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1

Hazardous Waste Disposal Damage Reports.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication is the first in a series of reports to document incidents of improper land disposal of hazardous wastes. Studies include: Arsenic poisoning in Minnesota; Industrial waste disposal on farmland in Illinois; Fatality at a New Jersey Industri...

1975-01-01

2

The Disposal of Hazardous Wastes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The highlights of a symposium held in October, 1977 spotlight some problems and solutions. Topics include wastes from coal technologies, radioactive wastes, and industrial and agricultural wastes. (BB)|

Barnhart, Benjamin J.

1978-01-01

3

Regulating the disposal of cigarette butts as toxic hazardous waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trillions of cigarette butts generated each year throughout the world pose a significant challenge for disposal regulations, primarily because there are millions of points of disposal, along with the necessity to segregate, collect and dispose of the butts in a safe manner, and cigarette butts are toxic, hazardous waste. There are some hazardous waste laws, such as those covering

Richard L Barnes

2011-01-01

4

Household hazardous waste disposal in Benton County, Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residents of Benton County, Oregon were studied to assess current and recent disposal practices for hazardous household wastes (HHW), plan for future HHW disposal programs, and guide educational and informational resource strategies that foster the safe disposal of HHW. The study results indicate that many Benton County residents dispose of their HHW by methods that may not protect human health

J. W. McEvoy; A. M. Rossignol

1993-01-01

5

Audits of hazardous waste TSDFs let generators sleep easy. [Hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal facility  

SciTech Connect

Because of the increasingly strict enforcement of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), generators of hazardous waste are compelled to investigate the hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal facility (TSDF) they use. This investigation must include an environmental and a financial audit. Simple audits may be performed by the hazardous waste generator, while more thorough ones such as those performed for groups of generators are more likely to be conducted by environmental consultants familiar with treatment, storage, and disposal techniques and the regulatory framework that guides them.

Carr, F.H.

1990-02-01

6

Concrete disposal vaults: An alternative to Hazardous Waste\\/Mixed Waste earthen landfills  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hazardous Waste\\/Mixed Waste (HW\\/MW) Disposal Facility is a new facility planned for on site processing and disposal of existing and future solid hazardous and\\/or mixed wastes generated at Savannah River Site (SRS). The first phase of the project is the completion of engineered above grade concrete disposal vaults which are to be permitted as hazardous waste disposal facilities and

A. A. Freitag; D. E. Stewart; S. L. Peterson

1992-01-01

7

Remedial action, treatment, and disposal of hazardous waste  

SciTech Connect

The Seventeenth Annual Research Symposium on Remedial Action, Treatment, and Disposal of Hazardous Waste was held in Cincinnati, Ohio, April 9-11, 1991. The purpose of this Symposium was to present the latest significant research findings from ongoing and recently completed projects funded by the Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL). These Proceedings are organized in three sections: Sessions A and B consist of paper presentations. Session C contains the poster abstracts. Subjects include remedial action treatment and control technologies for waste disposal, landfill liner and cover systems, underground storage tanks, and demonstration and development of innovative/alternative treatment technologies for hazardous waste. Alternative technology subjects include thermal destruction of hazardous wastes, field evaluations, existing treatment options, emerging treatment processes, waste minimization, and biosystems for hazardous waste destruction. Separate abstracts are included for 66 papers for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

Not Available

1991-01-01

8

Guidelines for disposal of solid wastes and hazardous wastes. Volume 3. Report for 1980-1981  

SciTech Connect

These documents are compiled as the Guidelines for Disposal of Solid Wastes and Hazardous Wastes: (1) Toxic Substances Control Act; (2) Regulations for Siting of Industrial Hazardous Waste Facilities; (3) Proposed Adoption of Regulations for Siting Industrial Hazardous Waste Facilities; (4) Collection and Transport of Industrial, Commercial and Certain Other Wastes; (5) Regulations Relating to the Use, Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements Associated with the Hazardous Wastes Manifest System and Related Standards of Generators, Transporters, and Facilities Dealing with Hazardous Waste; (6) Environmental Impact Statement, Regulatory Impact Statement, Hazardous Waste Manifest System, and Standards Applicable to Hazardous-Waste Generators and Transporters; (7) Regulations Relating to the Identification and Listing of Hazardous Wastes.

Wang, L.K.; Wang, M.H.S.

1987-02-14

9

[Hazardous health effects in communal waste collection and disposal workers].  

PubMed

This paper presents a review of the current literature concerning health impact of communal waste in people occupationally involved in waste collection and disposal. No studies have been as yet carried out in this regard. This review indicates that the main hazards for workers collecting and disposing communal wastes comprise organic dust with adsorbed micro-organisms, endotoxins, and numerous organic and inorganic chemicals. The major health effects associated with the job performed include injuries caused by work-related accidents and diseases. Among the most frequent diseases there are allergic and other diseases of the respiratory system, as well as musculo-skeletal, gastro-intestinal and infectious diseases. Complex hygiene assessment and control of work conditions are difficult due to the lack of hygiene standards for micro-organisms and endotoxins in the air of the workplace. No studies have been carried out thus far in Poland regarding exposure and health effects in workers collecting and disposing communal wastes. According to the information available, this problem concerns several thousands employees. PMID:10971930

Krajewski, J A; Tarkowski, S; Cyprowski, M

2000-01-01

10

Toward Hazardless Waste: A Guide for Safe Use and Disposal of Hazardous Household Products.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide is designed to help individuals make responsible decisions about safe use and disposal of household products. It consists of eight sections dealing with: (1) hazardous chemicals in the home, how hazaradous products become hazardous waste, and whether a hazardous waste problem exists in Puget Sound; (2) which household wastes are…

Toteff, Sally; Zehner, Cheri

11

Liquid household hazardous wastes in the United States: Identification, disposal, and management plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present methods of disposal of today's hazardous household chemicals in the United States are frequently not acceptable because of pathways to groundwater, surface water, and the atmosphere. This report identifies potentially hazardous liquid waste in the household, notes current disposal practices, and recommends an improved management plan that utilizes consumer education, manufacturer cooperation, and governmental intervention. Laws requiring uniform disposal

David K. Robertson; Jude Akagha; Jon Belasco; Jane Bullis; Gloria Byrne; Joan Di Patria; Wayne Fisher; James Fonzino; Jeffrey Hsu; Lucy Merchan; David Oster; Jon Rosenberg; Sabine Von Aulock; Barry Vroeginday

1987-01-01

12

Public acceptance and siting of hazardous waste disposal facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the late 1970's the Love Canal hazardous waste site in New York State, U.S.A. became a benchmark for negative feelings\\u000a towards the siting of future hazardous waste landfills and facilities. At the present time social and political factors often\\u000a dominate the siting process. There is growing anxiety being shown by the public about the location of waste facilities, and

Michael J. Knight

1985-01-01

13

CONSTRUCTION QUALITY ASSURANCE IN PERMITS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE LAND DISPOSAL FACILITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA's) Hazardous Waste Engineering Research Laboratory (HWERL) has prepared a Technical Guidance Document, at the request of the Office of Solid Waste (OSW), on construction quality assurance (CQA) for hazardous waste land disposal fa...

14

Liquid household hazardous wastes in the United States: Identification, disposal, and management plan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Present methods of disposal of today's hazardous household chemicals in the United States are frequently not acceptable because of pathways to groundwater, surface water, and the atmosphere. This report identifies potentially hazardous liquid waste in the household, notes current disposal practices, and recommends an improved management plan that utilizes consumer education, manufacturer cooperation, and governmental intervention. Laws requiring uniform disposal labeling on packaging are critical. Local, county, and state governments must be encouraged to coordinate the necessary infrastructure. Managing hazardous household wastes now will mitigate potential disposal problems.

Robertson, David K.; Akagha, Jude; Belasco, Jon; Bullis, Jane; Byrne, Gloria; di Patria, Joan; Fisher, Wayne; Fonzino, James; Hsu, Jeffrey; Merchan, Lucy; Oster, David; Rosenberg, Jon; von Aulock, Sabine; Vroeginday, Barry

1987-11-01

15

Hazardous waste: Controls over injection well disposal operations  

SciTech Connect

There have been few confirmed cases of drinking-water contamination from hazardous waste injection wells. However, because the contamination is hard to detect, it cannot be said with certainty that no other cases exist. Neither the Environmental Protection Agency nor the states require that groundwater immediately above injected waste be sampled and tested for contamination. In monitoring 21 wells in 2 states for which EPA has direct oversight responsibility, GAO found that the agency did not perform the required periodic inspections during FY 1985 and 1986. Effective in August 1988, underground hazardous waste injection will be banned except where it can be shown that the waste can be fully contained within the injection zone and will not spread into unintended areas; the burden of proof will fall on the well operator. EPA expects that, with few exception, wells operating today will be able to meet this test and will, therefore, continue to inject hazardous waste underground.

Not Available

1987-01-01

16

REMEDIAL ACTION, TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS WASTE: PROCEEDINGS OF THE SIXTEENTH ANNUAL HAZARDOUS WASTE RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM  

EPA Science Inventory

The Sixteenth Annual Research Symposium on Remedial Action, Treatment and Disposal of Hazardous Waste was held in Cincinnati, Ohio, April 3-5, 1990. he purpose of this Symposium was to present the latest significant research findings from ongoing and recently completed projects f...

17

REMEDIAL ACTION, TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS WASTE: PROCEEDINGS OF THE SEVENTEENTH ANNUAL HAZARDOUS WASTE RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM  

EPA Science Inventory

The Seventeenth Annual RREL Research Symposium on Remedial Action, Treatment and Disposal of Hazardous Waste was held in Cincinnati, Ohio, April 9-11, 1991. he purpose of this Symposium was to present the latest significant research findings from ongoing and recently completed pr...

18

Land disposal of hazardous waste: proceedings of the eleventh annual research symposium. [Abstracts only  

SciTech Connect

Proceedings are summarized for Session A of the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Eleventh Annual Research Symposium - Land Disposal, Remedial Action, Incineration, and Treatment of Hazardous Waste. The symposium was held in Cincinnati, Ohio April 29 through May 1, 1985. Session A, Hazardous Waste Land Disposal, included 35 papers; and Session C included 20 poster presentations about the status of research projects sponsored by EPA's Land Pollution Control Division (LPCD) of the Hazardous Waste Engineering Research Laboratory (HWERL). Land Disposal papers are presented in the areas of remedial action, pollutant assessment, and pollutant control. They discuss the generation, movement, control, and treatment of pollutants in landfills, surface impoundments, air, underground mines, and uncontrolled remedial action hazardous waste sites. Session B, Hazardous Waste Incineration and Treatment, will be published as a separate document.

Zunt, D.A.; Barkley, N.P.

1985-07-01

19

40 CFR 257.5 - Disposal standards for owners/operators of non-municipal non-hazardous waste disposal units that...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...means any non-municipal non-hazardous waste disposal unit that has not received CESQG hazardous waste prior to January 1, 1998. State ...the facility's property boundary. Waste management unit boundary means a vertical...

2013-07-01

20

EVALUATION OF AIR EMISSIONS FROM HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

This study has examined the fugitive air emissions from landfills, surface impoundments, storage tanks, containers (drums), solvent recovery processes, and land treatment technologies at hazardous waste disposal facilities (HWDF's). The main objective of this study was to develop...

21

Solid and hazardous waste disposal at eastern coal gasification and liquefaction facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is designed to provide an examination of solid waste disposal options at synthetic fuels facilities. This first study is limited to the Northeastern-Appalachian region of the U.S., and to three technologies (solvent refined coal (SRC-II), slagging Lurgi, and dry ash Lurgi). This report is further limited to an examination of landfill disposal, for both hazardous and non-hazardous wastes.

B. Royce; D. Weeter; R. Shypailo; P. Meier; W. Metz; M. Williams

1981-01-01

22

Waste disposal by hydrofracture and application of the technology to the management of hazardous wastes  

SciTech Connect

A unique disposal method, involving hydrofracturing, has been used for management of liquid low-level radioactive wastes at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Wastes are mixed with cement and other solids and injected along bedding plane fractures into highly impermeable shale at a depth of 300 m forming a grout sheet. The process has operated successfully for 20 years and may be applicable to disposal of hazardous wastes. The cement grout represents the primary barrier for immobilization of the wastes; the hydrologically isolated injection horizon represents a secondary barrier. At ORNL work has been conducted to characterize the geology of the disposal site and to determine its relationship to the injection process. The site is structurally quite complex. Research has also been conducted on the development of methods for monitoring the extent and orientation of the grout sheets; these methods include gamma-ray logging of cased observation wells, leveling surveys of benchmarks, tiltmeter surveys, and microseismic arrays. These methods, some of which need further development, offer promise for real-time and post-injection monitoring. Initial suggestions are offered for possible application of the technology to hazardous waste management and technical and regulatory areas needing attention are addressed. 11 refs., 1 fig.

Stow, S.H.; Haase, C.S.; Weeren, H.O.

1985-01-01

23

Public policy impacts on the generation and disposal of hazardous waste in New York State.  

PubMed

A number of policies adopted by the federal government and the state have been designed to promote waste reduction or influence the choice of waste disposal technologies employed by generators of hazardous waste. Graphic analysis of smoothed time series data for hazardous wastes manifested in New York State for the period between June 1982 and February 1987 suggests that some of these policies have had the intended effects. Significant shifts in manifested waste volumes are evident that coincide with the following policy interventions: (1) increased state waste-end tax rates; (2) state and federal landfill bans; (3) federal restrictions on burning hazardous wastes and waste oils for energy recovery; and (4) changes in the federal regulatory definition of hazardous waste. Other changes in waste generation and management appear to be attributable to such factors as state and regional economic conditions and changes in instate treatment and disposal facility capacity. Analysis of the management of specific waste types supports evidence from the graphic analysis that waste generators changed from land disposal to "higher" waste handling technologies in response to several policy interventions. PMID:2340146

Deyle, R E; Bretschneider, S I

1990-04-01

24

40 CFR 264.555 - Disposal of CAMU-eligible wastes in permitted hazardous waste landfills.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...an off-site permitted hazardous waste landfill, consistent with the requirements...remediation. (d) Applicable hazardous waste management requirements in this part, including...this section, for CAMU-eligible waste must be incorporated into...

2013-07-01

25

Hazardous Waste  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Given media attention to the US Navy's recent problems with the disposal of a large amount of napalm, an incendiary compound, this week's In the News examines the issue of hazardous waste and materials. The eight resources discussed provide information on various aspects of the topic. Due to the large number of companies specializing in the management and remediation of hazardous waste contamination, private firms will not be noted.

Harris, Kathryn L.

26

40 CFR 257.5 - Disposal standards for owners/operators of non-municipal non-hazardous waste disposal units that...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... means the period of operation beginning with the initial receipt of solid waste and ending at the final receipt of solid waste. Existing unit means any non-municipal non-hazardous waste disposal unit that is receiving CESQG...

2009-07-01

27

40 CFR 257.5 - Disposal standards for owners/operators of non-municipal non-hazardous waste disposal units that...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... means the period of operation beginning with the initial receipt of solid waste and ending at the final receipt of solid waste. Existing unit means any non-municipal non-hazardous waste disposal unit that is receiving CESQG...

2010-07-01

28

Preliminary Hazard Analysis for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility  

SciTech Connect

The need for remote handled low level waste (LLW) disposal capability has been identified. A new onsite, remote-handled LLW disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled LLW disposal capability for remote-handled LLW that is generated as part of the nuclear mission of the Idaho National Laboratory and from spent nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled LLW in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This document supports the conceptual design for the proposed remote-handled LLW disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization and by identifying potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled LLW.

Lisa Harvego; Mike Lehto

2010-02-01

29

Preliminary Hazard Analysis for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility  

SciTech Connect

The need for remote handled low level waste (LLW) disposal capability has been identified. A new onsite, remote-handled LLW disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled LLW disposal capability for remote-handled LLW that is generated as part of the nuclear mission of the Idaho National Laboratory and from spent nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled LLW in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This document supports the conceptual design for the proposed remote-handled LLW disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization and by identifying potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled LLW.

Lisa Harvego; Mike Lehto

2010-05-01

30

Preliminary Hazard Analysis for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project  

SciTech Connect

The need for remote handled low level waste (LLW) disposal capability has been identified. A new onsite, remote-handled LLW disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled LLW disposal capability for remote-handled LLW that is generated as part of the nuclear mission of the Idaho National Laboratory and from spent nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled LLW in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This document supports the conceptual design for the proposed remote-handled LLW disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization and by identifying potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled LLW.

Lisa Harvego; Mike Lehto

2010-10-01

31

Pesticides; resource recovery; hazardous substances and oil spill responses; waste disposal; biological effects  

SciTech Connect

In the category of pesticides this volume features close to sixty standard test method, practices, and guides for evaluating the properties and efficacy of pesticides and antimicrobial agents. Also covered are standards for hazardous substances, oil spell responses, waste disposal, and biological effects of these materials.

Not Available

1991-01-01

32

REMEDIAL ACTION, TREATMENT, AND DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS WASTE - PROCEEDINGS OF THE 15TH ANNUAL RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM  

EPA Science Inventory

The Fifteenth Annual Research Symposium on Remedial Action, Treatment, and Disposal of Hazardous Waste was held in Cincinnati, OH, April 10-12, 1989. he purpose of this Symposium was to present the latest significant research findings from ongoing and recently completed projects ...

33

Regulatory Impact Analysis of Land Disposal Restrictions for Newly Identified Wastes and Hazardous Soil (Phase 2 LDRs). Final Rule.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report analyzes the costs, economic impacts, and benefits due to the land disposal restrictions for newly identified wastes and hazardous soil. It examines wastes affected by the rule. Appendices include: Toxicity characteristic (TC) survey questionna...

1994-01-01

34

Grout formulation for disposal of low-level and hazardous waste streams containing fluoride  

DOEpatents

A composition and related process for disposal of hazardous waste streams containing fluoride in cement-based materials is disclosed. the presence of fluoride in cement-based materials is disclosed. The presence of fluoride in waste materials acts as a set retarder and as a result, prevents cement-based grouts from setting. This problem is overcome by the present invention wherein calcium hydroxide is incorporated into the dry-solid portion of the grout mix. The calcium hydroxide renders the fluoride insoluble, allowing the grout to set up and immobilize all hazardous constituents of concern. 4 tabs.

McDaniel, E.W.; Sams, T.L.; Tallent, O.K.

1987-06-02

35

Hazards of managing and disposing of nuclear waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

When we bury long-lived nuclear wastes in geologic repositories, we have to worry about what may happen ten thousandor even a millionyears in the future.{copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

William E. Kastenberg; Luca J. Gratton

1997-01-01

36

Hazardous Waste  

MedlinePLUS

... you throw these substances away, they become hazardous waste. Some hazardous wastes come from products in our homes. Our garbage can include such hazardous wastes as old batteries, bug spray cans and paint ...

37

Feasibility Study for Hazardous Waste Treatment and Disposal in the City of Shenyang, People's Republic of China.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document is the final report of the feasibility study conducted for the National Environment Protection Agency of China. The purpose of the study was to develop a detailed technical approach for hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal project ...

1989-01-01

38

Nasreya: a treatment and disposal facility for industrial hazardous waste in Alexandria, Egypt: phase I.  

PubMed

A facility for the treatment and disposal of industrial hazardous waste has been established in Alexandria, Egypt. Phase I of the facility encompassing a secure landfill and solar evaporation ponds is ready to receive waste, and Phase II encompassing physico-chemical treatment, solidification, and interim storage is underway. The facility, the Nasreya Centre, is the first of its kind in Egypt, and represents the nucleus for the integration, improvement and further expansion of different hazardous waste management practices and services in Alexandria. It has been developed within the overall legal framework of the Egyptian Law for the Environment, and is expected to improve prospects for enforcement of the regulatory requirements specified in this law. It has been developed with the overall aim of promoting the establishment of an integrated industrial hazardous waste management system in Alexandria, serving as a demonstration to be replicated elsewhere in Egypt. For Phase I, the Centre only accepts inorganic industrial wastes. In this respect, a waste acceptance policy has been developed, which is expected to be reviewed during Phase II, with an expansion of the waste types accepted. PMID:15864958

Ramadan, Adham R; Kock, Per; Nadim, Amani

2005-04-01

39

Hazard Classification of the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is constructing a new facility to replace remote-handled low-level radioactive waste disposal capability for INL and Naval Reactors Facility operations. Current disposal capability at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) will continue until the facility is full or closed for remediation (estimated at approximately fiscal year 2015). Development of a new onsite disposal facility is the highest ranked alternative and will provide RH-LLW disposal capability and will ensure continuity of operations that generate RH-LLW for the foreseeable future. As a part of establishing a safety basis for facility operations, the facility will be categorized according to DOE-STD-1027-92. This classification is important in determining the scope of analyses performed in the safety basis and will also dictate operational requirements of the completed facility. This paper discusses the issues affecting hazard classification in this nuclear facility and impacts of the final hazard categorization.

Boyd D. Christensen

2012-05-01

40

The Herfa-Neurode hazardous waste repository in bedded salt as an operating model for safe mixed waste disposal  

SciTech Connect

For 18 years, The Herfa-Neurode underground repository has demonstrated the environmentally sound disposal of hazardous waste in a former potash mine. Its principal characteristics make it an excellent analogue to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The Environmental Protection Agency has ruled in its first conditional no-migration determination that is reasonably certain that no hazardous constituents of the mixed waste, destined for the WIPP during its test phase, will migrate from the site for up to ten years. Knowledge of and reference to the Herfa-Neurode operating model may substantially improve the no-migration variance petition for the WIPP's disposal phase and thereby expedite its approval. 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Rempe, N.T.

1991-01-01

41

Nuclear Waste Disposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear wastes are by-products of nuclear weapons production and nuclear power generation, plus residuals of radioactive materials used by industry, medicine, agriculture, and academia. Their distinctive nature and potential hazard make nuclear wastes not only the most dangerous waste ever created by mankind, but also one of the most controversial and regulated with respect to disposal. Nuclear waste issues, related

Glendon W. Gee; Philip D. Meyer; Andy L. Ward

2005-01-01

42

40 CFR Appendix Vii to Part 268 - LDR Effective Dates of Surface Disposed Prohibited Hazardous Wastes  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Dates of Surface Disposed Wastes (Non-Soil and Debris) Regulated in the LDRS a ...table also does not include contaminated soil and debris wastes.b The standard...Land Disposal Restrictions for Contaminated Soil and Debris (CSD) Restricted...

2013-07-01

43

HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

Hazardous waste may be stored, treated and disposed in a variety of ways. Treatment technology exists today for detoxification or destruction of wastes in an environmentally acceptable manner through physical, chemical and biological means. This volume covers several common alter...

44

Hazardous Waste Treatment Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hazardous waste may be stored, treated and disposed in a variety of ways. Treatment technology exists today for detoxification or destruction of wastes in an environmentally acceptable manner through physical, chemical and biological means. This volume co...

1986-01-01

45

Environmentally sound disposal of wastes: Multipurpose offshore islands offer safekeeping, continuous monitoring of hazardous, nuclear wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid wastes have become a health threat to all municipalities and safe disposal costs are increasing for coastal cities. Onland dumps have become a continuing source of pollution, existing landfill sites should be eliminated. Ocean dumping is rules out because of the threat to aquatic resources but pollutants deep-sixed in the past should be isolated from the ocean environment before

Tengelsen

1995-01-01

46

Hammering away at waste disposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The waterhammer piledriver is described. The use of the piledriver in hazardous waste disposal is discussed. One of the safest methods for the disposal of radioactive and other long-term toxic wastes is the deep-ocean bottom. The piledriver drills holes in the ocean floor for safe disposal of these wastes. This puts the wastes away from currents like the Gulf Stream,

Wisotsky

1985-01-01

47

Hazardous Waste: Cleanup and Prevention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses hazardous waste, waste disposal, unsafe exposure, movement of hazardous waste, and the Superfund clean-up process that consists of site discovery, site assessment, clean-up method selection, site clean up, and site maintenance. Argues that proper disposal of hazardous waste is everybody's responsibility. (JRH)|

Vandas, Steve; Cronin, Nancy L.

1996-01-01

48

Hazardous-waste disposal and the clinical laboratory. Final report, May-December 1989  

Microsoft Academic Search

Negligent hazardous waste management has resulted in real threats to public health. The Federal Government has responded to the situation with laws and regulations aimed at the producers of hazardous waste, including clinical laboratories. The Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) imposes controls on hazardous waste management through the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and

Armbruster

1990-01-01

49

CHARACTERIZATION OF DEFENSE NUCLEAR WASTE USING HAZARDOUS WASTE GUIDANCE. APPLICATIONS TO HANFORD SITE ACCELERATED HIGH-LEVEL WASTE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL MISSION0  

SciTech Connect

Federal hazardous waste regulations were developed for management of industrial waste. These same regulations are also applicable for much of the nation's defense nuclear wastes. At the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in southeast Washington State, one of the nation's largest inventories of nuclear waste remains in storage in large underground tanks. The waste's regulatory designation and its composition and form constrain acceptable treatment and disposal options. Obtaining detailed knowledge of the tank waste composition presents a significant portion of the many challenges in meeting the regulatory-driven treatment and disposal requirements for this waste. Key in applying the hazardous waste regulations to defense nuclear wastes is defining the appropriate and achievable quality for waste feed characterization data and the supporting evidence demonstrating that applicable requirements have been met at the time of disposal. Application of a performance-based approach to demonstrating achievable quality standards will be discussed in the context of the accelerated high-level waste treatment and disposal mission at the Hanford Site.

Hamel, William; Huffman, Lori; Lerchen, Megan; Wiemers, Karyn

2003-02-27

50

HAZARDOUS WASTE TO ENERGY  

EPA Science Inventory

Of the 260 million metric tonnes (MMT) of hazardous waste generated in the United States in 1981, only 1.70 MMT was disposed of through incineration. In addition, 3.85 MMT of industrial wastes that could be considered hazardous were burned as fuels in industrial processes. The pa...

51

Scoping evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of hazardous metals in mixed low-level waste  

SciTech Connect

A team of analysts designed and conducted a scoping evaluation to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of the hazardous metals in mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Eight hazardous metals were evaluated: arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, and silver. The analysis considered transport only through the groundwater pathway. The results are reported as site-specific estimates of maximum concentrations of each hazardous metal in treated mixed low-level waste that do not exceed the performance measures established for the analysis. Also reported are site-specific estimates of travel times of each hazardous metal to the point of compliance.

Gruebel, M.M.; Waters, R.D.; Langkopf, B.S.

1997-05-01

52

U.S. EPA'S STRATEGY FOR GROUND WATER QUALITY MONITORING AT HAZARDOUS WASTE LAND DISPOSAL FACILITIES LOCATED IN KARST TERRANES  

EPA Science Inventory

Ground water monitoring of hazardous waste land disposal units by a network of wells is ineffective when located in karstic terranes. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently proposing to modify its current ground water quality monitoring requirement of one upg...

53

Application of a hazard-assessment research strategy for waste disposal at 106-mile ocean disposal site (Chapter 14). Book chapter  

Microsoft Academic Search

An application of a hazard-assessment research strategy was made using waste disposal at Deepwater Dumpsite-106 (DWD-106) as an example. The strategy involved the synthesis of results from separate exposure and effects components in order to provide a scientific basis for estimating the risk to the aquatic environment. The exposure assessment related source inputs of contaminants to environmental concentration fields through

J. F. Paul; V. J. Bierman; H. A. Walker; J. H. Gentile; D. W. Hood

1989-01-01

54

Multiple-criteria optimization of hazardous-waste disposal by deep-well injection  

SciTech Connect

Application of linear goal programming (LGP) techniques to the analysis of management and operational problems in the area of hazardous waste disposal by deep-well injection is investigated. A typical waste injection system is modeled as a linear goal program, and used to study and resolve the effects of multiple conflicting objectives. The model is validated using field data, and solved for the best design and operating policies that would not only enable the plant to meet the EPA standards, but best minimize capital investment, annual operating expense and deviations from the waste quality requirements before injection. Justification of the use of the model is presented by comparing the actual design with the optimal design obtained from the model solution. The existence of a relationship between the preemptive and nonpreemptive LGP solution procedures is investigated. Mathematical and computational importance of this relationship are explored. The relationships between LGP solution procedures allow large, and network structured preemptive problems to be solved as a nonpreemptive problem using standard, available, computer packages. Minimum requirements for the regulation of the deep-well injection industry are established, and include injection well monitoring, data processing, and reporting to the EPA. A computer package has been developed to assist in the effective and efficient compliance with these regulations. By using the report generator computer package in regulating injection systems, adverse effects on human health and the environment are minimized.

Mogharabi, S.N.

1989-01-01

55

Current hazardous waste management and disposal practices among small quantity generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-eight small businesses in Benton County, Oregon, were surveyed to assess the types of wastes they produced, quantities of wastes they generated, and disposal methods used. The waste products of the registered and the nonregistered businesses were compared by the type of disposal methods used. Results indicated that the majority (73.3%) of the registered Small Quantity Generators (SQGs) and 94.4%

Gebrewold

1994-01-01

56

Hazardous waste analysis  

SciTech Connect

Today's environmental professionals face a variety of tasks that force them to juggle the duties of both environmental and health-and-safety personnel. When faced with the task of cleaning up a hazardous site or managing a workplace where hazardous wastes are present, safety professionals must handle worker-protection issues, and they must be able to determine the presence of chemical substances. This book helps such professionals prepare for those situations by providing them with the resources necessary to analyze hazardous wastes and determine their impact on the environment and on individuals. More than just a ``how-to'' book, it provides practical information on state-of-the-art sampling, field analysis, and laboratory-analysis methods. It defines the legal requirements of hazard identification; discusses the regulatory requirements relevant to industrial hygiene, safety, and engineering personnel; and educates readers about the scientific concepts necessary to understand future developments. The book features four sections: (1) general legal and health requirements; (2) legal identification of hazardous waste and basic chemistry concepts; (3) sampling and field analysis; and (4) laboratory chemical analysis of hazardous waste. Chapters cover such topics as: responsibilities of the hazardous waste generator; hazardous waste program training; personal protective equipment; responding to and reporting hazardous waste releases; hazardous waste transporters; treatment, storage, and disposal operations; hazardous waste identification; availability and bioavailability and the characteristic tests; and characteristics of hazardous wastes; ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, and toxicity.

Que Hee, S.S.

1999-05-01

57

Hazardous Substances and Hazardous Waste  

MedlinePLUS

1: Hazardous Substances and Hazardous Waste Chemicals affect our everyday lives. They are used to produce almost everything we use, ... harm human health and the environment. When these hazardous substances are thrown away, they become hazardous waste . Hazardous ...

58

Hazardous Wastes from Homes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The management of waste materials has become more complex with the increase in human population and the development of new substances. This illustrated booklet traces the history of waste management and provides guidelines for individuals and communities in disposing of certain hazardous wastes safely. It addresses such topics as: (1) how people…

Lord, John

59

CHARACTERIZATION OF TREATMENT RESIDUES FROM HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

To implement the Congressionally mandated land disposal prohibitions of the 1984 amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), EPA must determine whether adequate treatment technologies exist, what wastes can be treated and how effectively, what residues and en...

60

Household Hazardous Waste  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will survey their homes for hazardous materials and tally the results as a class. They will use the Web to find out about proper waste disposal methods and the potential consequences of improper disposal. Students will conclude by creating pamphlets or multimedia presentations showing what they have learned.

61

HAZARDOUS WASTE LANDFILL RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

The hazardous waste land disposal research program is collecting data necessary to support implementation of disposal guidelines mandated by the 'Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976' (RCRA) PL 94-580. This program relating to the categorical area of landfills, surface ...

62

Health effects of hazardous chemical waste disposal sites in New Jersey and in the United States: a review.  

PubMed

The hazardous chemical waste disposal issue is a widespread problem. Large quantities of chemical wastes have been produced by the chemical industries in the past forty years. Estimates now number disposal sites in the United States at least 30,000. The public and scientists have grown increasingly concerned about the effects of these waste disposal sites not only on the environment, but also on the human body. In this article, we review the number of hazardous chemical waste disposal sites (HCWDS), their construction, difficulties in defining their contents, and the establishment of the Superfund Act. We then discuss various studies in the literature that have attempted to define adverse health effects of HCWDS, particularly those examining Love Canal and sites in New Jersey. In our conclusions, we note the difficulties in establishing direct causal links between HCWDS and dangerous health effects. We suggest that more epidemiological studies are needed, with improved methodology for gathering complete data and studying large samples. Both positive and negative findings of epidemiological studies are important. Positive results will substantiate an association of health effects with HCWDS. Negative results may reduce the concerns of people living near HCWDS. Future investigators need sufficient information about HCWDS materials, possible routes of exposure, and measurements of exposure, as well as sufficient statistical power to detect even modest associations of health effects with HCWDS exposure. PMID:1790043

Najem, G R; Cappadona, J L

63

Health effects of hazardous chemical waste disposal sites in New Jersey and in the United States: a review  

SciTech Connect

The hazardous chemical waste disposal issue is a widespread problem. Large quantities of chemical wastes have been produced by the chemical industries in the past forty years. Estimates now number disposal sites in the United States at least 30,000. The public and scientists have grown increasingly concerned about the effects of these waste disposal sites not only on the environment, but also on the human body. In this article, we review the number of hazardous chemical waste disposal sites (HCWDS), their construction, difficulties in defining their contents, and the establishment of the Superfund Act. We then discuss various studies in the literature that have attempted to define adverse health effects of HCWDS, particularly those examining Love Canal and sites in New Jersey. In our conclusions, we note the difficulties in establishing direct causal links between HCWDS and dangerous health effects. We suggest that more epidemiological studies are needed, with improved methodology for gathering complete data and studying large samples. Both positive and negative findings of epidemiological studies are important. Positive results will substantiate an association of health effects with HCWDS. Negative results may reduce the concerns of people living near HCWDS. Future investigators need sufficient information about HCWDS materials, possible routes of exposure, and measurements of exposure, as well as sufficient statistical power to detect even modest associations of health effects with HCWDS exposure.71 references.

Najem, G.R.; Cappadona, J.L. (Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, New Jersey Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark (United States))

1991-11-01

64

TECHNICAL OVERVIEW OF THE CONCEPT OF DISPOSING OF HAZARDOUS WASTES IN INDUSTRIAL BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of industrial boilers for the destruction of hazardous wastes is increasing at a rapid rate. This is partly due to the fact that the practice changes a 'negative value' waste material into a 'positive value' fuel and partly to the fact that current RCRA regulations specif...

65

Hazardous waste management plan, Savannah River Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

All SRP waste storage, disposal, and recycling facilities that have received hazardous waste, low-level radioactive hazardous waste (mixed waste) or process waste since 1980 have been evaluated by EPA standards. Generally the waste storage areas meet all applicable standards. However, additional storage facilities currently estimated at $2 million and waste disposal facilities currently estimated at $20 million will be required

Phifer

1984-01-01

66

Development of the Remedial Action Priority System: An Improved Risk Assessment Tool for Prioritizing Hazardous and Radioactive-Mixed Waste Disposal Sites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Remedial Action Priority System (RAPS) represents a methodology that prioritizes inactive hazardous and radioactive mixed-waste disposal sites in a scientific and objective manner based on limited site information. This methodology is intended to brid...

G. Whelan D. L. Strenge B. L. Steelman K. A. Hawley

1985-01-01

67

LAND DISPOSAL, REMEDIAL ACTION, INCINERATION AND TREATMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE. PROCEEDINGS OF THE ANNUAL RESEARCH SYNPOSIUM (14TH) HELD AT CINCINNATI, OHIO, MAY 9-11, 1988  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the Symposium was to present the latest significant research findings from ongoing and recently completed projects funded by the Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL). These Proceedings are organized in four sections: Session A, Hazardous Waste Land Disposal...

68

40 CFR 257.5 - Disposal standards for owners/operators of non-municipal non-hazardous waste disposal units that...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR CLASSIFICATION OF SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITIES AND PRACTICES Disposal...operation beginning with the initial receipt of solid waste and ending at the final receipt of...

2011-07-01

69

Waste disposal options report. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the potential options for the processing and disposal of mixed waste generated by reprocessing spent nuclear fuel at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. It compares the proposed waste-immobilization processes, quantifies and characterizes the resulting waste forms, identifies potential disposal sites and their primary acceptance criteria, and addresses disposal issues for hazardous waste.

Russell, N.E.; McDonald, T.G.; Banaee, J.; Barnes, C.M.; Fish, L.W.; Losinski, S.J.; Peterson, H.K.; Sterbentz, J.W.; Wenzel, D.R.

1998-02-01

70

Full-scale demonstration of a sequencing batch reactor for a hazardous waste disposal site. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The full-scale Demonstration of a Sequencing Batch Reactor for a Hazardous Waste Disposal Site was performed in order to prove the technical feasibility, as well as the eocnomic benefit, of using a Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) for the treatment of dilute aqueous organic waste materials. Efforts were focused on determining the reactor's treatment efficiency based upon phenol and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) removal rates, as well as showing the energy-saving benefits gained by using the reactor prior to carbon adsorption treatment for the removal of organics. Both bench- and full-scale trials were performed involving a wide variety of feed streams, reactor operating strategies and temperatures. The results of this demonstration showed that superior aqueous organic waste treatment is effected by the use of an SBR system and that significant financial savings can be realized due to a reduction in facility operating costs.

Staszak, C.N.

1985-08-01

71

ANALYSIS OF GEOTHERMAL WASTES FOR HAZARDOUS COMPONENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Regulations governing the disposal of hazardous wastes led to an assessment for geothermal solid wastes for potentially hazardous properties. Samples were collected from three active geothermal sites in the western United States: The Geysers, Imperial Valley, and northwestern Nev...

72

Organizational approach to estimating public resistance at proposed disposal sites for radioactive and hazardous wastes  

SciTech Connect

This paper was intended to present an organizational approach to predicting collective action and then to apply that approach to the issue of siting of a nuclear or other hazardous waste repository. Borrowing largely from two previously developed models (one by Perry et al. at Battelle's Human Affairs Research Center and one by Charles Tilly), I developed a theoretical model. Indicators were identified for many of the variables, but they are not easily measured, requiring a number of decisions on thresholds which were not clarified in the paper. What remains is further discussion of these measurement problems, evaluation of the confirmation status of the propositions, and empirical tests of the model. In the meantime, however, the discussion should provide assessors of public resistance with a theoretical basis for their thinking and a guide to some revealing indicators of the potential for collective action.

Payne, B.A.

1982-01-01

73

CHARACTERIZATION OF DEFENSE NUCLEAR WASTE USING HAZARDOUS WASTE GUIDANCE. APPLICATIONS TO HANFORD SITE ACCELERATED HIGH-LEVEL WASTE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL MISSION0  

Microsoft Academic Search

Federal hazardous waste regulations were developed for management of industrial waste. These same regulations are also applicable for much of the nation's defense nuclear wastes. At the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in southeast Washington State, one of the nation's largest inventories of nuclear waste remains in storage in large underground tanks. The waste's regulatory designation and its

William Hamel; Lori Huffman; Megan Lerchen; Karyn Wiemers

2003-01-01

74

Characterization of Defense Nuclear Waste Using Hazardous Waste Guidance: Applications to Hanford Site Accelerated High-Level Waste Treatment and Disposal Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Federal hazardous waste regulations were developed for management of industrial waste. These same regulations are also applicable for much of the nation's defense nuclear wastes. At the U.S. Department of Energys (DOE) Hanford Site in southeast Washington State, one of the nations largest inventories of nuclear waste remains in storage in large underground tanks. The waste's regulatory designation and its

William F. Hamel; Lori A. Huffman; Megan E. Lerchen; Karyn D. Wiemers

2003-01-01

75

LAND DISPOSAL: HAZARDOUS WASTE, PROCEEDINGS OF THE ANNUAL RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM (7TH) HELD AT PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA ON MARCH 16-18, 1981  

EPA Science Inventory

These proceedings are a compilation of papers presented by the symposium speakers. The technical areas covered are hazardous waste characterization, transport and fate of pollutants, hazardous waste containment, land treatment of hazardous wastes, hazardous waste treatment, uncon...

76

LAND DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS WASTE. PROCEEDINGS OF THE ANNUAL RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM (10TH) AT FT. MITCHELL, KENTUCKY HELD ON APRIL 3-5, 1984  

EPA Science Inventory

The Tenth Annual Research Symposium on land disposal, remedial action, incineration and treatment of hazardous waste was held in Fort Mitchell, Kentucky April 3 through 5, 1984. The purpose of the Symposium was to present the latest significant research findings of ongoing and re...

77

LAND DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS WASTE. PROCEEDINGS OF THE ANNUAL RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM (11TH) HELD AT CINCINNATI, OHIO ON APRIL 29-MAY 1, 1985  

EPA Science Inventory

The Eleventh Annual Research Symposium on land disposal, remedial action, incineration and treatment of hazardous waste was held in Cincinnati, OH April 29 through May 1, 1985. The purpose of the Symposium was to present the latest significant research findings of ongoing and rec...

78

LAND DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS WASTE: PROCEEDINGS OF THE ANNUAL RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM (9TH) HELD AT FT. MITCHELL, KENTUCKY ON MAY 2-4, 1983  

EPA Science Inventory

The purposes of the Symposium were (1) to provide a forum for a state-of-the-art review and discussion of ongoing and recently completed research projects dealing with land disposal, incineration, and treatment of hazardous wastes; (2) to bring together people concerned with haza...

79

ALTERNATIVE TREATMENT METHODS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The five-year schedule for the minimization and restrictions on the disposal of hazardous wastes onto the land is described. Two major items are causing a shift in the way hazardous wastes are managed in the United States. Because of liability for hazardous wastes, companies are ...

80

Hanford Site Mixed Waste Disposal  

SciTech Connect

Significant volumes of mixed low-level waste (MLLW) will be generated as part of the management and remediation of the Hanford Site. The MLLW that is generated as part of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) process will largely be managed as part of that remediation effort, with disposal likely in the centralized Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). Other unique MLLW streams will be produced as part of the Hanford program to disposition tank wastes, and will include failed equipment (melters) and immobilized low-activity wastes. These disposal operations are in the early planning stages and will likely require development of specialized disposal facilities. This paper will focus on disposal of the more ''routine'' waste streams, those currently stored onsite in permitted Resource Conservation and Recover Act (RCRA) facilities, or those newly-generated MLLW streams requiring management in permitted RCRA facilities. These waste streams typically include RCRA regulated MLLW debris, sludges, soils and solidified liquids. In September 1999, the United States Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office and Fluor Hanford began disposing of Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) compliant MLLW in a RCRA mixed waste disposal facility at the Hanford Site. This facility, one of two at Hanford, is an integral part of a comprehensive program to treat and dispose of the Hanford inventory of stored MLLW, and may aid the DOE Complex in disposing of its legacy of MLLW. The Final Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS) record-of-decision (ROD) for MLLW identifies Hanford as one of the disposal sites for much of the DOE complex MLLW. A few actions remain to be completed before waste from offsite generators can be shipped to the Hanford Mixed Waste Facilities for disposal. These actions include, but are not limited to, completion of the Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program Environmental Impact Statement (SW EIS), resolving equity issues associated with the receipt of offsite MLLW, and verification that the candidate waste streams meet the Hanford Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). The ROD for the SW EIS is expected in 2002, equity discussions are ongoing, and waste acceptance criteria are already established and can be used to determine acceptability.

MCKENNEY, D.E.

2001-01-01

81

PRETREATMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the waste applicability and performance characteristics of hazardous waste pretreatment processes. Pretreatment processes are those unit operations which must often be carried out on hazardous wastes to make them amenable to subsequent materials or energy rec...

82

Disposal of Nuclear Wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical options which should be studied relative to the disposal of ; radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants, the technical advantages and ; disadvantages of each method, and the cost and benefits of different disposal ; methods are discussed. These options include: mausolea (engineered near-surface ; structures); disposal in mines, salt vaults, or continental ice sheets; in situ ;

Arthur S. Kubo; David J. Rose

1973-01-01

83

Subductive waste disposal method  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method for the disposal of nuclear and toxic waste materials comprising the placing of waste materials into waste repositories radiating from an access tunnel constructed into a subtending tectonic plate adjacent or as near as possible a subduction zone. The waste materials descend within the tectonic plate into the mantle of the earth.

1991-06-11

84

Toxicants in Consumer Products. Household Hazardous Waste Disposal Project. Metro Toxicant Program No. 1B.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Four general product classes (pesticides, paint products, household cleaners, and automotive products) are reviewed in this document. Each product class is described, and several aspects of the problem associated with product use or disposal are examined, including estimates of volumes used and environmental impacts. Technical data on the…

Ridgley, Susan M.

85

Waste Management and Disposal for Artists and Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Artists, art teachers, and students need to understand the problems associated with disposing of waste materials, some of which may be hazardous. The waste products of art projects, even if non-hazardous, also use up space in overloaded landfills. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets forth guidelines for disposing of hazardous wastes

Babin, Angela; McCann, Michael

86

Evaluating waste disposal systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste disposal systems conventionally exhibit many problems, such as difficulties in finding final disposal sites for incinerator\\u000a residues and the issue of how to recycle waste materials. Some new technologies have been developed to solve such problems,\\u000a including ash melting and gasification melting. Furthermore, to improve the power generation efficiency of waste treatment\\u000a facilities so that their energy is used

Yasuhiko Wada; Takuma Okumoto; Nariaki Wada

2008-01-01

87

40 CFR Appendix Vii to Part 268 - LDR Effective Dates of Surface Disposed Prohibited Hazardous Wastes  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...which treatment standards are based on incineration, vitrification, or mercury retorting, acid leaching followed by chemical precipitation, or thermal recovery of metals; as well as all inorganic solids debris contaminated with D004-D011 wastes,...

2012-07-01

88

Critical Review of Cement-Based Stabilization/Solidification Techniques for the Disposal of Hazardous Wastes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The materials used in stabilization/solidification processes (OPC, PFA and sodium silicate) have been reviewed in terms of their basic composition and chemistry. The addition of inorganic wastes to OPC and PFA has been demonstrated to affect early hydrati...

A. Clark

1986-01-01

89

Solution-mined salt caverns for the disposal of hazardous chemical wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for storage caverns (oil, gas) and depositories (radioactive waste, toxic chemical waste) is rising world-wide. Rock\\u000a salt (halite) formations are particularly suitable for the construction of cavities for such purposes. Rock salt is practically\\u000a impermeable to gases and liquids. The solution mining method provides the means for the creation of large storage capacities\\u000a at economic costs and, due

M. Langer; M. Wallner

1988-01-01

90

Current geochemical models to predict the fate of hazardous wastes in the injection zones of deep disposal wells  

SciTech Connect

On July 26, 1988, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued amendments to technical requirements for the injection of hazardous wastes in Class C wells. These amendments prohibited the injection of hazardous wastes unless a petitioner could demonstrate that there would be no migration of hazardous constituents from the injection zone of a well for as long as the waste remained hazardous. One means by which this requirement may be met is through the use of geochemical modeling to show that the hazardous waste could be immobilized or converted to innocuous products, or that it could be retarded by adsorption on the rock matrix of the injection zone. The purpose of the report is to provide a petitioner with background information regarding the current state of the art in chemical theory and modeling capabilities, so that he can use chemical arguments to predict the fate of injected hazardous waste. The report is divided into eight sections: (1) an introduction covering EPA amendments to the technical rules for preparation of a petition and how they relate to geochemical modeling; (2) a discussion regarding what must be modeled in relation to the chemical conditions expected in the injection zone; (3) the thermodynamic models that can be used; (4) the availability of thermodynamic data; (5) modeling of non-equilibrium systems; (6) the availability of geochemical modeling computer codes; (7) criteria affecting the satisfactory chemical modeling of waste injection; and (8) conclusions.

Apps, J.A.

1992-04-20

91

Cities cooperate on household hazardous waste collection  

SciTech Connect

This article describes a household hazardous waste collection project. The project resulted from Missouri solid waste regulations and the recognition of five suburban cities of St. Louis that there was a need to provide residents with an environmentally sound method of disposing of household hazardous waste. The project was 90 percent funded by a state grant.

Yost, K.D. (Director of Public Works, Kirkwood, MO (United States))

1994-03-01

92

Energy and solid/hazardous waste  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses the past and potential future solid and hazardous waste impacts from energy development, and summarizes the major environmental, legislation applicable to solid and hazardous waste generation and disposal. A glossary of terms and acronyms used to describe and measure solid waste impacts of energy development is included. (PSB)

None

1981-12-01

93

Volcanic hazards: Perspectives from eruption prediction to risk assessment for disposal of radioactive waste  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes an oral presentation that described the potential for volcanic activity at the proposed Yucca Mountain, Texas repository site. Yucca Mountain is located in a broad zone of volcanic activity known as the Death Valley-Pancake Ridge volcanic zone. The probability estimate for the likelihood that some future volcanic event will intersect a buried repository at Yucca Mountain is low. Additionally, the radiological consequences of penetration of a repository by basaltic magma followed by eruption of the magma at the surface are limited. The combination of low probability and limited consequence suggests that the risk posed by waste storage at this site is low. (TEM)

Crowe, B.

1980-12-31

94

Recovering resources from hazardous wastes  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the recycling of hazardous wastes as performed by Heritage Environmental Services, a consortium of twenty companies involved in aggregate, petroleum refining and marketing, road construction, and asphalt emulsion manufacturing. Topics considered in the article include the wastewater plant, marketing end products, the transportation arm, the laboratory subsidiary, research and consulting, the disposal facility, and finding services for customers.

Mattheis, A.

1987-05-01

95

Small hazardous waste generators in developing countries: use of stabilization/solidification process as an economic tool for metal wastewater treatment and appropriate sludge disposal.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to propose a profitable destination for an industrial sludge that can cover the wastewater treatment costs of small waste generators. Optimized stabilization/solidification technology was used to treat hazardous waste from an electroplating industry that is currently released untreated to the environment. The stabilized/solidified (S/S) waste product was used as a raw material to build concrete blocks, to be sold as pavement blocks or used in roadbeds and/or parking lots. The quality of the blocks containing a mixture of cement, lime, clay and waste was evaluated by means of leaching and solubility tests according to the current Brazilian waste regulations. Results showed very low metal leachability and solubility of the block constituents, indicating a low environmental impact. Concerning economic benefits from the S/S process and reuse of the resultant product, the cost of untreated heavy metal-containing sludge disposal to landfill is usually on the order of US$ 150-200 per tonne of waste, while 1tonne of concrete roadbed blocks (with 25% of S/S waste constitution) has a value of around US$ 100. The results of this work showed that the cement, clay and lime-based process of stabilization/solidification of hazardous waste sludge is sufficiently effective and economically viable to stimulate the treatment of wastewater from small industrial waste generators. PMID:17331640

Silva, Marcos A R; Mater, Luciana; Souza-Sierra, Maria M; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Sperb, Rafael; Radetski, Claudemir M

2007-02-03

96

40 CFR 761.62 - Disposal of PCB bulk product waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (3) In a hazardous waste landfill permitted by EPA under section...b) Disposal in solid waste landfills. (1) Any person may dispose...non-municipal non-hazardous waste landfill: (i) Plastics (such as plastic...

2010-07-01

97

Radioactive waste disposal package  

DOEpatents

A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

Lampe, Robert F. (Bethel Park, PA)

1986-01-01

98

Hazardous Waste Roundup  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Americans generate approximately 1.6 million tons of hazardous household waste every year. When most people think of hazardous waste, they generally think of materials used in construction, the defense industry, mining, manufacturing, and agriculture. Few people think of hazardous substances…

Farenga, Stephen J.; Joyce, Beverly A.; Ness, Daniel

2004-01-01

99

Hazardous Waste Roundup  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Americans generate approximately 1.6 million tons of hazardous household waste every year. When most people think of hazardous waste, they generally think of materials used in construction, the defense industry, mining, manufacturing, and agriculture. Few people think of hazardous substances…

Farenga, Stephen J.; Joyce, Beverly A.; Ness, Daniel

2004-01-01

100

CMA (Chemical Manufacturers Association) comes to grips with hazardous wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In July 1979, CMA revealed plans for dealing with hazardous waste disposal. CMA's proposals, as outlined by CMA President R. A. Roland, include the establishment of a national hazardous-waste response center and a model regional hazardous waste disposal plant. CMA has started setting up a pilot project, that in cooperation with the states and with EPA, would provide teams of

R. A. Roland; W. M. Stover

1979-01-01

101

Treatability study of aqueous, land disposal restricted mixed wastes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Treatment studies have been completed on two aqueous waste streams at the Mixed Waste Storage Facility that are classified as land disposal restricted. Both wastes had mercury and lead as characteristic hazardous constituents. Samples from one of these wa...

D. R. Haefner

1992-01-01

102

WIPP'S HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT-THE NEXT STEP  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DOE has been working with the State of New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) to obtain a permit to operate the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as a hazardous waste storage and disposal facility. Hazardous waste regulated under the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act are co-contaminants with much of the transuranic (TRU) waste that will be sent to the WIPP

R. F. Kehrman; W. W. Weston; M. E. Whatley; H. E. Johnson

2000-01-01

103

OVERVIEW OF HAZARDOUS/TOXIC WASTE INCINERATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Effective hazardous/toxic waste disposal and safe dumpsite cleanup are two of EPA's major missions in the 1980s. Incineration has been recognized as a very efficient process to destroy the hazardous wastes generated by industry or by the dumpsite remediations. The paper provides ...

104

Technology Transfer in Hazardous Waste Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hazardous waste is a growing problem in all parts of the world. Industrialized countries have had to deal with the treatment and disposal of hazardous wastes for many years. The newly industrializing countries of the world are now faced with immediate pro...

H. Drucker

1989-01-01

105

Hazardous waste minimization handbook  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designed to assist industrial engineers and managers in making changes in purchasing, manufacturing, and waste handling practices to reduce the costs and liabilities of waste disposal, this book begins by defining waste minimization in the first two chapters. Chapters 3 through 7 describe specific waste reduction techniques applied by a number of industries. The chapters in this section rather than

Higgins

1989-01-01

106

HAZARDOUS WASTE FROM SMALL QUANTITY GENERATORS IN THE UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

The EPA must evaluate the potential impact of small quantity generator hazardous waste on groundwater contamination in the United States, focusing on potential groundwater contamination due to small quantity generator hazardous waste disposal in municipal sanitary landfills. Data...

107

INCINERATOR AND KILN CAPACITY FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Estimates of incinerator and cement kiln capacities for hazardous waste treatment are required to evaluate the impacts of banning land disposal of hazardous wastes. RCRA Part B permit applications were reviewed to obtain information about incinerator design capacity, utilization ...

108

Handbook on Treatment of Hazardous Waste Leachate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Various treatment processes were evaluated for their applicability and effectiveness in treating leachate from hazardous waste land disposal facilities. These technologies include activated sludge treatment, air stripping, carbon adsorption, flow equaliza...

J. L. McArdle M. M. Arozarena W. E. Gallagher

1987-01-01

109

Chemical fixation increases options for hazardous waste treatment  

SciTech Connect

The Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) govern the manner in which hazardous materials are managed. Disposing RCRA hazardous wastes on or in the land is no longer an accepted remedial option. This land disposal restriction requires that all listed and characteristic hazardous wastes must be treated according to specified standards before they are disposed. These treatment standards define technologies and concentration limits. Hazardous wastes that do not meet the standards are prohibited from being disposed on land, such as in landfills, surface impoundments, land treatment units, injection wells, and mines or caves.

Indelicato, G.J. [CURA Inc., Dallas, TX (United States); Tipton, G.A. [Tipton (Gary A.), Houston, TX (United States)

1996-05-01

110

Hazardous waste management at Rockwell Hanford Operations  

SciTech Connect

The control of hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site is a complex task and one that requires cooperation from each of the site operating contractors. The Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) Hazardous Waste Management Program being conducted at the Hanford site is described briefly in the following paragraphs. The program, as described, is an evolving program that is changing continually to improve control, enhance safety, and achieve full regulatory compliance. The Rockwell Hazardous Waste Management Program can be divided into three parts: (1) the control of hazardous materials; (2) the identification of hazardous waste streams; and (3) the disposal of hazardous wastes. These three parts and how they interface to provide an effective Hazardous Waste Management Program are described in the following text.

McCall, D.L.

1984-11-01

111

Radioactive waste material disposal  

DOEpatents

The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.

Forsberg, Charles W. (155 Newport Dr., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Beahm, Edward C. (106 Cooper Cir., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Parker, George W. (321 Dominion Cir., Knoxville, TN 37922)

1995-01-01

112

Strategic planning for waste management: Characterization of chemically and radioactively hazardous waste and treatment, storage, and disposal capabilities for diverse and varied multisite operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information about current and projected waste generation as well as available treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) capabilities and needs is crucial for effective, efficient, and safe waste management. This is especially true for large corporations that are responsible for multisite operations involving diverse and complex industrial processes. Such information is necessary not only for day-to-day operations, but also for strategic

R. L. Jolley; A. L. Rivera; E. C. Fox; G. J. Hyfantis; J. F. McBrayer

1988-01-01

113

The disposal of nuclear waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is considered likely that energy production via the nuclear route will grow in future years. A major drawback to acceptance of this is the problem of nuclear waste disposal. A number of technologies have been proposed to dispose of such waste. The most promising of these is the disposal of the waste into deep geological repositories as part of

Stuart Baskerville

114

Bacteriological hazards of disposable bedpan systems  

PubMed Central

A system using disposable papier maché bedpans and urinals in hospital has advantages of ease of handling for the nurse and cleanliness for the patient. Disposal of the bedpans and their contents is by destruction and flushing to waste. Some bacteriological hazards of this process in the Haigh Sluicemaster and J.M.L. Clinimatic machines are assessed, particularly the dispersal of the contents in spray and aerosol during opening, closing, and running the machines. Various safety devices were tested and some deficiencies are discussed. A major defect in the system is the need at present for a bedpan carrier or support which is not disposable and requires cleaning and disinfection. Minor problems include ordering and storing bulky items, possibly the texture of the bedpans themselves, and perhaps the effect of the bulk of paper discharged into the sewage system. At present the system seems unsuitable for use in infectious disease hospitals and has some deficiencies in use in general wards. The improvements suggested would greatly increase its acceptability which should then be completely re-assessed. To this end the examination of improved models using totally disposable bedpans is proceeding. Images

Gibson, G. L.

1973-01-01

115

CONTROLLING THE EPIDEMIC OF HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS AND WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The disposal of waste products by man has led to the contamination of soil and ground-water. Problems associated with the disposal of hazardous waste are of major concern. Using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's definition of hazardous waste, the contamination of soils a...

116

Protecting the hazardous waste worker  

SciTech Connect

Due to the serious safety and health risk posed by hazardous waste, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) issued the Hazardous Waste Operation and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER) standard (29 CFR 1910.120)in March 1990. The most recent protection action is related to 29 CFR 1926.65, the standards that protect hazardous waste workers. As a basis for compliance with the standards, all requirements of Title 29 CFR Parts 1910, General OSHA Guidelines and 1926 Construction Standard apply. If there is any conflict or overlap of the standards, the provision most protective of the employees` safety and health must be implemented. OSHA has issued monetary penalties in the past, but many employers regarded the relatively low dollar amounts as a cost of doing business. In the Omnibus Budget Rehabilitation Act of 1990, Congress increased the maximum penalties for violations by seven times. Also, OSHA previously assessed one penalty for all similar violations at a facility. Under the new, formalized egregious penalty OSHA can cite separate violations and penalize for each violation in flagrant cases. HAZWOPER applies to employees involved in cleanup operations at uncontrolled hazardous waste sites; corrective actions involving cleanup operations at Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) sites; voluntary cleanup operations recognized by any government body as uncontrolled hazardous waste sites; routine operations at hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) facilities or portion of the facility regulated under 40 CFR Parts 264 and 265 pursuant to RCRA; and emergency response operations involving a release or substantial threat of release of a hazardous substance.

Roughton, J.

1995-06-01

117

Waste disposal system  

SciTech Connect

A waste disposal system provides a mixing stage where waste matter is water-charged, the water charged mixture is then steam exploded by being sprayed onto a white hot surface in a chamber with only one outlet where the expansion on vaporization forces the vapor out through a chemical spray stage; next a vertical filter stage removes and gravitationally drains coarse filtrate and finally a horizontal filter stage treats the vapor in the presence of a counterwash spray of fresh water before the vapor is released into the atmosphere; recirculation of the material filtered and treating materials is provided.

Romeo, S.T.

1981-03-10

118

Mixed waste disposal facilities at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a key installation of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The site is managed by DOE`s Savannah River Field Office and operated under contract by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The Site`s waste management policies reflect a continuing commitment to the environment. Waste minimization, recycling, use of effective pre-disposal treatments, and repository monitoring are high priorities at the site. One primary objective is to safely treat and dispose of process wastes from operations at the site. To meet this objective, several new projects are currently being developed, including the M-Area Waste Disposal Project (Y-Area) which will treat and dispose of mixed liquid wastes, and the Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (HW/MWDF), which will store, treat, and dispose of solid mixed and hazardous wastes. This document provides a description of this facility and its mission.

Wells, M.N.; Bailey, L.L.

1991-12-31

119

Mixed waste disposal facilities at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a key installation of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The site is managed by DOE's Savannah River Field Office and operated under contract by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The Site's waste management policies reflect a continuing commitment to the environment. Waste minimization, recycling, use of effective pre-disposal treatments, and repository monitoring are high priorities at the site. One primary objective is to safely treat and dispose of process wastes from operations at the site. To meet this objective, several new projects are currently being developed, including the M-Area Waste Disposal Project (Y-Area) which will treat and dispose of mixed liquid wastes, and the Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (HW/MWDF), which will store, treat, and dispose of solid mixed and hazardous wastes. This document provides a description of this facility and its mission.

Wells, M.N.; Bailey, L.L.

1991-01-01

120

40 CFR 266.206 - Standards applicable to the treatment and disposal of waste military munitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...applicable to the treatment and disposal of waste military munitions. 266.206...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS...

2012-07-01

121

40 CFR 266.335 - Where must your exempted waste be disposed of?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Where must your exempted waste be disposed of? 266.335 Section...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS...

2012-07-01

122

Laboratory Waste Disposal Manual. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed to provide laboratory personnel with information about chemical hazards and ways of disposing of chemical wastes with minimum contamination of the environment. The manual contains a reference chart section which has alphabetical listings of some 1200 chemical substances with information on the health, fire and reactivity…

Stephenson, F. G., Ed.

123

Radioactive waste disposal and geology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book is an excellent, well-presented treatise on the nature and types of radioactive wastes, disposal alternatives and strategies, radionuclide release and disposal models, geologic repositories, natural analogues, subsea-bed options, and low-level wastes. The authors provide national and international perspectives on radioactive waste disposal problems. They carefully dissected each issue, treating its pros and cons equally. Moreover, they is careful

K. B. Krauskopf

1988-01-01

124

HAZARDOUS WASTE FACILITIES, NEUSE RIVER WATERSHED, NC  

EPA Science Inventory

Locations of treatment, storage, and disposal facilities (TSDFs). These facilities are regulated under the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and must have a RCRA permit issued by the Division of Waste Management, Hazardous Waste Section to operat...

125

Hazardous waste management for the 80's  

SciTech Connect

This book provides practical, usable information and data to engineers and scientists, government agencies and lawyers and others who manage waste-generating organizations. Critical issues in hazardous waste management are discussed: ground water and seepage; treatment, storage an disposal; site cleanup, and safety and legal considerations. 189 references, 109 figures, 46 tables.

Sweeney, T.L.; Bhatt, H.G.; Sykes, R.M.; Sproul, O.J. (eds.)

1982-01-01

126

Remaining issues for hazardous waste incineration  

SciTech Connect

While thermal destruction represents the most effective and widely applicable control technology available today for the disposal or organic hazardous waste, a number of issues remain concerning its use in the long term. These include: Destruction effectiveness on untested/unique wastes; Control of metal emissions; Emissions of combustion byproducts; Detection of process failure; Real-time performance assurance; and Role of innovative technology.

Dempsey, C.R.

1993-10-01

127

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) general contingency plan for hazardous waste treatment, storage, and disposal units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Y-12 RCRA Contingency Plan will be continually reviewed and revised if any of the following occur: the facility permit is revised, the plan is inadequate in an emergency, the procedures herein can be improved, the operations of the facility change in a way that alters the plan, the emergency coordinator changes, or the emergency equipment list changes. Copies of the Y-12 Emergency Management Plan are available at the Plant Shift Superintendent`s Office and the Emergency Management Office. This document serves to supplement the Y-12 Emergency Management Plan to be appropriate for all RCRA hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal units. The 90-day accumulation areas at the Y-12 Plant have a separate contingency supplement as required by RCRA and are separate from this supplement.

Skaggs, B.E.

1993-11-01

128

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) contingency plan for hazardous waste treatment, storage, and disposal units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Y-12 RCRA Contingency Plan will be continually reviewed and revised if any of the following occur: the facility permit is revised, the plan is inadequate in an emergency, the procedures can be improved, the operations of the facility change in a way that alters the plan, the emergency coordinator changes, or the emergency equipment list changes. Copies of the Y-12 Emergency Management Plan are available at the Plant Shift Superintendent`s Office and the Emergency Management Office. This document serves to supplement the Y-12 Emergency Management Plan to be appropriate for all RCRA hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal units. The 90-day accumulation areas at the Y-12 Plant have a separate contingency supplement as required by RCRA and are separate from this supplement.

Not Available

1994-08-01

129

Decision-making methodology for management of hazardous waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

A decision-making methodology is presented that combines systems and risk analysis techniques to evaluate hazardous waste management practices associated with DOE weapon production operations. The methodology provides a systematic approach to examining waste generation and waste handling practices in addition to the more visible disposal practices. Release-exposure scenarios for hazardous waste operations are identified and operations risk is determined. Comparisons

J. S. Philbin; R. M. Cranwell

1988-01-01

130

ACTIVATED SLUDGE TREATMENT OF SELECTED AQUEOUS ORGANIC HAZARDOUS WASTE COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

As a result of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 and the concurrent land disposal restrictions rule, EPA is in the process of demonstrating achievable treatment techniques to be used as alternatives to the land disposal of hazardous wastes. ata are being collected ...

131

Hazardous waste management and pollution prevention  

SciTech Connect

The management of hazardous wastes is one of the most critical environmental issues that faces many developing countries. It is one of the areas where institutional control and treatment and disposal technology has not kept pace with economic development. This paper reviews the development of hazardous waste management methods over the past decades, and provides the information on the status and trends of hazardous waste management strategy in selected western nations. Several issues pertinent to hazardous waste management will be reviewed, including: (1) definition of hazard; (2) why are we concerned with hazardous wastes; (3) aspects of hazardous waste management system; and (4) prioritization of hazardous waste management options. Due to regulatory and economic pressure on hazardous waste management, pollution prevention has become a very important environmental strategy in many developed countries. In many developed countries, industry is increasingly considering such alternative approaches, and finding many opportunities for their cost effective implementation. This paper provides a review of the status and trends of pollution prevention in selected western nations.

Chiu, Shen-yann.

1992-01-01

132

Hazardous waste management and pollution prevention  

SciTech Connect

The management of hazardous wastes is one of the most critical environmental issues that faces many developing countries. It is one of the areas where institutional control and treatment and disposal technology has not kept pace with economic development. This paper reviews the development of hazardous waste management methods over the past decades, and provides the information on the status and trends of hazardous waste management strategy in selected western nations. Several issues pertinent to hazardous waste management will be reviewed, including: (1) definition of hazard; (2) why are we concerned with hazardous wastes; (3) aspects of hazardous waste management system; and (4) prioritization of hazardous waste management options. Due to regulatory and economic pressure on hazardous waste management, pollution prevention has become a very important environmental strategy in many developed countries. In many developed countries, industry is increasingly considering such alternative approaches, and finding many opportunities for their cost effective implementation. This paper provides a review of the status and trends of pollution prevention in selected western nations.

Chiu, Shen-yann

1992-03-01

133

HAZARD ASSESSMENT RESEARCH STRATEGY FOR OCEAN DISPOSAL  

EPA Science Inventory

A decision rationale for ocean disposal based on a predictive hazard assessment research strategy is presented. he conceptual framework for hazard assessment is outlined, and its major components are identified and discussed. he strategy involves the synthesis of results from sep...

134

Final disposal of radioactive waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste - LLW, intermediate-level waste - ILW, high-level waste - HLW) are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of countries is mentioned. Also, the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency with regard to the development and monitoring of international safety standards for both spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management is described.

Freiesleben, H.

2013-06-01

135

Technology transfer in hazardous waste management  

SciTech Connect

Hazardous waste is a growing problem in all parts of the world. Industrialized countries have had to deal with the treatment and disposal of hazardous wastes for many years. The newly industrializing countries of the world are now faced with immediate problems of waste handling. The developing nations of the world are looking at increasing quantities of hazardous waste generation as they move toward higher levels of industrialization. Available data are included on hazardous waste generation in Asia and the Pacific as a function of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Although there are many inconsistencies in the data (inconsistent hazardous waste definitions, inconsistent reporting of wastes, etc.) there is definite indication that a growing economy tends to lead toward larger quantities of hazardous waste generation. In developing countries the industrial sector is growing at a faster rate than in the industrialized countries. In 1965 industry accounted for 29% of GDP in the developing countries of the world. In 1987 this had grown to 37% of GDP. In contrast, industry accounted for 40% of GDP in 1965 in industrialized countries and dropped to 35% in 1987. This growth in industrial activity in the developing countries brings an increase in the need to handle hazardous wastes. Although hazardous wastes are ubiquitous, the control of hazardous wastes varies. The number of regulatory options used by various countries in Asia and the Pacific to control wastes are included. It is evident that the industrialized countries, with a longer history of having to deal with hazardous wastes, have found the need to use more mechanisms to control them. 2 refs., 2 figs.

Drucker, H.

1989-01-01

136

Geotechnical engineering of ocean waste disposal  

SciTech Connect

This book report is on shallow ocean disposal and deals primarily with dredge material disposal. It is concerned with deep ocean disposal and deals primarily with both subseabed disposal of nuclear wastes and concentrated chemical wastes.

Demars, K.R.; Chaney, R.C.

1990-01-01

137

Disposal of Coal Burning Wastes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is a second literature synopsis concerning disposal of coal burning waste within the KHM-project. A large amount of ash and FGD-wastes in the US are disposed either wet or dry. Approximately 5 - 10 percent of the ash is utilized in one way or ...

J. E. Meijer

1983-01-01

138

HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT RESEARCH - U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY  

EPA Science Inventory

Treatment and thermal destruction are becoming the most viable methods for disposing of hazardous wastes. Wastes can be destroyed through a variety of treatment methods and in incinerators, boilers, kilns, and other high temperature industrial processes. The destruction of these ...

139

Hazardous waste landfill leachate characteristics  

SciTech Connect

Leachate data from 18 commercial hazardous waste landfills or cells were evaluated to determine overall leachate characteristics and parameters that may affect leachate generation and characteristics. The landfills studied have a wide range of practices, none of which are necessarily representative of the most current landfill design, operating or closure practice in the United States. The leachate samples were from landfills that represented varying waste types, waste age, geographic locations and climate. The parameters evaluated included chemical properties, co-disposal of hazardous and municipal solid wastes, climatic conditions, and waste age in the landfills. The leachate samples had been analyzed for 62 volatiles, 107 semi-volatiles, 16 metals, 28 pesticides, herbicides and insecticides, and 17 other chemicals. The results indicate that: (a) the organics in the leachate with high concentrations had high solubilities and low octanol-water coefficients, (b) landfills in arid climates produced less leachate than those in temperate and sub-tropical climates, and (c) leachate production appeared to be related to use of a cap or cover.

Pavelka, C. (Woodward-Clyde Consultants, Maryland Heights, MO (United States)); Loehr, R.C. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Environmental and Water Resources Engineering Program); Haikola, B. (Remediation Technologies, Inc., Austin, TX (United States))

1993-01-01

140

Peristaltic pumps for waste disposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory robots are capable of generating large volumes of hazardous liquid wastes when they are used to perform chemical analyses of metal finishing solutions. A robot at Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division, generates 30 gallons of acid waste each month. This waste contains mineral acids, heavy metals, metal fluorides, and other materials. The waste must be contained in special drums

1992-01-01

141

PERMITTING HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATORS  

EPA Science Inventory

This publication is a compilation of information presented at a seminar series designed to address the issues that affect the issuance of hazardous waste incineration permits and to improve the overall understanding of trial burn testing. pecifically, the document provides guidan...

142

Hazardous Waste Reference Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of hazardous wastes is rapidly growing and changing. Many corporations and consultants are engaging in work in the field. Librarians must be familiar with some basic sources in order to provide current information to their users. This article lists sources that can be used as a basis on which to build a collection in this subject area.

Frances Drone-Silvers; Sara Tompson

1993-01-01

143

Hazardous waste minimization assessment: Fort Carson, CO. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

After surveying hazardous material procurement; hazardous waste generation; and current methods of treatment, storage, and disposal, researchers conducted feasibility and economic analyses of minimization options and prepared a hazardous waste minimization (HAZMIN) plan for Fort Carson, Colorado. This plan is aimed at lessening air pollution, water pollution and radioactive pollution through reduction of the net outflow of contaminants from chemicals,

S. Dharmavaram; D. A. Knowlton; B. A. Donahue

1991-01-01

144

Greater confinement disposal of radioactive wastes  

SciTech Connect

Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) includes a broad spectrum of different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and hazards. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most LLW. A small volume fraction (approx. 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx. 90%) requires specific measures known as greater-confinement disposal (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics.

Trevorrow, L.E.; Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Merry-Libby, P.A.; Meshkov, N.K.; Yu, C.

1985-01-01

145

Hazardous-waste reduction: Naval Air Station Oceana  

SciTech Connect

This is a project to research Naval Air Station (NAS) Oceana's present operations in the area of hazardous waste controls from processing to disposal. The research project was generated in response to NAS Oceana's requirement to meet and implement OPNAVINST 4110.2 (dated 20 June 89). Areas of concern include waste management, regulatory compliance, and waste reduction. Waste reduction is seen as one key way to help NAS Oceana (and other naval bases) improve waste management by reducing liability, operational cost, disposal costs and environmental, health, and safety issues. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act places strict controls on the storage, treatment and disposal of hazardous waste. Presently, NAS Oceana has a disposal plan that is operational and complies with all associated regulations. This study addresses hazardous waste minimization through hazardous material reduction.

Clarkson, E.A.

1991-06-01

146

HOUSEHOLD HAZARDOUS WASTE CHARACTERIZATION STUDY FOR PALM BEACH COUNTY, FLORIDA: A MITE PROGRAM EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The objectives of the Household hazardous Waste Characterization Study (the HHW Study) were to quantify the annual household hazardous waste (HHW) tonnages disposed in Palm Beach County, Florida's (the county) residential solid waste (characterized in this study as municipal soli...

147

40 CFR Appendix Viii to Part 268 - LDR Effective Dates of Injected Prohibited Hazardous Wastes  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Dates of Injected Prohibited Hazardous Wastes VIII Appendix VIII to Part 268...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS...Dates of Injected Prohibited Hazardous Wastes National Capacity LDR...

2013-07-01

148

1985 national report of hazardous-waste generators and treatment, storage and disposal facilities regulated under RCRA: (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act). Volume 2: methodology and data  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the more-extensive State data profiles upon which the national and regional results are based. It expands upon the aggregate levels analyses (explained in Vol. 1) by profiling key hazardous-waste generation and management data for all 50 States and 3 Territories. RCRA-regulated hazardous-waste generators and TSD facilities in all States, DC, Puerto Rico, and Guam completed and submitted data forms to State and EPA Regional offices describing their 1985 waste-management practices.

Not Available

1989-03-01

149

MEASUREMENT OF HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS FOR EVALUATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE LAND DISPOSAL. VOLUME 3. DATA ON 70 CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

To provide input data for a mathematical model to estimate potential groundwater contamination from chemicals in land disposal sites, hydrolysis rate constants were measured for 70 regulated chemicals under carefully controlled conditions. Hydrolysis rates were measured under ste...

150

MEASUREMENT OF HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS FOR EVALUATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE LAND DISPOSAL. VOLUME 1. DATA ON 32 CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

To provide input data for a mathematical model to estimate potential groundwater contamination from chemicals in land disposal sites, hydrolysis rate constants were determined for 26 regulated chemicals under carefully controlled conditions. Hydrolysis rates were measured under s...

151

MEASUREMENT OF HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS FOR EVALUATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE LAND DISPOSAL. VOLUME 2. DATA ON 54 CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

To provide input data for a mathematical model to estimate potential groundwater contamination from chemicals in land disposal sites, hydrolysis rate constants were determined for 31 regulated chemicals under carefully controlled conditions. Hydrolysis rates were measured under s...

152

Encapsulation of hazardous wastes into agglomerates  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using the cementitious properties and agglomeration characteristics of coal conversion byproducts to encapsulate and immobilize hazardous waste materials. The intention was to establish an economical way of co-utilization and co-disposal of wastes. In addition, it may aid in the eradication of air pollution problems associated with the fine-powdery nature of fly ash. Encapsulation into agglomerates is a novel approach of treating toxic waste. Although encapsulation itself is not a new concept, existing methods employ high-cost resins that render them economically unfeasible. In this investigation, the toxic waste was contained in a concrete-like matrix whereby fly ash and other cementitious waste materials were utilized. The method incorporates the principles of solidification, stabilization and agglomeration. Another aspect of the study is the evaluation of the agglomeration as possible lightweight aggregates. Since fly ash is commercially used as an aggregate, it would be interesting to study the effect of incorporating toxic wastes in the strength development of the granules. In the investigation, the fly ash self-cementation process was applied to electroplating sludges as the toxic waste. The process hoped to provide a basis for delisting of the waste as hazardous and, thereby greatly minimize the cost of its disposal. Owing to the stringent regulatory requirements for hauling and disposal of hazardous waste, the cost of disposal is significant. The current practice for disposal is solidifying the waste with portland cement and dumping the hardened material in the landfill where the cost varies between $700--950/ton. Partially replacing portland cement with fly ash in concrete has proven beneficial, therefore applying the same principles in the treatment of toxic waste looked very promising.

Guloy, A.

1992-01-28

153

Characterization, minimization and disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes during cleanup and rransition of the Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL) at Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA)  

SciTech Connect

This document provides an outline of waste handling practices used during the Sandia National Laboratory/California (SNL/CA), Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL) Cleanup and Transition project. Here we provide background information concerning the history of the TRL and the types of operations that generated the waste. Listed are applicable SNL/CA site-wide and TRL local waste handling related procedures. We describe personnel training practices and outline methods of handling and disposal of compactible and non-compactible low level waste, solidified waste water, hazardous wastes and mixed wastes. Waste minimization, reapplication and recycling practices are discussed. Finally, we provide a description of the process followed to remove the highly contaminated decontamination systems. This document is intended as both a historical record and as a reference to other facilities who may be involved in similar work.

Garcia, T.B.; Gorman, T.P.

1996-12-01

154

Hazardous Components of Household Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Household hazardous waste (HHW) includes waste containing hazardous substances originating from domestic sources. HHW has attracted attention recently because of the steadily increasing levels of municipal solid waste (MSW) of which HHW forms a proportion. A lack of detailed information exists on specific waste types composing HHW and the volumes of HHW produced. In addition, variations in the definition of

R. SLACK; J. GRONOW; N. VOULVOULIS

2004-01-01

155

The management of household hazardous waste in the United Kingdom.  

PubMed

Waste legislation in the United Kingdom (UK) implements European Union (EU) Directives and Regulations. However, the term used to refer to hazardous waste generated in household or municipal situations, household hazardous waste (HHW), does not occur in UK, or EU, legislation. The EU's Hazardous Waste Directive and European Waste Catalogue are the principal legislation influencing HHW, although the waste categories described are difficult to interpret. Other legislation also have impacts on HHW definition and disposal, some of which will alter current HHW disposal practices, leading to a variety of potential consequences. This paper discusses the issues affecting the management of HHW in the UK, including the apparent absence of a HHW-specific regulatory structure. Policy and regulatory measures that influence HHW management before disposal and after disposal are considered, with particular emphasis placed on disposal to landfill. PMID:18423843

Slack, R J; Gronow, J R; Voulvoulis, N

2008-04-21

156

Region 9: Solid Waste: Household Hazardous Waste  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's site on household hazardous waste stresses the importance of household waste awareness. Household waste may come from single or multiple family dwellings, hotels and motels, and other types of residences. This site answers frequently asked questions about the problem of discarding potentially hazardous wastes.

2008-10-20

157

E-waste hazard: The impending challenge.  

PubMed

Electronic waste or e-waste is one of the rapidly growing problems of the world. E-waste comprises of a multitude of components, some containing toxic substances that can have an adverse impact on human health and the environment if not handled properly. In India, e-waste management assumes greater significance not only due to the generation of its own e-waste but also because of the dumping of e-waste from developed countries. This is coupled with India's lack of appropriate infrastructure and procedures for its disposal and recycling. This review article provides a concise overview of India's current e-waste scenario, namely magnitude of the problem, environmental and health hazards, current disposal and recycling operations, existing legal framework, organizations working on this issue and recommendations for action. PMID:20040981

Pinto, Violet N

2008-08-01

158

E-waste hazard: The impending challenge  

PubMed Central

Electronic waste or e-waste is one of the rapidly growing problems of the world. E-waste comprises of a multitude of components, some containing toxic substances that can have an adverse impact on human health and the environment if not handled properly. In India, e-waste management assumes greater significance not only due to the generation of its own e-waste but also because of the dumping of e-waste from developed countries. This is coupled with India's lack of appropriate infrastructure and procedures for its disposal and recycling. This review article provides a concise overview of India's current e-waste scenario, namely magnitude of the problem, environmental and health hazards, current disposal and recycling operations, existing legal framework, organizations working on this issue and recommendations for action.

Pinto, Violet N.

2008-01-01

159

Waste generation, waste disposal and policy effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste generation and waste disposal are issues that are becoming increasingly prominent in the environmental arena both from a policy perspective and in the context of delinking analysis. Waste generation is still increasing proportionally with income, and economic and environmental costs associated to landfilling are also increasing. Thus, the need of accelerating the eventual delinking process by the introduction of

Massimiliano Mazzanti; Roberto Zoboli

2008-01-01

160

Management of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites  

SciTech Connect

This book is a compilation of papers presented at a conference on the management of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. Papers were presented in the following topics: federal and state programs; sampling and monitoring; leaking tanks; in-situ treatment; site remediation; banner technology; storage/disposal; endangerment assessment; risk assessment techniques; and research and development.

Not Available

1985-01-01

161

DEFINITION OF A HAZARDOUS WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

The USEPA has promulagated regulation establishing the criteria and characteristics of hazardous waste. The criteria established include the following factors: (1) the waste is associated with an identified waste stream or contains constituents which are identified in listings in...

162

Wood waste disposal in illinois  

SciTech Connect

The state of Illinois is actively involved in preserving the state's natural resources and protecting the health of Illinois citizens by planning for the most environmentally acceptable solid waste management procedures possible. The Illinois Solid Waste Management Act establishes a preferred hierarchy of methods for dealing with solid waste: volume reduction at the source, recycling and reuse, combustion with energy recovery, combustion for volume reduction, and disposal in landfills. Effective July 1, 1990, the state of Illinois banned the landfill disposal of landscape waste (grass, leaves, brush, tree trimmings, etc.). Composting has become the preferred method to dispose of these wastes and at the same time return valuable organic material to the Illinois soils from which it came. Alternatives to landfill disposal are certainly possible for many other components of Illinois' waste stream. The report from the Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources is in response to Public Act 86-207 effective January 1, 1991, which requires the department to study the feasibility of requiring that wood and sawdust from construction waste, demolition projects, sawmills, or other projects or industries where wood is used in a large amount be shredded and composted, and that such wood be prohibited from being disposed of in a landfill.

Not Available

1991-03-01

163

Tank Waste Disposal Program redefinition  

SciTech Connect

The record of decision (ROD) (DOE 1988) on the Final Environmental Impact Statement, Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic and Tank Wastes, Hanford Site, Richland Washington identifies the method for disposal of double-shell tank waste and cesium and strontium capsules at the Hanford Site. The ROD also identifies the need for additional evaluations before a final decision is made on the disposal of single-shell tank waste. This document presents the results of systematic evaluation of the present technical circumstances, alternatives, and regulatory requirements in light of the values of the leaders and constitutents of the program. It recommends a three-phased approach for disposing of tank wastes. This approach allows mature technologies to be applied to the treatment of well-understood waste forms in the near term, while providing time for the development and deployment of successively more advanced pretreatment technologies. The advanced technologies will accelerate disposal by reducing the volume of waste to be vitrified. This document also recommends integration of the double-and single-shell tank waste disposal programs, provides a target schedule for implementation of the selected approach, and describes the essential elements of a program to be baselined in 1992.

Grygiel, M.L.; Augustine, C.A.; Cahill, M.A.; Garfield, J.S.; Johnson, M.E.; Kupfer, M.J.; Meyer, G.A.; Roecker, J.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Holton, L.K.; Hunter, V.L.; Triplett, M.B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1991-10-01

164

Developments in management and technology of waste reduction and disposal.  

PubMed

Scandals and public dangers from the mismanagement and poor disposal of hazardous wastes during the 1960s and 1970s awakened the modern-day environmental movement. Influential publications such as "Silent Spring" and high-profile disposal failures, for example, Love Canal and Lekkerkerk, focused attention on the use of chemicals in everyday life and the potential dangers from inappropriate disposal. This attention has not abated and developments, invariably increasing expectations and tightening requirements, continue to be implemented. Waste, as a surrogate for environmental improvement, is a topic where elected representatives and administrations continually want to do more. This article will chart the recent changes in hazardous waste management emanating from the European Union legislation, now being implemented in Member States across the continent. These developments widen the range of discarded materials regarded as "hazardous," prohibit the use of specific chemicals, prohibit the use of waste management options, shift the emphasis from risk-based treatment and disposal to inclusive lists, and incorporate waste producers into more stringent regulatory regimes. The impact of the changes is also intended to provide renewed impetus for waste reduction. Under an environmental control system where only certainty is tolerated, the opportunities for innovation within the industry and the waste treatment and disposal sector will be explored. A challenging analysis will be offered on the impact of this regulation-led approach to the nature and sustainability of hazardous waste treatment and disposal in the future. PMID:17119227

Rushbrook, Philip

2006-09-01

165

Assessing Hazardous Waste Transport Risks Using a GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transport phase is an often neglected element in the risk assessment of non-nuclear hazardous waste life cycles. Data on special and hazardous waste movements are difficult to acquire, but information collected by the London Waste Regulation Authority during the 1980s gives details of waste consignments from cradle to grave, including U.K. grid references for waste producer and disposal sites.

Julii Brainard; Andrew Lovett; Julian Parfitt

1996-01-01

166

Natural hazards phenomena mitigation with respect to seismic hazards at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility  

SciTech Connect

This report provides information on the seismic hazard for design of the proposed Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF), a facility designed for the disposal of wastes generated during the cleanup of Hanford Site aggregate areas. The preferred ERDF site is located south and east of 200 East and 200 West Areas. The Washington State Groundwater Protection Program (WAC 173-303-806 (4)(a)(xxi)) requires that the characteristics of local and regional hydrogeology be defined. A plan for that work has been developed (Weekes and Borghese 1993). In addition, WAC 173-303-282 provides regulatory guidance on siting a dangerous waste facility, and US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.28 requires consideration of natural phenomena hazards mitigation for DOE sites and facilities. This report provides information to evaluate the ERDF site with respect to seismic hazard. The ERDF will be a Corrective Action Management Unit (CAMU) as defined by 40 CFR 260.10.

Reidel, S.P.

1994-01-06

167

Reporting and recordkeeping requirements for waste disposal: A field guide  

SciTech Connect

The guide will help with complying with the new reporting and recordkeeping requirements of the asbestos National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP). The specific responsibilities of waste generators, transporters and waste disposal site operators are addressed, as well as detailed explanations of how to complete the new forms accurately and efficiently. The field guide is organized into four main sections as follows: Waste Shipment Record; Reporting Requirements; Recordkeeping Requirements; Source Reporting Requirements for Disposal Site Operators.

Not Available

1990-11-01

168

Process for waste water disposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process for waste water disposal is herein disclosed, in which waste water of high BOD concentration is subjected to an aeration treatment in an aeration vessel so as to reduce the BOD concentration thereof by circulating within said aeration vessel a quantity of coal or active carbon of which 80% or higher is of particle size between 2 and

Suzuki

1983-01-01

169

Optimizing High Level Waste Disposal  

SciTech Connect

If society is ever to reap the potential benefits of nuclear energy, technologists must close the fuel-cycle completely. A closed cycle equates to a continued supply of fuel and safe reactors, but also reliable and comprehensive closure of waste issues. High level waste (HLW) disposal in borosilicate glass (BSG) is based on 1970s era evaluations. This host matrix is very adaptable to sequestering a wide variety of radionuclides found in raffinates from spent fuel reprocessing. However, it is now known that the current system is far from optimal for disposal of the diverse HLW streams, and proven alternatives are available to reduce costs by billions of dollars. The basis for HLW disposal should be reassessed to consider extensive waste form and process technology research and development efforts, which have been conducted by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), international agencies and the private sector. Matching the waste form to the waste chemistry and using currently available technology could increase the waste content in waste forms to 50% or more and double processing rates. Optimization of the HLW disposal system would accelerate HLW disposition and increase repository capacity. This does not necessarily require developing new waste forms, the emphasis should be on qualifying existing matrices to demonstrate protection equal to or better than the baseline glass performance. Also, this proposed effort does not necessarily require developing new technology concepts. The emphasis is on demonstrating existing technology that is clearly better (reliability, productivity, cost) than current technology, and justifying its use in future facilities or retrofitted facilities. Higher waste processing and disposal efficiency can be realized by performing the engineering analyses and trade-studies necessary to select the most efficient methods for processing the full spectrum of wastes across the nuclear complex. This paper will describe technologies being evaluated at Idaho National Laboratory and the facilities we’ve designed to evaluate options and support optimization.

Dirk Gombert

2005-09-01

170

The WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit Improvements--2007 Update  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most significant changes to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Hazardous Waste Facility Permit to date were completed during the past year with the implementation of significant revisions to the Waste Analysis Plan and the authorization to dispose of remote-handled transuranic waste. The modified Permit removes the requirement for reporting headspace gas sampling and analysis results for every container of

R. Kehrman; W. Most

2007-01-01

171

Full-scale demonstration of a sequencing batch reactor for a hazardous-waste-disposal plant. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report documents a two-phase project that involved testing bench-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBR) under various operating conditions, then designing, building, and demonstrating a full-scale system. The sequencing batch reactor was tested to demonstrate its technical feasibility and economic attractiveness in the treatment of dilute, aqueous organic waste streams. CECOS International, Inc. was awarded a contract as a result of a competitive solicitation, and the SBR was installed at the firm's Niagara Falls treatment facility. The actual demonstration and monitoring program spanned a six-month period from June to November 1984. The SBR is considered as a treatment strategy rather than simply as the installation of equipment. The system performs equalization, aeration, and sedimentation in a time sequence, as opposed to the aeration, basin-clarifier configuration of conventional waste-water treatment installations. The techniques used in operating the SBR have the potential for significant energy savings.

Staszak, C.N.

1985-08-01

172

Work plan for the preliminary assessment and characterization of dense nonaqueous-phase liquids in the Bear Creek Burial Grounds Hazardous Waste Disposal Unit at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

On January 5, 1990, accumulations of dense, nonaqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLs) were discovered at depths of approximately 274 ft below ground surface along the southern border of Burial Ground A-South within the Bear Creek Burial Grounds Hazardous Waste Disposal Unit at the Y-12 plant. Subsequent to this discovery, a preliminary investigation was conducted to obtain information on the mode of occurrence

C. S. Haase; H. L. King

1990-01-01

173

GUIDE TO TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR HAZARDOUS WASTES AT SUPERFUND SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

Over the past fewyears, it has become increasinsly evident that land disposal of hazardous wastes is at least only a temporary solution for much of the wastes present at Superfund sites. The need for more Iong-term, permanent "treatment solutions as alternatives to land disposal ...

174

40 CFR 266.340 - What type of container must be used for disposal of exempted waste?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...must be used for disposal of exempted waste? 266.340 Section 266.340...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS...

2012-07-01

175

Protecting the hazardous waste worker  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the serious safety and health risk posed by hazardous waste, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) issued the Hazardous Waste Operation and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER) standard (29 CFR 1910.120)in March 1990. The most recent protection action is related to 29 CFR 1926.65, the standards that protect hazardous waste workers. As a basis for compliance with the standards,

Roughton

1995-01-01

176

Issues directions in hazardous waste management  

SciTech Connect

Early this year, Richard J. Pastor, vice president external affairs of Envirosafe Management Services, Inc. (Valley Forge, Pa.), was elected chairman of the board of governors of the Hazardous Waste Management Association (HWMA). HWMA is one of three associations that form part of the Environmental Industry Associations (EIA) and represent entities involved in the transportation, storage, treatment, remediation, disposal, and recycling of hazardous wastes or PCBs; and those companies involved in the provision of professional, technical, financial, and legal services to those entities. Pastor and HWMA vice president Doug MacMillan are interviewed regarding their views on the HWMA and issues facing HWMA members today.

McAdams, C.L.

1994-05-01

177

Plasma separation process: Disposal of PSP radioactive wastes  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive wastes, in the form of natural uranium contaminated scrap hardware and residual materials from decontamination operations, were generated in the PSP facilities in buildings R1 and 106. Based on evaluation of the characteristics of these wastes and the applicable regulations, the various options for the processing and disposal of PSP radioactive wastes were investigated and recommended procedures were developed. The essential features of waste processing included: (1) the solidification of all liquid wastes prior to shipment; (2) cutting of scrap hardware to fit 55-gallon drums and use of inerting agents (diatomaceous earth) to eliminate pyrophoric hazards; and (3) compaction of soft wastes. All PSP radioactive wastes were shipped to the Hanford Site for disposal. As part of the waste disposal process, a detailed plan was formulated for handling and tracking of PSP radioactive wastes, from the point of generation through shipping. In addition, a waste minimization program was implemented to reduce the waste volume or quantity. Included in this document are discussions of the applicable regulations, the types of PSP wastes, the selection of the preferred waste disposal approach and disposal site, the analysis and classification of PSP wastes, the processing and ultimate disposition of PSP wastes, the handling and tracking of PSP wastes, and the implementation of the PSP waste minimization program. 9 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

Not Available

1989-07-01

178

PERSPECTIVES ON SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION TECHNOLOGY FOR TREATING HAZARDOUS WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

In hazardous waste management, solidification/stabilization (S/S) is a term normally used to designate a technology employing additives to alter hazardous waste to reduce the mobility of pollutants, thereby making it acceptable for current land disposal requirements. The use of t...

179

HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN THE UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper was prepared for presentation at a joint US/Spain Seminar on Hazardous Waste Management to be held in Madrid, Spain, on May 19-22, 1986. Hazardous waste quantities produced in the United States and how they are handled/disposed of are presented. Major environmental legi...

180

40 CFR 761.62 - Disposal of PCB bulk product waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (a) Performance-based disposal. Any person disposing of... (4) Under an alternate disposal approval under § 761.60...under § 761.77. (b) Disposal in solid waste landfills...non-hazardous waste landfill: (i) Plastics (such as plastic...

2009-07-01

181

Organic waste disposal system  

SciTech Connect

Organic waste material is pneumatically transported within air and mixed therewith by swirling flow through an annular ejector passage of varying radial width into a reaction flow passage of an eductor nozzle section receiving the output plume of a plasma torch for initiating therein thermal gasification of the waste mixture. The plasma torch plume projects from the eductor section into a diffuser section within which thermal gasification is continued before discharge of gasified waste.

Nolting, E.E.; Colfield, J.; Richard, R.; Peterson, S.

1997-12-31

182

Nuclear waste disposal: Subseabed option  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research on options for nuclear waste disposal in the oceans, as opposed to disposal on land, is being done because of mounting difficulties of site management: some political, others geological. ‘The Ocean, as a commonly owned (or unowned) resource, is not protected by market place and political forces,’ according to K. S. Kamlet (Oceanus, 24, Spring 1981). Societal restrictions and a relatively unstable geological environment are problems that would be minimized in the use of ocean sediments as a disposal site for high-level nuclear wastes.There are strong proponents for using the oceans and ocean floors as a repository for waste. For example, in a recent article (Oceanus, sup.), E. D. Goldberg of Scripps Institution on Oceanography states.

183

Biodegradation of Hazardous Chemical Wastes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Under natural conditions, the biodegradation of hazardous organic chemical wastes is often a slow process. Although appropriate microbial populations are present where such wastes exist, their biodegrading activities are often hampered as the result of lo...

W. Pelon M. L. Murray

1985-01-01

184

Alternatives to Waste Disposal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

According to reports prepared by Franklin Associates, Ltd for the United States Environmental Protection Agency, the United States generated 209.1 million tons of municipal solid waste in 1994. The distribution of waste by weight for 1994 was: 38.9% paper...

H. K. Moberly

1997-01-01

185

Waste management facilities cost information for hazardous waste. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for managing hazardous waste. The report`s information on treatment, storage, and disposal modules can be integrated to develop total life-cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of cost estimation data is also summarized in this report.

Shropshire, D.; Sherick, M.; Biagi, C.

1995-06-01

186

Hazardous Wastes. Two Games for Teaching about the Problem. Environmental Communications Activities. Bulletin 703.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two games are presented which demonstrate the complexity of the hazardous waste problem through an introduction to the: (1) economics of waste disposal; (2) legislation surrounding waste disposal; (3) necessity to handle wastes with care; (4) damages to the environmental and human health resulting from improper disposal; (5) correct ways to…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Cooperative Extension Service.

187

DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS WASTE. PROCEEDINGS OF THE ANNUAL RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM (6TH) HELD AT CHICAGO, ILLINOIS ON MARCH 17-20, 1980  

EPA Science Inventory

These proceedings are a compilation of the papers presented by symposium speakers. They are divided into two volumes representing the technologies of Treatment and Disposal. The primary technical areas covered are: (1) Waste Sampling and Characteristics; (2) Transport and Fate of...

188

Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) waste identification (1952--1970 emphasis)  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes available information concerning the general identification of hazardous and radioactive contaminated waste material disposed in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Particular emphasis will be given to the 1952 to 1970 time period since it was during this time that transuranic (TRU) radionuclide contaminated waste was disposed below ground with low-level waste (LLW). This report covers off-site and site-generated waste. Most of the waste disposal information collected to date represents estimates of the amount of waste material disposed of at the SDA. Several task projects were completed in FY-1989. Continuing research in FY-1990 will gain more specific information on the waste disposed of in the SDA. The scope of this report is on the waste generated and buried in the SDA during 1952 through 1970. The waste disposal investigation to date has included: researching records and logbooks; reviewing past photographs and technical drawings; interviewing/debriefing personnel familiar with past waste management practices at the INEL; and analyzing existing data bases. This report is a compilation of information gathered from the FY-1989 efforts as well an extensive amount of information gained from research conducted in the 1970s and early 1980s. 18 refs., 11 figs., 11 tabs.

Vigil, M.J.

1989-10-01

189

Mythology of Waste Disposal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper, while making a parallel between the mythology of the dangers of alcohol when the United States adopted a constitutional amendment prohibiting intoxicating liquor and public attitudes towards the dangers of nuclear waste burial, outlines the re...

Beckhofer

1981-01-01

190

Organic Waste Disposal System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Organic waste material is pneumatically transported within air and mixed therewith by swirling flow through an annular ejector passage of varying radial width into a reaction flow passage of an eductor nozzle section receiving the output plume of a plasma...

E. E. Nolting J. Colfield R. Richard S. Peterson

1997-01-01

191

Disposal of NORM waste in salt caverns  

SciTech Connect

Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, there are no fatal flaws that would prevent a state regulatory agency from approving cavern disposal of NORM. On the basis of the costs charged by caverns currently used for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal caverns could be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

Veil, J.A.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Blunt, D.; Williams, G.P.

1998-07-01

192

Hazardous healthcare waste management in the Kingdom of Bahrain  

SciTech Connect

Hazardous healthcare waste has become an environmental concern for many developing countries including the Kingdom of Bahrain. There have been several significant obstacles facing the Kingdom in dealing with this issue including; limited documentation regarding generation, handling, management, and disposal of waste. This in turn hinders efforts to plan better healthcare waste management. In this paper, hazardous waste management status in the Kingdom has been investigated through an extensive survey carried out on selected public and private healthcare premises. Hazardous waste management practices including: waste generation, segregation, storage, collection, transportation, treatment, and disposal were determined. The results of this study along with key findings are discussed and summarized. In addition; several effective recommendations and improvements of hazardous waste management are suggested.

Mohamed, L.F. [Environmental Management Program, College of Graduate Studies, Arabian Gulf University, P.O. Box 26671, Manama (Bahrain)], E-mail: lamyafm@agu.edu.bh; Ebrahim, S.A. [Engineering and Maintenance Department, Ministry of Health, P.O. Box 12, Manama (Bahrain); Al-Thukair, A.A. [Chemistry Department, King Fahad University of Petroleum and Minerals, P.O. Box 157, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

2009-08-15

193

Hazardous waste shipment data collection from DOE sites  

SciTech Connect

Past practices at the US Department of Energy (DOE) sites for offsite release of hazardous waste are being reviewed to determine if radioactively contaminated hazardous wastes were released to commercial treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. Records indicating the presence of radioactivity in waste shipped to and treated at a commercial incineration facility led to a ban on offsite hazardous waste shipments and investigation of past practices for offsite release of hazardous waste from the DOE sites. A House of Representatives Interior and Insular Affairs Committee oversight hearing on potentially contaminated waste shipments to commercial facilities concluded that the main issue was the lack of a uniform national standard to govern disposal of mixed waste.

Page, L.A.; Kirkpatrick, T.D. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Stevens, L. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States))

1992-01-01

194

Hazardous waste shipment data collection from DOE sites  

SciTech Connect

Past practices at the US Department of Energy (DOE) sites for offsite release of hazardous waste are being reviewed to determine if radioactively contaminated hazardous wastes were released to commercial treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. Records indicating the presence of radioactivity in waste shipped to and treated at a commercial incineration facility led to a ban on offsite hazardous waste shipments and investigation of past practices for offsite release of hazardous waste from the DOE sites. A House of Representatives Interior and Insular Affairs Committee oversight hearing on potentially contaminated waste shipments to commercial facilities concluded that the main issue was the lack of a uniform national standard to govern disposal of mixed waste.

Page, L.A.; Kirkpatrick, T.D. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Stevens, L. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1992-12-31

195

Evaluation of health effects from hazardous waste sites  

SciTech Connect

This information and data for evaluating health effects from hazardous waste sites stems from the efforts of specialists representing leading research centers, hospitals, universities, government agencies and includes consultant as well as corporate viewpoints. The work evolved from the Fourth Annual Symposium on Environmental Epidemiology sponsored by the Center for Environmental Epidemiology at the University of Pittsburgh and the U.S. EPA. Contents-One: Scope of the Hazardous Wastes Problems. Evaluating Health Effects at Hazardous Waste Sites. Historical Perspective on Waste Disposal. Two: Assessment of Exposure to Hazardous Wastes. Chemical Emissions Assessment for Hazardous Waste Sites. Assessing Pathways to Human Populations. Methods of Defining Human Exposures. Three: Determining Human Health Effects. Health Risks of Concern. Expectations and Limitations of Human Health Studies and Risk Assessment. Four: Case Studies. Love Canal. Hardeman County, Tennessee. Cannonsburg, Pennsylvania. Five: Defining Health Risks at Waste Sites. Engineering Perspectives from an Industrial Viewpoint. Role of Public Groups. Integration of Governmental Resources in Assessment of Hazards.

Andelman, J.B.; Underhill, D.W.

1986-01-01

196

System for waste disposal  

SciTech Connect

Flammable waste material and nonflammable waste material are concurrently treated in the apparatus. Flammable waste material such as oil-contaminated solids and liquids is treated by a system which in a first stage reduces the material to small particles mixed and soaked with water, then in a second stage countersprays the mixture into an oil or gas fired flame in a furnace enclosure to explode as steam the water content and consume the particles fragmented by the explosion; in a third stage any particles which are not consumed fall into a flaming pit of sand where they remain in combustion until the pit is slid out for cleaning; vapor, smoke and fumes pass from the second stage through chemical shower, water spray and forced-air stages into a vertical filter stage where coarse filtrate slides into a vat and into a horizontal filter stage in an upward chimney where a counterflow of water spray coacts to purify the exhaust and return fine filtrate into the vat; recirculation of the vat material is provided. Concurrently with the above process, nonflammable waste material is mixed with water and sprayed onto a hot plate; the resulting gaseous material then joins vapor smoke and fumes of the flammable waste material for treatment in the chemical shower and succeeding stages.

Romeo, S.T.

1981-05-19

197

Radioactive waste disposal in granite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal geotechnical problems in selecting a repository site for radioactive waste disposal in granite are to evaluate the suitability of the rock mass in terms of: (1) fracture characteristics, (2) thermomechanical effects, and (3) fracture hydrology. Underground experiments in a mine in Sweden have provided an opportunity to study these problems. The research has demonstrated the importance of hydrogeology

P. A. Witherspoon; D. J. Watkins

1982-01-01

198

Garbage imperialism: Health implications of dumping hazardous wastes in third world countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper calls for studies of the potential health implications of today's hazardous waste disposal practices, and suggests that such studies are urgently needed in Third World countries where industrial nations are increasingly dumping their unwanted waste materials. The United States produces enormous quantities of hazardous waste each year, and approximately 1,200 “priority hazardous waste sites” presently threaten the nation's

Kenyon Rainier Stebbins

1993-01-01

199

Legislative aspects of hazardous waste management.  

PubMed Central

In the fall of 1976 Congress enacted the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, commonly referred to as RCRA. The objective of the statute is to create an orderly system for the generation, handling and disposal of hazardous waste by means of a comprehensive tracking and record keeping mechanism. RCRA does not regulate directly by statute so much as it delegates rule making authority to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Pursuant to its mandate to develop regulations in accordance with the broad criteria of RCRA, EPA has published extensive regulations. These regulations address hazardous waste generation, transportation, treatment, storage and handling and its final disposal. The statute also offers remedies available to both EPA and the public at large to ensure enforcement of the provisions of RCRA and the EPA regulations. Additionally, it sets guidelines for states to implement their own hazardous waste management programs. This article is intended to introduce this complicated statutory/regulatory package to scientists and health professionals. It outlines the provisions of RCRA and the EPA regulations, abbreviates early judicial decisions interpreting these provisions and sets forth a brief description of various state approaches to hazardous waste management.

Friedman, M

1983-01-01

200

45 CFR 671.12 - Waste disposal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Section 671.12 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION WASTE REGULATION Waste Management § 671.12 Waste disposal. (a)(1) The following wastes shall be removed from...

2010-10-01

201

45 CFR 671.12 - Waste disposal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Section 671.12 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION WASTE REGULATION Waste Management § 671.12 Waste disposal. (a)(1) The following wastes shall be removed from...

2009-10-01

202

Oil field waste disposal costs at commercial disposal facilities  

SciTech Connect

The exploration and production segment of the U.S. oil and gas industry generates millions of barrels of nonhazardous oil field wastes annually. In most cases, operators can dispose of their oil fields wastes at a lower cost on-site than off site and, thus, will choose on-site disposal. However, a significant quantity of oil field wastes are still sent to off-site commercial facilities for disposal. This paper provides information on the availability of commercial disposal companies in different states, the treatment and disposal methods they employ, and how much they charge. There appear to be two major off-site disposal trends. Numerous commercial disposal companies that handle oil field wastes exclusively are located in nine oil-and gas-producing states. They use the same disposal methods as those used for on-site disposal. In addition, the Railroad Commission of Texas has issued permits to allow several salt caverns to be used for disposal of oil field wastes. Twenty-two other oil- and gas-producing states contain few or no disposal companies dedicated to oil and gas industry waste. The only off-site commercial disposal companies available handle general industrial wastes or are sanitary landfills. In those states, operators needing to dispose of oil field wastes off-site must send them to a local landfill or out of state. The cost of off-site commercial disposal varies substantially, depending on the disposal method used, the state in which the disposal company is located, and the degree of competition in the area.

Veil, J.A.

1997-10-01

203

Household hazardous waste: composition of paint waste.  

PubMed

'Paint waste', a part of the 'household hazardous waste', amounting to approximately 5 tonnes was collected from recycling stations in two Danish cities. Sorting and analyses of the waste showed paint waste comprised approximately 65% of the mass, paint-like waste (cleaners, fillers, etc.) comprised 15-25% and foreign items comprised 10-20%.Water-based paint was the dominant part of the paint waste. The chemical composition of the paint waste and the paint-like waste was characterized by an analysis of 27 substances in seven waste fractions. The content of critical substances was low and the paint waste was less contaminated with heavy metals than was the ordinary household waste. This may suggest that households no longer need to source-segregate their paint if the household waste is incinerated, since the presence of a small quantity of solvent-based paint will not be harmful when incinerated. Allowing household paint waste to be collected with ordinary household waste is expected to reduce the cost of handling household hazardous waste, since paint waste in Denmark comprises the major fraction of household hazardous waste. PMID:18229744

Fjelsted, Lotte; Christensen, Thomas H

2007-12-01

204

Control Technology Assessment of Hazardous Waste Disposal Operations in Chemicals Manufacturing: In-Depth Survey Report of San Juan Cement Company, Dorado, Puerto Rico, November 1981,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A visit was made to the San Juan Cement Company (SIC-3241), Dorado, Puerto Rico to evaluate control methods for a storage and delivery system for hazardous wastes used in a demonstration project as a supplemental fuel for cofiring a cement kiln. Analysis ...

M. S. Crandall

1982-01-01

205

Control technology assessment of hazardous-waste-disposal operations in chemicals manufacturing: in-depth survey report of San Juan Cement Company, Dorado, Puerto Rico, November 1981  

Microsoft Academic Search

A visit was made to the San Juan Cement Company, Dorado, Puerto Rico to evaluate control methods for a storage and delivery system for hazardous wastes used in a demonstration project as a supplemental fuel for cofiring a cement kiln. Analysis of the material during the visit revealed the presence of methylene chloride, carbon-tetrachloride, chloroform, acetone, hexane, ethanol, and ethyl

Crandall

1982-01-01

206

Decision document for transuranic tank waste disposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Tank Waste Remediation System systems requirements review, an issue was raised regarding the disposal of potentially transuranic tank waste. This report documents the decision analysis process to resolve this issue. A decision was made to blend the Hanford Site transuranic tank waste with high-level waste for disposal in an offsite repository. In the interim, the transuranic tank waste

T. W. Crawford; C. M. McConville; Westinghouse Hanford

1996-01-01

207

Domestic Waste Disposal Practice of Sylhet City  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses the analysis of current practices of household waste disposal, problems faced by the residents during waste disposal and their views for improvement of the waste management system. However, it has been found that traditional concepts and technologies usually adopted in waste collection is becoming insufficient and ineffective causing more than half of the generated wastes (44%) remain

2006-01-01

208

OSHA training requirements for hazardous waste operations  

SciTech Connect

This guidance addresses training requirements for personnel working, auditing, touring, and visiting DOE hazardous waste areas, including treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) facilities regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and environmental restoration sites regulated under RCRA corrective action authority and/or the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). Applicable DOE Orders and the OSHA regulations should be consulted to ensure full compliance with all requirements.

Not Available

1991-12-01

209

Decision document for transuranic tank waste disposal  

SciTech Connect

During the Tank Waste Remediation System systems requirements review, an issue was raised regarding the disposal of potentially transuranic tank waste. This report documents the decision analysis process to resolve this issue. A decision was made to blend the Hanford Site transuranic tank waste with high-level waste for disposal in an offsite repository. In the interim, the transuranic tank waste will remain stored consistent with the existing safety authorization basis and waste compatibility requirements. The transuranic tank waste will not be sent to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for disposal. The decision is justified based on several decision criteria including cost,volume of waste produced, operability, safety, and technical maturity. There is no cost incentive to segregate transuranic tank waste for disposal at Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The additional operating and capital costs required to immobilize segregated transuranic tank waste outweigh the savings gained in disposal cost.

Crawford, T.W.; McConville, C.M., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-07-24

210

Optimal Cleanup of Hazardous Wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade, the world community has focused on the deleterious effects of hazardous waste on humans, wildlife, and the environment. The U.S. Congress established a 'Superfund' aimed at cleaning up these wastes. This legislation and the impending regulations have given little explicit recognition to either the opportunity cost of using resources to clean up waste or the possibility

Michael R Caputo; James E Wilen

1995-01-01

211

Hazard ranking systems for chemical wastes and chemical waste sites. Hazardous waste ranking systems  

SciTech Connect

Hazardous materials and substances have always existed in the environment. Mankind has evolved to live with some degree of exposure to toxic materials. Until recently the risk has been from natural toxins or natural background radiation. While rapid technological advances over the past few decades have improved the lifestyle of our society, they have also dramatically increased the availability, volume and types of synthetic and natural hazardous materials. Many of their effects are as yet uncertain. Products and manufacturing by-products that no longer serve a useful purpose are deemed wastes. For some waste products land disposal will always be their ultimate fate. Hazardous substances are often included in the waste products. One needs to classify wastes by degree of hazard (risk). Risk (degree of probability of loss) is usually defined for risk assessment as probability of an occurrence times the consequences of the occurrence. Perhaps even more important than the definition of risk is the choice of a risk management strategy. The choice of strategy will be strongly influenced by the decision criteria used. Those decision criteria could be utility (the greatest happiness of the greatest number), rights or technology based or some combination of the three. It is necessary to make such choices about the definition of risks and criteria for management. It is clear that these are social (i.e., political) and value choices and science has little to say on this matter. This is another example of what Alvin Weinberg has named Transcience where the subject matter is scientific and technical but the choices are social, political and moral. This paper shall deal only with the scientific and technical aspects of the hazardous waste problem to create a hazardous substances classification system.

Waters, R.D.; Parker, F.L. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States); Crutcher, M.R. [Mathes (John) and Associates, Inc., Columbia, IL (United States)

1991-12-31

212

Hazardous chemical and radioactive wastes at Hanford  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site was established in 1944 to produce plutonium for defense. During the past four decades, a number of reactors, processing facilities, and waste management facilities have been built at Hanford for plutonium production. Generally, Hanford`s 100 Area was dedicated to reactor operation; the 200 Area to fuel reprocessing, plutonium recovery, and waste management; and the 300 Area to fuel fabrication and research and development. Wastes generated from these operations included highly radioactive liquid wastes, which were discharged to single- and double-shell tanks; solid wastes, including both transuranic (TRU) and low-level wastes, which were buried or discharged to caissons; and waste water containing low- to intermediate-level radioactivity, which was discharged to the soil column via near-surface liquid disposal units such as cribs, ponds, and retention basins. Virtually all of the wastes contained hazardous chemical as well as radioactive constituents. This paper will focus on the hazardous chemical components of the radioactive mixed waste generated by plutonium production at Hanford. The processes, chemicals used, methods of disposition, fate in the environment, and actions being taken to clean up this legacy are described by location.

Keller, J.F.; Stewart, T.L.

1991-07-01

213

Hazardous chemical and radioactive wastes at Hanford  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site was established in 1944 to produce plutonium for defense. During the past four decades, a number of reactors, processing facilities, and waste management facilities have been built at Hanford for plutonium production. Generally, Hanford's 100 Area was dedicated to reactor operation; the 200 Area to fuel reprocessing, plutonium recovery, and waste management; and the 300 Area to fuel fabrication and research and development. Wastes generated from these operations included highly radioactive liquid wastes, which were discharged to single- and double-shell tanks; solid wastes, including both transuranic (TRU) and low-level wastes, which were buried or discharged to caissons; and waste water containing low- to intermediate-level radioactivity, which was discharged to the soil column via near-surface liquid disposal units such as cribs, ponds, and retention basins. Virtually all of the wastes contained hazardous chemical as well as radioactive constituents. This paper will focus on the hazardous chemical components of the radioactive mixed waste generated by plutonium production at Hanford. The processes, chemicals used, methods of disposition, fate in the environment, and actions being taken to clean up this legacy are described by location.

Keller, J.F.; Stewart, T.L.

1991-07-01

214

Global dumping ground: The international traffic in hazardous waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book is based on the PBS's television documentary. It vividly describes the forces that encourage the USA and other industrialized nations to condone the disposal of industrial and domestic hazardous wastes in other countries. Often conducted illegally, this disposal affects the unsuspecting people of less developed nations, many of whom have less stringent environmental laws and regulations. The book

Moyers

1993-01-01

215

Hazardous waste lawsuits, stockholder returns, and deterrence  

SciTech Connect

For the RCRA and Superfund Acts, the publicly announced desired effects are the protection of the public and natural resources from, and ultimate cleanup of, hazardous waste materials. If the regulations are working, firms are being deterred from illegal disposal of wastes. If not, the regulations are providing only illusions of improved safety, while the public actually faces a never ending process of site discovery and cleanup. While not addressed in previous empirical literature, the deterrent effects of the RCRA and Superfund Acts are the focus of this paper. The deterrent effects of the RCRA and Superfund Acts stem from the potential for suits against responsible parties seeking an end to violations, site cleanup, and reimbursement for expenditures and damages. This paper measures the impact of hazardous waste mismanagement lawsuits on stockholder returns. Specifically, the standard event-study method is used to directly measure the abnormal losses suffered by stockholders associated with lawsuit filings and settlements between 1977 and 1986.

Muoghalu, M.I. (Pittsburgh State Univ., KS (USA)); Robison, H.D. (LaSalle Univ., Philadelphia, PA (USA)); Glascock, J.L. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge (USA))

1990-10-01

216

Disposal of NORM waste in salt caverns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existi...

J. A. Veil K. P. Smith D. Tomasko D. Elcock D. Blunt

1998-01-01

217

Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility Complex Waste Acceptance Criteria  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Disposal Facility (ICDF) has been designed to accept CERCLA waste generated within the Idaho National Laboratory. Hazardous, mixed, low-level, and Toxic Substance Control Act waste will be accepted for disposal at the ICDF. The purpose of this document is to provide criteria for the quantities of radioactive and/or hazardous constituents allowable in waste streams designated for disposal at ICDF. This ICDF Complex Waste Acceptance Criteria is divided into four section: (1) ICDF Complex; (2) Landfill; (3) Evaporation Pond: and (4) Staging, Storage, Sizing, and Treatment Facility (SSSTF). The ICDF Complex section contains the compliance details, which are the same for all areas of the ICDF. Corresponding sections contain details specific to the landfill, evaporation pond, and the SSSTF. This document specifies chemical and radiological constituent acceptance criteria for waste that will be disposed of at ICDF. Compliance with the requirements of this document ensures protection of human health and the environment, including the Snake River Plain Aquifer. Waste placed in the ICDF landfill and evaporation pond must not cause groundwater in the Snake River Plain Aquifer to exceed maximum contaminant levels, a hazard index of 1, or 10-4 cumulative risk levels. The defined waste acceptance criteria concentrations are compared to the design inventory concentrations. The purpose of this comparison is to show that there is an acceptable uncertainty margin based on the actual constituent concentrations anticipated for disposal at the ICDF. Implementation of this Waste Acceptance Criteria document will ensure compliance with the Final Report of Decision for the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Operable Unit 3-13. For waste to be received, it must meet the waste acceptance criteria for the specific disposal/treatment unit (on-Site or off-Site) for which it is destined.

W. Mahlon Heileson

2006-10-01

218

Salt caverns show promise for nonhazardous oil field waste disposal  

SciTech Connect

Salt caverns show promise for the disposal of non-hazardous oil field wastes, and there are no apparent regulatory barriers to this application. Solution-mined salt caverns have been used for many years for storing hydrocarbon products. Argonne National laboratory has reviewed the legality, technical suitability, and feasibility of disposing of nonhazardous oil and gas exploration and production wastes in salt caverns. An analysis of regulations indicates that there are no outright regulatory prohibitions on cavern disposal of oil field wastes at either the federal level or in the 11 oil-producing states that were studied (Kansas, Louisiana, Michigan, Mississippi, New Mexico, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, and Texas). The paper discusses the two types of salt deposits in the US, regulatory concerns, wastes, cavern design, disposal operations, closure and remediation, and results of the feasibility study.

Veil, J.A. [Argonne National Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

1996-11-18

219

Control technology assessment of hazardous-waste-disposal operations in chemicals manufacturing: in-depth survey report of San Juan Cement Company, Dorado, Puerto Rico, November 1981  

SciTech Connect

A visit was made to the San Juan Cement Company, Dorado, Puerto Rico to evaluate control methods for a storage and delivery system for hazardous wastes used in a demonstration project as a supplemental fuel for cofiring a cement kiln. Analysis of the material during the visit revealed the presence of methylene chloride, carbon-tetrachloride, chloroform, acetone, hexane, ethanol, and ethyl acetate. Steel storage tanks were placed on an impermeable concrete slab surrounded by a sealed retaining wall. Steel piping with all welded joints carried the waste fuels from storage tanks to the kiln, where fuels were injected through a specially fabricated burner. Vapor emissions were suppressed by venting the displaced vapor through a recycle line. Exhaust gases from the kiln passed through a bag house type dust collector, and were vented to the atmosphere through a single stack. Half-mask air-purifying respirators were used when in the hazardous-waste storage/delivery area. Neoprene gloves were used when performing tasks with potential skin contact. Hard hats, safety glasses, and safety boots were all worn. The author concludes that the control methods used seemed effective in suppressing vapor emissions.

Crandall, M.S.

1982-07-01

220

Household hazardous waste management planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1985, Hennepin County entered into an agreement with Hennepin Energy Resource Co., Ltd. for the construction and operation of a 1000-ton-a-day waste-to-energy facility. In an effort to ensure that the new incinerator operates as safety as possible, Hennepin County is currently examining various methods of removing unacceptable materials from the waste stream; household hazardous wastes (HHW) are one stream

Seeberger

1991-01-01

221

Electrochemical treatment of mixed (hazardous and radioactive) wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrochemical treatment technologies for mixed hazardous waste are currently under development at Los Alamos National Laboratory. For a mixed waste containing toxic components such as heavy metals and cyanides in addition to a radioactive component, the toxic components can be removed or destroyed by electrochemical technologies allowing for recovery of the radioactive component prior to disposal of the solution. Mixed

J. Dziewinski; C. Zawodzinski; W. H. Smith

1995-01-01

222

Overview of Radioactive Waste Disposal at Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

For hundreds of years, the seas have been used as a place to dispose of wastes from human activities. Although no high level radioactive waste has been disposed of into the sea, variable amounts of packaged low level radioactive wastes have been dumped at 47 sites in the northern part of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. in 1946 the first

Dominique Calmet

1992-01-01

223

Geology of high-level nuclear waste disposal: an introduction. [Glossary included  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hazardous waste is produced by the nuclear fuel cycle from mining and milling of uranium ore, refinement and enrichment, reactor use, and during reprocessing of spent fuel. Waste can be classified according to origin, physical state, and levels of radioactivity and radiotoxicity. The method of the long-term waste disposal is based on the degree of the hazard and the length

Roxbugh

1987-01-01

224

Proceedings of the international topical meeting on nuclear and hazardous waste management  

SciTech Connect

This book contains the proceedings of the 1988 International Topical Meeting on Nuclear and Hazardous Waste Management. Included are the following articles: Defense radioactive waste management: status and challenges, Secrets of successful siting legislation for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities, A generic hazardous waste management training program, Status of industry standards for decommissioning of nuclear facilities.

Not Available

1988-01-01

225

Potentially hazardous waste produced at home  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to identify the sources of waste generation household consisting of biological material and to investigate the knowledge presented by those responsible for the generation of waste in the home environment on the potential health risk human and environmental. Method It is a quantitative survey performed in Parque Capuava, Santo André (SP). The questionnaire was administered by the community employers and nursing students during the consultation with nursing supervision through interview question/answer. The exclusion criteria were patients who were not in the area served by the Basic Health Unit which covers the area of Pq Capuava. The sample was consisted of 99 persons and the data collection a questionnaire was used. Results We observed that 63.3% of people said to use disposables, with the majority (58.7%) of these use the public collection as the final destination of these materials. It was reported that 73.7% of those surveyed reported having knowledge about the risk of disease transmission. Public awareness of the importance of proper packaging and disposal of potentially hazardous household waste may contribute significantly to the preservation of human and environmental health and this procedure can be performed and supervised by professional nurses. Conclusion We suggest implementation of workshops for community health workers and the general population in order to enhance their knowledge about the storage and disposal of potentially infectious waste generated at home, thereby reducing the potential risk of disease transmission by improper management.

2013-01-01

226

Method and apparatus for incinerating hazardous waste  

DOEpatents

An incineration apparatus and method for disposal of infectious hazardous waste including a fluidized bed reactor containing a bed of granular material. The reactor includes a first chamber, a second chamber, and a vertical partition separating the first and second chambers. A pressurized stream of air is supplied to the reactor at a sufficient velocity to fluidize the granular material in both the first and second chambers. Waste materials to be incinerated are fed into the first chamber of the fluidized bed, the fine waste materials being initially incinerated in the first chamber and subsequently circulated over the partition to the second chamber wherein further incineration occurs. Coarse waste materials are removed from the first chamber, comminuted, and recirculated to the second chamber for further incineration. Any partially incinerated waste materials and ash from the bottom of the second chamber are removed and recirculated to the second chamber for further incineration. This process is repeated until all infectious hazardous waste has been completely incinerated.

Korenberg, Jacob (York, PA)

1990-01-01

227

Radioactive waste disposal in simulated peat bog repositories  

SciTech Connect

The Low Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 have required state governments to be responsible for providing low-level waste (LLW) disposal facilities in their respective areas. Questions are (a) is the technology sufficiently advanced to ensure that radioactive wastes can be stored for 300 to 1000 yr without entering into any uncontrolled area. (b) since actual experience does not exist for nuclear waste disposal over this time period, can the mathematical models developed be tested and verified using unequivocal data. (c) how can the public perception of the problem be addressed and the potential risk assessment of the hazards be communicated. To address the technical problems of nuclear waste disposal in the acid precipitation regions of the Northern Hemisphere, a project was initiated in 1984 to evaluate an alternative method of nuclear waste disposal that may not rely completely on engineered barriers to protect the public. Certain natural biogeochemical systems have been retaining deposited materials since the last Ice Age (12,000 to 15,000 yr). It is the authors belief that the biogeochemical system of wetlands and peat bogs may provide an example of an analogue for a nuclear waste repository system that can be tested and verified over a sufficient time period, at least for the LLW disposal problem.

Schell, W.R.; Massey, C.D.

1987-01-01

228

48 CFR 252.223-7006 - Prohibition on storage and disposal of toxic and hazardous materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Prohibition on storage and disposal of toxic and hazardous materials. 252.223-7006... Prohibition on storage and disposal of toxic and hazardous materials. As prescribed... Prohibition on Storage and Disposal of Toxic and Hazardous Materials (APR 2012)...

2012-10-01

229

Investigating Waste Oil Disposal by Direct Incineration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A second combustion-emissions test program was conducted at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, to address the feasibility for disposal of waste oil products by direct incineration. A 'referee' waste oil, composed primarily of automotive crankcase drains, ...

M. E. LePara G. DeBono

1975-01-01

230

Decision document for transuranic tank waste disposal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the Tank Waste Remediation System systems requirements review, an issue was raised regarding the disposal of potentially transuranic tank waste. This report documents the decision analysis process to resolve this issue. A decision was made to blend...

T. W. Crawford C. M. McConville

1996-01-01

231

HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT RESEARCH - U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (UPDATE)  

EPA Science Inventory

Treatment and thermal destruction are becoming the most viable methods for disposing of hazardous wastes. Wastes can be destroyed through a variety of treatment methods and in incinerators, boilers, kilns, and other high temperature industrial processes. The destruction of these ...

232

Low level radioactive waste disposal\\/treatment technology overview: Savannah River site  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Savannah River Site will begin operation of several low-level waste disposal\\/treatment facilities during the next five years, including a new low-level solid waste disposal facility, a low-level liquid effluent treatment facility, and a low-level liquid waste solidification process. Closure of a radioactive hazardous waste burial ground will also be completed. Technical efforts directed toward waste volume reduction include compaction,

Sturm; H. F. Jr

1987-01-01

233

Hazard ranking systems for chemical wastes and chemical waste sites  

SciTech Connect

Hazardous materials and substances have always existed in the environment. Mankind has evolved to live with some degree of exposure to toxic materials. Until recently the risk has been from natural toxins or natural background radiation. While rapid technological advances over the past few decades have improved the lifestyle of our society, they have also dramatically increased the availability, volume and types of synthetic and natural hazardous materials. Many of their effects are as yet uncertain. Products and manufacturing by-products that no longer serve a useful purpose are deemed wastes. For some waste products land disposal will always be their ultimate fate. Hazardous substances are often included in the waste products. One needs to classify wastes by degree of hazard (risk). Risk (degree of probability of loss) is usually defined for risk assessment as probability of an occurrence times the consequences of the occurrence. Perhaps even more important than the definition of risk is the choice of a risk management strategy. The choice of strategy will be strongly influenced by the decision criteria used. Those decision criteria could be utility (the greatest happiness of the greatest number), rights or technology based or some combination of the three. It is necessary to make such choices about the definition of risks and criteria for management. It is clear that these are social (i.e., political) and value choices and science has little to say on this matter. This is another example of what Alvin Weinberg has named Transcience where the subject matter is scientific and technical but the choices are social, political and moral. This paper shall deal only with the scientific and technical aspects of the hazardous waste problem to create a hazardous substances classification system.

Waters, R.D.; Parker, F.L. (Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)); Crutcher, M.R. (Mathes (John) and Associates, Inc., Columbia, IL (United States))

1991-01-01

234

Hazards assessment of the hazardous waste storage facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report documents a failure\\/hazards analysis of the Hazardous Waste Storage Facility and its operation. The analysis was performed to identify possible facility vulnerabilities that could lead to the release of hazardous waste material at the facility and estimate their probability of occurrence during each year of operation. The analysis addresses release scenarios that could occur within the facility and

A. D. Trusty; L. N. Haney; D. G. Satterwhite

1989-01-01

235

Waste disposal options report. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

Volume 2 contains the following topical sections: estimates of feed and waste volumes, compositions, and properties; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Zr calcine; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Al calcine; determination of k{sub eff} for high level waste canisters in various configurations; review of ceramic silicone foam for radioactive waste disposal; epoxides for low-level radioactive waste disposal; evaluation of several neutralization cases in processing calcine and sodium-bearing waste; background information for EFEs, dose rates, watts/canister, and PE-curies; waste disposal options assumptions; update of radiation field definition and thermal generation rates for calcine process packages of various geometries-HKP-26-97; and standard criteria of candidate repositories and environmental regulations for the treatment and disposal of ICPP radioactive mixed wastes.

Russell, N.E.; McDonald, T.G.; Banaee, J.; Barnes, C.M.; Fish, L.W.; Losinski, S.J.; Peterson, H.K.; Sterbentz, J.W.; Wenzel, D.R.

1998-02-01

236

NAVAJO NATION HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

This point coverage represents the locations of hazardous waste sites on the Navajo Nation Indian Reservation. The point locations were delineated on 1:24,000 scale US Geological Survey (USGS) topographic maps by staff from the Navajo Nation EPA, Resource Conservation & Reco...

237

Final Hazard Categorization for the Remediation of the 116-C-3 Chemical Waste Tanks  

SciTech Connect

This final hazard categorization (FHC) document examines the hazards, identifies appropriate controls to manage the hazards, and documents the commitments for the 116-C-3 Chemical Waste Tanks Remediation Project. The remediation activities analyzed in this FHC are based on recommended treatment and disposal alternatives described in the Engineering Evaluation for the Remediation to the 116-C-3 Chemical Waste Tanks (BHI 2005e).

T. M. Blakley; W. D. Schofield

2007-09-10

238

Nuclear waste disposal educational forum  

SciTech Connect

In keeping with a mandate from the US Congress to provide opportunities for consumer education and information and to seek consumer input on national issues, the Department of Energy's Office of Consumer Affairs held a three-hour educational forum on the proposed nuclear waste disposal legislation. Nearly one hundred representatives of consumer, public interest, civic and environmental organizations were invited to attend. Consumer affairs professionals of utility companies across the country were also invited to attend the forum. The following six papers were presented: historical perspectives; status of legislation (Senate); status of legislation (House of Representatives); impact on the legislation on electric utilities; impact of the legislation on consumers; implementing the legislation. All six papers have been abstracted and indexed for the Energy Data Base.

Not Available

1982-10-18

239

STABILIZATION/SOLIDIFICATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

In response to the growing interest in stabilization and solidification of hazardous wastes and contaminated soils and sediments, the Land Pollution Control Division of EPA's Hazardous Waste Engineering Research Laboratory has produced a technical handbook on the subject. The han...

240

HAZARDOUS WASTE DEGRADATION BY WOOD DEGRADING FUNGI  

EPA Science Inventory

The persistence and toxicity of many hazardous waste constituents indicates that the environment has limited capacity to degrade such materials. he competence and presence of degrading organisms significantly effects our ability to treat and detoxify these hazardous waste chemica...

241

Disposal of Chemotherapeutic Agent -- Contaminated Waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

AFESC/RDVS has completed a project to determine the feasibility of incinerating chemotherapeutic agent-contaminated waste in a Phase I SBIR study project. Air Force base hospitals generate hazardous medical wastes in the form of infectious and chemotherap...

A. C. Thekdi K. H. Hemsath

1989-01-01

242

Aerosol can waste disposal device  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a device for removing gases and liquid from containers. The ice punctures the bottom of a container for purposes of exhausting gases and liquid from the container without their escaping into the atmosphere. The device includes an inner cup or cylinder having a top portion with an open end for receiving a container and a bottom portion which may be fastened to a disposal or waste container in a substantially leak-proof manner. A piercing device is mounted in the lower portion of the inner cylinder for puncturing the can bottom placed in the inner cylinder. An outer cylinder having an open end and a closed end fits over the top portion of the inner cylinder in telescoping engagement. A force exerted on the closed end of the outer cylinder urges the bottom of a can in the inner cylinder into engagement with the piercing device in the bottom of the inner cylinder to form an opening in the can bottom, thereby permitting the contents of the can to enter the disposal container.

O' Brien, Michael D. (Las Vegas, NV); Klapperick, Robert L. (Las Vegas, NV); Bell, Chris (Las Vegas, NV)

1993-01-01

243

10 CFR 20.2005 - Disposal of specific wastes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Disposal of specific wastes. 20.2005 Section 20.2005 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS...PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Waste Disposal § 20.2005 Disposal of specific wastes. (a) A licensee may...

2013-01-01

244

Household hazardous waste data for the UK by direct sampling.  

PubMed

The amount of household hazardous waste (HHW) disposed of in the United Kingdom (UK) requires assessment. This paper describes a direct analysis study carried out in three areas in southeast England involving over 500 households. Each participating householder was provided with a special bin in which to place items corresponding to a list of HHW. The amount of waste collected was split into nine broad categories: batteries, home maintenance (DIY), vehicle upkeep, pesticides, pet care, pharmaceuticals, photographic chemicals, household cleaners, and printer cartridges. Over 1 T of waste was collected from the sample households over a 32-week period, which would correspond to an estimated 51,000 T if extrapolated to the UK population for the same period or over 7,000 T per month. Details of likely disposal routes adopted by householders were also sought, demonstrating the different pathways selected for different waste categories. Co-disposal with residual household waste dominated for waste batteries and veterinary medicines, hence avoiding classification as hazardous waste under new UK waste regulations. The information can be used to set a baseline for the management of HHW and provides information for an environmental risk assessment of the disposal of such wastes to landfill. PMID:17438817

Slack, Rebecca J; Bonin, Michael; Gronow, Jan R; Van Santen, Anton; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

2007-04-01

245

[Hazardous medical waste management as a public health issue].  

PubMed

The amount of waste produced is connected with the degree of a country's economic development; more developed countries produce more waste. This paper reviews the quantities, manipulation and treatment methods of medical waste in Croatia, as well as hazardous potentials of medical waste for human health. Medical waste must be collected and sorted in containers suitable for its characteristics, amount, means of transportation and treatment method in order to prevent contact with environment and to protect people who are working with waste. Hazardous medical waste in Croatia is largely produced by hospitals. Even though only one hospital has a licence to incinerate infectious medical waste, many other hospitals incinerate their hazardous waste in inappropriate facilities. Healthcare institutions also store great amounts of old medical waste, mostly pharmaceutical, anti-infectious, and cytostatic drugs and chemical waste. Data on waste treatment effects on human health are scarce, while environmental problems are covered better. Croatian medical waste legislation is not being implemented. It is very important to establish a medical waste management system that would implement the existing legislation in all waste management cycles from waste production to treatment and final disposal. PMID:15969205

Marinkovi?, Natalija; Vitale, Ksenija; Afri?, Ivo; Janev Holcer, Natasa

2005-03-01

246

Hazardous Waste and You. A Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This teaching guide provides an interactive introduction to hazardous waste, with particular emphasis on personal responsibility and action. Nine lessons engage advanced grade 10 and grade 11-12 science students in group discussions and actions that help them develop awareness of hazardous waste, understanding of the hazardous waste situation in…

Ontario Waste Management Corp., Toronto.

247

[Disposal of waste containing asbestos in Croatia].  

PubMed

In order to ensure systematic disposal of asbestos waste in the whole of Croatia, its government has mandated the Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency Fund to implement emergency measures to collect and dispose of asbestos-containing construction waste. This requires a construction of 45 special disposal containers in the existing municipal waste landfills and contracting collection of asbestos-containing construction waste. By now, the Fund has disposed of 8000 m3 of asbestos cement waste, recovered five dumps with asbestos-containing construction waste, reclaimed a location contaminated by asbestos in Vranjic, and has continued to recover the land at the premises of factory Salonit in bankruptcy, which had been producing corrugated asbestos sheets before the ban. In collaboration with several non-governmental organisations, the Fund has started an educational campaign to protect the environment. PMID:20853773

Mladineo, Vinko

2009-11-01

248

Integrating Total Quality Management (TQM) and hazardous waste management  

SciTech Connect

The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 and its subsequent amendments have had a dramatic impact on hazardous waste management for business and industry. The complexity of this law and the penalties for noncompliance have made it one of the most challenging regulatory programs undertaken by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The fundamentals of RCRA include ``cradle to grave`` management of hazardous waste, covering generators, transporters, and treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. The regulations also address extensive definitions and listing/identification mechanisms for hazardous waste along with a tracking system. Treatment is favored over disposal and emphasis is on ``front-end`` treatment such as waste minimization and pollution prevention. A study of large corporations such as Xerox, 3M, and Dow Chemical, as well as the public sector, has shown that well known and successful hazardous waste management programs emphasize pollution prevention and employment of techniques such as proactive environmental management, environmentally conscious manufacturing, and source reduction. Nearly all successful hazardous waste programs include some aspects of Total Quality Management, which begins with a strong commitment from top management. Hazardous waste management at the Rocky Flats Plant is further complicated by the dominance of ``mixed waste`` at the facility. The mixed waste stems from the original mission of the facility, which was production of nuclear weapons components for the Department of Energy (DOE). A Quality Assurance Program based on the criterion in DOE Order 5700.6C has been implemented at Rocky Flats. All of the elements of the Quality Assurance Program play a role in hazardous waste management. Perhaps one of the biggest waste management problems facing the Rocky Flats Plant is cleaning up contamination from a forty year mission which focused on production of nuclear weapon components.

Kirk, N. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

1993-11-01

249

Waste disposal and landfill: Control and protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control of the type and amount of waste placed in landfills is a basic measure to protect groundwater. In many countries legislation regulates the type of wastes deposited at municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills: waste that is considered hazardous due to its ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, toxicity and carcinogenicity (Sharma and Lewis, 1994) is not accepted at MSW landfills, but is

A. Allen; R. Taylor

250

Status of volcanic hazard studies for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volcanism studies of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) region are concerned with hazards of future volcanism with respect to underground disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The hazards of silicic volcanism are judged to be negligible; hazards of basaltic volcanism are judged through research approaches combining hazard appraisal and risk assessment. The NTS region is cut obliquely by a N-NE trending

B. M. Crowe; D. T. Vaniman; W. J. Carr

1983-01-01

251

HOUSEHOLD HAZARDOUS WASTE CHARACTERIZATION STUDY FOR PALM BEACH COUNTY, FLORIDA - A MITE PROGRAM EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The objectives of the Household Hazardous Waste Characterization Study (the HHW Study) were to: 1) Quantity the annual household hazardous waste (HHW) tonnages disposed in Palm Beach County Florida?s (the County) residential solid waste (characterized in this study as municipal s...

252

Engineering evaluation of projected solid-waste-disposal practices. Volume 2: Case studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimates of the cost impacts of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) for hazardous and non-hazardous large volume waste classification scenarios on eight power plants was presented. Seven of the power plants were chosen to represent the range of waste management technologies and disposal site conditions existing in the United States today. The eighth site was a fictitious site

J. C. Hayward; E. H. Rothfuss Jr.; W. J. Flick; T. S. Hawk; J. A. Quay

1982-01-01

253

Engineering evaluation of projected solid-waste-disposal practices. Volume 2. Case studies. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to present estimates of the cost impacts of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) for hazardous and non-hazardous large volume waste classification scenarios on eight power plants. Seven of the power plants were chosen to represent the range of waste management technologies and disposal site conditions existing in the United States today. The

J. C. Hayward; E. H. Jr. Rothfuss; W. J. Flick; T. S. Hawk; J. A. Quay

1982-01-01

254

Salt caverns for oil field waste disposal.  

SciTech Connect

Salt caverns used for oil field waste disposal are created in salt formations by solution mining. When created, caverns are filled with brine. Wastes are introduced into the cavern by pumping them under low pressure. Each barrel of waste injected to the cavern displaces a barrel of brine to the surface. The brine is either used for drilling mud or is disposed of in an injection well. Figure 8 shows an injection pump used at disposal cavern facilities in west Texas. Several types of oil field waste may be pumped into caverns for disposal. These include drilling muds, drill cuttings, produced sands, tank bottoms, contaminated soil, and completion and stimulation wastes. Waste blending facilities are constructed at the site of cavern disposal to mix the waste into a brine solution prior to injection. Overall advantages of salt cavern disposal include a medium price range for disposal cost, large capacity and availability of salt caverns, limited surface land requirement, increased safety, and ease of establishment of individual state regulations.

Veil, J.; Ford, J.; Rawn-Schatzinger, V.; Environmental Assessment; RMC, Consultants, Inc.

2000-07-01

255

Hazardous waste incineration: Emotional fears and technical reality  

SciTech Connect

Although incinerators are not risk-free, they bear up well by comparison to other methods of hazardous waste disposal and other socially-accepted risks. The current level of suspicion and anxiety regarding incinerators can be reduced through the sharing of expert information about the need for, and process of, hazardous waste combustion, and early involvement of community and industry representatives, even before a particular incinerator site is chosen. The federal government`s role should not be one of asking whether a particular place wants a hazardous waste incinerator. Their approach should be one of consensus-building. A brief look at the facts can help the public understand that incineration is the best available treatment for hazardous wastes.

Martin, E.J. [Hazardous Materials Control Resources Inst., Rockville, MD (United States)

1995-04-01

256

MOVEMENT OF SELECTED METALS, ASBESTOS, AND CYANIDE IN SOIL: APPLICATIONS TO WASTE DISPOSAL PROBLEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents information on movement of selected hazardous substances in soil which can be applied to problems of selecting and operating land disposal sites for wastes containing arsenic, asbestos, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, cyanide, iron, lead, mercury, selen...

257

Preliminary Safety Design Report for Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility  

SciTech Connect

A new onsite, remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled low-level waste disposal for remote-handled low-level waste from the Idaho National Laboratory and for nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled low-level waste in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This preliminary safety design report supports the design of a proposed onsite remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization, by discussing site characteristics that impact accident analysis, by providing the facility and process information necessary to support the hazard analysis, by identifying and evaluating potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled low-level waste, and by discussing the need for safety features that will become part of the facility design.

Timothy Solack; Carol Mason

2012-03-01

258

Portable sensor for hazardous waste  

SciTech Connect

We are part-way through the second phase of a 4-year program designed to develop a portable monitor for sensitive hazardous waste detection. The ultimate goal of the program is to develop our concept to the prototype instrument level. Our monitor will be a compact, portable instrument that will allow real-time, in situ, monitoring of hazardous wastes. This instrument will be able to provide the means for rapid field screening of hazardous waste sites to map the areas of greatest contamination. Remediation efforts can then focus on these areas. Our analysis approach is to excite atomic and molecular fluorescence by the technique of active nitrogen energy transfer (ANET). The active nitrogen is made in a dielectric-barrier (D-B) discharge in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure. Only a few emission lines or bands are excited for each hazardous species, so spectral resolution requirements are greatly simplified over those of other spectroscopic techniques. The D-B discharge is compact, 1 to 2 cm in diameter and 1 to 10 cm long. Furthermore, the discharge power requirements are quite modest, so that the unit can be powered by batteries. Thus an instrument based on ANET can readily be made portable. Our results indicate that ANET is a very sensitive technique for monitoring heavy metals and chlorinated hydrocarbons. We have demonstrated an overall detection sensitivity for most species that is at or below ppb levels. ANET alone, however, appears to be most successful in treating hazardous species that have been atomized. We are therefore developing a hybrid technique which combines a miniature, solid-state laser for sample collection and vaporization with ANET for subsequent detection. This approach requires no special sample preparation, can operate continuously, and lends itself well to compact packaging.

Piper, L.G.; Hunter, A.J.R.; Fraser, M.E.; Davis, S.J.

1996-12-31

259

Household Hazardous Waste and Automotive Products: A Pennsylvania Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A significant fraction of household hazardous waste (HHW) is generated by home mechanics who use such products as motor oil, cleaners and solvents, and batteries. This survey assessed the following aspects: (1) perceptions of their health-related effects; (2) perceptions of their pollution potential; and (3) their use and disposal. (LZ)

Shorten, Charles V.; And Others

1995-01-01

260

INCINERATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE: A CRITICAL REVIEW UPDATE  

EPA Science Inventory

Over the last 15 years, concern over improper disposal practices of the past has manifested itself in the passage of a series of federal nd tate-level hazardous waste cleanup and control statutes of unprecedented scope. As a result, there has been a significant modification of wa...

261

HANDBOOK FOR STABILIZATION/SOLIDIFICATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The handbook provides designers and reviewers of remedial action plans with the information and general guidance necessary to judge the feasibility of stabilization/solidification technology for the control of pollutant migration from hazardous waste disposed of on land. Topics a...

262

ANNOTATED LITERATURE REFERENCES ON LAND TREATMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

The major environmental problem in the decade of the 1980's will be the safe disposal of hazardous and municipal wastes and residues. Land treatment can be used to achieve specific effects through utilization of various management schemes. Through proper management of the land pr...

263

AIR EMISSIONS FROM THE INCINERATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

In the United States over the last ten years, concern over important disposal practices of the past has manifested itself in the passage of a series of federal and state-level hazardous waste clean-up and control statutes of unprecedented scope. he impact of these various statute...

264

The Threat Of Hazardous Waste Sites In The Coastal Zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historical use of coastal lands in the United States has resulted in hundreds of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites in areas adjacent to important environments. The transport of chemical contaminants in air and water from storage and disposal sites to freshwater, estuarine, and marine habitats has created a substantial threat to both humans and the natural resources dependent on these habitats.

Robert Pavia; Nancy Beckvar

1989-01-01

265

Household Hazardous Waste and Automotive Products: A Pennsylvania Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A significant fraction of household hazardous waste (HHW) is generated by home mechanics who use such products as motor oil, cleaners and solvents, and batteries. This survey assessed the following aspects: (1) perceptions of their health-related effects; (2) perceptions of their pollution potential; and (3) their use and disposal. (LZ)|

Shorten, Charles V.; And Others

1995-01-01

266

Hazardous Waste Management Facilities in the United States - 1977.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The enterprises listed in this document are in the business of accepting, recycling, processing and/or disposing of various hazardous wastes. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency does not endorse any of these firms and cannot vouch for the environment...

M. A. Straus

1977-01-01

267

SECURING CONTAINERIZED HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH WELDED POLYETHYLENE ENCAPSULATES  

EPA Science Inventory

Full-scale encapsulation of 208-liter (55-gal) drums was studied as a means for managing corroding containers of hazardous wastes in the field and rendering them suitable for transport and safe deposit within a final disposal site such as a landfill. Polyethylene (PE) receivers w...

268

Assessment of Hazardous Wastes for Genotoxicity,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The authors have evaluated a group of short-term bioassays to identify those that may be suitable for screening large numbers of diverse hazardous industrial wastes for genotoxicity. Fifteen wastes (and dichloromethane extracts of these wastes) from a var...

D. M. DeMarini V. S. Houk

1987-01-01

269

Hazardous waste cleanup: the preliminaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the lengthiness and cost of the preliminary steps in a hazardous waste cleanup. The article describes the S-Area lawsuit, an area near Niagara Falls, New York which was an inactive chemical dump. Contaminated sludge was found at a nearby water treatment plant and was traced back to S-Area. In the past five years, S-Area negotiations have cost

Amos

1985-01-01

270

Portable sensor for hazardous waste  

SciTech Connect

We are beginning the second phase of a three and a half year program designed to develop a portable monitor for sensitive hazardous waste detection. The ultimate goal of the program is to develop our concept to the prototype instrument level. Our monitor will be a compact, portable instrument that will allow real-time, in situ, monitoring of hazardous wastes. Further, our instrument can show whether cleanup technologies are successful at reducing hazardous materials concentrations below regulated levels, and will provide feedback to allow changes in remediation operations, if necessary, to enhance their efficacy. Our approach is to excite atomic and molecular fluorescence by the technique of active nitrogen energy transfer (ANET). The active nitrogen is made in a dielectric-barrier (D-B) discharge in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure. Only a few emission lines or bands are excited for each hazardous species, so spectral resolution requirements are greatly simplified over those of other spectroscopic techniques. The dielectric-barrier discharge is compact, 1 to 2 cm in diameter and 1 to 10 cm long. During the first phase of the program we demonstrated that a variety of hazardous species could be detected by the technique of active nitrogen energy transfer (ANET) excitation of atomic and molecular fluorescence. Species investigated included heavy metals, Hg, Cr, and Se, both chlorinated and non-chlorinated organics, and uranyl compounds. For most of these species we demonstrated sensitivity limits for their detection at parts per billion (ppb) levels. Our principal goals for this second phase of the program are to develop and breadboard test instrument components and to design a prototype instrument suitable for construction and evaluation in the final phase of the program. A secondary goal is to extend the ANET technology to encompass a greater number of hazardous species, primarily additional heavy metals and radionuclides.

Piper, L.G.; Fraser, M.E.; Davis, S.J.

1995-12-01

271

Toxicological assessment of hazardous wastes  

SciTech Connect

Section 121 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (SUPERFUND) calls for hazardous waste site remediations which permanently and significantly reduce the volume, toxicity, or mobility of hazardous substances, pollutants, and contaminants. Traditional engineering technology has concentrated on reduction in volume and mobility as assessed by chemical and geophysical measures. It was assumed that accomplishment of volume and mobility reduction would lead to reductions in toxicity. Environmental scientists long have argued that this assumption might not be the case. However, lack of consensus on how complex hazardous waste mixtures should be measured toxicologically hampered integrated assessments. Therefore, a battery of aquatic and terrestrial bioassays was assembled and evaluated comparatively against several chemicals and waste site chemical mixtures. The bioassays were then applied to a mobility reduction demonstration to assess its overall chemical, physical, and biological performance. Results indicated that, while the primary objective of mobility reduction seemed to be achieved, undesirable secondary effects (toxicity) were introduced. These trade-offs must be considered in the holistic sense when remediation measures are being implemented.

Peterson, S.A.

1992-03-01

272

Effects of Waste Disposal on Kelp Communities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Post-symposium reflections; The physical and chemical environment of a kelp community; The physiological basis of kelp growth; The ecology of kelp communities; An historical overview of kelp in Southern California; Waste disposal in Southern Cal...

W. Bascom L. Harris G. Sibley

1983-01-01

273

Radioactive waste disposal in the marine environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to find the optimal solution to waste disposal problems, it is necessary to make comparisons between disposal media. It has become obvious to many within the scientific community that the single medium approach leads to over protection of one medium at the expense of the others. Cross media comparisons are being conducted in the Department of Energy ocean

D. R. Anderson

1981-01-01

274

Nuclear hazardous waste cost control management  

SciTech Connect

The effects of the waste content of glass waste forms on Savannah River high-level waste disposal costs are currently under study to adjust the glass frit content to optimize the glass waste loadings and therefore significantly reduce the overall waste disposal cost. Changes in waste content affect onsite Defense Waste Changes in waste contents affect onsite Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) costs as well as offsite shipping and repository emplacement charges. A nominal 1% increase over the 28 wt% waste loading of DWPF glass would reduce disposal costs by about $50 million for Savannah River wastes generated to the year 2000. Optimization of the glass waste forms to be produced in the SWPF is being supported by economic evaluations of the impact of the forms on waste disposal costs. Glass compositions are specified for acceptable melt processing and durability characteristics, with economic effects tracked by the number of waste canisters produced. This paper presents an evaluation of the effects of variations in waste content of the glass waste forms on the overall cost of the disposal, including offsite shipment and repository emplacement, of the Savannah River high-level wastes.

Selg, R.A.

1991-05-09

275

Radiological hazards of alpha-contaminated waste  

SciTech Connect

The radiological hazards of alpha-contaminated wastes are discussed in this overview in terms of two components of hazard: radiobiological hazard, and radioecological hazard. Radiobiological hazard refers to human uptake of alpha-emitters by inhalation and ingestion, and the resultant dose to critical organs of the body. Radioecological hazard refers to the processes of release from buried wastes, transport in the environment, and translocation to man through the food chain. Besides detailing the sources and magnitude of hazards, this brief review identifies the uncertainties in their estimation, and implications for the regulatory process.

Rodgers, J.C.

1982-01-01

276

Technology, Prevalence, and Economics of Landfill Disposal of Solid Waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Landfill disposal of solid waste is reviewed in terms of: (1) the use of landfills for disposal; (2) technique commonly employed for such disposal; and (3) the costs associated with landfill disposal by those techniques. The report also presents estimates...

C. Y. C. Chen W. H. Crowell

1980-01-01

277

Packaging radioactive wastes for geologic disposal  

SciTech Connect

The M&O contractor for the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management is developing designs of waste packages that will contain the spent nuclear fuel assemblies from commercial and Navy reactor plants and various civilian and government research reactor plants, as well as high-level wastes vitrified in glass. The safe and cost effective disposal of the large and growing stockpile of nuclear waste is of national concern and has generated political and technical debate. This paper addresses the technical aspects of disposing of these wastes in large and robust waste packages. The paper discusses the evolution of waste package design and describes the current concepts. In addition, the engineering and regulatory issues that have governed the development are summarized and the expected performance in meeting the requirements are discussed.

Benton, H.A.

1996-08-01

278

Analysis of low-level wastes. Review of hazardous waste regulations and identification of radioactive mixed wastes. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulations governing the management and disposal of hazardous wastes have been promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency under authority of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. These were reviewed and compared with the available information on the properties and characteristics of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW). In addition, a survey was carried out to establish a data base on the

B. S. Bowerman; C. R. Kempf; D. R. MacKenzie; B. Siskind; P. L. Piciulo

1985-01-01

279

Apparatus for incinerating hazardous waste  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is described for incinerating wastes, including an incinerator having a combustion chamber, a fluid-tight shell enclosing the combustion chamber, an afterburner, an off-gas particulate removal system and an emergency off-gas cooling system. The region between the inner surface of the shell and the outer surface of the combustion chamber forms a cavity. Air is supplied to the cavity and heated as it passes over the outer surface of the combustion chamber. Heated air is drawn from the cavity and mixed with fuel for input into the combustion chamber. The pressure in the cavity is maintained at least approximately 2.5 cm WC higher than the pressure in the combustion chamber. Gases cannot leak from the combustion chamber since the pressure outside the chamber (inside the cavity) is higher than the pressure inside the chamber. The apparatus can be used to treat any combustible wastes, including biological wastes, toxic materials, low level radioactive wastes, and mixed hazardous and low level transuranic wastes. 1 figure.

Chang, R.C.W.

1994-12-20

280

Apparatus for incinerating hazardous waste  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for incinerating wastes, including an incinerator having a combustion chamber, a fluidtight shell enclosing the combustion chamber, an afterburner, an off-gas particulate removal system and an emergency off-gas cooling system. The region between the inner surface of the shell and the outer surface of the combustion chamber forms a cavity. Air is supplied to the cavity and heated as it passes over the outer surface of the combustion chamber. Heated air is drawn from the cavity and mixed with fuel for input into the combustion chamber. The pressure in the cavity is maintained at least approximately 2.5 cm WC (about 1" WC) higher than the pressure in the combustion chamber. Gases cannot leak from the combustion chamber since the pressure outside the chamber (inside the cavity) is higher than the pressure inside the chamber. The apparatus can be used to treat any combustible wastes, including biological wastes, toxic materials, low level radioactive wastes, and mixed hazardous and low level transuranic wastes.

Chang, Robert C. W. (Martinez, GA)

1994-01-01

281

Method for acid oxidation of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed organic waste materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present invention is directed to a process for reducing the volume of low level radioactive and mixed waste to enable the waste to be more economically stored in a suitable repository, and for placing the waste into a form suitable for permanent disposal. The invention involves a process for preparing radioactive, hazardous, or mixed waste for storage by contacting

Robert A. Pierce; James R. Smith; William G. Ramsey; Connie A. Cicero-Herman; Dennis F. Bickford

1999-01-01

282

Hazardous waste management in South African mining - a CGE analysis of the economic impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is no doubt that improved hazardous waste management in mining and mineral processing will reduce environmental and health risks in South Africa. However, sceptics fear that waste reduction, appropriate treatment and disposal are not affordable within the current economic circumstances of the country. In particular, it is argued that higher treatment and disposal costs would weaken the country's international

Manfred Wiebelt

2001-01-01

283

APPLICATION OF A SIMPLE SHORT-TERM BIOASSAY FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF GENOTOXINS FROM HAZARDOUS WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The proper disposal of hazardous wastes currently generated and clean up of waste disposal sites of the past are challenges facing regulatory agencies in the industrialized nations. he estimation of levels of toxicity is an essential step in prioritizing industrial effluents and ...

284

Proceedings of the National United States Environmental Protection Agency Conference on Household Hazardous Waste Management (7th). Held in Minneapolis, Minnesota on December 8-12, 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a compendium of presentations made at the Seventh Annual Household Hazardous Waste Management Conference. The topics included are: Indoor air pollution; Municipal solid waste; Waste recycling; Paints; Batteries; and Medical wastes disposal; ...

1993-01-01

285

Disposal and recovery of municipal solid waste  

SciTech Connect

This book sets out the economic, technical and environmental factors relating to disposal of and reclamation from urban wastes. It is the work of a group of specialist authors, each actively involved in the area he describes. Their contributions have been brought together to provide an up-to-date study of present options and future possibilities for waste managment.

Henstock, M.E.

1983-01-01

286

Investigating Waste Oil Disposal by Combustion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In response to efforts directed towards waste oil disposal, APG Post Engineers initiated a program in 1968 whereby waste oil was introduced into No. 6 Fuel Oil and subsequently burned for heat. Because of the heavy consistency of No. 6 Fuel Oil, no operat...

G. DeBono

1974-01-01

287

Development of the Central Waste Disposal Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Central Waste Disposal Facility is a proposed facility for shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste on the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The facility development has proceeded through site characterization, facility design, assessment of environmental impacts via pathways analysis, and preparation of an environmental impact statement. The worst-case pathways analysis indicated that expected

L. D. Bates; S. D. Van Hoesen

1985-01-01

288

Locating hazardous waste facilities: The influence of NIMBY beliefs  

SciTech Connect

The [open quote]Not-In-My-Backyard[close quote] (NIMBY) syndrome is analyzed in economic decision making. Belief statements that reflect specific NIMBY concerns are subjected to factor analysis and the structure reveals two dimensions: tolerance and avoidance. Tolerance reflects an acceptance of rational economic arguments regarding the siting of a hazardous waste facility and avoidance reflects a more personal fear-of-consequences. Analysis identifies demographic characteristics of individuals likely to exhibit these two beliefs. These beliefs also are shown to influence the acceptance of a hazardous waste disposal facility in ones neighborhood when compensation is offered.

Groothuis, P.A.; Miller, G. (Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA (United States))

1994-07-01

289

Potential metal toxicity from hazardous waste incineration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing concern over the potential adverse human health effects associated with exposure to toxic chemicals released to the environment and burgeoning legal requirements that mandate choice of disposal alternatives other than land disposal have contributed to the development of alternate technologies for waste treatment and disposal. The principal technology that has been increasingly employed is incineration on land sites and

Lawrence Fishbein

1989-01-01

290

30 CFR 816.89 - Disposal of noncoal mine wastes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. (a) Noncoal mine wastes including...garbage, abandoned mining machinery, lumber and other...Final disposal of noncoal mine wastes shall be in...within 8 feet of any coal outcrop or coal...

2013-07-01

291

30 CFR 817.89 - Disposal of noncoal mine wastes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. (a) Noncoal mine wastes including...garbage, abandoned mining machinery, lumber and other...Final disposal of noncoal mine wastes shall be in...within 8 feet of any coal outcrop or coal...

2013-07-01

292

59 FR- Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Recycled Used...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Listing of Hazardous Waste; Recycled Used Oil Management Standards; Final Rule ENVIRONMENTAL...Listing of Hazardous Waste; Recycled Used Oil Management Standards AGENCY: Environmental...September 10, 1992, EPA exempted used oil inserted into crude oil pipelines from...

1994-03-04

293

75 FR 71559 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Withdrawal of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 [EPA-R06-RCRA-2010-0066; SW FRL-9231-4] Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Withdrawal of Direct Final Exclusion AGENCY:...

2010-11-24

294

76 FR 76677 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Proposed Exclusion  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 [FDMS Docket No.: EPA-R08-RCRA-2011-0823; FRL-9502-4] Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Proposed Exclusion AGENCY: Environmental Protection...

2011-12-08

295

77 FR 58315 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...EPA-R06-RCRA-2010-0066; SW FRL-9730-5] Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous...appears that DRAS was run using the ``landfill'' waste management unit (WMU) input, but the Proposed Rule...

2012-09-20

296

75 FR 67919 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Proposed Exclusion for Identifying and Listing Hazardous Waste  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 [EPA-R05-RCRA-2010-0843; SW-FRL-9221-2] Hazardous Waste Management System; Proposed Exclusion for Identifying and Listing Hazardous Waste AGENCY: Environmental Protection...

2010-11-04

297

76 FR 59960 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Withdrawal of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 [EPA-R06-RCRA-2009-0312; SW FRL-9472-6] Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Withdrawal of proposed rule AGENCY: Environmental...

2011-09-28

298

Advances in encapsulation technologies for the management of mercury-contaminated hazardous wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although industrial and commercial uses of mercury have been curtailed in recent times, there is a demonstrated need for the development of reliable hazardous waste management techniques because of historic operations that have led to significant contamination and ongoing hazardous waste generation. This study was performed to evaluate whether the U.S. EPA could propose treatment and disposal alternatives to the

Paul M. Randall; Sandip Chattopadhyay

2004-01-01

299

Certification Plan, Radioactive Mixed Waste Hazardous Waste Handling Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this plan is to describe the organization and methodology for the certification of radioactive mixed waste (RMW) handled in the Hazardous Waste Handling Facility at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). RMW is low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or transuranic (TRU) waste that is co-contaminated with dangerous waste as defined in the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria

1992-01-01

300

Status of Volcanic Hazard Studies for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Volcanism studies of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) region are concerned with hazards of future volcanism with respect to underground disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The hazards of silicic volcanism are judged to be negligible; hazards of basaltic v...

B. M. Crowe D. T. Vaniman W. J. Carr

1983-01-01

301

77 FR 69765 - Colorado: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...that you include your name and other contact information in the body of your comment and with...authority of HSWA take effect in authorized states...the disposal of liquid hazardous waste in...authorization takes effect? Colorado...

2012-11-21

302

Hazardous and Mixed Waste Solidification Development Conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

EG and G Idaho, Inc., has initiated a program to develop safe, efficient, cost-effective solidification treatment methods for the disposal of some of the hazardous and mixed wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Testing has...

A. M. Boehmer M. M. Larsen

1986-01-01

303

Use of Electromagnetic Terrain Conductivity Measurements to Map Liquid Hazardous Waste Migration in Groundwater.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Electromagnetic conductivity measurements have been used to map apparent ground conductivity in the vicinity of a liquid hazardous waste disposal site. An area of approximately 12 ha (30 acres) was surveyed. Approximately 600 conductivity measurements wer...

R. H. Ketelle F. G. Pin

1983-01-01

304

Mapping Liquid Hazardous Waste Migration in Ground Water with Electromagnetic Terrain Conductivity Measurement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Electromagnetic conductivity measurements were used to map apparent ground conductivity in the vicinity of a liquid hazardous waste disposal site. Approximately 600 conductivity measurements were obtained to prepare a conductivity map of the site which in...

R. H. Ketelle F. G. Pin

1984-01-01

305

Hazardous Waste: Information on EPA's (Environmental Protection Agency's) Proposal to Delete Chemicals from Groundwater Monitoring.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report provides information on certain aspects of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) groundwater monitoring program applicable to hazardous waste disposal facilities regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). One conce...

1987-01-01

306

Improving Tamper Detection for Hazardous Waste Security  

SciTech Connect

Since September 11, waste managers are increasingly expected to provide effective security for their hazardous wastes. Tamper-indicating seals can help. This paper discusses seals, and offers recommendations for how to choose and use them.

Johnston, R. G.; Garcia, A. R. E.; Pacheco, N.; Martinez, R. K.; Martinez, D. D.; Trujillo, S. J.; Lopez, L. N.

2003-02-26

307

THERMODYNAMIC FUNDAMENTALS USED IN HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Thermodynamics is the basic foundation of many engineeringpractices. nvironmental engineering is no exception, it is usingthermodynamic principles in many applications. n particular,those who are involved in the incineration of various wastes suchas hazardous and municipal wastes...

308

Catalog of Hazardous and Solid Waste Publications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recently made available online, this twelfth edition of the Catalog of Hazardous and Solid Waste Publications "lists hazardous and solid waste documents released by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Solid Waste (OSW)." The select list covers publications that have been frequently requested. It is not intended as a comprehensive list. Current through July 15, 1999, the catalog contains shortcuts to Office of Solid Waste Websites, Other EPA Sources for Hazardous/ Solid Waste Materials, an Alphabetical Listing of Titles, an Alphabetical Listing of Subjects, a Numerical Listing of Publications, Ordering Information and Forms, and an Acronyms section.

309

Measurements And Models For Hazardous Chemical and Mixed Wastes  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous waste of various chemical compositions constitutes a significant fraction of the total waste produced by industry in the United States. A large quantity of the waste generated by the U.S. chemical process industry is waste water. In addition, the majority of the waste inventory at DoE sites previously used for nuclear weapons production is aqueous waste. Large quantities of additional aqueous waste are expected to be generated during the clean-up of those sites. In order to effectively treat, safely handle, and properly dispose of these wastes, accurate and comprehensive knowledge of basic thermophysical property information is paramount. This knowledge will lead to huge savings by aiding in the design and optimization of treatment and disposal processes. The main objectives of this project are: Develop and validate models that accurately predict the phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties of hazardous aqueous systems necessary for the safe handling and successful design of separation and treatment processes for hazardous chemical and mixed wastes. Accurately measure the phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties of a representative system (water + acetone + isopropyl alcohol + sodium nitrate) over the applicable ranges of temperature, pressure, and composition to provide the pure component, binary, ternary, and quaternary experimental data required for model development.

Holcomb, Cynthia D.; Watts, Laurel A.; Outcalt, Stephanie L.; Louie, Beverly; Mullins, Michael e.; Rogers, Tony N.; Kline, Andrew A.

2001-06-01

310

LAND DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS WASTE: PROCEEDINGS OF THE ANNUAL RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM (8TH), HELD AT FT. MITCHELL, KENTUCKY, ON MARCH 8-10, 1982  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the symposium was (1) to provide a forum for a state-of-the-art review and discussion of on-going and recently completed research projects dealing with the managment of solid and industrial wastes; (2) to bring together people concerned with municipal solid waste m...

311

Solid waste disposal. Volume 1. Incineration and landfill  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cost for solid waste disposal in the U.S. in 1975 is estimated at $7.8 billion. 85 percent of the waste is disposed of simply by open dumping. 15 percent is disposed of by sanitary land fill or incineration. These two disposal methods are discussed in detail. Information is included on solid waste statistics and collection and sorting methods; the

B. Baum; C. H. Parker

1974-01-01

312

Dutch geologic radioactive waste disposal project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geologic disposal of radioactive waste is reviewed. The radionuclide release consequences of an accidental flooding of the underground excavations was studied. The results of the quantitative examples made for different effective cross sections of the permeable layer connecting the mine excavations with the boundary of the salt dome are that under all circumstances the concentration of the waste nuclides in drinking water will remain well within the ICRP maximum permissible concentrations. Further analysis work was done on what minima can be achieved for both the maximum local rock salt temperatures at the disposal borehole walls and the maximum global rock salt temperatures halfway between a square of disposal boreholes. Different multilayer disposal configurations were analyzed and compared.

Hamstra, J.; Verkerk, B.

313

Radioactive Waste Streams: Waste Classification for Disposal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Radioactive waste is a byproduct of nuclear weapons production, commercial nuclear power generation, and the naval reactor program. Waste byproducts also result from radioisotopes used for scientific, medical, and industrial purposes. The legislative defi...

A. Andrews

2006-01-01

314

Ground freezing for containment of hazardous waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The freezing of ground for the containment of subsurface hazardous waste is a promising method that is environmentally friendly and offers a safe alternative to other methods of waste retention in many cases. The frozen soil method offers two concepts for retaining waste. One concept is to freeze the entire waste area into a solid block of frozen soil thus

F. N. Sayles; I. K. Iskandar

1998-01-01

315

Plywood Plant Glue Wastes Disposal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the States of Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Montana, and California, 158 plywood plants generate an estimated 6.2 million gallons of waste per day from the cleanup of glue mixing equipment and glue spreaders. The waste is toxic and high in pollutional str...

D. G. Bodien

1968-01-01

316

Future trends which will influence waste disposal.  

PubMed

The disposal and management of solid wastes are ancient problems. The evolution of practices naturally changed as populations grew and sites for disposal became less acceptable. The central search was for easy disposal at minimum costs. The methods changed from indiscriminate dumping to sanitary landfill, feeding to swine, reduction, incineration, and various forms of re-use and recycling. Virtually all procedures have disabilities and rising costs. Many methods once abandoned are being rediscovered. Promises for so-called innovations outstrip accomplishments. Markets for salvage vary widely or disappear completely. The search for conserving materials and energy at minimum cost must go on forever. PMID:570105

Wolman, A

1978-12-01

317

Household hazardous waste in municipal landfills: contaminants in leachate.  

PubMed

Household hazardous waste (HHW) includes waste from a number of household products such as paint, garden pesticides, pharmaceuticals, photographic chemicals, certain detergents, personal care products, fluorescent tubes, waste oil, heavy metal-containing batteries, wood treated with dangerous substances, waste electronic and electrical equipment and discarded CFC-containing equipment. Data on the amounts of HHW discarded are very limited and are hampered by insufficient definitions of what constitutes HHW. Consequently, the risks associated with the disposal of HHW to landfill have not been fully elucidated. This work has focused on the assessment of data concerning the presence of hazardous chemicals in leachates as evidence of the disposal of HHW in municipal landfills. Evidence is sought from a number of sources on the occurrence in landfill leachates of hazardous components (heavy metals and xenobiotic organic compounds [XOC]) from household products and the possible disposal-to-emissions pathways occurring within landfills. This review demonstrates that a broad range of xenobiotic compounds occurring in leachate can be linked to HHW but further work is required to assess whether such compounds pose a risk to the environment and human health as a result of leakage/seepage or through treatment and discharge. PMID:15626384

Slack, R J; Gronow, J R; Voulvoulis, N

2005-01-20

318

HANDBOOK: HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION MEASUREMENT GUIDANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

This publication, Volume III of the Hazardous Waste Incineration Guidance Series, contains general guidance to permit writers in reviewing hazardous waste incineration permit applications and trial burn plans. he handbook is a how-to document dealing with how incineration measure...

319

What was leaking from a hazardous-waste dump  

SciTech Connect

The city of Niagara Falls, N.Y., is the home of several toxic waste disposal sites, the most famous of which is Love Canal. Although less well known, the Hyde Park dump is equally noxious. This hazardous-waste dump was operated by the Hooker Chemical Company from about 1953 to 1975. Approximately 55,000 tons of halogenated waste were buried at this site, which is just north of the city. The Hyde Park dump is drained by Bloody Run Creek. Ronald A. Hites of Indiana University outlines the steps taken to identify the structures of organic compounds leaking from the Hyde Park dump.

Hites, R.A.

1988-05-15

320

Municipal waste disposal crisis. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Transportation, Tourism, and Hazardous Materials of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, One hundredth Congress, First Session, March 19, May 6, and June 5, 1989  

SciTech Connect

Members of Congress and other government officials were among those testifying at a hearing to discuss the problems involved in municipal waste disposal. According to a number of studies the municipal solid waste problem in this country is growing rapidly. As of 1985, we as a nation were generating nearly 200 million tons of municipal waste each year, and this figure is growing at an estimated rate of between 25 and 75 million tons per year. Cities across the country are now struggling with many issues relating to municipal waste disposal. One of the key issues is the safe disposal of municipal incinerator ash. The toxicity of the ashes, particularly the fly ash has been acknowledged under certain circumstances by EPA. An attempt should be made to concentrate on finding treatment solutions that will detoxify residues which are determined to be toxic.

Not Available

1987-01-01

321

H. R. 2216: A bill to amend the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 to impose sanctions on any State that does not have, or is in violation of, a capacity assurance plan under that Act, and to amend the Solid Waste Disposal Act to give certain States authority to deny permits for hazardous waste facilities which provide unneeded capacity and to impose restrictions on the interstate transportation of waste, introduced in the US House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, May 2, 1991  

SciTech Connect

This bill was introduced into the US House of Representatives on May 2, 1991 to amend the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980. This legislation imposes sanctions on any state that does not have, or is in violation of, a capacity assurance plan under that act. In addition, this bill amends the Solid Waste Disposal Act to give certain states authority to deny permits for hazardous waste facilities which provide unneeded capacity and impose restrictions on the interstate transportation of waste. Key sections of this legislation address the following: sanctions for noncompliance with Superfund capacity assurance plan; authority for certain states to deny permits for hazardous waste facilities with unneeded capacity; authority for certain states to restrict interstate transportation of hazardous waste; and authority to restrict interstate transportation of hazardous waste.

Not Available

1991-01-01

322

75 FR 73972 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Removal of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE 0 1. The authority citation for...remove the following facility's waste streams: for Facility: Eastman Chemical...Operations, Address: Longview, TX; Waste Description: RKI bottom ash,...

2010-11-30

323

75 FR 61356 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE 0 1. The authority citation for...WRB Refining LLC'' the following waste stream in alphabetical order by facility...follows: Appendix IX to Part 261--Wastes Excluded Under Sec. Sec....

2010-10-05

324

76 FR 16534 - Hazardous Waste Management System Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE 0 1. The authority citation for...261 is amended to add the following waste stream in alphabetical order by facility...follows: Appendix IX to Part 261--Wastes Excluded Under Sec. Sec....

2011-03-24

325

75 FR 51671 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SW-FRL-9191-8] Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and...RCRA Subtitle D landfill: The Waste Management Industrial Landfill, North...Subtitle C facility, Chemical Waste Management in Sulphur, LA 70556....

2010-08-23

326

77 FR 41720 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Proposed Exclusion  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRL-9699-4] Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and...Mail: Sharon Leitch, RCRA Waste Management and UST Section, Office of...Delivery: Sharon Leitch, RCRA Waste Management and UST Section, Office...

2012-07-16

327

75 FR 16037 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Proposed Exclusion  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SW-FRL-9131-6] Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and...RCRA Subtitle D landfill: The Waste Management Industrial Landfill, North...Subtitle C facility, Chemical Waste Management in Sulphur, LA 70556....

2010-03-31

328

77 FR 56558 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Rule  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRL-9727-2] Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and...CONTACT: Sharon Leitch, RCRA Waste Management and UST Section, Office of...adversely affected by common waste management practices for this...

2012-09-13

329

75 FR 62040 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Proposed Exclusion  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRL-9211-7] Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and...originating from a land-based waste management unit may be a factor resulting...adversely affected by common waste management practices for this...

2010-10-07

330

Radioactive Waste: Production, Storage, Disposal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Radioactive wastes are the leftovers from the use of nuclear materials for the production of electricity, diagnosis and treatment of disease, and other purposes. The materials are either naturally occurring or man-made. Certain kinds of radioactive materi...

2002-01-01

331

Radioactive Waste Processing and Disposal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Technical Information Center, beginning in 1958, periodically issues bibliographies on radioactive wastes. This compilation contains 4144 citations of foreign and domestic research reports, journal articles, patents, conference proceedings, and books....

1980-01-01

332

Radioactive Waste Processing and Disposal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Technical Information Center, beginning in 1958, periodically issues bibliographies on radioactive wastes. This compilation contains 3597 citations of foreign and domestic research reports, journal articles, patents, conference proceedings, and books....

1980-01-01

333

The safe disposal of radioactive wastes  

PubMed Central

A comprehensive review is given of the principles and problems involved in the safe disposal of radioactive wastes. The first part is devoted to a study of the basic facts of radioactivity and of nuclear fission, the characteristics of radioisotopes, the effects of ionizing radiations, and the maximum permissible levels of radioactivity for workers and for the general public. In the second part, the author describes the different types of radioactive waste—reactor wastes and wastes arising from the use of radioisotopes in hospitals and in industry—and discusses the application of the maximum permissible levels of radioactivity to their disposal and treatment, illustrating his discussion with an account of the methods practised at the principal atomic energy establishments.

Kenny, A. W.

1956-01-01

334

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) General Contingency Plan for Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant  

SciTech Connect

This contingency plan provides a description of the Y-12 plant and its waste units and prescribes control procedures and emergency response procedures. It lists emergency and spill response equipment, provides information on coordination agreements with local agencies, and describes the evacuation plan and reporting requirements.

None

1999-04-01

335

LEGACY NONCONFORMANCE ISSUE IN SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL  

SciTech Connect

Beginning in 1968 waste from sectioning, sampling, and assaying of reactor fuels was sent to underground burial caissons in the 200-W Area of the Hanford Plant in Richland, Washington. In 2002 a review of inventory records revealed that criticality safety storage limits had been exceeded. This prompted declaration of a Criticality Prevention Specification nonconformance. The corrective action illustrates the difficulties in demonstrating compliance to fissile material limits decades after waste disposal.

ROGERS, C.A.

2002-12-16

336

Survey of household hazardous wastes and related collection programs. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report summarizes the results of a study that addressed: the definition of household hazardous wastes (HHW); the quantities of HHW in the municipal-waste stream; the impacts of HHW on homeowners, solid-waste collection and disposal personnel, and the environment; and HHW collection programs conducted at State and local levels. A standard definition of HHW was developed and lists of household

G. L. Mitchell; D. M. Demichelis; J. D. Marshall; S. F. Flaherty

1986-01-01

337

Analyses of backfilled transuranic wastes disposal rooms  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a US Department of Energy (DOE) research and development facility established to demonstrate the safe geologic disposal of transuranic (TRU) wastes generated from defense-related activities. Crushed salt and crushed-salt treatments are the candidate materials to be used as backfill around waste and waste packages in the underground disposal rooms. In response to room closure, the backfill is anticipated to compact sufficiently such that an effective seal is formed reducing brine inflow and radionuclide transport. In this report, different backfill and backfill/TRU waste combinations are investigated based on finite element simulations for a 200-year period conducted to examine and compare the sealing efficacy of different backfill scenarios. Specifically, disposal room content scenarios investigated include crushed salt, a crushed salt/bentonite mixture, crushed salt covering TRU waste, crushed salt/bentonite covering TRU waste, crushed salt covering a mixture of crushed salt and shredded metallic waste and crushed salt covering vitrified waste. The simulations were conducted with the thermomechanical finite element program SPECTROM-32. The report includes a description of constitutive relations used to simulate the backfill and host rock formation including viscoplastic (creep), nonlinear elastic, creep consolidation, and nonlinear elastic and consolidation mixture models. The simulation results show that the backfill attains average void fractions less than 5 percent in all cases except for the case with crushed salt/bentonite covering TRU waste, which is only slightly greater than 5 percent. The time required to attain these void fractions varies considerably between cases. 27 refs., 22 figs., 11 tabs.

Callahan, G.D.; DeVries, K.L. (RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States))

1991-04-01

338

77 FR 58591 - Report on Waste Burial Charges: Changes in Decommissioning Waste Disposal Costs at Low-Level...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Decommissioning Waste Disposal Costs at Low-Level Waste Burial Facilities AGENCY: Nuclear...Decommissioning Waste Disposal Costs at Low-Level Waste Burial Facilities.'' DATES: Please...Decommissioning Waste Disposal Costs at Low-Level Waste Burial Facilities.'' Draft...

2012-09-21

339

Consumer perspectives on household hazardous waste management in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

We give an overview of the management systems of household hazardous waste (HHW) in Japan and discuss the management systems\\u000a and their risks. To get basic information, we conducted a survey of consumers to discover their behavior and awareness of\\u000a HHW items throughout the entire life cycle, which is made up of the purchase, use, and disposal of a product.

Misuzu Asari; Shin-ichi Sakai

2011-01-01

340

Geology and High-Level Nuclear Waste Disposal - a Brief Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear wastes occur in solid, liquid and gaseous forms and in a variety of isotopic compositions and radiation intensities.\\u000a For the purpose of discussing long-term waste disposal, however, they can be roughly subdivided into two main categories (Milnes,\\u000a 1985): low-level waste (LLW) and high-level waste (HLW). This subdivision is based on an estimation of the long-term health\\u000a hazard posed by

Alan Milnes

341

DISPOSAL OF FLUE-GAS-CLEANING WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The article describes current commercial and emerging technology for disposal of wastes from flue gas cleaning (FGC) systems for coal-fired power plants. Over 80 million metric tons/yr (dry) of coal ash and desulfurization solids are expected to be produced by the 1980's. Althoug...

342

Deep ocean disposal of toxic industrial wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical simulations can be used to predict the transport and fate of many materials disposed of in the ocean, if enough critical information is available on rates of transfers of the wastes in question. Continued ocean dumping must be accompanied by a program of research and monitoring to validate those speculative transfer functions in the original models that justify the

G. Rowe

1982-01-01

343

SAFE DISPOSAL METHODS FOR AGRICULTURAL PESTICIDE WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

A systematic evaluation of disposal systems for diluted waste pesticides was conducted at two Iowa State University experimental farms. One system, located at the Horticultural Research Station, consisted of a 30,000-liter concrete-lined pit filled with a layer of soil between tw...

344

Clay barriers in radioactive waste disposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep geological is one of the preferred options for the disposal of high level radioactive waste. In most designs, the canisters placed in drifts or boreholes are surrounded by an engineered barrier usually made of compacted swelling clay. The barrier undergoes severe heating from the canisters and hydration from the host rock. In this situation a number of interacting thermal,

Antonio Gens; Sebastià Olivella

2001-01-01

345

Ocean Waste Disposal in Selected Geographic Areas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the results of an intensive fact finding survey of ocean waste disposal practices in six geographic areas. The areas were the New York Bight; Charleston, South Carolina; segments of the Gulf of Mexico Coast; Southern California; San Fr...

1973-01-01

346

Radioactive waste disposal in granite. [Stripa mine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal geotechnical problems in selecting a repository site for radioactive waste disposal in granite are to evaluate the suitability of the rock mass in terms of: (1) fracture characteristics, (2) thermomechanical effects, and (3) fracture hydrology. Underground experiments in a mine in Sweden have provided an opportunity to study these problems. The research has demonstrated the importance of hydrogeology

P. A. Witherspoon; D. J. Watkins

1982-01-01

347

RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are currently few licensed repositories for disposal of radioactive waste within the Russian Federation. This impasse has evolved due to extreme concerns by local and state governments about the safety of such facilities and the lack of coordinated action by the many ministries and agencies that each have some responsibility for the design, siting, licensing and operation of these

Nikolai Laverov; Yuriy Shiyan; Paul Childress

2000-01-01

348

Hazardous and solid waste amendments of 1984. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session  

SciTech Connect

The conference committee report recommends that the House of Representatives retract its objections to the amendment to the Solid Waste Disposal Act proposed by the Senate and pass H.R. 2867. The Act authorizes appropriations for fiscal years 1985 through 1988, redefines some terms, and modifies some procedures. The report includes a section-by-section analysis of the Act and proposed amendments. The Act includes budgets for hazardous waste inventories, federal assistance to waste disposal programs, criminal investigations, and storage facilities.

Not Available

1984-01-01

349

Industrial ecology: Environmental chemistry and hazardous waste  

SciTech Connect

Industrial ecology may be a relatively new concept -- yet it`s already proven instrumental for solving a wide variety of problems involving pollution and hazardous waste, especially where available material resources have been limited. By treating industrial systems in a manner that parallels ecological systems in nature, industrial ecology provides a substantial addition to the technologies of environmental chemistry. Stanley E. Manahan, bestselling author of many environmental chemistry books for Lewis Publishers, now examines Industrial Ecology: Environmental Chemistry and Hazardous Waste. His study of this innovative technology uses an overall framework of industrial ecology to cover hazardous wastes from an environmental chemistry perspective. Chapters one to seven focus on how industrial ecology relates to environmental science and technology, with consideration of the anthrosphere as one of five major environmental spheres. Subsequent chapters deal specifically with hazardous substances and hazardous waste, as they relate to industrial ecology and environmental chemistry.

Manahan, S.E. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1999-01-01

350

Technologies for Treatment, Reuse, and Disposal of Polychlorinated Biphenyl Wastes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The disposal of waste oils, transformers, and capacitors is, and will continue to be, a significant portion of the waste-disposal effort at several US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, due to the presence of various contaminants, especially polychlor...

L. Fradkin S. Barisas

1982-01-01

351

49 CFR 228.327 - Waste collection and disposal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING; SLEEPING QUARTERS Safety and Health Requirements for Camp Cars...the aforementioned requirements. (c) Food waste disposal containers provided for...provided and used for the disposal of waste food. Receptacles must be provided with a...

2012-10-01

352

21 CFR 1250.75 - Disposal of human wastes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Disposal of human wastes. 1250.75 Section 1250.75...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS...Conveyances § 1250.75 Disposal of human wastes. (a) At servicing...

2013-04-01

353

Optimal evaluation of infectious medical waste disposal companies using the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process  

SciTech Connect

Ever since Taiwan's National Health Insurance implemented the diagnosis-related groups payment system in January 2010, hospital income has declined. Therefore, to meet their medical waste disposal needs, hospitals seek suppliers that provide high-quality services at a low cost. The enactment of the Waste Disposal Act in 1974 had facilitated some improvement in the management of waste disposal. However, since the implementation of the National Health Insurance program, the amount of medical waste from disposable medical products has been increasing. Further, of all the hazardous waste types, the amount of infectious medical waste has increased at the fastest rate. This is because of the increase in the number of items considered as infectious waste by the Environmental Protection Administration. The present study used two important findings from previous studies to determine the critical evaluation criteria for selecting infectious medical waste disposal firms. It employed the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to set the objective weights of the evaluation criteria and select the optimal infectious medical waste disposal firm through calculation and sorting. The aim was to propose a method of evaluation with which medical and health care institutions could objectively and systematically choose appropriate infectious medical waste disposal firms.

Ho, Chao Chung, E-mail: ho919@pchome.com.tw [Department of Industrial Management, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

2011-07-15

354

Hazardous and radioactive waste incineration studies  

SciTech Connect

Development and demonstration of a transuranic (TRU) waste volume-reduction process is described. A production-scale controlled air incinerator using commercially available equipment and technology has been modified for solid radioactive waste service. This unit successfully demonstrated the volume reduction of transuranic (TRU) waste with an average TRU content of about 20 nCi/g. The same incinerator and offgas treatment system is being modified further to evaluate the destruction of hazardous liquid wastes such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hazardous solid wastes such as pentachlorophenol (PCP)-treated wood.

Vavruska, J.S.; Stretz, L.A.; Borduin, L.C.

1981-01-01

355

Pareto frontier analyses based decision making tool for transportation of hazardous waste.  

PubMed

Transportation of hazardous wastes through a region poses immense threat on the development along its road network. The risk to the population, exposed to such activities, has been documented in the past. However, a comprehensive framework for routing hazardous wastes has often been overlooked. A regional Hazardous Waste Management scheme should incorporate a comprehensive framework for hazardous waste transportation. This framework would incorporate the various stakeholders involved in decision making. Hence, a multi-objective approach is required to safeguard the interest of all the concerned stakeholders. The objective of this study is to design a methodology for routing of hazardous wastes between the generating units and the disposal facilities through a capacity constrained network. The proposed methodology uses posteriori method with multi-objective approach to find non-dominated solutions for the system consisting of multiple origins and destinations. A case study of transportation of hazardous wastes in Kolkata Metropolitan Area has also been provided to elucidate the methodology. PMID:22673061

Das, Arup; Mazumder, T N; Gupta, A K

2012-05-27

356

Advanced disposal systems for transuranic waste: Preliminary disposal criteria for Plutonium239 at Hanford  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation of the feasibility and potential application of advanced disposal systems is being conducted for defense transuranic (TRU) wastes at the Hanford site. The advanced waste disposal options include those developed to provide ''greater confinement'' than provided by shallow-land burial. An example systems analysis is discussed with assumed performance objectives and various Hanford-specific disposal conditions, waste forms, site characteristics,

W KENNEDYJR; B. A. Napier; J. K. Soldat

1983-01-01

357

Transuranic advanced disposal systems: preliminary ²³⁹Pu waste-disposal criteria for Hanford  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation of the feasibility and potential application of advanced disposal systems is being conducted for defense transuranic (TRU) wastes at the Hanford Site. The advanced waste disposal options include those developed to provide greater confinement than provided by shallow-land burial. An example systems analysis is discussed with assumed performance objectives and various Hanford-specific disposal conditions, waste forms, site characteristics,

W. E. Jr. Kennedy; B. A. Napier; J. K. Soldat

1982-01-01

358

Searching for acceptable solutions to nuclear-waste disposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three lettes are presented here, all addressing the problem of nuclear waste disposal. Robert M. Bernero (former director of the Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, US NRC) points out there are only 4 options for managing toxic and nuclear waste (recycling, outer space disposal; deep-ocean disposal, geologic disposal) and that the stragegy should prevent people from inadvertently stumbling

Bernero

1995-01-01

359

WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit - 2008 Update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Important new changes to the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP) were implemented during 2007. The challenge was to implement these changes without impacting shipping schedules. Many of the changes required advanced preparation and coordination in order to transition to the new waste analysis paradigm, both at the generator sites and at the WIPP without interrupting the flow of waste to

R. F. Kehrman; W. A. Most

2008-01-01

360

WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit Update  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP) was issued on October 27, 1999 [1]. Since that time, the WIPP has sought modifications to clarify the permit language, provide alternative methods for meeting permit requirements and to update permit conditions. Significant advancements have been made in transuranic (TRU) waste management as the result of modifications to the

B. Kehrman; W. Most

2006-01-01

361

ASSESSMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTES FOR GENOTOXICITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The authors have evaluated a group of short-term bioassays to identify those that may be suitable for screening large numbers of diverse hazardous industrial wastes for genotoxicity. Fifteen wastes (and dichloromethane extracts of these wastes) from a variety of manufacturing pro...

362

Electrochemical treatment of mixed and hazardous waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and The University of New Mexico are jointly developing an electrochemical process for treating hazardous and radioactive wastes. The wastes treatable by the process include toxic metal solutions, cyanide solutions, and various organic wastes that may contain chlorinated organic compounds. The main component of the process is a stack of electrolytic cells with peripheral equipment

J. Dziewinski; S. Marczak; W. Smith; E. Nuttall

1995-01-01

363

COMPILATION OF DISPOSABLE SOLID WASTE CASK EVALUATIONS  

SciTech Connect

The Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) is a shielded cask capable of transporting, storing, and disposing of six non-fuel core components or approximately 27 cubic feet of radioactive solid waste. Five existing DSWCs are candidates for use in storing and disposing of non-fuel core components and radioactive solid waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell, ultimately shipping them to the 200 West Area disposal site for burial. A series of inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications were performed to ensure that these casks can be used to safely ship solid waste. These inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications are summarized and attached in this report. Visual inspection of the casks interiors provided information with respect to condition of the casks inner liners. Because water was allowed to enter the casks for varying lengths of time, condition of the cask liner pipe to bottom plate weld was of concern. Based on the visual inspection and a corrosion study, it was concluded that four of the five casks can be used from a corrosion standpoint. Only DSWC S/N-004 would need additional inspection and analysis to determine its usefulness. The five remaining DSWCs underwent some modification to prepare them for use. The existing cask lifting inserts were found to be corroded and deemed unusable. New lifting anchor bolts were installed to replace the existing anchors. Alternate lift lugs were fabricated for use with the new lifting anchor bolts. The cask tiedown frame was modified to facilitate adjustment of the cask tiedowns. As a result of the above mentioned inspections, studies, analysis, and modifications, four of the five existing casks can be used to store and transport waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell to the disposal site for burial. The fifth cask, DSWC S/N-004, would require further inspections before it could be used.

THIELGES, J.R.; CHASTAIN, S.A.

2007-06-21

364

Deserts as dumps? The disposal of hazardous materials in arid ecosystems  

SciTech Connect

Public distaste for the waste by-products of our industrial society, coupled with exponential growth of governmental waste regulations, has created an entirely new industry-the management of waste. How players in this new industry (manufacturers, scientists, law-makers, and voters) manage the issues will determine, ultimately, the growth or decline of major sectors of our society. This book focuses on disposal of hazardous chemical and radioactive wastes, specifically in and climates. The postulate (somewhat misleadingly posed as a question in the book`s title) is that deserts have inherent advantages as landfill sites because of low rainfall, high rates of evapotranspiration, slower biotic processes, and low population. An unstated but frequently recurring theme is the frightening knowledge gap in many of the disciplines involved in storing these dangerous wastes for indefinite periods.

Reith, C.C.; Thomson, B.M. [eds.

1992-12-31

365

Hazard and consequence analysis for waste emplacement at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Carlsbad Area Office established and analyzed the safety bases for the design and operations as documented in the WIPP Safety Analysis Report (SAR). Additional independent efforts are currently underway to assess the hazards associated with the long-term (10,000 year) isolation period as required by 40 CFR 191. The structure of the WIPP SAR is unique due to the hazards involved, and the agreement between the State of New Mexico and the DOE regarding SAR content and format. However, the hazards and accident analysis philosophy as contained in DOE-STD-3009-94 was followed as closely as possible, while adhering to state agreements. Hazards associated with WIPP waste receipt, emplacement, and disposal operations were systematically identified using a modified Hazard and Operability Study (HAZOP) technique. The WIPP HAZOP assessed the potential internal, external, and natural phenomena events that can cause the identified hazards to develop into accidents. The hazard assessment identified deviations from the intended design and operation of the waste handling system, analyzed potential accident consequences to the public and workers, estimated likelihood of occurrence, and evaluated associated preventative and mitigative features. It was concluded from the assessment that the proposed WIPP waste emplacement operations and design are sufficient to ensure safety of the public, workers, and environment, over the 35 year disposal phase.

Gerstner, D.M.; Clayton, S.G.; Farrell, R.F.; McCormick, J.A.; Ortiz, C.; Standiford, D.L.

1996-05-01

366

Subseabed disposal of nuclear wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fine-grained clay formations within stable (predictable) deep-sea regions away from lithospheric plate boundaries and productive surface waters have properties that might serve to permanently isolate radioactive waste. The most important characteristics of such clays are their vertical and lateral uniformity, low permeability, very high cation retention capacity, and potential for self-healing when disturbed. The most attractive abyssal clay formation (oxidized

C. D. Hollister; D. R. Anderson

1981-01-01

367

20 CFR 654.406 - Excreta and liquid waste disposal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Excreta and liquid waste disposal. 654.406 Section...Standards § 654.406 Excreta and liquid waste disposal. (a) Facilities...maintained for effective disposal of excreta and liquid waste. Raw or treated liquid...

2012-04-01

368

78 FR 1155 - Low-Level Waste Disposal  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NRC-2011-0012] RIN 3150-AI92 Low-Level Waste Disposal AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...December 7, 2012 entitled, ``Low-Level Waste Disposal'' that announced the availability...Analysis for Proposed Revisions to Low-Level Waste Disposal Requirement (10 CFR...

2013-01-08

369

How to dispose of toxic substances and industrial wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

All recognized and allowed ultimate disposal methods for toxic materials and industrial wastes are discussed in detail, and a long list of specific recommendations for specific substances plus alternative disposal or recovery methods are presented. Ultimate waste disposal implies the final disposition of nondegradable, persistent, harmful, and cumulative wastes that may be solid, liquid, or gaseous. Workable solutions to ultimate

1976-01-01

370

36 CFR 13.1008 - Solid waste disposal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1008 Section 13.1008...Arctic National Park and Preserve § 13.1008 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National...

2013-07-01

371

36 CFR 13.1604 - Solid waste disposal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1604 Section 13.1604...Clark National Park and Preserve § 13.1604 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National...

2013-07-01

372

36 CFR 13.1912 - Solid waste disposal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1912 Section 13.1912...Elias National Park and Preserve § 13.1912 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National...

2013-07-01

373

Optimal policies for solid waste disposal Taxes, subsidies, and standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pricing trash collection and disposal services can be politically unpopular and may lead to increased illegal disposal of trash. Several studies have shown that deposit-refund systems can act like disposal charges without the illegal disposal problem and thus can generate an optimal amount of solid waste disposal. We assess the efficiency implications of an alternative policy currently in use in

Karen Palmer; Margaret Walls

1997-01-01

374

Greater-confinement disposal of low-level radioactive wastes  

SciTech Connect

Low-level radioactive wastes include a broad spectrum of wastes that have different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and physical and chemical properties. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most low-level wastes, but a small volume fraction (about 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx.90%) requires specific measures known as ''greater-confinement disposal'' (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics. This paper presents an overview of the factors that must be considered in planning the application of methods proposed for providing greater confinement of low-level wastes. 27 refs.

Trevorrow, L.E.; Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Merry-Libby, P.A.; Meshkov, N.K.; Yu, C.

1985-01-01

375

Subseabed disposal of nuclear wastes  

SciTech Connect

Fine-grained clay formations within stable (predictable) deep-sea regions away from lithospheric plate boundaries and productive surface waters have properties that might serve to permanently isolate radioactive waste. The most important characteristics of such clays are their vertical and lateral uniformity, low permeability, very high cation retention capacity, and potential for self-healing when disturbed. The most attractive abyssal clay formation (oxidized red clay) covers nearly 30 percent of the sea floor and hence 20 percent of the earth's surface.

Hollister, C.D. (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA); Anderson, D.R.; Heath, G.R.

1981-09-18

376

Applicability of petroleum horizontal drilling technology to hazardous waste site characterization and remediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Horizontal wells have the potential to become an important tool for use in characterization, remediation and monitoring operations at hazardous waste disposal, chemical manufacturing, refining and other sites where subsurface pollution may develop from operations or spills. Subsurface pollution of groundwater aquifers can occur at these sites by leakage of surface disposal ponds, surface storage tanks, underground storage tanks (UST),

Goranson

1992-01-01

377

HAZARDOUS WASTE LANDFILL RESEARCH: U.S.E.P.A. (UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The hazardous waste land disposal research program is collecting data necessary to support implementation of disposal guidelines mandated by the 'Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976' (RCRA) PL 94-580. This program relating to the categorical areas of landfills, surface...

378

Municipal solid waste disposal in Portugal.  

PubMed

In recent years municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal has been one of the most important environmental problems for all of the Portuguese regions. The basic principles of MSW management in Portugal are: (1) prevention or reduction, (2) reuse, (3) recovery (e.g., recycling, incineration with heat recovery), and (4) polluter-pay principle. A brief history of legislative trends in waste management is provided herein as background for current waste management and recycling activities. The paper also presents and discusses the municipal solid waste management in Portugal and is based primarily on a national inquiry carried out in 2003 and directed to the MSW management entities. Additionally, the MSW responsibility and management structure in Portugal is presented, together with the present situation of production, collection, recycling, treatment and elimination of MSW. Results showed that 96% of MSW was collected mixed (4% was separately collected) and that 68% was disposed of in landfill, 21% was incinerated at waste-to-energy plants, 8% was treated at organic waste recovery plants and 3% was delivered to sorting. The average generation rate of MSW was 1.32 kg/capita/day. PMID:16713239

Magrinho, Alexandre; Didelet, Filipe; Semiao, Viriato

2006-05-19

379

A perspective of hazardous waste and mixed waste treatment technology at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

Treatment technologies for the preparation and treatment of heavy metal mixed wastes, contaminated soils, and mixed mercury wastes are being considered at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a DOE nuclear material processing facility operated by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The proposed treatment technologies to be included at the Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Treatment Building at SRS are based on the regulatory requirements, projected waste volumes, existing technology, cost effectiveness, and project schedule. Waste sorting and size reduction are the initial step in the treatment process. After sorting/size reduction the wastes would go to the next applicable treatment module. For solid heavy metal mixed wastes the proposed treatment is macroencapsulation using a thermoplastic polymer. This process reduces the leachability of hazardous constituents from the waste and allows easy verification of the coating integrity. Stabilization and solidification in a cement matrix will treat a wide variety of wastes (i.e. soils, decontamination water). Some pretreatments may be required (i.e. Ph adjustment) before stabilization. Other pretreatments such as soil washing can reduce the amount of waste to be stabilized. Radioactive contaminated mercury waste at the SRS comes in numerous forms (i.e. process equipment, soils, and lab waste) with the required treatment of high mercury wastes being roasting/retorting and recovery. Any unrecyclable radioactive contaminated elemental mercury would be amalgamated, utilizing a batch system, before disposal.

England, J.L.; Venkatesh, S.; Bailey, L.L.; Langton, C.A.; Hay, M.S.; Stevens, C.B.; Carroll, S.J.

1991-01-01

380

A perspective of hazardous waste and mixed waste treatment technology at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

Treatment technologies for the preparation and treatment of heavy metal mixed wastes, contaminated soils, and mixed mercury wastes are being considered at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a DOE nuclear material processing facility operated by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The proposed treatment technologies to be included at the Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Treatment Building at SRS are based on the regulatory requirements, projected waste volumes, existing technology, cost effectiveness, and project schedule. Waste sorting and size reduction are the initial step in the treatment process. After sorting/size reduction the wastes would go to the next applicable treatment module. For solid heavy metal mixed wastes the proposed treatment is macroencapsulation using a thermoplastic polymer. This process reduces the leachability of hazardous constituents from the waste and allows easy verification of the coating integrity. Stabilization and solidification in a cement matrix will treat a wide variety of wastes (i.e. soils, decontamination water). Some pretreatments may be required (i.e. Ph adjustment) before stabilization. Other pretreatments such as soil washing can reduce the amount of waste to be stabilized. Radioactive contaminated mercury waste at the SRS comes in numerous forms (i.e. process equipment, soils, and lab waste) with the required treatment of high mercury wastes being roasting/retorting and recovery. Any unrecyclable radioactive contaminated elemental mercury would be amalgamated, utilizing a batch system, before disposal.

England, J.L.; Venkatesh, S.; Bailey, L.L.; Langton, C.A.; Hay, M.S.; Stevens, C.B.; Carroll, S.J.

1991-12-31

381

Retrofit Cost Relationships for Hazardous Waste Incineration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study reports a methodology, and an accompanying set of empirical cost relationships, that can be used to estimate the costs of retrofitting/upgrading various components of existing hazardous waste incineration facilities to comply with RCRA performa...

K. Lim R. DeRosier R. Larkin R. McCormick

1984-01-01

382

A Program on Hazardous Waste Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of the "Hazardous Waste Management Graduate Certificate" program at Wayne State University. Describes four required courses and nine optional courses. Discusses the development of a Master program and the curriculum of the Master program. (YP)

Kummler, Ralph H.; And Others

1989-01-01

383

REMAINING ISSUES FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Of all of the "permanent" treatment technologies, properly designed and operated incineration systems are capable of the highest overall degree of destruction and control for the broadest range of hazardous waste streams. hile thermal destruction offers many advantages over other...

384

GEOSTATISTICAL SAMPLING DESIGNS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

This chapter discusses field sampling design for environmental sites and hazardous waste sites with respect to random variable sampling theory, Gy's sampling theory, and geostatistical (kriging) sampling theory. The literature often presents these sampling methods as an adversari...

385

Hazardous Organic Waste Destruction by Electrochemical Oxidation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For these reasons, a project was funded to investigate an electrochemical method for oxidation of hazardous and mixed wastes. Electrochemical oxidation (ECO) has been successfully applied for destruction of very dilute solutions of chlorinated solvents in...

P. M. Molton A. G. Fassbender S. A. Nelson J. K. Cleveland

1988-01-01

386

49 CFR 171.3 - Hazardous waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of the waste without the preparation of a manifest. [Note: In such cases, EPA does not require carriers to have EPA identification numbers.] Note 1: EPA requires shippers (generators) and carriers (transporters) of hazardous...

2011-10-01

387

Chemical hazard evaluation of material disposal area (MDA) B closure project  

SciTech Connect

TA-21, MDA-B (NES) is the 'contaminated dump,' landfill with radionuclides and chemicals from process waste disposed in 1940s. This paper focuses on chemical hazard categorization and hazard evaluation of chemicals of concern (e.g., peroxide, beryllium). About 170 chemicals were disposed in the landfill. Chemicals included products, unused and residual chemicals, spent, waste chemicals, non-flammable oils, mineral oil, etc. MDA-B was considered a High hazard site. However, based on historical records and best engineering judgment, the chemical contents are probably at best 5% of the chemical inventory. Many chemicals probably have oxidized, degraded or evaporated for volatile elements due to some fire and limited shelf-life over 60 yrs, which made it possible to downgrade from High to Low chemical hazard site. Knowing the site history and physical and chemical properties are very important in characterizing a NES site. Public site boundary is only 20 m, which is a major concern. Chemicals of concern during remediation are peroxide that can cause potential explosion and beryllium exposure due to chronic beryllium disease (CBD). These can be prevented or mitigated using engineering control (EC) and safety management program (SMP) to protect the involved workers and public.

Laul, Jadish C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

388

Bisphenol A in hazardous waste landfill leachates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The levels of bisphenol A in hazardous waste landfill leachates collected in Japan in 1996 were determined by gas chromatograph\\/mass spectrometer (GC\\/MS). Bisphenol A was found in seven of 10 sites investigated. All the hazardous waste landfills with leachates contaminated by bisphenol A were controlled. The concentrations of bisphenol A ranged from 1.3 to 17,200 ?g\\/l with a median concentration

Takashi Yamamoto; Akio Yasuhara; Hiroaki Shiraishi; Osami Nakasugi

2001-01-01

389

Environmental Hazards of Nuclear Wastes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Present methods for storage of radioactive wastes produced at nuclear power facilities are described. Problems arising from present waste management are discussed and potential solutions explored. (JP)

Micklin, Philip P.

1974-01-01

390

Environmental Hazards of Nuclear Wastes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Present methods for storage of radioactive wastes produced at nuclear power facilities are described. Problems arising from present waste management are discussed and potential solutions explored. (JP)|

Micklin, Philip P.

1974-01-01

391

Financing hazardous-waste risks in Wisconsin  

SciTech Connect

Presently, there is a variety of systems for financing hazardous-waste risks in Wisconsin. These remedies include (1) federal law and regulation, (2) state statutory remedies, and (3) tort-law theories of liability. The unique characteristics of hazardous-waste risks pose special problems in financing the consequences of these risk under present systems. Furthermore, the recent collapse of pollution-liability insurance market and huge transaction costs associated with current legal systems raise the need to reevaluate the present systems for financing hazardous-waste risks. This thesis identifies the major problems of the present systems for financing the risks and presents a description of the financing and regulatory systems for hazardous-waste risks. The objectives are to evaluate present systems for financing hazardous-waste risks and suggest improved financing systems for hazardous-waste risks in Wisconsin. For these purposes, a set of criteria is developed. Once the analytical criteria have been developed, each of the present financing systems is analyzed in terms of how well it meets the developed criteria. The effects of these financing systems on the pollution-liability insurance market are also examined. Finally, conclusions and suggestions for an improved system are offered based on the evaluation of the existing systems.

Lee, J.H.

1987-01-01

392

Conceptual Design Report: Nevada Test Site Mixed Waste Disposal Facility Project  

SciTech Connect

Environmental cleanup of contaminated nuclear weapons manufacturing and test sites generates radioactive waste that must be disposed. Site cleanup activities throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex are projected to continue through 2050. Some of this waste is mixed waste (MW), containing both hazardous and radioactive components. In addition, there is a need for MW disposal from other mission activities. The Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision designates the Nevada Test Site (NTS) as a regional MW disposal site. The NTS has a facility that is permitted to dispose of onsite- and offsite-generated MW until November 30, 2010. There is not a DOE waste management facility that is currently permitted to dispose of offsite-generated MW after 2010, jeopardizing the DOE environmental cleanup mission and other MW-generating mission-related activities. A mission needs document (CD-0) has been prepared for a newly permitted MW disposal facility at the NTS that would provide the needed capability to support DOE's environmental cleanup mission and other MW-generating mission-related activities. This report presents a conceptual engineering design for a MW facility that is fully compliant with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and DOE O 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management'. The facility, which will be located within the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the NTS, will provide an approximately 20,000-cubic yard waste disposal capacity. The facility will be licensed by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP).

NSTec Environmental Management

2009-01-31

393

Electrochemical treatment of mixed and hazardous waste  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and The University of New Mexico are jointly developing an electrochemical process for treating hazardous and radioactive wastes. The wastes treatable by the process include toxic metal solutions, cyanide solutions, and various organic wastes that may contain chlorinated organic compounds. The main component of the process is a stack of electrolytic cells with peripheral equipment such as a rectifier, feed system, tanks with feed and treated solutions, and a gas-venting system. During the treatment, toxic metals are deposited on the cathode, cyanides are oxidized on the anode, and organic compounds are anodically oxidized by direct or mediated electrooxidation, depending on their type. Bench scale experimental studies have confirmed the feasibility of applying electrochemical systems to processing of a great variety of hazardous and mixed wastes. The operating parameters have been defined for different waste compositions using surrogate wastes. Mixed wastes are currently treated at bench scale as part of the treatability study.

Dziewinski, J.; Marczak, S.; Smith, W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Nuttall, E. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-12-31

394

30 CFR 47.53 - Alternative for hazardous waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) § 47.53 Alternative for hazardous waste. If the mine produces or uses hazardous waste, the operator must...

2013-07-01

395

Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description Document  

SciTech Connect

The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the accesses using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The defense high level waste (HLW) disposal container provides long-term confinement of the commercial HLW and defense HLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms [IPWF]) placed within disposable canisters, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. US Department of Energy (DOE)-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a defense HLW disposal container along with commercial HLW waste forms, which is known as co-disposal. The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container/waste package maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual canister temperatures after emplacement, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Defense HLW disposal containers for HLW disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters. Defense HLW disposal containers for co-disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters arranged in a ring and one DOE SNF canister inserted in the center and/or one or more DOE SNF canisters displacing a HLW canister in the ring. Defense HLW disposal containers also will hold two Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) and two HLW canisters in one disposal container. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinders, outer and inner cylinder lids, and may include a canister guide. An exterior label will provide a means by which to identify the disposal container and its contents.

N. E. Pettit

2001-07-13

396

Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description Document  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the accesses using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The defense high level waste

N. E. Pettit

2001-01-01

397

Effects of Heat Generation on Nuclear Waste Disposal in Salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disposal of nuclear waste in salt is an established technology, as evidenced by the successful operations of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) since 1999. The WIPP is located in bedded salt in southeastern New Mexico and is a deep underground facility for transuranic (TRU) nuclear waste disposal. There are many advantages for placing radioactive wastes in a geologic bedded-salt

D. J. Clayton

2008-01-01

398

Engineering evaluation of projected solid-waste-disposal practices. Volume 2: Case studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimates of the cost impacts of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) for hazardous and non-hazardous large volume waste classification scenarios on eight power plants was presented. Seven of the power plants were chosen to represent the range of waste management technologies and disposal site conditions existing in the United States today. The eighth site was a fictitious site used to further evaluate the feasibility of ocean disposal of large volume utility wastes. For each site, the professional design team acted in the role of a consultant retained by the utility to bring its waste disposal program into complete compliance with RCRA. First, a conceptual design was developed for each scenario. Then, cost estimates were developed for both scenarios, as well as for current operations. The cost estimates for current operations were performed in order to show the base cases necessary to determine RCRA's cost impacts.

Hayward, J. C.; Rothfuss, E. H., Jr.; Flick, W. J.; Hawk, T. S.; Quay, J. A.

1982-09-01

399

Decontamination and disposal of PCB wastes.  

PubMed Central

Decontamination and disposal processes for PCB wastes are reviewed. Processes are classed as incineration, chemical reaction or decontamination. Incineration technologies are not limited to the rigorous high temperature but include those where innovations in use of oxident, heat transfer and residue recycle are made. Chemical processes include the sodium processes, radiant energy processes and low temperature oxidations. Typical processing rates and associated costs are provided where possible.

Johnston, L E

1985-01-01

400

Evaluation of Proposed New LLW Disposal Activity: Disposal of Aqueous PUREX Waste Stream in the Saltstone Disposal Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Aqueous PUREX waste stream from Tanks 33 and 35, which have been blended in Tank 34, has been identified for possible processing through the Saltstone Processing Facility for disposal in the Saltstone Disposal Facility. Other options include blending ...

J. R. Cook

2003-01-01

401

Regional and urban solid waste disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning regional and urban solid waste disposal and recycling technology. Citations discuss methods and facilities for the treatment of municipal, industrial, household, and medical wastes. Topics include incineration, landfills, treatment of hazardous materials, composting techniques, waste utilization, and open dumps. Also discussed are pollution regulations, laws and legal aspects, facility design, and markets for composts.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-10-01

402

Regional and urban solid waste disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). NewSearch  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning regional and urban solid waste disposal and recycling technology. Citations discuss methods and facilities for the treatment of municipal, industrial, household, and medical wastes. Topics include incineration, landfills, treatment of hazardous materials, composting techniques, waste utilization, and open dumps. Also discussed are pollution regulations, laws and legal aspects, facility design, and markets for composts. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-10-01

403

Hanford Low-Level Waste Form Performance for Meeting Land Disposal Requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immobilized Low-activity waste (ILAW) from the Hanford site will be disposed of in near-surface burial grounds and must be processed into a chemically durable waste form to prevent release of hazardous constituents to the environment. To meet his goal, the LAW will be immobilized in borosilicate glass. the DOE office of River Protection and the Rive Protection Project-Waste Treatment Plant

2003-01-01

404

Regional and urban solid waste disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning regional and urban solid waste disposal and recycling technology. Citations discuss methods and facilities for the treatment of municipal, industrial, household, and medical wastes. Topics include incineration, landfills, treatment of hazardous materials, composting techniques, waste utilization, and open dumps. Also discussed are pollution regulations, laws and legal aspects, facility design, and markets for composts.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1997-02-01

405

Selection of infectious medical waste disposal firms by using the analytic hierarchy process and sensitivity analysis  

SciTech Connect

While Taiwanese hospitals dispose of large amounts of medical waste to ensure sanitation and personal hygiene, doing so inefficiently creates potential environmental hazards and increases operational expenses. However, hospitals lack objective criteria to select the most appropriate waste disposal firm and evaluate its performance, instead relying on their own subjective judgment and previous experiences. Therefore, this work presents an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method to objectively select medical waste disposal firms based on the results of interviews with experts in the field, thus reducing overhead costs and enhancing medical waste management. An appropriate weight criterion based on AHP is derived to assess the effectiveness of medical waste disposal firms. The proposed AHP-based method offers a more efficient and precise means of selecting medical waste firms than subjective assessment methods do, thus reducing the potential risks for hospitals. Analysis results indicate that the medical sector selects the most appropriate infectious medical waste disposal firm based on the following rank: matching degree, contractor's qualifications, contractor's service capability, contractor's equipment and economic factors. By providing hospitals with an effective means of evaluating medical waste disposal firms, the proposed AHP method can reduce overhead costs and enable medical waste management to understand the market demand in the health sector. Moreover, performed through use of Expert Choice software, sensitivity analysis can survey the criterion weight of the degree of influence with an alternative hierarchy.

Hsu, P.-F. [Department of Communications Management, Shih Hsin University, No.1, Lane 17, Mu-Cha Road, Sec.1, Taipei 11604, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: celina9@ms26.hinet.net; Wu, C.-R. [Graduate Institute of Business and Management, Yuanpei University, 306 Yuanpei Street, Hsin Chu 300, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: alexru00@ms41.hinet.net; Li, Y.-T. [Graduate Institute of Business and Management, Yuanpei University, 306 Yuanpei Street, Hsin Chu 300, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: ting.ding@msa.hinet.net

2008-07-01

406

Handbook for waterborne transportation of hazardous materials and wastes  

SciTech Connect

Production, storage, transport, and disposal of hazardous substances are concerns which are rapidly rising to the forefront of national attention. Federal statutes and regulations governing the production and handling of hazardous materials have attained a level of volume and complexity which has few, if any, equal. Manufacturers and transporters have the responsibility to understand and comply with hazardous materials so as to avoid accidents. Increased public interest and pressures to find adequate storage places for hazardous wastes in a shrinking world have caused additional demands for state regulation as well. Local governments bear the burden of primary responsibility for immediate reaction to emergency spills of hazardous substances. This handbook is concerned with the federal laws as well as the state laws of Mississippi and Alabama concerning hazardous materials and wastes transport, primarily that which travels by water. It is intended to serve as a reference guide to aid local and administrative personnel and elected officials to gain insight into such a complex field of law. Due to the volume of enactments and regulations, the handbook strives only to set forth the black-letter law and provide information to enable the user to make contacts necessary to seek out more information regarding interpretation of the law and the specific functions of those who deal with it.

Burr, C.A.; O'Dell, R.

1985-12-01

407

Work plan for the preliminary assessment and characterization of dense nonaqueous-phase liquids in the Bear Creek Burial Grounds Hazardous Waste Disposal Unit at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On January 5, 1990, accumulations of dense, nonaqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLs) were discovered at depths of approximately 274 ft below ground surface along the southern border of Burial Ground A-South within the Bear Creek Burial Grounds Hazardous Waste Di...

C. S. Haase H. L. King

1990-01-01

408

Transuranic advanced disposal systems: preliminary ²³⁹Pu waste-disposal criteria for Hanford  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report contains the draft results of a study sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to determine preliminary ²³⁹Pu waste disposal criteria for the Hanford Site. The purpose of this study is to provide a preliminary evaluation of the feasibility of various defense TRU advanced disposal options at the Hanford Site. Advanced waste disposal options include those developed

W. E. Jr. Kennedy; R. L. Aaberg; B. A. Napier; J. K. Soldat

1982-01-01

409

Processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination of a plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter.

Gotovchikov, Vitaly T. (Moscow, RU); Ivanov, Alexander V. (Moscow, RU); Filippov, Eugene A. (Moscow, RU)

1998-05-12

410

BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF AQUEOUS HAZARDOUS WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes tests performed in order to evaluate the fate of aqueous organic hazardous waste compounds in the activated sludge process. Gas, liguid, and waste solids samples were taken from acclimated activated sludge systems to determine amounts that were volatilized, bi...

411

Method for acid oxidation of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed organic waste materials  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a process for reducing the volume of low level radioactive and mixed waste to enable the waste to be more economically stored in a suitable repository, and for placing the waste into a form suitable for permanent disposal. The invention involves a process for preparing radioactive, hazardous, or mixed waste for storage by contacting the waste starting material containing at least one organic carbon-containing compound and at least one radioactive or hazardous waste component with nitric acid and phosphoric acid simultaneously at a contacting temperature in the range of about 140.degree. C. to about 210 .degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to oxidize at least a portion of the organic carbon-containing compound to gaseous products, thereby producing a residual concentrated waste product containing substantially all of said radioactive or inorganic hazardous waste component; and immobilizing the residual concentrated waste product in a solid phosphate-based ceramic or glass form.

Pierce, Robert A. (Aiken, SC); Smith, James R. (Corrales, NM); Ramsey, William G. (Aiken, SC); Cicero-Herman, Connie A. (Aiken, SC); Bickford, Dennis F. (Folly Beach, SC)

1999-01-01

412

Disposal and degradation of pesticide waste.  

PubMed

Generation of pesticide waste is inevitable during every agricultural operation from storage to use and equipment cleanup. Large-scale pesticide manufacturers can afford sophisticated recovery, treatment, and cleanup techniques. Small-scale pesticide users, for example, single farms or small application businesses, struggle with both past waste problems, including contaminated soils, and disposal of unused product and equipment rinsewater. Many of these problems have arisen as a result of inability to properly handle spills during, equipment loading and rinsewater generated after application. Small-scale facilities also face continued problems of wastewater handling. Old, obsolete pesticide stocks are a vexing problem in numerous developing countries. Pesticide waste is characterized by high concentrations of a diversity of chemicals and associated adjuvants. Dissipation of chemicals at elevated concentrations is much slower than at lower concentrations, in part because of microbial toxicity and mass transfer limitations. High concentrations of pesticides may also move faster to lower soil depths, especially when pore water becomes saturated wish a compound. Thus, if pesticide waste is not properly disposed of, groundwater and surface water contamination become probable. The Waste Management Hierarchy developed as an Australian Code of Practice can serve as a guide for development of a sound waste management plan. In order of desirability, the course of actions include waste avoidance, waste reduction, waste recycling, waste treatment, and waste disposal. Proper management of pesticide stocks, including adequate storage conditions, good inventory practices, and regular turnover of products,. will contribute to waste avoidance and reduction over the long-term. Farmers can also choose to use registered materials that have the lowest recommended application rates or are applied in the least volume of water. Wastewater that is generated during equipment rinsing can be recycled by spraying it onto cropland, thus avoiding a soil contamination problem. If it is not feasible to spray out rinsates, then water treatment becomes necessary. However, for small waste generators, practical technology is still too experimental and not easily implemented on an individual farm or at a small application business. Nevertheless, research has been quite active in application of advanced oxidation processes (UV/ozonation: photoassisted Fenton reaction: photocatalysis using TiO2). Obsolete pesticide stocks in developing countries are being packaged and shipped to developed countries for incineration. Contaminated soil can also be incinerated, but this is not practical nor affordable for small waste generators. Chemical degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides may be amenable to dechlorination by alkali polyethylene glycol treatment, but further study is needed to make the technique practical for small waste generators. Contaminated soils may be amenable to cleanup by one of several biological treatment methods, including composting, landfarming, and bioaugmentation/ biostimulation. Composting and landfarming (which may be used in combination with biostimulation) may be the most practical of the biological methods that is immediately ready for implementation by small-scale pesticide waste generators. PMID:12666819

Felsot, Allan S; Racke, Kenneth D; Hamilton, Denis J

2003-01-01

413

40 CFR 279.21 - Hazardous waste mixing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Hazardous waste mixing. 279.21 Section...AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for...Generators § 279.21 Hazardous waste mixing. (a)...

2013-07-01

414

40 CFR 279.21 - Hazardous waste mixing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Hazardous waste mixing. 279.21 Section 279...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE...Generators § 279.21 Hazardous waste mixing. (a) Mixtures of...

2012-07-01

415

An Effective Waste Management Process for Segregation and Disposal of Legacy Mixed Waste at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) is a research and development facility that generates many highly diverse, low-volume mixed waste streams. Under the Federal Facility Compliance Act, SNL/NM must treat its mixed waste in storage to meet the Land Disposal Restrictions treatment standards. Since 1989, approximately 70 cubic meters (2500 cubic feet) of heterogeneous, poorly characterized and inventoried mixed waste was placed in storage that could not be treated as specified in the SNL/NM Site Treatment Plan. A process was created to sort the legacy waste into sixteen well- defined, properly characterized, and precisely inventoried mixed waste streams (Treatability Groups) and two low-level waste streams ready for treatment or disposal. From June 1995 through September 1996, the entire volume of this stored mixed waste was sorted and inventoried through this process. This process was planned to meet the technical requirements of the sorting operation and to identify and address the hazards this operation presented. The operations were routinely adapted to safely and efficiently handle a variety of waste matrices, hazards, and radiological conditions. This flexibility was accomplished through administrative and physical controls integrated into the sorting operations. Many Department of Energy facilities are currently facing the prospect of sorting, characterizing, and treating a large inventory of mixed waste. The process described in this paper is a proven method for preparing a diverse, heterogeneous mixed waste volume into segregated, characterized, inventoried, and documented waste streams ready for treatment or disposal.

Hallman, Anne K. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Meyer, Dann [IT Corporation, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rellergert, Carla A. [Roy F. Weston, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schriner, Joseph A. [Automated Solutions of Albuquerque, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1998-06-01

416

An effective waste management process for segregation and disposal of legacy mixed waste at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) is a research and development facility that generates many highly diverse, low-volume mixed waste streams. Under the Federal Facility Compliance Act, SNL/NM must treat its mixed waste in storage to meet the Land Disposal Restrictions treatment standards. Since 1989, approximately 70 cubic meters (2,500 cubic feet) of heterogeneous, poorly characterized and inventoried mixed waste was placed in storage that could not be treated as specified in the SNL/NM Site Treatment Plan. A process was created to sort the legacy waste into sixteen well-defined, properly characterized, and accurately inventoried mixed waste streams (Treatability Groups) and two low-level waste streams ready for treatment or disposal. From June 1995 through September 1996, the entire volume of this stored mixed waste was sorted and inventoried. This process was planned to meet the technical requirements of the sorting operation and to identify and address the hazards this operation presented. The operations were routinely adapted to safely and efficiently handle a variety of waste matrices, hazards, and radiological conditions. This flexibility was accomplished through administrative and physical controls integrated into the sorting operations. Many Department of Energy facilities are currently facing the prospect of sorting, characterizing, and treating a large inventory of mixed waste. The process described in this report is a proven method for preparing a diverse, heterogeneous mixed waste volume into segregated, characterized, inventoried, and documented waste streams ready for treatment or disposal.

Hallman, A.K. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Meyer, D. [IT Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rellergert, C.A. [Roy F. Weston, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schriner, J.A. [Automated Solutions of Albuquerque, Inc., NM (United States)

1998-04-01

417

Remote vacuum compaction of compressible hazardous waste  

DOEpatents

A system for remote vacuum compaction and containment of low-level radioactive or hazardous waste comprising a vacuum source, a sealable first flexible container, and a sealable outer flexible container for receiving one or more first flexible containers. A method for compacting low level radioactive or hazardous waste materials at the point of generation comprising the steps of sealing the waste in a first flexible container, sealing one or more first containers within an outer flexible container, breaching the integrity of the first containers, evacuating the air from the inner and outer containers, and sealing the outer container shut.

Coyne, Martin J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Fiscus, Gregory M. (McMurray, PA); Sammel, Alfred G. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1998-01-01

418

Remote vacuum compaction of compressible hazardous waste  

DOEpatents

A system is described for remote vacuum compaction and containment of low-level radioactive or hazardous waste comprising a vacuum source, a sealable first flexible container, and a sealable outer flexible container for receiving one or more first flexible containers. A method for compacting low level radioactive or hazardous waste materials at the point of generation comprising the steps of sealing the waste in a first flexible container, sealing one or more first containers within an outer flexible container, breaching the integrity of the first containers, evacuating the air from the inner and outer containers, and sealing the outer container shut.

Coyne, M.J.; Fiscus, G.M.; Sammel, A.G.

1996-12-31

419

Biological treatment of aqueous hazardous wastes  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes tests performed in order to evaluate the fate of aqueous organic hazardous-waste compounds in the activated sludge process. Gas, liguid, and waste-solids samples were taken from acclimated activated-sludge systems to determine amounts that were volatilized, biodegraded, and associated with the wasted solids. Results discussed here include two compounds: methyl ethyl ketone and 1,1,1-trichloroethane.

Park, J.E.; Koczwara, M.K.; Lesiecki, R.J.

1987-06-01

420

Hazardous Waste Management in South African Mining ? A CGE Analysis of the Economic Impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is no doubt that an improved hazardous waste management in mining and mineral processing will reduce environmental and health risks in South Africa. However, skeptics fear that waste reduction, appropriate treatment and disposal are not affordable within the current economic circumstances, neither from an economic nor from a social point of view. This paper mainly deals with the first

Manfred Wiebelt

1999-01-01

421

EVALUATION OF TECHNOLOGIES FOR TREATING AQUEOUS METAL/CYANIDE BEARING HAZARDOUS WASTE (F007)  

EPA Science Inventory

As a result of recent developments in the area of hazardous waste management, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is evaluating the performance of various technologies for the treatment and/or destruction of certain wastes that are presently being disposed of in landfills an...

422

Modeling the Combustion Behavior of Hazardous Waste in a Rotary Kiln Incinerator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hazardous wastes have complex physical forms and chemical compositions and are normally incinerated in rotary kilns for safe disposal and energy recovery. In the rotary kiln, the multifeed stream and wide variation of thermal, physical, and chemical properties of the wastes cause the incineration system to be highly heterogeneous, with severe temperature fluctuations and unsteady combustion chemistry. Incomplete combustion is

YONGXIANG YANG; MARC J. A. PIJNENBORG; MARKUS A. REUTER; JOEP VERWOERD

2005-01-01

423

Composition and process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes  

SciTech Connect

The present invention provides a composition and process for disposal of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. The present invention preferably includes a process for multibarrier encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially simultaneously dry waste powder, a non-biodegradable thermoplastic polymer and an anhydrous additive in an extruder to form a homogeneous molten matrix. The molten matrix may be directed in a clean'' polyethylene liner, allowed to cool, thus forming a monolithic waste form which provides a multibarrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment. 2 figs.

Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

1999-07-20

424

Composition and process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a composition and process for disposal of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. The present invention preferably includes a process for multibarrier encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially simultaneously dry waste powder, a non-biodegradable thermoplastic polymer and an anhydrous additive in an extruder to form a homogenous molten matrix. The molten matrix may be directed in a "clean" polyethylene liner, allowed to cool, thus forming a monolithic waste form which provides a multibarrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment.

Kalb, Paul D. (Wading River, NY); Colombo, Peter (Patchogue, NY)

1998-03-24

425

Composition and process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a composition and process for disposal of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. The present invention preferably includes a process for multibarrier encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially simultaneously dry waste powder, a non-biodegradable thermoplastic polymer and an anhydrous additive in an extruder to form a homogeneous molten matrix. The molten matrix may be directed in a ``clean`` polyethylene liner, allowed to cool, thus forming a monolithic waste form which provides a multibarrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment. 2 figs.

Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

1998-03-24

426

Composition and process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive hazardous and mixed wastes  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a composition and process for disposal of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. The present invention preferably includes a process for multibarrier encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially simultaneously dry waste powder, a non-biodegradable thermoplastic polymer and an anhydrous additive in an extruder to form a homogeneous molten matrix. The molten matrix may be directed in a ``clean`` polyethylene liner, allowed to cool, thus forming a monolithic waste form which provides a multibarrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment. 2 figs.

Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

1997-07-15

427

Composition and process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a composition and process for disposal of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. The present invention preferably includes a process for multibarrier encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially simultaneously dry waste powder, a non-biodegradable thermoplastic polymer and an anhydrous additive in an extruder to form a homogenous molten matrix. The molten matrix may be directed in a "clean" polyethylene liner, allowed to cool, thus forming a monolithic waste form which provides a multibarrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment.

Kalb, Paul D. (Wading River, NY); Colombo, Peter (Patchogue, NY)

1999-07-20

428

Composition and process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive hazardous and mixed wastes  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a composition and process for disposal of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. The present invention preferably includes a process for multibarrier encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially simultaneously dry waste powder, a non-biodegradable thermoplastic polymer and an anhydrous additive in an extruder to form a homogenous molten matrix. The molten matrix may be directed in a "clean" polyethylene liner, allowed to cool, thus forming a monolithic waste form which provides a multibarrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment.

Kalb, Paul D. (21 Barnes Road, Wading River, NY 11792); Colombo, Peter (44 N. Pinelake Dr., Patchogue, NY 11772)

1997-01-01

429

Criteria and Processes for the Certification of Non-Radioactive Hazardous and Non-Hazardous Wastes  

SciTech Connect

This document details Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) criteria and processes for determining if potentially volumetrically contaminated or potentially surface contaminated wastes are to be managed as material containing residual radioactivity or as non-radioactive. This document updates and replaces UCRL-AR-109662, Criteria and Procedures for the Certification of Nonradioactive Hazardous Waste (Reference 1), also known as 'The Moratorium', and follows the guidance found in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) document, Performance Objective for Certification of Non-Radioactive Hazardous Waste (Reference 2). The 1992 Moratorium document (UCRL-AR-109662) is three volumes and 703 pages. The first volume provides an overview of the certification process and lists the key radioanalytical methods and their associated Limits of Sensitivities. Volumes Two and Three contain supporting documents and include over 30 operating procedures, QA plans, training documents and organizational charts that describe the hazardous and radioactive waste management system in place in 1992. This current document is intended to update the previous Moratorium documents and to serve as the top-tier LLNL institutional Moratorium document. The 1992 Moratorium document was restricted to certification of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), State and Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) hazardous waste from Radioactive Material Management Areas (RMMA). This still remains the primary focus of the Moratorium; however, this document increases the scope to allow use of this methodology to certify other LLNL wastes and materials destined for off-site disposal, transfer, and re-use including non-hazardous wastes and wastes generated outside of RMMAs with the potential for DOE added radioactivity. The LLNL organization that authorizes off-site transfer/disposal of a material or waste stream is responsible for implementing the requirements of this document. The LLNL Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) organization is responsible for the review and maintenance of this document. It should be noted that the DOE metal recycling moratorium is still in effect and is implemented as outlined in reference 17 when metals are being dispositioned for disposal/re-use/recycling off-site. This document follows the same methodology as described in the previously approved 1992 Moratorium document. Generator knowledge and certification are the primary means of characterization. Sampling and analysis are used when there is insufficient knowledge of a waste to determine if it contains added radioactivity. Table 1 (page 12) presents a list of LLNL's analytical methods for evaluating volumetrically contaminated waste and updates the reasonably achievable analytical-method-specific Minimum Detectable Concentrations (MDCs) for various matrices. Results from sampling and analysis are compared against the maximum MDCs for the given analytical method and the sample specific MDC to determine if the sample contains DOE added volumetric radioactivity. The evaluation of an item that has a physical form, and history of use, such that accessible surfaces may be potentially contaminated, is based on DOE Order 5400.5 (Reference 3), and its associated implementation guidance document DOE G 441.1-XX, Control and Release of Property with Residual Radioactive Material (Reference 4). The guidance document was made available for use via DOE Memorandum (Reference 5). Waste and materials containing residual radioactivity transferred off-site must meet the receiving facilities Waste Acceptance Criteria (if applicable) and be in compliance with other applicable federal or state requirements.

Dominick, J

2008-12-18

430

78 FR 46940 - Hazardous and Solid Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Special Wastes...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2050-AE81 Hazardous and Solid Waste Management System: Identification and...proposed rule: Hazardous and Solid Waste Management System: Identification and...comments to Hazardous and Solid Waste Management System: Identification...

2013-08-02

431

Conceptual Safety Design Report for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility  

SciTech Connect

A new onsite, remote-handled LLW disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled LLW disposal for remote-handled LLW from the Idaho National Laboratory and for spent nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled LLW in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This conceptual safety design report supports the design of a proposed onsite remote-handled LLW disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization, by identifying potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled LLW, by evaluating consequences of postulated accidents, and by discussing the need for safety features that will become part of the facility design.

Boyd D. Christensen

2010-05-01

432

Conceptual Safety Design Report for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility  

SciTech Connect

A new onsite, remote-handled LLW disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled LLW disposal for remote-handled LLW from the Idaho National Laboratory and for spent nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled LLW in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This conceptual safety design report supports the design of a proposed onsite remote-handled LLW disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization, by identifying potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled LLW, by evaluating consequences of postulated accidents, and by discussing the need for safety features that will become part of the facility design.

Boyd D. Christensen

2010-02-01

433

Hazardous-waste technical-assistance survey, McChord AFB, Washington. Final report, 22-26 Oct 90  

SciTech Connect

A hazardous waste survey was conducted at McChord AFB, Washington, from 22-26 Oct 90 which addressed hazardous waste management and waste disposal practices, explored opportunities for waste minimization, and determined waste-streams. Recommendations include: (1) Shops using aircraft soap should switch to a milder soap; (2) Consider using a siliceous-based absorbant; (3) Use a contractor who accepts wet batteries or neutralize the acid; (4) Accumulation point managers should maintain a log; (5) Conduct frequent refresher training; (6) Upgrade accumulation sites; (7) Analyze used paint filters; (8) Dispose of anti-freeze in the sanitary sewer; (9) Sample NDI chemicals to determine if hazardous; (10) Update the Waste Analysis Plan; (11) Find a method to recover solvent from the washrack; (12) Entomology needs to comply with FIFRA; (13) Triple-rinse pesticide containers; (14) List all accumulation sites and managers in the hazardous waste management plan; (15) Use an off-the-shelf filtration unit in the waterfall paint booths; (16) Label all hazardous waste drums; (17) Dispose of waste latex paint as municiple waste; (18) Disposal of old hazardous waste drums; and (19) Analyze shop rags from CATM to determine toxicity.

Albrecht, L.B.

1991-03-01

434

Disposal of Excess and Waste Explosives in Confined Chambers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new concept in excess and waste military explosive material disposal envisions that conventional military ordnance material be disposed of in large batch configurations by detonation/deflagration in confined underground chambers. The gaseous products of...

F. A. Visted

1973-01-01

435

Air Pollutants Emissions from Waste Treatment and Disposal Facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the atmospheric pollution created by some waste treatment and disposal facilities in the State of Kuwait. Air monitoring was conducted in a municipal wastewater treatment plant, an industrial wastewater treatment plant established in a petroleum refinery, and at a landfill site used for disposal of solid wastes. Such plants were selected as models for waste treatment and

MOHAMED F. HAMODA

2006-01-01

436

Interjurisdictional waste disposal: Legal issues, economic framework and environmental impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interjurisdictional waste transport (IWT) for disposal purposes is generating growing conflict, as richer political entities look to poorer or low-population regions for waste-disposal sites. In City of Philadelphia v. State of New Jersey, decided in 1978, the US Supreme Court laid the foundation for subsequent decisions governing IWT. The Court declared that waste shipments constitute interstate commerce even though the

1993-01-01

437

Property-close source separation of hazardous waste and waste electrical and electronic equipment - A Swedish case study  

SciTech Connect

Through an agreement with EEE producers, Swedish municipalities are responsible for collection of hazardous waste and waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). In most Swedish municipalities, collection of these waste fractions is concentrated to waste recycling centres where households can source-separate and deposit hazardous waste and WEEE free of charge. However, the centres are often located on the outskirts of city centres and cars are needed in order to use the facilities in most cases. A full-scale experiment was performed in a residential area in southern Sweden to evaluate effects of a system for property-close source separation of hazardous waste and WEEE. After the system was introduced, results show a clear reduction in the amount of hazardous waste and WEEE disposed of incorrectly amongst residual waste or dry recyclables. The systems resulted in a source separation ratio of 70 wt% for hazardous waste and 76 wt% in the case of WEEE. Results show that households in the study area were willing to increase source separation of hazardous waste and WEEE when accessibility was improved and that this and similar collection systems can play an important role in building up increasingly sustainable solid waste management systems.

Bernstad, Anna, E-mail: anna.bernstad@chemeng.lth.se [Dep. of Chem. Eng., Faculty of Eng., Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Cour Jansen, Jes la [Dep. of Chem. Eng., Faculty of Eng., Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Aspegren, Henrik [VA SYD, City of Malmoe (Sweden)

2011-03-15

438

40 CFR 257.3 - Criteria for classification of solid waste disposal facilities and practices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Criteria for classification of solid waste disposal facilities and practices. 257...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR CLASSIFICATION OF SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITIES AND PRACTICES...

2011-07-01

439

40 CFR 257.3 - Criteria for classification of solid waste disposal facilities and practices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Criteria for classification of solid waste disposal facilities and practices. 257...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR CLASSIFICATION OF SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITIES AND PRACTICES...

2013-07-01

440

Geochemical Aspects of Radioactive Waste Disposal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The author's stated purpose in writing this book is to summarize the large number of government-sponsored research reports on the geochemical aspects of high-level nuclear waste isolation. Although this book has a 1984 publication date, the majority of the cited documents were published before 1982. Unfortunately, passage of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982 and its signing into law by President Reagan (January 1983) [U.S. Congress, 1983] has significantly altered the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (CRWM) Program. Therefore this book does not accurately reflect the present U.S. program in geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste. For example, chapter 2, “Radioactive Waste Management,” is almost 3 years out of date in a field that is changing rapidly (see U.S. DOE [1984a] for the current status of the CRWM Program). Additionally, the source material, which forms the input for this book, is chiefly grey literature, i.e., the referenced documents may or may not have undergone peer review and therefore do not represent the technical judgment of the scientific community. Also, this book only presents a selective sampling of information because the literature cited does not include a representative selection of the widespread available literature on this topic.

Moody, Judith B.

1984-04-01

441

After the Bell: Hazardous waste roundup  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When most people think ofhazardous waste, they generally think of materials used in construction, the defense industry, mining, manufacturing, and agriculture. Few people think of hazardous substances found in their homes. From flammable cleaning products to toxic pesticides, the average U.S. home is full of hazardous products. The activities discussed in this column will help students to use the process of scientific inquiry to take inventory of the risks in their own homes.

Joyce, Beverly A.; Ness, Daniel; Farenga, Stephen J.

2004-04-01

442

Management of hazardous wastes Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), during the course of numerous research activities, generates hazardous, radioactive, and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. The management of these waste materials is highly regulated in the United States (US). This paper focuses on the hazardous waste regulations that limit and prescribe waste management at LLNL.

Jackson, C.S.

1993-11-01

443

Improving tamper detection for hazardous waste security  

SciTech Connect

After September 11, waste managers are increasingly expected to provide improved levels of security for the hazardous materials in their charge. Many low-level wastes that previously had minimal or no security must now be well protected, while high-level wastes require even greater levels of security than previously employed. This demand for improved security comes, in many cases, without waste managers being provided the necessary additional funding, personnel, or security expertise. Contributing to the problem is the fact that--at least in our experience--waste managers often fail to appreciate certain types of security vulnerabilities. They frequently overlook or underestimate the security risks associated with disgruntled or compromised insiders, or the potential legal and political liabilities associated with nonexistent or ineffective security. Also frequently overlooked are potential threats from waste management critics who could resort to sabotage, vandalism, or civil disobedience for purposes of discrediting a waste management program.

Johnston, R. G. (Roger G.); Garcia, A. R. E. (Anthony R. E.); Pacheco, A. N. (Adam N.); Trujillo, S. J. (Sonia J.); Martinez, R. K. (Ronald K.); Martinez, D. D. (Debbie D.); Lopez, L. N. (Leon N.)

2002-01-01

444

LISA. A Code for Safety Assessment in Nuclear Waste Disposals Program Description and User Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The code LISA (Long term Isolation Safety Assessment), developed at the Joint Research Centre, Ispra is a useful tool in the analysis of the hazard due to the disposal of nuclear waste in geological formations. The risk linked to preestablished release sc...

A. Saltelli G. Bertozzi D. A. Stanners

1984-01-01

445

Waste component recycle, treatment, and disposal integrated demonstration (WeDID) nuclear weapon dismantlement activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the drivers in the dismantlement and disposal of nuclear weapon components is Envirorunental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines. The primary regulatory driver for these components is the Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA). Nuclear weapon components are heterogeneous and contain a number of hazardous materials including heavy metals, PCB'S, selfcontained explosives, radioactive materials, gas-filled tubes, etc. The Waste Component Recycle,

Wheelis

1993-01-01

446

Waste component recycle, treatment, and disposal integrated demonstration (WeDID) nuclear weapon dismantlement activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the drivers in the dismantlement and disposal of nuclear weapon components is Envirorunental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines. The primary regulatory driver for these components is the Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA). Nuclear weapon components are heterogeneous and contain a number of hazardous materials including heavy metals, PCB`S, selfcontained explosives, radioactive materials, gas-filled tubes, etc. The Waste Component Recycle,

Wheelis

1993-01-01

447

Commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the US  

SciTech Connect

Why are 11 states attempting to develop new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities? Why is only on disposal facility accepting waste nationally? What is the future of waste disposal? These questions are representative of those being asked throughout the country. This paper attempts to answer these questions in terms of where we are, how we got there, and where we might be going.

Smith, P.

1995-10-01

448

Wet precipitator design for hazardous waste incineration  

SciTech Connect

Currently there are fluid plate precipitators operating on both liquid and solid hazardous waste incinerators with flue gas volumes ranging from 7,000 to 40,000 ACFM. The oldest unit has been in operation since 1976 with no replacement or major repair to either the FRP components or the Hastelloy C-276, emitting electrodes due to corrosion. The authors discuss how the high concentrations of chlorides, fluorides, and sulfur compounds encountered in conjunction with the successful control of acid mist and ash emissions has demonstrated the merit of the corrosion resistant wet precipitator for the control of hazardous waste incinerator emissions.

Sebille, A.J.; Swift, A.E. (Dresser Industries, Inc., Houston, TX (USA). Petroleum Services Div.)

1987-01-01

449

DUST CONTROL AT HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES. HANDBOOK  

EPA Science Inventory

Spills, waste disposal, and various industrial operations can result in the contamination of land surfaces with toxic chemicals. Soil particles from these areas can be entrained into the air, transported offsite via the wind, and result in human exposure by direct inhalation. Ind...

450

40 CFR 271.12 - Requirements for hazardous waste management facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Requirements for hazardous waste management facilities. 271.12 Section... Requirements for hazardous waste management facilities. The State shall have standards for hazardous waste management facilities which are...

2013-07-01

451

Bisphenol A in hazardous waste landfill leachates.  

PubMed

The levels of bisphenol A in hazardous waste landfill leachates collected in Japan in 1996 were determined by gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). Bisphenol A was found in seven of 10 sites investigated. All the hazardous waste landfills with leachates contaminated by bisphenol A were controlled. The concentrations of bisphenol A ranged from 1.3 to 17,200 microg/l with a median concentration of 269 microg/l. The source of bisphenol A in landfill leachates may be the waste plastics in waste landfill. The concentrations of bisphenol A in some samples exceeded the EC50 or LC50 levels for aquatic biota. Landfill leachates may be a significant source of bisphenol A found in the environment. PMID:11100793

Yamamoto, T; Yasuhara, A; Shiraishi, H; Nakasugi, O

2001-02-01

452

Accepting Mixed Waste as Alternate Feed Material for Processing and Disposal at a Licensed Uranium Mill  

SciTech Connect

Certain categories of mixed wastes that contain recoverable amounts of natural uranium can be processed for the recovery of valuable uranium, alone or together with other metals, at licensed uranium mills, and the resulting tailings permanently disposed of as 11e.(2) byproduct material in the mill's tailings impoundment, as an alternative to treatment and/or direct disposal at a mixed waste disposal facility. This paper discusses the regulatory background applicable to hazardous wastes, mixed wastes and uranium mills and, in particular, NRC's Alternate Feed Guidance under which alternate feed materials that contain certain types of mixed wastes may be processed and disposed of at uranium mills. The paper discusses the way in which the Alternate Feed Guidance has been interpreted in the past with respect to processing mixed wastes and the significance of recent changes in NRC's interpretation of the Alternate Feed Guidance that sets the stage for a broader range of mixed waste materials to be processed as alternate feed materials. The paper also reviews the le gal rationale and policy reasons why materials that would otherwise have to be treated and/or disposed of as mixed waste, at a mixed waste disposal facility, are exempt from RCRA when reprocessed as alternate feed material at a uranium mill and become subject to the sole jurisdiction of NRC, and some of the reasons why processing mixed wastes as alternate feed materials at uranium mills is preferable to direct disposal. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion of the specific acceptance, characterization and certification requirements applicable to alternate feed materials and mixed wastes at International Uranium (USA) Corporation's White Mesa Mill, which has been the most active uranium mill in the processing of alternate feed materials under the Alternate Feed Guidance.

Frydenland, D. C.; Hochstein, R. F.; Thompson, A. J.

2002-02-26

453

40 CFR 261.11 - Criteria for listing hazardous waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION...The Administrator shall list a solid waste as a hazardous waste only upon determining that the solid waste meets one of the following...

2013-07-01

454

40 CFR 262.11 - Hazardous waste determination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO...WASTE General § 262.11 Hazardous waste determination. A person who generates a solid waste, as defined in 40 CFR 261.2, must...

2013-07-01

455

Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description  

SciTech Connect

The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the accesses using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The defense high level waste (HLW) disposal container provides long-term confinement of the commercial HLW and defense HLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms (IPWF)) placed within disposable canisters, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a defense HLW disposal container along with commercial HLW waste forms, which is known as 'co-disposal'. The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container/waste package maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual canister temperatures after emplacement, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Defense HLW disposal containers for HLW disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters. Defense HLW disposal containers for co-disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters arranged in a ring and one DOE SNF canister in the ring. Defense HLW disposal containers also will hold two Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) and two HLW canisters in one disposal container. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinders, outer and inner cylinder lids, and may include a canister guide. An exterior label will provide a means by which to identify the disposal container and its contents. Different materials will be selected for the disposal container inner and outer cylinders. The two metal cylinders, in combination with the Emplacement Drift System, drip shield, and natural barrier, will support the design philosophy of defense-in-depth. The use of materials with different properties prevents a single mode failure from breaching the waste package. The inner cylinder and inner cylinder lids will be constructed of stainless steel and the outer cylinder and outer cylinder lids will be a barrier made of high-nickel alloy. The defense HLW disposal container interfaces with the emplacement drift environment and the internal waste by transferring heat from the canisters to the external environment and by protecting the canisters and their contents from damage/degradation by the external environment. The disposal container also interfaces with the canisters by limiting access of moderator and oxidizing agents to the waste. A loaded and sealed disposal container (waste package) interfaces with the Emplacement Drift System's emplacement drift waste package supports upon which the waste packages are placed. The disposal container interfaces with the Canister Transfer System, Waste Emplacement /Retrieval System, Disposal Container Handling System, and Waste Package Remediation System during loading, handling, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval for the disposal container/waste package.

NONE

2000-10-12

456

Ground freezing for containment of hazardous waste  

SciTech Connect

The freezing of ground for the containment of subsurface hazardous waste is a promising method that is environmentally friendly and offers a safe alternative to other methods of waste retention in many cases. The frozen soil method offers two concepts for retaining waste. One concept is to freeze the entire waste area into a solid block of frozen soil thus locking the waste in situ. For small areas where the contaminated soil does not include vessels that would rupture from frost action, this concept may be simpler to install. A second concept, of course, is to create a frozen soil barrier to confine the waste within prescribed unfrozen soil boundaries; initial research in this area was funded by EPA, Cincinnati, OH, and the Army Corps of Engineers. The paper discusses advantages and limitations, a case study from Oak Ridge, TN, and a mesh generation program that simulates the cryogenic technology.

Sayles, F.N.; Iskandar, I.K.

1998-07-01

457

Containment of solidified liquid hazardous waste in domal salt  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, the solidification of hazardous liquid waste has become a viable option in waste management. The solidification process results in an increased volume but more stable waste form that must be disposed of or stored in a dry environment. An environment of choice in south central Texas is domal salt. The salt dome currently under investigation has a water content of 0.002 percent by weight and a permeability less than one nanodarcy. A question that must be addressed is whether a salt dome has a particular set of attributes that will prevent the release of contaminants to the environment. From a regulatory perspective, a no migration'' petition must be approved by the U.S.E.P.A. for the containment facility. By no migration'' it is implied that the waste must be contained for 10,000 years. A demonstration that this condition will be met will require model calculations and such models must be based on the physical and chemical characteristics of the waste form and the geologic environment. In particular, the models must address the rate of brine infiltration into the caverns, providing information on how fast an immobile solid waste form could convert to a more mobile liquid state. Additionally, the potential for migration by both diffusion and advection is of concern. Lastly, given a partially saturated cavern, the question of how far gaseous waste will be transported over the 10,000 year containment period must also be addressed. Results indicate that the containment capabilities of domal salt are exceptional. A nominal volume of brine will seep into the cavern and most voids between the injected solidified waste pellets will remain unsaturated. Very small quantities of hazardous constituents will be leached from the waste pellets.

Domenico, P.A. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Geology Dept.); Lerman, A. (Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. Geological Sciences)

1992-01-01

458

36 CFR 13.1118 - Solid waste disposal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve General Provisions § 13.1118 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste...

2013-07-01

459

43 CFR 3596.2 - Disposal of waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Disposal of waste. 3596.2 Section 3596...Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SOLID MINERALS...EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS Waste From Mining or Milling...

2012-10-01

460

Comprehensive Study of Solid Waste Disposal in Cascade County, Montana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report considers the various forms of solid wastes and the related problems in their storage, collection and disposal. It discusses in detail the entire solid waste problem and methods to improve existing conditions.

1970-01-01

461

77 FR 43149 - Water and Waste Disposal Loans and Grants  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Programs under number 10.770 Water and Waste Disposal Loans and...improvements to rural electric, water and waste, and telecom and...grants for the development, storage, treatment, purification, or distribution of water; and for the...

2012-07-24

462

Regulatory criteria for the disposal of radioactive wastes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Radiological protection criteria have been proposed by the Atomic Energy Control Board for judging the potential long-term impacts of radioactive waste disposal options in which the wastes are contained and isolated from the human environment. This paper ...

K. P. Wagstaff

1986-01-01

463

Aspects of Underground Disposal of Radioactive Waste in Rock Salt.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The subject of the thesis concerns disposal of radioactive waste in underground rock-salt formations. Rock salt is one of the few potential host formations for accomodating radioactive waste; it has a relatively high thermal conductivity and is practicall...

W. M. G. T. van den Broek

1989-01-01

464

Hazardous wastes: generating a crisis  

SciTech Connect

A square-mile wasteheap, operated for 30 years as a shallow landfill in northwest Miami near Hialeah, is one of 16 priority sites in Florida designated to receive special federal clean-up money. Called the 58th street dump in honor of the street bordering it, the site is a collection of industrial and municipal wastes that contain high concentrations of sodium, ammonia, chloride compounds, pesticides and an assortment of heavy metals. Rain on exposed waste at the site carries these contaminants into the soil where they pose threats to the Biscayne aquifer, South Florida's primary source of drinking water.

Not Available

1982-06-01

465

Alternative disposal for Investigation Derived Wastes (IDW) containing low activity source material  

SciTech Connect

As part of a Remedial Investigation (RI) at a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Site, approximately 77,111 kg (85 tons) I would use the actual tons of investigation derived wastes (IDW) were generated from exploratory soil borings and as part of removal activities at a former drum burial area. Characterization of these materials indicated elevated concentrations of metals including uranium and thorium (source material). Concentrations of uranium and thorium were at levels less than 0.05% by mass, which is the threshold for exempt source material under Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. Disposal of this material was evaluated as low-level radioactive waste and as exempt radioactive waste. The NRC has established a process for evaluation and review of exempt source material transfer and direct disposal in a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) landfill. These requests are normally approved if the dose to a member of the general public is unlikely to exceed 0.25 mSv per year (25 milli-rem per year). The soil was evaluated for disposal as exempt radioactive waste at a RCRA landfill, which included dose modeling to workers during transportation and disposal as well as potential dose to members of the public after closure of the disposal facility. These evaluations determined that the potential dose was very small, and review by the agreement state regulatory agency indicated that this disposal process should not result in any undue hazard to public health and safety or property. The advantage of this approach is that disposal of 77,111 kg (85 tons) of IDW at a RCRA landfill is estimated to result in a savings of $80,000 as compared to disposal as low-level radioactive waste. Alternative waste disposal of exempt source material provides more disposal options and can lead to significant cost savings. (authors)

Downey, H.T. [MACTEC, Portland, ME (United States); Majer, T. [de maximis, inc., Windsor, CT (United States)

2007-07-01

466

High integrity container evaluation for solid waste disposal burial containers  

SciTech Connect

In order to provide radioactive waste disposal practices with the greatest measure of public protection, Solid Waste Disposal (SWD) adopted the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirement to stabilize high specific activity radioactive waste prior to disposal. Under NRC guidelines, stability may be provided by several mechanisms, one of which is by placing the waste in a high integrity container (HIC). During the implementation process, SWD found that commercially-available HICs could not accommodate the varied nature of weapons complex waste, and in response developed a number of disposal containers to function as HICs. This document summarizes the evaluation of various containers that can be used for the disposal of Category 3 waste in the Low Level Burial Grounds. These containers include the VECTRA reinforced concrete HIC, reinforced concrete culvert, and the reinforced concrete vault. This evaluation provides justification for the use of these containers and identifies the conditions for use of each.

Josephson, W.S. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1996-06-19

467

RETROFIT COST RELATIONSHIPS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION  

EPA Science Inventory

This study reports a methodology, and an accompanying set of empirical cost relationships, that can be used to estimate the costs of retrofitting/upgrading various components of existing hazardous waste incineration facilities to comply with RCRA performance requirements. Both th...

468

EXPERT SYSTEMS - TOOLS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGERS  

EPA Science Inventory

It is well known that protection of human health and the environment from the risks of hazardous wastes involves evaluation of numerous complex issues. pproximately 4 years ago a few people began to explore the possibility of using expert system techniques to expedite the transfe...

469

Hazardous politics: toxic waste and American government  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses the case of hazardous waste facility siting to explain why the American political system is hard put to overcome the local opposition. The fragmentation of political authority gives local opponents many routes of attack, just as it gives officials many ways to avoid responsibility. Siting essentially unwanted facilities has never been easy, but the task has grown

Pitney; J. J. Jr

1985-01-01

470

FIELD EXPERIENCE IN SAMPLING HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATORS  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper is for presentation at the 77th annual meeting of the Air Pollution Control Association, June 24-29, 1984. The paper contains much useful, pragmatic information gained through numerous hazardous waste incinerator trial burn-type investigations performed for EPA by the ...

471

Navigating the Hazardous Waste Management Maze.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hazardous waste management is a continual process. Administrators should maintain good relations with state agencies and the Environmental Protection Agency and use them as resources. Contacts with businesses and professional groups as well as forming coalitions with neighboring districts are ways to share information and expenses. (MLF)

Voelkle, James P.

1997-01-01

472

High temperature oxygen hazardous waste incinerator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present invention is directed to a method and apparatus for incinerating hazardous wastes through the use of a high temperature incineration process. According to the method of the present invention, substantially pure oxygen is preheated by partial combustion with a fuel such as kerosene. The partial combustion of the oxygen preheats the oxygen to a temperature which is sufficient

Lanier

1982-01-01

473

CHARACTERIZATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION RESIDUALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the study was to provide data on the quantities and characteristics of solid and liquid discharges from hazardous waste incineration facilities. A total of 10 facilities were sampled comprising major incineration designs and flue gas treatment devices. All inlet an...

474

DRUM HANDLING PRACTICES AT HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the research effort was to provide technical guidance on planning and implementing safe and cost-effective response actions applicable to hazardous waste sites containing drums. The manual provides detailed technical guidance on methods, procedures, and equipment s...

475

Managing hazardous waste: Fulfilling the public trust  

SciTech Connect

Managing hazardous waste means dealing responsibly with the by-products of our industrialized society. Everyday essentials from medicine to textiles, from furniture to vehicles, are all manufactured by processes that generate by-products that must be properly managed to safeguard human health and the environment.

NONE

1989-12-31

476

EPA'S MACT RULE FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE COMBUSTORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Note: The information and views contained in this paper are solely those of the author and do not represent any official information, views, positions, or policies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Further, because the final MACT rule for hazardous waste combustors has not yet received final Agency approval, all information on the contents of the rule is based on

Fredric D. Chanania

477

POLYETHYLENE ENCAPSULATES FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE DRUMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This capsule report summarizes studies of the use of polyethylene (P.E.) for encapsulating drums of hazardous wastes. Flat PE sheet is welded to roto moded PE containers which forms the encapsulates. Plastic pipe welding art was used, but the prototype welding apparatus required ...

478

Household hazardous waste collection results, state fiscal years 1996, 1997, 1998  

SciTech Connect

Some household products are potentially dangerous to living things and the environment when disposed of improperly. The Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) has designed a program to deal with such problem wastes. Utilizing funds from the Solid Waste Management Fund, the Agency sponsored 90 collections during the state fiscal years 1996, 1997, and 1998. The report details the need for household hazardous waste collections in Illinois and summarizes the results of the projects.

Rion, D.

1998-12-01

479

Spray-on Polyurea Coatings For Use as Hazardous & Radioactive Waste Shipping Containers  

SciTech Connect

Decommissioning activities at radiological and hazardous waste facilities often requires the removal of large pieces of contaminated tanks, equipment, and machinery. Size reducing these large objects for disposal in standard waste containers presents major challenges. The use of a spray-applied polyurea coating has the potential to eliminate the need for size-reduction activities and reduce worker risk. Cost savings to the decommissioning project are an added benefit to using this alternative waste packaging system.

Neveau, R.; Kimokeo, M.

2003-02-26

480

Wastewater and Hazardous Waste Survey, Homestead AFB Florida.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Wastewater and hazardous waste surveys were conducted at Homestead AFB by the USAFOEHL to address possible problems with oil/water separators and to evaluate the hazardous waste management program. The analytical results from the wastewater survey showed ...

R. A. Tetla C. W. Attebery

1988-01-01

481

Handbook for Waterborne Transportation of Hazardous Materials and Wastes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Production, storage, transport, and disposal of hazardous substances are concerns which are rapidly rising to the forefront of national attention. Federal statutes and regulations governing the production and handling of hazardous materials have attained ...

C. A. Burr R. O'Dell

1985-01-01

482

Certification Plan, low-level waste Hazardous Waste Handling Facility  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this plan is to describe the organization and methodology for the certification of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) handled in the Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). This plan also incorporates the applicable elements of waste reduction, which include both up-front minimization and end-product treatment to reduce the volume and toxicity of the waste; segregation of the waste as it applies to certification; an executive summary of the Waste Management Quality Assurance Implementing Management Plan (QAIMP) for the HWHF and a list of the current and planned implementing procedures used in waste certification. This plan provides guidance from the HWHF to waste generators, waste handlers, and the Waste Certification Specialist to enable them to conduct their activities and carry out their responsibilities in a manner that complies with the requirements of WHC-WAC. Waste generators have the primary responsibility for the proper characterization of LLW. The Waste Certification Specialist verifies and certifies that LBL LLW is characterized, handled, and shipped in accordance with the requirements of WHC-WAC. Certification is the governing process in which LBL personnel conduct their waste generating and waste handling activities in such a manner that the Waste Certification Specialist can verify that the requirements of WHC-WAC are met.

Albert, R.

1992-06-30

483

Household hazardous waste management planning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1985, Hennepin County entered into an agreement with Hennepin Energy Resource Co., Ltd. for the construction and operation of a 1000-ton-a-day waste-to-energy facility. In an effort to ensure that the new incinerator operates as safety as possible, Hen...

D. A. Seeberger

1991-01-01

484

68 FR 44659 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Recycled Used...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Listing of Hazardous Waste; Recycled Used Oil Management Standards AGENCY: Environmental...drafting errors and ambiguities in the used oil management standards. Specifically, this rule clarifies when used oil contaminated with polychlorinated...

2003-07-30

485

63 FR 24963 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Recycled Used...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Listing of Hazardous Waste; Recycled Used Oil Management Standards AGENCY: Environmental...errors and clarifies ambiguities in the used oil management standards. Specifically, this rule clarifies when used oil contaminated with polychlorinated...

1998-05-06

486

Repository disposal requirements for commercial transuranic wastes (generated without reprocessing)  

SciTech Connect

This report forms a preliminary planning basis for disposal of commercial transuranic (TRU) wastes in a geologic repository. Because of the unlikely prospects for commercial spent nuclear fuel reprocessing in the near-term, this report focuses on TRU wastes generated in a once-through nuclear fuel cycle. The four main objectives of this study were to: develop estimates of the current inventories, projected generation rates, and characteristics of commercial TRU wastes; develop proposed acceptance requirements for TRU wastes forms and waste canisters that ensure a safe and effective disposal system; develop certification procedures and processing requirements that ensure that TRU wastes delivered to a repository for disposal meet all applicable waste acceptance requirements; and identify alternative conceptual strategies for treatment and certification of commercial TRU first objective was accomplished through a survey of commercial producers of TRU wastes. The TRU waste acceptance and certification requirements that were developed were based on regulatory requirements, information in the literature, and from similar requirements already established for disposal of defense TRU wastes in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) which were adapted, where necessary, to disposal of commercial TRU wastes. The results of the TRU waste-producer survey indicated that there were a relatively large number of producers of small quantities of TRU wastes.

Daling, P.M.; Ludwick, J.D.; Mellinger, G.B.; McKee, R.W.

1986-06-01