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1

Unacceptable Risk: Earthquake Hazard Mitigation in One California School District. Hazard Mitigation Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Earthquakes are a perpetual threat to California's school buildings. School administrators must be aware that hazard mitigation means much more than simply having a supply of water bottles in the school; it means getting everyone involved in efforts to prevent tragedies from occurring in school building in the event of an earthquake. The PTA in…

California State Office of Emergency Services, Sacramento.

2

Study proposes wholesale change in thinking about natural hazards mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The “lollapaloozas,” the major natural catastrophes, are getting bigger and bigger, and it is time to confront this growing problem by dramatically changing the way that society approaches natural hazard mitigation, conducts itself in relation to the natural environment, and accepts responsibility for activities that could lead to or increase disasters, according to Dennis Mileti, principal investigator of a new study on natural hazards, and director of the Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center at the University of Colorado at Boulder.Since 1989, the United States has been struck by seven of the nation's 10 most costly natural disasters, including the 1994 Northridge earthquake in California that caused $25 billion in damages. Also since 1989, the financial cost of natural hazards in the United States—which includes floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, and wildfires, as well as landslides, heat, and fog—has frequently averaged $1 billion per week, a price that some experts say will continue rising. Internationally, the Kobe, Japan, earthquake cost more than $100 billion and is the most financially costly disaster in world history None of these figures include indirect losses related to natural disasters, such as lost economic productivity

Showstack, Randy

3

Study proposes wholesale change in thinking about natural hazards mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ``lollapaloozas,'' the major natural catastrophes, are getting bigger and bigger, and it is time to confront this growing problem by dramatically changing the way that society approaches natural hazard mitigation, conducts itself in relation to the natural environment, and accepts responsibility for activities that could lead to or increase disasters, according to Dennis Mileti, principal investigator of a new

Randy Showstack

1999-01-01

4

Exploratory Study of Hazard Mitigation and Research in the Air Transport System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study examines a series of principles that may effectively mitigate technological hazards within the Air Transport System. These principles are: precise design criteria and verification of the standards which relate to an airplane's operating environm...

R. L. Bisplinghoff P. G. Dembling A. J. Eggers C. W. Harper J. D. Young

1980-01-01

5

Mitigation of Natural Hazards and Disasters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This book examines the aspects of prevention, mitigation, and management of environmental hazards and disasters from an international perspective. In light of the recent debate on climate change and the possible effects of such a change upon increasing frequency and magnitude of extreme environmental events, this publication overviews various policy and response discourses. Several case studies from various countries and world regions depicting recent experience in mitigation policy and program development and implementation and establishing links between vulnerability and mitigation are presented to provide further insights.

Haque, C. Emdad

6

What Influences Hazard Mitigation? Household Decision Making About Wildfire Risks in Arizona's White Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through a study of human response to wildfire hazards, this article addresses the question: What influences hazard mitigation? Results from a household-level multiple regression analysis using structured survey, hazard exposure, and secondary data reveal that social vulnerability, place dependency, and contextual influences are important determinants of mitigation of wildfire hazards. Lower income and renter households engage in less mitigation than

Timothy W. Collins

2008-01-01

7

Earthquake Hazard Mitigation Strategy in Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of the active tectonic setting of the region, the risks of geological hazards inevitably increase in Indonesian Archipelagoes and other ASIAN countries. Encouraging community living in the vulnerable area to adapt with the nature of geology will be the most appropriate strategy for earthquake risk reduction. Updating the Earthquake Hazard Maps, enhancement ofthe existing landuse management , establishment of public education strategy and method, strengthening linkages among stake holders of disaster mitigation institutions as well as establishement of continues public consultation are the main strategic programs for community resilience in earthquake vulnerable areas. This paper highlights some important achievements of Earthquake Hazard Mitigation Programs in Indonesia, together with the difficulties in implementing such programs. Case examples of Yogyakarta and Bengkulu Earthquake Mitigation efforts will also be discussed as the lesson learned. The new approach for developing earthquake hazard map which is innitiating by mapping the psychological aspect of the people living in vulnerable area will be addressed as well.

Karnawati, D.; Anderson, R.; Pramumijoyo, S.

2008-05-01

8

76 FR 61070 - Disaster Assistance; Hazard Mitigation Grant Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...include vegetation management programs for wildfire hazard mitigation and erosion hazard...U.S. Department of Agriculture. Wildfire and Erosion Under the NPRM, vegetation management related to wildfire and erosion hazard mitigation...

2011-10-03

9

Mitigation of Hazardous Comets and Asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; 1. Recent progress in interpreting the nature of the near-Earth object population W. Bottke, A. Morbidelli and R. Jedicke; 2. Earth impactors: orbital characteristics and warning times S. R. Chesley and T. B. Spahr; 3. The role of radar in predicting and preventing asteroid and comet collisions with Earth S. J. Ostro and J. D. Giorgini; 4. Interior structures for asteroids and cometary nuclei E. Asphaug; 5. What we know and don't know about surfaces of potentially hazardous small bodies C. R. Chapman; 6. About deflecting asteroids and comets K. A. Holsapple; 7. Scientific requirements for understanding the near-Earth asteroid population A. W. Harris; 8. Physical properties of comets and asteroids inferred from fireball observations M. D. Martino and A. Cellino; 9. Mitigation technologies and their requirements C. Gritzner and R. Kahle; 10. Peering inside near-Earth objects with radio tomography W. Kofman and A. Safaeinili; 11. Seismological imvestigation of asteroid and comet interiors J. D. Walker and W. F. Huebner; 12. Lander and penetrator science for near-Earth object mitigation studies A. J. Ball, P. Lognonne, K. Seiferlin, M. Patzold and T. Spohn; 13. Optimal interpretation and deflection of Earth-approaching asteroids using low-thrust electric propulsion B. A. Conway; 14. Close proximity operations at small bodies: orbiting, hovering, and hopping D. J. Scheeres; 15. Mission operations in low gravity regolith and dust D. Sears, M. Franzen, S. Moore, S. Nichols, M. Kareev and P. Benoit; 16. Impacts and the public: communicating the nature of the impact hazard D. Morrison, C. R. Chapman, D. Steel and R. P. Binzel; 17. Towards a program to remove the threat of hazardous NEOs M. J. S. Belton.

Belton, Michael J. S.; Morgan, Thomas H.; Samarasinha, Nalin H.; Yeomans, Donald K.

2011-03-01

10

Experimental Study of Methods for Mitigating Blast and Fragment Hazards from a Large Exploding Tank.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Methods for mitigating blast pressures and fragments from a large steel tank filled with 630 lbs of Otto fuel were investigated experimentally. Methods for mitigating the debris threat caused by the breakup of a reinforced concrete bay that housed the fue...

C. J. Oswald D. D. Barker

1996-01-01

11

Evolution of the UNCW Hazard Mitigation Plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The University of North Carolina at Wilmington has a FEMA approved hazard mitigation plan for our institution. This coupled with its commitment to disaster preparedness and resilience as\\u000ademonstrated by its earlier designation as a disaster resistant university by FEMA as well as National Weather Service designations as a Storm Ready university positions UNCW as an institution of higher learning

Kevin Madsen

2011-01-01

12

Hazard Mitigation Planning Course: Regional Level, Instructor Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At the conclusion of the Hazard Mitigation Planning Course the participant will be able to do the following: formulate a rationale for State and local mitigation of natural hazard vulnerability; assess the applicability to State vulnerability problems of ...

1992-01-01

13

Reduce toxic hazards using passive mitigation  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of the Risk Management Program Rule promulgated under Section 112(r) of the 1990 US Clean Air Act Amendments is to prevent the accidental release of those chemicals that pose the greatest threat to the public and the environment, and to encourage emergency preparedness to mitigate the severity of such releases. The Rule requires facility owners to identify, evaluate, and communicate to the public any potential worst-case scenarios that could involve accidental releases of toxic and flammable substances. A worst-case scenario is defined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA; Washington, DC) as: {hor_ellipsis}the release of the largest quantity of a regulated substance from a vessel or process line failure that results in the greatest distance to an endpoint. When designing systems to store or process hazardous materials, passive-mitigation methods--those that function without human, mechanical, or energy input--should be considered. Such systems contain or limit a potential release of hazardous materials. And, because they have no mechanical requirements, passive-mitigation techniques are considered more reliable than active methods, such as emergency-shutdown and water-spray systems. Passive mitigation should also be considered when defining potential release scenarios and modeling hazard zones.

Flamberg, S.A.; Torti, K.S.; Myers, P.M. [ERM-Four Elements, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States)

1998-07-01

14

WHC natural phenomena hazards mitigation implementation plan  

SciTech Connect

Natural phenomena hazards (NPH) are unexpected acts of nature which pose a threat or danger to workers, the public or to the environment. Earthquakes, extreme winds (hurricane and tornado),snow, flooding, volcanic ashfall, and lightning strike are examples of NPH at Hanford. It is the policy of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to design, construct and operate DOE facilitiesso that workers, the public and the environment are protected from NPH and other hazards. During 1993 DOE, Richland Operations Office (RL) transmitted DOE Order 5480.28, ``Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation,`` to Westinghouse Hanford COmpany (WHC) for compliance. The Order includes rigorous new NPH criteria for the design of new DOE facilities as well as for the evaluation and upgrade of existing DOE facilities. In 1995 DOE issued Order 420.1, ``Facility Safety`` which contains the same NPH requirements and invokes the same applicable standards as Order 5480.28. It will supersede Order 5480.28 when an in-force date for Order 420.1 is established through contract revision. Activities will be planned and accomplished in four phases: Mobilization; Prioritization; Evaluation; and Upgrade. The basis for the graded approach is the designation of facilities/structures into one of five performance categories based upon safety function, mission and cost. This Implementation Plan develops the program for the Prioritization Phase, as well as an overall strategy for the implemention of DOE Order 5480.2B.

Conrads, T.J.

1996-09-11

15

An approach to mitigation of landslide hazards in a slum area in São Paulo city, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents engineering geology studies for landslide hazard assessment and to support the project of the mitigation civil works in the Jaguaré slum, located in São Paulo city, São Paulo State, southeastern region of Brazil. These studies are part of a landslide hazard mitigation program of the city government comprising a total of 192 slums located in São Paulo

OSWALDO AUGUSTO FILHO

16

Principles for Managing Community Relocation as a Hazard Mitigation Measure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Permanent relocation of communities away from hazard-prone areas is becoming an important mitigation option for emergency management authorities throughout the world. By moving citizens permanently, one realizes two special benefits. First, relocation prevents death or injury from hazards that are minimally subject to human control - that is, where structural mitigation measures are ineffective and forewarning is insufficient for simple

Ronald W. Perry; Michael K. Lindell

1997-01-01

17

NEO Characterization Missions for Hazard Mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issue of the hazard to Earth from NEOs has received increased attention recently in the U.S. because of congressional interest in the topic. This resulted in a study by the National Academies' National Research Council. That study was released in January. The SpaceGuard survey was aimed at finding 90% of the NEOs greater than 1 km in diameter. The

Volker Maiwald; Bernd Dachwald

2010-01-01

18

Speakers urge a unified approach to mitigating natural hazards  

Microsoft Academic Search

On November 3, while wildfires consumed acres of coastal land in California, the U.S. Natural Hazards Symposium in Washington, D.C., addressed the threat of natural hazards in the United States, disaster mitigation and recovery, and the need to consider natural hazards in land development plans. Several of the scheduled speakers were unable to participate because they were called to California

M. Catherine White

1993-01-01

19

Potentially Hazardous Objects (PHO) Mitigation Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) and its partner, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), are prepared to develop, implement, and expand procedures to avert collisions of potentially hazardous objects (PHOs) with Earth as recommended by NASA in its White Paper "Near- Earth Object Survey and Deflection Analysis of Alternatives" requested by the US Congress and submitted to it in March 2007. In addition to developing the general mitigation program as outlined in the NASA White Paper, the program will be expanded to include aggressive mitigation procedures for small (e.g., Tunguska-sized) PHOs and other short warning-time PHOs such as some long-period comet nuclei. As a first step the program will concentrate on the most likely and critical cases, namely small objects and long-period comet nuclei with short warning-times, but without losing sight of objects with longer warning-times. Objects smaller than a few hundred meters are of interest because they are about 1000 times more abundant than kilometer-sized objects and are fainter and more difficult to detect, which may lead to short warning times and hence short reaction times. Yet, even these small PHOs can have devastating effects as the 30 June 1908, Tungaska event has shown. In addition, long-period comets, although relatively rare but large (sometimes tens of kilometers in size), cannot be predicted because of their long orbital periods. Comet C/1983 H1 (IRAS-Araki-Alcock), for example, has an orbital period of 963.22 years, was discovered 27 April 1983, and passed Earth only two weeks later, on 11 May 1983, at a distance of 0.0312 AU. Aggressive methods and continuous alertness will be needed to defend against objects with such short warning times. While intact deflection of a PHO remains a key objective, destruction of a PHO and dispersion of the pieces must also be considered. The effectiveness of several alternative methods including nuclear demolition munitions, conventional explosives, and hyper-velocity impacts will be investigated and compared. This comparison is important for technical as well as political reasons, both domestic and international. The long-range plan includes evaluation of technical readiness including launch capabilities, tests for effectiveness using materials simulating PHOs, and building and testing several modular systems appropriate for alternative applications depending on the type of PHO.

Huebner, Walter

20

Benefit-Cost Analysis of FEMA Hazard Mitigation Grants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitigation ameliorates the impact of natural hazards on communities by reducing loss of life and injury, property and environmental damage, and social and economic disruption. The potential to reduce these losses brings many benefits, but every mitigation activity has a cost that must be considered in our world of limited resources. In principle benefit-cost analysis (BCA) can be used to

Adam Rose; Keith Porter; Nicole Dash; Jawhar Bouabid; Charles Huyck; John C. Whitehead; Douglass Shaw; Ronald T. Eguchi; Craig Taylor; Thomas R. McLane; L. Thomas Tobin; Philip T. Ganderton; David Godschalk; Anne S. Kiremidjian; Kathleen Tierney; Carol Taylor West

2006-01-01

21

Volcanic hazards and their mitigation: Progress and problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the beginning of the twentieth century, volcanology began to emerge as a modern science as a result of increased interest in eruptive phenomena following some of the worst volcanic disasters in recorded history: Krakatau (Indonesia) in 1883 and Mont Pelée (Martinique), Soufrière (St. Vincent), and Santa María (Guatemala) in 1902. Volcanology is again experiencing a period of heightened public awareness and scientific growth in the 1980s, the worst period since 1902 in terms of volcanic disasters and crises. A review of hazards mitigation approaches and techniques indicates that significant advances have been made in hazards assessment, volcano monitoring, and eruption forecasting. For example, the remarkable accuracy of the predictions of dome-building events at Mount St. Helens since June 1980 is unprecedented. Yet a predictive capability for more voluminous and explosive eruptions still has not been achieved. Studies of magma-induced seismicity and ground deformation continue to provide the most systematic and reliable data for early detection of precursors to eruptions and shallow intrusions. In addition, some other geophysical monitoring techniques and geochemical methods have been refined and are being more widely applied and tested. Comparison of the four major volcanic disasters of the 1980s (Mount St. Helens, U.S.A. (1980), El Chichón, Mexico (1982); Galunggung, Indonesia (1982); and Nevado del Ruíz, Colombia (1985) illustrates the importance of predisaster geoscience studies, volcanic hazards assessments, volcano monitoring, contingency planning, and effective communications between scientists and authorities. The death toll (>22,000) from the Ruíz catastrophe probably could have been greatly reduced; the reasons for the tragically ineffective implementation of evacuation measures are still unclear and puzzling in view of the fact that sufficient warnings were given. The most pressing problem in the mitigation of volcanic and associated hazards on a global scale is that most of the world's dangerous volcanoes are in densely populated countries that lack the economic and scientific resources or the political will to adequately study and monitor them. This problem afflicts both developed and developing countries, but it is especially acute for the latter. The greatest advances in volcanic hazards mitigation in the near future are most likely to be achieved by wider application of existing technology to poorly understood and studied volcanoes, rather than by refinements or new discoveries in technology alone.

Tilling, Robert I.

1989-05-01

22

Urban Design and Natural Hazard Mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous natural hazards, such as landslides, erosion, coastal hazards and earthquakes, have the potential to affect a development 's design. While it is up to the developer and territorial authority as to how they are managed (if at all), there are some successful design principles that can be incorporated. These principles could be put in place at the time of

Wendy Saunders

23

Hazard detection and mitigation system and method  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Provided is a system and method for providing monitoring of hazardous materials, including collecting environmental data via one or more sensors directed at the hazardous materials source, the environmental data including one or more environmentally detectable reference points; comparing the environmental data to a set of current ambient conditions, the environmental data detectable in a reference frame by the one or more sensors directed at the hazardous materials source, the reference frame including at least one of the one or more environmentally detectable reference points; performing an alert determination according to the comparison of the environmental data to the set of ambient conditions; and transmitting the alert determination to an existing fault detection system for the hazardous material source to enable the existing fault detection system to override a status rating of the hazardous materials source. Also included is a sensing system including modules operating on a processor to perform the method.

2012-04-17

24

Probabilistic Techniques, GIS and Remote Sensing in Landslide Hazard Mitigation: A Case Study from Sikkim Himalayas, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landslides form one of the most devastating natural hazards in the Sikkim State of India. This natural hazard alone causes severe damage to properties and human lives. The identified conditioning factors include adverse rock types (mica schist, phyllite, granite gneiss and calc schist), multiple joint sets, active tectonism, and very high annual precipitation (3539 mm). The triggering factors are mainly

D. Ramakrishnan; M. K. Ghose; R. Vinu Chandran; A. Jeyaram

2005-01-01

25

Potentially Hazardous Objects (PHO) Mitigation Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) and its partner, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), are prepared to develop, implement, and expand procedures to avert collisions of potentially hazardous objects (PHOs) with Earth as recommended by NASA in its White Paper \\

Walter Huebner

2008-01-01

26

Speakers urge a unified approach to mitigating natural hazards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On November 3, while wildfires consumed acres of coastal land in California, the U.S. Natural Hazards Symposium in Washington, D.C., addressed the threat of natural hazards in the United States, disaster mitigation and recovery, and the need to consider natural hazards in land development plans. Several of the scheduled speakers were unable to participate because they were called to California to investigate the fires, including keynote speaker James Witt, the new director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).Substitute keynote speaker Harvey Ryland, Witt's senior adviser at FEMA, emphasized that “we must sell mitigation as an effective means of protecting people and property.” He discussed FEMA's new “National Mitigation Strategy,” which will serve as the basis for its emergency management program. The strategy is expected to be in place by January 1995. As part of the approach, FEMA will establish a mitigation directorate to organize various disaster mitigation efforts in one office. Ryland also discussed the idea of creating risk reduction enterprise zones, designated high risk areas that would offer incentives to property owners who take proper mitigation measures. “Such incentives would be offset by reduced disaster assistance costs,” Ryland added.

White, M. Catherine

27

Mitigation options for accidental releases of hazardous gases  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this paper is to review and compare technologies available for mitigation of unconfined releases of toxic and flammable gases. These technologies include: secondary confinement, deinventory, vapor barriers, foam spraying, and water sprays/monitors. Guidelines for the design and/or operation of effective post-release mitigation systems and case studies involving actual industrial mitigation systems are also presented.

Fthenakis, V.M.

1995-05-01

28

68 FR 35473 - RTCA Special Committee 201: Aeronautical Operation Control (AOC) Message Hazard Mitigation (AMHM)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Aeronautical Operation Control (AOC) Message Hazard Mitigation (AMHM) AGENCY...Operational Control (AOC) Message Hazard Mitigation (AMHM...Operational Control (AOC), Data Link Services. [sbull] Subgroup...Guidelines for Application of AOC Data Link Services. [sbull]...

2003-06-13

29

Planning for El Niño: The Stages of Natural Hazard Mitigation and Preparation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines mitigation and preparation activities selected by four county and state governments in anticipation of the 1997–1998 El Niño. It expands the knowledge of how state and local governments plan short-term projects and mitigate with longer-term activities in anticipation of a natural hazard. It also provides a preliminary understanding of divergent responses and plans under similar disaster warnings.

Nancy Beller-Simms

2004-01-01

30

Seismic hazard assessment and mitigation in India: an overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indian subcontinent is characterized by various tectonic units viz., Himalayan collision zone in North, Indo-Burmese arc in north-east, failed rift zones in its interior in Peninsular Indian shield and Andaman Sumatra trench in south-east Indian Territory. During the last about 100 years, the country has witnessed four great and several major earthquakes. Soon after the occurrence of the first great earthquake, the Shillong earthquake (M w: 8.1) in 1897, efforts were started to assess the seismic hazard in the country. The first such attempt was made by Geological Survey of India in 1898 and since then considerable progress has been made. The current seismic zonation map prepared and published by Bureau of Indian Standards, broadly places seismic risk in different parts of the country in four major zones. However, this map is not sufficient for the assessment of area-specific seismic risks, necessitating detailed seismic zoning, that is, microzonation for earthquake disaster mitigation and management. Recently, seismic microzonation studies are being introduced in India, and the first level seismic microzonation has already been completed for selected urban centres including, Jabalpur, Guwahati, Delhi, Bangalore, Ahmadabad, Dehradun, etc. The maps prepared for these cities are being further refined on larger scales as per the requirements, and a plan has also been firmed up for taking up microzonation of 30 selected cities, which lie in seismic zones V and IV and have a population density of half a million. The paper highlights the efforts made in India so far towards seismic hazard assessment as well as the future road map for such studies.

Verma, Mithila; Bansal, Brijesh K.

2013-03-01

31

Methodology for mitigation of seismic hazards in existing unreinforced masonry buildings, phase 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unreinforced masonry buildings are studied in order to determine appropriate methods to deal with hazard mitigation and to study methods of retrofit so that design methods can be established. These design methods are to be devised with consideration of the particular structural conditions of unreinforced masonry construction, their earthquake response, the seismicity of the particular location, and the economics of

S. B. Barnes; A. W. Johnson; C. W. Pinkham

1978-01-01

32

Collaborative Monitoring and Hazard Mitigation at Fuego Volcano, Guatemala  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A portable, digital sensor network has been installed to closely monitor changing activity at Fuego volcano, which takes advantage of an international collaborative effort among Guatemala, U.S. and Canadian universities, and the Peace Corps. The goal of this effort is to improve the understanding shallow internal processes, and consequently to more effectively mitigate volcanic hazards. Fuego volcano has had more than 60 historical eruptions and nearly-continuous activity make it an ideal laboratory to study volcanic processes. Close monitoring is needed to identify base-line activity, and rapidly identify and disseminate changes in the activity which might threaten nearby communities. The sensor network is comprised of a miniature DOAS ultraviolet spectrometer fitted with a system for automated plume scans, a digital video camera, and two seismo-acoustic stations and portable dataloggers. These sensors are on loan from scientists who visited Fuego during short field seasons and donated use of their sensors to a resident Peace Corps Masters International student from Michigan Technological University for extended data collection. The sensor network is based around the local volcano observatory maintained by Instituto National de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Metrologia e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH). INSIVUMEH provides local support and historical knowledge of Fuego activity as well as a secure location for storage of scientific equipment, data processing, and charging of the batteries that power the sensors. The complete sensor network came online in mid-February 2007 and here we present preliminary results from concurrent gas, seismic, and acoustic monitoring of activity from Fuego volcano.

Lyons, J. J.; Bluth, G. J.; Rose, W. I.; Patrick, M.; Johnson, J. B.; Stix, J.

2007-05-01

33

An early warning system for marine storm hazard mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present contribution presents efforts towards the development of an operational Early Warning System for storm hazard prediction and mitigation. The system consists of a calibrated nested-model train which consists of specially calibrated Wave Watch III, SWAN and XBeach models. The numerical simulations provide daily forecasts of the hydrodynamic conditions, morphological change and overtopping risk at the area of interest. The model predictions are processed by a 'translation' module which is based on site-specific Storm Impact Indicators (SIIs) (Ciavola et al., 2011, Storm impacts along European coastlines. Part 2: lessons learned from the MICORE project, Environmental Science & Policy, Vol 14), and warnings are issued when pre-defined threshold values are exceeded. For the present site the selected SIIs were (i) the maximum wave run-up height during the simulations; and (ii) the dune-foot horizontal retreat at the end of the simulations. Both SIIs and pre-defined thresholds were carefully selected on the grounds of existing experience and field data. Four risk levels were considered, each associated with an intervention approach, recommended to the responsible coastal protection authority. Regular updating of the topography/bathymetry is critical for the performance of the storm impact forecasting, especially when there are significant morphological changes. The system can be extended to other critical problems, like implications of global warming and adaptive management strategies, while the approach presently followed, from model calibration to the early warning system for storm hazard mitigation, can be applied to other sites worldwide, with minor adaptations.

Vousdoukas, M. I.; Almeida, L. P.; Pacheco, A.; Ferreira, O.

2012-04-01

34

Natural hazards phenomena mitigation with respect to seismic hazards at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility  

SciTech Connect

This report provides information on the seismic hazard for design of the proposed Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF), a facility designed for the disposal of wastes generated during the cleanup of Hanford Site aggregate areas. The preferred ERDF site is located south and east of 200 East and 200 West Areas. The Washington State Groundwater Protection Program (WAC 173-303-806 (4)(a)(xxi)) requires that the characteristics of local and regional hydrogeology be defined. A plan for that work has been developed (Weekes and Borghese 1993). In addition, WAC 173-303-282 provides regulatory guidance on siting a dangerous waste facility, and US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.28 requires consideration of natural phenomena hazards mitigation for DOE sites and facilities. This report provides information to evaluate the ERDF site with respect to seismic hazard. The ERDF will be a Corrective Action Management Unit (CAMU) as defined by 40 CFR 260.10.

Reidel, S.P.

1994-01-06

35

Mitigating mountain hazards in Austria - legislation, risk transfer, and awareness building  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Embedded in the overall concept of integral risk management, mitigating mountain hazards is pillared by land use regulations, risk transfer, and information. In this paper aspects on legislation related to natural hazards in Austria are summarised, with a particular focus on spatial planning activities and hazard mapping, and possible adaptations focussing on enhanced resilience are outlined. Furthermore, the system of risk transfer is discussed, highlighting the importance of creating incentives for risk-aware behaviour, above all with respect to individual precaution and insurance solutions. Therefore, the issue of creating awareness through information is essential, which is presented subsequently. The study results in recommendations of how administrative units on different federal and local levels could increase the enforcement of regulations related to the minimisation of natural hazard risk. Moreover, the nexus to risk transfer mechanisms is provided, focusing on the current compensation system in Austria and some possible adjustments in order to provide economic incentives for (private) investments in mitigation measures, i.e. local structural protection. These incentives should be supported by delivering information on hazard and risk target-oriented to any stakeholder involved. Therefore, coping strategies have to be adjusted and the interaction between prevention and precaution has to be highlighted. The paper closes with recommendations of how these efforts could be achieved, with a particular focus on the situation in the Republic of Austria.

Holub, M.; Fuchs, S.

2009-04-01

36

Tsunami hazard mitigation in tourism in the tropical and subtropical coastal areas: a case study in the Ryukyu Islands, southwest of Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Life and economy (including tourism) in tropical and subtropical coastal areas, such as Okinawa Prefecture (Ryukyu) are highly relying on the sea. The sea has both "gentle" side to give people healing and "dangerous" side to kill people. If we are going to utilise the sea for marine tourism such as constructing resort facilities on the oceanfront, we should know all of the sea, including the both sides of the sea: especially the nature of tsunamis. And also we islanders should issue accurate information about the sea towards outsiders, especially tourists visiting the island. We have already learned a lesson about this issue from the Sumatra tsunami in 2004. However, measures against the tsunami disaster by marine tourism industry are still inadequate in these areas. The goal of tsunami hazard mitigation for those engaged in tourism industry in tropical and subtropical coastal areas should be as follows. (1) Preparedness against tsunamis: "Be aware of the characteristics of tsunamis." "Prepare tsunamis when you feel an earthquake." "Prepare tsunamis when an earthquake takes place somewhere in the world." (2) Maintenance of an exact tsunami hazard map under quantitative analyses of the characteristics of tsunamis: "Flooding areas by tsunami attacks are dependent not only on altitude but also on amplification and inundation due to the seafloor topography near the coast and the onland topographic relief." "Tsunami damage happens repeatedly." (3) Maintenance of a tsunami disaster prevention manual and training after the manual: "Who should do what in case of tsunamis?" "How should the resort hotel employees lead the guests to the safe place?" Such a policy for disaster prevention is discussed in the class of the general education of "Ocean Sciences" in University of the Ryukyus (UR) and summer school for high school students. The students (most of them are from Okinawa Prefecture) consider, discuss and make reports about what to do in case of tsunamis as an islander. Especially, students of Department of Tourism Sciences (DTS) are keen on the discussion and make excellent reports/proposals. Here, the author would also like to introduce some of them in the presentation.

Matsumoto, T.

2006-12-01

37

The Caribbean Disaster Mitigation Project: Supporting Sustainable Responses to Natural Hazards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nations in the Caribbean are subject to a wide range of natural hazards—hurrican es, landslide, earthquakes, tsunamis and volcanoes. To grow and develop without taking these hazards into account can have grave consequences with the advent of a hazardous event. The Caribbean Disaster Mitigation Project has supported a range of initiatives with the goal of reducing the vulnerability to natural

Steven Stichter

38

Standards and Guidelines for Numerical Models for Tsunami Hazard Mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An increased number of nations around the workd need to develop tsunami mitigation plans which invariably involve inundation maps for warning guidance and evacuation planning. There is the risk that inundation maps may be produced with older or untested methodology, as there are currently no standards for modeling tools. In the aftermath of the 2004 megatsunami, some models were used to model inundation for Cascadia events with results much larger than sediment records and existing state-of-the-art studies suggest leading to confusion among emergency management. Incorrectly assessing tsunami impact is hazardous, as recent events in 2006 in Tonga, Kythira, Greece and Central Java have suggested (Synolakis and Bernard, 2006). To calculate tsunami currents, forces and runup on coastal structures, and inundation of coastlines one must calculate the evolution of the tsunami wave from the deep ocean to its target site, numerically. No matter what the numerical model, validation (the process of ensuring that the model solves the parent equations of motion accurately) and verification (the process of ensuring that the model used represents geophysical reality appropriately) both are an essential. Validation ensures that the model performs well in a wide range of circumstances and is accomplished through comparison with analytical solutions. Verification ensures that the computational code performs well over a range of geophysical problems. A few analytic solutions have been validated themselves with laboratory data. Even fewer existing numerical models have been both validated with the analytical solutions and verified with both laboratory measurements and field measurements, thus establishing a gold standard for numerical codes for inundation mapping. While there is in principle no absolute certainty that a numerical code that has performed well in all the benchmark tests will also produce correct inundation predictions with any given source motions, validated codes reduce the level of uncertainty in their results to the uncertainty in the geophysical initial conditions. Further, when coupled with real--time free--field tsunami measurements from tsunameters, validated codes are the only choice for realistic forecasting of inundation; the consequences of failure are too ghastly to take chances with numerical procedures that have not been validated. We discuss a ten step process of benchmark tests for models used for inundation mapping. The associated methodology and algorithmes have to first be validated with analytical solutions, then verified with laboratory measurements and field data. The models need to be published in the scientific literature in peer-review journals indexed by ISI. While this process may appear onerous, it reflects our state of knowledge, and is the only defensible methodology when human lives are at stake. Synolakis, C.E., and Bernard, E.N, Tsunami science before and beyond Boxing Day 2004, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 364 1845, 2231--2263, 2005.

Titov, V.; Gonzalez, F.; Kanoglu, U.; Yalciner, A.; Synolakis, C. E.

2006-12-01

39

ANALYSIS AND MITIGATION OF X-RAY HAZARD GENERATED FROM HIGH INTENSITY LASER-TARGET INTERACTIONS  

SciTech Connect

Interaction of a high intensity laser with matter may generate an ionizing radiation hazard. Very limited studies have been made, however, on the laser-induced radiation protection issue. This work reviews available literature on the physics and characteristics of laser-induced X-ray hazards. Important aspects include the laser-to-electron energy conversion efficiency, electron angular distribution, electron energy spectrum and effective temperature, and bremsstrahlung production of X-rays in the target. The possible X-ray dose rates for several femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser systems used at SLAC, including the short pulse laser system for the Matter in Extreme Conditions Instrument (peak power 4 TW and peak intensity 2.4 x 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}) were analysed. A graded approach to mitigate the laser-induced X-ray hazard with a combination of engineered and administrative controls is also proposed.

Qiu, Rui

2011-03-21

40

Effects of hazardous wastes on housing and urban development and mitigation of impacts  

SciTech Connect

This report determines the nature and scope of the hazardous waste problem affecting HUD programs and community development and redevelopment activities. It defines the problem and develops categories of hazardous wastes most applicable to HUD. The report identifies sources of hazardous waste and gives examples of their impacts. The role of HUD and other agencies in controlling hazardous waste is reviewed, and recommendations are made for mitigating known and potential impacts. Three case studies -- in Dover Township and Elizabeth, N.J., and in Richmond, Va., illustrate the wide range of impacts made possible because of improper handling of or lack of appreciation for hazardous substances. The report suggests that a Hazard Identification Guidebook be developed, similar to others addressing housing safety and noise assessment, that would require HUD personnel to carry out a number of investigations on and around a site. This process is briefly described here and could serve as a basis for a guidebook. Flow charts illustrate this process. Tables and 23 references are supplied.

Boyer, K.R.; Conrad, E.T.; Kane, P.F.; McLaughlin, M.W.; Morgan, J.T.

1980-10-10

41

Mitigation of unconfined releases of hazardous gases via liquid spraying  

SciTech Connect

The capability of water sprays in mitigating clouds of hydrofluoric acid (HF) has been demonstrated in the large-scale field experiments of Goldfish and Hawk, which took place at the DOE Nevada Test Site. The effectiveness of water sprays and fire water monitors to remove HF from vapor plume, has also been studied theoretically using the model HGSPRAY5 with the near-field and far-field dispersion described by the HGSYSTEM models. This paper presents options to select and evaluate liquid spraying systems, based on the industry experience and mathematical modeling.

Fthenakis, V.M.

1997-02-01

42

A special interest network for natural hazard mitigation for cultural heritage sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes the establishment of a Special Interest Network (SIN) on Natural Hazard Mitigation for Cultural Heritage Sites designed to provide a platform for the storage and dissemination of information on the special needs of cultural heritage sites in case of disasters. The network will provide a venue for information exchange between disaster mitigation agencies on the one hand

DIRK H. R. SPENNEMANN; DAVID G. GREEN

43

Numerical and probabilistic analysis of asteroid and comet impact hazard mitigation  

SciTech Connect

The possibility of asteroid and comet impacts on Earth has received significant recent media and scientific attention. Still, there are many outstanding questions about the correct response once a potentially hazardous object (PHO) is found. Nuclear munitions are often suggested as a deflection mechanism because they have a high internal energy per unit launch mass. However, major uncertainties remain about the use of nuclear munitions for hazard mitigation. There are large uncertainties in a PHO's physical response to a strong deflection or dispersion impulse like that delivered by nuclear munitions. Objects smaller than 100 m may be solid, and objects at all sizes may be 'rubble piles' with large porosities and little strength. Objects with these different properties would respond very differently, so the effects of object properties must be accounted for. Recent ground-based observations and missions to asteroids and comets have improved the planetary science community's understanding of these objects. Computational power and simulation capabilities have improved such that it is possible to numerically model the hazard mitigation problem from first principles. Before we know that explosive yield Y at height h or depth -h from the target surface will produce a momentum change in or dispersion of a PHO, we must quantify energy deposition into the system of particles that make up the PHO. Here we present the initial results of a parameter study in which we model the efficiency of energy deposition from a stand-off nuclear burst onto targets made of PHO constituent materials.

Plesko, Catherine S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Weaver, Robert P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Huebner, Walter F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-09-09

44

Geotectonic movement and natural hazards: Strategy for disaster preparedness and mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In India, the incidence of natural hazards have increased in recent times and their intensity and impacts have increased. Though the natural hazards like earthquake in Indian sub-continent cannot be prevented, because of the active tectonic disturbances and resulting incidence of earthquake of different intensities in sensitive zones, with a better preparedness and mitigation plan, the loss of life and

R. D. Singh; Purnima Singh

2007-01-01

45

Spatial Data Management and Analysis System for Flood Hazard Mitigation of Poyang Lake Watershed, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flood hazard Prevention and mitigation of Poyang Lake watershed is an emergent environmental problem because Poyang Lake watershed is one of the regions exposed most frequently to flood hazard in China. In order to meet the need of disaster reduction decision making of Poyang Lake watershed, Spatial Data Management and Analysis System of China Land Territory (not include islands in

Jiangzhong Lu; Xiaoling Chen; Jian Zhang; Yechao Sun; Shuming Bao

2007-01-01

46

Politics and Economics of Earthquake Hazard Mitigation. Unreinforced Masonry Buildings in Southern California. Program on Environment and Behavior.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Table of Contents: Earthquakes and Unreinforced Masonry Buildings: Introduction; Risks, Mitigation Techniques, and Costs; The Development, Enactment, and Implementation of Earthquake Hazard Mitigation Policies; Long Beach, California; Los Angeles, Califor...

D. J. Alesch W. J. Peak

1986-01-01

47

The price of safety: costs for mitigating and coping with Alpine hazards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to limited public budgets and the need to economize, the analysis of costs of hazard mitigation and emergency management of natural hazards becomes increasingly important for public natural hazard and risk management. In recent years there has been a growing body of literature on the estimation of losses which supported to help to determine benefits of measures in terms of prevented losses. On the contrary, the costs of mitigation are hardly addressed. This paper thus aims to shed some light on expenses for mitigation and emergency services. For this, we analysed the annual costs of mitigation efforts in four regions/countries of the Alpine Arc: Bavaria (Germany), Tyrol (Austria), South Tyrol (Italy) and Switzerland. On the basis of PPP values (purchasing power parities), annual expenses on public safety ranged from EUR 44 per capita in the Free State of Bavaria to EUR 216 in the Autonomous Province of South Tyrol. To analyse the (variable) costs for emergency services in case of an event, we used detailed data from the 2005 floods in the Federal State of Tyrol (Austria) as well as aggregated data from the 2002 floods in Germany. The analysis revealed that multi-hazards, the occurrence and intermixture of different natural hazard processes, contribute to increasing emergency costs. Based on these findings, research gaps and recommendations for costing Alpine natural hazards are discussed.

Pfurtscheller, C.; Thieken, A. H.

2013-10-01

48

Hazard Mitigation Potential of Earth-Sheltered Residences.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains a review of the literature on Earth-Sheltered Housing (ESH), an analysis of the protection potential against natural and technological hazards, cost comparison with conventional construction, an example design, and a discussion of ins...

C. V. Chester H. B. Shapira G. A. Cristy M. Schweitzer S. A. Carnes

1983-01-01

49

National Landslide Hazards Mitigation Strategy: A Framework for Loss Reduction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In response to the rising costs from landslide hazards in the United States, this report outlines key elements of a comprehensive and effective national strategy for reducing losses from landslides nationwide, including activities at the national, State, ...

E. C. Spiker P. L. Gori

2000-01-01

50

Arbitrary Death: An Empirical Study of Mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Supreme Court has long viewed mitigation evidence as key to saving the death penalty from constitutional challenge. Mitigation evidence about a capital defendant’s life history, combined with other procedural protections, is thought to alleviate arbitrariness in juries’ decisions of whether a defendant deserves to die. This Article presents original empirical research studying that hypothesis. Interviews with thirty mitigation specialists

Emily Hughes

2012-01-01

51

Spatio-temporal patterns of hazards and their use in risk assessment and mitigation. Case study of road accidents in Romania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Road accidents are among the leading causes of death in many world countries, partly as an inherent consequence of the increasing mobility of today society. The World Health Organization estimates that 1.3 million people died in road accidents in 2011, which means 186 deaths per million. The tragic picture is completed by millions of peoples experiencing different physical injuries or by the enormous social and economic costs that these events imply. Romania has one of the most unsafe road networks within the European Union, with annual averages of 9400 accidents, 8300 injuries and almost 2680 fatalities (2007-2012). An average of 141 death per million is more than twice the average fatality rate in European Union (about 60 death per million). Other specific indicators (accidents or fatalities reported to the road length, vehicle fleet size, driving license owners or adult population etc.) are even worst in the same European context. Road accidents are caused by a complex series of factors, some of them being a relatively constant premise, while others act as catalyzing factors or triggering agent: road features and quality, vehicle technical state, weather conditions, human related factors etc. All these lead to a complex equation with too many unknown variables, making almost impossible a probabilistic approach. However, the high concentration of accidents in a region or in some road sectors is caused by the existence of a specific context, created by factors with permanent or repetitive character, and leads to the idea of a spatial autocorrelation between locations of different adjoining accident. In the same way, the increasing frequency of road accidents and of their causes repeatability in different periods of the year would allow to identify those black timeframes with higher incidence of road accidents. Identifying and analyzing the road blackspots (hotspots) and black zones would help to improve road safety by acting against the common causes that create the spatial or temporal clustering of crash accidents. Since the 1990's, Geographical Informational Systems (GIS) became a very important tool for traffic and road safety management, allowing not only the spatial and multifactorial analysis, but also graphical and non-graphical outputs. The current paper presents an accessible GIS methodology to study the spatio-temporal pattern of injury related road accidents, to identify the high density accidents zones, to make a cluster analysis, to create multicriterial typologies, to identify spatial and temporal similarities and to explain them. In this purpose, a Geographical Information System was created, allowing a complex analysis that involves not only the events, but also a large set of interrelated and spatially linked attributes. The GIS includes the accidents as georeferenced point elements with a spatially linked attribute database: identification information (date, location details); accident type; main, secondary and aggravating causes; data about driver; vehicle information; consequences (damages, injured peoples and fatalities). Each attribute has its own number code that allows both the statistical analysis and the spatial interrogation. The database includes those road accidents that led to physical injuries and loss of human lives between 2007 and 2012 and the spatial analysis was realized using TNTmips 7.3 software facilities. Data aggregation and processing allowed creating the spatial pattern of injury related road accidents through Kernel density estimation at three different levels (national - Romania; county level - Iasi County; local level - Iasi town). Spider graphs were used to create the temporal pattern or road accidents at three levels (daily, weekly and monthly) directly related to their causes. Moreover the spatial and temporal database relates the natural hazards (glazed frost, fog, and blizzard) with the human made ones, giving the opportunity to evaluate the nature of uncertainties in risk assessment. At the end, this paper provides a clustering methodology based on several environmenta

Catalin Stanga, Iulian

2013-04-01

52

Looking before we leap: an ongoing, quantative investigation of asteroid and comet impact hazard mitigation  

SciTech Connect

There are many outstanding questions about the correct response to an asteroid or comet impact threat on Earth. Nuclear munitions are currently thought to be the most efficient method of delivering an impact-preventing impulse to a potentially hazardous object (PHO). However, there are major uncertainties about the response of PHOs to a nuclear burst, and the most appropriate ways to use nuclear munitions for hazard mitigation.

Plesko, Catherine S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Weaver, Robert P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bradley, Paul A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Huebner, Walter F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

53

Experimentally Benchmarked Numerical Approaches to Lightning Hazard Assessment and Mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A natural hazard that has been with us since the beginning of time is the lighting strike. Not only does it represent a direct hazard to humans but also to the facilities that they work within and the products they produce. The latter categories are of particular concern when they are related to potentially hazardous processes and products. For this reason experimental and numerical modelling techniques are developed to understand the nature of the hazards, to develop appropriate protective approaches which can be put in place and finally to gain assurance that the overall risks fall within national, international accepted standards and those appropriate to the special nature of the work. The latter is of particular importance when the processes and the products within such facilities have a potential susceptibility to lightning strike and where failure is deemed unacceptable. This paper covers examples of the modelling approaches applied to such facilities within which high consequence operations take place, together with the protection that is required for high consequence products. In addition examples are given of how the numerical techniques are benchmarked by supporting experimental programmes. Not only should such a safety rationale be laid down and agreed early for these facilities and products but that it is maintained during the inevitable changes that will occur during the design, development, production and maintenance phases. For example an 'improvement', as seen by a civil engineer or a facility manager, may well turn out to be detrimental to lightning safety. Constant vigilance is key to ensuring the maintenance of safety.

Jones, Malcolm; Newton, David

2013-04-01

54

Extreme Event Policy Analysis: Identifying Stakeholders and Preferences for Natural Hazard Mitigation Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Extreme events can cause severe damage and potential harms to many people in a very short period of time. Considerable challenges confront policy makers who seek to change individual and community behaviors to mitigate disasters. Previous research efforts for extreme events and natural hazards have tested the impact of disasters on policy making by using each disaster as a

Michael A. Deegan

55

Disaster Management and Community Planning, and Public Participation: How to Achieve Sustainable Hazard Mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper offers first a brief historical overview of disaster management planning. Second, it reviews Australian and American research findings and show that they urge the field of disaster management to shift its focus from response and recovery to sustainable hazard mitigation. It is argued that in order for this shift to occur, it is necessary to integrate disaster management

Laurie Pearce

2003-01-01

56

A qualitative analysis of some methods of asteroid hazard mitigation for the Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some methods of asteroid hazard mitigation for the Earth, using the missions to the asteroids and the control asteroid motion, are investigated. The method of direct mechanical influence on the asteroid by spacecraft impact and the application of velocity impulse to the asteroid; influence by high thrust chemical-jet engine brought onto the planet surface; influence by low thrust electric-jet engine; asteroid orbit changing by solar sail; and asteroid surface painting are considered. The characteristics of the asteroid motion control by these methods are presented. Numerical estimations are given for the 4179 Toutatis asteroid which passed close to the Earth in December of 1992. On the basis of the approximate comparative analysis of these methods, direct mechanical impact was chosen for more detailed study.

Ivashkin, V. V.; Smirnov, V. V.

57

Determining public policy and resource allocation priorities for mitigating natural hazards: a capabilities-based approach.  

PubMed

This paper proposes a Capabilities-based Approach to guide hazard mitigation efforts. First, a discussion is provided of the criteria that should be met by an adequate framework for formulating public policy and allocating resources. This paper shows why a common decision-aiding tool, Cost-benefit Analysis, fails to fulfill such criteria. A Capabilities-based Approach to hazard mitigation is then presented, drawing on the framework originally developed in the context of development economics and policy. The focus of a Capabilities-based Approach is protecting and promoting the well-being of individuals. Capabilities are dimensions of well-being and specified in terms of functionings. Functionings capture the various things of value an individual does or becomes in his or her life, including being alive, being healthy, and being sheltered. Capabilities refer to the real achievability of specific functionings. In the context of hazard mitigation, from a Capabilities-based Approach, decision- and policy-makers should consider the acceptability and tolerability of risks along with the affectability of hazards when determining policy formulation and resource allocation. Finally, the paper shows how the proposed approach satisfies the required criteria, and overcomes the limitations of Cost-benefit Analysis, while maintaining its strengths. PMID:18066680

Murphy, Colleen; Gardoni, Paolo

2007-07-26

58

Almost strict liability: Wind River Petroleum and the Utah Hazardous Substance Mitigation Act  

SciTech Connect

In Wind River, the Utah Supreme Court developed a two-step liability standard. The court ruled that under the act, statutorily responsible parties are strictly liable for any release of hazardous material from their facility. Among responsible parties, liability is to be apportioned on an equitable contribution standard. However, the Utah Legislature has subsequently amended the Mitigation Act to prohibit the application of unapportioned strict liability. Therefore, Wind River can no longer be relied upon as the law regarding liability under the Mitigation Act.

NONE

1996-12-31

59

The influence of hazard models on GIS-based regional risk assessments and mitigation policies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geographic information systems (GIS) are important tools for understanding and communicating the spatial distribution of risks associated with natural hazards in regional economies. We present a GIS-based decision support system (DSS) for assessing community vulnerability to natural hazards and evaluating potential mitigation policy outcomes. The Land Use Portfolio Modeler (LUPM) integrates earth science and socioeconomic information to predict the economic impacts of loss-reduction strategies. However, the potential use of such systems in decision making may be limited when multiple but conflicting interpretations of the hazard are available. To explore this problem, we conduct a policy comparison using the LUPM to test the sensitivity of three available assessments of earthquake-induced lateral-spread ground failure susceptibility in a coastal California community. We find that the uncertainty regarding the interpretation of the science inputs can influence the development and implementation of natural hazard management policies. Copyright ?? 2006 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

Bernknopf, R. L.; Rabinovici, S. J. M.; Wood, N. J.; Dinitz, L. B.

2006-01-01

60

The NEOShield Project: Understanding the Mitigation-Relevant Physical Properties of Potentially Hazardous Asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NEOShield is a European-Union funded project to address impact hazard mitigation issues, coordinated by the German Aerospace Center, DLR. The NEOShield consortium consists of 13 research institutes, universities, and industrial partners from 6 countries and includes leading US and Russian space organizations. The primary aim of the 5.8 million euro, 3.5 year project, which commenced in January 2012, is to investigate in detail promising mitigation techniques, such as the kinetic impactor, blast deflection, and the gravity tractor, and devise feasible demonstration missions. Options for an international strategy for implementation when an actual impact threat arises will also be investigated. Our current scientific work is focused on examining the mitigation-relevant physical properties of the NEO population via observational data and laboratory experiments on asteroid surface analog materials. We are attempting to narrow the range of the expected properties of objects that are most likely to threaten the Earth and trigger space-borne mitigation attempts, and investigate how such objects would respond to different mitigation techniques. The results of our scientific work will flow into the technical phase of the project, during which detailed designs of feasible mitigation demonstration missions will be developed. We briefly describe the scope of the project and report on results obtained to date. Funded under EU FP7 program agreement no. 282703.

Harris, Alan W.; Drube, L.; Consortium, NEOShield

2012-10-01

61

Planning ahead for asteroid and comet hazard mitigation, phase 1: parameter space exploration and scenario modeling  

SciTech Connect

The mitigation of impact hazards resulting from Earth-approaching asteroids and comets has received much attention in the popular press. However, many questions remain about the near-term and long-term, feasibility and appropriate application of all proposed methods. Recent and ongoing ground- and space-based observations of small solar-system body composition and dynamics have revolutionized our understanding of these bodies (e.g., Ryan (2000), Fujiwara et al. (2006), and Jedicke et al. (2006)). Ongoing increases in computing power and algorithm sophistication make it possible to calculate the response of these inhomogeneous objects to proposed mitigation techniques. Here we present the first phase of a comprehensive hazard mitigation planning effort undertaken by Southwest Research Institute and Los Alamos National Laboratory. We begin by reviewing the parameter space of the object's physical and chemical composition and trajectory. We then use the radiation hydrocode RAGE (Gittings et al. 2008), Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) radiation transport (see Clement et al., this conference), and N-body dynamics codes to explore the effects these variations in object properties have on the coupling of energy into the object from a variety of mitigation techniques, including deflection and disruption by nuclear and conventional munitions, and a kinetic impactor.

Plesko, Catherine S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Clement, R Ryan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Weaver, Robert P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bradley, Paul A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Huebner, Walter F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

62

Mitigation of Flooding and Cyclone Hazard in Orissa, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Storm surges generated by the strong tangential wind stressesand normal atmospheric pressure gradients at the sea surface due to tropical cyclones (TC'S)have been studied with the goal of detecting any significant and systematic changes due to climatechange. Cyclone and storm surge data for the 19th and 20th centuries for the Bay of Bengalcoast of the state of Orissa in India

P. Chittibabu; S. K. Dube; J. B. Macnabb; T. S. Murty; A. D. Rao; U. C. Mohanty; P. C. Sinha

2004-01-01

63

Developing a Long-term Hazard Mitigation Plan for Consequent Volcanic Sedimentation Hazards at Santiaguito Dome Complex, Guatemala  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous volcanic activity at Santiaguito, accompanied by seasonal monsoons, results in sediment inputs downslope into the Río Ixpatz and Río Samalá river channels. This threatens the lives and economic stability in populated downstream areas of Guatemala's coastal slope, a region responsible for major contributions to Guatemala's foreign exchange earnings. The changing riverbeds are host to sediment and water quality problems; subsequent flooding threatens villages, nearby cropland, infrastructure, and transportation. Current research suggests that the volcanic activity results in costs equal to millions of US dollars per year. Mitigation efforts are needed to protect lives, fertile land, and valuable crops located along the river valleys and plains in the down-slope region of the volcano. The goal of this work is to build a GIS database for the areas affected by Santiaguito to facilitate the development of a long-range (several decades) plan for hazard mitigation and infrastructure development. The GIS will include multiple TM images which have been used to quantify activity and downslope aggradation patterns (Matias et al, this meeting), digital topography obtained from IGN and USGS/VDAP, land use maps and infrastructure overlays from IGN, Guatemala, and volcanic hazard zonation maps from INSIVUMEH, Guatemala. We expect to also use LAHARZ (Iverson, R.M., Schilling, S.S., Vallance, J.W., GSA Bulletin, 1998) to supplement GIS analysis. Additionally, we plan to work with local agencies within Guatemala to improve the current mitigation strategy which mainly involves extensive annual river and near-bridge dredging and is reactive on short time scales.

Bunzendahl, E.; Bluth, G. J.; Rose, W. I.; Reif, S. L.; Matias, O.

2001-12-01

64

The Identification of Filters and Interdependencies for Effective Resource Allocation: Coupling the Mitigation of Natural Hazards to Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Policy formulation for the mitigation and management of risks posed by natural hazards requires that governments confront difficult decisions for resource allocation and be able to justify their spending. Governments also need to recognize when spending offers little improvement and the circumstances in which relatively small amounts of spending can make substantial differences. Because natural hazards can have detrimental impacts

S. M. Agar; H. Kunreuther

2005-01-01

65

The Wenchuan, China M8.0 Earthquake: A Lesson and Implication for Seismic Hazard Mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Wenchuan, China M8.0 earthquake caused great damage and huge casualty. 69,197 people were killed, 374,176 people were injured, and 18,341 people are still missing. The estimated direct economic loss is about 126 billion U.S. dollar. The Wenchuan earthquake again demonstrated that earthquake does not kill people, but the built environments and induced hazards, landslides in particular, do. Therefore, it is critical to strengthen the built environments, such buildings and bridges, and to mitigate the induced hazards in order to avoid such disaster. As a part of the so-called North-South Seismic Zone in China, the Wenchuan earthquake occurred along the Longmen Shan thrust belt which forms a boundary between the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the Sichuan basin, and there is a long history (~4,000 years) of seismicity in the area. The historical records show that the area experienced high intensity (i.e., greater than IX) in the past several thousand years. In other words, the area is well-known to have high seismic hazard because of its tectonic setting and seismicity. However, only intensity VII (0.1 to 0.15g PGA) has been considered for seismic design for the built environments in the area. This was one of the main reasons that so many building collapses, particularly the school buildings, during the Wenchuan earthquake. It is clear that the seismic design (i.e., the design ground motion or intensity) is not adequate in the Wenchuan earthquake stricken area. A lesson can be learned from the Wenchuan earthquake on the seismic hazard and risk assessment. A lesson can also be learned from this earthquake on seismic hazard mitigation and/or seismic risk reduction.

Wang, Z.

2008-12-01

66

The asteroid and comet impact hazard: risk assessment and mitigation options  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of extraterrestrial matter onto Earth is a continuous process. On average, some 50,000 tons of dust are delivered to our planet every year. While objects smaller than about 30 m mainly disintegrate in the Earth’s atmosphere, larger ones can penetrate through it and cause damage on the ground. When an object of hundreds of meters in diameter impacts an ocean, a tsunami is created that can devastate coastal cities. Further, if a km-sized object hit the Earth it would cause a global catastrophe due to the transport of enormous amounts of dust and vapour into the atmosphere resulting in a change in the Earth’s climate. This article gives an overview of the near-Earth asteroid and comet (near-Earth object-NEO) impact hazard and the NEO search programmes which are gathering important data on these objects. It also points out options for impact hazard mitigation by using deflection systems. It further discusses the critical constraints for NEO deflection strategies and systems as well as mitigation and evacuation costs and benefits. Recommendations are given for future activities to solve the NEO impact hazard problem.

Gritzner, Christian; Dürfeld, Kai; Kasper, Jan; Fasoulas, Stefanos

2006-08-01

67

Fluor Daniel Hanford implementation plan for DOE Order 5480.28, Natural phenomena hazards mitigation  

SciTech Connect

Natural phenomena hazards (NPH) are unexpected acts of nature that pose a threat or danger to workers, the public, or the environment. Earthquakes, extreme winds (hurricane and tornado), snow, flooding, volcanic ashfall, and lightning strikes are examples of NPH that could occur at the Hanford Site. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) policy requires facilities to be designed, constructed, and operated in a manner that protects workers, the public, and the environment from hazards caused by natural phenomena. DOE Order 5480.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation, includes rigorous new natural phenomena criteria for the design of new DOE facilities, as well as for the evaluation and, if necessary, upgrade of existing DOE facilities. The Order was transmitted to Westinghouse Hanford Company in 1993 for compliance and is also identified in the Project Hanford Management Contract, Section J, Appendix C. Criteria and requirements of DOE Order 5480.28 are included in five standards, the last of which, DOE-STD-1023, was released in fiscal year 1996. Because the Order was released before all of its required standards were released, enforcement of the Order was waived pending release of the last standard and determination of an in-force date by DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL). Agreement also was reached between the Management and Operations Contractor and DOE-RL that the Order would become enforceable for new structures, systems, and components (SSCS) 60 days following issue of a new order-based design criteria in HNF-PRO-97, Engineering Design and Evaluation. The order also requires that commitments addressing existing SSCs be included in an implementation plan that is to be issued 1 year following the release of the last standard. Subsequently, WHC-SP-1175, Westinghouse Hanford Company Implementation Plan for DOE Order 5480.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation, Rev. 0, was issued in November 1996, and this document, HNF-SP-1175, Fluor Daniel Hanford Implementation Plan for DOE Order 5480.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation, is Rev. 1 of that plan.

Conrads, T.J.

1997-09-12

68

Impact hazard mitigation: understanding the effects of nuclear explosive outputs on comets and asteroids  

SciTech Connect

The NASA 2007 white paper ''Near-Earth Object Survey and Deflection Analysis of Alternatives'' affirms deflection as the safest and most effective means of potentially hazardous object (PHO) impact prevention. It also calls for further studies of object deflection. In principle, deflection of a PHO may be accomplished by using kinetic impactors, chemical explosives, gravity tractors, solar sails, or nuclear munitions. Of the sudden impulse options, nuclear munitions are by far the most efficient in terms of yield-per-unit-mass launched and are technically mature. However, there are still significant questions about the response of a comet or asteroid to a nuclear burst. Recent and ongoing observational and experimental work is revolutionizing our understanding of the physical and chemical properties of these bodies (e.g ., Ryan (2000) Fujiwara et al. (2006), and Jedicke et al. (2006)). The combination of this improved understanding of small solar-system bodies combined with current state-of-the-art modeling and simulation capabilities, which have also improved dramatically in recent years, allow for a science-based, comprehensive study of PHO mitigation techniques. Here we present an examination of the effects of radiation from a nuclear explosion on potentially hazardous asteroids and comets through Monte Carlo N-Particle code (MCNP) simulation techniques. MCNP is a general-purpose particle transport code commonly used to model neutron, photon, and electron transport for medical physics reactor design and safety, accelerator target and detector design, and a variety of other applications including modeling the propagation of epithermal neutrons through the Martian regolith (Prettyman 2002). It is a massively parallel code that can conduct simulations in 1-3 dimensions, complicated geometries, and with extremely powerful variance reduction techniques. It uses current nuclear cross section data, where available, and fills in the gaps with analytical models where data are not available. MCNP has undergone extensive verification and validation and is considered the gold-standard for particle transport. (Forrest B. Brown, et al., ''MCNP Version 5,'' Trans. Am. Nucl. Soc., 87, 273, November 2002.) Additionally, a new simulation capability using MCNP has become available to this collaboration. The first results of this new capability will also be presented.

Clement, Ralph R C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Plesko, Catherine S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bradley, Paul A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Conlon, Leann M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

69

Impact Hazard Mitigation: Understanding the Effects of Nuclear Explosive Outputs on Comets and Asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA 2007 white paper "Near-Earth Object Survey and Deflection Analysis of Alternatives" affirms deflection as the safest and most effective means of potentially hazardous object (PHO) impact prevention. It also calls for further studies of object deflection. In principle, deflection of a PHO may be accomplished by using kinetic impactors, chemical explosives, gravity tractors, solar sails, or nuclear munitions. Of the sudden impulse options, nuclear munitions are by far the most efficient in terms of yield-per-unit-mass launched and are technically mature. However, there are still significant questions about the response of a comet or asteroid to a nuclear burst. Recent and ongoing observational and experimental work is revolutionizing our understanding of the physical and chemical properties of these bodies (e.g., Ryan (2000), Fujiwara et al. (2006), and Jedicke et al. (2006)). The combination of this improved understanding of small solar-system bodies combined with current state-of-the-art modeling and simulation capabilities, which have also improved dramatically in recent years, allow for a science-based, comprehensive study of PHO mitigation techniques. Here we present an examination of the effects of radiation from a nuclear explosion on potentially hazardous asteroids and comets through Monte Carlo N-Particle code (MCNP) simulation techniques. MCNP is a general-purpose particle transport code commonly used to model neutron, photon, and electron transport for medical physics, reactor design and safety, accelerator target and detector design, and a variety of other applications including modeling the propagation of epithermal neutrons through the Martian regolith (Prettyman 2002). It is a massively parallel code that can conduct simulations in 1-3 dimensions, complicated geometries, and with extremely powerful variance reduction techniques. It uses current nuclear cross section data, where available, and fills in the gaps with analytical models where data are not available. MCNP has undergone extensive verification and validation and is considered the gold-standard for particle transport. (Forrest B. Brown, et al., "MCNP Version 5," Trans. Am. Nucl. Soc., 87, 273, November 2002.) Additionally, a new simulation capability using MCNP has become available to this collaboration. The first results of this new capability will also be presented. In particular, we will show results of neutron and gamma-ray energy deposition and flux as a function of material depth, composition, density, geometry, and distance from the source (nuclear burst). We will also discuss the benefits and shortcomings of linear Monte Carlo. Finally, we will set the stage for the correct usage and limitations of these results in coupled radiation-hydrodynamic calculations (see Plesko et al, this conference).

Clement, R.

70

Coupling Radar Rainfall Estimation and Hydrological Modelling For Flash-flood Hazard Mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood risk mitigation is accomplished through managing either or both the hazard and vulnerability. Flood hazard may be reduced through structural measures which alter the frequency of flood levels in the area. The vulnerability of a community to flood loss can be mitigated through changing or regulating land use and through flood warning and effective emergency response. When dealing with flash-flood hazard, it is gener- ally accepted that the most effective way (and in many instances the only affordable in a sustainable perspective) to mitigate the risk is by reducing the vulnerability of the involved communities, in particular by implementing flood warning systems and community self-help programs. However, both the inherent characteristics of the at- mospheric and hydrologic processes involved in flash-flooding and the changing soci- etal needs provide a tremendous challenge to traditional flood forecasting and warning concepts. In fact, the targets of these systems are traditionally localised like urbanised sectors or hydraulic structures. Given the small spatial scale that characterises flash floods and the development of dispersed urbanisation, transportation, green tourism and water sports, human lives and property are exposed to flash flood risk in a scat- tered manner. This must be taken into consideration in flash flood warning strategies and the investigated region should be considered as a whole and every section of the drainage network as a potential target for hydrological warnings. Radar technology offers the potential to provide information describing rain intensities almost contin- uously in time and space. Recent research results indicate that coupling radar infor- mation to distributed hydrologic modelling can provide hydrologic forecasts at all potentially flooded points of a region. Nevertheless, very few flood warning services use radar data more than on a qualitative basis. After a short review of current under- standing in this area, two issues are examined: advantages and caveats of using radar rainfall estimates in operational flash flood forecasting, methodological problems as- sociated to the use of hydrological models for distributed flash flood forecasting with rainfall input estimated from radar.

Borga, M.; Creutin, J. D.

71

Hazardous crater lakes studied  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crater lakes usually sit on top of volcanic conduits and act as condensers of magmatic vapor. Studies of crater lakes can therefore provide information on both deep magmatic activity and variations in the degassing state of a shallow magmatic body. The Lake Nyos gas disaster of August 1986 and a similar event in August 1984 at Lake Monoun, both in

Minoru Kusakabe

1993-01-01

72

Hazardous crater lakes studied  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crater lakes usually sit on top of volcanic conduits and act as condensers of magmatic vapor. Studies of crater lakes can therefore provide information on both deep magmatic activity and variations in the degassing state of a shallow magmatic body. The Lake Nyos gas disaster of August 1986 and a similar event in August 1984 at Lake Monoun, both in Cameroon, resulted from the accumulation of magmatic CO2 in the bottom layers of the lakes. Geochemical monitoring of crater lakes is a promising tool for forecasting not only limnic but also volcanic eruptions. Acid-mineralized waters formed by condensation of hot magmatic volatiles in crater lakes are thought to bear some resemblance to hydrothermal fluids acting in the genesis of acid-sulfate alteration and Au-Cu-Ag mineralization of volcanic-hosted precious metal deposits.

Kusakabe, Minoru

73

Remote Sensing for Hazard Mitigation and Resource Protection in Pacific Latin America: New NSF sponsored initiative at Michigan Tech  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though much of the developing world has the potential to gain significantly from remote sensing techniques in terms of public health and safety and, eventually, economic development, they lack the resources required to advance the development and practice of remote sensing. Both developed and developing countries share a mutual interest in furthering remote sensing capabilities for natural hazard mitigation and

W. I. Rose; G. J. Bluth; J. S. Gierke; E. Gross

2005-01-01

74

Impact of the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program on Operations of the Richard H. Hagemeyer Pacific Tsunami Warning Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first 7 years of the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) have had a significant positive impact on operations of the Richard H. Hagemeyer Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC). As a result of its seismic project, the amount and quality of real-time seismic data flowing into PTWC has increased dramatically, enabling more rapid, accurate, and detailed analyses of seismic

Charles S. McCreery; Pacific Tsunami

2005-01-01

75

An Examination of the Influence of Hazard Experience on Wildfire Risk Perceptions and Adoption of Mitigation Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous experience with a hazard has been identified as influencing risk perception and adoption of adjustments. However, this relationship is not clear and may depend on the differences in experiences that may occur within a community. This article describes residents' wildfire experiences and explores how these experiences may influence risk perceptions and implementation of mitigation measures 1 year after the

Tara K. McGee; Bonita L. McFarlane; Jeji Varghese

2009-01-01

76

Government Liability and Disaster Mitigation: A Comparative Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study examines the relationship between government liability law and disaster mitigation policy. Six countries (China, New Zealand, Peru, the Soviet Union, the United States, Japan) selected on the basis of their involvement in disaster mitigation and...

J. Huffman

1985-01-01

77

Challenges in understanding, modelling, and mitigating Lake Outburst Flood Hazard: experiences from Central Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Outburst Floods can evolve from complex process chains like avalanches of rock or ice that produce flood waves in a lake which may overtop and eventually breach glacial, morainic, landslide, or artificial dams. Rising lake levels can lead to progressive incision and destabilization of a dam, to enhanced ground water flow (piping), or even to hydrostatic failure of ice dams which can cause sudden outflow of accumulated water. These events often have a highly destructive potential because a large amount of water is released in a short time, with a high capacity to erode loose debris, leading to a powerful debris flow with a long travel distance. The best-known example of a lake outburst flood is the Vajont event (Northern Italy, 1963), where a landslide rushed into an artificial lake which spilled over and caused a flood leading to almost 2000 fatalities. Hazards from the failure of landslide dams are often (not always) fairly manageable: most breaches occur in the first few days or weeks after the landslide event and the rapid construction of a spillway - though problematic - has solved some hazardous situations (e.g. in the case of Hattian landslide in 2005 in Pakistan). Older dams, like Usoi dam (Lake Sarez) in Tajikistan, are usually fairly stable, though landsildes into the lakes may create floodwaves overtopping and eventually weakening the dams. The analysis and the mitigation of glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) hazard remains a challenge. A number of GLOFs resulting in fatalities and severe damage have occurred during the previous decades, particularly in the Himalayas and in the mountains of Central Asia (Pamir, Tien Shan). The source area is usually far away from the area of impact and events occur at very long intervals or as singularities, so that the population at risk is usually not prepared. Even though potentially hazardous lakes can be identified relatively easily with remote sensing and field work, modeling and predicting of GLOFs (and also the outburst of landslide-dammed lakes) remains a challenge: • The knowledge about the onset of the process is often limited (bathymetry of the lakes, subsurface water, properties of dam (content of ice), type of dam breach, understanding of process chains and interactions). • The size of glacial lakes may change rapidly but continuously, and many lakes break out within a short time after their development. Continuous monitoring is therefore required to keep updated on the existing hazards. • Also the outburst of small glacial lakes may lead to significant debris floods or even debris flows if there is plenty of erodible material available. • The available modeling software packages are of limited suitability for lake outburst floods: e.g. software developed by the hydrological community is specialized to simulate (debris) floods with input hydrographs on moderately steep flow channels and with lower sediment loads. In contrast to this, programs for rapid mass movements are better suited on steeper slopes and sudden onset of the movement. The typical characteristics of GLOFs are in between and vary for different channel sections. In summary, the major bottlenecks remain in deriving realistic or worst case scenarios and predicting their magnitude and area of impact. This mainly concerns uncertainties in the dam break process, involved volumes, erosion rates, changing rheologies, and the limited capabilities of available software packages to simulate process interactions and transformations such as the development of a hyperconcentrated flow into a debris flow. In addition, many areas prone to lake outburst floods are located in developing countries with a limited scope of the threatened population for decision-making and limited resources for mitigation.

Mergili, Martin; Schneider, Demian; Andres, Norina; Worni, Raphael; Gruber, Fabian; Schneider, Jean F.

2010-05-01

78

The Effective Organization and Use of Data in Bridging the Hazard Mitigation-Climate Change Adaptation Divide (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The costs associated with managing natural hazards and disasters continue to rise in the US and elsewhere. Many climate change impacts are manifested in stronger or more frequent natural hazards such as floods, wildfire, hurricanes and typhoons, droughts, and heat waves. Despite this common problem, the climate change adaptation and hazards management communities have largely failed to acknowledge each other’s work in reducing hazard impacts. This is even reflected in the language that each community uses; for example, the hazards management community refers to hazard risk reduction as mitigation while the climate change community refers to it as adaptation. In order to help bridge this divide, we suggest each community utilize data in a more formally-organized and effective manner based on four principles: 1. The scale of the data must reflect the needs of the decision maker. In most cases, decision makers’ needs are most effectively met through the development of a multiple alternatives that takes into account a variety of possible impacts. 2. Investments intended to reduce vulnerability and increase resilience should be driven by the wise use of available data using a “risk-based” strategy. 3. Climate change adaptation and hazard mitigation strategies must be integrated with other value drivers when building resiliency. Development and use of data that underscore the concept of “no regrets” risk reduction can be used to accomplish this aim. 4. The use of common data is critical in building a bridge between the climate change adaptation and hazards management communities. We will explore how the creation of data repositories that collect, analyze, display and archive hazards and disaster data can help address the challenges posed by the current and hazards management and climate change adaptation divide.

Smith, G. P.; Fox, J.; Shuford, S.

2010-12-01

79

New Multi-HAzard and MulTi-RIsk Assessment MethodS for Europe (MATRIX): A research program towards mitigating multiple hazards and risks in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists, engineers, civil protection and disaster managers typically treat natural hazards and risks individually. This leads to the situation where the frequent causal relationships between the different hazards and risks, e.g., earthquakes and volcanos, or floods and landslides, are ignored. Such an oversight may potentially lead to inefficient mitigation planning. As part of their efforts to confront this issue, the European Union, under its FP7 program, is supporting the New Multi-HAzard and MulTi-RIsK Assessment MethodS for Europe or MATRIX project. The focus of MATRIX is on natural hazards, in particular earthquakes, landslides, volcanos, wild fires, storms and fluvial and coastal flooding. MATRIX will endeavour to develop methods and tools to tackle multi-type natural hazards and risks within a common framework, focusing on methodologies that are suited to the European context. The work will involve an assessment of current single-type hazard and risk assessment methodologies, including a comparison and quantification of uncertainties and harmonization of single-type methods, examining the consequence of cascade effects within a multi-hazard environment, time-dependent vulnerability, decision making and support for multi-hazard mitigation and adaption, and a series of test cases. Three test sites are being used to assess the methods developed within the project (Naples, Cologne, and the French West Indies), as well as a "virtual city" based on a comprehensive IT platform that will allow scenarios not represented by the test cases to be examined. In addition, a comprehensive dissemination program that will involve national platforms for disaster management, as well as various outreach activities, will be undertaken. The MATRIX consortium consists of ten research institutions (nine European and one Canadian), an end-user (i.e., one of the European national platforms for disaster reduction) and a partner from industry.

Fleming, K. M.; Zschau, J.; Gasparini, P.; Modaressi, H.; Matrix Consortium

2011-12-01

80

Rockfall hazard assessment, risk quantification, and mitigation options for reef cove resort development, False Cape, Queensland, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GIS and 2-D rock fall simulations were used as the primary tools during a rock fall hazard assessment and analyses for a major resort and township development near Cairns, Queensland in Australia. The methods used included 1) the development of a digital elevation model (DEM); undertaking rock fall trajectory analyses to determine the end points of rockfalls, the distribution of kinetic energy for identified rock fall runout Zones, and 3) undertaking event tree analyses based on a synthesis of all data in order to establish Zones with the highest risk of fatalities. This paper describes the methodology used and the results of this work. Recommendations to mitigate the hazard included having exclusions zones with no construction, scaling (including trim blasting), construction of berms and rockfall catch fences. Keywords: GIS, rockfall simulation, rockfall runout Zones, mitigation options INTRODUCTION False Cape is located on the east side of the Trinity inlet near Cairns (Figure 1). Construction is underway for a multi-million dollar development close the beach front. The development will ultimately cover about 1.5 km of prime coast line. The granite slopes above the development are steep and are covered with a number of large, potentially unstable boulders. Sheet jointing is present in the in-situ bedrock and these combined with other tectonic joint sets have provided a key mechanism for large side down slope on exposed bedrock. With each rock fall (evidence by boulders strew in gullies, over the lower parts of the slope, and on the beach) the failure mechanism migrates upslope. In order for the Developer to proceed with construction he needs to mitigate the identified rock fall hazard. The method used to study the hazard and key finding are presented in this paper. Discussion is provided in the conclusion on mitigation options. KEY METHODS USED TO STUDY THE HAZARD In summary the methods used to study the hazard for the False Cape project include; 1. The development of a digital elevation model (DEM) used to delineate rock fall runout Zones [1] that included the spatial location of boulder fields mapped within Zones(Figure 2). A Zone is defined as an area above the development on steep sided slopes where falling rocks are channeled into gullies / and or are contained between topographic features such as ridges and spurs that extend down the mountainside. These natural barriers generally ensure that falling rocks do not fall or roll into adjacent Zones; 2. The use of ‘Flow Path Tracing Tool' in Arc GIS spatial analyst to confirm typical descents of boulders in Zones. These were shown to correlated strongly with the endpoints of boulders observed within the development and major clusters of boulders on the beach front; 3. The use of 2-D rockfall trajectory analyses [2] using sections cut along typical 3-D trajectory paths mapped out in ARC GIS per Zone. Sections along typical paths in Zones simulated, to some degree, the 3-D affect or path of rocks as they bounce roll down slope (Figure 3); 4. The calibration of rockfall input parameters (coefficients of normal and tangential restitution, slope roughness, friction angle, etc.) using field identified endpoints and size of fallen rock and boulder; and 5. Undertaking risk evolutions in order to quantify the potential risk for each independent rockfall Zone. KEY FINDINGS FROM THE STUDIES The key findings from the study include; 1. Multiple potentially unstable in-situ boulders (some in excess of several thousand tonnes) are present above the development. 2. Similar geological structures (dykes, jointing, etc.) are present in the boulders on the beach front and within the development exposed in-situ bedrock located above the development. Measurement and comparison of the orientation of these geological structures present in boulders with that observed in the in-situ bedrock provided strong evidence that that the boulders have mitigated down slope. 3. Eight discrete Rockfall Runout Zones were identified using the digital elevation model set up in ARC GIS (Figure 4). The bound

Schlotfeldt, P.

2009-04-01

81

Volcanic hazard in Mexico: a comprehensive on-line database for risk mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Researchers are currently working on several key aspects of the Mexican volcanoes, such as remote sensing, field data of old and recent volcaniclastic deposits, structural framework, monitoring (rainfall data and visual observation of lahars), and laboratory experiment (analogue models and numerical simulations - fall3D, titan2D). Each investigation is focused on specific processes, but it is fundamental to visualize the global status of the volcano in order to understand its behavior and to mitigate future hazards. The Mexican Volcanoes @nline represents a novel initiative aimed to collect, on a systematic basis, the complete set of data obtained so far on the volcanoes, and to continuously update the database with new data. All the information is compiled from published works and updated frequently. Maps, such as the geological map of the Mexican volcanos and the associated hazard zonation, as well as point data, such as stratigraphic sections, sedimentology and diagrams of rainfall intensities, are presented in Google Earth format in order to be easily accessed by the scientific community and the general public. An important section of this online database is the presentation of numerical simulations results for ash dispersion associated with the principal Mexican active volcanoes. Daily prediction of ash flow dispersion (based on real-time data from CENAPRED and the Mexican Meteorological Service), as well as large-scale high-resolution subduction simulations performed on HORUS (the Computational Geodynamics Laboratory's supercomputer) represent a central part of the Mexican Volcanos @nline database. The Mexican Volcanoes @nline database is maintained by the Computational Geodynamics Laboratory and it is based entirely on Open Source software. The website can be visited at: http://www.geociencias.unam.mx/mexican_volcanoes.

Manea, Marina; Constantin Manea, Vlad; Capra, Lucia; Bonasia, Rosanna

2013-04-01

82

Integrated Tsunami Data Supports Forecast, Warning, Research, Hazard Assessment, and Mitigation (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With nearly 230,000 fatalities, the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was the deadliest tsunami in history, illustrating the importance of developing basinwide warning systems. Key to creating these systems is easy access to quality-controlled, verified data on past tsunamis. It is essential that warning centers, emergency managers, and modelers can determine if and when similar events have occurred. Following the 2004 tsunami, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) began examining all aspects of the tsunami data archive to help answer questions regarding the frequency and severity of past tsunamis. Historical databases span insufficient time to reveal a region’s full tsunami hazard, so a global database of citations to articles on tsunami deposits was added to the archive. NGDC further expanded the archive to include high-resolution tide gauge data, deep-ocean sensor data, and digital elevation models used for propagation and inundation modeling. NGDC continuously reviews the data for accuracy, making modifications as new information is obtained. These added databases allow NGDC to provide the tsunami data necessary for warning guidance, hazard assessments, and mitigation efforts. NGDC is also at the forefront of standards-based Web delivery of integrated science data through a variety of tools, from Web-form interfaces to interactive maps. The majority of the data in the tsunami archive are discoverable online. Scientists, journalists, educators, planners, and emergency managers are among the many users of these public domain data, which may be used without restriction provided that users cite data sources.

Dunbar, P. K.; Stroker, K. J.

2009-12-01

83

A review of accidents, prevention and mitigation options related to hazardous gases  

SciTech Connect

Statistics on industrial accidents are incomplete due to lack of specific criteria on what constitutes a release or accident. In this country, most major industrial accidents were related to explosions and fires of flammable materials, not to releases of chemicals into the environment. The EPA in a study of 6,928 accidental releases of toxic chemicals revealed that accidents at stationary facilities accounted for 75% of the total number of releases, and transportation accidents for the other 25%. About 7% of all reported accidents (468 cases) resulted in 138 deaths and 4,717 injuries ranging from temporary respiratory problems to critical injuries. In-plant accidents accounted for 65% of the casualties. The most efficient strategy to reduce hazards is to choose technologies which do not require the use of large quantities of hazardous gases. For new technologies this approach can be implemented early in development, before large financial resources and efforts are committed to specific options. Once specific materials and options have been selected, strategies to prevent accident initiating events need to be evaluated and implemented. The next step is to implement safety options which suppress a hazard when an accident initiating event occurs. Releases can be prevented or reduced with fail-safe equipment and valves, adequate warning systems and controls to reduce and interrupt gas leakage. If an accident occurs and safety systems fail to contain a hazardous gas release, then engineering control systems will be relied on to reduce/minimize environmental releases. As a final defensive barrier, the prevention of human exposure is needed if a hazardous gas is released, in spite of previous strategies. Prevention of consequences forms the final defensive barrier. Medical facilities close by that can accommodate victims of the worst accident can reduce the consequences of personnel exposure to hazardous gases.

Fthenakis, V.M.

1993-05-01

84

A probabilistic framework for hazard assessment and mitigation of induced seismicity related to deep geothermal systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential for the use of deep geothermal energy for power production is tremendous; however, its future development depends critically on the ability to assess and mitigate the nuisance, and potential seismic risk posed by induced seismicity. Based mainly on the lessons learned form the Basel reservoir stimulation, we are currently developing a comprehensive framework for Induced Seismic Hazard Assessment (ISHA) that can be applied in all phases of future EGS test sites, including application near-real time during the actual reservoir stimulation. In our approach to ISHA, seismicity is forecasted based on a range of statistical/stochastic and physical-based models, each updated in near-real time as new information becomes available. The various forecasts are combined as weighted logic tree braches into one model that captures the aleatory and epistemic uncertainty; weights to each branching level are derived using the performance of each model against the observations. Forecasted rates are then translated into time-dependent hazard (in terms of exceedance probabilities of given ground motion measures) and risk, using standard hazard assessment procedures. Developing a community accepted ISHA approach will require to test a wide range of models against a diverse set of data, using standardized prospective testing approaches. It also requires innovative models, and innovative ways to calibrate models, which is currently a major focus of our activity. We have developed and will present a minimalist stochastic numerical model of induced seismicity, which explains a wide range of first and second order observations, such as the outward migration of the seismicity cloud, the Kaiser effect, Omori decay of the seismicity after shut in, the decrease of b-values, and the increase of stress drops with distance from the injection point, the number of repeaters, and the observation of the largest events after shut in and a the outermost shell of seismicity. A key ingredient of this model is the assumption of an inverse relationship between the relative earthquake-size distribution and differential stress, which is established based on a range of laboratory experiments and crustal scale observations. A final, preliminary finding of our analyses is that static Coulomb stress changes of events play only a minor role in triggering subsequent seismicity as compared to the role of pore pressure changes.

Wiemer, S.; Bachmann, C. E.; Allmann, B.; Giardini, D.; Woessner, J.; Catalli, F.; Mena Carbrera, B.

2011-12-01

85

Looking Before We Leap: Recent Results From An Ongoing Quantitative Investigation Of Asteroid And Comet Impact Hazard Mitigation.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The asteroid and comet impact hazard is now part of public consciousness, as demonstrated by movies, Super Bowl commercials, and popular news stories. However, there is a popular misconception that hazard mitigation is a solved problem. Many people think, `we'll just nuke it.’ There are, however, significant scientific questions remaining in the hazard mitigation problem. Before we can say with certainty that an explosive yield Y at height of burst h will produce a momentum change in or dispersion of a potentially hazardous object (PHO), we need to quantify how and where energy is deposited into the rubble pile or conglomerate that may make up the PHO. We then need to understand how shock waves propagate through the system, what causes them to disrupt, and how long gravitationally bound fragments take to recombine. Here we present numerical models of energy deposition from an energy source into various materials that are known PHO constituents, and rigid body dynamics models of the recombination of disrupted objects. In the energy deposition models, we explore the effects of porosity and standoff distance as well as that of composition. In the dynamical models, we explore the effects of fragment size and velocity distributions on the time it takes for gravitationally bound fragments to recombine. Initial models indicate that this recombination time is relatively short, as little as 24 hours for a 1 km sized PHO composed of 1000 meter-scale self-gravitating fragments with an initial velocity field of v/r = 0.001 1/s.

Plesko, Catherine; Weaver, R. P.; Korycansky, D. G.; Huebner, W. F.

2010-10-01

86

Protect Thy Neighbor: Investigating the Spatial Externalities of Community Wildfire Hazard Mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change, increased wildland fuels, and residential development patterns in fire-prone areas all combine to make wildfire risk mitigation an important public policy issue. One approach to wildfire risk mitigation is to encourage homeowners to use fire-resistant building materials and to create defensible spaces around their homes. We develop a theoretical model of interdependent household wildfire risk and mathemat- ically

David Butry; Geoffrey Donovan

87

Catastrophic debris flows transformed from landslides in volcanic terrains : mobility, hazard assessment and mitigation strategies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Communities in lowlands near volcanoes are vulnerable to significant volcanic flow hazards in addition to those associated directly with eruptions. The largest such risk is from debris flows beginning as volcanic landslides, with the potential to travel over 100 kilometers. Stratovolcanic edifices commonly are hydrothermal aquifers composed of unstable, altered rock forming steep slopes at high altitudes, and the terrain surrounding them is commonly mantled by readily mobilized, weathered airfall and ashflow deposits. We propose that volcano hazard assessments integrate the potential for unanticipated debris flows with, at active volcanoes, the greater but more predictable potential of magmatically triggered flows. This proposal reinforces the already powerful arguments for minimizing populations in potential flow pathways below both active and selected inactive volcanoes. It also addresses the potential for volcano flank collapse to occur with instability early in a magmatic episode, as well as the 'false-alarm problem'-the difficulty in evacuating the potential paths of these large mobile flows. Debris flows that transform from volcanic landslides, characterized by cohesive (muddy) deposits, create risk comparable to that of their syneruptive counterparts of snow and ice-melt origin, which yield noncohesive (granular) deposits, because: (1) Volcano collapses and the failures of airfall- and ashflow-mantled slopes commonly yield highly mobile debris flows as well as debris avalanches with limited runout potential. Runout potential of debris flows may increase several fold as their volumes enlarge beyond volcanoes through bulking (entrainment) of sediment. Through this mechanism, the runouts of even relatively small collapses at Cascade Range volcanoes, in the range of 0.1 to 0.2 cubic kilometers, can extend to populated lowlands. (2) Collapse is caused by a variety of triggers: tectonic and volcanic earthquakes, gravitational failure, hydrovolcanism, and precipitation, as well as magmatic activity and eruptions. (3) Risk of collapse begins with initial magmatic activity and increases as intrusion proceeds. An archetypal debris flow from volcanic terrain occurred in Colombia with a tectonic earthquake (M 6.4) in 1994. The Rio Piez conveyed a catastrophic wave of debris flow over 100 kilometers, coalesced from multiple slides of surflcial material weakened both by weathering and by hydrothermal alteration in a large strato- volcano. Similar seismogenic flows occurred in Mexico in 1920 (M -6.5), Chile in 1960 (M 9.2), and Ecuador in 1987 (M 6.1 and 6.9). Velocities of wave fronts in two examples were 60 to 90 km/hr (17-25 meters per second) over the initial 30 kilometers. Volcano flank and sector collapses may produce untransformed debris avalanches, as occurred initially at Mount St. Helens in 1980. However, at least as common is direct transformation of the failed mass to a debris flow. At two other volcanoes in the Cascade Range-- Mount Rainier and Mount Baker--rapid transformation and high mobility were typical of most of at least 15 Holocene flows. This danger exists downstream from many stratovolcanoes worldwide; the population at risk is near 150,000 and increasing at Mount Rainier. The first step in preventing future catastrophes is documenting past flows. Deposits of some debris flows, however, can be mistaken for those of less-mobile debris avalanches on the basis of mounds formed by buoyed megaclasts. Megaclasts may record only the proximal phase of a debris flow that began as a debris avalanche. Runout may have extended much farther, and thus furore flow mobility may be underestimated. Processes and behaviors of megaclast-bearing paleoflows are best inferred from the intermegaclast matrix. Mitigation strategy can respond to volcanic flows regardless of type and trigger by: (1) Avoidance: Limit settlement in flow pathways to numbers that can be evacuated after event warnings (flow is occurring). (2) Instrumental even

Scott, Kevin M.; Macias, Jose Luis; Naranjo, Jose Antonio; Rodriguez, Sergio; McGeehin, John P.

2001-01-01

88

Disruption mitigation studies in DIII-D  

SciTech Connect

Data on the discharge behavior, thermal loads, halo currents, and runaway electrons have been obtained in disruptions on the DIII-D tokamak. These experiments have also evaluated techniques to mitigate the disruptions while minimizing runaway electron production. Experiments injecting cryogenic impurity killer pellets of neon and argon and massive amounts of helium gas have successfully reduced these disruption effects. The halo current generation, scaling, and mitigation are understood and are in good agreement with predictions of a semianalytic model. Results from killer pellet injection have been used to benchmark theoretical models of the pellet ablation and energy loss. Runaway electrons are often generated by the pellets and new runaway generation mechanisms, modifications of the standard Dreicer process, have been found to explain the runaways. Experiments with the massive helium gas puff have also effectively mitigated disruptions without the formation of runaway electrons that can occur with killer pellets.

Taylor, P.L.; Kellman, A.G.; Evans, T.E. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)] [and others

1999-01-01

89

Radon Mitigation Studies: South Central Florida Demonstration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gives results of an EPA radon mitigation project involving 14 slab-on-grade houses in Polk County, FL, having indoor radon levels of 320-3810 Bq/cu m (8.7-103 pCi/L), using sub-slab depressurization (SSD) in a variety of applications to evaluat...

C. S. Fowler A. D. Williamson B. E. Pyle F. E. Belzer R. N. Coker

1992-01-01

90

Natural Hazard Risk and Vulnerability Assessment and Mitigation Plan for The Territory of American Samoa, 2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partnering with the University of Hawaii, as well as government and industry decision makers, The Pacific Disaster Center, Hawaii, completed a Natural Hazards Risk and Vulnerability Assessment for the Territory of American Samoa. For the first time, remote sensing data was incorporated into a Geographic Information System (GIS) to understand vulnerability of critical facilities to six dominant natural hazard threats.

C. Anderson; E. Yamashita; E. Stevens

91

Community-Based Disaster Risk Management: A Case Study of Landslide Disaster Preparedness, Preparation and Mitigation in Tacuba, El Salvador  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Like many areas of the region, the community of Tacuba, Ahuachapan, El Salvador, is subjected to the hazard of landslides. During the last years, thousands have died in landslides in El Salvador, Nicaragua and Guatemala. The effects on economic development have also been disastrous. Central government institutions often lack the resources, personnel, technical equipment and training to assess and manage hazards. Recognizing the importance of mitigation before disasters and the involvement of the local community in the process, the project MARLAH initiated measures to prepare for future landslides in Tacuba that included raising awareness, assessing the hazard, installing early warning systems, creating vulnerability and hazard maps and developing emergency plans. We also present this case study of disaster mitigation in a rural area of El Salvador to show the relevance of a community-based disaster risk management approach to other areas and contexts.

Guerrero, J.; Werner, M. J.

2006-12-01

92

California Real Time Network: Test Bed for Mitigation of Geological and Atmospheric Hazards within a Modern Data Portal Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global geological and atmospheric hazards such as earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamis, landslides, storms and floods continue to wreak havoc on the lives of millions of people worldwide. High precision geodetic observations of surface displacements and atmospheric water vapor are indispensable tools in studying natural hazards along side more traditional seismic and atmospheric measurements. The rapid proliferation of dense in situ GPS

Y. Bock

2008-01-01

93

Multi-Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment: A Cornerstone of the National Mitigation Strategy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Multi-Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment (MHIRA) report was prepared by Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) as a reference document that summarizes the conclusions of a research project. The purpose of the report is to define and documen...

1997-01-01

94

Feed-forward control of active variable stiffness systems for mitigating seismic hazard in structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we discuss a practical two-stage approach (design and operation) to the seismic control of structures equipped with active variable stiffness (AVS) systems, as a means to mitigate or eliminate resonance or near-resonance phenomena in structures due to seismic ground motion. During the design stage, past seismic events are processed to extract the characteristic frequency content against which

Nikos G. Pnevmatikos; Loukas F. Kallivokas; Charis J. Gantes

2004-01-01

95

Recent developments in modelling mitigation of accidental releases of hazardous gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process safety management guidelines suggest that a facility operator should investigate and document a plan for installing systems to detect, contain or mitigate accidental releases if such systems are not already in place. In addition, proposed EPA 112(r) regulations would require such investigation. This paper illustrates how mathematical modelling can aid such an evaluation. It describes how the HGSPRAY and

V. M. Fthenakis; D. N. Blewitt

1995-01-01

96

Occupational hazards associated with endoscope high-level disinfection: Case vignettes, review of literature and recommendations for mitigation.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: High-level disinfection is crucial in preventing instrument-related infections. However, inadequate process and practice may expose technicians to chemicals and other hazards. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to describe the health effects related to high-level disinfection, the process of identifying hazards and safer practice recommendations. PARTICIPANTS: Two endoscope technicians with different clinical presentations were evaluated for workplace exposures. METHODS: In addition to acute clinical care, corroborative information was obtained through walkthrough and observing patients performing their daily tasks, interview of co-workers, environmental assessment and review of published literature. Recommendations for improvement and clinical follow up were made.RESULTS: Clinical evaluation and workplace assessment identified potential exposures to: denatonium benzoate, ortho-phthalaldehyde, proteinase subtilisin, and isopropyl alcohol. Environmental monitoring showed adequate ventilation but with potential for acute high-level exposure to high-level disinfectants. Ergonomic stressors and noise were addressed. Following work restrictions and work practice changes, both patients were able to return to work without recurrence of symptoms. CONCLUSION: The occupational hazards of working in an endoscopy disinfection unit include chemicals that are irritants and/or allergenic. In addition to bioengineering controls, administrative controls and proper respiratory and dermal protections may mitigate exposure and allow workers to continue working safely. PMID:23531579

Mobo, B H; Foster, L A; Rabesa, M J

2013-03-26

97

Assessing NEO hazard mitigation in terms of astrodynamics and propulsion systems requirements.  

PubMed

Uncertainties associated with assessing valid near-Earth object (NEO) threats and carrying out interception missions place unique and stringent burdens on designing mission architecture, astrodynamics, and spacecraft propulsion systems. A prime uncertainty is associated with the meaning of NEO orbit predictability regarding Earth impact. Analyses of past NEO orbits and impact probabilities indicate uncertainties in determining if a projected NEO threat will actually materialize within a given time frame. Other uncertainties regard estimated mass, composition, and structural integrity of the NEO body. At issue is if one can reliably estimate a NEO threat and its magnitude. Parameters that determine NEO deflection requirements within various time frames, including the terminal orbital pass before impact, and necessary energy payloads, are quantitatively discussed. Propulsion system requirements for extending space capabilities to rapidly interact with NEOs at ranges of up to about 1 AU (astronomical unit) from Earth are outlined. Such missions, without gravitational boosts, are deemed critical for a practical and effective response to mitigation. If an impact threat is confirmed on an immediate orbital pass, the option for interactive reconnaissance, and interception, and subsequent NEO orbit deflection must be promptly carried out. There also must be an option to abort the mitigation mission if the NEO is subsequently found not to be Earth threatening. These options require optimal decision latitude and operational possibilities for NEO threat removal while minimizing alarm. Acting too far in advance of the projected impact could induce perturbations that ultimately exacerbate the threat. Given the dilemmas, uncertainties, and limited options associated with timely NEO mitigation within a decision making framework, currently available propulsion technologies that appear most viable to carry out a NEO interception/mitigation mission within the greatest margin of control and reliability are those based on a combined (bimodal) nuclear thermal/nuclear electric propulsion platform. Elements of required and currently available performance characteristics for nuclear and electric propulsion systems are also discussed. PMID:15220155

Remo, John L

2004-05-01

98

Exploratory Studies Facility Subsurface Fire Hazards Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA) is to confirm the requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) are sufficient to minimize the potential for: The occurrence of a fire or related event; A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees, the public or the environment; Vital U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards; Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE; and Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

Richard C. Logan

2002-03-28

99

Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment: the Seaside, Oregon Pilot Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A pilot study of Seaside, Oregon is underway, to develop methodologies for probabilistic tsunami hazard assessments that can be incorporated into Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs) developed by FEMA's National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). Current NFIP guidelines for tsunami hazard assessment rely on the science, technology and methodologies developed in the 1970s; although generally regarded as groundbreaking and state-of-the-art for its time, this approach is now superseded by modern methods that reflect substantial advances in tsunami research achieved in the last two decades. In particular, post-1990 technical advances include: improvements in tsunami source specification; improved tsunami inundation models; better computational grids by virtue of improved bathymetric and topographic databases; a larger database of long-term paleoseismic and paleotsunami records and short-term, historical earthquake and tsunami records that can be exploited to develop improved probabilistic methodologies; better understanding of earthquake recurrence and probability models. The NOAA-led U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP), in partnership with FEMA, USGS, NSF and Emergency Management and Geotechnical agencies of the five Pacific States, incorporates these advances into site-specific tsunami hazard assessments for coastal communities in Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon and Washington. NTHMP hazard assessment efforts currently focus on developing deterministic, "credible worst-case" scenarios that provide valuable guidance for hazard mitigation and emergency management. The NFIP focus, on the other hand, is on actuarial needs that require probabilistic hazard assessments such as those that characterize 100- and 500-year flooding events. There are clearly overlaps in NFIP and NTHMP objectives. NTHMP worst-case scenario assessments that include an estimated probability of occurrence could benefit the NFIP; NFIP probabilistic assessments of 100- and 500-yr events could benefit the NTHMP. The joint NFIP/NTHMP pilot study at Seaside, Oregon is organized into three closely related components: Probabilistic, Modeling, and Impact studies. Probabilistic studies (Geist, et al., this session) are led by the USGS and include the specification of near- and far-field seismic tsunami sources and their associated probabilities. Modeling studies (Titov, et al., this session) are led by NOAA and include the development and testing of a Seaside tsunami inundation model and an associated database of computed wave height and flow velocity fields. Impact studies (Synolakis, et al., this session) are led by USC and include the computation and analyses of indices for the categorization of hazard zones. The results of each component study will be integrated to produce a Seaside tsunami hazard map. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the project and an update on progress, while the above-referenced companion presentations will provide details on the methods used and the preliminary results obtained by each project component.

Gonzalez, F. I.; Geist, E. L.; Synolakis, C.; Titov, V. V.

2004-12-01

100

The respiratory health hazards of volcanic ash: a review for volcanic risk mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies of the respiratory health effects of different types of volcanic ash have been undertaken only in the last 40 years, and mostly since the eruption of Mt. St. Helens in 1980. This review of all published clinical, epidemiological and toxicological studies, and other work known to the authors up to and including 2005, highlights the sparseness of studies on acute health effects after eruptions and the complexity of evaluating the long-term health risk (silicosis, non-specific pneumoconiosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) in populations from prolonged exposure to ash due to persistent eruptive activity. The acute and chronic health effects of volcanic ash depend upon particle size (particularly the proportion of respirable-sized material), mineralogical composition (including the crystalline silica content) and the physico-chemical properties of the surfaces of the ash particles, all of which vary between volcanoes and even eruptions of the same volcano, but adequate information on these key characteristics is not reported for most eruptions. The incidence of acute respiratory symptoms (e.g. asthma, bronchitis) varies greatly after ashfalls, from very few, if any, reported cases to population outbreaks of asthma. The studies are inadequate for excluding increases in acute respiratory mortality after eruptions. Individuals with pre-existing lung disease, including asthma, can be at increased risk of their symptoms being exacerbated after falls of fine ash. A comprehensive risk assessment, including toxicological studies, to determine the long-term risk of silicosis from chronic exposure to volcanic ash, has been undertaken only in the eruptions of Mt. St. Helens (1980), USA, and Soufrière Hills, Montserrat (1995 onwards). In the Soufrière Hills eruption, a long-term silicosis hazard has been identified and sufficient exposure and toxicological information obtained to make a probabilistic risk assessment for the development of silicosis in outdoor workers and the general population. A more systematic approach to multi-disciplinary studies in future eruptions is recommended, including establishing an archive of ash samples and a website containing health advice for the public, together with scientific and medical study guidelines for volcanologists and health-care workers.

Horwell, Claire J.; Baxter, Peter J.

2006-07-01

101

A Robust Multitemporal Satellite Technique for Volcanic Activity Monitoring: Possible Impacts on Volcanic Hazard Mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the natural hazards, volcanoes represent one of major risk for both population and surrounding infrastructures, causing every year significant economical and environmental damages. Satellite remote sensing, thanks to multispectral data, high observational frequencies and global coverage, represents an important tool for volcanic activity monitoring, especially in remote areas where traditional techniques are generally inadequately applied. A new multitemporal satellite

F. Marchese; G. Malvasi; M. Ciampa; C. Filizzola; N. Pergola; V. Tramutoli

2007-01-01

102

Volcanic hazards mitigation: A component of the U.N. International Decade of Natural Disaster Reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural hazards present a world problem that transcends political boundaries and often results in large loss of life, economic losses, and other hardships, which are particularly acute in more vulnerable countries of the developing world. It has been estimated that natural disasters have claimed about 3 million lives worldwide in the past two decades, adversely affected the lives of at

Haraldur Sigurdsson

1988-01-01

103

Earth sciences, GIS and geomatics for natural hazards assessment and risks mitigation: a civil protection perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geo-information and remote sensing are proper tools to enhance functional strategies for increasing awareness on natural hazards and risks and for supporting research and operational activities devoted to disaster reduction. An improved Earth Sciences knowledge coupled with Geomatics advanced technologies has been developed by the joint research group and applied by the ITHACA (Information Technology for Humanitarian Assistance, Cooperation and

Luigi Perotti; Riccardo Conte; Massimo Lanfranco; Gianluigi Perrone; Marco Giardino; Sara Ratto

2010-01-01

104

The Relation of Hazard Awareness to Adoption of Approved Mitigation Measures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between an individual's or community's awareness of natural hazards and subsequent behavior change is examined in this review of research. The document is presented in seven sections. Following Section I, the introduction, Section II discusses the role of experience in behavior change. Section III examines the role of education…

Saarinen, Thomas F.

105

The Relation of Hazard Awareness to Adoption of Approved Mitigation Measures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The relationship between an individual's or community's awareness of natural hazards and subsequent behavior change is examined in this review of research. The document is presented in seven sections. Following Section I, the introduction, Section II discusses the role of experience in behavior change. Section III examines the role of education…

Saarinen, Thomas F.

106

Debris flood hazard documentation and mitigation on the Tilcara alluvial fan (Quebrada de Humahuaca, Jujuy province, North-West Argentina)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For some decades, mass wasting processes such as landslides and debris floods have been threatening villages and transportation routes in the Rio Grande Valley, named Quebrada de Humauhuaca. One of the most significant examples is the urban area of Tilcara, built on a large alluvial fan. In recent years, debris flood phenomena have been triggered in the tributary valley of the Huasamayo Stream and reached the alluvial fan on a decadal basis. In view of proper development of the area, hazard and risk assessment together with risk mitigation strategies are of paramount importance. The need is urgent also because the Quebrada de Humahuaca was recently included in the UNESCO World Cultural Heritage. Therefore, the growing tourism industry may lead to uncontrolled exploitation and urbanization of the valley, with a consequent increase of the vulnerability of the elements exposed to risk. In this context, structural and non structural mitigation measures not only have to be based on the understanding of natural processes, but also have to consider environmental and sociological factors that could hinder the effectiveness of the countermeasure works. The hydrogeological processes are described with reference to present-day hazard and risk conditions. Considering the socio-economic context, some possible interventions are outlined, which encompass budget constraints and local practices. One viable solution would be to build a protecting dam upstream of the fan apex and an artificial channel, in order to divert the floodwaters in a gully that would then convey water and sediments into the Rio Grande, some kilometers downstream of Tilcara. The proposed remedial measures should employ easily available and relatively cheap technologies and local workers, incorporating low environmental and visual impacts issues, in order to ensure both the future conservation of the site and its safe exploitation for inhabitants and tourists.

Marcato, G.; Bossi, G.; Rivelli, F.; Borgatti, L.

2012-06-01

107

Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Devices, Potential Navigational Hazards and Mitigation Measures  

SciTech Connect

On April 15, 2008, the Department of Energy (DOE) issued a Funding Opportunity Announcement for Advanced Water Power Projects which included a Topic Area for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Market Acceleration Projects. Within this Topic Area, DOE identified potential navigational impacts of marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy technologies and measures to prevent adverse impacts on navigation as a sub-topic area. DOE defines marine and hydrokinetic technologies as those capable of utilizing one or more of the following resource categories for energy generation: ocean waves; tides or ocean currents; free flowing water in rivers or streams; and energy generation from the differentials in ocean temperature. PCCI was awarded Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-08GO18177 from the DOE to identify the potential navigational impacts and mitigation measures for marine hydrokinetic technologies. A technical report addressing our findings is available on this Science and Technology Information site under the Product Title, "Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Technologies: Potential Navigational Impacts and Mitigation Measures". This product is a brochure, primarily for project developers, that summarizes important issues in that more comprehensive report, identifies locations where that report can be downloaded, and identifies points of contact for more information.

Cool, Richard, M.; Hudon, Thomas, J.; Basco, David, R.; Rondorf, Neil, E.

2009-12-01

108

Risk perception and hazard mitigation in the Yangtze River Delta region, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Yangtze River Delta region is an area highly vulnerable to flooding. As the population density is rising concomitantly\\u000a with high economic growth, this region is becoming more vulnerable to natural hazards. We conducted a survey to investigate\\u000a the individual risk perception of both the local authorities and the general community, analyze the current situation regarding\\u000a risk management and identify

Yi GeWei; Wei Xu; Zhi-Hui Gu; Yu-Chao Zhang; Lei Chen

2011-01-01

109

Alert system to mitigate tephra fallout hazards at Mt. Etna Volcano, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volcanic eruptions may create a wide range of risks in inhabited areas and, as a consequence, major economic damage to the\\u000a surrounding territory. An example of volcanic hazard was given between 1998 and 2001 by Mt. Etna volcano, in Italy, with its\\u000a frequent paroxysmal explosive activity that caused more than a hundred fire-fountain episodes. In the period January–June\\u000a 2000, in

Salvatore Alparone; Daniele Andronico; Tiziana Sgroi; Ferruccio Ferrari; Luigi Lodato; Danilo Reitano

2007-01-01

110

Natural Hazard Mitigation thru Water Augmentation Strategies to Provide Additional Snow Pack for Water Supply and Hydropower Generation in Drought Stressed Alps\\/Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate variability and change are clearly stressing water supplies in high alpine regions of the Earth. These recent long-term natural hazards present critical challenges to policy makers and water managers. This paper addresses strategies to use enhanced scientific methods to mitigate the problem. Recent rapid depletions of glaciers and intense droughts throughout the world have created a need to reexamine

D. Matthews; M. Brilly

2009-01-01

111

Advances in Remote Sensing Approaches for Hazard Mitigation and Natural Resource Protection in Pacific Latin America: A Workshop for Advanced Graduate Students, Post Doctoral Researchers, and Junior Faculty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though much of the developing world has the potential to gain significantly from remote sensing techniques in terms of public health and safety, they often lack resources for advancing the development and practice of remote sensing. All countries share a mutual interest in furthering remote sensing capabilities for natural hazard mitigation and resource development. With National Science Foundation support from

J. S. Gierke; W. I. Rose; G. P. Waite; J. L. Palma; E. L. Gross

2008-01-01

112

Studies Update Vinyl Chloride Hazards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Extensive study affirms that vinyl chloride is a potent animal carcinogen. Epidemiological studies show elevated rates of human cancers in association with extended contact with the compound. (Author/RE)|

Rawls, Rebecca

1980-01-01

113

Bulgaria Country Study to address climate change mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future developments of the Bulgarian economy, energy demand, energy supply, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are projected and evaluated for baseline and mitigation scenarios. Different methods and approaches are used at different stages of the study with a tendency to incorporate them in a single integrated resource planning tool such as the MARKAL-MACRO model. The results obtained indicate that the aim of Framework Convention of Climate Change to have year 2000 GHG emissions below the base year 1988 emissions will be achieved without further mitigation steps. Reducing the expected increase of GHG emissions in the decade 2000 to 2010 requires a package of mitigation measures to be implemented in the next few years.

Simeonova, Katja

1996-01-01

114

Volcanic hazards mitigation: A component of the U.N. International Decade of Natural Disaster Reduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural hazards present a world problem that transcends political boundaries and often results in large loss of life, economic losses, and other hardships, which are particularly acute in more vulnerable countries of the developing world. It has been estimated that natural disasters have claimed about 3 million lives worldwide in the past two decades, adversely affected the lives of at least 800 million people, and caused immediate damages estimated at $100 billion. Losses due to natural disasters are clearly on the increase, due to rapid population growth and increasing concentration of the growth in vulnerable areas. When a natural disaster strikes, the global community reacts in the form of financial aid and other assistance to the stricken nation. In the last decade, for example, direct annual foreign disaster assistance by the U.S. government has ranged from $100 to $800 million. However, despite the considerable sums involved, international aid to stricken countries rarely exceeds 4% of disaster losses.

Sigurdsson, Haraldur

115

Protecting new health facilities from natural hazards: guidelines for the promotion of disaster mitigation.  

PubMed

The health sector is particularly vulnerable to naturally occurring events. The vulnerability of the health infrastructure (hospitals and clinics) is of particular concern. Not only are such facilities vulnerable structurally, but their ability to continue to provide essential functions may be severely compromised, thus leaving the stricken population without essential services. This paper summarizes a more detailed document, Guidelines for Vulnerability Reduction in the Design of New Health Facilities published by the Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO)/ World Health Organization (WHO). The current document summarizes these Guidelines emphasizing how they may be used, by whom, and for what purpose. Potential users of the Guidelines include, but are not limited to: (1) initiators of health facility construction projects; (2) executors and supervisors of health facility construction projects; and (3) financing bodies in charge of funding health facility construction projects. The Guidelines include: (1) implications of natural phenomena upon the health infrastructure; (2) guidelines for vulnerability reduction for incorporation into development project cycles; (3) definitive phases and stages within the phases for development projects including: (I) Projects Assessment (needs assessment; assessment of options, the preliminary project); (II) Investment (project design, construction); and (III) Operational Activities (operations and maintenance). In addition, investment in damage reduction measures, policies and regulations, training and education, and the role of international organizations in the promotion and funding of mitigation strategies are addressed. PMID:15645629

116

Developing Oceanic Convective Products to Mitigate the Impact of Weather Hazards on Transoceanic Flights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transoceanic flights will increase significantly in the next decade. To manage this increased demand for capacity, while maintaining safety, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is exploring whether the separation minima normally used between aircraft crossing oceanic regions can be reduced both horizontally and vertically. However, before reducing separation standards, the increased hazard of encountering convective weather over oceanic routes must be considered. New evidence has shown that roughly half of the turbulence encounters over oceanic regions were likely associated with convective activity. This phenomenon, Convectively-Induced Turbulence (CIT), can occur several kilometers from convective cores. Operational decision-makers need to detect turbulence associated with oceanic convective activity to route or reroute aircraft safely. However, the only weather data consistently available is from satellite imagery, which can reveal potential areas of convection, but can't unambiguously isolate the hazardous regions from the benign regions. Being able to do this would improve routing and rerouting decisions. The FAA and other agencies are collaborating to develop oceanic convective products. The National Weather Service's Aviation Weather Center created a product that identifies thunderstorms by using the output from different satellite imagers. The technique exploits the difference between the 11-micron infrared (IR) channel and the 6.7-micron water vapor channel. The National Center for Atmospheric Research has developed a new product that maps cloud top temperatures drawn from IR satellite imagery and converts them to aircraft flight levels. In addition, the Naval Research Lab in Monterey, CA is developing cloud classification algorithms that will distinguish between cirrus and convective clouds. We have compared these new convective diagnostic techniques to long-range ground base lightning data and lightning data from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. We will present the results of the comparison at the meeting. Developing oceanic convective and turbulence nowcasting and short-term forecasting products would have a significant positive impact on flight operations since they would show possible locations of turbulence and wind shear associated with convection. These products would also increase airspace capacity by enabling the FAA to decrease oceanic aircraft separation standards while preserving safety. We wish to reduce the incidence of noncoordinated deviations (because of unexpected encounters with turbulence associated with convection), through greater situational awareness and more time for coordination. By helping pilots avoid areas of convective activity and associated turbulence over oceanic regions, these products have the potential to improve safety of flight and increase efficiency (e.g., facilitate routing and rerouting resulting in smaller flight track deviations and reduced fuel costs).

Nierow, A.

2003-12-01

117

Sea otter oil-spill mitigation study  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the study was to analyze the effectiveness of existing capture, transport, cleaning, and rehabilitation methods and develop new methods to reduce the impact of an accidental oil spill to California sea otters, resulting from the present conditions or from future Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) oil and gas development in State or Federal waters. In addition, the study investigated whether or not a systematic difference in thermal conductivity existed between the pelts of Alaska and California Sea otters. This was done to assure that conclusions drawn from the oiling experiments carried out at Hubbs Marine Research Institute, Tetra Tech, Inc. contributed to the overall study by preparing a literature review and report on the fate and effects of oil dispersants and chemically dispersed oil.

Davis, R.W.; Thomas, J.; Williams, T.M.; Kastelein, R.; Cornell, L.

1986-05-01

118

75 FR 29569 - Recovery Policy RP9526.1, Hazard Mitigation Funding Under Section 406 (Stafford Act)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Mitigation Funding Under Section 406 (Stafford Act) AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management...Mitigation Funding Under Section 406 (Stafford Act), which is being issued by the...available under Section 406 of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency...

2010-05-26

119

Volcanic Ash Image Products from MODIS for Aviation Safety and Natural Hazard Mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-spectral volcanic ash image products have been developed using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data from the NASA Terra spacecraft (Ellrod and Im 2003). Efforts are now underway to integrate these new products into the MODIS Data Retrieval System at NESDIS, for use in the operational Hazard Mapping System (HMS). The images will be used at the Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (W-VAAC) in the issuance of volcanic ash advisory statements to aircraft. In addition, the images will be made available to users in the global volcano and emergency management community via the World Wide Web. During the development process, good results (high detection rate with low ­false alarms­") were obtained from a tri-spectral combination of MODIS Infrared (IR) bands centered near 8.6, 11.0 and 12.0 ŸYm (Bands 29, 31, and 32). Optimum Red-Green-Blue false color composite images were developed to provide information on ash cloud location, as well as cloud phase and surface characteristics, to aid in interpretation both day and night. Information on volcanic ash derived from the tri-spectral product was displayed using the red color gun. This information was combined with visible (0.6 ŸYm) and near-IR (1.6 ŸYm) data for green and blue, respectively, during daylight periods. At night, the 8.6 ­V 11.0 ŸYm combination and 11.0 ŸYm band were used for the green and blue colors in the RGB product. Currently, raw MODIS data in five minute ­granules­" are processed for the following regions: (1) southern Alaska, (2) Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean, and (3) northern Andes region of South America. Image products are converted to Geo-spatial Information System (GIS) compatible formats for use in the HMS, and to Man-Computer Interactive Data Access System (McIDAS) ­Area File­" format for use in currently configured W-VAAC display systems. The installation of a high speed, fiber optic line from NASA Goddard Space Flight Center to the World Weather Building, Camp Springs, Maryland (scheduled for completion by Fall, 2003) will allow a full set of data to be processed from both Terra and Aqua spacecraft.

Stephens, G.; Ellrod, G. P.; Im, J.

2003-12-01

120

The respiratory health hazards of volcanic ash: a review for volcanic risk mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of the respiratory health effects of different types of volcanic ash have been undertaken only in the last 40 years, and mostly since the eruption of Mt. St. Helens in 1980. This review of all published clinical, epidemiological and toxicological studies, and other work known to the authors up to and including 2005, highlights the sparseness of studies on acute

Claire J. Horwell; Peter J. Baxter

2006-01-01

121

Mitigating Resistance to Teaching Science Through Inquiry: Studying Self  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the report of a qualitative emergent-design study of 2 different Web-enhanced science methods courses for preservice\\u000a elementary teachers in which an experiential learning strategy, labeled “using yourself as a learning laboratory,” was implemented.\\u000a Emergent grounded theory indicated this strategy, when embedded in a course organized as an inquiry with specified action\\u000a foci, contributed to mitigating participants’ resistance to

Barbara Spector; Ruth S. Burkett; Cyndy Leard

2007-01-01

122

Mitigating Hazards Through Continuing Design: The Birth and Evolution of a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

ften, researchers study organizations in which design is largely in place and the design process is shrouded in the distant past. However, the design process can have dramatic implications for how organizations function. This paper reports a specific attempt to design one organizational subunit, a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), to function under difficult circumstances. The founders aimed to create

Peter Madsen; Vinit Desai; Karlene Roberts; Daniel Wong

2006-01-01

123

3-D seismic structure of the Kachchh, Gujarat, and its implications for the earthquake hazard mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several pieces of studies on the January 26, 2001, Bhuj earthquake (Mw 7.6) revealed that the mainshock was triggered on the\\u000a hidden unmapped fault in the western part of Indian stable continental region that caused a huge loss in the entire Kachchh\\u000a rift basin of Gujarat, India. Occurrences of infrequent earthquakes of Mw 7.6 due to existence of hidden and

A. P. SinghO; O. P. Mishra; B. K. Rastogi; Dinesh Kumar

2011-01-01

124

Natural hazards and motivation for mitigation behavior: people cannot predict the affect evoked by a severe flood.  

PubMed

Past research indicates that personal flood experience is an important factor in motivating mitigation behavior. It is not fully clear, however, why such experience is so important. This study tested the hypothesis that people without flooding experience underestimate the negative affect evoked by such an event. People who were affected by a severe recent flood disaster were compared with people who were not affected, but who also lived in flood-prone areas. Face-to-face interviews with open and closed questions were conducted (n= 201). Results suggest that people without flood experience envisaged the consequences of a flood differently from people who had actually experienced severe losses due to a flood. People who were not affected strongly underestimated the negative affect associated with a flood. Based on the results, it can be concluded that risk communication must not focus solely on technical aspects; in order to trigger motivation for mitigation behavior, successful communication must also help people to envisage the negative emotional consequences of natural disasters. PMID:18643832

Siegrist, Michael; Gutscher, Heinz

2008-06-01

125

A shape memory alloy-based reusable hysteretic damper for seismic hazard mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a special shape memory alloy-based hysteretic damper with distinctive features such as tunable hysteretic behavior and ability to withstand several design level earthquakes. Superelastic nitinol stranded wires are used for energy dissipation in this damping device, termed a reusable hysteretic damper (RHD). By adjusting its design parameters, the hysteretic behavior of the RHD can be modified to best fit the needs for passive structural control applications. Adjustable design parameters of the RHD include the inclination angle of the nitinol wires, pretension level, and friction effect. A simulation-based parametric study was carried out to examine the effects of these design parameters of the RHD on its energy dissipating performance. The effectiveness of the RHD in passive seismic response control of civil engineering structures is examined through a nonlinear dynamic analysis of a three-story steel frame building with and without an RHD. The simulation results suggest that it can effectively reduce the structural response of building structures subjected to strong earthquakes. With proper design, an RHD can be reused for several strong earthquakes without the need for repair, due to the high fatigue life of nitinol wires.

Zhang, Y.; Zhu, S.

2007-10-01

126

Correlates of hazards education for youth: a replication study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth and families have been identified as particularly vulnerable to the effects of hazardous events. This study examined\\u000a correlates of hazards education involvement for youth. Participants were 407 youth between the ages of 7 and 18 who filled\\u000a out several indices reflecting hazards awareness, risk perceptions, psychological factors, knowledge, and adoption of hazards\\u000a adjustments and family emergency plans. Additionally, interactive

Kevin R. Ronan; Kylie Crellin; David Johnston

2010-01-01

127

Fusion of High-Rate GPS and Seismic Data: Applications to Early Warning Systems for Mitigation of Geological Hazards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the fusion of low-latency (1 s) high-rate (1 Hz or greater) CGPS displacements and traditional seismic data, in order to extend the frequency range and timeliness of surface displacement data already available at lower frequencies from space borne InSAR and (typically daily) CGPS coordinate time series. The goal is development of components of early warning systems for mitigation of geological hazards (direct seismic damage, tsunamis, landslides, volcanoes). The advantage of the GPS data is that it is a direct measurement of ground displacement. With seismic data, this type of measure has to be obtained by deconvolution of the instrument response and integration of the broadband (velocity) measurements, or a double integration of the strong motion (acceleration) measurements. Due to the bandwidth and the dynamic range limits of seismometers the accuracy of absolute displacements so derived is poor. This problem is not present in the high-sample rate GPS data. While the seismic measurement provides a powerful constraint on the much noisier GPS measurements, unlike the seismometer, the GPS receiver never clips. Using the Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEES) Large High-Performance Outdoor Shake Table at USCD, we present an example of combining in real-time 50 Hz GPS displacements and 250 Hz raw accelerometer data using a multi-rate Kalman filter, previously applied to bridge monitoring. A full-scale 7- story building atop the shake table was subjected to high intensity shaking by replaying the Sylmar accelerometer record from the Mw 6.7 1994 Northridge earthquake. The resulting 250 Hz displacement waveform is significantly more accurate than obtained solely by low-pass filtering and double integration of the 250 Hz accelerometer records. Next we demonstrate the elements of an earthquake early warning system by analyzing the 2003 Mw 8.3 Tokachi-Oki thrust earthquake off Hokkaido Island detected by the dense Japan national real-time CGPS network. The network has an approximately 20-km spacing with 1156 stations streaming 1 Hz data to a central facility. A Delaunay triangulation of the network is created every second and the 1 Hz displacements within triangular element are converted to principal components of strain to detect the event. The large spatial extent allows us to compute displacement waveforms relative to a station well away from the affected region. We then compute an earthquake source model using the displacement waveforms.

Bock, Y.; Crowell, B.; Webb, F.; Kedar, S.; Clayton, R.; Miyahara, B.

2008-12-01

128

Natural Hazard Mitigation thru Water Augmentation Strategies to Provide Additional Snow Pack for Water Supply and Hydropower Generation in Drought Stressed Alps/Mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate variability and change are clearly stressing water supplies in high alpine regions of the Earth. These recent long-term natural hazards present critical challenges to policy makers and water managers. This paper addresses strategies to use enhanced scientific methods to mitigate the problem. Recent rapid depletions of glaciers and intense droughts throughout the world have created a need to reexamine modern water augmentation technologies for enhancing snow pack in mountainous regions. Today’s reliance on clean efficient hydroelectric power in the Alps and the Rocky Mountains poses a critical need for sustainable snow packs and high elevation water supplies through out the year. Hence, the need to make natural cloud systems more efficient precipitators during the cold season through anthropogenic weather modification techniques. The Bureau of Reclamation, US Department of the Interior, has spent over $39M in research from 1963 to 1990 to develop the scientific basis for snow pack augmentation in the headwaters of the Colorado, American, and Columbia River Basins in the western United States, and through USAID in Morocco in the High Atlas Mountains. This paper presents a brief summary of the research findings and shows that even during drought conditions potential exists for significant, cost-effective enhancement of water supplies. Examples of ground based propane and AgI seeding generators, cloud physics studies of supercooled cloud droplets and ice crystal characteristics that indicate seeding potential will be shown. Hypothetical analyses of seeding potential in 17 western states from Montana to California will be presented based on observed SNOTEL snow water equivalent measurements, and distributed by elevation and observed winter precipitation. Early studies indicated from 5 to 20% increases in snow pack were possible, if winter storm systems were seeded effectively. If this potential was realized in drought conditions observed in 2003, over 1.08 million acre feet (1.33 x 10**9 m3) of additional water could be captured by seeding efficiently and effectively in just 10 storms. Recent projects sponsored by the National Science Foundation, NOAA, and the States of Wyoming, Utah and Nevada, and conducted by the National Center for Atmospheric Research will be discussed briefly. Examples of conditions in extreme droughts of the Western United States will be presented that show potential to mitigate droughts in these regions through cloud seeding. Implications for American and European hydropower generation and sustainable water supplies will be discussed.

Matthews, D.; Brilly, M.

2009-12-01

129

Seismic Hazards Studies for Minuteman Missile Wings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Using standard methods of probabilistic seismic risk analysis, estimates of the seismic hazards for six Minuteman missile wings were evaluated. The wings are located at Malstrom, Ellsworth, Minot, Whiteman, F.E. Warren and Grad Forks Air Force Bases. For ...

J. C. Battis

1980-01-01

130

Mitigating Resistance to Teaching Science Through Inquiry: Studying Self  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the report of a qualitative emergent-design study of 2 different Web-enhanced science methods courses for preservice elementary teachers in which an experiential learning strategy, labeled “using yourself as a learning laboratory,” was implemented. Emergent grounded theory indicated this strategy, when embedded in a course organized as an inquiry with specified action foci, contributed to mitigating participants’ resistance to learning and teaching through inquiry. Enroute to embracing inquiry, learners experienced stages resembling the stages of grief one experiences after a major loss. Data sources included participant observation, electronic artifacts in WebCT, and interviews. Findings are reported in 3 major sections: “Action Foci Common to Both Courses,” “Participants’ Growth and Change,” and “Challenges and Tradeoffs.”

Spector, Barbara; Burkett, Ruth S.; Leard, Cyndy

2007-04-01

131

Study on Hazard Analysis in High Integrity Software Standards and Guidelines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of a study on hazard analysis, especially software hazard analysis, in high integrity software standards and guidelines. It describes types of system hazard analysis (that influence software), types of software hazard anal...

L. M. Ippolito D. R. Wallace

1995-01-01

132

Hazardous and radioactive waste incineration studies  

SciTech Connect

Development and demonstration of a transuranic (TRU) waste volume-reduction process is described. A production-scale controlled air incinerator using commercially available equipment and technology has been modified for solid radioactive waste service. This unit successfully demonstrated the volume reduction of transuranic (TRU) waste with an average TRU content of about 20 nCi/g. The same incinerator and offgas treatment system is being modified further to evaluate the destruction of hazardous liquid wastes such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hazardous solid wastes such as pentachlorophenol (PCP)-treated wood.

Vavruska, J.S.; Stretz, L.A.; Borduin, L.C.

1981-01-01

133

A Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Study of the Auckland Region, Part II: Inundation Modelling and Hazard Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regional source tsunamis pose a potentially devastating hazard to communities and infrastructure on the New Zealand coast. But major events are very uncommon. This dichotomy of infrequent but potentially devastating hazards makes realistic assessment of the risk challenging. Here, we describe a method to determine a probabilistic assessment of the tsunami hazard by regional source tsunamis with an "Average Recurrence Interval" of 2,500-years. The method is applied to the east Auckland region of New Zealand. From an assessment of potential regional tsunamigenic events over 100,000 years, the inundation of the Auckland region from the worst 100 events is modelled using a hydrodynamic model and probabilistic inundation depths on a 2,500-year time scale were determined. Tidal effects on the potential inundation were included by coupling the predicted wave heights with the probability density function of tidal heights at the inundation site. Results show that the more exposed northern section of the east coast and outer islands in the Hauraki Gulf face the greatest hazard from regional tsunamis in the Auckland region. Incorporating tidal effects into predictions of inundation reduced the predicted hazard compared to modelling all the tsunamis arriving at high tide giving a more accurate hazard assessment on the specified time scale. This study presents the first probabilistic analysis of dynamic modelling of tsunami inundation for the New Zealand coast and as such provides the most comprehensive assessment of tsunami inundation of the Auckland region from regional source tsunamis available to date.

Lane, E. M.; Gillibrand, P. A.; Wang, X.; Power, W.

2013-09-01

134

From structural investigation towards multi-parameter early warning systems: geophysical contributions to hazard mitigation at the landslide of Gschliefgraben (Gmunden, Upper Austria)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In December 2007 the large landslide system inside the Gschliefgraben valley (located at the east edge of the Traun lake, Upper Austria), known over centuries for its repeated activity, was reactivated. Although a hazard zone map was already set up in 1974, giving rise to a complete prohibition on building, some hundreds of people are living on the alluvial fan close to the lake. Consequently, in frame of the first emergency measures, 55 building had to be evacuated. Within the first phase of mitigation, measures were focused on property and infrastructure protection. Around 220 wells and one deep channel were implemented to drain the sliding mass. Additionally a big quantity of sliding material was removed close to the inhabited areas. Differential GPS and water level measurements were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the measures, which led to a significant slowdown of the movement. Soon after the suspension of the evacuation several investigations, including drilling, borehole logging and complex geophysical measurements were performed to investigate the structure of the landslide area in order to evaluate maximum hazard scenarios as a basis for planning further measures. Based on these results, measuring techniques for an adapted, future early warning system are currently being tested. This emergency system should enable local stakeholders to take appropriate and timely measures in case of a future event thus lessening the impact of a future disaster significantly. Within this tree-step-plan the application of geophysical methodologies was an integral part of the research and could considerably contribute to the success. Several innovative approaches were implemented which will be described in more detail within the talk. Airborne multi-sensor geophysical surveying is one of new and progressive approaches which can remarkably contribute to effectively analyse triggering processes of large landslides and to better predict their hazard. It was tested in Gschliefgraben earthflow and landslide complex in September 2009. Several parameters, such as vegetation thickness, soil moisture, potassium and thorium content (gamma ray) or four layer resistivity were the principal studied parameters. These parameters were compared with the landslide inventory map of Gschliefgraben developed from differential airborne laser scan terrain models. Since mass wasting is usually triggered by rising water pore pressure due to heavy rainfall or seismic tremors, often supported by changes in the shape, structure, and hydrology of a slope or vegetation cover. As the electrical resistivity of the subsurface mainly depends on porosity, saturation, pore fluid conductivity and clay content, the geoelectric method is a reliable method to investigate the structure of the landslide and surrounding and could be an emerging tool for observing those triggering factors. Therefore, first a multi-electrode geoelectrical survey was performed in a broader area of the active earthflow to verify the subsurface structure and to optimise the location for a monitoring system, followed by the installacion of the geoelectric monitoring system Geomon4D in September 2009. The monitoring profiles were complemented by an automatic DMS inclinometer to correlate measured resistivity values with displacement rates. Since the installation, the system works continuously and data is processed on a daily basis at the monitoring centre in Vienna. These works were supported by the 7th FP project "Safeland - Living with the landslide risk in Europe".

Supper, Robert; Baron, Ivo; Jochum, Birgit; Ita, Anna; Winkler, Edmund; Motschka, Klaus; Moser, Günter

2010-05-01

135

Space Debris Mitigation CONOPS Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Space debris remains an unsolved hazard for space operators and astronomers alike. Passive debris mitigation techniques have been enumerated and codified by the UNCOPUOS and IADC and several proposals for actively mitigating space debris have been present...

E. B. Alejandro

2013-01-01

136

Recent Developments in Earthquake Hazards Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In recent years, there has been great progress understanding the underlying causes of earthquakes, as well as forecasting\\u000a their occurrence and preparing communities for their damaging effects. Plate tectonic theory explains the occurrence of earthquakes\\u000a at discrete plate boundaries, such as subduction zones and transform faults, but diffuse plate boundaries are also common.\\u000a Seismic hazards are distributed over a broad

Walter D. Mooney; Susan M. White

137

Modelling of stream run-off and sediment output for erosion hazard assessment in Lesser Himalaya: need for sustainable land use plan using remote sensing and GIS: a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment and inventory on soil erosion hazard are essential for the formulation of successful hazard mitigation plans and\\u000a sustainable development. The objective of this study was to assess and map soil erosion hazard in Lesser Himalaya with a case\\u000a study. The Dabka watershed constitutes a part of the Kosi Basin in the Lesser Himalaya, India, in district Nainital has been

Pradeep K. Rawat; P. C. Tiwari; C. C. Pant; A. K. Sharama; P. D. Pant

138

Source-to-sink sediment transfers, environmental engineering and hazard mitigation in the steep Var River catchment, French Riviera, southeastern France  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Steep coastal margins are potentially subject to mass wasting processes involving notable landslide activity and sediment evacuation downstream by steep-gradient streams. Sediment transfer from short source-to-sink segments, coupled with mountain hydrological regimes, regulate patterns of river channel aggradation and coastal sediment supply in such geomorphic settings. On the steep French Riviera margin, sediment transfers from existing landslides or from various minor mass wasting processes to stream channels may result following bursts of heavy, concentrated rainfall. High-magnitude flooding and massive sediment transport downstream are generally related to unpredictable extreme rainfalls. Both mass movements and channel sediment storage pose serious hazards to downvalley settlements and infrastructure. A consideration of channel sediment storage patterns in the Var River catchment, the most important catchment in this area, highlights two important shortcomings relative to environmental engineering and hazard mitigation practices. In the first place, the appreciation of geomorphic processes is rather poor. This is illustrated by the undersized nature of engineering works constructed to mitigate hazards in the upstream bedload-dominated channels, and by the unforeseen effects that ten rock dams, constructed in the early 1970s, have had on downstream and coastal sediment storage and on sediment dispersal patterns and, consequently, valley flooding. Secondly, planners and environmental engineers have lacked foresight in valley and coastal management issues on this steep setting, notably as regards the reclaimed areas of the lower Var channel and delta liable to flooding. Urbanization and transport and environmental engineering works have progressively affected patterns of storage and transport of fine-grained sediments in the lower Var channel and delta. Meanwhile the problems raised by these changes have not been adequately addressed in terms of scientific research. A necessary future step in bettering the engineering solutions implemented to contain natural hazards or to harness water and sediment resources is that of fine-scale analysis of source-to-sink sediment transfer processes, of sediment budgets, of time-scales of storage in stream channels, and, finally, of high-magnitude hydrometeorological forcing events in this area. The way all these aspects have been modulated by engineering practices and socioeconomic development should also be an important part of such an analysis.

Anthony, Edward J.; Julian, Maurice

1999-12-01

139

Rockfall hazard assessment, risk quantification, and mitigation options for reef cove resort development, False Cape, Queensland, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

GIS and 2-D rock fall simulations were used as the primary tools during a rock fall hazard assessment and analyses for a major resort and township development near Cairns, Queensland in Australia. The methods used included 1) the development of a digital elevation model (DEM); undertaking rock fall trajectory analyses to determine the end points of rockfalls, the distribution of

P. Schlotfeldt

2009-01-01

140

Integrated Data Products to Forecast, Mitigate, and Educate for Natural Hazard Events Based on Recent and Historical Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Immediately following a damaging or fatal natural hazard event there is interest to access authoritative data and information. The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) maintains and archives a comprehensive collection of natural hazards data. The NGDC global historic event database includes all tsunami events, regardless of intensity, as well as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions that caused fatalities, moderate damage, or generated a tsunami. Examining the past record provides clues to what might happen in the future. NGDC also archives tide gauge data from stations operated by the NOAA/NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services and the NOAA Tsunami Warning Centers. In addition to the tide gauge data, NGDC preserves deep-ocean water-level, 15-second sampled data as collected by the Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami (DART) buoys. Water-level data provide evidence of sea-level fluctuation and possible inundation events. NGDC houses an extensive collection of geologic hazards photographs available online as digital images. Visual media provide invaluable pre- and post-event data for natural hazards. Images can be used to illustrate inundation and possible damage or effects. These images are organized by event or hazard type (earthquake, volcano, tsunami, landslide, etc.), along with description and location. They may be viewed via interactive online maps and are integrated with historic event details. The planning required to achieve collection and dissemination of hazard event data is extensive. After a damaging or fatal event, NGDC begins to collect and integrate data and information from many people and organizations into the hazards databases. Sources of data include the U.S. NOAA Tsunami Warning Centers, the U.S. Geological Survey, the U.S. NOAA National Data Buoy Center, the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC), Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism Program, news organizations, etc. NGDC then works to promptly distribute data and information for the appropriate audience. For example, when a major tsunami occurs, all of the related tsunami data are combined into one timely resource. NGDC posts a publicly accessible online report which includes: 1) event summary; 2) eyewitness and instrumental recordings from preliminary field surveys; 3) regional historical observations including similar past events and effects; 4) observed water heights and calculated tsunami travel times; and 5) near-field effects. This report is regularly updated to incorporate the most recent news and observations. Providing timely access to authoritative data and information ultimately benefits researchers, state officials, the media and the public.

McCullough, H. L.; Dunbar, P. K.; Varner, J. D.

2011-12-01

141

Odor Mitigation with Tree Buffers: Swine Production Case Study  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tree buffers are a potential low cost sustainable odor mitigation strategy, but there is little to no data on their effectiveness. Odor transport is thought to occur one of two ways either directly through vapor phase transport or indirectly through sorption onto particles. Consequently, monitoring...

142

Flood Hazard Mapping using Aster Image data with GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flood is one of the most devastating natural hazards which lead to the loss of lives, properties and resources. It has therefore become important to create easily read, rapidly accessible flood hazard map, which will prioritize the mitigation effects. This study addresses the need for an efficient and cost-effect ive methodology for preparing flood hazard maps in Ghana, particularly those

Eric Kwabena Forkuo

2011-01-01

143

Effects of stand-off bursts on rubble-pile targets: Evaluation of a hazardous asteroid mitigation strategy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore the aftereffects of stand-off burst mitigation on kilometer-scale rubble pile asteroids. We use a simple model of X-ray energy deposition to calculate the impulse transferred to the target, in particular to burst-facing blocks on the target surface. The impulse allows us to estimate an initial velocity field for the blocks on the outer side of the target facing the burst. We model the dynamics using an N-body polyhedron program built on the Open Dynamics Engine, a “physics engine” that integrates the dynamical equations for objects of general shapes and includes collision detection, friction, and dissipation.We tested several different models for target objects: rubble piles with different mass distributions, a “brick-pile” made of closely fitting blocks and zero void space, and a non-spherical “contact binary” rubble pile. Objects were bound together by self-gravity and friction/inelastic restitution with no other cohesive forces. Our fiducial cases involved objects of m=3.5×1012 kg (corresponding to a radius of 0.7 km for the bulk object), an X-ray yield of 1 megaton, and stand-off burst distances of R=0.8-2.5 km from the target center of mass.Kilometer-scale rubble piles are robust to stand-off bursts of a yield (Y˜1 megaton) that would be sufficient to provide an effective velocity change (?v˜0.05ms-1). Disaggregation involving some tens of percent of the target mass happens immediately after the impulse; the bulk of the object re-accretes on a few gravitational timescales, and the final deflected target contains over 95% (typically, 98-99%) of the original mass. Off-center components of the mitigation impulse and the target mass distribution cause a small amount of induced spin and off-axis components of velocity change. The off-axis velocity component amounts to an angular deviation of ˜ 0.05-0.1 radians from the nominal impulse vector, which may be important for mitigation planning.

Korycansky, D. G.; Plesko, C. S.

2012-04-01

144

Preliminary study on the transport of hazardous materials through tunnels.  

PubMed

The risk associated to road and rail transportation of some hazardous materials along two routes, one including a significant portion in tunnels, and the other following the same path, but running completely in the open, is assessed. The results show that, for rail transport, no particular risk increase or mitigation is associated to the circulation of the dangerous goods through tunnels; on the contrary, for road transport, a risk increase is generally observed in the presence of tunnels. However, for LPG, the risk curve in the open lies above that in tunnels in the high frequency-low fatality zone, according to the different evolution of the accidental scenarios in the tunnel (assuming no ventilation). The transportation of liquefied nitrogen, not hazardous in the open but potentially asphyxiating in a tunnel, gives rise to a negligible risk when performed by rail, but to a not negligible one, when performed by road. These preliminary results focused on the risk for the exposed population, suggest that it may be unnecessary to limit dangerous goods circulation through rail tunnels, while, at least for some types of dangerous goods, the circulation through road tunnels may be allowed/forbidden based on the results of a specific risk analysis. PMID:19819368

Bubbico, Roberto; Di Cave, Sergio; Mazzarotta, Barbara; Silvetti, Barbara

2008-06-26

145

Leak detection, monitoring, and mitigation technology trade study update  

SciTech Connect

This document is a revision and update to the initial report that describes various leak detection, monitoring, and mitigation (LDMM) technologies that can be used to support the retrieval of waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) at the Hanford Site. This revision focuses on the improvements in the technical performance of previously identified and useful technologies, and it introduces new technologies that might prove to be useful.

HERTZEL, J.S.

1998-11-10

146

Amending soils with phosphate as means to mitigate soil lead hazard: a critical review of the state of the science.  

PubMed

Ingested soil and surface dust may be important contributors to elevated blood lead (Pb) levels in children exposed to Pb contaminated environments. Mitigation strategies have typically focused on excavation and removal of the contaminated soil. However, this is not always feasible for addressing widely disseminated contamination in populated areas often encountered in urban environments. The rationale for amending soils with phosphate is that phosphate will promote formation of highly insoluble Pb species (e.g., pyromorphite minerals) in soil, which will remain insoluble after ingestion and, therefore, inaccessible to absorption mechanisms in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Amending soil with phosphate might potentially be used in combination with other methods that reduce contact with or migration of contaminated soils, such as covering the soil with a green cap such as sod, clean soil with mulch, raised garden beds, or gravel. These remediation strategies may be less expensive and far less disruptive than excavation and removal of soil. This review evaluates evidence for efficacy of phosphate amendments for decreasing soil Pb bioavailability. Evidence is reviewed for (1) physical and chemical interactions of Pb and phosphate that would be expected to influence bioavailability, (2) effects of phosphate amendments on soil Pb bioaccessibility (i.e., predicted solubility of Pb in the GIT), and (3) results of bioavailability bioassays of amended soils conducted in humans and animal models. Practical implementation issues, such as criteria and methods for evaluating efficacy, and potential effects of phosphate on mobility and bioavailability of co-contaminants in soil are also discussed. PMID:24151967

Scheckel, Kirk G; Diamond, Gary L; Burgess, Michele F; Klotzbach, Julie M; Maddaloni, Mark; Miller, Bradley W; Partridge, Charles R; Serda, Sophia M

2013-01-01

147

Hazards analysis and prediction from remote sensing and GIS using spatial data mining and knowledge discovery: a case study for landslide hazard zonation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the particular geographical location and geological condition, Taiwan suffers from many natural hazards which often cause series property damages and life losses. To reduce the damages and casualty, an effective real-time system for hazard prediction and mitigation is necessary. In this study, a case study for Landslide Hazard Zonation (LHZ) is tested in accordance with Spatial Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery (SDMKD) from database. Many different kinds of geospatial data, such as the terrain elevation, land cover types, the distance to roads and rivers, geology maps, NDVI, and monitoring rainfall data etc., are collected into the database for SDMKD. In order to guarantee the data quality, the spatial data cleaning is essential to remove the noises, errors, outliers, and inconsistency hiding in the input spatial data sets. In this paper, the Kriging interpolation is used to calibrate the QPESUMS rainfall data to the rainfall observations from rain gauge stations to remove the data inconsistency. After the data cleaning, the artificial neural networks (ANNs) is applied to generate the LHZ map throughout the test area. The experiment results show that the accuracy of LHZ is about 92.3% with the ANNs analysis, and the landslides induced by heavy-rainfall can be mapped efficiently from remotely sensed images and geospatial data using SDMKD technologies.

Hsu, Pai-Hui; Su, Wen-Ray; Chang, Chy-Chang

2011-10-01

148

Remote Sensing Applied in Natural Hazards Mitigation Experiences from the International UNESCO/IUGS Gars-Program 1984- 2002  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Geological Application of Remote Sensing-Program (GARS-Program) has since 1984 devoted its efforts towards the application of remote sensing from aircraft and space platforms with the understanding that it adds considerably to the knowledge of geo-dynamic processes in the widest range. Remote sensing provides a large variety of sensors, the data of which, once analysed, can provide completely new observations on areas threatened by natural hazards. UNESCO and IUGS through the GARS-Program provide a forum, where remote sensing techniques are continuously scrutinised concerning their geological application. Especially their potential in assessing geo-environmental issues under various geological, climatic and morphological conditions is considered. In the past, international co-operation projects in developing countries have been carried out under the GARS-Program, addressing the following subjects: Currently, the GARS-Program is strongly involved in the IGOS Geohazards Theme Working Group and in the UNESCO / IAH Middle East Transboundary Aquifer Initiative, as well as numerous individual projects by member institutes. There are more than 40 institutes co- operating world-wide under the GARS-Program. Space organisations and financing institutions serving developing nations are requested to help to deploy new sensors to monitor geo-dynamic processes, providing free and direct data reception in all parts of the world in order to allow national institutes to develop their own early warning capabilities.

Bannert, D.

149

A study on seismicity and seismic hazard for Karnataka State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a detailed study on the seismic pattern of the state of Karnataka and also quantifies the seismic hazard for the entire state. In the present work, historical and instrumental seismicity data for Karnataka (within 300 km from Karnataka political boundary) were compiled and hazard analysis was done based on this data. Geographically, Karnataka forms a part of peninsular India which is tectonically identified as an intraplate region of Indian plate. Due to the convergent movement of the Indian plate with the Eurasian plate, movements are occurring along major intraplate faults resulting in seismic activity of the region and hence the hazard assessment of this region is very important. Apart from referring to seismotectonic atlas for identifying faults and fractures, major lineaments in the study area were also mapped using satellite data. The earthquake events reported by various national and international agencies were collected until 2009. Declustering of earthquake events was done to remove foreshocks and aftershocks. Seismic hazard analysis was done for the state of Karnataka using both deterministic and probabilistic approaches incorporating logic tree methodology. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) at rock level was evaluated for the entire state considering a grid size of 0.05° × 0.05°. The attenuation relations proposed for stable continental shield region were used in evaluating the seismic hazard with appropriate weightage factors. Response spectra at rock level for important Tier II cities and Bangalore were evaluated. The contour maps showing the spatial variation of PGA values at bedrock are presented in this work.

Sitharam, T. G.; James, Naveen; Vipin, K. S.; Raj, K. Ganesha

2012-04-01

150

S. 353: A bill to require the Director of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to conduct a study of the prevalence and issues related to contamination of workers' homes with hazardous chemicals and substances transported from their workplace and to issue or report on regulations to prevent or mitigate the future contamination of workers' homes, and for other purposes, introduced in the United States Senate, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, November 27, 1991  

SciTech Connect

This bill was introduced into the Senate of the United States on February 5, 1991 to require NIOSH to conduct a study concerning the contamination of worker's homes with hazardous materials transported from their workplace and to issue or report on regulations to prevent future contamination. These hazardous chemicals and substances are being transported out of industries on worker's clothing and pose a threat to the health and welfare of workers and their families. Separate sections address the following: evaluation of employee transported contaminant releases; regulations or standards; and authorization of appropriations.

Not Available

1991-01-01

151

Experimental and Computational Study of Water Blast Mitigation Associated with Different Water Configurations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An explosion yielding a shock wave is just one of the many threats the US faces. This threat can cause damage to equipment, structures, and cause significant risk to personnel. These threats define an immediate importance for understanding blast mitigation techniques via readily available mitigants. Specific blast mitigation techniques using water are being studied. Four fundamentally different water configurations are being considered. The fundamental mitigation mechanisms such as momentum transfer, large impedance differences, and evaporation are being explored. Laboratory testing using an explosively driven shock tube and a pressurized air shock tube are used for configurations including: solid water barriers, water sprays, water sheets, and individual droplets of water. Trends observed will be explained based on simulations coupled with known droplet breakup phenomena and analysis. We will report on experimental results and analysis, in addition to discussing the various blast mechanisms associated with each testing configuration.

Zakrajsek, Andrew; Miklaszewski, Eric; Son, Steven

2011-06-01

152

Investigations on Natural Hazards Effects which trigger Technological Disasters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents the results of a case study on Romania regions. It identifies the hazards and risks and correlates them with the vulnerability of local communities and infrastructures. The results emphasize warning and consequences mitigation systems.

Ozunu, Alexandru; Senzaconi, Francisc; Balcu, Cosmin; Nour, Eugen

2010-05-01

153

Sensitivity study on air dispersion and hazard exposure models  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Army is currently using mathematical models to assess potential hazards associated with the use of depleted uranium (DU) munitions. These models simulate dispersion of material released to the air, determine subsequent air and ground concentrations, and estimate potential radiological and toxicological exposures to man from such releases. The models provide the Army with a decision-support tool for addressing health and safety considerations associated with depleted uranium released to the air under a range of scheduled or accidental conditions. In Section II the systematic sensitivity analysis used in this study is described. The model parameters and sensitivity/uncertainty evaluation for the air dispersion models and hazard exposure models are discussed in Section III. Section IV contains the conclusions drawn from the evaluation of model parameters from both the air dispersion and hazard exposure models.

Bucci, S.A.; Nalbandian, J.Y.

1981-04-01

154

Studies illuminate hazards of ingested radiation  

SciTech Connect

Dial painting required a deft hand and a finely pointed brush. While the first attribute may have been hereditary, the second was easily acquired. All it took to keep a brush pointed was a quick touch to the lips or tongue. Lip tipping passed particles of the sticky paint to the teeth and tongue; it also transferred from 3 to 43 ..mu..g of radioactive substances each day. In its 63rd year, the Argonne Radium Study, as it is now known, is to radiobiology what the Framingham Study is to cardiology. Not only has it furnished an understanding of the acute and late effects of radium ingestion, it has also provided a model for understanding calcium deposition and bone growth. Both the study's most impressive contribution is that it served as a basis for guidelines for exposure to plutonium and other bone-seeking radionuclides employed during the Manhattan Project.

Merz, B.

1987-08-07

155

A CASE STUDY OF HAZARDOUS WASTES IN CLASS I LANDFILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

This study documents the average concentration, estimated daily deposition, and partitioning of 17 metal species in hazardous wastes discharged to five Class I landfill sites in the greater Los Angeles area. These sites receive a combined estimated daily volume of 2.3 x 10 to the...

156

Radon Mitigation in Schools: Case Studies of Radon Mitigation Systems Installed by EPA in Four Maryland Schools Are Presented.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The first part of the two-part paper discusses radon entry into schools, radon mitigation approaches for schools, and school characteristics (e.g., heating, ventilation, and air conditioning -- HVAC -- system design and operating) that influence radon ent...

D. Saum A. B. Craig K. Leovic

1990-01-01

157

Neighborhood Psychosocial Hazards and Cardiovascular Disease: The Baltimore Memory Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined associations between cardiovascular disease and neighborhood psychosocial hazards, such as violent crime, abandoned buildings, and signs of incivility, to evaluate whether features of place are associated with older adult health. Methods. We analyzed first-visit data from the Baltimore Memory Study of randomly selected residents aged 50 to 70 years (n=1140) of 65 contiguous neighborhoods in Baltimore, Maryland. We looked for associations between self-reports of history of selected cardiovascular diseases and scores on the 12-item neighborhood psychosocial hazards scale. Results. After adjustment for established individual risk factors for cardiovascular disease, residents in neighborhoods with scores in the highest quartile of the psychosocial hazards scale had more than 4 times higher odds of a history of myocardial infarction and more than 3 times higher odds of myocardial infarction, stroke, transient ischemic attack, or intermittent claudication compared with residents living in neighborhoods scoring in the lowest quartile. Conclusions. Neighborhood psychosocial hazards were significantly associated with self-reported cardiovascular disease after adjustment for individual-level risk factors. This is consistent with the hypothesis that environmental stress plays a role in the etiology of cardiovascular disease.

Augustin, Toms; Glass, Thomas A.; James, Bryan D.; Schwartz, Brian S.

2008-01-01

158

Status of volcanic hazard studies for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volcanism studies of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) region are concerned with hazards of future volcanism with respect to underground disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The hazards of silicic volcanism are judged to be negligible; hazards of basaltic volcanism are judged through research approaches combining hazard appraisal and risk assessment. The NTS region is cut obliquely by a N-NE trending

B. M. Crowe; D. T. Vaniman; W. J. Carr

1983-01-01

159

Channelized debris flow hazard mitigation through the use of flexible barriers: a simplified computational approach for a sensitivity analysis.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A channelized debris flow is usually represented by a mixture of solid particles of various sizes and water, flowing along a laterally confined inclined channel-shaped region up to an unconfined area where it slow down its motion and spreads out into a flat-shaped mass. The study of these phenomena is very difficult due to their short duration and unpredictability, lack of historical data for a given basin and complexity of the involved mechanical phenomena. The post event surveys allow for the identification of some depositional features and provide indication about the maximum flow height; however they lack information about development of the phenomena with time. For this purpose the monitoring of recursive events has been carried out by several Authors. Most of the studies, aimed at the determination of the characteristic features of a debris flow, were carried out in artificial channels, where the main involved variables were measured and other where controlled during the tests; however, some uncertainties remained and other scaled models where developed to simulate the deposition mechanics as well as to analyze the transportation mechanics and the energy dissipation. The assessment of the mechanical behavior of the protection structures upon impact with the flow as well as the energy associated to it are necessary for the proper design of such structures that, in densely populated area, can avoid victims and limit the destructive effects of such a phenomenon. In this work a simplified structural model, developed by the Authors for the safety assessment of retention barrier against channelized debris flow, is presented and some parametric cases are interpreted through the proposed approach; this model is developed as a simplified and efficient tool to be used for the verification of the supporting cables and foundations of a flexible debris flow barrier. The present analytical and numerical-based approach has a different aim of a FEM model. The computational experiences by using FEM modeling for these kind of structures, had shown that a large amount of time for both the geometrical setup of the model and its computation is necessary. The big effort required by FEM for this class of problems limits the actual possibility to investigate different geometrical configurations, load schemes etc. and it is suitable to represent a specific configuration but it does not allow for investigation of the influence of parameter changes. On the other hand parametrical analysis are common practice in geotechnical design for the quoted reasons. Consequently, the Authors felt the need to develop a simplified method (which is not yet available in our knowledge) that allow to perform several parametrical analysis in a limited time. It should be noted that, in this paper, no consideration regarding the mechanical and physical behavior of debris flows are carried out; the proposed model requires the input of parameters that must be acquired through a preliminary characterization of the design event. However, adopting the proposed tool, the designer will be able to perform sensitivity analysis that will help in quantify the influence of parameters variability as commonly occurs in geotechnical design.

Segalini, Andrea; Ferrero, Anna Maria; Brighenti, Roberto

2013-04-01

160

HOUSEHOLD HAZARDOUS WASTE CHARACTERIZATION STUDY FOR PALM BEACH COUNTY, FLORIDA: A MITE PROGRAM EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The objectives of the Household hazardous Waste Characterization Study (the HHW Study) were to quantify the annual household hazardous waste (HHW) tonnages disposed in Palm Beach County, Florida's (the county) residential solid waste (characterized in this study as municipal soli...

161

The development and mitigation of backdraft: a real-scale shipboard study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a real-scale experimental test series to study the development and mitigation of backdrafts. Experiments consisted of creating backdrafts onboard a US Navy test ship, ex-USS SHADWELL. This study has shown that the key parameter for backdraft development is the fuel mass fraction. The results show that the critical fuel mass fraction, Yf, required for

Daniel T. Gottuk; Michelle J. Peatross; John P. Farley; Frederick W. Williams

1999-01-01

162

Mitigating Hazards in School Facilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|School safety is a human concern, one that every school and community must take seriously and strive continually to achieve. It is also a legal concern; schools can be held liable if they do not make good-faith efforts to provide a safe and secure school environment. How schools are built and maintained is an integral part of school safety and…

National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2008

2008-01-01

163

Interventionist and participatory approaches to flood risk mitigation decisions: two case studies in the Italian Alps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood risk mitigation decisions pose key challenges not only from a technical but also from a social, economic and political viewpoint. There is an increasing demand for improving the quality of these processes by including different stakeholders - and especially by involving the local residents in the decision making process - and by guaranteeing the actual improvement of local social capacities during and after the decision making. In this paper we analyse two case studies of flood risk mitigation decisions, Malborghetto-Valbruna and Vipiteno-Sterzing, in the Italian Alps. In both of them, mitigation works have been completed or planned, yet following completely different approaches especially in terms of responses of residents and involvement of local authorities. In Malborghetto-Valbruna an 'interventionist' approach (i.e. leaning towards a top down/technocratic decision process) was used to make decisions after the flood event that affected the municipality in the year 2003. In Vipiteno-Sterzing, a 'participatory' approach (i.e. leaning towards a bottom-up/inclusive decision process) was applied: decisions about risk mitigation measures were made by submitting different projects to the local citizens and by involving them in the decision making process. The analysis of the two case studies presented in the paper is grounded on the results of two research projects. Structured and in-depth interviews, as well as questionnaire surveys were used to explore residents' and local authorities' orientations toward flood risk mitigation. Also a SWOT analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) involving key stakeholders was used to better understand the characteristics of the communities and their perception of flood risk mitigation issues. The results highlight some key differences between interventionist and participatory approaches, together with some implications of their adoption in the local context. Strengths and weaknesses of the two approaches, as well as key challenges for the future are also discussed.

Bianchizza, C.; Del Bianco, D.; Pellizzoni, L.; Scolobig, A.

2012-04-01

164

Insights from EMF Associated Agricultural and Forestry Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Studies  

SciTech Connect

Integrated assessment modeling (IAM) as employed by the Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) generally involves a multi-sector appraisal of greenhouse gas emission (GHGE) mitigation alternatives and climate change effects typically at the global level. Such a multi-sector evaluation encompasses potential climate change effects and mitigative actions within the agricultural and forestry (AF) sectors. In comparison with many of the other sectors covered by IAM, the AF sectors may require somewhat different treatment due to their critical dependence upon spatially and temporally varying resource and climatic conditions. In particular, in large countries like the United States, forest production conditions vary dramatically across the landscape. For example, some areas in the southern US present conditions favorable to production of fast growing, heat tolerant pine species, while more northern regions often favor slower-growing hardwood and softwood species. Moreover, some lands are currently not suitable for forest production (e.g., the arid western plains). Similarly, in agriculture, the US has areas where citrus and cotton can be grown and other areas where barley and wheat are more suitable. This diversity across the landscape causes differential GHGE mitigation potential in the face of climatic changes and/or responses to policy or price incentives. It is difficult for a reasonably sized global IAM system to reflect the full range of sub-national geographic AF production possibilities alluded to above. AF response in the face of climate change altered temperature precipitation regimes or mitigation incentives will likely involve region-specific shifts in land use and agricultural/forest production. This chapter addresses AF sectoral responses in climate change mitigation analysis. Specifically, we draw upon US-based studies of AF GHGE mitigation possibilities that incorporate sub-national detail drawing largely on a body of studies done by the authors in association with EMF activities. We discuss characteristics of AF sectoral responses that could be incorporated in future IAM efforts in climate change policy.

McCarl, Bruce A.; Murray, Brian; Kim, Man-Keun; Lee, Heng-Chi; Sands, Ronald D.; Schneider, Uwe

2007-11-19

165

Versatile gas gun target assembly for studying blast wave mitigation in materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has become a serious problem for military personnel returning from recent conflicts. This has increased interest in investigating blast mitigating materials for use in helmets. In this paper we describe a new versatile target assembly that is used with an existing gas gun for studying these materials.

Bartyczak, S.; Mock, W., Jr.

2012-03-01

166

A preliminary study on the mechanism of harmful algal bloom mitigation by use of sophorolipid treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate a new method of mitigating the deleterious effect of harmful algal blooms (HABs), the inhibition of the glycolipid biosurfactant sophorolipid on three common harmful algae Alexandrium tamarense, Heterosigma akashiwo and Cochlodinium polykrikoides was studied. The optimum preparation condition for sophorolipid, the inhibition capability of sophorolipid and the interaction mechanism of sophorolipid on the three algal species

Xiao-Xia Sun; Joong-Ki Choi; Eun-Ki Kim

2004-01-01

167

Process support for risk mitigation: a case study of variability and resilience in vascular surgery  

PubMed Central

Objective To inform the design of IT support, the authors explored the characteristics and sources of process variability in a surgical care process that transcends multiple institutions and professional boundaries. Setting A case study of the care process in the Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm surveillance programme of three hospitals in Norway. Design Observational study of encounters between patients and surgeons accompanied by semistructured interviews of patients and key health personnel. Results Four process variety dimensions were identified. The captured process variations were further classified into intended and unintended variations according to the cause of the variations. Our main findings, however, suggest that the care process is best understood as systematised analysis and mitigation of risk. Even if major variations accommodated for the flexibility needed to achieve particular clinical aims and/or to satisfy patient preferences, other variations reflected healthcare actors' responses to risks arising from a lack of resilience in the existing system. On this basis, the authors outlined suggestions for a resilience-based approach by including awareness in workflow as well as feedback loops for adaptive learning. The authors suggest that IT process support should be designed to prevent process breakdowns with patient dropouts as well as to sustain risk-mitigating performance. Conclusion Process variation was in part induced by systemised risk mitigation. IT-based process support for monitoring processes such as that studied here should aim to ensure resilience and further mitigate risk to enhance patient safety.

Faxvaag, Arild; Seim, Andreas

2011-01-01

168

Modeling tsunami hazards from Manila trench to Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2006 dual Pingtung earthquake event and the 2004 South Asia tsunami highlighted the potential tsunami hazards from Manila trench. Manila trench is only about 100km away from Taiwan, therefore one shall punctuate the importance of thorough study on all possible tsunami scenarios for hazard mitigation. Based on the faults parameters issued by USGS and the seismic record from Global

Tso-Ren Wu; Hui-Chuan Huang

2009-01-01

169

Issues in Transportation Noise Mitigation: Highway and Railway Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 11 papers in this report deal with the following areas: noise studies for the San Antonio 'Y' project; evaluation of T-profile highway noise barriers; noise-compatible development: a pilot demonstration project; determination of reference energy mean ...

G. S. Anderson J. J. Hajek C. T. Blaney M. T. Stahr R. A. Harris

1984-01-01

170

Methodological Issues In Forestry Mitigation Projects: A CaseStudy Of Kolar District  

SciTech Connect

There is a need to assess climate change mitigationopportunities in forest sector in India in the context of methodologicalissues such as additionality, permanence, leakage, measurement andbaseline development in formulating forestry mitigation projects. A casestudy of forestry mitigation project in semi-arid community grazing landsand farmlands in Kolar district of Karnataka, was undertaken with regardto baseline and project scenariodevelopment, estimation of carbon stockchange in the project, leakage estimation and assessment ofcost-effectiveness of mitigation projects. Further, the transaction coststo develop project, and environmental and socio-economic impact ofmitigation project was assessed.The study shows the feasibility ofestablishing baselines and project C-stock changes. Since the area haslow or insignificant biomass, leakage is not an issue. The overallmitigation potential in Kolar for a total area of 14,000 ha under variousmitigation options is 278,380 tC at a rate of 20 tC/ha for the period2005-2035, which is approximately 0.67 tC/ha/yr inclusive of harvestregimes under short rotation and long rotation mitigation options. Thetransaction cost for baseline establishment is less than a rupee/tC andfor project scenario development is about Rs. 1.5-3.75/tC. The projectenhances biodiversity and the socio-economic impact is alsosignificant.

Ravindranath, N.H.; Murthy, I.K.; Sudha, P.; Ramprasad, V.; Nagendra, M.D.V.; Sahana, C.A.; Srivathsa, K.G.; Khan, H.

2007-06-01

171

Thermal hazard studies for dicumyl peroxide by DSC and TAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

A differential\\u000a scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal activity monitor (TAM) were used to\\u000a study the thermo-kinetic parameters for dicumyl peroxide (DCPO) at various\\u000a concentrations. The potential thermal hazards of intermediates and end products\\u000a whose concentrations were at approximately 50, 70, 94 and 99.3 mass%, respectively,\\u000a in the process of operating DCPO were investigated. Thermoanalytical curves\\u000a indicate that the average heat

H. Y. Hou; T. S. Liao; Y S Duh; C M Shu

2006-01-01

172

Mitigating Resistance to Teaching Science through Inquiry: Studying Self  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is the report of a qualitative emergent-design study of 2 different Web-enhanced science methods courses for preservice elementary teachers in which an experiential learning strategy, labeled "using yourself as a learning laboratory," was implemented. Emergent grounded theory indicated this strategy, when embedded in a course organized as an…

Spector, Barbara; Burkett, Ruth S.; Leard, Cyndy

2007-01-01

173

Avoiding Sea Level Rise and Sea Ice Changes in an Aggressive Mitigation Scenario: a Model Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the goal of avoiding "dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system" (United Nations, 1992), policy makers have agreed on a limiting global mean warming to 2 K compared to the pre-industrial era, for example most recently in the Copenhagen Accord. However, since the spatial pattern of a global mean warming of 2 K will be regionally heterogeneous, impacts of the warming will also have regionally different impacts. In this study the effect of mitigation on two of the most prominent features of a warming climate is investigated: sea level rise due to thermal expansion and the change towards more seasonal sea ice due to the amplification of the warming at, especially Northern Hemispheric, high latitudes. Analysis is based on simulations with the coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model EGMAM for two different scenarios for the 21st century. Results from the well documented SRES A1B scenario without any mitigation measures are compared to results from the aggressive mitigation scenario E1. The main focus is on steric sea level rise and on seasonality of changes in sea ice in both in extension as well as in volume. Due to the slow response of the ocean to the radiative forcing the effect of mitigation on sea level rise is expected to be weaker than for instance on surface air temperature. Nevertheless, in our simulations 20% of sea level rise could be avoided by mitigation. Results of the two scenarios on Northern Hemispheric sea ice changes reveal structural differences between the seasons. While for the winter E1 shows less reduction at the sea ice border - thus less of a polewardsshift of sea ice - differences are largest at highest latitudes. Comparison with other models from the European Commission's 6th Framework Programme Integrated Project ENSEMBLES will be discussed.

Höschel, Ines; Körper, Janina; Cubasch, Ulrich

2010-05-01

174

Integrating geologic fault data into tsunami hazard studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the realization of a fault-source data set designed to become the starting point in regional-scale tsunami hazard studies. Our approach focuses on the parametric fault characterization in terms of geometry, kinematics, and assessment of activity rates, and includes a systematic classification in six justification levels of epistemic uncertainty related with the existence and behaviour of fault sources. We set up a case study in the central Mediterranean Sea, an area at the intersection of the European, African, and Aegean plates, characterized by a complex and debated tectonic structure and where several tsunamis occurred in the past. Using tsunami scenarios of maximum wave height due to crustal earthquakes (Mw=7) and subduction earthquakes (Mw=7 and Mw=8), we illustrate first-order consequences of critical choices in addressing the seismogenic and tsunamigenic potentials of fault sources. Although tsunamis generated by Mw=8 earthquakes predictably affect the entire basin, the impact of tsunamis generated by Mw=7 earthquakes on either crustal or subduction fault sources can still be strong at many locales. Such scenarios show how the relative location/orientation of faults with respect to target coastlines coupled with bathymetric features suggest avoiding the preselection of fault sources without addressing their possible impact onto hazard analysis results.

Basili, R.; Tiberti, M. M.; Kastelic, V.; Romano, F.; Piatanesi, A.; Selva, J.; Lorito, S.

2013-04-01

175

Status of Volcanic Hazard Studies for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Volcanism studies of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) region are concerned with hazards of future volcanism with respect to underground disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The hazards of silicic volcanism are judged to be negligible; hazards of basaltic v...

B. M. Crowe D. T. Vaniman W. J. Carr

1983-01-01

176

Emergency Communication: Case Study of Problematics in Public Discourse Regarding Hurricane Risks and Hazards  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report an ongoing case study of hurricane risk and hazard communication by emergency managers, local government public information officers, and populations residing in eastern North Carolina's coastal zone. Our approach is to look at communication about hazards and risks from official and unofficial sources and public behavior together, understanding risk and hazard communication as public discourse. For analytic purposes

C. F. Smith; D. J. Kain; H. Ward; R. Thuman

2007-01-01

177

Earthquake Hazard Analysis using Geological Characteristics and Geographic Information System (GIS) in the Southeastern Part of Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthquake Hazard Analysis using Geological Characteristics and GIS in the Southeastern Part of Korea The purpose of this study is to investigate earthquake hazards using geologic characteristics and geographic information system (GIS) for assessment and mitigation of earthquake hazards. The southeastern part of Korean peninsula, especially Ulsan and Pohang cities, was chosen for construction of GIS database and analysis of

Kyo-Young Song

2010-01-01

178

Model study of mitigative strategies to control radionuclide migration in ground water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A ground-water flow and transport model is used to evaluate the effectiveness of selected contaminant mitigation techniques to control radionuclide migration in ground water. The study is conducted for a shallow, semi-confined aquifer located in the Gulf Coastal Plain of Texas. A point source release of strontium-90 is assumed. The redirection of ground-water flow and consequently transport to more circuitous

Skaggs

1984-01-01

179

A Study of the Hazards of Impulse Currents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Correlation of research from scientific laboratories in Europe and America, together with accident records obtained from several nations, permits tentative criteria for the hazard from short shocks and impulse discharges. The hazard from short shocks, those obtainable from both power frequency circuits and apparatus capable of producing impulses, is believed primarily to exist because of the energy contained in the

Charles F. Dalziel

1953-01-01

180

Hazards and operability study for the surface moisture monitoring system  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Nuclear Reservation Tank Farms` underground waste tanks have been used to store liquid radioactive waste from defense materials production since the 1940`s. Waste in certain of the tanks may contain material in the form of ferrocyanide or various organic compounds which could potentially be susceptible to condensed phase chemical reactions. Because of the presence of oxidizing materials (nitrate compounds) and heat sources (radioactive decay and chemical reactions), the ferrocyanide or organic material could potentially fuel a propagating exothermic reaction with undesirable consequences. Analysis and experiments indicate that the reaction propagation and/or initiation may be prevented by the presence of sufficient moisture in the waste. Because the reaction would probably be initiated at the surface of the waste, evidence of sufficient moisture concentration would help provide evidence that the tank waste can continue to be safely stored. The Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS) was developed to collect data on the surface moisture in the waste by inserting two types of probes (singly) into a waste tank-a neutron probe and an electromagnetic inductance (EMI) probe. The sensor probes will be placed on the surface of the waste utilizing a moveable deployment arm to lower them through an available riser. The movement of the SMMS within the tank will be monitored by a camera lowered through an adjacent riser. The SMMS equipment is the subject of this study. Hazards and Operability Analysis (HAZOP) is a systematic technique for assessing potential hazards and/or operability problems for a new activity. It utilizes a multidiscipline team of knowledgeable individuals in a systematic brainstorming effort. The results of this study will be used as input to an Unreviewed Safety Question determination.

Board, B.D.

1996-04-04

181

Sonic boom focusing prediction and delta wing shape optimization for boom mitigation studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supersonic travel over land would be a reality if new aircraft are designed such that they produce quieter ground sonic booms, no louder than 0.3 psf according to the FAA requirement. An attempt is made to address the challenging goal of predicting the sonic boom focusing effects and mitigate the sonic boom ground overpressure for delta wing geometry. Sonic boom focusing is fundamentally a nonlinear phenomenon and can be predicted by numerically solving the nonlinear Tricomi equation. The conservative time domain scheme is developed to carry out the sonic boom focusing or super boom studies. The computational scheme is a type differencing scheme and is solved using a time-domain scheme, which is called a conservative type difference solution. The finite volume method is used on a structured grid topology. A number of input signals Concorde wave, symmetric and ax symmetric ramp, flat top and typical N wave type are simulated for sonic boom focusing prediction. A parametric study is launched in order to investigate the effects of several key parameters that affect the magnitude of shock wave amplification and location of surface of amplification or "caustics surface." A parametric studies includes the effects of longitudinal and lateral boundaries, footprint and initial shock strength of incoming wave and type of input signal on sonic boom focusing. Another very important aspect to be looked at is the mitigation strategies of sonic boom ground signature. It has been decided that aerodynamic reshaping and geometrical optimization are the main goals for mitigating the ground signal up to the acceptance level of FAA. Biconvex delta wing geometry with a chord length of 60 ft and maximum thickness ratio of 5% of the chord is used as a base line model to carry out the fundamental research focus. The wing is flying at an altitude 40,000 ft with a Mach number of 2.0. Boom mitigation work is focused on investigating the effects of wing thickness ratio, wing camber ratio, wing nose angle and dihedral angle on mitigating the sonic-boom ground signature. Optimal shape design for low sonic boom ground signature and least degradation of aerodynamic performance are the main goals of the present work. Response surface methodology is used for carrying out wing shape optimization. Far-field computations are carried out to predict the sonic boom signature on the ground using the full-potential code and the Thomas ray code.

Khasdeo, Nitin

182

STUDY ON AIR INGRESS MITIGATION METHODS IN THE VERY HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS COOLED REACTOR (VHTR)  

SciTech Connect

An air-ingress accident followed by a pipe break is considered as a critical event for a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR). Following helium depressurization, it is anticipated that unless countermeasures are taken, air will enter the core through the break leading to oxidation of the in-core graphite structure. Thus, without mitigation features, this accident might lead to severe exothermic chemical reactions of graphite and oxygen. Under extreme circumstances, a loss of core structural integrity may occur along with excessive release of radiological inventory. Idaho National Laboratory under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy is performing research and development (R&D) that focuses on key phenomena important during challenging scenarios that may occur in the VHTR. Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) studies to date have identified the air ingress event, following on the heels of a VHTR depressurization, as very important (Oh et al. 2006, Schultz et al. 2006). Consequently, the development of advanced air ingress-related models and verification and validation (V&V) requirements are part of the experimental validation plan. This paper discusses about various air-ingress mitigation concepts applicable for the VHTRs. The study begins with identifying important factors (or phenomena) associated with the air-ingress accident by using a root-cause analysis. By preventing main causes of the important events identified in the root-cause diagram, the basic air-ingress mitigation ideas can be conceptually derived. The main concepts include (1) preventing structural degradation of graphite supporters; (2) preventing local stress concentration in the supporter; (3) preventing graphite oxidation; (4) preventing air ingress; (5) preventing density gradient driven flow; (4) preventing fluid density gradient; (5) preventing fluid temperature gradient; (6) preventing high temperature. Based on the basic concepts listed above, various air-ingress mitigation methods are proposed in this study. Among them, the following two mitigation ideas are extensively investigated using computational fluid dynamic codes (CFD): (1) helium injection in the lower plenum, and (2) reactor enclosure opened at the bottom. The main idea of the helium injection method is to replace air in the core and the lower plenum upper part by buoyancy force. This method reduces graphite oxidation damage in the severe locations of the reactor inside. To validate this method, CFD simulations are addressed here. A simple 2-D CFD model is developed based on the GT-MHR 600MWt design. The simulation results showed that the helium replace the air flow into the core and significantly reduce the air concentration in the core and bottom reflector potentially protecting oxidation damage. According to the simulation results, even small helium flow was sufficient to remove air in the core, mitigating the air-ingress successfully. The idea of the reactor enclosure with an opening at the bottom changes overall air-ingress mechanism from natural convection to molecular diffusion. This method can be applied to the current system by some design modification of the reactor cavity. To validate this concept, this study also uses CFD simulations based on the simplified 2-D geometry. The simulation results showed that the enclosure open at the bottom can successfully mitigate air-ingress into the reactor even after on-set natural circulation occurs.

Chang H. Oh

2011-03-01

183

The 5 key questions coping with risks due to natural hazards, answered by a case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs, human endeavours concern primarily existential needs, consequently, to be safeguarded against both natural as well as man made threads. The subsequent needs are to realize chances in a variety of fields, as economics and many others. Independently, the 5 crucial questions are the same as for coping with risks due to natural hazards specifically. These 5 key questions are I) What is the impact in function of space and time ? II) What protection measures comply with the general opinion and how much do they mitigate the threat? III) How can the loss be adequately quantified and monetized ? IV) What budget for prevention and reserves for restoration and compensation are to be planned ? V) Which mix of measures and allocation of resources is sustainable, thus, optimal ? The 5 answers, exemplified by a case study, concerning the sustainable management of risk due to the debris flows by the Enterbach / Inzing / Tirol / Austria, are as follows : I) The impact, created by both the propagation of flooding and sedimentation, has been forecasted by modeling (numerical simulation) the 30, 50, 100, 150, 300 and 1000 year debris flow. The input was specified by detailed studies in meteorology, precipitation and runoff, in geology, hydrogeology, geomorphology and slope stability, in hydraulics, sediment transport and debris flow, in forestry, agriculture and development of communal settlement and infrastructure. All investigations were performed according to the method of ETAlp (Erosion and Transport in Alpine systems). ETAlp has been developed in order to achieve a sustainable development in alpine areas and has been evaluated by the research project "nab", within the context of the EU-Interreg IIIb projects. II) The risk mitigation measures of concern are in hydraulics at the one hand and in forestry at the other hand. Such risk management is evaluated according to sustainability, which means economic, ecologic and social, in short, "triple" compatibility. 100% protection against the 100 year event shows to be the optimal degree of protection. Consequently, impacts statistically less frequent than once in 100 year are accepted as the remaining risk. Such floods and debris flows respectively cause a fan of propagation which is substantially reduced due to the protection measures against the 100 year event. III) The "triple loss distribution" shows the monetized triple damage, dependent on its probability. The monetization is performed by the social process of participation of the impacted interests, if not, by official experts in representation. The triple loss distribution rises in time mainly due to the rise in density and value of precious goods. A comparison of the distributions of the triple loss and the triple risk, behaving in opposite direction, is shown and explained within the project. IV) The recommended yearly reserves to be stocked for restoration and compensation of losses, caused by debris flows, amount to € 70'000.- according to the approach of the "technical risk premium". The discrepancy in comparison with the much higher amounts according to the common approaches of natural hazards engineering are discussed. V) The sustainable mix of hydraulic and forestry measures with the highest return on investment at lowest risk is performed according to the portfolio theory (Markowitz), based on the triple value curves, generated by the method of TripelBudgetierung®. Accordingly, the optimum mix of measures to protect the community of Inzing against the natural hazard of debris flow, thus, the most efficient allocation of resources equals to 2/3 for hydraulic, 1/3 for forestry measures. In detail, the results of the research pilot project "Nachhaltiges Risikomanagement - Enterbach / Inzing / Tirol / Austria" may be consulted under www.ibu.hsr.ch/inzing.

Hardegger, P.; Sausgruber, J. T.; Schiegg, H. O.

2009-04-01

184

The Value of Linking Mitigation and Adaptation: A Case Study of Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are two principal strategies for managing climate change risks: mitigation and adaptation. Until recently, mitigation\\u000a and adaptation have been considered separately in both climate change science and policy. Mitigation has been treated as an\\u000a issue for developed countries, which hold the greatest responsibility for climate change, while adaptation is seen as a priority\\u000a for the South, where mitigative capacity

Jessica M. Ayers; Saleemul Huq

2009-01-01

185

OFFSHORE PLATFORM HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION FACILITY: FEASIBILITY STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes a program conducted to evaluate the technical and environmental feasibility of using a proposed offshore platform incineration facility in the destruction of hazardous wastes and for incineration research....

186

Hazardous-waste management: a descriptive study. Master's thesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increased emphasis and enforcement of the RCRA regulations by the US EPA has prompted AF managers to reevaluate-base-hazardous waste management activities. This research effort provides management with a profile of the current state of affairs of waste management within the Air Force community. This profile provides the necessary baseline data for managers to develop and support future hazardous-waste-management initiatives.

Drewett

1986-01-01

187

In-Situ Mitigation of Effluents from Acid Waste Rock Dumps Using Reactive Surface Barriers –– a Feasibility Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The long-term mitigation of pore waters of acid waste rock dumps formed during uranium mining in the former G.D.R. requires\\u000a new remediation approaches. A study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of reactive surface barriers (RSB) as part of\\u000a an alternative covering system. One topic of the investigation was to evaluate suitable reactive materials for the mitigation\\u000a of radionuclides

P. Schneider; K. Osenbrück; P. L. Neitzel; K. Nindel

2002-01-01

188

Seismic Hazards and Mitigation Strategies for Older and Historic Unreinforced Masonry Buildings in Small Towns in Oregon and Washington. Proceedings of the Conference Held at Seattle, Washington on November 8-9, 1984.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The conference began with a presentation of the results of studies of seismic hazards in reinforced masonry buildings in small towns in the Pacific Northwest. Topics then addressed by the four panels were: (1) Seismicity and Seismic Design in Unreinforced...

N. M. Hawkins

1985-01-01

189

HOUSEHOLD HAZARDOUS WASTE CHARACTERIZATION STUDY FOR PALM BEACH COUNTY, FLORIDA - A MITE PROGRAM EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The objectives of the Household Hazardous Waste Characterization Study (the HHW Study) were to: 1) Quantity the annual household hazardous waste (HHW) tonnages disposed in Palm Beach County Florida?s (the County) residential solid waste (characterized in this study as municipal s...

190

Volcanic hazard studies for the Yucca Mountain project  

SciTech Connect

Volcanic hazard studies are ongoing to evaluate the risk of future volcanism with respect to siting of a repository for disposal of high-level radioactive waste at the Yucca Mountain site. Seven Quaternary basaltic volcanic centers are located a minimum distance of 12 km and a maximum distance of 47 km from the outer boundary of the exploration block. The conditional probability of disruption of a repository by future basaltic volcanism is bounded by the range of 10{sup {minus}8} to 10{sup {minus}10} yr{sup {minus}1}. These values are currently being reexamined based on new developments in the understanding of the evaluation of small volume, basaltic volcanic centers including: (1) Many, perhaps most, of the volcanic centers exhibit brief periods of eruptive activity separated by longer periods of inactivity. (2) The centers may be active for time spans exceeding 10{sup 5} yrs, (3) There is a decline in the volume of eruptions of the centers through time, and (4) Small volume eruptions occurred at two of the Quaternary centers during latest Pleistocene or Holocene time. We classify the basalt centers as polycyclic, and distinguish them from polygenetic volcanoes. Polycyclic volcanism is characterized by small volume, episodic eruptions of magma of uniform composition over time spans of 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 5} yrs. Magma eruption rates are low and the time between eruptions exceeds the cooling time of the magma volumes. 25 refs., 2 figs.

Crowe, B.; Turrin, B.; Wells, S.; Perry, F.; McFadden, L.; Renault, C.E.; Champion, D.; Harrington, C.

1989-05-01

191

Reducing hazard vulnerability through local government engagement and action  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of a natural hazard is a human construct. It is the interaction with human communities and settlements that defines\\u000a a natural phenomenon as a natural hazard. Thus the end point of hazard mitigation and hazard vulnerability assessment must\\u000a involve an attempt to reduce, or mitigate, the impact of the natural hazard on human communities. The responsibility to mitigate

David King

2008-01-01

192

15 CFR 923.25 - Shoreline erosion/mitigation planning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM...923.25 Shoreline erosion/mitigation planning...adversely affected by such erosion. This planning process...broader context of coastal hazard mitigation...

2010-01-01

193

15 CFR 923.25 - Shoreline erosion/mitigation planning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM...923.25 Shoreline erosion/mitigation planning...adversely affected by such erosion. This planning process...broader context of coastal hazard mitigation...

2009-01-01

194

Seismic hazard assessment - a holistic microzonation approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The probable mitigation and management issues of seismic hazard necessitate seismic microzonation for hazard and risk assessment at the local level. Such studies are preceded with those at a regional level. A comprehensive framework, therefore, encompasses several phases from information compilations and data recording to analyses and interpretations. The state-of-the-art methodologies involve multi-disciplinary approaches namely geological, seismological, and geotechnical methods delivering multiple perspectives on the prevailing hazard in terms of geology and geomorphology, strong ground motion, site amplification, site classifications, soil liquefaction potential, landslide susceptibility, and predominant frequency. The composite hazard is assessed accounting for all the potential hazard attributing features with relative rankings in a logic tree, fuzzy set or hierarchical concept.

Nath, S. K.; Thingbaijam, K. K. S.

2009-08-01

195

Sensitivity study on air dispersion and hazard exposure models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Army is currently using mathematical models to assess potential hazards associated with the use of depleted uranium (DU) munitions. These models simulate dispersion of material released to the air, determine subsequent air and ground concentrations, and estimate potential radiological and toxicological exposures to man from such releases. The models provide the Army with a decision-support tool for addressing

S. A. Bucci; J. Y. Nalbandian

1981-01-01

196

LAND CLASSIFICATION USED TO SELECT ABANDONED HAZARDOUS WASTE STUDY SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

The biological effects of hazardous substances in the environment are influenced by climate, physiography, and biota. These factors interact to determine the transport and fate of chemicals, but are difficult to model accurately except for small areas with a large data base. The ...

197

Nonpoint-Source Agricultural Hazard Index: A Case Study of the Province of Cremona, Italy.  

PubMed

This paper reports the results of a study aimed at the evaluation of the hazard level of farming activities in the province of Cremona, Italy, with particular reference to groundwater. The applied methodology employs a parametric approach based on the definition of potential hazard indexes (nonpoint-source agricultural hazard indexes, NPSAHI). Two categories of parameters were considered: the hazard factors (HF), which represent all farming activities that cause or might cause an impact on groundwater (use of fertilizers and pesticides, application of livestock and poultry manure, food industry wastewater, and urban sludge), and the control factors (CF), which adapt the hazard factor to the characteristics of the site (geographical location, slope, agronomic practices, and type of irrigation). The hazard index (HI) can be calculated multiplying the hazard factors by the control factors and, finally, the NPSAHI are obtained dividing HI into classes on a percentile basis using a scale ranging from 1 to 10. Organization, processing, and display of all data layers were performed using the geographical information system (GIS) ArcView and its Spatial Analyst extension. Results show that the potential hazard of groundwater pollution by farming activities in the province of Cremona falls mainly in the fifth class (very low hazard). PMID:10982734

TREVISAN; PADOVANI; CAPRI

2000-11-01

198

Computational study of laser imprint mitigation in foam-buffered inertial confinement fusion targets  

SciTech Connect

Recent experiments have shown that low density foam layers can significantly mitigate the perturbing effects of beam nonuniformities affecting the acceleration of thin shells. This problem is studied parametrically with two-dimensional LASNEX [G. B. Zimmerman and W. L. Kruer, Comments Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion {bold 2}, 51 (1975)]. Foam-buffered targets are employed, consisting typically of 250 {Angstrom} of gold, and 50 {mu}m of 50mg/cm{sup 3} C{sub 10}H{sub 8}O{sub 4} foam attached to a 10 {mu}m foil. In simulation these were characteristically exposed to 1.2 ns, flat-topped green light pulses at 1.4{times}10{sup 14}W/cm{sup 2} intensity, bearing 30 {mu}m lateral perturbations of up to 60{percent} variation in intensity. Without the buffer layers the foils were severely disrupted by 1 ns. With buffering only minimal distortion was manifest at 3 ns. The smoothing is shown to derive principally from the high thermal conductivity of the heated foam. The simulation results imply that (1) the foam thickness should exceed the disturbance wavelength; (2) intensities exceeding 5{times}10{sup 13}W/cm{sup 2} are needed for assured stability beyond 2 ns; (3) longer foams at lower densities are needed for effective mitigation with shorter wavelength light; (4) the gold layer hastens conversion of the structured foam to a uniform plasma. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

Mason, R.J.; Kopp, R.A.; Vu, H.X.; Wilson, D.C.; Goldman, S.R.; Watt, R.G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Dunne, M. [Atomic Weapons Establishment, Aldermaston, Reading, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Willi, O. [The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College of Science and Technology, London SW72BZ (United Kingdom)

1998-01-01

199

Methane emissions from landfills in Serbia and potential mitigation strategies: a case study.  

PubMed

Open dumping and landfilling have represented the predominant method of waste management in Serbia during the past decades. This practice resulted in over 3600 waste disposal sites distributed all over the country. The locations of the sites and their characteristics have been determined in the framework of the presented study. The vast majority of disposal sites (up to 3300) are characterized by small deposition depth of waste and total waste volumes of less than 10,000 m(3). Only about 50 landfills in Serbia contain more than 100,000 m(3) of waste. These large landfills are responsible for more than 95% of the total CH(4) emissions from waste disposal, which was assessed as 60,000 tons of CH(4) in 2010. The evaluation of different measures [soil cover, compost cover and landfill gas (LFG) systems] for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from Serbian landfills indicated that enhanced microbial CH(4) oxidation (using a compost cover), as well as the installation of LFG systems, could generate net revenues as saved CH(4) emissions are creditable for the European Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Scheme. In total between 4 and 7 million tons of CO(2) equivalent emissions could be avoided within the next 20 years by mitigating CH(4) emissions from Serbian landfills. PMID:22751946

Stanisavljevic, Nemanja; Ubavin, Dejan; Batinic, Bojan; Fellner, Johann; Vujic, Goran

2012-07-02

200

Re-assessing volcanic hazard maps for improving volcanic risk communication: application to Stromboli Island, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Please click here to download the map associated with this article.Hazard and risk maps are tools for both mitigating against risk and informing and preparing the general public. Recent studies have highlighted that volcanic hazard and risk maps used during emergencies can be difficult to interpret. Our research focuses on evaluating and improving the efficacy of currently available maps of

Rosella Nave; Roberto Isaia; Giuseppe Vilardo; Jenny Barclay

2010-01-01

201

Combining historical and geological data for the assessment of the landslide hazard: a case study from Campania, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Past slope instabilities at Quindici (one of the five towns of Campania that was hit by catastrophic landslides on 5 May 1998) and in the Lauro Valley are investigated to improve the understanding of the landslide history in the area, as a mandatory step for the evaluation of the landslide hazard. The research was performed by combining information on past slope instabilities from both historical and geological data. From numerous historical sources an archive consisting of 45 landsliding and flooding events for the period 1632-1998 was compiled. Landslide activity was also investigated by means of interpretation of multi-year sets of aerial photos, production of Landslide Activity Maps, and excavation of trenches on the alluvial fans at the mountain foothills. Detailed stratigraphic analysis of the sections exposed in the trenches identified landslide events as the main geomorphic process responsible for building up the fans in the study area. Integration of historical and geological approaches provides significant insight into past and recent instability at Quindici. This is particularly valuable in view of the limitations of individual sources of information. Application of such an approach offers potential for improved hazard assessment and risk mitigation.

Calcaterra, D.; Parise, M.; Palma, B.

202

Integrated remote sensing and GIS techniques for landslide hazard zonation: a case study Wadi Watier area, South Sinai, Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural hazard analysis involves mapping and identifying future hazardous zones through the analysis of the controls influencing\\u000a hazard initiation and occurrence. One of such natural hazard is the landslide. Landslides are amongst the most costly and\\u000a damaging natural hazards especially in mountain regions and are triggered mainly by seismic activity and\\/or rainfall. The\\u000a aim of the present study is to

Mohamed O. Arnous

203

Deepwater Gulf of Mexico Shallow Hazards Studies Best Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

ConocoPhillips (hConoco) has been involved in deepwater exploration in the Gulf of Mexico for the last 5 years using a dynamically positioned (DP) drillship. As part of the Federal (MMS) and State permitting process for deepwater exploration, ConocoPhillips (COPC) actively undertakes in securing seabed and shallow subsurface hazard surveys and analyses for every potential drillsite. COPC conducts seabed and shallow

M. Fernandez; B. Hobbs

2005-01-01

204

Hazardous waste cleanup: A case study for developing efficient programs  

SciTech Connect

As officials in Pacific Basin Countries develop laws and policies for cleaning up hazardous wastes, experiences of countries with such instruments in place may be instructive. The United States has addressed cleanups of abandoned hazardous waste sites through the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The US Congress enacted CERCLA in 1980. The task of cleaning up waste sites became larger and more costly than originally envisioned and as a result, Congress strengthened and expanded CERCLA in 1986. Today, many industry representatives, environmentalists, and other interested parties say the program is still costly and ineffective, and Congress is responding through a reauthorization process to change the law once again. Because the law and modifications to it can affect company operations and revenues, industries want to know the potential consequences of such changes. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) recently developed a baseline for one economic sector -- the US energy industry -- against which impacts of proposed changes to CERCLA could be measured. Difficulties encountered in locating and interpreting the data for developing that baseline suggest that legislation should not only provide for meeting its stated goals (e.g., protection of human health and the environment) but also allow for its efficient evaluation over time. This lesson can be applied to any nation contemplating hazardous waste cleanup laws and policies.

Elcock, D.; Puder, M.G.

1995-06-01

205

Environmental mitigation of dredge and fill projects: A case study of coos bay\\/ north bend, oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term “mitigation”; has been used in connection with habitat losses attributable to federal water projects as early as the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899 and the Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act of 1934. Most of the current requirements to mitigate habitat losses associated with water development projects apply to wetlands, as they are biologically productive and have been

Peri Muretta; Willard Price

1982-01-01

206

A study of shock mitigating materials in a split Hopkins bar configuration. Phase 2  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) designs mechanical systems with electronics that must survive high shock environments. These mechanical systems include penetrators that must survive soil and rock penetration, nuclear transportation casks that must survive transportation environments, and laydown weapons that must survive delivery impact. These mechanical systems contain electronics that may operate during and after the high shock environment and that must be protected from the high shock environments. A study has been started to improve the packaging techniques for the advanced electronics utilized in these mechanical systems because current packaging techniques are inadequate for these sensitive electronics. In many cases, it has been found that the packaging techniques currently used not only do not mitigate the shock environment but actually amplify the shock environment. An ambitious goal for this packaging study is to avoid amplification and possibly attenuate the shock environment before it reached the electronics contained in the various mechanical systems. Here, a study to compare two thickness values, 0.125 and 0.250 in. of five materials, GE RTV 630, HS II Silicone, Polysulfide Rubber, Sylgard 184, and Teflon for their shock mitigating characteristics with a split Hopkinson bar configuration has been completed. The five materials have been tested in both unconfined and confined conditions at ambient temperature and with two applied loads of 750 {mu}{epsilon} peak (25 fps peak) with a 100 {micro}s duration, measured at 10% amplitude, and 1500 {mu}{epsilon} peak (50 fps peak) with a 100 {micro}s duration, measured at 10% amplitude. The five materials have been tested at ambient, cold ({minus}65 F), and hot (+165 F) for the unconfined condition with the 750 {mu}{epsilon} peak (25 fps peak) applied load. Time domain and frequency domain analyses of the split Hopkinson bar data have been performed to compare how these materials lengthen the shock pulse, attenuate the shock pulse, reflect high frequency content in the shock pulse, and transmit energy.

Bateman, V.I.; Brown, F.A.; Hansen, N.R.

1997-12-31

207

Making the decision to mitigate risk - Treesearch  

Treesearch

Description: Why individuals choose to mitigate, downplay, or ignore risk has been a ... the past 25 years for natural- and human-created risks, such as earthquakes, ... Wildfire has been a relatively recent focus in the natural hazard literature, ...

208

Strategic Implementation Plan for Tsunami Mitigation Projects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program is a Federal-State partnership to reduce risks from tsunamis. The National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), United States Geological Survey (USGS), the Federal Emergency Management Agency ...

L. Dengler

1998-01-01

209

Natural Hazards Observer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Natural Hazards Center of the University of Colorado Boulder offers a free online professional hazards publication called the Natural Hazards Observer. Readers will find information on current disaster issues; new international, national, and local disaster management, mitigation, and education programs; hazards research; political and policy developments; new information sources; upcoming conferences; and recent publications. The January 2003 issue (the latest of the bimonthly publication, which dates back to 1996) includes reports with titles such as Congress Passes Inland Flood Warning Bill and Dam Safety Act Passed. Those interested can view the issues online, download and view them, and even search their content by various parameters.

1996-01-01

210

Public engagement in neighbourhood level wildfire mitigation and preparedness: case studies from Canada, the US and Australia.  

PubMed

This study examined neighbourhood level wildfire mitigation programs being implemented in neighbourhoods in Canada (FireSmart-ForestWise), Australia (Community Fireguard) and the US (Firewise Communities). Semi-structured interviews were completed with 19 residents participating in the programs. A wide range of activities were completed as part of the three programs. Despite differences between the three programs, participants appeared to participate in the programs for three main reasons: Fire experience, agency involvement, and personal and family protection. A fire therefore provides a window of opportunity to engage residents in neighbourhood level wildfire mitigation programs. The neighbourhood level wildfire mitigation programs helped to reduce the wildfire risk, but also enhanced both community resilience and relationships between residents and government agencies. PMID:21684061

McGee, T K

2011-10-01

211

Sludge Treatment Project Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer system Preliminary Design Hazard and Operability Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) study addresses the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System (ECRTS) preliminary design for retrieving sludge from underwater engineered containers located in the 105-K West (KW)...

C. A. Carro

2011-01-01

212

ASSESSMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE SURFACE IMPOUNDMENT TECHNOLOGY CASE STUDIES AND PERSPECTIVES OF EXPERTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The available data were gathered for a large number of case studies of hazardous waste surface impoundments (SI). Actual and projected performances were compared. This collection, analysis and dissemination of the accumulated experience can contribute significantly to improving S...

213

Practical Implementation Guidelines for SSHAC Level 3 and 4 Hazard Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The complexity of tectonic environments and the limited data available for seismic source and ground motion characterization make the use of a significant level of expert judgment in seismic hazard assessment studies unavoidable. In the mid-90s the Nuclea...

A. M. Kammerer J. P. Ake

2012-01-01

214

Feasibility study--computerized application of the hazardous material regulations  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of developing a full expert system for transportation and packaging of hazardous and radioactive materials was initiated within the framework of three subtasks: (1) analysis of commercial packages related to regulation scanning, (2) analysis of computer languages to develop the expert system, and (3) development of expert system prototypes. The strategy to develop the latter subtask was to first,develop modules to capture the knowledge of different areas of transportation and packaging and second, to analyze the feasibility of appending these different modules in one final full package. The individual modules development contemplated one prototype for transporting and packaging of radioactive material and another for transporting hazardous chemical materials. In the event that it is not feasible to link these two packages, the modules can always be used as stand-alone tools, or linked as a single package with some restrictions in their applicability. The work done during this fiscal year has focused on developing a prototype for transporting radioactive materials.

Ferrada, J.J.; Green, V.M.; Rawl, R.R.

1992-09-01

215

Prospective study of hepatic, renal, and haematological surveillance in hazardous materials firefighters  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To evaluate possible health effects related to work with hazardous materials as measured by end organ effect markers in a large cohort over about 2 years, and in a subcohort over 5 years.?METHODS—Hepatic, renal, and haematological variables were analysed from 1996-98 in hazardous materials firefighters including 288 hazardous materials technicians (81%) and 68 support workers (19%). The same end organ effect markers in a subcohort of the technicians were also analysed (n=35) from 1993-98. Support workers were considered as controls because they are also firefighters, but had a low potential exposure to hazardous materials.?RESULTS—During the study period, no serious injuries or exposures were reported. For the end organ effect markers studied, no significant differences were found between technicians and support workers at either year 1 or year 3. After adjustment for a change in laboratory, no significant longitudinal changes were found within groups for any of the markers except for creatinine which decreased for both technicians (p<0.001) and controls (p<0.01).?CONCLUSIONS—Health effects related to work are infrequent among hazardous materials technicians. Haematological, hepatic, and renal testing is not required on an annual basis and has limited use in detecting health effects in hazardous materials technicians.???Keywords: hazardous materials; firefighters; medical surveillance

Kales, S; Polyhronopoulos, G; Aldrich, J; Mendoza, P; Suh, J; Christiani, D

2001-01-01

216

Effects of Using Compost as a Preventive Measure to Mitigate Shoulder Cracking: Laboratory and Field Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Compost materials, given their moisture affinity, fibrous and low permeability characteristics, could provide stabilization of natural expansive subgrades by mitigating shrinkage cracking. In order to understand possible mechanisms of this stabilization, ...

A. J. Puppala N. Intharasombat S. Qasim

2004-01-01

217

Characterizing pork producer demand for shelterbelts to mitigate odor: an Iowa case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shelterbelts have been shown to mitigate livestock odors incrementally through complex physical and social dynamics. By surveying\\u000a Iowa hog producers, we assessed the current degree of shelterbelt usage by pork producers, examined producers’ beliefs and\\u000a concerns regarding shelterbelt usage for odor mitigation and estimated both their willingness to pay and their overall demand\\u000a for shelterbelts. Overall, Iowa hog producers display

John Tyndall

2009-01-01

218

A combined approach to physical vulnerability of large cities exposed to natural hazards - the case study of Arequipa, Peru  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arequipa, the second largest city in Peru with almost one million inhabitants, is exposed to various natural hazards, such as earthquakes, landslides, flash floods, and volcanic eruptions. This study focuses on the vulnerability and response of housing, infrastructure and lifelines in Arequipa to flash floods and eruption induced hazards, notably lahars from El Misti volcano. We propose a combined approach for assessing physical vulnerability in a large city based on: (1) remote sensing utilizing high-resolution imagery (SPOT5, Google Earth Pro, Bing, Pléïades) to map the distribution and type of land use, properties of city blocks in terms of exposure to the hazard (elevation above river level, distance to channel, impact angle, etc.); (2) in situ survey of buildings and critical infrastructure (e.g., bridges) and strategic resources (e.g., potable water, irrigation, sewage); (3) information gained from interviews with engineers involved in construction works, previous crises (e.g., June 2001 earthquake) and risk mitigation in Arequipa. Remote sensing and mapping at the scale of the city has focused on three pilot areas, along the perennial Rio Chili valley that crosses the city and oasis from north to south, and two of the east-margin tributaries termed Quebrada (ravine): San Lazaro crossing the northern districts and Huarangal crossing the northeastern districts. Sampling of city blocks through these districts provides varying geomorphic, structural, historical, and socio-economic characteristics for each sector. A reconnaissance survey included about 900 edifices located in 40 city blocks across districts of the pilot areas, distinct in age, construction, land use and demographics. A building acts as a structural system and its strength and resistance to flashfloods and lahars therefore highly depends on the type of construction and the used material. Each building surveyed was assigned to one of eight building categories based on physical criteria (dominant building materials, number of floors, percentage and quality of openings, etc). Future steps in this study include mapping potential impacts from flash flood and lahars as a function of frequency of occurrence and magnitude. For this purpose, we will regroup the eight building types identified in Arequipa to obtain a reduced number of vulnerability categories. Fragility functions will then be established for each vulnerability category and hazard relating percentage damage to parameters such as flow velocity, depth, and dynamic and hydrostatic pressure. These functions will be applied to flow simulations for each of the three river channels considered with the final goal to determine potential losses, identify areas of particularly high risk and to prepare plans for evacuation, relocation and rehabilitation. In the long term, this investigation aims to contribute towards a multi-hazard risk analysis including earthquake- and other volcanic hazards, e.g. ashfall and pyroclastic flows, all by considering the cascading effects of a hazard chain. We also plan to address the consequences of failure of two artificial lake dams located 40 and 70 km north of the city. A lake breakout flood or lahar would propagate beyond the city and would call for an immediate response including contingency plans and evacuation practices.

Thouret, Jean-Claude; Ettinger, Susanne; Zuccaro, Giulio; Guitton, Mathieu; Martelli, Kim; Degregorio, Daniela; Nardone, Stefano; Santoni, Olivier; Magill, Christina; Luque, Juan Alexis; Arguedas, Ana

2013-04-01

219

Analysis of Earthquake Hazard and Perceptibility Study in Çanakkale, NW Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keeping in mind the epicenter distributions of earthquakes in and around the city of Çanakkale and faulting, hazard study was performed for the region in 4 seismic sub-zones. Using the seismic data for 4933 earthquakes with magnitudes M>=3 that took place between the years 1903-2009, seismic hazard input parameters a and b were calculated using empirical relations. The probabilities of

Tolga Bekler

2010-01-01

220

Methodologies for the assessment of earthquake-triggered landslides hazard. A comparison of Logistic Regression and Artificial Neural Network models  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, interest in landslide hazard assessment studies has increased substantially. They are appropriate for evaluation and mitigation plan development in landslide-prone areas. There are several techniques available for landslide hazard research at a regional scale. Generally, they can be classified in two groups: qualitative and quantitative methods. Most of qualitative methods tend to be subjective, since they depend

M. J. García-Rodríguez; J. A. Malpica; B. Benito

2009-01-01

221

Evaluation of an Innovative Use of Removable Thin Film Coating Technology for the Abatement of Hazardous Contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates a new decontamination technique for the mitigation and abatement of hazardous particulates. The traditional decontamination methods used to clean facilities and equipment are time-consuming, prolonging workers’ exposure time, may generate airborne hazards, and can be expensive. The use of removable thin film coating as a decontamination technique for surface contamination proved to be a more efficient method

Margaret E. Lumia; Charles Gentile; Michael Gochfeld; Philip Efthimion; Mark Robson

2009-01-01

222

Study in landslide hazard zonation based on factor weighting-rating in Wan County, Three Gorges Reservoir area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-source earth observation data is highly desirable in current landslide hazard prediction modeling, as well as Landslide Hazard Zonation(LHZ) is a very important content of landslide hazard prediction modeling. In this paper, take Wan County for instance, we investigate the potentials of derivation from multi-source data sets to study landslide hazard zonation based on the ordinal scale relative weighting-rating technique.

Zhengjun Liu; Jian Wang; Changyan Chi

2008-01-01

223

BICAPA case study of natural hazards that trigger technological disasters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Industrial facilities are vulnerable to natural disasters. Natural disasters and technological accidents are not always singular or isolated events. The example in this paper show that they can occur in complex combinations and/or in rapid succession, known as NaTech disasters, thereby triggering multiple impacts. This analysis indicates that NaTech disasters have the potential to trigger hazmat releases and other types of technological accidents. Climate changes play an important role in prevalence and NATECH triggering mechanisms. Projections under the IPCC IS92 a scenario (similar to SRES A1B; IPCC, 1992) and two GCMs indicate that the risk of floods increases in central and eastern Europe. Increase in intense short-duration precipitation is likely to lead to increased risk of flash floods. (Lehner et al., 2006). It is emergent to develop tools for the assessment of risks due to NATECH events in the industrial processes, in a framework starting with the characterization of frequency and severity of natural disasters and continuing with complex analysis of industrial processes, to risk assessment and residual functionality analysis. The Ponds with dangerous technological residues are the most vulnerable targets of natural hazards. Technological accidents such as those in Baia Mare, (from January to March 2000) had an important international echo. Extreme weather phenomena, like those in the winter of 2000 in Baia Mare, and other natural disasters such as floods or earthquakes, can cause a similar disaster at Târn?veni in Transylvania Depression. During 1972 - 1978 three decanting ponds were built on the Chemical Platform Târn?veni, now SC BICAPA SA, for disposal of the hazardous-wastes resulting from the manufacture of sodium dichromate, inorganic salts, sludge from waste water purification and filtration, wet gas production from carbide. The ponds are located on the right bank of the river Târnava at about 35-50m from the flooding defense dam. The total amount of toxic waste stored in the three ponds is about 2500 tons, equivalent at 128 tons expressed in hexavalent chromium. The ponds contour dikes are strongly damaged in many places, their safety is jeopardized by leakages, sliding slopes and ravens. The upstream dike has an increased failure risk. The upstream dike has an increased failure risk. In that section the coefficients of safety are under the allowable limit, both in static applications, and the earthquake. The risk of failure is very high also due to the dikes slopes. The risk becomes higher in case of heavy rainfall, floods or an earthquake.

Boca, Gabriela; Ozunu, Alexandru; Nicolae Vlad, Serban

2010-05-01

224

Software safety hazard analysis  

SciTech Connect

Techniques for analyzing the safety and reliability of analog-based electronic protection systems that serve to mitigate hazards in process control systems have been developed over many years, and are reasonably well understood. An example is the protection system in a nuclear power plant. The extension of these techniques to systems which include digital computers is not well developed, and there is little consensus among software engineering experts and safety experts on how to analyze such systems. One possible technique is to extend hazard analysis to include digital computer-based systems. Software is frequently overlooked during system hazard analyses, but this is unacceptable when the software is in control of a potentially hazardous operation. In such cases, hazard analysis should be extended to fully cover the software. A method for performing software hazard analysis is proposed in this paper.

Lawrence, J.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1996-02-01

225

Underground Coal-Fires in Xinjiang, China: A Continued Effort in Applying Geophysics to Solve a Local Problem and to Mitigate a Global Hazard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spontaneous uncontrolled coal seam fires are a well known phenomenon that causes severe environmental problems and severe impact on natural coal reserves. Coal fires are a worldwide phenomenon, but in particular in Xinjiang, that covers 17.3 % of Chinas area and hosts approx 42 % of its coal resources. In Xinjiang since more than 50 years a rigorous strategy for fire fighting on local and regional scale is persued. The Xinjiang Coalfield Fire Fighting Bureau (FFB) has developed technologies and methods to deal with any known fire. Many fires have been extinguished already, but the problem is still there if not even growing. This problem is not only a problem for China due to the loss of valuable energy resources, but it is also a worldwide threat because of the generation of substantial amounts of greenhouse gases. Through the FFB, China is struggling to overcome this, but the activities could be much enhanced by the continuation of the already successful conjoint operations. The last ten years have seen two successful cooperative projects between China and Germany on the field of coal-fire fighting, namely the German Technical Cooperation Project on Coal Fire in Xinjiang and the Sino-German Coal Fire Research Initiative funded by the corresponding ministeries of both countries. A persistent task in the fire fighting is the identification and supervision of areas with higher risks for the ignition of coal fires, the exploration of already ignited fire zones to extinguish the fires and the monitoring of extinguished fires to detect as early as possible process that may foster re-ignition. This can be achieved by modeling both the structures and the processes that are involved. This has also been a promising part of the past cooperation projects, yet to be transformed into a standard application of fire fighting procedures. In this contribution we describe the plans for a new conjoint project between China and Germany where on the basis of field investigations and laboratory measurements realistic dynamical models of fire-zones are constructed to increase the understanding of particular coal-fires, to interpret the surface signatures of the coal-fire in terms of location and propagation and to estimate the output of hazardous exhaust products to evaluate the economic benefit of fire extinction.

Wuttke, M. W.; Halisch, M.; Tanner, D. C.; Cai, Z. Y.; Zeng, Q.; Wang, C.

2012-04-01

226

Natural phenomena hazards site characterization criteria  

SciTech Connect

The criteria and recommendations in this standard shall apply to site characterization for the purpose of mitigating Natural Phenomena Hazards (wind, floods, landslide, earthquake, volcano, etc.) in all DOE facilities covered by DOE Order 5480.28. Criteria for site characterization not related to NPH are not included unless necessary for clarification. General and detailed site characterization requirements are provided in areas of meteorology, hydrology, geology, seismology, and geotechnical studies.

Not Available

1994-03-01

227

Radon mitigation studies: South Central Florida demonstration. Final report, November 1987-January 1991  

SciTech Connect

The report gives results of an EPA radon mitigation project involving 14 slab-on-grade houses in Polk County, FL, having indoor radon levels of 320-3810 Bq/cu m (8.7-103 pCi/L), using sub-slab depressurization (SSD) in a variety of applications to evaluate optimal design criteria to be recommended as cost-effective and capable of reducing indoor radon concentrations in houses built over compacted soil fills. For all houses, obvious accessible radon entry points were sealed, and 53-90 L (12-20 gal.) suction pits were dug into the fill material. Two of the houses were mitigated with exterior horizontal suction holes drilled through the stem walls. In four houses, one or more suction pipes were in the garage. The remainder of the interior suction holes were in closets or some other unobtrusive location. Except for the two houses with exterior systems, the other 12 had mitigation fans in the attic. In-line centrifugal fans were used to mitigate each house, although a larger radial blower was installed overnight for experimental purposes in one house, and a vaccumcleaner was used to simulate a larger suction in another house for pressure field measurements only. Post-mitigation worst-case radon concentrations in these houses ranged from 40 to 290 Bq/cu m.

Fowler, C.S.; Williamson, A.D.; Pyle, B.E.; Belzer, F.E.; Coker, R.N.

1992-10-01

228

A Case Study in Ethical Decision Making Regarding Remote Mitigation of Botnets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is becoming more common for researchers to find themselves in a position of being able to take over control of a malicious botnet. If this happens, should they use this knowledge to clean up all the infected hosts? How would this affect not only the owners and operators of the zombie computers, but also other researchers, law enforcement agents serving justice, or even the criminals themselves? What dire circumstances would change the calculus about what is or is not appropriate action to take? We review two case studies of long-lived malicious botnets that present serious challenges to researchers and responders and use them to illuminate many ethical issues regarding aggressive mitigation. We make no judgments about the questions raised, instead laying out the pros and cons of possible choices and allowing workshop attendees to consider how and where they would draw lines. By this, we hope to expose where there is clear community consensus as well as where controversy or uncertainty exists.

Dittrich, David; Leder, Felix; Werner, Tillmann

229

Success in transmitting hazard science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Money motivates mitigation. An example of success in communicating scientific information about hazards, coupled with information about available money, is the follow-up action by local governments to actually mitigate. The Nevada Hazard Mitigation Planning Committee helps local governments prepare competitive proposals for federal funds to reduce risks from natural hazards. Composed of volunteers with expertise in emergency management, building standards, and earthquake, flood, and wildfire hazards, the committee advises the Nevada Division of Emergency Management on (1) the content of the State’s hazard mitigation plan and (2) projects that have been proposed by local governments and state agencies for funding from various post- and pre-disaster hazard mitigation programs of the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Local governments must have FEMA-approved hazard mitigation plans in place before they can receive this funding. The committee has been meeting quarterly with elected and appointed county officials, at their offices, to encourage them to update their mitigation plans and apply for this funding. We have settled on a format that includes the county’s giving the committee an overview of its infrastructure, hazards, and preparedness. The committee explains the process for applying for mitigation grants and presents the latest information that we have about earthquake hazards, including locations of nearby active faults, historical seismicity, geodetic strain, loss-estimation modeling, scenarios, and documents about what to do before, during, and after an earthquake. Much of the county-specific information is available on the web. The presentations have been well received, in part because the committee makes the effort to go to their communities, and in part because the committee is helping them attract federal funds for local mitigation of not only earthquake hazards but also floods (including canal breaches) and wildfires, the other major concerns in Nevada. Local citizens appreciate the efforts of the state officials to present the information in a public forum. The Committee’s earthquake presentations to the counties are supplemented by regular updates in the two most populous counties during quarterly meetings of the Nevada Earthquake Safety Council, generally alternating between Las Vegas and Reno. We have only 17 counties in Nevada, so we are making good progress at reaching each within a few years. The Committee is also learning from the county officials about their frustrations in dealing with the state and federal bureaucracies. Success is documented by the mitigation projects that FEMA has funded.

Price, J. G.; Garside, T.

2010-12-01

230

Studying and Improving Human Response to Natural Hazards: Lessons from the Virtual Hurricane Lab  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most critical challenges facing communities in areas prone to natural hazards is how to best encourage residents to invest in individual and collective actions that would reduce the damaging impact of low-probability, high-consequence, environmental events. Unfortunately, what makes this goal difficult to achieve is that the relative rarity natural hazards implies that many who face the risk of natural hazards have no previous experience to draw on when making preparation decisions, or have prior experience that provides misleading guidance on how best to prepare. For example, individuals who have experienced strings of minor earthquakes or near-misses from tropical cyclones may become overly complacent about the risks that extreme events actually pose. In this presentation we report the preliminary findings of a program of work that explores the use of realistic multi-media hazard simulations designed for two purposes: 1) to serve as a basic research tool for studying of how individuals make decisions to prepare for rare natural hazards in laboratory settings; and 2) to serve as an educational tool for giving people in hazard-prone areas virtual experience in hazard preparation. We demonstrate a prototype simulation in which participants experience the approach of a virtual hurricane, where they have the opportunity to invest in different kinds of action to protect their home from damage. As the hurricane approaches participants have access to an “information dashboard” in which they can gather information about the storm threat from a variety of natural sources, including mock television weather broadcasts, web sites, and conversations with neighbors. In response to this information they then have the opportunity to invest in different levels of protective actions. Some versions of the simulation are designed as games, where participants are rewarded based on their ability to make the optimal trade-off between under and over-preparing for the threat. From a basic research perspective the data provide valuable potential insights into the dynamics of information gathering prior to hurricane impacts, as well as laboratory in which we can study how both information gathering and responses varies in responses to controlled variations in such factors as the complexity of forecast information. From an applied perspective the simulations provide an opportunity for residents in hazard-prone areas to learn about different kinds of information and receive feedback on their potential biases prior to an actual encounter with a hazard. The presentation concludes with a summary of some of the basic research findings that have emerged from the hurricane lab to date, as well as a discussion of the prospects for extending the technology to a broad range of environmental hazards.

Meyer, R.; Broad, K.; Orlove, B. S.

2010-12-01

231

Mask roughness induced LER control and mitigation: aberrations sensitivity study and alternate illumination scheme  

SciTech Connect

Here we conduct a mask-roughness-induced line-edge-roughness (LER) aberrations sensitivity study both as a random distribution amongst the first 16 Fringe Zernikes (for overall aberration levels of 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75nm rms) as well as an individual aberrations sensitivity matrix over the first 37 Fringe Zernikes. Full 2D aerial image modeling for an imaging system with NA = 0.32 was done for both the 22-nm and 16-nm half-pitch nodes on a rough mask with a replicated surface roughness (RSR) of 100 pm and a correlation length of 32 nm at the nominal extreme-ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) wavelength of 13.5nm. As the ideal RSR value for commercialization of EUVL is 50 pm and under, and furthermore as has been shown elsewhere, a correlation length of 32 nm of roughness on the mask sits on the peak LER value for an NA = 0.32 imaging optic, these mask roughness values and consequently the aberration sensitivity study presented here, represent a worst-case scenario. The illumination conditions were chosen based on the possible candidates for the 22-nm and 16-nm half-pitch nodes, respectively. In the 22-nm case, a disk illumination setting of {sigma} = 0.50 was used, and for the 16-nm case, crosspole illumination with {sigma} = 0.10 at an optimum offset of dx = 0 and dy = .67 in sigma space. In examining how to mitigate mask roughness induced LER, we considered an alternate illumination scheme whereby a traditional dipole's angular spectrum is extended in the direction parallel to the line-and-space mask absorber pattern to represent a 'strip'. While this illumination surprisingly provides minimal improvement to the LER as compared to several alternate illumination schemes, the overall imaging quality in terms of image-log-slope (ILS) and contrast is improved.

McClinton, Brittany M.; Naulleau, Patrick P.

2011-03-11

232

Title: ArcGIS, HAZUS-MH, and MitigationPlan.com: Arkansas' Mitigation Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combining HAZUS-MH (FEMA's newest loss estimation model running on the ArcGIS 8.3 platform) with MitigationPlan.com (the Visu al Risk Technologies Hazard Mitigation Planning System), the State of Arkansas Department of Emergency Management developed a unique method of incorporating county mitigation plans into the State Plan with the click of a button. Contracting with private consultants, Arkansas was able to streamline

Terry Gray

233

Comparison of different parametric proportional hazards models for interval-censored data: a simulation study.  

PubMed

Interval censoring occurs frequently in clinical trials, but is often simplified to a right censoring problem because statistical methods in this area are under developed. It is recognized that analyzing interval censored data as right-censored data can lead to biased results. Although statistical methods have been developed to estimate survival function and to test hypothesis, estimating hazard ratio (HR) in a proportional hazards (PH) model for interval censored data remains as a challenge. Semi-parametric PH model was developed but difficult to implement, and thus rarely used in practice. Parametric PH method can be easily implemented but received little attention in practice because the impact of mis-specifying baseline hazard function on HR estimate was not well understood. We examined the performance of parametric PH models, using 3 baseline hazard functions: exponential, Weibull, and a 10-piece exponential function, under different underlying data distributions and censoring schema, through an extensive simulation study. Data were generated from 6 different models representing a range of possible scenarios in clinical trials. The simulation study revealed that mis-specifying baseline hazard function had little impact on the HR estimates. Robust estimate of HR with little bias and small mean square errors (MSE) were obtained using a PH model with a Weibull or 10-piece exponential function approximating baseline hazard function. Bigger bias and MSE were observed when using an exponential function to approximate a complex baseline hazard function. Examples are included. Based on these findings, we advocate the use of parametric PH models for the analysis of interval censored data. PMID:23916917

Gong, Qi; Fang, Liang

2013-08-03

234

State and Local Mitigation Planning How-to Guide. Getting Started: Building Support for Mitigation Planning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This first guide in the State and Local Mitigation Planning How-to series discusses the activities and issues involved in initiating a hazard mitigation planning process. The topics covered here are presented within the context of the beginning phase of t...

2002-01-01

235

Mitigation of indirect environmental effects of GM crops  

PubMed Central

Currently, the UK has no procedure for the approval of novel agricultural practices that is based on environmental risk management principles. Here, we make a first application of the ‘bow-tie’ risk management approach in agriculture, for assessment of land use changes, in a case study of the introduction of genetically modified herbicide tolerant (GMHT) sugar beet. There are agronomic and economic benefits, but indirect environmental harm from increased weed control is a hazard. The Farm Scale Evaluation (FSE) trials demonstrated reduced broad-leaved weed biomass and seed production at the field scale. The simplest mitigation measure is to leave a proportion of rows unsprayed in each GMHT crop field. Our calculations, based on FSE data, show that a maximum of 2% of field area left unsprayed is required to mitigate weed seed production and 4% to mitigate weed biomass production. Tilled margin effects could simply be mitigated by increasing the margin width from 0.5 to 1.5?m. Such changes are cheap and simple to implement in farming practices. This case study demonstrates the usefulness of the bow-tie risk management approach and the transparency with which hazards can be addressed. If adopted generally, it would help to enable agriculture to adopt new practices with due environmental precaution.

Pidgeon, J.D; May, M.J; Perry, J.N; Poppy, G.M

2007-01-01

236

Study of the environmental hazard caused by the oil shale industry solid waste.  

PubMed

The environmental hazard was studied of eight soil and solid waste samples originating from a region of Estonia heavily polluted by the oil shale industry. The samples were contaminated mainly with oil products (up to 7231mg/kg) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; up to 434mg/kg). Concentrations of heavy metals and water-extractable phenols were low. The toxicities of the aqueous extracts of solid-phase samples were evaluated by using a battery of Toxkit tests (involving crustaceans, protozoa, rotifers and algae). Waste rock and fresh semi-coke were classified as of "high acute toxic hazard", whereas aged semi-coke and most of the polluted soils were classified as of "acute toxic hazard". Analysis of the soil slurries by using the photobacterial solid-phase flash assay showed the presence of particle-bound toxicity in most samples. In the case of four samples out of the eight, chemical and toxicological evaluations both showed that the levels of PAHs, oil products or both exceeded their respective permitted limit values for the living zone (20mg PAHs/kg and 500mg oil products/kg); the toxicity tests showed a toxic hazard. However, in the case of three samples, the chemical and toxicological hazard predictions differed markedly: polluted soil from the Erra River bank contained 2334mg oil/kg, but did not show any water-extractable toxicity. In contrast, spent rock and aged semi-coke that contained none of the pollutants in hazardous concentrations, showed adverse effects in toxicity tests. The environmental hazard of solid waste deposits from the oil shale industry needs further assessment. PMID:11387023

Põllumaa, L; Maloveryan, A; Trapido, M; Sillak, H; Kahru, A

237

The importance of paleoseismology in seismic hazard studies for critical facilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is intended to provide a perspective on the use of paleoseismological studies in the seismic hazard assessment of critical facilities, such as dams, chemical/petrochemical facilities and nuclear power plants. In particular, the use of data obtained from paleoseismological studies for probabilistic seismic hazard analyses, when the required probabilities of exceedance are very low (e.g. 10- 6 10- 7) is considered. Recent revisions to the IAEA Safety Standards that provide guidance to Member States in their work related to the seismic safety of nuclear power plants are presented to illustrate the importance of this emerging discipline.

Gürpinar, Aybars

2005-10-01

238

A computational study of explosive hazard potential for reuseable launch vehicles.  

SciTech Connect

Catastrophic failure of a Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) during launch poses a significant engineering problem in the context of crew escape. The explosive hazard potential of the RLV changes during the various phases of the launch. The hazard potential in the on-pad environment is characterized by release and formation of a gas phase mixture in an oxidizer rich environment, while the hazard during the in-flight phase is dominated by the boundary layer and wake flow formed around the vehicle and the interaction with the exhaust gas plume. In order to address more effectively crew escape in these explosive environments a computational analysis program was undertaken by Lockheed Martin, funded by NASA JSC, with simulations and analyses completed by Southwest Research Institute and Sandia National Laboratories. This paper presents then the details of the methodology used in this analysis, results of the study, and important conclusions that came out of the study.

Langston, Leo J. (NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX); Freitas, Christopher J. (Southwest Research Institiute, San Antonio, TX); Langley, Patrick (Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company, Denver, CO); Palmer, Donald (Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company, Denver, CO); Saul, W. Venner; Chocron, Sidney (Southwest Research Institiute, San Antonio, TX); Kipp, Marlin E.

2004-09-01

239

Hazardous Substances and Hazardous Waste  

MedlinePLUS

1: Hazardous Substances and Hazardous Waste Chemicals affect our everyday lives. They are used to produce almost everything we use, ... harm human health and the environment. When these hazardous substances are thrown away, they become hazardous waste . Hazardous ...

240

Hazard and operability study using approximate reasoning in light-water reactors passive systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a risk evaluation approach is applied on Hazard and Operability Study (HAZOP). First, the concept of the traditional failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) for the risk priority number (RPN) has been adapted and applied to HAZOP study. Then, a HAZOP_rpn concept was created. The HAZOP_rpn enables evaluation of the risk level over the system caused by

Antonio C. F. Guimarães; Celso Marcelo Franklin Lapa

2006-01-01

241

Remote sensing techniques for landslide studies and hazard zonation in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inventory is presented of researches concerning the use of remote sensing for landslide studies and hazard zonation as mainly carried out in the countries belonging to the European Community. An overview is given of the applicability of remote sensing in the following phases of landslide studies: 1.(1) Detection and classification of landslides. Special emphasis is given to the types

Franco Mantovani; Robert Soeters; C. J. Van Westen

1996-01-01

242

Urban Vulnerability Assessment to Seismic Hazard through Spatial Multi-Criteria Analysis. Case Study: the Bucharest Municipality/Romania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the context of an explosive increase in value of the damage caused by natural disasters, an alarming challenge in the third millennium is the rapid growth of urban population in vulnerable areas. Cities are, by definition, very fragile socio-ecological systems with a high level of vulnerability when it comes to environmental changes and that are responsible for important transformations of the space, determining dysfunctions shown in the state of the natural variables (Parker and Mitchell, 1995, The OFDA/CRED International Disaster Database). A contributing factor is the demographic dynamic that affects urban areas. The aim of this study is to estimate the overall vulnerability of the urban area of Bucharest in the context of the seismic hazard, by using environmental, socio-economic, and physical measurable variables in the framework of a spatial multi-criteria analysis. For this approach the capital city of Romania was chosen based on its high vulnerability due to the explosive urban development and the advanced state of degradation of the buildings (most of the building stock being built between 1940 and 1977). Combining these attributes with the seismic hazard induced by the Vrancea source, Bucharest was ranked as the 10th capital city worldwide in the terms of seismic risk. Over 40 years of experience in the natural risk field shows that the only directly accessible way to reduce the natural risk is by reducing the vulnerability of the space (Adger et al., 2001, Turner et al., 2003; UN/ISDR, 2004, Dayton-Johnson, 2004, Kasperson et al., 2005; Birkmann, 2006 etc.). In effect, reducing the vulnerability of urban spaces would imply lower costs produced by natural disasters. By applying the SMCA method, the result reveals a circular pattern, signaling as hot spots the Bucharest historic centre (located on a river terrace and with aged building stock) and peripheral areas (isolated from the emergency centers and defined by precarious social and economic conditions). In effect, the example of Bucharest demonstrates how the results shape the ‘vulnerability to seismic hazard profile of the city, based on which decision makers could develop proper mitigation strategies. To sum up, the use of an analytical framework as the standard Spatial Multi-Criteria Analysis (SMCA) - despite all difficulties in creating justifiable weights (Yeh et al., 1999) - results in accurate estimations of the state of the urban system. Although this method was often mistrusted by decision makers (Janssen, 2001), we consider that the results can represent, based on precisely the level of generalization, a decision support framework for policy makers to critically reflect on possible risk mitigation plans. Further study will lead to the improvement of the analysis by integrating a series of daytime and nighttime scenarios and a better definition of the constructed space variables.

Armas, Iuliana; Dumitrascu, Silvia; Bostenaru, Maria

2010-05-01

243

Working beyond 65: A qualitative study of perceived hazards and discomforts at work.  

PubMed

Objective: This qualitative study explored self-reports of hazards and discomforts in the workplace and coping strategies among those choosing to work beyond the age of 65 years. Participants: 30 people aged 66-91 years took part. Most worked part-time in professional or administrative roles. Methods: Each participant engaged in one semi-structured interview. Results: Participants described some hazards and discomforts in their current work, but no recent accidents. The main age-related discomfort was tiredness. Other hazards that recurred in participants' accounts were physical demands of the job, driving, and interpersonal difficulties such as client or customer complaints, and in very rare cases, bullying. Most work-related hazards (e.g. prolonged sitting at computers, lifting heavy items and driving) were thought likely to affect any worker regardless of age. Coping strategies included making adaptations to age-related changes (such as decreased stamina) by keeping fit and being open about difficulties to colleagues, reducing hours of work, altering roles at work, limiting driving, applying expertise derived from previous work experiences, being assertive, using authority and status, and (among the minority employed in larger organisations) making use of supportive company/organisational policies and practices. Conclusions: Participants described taking individual responsibility for managing hazards at work and perceived little or no elevation of risk linked to age. PMID:23241711

Reynolds, Frances; Farrow, Alexandra; Blank, Alison

2012-12-14

244

HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS IN FISH: WISCONSIN POWER PLANT IMPACT STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The role of fish as vectors for organic chemical contaminants arising from the operation of a coal-fired power plant was assessed by in vivo studies of the fate of selected chemicals and in vitro studies of liver xenobiotic biotransformation enzymes. The results indicate that sel...

245

Risk Mitigation Strategies for Tornadoes in the Context of Climate Change and Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitigation strategies for natural hazards will always be dealing with risk. With climate change bringing a new set of risks, each with its uncertainties, the risk manager has new challenges. Since natural hazards like tornadoes have large impacts and divert resources towards mitigation and recovery, changing natural hazards are a factor affecting development. In this paper, an analysis of tornado

G. A. McBean

246

Risk Mitigation Strategies for Tornadoes in the Context of Climate Change and Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitigation strategies for natural hazards will always be dealing with risk. With climate change bringing a new set of risks, each with its uncertainties, the risk manager has new challenges. Since natural hazards like tornadoes have large impacts and divert resources towards mitigation and recovery, changing natural hazards are a factor affecting development. In this paper, an analysis of tornado

G. A. McBean

2005-01-01

247

Experimental Study on the Mitigation of Backdraft in Compartment Fires with Water Mist  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the results of a reduced-scale experimental test series using water mist to mitigate backdraft in compartment fires are presented. This reduced-scale compartment (1.2 m 0.6 m 0.6 m)was fitted with a variety of end opening geometries: middle-slot, upside-slot, downside-slot, door, window and vertical middle-slot, and ceiling opening geometries: slot and window. Water mist was generated by a

W. G. Weng; W. C. Fan

2002-01-01

248

Radon mitigation studies: South Central Florida demonstration. Final report, November 1987January 1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report gives results of an EPA radon mitigation project involving 14 slab-on-grade houses in Polk County, FL, having indoor radon levels of 320-3810 Bq\\/cu m (8.7-103 pCi\\/L), using sub-slab depressurization (SSD) in a variety of applications to evaluate optimal design criteria to be recommended as cost-effective and capable of reducing indoor radon concentrations in houses built over compacted soil

C. S. Fowler; A. D. Williamson; B. E. Pyle; F. E. Belzer; R. N. Coker

1992-01-01

249

High-Dose Selenium for the Mitigation of Radiation Injury: A Pilot Study in a Rat Model  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to evaluate in an animal model the safety and efficacy of dietary supplementation with high doses of selenium for the mitigation of the type of radiation injury that might be sustained during a nuclear accident or an act of radiological terrorism. Age-matched male rats were exposed to 10 Gy (single dose) of total-body irradiation (TBI) followed by a syngeneic bone marrow transplant, then randomized to standard drinking water or drinking water supplemented with sodium selenite or seleno-L-methionine. At 21 weeks after TBI, most rats on standard drinking water had severe renal failure with a mean blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level of 124 ± 29 mg/dl (geometric mean ± SE) whereas rats on selenium-supplemented drinking water (100 ?g/day) had a mean BUN level of 67 ± 12 mg/dl. The mitigating effect of selenium was confirmed by histopathological analyses. None of the animals on high-dose selenium showed signs of selenium toxicity. Our results suggest that dietary supplementation with high-dose selenium may provide a safe, effective and practical way to mitigate radiation injury to kidneys.

Sieber, Fritz; Muir, Sarah A.; Cohen, Eric P.; North, Paula E.; Fish, Brian L.; Irving, Amy A.; Mader, Marylou; Moulder, John E.

2009-01-01

250

Guide to Printed and Electronic Resources for Developing a Cost-Effective Risk Mitigation Plan for New and Existing Constructed Facilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Developing a cost-effective risk mitigation plan involves assessing the risks associated with natural and man-made hazards, formulating combinations of mitigation strategies for constructed facilities exposed to those hazards, and using economic tools to ...

D. S. Thomas R. E. Chapman

2007-01-01

251

Hazard Evaluation Division, Standard Evaluation Procedure: Aqueous Photolysis Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Standard Evaluation Procedure for the Aqueous Photolysis Studies is a guidance document primarily intended for Agency reviewers and the regulated industry who evaluate data specified in 40 CFR Part 158.124. The SEP is also intended to provide informat...

N. K. Whetzel S. M. Creeger

1985-01-01

252

Landslide hazard mapping by multivariate statistics: comparison of methods and case study in the Spanish Pyrenees  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper, written as a deliverable of the DAMOCLES project, is a review of the different existing methodologies to landslide hazard mapping by multivariate statistics. Within the DAMOCLES project, multivariate statistical models have been applied to different study regions in Italy and Spain. The experience gained has allowed to write this revision, addressing to the differences and advantages of the

S. Beguería; A. Lorente

2002-01-01

253

Comparison of Automatic Fault Tree Construction with Hazard and Operability Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hazard and operability study (HAZOP) and fault tree analysis are the methods most often used in the risk analysis in the process industry. Considerable efforts have been made in order to reduce the amount of work needed in a risk analysis and to improve t...

J. Suokas I. Karvonen

1985-01-01

254

Determination of metal ion content of beverages and estimation of target hazard quotients: a comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Considerable research has been directed towards the roles of metal ions in nutrition with metal ion toxicity attracting particular attention. The aim of this study is to measure the levels of metal ions found in selected beverages (red wine, stout and apple juice) and to determine their potential detrimental effects via calculation of the Target Hazard Quotients (THQ) for

Theresa Hague; Andrea Petroczi; Paul LR Andrews; James Barker; Declan P Naughton

2008-01-01

255

Uptake studies of environmentally hazardous 51Cr in Mung beans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempt has been made to study the accumulation behaviour of a common plant, Mung bean (Vigna radiata) towards Cr(III) and Cr(VI) to have an insight on the migration and bio-magnification of Cr. For this purpose healthy germinated Mung bean seeds were sown in the sand in the presence of Hoagland's nutrient solution containing measured amount of K251Cr2O7 and 51Cr(NO3)3·9H2O. Growth

Anupam Banerjee; Dalia Nayak; Dipanwita Chakrabortty; Susanta Lahiri

2008-01-01

256

Collaborative studies target volcanic hazards in Central America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central America is the second-most consistently active volcanic zone on Earth, after Indonesia. Centuries of volcanic activity have produced a spectacular landscape of collapsed calderas, debris flows, and thick blankets of pyroclastic materials. Volcanic activity dominates the history, culture, and daily life of Central American countries.January 2002 marked the third consecutive year in which a diverse group of volcanologists and geophysicists conducted focused field studies in Central America. This type of multi-institutional collaboration reflects the growing involvement of a number of U.S. and non-U.S. universities, and of other organizations, in Guatemala and El Salvador (Table 1).

Bluth, Gregg J. S.; Rose, William I.

257

49 CFR 195.579 - What must I do to mitigate internal corrosion?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...What must I do to mitigate internal corrosion? 195.579 Section 195.579...TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Corrosion Control § 195.579 What must I do to mitigate internal corrosion? (a) General. If you...

2010-10-01

258

49 CFR 195.579 - What must I do to mitigate internal corrosion?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...What must I do to mitigate internal corrosion? 195.579 Section 195.579...TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Corrosion Control § 195.579 What must I do to mitigate internal corrosion? (a) General. If you...

2009-10-01

259

Respiratory hazards in hard metal workers: a cross sectional study.  

PubMed Central

A cross sectional study was conducted on 513 employees at three hard metal plants: 425 exposed workers (351 men, 74 women) and 88 controls (69 men, 19 women). Cough and sputum were more frequent in workers engaged in "soft powder" and presintering workshops compared with controls (12.5% and 16.5% v 3.5%). Spirometric abnormalities were more frequent among women in sintering and finishing workshops compared with control women (56.8% v 23.8%) and abnormalities of carbon monoxide test were more frequent in exposed groups than in controls; this difference was more pronounced in women (31.4% v 5.6%) than in men (18.5% v 13%). No significant correlation was observed between duration of exposure and age adjusted lung function tests. Slight abnormalities of chest radiographs (0/1, 1/1 according to ILO classification) were more frequent in exposed men than controls (12.8% v 1.9%) and mostly in soft powder workers. In subjects with abnormal chest radiographs FVC, FEV1 and carbon monoxide indices (fractional uptake of CO or CO transfer index or both) were lower compared with those with normal chest radiographs. Although relatively mild, the clinical, radiological, and functional abnormalities uncovered call for a regular supervision of workers exposed to hard metal dust.

Meyer-Bisch, C; Pham, Q T; Mur, J M; Massin, N; Moulin, J J; Teculescu, D; Carton, B; Pierre, F; Baruthio, F

1989-01-01

260

Economics of Tsunami Mitigation in the Pacific Northwest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The death total in a major Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ) tsunami may be comparable to the Tohoku tsunami - tens of thousands. To date, tsunami risk reduction activities have been almost exclusively hazard mapping and evacuation planning. Reducing deaths in locations where evacuation to high ground is impossible in the short time between ground shaking and arrival of tsunamis requires measures such as vertical evacuation facilities or engineered pathways to safe ground. Yet, very few, if any, such tsunami mitigation projects have been done. In contrast, many tornado safe room and earthquake mitigation projects driven entirely or in largely by life safety have been done with costs in the billions of dollars. The absence of tsunami mitigation measures results from the belief that tsunamis are too infrequent and the costs too high to justify life safety mitigation measures. A simple analysis based on return periods, death rates, and the geographic distribution of high risk areas for these hazards demonstrates that this belief is incorrect: well-engineered tsunami mitigation projects are more cost-effective with higher benefit-cost ratios than almost all tornado or earthquake mitigation projects. Goldfinger's paleoseismic studies of CSZ turbidites indicate return periods for major CSZ tsunamis of about 250-500 years (USGS Prof. Paper 1661-F in press). Tsunami return periods are comparable to those for major earthquakes at a given location in high seismic areas and are much shorter than those for tornados at any location which range from >4,000 to >16,000 years for >EF2 and >EF4 tornadoes, respectively. The average earthquake death rate in the US over the past 100-years is about 1/year, or about 30/year including the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. The average death rate for tornadoes is about 90/year. For CSZ tsunamis, the estimated average death rate ranges from about 20/year (10,000 every 500 years) to 80/year (20,000 every 250 years). Thus, the long term deaths rates from tsunamis, earthquakes and tornadoes are comparable. High hazard areas for tornadoes and earthquakes cover ~40% and ~15% of the contiguous US, ~1,250,000 and ~500,000 square miles, respectively. In marked contrast, tsunami life safety risk is concentrated in communities with significant populations in areas where evacuation to high ground is impossible: probably <4,000 square miles or <0.1% of the US. The geographic distribution of life safety risk profoundly affects the economics of tsunami life safety mitigation projects. Consider a tsunami life safety project which saves an average of one life per year (500 lives per 500 years). Using FEMA's value of human life (5.8 million), 7% discount rate and a 50-year project useful lifetime, the net present value of avoided deaths is 80 million. Thus, the benefit-cost ratio would be about 16 or about 80 for tsunami mitigation projects which cost 5 million or 1 million, respectively. These rough calculations indicate that tsunami mitigation projects in high risk locations are economically justified. More importantly, these results indicate that national and local priorities for natural hazard mitigation should be reconsidered, with tsunami mitigation given a very high priority.

Goettel, K. A.; Rizzo, A.; Sigrist, D.; Bernard, E. N.

2011-12-01

261

Study of the Fire and Explosion Hazards Associated with the Electrowinning of Copper in Arizona Surface Mine Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This fire/explosion hazard study was initiated by A&CC at the request of The Rocky Mountain District of Metal and Non-Metal Safety and Heath (MNMSH) to identify the various hazards at copper mining sites in Arizona. The study focused on those mine sites u...

D. M. Tjernlund

1999-01-01

262

Mitigation potential of horizontal ground coupled heat pumps for current and future climatic conditions: UK environmental modelling and monitoring studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An increased uptake of alternative low or non-CO2 emitting energy sources is one of the key priorities for policy makers to mitigate the effects of environmental change. Relatively little work has been undertaken on the mitigation potential of Ground Coupled Heat Pumps (GCHPs) despite the fact that a GCHP could significantly reduce CO2 emissions from heating systems. It is predicted that under climate change the most probable scenario is for UK temperatures to increase and for winter rainfall to become more abundant; the latter is likely to cause a general rise in groundwater levels. Summer rainfall may reduce considerably, while vegetation type and density may change. Furthermore, recent studies underline the likelihood of an increase in the number of heat waves. Under such a scenario, GCHPs will increasingly be used for cooling as well as heating. These factors will affect long-term performance of horizontal GCHP systems and hence their economic viability and mitigation potential during their life span ( 50 years). The seasonal temperature differences encountered in soil are harnessed by GCHPs to provide heating in the winter and cooling in the summer. The performance of a GCHP system will depend on technical factors (heat exchanger (HE) type, length, depth, and spacing of pipes), but also it will be determined to a large extent by interactions between the below-ground parts of the system and the environment (atmospheric conditions, vegetation and soil characteristics). Depending on the balance between extraction and rejection of heat from and to the ground, the soil temperature in the neighbourhood of the HE may fall or rise. The GROMIT project (GROund coupled heat pumps MITigation potential), funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (UK), is a multi-disciplinary research project, in collaboration with EarthEnergy Ltd., which aims to quantify the CO2 mitigation potential of horizontal GCHPs. It considers changing environmental conditions and combines model predictions of soil moisture content and soil temperature with measurements at different GCHP locations over the UK. The combined effect of environment dynamics and horizontal GCHP technical properties on long-term GCHP performance will be assessed using a detailed land surface model (JULES: Joint UK Land Environment Simulator, Meteorological Office, UK) with additional equations embedded describing the interaction between GCHP heat exchangers and the surrounding soil. However, a number of key soil physical processes are currently not incorporated in JULES, such as groundwater flow, which, especially in lowland areas, can have an important effect on the heat flow between soil and HE. Furthermore, the interaction between HE and soil may also cause soil vapour and moisture fluxes. These will affect soil thermal conductivity and hence heat flow between the HE and the surrounding soil, which will in turn influence system performance. The project will address these issues. We propose to drive an improved version of JULES (with equations to simulate GCHP exchange embedded), with long-term gridded (1 km) atmospheric, soil and vegetation data (reflecting current and future environmental conditions) to reliably assess the mitigation potential of GCHPs over the entire domain of the UK, where uptake of GCHPs has been low traditionally. In this way we can identify areas that are most suitable for the installation of GCHPs. Only then recommendations can be made to local and regional governments, for example, on how to improve the mitigation potential in less suitable areas by adjusting GCHP configurations or design.

García González, Raquel; Verhoef, Anne; Vidale, Pier Luigi; Gan, Guohui; Wu, Yupeng; Hughes, Andrew; Mansour, Majdi; Blyth, Eleanor; Finch, Jon; Main, Bruce

2010-05-01

263

Proportional hazards regression in epidemiologic follow-up studies: an intuitive consideration of primary time scale.  

PubMed

In epidemiologic cohort studies of chronic diseases, such as heart disease or cancer, confounding by age can bias the estimated effects of risk factors under study. With Cox proportional-hazards regression modeling in such studies, it would generally be recommended that chronological age be handled nonparametrically as the primary time scale. However, studies involving baseline measurements of biomarkers or other factors frequently use follow-up time since measurement as the primary time scale, with no explicit justification. The effects of age are adjusted for by modeling age at entry as a parametric covariate. Parametric adjustment raises the question of model adequacy, in that it assumes a known functional relationship between age and disease, whereas using age as the primary time scale does not. We illustrate this graphically and show intuitively why the parametric approach to age adjustment using follow-up time as the primary time scale provides a poor approximation to age-specific incidence. Adequate parametric adjustment for age could require extensive modeling, which is wasteful, given the simplicity of using age as the primary time scale. Furthermore, the underlying hazard with follow-up time based on arbitrary timing of study initiation may have no inherent meaning in terms of risk. Given the potential for biased risk estimates, age should be considered as the preferred time scale for proportional-hazards regression with epidemiologic follow-up data when confounding by age is a concern. PMID:22517300

Cologne, John; Hsu, Wan-Ling; Abbott, Robert D; Ohishi, Waka; Grant, Eric J; Fujiwara, Saeko; Cullings, Harry M

2012-07-01

264

GIS-based flood hazard mapping at different administrative scales: A case study in Gangetic West Bengal, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the need for an efficient and cost-effective methodology for preparing flood hazard maps in data poor countries, particularly those under a monsoon regime where floods pose a recurrent danger. Taking Gangetic West Bengal, India, as an example and using available historical data from government agencies, the study compiled a regional map indicating hazard prone subre- gional areas

Joy Sanyal; X. X. Lu

2006-01-01

265

Collapse hazard assessment in evaporitic materials from ground penetrating radar: a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaporitic materials have been studied by means of ground penetrating radar (GPR) in order to evaluate the collapse hazard.\\u000a The obtained 200 MHz GPR profiles show a low signal-noise ratio over the first 3 m depth, where well-defined and continuous\\u000a reflectors can be observed. Between 3 and 4.5 m depth, the signal to noise ratio decreases due to attenuation of the electromagnetic\\u000a (EM)

Tomás Martín-Crespo; David Gómez-Ortiz

2007-01-01

266

Prediction of Ungauged River Basin for Hydro Power Potential and Flood Risk Mitigation; a Case Study at Gin River, Sri Lanka  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most of the primary civilizations of the world emerged in or near river valleys or floodplains. The river channels and floodplains are single hydrologic and geomorphic system. The failure to appreciate the integral connection between floodplains and channel underlies many socioeconomic and environmental problems in river management today. However it is a difficult task of collecting reliable field hydrological data. Under such situations either synthetic or statistically generated data were used for hydraulic engineering designing and flood modeling. The fundamentals of precipitation-runoff relationship through synthetic unit hydrograph for Gin River basin were prepared using the method of the Flood Studies Report of the National Environmental Research Council, United Kingdom (1975). The Triangular Irregular Network model was constructed using Geographic Information System (GIS) to determine hazard prone zones. The 1:10,000 and 1:50,000 topography maps and field excursions were also used for initial site selection of mini-hydro power units and determine flooding area. The turbines output power generations were calculated using the parameters of net head and efficiency of turbine. The peak discharge achieves within 4.74 hours from the onset of the rainstorm and 11.95 hours time takes to reach its normal discharge conditions of Gin River basin. Stream frequency of Gin River is 4.56 (Junctions/ km2) while the channel slope is 7.90 (m/km). The regional coefficient on the catchment is 0.00296. Higher stream frequency and gentle channel slope were recognized as the flood triggering factors of Gin River basin and other parameters such as basins catchment area, main stream length, standard average annual rainfall and soil do not show any significant variations with other catchments of Sri Lanka. The flood management process, including control of flood disaster, prepared for a flood, and minimize it impacts are complicated in human population encroached and modified floodplains. Thus modern GIS technology has been productively executed to prepare hazard maps based on the flood modeling and also it would be further utilized for disaster preparedness and mitigation activities. Five suitable hydraulic heads were recognized for mini-hydro power sites and it would be the most economical and applicable flood controlling hydraulic engineering structure considering all morphologic, climatic, environmental and socioeconomic proxies of the study area. Mini-hydro power sites also utilized as clean, eco friendly and reliable energy source (8630.0 kW). Finally Francis Turbine can be employed as the most efficiency turbine for the selected sites bearing in mind of both technical and economical parameters.

Ratnayake, A. S.

2011-12-01

267

FDA-iRISK--a comparative risk assessment system for evaluating and ranking food-hazard pairs: case studies on microbial hazards.  

PubMed

Stakeholders in the system of food safety, in particular federal agencies, need evidence-based, transparent, and rigorous approaches to estimate and compare the risk of foodborne illness from microbial and chemical hazards and the public health impact of interventions. FDA-iRISK (referred to here as iRISK), a Web-based quantitative risk assessment system, was developed to meet this need. The modeling tool enables users to assess, compare, and rank the risks posed by multiple food-hazard pairs at all stages of the food supply system, from primary production, through manufacturing and processing, to retail distribution and, ultimately, to the consumer. Using standard data entry templates, built-in mathematical functions, and Monte Carlo simulation techniques, iRISK integrates data and assumptions from seven components: the food, the hazard, the population of consumers, process models describing the introduction and fate of the hazard up to the point of consumption, consumption patterns, dose-response curves, and health effects. Beyond risk ranking, iRISK enables users to estimate and compare the impact of interventions and control measures on public health risk. iRISK provides estimates of the impact of proposed interventions in various ways, including changes in the mean risk of illness and burden of disease metrics, such as losses in disability-adjusted life years. Case studies for Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella were developed to demonstrate the application of iRISK for the estimation of risks and the impact of interventions for microbial hazards. iRISK was made available to the public at http://irisk.foodrisk.org in October 2012. PMID:23462073

Chen, Yuhuan; Dennis, Sherri B; Hartnett, Emma; Paoli, Greg; Pouillot, Régis; Ruthman, Todd; Wilson, Margaret

2013-03-01

268

Natural Hazards Observer. Volume XXV, Number 3.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Natural Hazards Research Application Information Center was founded to strengthen communication among researchers and the individuals and organizations concerned with mitigating natural disasters. The center is funded by the National Science Foundatio...

2001-01-01

269

Natural Hazards Observer. Volume XXV, Number 4.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The NATURAL HAZARDS RESEARCH AND APPLICATIONS INFORMATION CENTER was founded to strengthen communication among researchers and the individuals and organizations concerned with mitigating natural disasters. The center is funded by the National Science Foun...

2001-01-01

270

Public perception of flood risks, flood forecasting and mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multidisciplinary and integrated approach to the flood mitigation decision making process should provide the best response of society in a flood hazard situation including preparation works and post hazard mitigation. In Slovenia, there is a great lack of data on social aspects and public response to flood mitigation measures and information management. In this paper, two studies of flood perception in the Slovenian town Celje are represented. During its history, Celje was often exposed to floods, the most recent serious floods being in 1990 and in 1998, with a hundred and fifty return period and more than ten year return period, respectively. Two surveys were conducted in 1997 and 2003, with 157 participants from different areas of the town in the first, and 208 in the second study, aiming at finding the general attitude toward the floods. The surveys revealed that floods present a serious threat in the eyes of the inhabitants, and that the perception of threat depends, to a certain degree, on the place of residence. The surveys also highlighted, among the other measures, solidarity and the importance of insurance against floods.

Brilly, M.; Polic, M.

2005-04-01

271

The mechanism and mitigation of the landslides of Leye region in Alishan, Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many serious landslides occurred in Leye region in Alishan, Taiwan during Typhoon Morakot in 2009. This study investigated the mechanism of the Leye landslides and discussed the mitigation measures for future complex hazards and their effectiveness. Leye region is located at west side of Mountain Ali in central-southern Taiwan. The toe of Leye slope is surrounded by Creek Tsengwen and is strongly influenced by the landform processes such as river cutting and riverbed widening. The special hydrological and geomorphological conditions at Leye with extreme rainfall and flood induced the landslides in Leye region. Many aboriginal residences and cultivated slopelands were destroyed. The landslide areas were over one hundred hectares. In addition, large amounts of debris were accumulated on the streambeds that cause a high potential of secondary hazards to the region. This study clarified the causes and mechanisms of the Leye landslides, estimated the volume, and discussed the influences of the "flat-iron" landform and dip-slope in sedimentary strata. The mitigation works are still ongoing to prevent possible complex hazards, such as landslide lakes, debris flows, and additional circular landslides. We discussed the mitigation works for the effectiveness to slope stability and their influence on future landform changes in Leye region. An alert level criterion for emergency evacuation was also proposed for "software" mitigation strategy to reduce damages and loses in Leye region.

Feng, Z.-Y.; Ding, Z.-Z.; Chang, K.-C.; Lai, H.-Y.; Chen, S.-C.

2012-04-01

272

Hazards education for youth: a quasi-experimental investigation.  

PubMed

No experimental research has examined the hypothesized benefits of hazards education programs for youth in helping to increase community resilience. This preliminary study followed on from correlational studies and examined the role these programs play in helping increase child and family problem- and emotion-focused coping. Children (n= 219) were randomly assigned, based on classroom, to a condition. The "usual condition" consisted of a reading and discussion program. The "emergency management" condition consisted of the usual condition combined with emergency-management-focused teaching and increased interaction between youth and home. Factors assessed included both problem- and emotion-focused factors: knowledge of mitigation and emergency response activities, family and home hazard adjustments, hazard-related fears, emotion-focused coping ability, and perceptions of parents' hazard-related fears. Overall, the results supported the role for hazards education programs in increasing resilience in youth and at home. In particular, large intervention produced effect sizes were seen for both child- and parent-reported hazard adjustments. Significant interactions provided additional support for the role of an emergency management focus in the problem-focused areas of (1) both child- and parent-reported hazard adjustments and (2) increased hazards-based knowledge in the youth. These initial findings provide a continuing foundation for further research in this emerging area. Discussion considers the role for such programs in the future. PMID:12969415

Ronan, Kevin R; Johnston, David M

2003-10-01

273

Feasibility Study for Hazardous Waste Treatment and Disposal in the City of Shenyang, People's Republic of China.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document is the final report of the feasibility study conducted for the National Environment Protection Agency of China. The purpose of the study was to develop a detailed technical approach for hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal project ...

1989-01-01

274

Status of volcanic hazard studies for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations  

SciTech Connect

Volcanism studies of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) region are concerned with hazards of future volcanism with respect to underground disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The hazards of silicic volcanism are judged to be negligible; hazards of basaltic volcanism are judged through research approaches combining hazard appraisal and risk assessment. The NTS region is cut obliquely by a N-NE trending belt of volcanism. This belt developed about 8 Myr ago following cessation of silicic volcanism and contemporaneous with migration of basaltic activity toward the southwest margin of the Great Basin. Two types of fields are present in the belt: (1) large-volume, long-lived basalt and local rhyolite fields with numerous eruptive centers and (2) small-volume fields formed by scattered basaltic scoria cones. Late Cenozoic basalts of the NTS region belong to the second field type. Monogenetic basalt centers of this region were formed mostly by Strombolian eruptions; Surtseyean activity has been recognized at three centers. Geochemically, the basalts of the NTS region are classified as straddle A-type basalts of the alkalic suite. Petrological studies indicate a volumetric dominance of evolved hawaiite magmas. Trace- and rare-earth-element abundances of younger basalt (<4 Myr) of the NTS region and southern Death Valley area, California, indicate an enrichment in incompatible elements, with the exception of rubidium. The conditional probability of recurring basaltic volcanism and disruption of a repository by that event is bounded by the range of 10{sup -8} to 10{sup -10} as calculated for a 1-yr period. Potential disruptive and dispersal effects of magmatic penetration of a repository are controlled primarily by the geometry of basalt feeder systems, the mechanism of waste incorporation in magma, and Strombolian eruption processes.

Crowe, B.M.; Vaniman, D.T.; Carr, W.J.

1983-03-01

275

A simulation study of finite-sample properties of marginal structural Cox proportional hazards models  

PubMed Central

Summary Motivated by a previously published study of HIV treatment, we simulated data subject to time-varying confounding affected by prior treatment to examine some finite-sample properties of marginal structural Cox proportional hazards models. We compared (a) unadjusted, (b) regression-adjusted, (c) unstabilized and (d) stabilized marginal structural (inverse probability-of-treatment [IPT] weighted) model estimators of effect in terms of bias, standard error, root mean squared error (MSE) and 95% confidence limit coverage over a range of research scenarios, including relatively small sample sizes and ten study assessments. In the base-case scenario resembling the motivating example, where the true hazard ratio was 0.5, both IPT-weighted analyses were unbiased while crude and adjusted analyses showed substantial bias towards and across the null. Stabilized IPT-weighted analyses remained unbiased across a range of scenarios, including relatively small sample size; however, the standard error was generally smaller in crude and adjusted models. In many cases, unstabilized weighted analysis showed a substantial increase in standard error compared to other approaches. Root MSE was smallest in the IPT-weighted analyses for the base-case scenario. In situations where time-varying confounding affected by prior treatment was absent, IPT-weighted analyses were less precise and therefore had greater root MSE compared with adjusted analyses. The 95% confidence limit coverage was close to nominal for all stabilized IPT-weighted but poor in crude, adjusted, and unstabilized IPT-weighted analysis. Under realistic scenarios, marginal structural Cox proportional hazards models performed according to expectations based on large-sample theory and provided accurate estimates of the hazard ratio.

Westreich, Daniel; Cole, Stephen R.; Schisterman, Enrique F.; Platt, Robert W.

2013-01-01

276

Los Alamos Radiation Hydrocode Models of Asteroid Mitigation by a Subsurface Explosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mitigation of a potentially hazardous object (PHO) by a nuclear subsurface explosion is considered. In this new work we examine non-central subsurface emplacements and seek an optimal depth-of-burial for various explosion energies. This intervention methodology has been popularized in media presentations and is considered as one possible method of impact-hazard mitigation. We present new RAGE radiation hydrocode models of the shock-generated disruption of PHOs by subsurface nuclear bursts and deflection from shallow buried bursts using scenario-specific models from authentic RADAR shape models. We will show 2D and 3D models for the disruption by a large energy source at the center and near the edge (mitigation) of such PHO models (1-10 Mton TNT equivalent), specifically for asteroid 25143 Itokawa. Parametric studies will be done on: the value of the source energy (from 100 Kton to 10 Mton), the parameters in the Steinberg-Guinan strength model used and the internal composition of the object from uniform composition to a “rubble pile” distribution. Specifically we are interested in assessing the optimum depth of burial and energy required to essentially disrupt and/or move the PHO and therefore mitigate the hazard. Recollection will be considered. (LA-UR-10-05860) A subsurface 1 Mt explosion near the long-axis surface of an Itokawa shape model with a non-uniform internal composition. The resulting velocity imparted to the bulk remainder of the object is ~50 m/s.

Weaver, R.; Plesko, C. S.; Dearholt, W.

2010-12-01

277

Risk assessment of volcanic hazards of Changbaishan region based on RS and GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The keystones of research on modern volcanic hazards and calamity are from static research on local or regional change to dynamic research on global change, which emphasize particularly on monitoring volcanic activity and countermeasures of disaster recovery. Geological problems are emphases of volcano study in China in the past few years. Research on volcano mitigation starts now. There is still

Xuexia Zhang; Maojun Wang

2003-01-01

278

Hazardous Waste  

MedlinePLUS

... you throw these substances away, they become hazardous waste. Some hazardous wastes come from products in our homes. Our garbage can include such hazardous wastes as old batteries, bug spray cans and paint ...

279

Progress in NTHMP Hazard Assessment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Hazard Assessment component of the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program has completed 22 modeling efforts covering 113 coastal communities with an estimated population of 1.2 million residents that are at risk. Twenty-three evacuation maps have also been completed. Important improvements in organizational structure have been made with the addition of two State geotechnical agency representatives to Steering Group membership, and progress has been made on other improvements suggested by program reviewers. ?? Springer 2005.

Gonzalez, F. I.; Titov, V. V.; Mofjeld, H. O.; Venturato, A. J.; Simmons, R. S.; Hansen, R.; Combellick, R.; Eisner, R. K.; Hoirup, D. F.; Yanagi, B. S.; Yong, S.; Darienzo, M.; Priest, G. R.; Crawford, G. L.; Walsh, T. J.

2005-01-01

280

Evaluation of the fire and explosion hazards of oil-shale mining and processing. Volume 1. Analytical studies and accident scenarios. Open file report, 16 June 1977-15 July 1983  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this research were to identify and evaluate potential fire and explosion hazards in oil-shale mining and processing by laboratory testing to provide recommendations for mitigation safety monitoring and to establish a basis for regulation. A series of scenarios were developed describing hypothetical fire and explosion incidents that might occur in oil-shale mining. The objectives were achieved through the following accomplishments: (1) It was found that fire and explosion properties of oil shale increase with oil shale richness and decreasing particle size. (2) Data from dust loading study in several mines showed that the total potential yield of combustibles was about one-tenth the amount required to fuel a propagating explosion. (3) Aging of oil shale dusts over a period of several years reduces the content of volatile combustibles and the corresponding fire and explosion properties. (4) Data and information from the completed program indicate that the hazard of dust explosions is less severe than the hazard of fire in mine muck piles. Laboratory data were used to relate fire and explosivity properties of oil shales to those of coals and other carbonaceous materials and to assist in the identification and evaluation of potential hazardous situations that may be encountered in oil shale mining and processing.

Crookston, R.B.; Atwood, M.T.; Williams, R.E.; McGuire, M.E.

1983-07-15

281

Viscoelastic Materials Study for the Mitigation of Blast-Related Brain Injury  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent preliminary research into the causes of blast-related brain injury indicates that exposure to blast pressures, such as from IED detonation or multiple firings of a weapon, causes damage to brain tissue resulting in Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Current combat helmets are not sufficient to protect the warfighter from this danger and the effects are debilitating, costly, and long-lasting. Commercially available viscoelastic materials, designed to dampen vibration caused by shock waves, might be useful as helmet liners to dampen blast waves. The objective of this research is to develop an experimental technique to test these commercially available materials when subject to blast waves and evaluate their blast mitigating behavior. A 40-mm-bore gas gun is being used as a shock tube to generate blast waves (ranging from 1 to 500 psi) in a test fixture at the gun muzzle. A fast opening valve is used to release nitrogen gas from the breech to impact instrumented targets. The targets consist of aluminum/ viscoelastic polymer/ aluminum materials. Blast attenuation is determined through the measurement of pressure and accelerometer data in front of and behind the target. The experimental technique, calibration and checkout procedures, and results will be presented.

Bartyczak, Susan; Mock, Willis, Jr.

2011-06-01

282

Conforth Ranch Wildlife Mitigation Feasibility Study, McNary, Oregon : Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The 2,860-acre Conforth Ranch near Umatilla, Oregon is being considered for acquisition and management to partially mitigate wildlife losses associated with McNary Hydroelectric Project. The Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) estimated that management for wildlife would result in habitat unit gains of 519 for meadowlark, 420 for quail, 431 for mallard, 466 for Canada goose, 405 for mink, 49 for downy woodpecker, 172 for yellow warbler, and 34 for spotted sandpiper. This amounts to a total combined gain of 2,495 habitat units -- a 110 percent increase over the existing values for these species combined of 2,274 habitat units. Current water delivery costs, estimated at $50,000 per year, are expected to increase to $125,000 per year. A survey of local interest indicated a majority of respondents favored the concept with a minority opposed. No contaminants that would preclude the Fish and Wildlife Service from agreeing to accept the property were identified. 21 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

Rasmussen, Larry; Wright, Patrick; Giger, Richard

1991-03-01

283

NASA Earth Observatory: Natural Hazards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of NASA's Earth Observatory is to provide a freely-accessible publication on the Internet where the public can obtain new satellite imagery and scientific information about our home planet. The specific focus of this Earth Observatory website is natural hazards. Earth scientists around the world use NASA satellite imagery to better understand the causes and effects of natural hazards. The goal in sharing these images is to help people visualize where and when natural hazards occur, and to help mitigate their effects. Natural hazards that are emphasized include dust and smoke, wildfires, floods, severe storms, and volcanoes. In addition, each week the site highlights major natural hazard events occurring around the globe. Links to satellite imagery and informational text concerning the natural hazard and image interpretation are included. The site also offers a link to unique imagery, such as earthquakes, droughts, and landslides, and features the latest unique imagery events around the globe.

284

Concerns About Climate Change Mitigation Projects: Summary of Findings from Case Studies in Brazil, India, Mexico, and South Africa  

SciTech Connect

The concept of joint implementation as a way to implement climate change mitigation projects in another country has been controversial ever since its inception. Developing countries have raised numerous issues at the project-specific technical level, and broader concerns having to do with equity and burden sharing. This paper summarizes the findings of studies for Brazil, India, Mexico and South Africa, four countries that have large greenhouse gas emissions and are heavily engaged in the debate on climate change projects under the Kyoto Protocol. The studies examine potential or current projects/programs to determine whether eight technical concerns about joint implementation can be adequately addressed. They conclude that about half the concerns were minor or well managed by project developers, but concerns about additionality of funds, host country institutions and guarantees of performance (including the issues of baselines and possible leakage) need much more effort to be adequately addressed. All the papers agree on the need to develop institutional arrangements for approving and monitoring such projects in each of the countries represented. The case studies illustrate that these projects have the potential to bring new technology, investment, employment and ancillary socioeconomic and environmental benefits to developing countries. These benefits are consistent with the goal of sustainable development in the four study countries. At a policy level, the studies' authors note that in their view, the Annex I countries should consider limits on the use of jointly implemented projects as a way to get credits against their own emissions at home, and stress the importance of industrialized countries developing new technologies that will benefit all countries. The authors also observe that if all countries accepted caps on their emissions (with a longer time period allowed for developing countries to do so) project-based GHG mitigation would be significantly facilitated by the improved private investment climate.

Sathaye, Jayant A.; Andrasko, Kenneth; Makundi, Willy; La Rovere, Emilio Lebre; Ravinandranath, N.H.; Melli, Anandi; Rangachari, Anita; Amaz, Mireya; Gay, Carlos; Friedmann, Rafael; Goldberg, Beth; van Horen, Clive; Simmonds, Gillina; Parker, Gretchen

1998-11-01

285

A Procedure for Rapid Localized Earthquake Hazard Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this presentation, we introduce various ground shaking and building response models. We then discuss the forecasting capabilities of different models submitted to the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) and show how they can be used as inputs for these models. Finally, we discuss how outputs from such multi- tiered calculations would prove invaluable for real-time and scenario-based hazard assessment and for cost-benefit analysis of possible mitigation actions.

Holliday, J. R.; Rundle, J. B.

2010-12-01

286

Seismic Hazards for Lifelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of lifelines against earthquakes and seismic hazard effects on them are studied in this paper. As lifelines pass through wide areas, it may be affected by many seismic hazards. These hazards are such as ground rupture, fault movement, landslides and large deformation due to liquefaction. Based on the experiences from past earthquakes, damages to the lifelines with attention

Farshad Vazinram; Reza Rasti

2006-01-01

287

Social Uptake of Scientific Understanding of Seismic Hazard in Sumatra and Cascadia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance of science within hazard mitigation cannot be underestimated. Robust mitigation polices rely strongly on a sound understanding of the science underlying potential natural disasters and the transference of that knowledge from the scientific community to the general public via governments and policy makers. We aim to investigate how and why the public's knowledge, perceptions, response, adjustments and values towards science have changed throughout two decades of research conducted in areas along and adjacent to the Sumatran and Cascadia subduction zones. We will focus on two countries subject to the same potential hazard, but which encompass starkly contrasting political, economic, social and environmental settings. The transfer of scientific knowledge into the public/ social arena is a complex process, the success of which is reflected in a community's ability to withstand large scale devastating events. Although no one could have foreseen the magnitude of the 2004 Boxing Day tsunami, the social devastation generated underscored the stark absence of mitigation measures in the nations most heavily affected. It furthermore emphasized the need for the design and implementation of disaster preparedness measures. Survey of existing literature has already established timelines for major events and public policy changes in the case study areas. Clear evidence exists of the link between scientific knowledge and its subsequent translation into public policy, particularly in the Cascadia context. The initiation of the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program following the Cape Mendocino earthquake in 1992 embodies this link. Despite a series of environmental disasters with recorded widespread fatalities dating back to the mid 1900s and a heightened impetus for scientific research into tsunami/ earthquake hazard following the 2004 Boxing Day tsunami, the translation of science into the public realm is not widely obvious in the Sumatran context. This research aims to further investigate how the enhanced understanding of earthquake and tsunami hazards is being used to direct hazard mitigation strategies and enables direct comparison with the scientific and public policy developments in Cascadia.

Shannon, R.; McCloskey, J.; Guyer, C.; McDowell, S.; Steacy, S.

2007-12-01

288

Application of Remote Sensing in the Study of the Soil Hazards of Haryana State, India.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Multispectral and multitemporal LANDSAT images of Haryana state (India) and of representative areas were interpreted to delineate the soil hazards and normal soils. The major soil hazards of different intensity levels identified are saline-alkali soils, w...

M. Singh V. P. Goyal

1986-01-01

289

K Basin Hazard Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The 105-K East (KE) and 105-K West (KW) Basins in the 100 K Area of the Hanford Site have been used for storage of irradiated N Reactor and single-pass reactor fuel. Remaining spent fuel is continuing to be stored underwater in racks and canisters in the basins while fuel retrieval activities proceed to remove the fuel from the basins. The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project is adding equipment to the facility in preparation for removing the fuel and sludge from the basins. In preparing this hazard analysis, a variety of hazard analysis techniques were used by the K Basins hazard analysis teams, including hazard and operability studies, preliminary hazard analyses, and ''what if'' analyses. This document summarizes the hazard analyses performed as part of the safety evaluations for the various modification projects and combines them with the original hazard analyses to create a living hazard analysis document.

MCCALL, T.B.

2002-03-21

290

K Basins hazard analysis  

SciTech Connect

The 105-K East (KE) and 105-K West (KW) Basins in the 100 K Area of the Hanford Site have been used for storage of irradiated N Reactor and single-pass reactor fuel. Remaining spent fuel is continuing to be stored underwater in racks and canisters in the basins while fuel retrieval activities proceed to remove the fuel from the basins. The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project is adding equipment to the facility in preparation for removing the fuel and sludge from the basins. In preparing this hazard analysis, a variety of hazard analysis techniques were used by the K Basins hazard analysis teams, including hazard and operability studies, preliminary hazard analyses, and ''what if'' analyses. This document summarizes the hazard analyses performed as part of the safety evaluations for the various modification projects and combines them with the original hazard analyses to create a living hazard analysis document.

MCCALL, T.B.

2002-10-09

291

Hazards in volcanic arcs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcanic eruptions in arcs are complex natural phenomena, involving the movement of magma to the Earth's surface and interactions with the surrounding crust during ascent and with the surface environment during eruption, resulting in secondary hazards. Magma changes its properties profoundly during ascent and eruption and many of the underlying processes of heat and mass transfer and physical property changes that govern volcanic flows and magmatic interactions with the environment are highly non-linear. Major direct hazards include tephra fall, pyroclastic flows from explosions and dome collapse, volcanic blasts, lahars, debris avalanches and tsunamis. There are also health hazards related to emissions of gases and very fine volcanic ash. These hazards and progress in their assessment are illustrated mainly from the ongoing eruption of the Soufriere Hills volcano. Montserrat. There are both epistemic and aleatory uncertainties in the assessment of volcanic hazards, which can be large, making precise prediction a formidable objective. Indeed in certain respects volcanic systems and hazardous phenomena may be intrinsically unpredictable. As with other natural phenomena, predictions and hazards inevitably have to be expressed in probabilistic terms that take account of these uncertainties. Despite these limitations significant progress is being made in the ability to anticipate volcanic activity in volcanic arcs and, in favourable circumstances, make robust hazards assessments and predictions. Improvements in monitoring ground deformation, gas emissions and seismicity are being combined with more advanced models of volcanic flows and their interactions with the environment. In addition more structured and systematic methods for assessing hazards and risk are emerging that allow impartial advice to be given to authorities during volcanic crises. There remain significant issues of how scientific advice and associated uncertainties are communicated to provide effective mitigation during volcanic crises.

Sparks, S. R.

2008-12-01

292

Water Induced Hazard Mapping in Nepal: A Case Study of East Rapti River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents illustration on typical water induced hazard mapping of East Rapti River Basin under the DWIDP, GON. The basin covers an area of 2398 sq km. The methodology includes making of base map of water induced disaster in the basin. Landslide hazard maps were prepared by SINMAP approach. Debris flow hazard maps were prepared by considering geology, slope,

N. Neupane

2010-01-01

293

Eco-efficiency for greenhouse gas emissions mitigation of municipal solid waste management: a case study of Tianjin, China.  

PubMed

The issue of municipal solid waste (MSW) management has been highlighted in China due to the continually increasing MSW volumes being generated and the limited capacity of waste treatment facilities. This article presents a quantitative eco-efficiency (E/E) analysis on MSW management in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. A methodology for E/E analysis has been proposed, with an emphasis on the consistent integration of life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC). The environmental and economic impacts derived from LCA and LCC have been normalized and defined as a quantitative E/E indicator. The proposed method was applied in a case study of Tianjin, China. The study assessed the current MSW management system, as well as a set of alternative scenarios, to investigate trade-offs between economy and GHG emissions mitigation. Additionally, contribution analysis was conducted on both LCA and LCC to identify key issues driving environmental and economic impacts. The results show that the current Tianjin's MSW management system emits the highest GHG and costs the least, whereas the situation reverses in the integrated scenario. The key issues identified by the contribution analysis show no linear relationship between the global warming impact and the cost impact in MSW management system. The landfill gas utilization scenario is indicated as a potential optimum scenario by the proposed E/E analysis, given the characteristics of MSW, technology levels, and chosen methodologies. The E/E analysis provides an attractive direction towards sustainable waste management, though some questions with respect to uncertainty need to be discussed further. PMID:21316937

Zhao, Wei; Huppes, Gjalt; van der Voet, Ester

2011-02-12

294

Eco-efficiency for greenhouse gas emissions mitigation of municipal solid waste management: A case study of Tianjin, China  

SciTech Connect

The issue of municipal solid waste (MSW) management has been highlighted in China due to the continually increasing MSW volumes being generated and the limited capacity of waste treatment facilities. This article presents a quantitative eco-efficiency (E/E) analysis on MSW management in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. A methodology for E/E analysis has been proposed, with an emphasis on the consistent integration of life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC). The environmental and economic impacts derived from LCA and LCC have been normalized and defined as a quantitative E/E indicator. The proposed method was applied in a case study of Tianjin, China. The study assessed the current MSW management system, as well as a set of alternative scenarios, to investigate trade-offs between economy and GHG emissions mitigation. Additionally, contribution analysis was conducted on both LCA and LCC to identify key issues driving environmental and economic impacts. The results show that the current Tianjin's MSW management system emits the highest GHG and costs the least, whereas the situation reverses in the integrated scenario. The key issues identified by the contribution analysis show no linear relationship between the global warming impact and the cost impact in MSW management system. The landfill gas utilization scenario is indicated as a potential optimum scenario by the proposed E/E analysis, given the characteristics of MSW, technology levels, and chosen methodologies. The E/E analysis provides an attractive direction towards sustainable waste management, though some questions with respect to uncertainty need to be discussed further.

Zhao Wei, E-mail: zhaowei.tju@gmail.com [College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Liaoning University of Technology, 121000 Jinzhou (China); Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300RA Leiden (Netherlands); Huppes, Gjalt, E-mail: huppes@cml.leidenuniv.nl [Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300RA Leiden (Netherlands); Voet, Ester van der, E-mail: Voet@cml.leidenuniv.nl [Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300RA Leiden (Netherlands)

2011-06-15

295

A Gis Model Application Supporting The Analysis of The Seismic Hazard For The Urban Area of Catania (italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the Summit held in Washington on August 20-22 2001 to plan the first World Conference on the mitigation of Natural Hazards, a Group for the analysis of Natural Hazards within the Mediterranean area has been formed. The Group has so far determined the following hazards: (1) Seismic hazard (hazard for historical buildings included); (2) Hazard linked to the quantity

S. Grasso; M. Maugeri

2002-01-01

296

Natural phenomena hazards, Hanford Site, Washington  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the natural phenomena hazard loads for use in implementing DOE Order 5480.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation, and supports development of double-shell tank systems specifications at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The natural phenomena covered are seismic, flood, wind, volcanic ash, lightning, snow, temperature, solar radiation, suspended sediment, and relative humidity.

Conrads, T.J.

1998-09-29

297

Seismic Hazard and Risk Assessment and Public Policy in the Central United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Making a public policy on seismic hazard mitigation is not an easy task because it not only depends on seismic hazard itself, but also on seismic risk and other related social and economic issues. Seismic hazard and risk is the basis, however. Although seismic hazard and seismic risk are two fundamentally different concepts, they have been used interchangeably. Seismic hazard

Z. Wang

2007-01-01

298

A seismic landslide hazard analysis with topographic effect, a case study in the 99 Peaks region, Central Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been known that ground motion amplitude will be amplified at mountaintops; however, such topographic effects are not\\u000a included in conventional landslide hazard models. In this study, a modified procedure that considers the topographic effects\\u000a is proposed to analyze the seismic landslide hazard. The topographic effect is estimated by back analysis. First, a 3D dynamic\\u000a numerical model with irregular

Wen-Fei Peng; Chein-Lee Wang; Shih-Tsu Chen; Shing-Tsz Lee

2009-01-01

299

Balancing Mitigation Against Impact: A Case Study From the 2005 Chicxulub Seismic Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In early 2005 the R/V Maurice Ewing conducted a large-scale deep seismic reflection-refraction survey offshore Yucatan, Mexico, to investigate the internal structure of the Chicxulub impact crater, centred on the coastline. Shots from a tuned 20 airgun, 6970 cu in array were recorded on a 6 km streamer and 25 ocean bottom seismometers (OBS). The water is exceptionally shallow to large distances offshore, reaching 30 m about 60 km from the land, making it unattractive to the larger marine mammals, although there are small populations of Atlantic and spotted dolphins living in the area, as well as several turtle breeding and feeding grounds on the Yucatan peninsula. In the light of calibrated tests of the Ewing's array (Tolstoy et al., 2004, Geophysical Research Letters 31, L14310), a 180 dB safety radius of 3.5 km around the gun array was adopted. An energetic campaign was organised by environmentalists opposing the work. In addition to the usual precautions of visual and listening watches by independent observers, gradual ramp-ups of the gun arrays, and power-downs or shut-downs for sightings, constraints were also placed to limit the survey to daylight hours and weather conditions not exceeding Beaufort 4. The operations were subject to several on-board inspections by the Mexican environmental authorities, causing logistical difficulties. Although less than 1% of the total working time was lost to shutdowns due to actual observation of dolphins or turtles, approximately 60% of the cruise time was taken up in precautionary inactivity. A diver in the water 3.5 km from the profiling ship reported that the sound in the water was barely noticeable, leading us to examine the actual sound levels recorded by both the 6 km streamer and the OBS hydrophones. The datasets are highly self-consistent, and give the same pattern of decay with distance past about 2 km offset, but with different overall levels: this may be due to geometry or calibration differences under investigation. Both datasets indicate significantly lower levels than reported by Tolstoy et al. (2004). There was no evidence of environmental damage created by this survey. It can be concluded that the mitigation measures were extremely successful, but there is also a concern that the overhead cost of the environmental protection made this one of the most costly academic surveys ever undertaken, and that not all of this protection was necessary. In particular, the predicted 180 dB safety radius appeared to be overly conservative, even though based on calibrated measurements in very similar physical circumstances, and we suggest that these differences were a result of local seismic velocity structure in the water column and/or shallow seabed, which resulted in different partitioning of the energy. These results suggest that real time monitoring of hydrophone array data may provide a method of determining the safety radius dynamically, in response to local conditions.

Barton, P.; Diebold, J.; Gulick, S.

2006-05-01

300

Application of a Data Mining Model and It's Cross Application for Landslide Hazard Analysis: a Case Study in Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with landslide hazard analysis and cross-application using Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing data for Cameron Highland, Penang Island and Selangor in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to cross-apply and verify a spatial probabilistic model for landslide hazard analysis. Landslide locations were identified in the study area from interpretation of aerial photographs and field surveys. Topographical/geological data and satellite images were collected and processed using GIS and image processing tools. There are ten landslide inducing parameters which are considered for the landslide hazard analysis. These parameters are topographic slope, aspect, curvature and distance from drainage, all derived from the topographic database; geology and distance from lineament, derived from the geologic database; landuse from Landsat satellite images; soil from the soil database; precipitation amount, derived from the rainfall database; and the vegetation index value from SPOT satellite images. These factors were analyzed using an artificial neural network model to generate the landslide hazard map. Each factor's weight was determined by the back-propagation training method. Then the landslide hazard indices were calculated using the trained back-propagation weights, and finally the landslide hazard map was generated using GIS tools. Landslide hazard maps were drawn for these three areas using artificial neural network model derived not only from the data for that area but also using the weight for each parameters, one of the statistical model, calculated from each of the other two areas (nine maps in all) as a cross-check of the validity of the method. For verification, the results of the analyses were compared, in each study area, with actual landslide locations. The verification results showed sufficient agreement between the presumptive hazard map and the existing data on landslide areas.

Pradhan, Biswajeet; Lee, Saro; Shattri, Mansor

301

Assessing natural hazards in high-latitude fiords: A case study in Passage Canal, south-central Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mountainous regions are susceptible to a range of natural hazards that can cause damage to property and loss of life. At high-latitudes, mountainous regions are typically characterized by glacial, paraglacial, and periglacial environments, making them highly sensitive to thermal perturbations, which can lead to a change in the magnitude and frequency of some natural hazards. A large number of communities in Alaska are located in remote steep fiords that are host to multiple hazards, many of which are connected by shared triggering mechanisms or by positive feedbacks. This study employs air- and spaceborne remote sensing and in situ observations to assess natural hazards and evaluate environmental change in Passage Canal, south-central Alaska.

Wolken, G. J.; Balazs, M. S.

2011-12-01

302

Over-Pressurized Drums: Their Causes and Mitigation  

SciTech Connect

Having to contend with bulging or over-pressurized drums is, unfortunately, a common event for people storing chemicals and chemical wastes. (Figure 1) The Department of Energy alone reported over 120 incidents of bulging drums between 1992 and 1999 (1). Bulging drums can be caused by many different mechanisms, represent a number of significant hazards and can be tricky to mitigate. In this article, we will discuss reasons or mechanisms by which drums can become over-pressurized, recognition of the hazards associated with and mitigation of over-pressurized drums, and methods that can be used to prevent drum over-pressurization from ever occurring. Drum pressurization can represent a significant safety hazard. Unless recognized and properly mitigated, improperly manipulated pressurized drums can result in employee exposure, employee injury, and environmental contamination. Therefore, recognition of when a drum is pressurized and knowledge of pressurized drum mitigation techniques is essential.

Simmons, Fred; Kuntamukkula, Murty; Quigley, David; Robertson, Janeen; Freshwater, David

2009-07-10

303

New approach to inventorying army hazardous materials. A study done for the Eighth U. S. Army, Korea. Volume 2. Hazardous-material data. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the Army hazardous waste minimization program is to achieve a 50 percent reduction of the hazardous waste generated by calendar year 1992 (CY92), as compared to baseline CY85. A first step in achieving effective hazardous waste management is to conduct a thorough hazardous material inventory. Volume I describes a method created to inventory hazardous material by collecting supply data from Logistics Control Activity (LCA) at the Presidio, San Francisco, CA, an comparing this data with the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) in the Hazardous Material Information System (HMIS). Volume H lists hazardous material data collected for the Eighth U.S. Army (EUSA), Korea. Common elements between the two data bases were compiled, analyzed, and validated. It was found that the intersection of the two data bases created a composite list that substantially reduced the number of nonhazardous wastes included in the individual lists. This method may also be applied to supply data from other Army installations.

Kim, B.J.; Gee, C.S.; Lee, Y.H.; Mikulich, L.R.; Grafmyer, D.E.

1991-09-01

304

The Relative Severity of Single Hazards within a Multi-Hazard Framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we present a description of the relative severity of single hazards within a multi-hazard framework, compiled through examining, quantifying and ranking the extent to which individual hazards trigger or increase the probability of other hazards. Hazards are broken up into six major groupings (geophysical, hydrological, shallow earth processes, atmospheric, biophysical and space), with the interactions for 21 different hazard types examined. These interactions include both one primary hazard triggering a secondary hazard, and one primary hazard increasing the probability of a secondary hazard occurring. We identify, through a wide-ranging review of grey- and peer-review literature, >90 interactions. The number of hazard-type linkages are then summed for each hazard in terms of their influence (the number of times one hazard type triggers another type of hazard, or itself) and their sensitivity (the number of times one hazard type is triggered by other hazard types, or itself). The 21 different hazards are then ranked based on (i) influence and (ii) sensitivity. We found, by quantification and ranking of these hazards, that: (i) The strongest influencers (those triggering the most secondary hazards) are volcanic eruptions, earthquakes and storms, which when taken together trigger almost a third of the possible hazard interactions identified; (ii) The most sensitive hazards (those being triggered by the most primary hazards) are identified to be landslides, volcanic eruptions and floods; (iii) When sensitivity rankings are adjusted to take into account the differential likelihoods of different secondary hazards being triggered, the most sensitive hazards are found to be landslides, floods, earthquakes and ground heave. We believe that by determining the strongest influencing and the most sensitive hazards for specific spatial areas, the allocation of resources for mitigation measures might be done more effectively.

Gill, Joel C.; Malamud, Bruce D.

2013-04-01

305

Further RAGE modeling of asteroid mitigation: surface and subsurface explosions in porous objects  

SciTech Connect

Disruption or mitigation of a potentially hazardous object (PHO) by a high-energy subsurface burst is considered. This is just one possible method of impact-hazard mitigation. We present RAGE hydrocode models of the shock-generated disruption of PHOs by subsurface nuclear bursts using scenario-specific models from realistic RADAR shape models. We will show 2D and 3D models for the disruption by a large energy source at the center of such PHO models ({approx}100 kt-10 Mt) specifically for the shape of the asteroid 25143 Itokawa. We study the effects of non-uniform composition (rubble pile), shallow buried bursts for the optimal depth of burial and porosity.

Weaver, Robert P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Plesko, Catherine S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dearholt, William R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-03

306

Concerns about Climate Change Mitigation Projects: Summary of Findings from Case Studies in Brazil, India, Mexico, and South Africa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The concept of joint implementation as a way to implement climate change mitigation projects in another country has been controversial ever since its inception. Developing countries have raised numerous issues at the project-specific technical level, and ...

J. A. Sathaye K. Andrasko W. Makundi E. Lebre La Rovere N. H. Ravindranath A. Melli A. Rangachari M. Imaz C. Gay R. Friedmann B. Goldberg

1998-01-01

307

Evaluation of MEDALUS model for desertification hazard zonation using GIS; study area: Iyzad Khast plain, Iran.  

PubMed

In this study, the MEDALUS model along with GIS mapping techniques are used to determine desertification hazards for a province of Iran to determine the desertification hazard. After creating a desertification database including 20 parameters, the first steps consisted of developing maps of four indices for the MEDALUS model including climate, soil, vegetation and land use were prepared. Since these parameters have mostly been presented for the Mediterranean region in the past, the next step included the addition of other indicators such as ground water and wind erosion. Then all of the layers weighted by environmental conditions present in the area were used (following the same MEDALUS framework) before a desertification map was prepared. The comparison of two maps based on the original and modified MEDALUS models indicates that the addition of more regionally-specific parameters into the model allows for a more accurate representation of desertification processes across the Iyzad Khast plain. The major factors affecting desertification in the area are climate, wind erosion and low land quality management, vegetation degradation and the salinization of soil and water resources. PMID:19070073

Farajzadeh, Manuchehr; Egbal, Mahbobeh Nik

2007-08-15

308

Prognosis and mitigation strategy for major landslide-prone areas : A case study of Varunavat Parvat landslide in Uttarkashi township of Uttarakhand (India)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of this paper is to present a discussion on prognosis and mitigation of major landslide zones in an attempt to minimize the impact of such disasters in future. A case study on the sequence of sliding events of Varunavat Parvat, Uttarkashi (India), response of masses and administration and causative factors of sliding events has been presented

Aniruddh Uniyal

2008-01-01

309

Application of the WFD cost proportionality principle to diffuse pollution mitigation: a case study for Scottish Lochs.  

PubMed

The Water Framework Directive (WFD) aims to deliver good ecological status (GES) for Europe's waters. It prescribes the use of economic principles, such as derogation from GES on grounds of disproportionate costs of mitigation. This paper proposes an application of the proportionality principle to mitigation of phosphorus (P) pollution of 544 Scottish lochs at national and local water body scales. P loading estimates were derived from a national diffuse pollution screening tool. For 293 of these lochs (31% of the loch area), GES already occurred. Mitigation cost-effectiveness was assessed using combined mitigation cost curves for managed grassland, rough grazing, arable land, sewage and septic tank sources. These provided sufficient mitigation (92% of national P load) for GES to be achieved on another 31% of loch area at annualised cost of £2.09 m/y. Mitigation of the residual P loading preventing other lochs achieving GES was considered by using a "mop-up" cost of £200/kg P (assumed cost effectiveness of removal of P directly from lochs), leading to a total cost of £189 m/y. Lochs were ranked by mitigation costs per loch area to give a national scale marginal mitigation cost curve. A published choice experiment valuation of WFD targets for Scottish lochs was used to estimate marginal benefits at national scale and combined with the marginal cost curve. This gave proportionate costs of £5.7 m/y leading to GES in 72% of loch area. Using national mean marginal benefits with a scheme to estimate changes in individual loch value with P loading gave proportionate costs of £25.6 m/y leading to GES in 77% of loch area (491 lochs). PMID:22325580

Vinten, A J A; Martin-Ortega, J; Glenk, K; Booth, P; Balana, B B; MacLeod, M; Lago, M; Moran, D; Jones, M

2011-12-28

310

A simulation model for studying the role of pre-slaughter factors on the exposure of beef carcasses to human microbial hazards.  

PubMed

A Monte Carlo simulation model was constructed for assessing the quantity of microbial hazards deposited on cattle carcasses under different pre-slaughter management regimens. The model permits comparison of industry-wide and abattoir-based mitigation strategies and is suitable for studying pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. Simulations are based on a hierarchical model structure that mimics important aspects of the cattle population prior to slaughter. Stochastic inputs were included so that uncertainty about important input assumptions (such as prevalence of a human pathogen in the live cattle-population) would be reflected in model output. Control options were built into the model to assess the benefit of having prior knowledge of animal or herd-of-origin pathogen status (obtained from the use of a diagnostic test). Similarly, a facility was included for assessing the benefit of re-ordering the slaughter sequence based on the extent of external faecal contamination. Model outputs were designed to evaluate the performance of an abattoir in a 1-day period and included outcomes such as the proportion of carcasses contaminated with a pathogen, the daily mean and selected percentiles of pathogen counts per carcass, and the position of the first infected animal in the slaughter run. A measure of the time rate of introduction of pathogen into the abattoir was provided by assessing the median, 5th percentile, and 95th percentile cumulative pathogen counts at 10 equidistant points within the slaughter run. Outputs can be graphically displayed as frequency distributions, probability densities, cumulative distributions or x-y plots. The model shows promise as an inexpensive method for evaluating pathogen control strategies such as those forming part of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system. PMID:10416198

Jordan, D; McEwen, S A; Lammerding, A M; McNab, W B; Wilson, J B

1999-06-29

311

Natural Hazards, Second Edition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural disaster loss is on the rise, and the vulnerability of the human and physical environment to the violent forces of nature is increasing. In many parts of the world, disasters caused by natural hazards such as earthquakes, floods, landslides, drought, wildfires, intense windstorms, tsunami, and volcanic eruptions have caused the loss of human lives, injury, homelessness, and the destruction of economic and social infrastructure. Over the last few years, there has been an increase in the occurrence, severity, and intensity of disasters, culminating with the devastating tsunami of 26 December 2004 in South East Asia.Natural hazards are often unexpected or uncontrollable natural events of varying magnitude. Understanding their mechanisms and assessing their distribution in time and space are necessary for refining risk mitigation measures. This second edition of Natural Hazards, (following a first edition published in 1991 by Cambridge University Press), written by Edward Bryant, associate dean of science at Wollongong University, Australia, grapples with this crucial issue, aspects of hazard prediction, and other issues. The book presents a comprehensive analysis of different categories of hazards of climatic and geological origin.

Rouhban, Badaoui

312

Probabilistic Hazard Curves for Tornadic Winds, Wind Gusts, and Extreme Rainfall Events  

SciTech Connect

'This paper summarizes a study carried on at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for determining probabilistic hazard curves for tornadic winds, wind gusts, and extreme rainfall events. DOE Order 420.1, Facility Safety, outlines the requirements for Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) mitigation for new and existing DOE facilities. Specifically, NPH include tornadic winds, maximum wind gusts, and extreme rainfall events. Probabilistic hazard curves for each phenomenon indicate the recurrence frequency, and these hazard curves must be updated at least every 10 years to account for recent data, improved methodologies, or criteria changes. Also, emergency response exercises often use hypothetical weather data to initiate accident scenarios. The hazard curves in these reports provide a means to use extreme weather events based on models and measurements rather than scenarios that are created ad hoc as is often the case.'

Weber, A.H.

1999-07-29

313

GIS-based pollution hazard mapping and assessment framework of shallow lakes: southeastern Pampean lakes (Argentina) as a case study.  

PubMed

The assessment of water vulnerability and pollution hazard traditionally places particular emphasis on the study on groundwaters more than on surface waters. Consequently, a GIS-based Lake Pollution Hazard Index (LPHI) was proposed for assessing and mapping the potential pollution hazard for shallow lakes due to the interaction between the Potential Pollutant Load and the Lake Vulnerability. It includes easily measurable and commonly used parameters: land cover, terrain slope and direction, and soil media. Three shallow lake ecosystems of the southeastern Pampa Plain (Argentina) were chosen to test the usefulness and applicability of this suggested index. Moreover, anthropogenic and natural medium influence on biophysical parameters in these three ecosystems was examined. The evaluation of the LPHI map shows for La Brava and Los Padres lakes the highest pollution hazard (?30 % with high to very high category) while Nahuel Rucá Lake seems to be the less hazardous water body (just 9.33 % with high LPHI). The increase in LPHI value is attributed to a different loading of pollutants governed by land cover category and/or the exposure to high slopes and influence of slope direction. Dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand values indicate a moderately polluted and eutrophized condition of shallow lake waters, mainly related to moderate agricultural activities and/or cattle production. Obtained information by means of LPHI calculation result useful to perform a local diagnosis of the potential pollution hazard to a freshwater ecosystem in order to implement basic guidelines to improve lake sustainability. PMID:23355019

Romanelli, A; Esquius, K S; Massone, H E; Escalante, A H

2013-01-25

314

Property-close source separation of hazardous waste and waste electrical and electronic equipment - A Swedish case study  

SciTech Connect

Through an agreement with EEE producers, Swedish municipalities are responsible for collection of hazardous waste and waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). In most Swedish municipalities, collection of these waste fractions is concentrated to waste recycling centres where households can source-separate and deposit hazardous waste and WEEE free of charge. However, the centres are often located on the outskirts of city centres and cars are needed in order to use the facilities in most cases. A full-scale experiment was performed in a residential area in southern Sweden to evaluate effects of a system for property-close source separation of hazardous waste and WEEE. After the system was introduced, results show a clear reduction in the amount of hazardous waste and WEEE disposed of incorrectly amongst residual waste or dry recyclables. The systems resulted in a source separation ratio of 70 wt% for hazardous waste and 76 wt% in the case of WEEE. Results show that households in the study area were willing to increase source separation of hazardous waste and WEEE when accessibility was improved and that this and similar collection systems can play an important role in building up increasingly sustainable solid waste management systems.

Bernstad, Anna, E-mail: anna.bernstad@chemeng.lth.se [Dep. of Chem. Eng., Faculty of Eng., Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Cour Jansen, Jes la [Dep. of Chem. Eng., Faculty of Eng., Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Aspegren, Henrik [VA SYD, City of Malmoe (Sweden)

2011-03-15

315

Preparing for natural hazards: normative and attitudinal influences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to further develop a model of natural hazard preparedness by examining the role of attitudes to natural hazards and their mitigation and social norms. It aims to examine whether social-cultural factors influence the decisions people make regarding their relationship with natural hazards. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Survey data were collected from 156 residents in Napier, New Zealand.

David McIvor; Douglas Paton

2007-01-01

316

Hazard Initiation in Energetic Materials: Status of Technology Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Department of Defense group EMHIAT (Energetic Material Hazard Initiation Assessment Team) was formed in November 1985 to establish via a state-of-the-art assessment what research and technology needs are required to mitigate hazards associated with energetic materials. Team members, as part of their activity, polled industry and DOE contractor laboratories on present activities related to hazard initiation, particularly for solid

A. M. MELLOR; D. M. MANN; T. L. BOGGS; C. W. DICKINSON; W. E. ROE

1987-01-01

317

Flood Hazard Recurrence Frequencies for the Savannah River Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Department of Energy (DOE) regulations outline the requirements for Natural Phenomena Hazard (NPH) mitigation for new and existing DOE facilities. The NPH considered in this report is flooding. The facility-specific probabilistic flood hazard curve defines, as a function of water elevation, the annual probability of occurrence or the return period in years. The facility-specific probabilistic flood hazard curves provide basis

2001-01-01

318

Spectroscopic studies of hazardous fuel interactions with soils. Interim report, October 1989-October 1990  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the development and application of techniques for the spectroscopic study of hazardous fuel compounds in soils. The objective is to obtain improved models of bulk pollutant transport through soils. Two approaches have been used for this study: one consists of in-situ measurements of electronic and vibrational interactions via ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy, respectively; the other incorporates analytical separation techniques to extract contaminants from soils and identify individual reaction products. Initially, montmorillonite clay has been chosen as a prototype soil sample because the structure of this clay is well characterized and spectroscopic results can be readily interpreted. Further simplification has been obtained by exposing the clay samples to individual fuel components rather than mixtures. An interpretation of one clay/fuel system has been accomplished. The plan is to gradually increase the complexity of the samples until typical field conditions can be modeled.

Tipton, T.L.; Stone, D.A.

1993-12-01

319

Hazardous Drugs  

MedlinePLUS

... requires the reporting of employee exposure to hazardous medications, and allows access to these records by employees. 1910.1200 , Hazard communication. Includes the coverage of drugs and pharmaceuticals in ...

320

Status of volcanic hazard studies for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. Volume II  

SciTech Connect

Volcanic hazard investigations during FY 1984 focused on five topics: the emplacement mechanism of shallow basalt intrusions, geochemical trends through time for volcanic fields of the Death Valley-Pancake Range volcanic zone, the possibility of bimodal basalt-rhyolite volcanism, the age and process of enrichment for incompatible elements in young basalts of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) region, and the possibility of hydrovolcanic activity. The stress regime of Yucca Mountain may favor formation of shallow basalt intrusions. However, combined field and drill-hole studies suggest shallow basalt intrusions are rare in the geologic record of the southern Great Basin. The geochemical patterns of basaltic volcanism through time in the NTS region provide no evidence for evolution toward a large-volume volcanic field or increases in future rates of volcanism. Existing data are consistent with a declining volcanic system comparable to the late stages of the southern Death Valley volcanic field. The hazards of bimodal volcanism in this area are judged to be low. The source of a 6-Myr pumice discovered in alluvial deposits of Crater Flat has not been found. Geochemical studies show that the enrichment of trace elements in the younger rift basalts must be related to an enrichment of their mantle source rocks. This geochemical enrichment event, which may have been metasomatic alteration, predates the basalts of the silicic episode and is, therefore, not a young event. Studies of crater dimensions of hydrovolcanic landforms indicate that the worst case scenario (exhumation of a repository at Yucca Mountain by hydrovolcanic explosions) is unlikely. Theoretical models of melt-water vapor explosions, particularly the thermal detonation model, suggest hydrovolcanic explosion are possible at Yucca Mountain. 80 refs., 21 figs., 5 tabs.

Crowe, B.M.; Wohletz, K.H.; Vaniman, D.T.; Gladney, E.; Bower, N.

1986-01-01

321

Effect of reminders on mitigating participation bias in a case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Researchers commonly employ strategies to increase participation in health studies. These include use of incentives and intensive\\u000a reminders. There is, however, little evidence regarding the quantitative effect that such strategies have on study results.\\u000a We present an analysis of data from a case-control study of Campylobacter enteritis in England to assess the usefulness of a two-reminder strategy for control recruitment.

Clarence C Tam; Craig D Higgins; Laura C Rodrigues

2011-01-01

322

Empirical study of environmental ancillary benefits due to greenhouse gas mitigation in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is a part of the International Co-Control Analysis Program (ICAP), which is an initiative sponsored by the US EPA to assist developing countries in evaluating the environmental and human health benefits of technologies and policies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The goal of the Korea study is primarily two-fold: i) to assess and quantify the environmental ancillary benefit

Seunghun Joh; Yun-Mi Nam; ShangGyoo Shim; Joohon Sung; Youngchul Shin

2003-01-01

323

A Study for Health Hazard Evaluation of Methylene Chloride Evaporated from the Tear Gas Mixture  

PubMed Central

This study explored the health hazard of those exposed to methylene chloride by assessing its atmospheric concentration when a tear gas mixture was aerially dispersed. The concentration of methylene chloride ranged from 311.1-980.3 ppm (geometric mean, 555.8 ppm), 30 seconds after the dispersion started. However, the concentration fell rapidly to below 10 ppm after dispersion was completed. The concentration during the dispersion did not surpass the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health 'immediately dangerous to life or health' value of 2,300 ppm, but did exceed the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists excursion limit of 250 ppm. Since methylene chloride is highly volatile (vapor pressure, 349 mmHg at 20?), the postdispersion atmospheric concentration can rise instantaneously. Moreover, the o-chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile formulation of tear gas (CS gas) is an acute upper respiratory tract irritant. Therefore, tear gas mixtures should be handled with delicate care.

Chung, Eun-Kyo; Yi, Gwang-Yong; Chung, Kwang-Jae; Shin, Jung-Ah; Lee, In-Seop

2010-01-01

324

Roof bolting hazard analysis study. Final report, 1 July 1976--30 June 1977  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research is to identify hazards associated with roof bolting and to make recommendations for procedural and equipment design changes to reduce those hazards. To that end, the project reviewed literature on related research, collected and analyzed roof bolting injury data, normalized the injury data by exposure time to each activity, and identified problem areas within the

J. H. Adkins; W. J. Hargreaves

1977-01-01

325

An Introduction to the Analysis of Paired Hazard Rates in Studies of the Family.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hazard rate models are described, and selected techniques are used to analyze paired hazard rates when event times are right censored. The techniques are illustrated by looking at mortality patterns in husbands and wives. Recently developed measures and models are introduced. The advantages and disadvantages of the measures are discussed.…

Smith, Ken R.; McClean, Sally I.

1998-01-01

326

Using Major Hazard Risk Assessment to Appraise and Manage Escapeway Instability Issues: A Case Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Major Hazard Risk Assessment (MHRA) was developed in Australia after a series of mine disasters in the 1990s. A MHRA is used to help prevent major hazards, i.e. fire, explosion, wind-blast, outbursts, spontaneous combustion, roof instability and chemica...

A. T. Iannacchione G. S. Esterhuizen S. C. Tadolini

2008-01-01

327

Additional Los Alamos RAGE Hydrocode Simulations of Effective Mitigation of Porous PHO Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this presentation we show new RAGE hydrocode simulations of the effective disruption and mitigation of Earth bound asteroids and other Potentially Hazardous Objects (PHOs) by a strong explosion. This is just one possible method of impact-hazard mitigation. We present RAGE hydrocode models of the shock-generated disruption of PHOs by surface/subsurface nuclear bursts using scenario-specific models from realistic RADAR shape models. The RAGE code has been extensively verified and validated (V&V) We will show 2D models for the disruption by a large energy source at various depths-of-burial on such PHO models ( 100 kton - 10 Mton), specifically for the shape of the asteroid 25143 Itokawa. We study the effects of non-uniform composition (rubble pile), porosity, effective source energy, and the optimal depth of burial from the surface explosion to the central explosion. The results of our actual hydrocode modeling shows that the resultant asteroid fragments are given sufficient velocity to escape gravitational recombination and results in effective mitigation of the hazard for 300 m size objects.

Weaver, Robert; Plesko, C.; Dearholt, W.

2011-05-01

328

Effect of reminders on mitigating participation bias in a case-control study  

PubMed Central

Background Researchers commonly employ strategies to increase participation in health studies. These include use of incentives and intensive reminders. There is, however, little evidence regarding the quantitative effect that such strategies have on study results. We present an analysis of data from a case-control study of Campylobacter enteritis in England to assess the usefulness of a two-reminder strategy for control recruitment. Methods We compared sociodemographic characteristics of participants and non-participants, and calculated odds ratio estimates for a wide range of risk factors by mailing wave. Results Non-participants were more often male, younger and from more deprived areas. Among participants, early responders were more likely to be female, older and live in less deprived areas, but despite these differences, we found little evidence of a systematic bias in the results when using data from early reponders only. Conclusions We conclude that the main benefit of using reminders in our study was the gain in statistical power from a larger sample size.

2011-01-01

329

Fire and Risk Mitigation through Community education Case study: Program Bushfire Smart, The Pine Rivers Shire  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a case study of the Bushfire Smart Program. This program was developed as a local partnership between Pine Rivers Shire Council (PRSC), the Queensland Fire and Rescue Service Rural and Urban Divisions (QFRS), The Southeast Queensland Fire and Biodiversity Consortium (FABC), Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service (QPWS), Griffith University and to deliver bushfire community education to reduce

Andrew McLoughlin; Craig Welden

330

Numerical and experimental study of vibration mitigation for highway light poles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highway light poles are slender structures usually characterized by low values of structural damping, a factor that can lead to large-amplitude vibration sometimes leading to collapse. This paper is motivated by a recent investigation, conducted to identify the reason for repeated failures, experienced by aluminum tapered light poles in the State of Illinois during a winter storm. The study combined

Luca Caracoglia; Nicholas P. Jones

2007-01-01

331

Relative Hazard and Risk Measure Calculation Methodology  

SciTech Connect

The RHRM equations, as represented in methodology and code presented in this report, are primarily a collection of key factors normally used in risk assessment that are relevant to understanding the hazards and risks associated with projected mitigation, cleanup, and risk management activities. The RHRM code has broad application potential. For example, it can be used to compare one mitigation, cleanup, or risk management activity with another, instead of just comparing it to just the fixed baseline. If the appropriate source term data are available, it can be used in its non-ratio form to estimate absolute values of the associated controlling hazards and risks. These estimated values of controlling hazards and risks can then be examined to help understand which mitigation, cleanup, or risk management activities are addressing the higher hazard conditions and risk reduction potential at a site. Graphics can be generated from these absolute controlling hazard and risk values to graphically compare these high hazard and risk reduction potential conditions. If the RHRM code is used in this manner, care must be taken to specifically define and qualify (e.g., identify which factors were considered and which ones tended to drive the hazard and risk estimates) the resultant absolute controlling hazard and risk values.

Stenner, Robert D.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Elder, Matthew S.; Andrews, William B.; Walton, Terry L.

2003-09-15

332

Parameter Study for Child Injury Mitigation in NearSide Impacts Through FE Simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of crash-related car parameters on head and chest injury measures for 3- and 12-year-old children in near-side impacts.Methods: The evaluation was made using a model of a complete passenger car that was impacted laterally by a barrier. The car model was validated in 2 crash conditions: the Insurance Institute

Marianne Andersson; Bengt Pipkorn; Per Lövsund

2012-01-01

333

Natural Hazards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces students to a variety of natural hazards, emphasizing that when people understand these threats they are better able to avoid or reduce their potential impacts. First, the class discusses what they know about natural hazards and natural disasters. Then, working in pairs, they research particular hazards; the threats they pose and where and when those threats are most pronounced. Following this research period, the class assembles what they have learned into a general overview of natural hazards nationwide. Following the second class discussion, students work in pairs again to explore the hazards that affect particular towns, cities, or regions of the country. In doing so, they learn more about how and why certain natural hazards impact specific areas, as well as what people are doing to minimize the threats these hazards pose.

2006-01-01

334

Tethers and debris mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, the use of tethers has been proposed for reduction of space debris either through momentum transfer or use of electrodynamic effects. Tethers have been shown to at least theoretically allow for quick, elegant and cost-effective deorbit of defunct satellites or spent stages. On the other hand, the large risk that tethers themselves may pose to other satellites in orbit has been recognized as well. The large collision area of tethers, combined with operational hazards and meteoroid risk may result in a large orbital exposure. For example, in 1997, the ESA/Dutch 35-km tether deployment of YES from TEAMSAT was inhibited after an analysis of the collision risk for the case the tether operation would fail. The question rises how these two points of view compare to eachother. This paper intends to highlight a representative selection of the proposed tether applications while taking into account the added risks caused by the tethers themselves. Typical applications from recent literature will be briefly described, such as an Ariane 502 spent stage re-entry from GTO and the concept of deboost of defunct satellites by interaction of a conductive tether with the Earth magnetic field. Mass savings of the tethered sytems versus conventional equivalents will be evaluated. Based on a crude risk analysis, involving elements such as mission complexity, dynamic stability, meteoroid risk and orbital life time, a general outline of limiting factors can be given for the various applications. Special attention is reserved for implementation of mechanisms that help reduce this tether risk, such as the DUtether (Tether Degradable by Ultraviolet), utilization of airdrag and solar pressure, the effect of residual current in bare tethers, tether retrieval etc. It is proposed how a net tether-induced mitigation can be compared to that of conventional alternatives, i.e. deboost by rocket engine or a completely passive approach. This comparison is put in the perspective of an ever-increasing occupation of the space environment. It is concluded that tethers can in fact help mitigate the debris risk and that for each application a useful niche can be defined. It is argued that eliminating pollution directly after use of the precious resource of space is not only good custom, but also an important way to make the risk of debris controllable and independent of future trends. Although tethers may have large exposure in terms of area-time product, they deliver a quick cleaning service that may be appreciated by the future users of space.

van der Heide, Erik Jan; Kruijff, Michiel

2001-03-01

335

Numerical study of shock-wave mitigation through matrices of solid obstacles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shock-wave propagation through different arrays of solid obstacles and its attenuation are analyzed by means of numerical simulations. The two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a fifth-order weighted essentially non-oscillatory scheme, in conjunction with an immersed-boundary method to treat the embedded solids within a cartesian grid. The present study focuses on the geometrical aspects of the solid obstacles, particularly at lower effective flow area, where the frictional forces are expected to be important. The main objective is to analyze the controlling mechanism for shock propagation and attenuation in complex inhomogeneous and porous medium. Different parameters are investigated such as the geometry of the obstacles, their orientation in space as well as the relaxation lengths between two consecutive columns. The study highlights a number of interesting phenomena such as compressible vortices and shock-vortex interactions that are produced in the post-shock region. This also includes shock interactions, hydrodynamic instabilities and non-linear growth of the mixing. Ultimately, the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability invokes transition to a turbulent mixing region across the matrix columns and eddies of different length scales are generated in the wake region downstream of the solid blocks. The power spectrum of instantaneous dynamic pressure shows the existence of a wide range of frequencies which scales nearly with f -5/3. In terms of shock attenuation, the results indicate that the staggered matrix of reversed triangular prism (where the base of the triangular prism is facing the incoming shock) is the most efficient arrangement. In this case, both static and dynamic pressure impulses show significant reduction compared to the other studied configurations, which confirms the effectiveness of this type of barrier configuration. Furthermore, the use of combination of reverse-reverse arrangement of triangular prism obstacle maze is found more effective compared to the forward-reverse or forward-forward arrangements.

Chaudhuri, A.; Hadjadj, A.; Sadot, O.; Ben-Dor, G.

2013-02-01

336

Field study of exhaust fans for mitigating indoor air quality problems: Final report  

SciTech Connect

Residential ventilation in the United States housing stock is provided primarily by infiltration, the natural leakage of outdoor air into a building through cracks and holes in the building shell. Since ventilation is the dominant mechanism for control of indoor pollutant concentrations, low infiltration rates caused fluctuation in weather conditions may lead to high indoor pollutant concentrations. Supplemental mechanical ventilation can be used to eliminate these periods of low infiltration. This study examined effects of small continuously-operating exhaust fan on pollutant concentrations and energy use in residences.

Grimsrud, D.T.; Szydlowski, R.F.; Turk, B.H.

1986-09-01

337

MicroRNA-based strategy to mitigate the risk of gain-of-function influenza studies.  

PubMed

Recent gain-of-function studies in influenza A virus H5N1 strains revealed that as few as three-amino-acid changes in the hemagglutinin protein confer the capacity for viral transmission between ferrets. As transmission between ferrets is considered a surrogate indicator of transmissibility between humans, these studies raised concerns about the risks of gain-of-function influenza A virus research. Here we present an approach to strengthen the biosafety of gain-of-function influenza experiments. We exploit species-specific endogenous small RNAs to restrict influenza A virus tropism. In particular, we found that the microRNA miR-192 was expressed in primary human respiratory tract epithelial cells as well as in mouse lungs but absent from the ferret respiratory tract. Incorporation of miR-192 target sites into influenza A virus did not prevent influenza replication and transmissibility in ferrets, but did attenuate influenza pathogenicity in mice. This molecular biocontainment approach should be applicable beyond influenza A virus to minimize the risk of experiments involving other pathogenic viruses. PMID:23934176

Langlois, Ryan A; Albrecht, Randy A; Kimble, Brian; Sutton, Troy; Shapiro, Jillian S; Finch, Courtney; Angel, Matthew; Chua, Mark A; Gonzalez-Reiche, Ana Silvia; Xu, Kemin; Perez, Daniel; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Tenoever, Benjamin R

2013-08-11

338

Simultaneous transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation mitigates simulator sickness symptoms in healthy adults: a crossover study.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Flight simulators have been used to train pilots to experience and recognize spatial disorientation, a condition in which pilots incorrectly perceive the position, location, and movement of their aircrafts. However, during or after simulator training, simulator sickness (SS) may develop. Spatial disorientation and SS share common symptoms and signs and may involve a similar mechanism of dys-synchronization of neural inputs from the vestibular, visual, and proprioceptive systems. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), a maneuver used for pain control, was found to influence autonomic cardiovascular responses and enhance visuospatial abilities, postural control, and cognitive function. The purpose of present study was to investigate the protective effects of TENS on SS. METHODS: Fifteen healthy young men (age: 28.6 +/- 0.9 years, height: 172.5 +/- 1.4 cm, body weight: 69.3 +/- 1.3 kg, body mass index: 23.4 +/- 1.8 kg/m2) participated in this within-subject crossover study. SS was induced by a flight simulator. TENS treatment involved 30 minutes simultaneous electrical stimulation of the posterior neck and the right Zusanli acupoint. Each subject completed 4 sessions (control, SS, TENS, and TENS + SS) in a randomized order. Outcome indicators included SS symptom severity and cognitive function, evaluated with the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) and d2 test of attention, respectively. Sleepiness was rated using the Visual Analogue Scales for Sleepiness Symptoms (VAS-SS). Autonomic and stress responses were evaluated by heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV) and salivary stress biomarkers (salivary alpha-amylase activity and salivary cortisol concentration). RESULTS: Simulator exposure increased SS symptoms (SSQ and VAS-SS scores) and decreased the task response speed and concentration. The heart rate, salivary stress biomarker levels, and the sympathetic parameter of HRV increased with simulator exposure, but parasympathetic parameters decreased (p < 0.05). After TENS treatment, SS symptom severity significantly decreased and the subjects were more able to concentrate and made fewer cognitive test errors (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Sympathetic activity increased and parasympathetic activity decreased after simulator exposure. TENS was effective in reducing SS symptoms and alleviating cognitive impairment.Trial registration number: Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register: ACTRN12612001172897. PMID:23587135

Chu, Hsin; Li, Min-Hui; Huang, Yu-Cheng; Lee, Shih-Yu

2013-04-15

339

Mitigation of air pollution and carbon footprint by energy conservation through CFLs: a case study.  

PubMed

Electricity consumption of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) is low, making them a useful tool for minimizing the rapidly increasing demand of electrical energy in India. The present study aims to project the likely electricity conservation in a scenario of complete replacement of existing Fluorescent Tubes (FTs) by CFLs at CSIR-NEERI (National Environmental Engineering Research Institute) visa vis the financial repercussions and indirect reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases, e.g. CO2, N2O, CH4 and other air pollutants, e.g. SO2, NO, suspended particulate matter (SPM), black carbon (BC) and mercury (Hg) from coal fired thermal power plants. The calculations show that the Institute could save around 122850 kWh of electricity per annum, thereby saving approximately INR 859950/(USD 18453.86) towards electricity cost per annum and would be able to minimize 44579.08 kg of CO2-C equivalent (over 100 year time horizon), 909 kg SO2, 982.8 kg NO, 9.8 kg of BC, 368.5 kg SPM, 18.4 kg PM10 and 0.0024 kg Hg emissions per annum from a coal fired thermal power plant by conserving electricity at the institute level. PMID:22324148

Wath, Sushant B; Majumdar, Deepanjan

2011-01-01

340

State-of-the Art of hazard mapping in a mountain village: a case study in South Tyrol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent catastrophes occurred in Italy have raised the concern about the delicate equilibrium between human settlements and natural hazards. Numerous laws and regional directives have been put in place in order to establish new rules for future urbanization, especially in mountain areas. Here numerous are the hazards threatening the territory: snow avalanches, rockfall, landslides, debris flow, floods. The objective of this work is to illustrate a procedure for the elaboration of a hazard map for a mountain village in South Tyrol, and to describe the obtained results. Snow avalanches, rockfalls, debris flow, landslide and floods have been considered as the potential hazard. This work represents an inter-sectorial effort which encompasses different capabilities and expertise to evaluate natural hazards in mountain regions; in particular, geological studies, forestry analyses and engineering calculations proved to be essential in this context. The most advanced techniques available from research in the field and softwares have been used, such as the hydrological model GEOtop (www.geotop.org) for the precipitation analysis and landslides susceptibility, the model TRENT-2D for the propagation of the debris flow, and other advanced models for the flood forecasting and rockfall simulation.

Zanotti, Fabrizio; Marini, Matteo; Simoni, Silvia; Casagranda, Elisabetta; Begnudelli, Lorenzo; Dall'Amico, Matteo

2010-05-01

341

Case study to remove radioactive hazardous sludge from long horizontal storage tanks  

SciTech Connect

The removal of radioactive hazardous sludge from waste tanks is a significant problem at several US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The use of submerged jets produced by mixing pumps lowered into the supernatant/sludge interface to produce a homogeneous slurry is being studied at several DOE facilities. The homogeneous slurry can be pumped from the tanks to a treatment facility or alternative storage location. Most of the previous and current studies with this method are for flat-bottom tanks with vertical walls. Because of the difference in geometry, the results of these studies are not directly applicable to long horizontal tanks such as those used at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Mobilization and mixing studies were conducted with a surrogate sludge (e.g., kaolin clay) using submerged jets in two sizes of horizontal tanks. The nominal capacities of these tanks were 0.87 m{sup 3} (230 gal) and 95 m{sup 3} (25,000 gal). Mobilization efficiencies and mixing times were determined for single and bidirectional jets in both tanks with the discharge nozzles positioned at two locations in the tanks. Approximately 80% of the surrogate sludge was mobilized in the 95-m{sup 3} tank using a fixed bidirectional jet (inside diameter = 0.035 m) and a jet velocity of 6.4 m/s (21 ft/s).

Hylton, T.D.; Youngblood, E.L.; Cummins, R.L.

1995-12-31

342

Energy considerations in ground motion attenuation and probabilistic seismic hazard studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The severity of earthquake ground motion is generally characterized using peak ground acceleration and spectral acceleration, which are force-based or strength-based parameters. Modern seismic provisions adopt such strength-based design procedures, where seismic demand is represented in the form of an elastic response spectrum. Such design procedures implicitly account for the ductility capacity that a structure might possess by the use of reduction factors, but they do not include in a direct way consideration of the cyclic nature of the response that the structure undergoes and the resulting cumulative damage. In contrast with such strength-based parameters, energy-based parameters may be easily defined that include both the effects of oscillation amplitude as well as cycles experienced. Hence, these parameters may be expected to correlate better with structural damage. The correlation of structural damage measures with strength- and energy-based parameters is studied using inelastic dynamic analyses of reinforced concrete and steel buildings. The two earthquakes that occurred in Turkey in 1999 and the damage suffered by structures in those events offer a regional framework within which to study recorded ground motions to understand strength and energy demands over different distance ranges and for structures of different natural periods. This same framework, focused on a region in Northwestern Turkey, is used in probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) studies where design ground motions associated with different return periods derived from both strength and energy considerations are compared for four sites as well as using maps for a larger area around Istanbul. Finally, new attenuation models for strength- and energy-based parameters are developed using an extensive database of earthquakes in Turkey. A noteworthy aspect of the new attenuation models is that they are developed using random effects models that account for distinctions between inter-event and intra-event variability in estimates of ground shaking. These attenuation models highlight differences in strength and energy demands felt at different sites. Results from hazard studies that use the new models are compared with those obtained for Western U.S. models and show some differences in design motions that are based on strength but smaller differences when energy is considered.

Sari, Ali

2003-06-01

343

Evaluation of the fire and explosion hazards of oil-shale mining and processing. Volume 1. Analytical studies and accident scenarios. Open file report, 16 June 1977-15 July 1983  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this research were to identify and evaluate potential fire and explosion hazards in oil-shale mining and processing by laboratory testing to provide recommendations for mitigation safety monitoring and to establish a basis for regulation. A series of scenarios were developed describing hypothetical fire and explosion incidents that might occur in oil-shale mining. The objectives were achieved through

R. B. Crookston; M. T. Atwood; R. E. Williams; M. E. McGuire

1983-01-01

344

An observational urban heat island study: A primary step in heat event mitigation planning in Detroit, MI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the structure and characteristics of urban heat islands (UHIs) is becoming evermore important to public health practitioners and city planners as they attempt to better identify parts of the city that are especially vulnerable and to plan strategies to mitigate heat-related health threats. The spatial structure of UHIs can be investigated in many different manners, but investigation of

E. Oswald; R. B. Rood; M. O'Neill; K. Zhang

2010-01-01

345

U.S. Postal Service radon assessment and mitigation program. Progress report, September 1993--November 1994  

SciTech Connect

In 1992, the US Postal Service (USPS) entered into an Interagency Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) whereby DOE would provide technical assistance in support of the USPS Radon Assessment and Mitigation Program. To aid in this effort, DOE tasked the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP), which is managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for DOE under contract AC05-84OR21400. Since that time, HAZWRAP has developed and finalized the sampling protocol, mitigation diagnostic protocol, and the quality assurance and quality control procedures. These procedures were validated during the Protocol Validation (1992-1993) and Pilot Study (1993-1994) phases of the program. To date, HAZWRAP has performed approximately 16,000 radon measurements in 250 USPS buildings. Mitigation diagnostics have been performed in 27 buildings. Thus far, 13% of the measurements have been above the Environmental Protection Agency action level of 4 pCi/L. This report summarizes the pilot program radon testing data and mitigation diagnostic data for 22 sites and contains recommendations for mitigation diagnostics.

Velazquez, L.E.; Petty, J.L. Jr.

1994-12-31

346

Determinants of Spatial and Temporal Patterns in Compensatory Wetland Mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development projects that impact wetlands commonly require compensatory mitigation, usually through creation or restoration of wetlands on or off the project site. Over the last decade, federal support has increased for third-party off-site mitigation methods. At the same time, regulators have lowered the minimum impact size that triggers the requirement for compensatory mitigation. Few studies have examined the aggregate impact of individual wetland mitigation projects. No previous study has compared the choice of mitigation method by regulatory agency or development size. We analyze 1058 locally and federally permitted wetland mitigation transactions in the Chicago region between 1993 and 2004. We show that decreasing mitigation thresholds have had striking effects on the methods and spatial distribution of wetland mitigation. In particular, the observed increase in mitigation bank use is driven largely by the needs of the smallest impacts. Conversely, throughout the time period studied, large developments have rarely used mitigation banking, and have been relatively unaffected by changing regulatory focus and banking industry growth. We surmise that small developments lack the scale economies necessary for feasible permittee responsible mitigation. Finally, we compare the rates at which compensation required by both county and federal regulators is performed across major watershed boundaries. We show that local regulations prohibiting cross-county mitigation lead to higher levels of cross- watershed mitigation than federal regulations without cross-county prohibitions. Our data suggest that local control over wetland mitigation may prioritize administrative boundaries over hydrologic function in the matter of selecting compensation sites.

Bendor, Todd; Brozovi?, Nicholas

2007-09-01

347

Development and application of the EPIC model for carbon cycle, greenhouse-gas mitigation, and biofuel studies  

SciTech Connect

This chapter provides a comprehensive review of the EPIC model in relation to carbon cycle, greenhouse-gas mitigation, and biofuel applications. From its original capabilities and purpose (i.e., quantify the impacts or erosion on soil productivity), the EPIC model has evolved into a comprehensive terrestrial ecosystem model for simulating with more or less process-level detail many ecosystem processes such as weather, hydrology, plant growth and development, carbon cycle (including erosion), nutrient cycling, greenhouse-gas emissions, and the most complete set of manipulations that can be implemented on a parcel of land (e.g. tillage, harvest, fertilization, irrigation, drainage, liming, burning, pesticide application). The chapter also provides details and examples of the latest efforts in model development such as the coupled carbon-nitrogen model, a microbial denitrification model with feedback to the carbon decomposition model, updates on calculation of ecosystem carbon balances, and carbon emissions from fossil fuels. The chapter has included examples of applications of the EPIC model in soil carbon sequestration, net ecosystem carbon balance, and biofuel studies. Finally, the chapter provides the reader with an update on upcoming improvements in EPIC such as the additions of modules for simulating biochar amendments, sorption of soluble C in subsoil horizons, nitrification including the release of N2O, and the formation and consumption of methane in soils. Completion of these model development activities will render an EPIC model with one of the most complete representation of biogeochemical processes and capable of simulating the dynamic feedback of soils to climate and management in terms not only of transient processes (e.g., soil water content, heterotrophic respiration, N2O emissions) but also of fundamental soil properties (e.g. soil depth, soil organic matter, soil bulk density, water limits).

Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Mcgill, William B.; Williams, J.R.

2012-06-01

348

Natural Hazards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This updated new edition presents a comprehensive, inter-disciplinary analysis of the complete range of natural hazards. Edward Bryant describes and explains how hazards occur, examines prediction methods, considers recent and historical hazard events and explores the social impact of such disasters. Supported by over 180 maps, diagrams and photographs, this standard text is an invaluable guide for students and professionals in the field. First Edition Hb (1991): 0-521-37295-X First Edition Pb (1991): 0-521-37889-3

Bryant, Edward

2005-02-01

349

Hazardous Materials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hazardous Materials is a lesson plan which teaches students how to recognize and safely handle hazardous materials in the workplace. After completing this module, students should be able to interpret MSDS sheets and demonstrate their ability to identify hazardous materials during an experiential exercise. Note: This module is part of a modularized manufacturing technology curriculum created by the PSCME, found at www.pscme.org/educators.html.

Alston, Michele; King, John; Imre, John

2011-09-08

350

FLORIDA HAZARDOUS WASTE AND SANITARY LANDFILL REPORT, STUDY AREA DATA. GENERATOR DATA AND CHARACTERISTICS OF SANITARY LANDFILLS. PART 11  

EPA Science Inventory

The report provides data on the use of sanitary landfills (Subtitle D facilities) for hazardous waste disposal in Florida by small quantity generators. It consists of eleven parts including a part called Study Area Data which contains the data aggregated across the counties cover...

351

Correction: Determination of metal ion content of beverages and estimation of target hazard quotients: a comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a correction to the following paper: Hague T, Petroczi A, Andrews PR, Barker J, Naughton DP: Determination of metal ion content of beverages and estimation of target hazard quotients: a comparative study. Chem Central J 2008, 2:13.

Theresa Hague; Andrea Petroczi; Paul LR Andrews; James Barker; Declan P Naughton

2010-01-01

352

State and Local Migitation Planning How-to Guide. Understanding Your Risks: Identifying Hazards and Estimating Losses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has developed this series of mitigation planning 'how-to' guides to assist states, communities, and tribes in enhancing their natural hazard mitigation planning capabilities. These guides are designed to prov...

2001-01-01

353

Role of human- and animal-sperm studies in the evaluation of male reproductive hazards  

SciTech Connect

Human sperm tests provide a direct means of assessing chemically induced spermatogenic dysfunction in man. Available tests include sperm count, motility, morphology (seminal cytology), and Y-body analyses. Over 70 different human exposures have been monitored in various groups of exposed men. The majority of exposures studied showed a significant change from control in one or more sperm tests. When carefully controlled, the sperm morphology test is statistically the most sensitive of these human sperm tests. Several sperm tests have been developed in nonhuman mammals for the study of chemical spermatotoxins. The sperm morphology test in mice has been the most widely used. Results with this test seem to be related to germ-cell mutagenicity. In general, animal sperm tests should play an important role in the identification and assessment of potential human reproductive hazards. Exposure to spermatotoxins may lead to infertility, and more importantly, to heritable genetic damage. While there are considerable animal and human data suggesting that sperm tests may be used to detect agents causing infertility, the extent to which these tests detect heritable genetic damage remains unclear. (ERB)

Wyrobek, A.J.; Gordon, L.; Watchmaker, G.

1982-04-07

354

Natural Hazards Observer, Volume XXV No. 2, November 2000.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center was founded to strengthen communication among researchers and the individuals and organizations concerned with mitigating natural disasters. The center is funded by the National Science Foun...

2000-01-01

355

A New Master of Natural Hazards Program at The Australian National University  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new Master of Natural Hazards program at The Australian National University provides a multi-disciplinary approach to the study and monitoring of geophysical processes that can lead to the recognition of hazards and a consequent reduction of their impacts through emergency measures, disaster plans, and relief and rehabilitation. The program provides people with an understanding of the most up-to-date scientific understanding on the causes of natural hazards, their effects on human societies, and ways to mitigate their impacts and reduce their losses by focusing on Australia and the Asia-Pacific case studies. The Master of Natural Hazards program brings together the expertise of researchers across the university to provide an opportunity for students to do coursework and research projects that will provide them with extensive knowledge of the natural hazards that occur and pose the greatest risks on human communities in the Asia-Pacific, and an understanding of the human dimensions of the natural hazards occurrences. The program consists of two compulsory courses each in the Earth Sciences and in the Social Sciences that are designed to provide a complementary and comprehensive overview of natural hazards issues. Elective courses can be of a general grouping, or students may choose one of four Focus Streams: Environmental and Geographic Studies; Climate Change; Earth Structure and Imaging; or Socio-economic, Development and Policy Studies. A special case study project will involve writing a thesis on a topic to be approved by the Program Conveners and will comprise a body of work on an approved topic in natural hazards in the Asia-Pacific region. Students in this program will gain a broad scientific knowledge and methodological skills to understand the physical causes and frequency of the most important natural hazards in the Asia-Pacific region, as well as the latest scientific methods and best practices of monitoring them for hazard mapping and disaster reduction purposes. Furthermore, students will learn to apply critical thinking in studying the involvement of societies’ social systems in framing and influencing the severity of impacts and destructions that are brought about by different physical events. The academic training in hazards and disaster research that the program offers will enable students to get actively involved in the preparation of short- and long-term disaster mitigation programs that can help members of communities in Australia and the Asia-Pacific region who, without sufficient knowledge on hazards and skills on disaster management, would be left vulnerable against the adversities that can be brought about by natural hazards.

Pozgay, S.; Zoleta-Nantes, D.

2009-12-01

356

Ground motion input in seismic evaluation studies: impacts on risk assessment of uniform hazard spectra  

SciTech Connect

Conservatism and variability in seismic risk estimates are studied: effects of uniform hazard spectrum (UHS) are examined for deriving probabilistic estimates of risk and in-structure demand levels, as compared to the more-exact use of realistic time history inputs (of given probability) that depend explicitly on magnitude and distance. This approach differs from the conventional in its exhaustive treatment of the ground-motion threat and in its more detailed assessment of component responses to that threat. The approximate UH-ISS (in-structure spectrum) obtained based on UHS appear to be very close to the more-exact results directed computed from scenario earthquakes. This conclusion does not depend on site configurations and structural characteristics. Also, UH-ISS has composite shapes and may not correspond to the characteristics possessed a single earthquake. The shape is largely affected by the structural property in most cases and can be derived approximately from the corresponding UHS. Motions with smooth spectra, however, will not have the same damage potential as those of more realistic motions with jagged spectral shapes. As a result, UHS-based analysis may underestimate the real demands in nonlinear structural analyses.

Wu, S.C.; Sewell, R.T.

1996-07-01

357

Ecoefficiency for greenhouse gas emissions mitigation of municipal solid waste management: A case study of Tianjin, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issue of municipal solid waste (MSW) management has been highlighted in China due to the continually increasing MSW volumes being generated and the limited capacity of waste treatment facilities. This article presents a quantitative eco-efficiency (E\\/E) analysis on MSW management in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. A methodology for E\\/E analysis has been proposed, with an emphasis on

Wei Zhao; Gjalt Huppes; Ester van der Voet

2011-01-01

358

Migration, environmental hazards, and health outcomes in China.  

PubMed

China's rapid economic growth has had a serious impact on the environment. Environmental hazards are major sources of health risk factors. The migration of over 200 million people to heavily polluted urban areas is likely to be significantly detrimental to health. Based on data from the 2009 national household survey "Chinese Attitudes toward Inequality and Distributive Injustice" (N = 2866) and various county-level and municipal indicators, we investigate the disparities in subjective exposure to environmental hazards and associated health outcomes in China. This study focuses particularly on migration-residency status and county-level socio-economic development. We employ multiple regressions that account for the complex multi-stage survey design to assess the associations between perceived environmental hazards and individual and county-level indicators and between perceived environmental hazards and health outcomes, controlling for physical and social environments at multiple levels. We find that perceived environmental hazards are associated with county-level industrialization and economic development: respondents living in more industrialized counties report greater exposure to environmental hazards. Rural-to-urban migrants are exposed to more water pollution and a higher measure of overall environmental hazard. Perceived environmental risk factors severely affect the physical and mental health of the respondents. The negative effects of perceived overall environmental hazard on physical health are more detrimental for rural-to-urban migrants than for urban residents. The research findings call for restructuring the household registration system in order to equalize access to public services and mitigate adverse environmental health effects, particularly among the migrant population. PMID:23273408

Chen, Juan; Chen, Shuo; Landry, Pierre F

2012-12-13

359

GUIDELINES FOR THE USE OF CHEMICALS IN REMOVING HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE DISCHARGES  

EPA Science Inventory

This report was undertaken to develop guidelines on the use of various chemical and biological agents to mitigate discharge of hazardous substances. Eight categories of mitigative agents and their potential uses in removing hazardous substances discharged on land and in waterways...

360

Secondary prevention of hazardous alcohol consumption in psychiatric out-patients: a randomised controlled study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Hazardous alcohol use is associated with an increased risk for development of a substance use disorder, leading to negative\\u000a outcomes in psychiatric patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aims  In order to investigate whether psychiatric outpatients’ hazardous alcohol consumption could be reduced by way of a brief\\u000a intervention by telephone.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  Non-psychotic psychiatric outpatients, n = 1,670, completed a self-rating form concerning alcohol habits (AUDIT). Participants with scores indicating

Sophia Eberhard; Göran Nordström; Peter Höglund; Agneta Öjehagen

2009-01-01

361

Using Geology to Improve Flood Hazard Management on Alluvial Fans -- an Example From Laughlin, Nevada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of the piedmont of the Newberry Mountains near Laughlin, Nevada, demonstrates that geologic information can improve the scientific basis of flood-hazard management on alluvial fans in desert areas. Comparison of geologic information against flood insurance rate maps (FIRMs) reveals flaws in conventional methods for flood hazard delineation in this setting. Geologic evidence indicates that large parts of the Newberry piedmont have been isolated from significant flooding for at least the past 10,000 years. This contrasts with existing FIRMs that include large tracts of nonflood prone land in the 100-year and 500-year flood hazard zones and exclude areas of indisputably flood prone land from the regulatory flood plain. From the basis of the geology, flood hazards on at least one-third of the piedmont are mischaracterized on the regulatory maps. The formal incorporation of geologic data into flood hazard studies on desert piedmonts could significantly reduce this type of discrepancy and substantially reduce the scope, hence cost, of more elaborate engineering studies and hazard mitigation strategies. The results of this study affirm the value of new Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) recommendations for characterizing alluvial fan flood hazards and support an argument for mandating geological studies in the regulatory process.

House, P. Kyle

2005-12-01

362

Integrated study to define the hazard of the unstable flanks of Mt. Etna: the Italian DPC-INGV FLANK Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcanoes are often characterized by unstable flanks. The eastern and south-eastern flanks of Mt. Etna (Italy) have shown repeated evidence of instability in the recent past. The extent and frequency of these processes varies widely, from nearly continuous creep-like movements of specific portions of the flank to the rarer slip of the entire eastern sector, involving also the off-shore portion. Estimated slip rates may vary enormously, from mm/yr to m/week. The most dramatic instability events are associated with major eruptions and shallow seismic activity, as during 2002-2003, posing a serious hazard to the inhabited flanks of the volcano. The Italian Department of Civil Defense (DPC), with the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology (INGV), as well as with the involvement of Italian Universities and other Research Institutes, has launched a 2-years project (may 2008-may 2010) devoted to minimize the hazard deriving from the instability of the Etna flanks. This multidisciplinary project embraces geological, geophysical, volcanological, modeling and hazard studies, both on the on-shore and the off-shore portions of the E and SE flanks of the volcano. Indeed, the main aims are to define: (a) the 3D geometry of the collapsing sector(s); (b) the relationships between flank movement and volcanic and seismic activity; (c) the hazard related to the flank instability. The collected data populate a GIS database implemented according the WoVo rules. This project represents the first attempt, at least in Europe, to use an integrated approach to minimize the hazard deriving from flank instability in a volcano. Here we briefly summarize the state of the art of the project at an advanced stage, highlighting the path of the different Tasks, as well as the main results.

Acocella, Valerio; Puglisi, Giuseppe

2010-05-01

363

Climate hazards in drylands: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Virtually all types of natural hazard occur in drylands, but climate hazards assume a greater relative importance in these highly dynamic environments. Here, we present a review of climate hazards research with a specifically drylands focus, distinguishing between hazards that are a direct manifestation of atmospheric processes and those that are indirectly driven by atmospheric conditions. About a billion poor rural inhabitants of drylands whose livelihoods are directly dependent on the physical environment face particularly high levels of risk from climate hazards, some of which are widely predicted to become more frequent, more widespread and/or more intense with climate change in many parts of the world during the twenty-first century. Recognising the particular characteristics of these hazards is an essential precursor to the development of dryland-centred policy options that can help mitigation and preparedness strategies and hence improve the well-being of dryland populations.

Middleton, N. J.; Sternberg, T.

2013-11-01

364

IMPACT OF ATTENUATION MODELS ON PROBABILISTIC SEISMIC HAZARD ANALYSIS: A CASE STUDY FOR BURSA CITY, TURKEY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The significance of epistemic uncertainty and aleatory variability associated with empirical ground motion estimation relationships on annual seismic hazard levels is demonstrated for Bursa, a highly urbanized city in Turkey, inhabiting approximately 1.2 million people and surrounded by strike slip faulting systems located within 15 km of the city center. Two Western U.S. and two local shallow crustal attenuation relationships

A. A. Yunatci; K. Ö. Çetin

365

Probabilistic tephra hazard maps for the Neapolitan area: Quantitative volcanological study of Campi Flegrei eruptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tephra fall is a relevant hazard of Campi Flegrei caldera (Southern Italy), due to the high vulnerability of Naples metropolitan area to such an event. Here, tephra derive from magmatic as well as phreatomagmatic activity. On the basis of both new and literature data on known, past eruptions (Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI), grain size parameters, velocity at the vent, column

G. Mastrolorenzo; L. Pappalardo; C. Troise; A. Panizza; G. De Natale

2008-01-01

366

Case study: development of national emissions standards for hazardous air pollutants for magnet wire manufacturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many industries in the United States are facing new Federal air emissions regulations, known as NESHAP or MACT, intended to reduce emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). US-EPA's regulatory philosophy when writing a MACT is to demand that all members of a given industry raise their air pollution control hardware and practices to match the better performers within that industry,

E. J. Trauner

2003-01-01

367

CASE STUDIES 1-23: REMEDIAL RESPONSE AT HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

In response to the threat to human health and the environment posed by numerous uncontrolled hazardous waste sites across the country, new remedial action technologies are evolving and known technologies are being retrofitted and adapted for use in cleaning up these sites. This r...

368

CREDIT RISK, INSURANCE AND BANKING: A STUDY OF MORAL HAZARD AND ASYMMETRIC INFORMATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This dissertation investigates agency problems within risk transfer contracts. We pay par- ticular attention to the consequences,of credit risk transfer in the context of banking. The first two chapters provide an introduction and literature review. We then analyze the effect of counterparty risk on financial insurance contracts in the following two chapters, and un- cover a new moral hazard

JAMES R. THOMPSON

2008-01-01

369

Long term performance of radon mitigation systems  

SciTech Connect

Researchers installed radon mitigation systems in 12 houses in Spokane, Washington and Coeur d'Alene, Idaho during the heating season 1985--1986 and continued to monitor indoor radon quarterly and annually for ten years. The mitigation systems included active sub-slab ventilation, basement over-pressurization, and crawlspace isolation and ventilation. The occupants reported various operational problems with these early mitigation systems. The long-term radon measurements were essential to track the effectiveness of the mitigation systems over time. All 12 homes were visited during the second year of the study, while a second set 5 homes was visited during the fifth year to determine the cause(s) of increased radon in the homes. During these visits, the mitigation systems were inspected and measurements of system performance were made. Maintenance and modifications were performed to improve system performance in these homes.

Prill, R.; Fisk, W.J.

2002-03-01

370

The best plan for flood mitigation: A case study in the north-eastern part of IRAN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frequency and magnitude of flood and debris flow have dramatically risen in north-eastern part of IRAN in the past decade. The evidence shows that the peak discharge of 2001 flood has exceeded the estimated PMF (Probable Maximum Flood) of Goleastan dam. The extreme foods of the region which mostly occurred in the summer, have damaged hundreds of life and thousands of livestock and destroyed a lot of infrastructures in recent years. Structural in association with non structural measures have been identified essential elements of flood mitigation in the master plan. Consequently two-phased plan including urgent measures and a master plan have been prepared for the basin as mid-term and long-term solution respectively. Considering flash flood manner of the region, flood detention and attenuation in upstream areas has been assessed as an effective measure in order to mitigate flood magnitude in down stream areas. Therefore a detention dam has been designed in the upstream catchments where there is high contribution in flood generation of the basin. In the design stage of the detention dam, several alternatives of reservoir and spillway capacity have been assessed regarding to flood reduction in the whole catchments. However, detention dam characteristic has been finalized based on maximum justifiable flood attenuation due to high vulnerability of the areas. The designed detention dam can completely control floods up to 200 year and reduce 1000 year peak discharge to less than 100 year return period at the dam site. Nevertheless, the dam would mitigate floods of downstream damage center at least 40% comparing to without project situation. This paper introduces not only the proposed master plan but also evaluates efficiency of the detention dam in flood reduction of the whole basin.

Heidari, A.

2010-05-01

371

An intergenerational women's empowerment intervention to mitigate domestic violence: results of a pilot study in Bengaluru, India.  

PubMed

A growing body of literature has documented the global prevalence of domestic violence against women of reproductive age as well as the association between violence and an array of adverse reproductive, psychosocial, and child health outcomes. However, there is a dearth of research on domestic violence prevention interventions in the peer-reviewed literature to guide program planning and policy-making efforts. In this article, the authors describe the development and assessment of the feasibility, acceptability, and potential effectiveness of an intergenerational women's empowerment-based intervention to mitigate domestic violence and related adverse health outcomes in low-income urban communities in Southern India. PMID:22531083

Krishnan, Suneeta; Subbiah, Kalyani; Khanum, Sajida; Chandra, Prabha S; Padian, Nancy S

2012-04-23

372

Hazardous Waste  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Given media attention to the US Navy's recent problems with the disposal of a large amount of napalm, an incendiary compound, this week's In the News examines the issue of hazardous waste and materials. The eight resources discussed provide information on various aspects of the topic. Due to the large number of companies specializing in the management and remediation of hazardous waste contamination, private firms will not be noted.

Harris, Kathryn L.

373

A Review of Vulnerability Assessment Methodologies for Alpine Hazards: The need for a new methodology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mountain hazards such as landslides, floods and avalanches pose a serious threat to human lives and development and can cause considerable damage to lifelines, critical infrastructure, agricultural lands, housing, public and private infrastructure and assets. The assessment of the vulnerability of the built environment to these hazards is a topic that is growing in importance due to climate change impacts. A proper understanding of vulnerability can lead to more effective emergency management and in the development of mitigation and preparedness activities all of which are designed to reduce the loss of life and economic costs. However, most studies regarding mountain hazards focus on hazard mapping, simulation, modeling and monitoring and only a limited number of studies concerning vulnerability have been carried out. In this study we are reviewing existing methods for vulnerability assessment related to mountain hazards. We identify existing gaps and we analyse the applicability of existing approaches. Finally, we propose a new methodology for vulnerability assessment to mountain hazards (landslides, floods and avalanches), which takes into consideration their impact on the built environment and it is based on the construction of vulnerability curves for the specific mountain hazards. The methodology is being tested in South Tirol and some preliminary results are presented.

Papathoma-Koehle, M.; Keiler, M.

2009-04-01

374

Revised position on natural hazards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the 2000 Fall Meeting in December, the AGU Council reaffirmed a revised version of AGU's position statement, “Meeting the Challenges of Natural Hazards.” This position was first adopted in 1996. The revised version (see accompanying text box) contains the same message as the original, but in concise language more easily understood by policy-makers and other non-scientists.The statement calls for more research in the geophysical processes to help understand the nature of natural hazards. However, it also clearly indicates that research alone will not improve the ability of society to withstand a natural disaster. Multidisciplinary approaches involving groups as disparate as builders, insurers, and relief organizations are required to improve mitigation efforts worldwide. The policy statement also emphasizes the need to communicate the results of scientific research to the public, especially those communities situated in areas particularly susceptible to extreme natural hazards.

Folger, Peter

375

THE INTEGRATED USE OF REMOTE SENSING AND GIS FOR GROUNDWATER-VULNERABILITY AND HAZARD MAPPING -A CASE STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates to what extent conventional procedures of data acquisition for groundwater- vulnerability and hazard mapping in regions lacking reliable spatial and measured data can be enhanced with remote sensing data information. Data acquired by three passive sensors is compared: Landsat ETM+, colour digital aerial photographs (1:10,000) and analogue panchromatic aerial photographs (1:30.000). The data were processed using the

H. Werz

2005-01-01

376

GIS-based spatial analysis and modeling for landslide hazard assessment: A case study in upper Minjiang River basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

By analyzing the topographic features of past landslides since 1980s and the main land-cover types (including change information)\\u000a in landslide-prone area, modeled spatial distribution of landslide hazard in upper Minjiang River Basin was studied based\\u000a on spatial analysis of GIS in this paper. Results of GIS analysis showed that landslide occurrence in this region closely\\u000a related to topographic feature. Most

Feng Wenlan; Zhou Qigang; Zhang Baolei; Zhou Wancun; Li Ainong; Zhang Haizhen; Xian Wei

2006-01-01

377

Differential Impact of Mitigating Evidence in Capital Case Sentencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Case law delineates the importance placed on mitigation, but both the psychological and legal literature are inconclusive about the use and effectiveness of biopsychosocial mitigating factors during sentencing in capital trials. The present study surveyed a diverse group of undergraduate participants and found the following circumstances to be most mitigating: mental retardation, hospitalization for a mental illness, no prior criminal

Michelle E. Barnett; Stanley L. Brodsky; J. Randall Price

2007-01-01

378

Hazards of Vision.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the final report for ONR sponsored research on the human visual system as an information channel. The research included studies of the fundamental characteristics of the system which relate to its function and information processsing, hazards whic...

J. L. Brown

1979-01-01

379

Mitigation Monitoring Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Report (SEIR) (September 1992) for the Proposed Renewal of the Contract between the United States Department of Energy and The Regents of the University of California for the Operation and Management of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory identifies the environmental impacts associated with renewing the contract and specifies a series of measures designed to mitigate adverse impacts to the environment. This Mitigation Monitoring Plan describes the procedures the University will use to implement the mitigation measures adopted in connection with the approval of the Contract.

Not Available

1992-09-01

380

Natural and Man-Made Hazards in the Cayman Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Located in the western Caribbean Sea to the northwest of Jamaica, the Cayman Islands are a British overseas territory comprised of three islands: Grand Cayman, Cayman Brac, and Little Cayman. These three islands occupy around 250 km2 of land area. In this work, historical and recent data were collected and classified to identify and rank the natural and man-made hazards that may potentially affect the Cayman Islands and determine the level of exposure of Grand Cayman to these events. With this purpose, we used the vulnerability assessment methodology developed by the North Caroline Department of Environment and Natural Resources. The different degrees of physical vulnerability for each hazard were graphically interpreted with the aid of maps using a relative scoring system. Spatial maps were generated showing the areas of different levels of exposure to multi-hazards. The more important natural hazard to which the Cayman Islands are exposed is clearly hurricanes. To a lesser degree, the islands may be occasionally exposed to earthquakes and tsunamis. Explosions or leaks of the Airport Texaco Fuel Depot and the fuel pipeline at Grand Cayman are the most significant man-made hazards. Our results indicate that there are four areas in Grand Cayman with various levels of exposure to natural and man-made hazards: The North Sound, Little Sound and Eastern West Bay (Area 1) show a very high level of exposure; The Central Mangroves, Central Bodden Town, Central George Town and the West Bay (Area 2) have high level of exposure; The Northwestern West Bay, Western Georgetown-Bodden Town, and East End-North Side (Area 3) are under moderate levels of exposure. The remainder of the island shows low exposure (Area 4). It is important to underline that this study presents a first evaluation of the main natural and man-made hazards that may affect the Cayman Islands. The maps generated will be useful tools for emergency managers and policy developers and will increase the overall awareness of decision makers for disasters prevention and mitigation plans. Our results constitute the basis of future mitigation risk projects in the islands. Areas showing the level of exposure to natural and man-made hazards at Grand Cayman.

Novelo-Casanova, D. A.; Suarez, G.

2010-12-01

381

Effectiveness of water spray mitigation systems for accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride  

SciTech Connect

Accidental releases of Hydrogen Flouride (HF) can result in initally dense, highly reactive and corrosive clouds. These clouds will typically contain a mixture of HF vapor, aerosol and droplets which can be transported significant distances downwind before lower hazard levels of HF concentration are reached. Previous experiments were performed to study atmospheric dispersion of these HF clouds. The present study examines the effect of water application on the mitigation of these clouds. To assess the effectiveness of water application (via either sprays or monitor) in mitigating HF clouds two series of tests were conducted in separate flow chambers. Bench scale experiments identified key variables for testing in a larger facility. The larger scale field tests demonstrated that HF releases can be mitigated with water. The impact of numerous design variables on mitigation effectiveness has also been quantified. HF removal efficiencies of 25 to 90+% have been demonstrated at water to HF liquid ratios of 6/1 to 40/1 and higher. 8 refs., 69 figs., 49 tabs.

Not Available

1989-06-01

382

Hazard and operability study of the multi-function Waste Tank Facility. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF) East site will be constructed on the west side of the 200E area and the MWTF West site will be constructed in the SW quadrant of the 200W site in the Hanford Area. This is a description of facility hazards that site personnel or the general public could potentially be exposed to during operation. A list of preliminary Design Basis Accidents was developed.

Hughes, M.E.

1995-05-15

383

LANDSLIDE HAZARD MAPPING USING BAYESIAN APPROACH IN GIS - CASE STUDY IN YANGSAN AREA, KOREA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landslide hazard mapping is essential for land-use activities and management decision-making in mountainous areas. This research gives a view of landslide characteristics on natural terrain of YangSan area, Korea and developing a Geographical Information Systems (GIS) approach to modeling slope instability. The relations between landslide distributions with the physical parameters such as lithology, elevation, slope gradient, slope aspect, lineament, drainage,

Nguyen Quoc Phi; Bui Hoang Bac

384

Study of regional monsoonal effects on landslide hazard zonation in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In general, landslides in Malaysia mostly occurred during northeast and southwest periods, two monsoonal systems that bring\\u000a heavy rain. As the consequence, most landslide occurrences were induced by rainfall. This paper reports the effect of monsoonal-related\\u000a geospatial data in landslide hazard modeling in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia, using Geographic Information System (GIS). Land\\u000a surface temperature (LST) data was selected as the

Abd Nasir Matori; Abdul Basith; Indra Sati Hamonangan Harahap

385

Facts, Contradictions And Possible Improvement Actions For Hazardous Wastewater Management - A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollution caused by direct discharge of waste leaching in tanning industry is a major contamination for sites (soil and groundwater)\\u000a in Romania. Next to Nitrogen-based organics, organic and inorganic sulphides and Chromium are some of the most hazardous contaminants\\u000a discharged and historically present on tannery sites. As the industrial branch enters the IPPC (Integrated Pollution Prevention\\u000a Control) Directive, the strategies

Maura Teodorescu; Carmen Gaidau

386

Taking Care of Kids: A Director's Concerns about Environmental Hazards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early childhood center directors need to be aware of young children's susceptibilities to environmental hazards and do what they can to eliminate or mitigate environmental and safety problems in and around centers. Directors should use common sense, know composition of products used in the center, watch for and eliminate hazards regularly, and ask…

Gratz, Rene; Boulton, Pamla

1993-01-01

387

Attitudes toward environmental hazards: Where do toxic wastes fit?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The public is continually faced with making decisions about the risks associated with environmental hazards, and, along with managers and government officials, must make informed decisions concerning possible regulation, mitigation, and restoration of degraded sites or other environmental threats. We explored the attitudes regarding several environmental hazards of six groups of people: undergraduate science majors, undergraduate nonscience majors, and graduate

Joanna Burger; K. Cooper; M. Martin; Michael Gochfeld

1997-01-01

388

User image mining for natural hazards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural hazards such as floods, avalanches, volcanic eruptions or earthquakes inflict losses to human settlements and manmade infrastructure and have negative impact on the local economy and environment. The growing number of satellite missions and space services facilitates the access to information for researches and decision makers. Space imagery offers the necessary support for risk prevention and mitigation, but requires

A. A. Popescu; C. Vaduva; D. Faur; D. Raducanu; I. Gavat; M. Datcu

2010-01-01

389

Oak Ridge Health Studies Phase 1 report, Volume 2: Part D, Dose Reconstruction Feasibility Study. Tasks 6, Hazard summaries for important materials at the Oak Ridge Reservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of Task 6 of Oak Ridge Phase I Health Studies is to provide summaries of current knowledge of toxic and hazardous properties of materials that are important for the Oak Ridge Reservation. The information gathered in the course of Task 6 investigations will support the task of focussing any future health studies efforts on those operations and emissions

G. M. Bruce; L. B. Walker; T. E. Widner

1993-01-01

390

Hazardous substance liability insurance  

SciTech Connect

The study was carried out to meet requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980. It considers the adequacy and feasibility of private insurance to protect owners and operators of ships covered by the Act and for post-closure financial responsibility for hazardous waste disposal facilities. The report is in three parts: Pt. 1 is an introduction to the hazardous substance insurance problem; Pt. 2 considers the adequacy of private insurance for owners and operators of vessels and facilities; Pt. 3 focuses on the problem of a private insurance alternative to the Post-Closure Liability Fund for 'inactive' hazardous waste disposal facilities.

Not Available

1982-03-01

391

Area-scale landslide hazard and risk assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper deals with a methodology for quantitative landslide hazard and risk assessments over wide-scale areas. The approach was designed to fulfil the following requirements: (1) rapid investigation of large study areas; (2) use of elementary information, in order to satisfy the first requirement and to ensure validation, repetition and real time updating of the assessments every time new data are available; (3) computation of the landslide frequency of occurrence, in order to compare objectively different hazard conditions and to minimize references to qualitative hazard attributes such as activity states. The idea of multi-temporal analysis set forth by Cardinali et al. (Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 2:57-72, 2002), has been stressed here to compute average recurrence time for individual landslides and to forecast their behaviour within reference time periods. The method is based on the observation of the landslide activity through aerial-photo surveys carried out in several time steps. The output is given by a landslide hazard map showing the mean return period of landslides reactivation. Assessing the hazard in a quantitative way allows for estimating quantitatively the risk as well; thus, the probability of the exposed elements (such as people and real estates) to suffer damages due to the occurrence of landslides can be calculated. The methodology here presented is illustrated with reference to a sample area in Central Italy (Umbria region), for which both the landslide hazard and risk for the human life are analysed and computed. Results show the powerful quantitative approach for assessing the exposure of human activities to the landslide threat for a best choice of the countermeasures needed to mitigate the risk.

Romeo, Roberto W.; Floris, Mario; Veneri, Francesco

2006-10-01

392

Efficiency of mitigation measures to reduce particulate air pollution--a case study during the Olympic Summer Games 2008 in Beijing, China.  

PubMed

Atmospheric particles were studied before, during, and after the period of the Olympic Summer Games in Beijing, China, in August 2008 in order to investigate the efficiency of the mitigation measures implemented by the Chinese Government. Total suspended particles (TSP) and fine particles (PM(2.5) and PM(1)) were collected continuously from October 2007 to February 2009 and were analyzed in detail with regard to mass and element concentrations, water-soluble ions, and black carbon (BC). Mass as well as element concentrations during the Olympic air quality control period were lower than the respective concentrations during the time directly before and after the Olympic Games. The results showed that the applied aerosol source control measures, such as shutting down industries and reducing traffic, had a huge impact on the reduction of aerosol pollution in Beijing. However, the meteorological conditions, especially rainfall, certainly also contributed to the successful reduction of particulate air pollution. Coarse particles were reduced more efficiently than finer particles, which indicates that long-range transport of atmospheric particles is difficult to control and that presumably the established mitigation area was not large enough. The study further showed that elements from predominantly anthropogenic sources, such as S, Cu, As, Cd, and Pb, as well as BC, were reduced more efficiently during the Olympic Games than elements for which geogenic sources are more significant, such as Al, Fe, Rb or Sr. Furthermore, the mentioned anthropogenic element concentrations were reduced more in the finer PM(2.5) samples whereas geogenic ones were reduced stronger in TSP samples including the coarser fraction. Consequently, it can be assumed that the mitigation measures, as intended, were successful in reducing more toxic and health-relevant particles from anthropogenic sources. Firework displays, especially at the Opening Ceremony, could be identified as a special short-time source for atmospheric particles during the Olympic Games. PMID:22560243

Schleicher, Nina; Norra, Stefan; Chen, Yizhen; Chai, Fahe; Wang, Shulan

2012-05-03

393

Radon mitigation in schools  

SciTech Connect

This article reports on radon mitigation in school buildings. Subslab depressurization (SSD) has been the most successful and widely used radon reduction method in houses. Thus far, it has also substantially reduced radon levels in a number of schools. Schools often have interior footings or thickened slabs that may create barriers for subslab air flow if a SSD system is the mitigation option. Review of foundation plans and subslab air flow testing will help to determine the presence and effect of such barriers. HVAC systems in schools vary considerable and tend to have a greater influence on pressure differentials (and consequently radon levels) than do heating and air-conditioning systems encountered in the radon mitigation of houses. As part of any radon mitigation method, ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 should be consulted to determine if the installed HVAC system is designed and operated to achieve minimum ventilation standards for indoor air quality.

Leovic, K.W.; Craig, A.B. (EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab., Triangle Park, NC (US)); Saum, D.W. (Infiltec, Falls Church, VA (US))

1990-01-01

394

Postattack Mitigation Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this research was to evaluate ways of reducing the severity of the firefighters' postattack environment and to define fire mitigation measures that will increase fire protection's contributions to aircraft sortie generation. This document...

H. Pike J. H. Storm

1988-01-01

395

Water Quality Mitigation Banking.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Current practice in New Jersey for mitigating stormwater impacts caused by transportation infrastructure projects is established by NJDEP Stormwater Regulations (N.J.A.C. 7:8). These rules outline specific processes to offset impacts to water quality, gro...

A. Fekete A. K. Agrawal B. VanderGheynst F. Scherrer

2009-01-01

396

Mitigation Strategies Database  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Mitigation strategies may be implemented all along the food production process, from basic agriculture, to food processing, distribution, and retail. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/fooddefense/toolseducationalmaterials

397

Evaluating a multi-criteria model for hazard assessment in urban design. The Porto Marghera case study  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this paper is to describe a new approach to major industrial hazard assessment, which has been recently studied by the authors in conjunction with the Italian Environmental Protection Agency ('ARPAV'). The real opportunity for developing a different approach arose from the need of the Italian EPA to provide the Venice Port Authority with an appropriate estimation of major industrial hazards in Porto Marghera, an industrial estate near Venice (Italy). However, the standard model, the quantitative risk analysis (QRA), only provided a list of individual quantitative risk values, related to single locations. The experimental model is based on a multi-criteria approach--the Analytic Hierarchy Process--which introduces the use of expert opinions, complementary skills and expertise from different disciplines in conjunction with quantitative traditional analysis. This permitted the generation of quantitative data on risk assessment from a series of qualitative assessments, on the present situation and on three other future scenarios, and use of this information as indirect quantitative measures, which could be aggregated for obtaining the global risk rate. This approach is in line with the main concepts proposed by the last European directive on Major Hazard Accidents, which recommends increasing the participation of operators, taking the other players into account and, moreover, paying more attention to the concepts of 'urban control', 'subjective risk' (risk perception) and intangible factors (factors not directly quantifiable)

Luria, Paolo; Aspinall, Peter A

2003-08-01

398

Asymptotic results for fitting marginal hazards models from stratified case-cohort studies with multiple disease outcomes  

PubMed Central

In stratified case-cohort designs, samplings of case-cohort samples are conducted via a stratified random sampling based on covariate information available on the entire cohort members. In this paper, we extended the work of Kang & Cai (2009) to a generalized stratified case-cohort study design for failure time data with multiple disease outcomes. Under this study design, we developed weighted estimating procedures for model parameters in marginal multiplicative intensity models and for the cumulative baseline hazard function. The asymptotic properties of the estimators are studied using martingales, modern empirical process theory, and results for finite population sampling.

Kang, Sangwook; Cai, Jianwen

2010-01-01

399

An analysis of land use planning and equity issues surrounding hazardous liquid and natural gas transmission pipelines in North Carolina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hazardous liquid and natural gas transmission pipelines have received limited attention by planning scholars even though local development decisions can have broad consequences if a rupture occurs. In this dissertation, I evaluated the implications of land-use planning for reducing risk to transmission pipeline hazards in North Carolina via three investigations. First, using a survey of planning directors in jurisdictions with transmission pipeline hazards, I investigated the land use planning tools used to mitigate pipeline hazards and the factors associated with tool adoption. Planning scholars have documented the difficulty of inducing planning in hazardous areas, yet there remain gaps in knowledge about the factors associated with tool adoption. Despite the risks associated with pipeline ruptures, I found most localities use few mitigation tools, and the adoption of regulatory and informational tools appear to be influenced by divergent factors. Whereas risk perception, commitment, capacity, and community context were associated with total tool and information tool use, only risk perception and capacity factors were associated with regulatory tool use. Second, using interviews of emergency managers and planning directors, I examined the role of agency collaboration for building mitigation capacity. Scholars have highlighted the potential of technical collaboration, yet less research has investigated how inter-agency collaboration shapes mitigation capacity. I identify three categories of technical collaboration, discuss how collaborative spillovers can occur from one planning area to another, and challenge the notion that all technical collaborations result in equal mitigation outcomes. Third, I evaluated characteristics of the population near pipelines to address equity concerns. Surprisingly, I did not find broad support for differences in exposure of vulnerable populations. Nonetheless, my analyses uncovered statistically significant clusters of vulnerable groups within the hazard area. Interestingly, development closer to pipelines was newer than areas farther away, illustrating the failure of land-use planning to reduce development encroachment. Collectively, these results highlight the potential of land-use planning to keep people and development from encroaching on pipeline hazards. While this study indicates that planners in many areas address pipeline hazards, it also illustrates how changes to local practices can further reduce risks to human health, homeland security, and the environment.

Osland, Anna Christine

400

Hazard and consequence analysis for waste emplacement at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Carlsbad Area Office established and analyzed the safety bases for the design and operations as documented in the WIPP Safety Analysis Report (SAR). Additional independent efforts are currently underway to assess the hazards associated with the long-term (10,000 year) isolation period as required by 40 CFR 191. The structure of the WIPP SAR is unique due to the hazards involved, and the agreement between the State of New Mexico and the DOE regarding SAR content and format. However, the hazards and accident analysis philosophy as contained in DOE-STD-3009-94 was followed as closely as possible, while adhering to state agreements. Hazards associated with WIPP waste receipt, emplacement, and disposal operations were systematically identified using a modified Hazard and Operability Study (HAZOP) technique. The WIPP HAZOP assessed the potential internal, external, and natural phenomena events that can cause the identified hazards to develop into accidents. The hazard assessment identified deviations from the intended design and operation of the waste handling system, analyzed potential accident consequences to the public and workers, estimated likelihood of occurrence, and evaluated associated preventative and mitigative features. It was concluded from the assessment that the proposed WIPP waste emplacement operations and design are sufficient to ensure safety of the public, workers, and environment, over the 35 year disposal phase.

Gerstner, D.M.; Clayton, S.G.; Farrell, R.F.; McCormick, J.A.; Ortiz, C.; Standiford, D.L.

1996-05-01

401

Debris flow and landslide hazard mapping and risk analysis in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper assesses the hazardousness, vulnerability and risk of debris flow and landslide in China and compiles maps with a scale of 1:6000000, based on Geographical Information System (GIS) technology, hazard regionalization map, socioeconomic data from 2000. Integrated hazardousness of debris flow and landslide is equivalent to the sum of debris flow hazardousness and landslide hazardousness. Vulnerability is assessed by employing a simplified assessment model. Risk is calculated by the following formula: Risk = Hazardousness × Vulnerability. The analysis results of assessment of hazardousness, vulnerability and risk show that there are extremely high risk regions of 104 km2, high risk regions of 283008 km2, moderate risk regions of 3161815 km2, low risk regions of 3299604 km2, and extremely low risk regions of 2681709 km2. Exploitation activities should be prohibited in extremely high risk and high risk regions and restricted in moderate risk regions. The present study on risk analysis of debris flow and landslide not only sheds new light on the future work in this direction but also provides a scientific basis for disaster prevention and mitigation policy making.

Liu, Xilin; Yu, Chengjun; Shi, Peijun; Fang, Weihua

2012-09-01

402

Intensive Radon Mitigation Research: Lessons Learned.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the past three years, two intensive radon mitigation projects have been conducted on 15 houses in the Pacific Northwest and seven houses in New Jersey. Both studies collected extensive continuous and periodic data on important house and environmental p...

B. H. Turk R. J. Prill R. G. Sextro J. Harrison

1988-01-01

403

Report Lays Out Initial Hazard Risk Reduction Priorities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new Bush administration report on disaster vulnerability provides an initial set of priorities for natural and technological hazard risk reduction efforts, an overview of hazards facing the U.S., and a review of current mitigation efforts. Among the priorities identified by the 27 August report is that the U.S. should leverage scientific knowledge of natural and technological hazards to help address terrorism events and homeland security goals.

Showstack, Randy

404

Emerging Radiation Health-Risk Mitigation Technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Past space missions beyond the confines of the Earth's protective magnetic field have been of short duration and protection from the effects of solar particle events was of primary concern. The extension of operational infrastructure beyond low-Earth orbit to enable routine access to more interesting regions of space will require protection from the hazards of the accumulated exposures of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR). There are significant challenges in providing protection from the long-duration exposure to GCR: the human risks to the exposures are highly uncertain and safety requirements places unreasonable demands in supplying sufficient shielding materials in the design. A vigorous approach to future radiation health-risk mitigation requires a triage of techniques (using biological and technical factors) and reduction of the uncertainty in radiation risk models. The present paper discusses the triage of factors for risk mitigation with associated materials issues and engineering design methods.

Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Schimmerling, W.

2004-02-01

405

Is wetland mitigation successful in Southern California?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetlands perform many vital functions within their landscape position; they provide unique habitats for a variety of flora and fauna and they act as treatment systems for upstream natural and anthropogenic waste. California has lost an estimated 91% of its wetlands. Despite the 1989 "No Net Loss" policy and mitigation requirements by the regulatory agencies, the implemented mitigation may not be offsetting wetlands losses. The "No Net Loss" policy is likely failing for numerous reasons related to processes in the wetlands themselves and the policies governing their recovery. Of particular interest is whether these mitigation sites are performing essential wetlands functions. Specific questions include: 1) Are hydric soil conditions forming in mitigation sites; and, 2) are the water quality-related chemical transformations that occur in natural wetlands observed in mitigation sites. This study focuses on success (or lack of success) in wetlands mitigation sites in Southern California. Soil and water quality investigations were conducted in wetland mitigation sites deemed to be successful by vegetation standards. Observations of the Standard National Resource Conservation Service field indicators of reducing conditions were made to determine whether hydric soil conditions have developed in the five or more years since the implementation of mitigation plans. In addition, water quality measurements were performed at the inlet and outlet of these mitigation sites to determine whether these sites perform similar water quality transformations to natural wetlands within the same ecosystem. Water quality measurements included nutrient, trace metal, and carbon species measurements. A wetland location with minimal anthropogenic changes and similar hydrologic and vegetative features was used as a control site. All sites selected for study are within a similar ecosystem, in the interior San Diego and western Riverside Counties, in Southern California.

Cummings, D. L.; Rademacher, L. K.

2004-12-01

406

Studying geodesy and earthquake hazard in and around the New Madrid Seismic Zone  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Workshop on New Madrid Geodesy and the Challenges of Understanding Intraplate Earthquakes; Norwood, Massachusetts, 4 March 2011 Twenty-six researchers gathered for a workshop sponsored by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and FM Global to discuss geodesy in and around the New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ) and its relation to earthquake hazards. The group addressed the challenge of reconciling current geodetic measurements, which show low present-day surface strain rates, with paleoseismic evidence of recent, relatively frequent, major earthquakes in the region. The workshop presentations and conclusions will be available in a forthcoming USGS open-file report (http://pubs.usgs.gov).

Boyd, Oliver Salz; Magistrale, Harold

2011-01-01

407

[The hazard function].  

PubMed

In cohort studies the event occurrence is usually described by the incidence rate and the survivor function. In comparison with these estimators the plot of the hazard function has the advantage to show the variations of the occurrence of the event along the period of observation, which often are important to be highlighted. Furthermore, when comparing individuals with different characteristics, the hazard function is a valuable support to check the assumption and to interpret the results of a Cox regression model. This paper illustrates the method for estimating the hazard function and an example is given from a real case by using the survival data of the breast cancers collected in the IMPACT study, aimed to detect the efficacy of the mammographic screening program. The relationship between the usual estimators and the hazard function is shown and its role in the survival regression modelling is emphasized. In the example the estimate of the hazard function allows to point out that the mortality rate of breast cancer in the first year after the diagnosis is lower than later and that the difference between the hazards of the invited cases and those of the not invited cases is approximately constant along the whole l0 years follow up, two important remarks both demonstrating the usefulness of the application of this function in the analysis of cohort studies. PMID:18326427

Coviello, Enzo; Miccinesi, Guido; Puliti, Donella; Paci, Eugenio

408

Water-spray systems for mitigating accidental indoor releases of water-soluble gasesq  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water-spray systems have been designed for mitigating accidental outdoor releases of water-soluble gases. This paper describes the new application of water systems to mitigating indoor releases. The performance of spray systems is studied by using models of atmospheric release and spray mitigation, having adjusted them for the indoor environment. A case study is presented of a mitigation system for a

Vasilis M. Fthenakis

409

Public perception of flood hazard and flood risk in Iceland: a case study in a watershed prone to ice-jam floods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding and improving the public perception has become an important element in the management of flood risk worldwide.\\u000a In Iceland, studying perception of flood hazard and flood risk is, however, in its early stages. This paper presents a case\\u000a study on the public perception of flood hazard and flood risk in an Icelandic town prone to ice-jam floods. Awareness of

Emmanuel PagneuxGu; Guðrún Gísladóttir; Salvör Jónsdóttir

2011-01-01

410

Thinking of Wildfire as a Natural Hazard  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural hazards theory with its emphasis on understanding the human–hazard interaction has much to offer in better understanding how individuals respond to the wildfire hazard. Ironically, very few natural hazards studies have actually looked at wildfires, despite the insights the field might offer. This report is structured around four interrelated questions that are often heard from individuals involved with wildfire

SARAH MCCAFFREY

2004-01-01

411

Volcanic Hazard Education through Virtual Field studies of Vesuvius and Laki Volcanoes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcanic eruptions pose significant hazards to human populations and have the potential to cause significant economic impacts as shown by the recent ash-producing eruptions in Iceland. Demonstrating both the local and global impact of eruptions is important for developing an appreciation of the scale of hazards associated with volcanic activity. In order to address this need, Web-based virtual field exercises at Vesuvius volcano in Italy and Laki volcano in Iceland have been developed as curriculum enhancements for undergraduate geology classes. The exercises are built upon previous research by the authors dealing with the 79 AD explosive eruption of Vesuvius and the 1783 lava flow eruption of Laki. Quicktime virtual reality images (QTVR), video clips, user-controlled Flash animations and interactive measurement tools are used to allow students to explore archeological and geological sites, collect field data in an electronic field notebook, and construct hypotheses about the impacts of the eruptions on the local and global environment. The QTVR images provide 360o views of key sites where students can observe volcanic deposits and formations in the context of a defined field area. Video sequences from recent explosive and effusive eruptions of Carribean and Hawaiian volcanoes are used to illustrate specific styles of eruptive activity, such as ash fallout, pyroclastic flows and surges, lava flows and their effects on the surrounding environment. The exercises use an inquiry-based approach to build critical relationships between volcanic processes and the deposits that they produce in the geologic record. A primary objective of the exercises is to simulate the role of a field volcanologist who collects information from the field and reconstructs the sequence of eruptive processes based on specific features of the deposits. Testing of the Vesuvius and Laki exercises in undergraduate classes from a broad spectrum of educational institutions shows a preference for the web-based interactive tools compared with traditional paper-based laboratory exercises. The exercises are freely accessible for undergraduate classes such as introductory geology, geologic hazards, or volcanology. Accompany materials, such as lecture-based Powerpoint presentations about Vesuvius and Laki, are also being developed for instructors to better integrate the web-based exercises into their existing curriculum.

Carey, S.; Sigurdsson, H.

2011-12-01

412

Study of symptom and disease prevalence, Caldwell Systems, Inc. hazardous waste incinerator, Caldwell County, North Carolina. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the study was to determine whether the prevalence of specific symptoms or diseases in persons living within a 1.5 mile radius of the former Caldwell Systems Inc. Site was different from that among selected, similar people not living near the site. This was a hazardous waste disposal facility in Caldwell County, N.C. Within the target area statistically significant odds ratios were found for irritative and neurologic symptoms in the areas north and south of the incinerator. Further examination of the residents living near the incinerator site is indicated in the report.

Straight, J.M.; Folger, S.G.; McGeehin, M.; Amler, R.W.

1993-09-01

413

Hazardous waste site identification using aerial photography: A pilot study in Burlington County, New Jersey, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of the project was to identify all hazardous waste sites in Burlington County, New Jersey that could be detected on existing, medium-scale aerial photographs of the county. The complete set of over 1000 black- and-white stereopairs at a scale of 1:12,000 was carefully examined for initial identification of possible sites. All suspicious sites were examined again on color transparencies of the county at the same 1:12,000 scale. Out of the 1094 black- and-white photos, 250 required further checking on color transparencies using a zoom stereoscope. This examination resulted in a final identification of 67 sites, the locations of which were delineated on 1:24,000 USGS maps. The use of air photo interpretation techniques provided an effective procedure for identifying waste sites quickly as well as providing a useful demonstration program for county and state officials.

Bagheri, Sima; Hordon, Robert M.

1988-01-01

414

Climate change induced heat wave hazard in eastern Africa: Dar Es Salaam (Tanzania) and Addis Ababa (Ethiopia) case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Last decades, new records were set in the world for tornadoes, drought, wind, floods, wildfires and hot temperatures, testifying unusual weather and climate patterns with increasing frequency and intensity of extreme weather events. Extreme heat events are natural hazards affecting many regions in the world, nevertheless limited work has been done on the analysis and effects of extreme heat events in Africa, that is considered a continent particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. In fact, the increase of temperature expected in the African continent during the 21st century is larger than the global mean warming, being about 3° to 4° C, about 1.5 times the global temperature increase (Christensen et al., 2007; Gualdi et al., 2012), with the subtropical regions projected to warm more than the tropical regions. Observations and downscaled model simulations (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 IPCC scenarios) are analyzed to describe heat wave characteristics in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) and Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), spanning the last five decades as well as that projected for the 21st century. Observed data are daily maximum and minimum temperature collected in the period 1961-2011; downscaled model simulations span up to 2050. Heat waves are defined following a peak over threshold approach by statistical comparison to historical meteorological baselines (site dependent), using a fixed absolute threshold. Projected future warming in the Dar es Salaam and Addis Ababa shows a further increase in the heat waves parameters. Heat wave duration and hot days number are strictly correlated showing that the temperature rise could generate not only an increase of heat waves number but mainly a longer average duration, that can strongly affect the resilience capacity of the population, particularly the elder people. In fact, the impacts of heat waves on the society are determined also by temporal duration (Stephenson, 2008), in addition to their frequency, in fact the capacity of adaptation can be reduced with prolonged exposure to high temperature and humidity. The expected persistence of long-lived heat waves lasting approximately 1.5-2 weeks is clearly longer with respect to the climatological period (1961-1990). During 100 years, short lived but more intense waves are more than doubled in duration. It is evident the needs for the national health services to develop strategies for the mitigation of the heat wave effects, to enhance the resilience of the population, particularly the elder people.

Capuano, Paolo; Sellerino, Mariangela; Di Ruocco, Angela; Kombe, Wilbard; Yeshitela, Kumelachew

2013-04-01

415

Warning system for hydrogeological hazards in Campania (Southern Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Campania is the Italian region with the highest population density (419 inhabitants/km2). Almost 20% of its territory (13669 km2) is affected by significant hydrogeological hazards, with related loss scenarios in almost 12% of it. The most critical hydrogeological hazard scenarios are those triggered by extreme rainfall events with duration ranging from a few tens of minutes up 72 hours: flood loss scenarios are expected in catchments with spatial extent from a few Km2 up to 5000 km2; shallow landslides and mudflows are also triggered by rainfall events within a broad range of time scales. This study presents a warning system for hydrogeological hazards, which has been operating in Campania since 2005, designed for mitigating losses due to extreme rainfall events. The warning system is structured into two stages: the meteorological forecasting stage and the hydrological monitoring stage. In the first stage, after evaluating rainfall forecasts provided by numerical weather prediction models (with a forecasting time up to 48 hours), warning messages are issued to the local municipalities grouped in 8 warning zones. Critical rainfall events are identified by three different alert levels, according to their forecasted spatial and temporal extents, each corresponding to a category of expected hazard scenarios at regional level. During the second stage, the dynamic evolution of the hydrological events is monitored by a real-time network of river stage and rain gauges, which are employed to compute one or more precursors for each loss scenario. Loss scenarios have been classified according to the temporal and spatial scales of the corresponding precursors, in order to deal with the difficulties related to the occurrence of significantly different hazard scenarios during the