a hazardous waste treatment facility is analyzed. Residents were asked to r...

K. E. Portney

1985-01-01

195

Sonic boom focusing prediction and delta wing shape optimization for boom mitigation studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supersonic travel over land would be a reality if new aircraft are designed such that they produce quieter ground sonic booms, no louder than 0.3 psf according to the FAA requirement. An attempt is made to address the challenging goal of predicting the sonic boom focusing effects and mitigate the sonic boom ground overpressure for delta wing geometry. Sonic boom focusing is fundamentally a nonlinear phenomenon and can be predicted by numerically solving the nonlinear Tricomi equation. The conservative time domain scheme is developed to carry out the sonic boom focusing or super boom studies. The computational scheme is a type differencing scheme and is solved using a time-domain scheme, which is called a conservative type difference solution. The finite volume method is used on a structured grid topology. A number of input signals Concorde wave, symmetric and ax symmetric ramp, flat top and typical N wave type are simulated for sonic boom focusing prediction. A parametric study is launched in order to investigate the effects of several key parameters that affect the magnitude of shock wave amplification and location of surface of amplification or "caustics surface." A parametric studies includes the effects of longitudinal and lateral boundaries, footprint and initial shock strength of incoming wave and type of input signal on sonic boom focusing. Another very important aspect to be looked at is the mitigation strategies of sonic boom ground signature. It has been decided that aerodynamic reshaping and geometrical optimization are the main goals for mitigating the ground signal up to the acceptance level of FAA. Biconvex delta wing geometry with a chord length of 60 ft and maximum thickness ratio of 5% of the chord is used as a base line model to carry out the fundamental research focus. The wing is flying at an altitude 40,000 ft with a Mach number of 2.0. Boom mitigation work is focused on investigating the effects of wing thickness ratio, wing camber ratio, wing nose angle and dihedral angle on mitigating the sonic-boom ground signature. Optimal shape design for low sonic boom ground signature and least degradation of aerodynamic performance are the main goals of the present work. Response surface methodology is used for carrying out wing shape optimization. Far-field computations are carried out to predict the sonic boom signature on the ground using the full-potential code and the Thomas ray code.

Khasdeo, Nitin

196

STUDY ON AIR INGRESS MITIGATION METHODS IN THE VERY HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS COOLED REACTOR (VHTR)  

SciTech Connect

An air-ingress accident followed by a pipe break is considered as a critical event for a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR). Following helium depressurization, it is anticipated that unless countermeasures are taken, air will enter the core through the break leading to oxidation of the in-core graphite structure. Thus, without mitigation features, this accident might lead to severe exothermic chemical reactions of graphite and oxygen. Under extreme circumstances, a loss of core structural integrity may occur along with excessive release of radiological inventory. Idaho National Laboratory under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy is performing research and development (R&D) that focuses on key phenomena important during challenging scenarios that may occur in the VHTR. Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) studies to date have identified the air ingress event, following on the heels of a VHTR depressurization, as very important (Oh et al. 2006, Schultz et al. 2006). Consequently, the development of advanced air ingress-related models and verification and validation (V&V) requirements are part of the experimental validation plan. This paper discusses about various air-ingress mitigation concepts applicable for the VHTRs. The study begins with identifying important factors (or phenomena) associated with the air-ingress accident by using a root-cause analysis. By preventing main causes of the important events identified in the root-cause diagram, the basic air-ingress mitigation ideas can be conceptually derived. The main concepts include (1) preventing structural degradation of graphite supporters; (2) preventing local stress concentration in the supporter; (3) preventing graphite oxidation; (4) preventing air ingress; (5) preventing density gradient driven flow; (4) preventing fluid density gradient; (5) preventing fluid temperature gradient; (6) preventing high temperature. Based on the basic concepts listed above, various air-ingress mitigation methods are proposed in this study. Among them, the following two mitigation ideas are extensively investigated using computational fluid dynamic codes (CFD): (1) helium injection in the lower plenum, and (2) reactor enclosure opened at the bottom. The main idea of the helium injection method is to replace air in the core and the lower plenum upper part by buoyancy force. This method reduces graphite oxidation damage in the severe locations of the reactor inside. To validate this method, CFD simulations are addressed here. A simple 2-D CFD model is developed based on the GT-MHR 600MWt design. The simulation results showed that the helium replace the air flow into the core and significantly reduce the air concentration in the core and bottom reflector potentially protecting oxidation damage. According to the simulation results, even small helium flow was sufficient to remove air in the core, mitigating the air-ingress successfully. The idea of the reactor enclosure with an opening at the bottom changes overall air-ingress mechanism from natural convection to molecular diffusion. This method can be applied to the current system by some design modification of the reactor cavity. To validate this concept, this study also uses CFD simulations based on the simplified 2-D geometry. The simulation results showed that the enclosure open at the bottom can successfully mitigate air-ingress into the reactor even after on-set natural circulation occurs.

Chang H. Oh

2011-03-01

197

The 5 key questions coping with risks due to natural hazards, answered by a case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs, human endeavours concern primarily existential needs, consequently, to be safeguarded against both natural as well as man made threads. The subsequent needs are to realize chances in a variety of fields, as economics and many others. Independently, the 5 crucial questions are the same as for coping with risks due to natural hazards specifically. These 5 key questions are I) What is the impact in function of space and time ? II) What protection measures comply with the general opinion and how much do they mitigate the threat? III) How can the loss be adequately quantified and monetized ? IV) What budget for prevention and reserves for restoration and compensation are to be planned ? V) Which mix of measures and allocation of resources is sustainable, thus, optimal ? The 5 answers, exemplified by a case study, concerning the sustainable management of risk due to the debris flows by the Enterbach / Inzing / Tirol / Austria, are as follows : I) The impact, created by both the propagation of flooding and sedimentation, has been forecasted by modeling (numerical simulation) the 30, 50, 100, 150, 300 and 1000 year debris flow. The input was specified by detailed studies in meteorology, precipitation and runoff, in geology, hydrogeology, geomorphology and slope stability, in hydraulics, sediment transport and debris flow, in forestry, agriculture and development of communal settlement and infrastructure. All investigations were performed according to the method of ETAlp (Erosion and Transport in Alpine systems). ETAlp has been developed in order to achieve a sustainable development in alpine areas and has been evaluated by the research project "nab", within the context of the EU-Interreg IIIb projects. II) The risk mitigation measures of concern are in hydraulics at the one hand and in forestry at the other hand. Such risk management is evaluated according to sustainability, which means economic, ecologic and social, in short, "triple" compatibility. 100% protection against the 100 year event shows to be the optimal degree of protection. Consequently, impacts statistically less frequent than once in 100 year are accepted as the remaining risk. Such floods and debris flows respectively cause a fan of propagation which is substantially reduced due to the protection measures against the 100 year event. III) The "triple loss distribution" shows the monetized triple damage, dependent on its probability. The monetization is performed by the social process of participation of the impacted interests, if not, by official experts in representation. The triple loss distribution rises in time mainly due to the rise in density and value of precious goods. A comparison of the distributions of the triple loss and the triple risk, behaving in opposite direction, is shown and explained within the project. IV) The recommended yearly reserves to be stocked for restoration and compensation of losses, caused by debris flows, amount to € 70'000.- according to the approach of the "technical risk premium". The discrepancy in comparison with the much higher amounts according to the common approaches of natural hazards engineering are discussed. V) The sustainable mix of hydraulic and forestry measures with the highest return on investment at lowest risk is performed according to the portfolio theory (Markowitz), based on the triple value curves, generated by the method of TripelBudgetierung®. Accordingly, the optimum mix of measures to protect the community of Inzing against the natural hazard of debris flow, thus, the most efficient allocation of resources equals to 2/3 for hydraulic, 1/3 for forestry measures. In detail, the results of the research pilot project "Nachhaltiges Risikomanagement - Enterbach / Inzing / Tirol / Austria" may be consulted under www.ibu.hsr.ch/inzing.

Hardegger, P.; Sausgruber, J. T.; Schiegg, H. O.

2009-04-01

198

Experimental Study on Electrostatic Hazards in Sprayed Liquid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, to evaluate ignition hazards in a paint process, electrostatic sparks in the sprayed area and the amount of charge while spraying were observed. With the objective of preventing accidents involving fires and/or explosions, we deal also with the ignitability due to an electrostatic spark of a sprayed liquid relative to the percentage of nitrogen (N2), including compression in an air cylinder. For this study, an air-spray-type handheld gun with a 1-mm-internal-diameter orifice and a supply of air pressure in the range of 0.1 to 1 MPa were used. With regard to the materials, water, including some sodium chloride, was used to investigate the charge amount of the sprayed liquid, and kerosene was selected for ignition tests while spraying. Several electrostatic sparks in the sprayed region were observed while spraying. Some values of the electrostatic charge observed in the course of this study would be unsafe in the painting industry. Thus, if any of the conductive parts of the equipment are not grounded, incendiary electrostatic sparks can result. The ignitability of sprayed liquid was markedly reduced; the percentage of N2 in the air was substituted for pressurized pure air, and its efficiency increased with air pressure.

Choi, Kwang Seok; Yamaguma, Mizuki; Ohsawa, Atsushi

2007-12-01

199

Feasibility Study of Radiometry for Airborne Detection of Aviation Hazards  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiometric sensors for aviation hazards have the potential for widespread and inexpensive deployment on aircraft. This report contains discussions of three aviation hazards - icing, turbulence, and volcanic ash - as well as candidate radiometric detection techniques for each hazard. Dual-polarization microwave radiometry is the only viable radiometric technique for detection of icing conditions, but more research will be required to assess its usefulness to the aviation community. Passive infrared techniques are being developed for detection of turbulence and volcanic ash by researchers in this country and also in Australia. Further investigation of the infrared airborne radiometric hazard detection approaches will also be required in order to develop reliable detection/discrimination techniques. This report includes a description of a commercial hyperspectral imager for investigating the infrared detection techniques for turbulence and volcanic ash.

Gimmestad, Gary G.; Papanicolopoulos, Chris D.; Richards, Mark A.; Sherman, Donald L.; West, Leanne L.; Johnson, James W. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

200

Hazardous-waste management: a descriptive study. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

The increased emphasis and enforcement of the RCRA regulations by the US EPA has prompted AF managers to reevaluate-base-hazardous waste management activities. This research effort provides management with a profile of the current state of affairs of waste management within the Air Force community. This profile provides the necessary baseline data for managers to develop and support future hazardous-waste-management initiatives. A census of all CONUS base environmental Coordinators was used to identify existing base hazardous-waste-management practices. The data obtained in this research effort identified three major problem areas: 1) Inadequate environmental planning, 2) Inadequate waste-storage facilities, and the 3) Lack of EPC involvement in the base's hazardous-waste-management program. Additional research into the underlying reasons for this lack of EPC support is recommended.

Drewett, G.M.

1986-09-01

201

Hazardous Wastes in Zambian Households: A Pilot Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1998, the Environmental Council of Zambia (ECZ), as part of its activities for the Basil Convention on Transborder Handling of Hazardous Wastes, asked the Wildlife and Environmental Conservation Society of Zambia (Wildlife Society) to begin thinking ab...

J. O. Nriagu

1999-01-01

202

A new probabilistic seismic hazard study of Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) for mainland Spain that takes into account recent\\u000a new results in seismicity, seismic zoning, and strong ground attenuation not considered in the latest PSHA of the Spanish\\u000a Building Code. Those new input data have been obtained as a three-step project carried out in order to improve the existing\\u000a hazard

Julio Mezcua; Juan Rueda; Rosa M. García Blanco

203

Mitigation of Environmental Hazards and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Through Use of Post-Consumer Glass as a Cementing Agent in Mine Backfill  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines aspects of mine backfilling operations that may be implemented to assist in reducing solid waste production, lowering energy costs, and restricting Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Many underground mines use cemented backfill to provide ground support and to mitigate environmental effects associated with tailings disposal. In Ontario, mining operations contribute approximately 700,000 - 840,000 tonnes\\/year of CO2 and Greenhouse

Euler De Souza; Jamie F. Archibald

2006-01-01

204

Natural Hazards Review  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Natural Hazards Review is accessible from the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). "Civil engineers, geologists, scientists and researchers involved in various aspects of construction will find the broad scope of the journal helpful for developing design strategies to mitigate natural hazards." ASCE non-members are required to complete an online form to access the articles.

2004-01-01

205

Volcanic hazard studies for the Yucca Mountain project  

SciTech Connect

Volcanic hazard studies are ongoing to evaluate the risk of future volcanism with respect to siting of a repository for disposal of high-level radioactive waste at the Yucca Mountain site. Seven Quaternary basaltic volcanic centers are located a minimum distance of 12 km and a maximum distance of 47 km from the outer boundary of the exploration block. The conditional probability of disruption of a repository by future basaltic volcanism is bounded by the range of 10{sup {minus}8} to 10{sup {minus}10} yr{sup {minus}1}. These values are currently being reexamined based on new developments in the understanding of the evaluation of small volume, basaltic volcanic centers including: (1) Many, perhaps most, of the volcanic centers exhibit brief periods of eruptive activity separated by longer periods of inactivity. (2) The centers may be active for time spans exceeding 10{sup 5} yrs, (3) There is a decline in the volume of eruptions of the centers through time, and (4) Small volume eruptions occurred at two of the Quaternary centers during latest Pleistocene or Holocene time. We classify the basalt centers as polycyclic, and distinguish them from polygenetic volcanoes. Polycyclic volcanism is characterized by small volume, episodic eruptions of magma of uniform composition over time spans of 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 5} yrs. Magma eruption rates are low and the time between eruptions exceeds the cooling time of the magma volumes. 25 refs., 2 figs.

Crowe, B.; Turrin, B.; Wells, S.; Perry, F.; McFadden, L.; Renault, C.E.; Champion, D.; Harrington, C.

1989-05-01

206

Subsurface geology of Louisiana hazardous waste landfills: A case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many hazardous waste sites in the south Louisiana Gulf Coast have been emplaced in sediments of Plio-Pleistocene to Recent age. Because of the fining upward nature of these regressive-transgressive fluvial-deltaic sequences and the purported confining capabilities of the shallow clay layers within them, this area would seem to be ideal for the location of surface waste landfills. However, detailed geologic mapping at a site in southeastern Louisiana documents how the three-dimensional distribution of sediment types and early diagenetic features, both of which were ultimately controlled by depositional history, can increase effective vertical permeability of finegrained sequences. Many bodies of sand that appear to be isolated in standard geotechnical cross sections can be shown to be part of spatially complex three-dimensional distributary networks, with fine-grained sediments representing overbank and backswamp deposits. Some clay layers are actually a composite of thinner clay beds, each subjected to subaerial exposure and the development of secondary porosity related to soil formation. There has been documented leakage of wastes down through the clays, and a recent study indicates that the effective vertical hydraulic conductivity of the clay layers exceeds 10-5 cm s-1, or from one to four orders of magnitude higher than values measured on samples from cores of the same sediment. An understanding of the depositional framework, facies architecture, and diagenetic history of geologic materials underlying waste disposal sites in Louisiana is required for rational development of monitoring and remediation plans.

Hanor, J. S.

1995-09-01

207

A Study on Integrated Community Based Flood Mitigation with Remote Sensing Technique in Kota Bharu, Kelantan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is conducted to establish a community based flood management system that is integrated with remote sensing technique. To understand local knowledge, the demographic of the local society is obtained by using the survey approach. The local authorities are approached first to obtain information regarding the society in the study areas such as the population, the gender and the tabulation of settlement. The information about age, religion, ethnic, occupation, years of experience facing flood in the area, are recorded to understand more on how the local knowledge emerges. Then geographic data is obtained such as rainfall data, land use, land elevation, river discharge data. This information is used to establish a hydrological model of flood in the study area. Analysis were made from the survey approach to understand the pattern of society and how they react to floods while the analysis of geographic data is used to analyse the water extent and damage done by the flood. The final result of this research is to produce a flood mitigation method with a community based framework in the state of Kelantan. With the flood mitigation that involves the community's understanding towards flood also the techniques to forecast heavy rainfall and flood occurrence using remote sensing, it is hope that it could reduce the casualties and damage that might cause to the society and infrastructures in the study area.

'Ainullotfi, A. A.; Ibrahim, A. L.; Masron, T.

2014-02-01

208

From structural investigation towards multi-parameter early warning systems: geophysical contributions to hazard mitigation at the landslide of Gschliefgraben (Gmunden, Upper Austria)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In December 2007 the large landslide system inside the Gschliefgraben valley (located at the east edge of the Traun lake, Upper Austria), known over centuries for its repeated activity, was reactivated. Although a hazard zone map was already set up in 1974, giving rise to a complete prohibition on building, some hundreds of people are living on the alluvial fan

Robert Supper; Ivo Baron; Birgit Jochum; Anna Ita; Edmund Winkler; Klaus Motschka; Günter Moser

2010-01-01

209

Observational Studies of Earthquake Preparation and Generation to Mitigate Seismic Risks in Mines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We provide a status report on a 5-year project to monitor in-situ fault instability and strong motion in South African gold mines. The project has two main aims: (1) To learn more about earthquake preparation and generation mechanisms by deploying dense arrays of high-sensitivity sensors within rock volumes where mining is likely to induce significant seismic activity. (2) To upgrade the South African national surface seismic network in the mining districts. This knowledge will contribute to efforts to upgrade schemes of seismic hazard assessment and to limit and mitigate the seismic risks in deep mines. As of 31 July 2011, 46 boreholes totalling 1.9 km in length had been drilled at project sites at Ezulwini, Moab-Khotsong and Driefontein gold mines. Several dozen more holes are still to be drilled. Acoustic emission sensors, strain- and tiltmeters, and controlled seismic sources are being installed to monitor the deformation of the rock mass, the accumulation of damage during the preparation phase, and changes in dynamic stress as the rupture front propagates. These data will be integrated with measurements of stope closure, stope strong motion, seismic data recorded by the mine-wide network, and stress modelling. Preliminary results will be reported at AGU meeting. The project is endorsed by the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and the South African government. It is funded by the JST-JICA program for Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable development (SATREPS, the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), the Council for Geoscience, the University of the Witwatersrand and the Department of Science and Technology. The contributions of Seismogen CC, OHMS Ltd, AnglogoldAshanti Rock Engineering Applied Research Group, First Uranium, the Gold Fields Seismic Department and the Institute of Mine Seismology are gratefully acknowledged.

Durrheim, R. J.; Ogasawara, H.; Nakatani, M.; Milev, A.; Cichowicz, A.; Kawakata, H.; Yabe, Y.; Murakami, O.; Naoi, M. M.; Moriya, H.; Satoh, T.

2011-12-01

210

Rock cliffs hazard analysis based on remote geostructural surveys: The Campione del Garda case study (Lake Garda, Northern Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The town of Campione del Garda (located on the west coast of Lake Garda) and its access road have been historically subject to rockfall phenomena with risk for public security in several areas of the coast. This paper presents a study devoted to the determination of risk for coastal cliffs and the design of mitigation measures. Our study was based on statistical rockfall analysis performed with a commercial code and on stability analysis of rock slopes based on the key block method. Hazard from block kinematics and rock-slope failure are coupled by applying the Rockfall Hazard Assessment Procedure (RHAP). Because of the huge dimensions of the slope, its morphology and the geostructural survey were particularly complicated and demanding. For these reasons, noncontact measurement methods, based on aerial photogrammetry by helicopter, were adopted. A special software program, developed by the authors, was applied for discontinuity identification and for their orientation measurements. The potentially of aerial photogrammetic survey in rock mechanic application and its improvement in the rock mass knowledge is analysed in the article.

Ferrero, A. M.; Migliazza, M.; Roncella, R.; Segalini, A.

2011-02-01

211

Health effects from hazardous waste incineration facilities: five case studies.  

PubMed

Environmental pollution, primarily from industrialization, has caused significant adverse effects to humans, animals, and the ecosystem. Attempts have been made to reduce and prevent these pollutants through better waste management practices. Incineration is one such practice, which seeks to prevent adverse health impacts to future generations by destroying waste today, without increasing risk to those living near incineration facilities in the process. As with any industrial process, however, proper design and operation are important requirements to ensure the facility can be operated safely. Any technology that cannot be managed safely should not be considered acceptable. This paper reviews the scientific basis of past allegations associated with the process of hazardous waste incineration. These five case studies, which have attracted considerable public attention, have not been shown to be scientifically accurate of factually based. This paper attempts to separate fact from fiction and to show some of the consistent inaccuracies that were repeated throughout all five studies. In reviewing the above cases and others in the literature, several common elements become apparent. 1. Most of the reports are based on single newspaper articles, activist newsletters, interviews with admittedly biased respondents, and other secondary or inappropriate sources of information that do not withstand scientific scrutiny. 2. Research studies are quoted incompletely or out of context. Often the original point made by the researcher is the exact opposite of the impression left by Costner and Thornton. 3. In four of five cases, no data were supplied to substantiate the claims. As an observation, where substantive research data do not exist to support allegations of adverse health effects, a tendency seems to be increasing over time to make allegations and then not provide supporting data. Because public damage is often done simply by making the allegation, this tactic appears to be effective. Thus, unsubstantiated allegations should not go unchallenged. 4. A relatively small group of people appears to be consistently generating most of the allegations. 5. The format of the allegations tends to be similar; often just the name of the facility changes. 6. Furthermore, these same few individuals tend to repeat the same allegations about the same facilities, even after the allegations have been long since proven incorrect. Despite the widespread prevalence of incineration facilities around the world and the millions of tons of waste destroyed in them each year, surprisingly few reports of adverse health effects exist in the scientific literature relative to other types of waste management practices. 7. The existing reports do not indicate that hazardous waste incineration has widespread potential for adverse health effects. However, as with all industrial processes, care must be taken to ensure that facilities are well designed and well operated to minimize or prevent adverse health effects. As with all environmental exposures, potential impacts on public health need to be addressed scientifically. Making a scientifically valid connection between operation of an incinerator and resulting disease within a population is a difficult undertaking, requiring the combined efforts of toxicologists, epidemiologists, chemists, physicians, and persons in other disciplines. Nevertheless, concerns regarding potential impacts of incineration must be addressed and communicated, both accurately and effectively, if the actual risks of incineration are to become widely understood. PMID:8794540

Pleus, R C; Kelly, K E

1996-01-01

212

Water Induced Hazard Mapping in Nepal: A Case Study of East Rapti River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents illustration on typical water induced hazard mapping of East Rapti River Basin under the DWIDP, GON. The basin covers an area of 2398 sq km. The methodology includes making of base map of water induced disaster in the basin. Landslide hazard maps were prepared by SINMAP approach. Debris flow hazard maps were prepared by considering geology, slope, and saturation. Flood hazard maps were prepared by using two approaches: HEC-RAS and Satellite Imagery Interpretation. The composite water-induced hazard maps were produced by compiling the hazards rendered by landslide, debris flow, and flood. The monsoon average rainfall in the basin is 1907 mm whereas maximum 24 hours precipitation is 456.8 mm. The peak discharge of the Rapati River in the year of 1993 at station was 1220 cu m/sec. This discharge nearly corresponds to the discharge of 100-year return period. The landslides, floods, and debris flows triggered by the heavy rain of July 1993 claimed 265 lives, affected 148516 people, and damaged 1500 houses in the basin. The field investigation and integrated GIS interpretation showed that the very high and high landslide hazard zones collectively cover 38.38% and debris flow hazard zone constitutes 6.58%. High flood hazard zone occupies 4.28% area of the watershed. Mitigation measures are recommendated according to Integrated Watershed Management Approach under which the non-structural and structural measures are proposed. The non-structural measures includes: disaster management training, formulation of evacuation system (arrangement of information plan about disaster), agriculture management practices, protection of water sources, slope protections and removal of excessive bed load from the river channel. Similarly, structural measures such as dike, spur, rehabilitation of existing preventive measures and river training at some locations are recommendated. The major factors that have contributed to induce high incidences of various types of mass movements and inundation in the basin are rock and soil properties, prolonged and high-intensity rainfall, steep topography and various anthropogenic factors.

Neupane, N.

2010-12-01

213

15 CFR 923.25 - Shoreline erosion/mitigation planning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM...923.25 Shoreline erosion/mitigation planning...adversely affected by such erosion. This planning process...broader context of coastal hazard mitigation...

2010-01-01

214

15 CFR 923.25 - Shoreline erosion/mitigation planning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM...923.25 Shoreline erosion/mitigation planning...adversely affected by such erosion. This planning process...broader context of coastal hazard mitigation...

2009-01-01

215

SIMPLE ADVICE FOR INJURED HAZARDOUS DRINKERS: AN IMPLEMENTATION STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To evaluate the implementation of a screening and intervention procedure for hazardous drinkers in the routine praxis of an emergency service, without increasing the ED (emergency department) staff. Methods: Four stages of the implementation process were undertaken: exploration and adoption, programme installation, and initial implementation. Two hospitals participated, with a coordinator, four trainers and all the emergency nursing staff.

ALICIA RODRIGUEZ-MARTOS; YOLANDA CASTELLANO; JOAN M. SALMER ´ ON; GEMMA DOMINGO

2007-01-01

216

Experimental study of disruption mitigation using massive injection of noble gases on Tore Supra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disruptions are a major threat for future tokamaks, including ITER. Disruption-generated heat loads, electromagnetic forces and runaway electrons will not be tolerable for next-generation devices. Massive noble gas injection is foreseen as a standard mitigation system for these tokamaks. Disruption mitigation experiments have been carried out on Tore Supra to study various injection scenarios and to investigate gas jet penetration and mixing. Comparisons of different gases (He, Ne, Ar, He/Ar mixture) and amounts (from 5 to 500 Pa m3) were made, showing that light gases are more efficient regarding runaway electron suppression than heavier gases. Eddy currents in the limiter are moderately reduced by all the gases, and may be more dependent on the time constants of the structures than on the gas species. The density rise induced by the massive injection before the thermal quench is higher and faster with light gases. Gas jet penetration in the cooling phase is observed to be shallow and independent of the gas nature and amount. The gas cold front is stopped along the q = 2 surface where it triggers MHD instabilities, expelling thermal energy from the plasma core.

Reux, C.; Bucalossi, J.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Gil, C.; Moreau, P.; Maget, P.

2010-09-01

217

Kaohsiung Municipal Government: Feasibility Study for Kaohsiung Hazardous Waste Management Plan. English Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is the result of a feasibility study conducted for the Republic of China. The primary objectives of the study was to: survey hazardous industrial wastes within Kaohsiung Municipality, analyze the feasibility for the planning of a centralized ha...

1988-01-01

218

Hazardous waste cleanup: A case study for developing efficient programs  

SciTech Connect

As officials in Pacific Basin Countries develop laws and policies for cleaning up hazardous wastes, experiences of countries with such instruments in place may be instructive. The United States has addressed cleanups of abandoned hazardous waste sites through the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The US Congress enacted CERCLA in 1980. The task of cleaning up waste sites became larger and more costly than originally envisioned and as a result, Congress strengthened and expanded CERCLA in 1986. Today, many industry representatives, environmentalists, and other interested parties say the program is still costly and ineffective, and Congress is responding through a reauthorization process to change the law once again. Because the law and modifications to it can affect company operations and revenues, industries want to know the potential consequences of such changes. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) recently developed a baseline for one economic sector -- the US energy industry -- against which impacts of proposed changes to CERCLA could be measured. Difficulties encountered in locating and interpreting the data for developing that baseline suggest that legislation should not only provide for meeting its stated goals (e.g., protection of human health and the environment) but also allow for its efficient evaluation over time. This lesson can be applied to any nation contemplating hazardous waste cleanup laws and policies.

Elcock, D.; Puder, M.G.

1995-06-01

219

Seismic hazard studies for the High Flux Beam Reactor at Brookhaven National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of a calculation to determine the site specific seismic hazard appropriate for the deep soil site at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) which is to be used in the risk assessment studies being conducted for the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR). The calculations use as input the seismic hazard defined for the bedrock outcrop by a study conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Variability in site soil properties were included in the calculations to obtain the seismic hazard at the ground surface and compare these results with those using the generic amplification factors from the LLNL study. 9 refs., 8 figs.

Costantino, C.J.; Heymsfield, E. (City Coll., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering); Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))

1991-01-01

220

A study of shock mitigating materials in a split Hopkins bar configuration. Phase 2  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) designs mechanical systems with electronics that must survive high shock environments. These mechanical systems include penetrators that must survive soil and rock penetration, nuclear transportation casks that must survive transportation environments, and laydown weapons that must survive delivery impact. These mechanical systems contain electronics that may operate during and after the high shock environment and that must be protected from the high shock environments. A study has been started to improve the packaging techniques for the advanced electronics utilized in these mechanical systems because current packaging techniques are inadequate for these sensitive electronics. In many cases, it has been found that the packaging techniques currently used not only do not mitigate the shock environment but actually amplify the shock environment. An ambitious goal for this packaging study is to avoid amplification and possibly attenuate the shock environment before it reached the electronics contained in the various mechanical systems. Here, a study to compare two thickness values, 0.125 and 0.250 in. of five materials, GE RTV 630, HS II Silicone, Polysulfide Rubber, Sylgard 184, and Teflon for their shock mitigating characteristics with a split Hopkinson bar configuration has been completed. The five materials have been tested in both unconfined and confined conditions at ambient temperature and with two applied loads of 750 {mu}{epsilon} peak (25 fps peak) with a 100 {micro}s duration, measured at 10% amplitude, and 1500 {mu}{epsilon} peak (50 fps peak) with a 100 {micro}s duration, measured at 10% amplitude. The five materials have been tested at ambient, cold ({minus}65 F), and hot (+165 F) for the unconfined condition with the 750 {mu}{epsilon} peak (25 fps peak) applied load. Time domain and frequency domain analyses of the split Hopkinson bar data have been performed to compare how these materials lengthen the shock pulse, attenuate the shock pulse, reflect high frequency content in the shock pulse, and transmit energy.

Bateman, V.I.; Brown, F.A.; Hansen, N.R.

1997-12-31

221

Multihazard risk analysis and disaster planning for emergency services as a basis for efficient provision in the case of natural hazards - case study municipality of Au, Austria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multihazard risk analysis and disaster planning for emergency services as a basis for efficient provision in the case of natural hazards - case study municipality of Au, Austria A. Maltzkait (1) & C. Pfurtscheller (1) (1) Institute for Interdisciplinary Mountain Research (IGF), Austrian Academy of Sciences, Innsbruck, Austria The extreme flood events of 2002, 2005 and 2013 in Austria underlined the importance of local emergency services being able to withstand and reduce the adverse impacts of natural hazards. Although for legal reasons municipal emergency and crisis management plans exist in Austria, they mostly do not cover risk analyses of natural hazards - a sound, comparable assessment to identify and evaluate risks. Moreover, total losses and operational emergencies triggered by natural hazards have increased in recent decades. Given sparse public funds, objective budget decisions are needed to ensure the efficient provision of operating resources, like personnel, vehicles and equipment in the case of natural hazards. We present a case study of the municipality of Au, Austria, which was hardly affected during the 2005 floods. Our approach is primarily based on a qualitative risk analysis, combining existing hazard plans, GIS data, field mapping and data on operational efforts of the fire departments. The risk analysis includes a map of phenomena discussed in a workshop with local experts and a list of risks as well as a risk matrix prepared at that workshop. On the basis for the exact requirements for technical and non-technical mitigation measures for each natural hazard risk were analysed in close collaboration with members of the municipal operation control and members of the local emergency services (fire brigade, Red Cross). The measures includes warning, evacuation and, technical interventions with heavy equipment and personnel. These results are used, first, to improve the municipal emergency and crisis management plan by providing a risk map, and a list of risks and, second, to check if the local emergency forces can cope with the different risk scenarios using locally available resources. The emergency response plans will identify possible resource deficiencies in personnel, vehicles and equipment. As qualitative methods and data are used, uncertainties in the study emerged in finding definitions for safety targets, in the construction of the different risk scenarios, in the inherent uncertainty beyond the probability of occurrence and the intensity of natural hazards, also in the case of the expectable losses. Finally, we used available studies and expert interviews to develop objective rules for investment decisions for the fire departments and the Red Cross to present an empirically sound basis for the efficient provision of intervention in the case of natural hazards for the municipality of Au. Again, the regulations for objective provision were developed in close collaboration with the emergency services.

Maltzkait, Anika; Pfurtscheller, Clemens

2014-05-01

222

Assessment of Hazardous Waste Surface Impoundment Technology Case Studies and Perspectives of Experts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The available data were gathered for a large number of case studies of hazardous waste surface impoundments (SI). Actual and projected performances were compared. This collection, analysis and dissemination of the accumulated experience can contribute sig...

L. Fargo M. Ghassemi M. Haro

1984-01-01

223

Practical Implementation Guidelines for SSHAC Level 3 and 4 Hazard Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The complexity of tectonic environments and the limited data available for seismic source and ground motion characterization make the use of a significant level of expert judgment in seismic hazard assessment studies unavoidable. In the mid-90s the Nuclea...

A. M. Kammerer J. P. Ake

2012-01-01

224

Hazards and Operability Studies and Their Application to an Explosives Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper is concerned with the use of Hazard & Operability Studies (HAZOP) in the Explosives Industry. The paper briefly describes a Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate (PETN) plant designed and built for Nobel Explosives Company, Ardeer, Scotland, This plant ...

R. E. Knowlton

1986-01-01

225

ASSESSMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE SURFACE IMPOUNDMENT TECHNOLOGY CASE STUDIES AND PERSPECTIVES OF EXPERTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The available data were gathered for a large number of case studies of hazardous waste surface impoundments (SI). Actual and projected performances were compared. This collection, analysis and dissemination of the accumulated experience can contribute significantly to improving S...

226

Modeling effects of urban heat island mitigation strategies on heat-related morbidity: a case study for Phoenix, Arizona, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A zero-dimensional energy balance model was previously developed to serve as a user-friendly mitigation tool for practitioners seeking to study the urban heat island (UHI) effect. Accordingly, this established model is applied here to show the relative effects of four common mitigation strategies: increasing the overall (1) emissivity, (2) percentage of vegetated area, (3) thermal conductivity, and (4) albedo of the urban environment in a series of percentage increases by 5, 10, 15, and 20% from baseline values. In addition to modeling mitigation strategies, we present how the model can be utilized to evaluate human health vulnerability from excessive heat-related events, based on heat-related emergency service data from 2002 to 2006. The 24-h average heat index is shown to have the greatest correlation to heat-related emergency calls in the Phoenix (Arizona, USA) metropolitan region. The four modeled UHI mitigation strategies, taken in combination, would lead to a 48% reduction in annual heat-related emergency service calls, where increasing the albedo is the single most effective UHI mitigation strategy.

Silva, Humberto R.; Phelan, Patrick E.; Golden, Jay S.

2010-01-01

227

24 CFR 51.205 - Mitigating measures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development ENVIRONMENTAL CRITERIA AND STANDARDS Siting of HUD-Assisted Projects Near Hazardous Operations Handling Conventional Fuels or Chemicals of an Explosive or Flammable Nature § 51.205 Mitigating...

2013-04-01

228

Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Treatment Building throughput study  

SciTech Connect

The hazardous waste/mixed waste HW/MW Treatment Building (TB) is the specified treatment location for solid hazardous waste/mixed waste at SRS. This report provides throughput information on the facility based on known and projected waste generation rates. The HW/MW TB will have an annual waste input for the first four years of approximately 38,000 ft{sup 3} and have an annual treated waste output of approximately 50,000 ft{sup 3}. After the first four years of operation it will have an annual waste input of approximately 16,000 ft{sup 3} and an annual waste output of approximately 18,000 ft. There are several waste streams that cannot be accurately predicted (e.g. environmental restoration, decommissioning, and decontamination). The equipment and process area sizing for the initial four years should allow excess processing capability for these poorly defined waste streams. A treatment process description and process flow of the waste is included to aid in understanding the computations of the throughput. A description of the treated wastes is also included.

England, J.L.; Kanzleiter, J.P.

1991-12-18

229

Studies On The Influence Of Soil Components On Adsorption-Desorption Of Hazardous Organics And Their Insitu Biodegradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently approximately 155 cubic yards of soil is contaminated with hazardous organics at Patancheru Industrial area (Hyderabad, India). These hazardous organic contaminants are frequently part of hazardous waste disposed on land and the study of waste site interaction is the key to assess the potential for offsite and onsite contamination. In the present study the authors report the results on

Z. Khan

2003-01-01

230

FMECA application to Rainfall Hazard prevention in olive trees growings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The FMECA (Failure Mode Effects and Criticality Analysis) is a broadly extended System Safety tool applied in industries as Aerospace in order to prevent hazards. This methodology studies the different failure modes of a system and try to mitigate them in a systematic procedure. In this paper this tool is applied in order to mitigate economical impact hazards derived from Rainfalls to olive trees growing in Granada (Spain), understanding hazard from the System Safety perspective (Any real or potential condition that can cause injury, illness, or death to personnel; damage to or loss of a system, equipment or property; or damage to the environment). The work includes a brief introduction to the System Safety and FMECA methodologies, applying then these concepts to analyze the Olive trees as a system and identify the hazards during the different stages of the whole life cycle plant production.

Buendia-Buendía, F. S.; Bermudez, R.; Tarquis, A. M.; Andina, D.

2010-05-01

231

44 CFR 65.16 - Standard Flood Hazard Determination Form and Instructions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Standard Flood Hazard Determination Form and Instructions...INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION...HAZARD AREAS § 65.16 Standard Flood Hazard Determination Form and...

2013-10-01

232

A combined approach to physical vulnerability of large cities exposed to natural hazards - the case study of Arequipa, Peru  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arequipa, the second largest city in Peru with almost one million inhabitants, is exposed to various natural hazards, such as earthquakes, landslides, flash floods, and volcanic eruptions. This study focuses on the vulnerability and response of housing, infrastructure and lifelines in Arequipa to flash floods and eruption induced hazards, notably lahars from El Misti volcano. We propose a combined approach for assessing physical vulnerability in a large city based on: (1) remote sensing utilizing high-resolution imagery (SPOT5, Google Earth Pro, Bing, Pléïades) to map the distribution and type of land use, properties of city blocks in terms of exposure to the hazard (elevation above river level, distance to channel, impact angle, etc.); (2) in situ survey of buildings and critical infrastructure (e.g., bridges) and strategic resources (e.g., potable water, irrigation, sewage); (3) information gained from interviews with engineers involved in construction works, previous crises (e.g., June 2001 earthquake) and risk mitigation in Arequipa. Remote sensing and mapping at the scale of the city has focused on three pilot areas, along the perennial Rio Chili valley that crosses the city and oasis from north to south, and two of the east-margin tributaries termed Quebrada (ravine): San Lazaro crossing the northern districts and Huarangal crossing the northeastern districts. Sampling of city blocks through these districts provides varying geomorphic, structural, historical, and socio-economic characteristics for each sector. A reconnaissance survey included about 900 edifices located in 40 city blocks across districts of the pilot areas, distinct in age, construction, land use and demographics. A building acts as a structural system and its strength and resistance to flashfloods and lahars therefore highly depends on the type of construction and the used material. Each building surveyed was assigned to one of eight building categories based on physical criteria (dominant building materials, number of floors, percentage and quality of openings, etc). Future steps in this study include mapping potential impacts from flash flood and lahars as a function of frequency of occurrence and magnitude. For this purpose, we will regroup the eight building types identified in Arequipa to obtain a reduced number of vulnerability categories. Fragility functions will then be established for each vulnerability category and hazard relating percentage damage to parameters such as flow velocity, depth, and dynamic and hydrostatic pressure. These functions will be applied to flow simulations for each of the three river channels considered with the final goal to determine potential losses, identify areas of particularly high risk and to prepare plans for evacuation, relocation and rehabilitation. In the long term, this investigation aims to contribute towards a multi-hazard risk analysis including earthquake- and other volcanic hazards, e.g. ashfall and pyroclastic flows, all by considering the cascading effects of a hazard chain. We also plan to address the consequences of failure of two artificial lake dams located 40 and 70 km north of the city. A lake breakout flood or lahar would propagate beyond the city and would call for an immediate response including contingency plans and evacuation practices.

Thouret, Jean-Claude; Ettinger, Susanne; Zuccaro, Giulio; Guitton, Mathieu; Martelli, Kim; Degregorio, Daniela; Nardone, Stefano; Santoni, Olivier; Magill, Christina; Luque, Juan Alexis; Arguedas, Ana

2013-04-01

233

Carbon emission mitigation measures in Brazil—case study of biomass policy for a ferroalloy plant in Ceará State  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work aims at discussing the possibilities of atmospheric carbon emissions mitigation in the scope of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in the forest sector using a case study in the Northeast of Brazil. Taking Ceará State as an example and based on the Ceará State Energy Balances for 1980, 1984 and 1987, the Carbon

Maria Silvia Muylaert De Araujo; Luiz Pinguelli Rosa

2006-01-01

234

Concerns About Climate Change Mitigation Projects: Summary of Findings from Case Studies in Brazil, India, Mexico, and South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of joint implementation as a way to implement climate change mitigation projects in another country has been controversial ever since its inception. Developing countries have raised numerous issues at the project-specific technical level, and broader concerns having to do with equity and burden sharing. This paper summarizes the findings of studies for Brazil, India, Mexico and South Africa,

Jayant A. Sathaye; Kenneth Andrasko; Willy Makundi; Emilio Lebre La Rovere; N. H. Ravinandranath; Anandi Melli; Anita Rangachari; Mireya Amaz; Carlos Gay; Rafael Friedmann; Beth Goldberg; Clive van Horen; Gillina Simmonds; Gretchen Parker

1998-01-01

235

Concerns about climate change mitigation projects: summary of findings from case studies in Brazil, India, Mexico and South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of joint implementation as a way to implement climate change mitigation projects in another country has been controversial ever since its inception. Developing countries have raised numerous issues at the project-specific technical level and broader concerns having to do with equity and burden sharing. This paper summarizes the findings of studies for Brazil, India, Mexico and South Africa,

Jayant A. Sathaye; Kenneth Andrasko; Willy Makundi; Emilio Lebre La Rovere; N. H. Ravindranath; Anandi Melli; Anita Rangachari; Mireya Imaz; Carlos Gay; Rafael Friedmann; Beth Goldberg; Clive van Horen; Gillian Simmonds; Gretchen Parker

1999-01-01

236

Orbital debris mitigation techniques - Technical, legal, and economic aspects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study was instituted in May, 1989 under the auspices of the AIAA's Standards Program Orbital Debris Study Group and Technical Committee on the Legal Aspects of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Technical, economic, and legal aspects of the hazard posed by orbital debris are discussed, giving attention to debris categories, proposed mitigation techniques, cost-benefit tradeoffs, effects of prospective technological innovations, domestic and international regulatory considerations, and the current status of orbital debris in international law.

237

Comparison of flood hazard assessments on desert piedmonts and playas: A case study in Ivanpah Valley, Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate and realistic characterizations of flood hazards on desert piedmonts and playas are increasingly important given the rapid urbanization of arid regions. Flood behavior in arid fluvial systems differs greatly from that of the perennial rivers upon which most conventional flood hazard assessment methods are based. Additionally, hazard assessments may vary widely between studies or even contradict other maps. This

Colin R. Robins; Brenda J. Buck; Amanda J. Williams; Janice L. Morton; P. Kyle House; Michael S. Howell; Maureen L. Yonovitz

2009-01-01

238

BICAPA case study of natural hazards that trigger technological disasters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Industrial facilities are vulnerable to natural disasters. Natural disasters and technological accidents are not always singular or isolated events. The example in this paper show that they can occur in complex combinations and/or in rapid succession, known as NaTech disasters, thereby triggering multiple impacts. This analysis indicates that NaTech disasters have the potential to trigger hazmat releases and other types of technological accidents. Climate changes play an important role in prevalence and NATECH triggering mechanisms. Projections under the IPCC IS92 a scenario (similar to SRES A1B; IPCC, 1992) and two GCMs indicate that the risk of floods increases in central and eastern Europe. Increase in intense short-duration precipitation is likely to lead to increased risk of flash floods. (Lehner et al., 2006). It is emergent to develop tools for the assessment of risks due to NATECH events in the industrial processes, in a framework starting with the characterization of frequency and severity of natural disasters and continuing with complex analysis of industrial processes, to risk assessment and residual functionality analysis. The Ponds with dangerous technological residues are the most vulnerable targets of natural hazards. Technological accidents such as those in Baia Mare, (from January to March 2000) had an important international echo. Extreme weather phenomena, like those in the winter of 2000 in Baia Mare, and other natural disasters such as floods or earthquakes, can cause a similar disaster at Târn?veni in Transylvania Depression. During 1972 - 1978 three decanting ponds were built on the Chemical Platform Târn?veni, now SC BICAPA SA, for disposal of the hazardous-wastes resulting from the manufacture of sodium dichromate, inorganic salts, sludge from waste water purification and filtration, wet gas production from carbide. The ponds are located on the right bank of the river Târnava at about 35-50m from the flooding defense dam. The total amount of toxic waste stored in the three ponds is about 2500 tons, equivalent at 128 tons expressed in hexavalent chromium. The ponds contour dikes are strongly damaged in many places, their safety is jeopardized by leakages, sliding slopes and ravens. The upstream dike has an increased failure risk. The upstream dike has an increased failure risk. In that section the coefficients of safety are under the allowable limit, both in static applications, and the earthquake. The risk of failure is very high also due to the dikes slopes. The risk becomes higher in case of heavy rainfall, floods or an earthquake.

Boca, Gabriela; Ozunu, Alexandru; Nicolae Vlad, Serban

2010-05-01

239

Underground Coal-Fires in Xinjiang, China: A Continued Effort in Applying Geophysics to Solve a Local Problem and to Mitigate a Global Hazard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spontaneous uncontrolled coal seam fires are a well known phenomenon that causes severe environmental problems and severe impact on natural coal reserves. Coal fires are a worldwide phenomenon, but in particular in Xinjiang, that covers 17.3 % of Chinas area and hosts approx 42 % of its coal resources. In Xinjiang since more than 50 years a rigorous strategy for fire fighting on local and regional scale is persued. The Xinjiang Coalfield Fire Fighting Bureau (FFB) has developed technologies and methods to deal with any known fire. Many fires have been extinguished already, but the problem is still there if not even growing. This problem is not only a problem for China due to the loss of valuable energy resources, but it is also a worldwide threat because of the generation of substantial amounts of greenhouse gases. Through the FFB, China is struggling to overcome this, but the activities could be much enhanced by the continuation of the already successful conjoint operations. The last ten years have seen two successful cooperative projects between China and Germany on the field of coal-fire fighting, namely the German Technical Cooperation Project on Coal Fire in Xinjiang and the Sino-German Coal Fire Research Initiative funded by the corresponding ministeries of both countries. A persistent task in the fire fighting is the identification and supervision of areas with higher risks for the ignition of coal fires, the exploration of already ignited fire zones to extinguish the fires and the monitoring of extinguished fires to detect as early as possible process that may foster re-ignition. This can be achieved by modeling both the structures and the processes that are involved. This has also been a promising part of the past cooperation projects, yet to be transformed into a standard application of fire fighting procedures. In this contribution we describe the plans for a new conjoint project between China and Germany where on the basis of field investigations and laboratory measurements realistic dynamical models of fire-zones are constructed to increase the understanding of particular coal-fires, to interpret the surface signatures of the coal-fire in terms of location and propagation and to estimate the output of hazardous exhaust products to evaluate the economic benefit of fire extinction.

Wuttke, M. W.; Halisch, M.; Tanner, D. C.; Cai, Z. Y.; Zeng, Q.; Wang, C.

2012-04-01

240

Echo-sounding method aids earthquake hazard studies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dramatic examples of catastrophic damage from an earthquake occurred in 1989, when the M 7.1 Lorna Prieta rocked the San Francisco Bay area, and in 1994, when the M 6.6 Northridge earthquake jolted southern California. The surprising amount and distribution of damage to private property and infrastructure emphasizes the importance of seismic-hazard research in urbanized areas, where the potential for damage and loss of life is greatest. During April 1995, a group of scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Tennessee, using an echo-sounding method described below, is collecting data in San Antonio Park, California, to examine the Monte Vista fault which runs through this park. The Monte Vista fault in this vicinity shows evidence of movement within the last 10,000 years or so. The data will give them a "picture" of the subsurface rock deformation near this fault. The data will also be used to help locate a trench that will be dug across the fault by scientists from William Lettis & Associates.

U.S. Geological Survey

1995-01-01

241

A Case Study in Ethical Decision Making Regarding Remote Mitigation of Botnets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is becoming more common for researchers to find themselves in a position of being able to take over control of a malicious botnet. If this happens, should they use this knowledge to clean up all the infected hosts? How would this affect not only the owners and operators of the zombie computers, but also other researchers, law enforcement agents serving justice, or even the criminals themselves? What dire circumstances would change the calculus about what is or is not appropriate action to take? We review two case studies of long-lived malicious botnets that present serious challenges to researchers and responders and use them to illuminate many ethical issues regarding aggressive mitigation. We make no judgments about the questions raised, instead laying out the pros and cons of possible choices and allowing workshop attendees to consider how and where they would draw lines. By this, we hope to expose where there is clear community consensus as well as where controversy or uncertainty exists.

Dittrich, David; Leder, Felix; Werner, Tillmann

242

Strategies for casualty mitigation programs by using advanced tsunami computation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1. Purpose of the study In this study, based on the scenario of great earthquakes along the Nankai trough, we aim on the estimation of the run up and high accuracy inundation process of tsunami in coastal areas including rivers. Here, using a practical method of tsunami analytical model, and taking into account characteristics of detail topography, land use and climate change in a realistic present and expected future environment, we examined the run up and tsunami inundation process. Using these results we estimated the damage due to tsunami and obtained information for the mitigation of human casualties. Considering the time series from the occurrence of the earthquake and the risk of tsunami damage, in order to mitigate casualties we provide contents of disaster risk information displayed in a tsunami hazard and risk map. 2. Creating a tsunami hazard and risk map From the analytical and practical tsunami model (a long wave approximated model) and the high resolution topography (5 m) including detailed data of shoreline, rivers, building and houses, we present a advanced analysis of tsunami inundation considering the land use. Based on the results of tsunami inundation and its analysis; it is possible to draw a tsunami hazard and risk map with information of human casualty, building damage estimation, drift of vehicles, etc. 3. Contents of disaster prevention information To improve the hazard, risk and evacuation information distribution, it is necessary to follow three steps. (1) Provide basic information such as tsunami attack info, areas and routes for evacuation and location of tsunami evacuation facilities. (2) Provide as additional information the time when inundation starts, the actual results of inundation, location of facilities with hazard materials, presence or absence of public facilities and areas underground that required evacuation. (3) Provide information to support disaster response such as infrastructure and traffic network damage prediction. Finally, compiling all this information on a tsunami hazard and risk map with the tsunami inundation animation, it is possible to create and propose strategies for casualty mitigation programs.

IMAI, K.; Imamura, F.

2012-12-01

243

A simulator study investigating how motorcyclists approach side-road hazards.  

PubMed

The most common form of motorcycle collision in the UK occurs when another road user fails to give way and pulls out from a side road in front of an oncoming motorcyclist. While research has considered these collisions from the car driver's perspective, no research to date has addressed how motorcyclists approach these potential hazards. This study conducted a detailed analysis of motorcyclist speed and road position on approach to side-roads in a simulated suburban setting. Novice, Experienced and Advanced riders rode two laps of a simulated route, encountering five side-roads on each lap. On the second lap, a car emerged from the first side-road in a typical 'looked but failed to see' accident scenario. Three Experienced riders and one Novice rider collided with the hazard. The Advanced rider group adopted the safest strategy when approaching side-roads, with a lane position closer to the centre of the road and slower speeds. In contrast, Experienced riders chose faster speeds, often over the speed limit, especially when approaching junctions with good visibility. Rider behaviour at non-hazard junctions was compared between laps, to investigate if riders modified their behaviour after experiencing the hazard. Whilst all riders were generally more cautious after the hazard, the Advanced riders modified their behaviour more than the other groups after the hazard vehicle had pulled out. The results suggest that advanced training can lead to safer riding styles that are not acquired by experience alone. PMID:23182782

Crundall, Elizabeth; Stedmon, Alex W; Saikayasit, Rossukorn; Crundall, David

2013-03-01

244

Earthquake Hazard Map, A Small Step to Adapt with the Teeterboard Named Indonesia Case study: Papua Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The availability of earthquake hazard maps throughout Indonesia is a must, since earthquake mitigation effort is more emphasized on pre-disaster phase. The hazard map is created using PSHA (Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment) method and developed on OpenQuake. Earthquake source, site class and return period are required. Furthermore GMPE for each earthquake zone should be ascertained. Site class is determined by considering to geology and morphologic aspects. Geomorphic aspect is used to estimate vs30, i.e. site class for each site. As consequent, geomorphic map of Papua can be divided into 13 geomorphic classes. Meanwhile earthquake source zone is classified as: active fault, subduction zone and background. Parameters using for probabilistic analyses are fault trace, slip-rate, dip and dimension of fault. Four segments of subduction zones, intraslab and 14 active faults both inland and sea-fault are used for this purpose. Parameters needed for subduction source model are area, dip, slip-rate, a- and b-value. Background source model is used to accommodate earthquake may occur randomly out of fault and to predict larger scale earthquake near location of historical small and medium earthquakes. Since specific attenuation function for Indonesian has not been provided yet, the attenuation function that introduced by some researchers is used. Hazard levels were calculated to represent 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years (475 years earthquake recurrence) and furthermore earthquake hazard map of Papua has been created.; Hazard Level Class Based on MMI scalet;

Cipta, A.

2012-12-01

245

Adaptive management for mitigating Cryptosporidium risk in source water: a case study in an agricultural catchment in South Australia.  

PubMed

Water-borne pathogens such as Cryptosporidium pose a significant human health risk and catchments provide the first critical pollution 'barrier' in mitigating risk in drinking water supply. In this paper we apply an adaptive management framework to mitigating Cryptosporidium risk in source water using a case study of the Myponga catchment in South Australia. Firstly, we evaluated the effectiveness of past water quality management programs in relation to the adoption of practices by landholders using a socio-economic survey of land use and management in the catchment. The impact of past management on the mitigation of Cryptosporidium risk in source water was also evaluated based on analysis of water quality monitoring data. Quantitative risk assessment was used in planning the next round of management in the adaptive cycle. Specifically, a pathogen budget model was used to identify the major remaining sources of Cryptosporidium in the catchment and estimate the mitigation impact of 30 alternative catchment management scenarios. Survey results show that earlier programs have resulted in the comprehensive adoption of best management practices by dairy farmers including exclusion of stock from watercourses and effluent management from 2000 to 2007. Whilst median Cryptosporidium concentrations in source water have decreased since 2004 they remain above target levels and put pressure on other barriers to mitigate risk, particularly the treatment plant. Non-dairy calves were identified as the major remaining source of Cryptosporidium in the Myponga catchment. The restriction of watercourse access of non-dairy calves could achieve a further reduction in Cryptosporidium export to the Myponga reservoir of around 90% from current levels. The adaptive management framework applied in this study was useful in guiding learning from past management, and in analysing, planning and refocusing the next round of catchment management strategies to achieve water quality targets. PMID:19515479

Bryan, Brett A; Kandulu, John; Deere, Daniel A; White, Monique; Frizenschaf, Jacqueline; Crossman, Neville D

2009-07-01

246

Studying and Improving Human Response to Natural Hazards: Lessons from the Virtual Hurricane Lab  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most critical challenges facing communities in areas prone to natural hazards is how to best encourage residents to invest in individual and collective actions that would reduce the damaging impact of low-probability, high-consequence, environmental events. Unfortunately, what makes this goal difficult to achieve is that the relative rarity natural hazards implies that many who face the risk of natural hazards have no previous experience to draw on when making preparation decisions, or have prior experience that provides misleading guidance on how best to prepare. For example, individuals who have experienced strings of minor earthquakes or near-misses from tropical cyclones may become overly complacent about the risks that extreme events actually pose. In this presentation we report the preliminary findings of a program of work that explores the use of realistic multi-media hazard simulations designed for two purposes: 1) to serve as a basic research tool for studying of how individuals make decisions to prepare for rare natural hazards in laboratory settings; and 2) to serve as an educational tool for giving people in hazard-prone areas virtual experience in hazard preparation. We demonstrate a prototype simulation in which participants experience the approach of a virtual hurricane, where they have the opportunity to invest in different kinds of action to protect their home from damage. As the hurricane approaches participants have access to an “information dashboard” in which they can gather information about the storm threat from a variety of natural sources, including mock television weather broadcasts, web sites, and conversations with neighbors. In response to this information they then have the opportunity to invest in different levels of protective actions. Some versions of the simulation are designed as games, where participants are rewarded based on their ability to make the optimal trade-off between under and over-preparing for the threat. From a basic research perspective the data provide valuable potential insights into the dynamics of information gathering prior to hurricane impacts, as well as laboratory in which we can study how both information gathering and responses varies in responses to controlled variations in such factors as the complexity of forecast information. From an applied perspective the simulations provide an opportunity for residents in hazard-prone areas to learn about different kinds of information and receive feedback on their potential biases prior to an actual encounter with a hazard. The presentation concludes with a summary of some of the basic research findings that have emerged from the hurricane lab to date, as well as a discussion of the prospects for extending the technology to a broad range of environmental hazards.

Meyer, R.; Broad, K.; Orlove, B. S.

2010-12-01

247

A web-based tool for ranking landslide mitigation measures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the research done in the European project SafeLand "Living with landslide risk in Europe: Assessment, effects of global change, and risk management strategies", a compendium of structural and non-structural mitigation measures for different landslide types in Europe was prepared, and the measures were assembled into a web-based "toolbox". Emphasis was placed on providing a rational and flexible framework applicable to existing and future mitigation measures. The purpose of web-based toolbox is to assist decision-making and to guide the user in the choice of the most appropriate mitigation measures. The mitigation measures were classified into three categories, describing whether the mitigation measures addressed the landslide hazard, the vulnerability or the elements at risk themselves. The measures considered include structural measures reducing hazard and non-structural mitigation measures, reducing either the hazard or the consequences (or vulnerability and exposure of elements at risk). The structural measures include surface protection and control of surface erosion; measures modifying the slope geometry and/or mass distribution; measures modifying surface water regime - surface drainage; measures mo¬difying groundwater regime - deep drainage; measured modifying the mechanical charac¬teristics of unstable mass; transfer of loads to more competent strata; retaining structures (to modify slope geometry and/or to transfer stress to compe¬tent layer); deviating the path of landslide debris; dissipating the energy of debris flows; and arresting and containing landslide debris or rock fall. The non-structural mitigation measures, reducing either the hazard or the consequences: early warning systems; restricting or discouraging construction activities; increasing resistance or coping capacity of elements at risk; relocation of elements at risk; sharing of risk through insurance. The measures are described in the toolbox with fact sheets providing a brief description, guidance on design, schematic details, practical examples and references for each mitigation measure. Each of the measures was given a score on its ability and applicability for different types of landslides and boundary conditions, and a decision support matrix was established. The web-based toolbox organizes the information in the compendium and provides an algorithm to rank the measures on the basis of the decision support matrix, and on the basis of the risk level estimated at the site. The toolbox includes a description of the case under study and offers a simplified option for estimating the hazard and risk levels of the slide at hand. The user selects the mitigation measures to be included in the assessment. The toolbox then ranks, with built-in assessment factors and weights and/or with user-defined ranking values and criteria, the mitigation measures included in the analysis. The toolbox includes data management, e.g. saving data half-way in an analysis, returning to an earlier case, looking up prepared examples or looking up information on mitigation measures. The toolbox also generates a report and has user-forum and help features. The presentation will give an overview of the mitigation measures considered and examples of the use of the toolbox, and will take the attendees through the application of the toolbox.

Lacasse, S.; Vaciago, G.; Choi, Y. J.; Kalsnes, B.

2012-04-01

248

Google Earth Views of Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis Pilot Study, Seaside, Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual globes such as Google Earth provide immediate geographic context for research data for coastal hazard planning. We present Google Earth views of data from a Tsunami Pilot Study conducted within and near Seaside and Gearhart, Oregon, as part of FEMA's Flood Insurance Rate Map Modernization Program (Tsunami Pilot Study Working Group, 2006). Two goals of the pilot study were

F. L. Wong; A. J. Venturato; E. L. Geist

2006-01-01

249

Application of simulation technique on debris flow hazard zone delineation: a case study in the Daniao tribe, Eastern Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Typhoon Morakot struck Taiwan in August 2009 and induced considerable disasters, including large-scale landslides and debris flows. One of these debris flows was experienced by the Daniao tribe in Taitung, Eastern Taiwan. The volume was in excess of 500 000 m3, which was substantially larger than the original design mitigation capacity. This study considered large-scale debris flow simulations in various volumes at the same area by using the DEBRIS-2D numerical program. The program uses the generalized Julien and Lan (1991) rheological model to simulate debris flows. In this paper, the sensitivity factor considered on the debris flow spreading is the amount of the debris flow initial volume. These simulated results in various amounts of debris flow initial volume demonstrated that maximal depths of debris flows were almost deposited in the same area, and also revealed that a 20% variation in estimating the amount of total volume at this particular site results in a 2.75% variation on the final front position. Because of the limited watershed terrain, the hazard zones of debris flows were not expanded. Therefore, the amount of the debris flow initial volume was not sensitive.

Tsai, M. P.; Hsu, Y. C.; Li, H. C.; Shu, H. M.; Liu, K. F.

2011-11-01

250

Sonic boom focusing prediction and delta wing shape optimization for boom mitigation studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supersonic travel over land would be a reality if new aircraft are designed such that they produce quieter ground sonic booms, no louder than 0.3 psf according to the FAA requirement. An attempt is made to address the challenging goal of predicting the sonic boom focusing effects and mitigate the sonic boom ground overpressure for delta wing geometry. Sonic boom

Nitin Khasdeo

2007-01-01

251

Mitigation of voltage sag effects on sensitive plants: an exemplary case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process-interruptions and related costs often force industrial customers to adopt proper solutions to mitigate the voltage sags effects. A trivial solution would be to feed the whole plant through UPS devices, but in many cases this would be technically or economically not practical. Partial solutions given by proper changes in the plant or desensitising critical equipment often become the most

Stefano Quaia; Fabio Tosato; Roberto Visintini

2002-01-01

252

Mitigation Evaluations: A Survey of Current Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the scope and components of mitigation assessments in a first effort to develop some guidelines for conducting mitigation evaluations. Using the mitigation evaluations survey (MES) we developed for this research, we surveyed 266 psychologists about the characteristics and content of mitigation evaluations. A high percentage of participants endorsed each of the 14 content areas presented in the

Michelle E. Barnett; Stanley L. Brodsky; Tess M. S. Neal

2011-01-01

253

Seismic hazard analysis application of methodology, results, and sensitivity studies. Volume 4  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Site Specific Spectra Project, this report seeks to identify the sources of and minimize uncertainty in estimates of seismic hazards in the Eastern United States. Findings are being used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to develop a synthesis among various methods that can be used in evaluating seismic hazard at the various plants in the Eastern United States. In this volume, one of a five-volume series, we discuss the application of the probabilistic approach using expert opinion. The seismic hazard is developed at nine sites in the Central and Northeastern United States, and both individual experts' and synthesis results are obtained. We also discuss and evaluate the ground motion models used to develop the seismic hazard at the various sites, analyzing extensive sensitivity studies to determine the important parameters and the significance of uncertainty in them. Comparisons are made between probabilistic and real spectral for a number of Eastern earthquakes. The uncertainty in the real spectra is examined as a function of the key earthquake source parameters. In our opinion, the single most important conclusion of this study is that the use of expert opinion to supplement the sparse data available on Eastern United States earthquakes is a viable approach for determining estimted seismic hazard in this region of the country. 29 refs., 15 tabs.

Bernreuter, D. L

1981-08-08

254

Study of the environmental hazard caused by the oil shale industry solid waste.  

PubMed

The environmental hazard was studied of eight soil and solid waste samples originating from a region of Estonia heavily polluted by the oil shale industry. The samples were contaminated mainly with oil products (up to 7231mg/kg) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; up to 434mg/kg). Concentrations of heavy metals and water-extractable phenols were low. The toxicities of the aqueous extracts of solid-phase samples were evaluated by using a battery of Toxkit tests (involving crustaceans, protozoa, rotifers and algae). Waste rock and fresh semi-coke were classified as of "high acute toxic hazard", whereas aged semi-coke and most of the polluted soils were classified as of "acute toxic hazard". Analysis of the soil slurries by using the photobacterial solid-phase flash assay showed the presence of particle-bound toxicity in most samples. In the case of four samples out of the eight, chemical and toxicological evaluations both showed that the levels of PAHs, oil products or both exceeded their respective permitted limit values for the living zone (20mg PAHs/kg and 500mg oil products/kg); the toxicity tests showed a toxic hazard. However, in the case of three samples, the chemical and toxicological hazard predictions differed markedly: polluted soil from the Erra River bank contained 2334mg oil/kg, but did not show any water-extractable toxicity. In contrast, spent rock and aged semi-coke that contained none of the pollutants in hazardous concentrations, showed adverse effects in toxicity tests. The environmental hazard of solid waste deposits from the oil shale industry needs further assessment. PMID:11387023

Põllumaa, L; Maloveryan, A; Trapido, M; Sillak, H; Kahru, A

2001-01-01

255

The importance of paleoseismology in seismic hazard studies for critical facilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is intended to provide a perspective on the use of paleoseismological studies in the seismic hazard assessment of critical facilities, such as dams, chemical/petrochemical facilities and nuclear power plants. In particular, the use of data obtained from paleoseismological studies for probabilistic seismic hazard analyses, when the required probabilities of exceedance are very low (e.g. 10 - 6 -10 - 7 ) is considered. Recent revisions to the IAEA Safety Standards that provide guidance to Member States in their work related to the seismic safety of nuclear power plants are presented to illustrate the importance of this emerging discipline.

Gürpinar, Aybars

2005-10-01

256

Pyrotechnic hazards classification and evaluation program test report. Heat flux study of deflagrating pyrotechnic munitions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A heat flux study of deflagrating pyrotechnic munitions is presented. Three tests were authorized to investigate whether heat flux measurements may be used as effective hazards evaluation criteria to determine safe quantity distances for pyrotechnics. A passive sensor study was conducted simultaneously to investigate their usefulness in recording events and conditions. It was concluded that heat flux measurements can effectively be used to evaluate hazards criteria and that passive sensors are an inexpensive tool to record certain events in the vicinity of deflagrating pyrotechnic stacks.

Fassnacht, P. O.

1971-01-01

257

Seismic hazard assessment of the cultural heritage sites: A case study in Cappadocia (Turkey)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Turkey is one of the most seismically active regions in the world. Major earthquakes with the potential of threatening life and property occur frequently here. In the last decade, over 50,000 residents lost their lives, commonly as a result of building failures in seismic events. The Cappadocia region is one of the most important touristic sites in Turkey. At the same time, the region has been included to the Word Heritage List by UNESCO at 1985 due to its natural, historical and cultural values. The region is undesirably affected by several environmental conditions, which are subjected in many previous studies. But, there are limited studies about the seismic evaluation of the region. Some of the important historical and cultural heritage sites are: Goreme Open Air Museum, Uchisar Castle, Ortahisar Castle, Derinkuyu Underground City and Ihlara Valley. According to seismic hazard zonation map published by the Ministry of Reconstruction and Settlement these heritage sites fall in Zone III, Zone IV and Zone V. This map show peak ground acceleration or 10 percent probability of exceedance in 50 years for bedrock. In this connection, seismic hazard assessment of these heritage sites has to be evaluated. In this study, seismic hazard calculations are performed both deterministic and probabilistic approaches with local site conditions. A catalog of historical and instrumental earthquakes is prepared and used in this study. The seismic sources have been identified for seismic hazard assessment based on geological, seismological and geophysical information. Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) at bed rock level is calculated for different seismic sources using available attenuation relationship formula applicable to Turkey. The result of the present study reveals that the seismic hazard at these sites is closely matching with the Seismic Zonation map published by the Ministry of Reconstruction and Settlement. Keywords: Seismic Hazard Assessment, Probabilistic Approach, Deterministic Approach, Historical Heritage, Cappadocia.

Seyrek, Evren; Orhan, Ahmet; Dinçer, ?smail

2014-05-01

258

An Independent Evaluation of the FMEA/CIL Hazard Analysis Alternative Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present instruments of safety and reliability risk control for a majority of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) programs/projects consist of Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Hazard Analysis (HA), Critical Items List (CIL), and Hazard Report (HR). This extensive analytical approach was introduced in the early 1970's and was implemented for the Space Shuttle Program by NHB 5300.4 (1D-2. Since the Challenger accident in 1986, the process has been expanded considerably and resulted in introduction of similar and/or duplicated activities in the safety/reliability risk analysis. A study initiated in 1995, to search for an alternative to the current FMEA/CIL Hazard Analysis methodology generated a proposed method on April 30, 1996. The objective of this Summer Faculty Study was to participate in and conduct an independent evaluation of the proposed alternative to simplify the present safety and reliability risk control procedure.

Ray, Paul S.

1996-01-01

259

Selecting land-based mitigation practices to reduce GHG emissions from the rural land use sector: a case study of North East Scotland.  

PubMed

The Climate Change (Scotland) Act 2009 commits Scotland to reduce GHG emissions by at least 42% by 2020 and 80% by 2050, from 1990 levels. According to the Climate Change Delivery Plan, the desired emission reduction for the rural land use sector (agriculture and other land uses) is 21% compared to 1990, or 10% compared to 2006 levels. In 2006, in North East Scotland, gross greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from rural land uses were about 1599 ktCO2e. Thus, to achieve a 10% reduction in 2020 relative to 2006, emissions would have to decrease to about 1440 ktCO2e. This study developed a methodology to help selecting land-based practices to mitigate GHG emissions at the regional level. The main criterion used was the "full" mitigation potential of each practice. A mix of methods was used to undertake this study, namely a literature review and quantitative estimates. The mitigation practice that offered greatest "full" mitigation potential (?66% reduction by 2020 relative to 2006) was woodland planting with Sitka spruce. Several barriers, such as economic, social, political and institutional, affect the uptake of mitigation practices in the region. Consequently the achieved mitigation potential of a practice may be lower than its "full" mitigation potential. Surveys and focus groups, with relevant stakeholders, need to be undertaken to assess the real area where mitigation practices can be implemented and the best way to overcome the barriers for their implementation. PMID:23507248

Feliciano, Diana; Hunter, Colin; Slee, Bill; Smith, Pete

2013-05-15

260

Alcohol Expectancy and Hazardous Drinking: A 6Year Longitudinal and Nationwide Study of Medical Doctors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: The study’s aim was to determine whether medical doctors’ expectancy that alcohol use reduces tension predicts the extent of their hazardous drinking and whether this effect is mediated by drinking to cope. Methods: A group of Norwegian medical doctors’ (n = 288) alcohol use was followed for 6 years. The expectancy that alcohol reduces tension and the use of

Kjersti S. Grotmol; Per Vaglum; Øivind Ekeberg; Tore Gude; Olaf G. Aasland; Reidar Tyssen

2010-01-01

261

Mitigation of indirect environmental effects of GM crops  

PubMed Central

Currently, the UK has no procedure for the approval of novel agricultural practices that is based on environmental risk management principles. Here, we make a first application of the ‘bow-tie’ risk management approach in agriculture, for assessment of land use changes, in a case study of the introduction of genetically modified herbicide tolerant (GMHT) sugar beet. There are agronomic and economic benefits, but indirect environmental harm from increased weed control is a hazard. The Farm Scale Evaluation (FSE) trials demonstrated reduced broad-leaved weed biomass and seed production at the field scale. The simplest mitigation measure is to leave a proportion of rows unsprayed in each GMHT crop field. Our calculations, based on FSE data, show that a maximum of 2% of field area left unsprayed is required to mitigate weed seed production and 4% to mitigate weed biomass production. Tilled margin effects could simply be mitigated by increasing the margin width from 0.5 to 1.5?m. Such changes are cheap and simple to implement in farming practices. This case study demonstrates the usefulness of the bow-tie risk management approach and the transparency with which hazards can be addressed. If adopted generally, it would help to enable agriculture to adopt new practices with due environmental precaution.

Pidgeon, J.D; May, M.J; Perry, J.N; Poppy, G.M

2007-01-01

262

Carbon emission mitigation measures in Brazil—case study of biomass policy for a ferroalloy plant in CearaState  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work aims at discussing the possibilities of atmospheric carbon emissions mitigation in the scope of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in the forest sector using a case study in the Northeast of Brazil. Taking CearaState as an example and based on the CearaState Energy Balances for 1980, 1984 and 1987, the Carbon (C-CO2) Emission

Maria Silvia Muylaert; De Araujo; Luiz Pinguelli Rosa

263

Examination of Icing Induced Loss of Control and Its Mitigations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Factors external to the aircraft are often a significant causal factor in loss of control (LOC) accidents. In today s aviation world, very few accidents stem from a single cause and typically have a number of causal factors that culminate in a LOC accident. Very often the "trigger" that initiates an accident sequence is an external environment factor. In a recent NASA statistical analysis of LOC accidents, aircraft icing was shown to be the most common external environmental LOC causal factor for scheduled operations. When investigating LOC accident or incidents aircraft icing causal factors can be categorized into groups of 1) in-flight encounter with super-cooled liquid water clouds, 2) take-off with ice contamination, or 3) in-flight encounter with high concentrations of ice crystals. As with other flight hazards, icing induced LOC accidents can be prevented through avoidance, detection, and recovery mitigations. For icing hazards, avoidance can take the form of avoiding flight into icing conditions or avoiding the hazard of icing by making the aircraft tolerant to icing conditions. Icing detection mitigations can take the form of detecting icing conditions or detecting early performance degradation caused by icing. Recovery from icing induced LOC requires flight crew or automated systems capable of accounting for reduced aircraft performance and degraded control authority during the recovery maneuvers. In this report we review the icing induced LOC accident mitigations defined in a recent LOC study and for each mitigation describe a research topic required to enable or strengthen the mitigation. Many of these research topics are already included in ongoing or planned NASA icing research activities or are being addressed by members of the icing research community. These research activities are described and the status of the ongoing or planned research to address the technology needs is discussed

Reehorst, Andrew L.; Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Colantonio, Renato O.

2010-01-01

264

Urban Vulnerability Assessment to Seismic Hazard through Spatial Multi-Criteria Analysis. Case Study: the Bucharest Municipality/Romania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the context of an explosive increase in value of the damage caused by natural disasters, an alarming challenge in the third millennium is the rapid growth of urban population in vulnerable areas. Cities are, by definition, very fragile socio-ecological systems with a high level of vulnerability when it comes to environmental changes and that are responsible for important transformations of the space, determining dysfunctions shown in the state of the natural variables (Parker and Mitchell, 1995, The OFDA/CRED International Disaster Database). A contributing factor is the demographic dynamic that affects urban areas. The aim of this study is to estimate the overall vulnerability of the urban area of Bucharest in the context of the seismic hazard, by using environmental, socio-economic, and physical measurable variables in the framework of a spatial multi-criteria analysis. For this approach the capital city of Romania was chosen based on its high vulnerability due to the explosive urban development and the advanced state of degradation of the buildings (most of the building stock being built between 1940 and 1977). Combining these attributes with the seismic hazard induced by the Vrancea source, Bucharest was ranked as the 10th capital city worldwide in the terms of seismic risk. Over 40 years of experience in the natural risk field shows that the only directly accessible way to reduce the natural risk is by reducing the vulnerability of the space (Adger et al., 2001, Turner et al., 2003; UN/ISDR, 2004, Dayton-Johnson, 2004, Kasperson et al., 2005; Birkmann, 2006 etc.). In effect, reducing the vulnerability of urban spaces would imply lower costs produced by natural disasters. By applying the SMCA method, the result reveals a circular pattern, signaling as hot spots the Bucharest historic centre (located on a river terrace and with aged building stock) and peripheral areas (isolated from the emergency centers and defined by precarious social and economic conditions). In effect, the example of Bucharest demonstrates how the results shape the ‘vulnerability to seismic hazard profile of the city, based on which decision makers could develop proper mitigation strategies. To sum up, the use of an analytical framework as the standard Spatial Multi-Criteria Analysis (SMCA) - despite all difficulties in creating justifiable weights (Yeh et al., 1999) - results in accurate estimations of the state of the urban system. Although this method was often mistrusted by decision makers (Janssen, 2001), we consider that the results can represent, based on precisely the level of generalization, a decision support framework for policy makers to critically reflect on possible risk mitigation plans. Further study will lead to the improvement of the analysis by integrating a series of daytime and nighttime scenarios and a better definition of the constructed space variables.

Armas, Iuliana; Dumitrascu, Silvia; Bostenaru, Maria

2010-05-01

265

Flood hazards studies in the Mississippi River basin using remote sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Spring 1973 Mississippi River flood was investigated using remotely sensed data from ERTS-1. Both manual and automatic analyses of the data indicated that ERTS-1 is extremely useful as a regional tool for flood mamagement. Quantitative estimates of area flooded were made in St. Charles County, Missouri and Arkansas. Flood hazard mapping was conducted in three study areas along the Mississippi River using pre-flood ERTS-1 imagery enlarged to 1:250,000 and 1:100,000 scale. Initial results indicate that ERTS-1 digital mapping of flood prone areas can be performed at 1:62,500 which is comparable to some conventional flood hazard map scales.

Rango, A.; Anderson, A. T.

1974-01-01

266

Reviewing and visualising relationships between anthropic processes and natural hazards within a multi-hazard framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we present a broad overview of the interaction relationships between 17 anthropic processes and 21 different natural hazard types. Anthropic processes are grouped into seven categories (subsurface extraction, subsurface addition, land use change, explosions, hydrological change, surface construction processes, miscellaneous). Natural hazards are grouped into six categories (geophysical, hydrological, shallow earth processes, atmospheric, biophysical and space). A wide-ranging review based on grey- and peer-reviewed literature from many scientific disciplines identified 54 relationships where anthropic processes have been noted to trigger natural hazards. We record case studies for all but three of these relationships. Based on the results of this review, we find that the anthropic processes of deforestation, explosions (conventional and nuclear) and reservoir construction could trigger the widest range of different natural hazard types. We also note that within the natural hazards, landslides and earthquakes are those that could be triggered by the widest range of anthropic processes. This work also examines the possibility of anthropic processes (i) resulting in an increased occurrence of a particular hazard interaction (e.g., deforestation could result in an increased interaction between storms and landslides); and (ii) inadvertently reducing the likelihood of a natural hazard or natural hazard interaction (e.g., poor drainage or deforestation reducing the likelihood of wildfires triggered by lightning). This study synthesises, using accessible visualisation techniques, the large amounts of anthropic process and natural hazard information from our review. In it we have outlined the importance of considering anthropic processes within any analysis of hazard interactions, and we reinforce the importance of a holistic approach to natural hazard assessment, mitigation and management.

Gill, Joel C.; Malamud, Bruce D.

2014-05-01

267

Reliability of Experimental Studies for Predicting Hazards to Human Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contains a detailed review of human and animal data taking into account the endpoints evaluated, the relative power of the studies, the dose-response patterns, and overall toxicity to the maternal and fetal systems to assess the usefulness of animal studi...

C. A. Kimmel J. F. Holson C. J. Hogue G. Carlo

1984-01-01

268

Study of EEPN mitigation using modified RF pilot and Viterbi-Viterbi based phase noise compensation.  

PubMed

We propose--as a modification of the optical (RF) pilot scheme--a balanced phase modulation between two polarizations of the optical signal in order to generate correlated equalization enhanced phase noise (EEPN) contributions in the two polarizations. The method is applicable for n-level PSK system. The EEPN can be compensated, the carrier phase extracted and the nPSK signal regenerated by complex conjugation and multiplication in the receiver. The method is tested by system simulations in a single channel QPSK system at 56 Gb/s system rate. It is found that the conjugation and multiplication scheme in the Rx can mitigate the EEPN to within ½ orders of magnitude. Results are compared to using the Viterbi-Viterbi algorithm to mitigate the EEPN. The latter method improves the sensitivity more than two orders of magnitude. Important novel insight into the statistical properties of EEPN is identified and discussed in the paper. PMID:23736453

Jacobsen, Gunnar; Xu, Tianhua; Popov, Sergei; Sergeyev, Sergey

2013-05-20

269

THE SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS OF FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS: A CASE STUDY IN RISK AND HAZARD PERCEPTION  

EPA Science Inventory

This study is expected to fill an important gap in the literature by focusing on how individuals characterize exposure in terms of risk and hazard, and how this understanding can lead to concrete changes in their personal and professional lives. I expect that people differ gre...

270

SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT ENGINEERED CONTAINER RETRIEVAL AND TRANSFER SYSTEM PRELMINARY DESIGN HAZARD AND OPERABILITY STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) study addresses the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System (ECRTS) preliminary design for retrieving sludge from underwater engineered containers located in the 105-K West (KW) Basin, transferring the sludge as a sludge-water slurry (hereafter referred to as 'slurry') to a Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC) located in a Modified KW

CARRO CA

2011-01-01

271

Hazardous waste management in educational and research centers: a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hazardous waste management (HWM) practice at Tehran University of Medical Sciences Central Campus, Iran, was investigated in this study. Four schools were selected and the required information such as type and amount of wastes, temporary storage methods, waste discharge frequency, and final waste disposal methods using sampling, questionnaires, interviews with laboratory staff, and reference to available documents were gathered.

M. S. Hassanvand; K. Naddafi; R. Nabizadeh; F. Momeniha; A. Mesdaghinia; K. Yaghmaeian

2011-01-01

272

A PRELIMINARY FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR AN OFFSHORE HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION FACILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes a feasibility study of using an existing offshore oil platform, being offered to the Government, as a site for incineration of hazardous wastes and related research. The platform, located in the Gulf of Mexico about 100 km south of Mobile, AL, has potential ...

273

Hazard Evaluation Division, Standard Evaluation Procedure: Teratology Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Standard Evaluation Procedure for the Teratology Studies is a guidance document primarily intended for Agency reviewers and the regulated industry who evaluate toxicologic effects data specified in 40 CFR Part 158.124. The SEP is also intended to prov...

L. D. Chitlik Q. Q. Bui G. J. Burin S. C. Dapson

1985-01-01

274

Climate engineering of vegetated land for hot extremes mitigation: an ESM sensitivity study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mitigation efforts to reduce anthropogenic climate forcing have thus far proven inadequate, as evident from accelerating greenhouse gas emissions. Many subtropical and mid-latitude regions are expected to experience longer and more frequent heat waves and droughts within the next century. This increased occurrence of weather extremes has important implications for human health, mortality and for socio-economic factors including forest fires, water availability and agricultural production. Various solar radiation management (SRM) schemes that attempt to homogeneously counter the anthropogenic forcing have been examined with different Earth System Models (ESM). Land climate engineering schemes have also been investigated which reduces the amount of solar radiation that is absorbed at the surface. However, few studies have investigated their effects on extremes but rather on mean climate response. Here we present the results of a series of climate engineering sensitivity experiments performed with the Community Earth System Model (CESM) version 1.0.2 at 2°-resolution. This configuration entails 5 fully coupled model components responsible for simulating the Earth's atmosphere, land, land-ice, ocean and sea-ice that interact through a central coupler. Historical and RCP8.5 scenarios were performed with transient land-cover changes and prognostic terrestrial Carbon/Nitrogen cycles. Four sets of experiments are performed in which surface albedo over snow-free vegetated grid points is increased by 0.5, 0.10, 0.15 and 0.20. The simulations show a strong preferential cooling of hot extremes throughout the Northern mid-latitudes during boreal summer. A strong linear scaling between the cooling of extremes and additional surface albedo applied to the land model is observed. The strongest preferential cooling is found in southeastern Europe and the central United States, where increases of soil moisture and evaporative fraction are the largest relative to the control simulation. This preferential cooling is found to intensify in the future scenario. Cloud cover strongly limits the efficacy of a given surface albedo increase to reflect incoming solar radiation back into space. As anthropogenic forcing increases, cloud cover decreases over much of the northern mid-latitudes in CESM.

Wilhelm, Micah; Davin, Edouard; Seneviratne, Sonia

2014-05-01

275

Economic Analysis Procedure for Earthquake Hazard Mitigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 1990s represents a period in which both government and industry are attempting to reduce expenditures, focusing on economics of operation as a priority problem. Both are undergoing a downsizing to eliminate unnecessary functions and personnel with an ...

J. M. Ferritto

1997-01-01

276

Earthquake Hazard Mitigation of Transportation Facilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Concern has grown in recent years over the seismic activity of the New Madrid seismic zone located in the central United States. Western Kentucky is located in this region. To permit emergency medical, supply, and equipment traffic into this area after an...

D. L. Allen V. P. Drnevich M. Sayyedsadr L. J. Fleckenstein

1988-01-01

277

A Study of Airline Passenger Susceptibility to Atmospheric Turbulence Hazard  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple, generic, simulation math model of a commercial airliner has been developed to study the susceptibility of unrestrained passengers to large, discrete gust encounters. The math model simulates the longitudinal motion to vertical gusts and includes (1) motion of an unrestrained passenger in the rear cabin, (2) fuselage flexibility, (3) the lag in the downwash from the wing to the tail, and (4) unsteady lift effects. Airplane and passenger response contours are calculated for a matrix of gust amplitudes and gust lengths of a simulated mountain rotor. A comparison of the model-predicted responses to data from three accidents indicates that the accelerations in actual accidents are sometimes much larger than the simulated gust encounters.

Stewart, Eric C.

2000-01-01

278

49 CFR 195.579 - What must I do to mitigate internal corrosion?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...What must I do to mitigate internal corrosion? 195.579 Section 195.579...TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Corrosion Control § 195.579 What must I do to mitigate internal corrosion? (a) General. If you...

2009-10-01

279

49 CFR 195.579 - What must I do to mitigate internal corrosion?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...What must I do to mitigate internal corrosion? 195.579 Section 195.579...TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Corrosion Control § 195.579 What must I do to mitigate internal corrosion? (a) General. If you...

2013-10-01

280

49 CFR 195.579 - What must I do to mitigate internal corrosion?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...What must I do to mitigate internal corrosion? 195.579 Section 195.579...TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Corrosion Control § 195.579 What must I do to mitigate internal corrosion? (a) General. If you...

2010-10-01

281

Robot-assisted home hazard assessment for fall prevention: a feasibility study.  

PubMed

We examined the feasibility of using a remotely manoeuverable robot to make home hazard assessments for fall prevention. We employed use-case simulations to compare robot assessments with in-person assessments. We screened the homes of nine elderly patients (aged 65 years or more) for fall risks using the HEROS screening assessment. We also assessed the participants' perspectives of the remotely-operated robot in a survey. The nine patients had a median Short Blessed Test score of 8 (interquartile range, IQR 2-20) and a median Life-Space Assessment score of 46 (IQR 27-75). Compared to the in-person assessment (mean?=?4.2 hazards identified per participant), significantly more home hazards were perceived in the robot video assessment (mean?=?7.0). Only two checklist items (adequate bedroom lighting and a clear path from bed to bathroom) had more than 60% agreement between in-person and robot video assessment. Participants were enthusiastic about the robot and did not think it violated their privacy. The study found little agreement between the in-person and robot video hazard assessments. However, it identified several research questions about how to best use remotely-operated robots. PMID:24352900

Sadasivam, Rajani S; Luger, Tana M; Coley, Heather L; Taylor, Benjamin B; Padir, Taskin; Ritchie, Christine S; Houston, Thomas K

2014-01-01

282

44 CFR 65.11 - Evaluation of sand dunes in mapping coastal flood hazard areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Evaluation of sand dunes in mapping coastal flood hazard areas. 65.11 Section 65...INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION...Evaluation of sand dunes in mapping coastal flood hazard areas. (a) General...

2013-10-01

283

Hazard and Resiliency Planning: Perceived Benefits and Barriers Among Land Use Planners. Final Research Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hazard and resiliency planning is the active pursuit of mitigating the risks associated with natural and other hazards in terms of losses of life, property, and natural and economic resources. Examples of hazard planning include structural preparations fo...

2010-01-01

284

Google Earth Views of Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis Pilot Study, Seaside, Oregon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Virtual globes such as Google Earth provide immediate geographic context for research data for coastal hazard planning. We present Google Earth views of data from a Tsunami Pilot Study conducted within and near Seaside and Gearhart, Oregon, as part of FEMA's Flood Insurance Rate Map Modernization Program (Tsunami Pilot Study Working Group, 2006). Two goals of the pilot study were to develop probabilistic 100- year and 500-year tsunami inundation maps using Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) and to provide recommendations for improved tsunami hazard assessment guidelines. The Seaside area was chosen because it is typical of many coastal communities along the Cascadia subduction zone that extends from Cape Mendocino, California, to the Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington. State and local stakeholders also expressed considerable interest in mapping the tsunami threat to this area. The study was an interagency effort by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Geological Survey, and FEMA, in collaboration with the University of Southern California, Middle East Technical University, Portland State University, Horning Geoscience, Northwest Hydraulics Consultants, and the Oregon Department of Geological and Mineral Industries. The pilot study report will be augmented by a separate geographic information systems (GIS) data publication that provides model data and results. In addition to traditional GIS data formats, Google Earth kmz files are available to provide rapid visualization of the data against the rich base map provided by the interface. The data include verbal and geologic observations of historic tsunami events, newly constructed DEMs, historic shorelines, earthquake sources, models of tsunami wave heights, and maps of the estimated 100- and 500-year probabilistic floods. Tsunami Pilot Study Working Group, 2006, Seaside, Oregon Tsunami Pilot Study - Modernization of FEMA Flood Hazard Maps: U.S. Geological Survey Open-file Report 2006-1234, http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1234/.

Wong, F. L.; Venturato, A. J.; Geist, E. L.

2006-12-01

285

Climate change and mitigation.  

PubMed

Planet Earth has experienced repeated changes of its climate throughout time. Periods warmer than today as well as much colder, during glacial episodes, have alternated. In our time, rapid population growth with increased demand for natural resources and energy, has made society increasingly vulnerable to environmental changes, both natural and those caused by man; human activity is clearly affecting the radiation balance of the Earth. In the session "Climate Change and Mitigation" the speakers offered four different views on coal and CO2: the basis for life, but also a major hazard with impact on Earth's climate. A common denominator in the presentations was that more than ever science and technology is required. We need not only understand the mechanisms for climate change and climate variability, we also need to identify means to remedy the anthropogenic influence on Earth's climate. PMID:20873680

Nibleus, Kerstin; Lundin, Rickard

2010-01-01

286

New Seismic Hazard study in Spain Aimed at the revision of the Spanish Building Code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a global overview of the recent study carried out in Spain for the new hazard map, which final goal is the revision of the Building Code in our country (NCSE-02). The study was carried our for a working group joining experts from The Instituto Geografico Nacional (IGN) and the Technical University of Madrid (UPM) , being the different phases of the work supervised by an expert Committee integrated by national experts from public institutions involved in subject of seismic hazard. The PSHA method (Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment) has been followed, quantifying the epistemic uncertainties through a logic tree and the aleatory ones linked to variability of parameters by means of probability density functions and Monte Carlo simulations. In a first phase, the inputs have been prepared, which essentially are: 1) a project catalogue update and homogenization at Mw 2) proposal of zoning models and source characterization 3) calibration of Ground Motion Prediction Equations (GMPE's) with actual data and development of a local model with data collected in Spain for Mw < 5.5. In a second phase, a sensitivity analysis of the different input options on hazard results has been carried out in order to have criteria for defining the branches of the logic tree and their weights. Finally, the hazard estimation was done with the logic tree shown in figure 1, including nodes for quantifying uncertainties corresponding to: 1) method for estimation of hazard (zoning and zoneless); 2) zoning models, 3) GMPE combinations used and 4) regression method for estimation of source parameters. In addition, the aleatory uncertainties corresponding to the magnitude of the events, recurrence parameters and maximum magnitude for each zone have been also considered including probability density functions and Monte Carlo simulations The main conclusions of the study are presented here, together with the obtained results in terms of PGA and other spectral accelerations SA (T) for return periods of 475, 975 and 2475 years. The map of the coefficient of variation (COV) are also represented to give an idea of the zones where the dispersion among results are the highest and the zones where the results are robust.

Rivas-Medina, A.; Benito, B.; Cabañas, L.; Martínez-Solares, J. M.; Ruíz, S.; Gaspar-Escribano, J. M.; Carreño, E.; Crespo, M.; García-Mayordomo, J.

2013-05-01

287

Characteristics and predictors of home injury hazards among toddlers in Wenzhou, China: a community-based cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Home hazards are associated with toddlers receiving unintentional home injuries (UHI). These result in not only physical and psychological difficulties for children, but also economic losses and additional stress for their families. Few researchers pay attention to predictors of home hazards among toddlers in a systematic way. The purpose of this study is firstly to describe the characteristics of homes with hazards and secondly to explore the predicted relationship of children, parents and family factors to home hazards among toddlers aged 24–47 months in Wenzhou, China. Methods A random cluster sampling was employed to select 366 parents having children aged 24 – 47 months from 13 kindergartens between March and April of 2012. Four instruments assessed home hazards, demographics, parent’s awareness of UHI, as well as family functioning. Results Descriptive statistics showed that the mean of home hazards was 12.29 (SD?=?6.39). The nine kinds of home hazards that were identified in over 50% of households were: plastic bags (74.3%), coin buttons (69.1%), and toys with small components (66.7%) etc. Multivariate linear regression revealed that the predictors of home hazards were the child’s age, the child’s residential status and family functioning (b?=?.19, 2.02, - .07, p?hazards were significantly attributed to older toddlers, migrant toddlers and poorer family functioning. This result suggested that heath care providers should focus on the vulnerable family and help the parents assess home hazards. Further study is needed to find interventions on how to manage home hazards for toddlers in China.

2014-01-01

288

Analytic study to evaluate associations between hazardous waste sites and birth defects. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted to evaluate the risk of two types of birth defects (central nervous system and musculoskeletal defects) associated with mothers` exposure to solvents, metals, and pesticides through residence near hazardous waste sites. The only environmental factor showing a statistically significant elevation in risk was living within one mile of industrial or commercial facilities emitting solvents into the air. Residence near these facilities showed elevated risk for central nervous system defects but no elevated risks for musculoskeletal defects.

Marshall, E.G.; Gensburg, L.J.; Geary, N.S.; Deres, D.A.; Cayo, M.R.

1995-06-01

289

Using respondents' uncertainty scores to mitigate hypothetical bias in community-based health insurance studies.  

PubMed

Community-based health insurance has been implemented in several developing countries to help the poor to gain access to adequate health-care services. Assessing what the poor are willing to pay is of paramount importance for policymaking. The contingent valuation method, which relies on a hypothetical market, is commonly used for this purpose. But the presence of the hypothetical bias that is most often inherent in this method tends to bias the estimates upward and compromises policymaking. This paper uses respondents' uncertainty scores in an attempt to mitigate hypothetical bias in community-based health insurance in one rural setting in Cameroon. Uncertainty scores are often employed in single dichotomous choice surveys. An originality of the paper is to use such an approach in a double-bounded dichotomous choice survey. The results suggest that this instrument is effective at decreasing the mean WTP. PMID:22160944

Donfouet, Hermann Pythagore Pierre; Mahieu, Pierre-Alexandre; Malin, Eric

2013-04-01

290

FDA-iRISK--a comparative risk assessment system for evaluating and ranking food-hazard pairs: case studies on microbial hazards.  

PubMed

Stakeholders in the system of food safety, in particular federal agencies, need evidence-based, transparent, and rigorous approaches to estimate and compare the risk of foodborne illness from microbial and chemical hazards and the public health impact of interventions. FDA-iRISK (referred to here as iRISK), a Web-based quantitative risk assessment system, was developed to meet this need. The modeling tool enables users to assess, compare, and rank the risks posed by multiple food-hazard pairs at all stages of the food supply system, from primary production, through manufacturing and processing, to retail distribution and, ultimately, to the consumer. Using standard data entry templates, built-in mathematical functions, and Monte Carlo simulation techniques, iRISK integrates data and assumptions from seven components: the food, the hazard, the population of consumers, process models describing the introduction and fate of the hazard up to the point of consumption, consumption patterns, dose-response curves, and health effects. Beyond risk ranking, iRISK enables users to estimate and compare the impact of interventions and control measures on public health risk. iRISK provides estimates of the impact of proposed interventions in various ways, including changes in the mean risk of illness and burden of disease metrics, such as losses in disability-adjusted life years. Case studies for Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella were developed to demonstrate the application of iRISK for the estimation of risks and the impact of interventions for microbial hazards. iRISK was made available to the public at http://irisk.foodrisk.org in October 2012. PMID:23462073

Chen, Yuhuan; Dennis, Sherri B; Hartnett, Emma; Paoli, Greg; Pouillot, Régis; Ruthman, Todd; Wilson, Margaret

2013-03-01

291

Seaside, Oregon Tsunami Pilot Study - modernization of FEMA flood hazard maps  

USGS Publications Warehouse

FEMA Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) guidelines do not currently exist for conducting and incorporating tsunami hazard assessments that reflect the substantial advances in tsunami research achieved in the last two decades; this conclusion is the result of two FEMA-sponsored workshops and the associated Tsunami Focused Study. Therefore, as part of FEMA's Map Modernization Program, a Tsunami Pilot Study was carried out in the Seaside/Gearhart, Oregon, area to develop an improved Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment (PTHA) methodology and to provide recommendations for improved tsunami hazard assessment guidelines. The Seaside area was chosen because it is typical of many coastal communities in the section of the Pacific Coast from Cape Mendocino to the Strait of Juan de Fuca, and because State Agencies and local stakeholders expressed considerable interest in mapping the tsunami threat to this area. The study was an interagency effort by FEMA, U.S. Geological Survey and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, in collaboration with the University of Southern California, Middle East Technical University. Portland State University, Horning Geosciences, Northwest Hydraulics Consultants, and the Oregon Department of Geological and Mineral Industries. Draft copies and a briefing on the contents, results and recommendations of this document were provided to FEMA officials before final publication.

Tsunami Pilot Study Working Group

2006-01-01

292

Hydrogen Hazards Assessment Protocol (HHAP): Approach and Methodology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the approach and methodology to develop a assessment protocol for hydrogen hazards. Included in the presentation are the reasons to perform hazards assessment, the types of hazard assessments that exist, an analysis of hydrogen hazards, specific information about the Hydrogen Hazards Assessment Protocol (HHAP). The assessment is specifically tailored for hydrogen behavior. The end product of the assesment is a compilation of hazard, mitigations and associated factors to facilitate decision making and achieve the best practice.

Woods, Stephen

2009-01-01

293

Feasibility Study for Hazardous Waste Treatment and Disposal in the City of Shenyang, People's Republic of China.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document is the final report of the feasibility study conducted for the National Environment Protection Agency of China. The purpose of the study was to develop a detailed technical approach for hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal project ...

1989-01-01

294

Intrinsic vulnerability, hazard and risk mapping for karst aquifers: A case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryGroundwater from karst aquifers is among the most important resources of drinking water supply of the worldwide population. The European COST action 620 proposed a comprehensive approach to karst groundwater protection, comprising methods of intrinsic and specific vulnerability mapping, hazard and risk mapping. This paper presents the first application of all components of this European approach to the groundwater underlying the Ramallah district, a karst hydrogeology system in Palestine. The vulnerability maps which were developed can assist in the implementation of groundwater management strategies to prevent degradation of groundwater quality. Large areas in the case study area can be classified as low or very low risk area corresponding to the pollution sources due to the absence of hazards and also due to low vulnerabilities. These areas could consequently be interesting for future development as they are preferable in view of ground water protection.

Mimi, Ziad A.; Assi, Amjad

2009-01-01

295

State of Tsunami Mitigation in the U.S. states and territories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On March 11, 2011, the west coast of the United States was vividly reminded of the hazard that sits about hundred miles off the coast. Coastal populations could have less than 15 minutes to evacuate from a Cascadia-induced tsunami. The 2011 Japanese tsunami provides many lessons on when mitigation works and when mitigation fails. Emergency managers, policy makers, scientists, and the public have many options when it comes to mitigation strategies. Topics covered by this presentation range from understanding the effects of probability and possibility on mitigation strategies to the existing and emerging mitigation strategies being used by coastal States and Federal partners to mitigate the tsunami hazard.

Rizzo, A.

2012-12-01

296

A simulation study of finite-sample properties of marginal structural Cox proportional hazards models.  

PubMed

Motivated by a previously published study of HIV treatment, we simulated data subject to time-varying confounding affected by prior treatment to examine some finite-sample properties of marginal structural Cox proportional hazards models. We compared (a)?unadjusted, (b)?regression-adjusted, (c)?unstabilized, and (d)?stabilized marginal structural (inverse probability-of-treatment [IPT] weighted) model estimators of effect in terms of bias, standard error, root mean squared error (MSE), and 95% confidence limit coverage over a range of research scenarios, including relatively small sample sizes and 10 study assessments. In the base-case scenario resembling the motivating example, where the true hazard ratio was 0.5, both IPT-weighted analyses were unbiased, whereas crude and adjusted analyses showed substantial bias towards and across the null. Stabilized IPT-weighted analyses remained unbiased across a range of scenarios, including relatively small sample size; however, the standard error was generally smaller in crude and adjusted models. In many cases, unstabilized weighted analysis showed a substantial increase in standard error compared with other approaches. Root MSE was smallest in the IPT-weighted analyses for the base-case scenario. In situations where time-varying confounding affected by prior treatment was absent, IPT-weighted analyses were less precise and therefore had greater root MSE compared with adjusted analyses. The 95% confidence limit coverage was close to nominal for all stabilized IPT-weighted but poor in crude, adjusted, and unstabilized IPT-weighted analysis. Under realistic scenarios, marginal structural Cox proportional hazards models performed according to expectations based on large-sample theory and provided accurate estimates of the hazard ratio. PMID:22492660

Westreich, Daniel; Cole, Stephen R; Schisterman, Enrique F; Platt, Robert W

2012-08-30

297

Public perception of flood risks, flood forecasting and mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multidisciplinary and integrated approach to the flood mitigation decision making process should provide the best response of society in a flood hazard situation including preparation works and post hazard mitigation. In Slovenia, there is a great lack of data on social aspects and public response to flood mitigation measures and information management. In this paper, two studies of flood perception in the Slovenian town Celje are represented. During its history, Celje was often exposed to floods, the most recent serious floods being in 1990 and in 1998, with a hundred and fifty return period and more than ten year return period, respectively. Two surveys were conducted in 1997 and 2003, with 157 participants from different areas of the town in the first, and 208 in the second study, aiming at finding the general attitude toward the floods. The surveys revealed that floods present a serious threat in the eyes of the inhabitants, and that the perception of threat depends, to a certain degree, on the place of residence. The surveys also highlighted, among the other measures, solidarity and the importance of insurance against floods.

Brilly, M.; Polic, M.

2005-04-01

298

Natural Hazards Observer. Volume XXII, Number 4.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center was founded to strengthen communication among researchers and the individuals and organizations concerned with mitigating natural disasters. The center is funded by the National Science Foun...

1998-01-01

299

44 CFR 201.7 - Tribal Mitigation Plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tribal...OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE MITIGATION...government's pre- and post-disaster hazard management policies...necessary to reflect changes in tribal or Federal...

2010-10-01

300

Experimental study of a highway bridge with shape memory alloy restrainers focusing on the mitigation of unseating and pounding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an experimental study to investigate the performance of shape memory alloy (SMA) restrainers for mitigating the pounding and unseating of highway bridges when subjected to seismic excitations. Mechanical property tests of the SMA wire used in the restrainers are conducted first to understand the pseudo-elastic characteristics of the material. Then, a series of shaking table tests are carried out on a highway bridge model. The structural responses of the highway bridge model equipped with SMA restrainers, installed in the form of deck-deck and deck-pile connections, are analyzed and compared with the uncontrolled structures. The test results of this study indicate that the SMA restrainers are not only effective in preventing unseating but also in suppressing the seismic-induced pounding of the highway bridge model used in this study.

Guo, Anxin; Zhao, Qingjie; Li, Hui

2012-03-01

301

Conforth Ranch Wildlife Mitigation Feasibility Study, McNary, Oregon : Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The 2,860-acre Conforth Ranch near Umatilla, Oregon is being considered for acquisition and management to partially mitigate wildlife losses associated with McNary Hydroelectric Project. The Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) estimated that management for wildlife would result in habitat unit gains of 519 for meadowlark, 420 for quail, 431 for mallard, 466 for Canada goose, 405 for mink, 49 for downy woodpecker, 172 for yellow warbler, and 34 for spotted sandpiper. This amounts to a total combined gain of 2,495 habitat units -- a 110 percent increase over the existing values for these species combined of 2,274 habitat units. Current water delivery costs, estimated at $50,000 per year, are expected to increase to $125,000 per year. A survey of local interest indicated a majority of respondents favored the concept with a minority opposed. No contaminants that would preclude the Fish and Wildlife Service from agreeing to accept the property were identified. 21 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

Rasmussen, Larry; Wright, Patrick; Giger, Richard

1991-03-01

302

Parametric studies of carbon erosion mitigation dynamics in beryllium seeded deuterium plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characteristic time of protective beryllium layer formation on a graphite target, ?Be/C, has been investigated as a function of surface temperature, Ts, ion energy, Ei, ion flux, ?i, and beryllium ion concentration, cBe, in beryllium seeded deuterium plasma. ?Be/C is found to be strongly decreased with increasing Ts in the range of 550-970 K. This is thought to be associated with the more efficient formation of beryllium carbide (Be 2C). By scanning the parameters, a scaling expression for ?Be/C has been derived as ?[s]=1.0×10-7cBe-1.9±0.1Ei0.9±0.3?i-0.6±0.3exp((4.8±0.5)×103/T), where cBe is dimensionless, Ei in eV, ?i in 10 22 m -2 s -1 and Ts in K. Should this scaling extend to an ITER scenario, carbon erosion of the divertor strike point region may be reduced with characteristic time of ˜6 ms. This is much shorter than the time between predicted ITER type I ELMs (˜1 s), and suggests that protective beryllium layers can be formed in between ELMs, and mitigate carbon erosion.

Nishijima, D.; Baldwin, M. J.; Doerner, R. P.; Seraydarian, R.

2007-06-01

303

First Production of C60 Nanoparticle Plasma Jet for Study of Disruption Mitigation for ITER  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unique fast response and large mass-velocity delivery of nanoparticle plasma jets (NPPJs) provide a novel application for ITER disruption mitigation, runaway electrons diagnostics and deep fueling. NPPJs carry a much larger mass than usual gases. An electromagnetic plasma gun provides a very high injection velocity (many km/s). NPPJ has much higher ram pressure than any standard gas injection method and penetrates the tokamak confining magnetic field. Assimilation is enhanced due to the NP large surface-to-volume ratio. Radially expanding NPPJs help achieving toroidal uniformity of radiation power. FAR-TECH's NPPJ system was successfully tested: a coaxial plasma gun prototype (˜35 cm length, 96 kJ energy) using a solid state TiH2/C60 pulsed power cartridge injector produced a hyper-velocity (>4 km/s), high-density (>10^23 m-3), C60 plasma jet in ˜0.5 ms, with ˜1-2 ms overall response-delivery time. We present the TiH2/C60 cartridge injector output characterization (˜180 mg of sublimated C60 gas) and first production results of a high momentum C60 plasma jet (˜0.6 g.km/s).

Bogatu, I. N.; Thompson, J. R.; Galkin, S. A.; Kim, J. S.; Brockington, S.; Case, A.; Messer, S. J.; Witherspoon, F. D.

2012-10-01

304

Study of cover source mismatch in steganalysis and ways to mitigate its impact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a steganalysis detector trained on one cover source is applied to images from a different source, generally the detection error increases due to the mismatch between both sources. In steganography, this situation is recognized as the so-called cover source mismatch (CSM). The drop in detection accuracy depends on many factors, including the properties of both sources, the detector construction, the feature space used to represent the covers, and the steganographic algorithm. Although well recognized as the single most important factor negatively affecting the performance of steganalyzers in practice, the CSM received surprisingly little attention from researchers. One of the reasons for this is the diversity with which the CSM can manifest. On a series of experiments in the spatial and JPEG domains, we refute some of the common misconceptions that the severity of the CSM is tied to the feature dimensionality or their "fragility." The CSM impact on detection appears too difficult to predict due to the effect of complex dependencies among the features. We also investigate ways to mitigate the negative effect of the CSM using simple measures, such as by enlarging the diversity of the training set (training on a mixture of sources) and by employing a bank of detectors trained on multiple different sources and testing on a detector trained on the closest source.

Kodovský, Jan; Sedighi, Vahid; Fridrich, Jessica

2014-02-01

305

Studies On The Influence Of Soil Components On Adsorption-Desorption Of Hazardous Organics And Their Insitu Biodegradation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently approximately 155 cubic yards of soil is contaminated with hazardous organics at Patancheru Industrial area (Hyderabad, India). These hazardous organic contaminants are frequently part of hazardous waste disposed on land and the study of waste site interaction is the key to assess the potential for offsite and onsite contamination. In the present study the authors report the results on the adsorption, soil leaching potential and persistence of phenol, p-nitrophenol,2,4-dichlorophenol and 4,chloro-2,nitrophenol which are the common constituents of the hazardous waste generated. The role of soil components like organic matter, clay, iron and aluminium oxides in the adsorption capacity has been studied. Desorption isotherms of soil adsorbed hazardous organics exhibited hysterisis at high initial concentration indicating the degree of irreversibility of adsorption-deesorption process. Leaching potential of the hazardous organics decreases with their increasing hydrophobicity and soil organic matter content while their persistence in terms of half life time (DT50) increases. Insitu biodegradation has been carried out by developing mixed culture systems which can degrade the phenols to complete mineralisation by utilizing them as the sole source of carbon and their corresponding biodegradation kinetic constants were evaluated. Based on the above data generated preparation of hazardous waste dumpsites with suitable soil surface having high holding capacity for organics and their insitu biodegradation by mixing with specific bacterial cultures enriched from different soils can be exploited as a cost effective technology for reclamation of contaminated sites.

Khan, Z.

2003-12-01

306

Risk assessment of volcanic hazards of Changbaishan region based on RS and GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The keystones of research on modern volcanic hazards and calamity are from static research on local or regional change to dynamic research on global change, which emphasize particularly on monitoring volcanic activity and countermeasures of disaster recovery. Geological problems are emphases of volcano study in China in the past few years. Research on volcano mitigation starts now. There is still

Xuexia Zhang; Maojun Wang

2003-01-01

307

Concerns About Climate Change Mitigation Projects: Summary of Findings from Case Studies in Brazil, India, Mexico, and South Africa  

SciTech Connect

The concept of joint implementation as a way to implement climate change mitigation projects in another country has been controversial ever since its inception. Developing countries have raised numerous issues at the project-specific technical level, and broader concerns having to do with equity and burden sharing. This paper summarizes the findings of studies for Brazil, India, Mexico and South Africa, four countries that have large greenhouse gas emissions and are heavily engaged in the debate on climate change projects under the Kyoto Protocol. The studies examine potential or current projects/programs to determine whether eight technical concerns about joint implementation can be adequately addressed. They conclude that about half the concerns were minor or well managed by project developers, but concerns about additionality of funds, host country institutions and guarantees of performance (including the issues of baselines and possible leakage) need much more effort to be adequately addressed. All the papers agree on the need to develop institutional arrangements for approving and monitoring such projects in each of the countries represented. The case studies illustrate that these projects have the potential to bring new technology, investment, employment and ancillary socioeconomic and environmental benefits to developing countries. These benefits are consistent with the goal of sustainable development in the four study countries. At a policy level, the studies' authors note that in their view, the Annex I countries should consider limits on the use of jointly implemented projects as a way to get credits against their own emissions at home, and stress the importance of industrialized countries developing new technologies that will benefit all countries. The authors also observe that if all countries accepted caps on their emissions (with a longer time period allowed for developing countries to do so) project-based GHG mitigation would be significantly facilitated by the improved private investment climate.

Sathaye, Jayant A.; Andrasko, Kenneth; Makundi, Willy; La Rovere, Emilio Lebre; Ravinandranath, N.H.; Melli, Anandi; Rangachari, Anita; Amaz, Mireya; Gay, Carlos; Friedmann, Rafael; Goldberg, Beth; van Horen, Clive; Simmonds, Gillina; Parker, Gretchen

1998-11-01

308

Hazard and Operability Study of an Ethylene Oxide Sterilizer for National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A hazard and operability (HAZOP) study was conducted on a sterilizer supplied by compressed gas cylinders of ethylene-oxide (EtO). The sterilizer installation, equipment, and operational procedures were reviewed, and recommendations were developed both sp...

1988-01-01

309

Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent tsunami disaster caused by the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake has focused our attention to the hazard posed by large earthquakes that occur under water, in particular subduction zone earthquakes, and the tsunamis that they generate. Even though these kinds of events are rare, the very large loss of life and material destruction caused by this earthquake warrant a significant effort towards the mitigation of the tsunami hazard. For ground motion hazard, Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) has become a standard practice in the evaluation and mitigation of seismic hazard to populations in particular with respect to structures, infrastructure and lifelines. Its ability to condense the complexities and variability of seismic activity into a manageable set of parameters greatly facilitates the design of effective seismic resistant buildings but also the planning of infrastructure projects. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) achieves the same goal for hazards posed by tsunami. There are great advantages of implementing such a method to evaluate the total risk (seismic and tsunami) to coastal communities. The method that we have developed is based on the traditional PSHA and therefore completely consistent with standard seismic practice. Because of the strong dependence of tsunami wave heights on bathymetry, we use a full waveform tsunami waveform computation in lieu of attenuation relations that are common in PSHA. By pre-computing and storing the tsunami waveforms at points along the coast generated for sets of subfaults that comprise larger earthquake faults, we can efficiently synthesize tsunami waveforms for any slip distribution on those faults by summing the individual subfault tsunami waveforms (weighted by their slip). This efficiency make it feasible to use Green's function summation in lieu of attenuation relations to provide very accurate estimates of tsunami height for probabilistic calculations, where one typically computes thousands of earthquake scenarios. We have carried out preliminary tsunami hazard calculations for different return periods for western North America and Hawaii based on thousands of earthquake scenarios around the Pacific rim and along the coast of North America. We will present tsunami hazard maps for several return periods and also discuss how to use these results for probabilistic inundation and runup mapping. Our knowledge of certain types of tsunami sources is very limited (e.g. submarine landslides), but a probabilistic framework for tsunami hazard evaluation can include even such sources and their uncertainties and present the overall hazard in a meaningful and consistent way.

Thio, H. K.; Ichinose, G. A.; Somerville, P. G.; Polet, J.

2006-12-01

310

Properties of Hazards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A Hazard is any physical, biological or chemical agent that poses a threat to human health. You can get exposed to hazards due to the way you live, the job you do, or the environment you are surrounded by. This "Properties of Hazards" module has five instructional units. Follow the links above in order. Each lesson contains study material for one day. Learn more about just how close you are to environmental health hazards and how they can affect you.

2001-01-01

311

A Procedure for Rapid Localized Earthquake Hazard Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this presentation, we introduce various ground shaking and building response models. We then discuss the forecasting capabilities of different models submitted to the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) and show how they can be used as inputs for these models. Finally, we discuss how outputs from such multi- tiered calculations would prove invaluable for real-time and scenario-based hazard assessment and for cost-benefit analysis of possible mitigation actions.

Holliday, J. R.; Rundle, J. B.

2010-12-01

312

Awareness of occupational hazards and use of safety measures among welders: a cross-sectional study from eastern Nepal  

PubMed Central

Objective The proper use of safety measures by welders is an important way of preventing and/or reducing a variety of health hazards that they are exposed to during welding. There is a lack of knowledge about hazards and personal protective equipments (PPEs) and the use of PPE among the welders in Nepal is limited. We designed a study to assess welders’ awareness of hazards and PPE, and the use of PPE among the welders of eastern Nepal and to find a possible correlation between awareness and use of PPE among them. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study of 300 welders selected by simple random sampling from three districts of eastern Nepal was conducted using a semistructured questionnaire. Data regarding age, education level, duration of employment, awareness of hazards, safety measures and the actual use of safety measures were recorded. Results Overall, 272 (90.7%) welders were aware of at least one hazard of welding and a similar proportion of welders were aware of at least one PPE. However, only 47.7% used one or more types of PPE. Education and duration of employment were significantly associated with the awareness of hazards and of PPE and its use. The welders who reported using PPE during welding were two times more likely to have been aware of hazards (OR=2.52, 95% CI 1.09 to 5.81) and five times more likely to have been aware of PPE compared with the welders who did not report the use of PPE (OR=5.13, 95% CI 2.34 to 11.26). Conclusions The welders using PPE were those who were aware of hazards and PPE. There is a gap between being aware of hazards and PPE (90%) and use of PPE (47%) at work. Further research is needed to identify the underlying factors leading to low utilisation of PPE despite the welders of eastern Nepal being knowledgeable of it.

Budhathoki, Shyam Sundar; Singh, Suman Bahadur; Sagtani, Reshu Agrawal; Niraula, Surya Raj; Pokharel, Paras Kumar

2014-01-01

313

Water Induced Hazard Mapping in Nepal: A Case Study of East Rapti River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents illustration on typical water induced hazard mapping of East Rapti River Basin under the DWIDP, GON. The basin covers an area of 2398 sq km. The methodology includes making of base map of water induced disaster in the basin. Landslide hazard maps were prepared by SINMAP approach. Debris flow hazard maps were prepared by considering geology, slope,

N. Neupane

2010-01-01

314

Social Uptake of Scientific Understanding of Seismic Hazard in Sumatra and Cascadia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance of science within hazard mitigation cannot be underestimated. Robust mitigation polices rely strongly on a sound understanding of the science underlying potential natural disasters and the transference of that knowledge from the scientific community to the general public via governments and policy makers. We aim to investigate how and why the public's knowledge, perceptions, response, adjustments and values towards science have changed throughout two decades of research conducted in areas along and adjacent to the Sumatran and Cascadia subduction zones. We will focus on two countries subject to the same potential hazard, but which encompass starkly contrasting political, economic, social and environmental settings. The transfer of scientific knowledge into the public/ social arena is a complex process, the success of which is reflected in a community's ability to withstand large scale devastating events. Although no one could have foreseen the magnitude of the 2004 Boxing Day tsunami, the social devastation generated underscored the stark absence of mitigation measures in the nations most heavily affected. It furthermore emphasized the need for the design and implementation of disaster preparedness measures. Survey of existing literature has already established timelines for major events and public policy changes in the case study areas. Clear evidence exists of the link between scientific knowledge and its subsequent translation into public policy, particularly in the Cascadia context. The initiation of the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program following the Cape Mendocino earthquake in 1992 embodies this link. Despite a series of environmental disasters with recorded widespread fatalities dating back to the mid 1900s and a heightened impetus for scientific research into tsunami/ earthquake hazard following the 2004 Boxing Day tsunami, the translation of science into the public realm is not widely obvious in the Sumatran context. This research aims to further investigate how the enhanced understanding of earthquake and tsunami hazards is being used to direct hazard mitigation strategies and enables direct comparison with the scientific and public policy developments in Cascadia.

Shannon, R.; McCloskey, J.; Guyer, C.; McDowell, S.; Steacy, S.

2007-12-01

315

Eco-efficiency for greenhouse gas emissions mitigation of municipal solid waste management: a case study of Tianjin, China.  

PubMed

The issue of municipal solid waste (MSW) management has been highlighted in China due to the continually increasing MSW volumes being generated and the limited capacity of waste treatment facilities. This article presents a quantitative eco-efficiency (E/E) analysis on MSW management in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. A methodology for E/E analysis has been proposed, with an emphasis on the consistent integration of life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC). The environmental and economic impacts derived from LCA and LCC have been normalized and defined as a quantitative E/E indicator. The proposed method was applied in a case study of Tianjin, China. The study assessed the current MSW management system, as well as a set of alternative scenarios, to investigate trade-offs between economy and GHG emissions mitigation. Additionally, contribution analysis was conducted on both LCA and LCC to identify key issues driving environmental and economic impacts. The results show that the current Tianjin's MSW management system emits the highest GHG and costs the least, whereas the situation reverses in the integrated scenario. The key issues identified by the contribution analysis show no linear relationship between the global warming impact and the cost impact in MSW management system. The landfill gas utilization scenario is indicated as a potential optimum scenario by the proposed E/E analysis, given the characteristics of MSW, technology levels, and chosen methodologies. The E/E analysis provides an attractive direction towards sustainable waste management, though some questions with respect to uncertainty need to be discussed further. PMID:21316937

Zhao, Wei; Huppes, Gjalt; van der Voet, Ester

2011-06-01

316

Eco-efficiency for greenhouse gas emissions mitigation of municipal solid waste management: A case study of Tianjin, China  

SciTech Connect

The issue of municipal solid waste (MSW) management has been highlighted in China due to the continually increasing MSW volumes being generated and the limited capacity of waste treatment facilities. This article presents a quantitative eco-efficiency (E/E) analysis on MSW management in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. A methodology for E/E analysis has been proposed, with an emphasis on the consistent integration of life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC). The environmental and economic impacts derived from LCA and LCC have been normalized and defined as a quantitative E/E indicator. The proposed method was applied in a case study of Tianjin, China. The study assessed the current MSW management system, as well as a set of alternative scenarios, to investigate trade-offs between economy and GHG emissions mitigation. Additionally, contribution analysis was conducted on both LCA and LCC to identify key issues driving environmental and economic impacts. The results show that the current Tianjin's MSW management system emits the highest GHG and costs the least, whereas the situation reverses in the integrated scenario. The key issues identified by the contribution analysis show no linear relationship between the global warming impact and the cost impact in MSW management system. The landfill gas utilization scenario is indicated as a potential optimum scenario by the proposed E/E analysis, given the characteristics of MSW, technology levels, and chosen methodologies. The E/E analysis provides an attractive direction towards sustainable waste management, though some questions with respect to uncertainty need to be discussed further.

Zhao Wei, E-mail: zhaowei.tju@gmail.com [College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Liaoning University of Technology, 121000 Jinzhou (China); Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300RA Leiden (Netherlands); Huppes, Gjalt, E-mail: huppes@cml.leidenuniv.nl [Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300RA Leiden (Netherlands); Voet, Ester van der, E-mail: Voet@cml.leidenuniv.nl [Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300RA Leiden (Netherlands)

2011-06-15

317

44 CFR 65.5 - Revision to special hazard area boundaries with no change to base flood elevation determinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Revision to special hazard area boundaries with no change...HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS § 65.5 Revision...

2009-10-01

318

Natural phenomena hazards, Hanford Site, Washington  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the natural phenomena hazard loads for use in implementing DOE Order 5480.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation, and supports development of double-shell tank systems specifications at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The natural phenomena covered are seismic, flood, wind, volcanic ash, lightning, snow, temperature, solar radiation, suspended sediment, and relative humidity.

Conrads, T.J.

1998-09-29

319

Computerized Workstation for Tsunami Hazard Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present general structure and functionality of the proposed Computerized Workstation for Tsunami Hazard Monitoring (CWTHM). The tool allows interactive monitoring of hazard, tsunami risk assessment, and mitigation - at all stages, from the period of strong tsunamigenic earthquake preparation to inundation of the defended coastal areas. CWTHM is a software-hardware complex with a set of software applications, optimized to

Mikhail Lavrentiev-Jr; Andrey Marchuk; Alexey Romanenko; Konstantin Simonov; Vasiliy Titov

2010-01-01

320

Application of a Data Mining Model and It's Cross Application for Landslide Hazard Analysis: a Case Study in Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with landslide hazard analysis and cross-application using Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing data for Cameron Highland, Penang Island and Selangor in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to cross-apply and verify a spatial probabilistic model for landslide hazard analysis. Landslide locations were identified in the study area from interpretation of aerial photographs and field surveys. Topographical/geological data and satellite images were collected and processed using GIS and image processing tools. There are ten landslide inducing parameters which are considered for the landslide hazard analysis. These parameters are topographic slope, aspect, curvature and distance from drainage, all derived from the topographic database; geology and distance from lineament, derived from the geologic database; landuse from Landsat satellite images; soil from the soil database; precipitation amount, derived from the rainfall database; and the vegetation index value from SPOT satellite images. These factors were analyzed using an artificial neural network model to generate the landslide hazard map. Each factor's weight was determined by the back-propagation training method. Then the landslide hazard indices were calculated using the trained back-propagation weights, and finally the landslide hazard map was generated using GIS tools. Landslide hazard maps were drawn for these three areas using artificial neural network model derived not only from the data for that area but also using the weight for each parameters, one of the statistical model, calculated from each of the other two areas (nine maps in all) as a cross-check of the validity of the method. For verification, the results of the analyses were compared, in each study area, with actual landslide locations. The verification results showed sufficient agreement between the presumptive hazard map and the existing data on landslide areas.

Pradhan, Biswajeet; Lee, Saro; Shattri, Mansor

321

Distinguishing Realistic Military Blasts from Firecrackers in Mitigation Studies of Blast Induced Traumatic Brain Injury  

SciTech Connect

In their Contributed Article, Nyein et al. (1,2) present numerical simulations of blast waves interacting with a helmeted head and conclude that a face shield may significantly mitigate blast induced traumatic brain injury (TBI). A face shield may indeed be important for future military helmets, but the authors derive their conclusions from a much smaller explosion than typically experienced on the battlefield. The blast from the 3.16 gm TNT charge of (1) has the following approximate peak overpressures, positive phase durations, and incident impulses (3): 10 atm, 0.25 ms, and 3.9 psi-ms at the front of the head (14 cm from charge), and 1.4 atm, 0.32 ms, and 1.7 psi-ms at the back of a typical 20 cm head (34 cm from charge). The peak pressure of the wave decreases by a factor of 7 as it traverses the head. The blast conditions are at the threshold for injury at the front of the head, but well below threshold at the back of the head (4). The blast traverses the head in 0.3 ms, roughly equal to the positive phase duration of the blast. Therefore, when the blast reaches the back of the head, near ambient conditions exist at the front. Because the headform is so close to the charge, it experiences a wave with significant curvature. By contrast, a realistic blast from a 2.2 kg TNT charge ({approx} an uncased 105 mm artillery round) is fatal at an overpressure of 10 atm (4). For an injury level (4) similar to (1), a 2.2 kg charge has the following approximate peak overpressures, positive phase durations, and incident impulses (3): 2.1 atm, 2.3 ms, and 18 psi-ms at the front of the head (250 cm from charge), and 1.8 atm, 2.5 ms, and 16.8 psi-ms at the back of the head (270 cm from charge). The peak pressure decreases by only a factor of 1.2 as it traverses the head. Because the 0.36 ms traversal time is much smaller than the positive phase duration, pressures on the head become relatively uniform when the blast reaches the back of the head. The larger standoff implies that the headform locally experiences a nearly planar blast wave. Also, the positive phase durations and blast impulses are much larger than those of (1). Consequently, the blast model used in (1) is spatially and temporally very different from a military blast. It would be useful to repeat the calculations using military blast parameters. Finally, (1) overlooks a significant part of (5). On page 1 and on page 3, (1) states that (5) did not consider helmet pads. But pages pages 3 and 4 of (5) present simulations of blast wave propagation across an ACH helmeted head form with and without pads. (5) states that when the pads are present, the 'underwash' of air under the helmet is blocked when compared to the case without. (1) reaches this same conclusion, but reports it as a new result rather than a confirmation of that already found in (5).

Moss, W C; King, M J; Blackman, E G

2011-01-21

322

Vertical Field of View Reference Point Study for Flight Path Control and Hazard Avoidance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Researchers within the eXternal Visibility System (XVS) element of the High-Speed Research (HSR) program developed and evaluated display concepts that will provide the flight crew of the proposed High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) with integrated imagery and symbology to permit path control and hazard avoidance functions while maintaining required situation awareness. The challenge of the XVS program is to develop concepts that would permit a no-nose-droop configuration of an HSCT and expanded low visibility HSCT operational capabilities. This study was one of a series of experiments exploring the 'design space' restrictions for physical placement of an XVS display. The primary experimental issues here was 'conformality' of the forward display vertical position with respect to the side window in simulated flight. 'Conformality' refers to the case such that the horizon and objects appear in the same relative positions when viewed through the forward windows or display and the side windows. This study quantified the effects of visual conformality on pilot flight path control and hazard avoidance performance. Here, conformality related to the positioning and relationship of the artificial horizon line and associated symbology presented on the forward display and the horizon and associated ground, horizon, and sky textures as they would appear in the real view through a window presented in the side window display. No significant performance consequences were found for the non-conformal conditions.

Comstock, J. Raymond, Jr.; Rudisill, Marianne; Kramer, Lynda J.; Busquets, Anthony M.

2002-01-01

323

A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Home Injury Hazard Reduction: The HOME Injury Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Test the efficacy of an intervention of safety device installation on medically-attended injury in children birth to 3 years of age. Design A nested, prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Setting Indoor environment of housing units of mothers and children. Participants Mothers and their children enrolled in a birth cohort examining the effects of prevalent neurotoxicants on child development, the Home Observation and Measures of the Environment (HOME) Study. Intervention Installation of multiple, passive measures (stairgates, window locks, smoke & carbon monoxide detectors, to reduce exposure to injury hazards present in housing units. Outcome measure Self-reported and medically-attended and modifiable injury. Methods 1263 (14%) prenatal patients were eligible, 413 (33%) agreed to participate and 355 were randomly assigned to the experimental (n=181) or control (n=174) groups. Injury hazards were assessed at home visits by teams of trained research assistants using a validated survey. Safety devices were installed in intervention homes. Intention-to-treat analyses to test efficacy were conducted on: 1) total injury rates and 2) on injuries deemed, a priori, modifiable by the installation of safety devices. Rates of medically attended injuries (phone calls, office or emergency visits) were calculated using generalized estimating equations. Results The mean age of the children at intervention was 6 months. Injury hazards were significantly reduced in the intervention but not in control group homes at one and two years (p<0.004). There was not a significant difference in the rate for all medically-attended injuries in intervention compared with control group children, 14.3 (95%CI 9.7, 21.1) vs. 20.8 (14.4, 29.9) per 100 child-years (p=0.17) respectively; but there was a significant reduction in modifiable medically attended injuries in intervention compared with control group children, 2.3 (1.0, 5.5) vs. 7.7 (4.2, 14.2) per 100 child-years, respectively (p=0.026). Conclusions An intervention to reduce exposure to hazards in the homes of young children led to a 70% reduction in modifiable medically-attended injury.

Phelan, Kieran J.; Khoury, Jane; Xu, Yingying; Liddy, Stacey; Hornung, Richard; Lanphear, Bruce P.

2013-01-01

324

New approach to inventorying army hazardous materials. A study done for the Eighth U. S. Army, Korea. Volume 2. Hazardous-material data. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the Army hazardous waste minimization program is to achieve a 50 percent reduction of the hazardous waste generated by calendar year 1992 (CY92), as compared to baseline CY85. A first step in achieving effective hazardous waste management is to conduct a thorough hazardous material inventory. Volume I describes a method created to inventory hazardous material by collecting supply data from Logistics Control Activity (LCA) at the Presidio, San Francisco, CA, an comparing this data with the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) in the Hazardous Material Information System (HMIS). Volume H lists hazardous material data collected for the Eighth U.S. Army (EUSA), Korea. Common elements between the two data bases were compiled, analyzed, and validated. It was found that the intersection of the two data bases created a composite list that substantially reduced the number of nonhazardous wastes included in the individual lists. This method may also be applied to supply data from other Army installations.

Kim, B.J.; Gee, C.S.; Lee, Y.H.; Mikulich, L.R.; Grafmyer, D.E.

1991-09-01

325

The Relative Severity of Single Hazards within a Multi-Hazard Framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we present a description of the relative severity of single hazards within a multi-hazard framework, compiled through examining, quantifying and ranking the extent to which individual hazards trigger or increase the probability of other hazards. Hazards are broken up into six major groupings (geophysical, hydrological, shallow earth processes, atmospheric, biophysical and space), with the interactions for 21 different hazard types examined. These interactions include both one primary hazard triggering a secondary hazard, and one primary hazard increasing the probability of a secondary hazard occurring. We identify, through a wide-ranging review of grey- and peer-review literature, >90 interactions. The number of hazard-type linkages are then summed for each hazard in terms of their influence (the number of times one hazard type triggers another type of hazard, or itself) and their sensitivity (the number of times one hazard type is triggered by other hazard types, or itself). The 21 different hazards are then ranked based on (i) influence and (ii) sensitivity. We found, by quantification and ranking of these hazards, that: (i) The strongest influencers (those triggering the most secondary hazards) are volcanic eruptions, earthquakes and storms, which when taken together trigger almost a third of the possible hazard interactions identified; (ii) The most sensitive hazards (those being triggered by the most primary hazards) are identified to be landslides, volcanic eruptions and floods; (iii) When sensitivity rankings are adjusted to take into account the differential likelihoods of different secondary hazards being triggered, the most sensitive hazards are found to be landslides, floods, earthquakes and ground heave. We believe that by determining the strongest influencing and the most sensitive hazards for specific spatial areas, the allocation of resources for mitigation measures might be done more effectively.

Gill, Joel C.; Malamud, Bruce D.

2013-04-01

326

Study of the Cherokee Nuclear Station: Projected Impacts, Monitoring Plan, and Mitigation Options for Cherokee County, South Carolina.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report inventories Cherokee County's capabilities and CNS project characteristics, projects expected impacts from the interaction of the two defines four options for Cherokee County decision makers, and presents a range of possible mitigation and mon...

B. Pressman E. Peelle M. Schweitzer P. Scharre

1979-01-01

327

Property-close source separation of hazardous waste and waste electrical and electronic equipment - A Swedish case study  

SciTech Connect

Through an agreement with EEE producers, Swedish municipalities are responsible for collection of hazardous waste and waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). In most Swedish municipalities, collection of these waste fractions is concentrated to waste recycling centres where households can source-separate and deposit hazardous waste and WEEE free of charge. However, the centres are often located on the outskirts of city centres and cars are needed in order to use the facilities in most cases. A full-scale experiment was performed in a residential area in southern Sweden to evaluate effects of a system for property-close source separation of hazardous waste and WEEE. After the system was introduced, results show a clear reduction in the amount of hazardous waste and WEEE disposed of incorrectly amongst residual waste or dry recyclables. The systems resulted in a source separation ratio of 70 wt% for hazardous waste and 76 wt% in the case of WEEE. Results show that households in the study area were willing to increase source separation of hazardous waste and WEEE when accessibility was improved and that this and similar collection systems can play an important role in building up increasingly sustainable solid waste management systems.

Bernstad, Anna, E-mail: anna.bernstad@chemeng.lth.se [Dep. of Chem. Eng., Faculty of Eng., Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Cour Jansen, Jes la [Dep. of Chem. Eng., Faculty of Eng., Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Aspegren, Henrik [VA SYD, City of Malmoe (Sweden)

2011-03-15

328

44 CFR 66.3 - Establishment of community case file and flood elevation study docket.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Establishment of community case file and flood elevation study docket. 66.3 ...INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program CONSULTATION WITH...Establishment of community case file and flood elevation study docket....

2013-10-01

329

Further RAGE modeling of asteroid mitigation: surface and subsurface explosions in porous objects  

SciTech Connect

Disruption or mitigation of a potentially hazardous object (PHO) by a high-energy subsurface burst is considered. This is just one possible method of impact-hazard mitigation. We present RAGE hydrocode models of the shock-generated disruption of PHOs by subsurface nuclear bursts using scenario-specific models from realistic RADAR shape models. We will show 2D and 3D models for the disruption by a large energy source at the center of such PHO models ({approx}100 kt-10 Mt) specifically for the shape of the asteroid 25143 Itokawa. We study the effects of non-uniform composition (rubble pile), shallow buried bursts for the optimal depth of burial and porosity.

Weaver, Robert P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Plesko, Catherine S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dearholt, William R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-03

330

Probabilistic Hazard Curves for Tornadic Winds, Wind Gusts, and Extreme Rainfall Events  

SciTech Connect

'This paper summarizes a study carried on at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for determining probabilistic hazard curves for tornadic winds, wind gusts, and extreme rainfall events. DOE Order 420.1, Facility Safety, outlines the requirements for Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) mitigation for new and existing DOE facilities. Specifically, NPH include tornadic winds, maximum wind gusts, and extreme rainfall events. Probabilistic hazard curves for each phenomenon indicate the recurrence frequency, and these hazard curves must be updated at least every 10 years to account for recent data, improved methodologies, or criteria changes. Also, emergency response exercises often use hypothetical weather data to initiate accident scenarios. The hazard curves in these reports provide a means to use extreme weather events based on models and measurements rather than scenarios that are created ad hoc as is often the case.'

Weber, A.H.

1999-07-29

331

Remedial Action Assessment System (RAAS): Evaluation of selected feasibility studies of CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act) hazardous waste sites  

SciTech Connect

Congress and the public have mandated much closer scrutiny of the management of chemically hazardous and radioactive mixed wastes. Legislative language, regulatory intent, and prudent technical judgment, call for using scientifically based studies to assess current conditions and to evaluate and select costeffective strategies for mitigating unacceptable situations. The NCP requires that a Remedial Investigation (RI) and a Feasibility Study (FS) be conducted at each site targeted for remedial response action. The goal of the RI is to obtain the site data needed so that the potential impacts on public health or welfare or on the environment can be evaluated and so that the remedial alternatives can be identified and selected. The goal of the FS is to identify and evaluate alternative remedial actions (including a no-action alternative) in terms of their cost, effectiveness, and engineering feasibility. The NCP also requires the analysis of impacts on public health and welfare and on the environment; this analysis is the endangerment assessment (EA). In summary, the RI, EA, and FS processes require assessment of the contamination at a site, of the potential impacts in public health or the environment from that contamination, and of alternative RAs that could address potential impacts to the environment. 35 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Whelan, G. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Hartz, K.E.; Hilliard, N.D. (Beck (R.W.) and Associates, Seattle, WA (USA))

1990-04-01

332

Methane emission from ruminants and solid waste: A critical analysis of baseline and mitigation projections for climate and policy studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current and projected estimates of methane (CH4) emission from anthropogenic sources are numerous but largely unexamined or compared. Presented here is a critical appraisal of CH4 projections used in climate-chemistry and policy studies. We compare emissions for major CH4 sources from several groups, including our own new data and RCP projections developed for climate-chemistry models for the next IPCC Assessment Report (AR5). We focus on current and projected baseline and mitigation emissions from ruminant animals and solid waste that are both predicted to rise dramatically in coming decades, driven primarily by developing countries. For waste, drivers include increasing urban populations, higher per capita waste generation due to economic growth and increasing landfilling rates. Analysis of a new global data base detailing waste composition, collection and disposal indicates that IPCC-based methodologies and default data overestimate CH4 emission for the current period which cascades into substantial overestimates in future projections. CH4 emission from solid waste is estimated to be ~10-15 Tg CH4/yr currently rather than the ~35 Tg/yr often reported in the literature. Moreover, emissions from developing countries are unlikely to rise rapidly in coming decades because new management approaches, such as sanitary landfills, that would increase emissions are maladapted to infrastructures in these countries and therefore unlikely to be implemented. The low current emission associated with solid waste (~10 Tg), together with future modest growth, implies that mitigation of waste-related CH4 emission is a poor candidate for slowing global warming. In the case of ruminant animals (~90 Tg CH4/yr currently), the dominant assumption driving future trajectories of CH4 emission is a substantial increase in meat and dairy consumption in developing countries to be satisfied by growing animal populations. Unlike solid waste, current ruminant emissions among studies exhibit a narrow range that does not necessarily signal low uncertainty but rather a reliance on similar animal statistics and emission factors. The UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) projects 2000-2030 growth rates of livestock for most developing countries at 2% to >3% annually. However, the assumption of rapidly rising meat consumption is not supported by current trends nor by resource availability. For example, increased meat consumption in China and other developing countries is poultry and pork that do not affect CH4 emissions, suggesting that the rapid growth projected for all animals, boosting growth in CH4 emission, will not occur. From a resource standpoint, large increases in cattle, sheep and goat populations, especially for African countries (~60% by 2030), are not supportable on arid grazing lands that require very low stocking rates and semi-nomadic management. Increases projected for African animal populations would require either that about 2/3 more animals are grazed on increasingly drier lands or that all non-forested areas become grazing lands. Similar to solid waste, future methane emission from ruminant animals is likely to grow modestly although animals are not a likely candidate for CH4 mitigation due to their dispersed distribution throughout widely varying agricultural systems under very local management.

Matthews, E.

2012-12-01

333

Empirical study of environmental ancillary benefits due to greenhouse gas mitigation in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is a part of the International Co-Control Analysis Program (ICAP), which is an initiative sponsored by the US EPA to assist developing countries in evaluating the environmental and human health benefits of technologies and policies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The goal of the Korea study is primarily two-fold: i) to assess and quantify the environmental ancillary benefit

Seunghun Joh; Yun-Mi Nam; ShangGyoo Shim; Joohon Sung; Youngchul Shin

2003-01-01

334

Status of volcanic hazard studies for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. Volume II  

SciTech Connect

Volcanic hazard investigations during FY 1984 focused on five topics: the emplacement mechanism of shallow basalt intrusions, geochemical trends through time for volcanic fields of the Death Valley-Pancake Range volcanic zone, the possibility of bimodal basalt-rhyolite volcanism, the age and process of enrichment for incompatible elements in young basalts of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) region, and the possibility of hydrovolcanic activity. The stress regime of Yucca Mountain may favor formation of shallow basalt intrusions. However, combined field and drill-hole studies suggest shallow basalt intrusions are rare in the geologic record of the southern Great Basin. The geochemical patterns of basaltic volcanism through time in the NTS region provide no evidence for evolution toward a large-volume volcanic field or increases in future rates of volcanism. Existing data are consistent with a declining volcanic system comparable to the late stages of the southern Death Valley volcanic field. The hazards of bimodal volcanism in this area are judged to be low. The source of a 6-Myr pumice discovered in alluvial deposits of Crater Flat has not been found. Geochemical studies show that the enrichment of trace elements in the younger rift basalts must be related to an enrichment of their mantle source rocks. This geochemical enrichment event, which may have been metasomatic alteration, predates the basalts of the silicic episode and is, therefore, not a young event. Studies of crater dimensions of hydrovolcanic landforms indicate that the worst case scenario (exhumation of a repository at Yucca Mountain by hydrovolcanic explosions) is unlikely. Theoretical models of melt-water vapor explosions, particularly the thermal detonation model, suggest hydrovolcanic explosion are possible at Yucca Mountain. 80 refs., 21 figs., 5 tabs.

Crowe, B.M.; Wohletz, K.H.; Vaniman, D.T.; Gladney, E.; Bower, N.

1986-01-01

335

Computational Study of Water Mitigation Effects On An Explosion Inside A Vented Tunnel System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of water in close contact with detonating high explosives have been studied experimentally by numerous researchers, such as Eriksson (1974), Keenan & Wager (1992) and etc. These tests series had demonstrated that when water was stored closed t...

G. R. Liu K. S. Yeo K. Y. Lam O. Y. Chong W. K. Chong

1998-01-01

336

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON VIBRATION MITIGATION OF A STAY CABLE USING NONLINEAR HYSTERETIC DAMPERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an experimental study on the cable vibration control using nonlinear hysteretic dampers. A 12m-long stay cable specimen, which is a 1:12 scale model of a 143m-long prototype cable in an actual cable structure, is established for the experimental study. Modal testing on the pure cable without damper is first performed to identify the actual modal properties of

J. M. Ko; Y. Chen; G. Zheng; Y. Q. Ni

337

Consumption hazards of cattle liver infected with Fasciola spp.: II. Experimental study on rats.  

PubMed

This study evaluated and revealed the consumption hazards of cattle liver infected with Fasciola spp. and revealed its effects on the serum estimation of liver enzyme (ALT) on experimental rats. A total of42 Wister albino rats were classified into 7 groups. Four groups were fed on raw and cooked cattle liver with various intensity of Fasciola spp. infection. Two groups were fed on raw and cooked normal cattle liver (positive control), and one group served as negative control. Histopathology of the rats' liver revealed hydropic degeneration, congestion with dilatation of the central vein and sinusoids and focal areas of necrosis. The intestine samples showed degenerative changes and necrobiosis of the villar epithelium with inflammatory cell infiltration. Moreover, a slight increase was noticed in the liver enzyme ALT which is known to be an important marker of liver destruction. PMID:24640879

El-Tellawy, Farouk M; Khalifa, Refaat M; El-Kader, Mona K Abd; Mohamed, Amany O; Ahmed, Noha S

2013-12-01

338

A Study for Health Hazard Evaluation of Methylene Chloride Evaporated from the Tear Gas Mixture  

PubMed Central

This study explored the health hazard of those exposed to methylene chloride by assessing its atmospheric concentration when a tear gas mixture was aerially dispersed. The concentration of methylene chloride ranged from 311.1-980.3 ppm (geometric mean, 555.8 ppm), 30 seconds after the dispersion started. However, the concentration fell rapidly to below 10 ppm after dispersion was completed. The concentration during the dispersion did not surpass the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health 'immediately dangerous to life or health' value of 2,300 ppm, but did exceed the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists excursion limit of 250 ppm. Since methylene chloride is highly volatile (vapor pressure, 349 mmHg at 20?), the postdispersion atmospheric concentration can rise instantaneously. Moreover, the o-chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile formulation of tear gas (CS gas) is an acute upper respiratory tract irritant. Therefore, tear gas mixtures should be handled with delicate care.

Chung, Eun-Kyo; Yi, Gwang-Yong; Chung, Kwang-Jae; Shin, Jung-Ah; Lee, In-Seop

2010-01-01

339

Albeni Fall Wildlife Mitigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Albeni Falls Interagency Work Group continued to actively engage in implementing wildlife mitigation actions in 2002. Regular Work Group meetings were held to discuss budget concerns affecting the Albeni Falls Wildlife Mitigation Program, to present p...

2003-01-01

340

An Introduction to the Analysis of Paired Hazard Rates in Studies of the Family.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hazard rate models are described, and selected techniques are used to analyze paired hazard rates when event times are right censored. The techniques are illustrated by looking at mortality patterns in husbands and wives. Recently developed measures and models are introduced. The advantages and disadvantages of the measures are discussed.…

Smith, Ken R.; McClean, Sally I.

1998-01-01

341

AMERICAN HEALTHY HOMES SURVEY: A NATIONAL STUDY OF RESIDENTIAL RELATED HAZARDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) and the US Department of Housing and Urban Development's (HUD) Office of Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard Control conducted a national survey of housing related hazards in US residences. The...

342

Experimental Study on Seismic Response Mitigation of Complex Structure using Passive Friction Damper  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of control devices in coupled building system has been recently recognized as an effective alternative for seismic protection. In consideration of passive control approach, most of previous studies focused on application of fluid dampers, and the buildings in the coupled systems were in similar structural configuration. By recognizing the potential merits, such as simple in design, relatively effective

C. L. Ng; Y. L. Xu

343

Numerical study of shock-wave mitigation through matrices of solid obstacles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shock-wave propagation through different arrays of solid obstacles and its attenuation are analyzed by means of numerical simulations. The two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a fifth-order weighted essentially non-oscillatory scheme, in conjunction with an immersed-boundary method to treat the embedded solids within a cartesian grid. The present study focuses on the geometrical aspects of the solid obstacles, particularly at lower effective flow area, where the frictional forces are expected to be important. The main objective is to analyze the controlling mechanism for shock propagation and attenuation in complex inhomogeneous and porous medium. Different parameters are investigated such as the geometry of the obstacles, their orientation in space as well as the relaxation lengths between two consecutive columns. The study highlights a number of interesting phenomena such as compressible vortices and shock-vortex interactions that are produced in the post-shock region. This also includes shock interactions, hydrodynamic instabilities and non-linear growth of the mixing. Ultimately, the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability invokes transition to a turbulent mixing region across the matrix columns and eddies of different length scales are generated in the wake region downstream of the solid blocks. The power spectrum of instantaneous dynamic pressure shows the existence of a wide range of frequencies which scales nearly with f -5/3. In terms of shock attenuation, the results indicate that the staggered matrix of reversed triangular prism (where the base of the triangular prism is facing the incoming shock) is the most efficient arrangement. In this case, both static and dynamic pressure impulses show significant reduction compared to the other studied configurations, which confirms the effectiveness of this type of barrier configuration. Furthermore, the use of combination of reverse-reverse arrangement of triangular prism obstacle maze is found more effective compared to the forward-reverse or forward-forward arrangements.

Chaudhuri, A.; Hadjadj, A.; Sadot, O.; Ben-Dor, G.

2013-02-01

344

An experimental study on tuned liquid damper for mitigation of structural response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates the performance of unidirectional tuned liquid damper (TLD) that relies upon the motion of shallow liquid in a rigid tank for changing the dynamic characteristics of a structure and dissipating its vibration energy under harmonic excitation. A series of experimental tests are conducted on a scaled model of structure-tuned liquid damper systems to evaluate their performance under harmonic excitation. One rectangular and one square TLD with various water depth ratios are examined over different frequency ratios, and time histories of accelerations are measured by precisely controlled shaking table tests. The behaviour of TLD is also studied by changing the orientation of the rectangular TLD subjected to the given range of harmonic excitation frequencies. The effectiveness of TLD is evaluated based on the response reduction of the structure. From the study, it is found that for each TLD, there exists an optimum water depth that corresponds to the minimum response amplitude, and the maximum control of vibration is obtained under resonance condition with the attachment of TLD.

Bhattacharjee, Emili; Halder, Lipika; Sharma, Richi Prasad

2013-12-01

345

Hazardous Substances and Hazardous Waste  

MedlinePLUS

... our health. For example, when rain falls on soil at a waste site, it can carry hazardous ... to hazardous substances. Also, small children often eat soil or household materials that may be contaminated, such ...

346

Evaluation of impacts and mitigation assessments for the UMTRA Project: Gunnison and Durango pilot studies. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates the impacts assessment and proposed mitigations provided in environmental documents concerning the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The projected impacts and proposed mitigations identified in UMTRA Project environmental documents were evaluated for two UMTRA Project sites. These sites are Gunnison and Durango, which are representative of currently active and inactive UMTRA Project sites, respectively. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation was prepared for the remedial action at Durango and Gunnison as well as for the provision of an alternate water supply system at Gunnison. Additionally, environmental analysis was completed for mill site demolition Gunnison, and for a new road related to the Durango remedial action. The results in this report pertain only to the impact assessments prepared by the Regulatory Compliance staff as a part of the NEPA compliance requirements. Similarly, the mitigative measures documented are those that were identified during the NEPA process.

Beranich, S.J. [Southwest Environmental, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-08-24

347

Study and mitigation of calibration error sources in a water vapour Raman lidar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The monitoring of water vapour throughout the atmosphere is important for many scientific applications (weather forecasting, climate research, calibration of GNSS altimetry measurements). Measuring water vapour remains a technical challenge because of its high variability in space and time. The major issues are achieving long-term stability (e.g., for climate trends monitoring) and high accuracy (e.g. for calibration/validation applications). LAREG and LOEMI at Institut National de l'Information Géographique et Forestière (IGN) have developed a mobile scanning water vapour Raman lidar in collaboration with LATMOS at CNRS. This system aims at providing high accuracy water vapour measurements throughout the troposphere for calibrating GNSS wet delay signals and thus improving vertical positioning. Current developments aim at improving the calibration method and long term stability of the system to allow the Raman lidar to be used as a reference instrument. The IGN-LATMOS lidar was deployed in the DEMEVAP (Development of Methodologies for Water Vapour Measurement) campaign that took place in 2011 at the Observatoire de Haute Provence. The goals of DEMEVAP were to inter-compare different water vapour sounding techniques (lidars, operational and research radiosondes, GPS,…) and to study various calibration methods for the Raman lidar. A significant decrease of the signals and of the calibration constants of the IGN-LATMOS Raman lidar has been noticed all along the campaign. This led us to study the likely sources of uncertainty and drifts in each part of the instrument: emission, reception and detection. We inventoried several error sources as well as instability sources. The impact of the temperature dependence of the Raman lines on the filter transmission or the fluorescence in the fibre, are examples of the error sources. We investigated each error source and each instability source (uncontrolled laser beam jitter, temporal fluctuations of the photomultiplier gain and spatial inhomogeneity in the sensitivity of the photomultiplier photocathode,…) separately using theoretical analysis, numerical and optical simulations, and laboratory experiments. The instability induced by the use of an optics fibre for coupling the signal collected by the telescope to the detectors is especially investigated. We quantified the impact of all these error sources on the water vapour and nitrogen Raman channels measurements and on the change in the differential calibration constant and we tried to implement an experimental solution to minimize the variations.

David, Leslie; Bock, Olivier; Bosser, Pierre; Thom, Christian; Pelon, Jacques

2014-05-01

348

Feasibility study of tank leakage mitigation using subsurface barriers. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This document reflects the evaluations and analyses performed in response to Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-45-07A - {open_quotes}Complete Evaluation of Subsurface Barrier Feasibility{close_quotes} (September 1994). In addition, this feasibility study was revised reflecting ongoing work supporting a pending decision by the DOE Richland Operations Office, the Washington State Department of Ecology, and the US Environmental Protection Agency regarding further development of subsurface barrier options for SSTs and whether to proceed with demonstration plans at the Hanford Site (Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-45-07B). Analyses of 14 integrated SST tank farm remediation alternatives were conducted in response to the three stated objectives of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-45-07A. The alternatives include eight with subsurface barriers and six without. Technologies used in the alternatives include three types of tank waste retrieval, seven types of subsurface barriers, a method of stabilizing the void space of emptied tanks, two types of in situ soil flushing, one type of surface barrier, and a clean-closure method. A no-action alternative and a surface-barrier-only alternative were included as nonviable alternatives for comparison. All other alternatives were designed to result in closure of SST tank farms as landfills or in clean-closure. Revision 1 incorporates additional analyses of worker safety, large leak scenarios, and sensitivity to the leach rates of risk controlling constituents. The additional analyses were conducted to support TPA Milestone M-45-07B.

Treat, R.L.; Peters, B.B.; Cameron, R.J. [Enserch Environmental, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

1995-01-01

349

Control Strategy Optimization for Attainment and Exposure Mitigation: Case Study for Ozone in Macon, Georgia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Implementation of more stringent 8-hour ozone standards has led the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to designate nonattainment status to 474 counties nationwide, many of which had never previously violated air quality standards. As states select emission control measures to achieve attainment in these regions, their choices pose significant implications to local economies and the health of their citizens. Considering a case study of one such nonattainment region, Macon, Georgia, we develop a menu of potential controls that could be implemented locally or in neighboring parts of the state. The control menu offers the potential to control about 20 35% of ozone precursor emissions in most Georgia regions, but marginal costs increase rapidly beyond 15 20%. We link high-order ozone sensitivities with the control menu to identify cost-optimized strategies for achieving attainment and for alternative goals such as reducing spatially averaged or population-weighted ozone concentrations. Strategies targeted toward attainment of Macon ozone would prioritize local reductions of nitrogen oxides, whereas controls in the more densely populated Atlanta region are shown to be more effective for reducing statewide potential population exposure to ozone. A U.S. EPA-sanctioned approach for demonstrating ozone attainment with photochemical models is shown to be highly dependent on the choice of a baseline period and may not foster optimal strategies for assuring attainment and protecting human health.

Cohan, Daniel S.; Tian, Di; Hu, Yongtao; Russell, Armistead G.

2006-09-01

350

Study of gas cluster ion beam surface treatments for mitigating RF breakdown  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface processing with high-energy gas cluster ion beams (GCIB) is investigated for increasing the high voltage breakdown strength of RF cavities and electrodes in general. Various GCIB treatments were studied for Nb, Cu, Stainless Steel and Ti electrode materials using beams of Ar, Ar + H 2, O 2, N 2, Ar + CH 4, or O 2 + NF 3 clusters with accelerating potentials up to 35 kV. Etching using chemically active clusters such as NF 3 reduces the grain structure of Nb used for SRF cavities. Smoothing effects on stainless steel and Ti substrates were evaluated using SEM and AFM imaging and show that 200 nm wide polishing scratch marks are greatly attenuated. Using a combination of Ar and O 2 processing for stainless steel electrode material, the oxide thickness and surface hardness are dramatically increased. The DC field emission of a 150-mm diameter sample of GCIB processed stainless steel electrode material was a factor of 10 6 less than a similar untreated sample.

Swenson, D. R.; Degenkolb, E.; Insepov, Z.

2006-07-01

351

Seismic Hazard Analysis in EL Paso/juarez Area from Study of Young Fault Scarps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The El Paso-Juarez metropolitan area contains a known record of active faulting, but also has one of the most poorly known paleoseismic records. The scarcity of data means that nearly 2 million people are exposed to a seismic hazard with little known on the actual risk. Active faults are known along the eastern side of the Franklin Mountains as well as young ruptures within the Hueco Bolson in East El Paso, yet the only fault with paleoseismic studies is the East Franklin's fault. Recent population increases in the El Paso region have led to a construction boom in east El Paso, and many of these construction sites cross known Quaternary fault ruptures. This research project contains two potential components: 1) An exploratory component: students can use existing fault maps and high resolution aerial photography to seek out sites where active construction sites might be unearthing exposures of young fault ruptures. The study is exploratory, and involves carefully mapping using field GIS systems to document areas for potential study, map possible faults, etc. 2) An active fault study in an urbanized environment: The east Franklins fault is a known active fault. The scarp is exposed near trans-mountain road, and along some side streets in NE El Paso. Potential studies include careful mapping of fault scarp topographic profiles, and mapping surface traces.

ashenfelter, K. R.

2012-12-01

352

Natural Hazards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces students to a variety of natural hazards, emphasizing that when people understand these threats they are better able to avoid or reduce their potential impacts. First, the class discusses what they know about natural hazards and natural disasters. Then, working in pairs, they research particular hazards; the threats they pose and where and when those threats are most pronounced. Following this research period, the class assembles what they have learned into a general overview of natural hazards nationwide. Following the second class discussion, students work in pairs again to explore the hazards that affect particular towns, cities, or regions of the country. In doing so, they learn more about how and why certain natural hazards impact specific areas, as well as what people are doing to minimize the threats these hazards pose.

2006-01-01

353

Procedure for Prioritization of Natural Phenomena Hazards Evaluations for Existing DOE Facilities  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the procedure to be used for the prioritization for natural phenomena hazards evaluations of existing DOE facilities in conformance with DOE Order 5480.28, `Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation.`

Conrads, T.J., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-05-07

354

Trade study of leakage detection, monitoring, and mitigation technologies to support Hanford single-shell waste retrieval  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy has established the Tank Waste Remediation System to safely manage and dispose of low-level, high-level, and transuranic wastes currently stored in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site in Eastern Washington. This report supports the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone No. M-45-08-T01 and addresses additional issues regarding single-shell tank leakage detection, monitoring, and mitigation technologies and provide an indication of the scope of leakage detection, monitoring, and mitigation activities necessary to support the Tank Waste Remedial System Initial Single-shell Tank Retrieval System project.

Hertzel, J.S.

1996-03-01

355

Safety in earth orbit study. Volume 2: Analysis of hazardous payloads, docking, on-board survivability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detailed and supporting analyses are presented of the hazardous payloads, docking, and on-board survivability aspects connected with earth orbital operations of the space shuttle program. The hazards resulting from delivery, deployment, and retrieval of hazardous payloads, and from handling and transport of cargo between orbiter, sortie modules, and space station are identified and analyzed. The safety aspects of shuttle orbiter to modular space station docking includes docking for assembly of space station, normal resupply docking, and emergency docking. Personnel traffic patterns, escape routes, and on-board survivability are analyzed for orbiter with crew and passenger, sortie modules, and modular space station, under normal, emergency, and EVA and IVA operations.

1972-01-01

356

Application of Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) to Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we assess the probabilistic seismic hazard for the Taiwan region. For this propose, the information on tectonic setting, geology, geomorphology, earthquake catalog, and ground motion attenuation is integrated. The treatment of seismogenic sources is based on several categories, which are from shallow crust regions, deep crust regions, crustal active faults, subduction intraslabs, and subduction interfaces. By further considering ground motion prediction equations for different types of sources and site conditions, probabilistic seismic hazard can be assessed. The obtained high hazards can mainly be contributed by the crustal active faults with short recurrence intervals. Thus, higher hazards are evaluated along the active faults in the Coastal Plain and the Longitudinal Valley. In northern Taiwan, by contrast, a low hazard level is obtained. It corresponds to relative inactive tectonics and faults in this region and its vicinity. Since this assessment is widely applied for each administrative region in Taiwan, when the information of vulnerability and exposure is further considered, probabilistic seismic risk map could be assessed. The result would be a benefit to decision-makers and public officials for seismic hazard mitigation.

Lin, P.; Cheng, C.; Hsieh, P.; Yen, Y.; Chan, C.

2013-12-01

357

Mitigating GHG emissions from agriculture under climate change constrains - a case study for the State of Saxony, Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mitigating greenhouse gas (N2O, CO2, CH4) emissions from agricultural soils under conditions of projected climate change (IPCC SRES scenarios) is a prerequisite to limit global warming. In this study we used the recently developed regional biogeochemical ecosystem model LandscapeDNDC (Haas et al., 2012, Landscape Ecology) and two time slices for present day (1998 - 2018) and future climate (2078-2098) (regional downscale of IPCC SRES A1B climate simulation) and compared a business as usual agricultural management scenario (winter rape seed - winter barley - winter wheat rotation; fertilization: 170 / 150 / 110 kg-N mineral fertilizer; straw harvest barley/wheat: 90 %) with scenarios where either one or all of the following options were realized: no-till, residue return to fields equal 100%, reduction of fertilization rate s were left on the field or reduction of N fertilization by 10%. The spatial domain is the State of Saxony (1 073 523 hectares of arable land), a typical region for agricultural production in Central Europe. The simulations are based on a high resolution polygonal datasets (5 517 agricultural grid cells) for which relevant information on soil properties is available. The regionalization of the N2O emissions was validated against the IPCC Tier I methodology resulting in N2O emissions of 1 824 / 1 610 / 1 180 [t N2O-N yr-1] for of the baseline years whereas the simulations results in 6 955 / 6 039 / 2 207 [t N2O-N yr-1] for the first three years of the baseline scenarios and ranging between 621 and 6 955 [t N2O-N yr-1] within the following years (mean of 2 923). The influence of climate change (elevated mean temperature of approx. 2°C and minor changes in precipitation) results in an increase of 259 [t N2O-N yr-1] (mean 3 182) or approx. 9 percent on average (with a minimum of 618 and a maximum of 6 553 [t N2O-N yr-1]). Focusing on the mitigation , the recarbonization did result in an increase of soil carbon stocks of 2 585 [kg C/ha] within the simulation time span (with 161 868 [kg C/ha] at the initial stage and 164 453 [kg C/ha] at the end of the 21 years of simulation, mean at 163 444). The study present a fully compensation of the carbon sequestration due to the incorporation of the residues by a steady increase of soil N2O emissions due to additional nitrogen supply by the mineralization of organic material (residues). For the derivation of a sustainable land use, the study presents an optimal scenario to keep the yields high while increasing soil C and reducing gaseous N losses and leaching.

Haas, E.; Kiese, R.; Klatt, S.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

2012-12-01

358

Status of Volcanic Hazard Studies for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. Volume 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Volcanic hazard investigations during FY 1984 focused on five topics: the emplacement mechanism of shallow basalt intrusions, geochemical trends through time for volcanic fields of the Death Valley-Pancake Range volcanic zone, the possibility of bimodal b...

B. M. Crowe K. H. Wohletz D. T. Vaniman E. Gladney N. Bower

1986-01-01

359

Generation of Hazard-Consistent Fragility Curves for Seismic Loss Estimation Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents an analytical method for generating fragility curves and corresponding damage probability matrix for structures subject to earthquakes. In the proposed method, seismic hazards, local soil conditions, and nonlinear building behavior ar...

H. H. M. Hwang J. R. Huo

1994-01-01

360

Quantitative sinkhole hazard assessment. A case study from the Ebro Valley evaporite alluvial karst (NE Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative sinkhole hazard assessments in karst areas allow calculation of the potential sinkhole risk and the performance\\u000a of cost-benefit analyses. These estimations are of practical interest for planning, engineering, and insurance purposes. The\\u000a sinkhole hazard assessments should include two components: the probability of occurrence of sinkholes (sinkholes\\/km2  year) and the severity of the sinkholes, which mainly refers to the subsidence

Francisco Gutiérrez; Jesús Guerrero; Pedro Lucha

2008-01-01

361

STUDY OF A HAZARD ANALYSIS CRITICAL CONTROL POINT SYSTEM RELATED TO THE PROCESSING OF FISH AND MEAT PRODUCTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system was developed for Chinese fish rolls and skinless chicken sausages. The production process of the above products were studied at the processing factory. Microbiological tests were carried out to assess the status of the products during the production process. The tests were also repeated after taking some corrective measures. The processing stages,

N. P. EDIRISINGHE; T. S. G. FONSEKA; S. JAYARATNE

362

A study of the toxic hazard that might be associated with the consumption of green potato tops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eating green potatoes has reportedly led to poisoning attributed to potato glycoalkaloids (PGA), primarily ?-solanine and ?-chaconine. Concentrations of PGA increase during the greening of potatoes but are reportedly much higher in potato tops (leaves). As it is known that members of the UK Bangladeshi community consume potato tops, a study of the toxic hazard that may be associated with

B. J. Phillips; J. A. Hughes; J. C. Phillips; D. G. Walters; D. Anderson; C. S. M. Tahourdin

1996-01-01

363

FLORIDA HAZARDOUS WASTE AND SANITARY LANDFILL REPORT, STUDY AREA DATA. GENERATOR DATA AND CHARACTERISTICS OF SANITARY LANDFILLS. PART 11  

EPA Science Inventory

The report provides data on the use of sanitary landfills (Subtitle D facilities) for hazardous waste disposal in Florida by small quantity generators. It consists of eleven parts including a part called Study Area Data which contains the data aggregated across the counties cover...

364

Innovations in earthquake and natural hazards research: determining soil liquefaction potential. Case study No. 5  

SciTech Connect

This case study analyzes how an innovation in earthquake and natural hazards research was used for practical and policy purposes, why utilization occurred, and what potential policy implications can be drawn. The innovation was the dynamic analysis method, used to identify those soils that are likely to liquefy during earthquakes. The research was designed and undertaken by H. Bolton Seed at the University of California at Berkeley during the 1960s. The research was a major breakthrough in engineering research: liquefaction had never before been reproduced in a laboratory. The work yielded quantitative information about the conditions under which liquefaction occurs. These data were then used to develop procedures for predicting liquefaction; eventually the need to test soil samples in the laboratory was eliminated. The case study concluded that the interactions of Seed with a continuously active network of knowledge producers and users adequately explains the use of the dynamic analysis method. Future policies likely to favor utilization are those deriving from both a problem solving and a social interaction perspective.

Moore, G.B.; Yin, R.K.

1984-11-01

365

Hazardous Materials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hazardous Materials is a lesson plan which teaches students how to recognize and safely handle hazardous materials in the workplace. After completing this module, students should be able to interpret MSDS sheets and demonstrate their ability to identify hazardous materials during an experiential exercise. Note: This module is part of a modularized manufacturing technology curriculum created by the PSCME, found at www.pscme.org/educators.html.

Alston, Michele; Imre, John; King, John

2011-09-08

366

Can in vitro assays substitute for in vivo studies in assessing the pulmonary hazards of fine and nanoscale materials?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk evaluations for nanomaterials require the generation of hazard data as well as exposure assessments. Most of the validated\\u000a nanotoxicity studies have been conducted using in vivo experimental designs. It would be highly desirable to develop in vitro\\u000a pulmonary hazard tests to assess the toxicity of fine and nanoscale particle-types. However, in vitro evaluations for pulmonary\\u000a hazards are known to have limited predictive

Christie M. Sayes; Kenneth L. Reed; Shekhar Subramoney; Lloyd Abrams; David B. Warheit

2009-01-01

367

U.S. Postal Service radon assessment and mitigation program. Progress report, September 1993--November 1994  

SciTech Connect

In 1992, the US Postal Service (USPS) entered into an Interagency Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) whereby DOE would provide technical assistance in support of the USPS Radon Assessment and Mitigation Program. To aid in this effort, DOE tasked the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP), which is managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for DOE under contract AC05-84OR21400. Since that time, HAZWRAP has developed and finalized the sampling protocol, mitigation diagnostic protocol, and the quality assurance and quality control procedures. These procedures were validated during the Protocol Validation (1992-1993) and Pilot Study (1993-1994) phases of the program. To date, HAZWRAP has performed approximately 16,000 radon measurements in 250 USPS buildings. Mitigation diagnostics have been performed in 27 buildings. Thus far, 13% of the measurements have been above the Environmental Protection Agency action level of 4 pCi/L. This report summarizes the pilot program radon testing data and mitigation diagnostic data for 22 sites and contains recommendations for mitigation diagnostics.

Velazquez, L.E.; Petty, J.L. Jr.

1994-12-31

368

A New Master of Natural Hazards Program at The Australian National University  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new Master of Natural Hazards program at The Australian National University provides a multi-disciplinary approach to the study and monitoring of geophysical processes that can lead to the recognition of hazards and a consequent reduction of their impacts through emergency measures, disaster plans, and relief and rehabilitation. The program provides people with an understanding of the most up-to-date scientific understanding on the causes of natural hazards, their effects on human societies, and ways to mitigate their impacts and reduce their losses by focusing on Australia and the Asia-Pacific case studies. The Master of Natural Hazards program brings together the expertise of researchers across the university to provide an opportunity for students to do coursework and research projects that will provide them with extensive knowledge of the natural hazards that occur and pose the greatest risks on human communities in the Asia-Pacific, and an understanding of the human dimensions of the natural hazards occurrences. The program consists of two compulsory courses each in the Earth Sciences and in the Social Sciences that are designed to provide a complementary and comprehensive overview of natural hazards issues. Elective courses can be of a general grouping, or students may choose one of four Focus Streams: Environmental and Geographic Studies; Climate Change; Earth Structure and Imaging; or Socio-economic, Development and Policy Studies. A special case study project will involve writing a thesis on a topic to be approved by the Program Conveners and will comprise a body of work on an approved topic in natural hazards in the Asia-Pacific region. Students in this program will gain a broad scientific knowledge and methodological skills to understand the physical causes and frequency of the most important natural hazards in the Asia-Pacific region, as well as the latest scientific methods and best practices of monitoring them for hazard mapping and disaster reduction purposes. Furthermore, students will learn to apply critical thinking in studying the involvement of societies’ social systems in framing and influencing the severity of impacts and destructions that are brought about by different physical events. The academic training in hazards and disaster research that the program offers will enable students to get actively involved in the preparation of short- and long-term disaster mitigation programs that can help members of communities in Australia and the Asia-Pacific region who, without sufficient knowledge on hazards and skills on disaster management, would be left vulnerable against the adversities that can be brought about by natural hazards.

Pozgay, S.; Zoleta-Nantes, D.

2009-12-01

369

Can hazardous waste become a raw material? The case study of an aluminium residue: a review.  

PubMed

The huge number of research studies carried out during recent decades focused on finding an effective solution for the waste treatment, have allowed some of these residues to become new raw materials for many industries. Achieving this ensures a reduction in energy and natural resources consumption, diminishing of the negative environmental impacts and creating secondary and tertiary industries. A good example is provided by the metallurgical industry, in general, and the aluminium industry in this particular case. The aluminium recycling industry is a beneficial activity for the environment, since it recovers resources from primary industry, manufacturing and post-consumer waste. Slag and scrap which were previously considered as waste, are nowadays the raw material for some highly profitable secondary and tertiary industries. The most recent European Directive on waste establishes that if waste is used as a common product and fulfils the existing legislation for this product, then this waste can be defined as 'end-of-waste'. The review presented here, attempts to show several proposals for making added-value materials using an aluminium residue which is still considered as a hazardous waste, and accordingly, disposed of in secure storage. The present proposal includes the use of this waste to manufacture glass, glass-ceramic, boehmite and calcium aluminate. Thus the waste might effectively be recovered as a secondary source material for various industries. PMID:22071175

López-Delgado, Aurora; Tayibi, Hanan

2012-05-01

370

Ground motion input in seismic evaluation studies: impacts on risk assessment of uniform hazard spectra  

SciTech Connect

Conservatism and variability in seismic risk estimates are studied: effects of uniform hazard spectrum (UHS) are examined for deriving probabilistic estimates of risk and in-structure demand levels, as compared to the more-exact use of realistic time history inputs (of given probability) that depend explicitly on magnitude and distance. This approach differs from the conventional in its exhaustive treatment of the ground-motion threat and in its more detailed assessment of component responses to that threat. The approximate UH-ISS (in-structure spectrum) obtained based on UHS appear to be very close to the more-exact results directed computed from scenario earthquakes. This conclusion does not depend on site configurations and structural characteristics. Also, UH-ISS has composite shapes and may not correspond to the characteristics possessed a single earthquake. The shape is largely affected by the structural property in most cases and can be derived approximately from the corresponding UHS. Motions with smooth spectra, however, will not have the same damage potential as those of more realistic motions with jagged spectral shapes. As a result, UHS-based analysis may underestimate the real demands in nonlinear structural analyses.

Wu, S.C.; Sewell, R.T.

1996-07-01

371

Study of hazardous metals in iron slag waste using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied for quantitative elemental analysis of slag samples collected from a local steel plant using an Nd: YAG laser emitting radiation at 1064 nm wavelength. The concentration of different elements of environmental significance such as cadmium, calcium, sulfur, magnesium, chromium, manganese, titanium, barium, phosphorus and silicon were 44, 2193, 1724,78578, 217260, 22220, 5178, 568, 2805, 77871 were mg Kg-1, respectively. Optimal experimental conditions for analysis were investigated. The calibration curves were drawn for different elements. The concentrations determined with our Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometers were compared with the results obtained using Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) emission spectroscopy. Our study demonstrates that LIBS could be highly appropriate for rapid online analysis of iron slag waste. The relative accuracy of our LIBS system for various elements as compared with ICP method is in the range of 0.001-0.049 at 2.5% error confidence. Limits of detection (LOD) of our LIBS system were also estimated for the elements noted here. The hazardous effects of some of the trace elements present in iron slag exceeding permissible safe limits are also discussed. PMID:17474003

Gondal, M A; Hussain, T; Yamani, Z H; Bakry, A H

2007-05-01

372

Flood hazard studies in Central Texas using orbital and suborbital remote sensing machinery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Central Texas is subject to infrequent, unusually intense rainstorms which cause extremely rapid runoff from drainage basins developed on the deeply dissected limestone and marl bedrock of the Edwards Plateau. One approach to flood hazard evaluation in this area is a parametric model relating flood hydrograph characteristics to quantitative geomorphic properties of the drainage basins. The preliminary model uses multiple regression techniques to predict potential peak flood discharge from basin magnitude, drainage density, and ruggedness number. After mapping small catchment networks from remote sensing imagery, input data for the model are generated by network digitization and analysis by a computer assisted routine of watershed analysis. The study evaluated the network resolution capabilities of the following data formats: (1) large-scale (1:24,000) topographic maps, employing Strahler's "method of v's," (2) standard low altitude black and white aerial photography (1:13,000 and 1:20,000 scales), (3) NASA - generated aerial infrared photography at scales ranging from 1:48,000 to 1:123,000, and (4) Skylab Earth Resources Experiment Package S-190A and S-190B sensors (1:750,000 and 1:500,000 respectively).

Baker, V. R.; Holz, R. K.; Patton, P. C.

1975-01-01

373

Seismic Microzoning of Bucharest - a GIS-supported Study of Earthquake Hazard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Romanian capital Bucharest is situated close to one of the seismically most active areas in Europe. In the past centuries strong earthquakes frequently caused serious damages. The last major event occurred at March 7th 1977. It caused 1,570 fatal casualties and nearly 33,000 destroyed flats. Lateral variations in seismic intensities are strongly influenced by local site effects that depend on the geometry and dynamic properties of shallow Quaternary units. The main objective of the study is to quantify the modification of a seismic signal by local site conditions. Thus, the first step of the working process is the generation of a digital underground model of Bucharest. Geotechnical drilling data are digitally processed by a database and a GIS. The vectorial point features are converted to spatial raster maps by suitable interpolation algorithms. Coordinates and geological attributes (i.e. thickness of geological strata and depth of ground water table) are attached to every raster-cell. Based on this information maps of average shear-wave velocities, fundamental ground period and liquefaction hazard can be generated by a raster-based GIS-module. Next, a numerical analysis of site effects is performed by the use of a ground response analysis software. Ground amplification and spectral shake parameters are computed at discrete locations. Spatial information can be generated by interpolation or - on base of the underground model - by regression analyses. Finally, the microzoning is verified by spatial correlations with the distribution of historical earthquake intensities. Cell-by-cell analyses show that the thickness of poorly consolidated Quaternary sediments has a noticeable influence on the damage to buildings. The result of this study is a classification of the study area according to spectral shake parameters which have a strong influence on the damage to buildings. Hence, microzoning is an important tool for the estimation of the seismic risk.

Kienzle, A.

2002-12-01

374

Achieving Hazard-Resilient Coastal & Waterfront Smart Growth.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Smart growth strategies and hazard mitigation measures have similar goals. Both aim to make communities safer, healthier, and fiscally responsible. Communities across the nation use smart growth strategies to ensure that new development or redevelopment b...

2012-01-01

375

Climate change mitigation through afforestation\\/reforestation: A global analysis of hydrologic impacts with four case studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The implicit hydrologic dimensions of international efforts to mitigate climate change, specifically potential impacts of the Clean Development Mechanism-Afforestation\\/Reforestation (CDM-AR) provisions of the Kyoto Protocol (KP) on global, regional and local water cycles, are examined. The global impact of the redistribution of water use driven by agriculture and land use change, of which CDM-AR can be a contributing factor, is

Antonio Trabucco; Robert J. Zomer; Deborah A. Bossio; Oliver van Straaten; Louis V. Verchot

2008-01-01

376

Integrated multi-parameters Probabilistic Seismic Landslide Hazard Analysis (PSLHA): the case study of Ischia island, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ischia island is a large, complex, partly submerged, active volcanic field located about 20 km east to the Campi Flegrei, a major active volcano-tectonic area near Naples. The island is morphologically characterized in its central part by the resurgent block of Mt. Epomeo, controlled by NW-SE and NE-SW trending fault systems, by mountain stream basin with high relief energy and by a heterogeneous coastline with alternation of beach and tuff/lava cliffs in a continuous reshape due to the weather and sea erosion. The volcano-tectonic process is a main factor for slope stability, as it produces seismic activity and generated steep slopes in volcanic deposits (lava, tuff, pumice and ash layers) characterized by variable strength. In the Campi Flegrei and surrounding areas the possible occurrence of a moderate/large seismic event represents a serious threat for the inhabitants, for the infrastructures as well as for the environment. The most relevant seismic sources for Ischia are represented by the Campi Flegrei caldera and a 5 km long fault located below the island north coast. However those sources are difficult to constrain. The first one due to the on-shore and off-shore extension not yet completely defined. The second characterized only by few large historical events is difficult to parameterize in the framework of probabilistic hazard approach. The high population density, the presence of many infrastructures and the more relevant archaeological sites associated with the natural and artistic values, makes this area a strategic natural laboratory to develop new methodologies. Moreover Ischia represents the only sector, in the Campi Flegrei area, with documented historical landslides originated by earthquake, allowing for the possibility of testing the adequacy and stability of the method. In the framework of the Italian project MON.I.C.A (infrastructural coastlines monitoring) an innovative and dedicated probabilistic methodology has been applied to identify the areas with higher susceptibility of landslide occurrence due to the seismic effect. The (PSLHA) combines the probability of exceedance maps for different GM parameters with the geological and geomorphological information, in terms of critical acceleration and dynamic stability factor. Generally the maps are evaluated for Peak Ground Acceleration, Velocity or Intensity, are well related with anthropic infrastructures (e.g. streets, building, etc.). Each ground motion parameter represents a different aspect in the hazard and has a different correlation with the generation of possible damages. Many works pointed out that other GM like Arias and Housner intensity and the absolute displacement could represent a better choice to analyse for example the cliffs stability. The selection of the GM parameter is of crucial importance to obtain the most useful hazard maps. However in the last decades different Ground Motion Prediction Equations for a new set of GM parameters have been published. Based on this information a series of landslide hazard maps can be produced. The new maps will lead to the identification of areas with highest probability of landslide induced by an earthquake. In a strategic site like Ischia this new methodologies will represent an innovative and advanced tool for the landslide hazard mitigation.

Caccavale, Mauro; Matano, Fabio; Sacchi, Marco; Mazzola, Salvatore; Somma, Renato; Troise, Claudia; De Natale, Giuseppe

2014-05-01

377

Volcanic hazards and aviation safety  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An aeronautical chart was developed to determine the relative proximity of volcanoes or ash clouds to the airports and flight corridors that may be affected by volcanic debris. The map aims to inform and increase awareness about the close spatial relationship between volcanoes and aviation operations. It shows the locations of the active volcanoes together with selected aeronautical navigation aids and great-circle routes. The map mitigates the threat that volcanic hazards pose to aircraft and improves aviation safety.

Casadevall, Thomas, J.; Thompson, Theodore, B.; Ewert, John, W.

1996-01-01

378

Using Geology to Improve Flood Hazard Management on Alluvial Fans -- an Example From Laughlin, Nevada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of the piedmont of the Newberry Mountains near Laughlin, Nevada, demonstrates that geologic information can improve the scientific basis of flood-hazard management on alluvial fans in desert areas. Comparison of geologic information against flood insurance rate maps (FIRMs) reveals flaws in conventional methods for flood hazard delineation in this setting. Geologic evidence indicates that large parts of the Newberry piedmont have been isolated from significant flooding for at least the past 10,000 years. This contrasts with existing FIRMs that include large tracts of nonflood prone land in the 100-year and 500-year flood hazard zones and exclude areas of indisputably flood prone land from the regulatory flood plain. From the basis of the geology, flood hazards on at least one-third of the piedmont are mischaracterized on the regulatory maps. The formal incorporation of geologic data into flood hazard studies on desert piedmonts could significantly reduce this type of discrepancy and substantially reduce the scope, hence cost, of more elaborate engineering studies and hazard mitigation strategies. The results of this study affirm the value of new Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) recommendations for characterizing alluvial fan flood hazards and support an argument for mandating geological studies in the regulatory process.

House, P. Kyle

2005-12-01

379

Modeling, Forecasting and Mitigating Extreme Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent earthquake disasters highlighted the importance of multi- and trans-disciplinary studies of earthquake risk. A major component of earthquake disaster risk analysis is hazards research, which should cover not only a traditional assessment of ground shaking, but also studies of geodetic, paleoseismic, geomagnetic, hydrological, deep drilling and other geophysical and geological observations together with comprehensive modeling of earthquakes and forecasting extreme events. Extreme earthquakes (large magnitude and rare events) are manifestations of complex behavior of the lithosphere structured as a hierarchical system of blocks of different sizes. Understanding of physics and dynamics of the extreme events comes from observations, measurements and modeling. A quantitative approach to simulate earthquakes in models of fault dynamics will be presented. The models reproduce basic features of the observed seismicity (e.g., the frequency-magnitude relationship, clustering of earthquakes, occurrence of extreme seismic events). They provide a link between geodynamic processes and seismicity, allow studying extreme events, influence of fault network properties on seismic patterns and seismic cycles, and assist, in a broader sense, in earthquake forecast modeling. Some aspects of predictability of large earthquakes (how well can large earthquakes be predicted today?) will be also discussed along with possibilities in mitigation of earthquake disasters (e.g., on 'inverse' forensic investigations of earthquake disasters).

Ismail-Zadeh, A.; Le Mouel, J.; Soloviev, A.

2012-12-01

380

Voluntary Climate Change Mitigation Actions of Young Adults: A Classification of Mitigators through Latent Class Analysis  

PubMed Central

Encouraging individuals to take action is important for the overall success of climate change mitigation. Campaigns promoting climate change mitigation could address particular groups of the population on the basis of what kind of mitigation actions the group is already taking. To increase the knowledge of such groups performing similar mitigation actions we conducted a population-based cross-sectional study in Finland. The study population comprised 1623 young adults who returned a self-administered questionnaire (response rate 64%). Our aims were to identify groups of people engaged in similar climate change mitigation actions and to study the gender differences in the grouping. We also determined if socio-demographic characteristics can predict group membership. We performed latent class analysis using 14 mitigation actions as manifest variables. Three classes were identified among men: the Inactive (26%), the Semi-active (63%) and the Active (11%) and two classes among women: the Semi-active (72%) and the Active (28%). The Active among both genders were likely to have mitigated climate change through several actions, such as recycling, using environmentally friendly products, preferring public transport, and conserving energy. The Semi-Active had most probably recycled and preferred public transport because of climate change. The Inactive, a class identified among men only, had very probably done nothing to mitigate climate change. Among males, being single or divorced predicted little involvement in climate change mitigation. Among females, those without tertiary degree and those with annual income €?16801 were less involved in climate change mitigation. Our results illustrate to what extent young adults are engaged in climate change mitigation, which factors predict little involvement in mitigation and give insight to which segments of the public could be the audiences of targeted mitigation campaigns.

Korkala, Essi A. E.; Hugg, Timo T.; Jaakkola, Jouni J. K.

2014-01-01

381

Integrated study to define the hazard of the unstable flanks of Mt. Etna: the Italian DPC-INGV FLANK Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcanoes are often characterized by unstable flanks. The eastern and south-eastern flanks of Mt. Etna (Italy) have shown repeated evidence of instability in the recent past. The extent and frequency of these processes varies widely, from nearly continuous creep-like movements of specific portions of the flank to the rarer slip of the entire eastern sector, involving also the off-shore portion. Estimated slip rates may vary enormously, from mm/yr to m/week. The most dramatic instability events are associated with major eruptions and shallow seismic activity, as during 2002-2003, posing a serious hazard to the inhabited flanks of the volcano. The Italian Department of Civil Defense (DPC), with the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology (INGV), as well as with the involvement of Italian Universities and other Research Institutes, has launched a 2-years project (may 2008-may 2010) devoted to minimize the hazard deriving from the instability of the Etna flanks. This multidisciplinary project embraces geological, geophysical, volcanological, modeling and hazard studies, both on the on-shore and the off-shore portions of the E and SE flanks of the volcano. Indeed, the main aims are to define: (a) the 3D geometry of the collapsing sector(s); (b) the relationships between flank movement and volcanic and seismic activity; (c) the hazard related to the flank instability. The collected data populate a GIS database implemented according the WoVo rules. This project represents the first attempt, at least in Europe, to use an integrated approach to minimize the hazard deriving from flank instability in a volcano. Here we briefly summarize the state of the art of the project at an advanced stage, highlighting the path of the different Tasks, as well as the main results.

Acocella, Valerio; Puglisi, Giuseppe

2010-05-01