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1

Hazardous Waste Disposal Damage Reports.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication is the first in a series of reports to document incidents of improper land disposal of hazardous wastes. Studies include: Arsenic poisoning in Minnesota; Industrial waste disposal on farmland in Illinois; Fatality at a New Jersey Industri...

1975-01-01

2

Laboratory Waste Disposal HAZARDOUS GLASS  

E-print Network

Laboratory Waste Disposal HAZARDOUS GLASS Items that could cut or puncture skin or trash- can of in normal trash containers. Pasteur pipettes Other pipettes and tips (glass or plastic) Slides and cover HAZARDOUS TRASH Items that are neither sharp nor contaminated. Thiswastestreamishandleddirectlybycustodians

Sheridan, Jennifer

3

The Disposal of Hazardous Wastes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The highlights of a symposium held in October, 1977 spotlight some problems and solutions. Topics include wastes from coal technologies, radioactive wastes, and industrial and agricultural wastes. (BB)

Barnhart, Benjamin J.

1978-01-01

4

The Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (HW/MWDF) will provide permanent Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted storage, treatment, and disposal for hazardous and mixed waste generated at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) that cannot be disposed of in existing or planned SRS facilities. Final design is complete for Phase I of the project, the Disposal Vaults. The Vaults will provide RCRA permitted, above-grade disposal capacity for treated hazardous and mixed waste generated at the SRS. The RCRA Part B Permit application was submitted upon approval of the Permit application, the first Disposal Vault is scheduled to be operational in mid 1994. The technical baseline has been established for Phase II, the Treatment Building, and preliminary design work has been performed. The Treatment Building will provide RCRA permitted treatment processes to handle a variety of hazardous and mixed waste generated at SRS in preparation for disposal. The processes will treat wastes for disposal in accordance with the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR). A RCRA Part B Permit application has not yet been submitted to SCDHEC for this phase of the project. The Treatment Building is currently scheduled to be operational in late 1996.

Bailey, L.L.

1991-01-01

5

The Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (HW/MWDF) will provide permanent Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted storage, treatment, and disposal for hazardous and mixed waste generated at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) that cannot be disposed of in existing or planned SRS facilities. Final design is complete for Phase I of the project, the Disposal Vaults. The Vaults will provide RCRA permitted, above-grade disposal capacity for treated hazardous and mixed waste generated at the SRS. The RCRA Part B Permit application was submitted upon approval of the Permit application, the first Disposal Vault is scheduled to be operational in mid 1994. The technical baseline has been established for Phase II, the Treatment Building, and preliminary design work has been performed. The Treatment Building will provide RCRA permitted treatment processes to handle a variety of hazardous and mixed waste generated at SRS in preparation for disposal. The processes will treat wastes for disposal in accordance with the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR). A RCRA Part B Permit application has not yet been submitted to SCDHEC for this phase of the project. The Treatment Building is currently scheduled to be operational in late 1996.

Bailey, L.L.

1991-12-31

6

Disposing of Hazardous Waste EPA Compliance Fact Sheet: Revision 1  

E-print Network

that has held an acute hazardous waste must be triple rinsed using a solvent (which might be water) capableDisposing of Hazardous Waste EPA Compliance Fact Sheet: Revision 1 Vanderbilt Environmental Health WASTE COLLECTION PROGRAM VEHS has implemented a Hazardous Waste Collection Program to collect hazardous

Wikswo, John

7

Regulating the disposal of cigarette butts as toxic hazardous waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trillions of cigarette butts generated each year throughout the world pose a significant challenge for disposal regulations, primarily because there are millions of points of disposal, along with the necessity to segregate, collect and dispose of the butts in a safe manner, and cigarette butts are toxic, hazardous waste. There are some hazardous waste laws, such as those covering

Richard L Barnes

2011-01-01

8

Hazardous waste disposal in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantities of hazardous wastes generated in New Zealand are relatively small, both in total volume and on a per capita\\u000a basis: they consist principally of liquids and solids derived from primary industries such as horticulture and forestry, and\\u000a from the Petroleum, chemical and manufacturing industries. There is no satisfactory inventory of hazardous waste quantities\\u000a or relative toxicity at the

David H. Bell; Derek D. Wilson

1988-01-01

9

Alloy rotary kilns for hazardous waste disposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major conclusions of the study of rotary kilns for processing abrasive, energetic or corrosive hazardous wastes are: Alloy kilns are preferable to smaller refractory lined kilns for abrasive and\\/or explosive feed materials. Alloy construction and bolted sections make alloy kilns transportable; a pyrolysis operating mode can reduce the equipment size for wastes with a high energy release rate. However,

J. V. Del Bene; J. K. Shah; E. F. Colburn

1987-01-01

10

Audits of hazardous waste TSDFs let generators sleep easy. [Hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal facility  

SciTech Connect

Because of the increasingly strict enforcement of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), generators of hazardous waste are compelled to investigate the hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal facility (TSDF) they use. This investigation must include an environmental and a financial audit. Simple audits may be performed by the hazardous waste generator, while more thorough ones such as those performed for groups of generators are more likely to be conducted by environmental consultants familiar with treatment, storage, and disposal techniques and the regulatory framework that guides them.

Carr, F.H.

1990-02-01

11

Alloy rotary kilns for hazardous waste disposal  

SciTech Connect

The major conclusions of the study of rotary kilns for processing abrasive, energetic or corrosive hazardous wastes are: Alloy kilns are preferable to smaller refractory lined kilns for abrasive and/or explosive feed materials. Alloy construction and bolted sections make alloy kilns transportable; a pyrolysis operating mode can reduce the equipment size for wastes with a high energy release rate. However, reliable rotary seals are essential for the safety of the pyrolysis mode kiln; and a cocurrent operating mode may be desirable if recontamination of solids is not a concern. For chemical munition demilitarization a countercurrent operating mode is essential to assure no recontamination of the solids discharge. Computer models can be used for reliable kiln sizing and performance predictions.

Del Bene, J.V.; Shah, J.K.; Colburn, E.F.

1987-01-01

12

ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS AT A RCRA HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITY  

SciTech Connect

The use of hazardous waste disposal facilities permitted under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (''RCRA'') to dispose of low concentration and exempt radioactive materials is a cost-effective option for government and industry waste generators. The hazardous and PCB waste disposal facility operated by US Ecology Idaho, Inc. near Grand View, Idaho provides environmentally sound disposal services to both government and private industry waste generators. The Idaho facility is a major recipient of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers FUSRAP program waste and received permit approval to receive an expanded range of radioactive materials in 2001. The site has disposed of more than 300,000 tons of radioactive materials from the federal government during the past five years. This paper presents the capabilities of the Grand View, Idaho hazardous waste facility to accept radioactive materials, site-specific acceptance criteria and performance assessment, radiological safety and environmental monitoring program information.

Romano, Stephen; Welling, Steven; Bell, Simon

2003-02-27

13

Regulating the disposal of cigarette butts as toxic hazardous waste.  

PubMed

The trillions of cigarette butts generated each year throughout the world pose a significant challenge for disposal regulations, primarily because there are millions of points of disposal, along with the necessity to segregate, collect and dispose of the butts in a safe manner, and cigarette butts are toxic, hazardous waste. There are some hazardous waste laws, such as those covering used tyres and automobile batteries, in which the retailer is responsible for the proper disposal of the waste, but most post-consumer waste disposal is the responsibility of the consumer. Concepts such as extended producer responsibility (EPR) are being used for some post-consumer waste to pass the responsibility and cost for recycling or disposal to the manufacturer of the product. In total, 32 states in the US have passed EPR laws covering auto switches, batteries, carpet, cell phones, electronics, fluorescent lighting, mercury thermostats, paint and pesticide containers, and these could be models for cigarette waste legislation. A broader concept of producer stewardship includes EPR, but adds the consumer and the retailer into the regulation. The State of Maine considered a comprehensive product stewardship law in 2010 that is a much better model than EPR. By using either EPR or the Maine model, the tobacco industry will be required to cover the cost of collecting and disposing of cigarette butt waste. Additional requirements included in the Maine model are needed for consumers and businesses to complete the network that will be necessary to maximise the segregation and collection of cigarette butts to protect the environment. PMID:21504925

Barnes, Richard L

2011-05-01

14

Monthly Theme Hazardous Waste Disposal July 2009 Monthly Theme for discussion at Department Meetings -July 2009  

E-print Network

Monthly Theme ­ Hazardous Waste Disposal ­ July 2009 Monthly Theme for discussion at Department Meetings - July 2009 Hazardous Waste Disposal Often a waste pick-up is initiated but the waste isn't picked up. As a result, the waste can sit in the lab for long periods of time because the forms were filled

Calgary, University of

15

Managing infection control, hazards communication, and infectious waste disposal.  

PubMed

Dentistry entered a new era in the 1980s when the development of the AIDS crisis targeted dental facilities as one source of potential cross-infection with pathogenic microorganisms. As governmental agencies "discovered" dentistry, regulations forced practitioners to assume duties not previously required. Also, substantial costs of compliance became a significant consideration to employers. Managing the compliance and cost considerations of governmental regulation requires dedicating personnel, preferably one person, to the management of infection control, hazards communication, and infectious waste disposal tasks. predictably, this person--the safety supervisor--will develop into the new auxiliary specialist of the 1990s. PMID:2032576

Runnells, R R; Powell, G L

1991-04-01

16

Psychosocial effects of hazardous toxic waste disposal on communities  

SciTech Connect

This book covers the following topics: Community responses to exposure to hazardous wastes; Characteristics of citizen groups which emerge with respect to hazardous waste sites; The technological world-view and environmental planning.

Peck, D.L. (Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (US))

1989-01-01

17

Toward Hazardless Waste: A Guide for Safe Use and Disposal of Hazardous Household Products.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is designed to help individuals make responsible decisions about safe use and disposal of household products. It consists of eight sections dealing with: (1) hazardous chemicals in the home, how hazaradous products become hazardous waste, and whether a hazardous waste problem exists in Puget Sound; (2) which household wastes are

Toteff, Sally; Zehner, Cheri

18

Land disposal of hazardous waste: proceedings of the eleventh annual research symposium. [Abstracts only  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proceedings are summarized for Session A of the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Eleventh Annual Research Symposium - Land Disposal, Remedial Action, Incineration, and Treatment of Hazardous Waste. The symposium was held in Cincinnati, Ohio April 29 through May 1, 1985. Session A, Hazardous Waste Land Disposal, included 35 papers; and Session C included 20 poster presentations about the status

D. A. Zunt; N. P. Barkley

1985-01-01

19

CONSTRUCTION QUALITY ASSURANCE IN PERMITS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE LAND DISPOSAL FACILITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA's) Hazardous Waste Engineering Research Laboratory (HWERL) has prepared a Technical Guidance Document, at the request of the Office of Solid Waste (OSW), on construction quality assurance (CQA) for hazardous waste land disposal fa...

20

UW-Approved Waste Disposal, Recycling and Treatment Sites Hazardous waste disposal at the University of Washington is coordinated by the EH&S Environmental Programs Office  

E-print Network

the Montlake Landfill Cedar Hills Landfill Landfill Maple Valley, WA Eastmont Transfer Station Landfill SeattleUW-Approved Waste Disposal, Recycling and Treatment Sites Hazardous waste disposal Washington State or UW contract vendors. For other waste streams that also cannot be disposed of as municipal

Wilcock, William

21

Liquid household hazardous wastes in the United States: Identification, disposal, and management plan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Present methods of disposal of today's hazardous household chemicals in the United States are frequently not acceptable because of pathways to groundwater, surface water, and the atmosphere. This report identifies potentially hazardous liquid waste in the household, notes current disposal practices, and recommends an improved management plan that utilizes consumer education, manufacturer cooperation, and governmental intervention. Laws requiring uniform disposal labeling on packaging are critical. Local, county, and state governments must be encouraged to coordinate the necessary infrastructure. Managing hazardous household wastes now will mitigate potential disposal problems.

Robertson, David K.; Akagha, Jude; Belasco, Jon; Bullis, Jane; Byrne, Gloria; di Patria, Joan; Fisher, Wayne; Fonzino, James; Hsu, Jeffrey; Merchan, Lucy; Oster, David; Rosenberg, Jon; von Aulock, Sabine; Vroeginday, Barry

1987-11-01

22

Hydrologic detection of abandoned wells near proposed injection wells for hazardous waste disposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep saline aquifers are being used for disposal of hazardous liquid wastes. A thorough knowledge of the competency of such aquifers and their confining geologic beds in permanently isolating the hazardous substances is the key to successful disposal operations. Characterization of such systems, and in particular the detection of any conduit that may permit hydraulic communication between the host aquifer

Iraj Javandel; Chin Fu Tsang; Paul A. Witherspoon; David Morganwalp

1988-01-01

23

Disposal of Hazardous Medical Waste Policy and Procedures Commencement Date: 27 November, 1996  

E-print Network

6.1 To safeguard the health and safety of staff, students and visitors in line with the University's policy on the Disposal of Hazardous Medical Waste within their Schools. 7.1.2 Protective Clothing Hazardous medical waste must be handled only by persons wearing the appropriate protective clothing

24

EXPERT SYSTEMS TO ASSIST IN DECISIONS CONCERNING LAND DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

Review of permits for land disposal of hazardous wastes requires numerous decisions concerning policy and technical issues. ome require interpretation and application of information in research reports, other involve interpretation and evaluation of specialized test data, and oth...

25

EVALUATION OF AIR EMISSIONS FROM HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

This study has examined the fugitive air emissions from landfills, surface impoundments, storage tanks, containers (drums), solvent recovery processes, and land treatment technologies at hazardous waste disposal facilities (HWDF's). The main objective of this study was to develop...

26

Public policy impacts on the generation and disposal of hazardous waste in New York State.  

PubMed

A number of policies adopted by the federal government and the state have been designed to promote waste reduction or influence the choice of waste disposal technologies employed by generators of hazardous waste. Graphic analysis of smoothed time series data for hazardous wastes manifested in New York State for the period between June 1982 and February 1987 suggests that some of these policies have had the intended effects. Significant shifts in manifested waste volumes are evident that coincide with the following policy interventions: (1) increased state waste-end tax rates; (2) state and federal landfill bans; (3) federal restrictions on burning hazardous wastes and waste oils for energy recovery; and (4) changes in the federal regulatory definition of hazardous waste. Other changes in waste generation and management appear to be attributable to such factors as state and regional economic conditions and changes in instate treatment and disposal facility capacity. Analysis of the management of specific waste types supports evidence from the graphic analysis that waste generators changed from land disposal to "higher" waste handling technologies in response to several policy interventions. PMID:2340146

Deyle, R E; Bretschneider, S I

1990-04-01

27

Household Hazardous Waste Disposal Project. Summary Report. Metro Toxicant Program Report No. 1A.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Household Hazardous Waste Disposal Project was established as an interagency effort to reduce the level of toxicants entering the environment by developing a control plan for the safe disposal of small quantities of household chemicals. This summary report provides an overview of the aspects of this problem that were examined, and the steps

Ridgley, Susan M.; Galvin, David V.

28

Minimizing hazardous waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hazardous waste minimization is a broad term often associated with pollution prevention, saving the environment or protecting Mother Earth. Some associate hazardous waste minimization with saving money. Thousands of hazardous materials are used in processes every day, but when these hazardous materials become hazardous wastes, dollars must be spent for disposal. When hazardous waste is reduced, an organization will spend

DeClue

1996-01-01

29

Colleges Struggle to Dispose of Hazardous Wastes in Face of Rising Costs and Increased Regulation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After years of being ignored by federal regulators because of the low volume of hazardous waste in question, colleges and universities are facing increased enforcement of environmental laws concerning waste disposal and storage, at great cost in money, facilities, and personnel. (MSE)

Magner, Denise K.

1989-01-01

30

APPLICATION OF A HAZARD-ASSESSMENT RESEARCH STRATEGY FOR WASTE DISPOSAL AT 106-MILE OCEAN DISPOSAL SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

An application of a hazard-assessment research strategy was made using waste disposal at Deepwater Dumpsite-l06 (DWD-106) as an example. The strategy involved the synthesis of results from separate exposure and effects components in order to provide a scientific basis for estimat...

31

Using MCDA and GIS for hazardous waste landfill siting considering land scarcity for waste disposal.  

PubMed

The main aim of this study was to develop a procedure that minimizes the wasting of space for the siting of hazardous waste landfills as part of a solid waste management system. We wanted to tackle the shortage of land for waste disposal that is a serious and growing problem in most large urban regions. The procedure combines a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach with a geographical information system (GIS). The GIS was utilised to obtain an initial screening in order to eliminate unsuitable areas, whereas the MCDA was developed to select the most suitable sites. The novelty of the proposed siting procedure is the introduction of a new screening phase before the macro-siting step aimed at producing a "land use map of potentially suitable areas" for the siting of solid waste facilities which simultaneously takes into consideration all plant types. The issue of obtaining sites evaluations of a specific facility was coupled with the issue of not wasting land appropriate to facilitate other types of waste management options. In the developed case study, the use of an innovative criteria weighting tool (the "Priority Scale") in combination with the Analytic Hierarchy Process was useful to easier define the priorities of the evaluation criteria in comparison with other classic methods such as the Paired Comparison Technique in combination with the Simple Additive Weighting method. PMID:25002369

Feo, Giovanni De; Gisi, Sabino De

2014-11-01

32

Control technology assessment of hazardous waste disposal operations in chemicals manufacturing: walk-through survey report of Chemical Waste Management, Inc. , Emelle, Alabama  

Microsoft Academic Search

A walk through survey was conducted to assess hazardous waste disposal operations at Chemical Waste Management, Incorporated (SIC-4953), Emelle, Alabama in February 1982. Hazardous waste treatment and disposal operations included landfilling, fixation, solar evaporation, and incineration. The incinerator was a liquid injection unit used for combustible liquids containing up to 10 percent chlorine. Polychlorinated biphenyls and other chlorine containing wastes

Anastas

1982-01-01

33

COST COMPARISONS OF TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL ALTERNATIVES FOR HAZARDOUS WASTES. VOLUME I  

EPA Science Inventory

Unit costs are estimated for 16 treatment and 5 disposal techniques applicable to hazardous wastes from the organic chemicals, inorganic chemicals, and electroplating and metal finishing industries. Each technology was evaluated by unit processes or modules, and computer-linked m...

34

77 FR 50622 - Land Disposal Restrictions: Site-Specific Treatment Variance for Hazardous Selenium-Bearing Waste...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Site-Specific Treatment Variance for Hazardous Selenium-Bearing Waste Treated by U.S. Ecology...Nevada for the treatment of a hazardous selenium- bearing waste generated by the Owens-Brockway...Disposal Restrictions treatment standard for selenium-bearing wastes, and as such...

2012-08-22

35

Sorting and disposal of hazardous laboratory Radioactive waste  

E-print Network

collect in a heavy-duty plastic bag carrying the "radiation" sign, placed in the yellow bin in the original container, or in plain plastic bags (cat. # 010008613-15, general store), carrying the label, contaminated with biohazard materials are disposed in a plastic bag carrying the biohazard sign, inside

Maoz, Shahar

36

SLEUTH (Strategies and Lessons to Eliminate Unused Toxicants: Help!). Educational Activities on the Disposal of Household Hazardous Waste. Household Hazardous Waste Disposal Project. Metro Toxicant Program Report No. 1D.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teaching unit is part of the final report of the Household Hazardous Waste Disposal Project. It consists of activities presented in an introduction and three sections. The introduction contains an activity for students in grades 4-12 which defines terms and concepts for understanding household hazardous wastes. Section I provides activities

Dyckman, Claire; And Others

37

76 FR 30027 - Land Disposal Restrictions: Site-Specific Treatment Variance for Hazardous Selenium-Bearing Waste...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Site-Specific Treatment Variance for Hazardous Selenium-Bearing Waste Treated by U.S. Ecology...Site-Specific Treatment Variance for Hazardous Selenium-Bearing Waste Treatment Issued to Chemical...concentration-based treatment standard for selenium established under the Land Disposal...

2011-05-24

38

LABORATORY INVESTIGATION OF RESIDUAL LIQUID ORGANICS FROM SPILLS, LEAKS, AND THE DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS WASTES IN GROUNDWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Organic liquids that are essentially immiscible with water migrate through the subsurface under the influence of capillary, viscous, and buoyancy forces. These liquids originate from the improper disposal of hazardous wastes, and the spills and leaks of petroleum hydrocarbons a...

39

Hazardous Waste Management Training  

E-print Network

Hazardous Waste Management Training Persons (including faculty, staff and students) working with hazardous materials should receive annual training that addresses storage, use, and disposal of hazardous before handling hazardous waste. Departments are re- quired to keep records of training for as long

Dai, Pengcheng

40

The effects of hazardous waste taxes on generation and disposal of chlorinated solvent waste  

E-print Network

In 1989, 30 states levied taxes on e generation or management of hazardous waste. These taxes constitute one of the broadest applications of an emissions tax in U.S. environmental policy and provide a natural experiment ...

Sigman, Hilary

1992-01-01

41

Hazard Classification of the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is constructing a new facility to replace remote-handled low-level radioactive waste disposal capability for INL and Naval Reactors Facility operations. Current disposal capability at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) will continue until the facility is full or closed for remediation (estimated at approximately fiscal year 2015). Development of a new onsite disposal facility is the highest ranked alternative and will provide RH-LLW disposal capability and will ensure continuity of operations that generate RH-LLW for the foreseeable future. As a part of establishing a safety basis for facility operations, the facility will be categorized according to DOE-STD-1027-92. This classification is important in determining the scope of analyses performed in the safety basis and will also dictate operational requirements of the completed facility. This paper discusses the issues affecting hazard classification in this nuclear facility and impacts of the final hazard categorization.

Boyd D. Christensen

2012-05-01

42

Waste Disposal Guide HOW TO PROPERLY DISPOSE OF WASTE MATERIALS  

E-print Network

Waste Disposal Guide HOW TO PROPERLY DISPOSE OF WASTE MATERIALS GENERATED AT DEPAUL UNIVERSITY chemical and radioactive waste, and Biohazardous waste. This document contains university procedures.4 Hazardous Waste Defined p.5 Chemical Waste Procedure for Generating Departments p.6 o A

Schaefer, Marcus

43

Hazardous Waste: Cleanup and Prevention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses hazardous waste, waste disposal, unsafe exposure, movement of hazardous waste, and the Superfund clean-up process that consists of site discovery, site assessment, clean-up method selection, site clean up, and site maintenance. Argues that proper disposal of hazardous waste is everybody's responsibility. (JRH)

Vandas, Steve; Cronin, Nancy L.

1996-01-01

44

Transport and transportation pathways of hazardous chemicals from solid waste disposal.  

PubMed Central

To evaluate the impact of hazardous chemicals in solid wastes on man and other organisms, it is necessary to have information about amounts of chemical present, extent of exposure, and chemical toxicity. This paper addresses the question of organism exposure by considering the major physical and biological transport pathways and the physicochemical and biochemical transformations that may occur in sediments, soils, and water. Disposal of solid wastes in both terrestrial and oceanic environments is considered. Atmospheric transport is considered for emissions from incineration of solid wastes and for wind resuspension of particulates from surface waste deposits. Solid wastes deposited in terrestrial environments are subject to leaching by surface and ground waters. Leachates may then be transported to other surface waters and drinking water aquifers through hydrologic transport. Leachates also interact with natural organic matter, clays, and microorganisms in soils and sediments. These interactions may render chemical constituents in leachates more or less mobile, possibly change chemical and physical forms, and alter their biological activity. Oceanic waste disposal practices result in migration through diffusion and ocean currents. Surface area-to-volume ratios play a major role in the initial distributions of chemicals in the aquatic environment. Sediments serve as major sources and sinks of chemical contaminants. Food chain transport in both aquatic and terrestrial environments results in the movement of hazardous chemicals from lower to higher positions in the food web. Bioconcentration is observed in both terrestrial and aquatic food chains with certain elements and synthetic organics. Bioconcentration factors tend to be higher for synthetic organics, and higher in aquatic than in terrestrial systems. Biodilution is not atypical in terrestrial environments. Synergistic and antagonistic actions are common occurrences among chemical contaminants and can be particularly important toxicity considerations in aquatic environments receiving runoff from several terrestrial sources. PMID:367772

Van Hook, R I

1978-01-01

45

Hazardous Waste Contacts Please note some types of hazardous waste already have a specific disposal route in place  

E-print Network

cages. Andy Brown ­ ext. 6556 Computer Monitors (Working & Broken) Collected by a company called BR equipment These should be disposed of through the WEEE cages. Andy Brown ­ ext. 6556 or Chris Gration ­ ext of via PHS waste contractors Andy Brown ­ ext. 6556 #12;KEY CONTACTS Responsible People Campus Name

Evans, Paul

46

Hydrologic detection of abandoned wells near proposed injection wells for hazardous waste disposal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep saline aquifers are being used for disposal of hazardous liquid wastes. A thorough knowledge of the competency of such aquifers and their confining geologic beds in permanently isolating the hazardous substances is the key to successful disposal operations. Characterization of such systems, and in particular the detection of any conduit that may permit hydraulic communication between the host aquifer and nearby freshwater aquifers, must be carried out prior to the initiation of disposal projects. In deep, multi-aquifer systems, leaky faults, abandonded wells, highly conductive fractures, or shear zones may all provide leakage paths. If not initially detected, such conduits may show no apparent effect until contaminants in the freshwater aquifer reach detectable levels at the discharge point. By then, of course, detection is generally too late. This paper is an attempt to address the problem of initial detection of improperly plugged or open abandoned wells. A new analytic solution has been derived to calculate the amount of leakage from an abandoned well and the corresponding drawdown at monitoring wells. A method is proposed that can be used to detect such deep abandoned wells in the area of influence of a proposed deep injection well in a multiple-aquifer system.

Javandel, Iraj; Tsang, Chin Fu; Witherspoon, Paul A.; Morganwalp, David

1988-02-01

47

Scoping evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of hazardous metals in mixed low-level waste  

SciTech Connect

A team of analysts designed and conducted a scoping evaluation to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of the hazardous metals in mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Eight hazardous metals were evaluated: arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, and silver. The analysis considered transport only through the groundwater pathway. The results are reported as site-specific estimates of maximum concentrations of each hazardous metal in treated mixed low-level waste that do not exceed the performance measures established for the analysis. Also reported are site-specific estimates of travel times of each hazardous metal to the point of compliance.

Gruebel, M.M.; Waters, R.D.; Langkopf, B.S.

1997-05-01

48

40 CFR Appendix Vii to Part 268 - LDR Effective Dates of Surface Disposed Prohibited Hazardous Wastes  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Dates of Surface Disposed Wastes (Non-Soil and Debris) Regulated in the LDRS a ...table also does not include contaminated soil and debris wastes. bThe standard...Land Disposal Restrictions for Contaminated Soil and Debris (CSD)Restricted...

2010-07-01

49

The Impact of Changes in Municipal Solid Waste Disposal Laws on Proximity to Environmental Hazards: A Case Study of Connecticut  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Environmental policies affect proximity to environmental hazards. In the late 1980s, the State of Connecticut implemented\\u000a mandatory recycling laws to improve management of municipal solid waste. At that time, more than 80% of the States 169 towns\\u000a disposed of trash within their own borders. The regulatory change redirected flows of waste to transfer stations and trash-to-energy\\u000a plants. To assess changes

Ellen K. Cromley

50

Hazardous Wastes from Homes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The management of waste materials has become more complex with the increase in human population and the development of new substances. This illustrated booklet traces the history of waste management and provides guidelines for individuals and communities in disposing of certain hazardous wastes safely. It addresses such topics as: (1) how people

Lord, John

51

Transport and fate of organic wastes in groundwater at the Stringfellow hazardous waste disposal site, southern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In January 1999, wastewater influent and effluent from the pretreatment plant at the Stringfellow hazardous waste disposal site were sampled along with groundwater at six locations along the groundwater contaminant plume. The objectives of this sampling and study were to identify at the compound class level the unidentified 40-60% of wastewater organic contaminants, and to determine what organic compound classes were being removed by the wastewater pretreatment plant, and what organic compound classes persisted during subsurface waste migration. The unidentified organic wastes are primarily chlorinated aromatic sulfonic acids derived from wastes from DDT manufacture. Trace amounts of EDTA and NTA organic complexing agents were discovered along with carboxylate metabolites of the common alkylphenolpolyethoxylate plasticizers and nonionic surfactants. The wastewater pretreatment plant removed most of the aromatic chlorinated sulfonic acids that have hydrophobic neutral properties, but the p-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid which is the primary waste constituent passed through the pretreatment plant and was discharged in the treated wastewaters transported to an industrial sewer. During migration in groundwater, p-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid is removed by natural remediation processes. Wastewater organic contaminants have decreased 3- to 45-fold in the groundwater from 1985 to 1999 as a result of site remediation and natural remediation processes. The chlorinated aromatic sulfonic acids with hydrophobic neutral properties persist and have migrated into groundwater that underlies the adjacent residential community.

Leenheer, Jerry A.; Hsu, John; Barber, L. B.

2001-10-01

52

75 FR 65482 - Approval of a Petition for Exemption From Hazardous Waste Disposal Injection Restrictions to...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...specific restricted waste, Spent Pickle Liquor (code K062 under 40 CFR part 261), into one Class I hazardous waste injection well specifically identified as Spent Pickle Liquor No. 1; and of waste ammonia liquor (codes D010, D018 or D038...

2010-10-25

53

HAZARDOUS WASTE LANDFILL RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

The hazardous waste land disposal research program is collecting data necessary to support implementation of disposal guidelines mandated by the 'Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976' (RCRA) PL 94-580. This program relating to the categorical area of landfills, surface ...

54

75 FR 30392 - Approval of a Petition for Exemption from Hazardous Waste Disposal Injection Restrictions to...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Tuscola, Illinois, for two Class I injection wells located in Tuscola, Illinois. As required...261), into two Class I hazardous waste injection wells specifically identified as Injection Wells No. 2 and No. 3 at the Tuscola...

2010-06-01

55

Health effects of hazardous chemical waste disposal sites in New Jersey and in the United States: a review  

SciTech Connect

The hazardous chemical waste disposal issue is a widespread problem. Large quantities of chemical wastes have been produced by the chemical industries in the past forty years. Estimates now number disposal sites in the United States at least 30,000. The public and scientists have grown increasingly concerned about the effects of these waste disposal sites not only on the environment, but also on the human body. In this article, we review the number of hazardous chemical waste disposal sites (HCWDS), their construction, difficulties in defining their contents, and the establishment of the Superfund Act. We then discuss various studies in the literature that have attempted to define adverse health effects of HCWDS, particularly those examining Love Canal and sites in New Jersey. In our conclusions, we note the difficulties in establishing direct causal links between HCWDS and dangerous health effects. We suggest that more epidemiological studies are needed, with improved methodology for gathering complete data and studying large samples. Both positive and negative findings of epidemiological studies are important. Positive results will substantiate an association of health effects with HCWDS. Negative results may reduce the concerns of people living near HCWDS. Future investigators need sufficient information about HCWDS materials, possible routes of exposure, and measurements of exposure, as well as sufficient statistical power to detect even modest associations of health effects with HCWDS exposure.71 references.

Najem, G.R.; Cappadona, J.L. (Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, New Jersey Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark (United States))

1991-11-01

56

TECHNICAL OVERVIEW OF THE CONCEPT OF DISPOSING OF HAZARDOUS WASTES IN INDUSTRIAL BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of industrial boilers for the destruction of hazardous wastes is increasing at a rapid rate. This is partly due to the fact that the practice changes a 'negative value' waste material into a 'positive value' fuel and partly to the fact that current RCRA regulations specif...

57

REVISION AND UPDATE OF METHODOLOGY FOR ASSESSING EXPOSURE AND RISK FROM LAND DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

As a result of their regulatory reform efforts, the Office of Solid Waste (OS) has recently (11/99) introduced a new open-architecture, multimedia, multi-pathway, and multi-receptor exposure and risk assessment methodology designed to support their Hazardous Waste Identification ...

58

Characterization of treatment residues from hazardous-waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

To implement the Congressionally mandated land-disposal prohibitions of the 1984 amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), EPA must determine whether adequate treatment technologies exist, what wastes can be treated and how effectively, what residues and environmental discharges are produced, and what the associated costs are. As part of the program to develop this information, characterization of treatment

1987-01-01

59

Waste disposal options report. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the potential options for the processing and disposal of mixed waste generated by reprocessing spent nuclear fuel at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. It compares the proposed waste-immobilization processes, quantifies and characterizes the resulting waste forms, identifies potential disposal sites and their primary acceptance criteria, and addresses disposal issues for hazardous waste.

Russell, N.E.; McDonald, T.G.; Banaee, J.; Barnes, C.M.; Fish, L.W.; Losinski, S.J.; Peterson, H.K.; Sterbentz, J.W.; Wenzel, D.R.

1998-02-01

60

UNCERTAINTY AND SENSITIVITY ANALYSES FOR INTEGRATED HUMAN HEALTH AND ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL  

EPA Science Inventory

While there is a high potential for exposure of humans and ecosystems to chemicals released from hazardous waste sites, the degree to which this potential is realized is often uncertain. Conceptually divided among parameter, model, and modeler uncertainties imparted during simula...

61

What is Hazardous Hazardous waste is  

E-print Network

may be harmful to human health and/ or the environment. Hazardous Waste Disposal EH&S x7233 E-Waste and ammunition Unlabeled or unmarked items E-WASTE: keyboards, monitors, etc. CALL x3494 CSUF EH&S thanks you

de Lijser, Peter

62

COMBUSTION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

Of the 260 MMT of hazardous waste generated annually in the United States, 1.70 MMT are disposed of in incinerators, 3.50 MMT are burned in boilers and 0.35 MMT are burned in other industrial processes. The paper is an overview of the technologies that can be used to combust haza...

63

Household hazardous waste disposal project. Metro toxicant program report number 1a. Summary report. Final report 1981-82  

SciTech Connect

The Household Hazardous Waste Disposal Project was an interagency effort to reduce the amount of toxicants entering the environment by developing a control plan for the safe disposal of small quantities of household chemicals. This Summary provides an overview of this problem and the steps taken to develop the control plan. The legal framework controlling the contents, labelling, and disposal of household toxic substances is reviewed in some detail. A brief examination of the contents, health effects, and environmental fate of four classes of consumer products (pesticides, paint products, household cleaners, and automotive products) is provided. The literature was reviewed for studies which document the potential for environmental contamination from disposal of these consumer products through landfilling, septic tank, or sewerage system disposal. A synopsis is provided of the surveys and pilot project that were conducted in the local Seattle metropolitan area. Finally, the elements of the regional control plan are described along with recommendations for future action. Similar programs around the country are noted and contacts provided.

Ridgley, S.M.; Galvin, D.V.

1982-08-01

64

Hazardous Waste Management Overview The Five L's  

E-print Network

Hazardous Waste Management Overview The Five L's CoLLect CoLLect all hazardous chemical waste and submit a chemical waste pick-up request form for proper disposal. Periodically evaluate your chemical are unsure if your chemical waste is a Hazardous Waste, consult EH&S at hazmat@columbia.edu. DO

Jia, Songtao

65

HAZWDDD (Hazardous Waste Development, Demonstration, and Disposal): An exercise in corporate planning  

SciTech Connect

Both Energy Systems corporate management and US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Operations Office (DOE-ORO) management have recognized the seriousness of these problems and have established several programs to determine acceptable courses of action. A plan has been developed for low-level radioactive waste (LLW), and an active dialogue pertaining to LLW is maintained with the state and federal regulators. During 1986, DOE-ORO and Energy Systems identified the need for a plan to address hazardous and mixed wastes. Each installation supports the concept of HAZWDDD through funding and the development of individual HAZWDDD implementation plans. A corporate plan is being developed to integrate the issues discussed in the five installation plans. This paper describes the approach taken in collecting the necessary information for the plan, some of the techniques used in analyzing the information provided, preliminary data that have been collected in preparation of this plan, the identification of common concerns and issues, and the integration of this information into a corporate approach to mixed and hazardous waste management. 1 fig., 5 tabs.

McGinnis, C.P.; Pechin, W.H.

1988-01-01

66

ANALYSIS OF GEOTHERMAL WASTES FOR HAZARDOUS COMPONENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Regulations governing the disposal of hazardous wastes led to an assessment for geothermal solid wastes for potentially hazardous properties. Samples were collected from three active geothermal sites in the western United States: The Geysers, Imperial Valley, and northwestern Nev...

67

Coping with a community stressor: a proposed hazardous waste disposal facility  

SciTech Connect

This study examined a number of factors believed to influence community involvement. Residents of a rural community near Phoenix, Arizona, where a hazardous waste facility had been proposed to built, were interviewed at home in August 1982. Most residents were chosen at random (n = 70) while a smaller number (n = 29) were selected because of known involvement in activities regarding the hazardous waste facility. Residents who perceived the facility as a threat to their health, safety, and general well-being employed a number of coping strategies. Strategies to change or alter the source of stress, problem-focused coping, were associated with greater community involvement. Strategies to regulate one's emotional response to stress, emotion-focused coping, were associated with less community involvement. Increased self-efficacy and sense of community led to increased community involvement. Both measures indirectly influenced community involvement through different modes of coping. Self-efficacy was negatively related to emotion-focused coping while sense of community was positively related to problem-focused coping. Increased demoralization was associated with decreased self-efficacy, increased emotion-focused coping, and decreased community involvement. The results suggest that the psychologically most fragile residents are underrepresented in community activities, and that the use of high levels of emotion-focused coping may have been maladaptive.

Bachrach, K.M.

1983-01-01

68

Public health investigations of hazardous organic chemical waste disposal in the United States.  

PubMed Central

Despite marked national concern, the number of published public health investigations of organic chemical hazardous wastes is small. Moreover, the extant literature provides little or no convincing evidence, either positive or negative, as to the question whether waste sites are harmful to human health. In this review, available literature is characterized as to time, place, and person. The majority of studies began 2 years or more after the end of exposure and 10 years after the start of exposure. Vast geographic areas of exposure have never been investigated. The number of study subjects evaluated has generally been too small to detect rare but important effects. The most common determinant of sites chosen for investigation has been the concern of local citizen groups. Several hypotheses are advanced to explain this pattern: methodologic and logistic difficulties; extensive litigation surrounding many waste sites; governmental reorganization which transferred environmental health from public health authority in the 1970s; and the presence of forces which have worked to block active community diagnosis. PMID:4085445

Levine, R; Chitwood, D D

1985-01-01

69

Organizational approach to estimating public resistance at proposed disposal sites for radioactive and hazardous wastes  

SciTech Connect

This paper was intended to present an organizational approach to predicting collective action and then to apply that approach to the issue of siting of a nuclear or other hazardous waste repository. Borrowing largely from two previously developed models (one by Perry et al. at Battelle's Human Affairs Research Center and one by Charles Tilly), I developed a theoretical model. Indicators were identified for many of the variables, but they are not easily measured, requiring a number of decisions on thresholds which were not clarified in the paper. What remains is further discussion of these measurement problems, evaluation of the confirmation status of the propositions, and empirical tests of the model. In the meantime, however, the discussion should provide assessors of public resistance with a theoretical basis for their thinking and a guide to some revealing indicators of the potential for collective action.

Payne, B.A.

1982-01-01

70

Preliminary investigation on the suitablity of using fiber reinforced concrete in the construction of a hazardous waste disposal vessel  

SciTech Connect

There are certain hazardous wastes that must be contained in an extremely secure vessel for transportation and disposal. The vessel, among other things, must be able to withstand relatively large impacts without rupturing. Such containment vessels therefore must be able to absorb substantial amounts of energy during an impact and still perform their function. One of the impacts that the vessel must withstand is a 30-foot fall onto an unyielding surface. For some disposal scenarios it is proposed to encase the waste in a steel enclosure which is to be surrounded by a thick layer of concrete which, in turn, is encased by a relatively thin steel shell. Tests on concrete in compression and flexure, including static, dynamic and impact tests, have shown that low modulus concretes tend to behave in a less brittle manner than higher modulus concretes. Tests also show that fiber reinforced concretes have significantly greater ductility, crack propagation resistance and toughness than conventional concretes. Since it is known that concrete is a reasonably brittle material, it is necessary to do impact tests on sample containment structures consisting of thin-walled metal containers having closed ends which are filled with concrete, grout, or fiber reinforced concrete. This report presents the results of simple tests aimed at observing the behavior of sample containment structures subjected to impacts due to a fall from 30 feet. 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Ramey, M.R.; Daie-e, G.

1988-07-01

71

HAZARDOUS WASTE [Written Program  

E-print Network

HAZARDOUS WASTE MANUAL [Written Program] Cornell University [10/7/13 #12;Hazardous Waste Program........................................................................................................................ 6 2.3 Waste Generator Responsibilities ..................................................................................................... 7 2.7 Departments That Choose Collect and Consolidate Waste

Pawlowski, Wojtek

72

Elimination of the hazards from hazardous wastes.  

PubMed Central

The "hazard" associated with a waste essentially controls the overall engineering approach to finding suitable alternatives for solving potential disposal problems. It should be recognized that all factors affecting environmental equilibrium must be considered, including product sales, process design, financing, pre- and end-of-pipe treatment, residuals management, and ultimate bioaccumulation of residuals. To meet this challenge, a systems approach to waste treatment and residuals disposal provides a logical approach, but this management concept requires a thorough understanding of the important physical and chemical aspects of the problem, as well as many social implications of the resulting decisions. Thus waste management within a plant necessarily involves process control, pretreatment and end-of-pipe treatment. Further, it follows that residuals management from a disposal point-of-view must ultimately embrace what is called the "multi-barrier concept." In essence, hazard elimination occurs in varying degrees during each phase of a properly engineered system. PMID:738249

Gloyna, E F; Taylor, R D

1978-01-01

73

Development, testing, and demonstration of geotechnical and cement-based encapsulant materials for the stabilization of radioactive and hazardous waste disposal structures  

SciTech Connect

A zeolite fluidized-bed treatment system is being developed and tested for the treatment of radioactive and hazardous waste-contaminated subsurface disposal structures. Formulations of cement, fly ash, and slag slurries and sequestering agents also are being tested and evaluated. Leach resistance of radionuclides, heavy metals, and hazardous inorganic compounds in the solidified cement-based encapsulant has been determined. These results simulate the resistance to water leaching of the solidified product after it has been injected an open and interstitial void volume in and proximal to liquid waste disposal structures. Micro- and macro-encapsulation of contaminants within and geologic media surrounding subsurface disposal structures is being demonstrated as an alternative technology for waste site remediation. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Phillips, S.J.; Cammann, J.W.; Benny, H.L. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)); Serne, R.J.; Martin, P.F.; Ames, L.L. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

1991-09-01

74

Nearshore waste disposal  

SciTech Connect

This book presents papers on the marine disposal of wastes. Topics considered include the impact of waste disposal in nearshore environments, bioavailability and the effects of heavy metals in marine deposits, bioaccumulation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons dams, hydrocarbons in Southern California municipal wastes and their input to coastal waters, geochemical processes, and physical processes.

Ketchum, B.H.; Capuzzo, J.M.; Burt, W.V.; Duedall, I.W.; Park, P.K.; Kester, D.R.

1985-01-01

75

Deep sea waste disposal  

SciTech Connect

The book presents papers on the marine disposal of wastes. Topics considered include incineration at sea, the modelling and biological effects of industrial wastes, microbial studies of ocean dumping, deep-sea mining wastes, the chemical analysis of ferromanganese nodules, and economic aspects of deep-sea disposal.

Kester, D.R.; Burt, W.V.; Capuzzo, J.M.; Park, P.K.; Ketchum, B.W.; Duedall, I.W.

1985-01-01

76

ALTERNATIVE TREATMENT METHODS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The five-year schedule for the minimization and restrictions on the disposal of hazardous wastes onto the land is described. Two major items are causing a shift in the way hazardous wastes are managed in the United States. Because of liability for hazardous wastes, companies are ...

77

Participation in a Household Hazardous Waste Collection Drive and "Before" and "After" Public Knowledge and Disposal Practices: Champaign County.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The extent to which households use, store, and dispose of hazardous materials has become a matter of increasing concern but has been rarely assessed. This report provides an assessment of the first household hazardous materials publicity campaign and collection event held in Illinois. The report describes survey results concerning the state of

Liebert, Roland J.

78

PRETREATMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the waste applicability and performance characteristics of hazardous waste pretreatment processes. Pretreatment processes are those unit operations which must often be carried out on hazardous wastes to make them amenable to subsequent materials or energy rec...

79

Control technology assessment of hazardous waste disposal operations in chemicals manufacturing: walk-through survey report of Olin Chemicals Group, Charleston, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

A walk through survey was conducted to assess control technology for hazardous wastes disposal operations at Olin Chemicals Group (SIC-2800, SIC-2812, SIC-2819), Charleston, Tennessee in May 1982. Hazardous wastes generated at the facility included brine sludge, thick mercury (7439954) (Hg) butter, and calcium-hypochlorite (7778543). An estimated 8500 tons of waste were disposed of annually. The Hg waste underwent a retorting process that recycled the Hg. The final detoxified waste was land filled. Brine sludge and calcium-hypochlorite were also land filled. No controls beyond those normally used at such sites were found at the landfills. Periodic monitoring of Hg vapor concentrations was conducted by the company. Medical monitoring of urine for Hg exposure was conducted. Specific limits were set for urinary Hg concentrations. When these limits were exceeded the workers were removed from exposure. Personal protective equipment consisted of hard hats, safety glasses, and spirators specially designed for Hg exposure. The author concludes that the hazardous waste disposal and treatment operations at the facility are well controlled.

Crandall, M.S.

1983-08-01

80

Draft postclosure permit application for Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Oil Landform Hazardous Waste Disposal Unit  

SciTech Connect

The Oil Landfarm Hazardous-Waste Disposal Unit (HWDU) is located approximately one and one-half miles west of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The Oil Landfarm HWDU consists of three disposal plots and along with the Bear Creek Burial Grounds and the S-3 Site comprise the Bear Creek Valley Waste Disposal Area (BCVWDA). The facility was used for the biological degradation of waste oil and machine coolants via landfarming, a process involving the application of waste oils and coolants to nutrient-adjusted soil during the dry months of the year (April to October). The Oil Landfarm HWDU has been closed as a hazardous-waste disposal unit and therefore will be subject to post-closure care. The closure plan for the Oil Landfarm HWDU is provided in Appendix A.1. A post-closure plan for the Oil Landfarm HWDU is presented in Appendix A.2. The purpose of this plan is to identify and describe the activities that will be performed during the post-closure care period. This plan will be implemented and will continue throughout the post-closure care period.

Not Available

1991-08-01

81

Draft postclosure permit application for Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Oil Landform Hazardous Waste Disposal Unit. Revision  

SciTech Connect

The Oil Landfarm Hazardous-Waste Disposal Unit (HWDU) is located approximately one and one-half miles west of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The Oil Landfarm HWDU consists of three disposal plots and along with the Bear Creek Burial Grounds and the S-3 Site comprise the Bear Creek Valley Waste Disposal Area (BCVWDA). The facility was used for the biological degradation of waste oil and machine coolants via landfarming, a process involving the application of waste oils and coolants to nutrient-adjusted soil during the dry months of the year (April to October). The Oil Landfarm HWDU has been closed as a hazardous-waste disposal unit and therefore will be subject to post-closure care. The closure plan for the Oil Landfarm HWDU is provided in Appendix A.1. A post-closure plan for the Oil Landfarm HWDU is presented in Appendix A.2. The purpose of this plan is to identify and describe the activities that will be performed during the post-closure care period. This plan will be implemented and will continue throughout the post-closure care period.

Not Available

1991-08-01

82

Waste Management and Disposal for Artists and Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Artists, art teachers, and students need to understand the problems associated with disposing of waste materials, some of which may be hazardous. The waste products of art projects, even if non-hazardous, also use up space in overloaded landfills. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets forth guidelines for disposing of hazardous wastes.

Babin, Angela; McCann, Michael

83

Toxicants in Consumer Products. Household Hazardous Waste Disposal Project. Metro Toxicant Program No. 1B.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four general product classes (pesticides, paint products, household cleaners, and automotive products) are reviewed in this document. Each product class is described, and several aspects of the problem associated with product use or disposal are examined, including estimates of volumes used and environmental impacts. Technical data on the specific

Ridgley, Susan M.

84

Energy and solid/hazardous waste  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses the past and potential future solid and hazardous waste impacts from energy development, and summarizes the major environmental, legislation applicable to solid and hazardous waste generation and disposal. A glossary of terms and acronyms used to describe and measure solid waste impacts of energy development is included. (PSB)

None

1981-12-01

85

Commerce clause limitations on a state's regulation of waste disposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The courts, in striking down the New Jersey Waste Control Act, determined that waste disposal sites are a natural resource and must be shared by the states. The court was more impressed by the common problem of waste disposal than by New Jersey's claims of health hazards. Future problems could lead to states banning all nuclear waste disposal rather than

McElwee

1978-01-01

86

Radioactive waste disposal package  

DOEpatents

A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

Lampe, Robert F. (Bethel Park, PA)

1986-01-01

87

Development of the Remedial Action Priority System: an improved risk assessment tool for prioritizing hazardous and radioactive-mixed waste disposal sites  

SciTech Connect

The Remedial Action Priority System (RAPS) represents a methodology that prioritizes inactive hazardous and radioactive mixed-waste disposal sites in a scientific and objective manner based on limited site information. This methodology is intended to bridge the technology gap that exists between the initial site evaluation using the Hazard Ranking System (HRS) and the time-consuming process of actual field site characterization, assessment, and remediation efforts. The HRS was designed as an initial screening tool to discriminate between hazardous waste sites that do not and those that are likely to pose significant problems to human health, safety, and/or the environment. The HRS is used by the US Environmental Protection Agency to identify sites for nomination to the National Priorites List (NPL). Because the HRS is not designed to evaluate sites containing radionuclides, a modified Hazard Ranking System (mHRS) addressing both hazardous and radioactive mixed wastes was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Neither the HRS nor the mHRS was designed to prioritize sites that are nominated to the NPL according to their potential risks. 15 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Whelan, G.; Strenge, D.L.; Steelman, B.L.; Hawley, K.A.

1985-08-01

88

HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT REFERENCE  

E-print Network

Cathode Ray Tubes and Consumer Electronic Devices 20 Lamps 21 #12;Hazardous Waste Management Reference Guide Page 3 of 36 CHAPTER FIVE ­ WASTE MINIMIZATION 22 SUBSTITUTION 22 RECYCLING AND REDISTRIBUTION 22HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT REFERENCE GUIDE Prepared by Environment, Health and Safety Office

Faraon, Andrei

89

PRELIMINARY OPERATION OF THE FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION FACILITY FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL RESEARCH: TEST RESULTS AND EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes Phase I of a program to provide research data on the destruction of hazardous wastes in a fluidized-bed combustor (FBC). The report addresses three primary areas of the program: facility operation, sampling and analysis, and health and safety. The FBC was ope...

90

Household hazardous waste: Implementation of a permanent collection facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improper disposal of household hazardous wastes in the solid or liquid waste stream can cause serious environmental problems. Many local governments in Washington State and throughout the country are attempting to prevent these problems by diverting household hazardous wastes from municipal waste streams. Diversion requires several steps. The first is to make the public aware that household hazardous wastes are

Kissman

1989-01-01

91

Radioactive waste material disposal  

DOEpatents

The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.

Forsberg, Charles W. (155 Newport Dr., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Beahm, Edward C. (106 Cooper Cir., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Parker, George W. (321 Dominion Cir., Knoxville, TN 37922)

1995-01-01

92

Radioactive waste material disposal  

DOEpatents

The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide. 3 figs.

Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

1995-10-24

93

Hazardous waste operational plan for site 300  

SciTech Connect

This plan outlines the procedures and operations used at LLNL's Site 300 for the management of the hazardous waste generated. This waste consists primarily of depleted uranium (a by-product of U-235 enrichment), beryllium, small quantities of analytical chemicals, industrial type waste such as solvents, cleaning acids, photographic chemicals, etc., and explosives. This plan details the operations generating this waste, the proper handling of this material and the procedures used to treat or dispose of the hazardous waste. A considerable amount of information found in this plan was extracted from the Site 300 Safety and Operational Manual written by Site 300 Facility personnel and the Hazards Control Department.

Roberts, R.S.

1982-02-12

94

Bacteriological hazards of disposable bedpan systems  

PubMed Central

A system using disposable papier mach bedpans and urinals in hospital has advantages of ease of handling for the nurse and cleanliness for the patient. Disposal of the bedpans and their contents is by destruction and flushing to waste. Some bacteriological hazards of this process in the Haigh Sluicemaster and J.M.L. Clinimatic machines are assessed, particularly the dispersal of the contents in spray and aerosol during opening, closing, and running the machines. Various safety devices were tested and some deficiencies are discussed. A major defect in the system is the need at present for a bedpan carrier or support which is not disposable and requires cleaning and disinfection. Minor problems include ordering and storing bulky items, possibly the texture of the bedpans themselves, and perhaps the effect of the bulk of paper discharged into the sewage system. At present the system seems unsuitable for use in infectious disease hospitals and has some deficiencies in use in general wards. The improvements suggested would greatly increase its acceptability which should then be completely re-assessed. To this end the examination of improved models using totally disposable bedpans is proceeding. Images PMID:4696834

Gibson, G. L.

1973-01-01

95

WASTE DISPOSAL WORKSHOPS: ANTHRAX CONTAMINATED WASTE  

E-print Network

WASTE DISPOSAL WORKSHOPS: ANTHRAX CONTAMINATED WASTE January 2010 Prepared for the Interagency left intentionally blank.] #12;Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy PNNL-SA-69994 under Contract DE-AC05-76RL01830 Waste Disposal Workshops: Anthrax-Contaminated Waste AM Lesperance JF Upton SL

96

Space disposal of nuclear wastes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The DOE has been studying several options for nuclear waste disposal, among them space disposal, which NASA has been assessing. Attention is given to space disposal destinations noting that a circular heliocentric orbit about halfway between Earth and Venus is the reference option in space disposal studies. Discussion also covers the waste form, showing that parameters to be considered include high waste loading, high thermal conductivity, thermochemical stability, resistance to leaching, fabrication, resistance to oxidation and to thermal shock. Finally, the Space Shuttle nuclear waste disposal mission profile is presented.

Priest, C. C.; Nixon, R. F.; Rice, E. E.

1980-01-01

97

Mixed waste disposal facilities at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a key installation of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The site is managed by DOE's Savannah River Field Office and operated under contract by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The Site's waste management policies reflect a continuing commitment to the environment. Waste minimization, recycling, use of effective pre-disposal treatments, and repository monitoring are high priorities at the site. One primary objective is to safely treat and dispose of process wastes from operations at the site. To meet this objective, several new projects are currently being developed, including the M-Area Waste Disposal Project (Y-Area) which will treat and dispose of mixed liquid wastes, and the Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (HW/MWDF), which will store, treat, and dispose of solid mixed and hazardous wastes. This document provides a description of this facility and its mission.

Wells, M.N.; Bailey, L.L.

1991-01-01

98

Mixed waste disposal facilities at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a key installation of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The site is managed by DOE`s Savannah River Field Office and operated under contract by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The Site`s waste management policies reflect a continuing commitment to the environment. Waste minimization, recycling, use of effective pre-disposal treatments, and repository monitoring are high priorities at the site. One primary objective is to safely treat and dispose of process wastes from operations at the site. To meet this objective, several new projects are currently being developed, including the M-Area Waste Disposal Project (Y-Area) which will treat and dispose of mixed liquid wastes, and the Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (HW/MWDF), which will store, treat, and dispose of solid mixed and hazardous wastes. This document provides a description of this facility and its mission.

Wells, M.N.; Bailey, L.L.

1991-12-31

99

BIOREMEDIATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

In 1987, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) initiated the Biosystems Technology Development Program to anticipate and address research needs in managing our nation's hazardous waste. The Agency believes that bioremediation of...

100

40 CFR 266.206 - Standards applicable to the treatment and disposal of waste military munitions.  

...to the treatment and disposal of waste military munitions. 266.206 Section 266...HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Military Munitions 266.206 Standards...to the treatment and disposal of waste military munitions. The treatment and...

2014-07-01

101

40 CFR 266.206 - Standards applicable to the treatment and disposal of waste military munitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...to the treatment and disposal of waste military munitions. 266.206 Section 266...HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Military Munitions 266.206 Standards...to the treatment and disposal of waste military munitions. The treatment and...

2012-07-01

102

40 CFR 266.206 - Standards applicable to the treatment and disposal of waste military munitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...to the treatment and disposal of waste military munitions. 266.206 Section 266...HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Military Munitions 266.206 Standards...to the treatment and disposal of waste military munitions. The treatment and...

2011-07-01

103

40 CFR 266.206 - Standards applicable to the treatment and disposal of waste military munitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...to the treatment and disposal of waste military munitions. 266.206 Section 266...HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Military Munitions 266.206 Standards...to the treatment and disposal of waste military munitions. The treatment and...

2010-07-01

104

The University of Georgia chemical waste disposal program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the quantities of hazardous chemical waste generated by multidisciplinary research at universities and colleges is small, the potential damage to health and the environment must not be disregarded. A Univ. of Georgia program directed at reducing the improper storage and disposal of toxic chemical wastes is described. Wastes are sorted and classified into hazard classifications as specified by federal

D. W. Dreesen; T. J. Pohlman

2009-01-01

105

Development of improved risk assessment tools for prioritizing hazardous and radioactive-mixed waste disposal sites. [Atmospheric and overland pathways  

SciTech Connect

It is the intent of all environmental regulations to minimize the risks to man and his environment that arise from a regulated activity. Because lower levels of risk are generally accompanied by higher environmental control costs, optimum management is achieved by balancing risks and costs. Currently, the US Environmental Protection Agency employs the Hazard Ranking System (HRS) to evaluate the environmental risks associated with inactive hazardous waste sites for the purpose of establishing the National Priorities List. Recently, investigators modified the HRS to more realistically evaluate the risks posed by radioactive waste constituents. Although results from applying the modified HRS will be useful for comparing the priority of DOE sites to non-DOE sites, the methodology is still overly subjective. To provide DOE with a better management tool for prioritizing funding allocations for further site investigations and possible remediations, Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing a more objective, scientifically based, risk assessment methodology called the Remedial Action Priority System (RAPS). This methodology will be developed using empirically, analytically, and semianalytically based mathematical algorithms to predict the potential for contaminant migration from a site to receptors of concern using pathways analyses. Four major pathways for contaminant migration will be considered in the RAPS methodology: groundwater, overland, surface water, and atmospheric. Using the predictions of contaminant transport, simplified exposure assessments will be performed for receptors of interest. The risks associated with the sites will then be calculated relative to other sites for each pathway and for all pathways together. The RAPS methodology will require minimum user knowledge of risk assessment and the least possible amount of input data, and is being designed to operate on a personal computer. 17 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

Whelan, G.; Steelman, B.L.

1984-10-01

106

Mixed waste characterization, treatment & disposal focus area  

SciTech Connect

The mission of the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (referred to as the Mixed Waste Focus Area or MWFA) is to provide treatment systems capable of treating DOE`s mixed waste in partnership with users, and with continual participation of stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators. The MWFA deals with the problem of eliminating mixed waste from current and future storage in the DOE complex. Mixed waste is waste that contains both hazardous chemical components, subject to the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and radioactive components, subject to the requirements of the Atomic Energy Act. The radioactive components include transuranic (TRU) and low-level waste (LLW). TRU waste primarily comes from the reprocessing of spent fuel and the use of plutonium in the fabrication of nuclear weapons. LLW includes radioactive waste other than uranium mill tailings, TRU, and high-level waste, including spent fuel.

NONE

1996-08-01

107

INNOVATIVE THERMAL PROCESSES FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT AND DESTRUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

As the land disposal of untreated hazardous wastes has continued to fall into disfavor in North America, increasing attention is being given to alternative hazardous waste treatment and disposal technologies. This increased attention and the public and private support resulting f...

108

ACTIVATED SLUDGE TREATMENT OF SELECTED AQUEOUS ORGANIC HAZARDOUS WASTE COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

As a result of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 and the concurrent land disposal restrictions rule, EPA is in the process of demonstrating achievable treatment techniques to be used as alternatives to the land disposal of hazardous wastes. ata are being collected ...

109

Hazardous waste management and pollution prevention  

SciTech Connect

The management of hazardous wastes is one of the most critical environmental issues that faces many developing countries. It is one of the areas where institutional control and treatment and disposal technology has not kept pace with economic development. This paper reviews the development of hazardous waste management methods over the past decades, and provides the information on the status and trends of hazardous waste management strategy in selected western nations. Several issues pertinent to hazardous waste management will be reviewed, including: (1) definition of hazard; (2) why are we concerned with hazardous wastes; (3) aspects of hazardous waste management system; and (4) prioritization of hazardous waste management options. Due to regulatory and economic pressure on hazardous waste management, pollution prevention has become a very important environmental strategy in many developed countries. In many developed countries, industry is increasingly considering such alternative approaches, and finding many opportunities for their cost effective implementation. This paper provides a review of the status and trends of pollution prevention in selected western nations.

Chiu, Shen-yann

1992-03-01

110

Hazardous waste management and pollution prevention  

SciTech Connect

The management of hazardous wastes is one of the most critical environmental issues that faces many developing countries. It is one of the areas where institutional control and treatment and disposal technology has not kept pace with economic development. This paper reviews the development of hazardous waste management methods over the past decades, and provides the information on the status and trends of hazardous waste management strategy in selected western nations. Several issues pertinent to hazardous waste management will be reviewed, including: (1) definition of hazard; (2) why are we concerned with hazardous wastes; (3) aspects of hazardous waste management system; and (4) prioritization of hazardous waste management options. Due to regulatory and economic pressure on hazardous waste management, pollution prevention has become a very important environmental strategy in many developed countries. In many developed countries, industry is increasingly considering such alternative approaches, and finding many opportunities for their cost effective implementation. This paper provides a review of the status and trends of pollution prevention in selected western nations.

Chiu, Shen-yann.

1992-01-01

111

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) contingency plan for hazardous waste treatment, storage, and disposal units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Y-12 RCRA Contingency Plan will be continually reviewed and revised if any of the following occur: the facility permit is revised, the plan is inadequate in an emergency, the procedures can be improved, the operations of the facility change in a way that alters the plan, the emergency coordinator changes, or the emergency equipment list changes. Copies of the Y-12 Emergency Management Plan are available at the Plant Shift Superintendent`s Office and the Emergency Management Office. This document serves to supplement the Y-12 Emergency Management Plan to be appropriate for all RCRA hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal units. The 90-day accumulation areas at the Y-12 Plant have a separate contingency supplement as required by RCRA and are separate from this supplement.

Not Available

1994-08-01

112

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) general contingency plan for hazardous waste treatment, storage, and disposal units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Y-12 RCRA Contingency Plan will be continually reviewed and revised if any of the following occur: the facility permit is revised, the plan is inadequate in an emergency, the procedures herein can be improved, the operations of the facility change in a way that alters the plan, the emergency coordinator changes, or the emergency equipment list changes. Copies of the Y-12 Emergency Management Plan are available at the Plant Shift Superintendent`s Office and the Emergency Management Office. This document serves to supplement the Y-12 Emergency Management Plan to be appropriate for all RCRA hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal units. The 90-day accumulation areas at the Y-12 Plant have a separate contingency supplement as required by RCRA and are separate from this supplement.

Skaggs, B.E.

1993-11-01

113

Geotechnical engineering of ocean waste disposal  

SciTech Connect

This book report is on shallow ocean disposal and deals primarily with dredge material disposal. It is concerned with deep ocean disposal and deals primarily with both subseabed disposal of nuclear wastes and concentrated chemical wastes.

Demars, K.R.; Chaney, R.C.

1990-01-01

114

WASTE DISPOSAL SECTION CORNELL UNIVERSITY  

E-print Network

2/07 WASTE DISPOSAL SECTION CORNELL UNIVERSITY PROCEDURE for DISPOSAL of RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS This procedure has been developed to ensure the safety of those individuals who handle radioactive waste and to comply with University, New York State and Federal requirements. The importance of strict adherence

Pawlowski, Wojtek

115

Nuclear waste disposal in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Work on nuclear waste disposal in space conducted by the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and contractors are reported. From the aggregate studies, it is concluded that space disposal of nuclear waste is technically feasible.

Burns, R. E.; Causey, W. E.; Galloway, W. E.; Nelson, R. W.

1978-01-01

116

HAZARD ASSESSMENT RESEARCH STRATEGY FOR OCEAN DISPOSAL  

EPA Science Inventory

A decision rationale for ocean disposal based on a predictive hazard assessment research strategy is presented. he conceptual framework for hazard assessment is outlined, and its major components are identified and discussed. he strategy involves the synthesis of results from sep...

117

Review : Legislative and Scientific Aspects of Waste Disposal in Hospitals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastes produced by hospitals are variable in composition and categorisation. Clinical wastes constitute the potentially hazardous components of hospital wastes, and their management and disposal have generated much attention both from environmental regulatory bodies and the public. In the UK, the stimulus for stricter environmental regulation of waste of this type has come from the European Union. The current trend

Yewande Awe; Roger Perry

1996-01-01

118

HOUSEHOLD HAZARDOUS WASTE CHARACTERIZATION STUDY FOR PALM BEACH COUNTY, FLORIDA: A MITE PROGRAM EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The objectives of the Household hazardous Waste Characterization Study (the HHW Study) were to quantify the annual household hazardous waste (HHW) tonnages disposed in Palm Beach County, Florida's (the county) residential solid waste (characterized in this study as municipal soli...

119

HANDBOOK FOR REMEDIAL ACTION AT WASTE DISPOSAL SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

This handbook is directed toward technical personnel in federal, state, regional, and municipal agencies involved in the cleanup of hazardous waste disposal sites, industrial surface impoundments, and municipal, industrial, and combined landfills. It contains a summary of the flo...

120

Chemical Handling and Waste Disposal Issues at Liberal Arts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings from a survey of 20 liberal arts colleges which did not have graduate programs in chemistry are presented. Discussed are regulations, actions taken and costs of academic laboratories regarding the disposal of hazardous waste. (CW)

Gannaway, Susan P.

1990-01-01

121

HAZARDOUS WASTE LABEL DEPAUL UNIVERSITY  

E-print Network

HAZARDOUS WASTE LABEL DEPAUL UNIVERSITY ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH & SAFETY 5-4170 Corrosive Non DEPAUL UNIVERSITY ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH & SAFETY 5-4170 HAZARDOUS WASTE LABEL DEPAUL UNIVERSITY ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH & SAFETY 5-4170 HAZARDOUS WASTE LABEL DEPAUL UNIVERSITY ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH & SAFETY 5

Schaefer, Marcus

122

TMI abnormal wastes disposal options  

Microsoft Academic Search

A substantial quantity of high beta-gamma\\/high-TRU contaminated wastes are expected from cleanup activities of Unit 2 of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station. Those wastes are not disposable because of present regulatory constraints. Therefore, they must be stored temporarily. This paper discusses three options for storage of those wastes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: (1) storage in temporary

Ayers; A. L. Jr

1984-01-01

123

Hazardous Substances and Hazardous Waste  

MedlinePLUS

... diluted The substance is very toxic (for example, arsenic). Coming into contact with a substance is called ... to hazardous substances. Also, small children often eat soil or household materials that may be contaminated, such ...

124

RSSC RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL 08/2011 7-1 RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL  

E-print Network

options for mixed waste and the University's storage capacity for this material is limited. CarefullyRSSC RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL 08/2011 7-1 CHAPTER 7 RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL PAGE I. Radioactive Waste Disposal

Slatton, Clint

125

Characterization, minimization and disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes during cleanup and rransition of the Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL) at Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA)  

SciTech Connect

This document provides an outline of waste handling practices used during the Sandia National Laboratory/California (SNL/CA), Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL) Cleanup and Transition project. Here we provide background information concerning the history of the TRL and the types of operations that generated the waste. Listed are applicable SNL/CA site-wide and TRL local waste handling related procedures. We describe personnel training practices and outline methods of handling and disposal of compactible and non-compactible low level waste, solidified waste water, hazardous wastes and mixed wastes. Waste minimization, reapplication and recycling practices are discussed. Finally, we provide a description of the process followed to remove the highly contaminated decontamination systems. This document is intended as both a historical record and as a reference to other facilities who may be involved in similar work.

Garcia, T.B.; Gorman, T.P.

1996-12-01

126

High-Stakes Gamble: Hazardous Waste.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Urges colleges to develop cost-effective strategies for complying with environmental legislation and protect themselves and their employees from financial liability. Explains the personal liability of school officials for unsafe hazardous waste disposal practices. Reviews environmental laws, impacts of Right to Know legislation, the increase of

Wallach, Paul

1987-01-01

127

A model for determining the fate of hazardous constituents in waste during in-vessel composting  

E-print Network

Composting is one of the techniques that has evolved as a safe disposal and predisposal alternative to the stringent regulations on hazardous waste disposal. The implementation of this technique needs careful evaluation of the processes a hazardous...

Bollineni, Prasanthi

2012-06-07

128

USE OF SORBENT MATERIALS FOR TREATING HAZARDOUS WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The Department of Defense (DoD) spends millions of dollars each year to dispose of hazardous liquid wastes from military facilities. The Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) alone spent $23 million during fiscal year 1994 to dispose of 64 million pounds of liquid hazardous materials. T...

129

Tank Waste Disposal Program redefinition  

SciTech Connect

The record of decision (ROD) (DOE 1988) on the Final Environmental Impact Statement, Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic and Tank Wastes, Hanford Site, Richland Washington identifies the method for disposal of double-shell tank waste and cesium and strontium capsules at the Hanford Site. The ROD also identifies the need for additional evaluations before a final decision is made on the disposal of single-shell tank waste. This document presents the results of systematic evaluation of the present technical circumstances, alternatives, and regulatory requirements in light of the values of the leaders and constitutents of the program. It recommends a three-phased approach for disposing of tank wastes. This approach allows mature technologies to be applied to the treatment of well-understood waste forms in the near term, while providing time for the development and deployment of successively more advanced pretreatment technologies. The advanced technologies will accelerate disposal by reducing the volume of waste to be vitrified. This document also recommends integration of the double-and single-shell tank waste disposal programs, provides a target schedule for implementation of the selected approach, and describes the essential elements of a program to be baselined in 1992.

Grygiel, M.L.; Augustine, C.A.; Cahill, M.A.; Garfield, J.S.; Johnson, M.E.; Kupfer, M.J.; Meyer, G.A.; Roecker, J.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Holton, L.K.; Hunter, V.L.; Triplett, M.B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1991-10-01

130

FFTF disposable solid waste cask  

SciTech Connect

Disposal of radioactive waste from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) will utilize a Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) for the transport and burial of irradiated stainless steel and inconel materials. Retrievability coupled with the desire for minimal facilities and labor costs at the disposal site identified the need for the DSWC. Design requirements for this system were patterned after Type B packages as outlined in 10 CFR 71 with a few exceptions based on site and payload requirements. A summary of the design basis, supporting analytical methods and fabrication practices developed to deploy the DSWC is provided in this paper.

Thomson, J. D.; Goetsch, S. D.

1983-01-01

131

Analysis of Underpressured Reservoirs for Waste Disposal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Underpressured reservoirs are known to exist in sedimentary basins throughout the world and are common in North America. Deep-well injection of hazardous liquid wastes into underpressured reservoirs has been mentioned as a safe means for waste disposal because of their tendendy to contain fluids for long periods of time. In this study, a numerical model based on the geological setting of the Hugoton field in the southwestern United States is used to analyze the potential of underpressured reservoirs for safe disposal of liquid wastes. The factors controlling the pressure buildup and disposal volume are evaluated by studying the sensitivities of the numerical model to various flow and reservoir parameters. The safe disposal volume on a per-well basis is estimated under the restrictive conditions that underpressurization persits during and after injection, and that the migration of the waste is restricted to prevent contamination of the overlying aquifers for an operationally permanent time period. This study demonstrates that the presence of the ultra-low permeability formation surrounding an underpressured reservoir makes it possible for the waste to be contained safely and permanently. Even if the pressure in the reservoir and the overlying formations rises to hydrostatic, possible upward migration of the contaminants is likely to be dominated by molecular diffusion across the ultra-low permeability formation and thus would be too slow to be significance at human time scale.

Jiao, J. J.; Zheng, C.; Hennet, R. J.-C.

1997-03-01

132

Reduce drilling waste disposal costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews various ways to reduce volume of wastes generated during oil and gas well drilling operations. The primary method of reducing costs of disposal is to reduce the volume of waste generated. The paper discusses methods to reduce this volume by using different, non-toxic additives such as ground limestone or dolomite to control mud densities. This would result

1993-01-01

133

Control technology assessment of hazardous waste disposal operations in chemicals manufacturing: in-depth survey report of E. I. Du Pont de Nemours and Company, Chambers Works incinerator, Deepwater, New Jersey  

Microsoft Academic Search

An in depth survey was conducted to assess control technology of hazardous waste disposal operations at the Chamber Works incinerator, Du Pont de Nemours and Company (SIC-2800), Deepwater, New Jersey, in October 1982. Area and breathing zone samples were analyzed for toluene (108883), ortho-chloronitrobenzene (88733), and para-chloronitrobenzene (100005). All concentrations were well below the relevant standards. Control and safety instrumentation

Anastas

1984-01-01

134

Plasma separation process: Disposal of PSP radioactive wastes  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive wastes, in the form of natural uranium contaminated scrap hardware and residual materials from decontamination operations, were generated in the PSP facilities in buildings R1 and 106. Based on evaluation of the characteristics of these wastes and the applicable regulations, the various options for the processing and disposal of PSP radioactive wastes were investigated and recommended procedures were developed. The essential features of waste processing included: (1) the solidification of all liquid wastes prior to shipment; (2) cutting of scrap hardware to fit 55-gallon drums and use of inerting agents (diatomaceous earth) to eliminate pyrophoric hazards; and (3) compaction of soft wastes. All PSP radioactive wastes were shipped to the Hanford Site for disposal. As part of the waste disposal process, a detailed plan was formulated for handling and tracking of PSP radioactive wastes, from the point of generation through shipping. In addition, a waste minimization program was implemented to reduce the waste volume or quantity. Included in this document are discussions of the applicable regulations, the types of PSP wastes, the selection of the preferred waste disposal approach and disposal site, the analysis and classification of PSP wastes, the processing and ultimate disposition of PSP wastes, the handling and tracking of PSP wastes, and the implementation of the PSP waste minimization program. 9 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

Not Available

1989-07-01

135

EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE CONTROL OF HAZARDOUS WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

Investigations were conducted of new and emerging technologies for the disposal of hazardous wastes. These methods involve new technologies or a recent variation of an established one. In addition, a questionnaire survey was made of potential users of hazardous waste information....

136

HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN THE UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper was prepared for presentation at a joint US/Spain Seminar on Hazardous Waste Management to be held in Madrid, Spain, on May 19-22, 1986. Hazardous waste quantities produced in the United States and how they are handled/disposed of are presented. Major environmental legi...

137

Organic waste disposal system  

SciTech Connect

Organic waste material is pneumatically transported within air and mixed therewith by swirling flow through an annular ejector passage of varying radial width into a reaction flow passage of an eductor nozzle section receiving the output plume of a plasma torch for initiating therein thermal gasification of the waste mixture. The plasma torch plume projects from the eductor section into a diffuser section within which thermal gasification is continued before discharge of gasified waste.

Nolting, E.E.; Colfield, J.; Richard, R.; Peterson, S.

1997-12-31

138

A COMPARISON: ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATORS VERSUS THE 1990 TOXICS RELEASE INVENTORY AIR RELEASES.  

EPA Science Inventory

Incineration is often the preferred technology for disposing of hazardous waste, and remediating Superfund sites. The effective implementation of this technology is frequently impeded by strong public opposition `to hazardous waste' incineration HWI). One of the reasons cited for...

139

UNBC Hazardous Waste Guide Proper waste management practices are essential for the safety of all students, staff, and  

E-print Network

and surface water. This guide is intended to provide an overview of hazardous waste management at UNBC. Please-hazardous, water-soluble liquid wastes may be suitable for drain disposal. If the solution is suitable for drainUNBC Hazardous Waste Guide Proper waste management practices are essential for the safety of all

Northern British Columbia, University of

140

Disposal of NORM waste in salt caverns  

SciTech Connect

Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, there are no fatal flaws that would prevent a state regulatory agency from approving cavern disposal of NORM. On the basis of the costs charged by caverns currently used for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal caverns could be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

Veil, J.A.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Blunt, D.; Williams, G.P.

1998-07-01

141

Nuclear hazardous waste cost control management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the waste content of glass waste forms on Savannah River high-level waste disposal costs are currently under study to adjust the glass frit content to optimize the glass waste loadings and therefore significantly reduce the overall waste disposal cost. Changes in waste content affect onsite Defense Waste Changes in waste contents affect onsite Defense Waste Processing Facility

Selg

1991-01-01

142

Worldwide low-level waste disposal practices  

SciTech Connect

Low-level waste disposal practices will be described for ten or more countries. These practices will be compared with expectations for disposal designs for low-level waste regional compacts in the US.

Towler, O A

1985-01-01

143

Site control of hazardous waste facilities  

SciTech Connect

Although it controls disposal of hazardous wastes, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 leaves the details of site selection and control to the states. Twelve states have passed site selection laws, but their implementation shows that there are problems still to be worked out. Georgia's law, which goes beyond those of many other states by providing for eminent domain, still has not fully resolved difficulties of state-local relations, liability, and representation of the public. 8 references.

Wells, D.T.

1982-05-01

144

Concept for Underground Disposal of Nuclear Waste  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Packaged waste placed in empty oil-shale mines. Concept for disposal of nuclear waste economically synergistic with earlier proposal concerning backfilling of oil-shale mines. New disposal concept superior to earlier schemes for disposal in hard-rock and salt mines because less uncertainty about ability of oil-shale mine to contain waste safely for millenium.

Bowyer, J. M.

1987-01-01

145

HNPF LIQUID WASTE DISPOSAL COST STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The HNPF cost analysis for waste disposal was made on the basis of ; 10,000 gallons of laundry waste and 9,000 gallons of other plant waste per year. ; The costs are compared for storage at HNPF site for 10 yr, packaging and shipment ; to AEC barial ground, packaging and shipment for sea disposal, and disposal by ; licensed

Piccot

1959-01-01

146

Household hazardous waste: Implementation of a permanent collection facility  

SciTech Connect

Improper disposal of household hazardous wastes in the solid or liquid waste stream can cause serious environmental problems. Many local governments in Washington State and throughout the country are attempting to prevent these problems by diverting household hazardous wastes from municipal waste streams. Diversion requires several steps. The first is to make the public aware that household hazardous wastes are an environmental problem and require special disposal methods. The second is to provide appropriate and accessible disposal options. This project addresses the second step. Under this project, a collection facility was developed at the City of Seattle South Transfer Station. Implementation involved site and facility design, equipment purchase, disposal contract negotiation, hiring and training of staff, development of waste handling protocols and standard operating procedures, and publicity. The City of Seattle Office for Long-range Planning (OLP) and the Solid Waste Utility were responsible for the project. The facility consists of a prefabricated hazardous materials storage container, surrounding area and access roads. Household hazardous wastes are brought to the facility by the public. The wastes are sorted and packed into appropriate categories by specially-trained staff and picked up by a permitted hazardous waste handler for disposal. The facility opened for business on October 25, 1988, for three days each week. Between October 25, 1988 and March 15, 1989, 500 householders brought about 230 barrels of waste material, of which 229 barrels have been disposed of. Although problems with waste sorting and space constraints have arisen, generally, the facility has run smoothly and the project can be regarded as a success. 15 refs., 23 figs., 8 tabs.

Kissman, E.

1989-07-01

147

The current status of hazardous solid waste management.  

PubMed

Growth of the population and of industrialization, and substandard disposal of the increased waste products thus generated, have resulted in numerous documented cases of harm to human, plant, and animal health. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1976), its stated goals, and its intended means of implementation, are discussed relative to hazardous waste problems. Subtitle C of this Act, and the authority granted by it to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, are explained. Standards and regulations have been imposed upon those responsible for generating and transporting hazardous wastes, to ensure the ultimate safe disposal of such wastes in environmentally suitable, properly licensed facilities. PMID:738237

Kaufman, H B

1978-12-01

148

Physical and chemical methods for the characterization of hazardous wastes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous test methods have been proposed and developed to evaluate the hazards associated with handling and disposal of wastes in landfills. The major concern is the leaching of toxic constituents from the wastes. The fate of hazardous constituents in landfilled wastes is highly dependent on the physical and chemical characteristics of the waste. Thus, the primary objective in the selection of waste characterization procedures should be focused on those methods that gauge the fate of the waste's hazardous constituents in a specific landfill environment. Waste characterization in the United States has centered around the characteristics of ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, and toxicity. The strategy employed in the development of most regulatory waste characterization procedures has been a pass or fail approach, usually tied to some form of a mismanagement scenario for that waste. For example, USEPA has chosen the disposal of a waste in a municipal waste landfill as a mismanagement scenario for the development of the waste leaching tests to determine the toxicity characteristic. Many wastes, such as large-volume utility wastes or mining wastes, are not disposed of in municipal waste landfills. As a consequence, more effort is needed in the development of waste leaching tests that determine the long-term leaching characteristics of that waste in the landfill environment in which the waste is to be disposed. Waste leaching models also need to be developed and tested as to their ability to simulate actual disposal environments. These models need to be compared with laboratory leaching tests, and, if practical, coupled with groundwater transport models.

Francis, C. W.; Maskarinec, M. P.; Lee, D. W.

149

Hazardous chemical and radioactive wastes at Hanford  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site was established in 1944 to produce plutonium for defense. During the past four decades, a number of reactors, processing facilities, and waste management facilities have been built at Hanford for plutonium production. Generally, Hanford's 100 Area was dedicated to reactor operation; the 200 Area to fuel reprocessing, plutonium recovery, and waste management; and the 300 Area to fuel fabrication and research and development. Wastes generated from these operations included highly radioactive liquid wastes, which were discharged to single- and double-shell tanks; solid wastes, including both transuranic (TRU) and low-level wastes, which were buried or discharged to caissons; and waste water containing low- to intermediate-level radioactivity, which was discharged to the soil column via near-surface liquid disposal units such as cribs, ponds, and retention basins. Virtually all of the wastes contained hazardous chemical as well as radioactive constituents. This paper will focus on the hazardous chemical components of the radioactive mixed waste generated by plutonium production at Hanford. The processes, chemicals used, methods of disposition, fate in the environment, and actions being taken to clean up this legacy are described by location.

Keller, J.F.; Stewart, T.L.

1991-07-01

150

Hazardous chemical and radioactive wastes at Hanford  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site was established in 1944 to produce plutonium for defense. During the past four decades, a number of reactors, processing facilities, and waste management facilities have been built at Hanford for plutonium production. Generally, Hanford`s 100 Area was dedicated to reactor operation; the 200 Area to fuel reprocessing, plutonium recovery, and waste management; and the 300 Area to fuel fabrication and research and development. Wastes generated from these operations included highly radioactive liquid wastes, which were discharged to single- and double-shell tanks; solid wastes, including both transuranic (TRU) and low-level wastes, which were buried or discharged to caissons; and waste water containing low- to intermediate-level radioactivity, which was discharged to the soil column via near-surface liquid disposal units such as cribs, ponds, and retention basins. Virtually all of the wastes contained hazardous chemical as well as radioactive constituents. This paper will focus on the hazardous chemical components of the radioactive mixed waste generated by plutonium production at Hanford. The processes, chemicals used, methods of disposition, fate in the environment, and actions being taken to clean up this legacy are described by location.

Keller, J.F.; Stewart, T.L.

1991-07-01

151

Portable sensor for hazardous waste  

SciTech Connect

Objective was to develop a field-portable monitor for sensitive hazardous waste detection using active nitrogen energy transfer (ANET) excitation of atomic and molecular fluorescence (active nitrogen is made in a dielectric-barrier discharge in nitrogen). It should provide rapid field screening of hazardous waste sites to map areas of greatest contamination. Results indicate that ANET is very sensitive for monitoring heavy metals (Hg, Se) and hydrocarbons; furthermore, chlorinated hydrocarbons can be distinguished from nonchlorinated ones. Sensitivity is at ppB levels for sampling in air. ANET appears ideal for on-line monitoring of toxic heavy metal levels at building sites, hazardous waste land fills, in combustor flues, and of chlorinated hydrocarbon levels at building sites and hazardous waste dumps.

Piper, L.G.

1994-12-31

152

Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility Complex Waste Acceptance Criteria  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Disposal Facility (ICDF) has been designed to accept CERCLA waste generated within the Idaho National Laboratory. Hazardous, mixed, low-level, and Toxic Substance Control Act waste will be accepted for disposal at the ICDF. The purpose of this document is to provide criteria for the quantities of radioactive and/or hazardous constituents allowable in waste streams designated for disposal at ICDF. This ICDF Complex Waste Acceptance Criteria is divided into four section: (1) ICDF Complex; (2) Landfill; (3) Evaporation Pond: and (4) Staging, Storage, Sizing, and Treatment Facility (SSSTF). The ICDF Complex section contains the compliance details, which are the same for all areas of the ICDF. Corresponding sections contain details specific to the landfill, evaporation pond, and the SSSTF. This document specifies chemical and radiological constituent acceptance criteria for waste that will be disposed of at ICDF. Compliance with the requirements of this document ensures protection of human health and the environment, including the Snake River Plain Aquifer. Waste placed in the ICDF landfill and evaporation pond must not cause groundwater in the Snake River Plain Aquifer to exceed maximum contaminant levels, a hazard index of 1, or 10-4 cumulative risk levels. The defined waste acceptance criteria concentrations are compared to the design inventory concentrations. The purpose of this comparison is to show that there is an acceptable uncertainty margin based on the actual constituent concentrations anticipated for disposal at the ICDF. Implementation of this Waste Acceptance Criteria document will ensure compliance with the Final Report of Decision for the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Operable Unit 3-13. For waste to be received, it must meet the waste acceptance criteria for the specific disposal/treatment unit (on-Site or off-Site) for which it is destined.

W. Mahlon Heileson

2006-10-01

153

Toxicity Evaluation and Human Health Risk Assessment of Surface and Ground Water Contaminated by Recycled Hazardous Waste Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior to the 1970s, principles involving the fate and transport of hazardous chemicals from either hazardous waste spills or landfills into ground water and\\/or surface water were not fully understood. In addition, national guidance on proper waste disposal techniques was not well developed. As a result, there were many instances where hazardous waste was not disposed of properly, such as

Rosita Rodriguez-Proteau; Roberta L. Grant

154

HAZARDOUS WASTE SATELLITE ACCUMULATION AREA REQUIREMENTS 1. Mark all waste containers conspicuously with the words "Hazardous Waste."  

E-print Network

emergency response. 11. Emergency Response 1.Know the location of your spill kit, emergency shower, fire. Decontaminate 5. Dispose of cleanup debris as Hazardous Waste Chemical Spill � major 1. Evacuate area, isolate area to prevent entry 2. Call 911. Call Emergency Coordinator at 392-8400 Fire 1. Pull Fire Alarm, 2

Slatton, Clint

155

Oil field waste disposal costs at commercial disposal facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exploration and production segment of the U.S. oil and gas industry generates millions of barrels of nonhazardous oil field wastes annually. In most cases, operators can dispose of their oil fields wastes at a lower cost on-site than off site and, thus, will choose on-site disposal. However, a significant quantity of oil field wastes are still sent to off-site

Veil

1997-01-01

156

Effects from past solid waste disposal practices.  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews documented environmental effects experience from the disposal of solid waste materials in the U.S. Selected case histories are discussed that illustrate waste migration and its actual or potential effects on human or environmental health. Principal conclusions resulting from this review were: solid waste materials do migrate beyond the geometric confines of the initial placement location; environmental effects have been experienced from disposal of municipal, agricultural, and toxic chemical wastes; and utilization of presently known science and engineering principles in sitting and operating solid waste disposal facilities would make a significant improvement in the containment capability of shallow land disposal facilities. PMID:367769

Johnson, L J; Daniel, D E; Abeele, W V; Ledbetter, J O; Hansen, W R

1978-01-01

157

Hazardous-waste land treatment  

SciTech Connect

This report provides state-of-the-art information on hazardous-waste land treatment units. Information is provided on site selection, waste characterization, treatment-demonstration studies; land-treatment unit design, operation, and closure, and other topics useful for design and management of land treatment units.

Brown, K.W.; Evans, G.B.; Frentrup, B.D.; Anderson, D.C.; Smith, C.

1983-04-01

158

LINERS FOR WASTE IMPOUNDMENTS AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

An overview is presented of the current technology related to liners of waste disposal and impoundment facilities. Information is summarized on the characteristics, selection, performance and installation of liners for various disposal situations. Some cost estimates are also inc...

159

Process for waste water disposal  

SciTech Connect

A process for waste water disposal is herein disclosed, in which waste water of high BOD concentration is subjected to an aeration treatment in an aeration vessel so as to reduce the BOD concentration thereof by circulating within said aeration vessel a quantity of coal or active carbon of which 80% or higher is of particle size between 2 and 5 mm and less than 50% is of particle size difference within a range of 0 to 0.5 mm, and microorganisms implanted thereon. Said aeration vessel is adapted for effective disposal of waste water of high BOD concentration without any requirement of water dilution and comprises a pair of long side walls, a pair of short side walls, a bottom wall defined by these pairs of side walls, an upper opening, wherein a lower portion of one long side wall is at an angle of 45/sup 0/ to 60/sup 0/ with respect to the horizontal, and a plurality of air blower pipes provided along the inner surface of the other long side wall adjacent said bottom wall.

Suzuki, H.

1983-11-15

160

VOLATILE EMISSIONS FROM STABILIZATION/SOLIDIFICATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

The EPA Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) and the Office of Solid Waste (OSW) are gathering information to control emissions from hazardous waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities (TSDFs). he EPA Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL) provided t...

161

BIOLOGICAL/INFECTIOUS/BIOHAZARDOUS/ MEDICAL WASTE DISPOSAL  

E-print Network

BIOLOGICAL/INFECTIOUS/BIOHAZARDOUS/ MEDICAL WASTE DISPOSAL Overview Infectious waste is defined in an infectious disease. You may hear terms such as "medical waste," "biohazardous waste," "pathological waste and associated biologicals · Any recombinant DNA-containing materials · Blood and blood products · Pathology

Subramanian, Venkat

162

Biohazardous Waste Disposal Guidelines Sharps Waste Solid Lab Waste Liquid Waste Animals Pathological Waste  

E-print Network

, collected by EH&S at building collection locations OR Locked waste dumpster (if autoclaved) Gray plastic can2/2009 Biohazardous Waste Disposal Guidelines Sharps Waste Solid Lab Waste Liquid Waste Animals Pathological Waste Description Biohazard symbol Address: UCSD 200 West Arbor Dr. San Diego, CA 92103 (619

Tsien, Roger Y.

163

Biohazardous Waste Disposal Guidelines Sharps Waste Solid Lab Waste Liquid Waste Animals Pathological Waste  

E-print Network

waste dumpster (if autoclaved) Pour treated liquids down laboratory sink* Red plastic can with biohazardBiohazardous Waste Disposal Guidelines Sharps Waste Solid Lab Waste Liquid Waste Animals Pathological Waste Description Biohazard symbol Address: UCSD 9500 Gilman Drive La Jolla, CA 92093 (858) 534

Tsien, Roger Y.

164

A Comparison of Organic Emissions from Hazardous Waste Incinerators Versus the 1990 Toxics Release Inventory Air Releases  

EPA Science Inventory

Incineration is often the preferred technology for disposing of hazardous waste and remediating Superfund sites. The effective implementation of this technology is frequently impeded by strong public opposition to hazardous waste incineration (HWI). One of the reasons cited for t...

165

Potentially hazardous waste produced at home  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to identify the sources of waste generation household consisting of biological material and to investigate the knowledge presented by those responsible for the generation of waste in the home environment on the potential health risk human and environmental. Method It is a quantitative survey performed in Parque Capuava, Santo Andr (SP). The questionnaire was administered by the community employers and nursing students during the consultation with nursing supervision through interview question/answer. The exclusion criteria were patients who were not in the area served by the Basic Health Unit which covers the area of Pq Capuava. The sample was consisted of 99 persons and the data collection a questionnaire was used. Results We observed that 63.3% of people said to use disposables, with the majority (58.7%) of these use the public collection as the final destination of these materials. It was reported that 73.7% of those surveyed reported having knowledge about the risk of disease transmission. Public awareness of the importance of proper packaging and disposal of potentially hazardous household waste may contribute significantly to the preservation of human and environmental health and this procedure can be performed and supervised by professional nurses. Conclusion We suggest implementation of workshops for community health workers and the general population in order to enhance their knowledge about the storage and disposal of potentially infectious waste generated at home, thereby reducing the potential risk of disease transmission by improper management. PMID:23806043

2013-01-01

166

Hazardous waste treatment facility and skid-mounted treatment systems at Los Alamos  

SciTech Connect

To centralize treatment, storage, and staging areas for hazardous wastes, Los Alamos National Laboratory has designed a 12,000-ft{sup 2} hazardous waste treatment facility. The facility will house a treatment room for each of four kinds of wastes: nonradioactive characteristic wastes, nonradioactive listed wastes radioactive characteristic wastes, and radioactive listed wastes. The facility will be used for repacking labpacks, bulking small organic waste volumes, processing scintillation vials, treating reactives such as lithium hydride and pyrophoric uranium, treating contaminated solids such as barium sand, and treating plating wastes. The treated wastes will then be appropriately disposed of. This report describes the integral features of the hazardous waste treatment facility.

Lussiez, G.W.; Zygmunt, S.J.

1993-05-01

167

Biological treatment of hazardous waste  

SciTech Connect

This reference book is intended for individuals interested in or involved with the treatment of hazardous wastes using biological/biochemical processes. Composed of 13 chapters, it covers a wide variety of topics ranging from engineering design to hydrogeologic factors. The first four chapters are devoted to a description of several different types of bioreactors. Chapter 5 discusses the biofiltration of volatile organic compounds. Chapters 6 through 9 discuss specific biological, biochemical, physical, and engineering factors that affect bioremediation of hazardous wastes. Chapter 10 is a very good discussion of successful bioremediation of pentachlorophenol contamination under laboratory and field conditions, and excellent references are provided. The next chapter discusses the natural biodegradation of PCB-contaminated sediments in the Hudson River in New York state. Chapter 12 takes an excellent look at the bioremediation capability of anaerobic organisms. The final chapter discusses composting of hazardous waste.

Lewandowski, G.A.; Filippi, L.J. de [eds.

1998-12-01

168

WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit Update  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP) was issued on October 27, 1999 [1]. Since that time, the WIPP has sought modifications to clarify the permit language, provide alternative methods for meeting permit requirements and to update permit conditions. Significant advancements have been made in transuranic (TRU) waste management as the result of modifications to the HWFP. Among these advancements is a modification to obtain a drum age criteria (DAC) value to perform headspace gas sampling on drums to be super-compacted and placed in a 100-gallon overpack drum. In addition, the Section 311 permit modification request that would allow for more efficient waste characterization, and the modification to authorize the shipment and disposal of Remote-Handled (RH) TRU waste were merged together and submitted to the regulator as the Consolidated Permit Modification Request (PMR). The submittal of the Consolidated PMR came at the request of the regulator as part of responses to Notices of Deficiency (NODs) for the separate PMRs which had been submitted in previous years. Section 311 of the fiscal year 2004 Energy and Water Developments Appropriations Act (Public Law 108-137) [2] directs the Department of Energy to submit a permit modification that limits waste confirmation to radiography or visual examination of a statistical subpopulation of containers. Section 311 also specifically directs that disposal room performance standards be to be met by monitoring for volatile organic compounds in the underground disposal rooms. This statute translates into the elimination of other waste confirmation methods such as headspace gas sampling and analysis and solids sampling and analysis. These methods, as appropriate, will continue to be used by the generator sites during hazardous waste determinations or characterization activities. This modification is expected to reduce the overall cost of waste analysis by hundreds of millions of dollars [3]. Combining both the chap. 311 and RH TRU waste permit modification requests allows for both the regulator and DOE to expedite action on the modification requests. The Combined PMR reduces costs by having only one administrative process for both modification requests. (authors)

Kehrman, B.; Most, W. [Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services, 4021 National Parks Highway, Carlsbad, NM 88220 (United States)

2006-07-01

169

Geological disposal of energy-related waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of waste materials during energy recovery processes is an unavoidable consequence of the need for energy; consequently,\\u000a safe and efficient disposal or reuse alternatives for these waste materials is essential for sustainable development. For\\u000a waste streams that must be geologically disposed, the largest volumes of energy related waste include Coal Combustion Products\\u000a (CCPs) such as fly ash, coal

N. N. N. Yeboah; S. E. Burns

2011-01-01

170

Tritium waste disposal technology in the US  

SciTech Connect

Tritium waste disposal methods in the US range from disposal of low specific activity waste along with other low-level waste in shallow land burial facilities, to disposal of kilocurie amounts in specially designed triple containers in 65' deep augered holes located in an aird region of the US. Total estimated curies disposed of are 500,000 in commercial burial sites and 10 million curies in defense related sites. At three disposal sites in humid areas, tritium has migrated into the ground water, and at one arid site tritium vapor has been detected emerging from the soil above the disposal area. Leaching tests on tritium containing waste show that tritium in the form of HTO leaches readily from most waste forms, but that leaching rates of tritiated water into polymer impregnated concrete are reduced by as much as a factor of ten. Tests on improved tritium containment are ongoing. Disposal costs for tritium waste are 7 to 10 dollars per cubic foot for shallow land burial of low specific activity tritium waste, and 10 to 20 dollars per cubic foot for disposal of high specific activity waste. The cost of packaging the high specific activity waste is 150 to 300 dollars per cubic foot. 18 references.

Albenesius, E.L.; Towler, O.A.

1983-01-01

171

Disposal of liquid radioactive wastes through wells or shafts  

SciTech Connect

This report describes disposal of liquids and, in some cases, suitable solids and/or entrapped gases, through: (1) well injection into deep permeable strata, bounded by impermeable layers; (2) grout injection into an impermeable host rock, forming fractures in which the waste solidifies; and (3) slurrying into excavated subsurface cavities. Radioactive materials are presently being disposed of worldwide using all three techniques. However, it would appear that if the techniques were verified as posing minimum hazards to the environment and suitable site-specific host rock were identified, these disposal techniques could be more widely used.

Perkins, B.L.

1982-01-01

172

Control technology assessment of hazardous waste disposal operations in chemicals manufacturing: in-depth survey report of E. I. Du Pont de Nemours and Company, Chambers Works incinerator, Deepwater, New Jersey  

SciTech Connect

An in depth survey was conducted to assess control technology of hazardous waste disposal operations at the Chamber Works incinerator, Du Pont de Nemours and Company (SIC-2800), Deepwater, New Jersey, in October 1982. Area and breathing zone samples were analyzed for toluene (108883), ortho-chloronitrobenzene (88733), and para-chloronitrobenzene (100005). All concentrations were well below the relevant standards. Control and safety instrumentation consisted of an electrically operated interlock system that sensed process disturbances and shut down the furnace. Wastes were burned directly from tank trailers. Trailer vents were connected to a spot scrubbing system. The hose connections included a recirculation line that prevented the plugging of process and trailer discharge lines with dirt particles. Waste pumps were provided with explosion proof motors and double mechanical seals. The company had programs for worker education and evaluation of on the job performance. Air monitoring of selected air contaminants was done routinely. Minimum protective equipment required for working in the incinerator area included rubber gloves, hard hat, and butyl rubber covers for shoes. The author concludes that a state of the art hazard control system is in place at the facility.

Anastas, M.Y.

1984-01-01

173

48 CFR 252.223-7006 - Prohibition on storage and disposal of toxic and hazardous materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Prohibition on storage and disposal of toxic and hazardous materials. 252.223-7006... Prohibition on storage and disposal of toxic and hazardous materials. As prescribed... Prohibition on Storage and Disposal of Toxic and Hazardous Materials (APR 1993)...

2010-10-01

174

Hazardous-waste landfill research, US EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Land Pollution Control Division (LPCD), Hazardous Waste Engineering Research Lab. (HWERL), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, in Cincinnati, Ohio, has responsibility for research in solid- and hazardous-waste management with respect to land disposal of wastes. To fulfill the responsibility, the LPCD is developing concepts and is documenting the environmental effects of various waste-disposal practices; and is collecting data necessary to

Schomaker

1988-01-01

175

UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA INFECTIOUS WASTE DISPOSAL  

E-print Network

UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA INFECTIOUS WASTE DISPOSAL Introduction All biologically the University sends its general wastes. Identification of these materials in the general waste stream could jeopardize the University's use of that landfill facility. Therefore, all such wastes generated on campus

Morgan, Stephen L.

176

Disposal of low-level radioactive wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The generation of low-level radioactive waste is a natural consequence of the societal uses of radioactive materials. These uses include the application of radioactive materials to the diagnosis and treatment of human disease and to research into the causes of human disease and their prevention. Currently, low level radioactive wastes are disposed of in one of three shallow land-burial disposal

W HENDEE

1986-01-01

177

Remediation of hazardous waste sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Projected costs of remediation of hazardous waste sites continue to mount and now range in the neighborhood of a trillion dollars or more, not counting legal fees. Even with such expenditures it is unlikely that most sites will be restored to pristine conditions. Many sites may not even be returned to a status suitable for unrestricted public access. Projected costs

P. Abelson

1992-01-01

178

Aerosol can waste disposal device  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a device for removing gases and liquid from containers. The device punctures the bottom of a container for purposes of exhausting gases and liquid from the container without their escaping into the atmosphere. The device includes an inner cup or cylinder having a top portion with an open end for receiving a container and a bottom portion which may be fastened to a disposal or waste container in a substantially leak-proof manner. A piercing device is mounted in the lower portion of the inner cylinder for puncturing the can bottom placed in the inner cylinder. An outer cylinder having an open end and a closed end fits over the top portion of the inner cylinder in telescoping engagement. A force exerted on the closed end of the outer cylinder urges the bottom of a can in the inner cylinder into engagement with the piercing device in the bottom of the inner cylinder to form an opening in the can bottom, thereby permitting the contents of the can to enter the disposal container. 7 figures.

O'Brien, M.D.; Klapperick, R.L.; Bell, C.

1993-12-21

179

HAZARDOUS WASTE DEGRADATION BY WOOD DEGRADING FUNGI  

EPA Science Inventory

The persistence and toxicity of many hazardous waste constituents indicates that the environment has limited capacity to degrade such materials. he competence and presence of degrading organisms significantly effects our ability to treat and detoxify these hazardous waste chemica...

180

10 CFR 20.2005 - Disposal of specific wastes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Disposal of specific wastes. 20.2005 Section 20.2005 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS...PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Waste Disposal 20.2005 Disposal of specific wastes. (a) A licensee may...

2010-01-01

181

10 CFR 20.2005 - Disposal of specific wastes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Disposal of specific wastes. 20.2005 Section 20.2005 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS...PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Waste Disposal 20.2005 Disposal of specific wastes. (a) A licensee may...

2011-01-01

182

20 CFR 654.406 - Excreta and liquid waste disposal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Excreta and liquid waste disposal. 654.406 Section...Standards 654.406 Excreta and liquid waste disposal. (a) Facilities...maintained for effective disposal of excreta and liquid waste. Raw or treated liquid...

2013-04-01

183

20 CFR 654.406 - Excreta and liquid waste disposal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Excreta and liquid waste disposal. 654.406 Section...Standards 654.406 Excreta and liquid waste disposal. (a) Facilities...maintained for effective disposal of excreta and liquid waste. Raw or treated liquid...

2011-04-01

184

20 CFR 654.406 - Excreta and liquid waste disposal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Excreta and liquid waste disposal. 654.406 Section...Standards 654.406 Excreta and liquid waste disposal. (a) Facilities...maintained for effective disposal of excreta and liquid waste. Raw or treated liquid...

2010-04-01

185

20 CFR 654.406 - Excreta and liquid waste disposal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Excreta and liquid waste disposal. 654.406 Section...Standards 654.406 Excreta and liquid waste disposal. (a) Facilities...maintained for effective disposal of excreta and liquid waste. Raw or treated liquid...

2012-04-01

186

Hazardous Waste and You. A Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teaching guide provides an interactive introduction to hazardous waste, with particular emphasis on personal responsibility and action. Nine lessons engage advanced grade 10 and grade 11-12 science students in group discussions and actions that help them develop awareness of hazardous waste, understanding of the hazardous waste situation in

Ontario Waste Management Corp., Toronto.

187

Integrating Total Quality Management (TQM) and hazardous waste management  

SciTech Connect

The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 and its subsequent amendments have had a dramatic impact on hazardous waste management for business and industry. The complexity of this law and the penalties for noncompliance have made it one of the most challenging regulatory programs undertaken by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The fundamentals of RCRA include ``cradle to grave`` management of hazardous waste, covering generators, transporters, and treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. The regulations also address extensive definitions and listing/identification mechanisms for hazardous waste along with a tracking system. Treatment is favored over disposal and emphasis is on ``front-end`` treatment such as waste minimization and pollution prevention. A study of large corporations such as Xerox, 3M, and Dow Chemical, as well as the public sector, has shown that well known and successful hazardous waste management programs emphasize pollution prevention and employment of techniques such as proactive environmental management, environmentally conscious manufacturing, and source reduction. Nearly all successful hazardous waste programs include some aspects of Total Quality Management, which begins with a strong commitment from top management. Hazardous waste management at the Rocky Flats Plant is further complicated by the dominance of ``mixed waste`` at the facility. The mixed waste stems from the original mission of the facility, which was production of nuclear weapons components for the Department of Energy (DOE). A Quality Assurance Program based on the criterion in DOE Order 5700.6C has been implemented at Rocky Flats. All of the elements of the Quality Assurance Program play a role in hazardous waste management. Perhaps one of the biggest waste management problems facing the Rocky Flats Plant is cleaning up contamination from a forty year mission which focused on production of nuclear weapon components.

Kirk, N. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

1993-11-01

188

Hazardous Waste Management Compliance Guidelines INTRODUCTION AND SCOPE  

E-print Network

Hazardous Waste Management Compliance Guidelines INTRODUCTION AND SCOPE Arizona State University Management, generate a variety of hazardous chemical wastes. ASU is classified as a hazardous waste generator & Safety is responsible for coordinating an effective hazardous waste management program for university

Reisslein, Martin

189

8-Waste treatment and disposal A. Responsibility for waste management  

E-print Network

8- Waste treatment and disposal A. Responsibility for waste management 1. Each worker is responsible for correctly bagging and labeling his/her own waste. 2. A BSL3 technician will be responsible for transporting and autoclaving the waste. Waste will be autoclaved once or twice per day, depending on use

190

Effects of limestone addition and sintering on heavy metal leaching from hazardous waste incineration slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hazardous waste incineration (HWI) in rotary kilns and the disposal of the residual slag on landfills play an important role in German waste treatment. In order to save disposal costs the elution behaviour of HWI-slag should be further optimised. Quality-improved slag may be disposed off on cheaper landfill sites still applying to landfill regulations. In a new process-integrated approach hazardous

Jens Reich; Christoph Pasel; Jan-Dirk Herbell; Michael Luckas

2002-01-01

191

MOVEMENT OF SELECTED METALS, ASBESTOS, AND CYANIDE IN SOIL: APPLICATIONS TO WASTE DISPOSAL PROBLEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents information on movement of selected hazardous substances in soil which can be applied to problems of selecting and operating land disposal sites for wastes containing arsenic, asbestos, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, cyanide, iron, lead, mercury, selen...

192

MULTIMED, THE MULTIMEDIA EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT MODEL FOR EVALUATING THE LAND DISPOSAL OF WASTES - MODEL THEORY  

EPA Science Inventory

The MULTIMED computer model simulates the transport and transformation of contaminants released from a hazardous waste disposal facility into the multimedia environment. elease to air and soil, including the unsaturated and saturated zones, and possible interception of the subsur...

193

Phytoremediation of hazardous wastes  

SciTech Connect

A new and innovative approach to phytoremediation (the use of plants to degrade hazardous contaminants) was developed. The new approach to phytoremediation involves rigorous pathway analyses, mass balance determinations, and identification of specific enzymes that break down trinitrotoluene (TNT), other explosives (RDX and HMX), nitrobenzene, and chlorinated solvents (e.g., TCE and PCE) (EPA 1994). As a good example, TNT is completely and rapidly degraded by nitroreductase and laccase enzymes. The aromatic ring is broken and the carbon in the ring fragments is incorporated into new plant fiber, as part of the natural lignification process. Half lives for TNT degradation approach 1 hr or less under ideal laboratory conditions. Continuous-flow pilot studies indicate that scale up residence times in created wetlands may be two to three times longer than in laboratory batch studies. The use of created wetlands and land farming techniques guided by rigorous field biochemistry and ecology promises to be a vital part of a newly evolving field, ecological engineering.

McCutcheon, S.C.; Wolfe, N.L. [Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, GA (United States). Environmental Research Lab.; Carreria, L.H.; Ou, T.Y. [Dyn Corp., Inc., Athens, GA (United States)

1995-11-01

194

Hazardous waste incineration: Emotional fears and technical reality  

SciTech Connect

Although incinerators are not risk-free, they bear up well by comparison to other methods of hazardous waste disposal and other socially-accepted risks. The current level of suspicion and anxiety regarding incinerators can be reduced through the sharing of expert information about the need for, and process of, hazardous waste combustion, and early involvement of community and industry representatives, even before a particular incinerator site is chosen. The federal government`s role should not be one of asking whether a particular place wants a hazardous waste incinerator. Their approach should be one of consensus-building. A brief look at the facts can help the public understand that incineration is the best available treatment for hazardous wastes.

Martin, E.J. [Hazardous Materials Control Resources Inst., Rockville, MD (United States)

1995-04-01

195

Preliminary Safety Design Report for Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility  

SciTech Connect

A new onsite, remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled low-level waste disposal for remote-handled low-level waste from the Idaho National Laboratory and for nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled low-level waste in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This preliminary safety design report supports the design of a proposed onsite remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization, by discussing site characteristics that impact accident analysis, by providing the facility and process information necessary to support the hazard analysis, by identifying and evaluating potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled low-level waste, and by discussing the need for safety features that will become part of the facility design.

Timothy Solack; Carol Mason

2012-03-01

196

Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation: Waste Disposal In Engineered Trench #3  

SciTech Connect

Because Engineered Trench #3 (ET#3) will be placed in the location previously designated for Slit Trench #12 (ST#12), Solid Waste Management (SWM) requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) determine if the ST#12 limits could be employed as surrogate disposal limits for ET#3 operations. SRNL documented in this Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation (UDQE) that the use of ST#12 limits as surrogates for the new ET#3 disposal unit will provide reasonable assurance that Department of Energy (DOE) 435.1 performance objectives and measures (USDOE, 1999) will be protected. Therefore new ET#3 inventory limits as determined by a Special Analysis (SA) are not required.

Hamm, L. L.; Smith, F. G. III; Flach, G. P.; Hiergesell, R. A.; Butcher, B. T.

2013-07-29

197

Bacterial abundance and activity in hazardous waste-contaminated soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Office of Technology Assessment has estimated that there may be as many as 10,000 abandoned hazardous waste disposal sites across the United States, many of which have the potential to adversely impact drinking water supplies. Of the many options available for the remediation of these sites, the use of microorganisms to degrade organic chemicals offers many advantages in terms

Deborah Dean-Ross

1989-01-01

198

Hazardous Waste Management System in India: An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lack treatment and disposal facilities causes hazardous wastes (HWs) to ravage municipal landfills and open spaces, raising serious environmental threats. Rapid industrialization over the last few decades has indiscriminately increased HW generation in India. In March 2000, the total HW generated was estimated to be 4.41 metric million tonnes (Babu and Ramkrishna, 2003). Adding to this woe are the substantial

Sunil Kumar; Somnath Mukherjee; Tapan Chakrabarti; Sukumar Devotta

2007-01-01

199

ANNOTATED LITERATURE REFERENCES ON LAND TREATMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

The major environmental problem in the decade of the 1980's will be the safe disposal of hazardous and municipal wastes and residues. Land treatment can be used to achieve specific effects through utilization of various management schemes. Through proper management of the land pr...

200

AIR EMISSIONS FROM THE INCINERATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

In the United States over the last ten years, concern over important disposal practices of the past has manifested itself in the passage of a series of federal and state-level hazardous waste clean-up and control statutes of unprecedented scope. he impact of these various statute...

201

The Threat Of Hazardous Waste Sites In The Coastal Zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historical use of coastal lands in the United States has resulted in hundreds of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites in areas adjacent to important environments. The transport of chemical contaminants in air and water from storage and disposal sites to freshwater, estuarine, and marine habitats has created a substantial threat to both humans and the natural resources dependent on these habitats.

Robert Pavia; Nancy Beckvar

1989-01-01

202

SECURING CONTAINERIZED HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH WELDED POLYETHYLENE ENCAPSULATES  

EPA Science Inventory

Full-scale encapsulation of 208-liter (55-gal) drums was studied as a means for managing corroding containers of hazardous wastes in the field and rendering them suitable for transport and safe deposit within a final disposal site such as a landfill. Polyethylene (PE) receivers w...

203

Household Hazardous Waste: Assessing Public Attitudes and Awareness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Residents of Larimer County, Colorado, were surveyed to determine their level of awareness and attitudes concerning the disposal of household waste. Results indicated that approximately 40 percent of the population were unable to identify hazardous products within their homes and nearly 70 percent were unaware of the potential environmental

Scudder, Karen; Blehm, Kenneth D.

1991-01-01

204

Household Hazardous Waste: Everyone's Problem--Everyone's Solution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the household hazardous waste problem, addressing several areas related to regulation, disposal, and control. Also gives a list of safer alternatives for household cleaners/disinfectants, paint products, and pesticides. Indicates that individuals can collectively make a difference in public exposure by changing purchases and practices.

Evenson, Linda

1985-01-01

205

HANDBOOK FOR STABILIZATION/SOLIDIFICATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The handbook provides designers and reviewers of remedial action plans with the information and general guidance necessary to judge the feasibility of stabilization/solidification technology for the control of pollutant migration from hazardous waste disposed of on land. Topics a...

206

Household Hazardous Waste and Automotive Products: A Pennsylvania Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A significant fraction of household hazardous waste (HHW) is generated by home mechanics who use such products as motor oil, cleaners and solvents, and batteries. This survey assessed the following aspects: (1) perceptions of their health-related effects; (2) perceptions of their pollution potential; and (3) their use and disposal. (LZ)

Shorten, Charles V.; And Others

1995-01-01

207

MOBILITY OF TOXIC COMPOUNDS FROM HAZARDOUS WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this research was to develop a laboratory extraction method for solid wastes that simulates concentrations of inorganic and organic constituents in leachates that result from co-disposing industrial wastes with municipal wastes in landfills (co-disposal in a land...

208

Low-level waste disposal - Grout issue and alternative waste form technology  

SciTech Connect

Based on the Record of Decision (1) for the Hanford Defense Waste Environmental Impact Statement (HDW-EIS) (2), the US Department of Energy (DOE) is planning to dispose of the low-level fraction of double-shell tank (DST) waste by solidifying the liquid waste as a cement-based grout placed in near-surface, reinforced, lined concrete vaults at the Hanford Site. In 1989, the Hanford Grout Disposal Program (HGDP) completed a full-scale demonstration campaign by successfully grouting 3,800 cubic meters (1 million gallons) of low radioactivity, nonhazardous, phosphate/sulfate waste (PSW), mainly decontamination solution from N Reactor. The HGDP is now preparing for restart of the facility to grout a higher level activity, mixed waste double-shell slurry feed (DSSF). This greater radionuclide and hazardous waste content has resulted in a number of issues confronting the disposal system and the program. This paper will present a brief summary of the Grout Treatment Facility`s components and features and will provide a status of the HGDP, concentrating on the major issues and challenges resulting from the higher radionuclide and hazardous content of the waste. The following major issues will be discussed: Formulation (cementitious mix) development; the Performance Assessment (PA) (3) to show compliance of the disposal system to long-term environmental protection objectives; and the impacts of grouting on waste volume projections and tank space needs.

Epstein, J.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Westski, J.H. Jr. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1993-02-01

209

Waste Disposal Matrix Type of Chemical University-related Waste Personal Waste  

E-print Network

Waste Disposal Matrix Type of Chemical University-related Waste Personal Waste Batteries, used Management properly recycles building lamps and ballasts. Universal Waste web page link Check Disposal or unwanted including lithium, alkaline, lead ­ acid or lithium aluminum hydride Chemical Waste Check Disposal

Zaferatos, Nicholas C.

210

Sources and management of hazardous waste in Papua New Guinea  

SciTech Connect

Papua New Guinea (PNG) has considerable mineral wealth, especially in gold and copper. Large-scale mining takes place, and these activities are the source of most of PNG`s hazardous waste. Most people live in small farming communities throughout the region. Those living adjacent to mining areas have experienced some negative impacts from river ecosystem damage and erosion of their lands. Industry is centered mainly in urban areas and Generates waste composed of various products. Agricultural products, pesticide residues, and chemicals used for preserving timber and other forestry products also produce hazardous waste. Most municipal waste comes from domestic and commercial premises; it consists mainly of combustibles, noncombustibles, and other wastes. Hospitals generate pathogenic organisms, radioactive materials, and chemical and pharmaceutical laboratory waste. Little is known about the actual treatment of waste before disposal in PNG. Traditional low-cost waste disposal methods are usually practiced, such as use of landfills; storage in surface impoundments; and disposal in public sewers, rivers, and the sea. Indiscriminate burning of domestic waste in backyards is also commonly practiced in urban and rural areas. 10 refs., 4 tabs.

Singh, K. [Univ. of Papua New Guinea (Papua New Guinea)

1996-12-31

211

RSP WASTE UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII RADIOACTIVE WASTE PICKUP REQUEST FORM Revision 06/07 (WASTE WHICH CONTAINS RADIOISOTOPES BUT NO HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS)  

E-print Network

RSP WASTE UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII RADIOACTIVE WASTE PICKUP REQUEST FORM Revision 06/07 (WASTE WHICH CONTAINS RADIOISOTOPES BUT NO HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS) INSTRUCTIONS : 1. *NO ISOTOPES MAY BE MIXED IN THE WASTE BOX! One type of isotope per waste box - Except C-14 AND H-3 WHICH MAY BE DISPOSED OF TOGETHER. 2

Browder, Tom

212

EVALUATION OF ULTIMATE DISPOSAL METHODS FOR LIQUID AND SOLID RADIOACTIVE WASTES. PART III. INTERIM STORAGE OF SOLIDIFIED WASTES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The costs of interim storage of solidified Purex and Thorex wastes in ; water-filled canals were estimated as the third part of a study to evaluate, from ; the standpoint of econoNonemics and hazards, the various steps leading to and ; including the permanent disposal of highly radioactive liquid and solid wastes. ; The wastes were assumed to have been

J. O. Blomeke; J. J. Perona; H. O. Weeren; T. L. Bradshaw

1963-01-01

213

Evaluation of ultimate disposal methods for liquid and solid radioactive wastes. Part III. Interim storage of soldified wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The costs of interim storage of solidified Purex and Thorex wastes in water-filled canals were estimated as the third part of a study to evaluate, from the standpoint of economics and hazards, the various steps leading to and including the permanent disposal of highly radioactive liquid and solid wastes. The wastes were assumed to have been solidified following their production

J. O. Blomeke; J. J. Perona; H. O. Weeren; R. L. Bradshaw

1963-01-01

214

Hazardous waste management in the Pacific basin  

SciTech Connect

Hazardous waste control activities in Asia and the Pacific have been reviewed. The review includes China (mainland, Hong Kong, and Taiwan), Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. It covers the sources of hazardous waste, the government structure for dealing with hazardous waste, and current hazardous waste control activities in each country. In addition, the hazardous waste program activities of US government agencies, US private-sector organizations, and international organizations are reviewed. The objective of these reviews is to provide a comprehensive picture of the current hazardous waste problems and the waste management approaches being used to address them so that new program activities can be designed more efficiently.

Cirillo, R.R.; Chiu, S.; Chun, K.C.; Conzelmann, G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Carpenter, R.A.; Indriyanto, S.H. [East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States)

1994-11-01

215

41 CFR 50-204.29 - Waste disposal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Waste disposal. 50-204...Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions... 50-204.29 Waste disposal. No employer shall dispose of radioactive material except by...

2010-07-01

216

Bibliography on ocean waste disposal. second edition. Final report 1976  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research bibliography is restricted to documents relevant to the field of ocean waste disposal. It is primarily limited to recent publications in the categories of: ocean waste disposal; criteria; coastal zone management; monitoring; pollution control; dredge spoil; dredge spoin disposal; industrial waste disposal; radioactive waste; oil spills; bioassay; fisheries resources; ocean incineration; water chemistry; and, Water pollution.

H. G. Stanley; D. W. Kaplanek

1976-01-01

217

Russian low-level waste disposal program  

SciTech Connect

The strategy for disposal of low-level radioactive waste in Russia differs from that employed in the US. In Russia, there are separate authorities and facilities for wastes generated by nuclear power plants, defense wastes, and hospital/small generator/research wastes. The reactor wastes and the defense wastes are generally processed onsite and disposed of either onsite, or nearby. Treating these waste streams utilizes such volume reduction techniques as compaction and incineration. The Russians also employ methods such as bitumenization, cementation, and vitrification for waste treatment before burial. Shallow land trench burial is the most commonly used technique. Hospital and research waste is centrally regulated by the Moscow Council of Deputies. Plans are made in cooperation with the Ministry of Atomic Energy. Currently the former Soviet Union has a network of low-level disposal sites located near large cities. Fifteen disposal sites are located in the Federal Republic of Russia, six are in the Ukraine, and one is located in each of the remaining 13 republics. Like the US, each republic is in charge of management of the facilities within their borders. The sites are all similarly designed, being modeled after the RADON site near Moscow.

Lehman, L. [L. Lehman and Associates, Inc., Burnsville, MN (United States)

1993-03-01

218

Columbia University Hazardous Waste Room Inspection Report  

E-print Network

Columbia University Hazardous Waste Room Inspection Report Flammable Storage Area Lack Pack Storage Area Hazardous Waste Room Inspection Report Location: Bldg. Room: Date: Inspected By with chemical being stored? 3. Is the area free from evidence of leaks and spills? 4. Are all waste

Jia, Songtao

219

Apparatus for incinerating hazardous waste  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for incinerating wastes, including an incinerator having a combustion chamber, a fluidtight shell enclosing the combustion chamber, an afterburner, an off-gas particulate removal system and an emergency off-gas cooling system. The region between the inner surface of the shell and the outer surface of the combustion chamber forms a cavity. Air is supplied to the cavity and heated as it passes over the outer surface of the combustion chamber. Heated air is drawn from the cavity and mixed with fuel for input into the combustion chamber. The pressure in the cavity is maintained at least approximately 2.5 cm WC (about 1" WC) higher than the pressure in the combustion chamber. Gases cannot leak from the combustion chamber since the pressure outside the chamber (inside the cavity) is higher than the pressure inside the chamber. The apparatus can be used to treat any combustible wastes, including biological wastes, toxic materials, low level radioactive wastes, and mixed hazardous and low level transuranic wastes.

Chang, Robert C. W. (Martinez, GA)

1994-01-01

220

Apparatus for incinerating hazardous waste  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is described for incinerating wastes, including an incinerator having a combustion chamber, a fluid-tight shell enclosing the combustion chamber, an afterburner, an off-gas particulate removal system and an emergency off-gas cooling system. The region between the inner surface of the shell and the outer surface of the combustion chamber forms a cavity. Air is supplied to the cavity and heated as it passes over the outer surface of the combustion chamber. Heated air is drawn from the cavity and mixed with fuel for input into the combustion chamber. The pressure in the cavity is maintained at least approximately 2.5 cm WC higher than the pressure in the combustion chamber. Gases cannot leak from the combustion chamber since the pressure outside the chamber (inside the cavity) is higher than the pressure inside the chamber. The apparatus can be used to treat any combustible wastes, including biological wastes, toxic materials, low level radioactive wastes, and mixed hazardous and low level transuranic wastes. 1 figure.

Chang, R.C.W.

1994-12-20

221

TOXICOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS OF REMEDIATING HAZARDOUS WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

Section 121 of the amendments (1986) to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (SUPERFUND) calls for hazardous waste site remediations that will permanently and significantly reduce the volume, toxicity, or mobility of hazardous substance...

222

Hazardous waste management in educational and research centers: a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hazardous waste management (HWM) practice at Tehran University of Medical Sciences Central Campus, Iran, was investigated in this study. Four schools were selected and the required information such as type and amount of wastes, temporary storage methods, waste discharge frequency, and final waste disposal methods using sampling, questionnaires, interviews with laboratory staff, and reference to available documents were gathered.

M. S. Hassanvand; K. Naddafi; R. Nabizadeh; F. Momeniha; A. Mesdaghinia; K. Yaghmaeian

2011-01-01

223

APPLICATION OF A SIMPLE SHORT-TERM BIOASSAY FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF GENOTOXINS FROM HAZARDOUS WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The proper disposal of hazardous wastes currently generated and clean up of waste disposal sites of the past are challenges facing regulatory agencies in the industrialized nations. he estimation of levels of toxicity is an essential step in prioritizing industrial effluents and ...

224

Medical Waste Disposal Guide Laboratory Version  

E-print Network

Medical Waste Disposal Guide Laboratory Version Revised May 2007 Item1 Sharps Red Bag Trash Drain2 in a red bag. 6. Items that can easily puncture plastic bags should be either: a. placed in a sharps container, or b. placed in a reusable grey medical waste container obtained from the CVM Biosafety Program

Manning, Sturt

225

Waste Handling and Disposal Biological Safety  

E-print Network

Waste Handling and Disposal Biological Safety General Biosafety Practices (GBP) Why You Should Care Does this pipette go in the red container? The yellow container? Is it sharp or not? How do I get your material using the guide, call EHS. · Request pickups in advance ­ Go to the EHS Waste Pickups

Pawlowski, Wojtek

226

System for Odorless Disposal of Human Waste  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conceptual system provides clean, hygienic storage. Disposal system stores human wastes compactly. Releases no odor or bacteria and requires no dangerous chemicals or unpleasant handling. Stabilizes waste by natural process of biodegradation in which microbial activity eventually ceases and ordors and bacteria reduced to easily contained levels. Simple and reliable and needs little maintenance.

Jennings, Dave; Lewis, Tod

1987-01-01

227

Material Recycling and Waste Disposal Document Control  

E-print Network

of pollution, compliance with legislative requirements and continual improvement. The list of parties involved responsibility to ensure that waste is produced, stored, transported and disposed of without harming from Waste (EfW) plant at Belvedere where it is incinerated with energy recovery. Under abnormal

Guillas, Serge

228

Biohazardous Waste Disposal GuidelinesDescriptionStorage& LabelingTreatmentDisposal  

E-print Network

with water. Before generating mixed waste (i.e., mixtures of biohazardous and chemical or radioactive wasteBiohazardous Waste Disposal GuidelinesDescriptionStorage& packaging LabelingTreatmentDisposal Mixed Waste Sharps Waste Solid Lab Waste Liquid Waste Any of these devices if contaminated with biohazardous

Wikswo, John

229

Disposal of bead ion exchange resin wastes  

SciTech Connect

Bead ion exchange resin wastes are disposed of by a process which involves spray-drying a bead ion exchange resin waste in order to remove substantially all of the water present in such waste, including the water on the surface of the ion exchange resin beads and the water inside the ion exchange resin beads. The resulting dried ion exchange resin beads can then be solidified in a suitable solid matrix-forming material, such as a polymer, which solidifies to contain the dried ion exchange resin beads in a solid monolith suitable for disposal by burial or other conventional means.

Gay, R.L.; Granthan, L.F.

1985-12-17

230

Locating hazardous waste facilities: The influence of NIMBY beliefs  

SciTech Connect

The [open quote]Not-In-My-Backyard[close quote] (NIMBY) syndrome is analyzed in economic decision making. Belief statements that reflect specific NIMBY concerns are subjected to factor analysis and the structure reveals two dimensions: tolerance and avoidance. Tolerance reflects an acceptance of rational economic arguments regarding the siting of a hazardous waste facility and avoidance reflects a more personal fear-of-consequences. Analysis identifies demographic characteristics of individuals likely to exhibit these two beliefs. These beliefs also are shown to influence the acceptance of a hazardous waste disposal facility in ones neighborhood when compensation is offered.

Groothuis, P.A.; Miller, G. (Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA (United States))

1994-07-01

231

75 FR 58346 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 [EPA-R06-RCRA-2009-0312; SW FRL-9206-9] Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed...

2010-09-24

232

Combustion characteristics of particles of hazardous solid waste mixtures in a fixed bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hazardous waste disposal is vitally important as industrial production increases. Grate furnaces are a common means to incinerate hazardous waste. In this present work, a fixed bed assembly is used to experimentally model combustion within grate furnaces. Combustion characteristics are examined and the effects of primary air rate, moisture, bed height and particle size on burning rate, ignition-front speed and

Ling Tao; Guangbo Zhao; Rui Sun; Qiang Wang

2010-01-01

233

Waste disposal method using microwaves  

SciTech Connect

Waste such as sludge containing poisonous substances is processed into a safe article by removing water in a usual manner , drying the waste to substantial dryness by microwave heating, mixing the dry waste powder with a thermoplastic resin, irradiating the mixture with microwaves to encapsulate the waste particles with the resin and to heat polymerize the resin, and molding the resin encapsulated particles into an article.

Sato, G.

1980-12-30

234

UNCONTROLLED/UNREGULATED HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES (FORMERLY SUPERFUND), NEUSE RIVER WATERSHED, NC  

EPA Science Inventory

The North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Divison of Waste Management, Superfund Section in cooperation with the North Carolina Center for Geographic Information and Analysis developed the digital Hazardous Substance Disposal Sites data to enhan...

235

Improving Tamper Detection for Hazardous Waste Security  

SciTech Connect

Since September 11, waste managers are increasingly expected to provide effective security for their hazardous wastes. Tamper-indicating seals can help. This paper discusses seals, and offers recommendations for how to choose and use them.

Johnston, R. G.; Garcia, A. R. E.; Pacheco, N.; Martinez, R. K.; Martinez, D. D.; Trujillo, S. J.; Lopez, L. N.

2003-02-26

236

Measurements And Models For Hazardous Chemical and Mixed Wastes  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous waste of various chemical compositions constitutes a significant fraction of the total waste produced by industry in the United States. A large quantity of the waste generated by the U.S. chemical process industry is waste water. In addition, the majority of the waste inventory at DoE sites previously used for nuclear weapons production is aqueous waste. Large quantities of additional aqueous waste are expected to be generated during the clean-up of those sites. In order to effectively treat, safely handle, and properly dispose of these wastes, accurate and comprehensive knowledge of basic thermophysical property information is paramount. This knowledge will lead to huge savings by aiding in the design and optimization of treatment and disposal processes. The main objectives of this project are: Develop and validate models that accurately predict the phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties of hazardous aqueous systems necessary for the safe handling and successful design of separation and treatment processes for hazardous chemical and mixed wastes. Accurately measure the phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties of a representative system (water + acetone + isopropyl alcohol + sodium nitrate) over the applicable ranges of temperature, pressure, and composition to provide the pure component, binary, ternary, and quaternary experimental data required for model development.

Holcomb, Cynthia D.; Watts, Laurel A.; Outcalt, Stephanie L.; Louie, Beverly; Mullins, Michael e.; Rogers, Tony N.; Kline, Andrew A.

2001-06-01

237

The disposal of nuclear waste in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The important problem of disposal of nuclear waste in space is addressed. A prior study proposed carrying only actinide wastes to space, but the present study assumes that all actinides and all fission products are to be carried to space. It is shown that nuclear waste in the calcine (oxide) form can be packaged in a container designed to provide thermal control, radiation shielding, mechanical containment, and an abort reentry thermal protection system. This package can be transported to orbit via the Space Shuttle. A second Space Shuttle delivers an oxygen-hydrogen orbit transfer vehicle to a rendezvous compatible orbit and the mated OTV and waste package are sent to the preferred destination. Preferred locations are either a lunar crater or a solar orbit. Shuttle traffic densities (which vary in time) are given and the safety of space disposal of wastes discussed.

Burns, R. E.

1978-01-01

238

Future trends which will influence waste disposal.  

PubMed Central

The disposal and management of solid wastes are ancient problems. The evolution of practices naturally changed as populations grew and sites for disposal became less acceptable. The central search was for easy disposal at minimum costs. The methods changed from indiscriminate dumping to sanitary landfill, feeding to swine, reduction, incineration, and various forms of re-use and recycling. Virtually all procedures have disabilities and rising costs. Many methods once abandoned are being rediscovered. Promises for so-called innovations outstrip accomplishments. Markets for salvage vary widely or disappear completely. The search for conserving materials and energy at minimum cost must go on forever. PMID:570105

Wolman, A

1978-01-01

239

Recycling of hazardous waste materials in the coking process.  

PubMed

Every year the coking industry produces a significant amount of tarry and other wastes in byproducts plants. For the most part these wastes have not been put to any practical use. In addition, an integrated factory produces several waste oils which differ in composition and quantity, e.g., wastes from the steel rolling-mill process. In this work, the possibility of using such waste materials as binders in a partial briquetting process for metallurgical coke production is explored. By means of this coking procedure, a strong metallurgical coke not inferior in quality to coke from conventional coal blends is produced at pilot and semi-industrial scales. The use of such wastes, some of which are classified as hazardous materials, will avoid the need for dumping, thereby contributing to the protection of the environment as well as reducing the costs related to waste disposal. PMID:15046368

Alvarez, R; Barriocanal, C; Dez, M A; Cimadevilla, J L G; Casal, M D; Canga, C S

2004-03-01

240

Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL  

SciTech Connect

In part one of this document the Governing Documents and Definitions sections provide general guidelines and regulations applying to the handling of hazardous chemical wastes. The remaining sections provide details on how you can prepare your waste properly for transport and disposal. They are correlated with the steps you must take to properly prepare your waste for pickup. The purpose of the second part of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of radioactive and mixed waste to LBL's Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). These guidelines describe how you, as a generator of radioactive or mixed waste, can meet LBL's acceptance criteria for radioactive and mixed waste.

Not Available

1991-09-01

241

Radiological hazards of TENORM in the wasted petroleum pipes.  

PubMed

Disposal petroleum pipes containing sludge and scale as a technically enhanced natural occurring radioactive material (TENORM) leads to internal and external radiation hazards and then a significant radiation dose to the workers. In order to contribute to a future waste management policy related to the presence of TENORM in the disposal sites of wasted petroleum pipes, scale and sludge as TENORM wastes are collected form these disposal pipes for radiometric analysis. These pipes are imported from onshore oilfields at south Sinai governorate, Egypt. The highest mean (226)Ra and (228)Ra concentrations of 519 and 50 kBq/kg respectively, were measured in scale samples. Sludge lies within the normal range of radium concentration. The average absorbed dose caused by the exposure to the wasted pipes equal to 4.09 microGy h(-1) from sludge and 262 microGy h(-1) from scale. This is much higher than the acceptable level of 0.059 microGy h(-1). Due to radon inhalation, important radon related parameters are calculated which advantage in internal dose calculation. Fairly good correlation between real radium content and radon exhalation rate for sludge samples is obtained. The hazards from sludge come from its high emanation power for radon which equal to 3.83%. The obtained results demonstrate the need of screening oil residues for their radionuclide content in order to decide about their final disposal. PMID:19782444

Abo-Elmagd, M; Soliman, H A; Salman, Kh A; El-Masry, N M

2010-01-01

242

Hazardous Chemical Waste Management Reference Guide for Laboratories 9 1 Identification of Hazardous Chemical Waste  

E-print Network

Hazardous Chemical Waste Management Reference Guide for Laboratories 9 1 · Identification manage hazardous chemical waste you must first learn the various identification steps, in order to: 1-Chemical- Biological-Waste Hierarchy to identify the regulations that govern waste management. Use the Non

Ford, James

243

Low-level-waste-disposal methodologies  

SciTech Connect

This report covers the followng: (1) history of low level waste disposal; (2) current practice at the five major DOE burial sites and six commercial sites with dominant features of these sites and radionuclide content of major waste types summarized in tables; (3) site performance with performance record on burial sites tabulated; and (4) proposed solutions. Shallow burial of low level waste is a continuously evolving practice, and each site has developed its own solutions to the handling and disposal of unusual waste forms. There are no existing national standards for such disposal. However, improvements in the methodology for low level waste disposal are occurring on several fronts. Standardized criteria are being developed by both the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and by DOE. Improved techniques for shallow burial are evolving at both commercial and DOE facilities, as well as through research sponsored by NRC, DOE, and the Environmental Protection Agency. Alternatives to shallow burial, such as deeper burial or the use of mined cavities is also being investigated by DOE.

Wheeler, M.L.; Dragonette, K.

1981-01-01

244

Characterizing plutonic rock sites for nuclear fuel waste disposal  

SciTech Connect

The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program is currently assessing the concept of disposal of nuclear fuel waste deep in plutonic rock formations. One of the primary objective of the Canadian program is to develop, evaluate, and demonstrate methods for characterizing the physical and chemical properties of potential disposal sites to produce reliable engineering designs and performance assessments of the disposal systems. Transport in groundwater at the site would be the primary mechanism that could bring any radionuclides released from the deep disposal vault to surface during the hazardous lifetime of the waste. Consequently, emphasis is placed on rock mass characterization methods that identify features that are potential pathways for radionuclide migration; quantify the hydrological and geochemical properties that control groundwater flow and radionuclide transport; and determine the geomechanical properties that control the excavation stability and the long-term stability of the rock mass. The methodology being developed consists of field and laboratory tests, in situ monitoring, and mathematical modeling and interpretation. The result is a description of site characteristics in quantitative and qualitative terms, which can be used to support engineering designs, licensing applications, and environmental and safety assessments.

Davison, C.C.; Dormuth, K.W.; Whitaker, S.H.

1988-01-01

245

The safe disposal of radioactive wastes  

PubMed Central

A comprehensive review is given of the principles and problems involved in the safe disposal of radioactive wastes. The first part is devoted to a study of the basic facts of radioactivity and of nuclear fission, the characteristics of radioisotopes, the effects of ionizing radiations, and the maximum permissible levels of radioactivity for workers and for the general public. In the second part, the author describes the different types of radioactive wastereactor wastes and wastes arising from the use of radioisotopes in hospitals and in industryand discusses the application of the maximum permissible levels of radioactivity to their disposal and treatment, illustrating his discussion with an account of the methods practised at the principal atomic energy establishments. PMID:13374534

Kenny, A. W.

1956-01-01

246

Health effects from hazardous waste sites  

SciTech Connect

The book contains information and data for evaluating health effects from hazardous waste sites derived from the efforts of specialists representing leading research centers, hospitals, universities, government agencies, and consultants; as well as corporate interpretations. The book includes the scope of the hazardous wastes problem, assessment of exposure to hazardous wastes, determining human health effects, defining health risks at waste sites, and major case studies. Emphasis in the book is placed on human health risks and risk assessment, risk perception, recent monitoring trends, risk limitations, engineering perspectives, methods to define human exposure, historical aspects, and a state-of-the-art review with recommendations for future research.

Andelman, J.B.; Underhill, D.W.

1987-01-01

247

Nuclear shipping and waste disposal cost estimates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cost estimates for the shipping of spent fuel from the reactor, shipping of waste from the reprocessing plant, and disposal of reprocessing plant wastes have been made for five reactor types. The reactors considered are the light-water reactor (LWR), the mixed-oxide-fueled light-water reactor (MOX), the Canadian deuterium-uranium reactor (CANDU), the fast breeder reactor (FBR), and the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR).

C. R. II

2009-01-01

248

Successful Opening and Disposal to-Date of Mixed CERCLA Waste at the ORR-EMWMF  

Microsoft Academic Search

On May 28, 2002, the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) opened for operations on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The EMWMF is the centerpiece in the DOE's strategy for ORR environmental cleanup. The 8+ year planned project is an on-site engineered landfill, which is accepting for disposal radioactive, hazardous, toxic and mixed wastes generated by remedial

P. Corpstein; P. Hopper; R. McNutt

2003-01-01

249

Radioactive waste disposal in thick unsaturated zones.  

PubMed

Portions of the Great Basin are undergoing crustal extension and have unsaturated zones as much as 600 meters thick. These areas contain multiple natural barriers capable of isolating solidified toxic wastes from the biosphere for tens of thousands to perhaps hundreds of thousands of years. An example of the potential utilization of such arid zone environments for toxic waste isolatic is the burial of transuranic radioactive wastes at relatively shallow depths (15 to 100 meters) in Sedan Crater, Yucca Flat, Nevada. The volume of this man-made crater is several times that of the projected volume of such wastes to the year 2000. Disposal in Sedan Crater could be accomplished at a savings on the order of $0.5 billion, in comparison with current schemes for burial of such wastes in mined repositories at depths of 600 to 900 meters, and with an apparently equal likelihood of waste isolation from the biosphere. PMID:17790523

Winogard, I J

1981-06-26

250

Radioactive Waste Disposal in Thick Unsaturated Zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Portions of the Great Basin are undergoing crustal extension and have unsaturated zones as much as 600 meters thick. These areas contain multiple natural barriers capable of isolating solidified toxic wastes from the biosphere for tens of thousands to perhaps hundreds of thousands of years. An example of the potential utilization of such arid zone environments for toxic waste isolation is the burial of transuranic radioactive wastes at relatively shallow depths (15 to 100 meters) in Sedan Crater, Yucca Flat, Nevada. The volume of this man-made crater is several times that of the projected volume of such wastes to the year 2000. Disposal in Sedan Crater could be accomplished at a savings on the order of 0.5 billion, in comparison with current schemes for burial of such wastes in mined repositories at depths of 600 to 900 meters, and with an apparently equal likelihood of waste isolation from the biosphere.

Winograd, Isaac J.

1981-06-01

251

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) General Contingency Plan for Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant  

SciTech Connect

This contingency plan provides a description of the Y-12 plant and its waste units and prescribes control procedures and emergency response procedures. It lists emergency and spill response equipment, provides information on coordination agreements with local agencies, and describes the evacuation plan and reporting requirements.

None

1999-04-01

252

Consumer perspectives on household hazardous waste management in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

We give an overview of the management systems of household hazardous waste (HHW) in Japan and discuss the management systems\\u000a and their risks. To get basic information, we conducted a survey of consumers to discover their behavior and awareness of\\u000a HHW items throughout the entire life cycle, which is made up of the purchase, use, and disposal of a product.

Misuzu Asari; Shin-ichi Sakai

2011-01-01

253

SAFE DISPOSAL METHODS FOR AGRICULTURAL PESTICIDE WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

A systematic evaluation of disposal systems for diluted waste pesticides was conducted at two Iowa State University experimental farms. One system, located at the Horticultural Research Station, consisted of a 30,000-liter concrete-lined pit filled with a layer of soil between tw...

254

DISPOSAL OF FLUE-GAS-CLEANING WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The article describes current commercial and emerging technology for disposal of wastes from flue gas cleaning (FGC) systems for coal-fired power plants. Over 80 million metric tons/yr (dry) of coal ash and desulfurization solids are expected to be produced by the 1980's. Althoug...

255

Low level tank waste disposal study  

SciTech Connect

Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) contracted a team consisting of Los Alamos Technical Associates (LATA), British Nuclear Fuel Laboratories (BNFL), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and TRW through the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Technical Support Contract to conduct a study on several areas concerning vitrification and disposal of low-level-waste (LLW). The purpose of the study was to investigate how several parameters could be specified to achieve full compliance with regulations. The most restrictive regulation governing this disposal activity is the National Primary Drinking Water Act which sets the limits of exposure to 4 mrem per year for a person drinking two liters of ground water daily. To fully comply, this constraint would be met independently of the passage of time. In addition, another key factor in the investigation was the capability to retrieve the disposed waste during the first 50 years as specified in Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. The objective of the project was to develop a strategy for effective long-term disposal of the low-level waste at the Hanford site.

Mullally, J.A.

1994-09-29

256

77 FR 72997 - Low-Level Waste Disposal  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Part 61 [NRC-2011-0012] RIN 3150-AI92 Low-Level Waste Disposal AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...is proposing to amend its regulations that govern low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facilities to require new...

2012-12-07

257

78 FR 1155 - Low-Level Waste Disposal  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...3150-AI92 Low-Level Waste Disposal AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission...entitled, ``Low-Level Waste Disposal'' that...

2013-01-08

258

21 CFR 1250.75 - Disposal of human wastes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Disposal of human wastes. 1250.75 Section 1250.75...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS...Conveyances 1250.75 Disposal of human wastes. (a) At servicing...

2010-04-01

259

21 CFR 1250.75 - Disposal of human wastes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Disposal of human wastes. 1250.75 Section 1250.75...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS...Conveyances 1250.75 Disposal of human wastes. (a) At servicing...

2011-04-01

260

21 CFR 1250.75 - Disposal of human wastes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Disposal of human wastes. 1250.75 Section 1250.75...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS...Conveyances 1250.75 Disposal of human wastes. (a) At servicing...

2012-04-01

261

21 CFR 1250.75 - Disposal of human wastes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Disposal of human wastes. 1250.75 Section 1250.75...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS...Conveyances 1250.75 Disposal of human wastes. (a) At servicing...

2013-04-01

262

41 CFR 50-204.29 - Waste disposal.  

...Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Waste disposal. 50-204...Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating...Standards 50-204.29 Waste disposal. No...

2014-07-01

263

36 CFR 13.1008 - Solid waste disposal.  

...NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve 13.1008 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept...

2014-07-01

264

36 CFR 13.1008 - Solid waste disposal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve 13.1008 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may...

2010-07-01

265

36 CFR 13.1008 - Solid waste disposal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve 13.1008 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may...

2011-07-01

266

36 CFR 13.1008 - Solid waste disposal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve 13.1008 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may...

2013-07-01

267

36 CFR 13.1008 - Solid waste disposal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve 13.1008 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may...

2012-07-01

268

Optimal evaluation of infectious medical waste disposal companies using the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process  

SciTech Connect

Ever since Taiwan's National Health Insurance implemented the diagnosis-related groups payment system in January 2010, hospital income has declined. Therefore, to meet their medical waste disposal needs, hospitals seek suppliers that provide high-quality services at a low cost. The enactment of the Waste Disposal Act in 1974 had facilitated some improvement in the management of waste disposal. However, since the implementation of the National Health Insurance program, the amount of medical waste from disposable medical products has been increasing. Further, of all the hazardous waste types, the amount of infectious medical waste has increased at the fastest rate. This is because of the increase in the number of items considered as infectious waste by the Environmental Protection Administration. The present study used two important findings from previous studies to determine the critical evaluation criteria for selecting infectious medical waste disposal firms. It employed the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to set the objective weights of the evaluation criteria and select the optimal infectious medical waste disposal firm through calculation and sorting. The aim was to propose a method of evaluation with which medical and health care institutions could objectively and systematically choose appropriate infectious medical waste disposal firms.

Ho, Chao Chung, E-mail: ho919@pchome.com.tw [Department of Industrial Management, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

2011-07-15

269

Optimal evaluation of infectious medical waste disposal companies using the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process.  

PubMed

Ever since Taiwan's National Health Insurance implemented the diagnosis-related groups payment system in January 2010, hospital income has declined. Therefore, to meet their medical waste disposal needs, hospitals seek suppliers that provide high-quality services at a low cost. The enactment of the Waste Disposal Act in 1974 had facilitated some improvement in the management of waste disposal. However, since the implementation of the National Health Insurance program, the amount of medical waste from disposable medical products has been increasing. Further, of all the hazardous waste types, the amount of infectious medical waste has increased at the fastest rate. This is because of the increase in the number of items considered as infectious waste by the Environmental Protection Administration. The present study used two important findings from previous studies to determine the critical evaluation criteria for selecting infectious medical waste disposal firms. It employed the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to set the objective weights of the evaluation criteria and select the optimal infectious medical waste disposal firm through calculation and sorting. The aim was to propose a method of evaluation with which medical and health care institutions could objectively and systematically choose appropriate infectious medical waste disposal firms. PMID:21419613

Ho, Chao Chung

2011-07-01

270

Industrial ecology: Environmental chemistry and hazardous waste  

SciTech Connect

Industrial ecology may be a relatively new concept -- yet it`s already proven instrumental for solving a wide variety of problems involving pollution and hazardous waste, especially where available material resources have been limited. By treating industrial systems in a manner that parallels ecological systems in nature, industrial ecology provides a substantial addition to the technologies of environmental chemistry. Stanley E. Manahan, bestselling author of many environmental chemistry books for Lewis Publishers, now examines Industrial Ecology: Environmental Chemistry and Hazardous Waste. His study of this innovative technology uses an overall framework of industrial ecology to cover hazardous wastes from an environmental chemistry perspective. Chapters one to seven focus on how industrial ecology relates to environmental science and technology, with consideration of the anthrosphere as one of five major environmental spheres. Subsequent chapters deal specifically with hazardous substances and hazardous waste, as they relate to industrial ecology and environmental chemistry.

Manahan, S.E. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1999-01-01

271

COMPILATION OF DISPOSABLE SOLID WASTE CASK EVALUATIONS  

SciTech Connect

The Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) is a shielded cask capable of transporting, storing, and disposing of six non-fuel core components or approximately 27 cubic feet of radioactive solid waste. Five existing DSWCs are candidates for use in storing and disposing of non-fuel core components and radioactive solid waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell, ultimately shipping them to the 200 West Area disposal site for burial. A series of inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications were performed to ensure that these casks can be used to safely ship solid waste. These inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications are summarized and attached in this report. Visual inspection of the casks interiors provided information with respect to condition of the casks inner liners. Because water was allowed to enter the casks for varying lengths of time, condition of the cask liner pipe to bottom plate weld was of concern. Based on the visual inspection and a corrosion study, it was concluded that four of the five casks can be used from a corrosion standpoint. Only DSWC S/N-004 would need additional inspection and analysis to determine its usefulness. The five remaining DSWCs underwent some modification to prepare them for use. The existing cask lifting inserts were found to be corroded and deemed unusable. New lifting anchor bolts were installed to replace the existing anchors. Alternate lift lugs were fabricated for use with the new lifting anchor bolts. The cask tiedown frame was modified to facilitate adjustment of the cask tiedowns. As a result of the above mentioned inspections, studies, analysis, and modifications, four of the five existing casks can be used to store and transport waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell to the disposal site for burial. The fifth cask, DSWC S/N-004, would require further inspections before it could be used.

THIELGES, J.R.; CHASTAIN, S.A.

2007-06-21

272

ASSESSMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTES FOR GENOTOXICITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The authors have evaluated a group of short-term bioassays to identify those that may be suitable for screening large numbers of diverse hazardous industrial wastes for genotoxicity. Fifteen wastes (and dichloromethane extracts of these wastes) from a variety of manufacturing pro...

273

40 CFR 264.231 - Special requirements for hazardous wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26, and FO27.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...materials co-disposed with these wastes; and (4) The effectiveness...impoundments managing hazardous wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26...possibility of migration of these wastes to ground water, surface water, or air so...

2011-07-01

274

40 CFR 264.231 - Special requirements for hazardous wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26, and FO27.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...materials co-disposed with these wastes; and (4) The effectiveness...impoundments managing hazardous wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26...possibility of migration of these wastes to ground water, surface water, or air so...

2010-07-01

275

40 CFR 264.231 - Special requirements for hazardous wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26, and FO27.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...materials co-disposed with these wastes; and (4) The effectiveness...impoundments managing hazardous wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26...possibility of migration of these wastes to ground water, surface water, or air so...

2012-07-01

276

40 CFR 264.231 - Special requirements for hazardous wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26, and FO27.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...materials co-disposed with these wastes; and (4) The effectiveness...impoundments managing hazardous wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26...possibility of migration of these wastes to ground water, surface water, or air so...

2013-07-01

277

36 CFR 13.1118 - Solid waste disposal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1118 Section 13.1118...and Preserve General Provisions 13.1118 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National...

2010-07-01

278

Disposal of water treatment wastes containing arsenic A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid waste management in developing countries is often unsustainable, relying on uncontrolled disposal in waste dumps. Particular problems arise from the disposal of treatment residues generated by removing arsenic (As) from drinking water because As can be highly mobile and has the potential to leach back to ground and surface waters. This paper reviews the disposal of water treatment wastes

Colin Sullivan; Mark Tyrer; Christopher R. Cheeseman; Nigel J. D. Graham

2010-01-01

279

User Guide for Disposal of Unwanted Items and Electronic Waste  

E-print Network

substance waste o Expired pharmaceutical drugs o Used battery disposal Processing request for service: FMUser Guide for Disposal of Unwanted Items and Electronic Waste January 31, 2012 Jointly developed metal and wood o Waste/trash management o Recycle, reuse or disposal of materials D&S does not process o

Mullins, Dyche

280

Hazardous waste Interpretation of the definition and classification of hazardous waste  

E-print Network

Hazardous waste Interpretation of the definition and classification of hazardous waste www Scottish Environment Protection Agency Environment and Heritage Service Rio House Corporate Office Waste.environment-agency.gov.uk www.sepa.org.uk www.ehsni.gov.uk © Environment Agency 2005 ISBN: 1 84432 454 0 An electronic pdf

Siddharthan, Advaith

281

HAZARDOUS WASTE LANDFILL RESEARCH: U.S.E.P.A. (UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The hazardous waste land disposal research program is collecting data necessary to support implementation of disposal guidelines mandated by the 'Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976' (RCRA) PL 94-580. This program relating to the categorical areas of landfills, surface...

282

Household Hazardous Waste Generation-Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The household hazardous waste (HHW) consists of the waste material resulted from items like; tube lights, dry battery cells used in radio and torch etc, mercury vapour lamps, nail polish remover, blades, sprays, pesticides, chemicals, out dated medicines\\/drugs, thermometers, vehicle batteries, discarded vehicle\\/s, waste\\/used oil from various sources vehicles like; bikes, cars etc, electronic waste from TV, VCR, computers and

H. Lakshmikantha; N. Lakshminarasimaiah

2007-01-01

283

The Groundwater Geochemistry of Waste Disposal Facilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landfills of solid waste are abundant sources of groundwater pollution. The potential for generatingstrongly contaminated leachate from landfill waste is very substantial. Even for small landfills the timescale can be measured in decades or centuries. This indicates that waste dumps with no measures to control leachate entrance into the groundwater may constitute a source of groundwater contamination long after dumping has ceased. In addition to these dumps, engineered landfills with liners and leachate collection systems may also constitute a source of groundwater contamination due to inadequate design, construction, and maintenance, resulting in the leakage of leachate.Landfills may pose several environmental problems (explosion hazards, vegetation damage, dust and air emissions, etc.), but groundwater pollution by leachate is considered to be the most important one and the focus of this chapter. Landfills differ significantly depending on the waste they receive: mineral waste landfills for combustion ashes, hazardous waste landfills, specific industrial landfills serving a single industry, or municipal waste landfills receiving a mixture of municipal waste, construction, and demolition waste, waste from small industries and minor quantities of hazardous waste. The latter type of landfill (termed "old landfills" in this chapter) is very common all over the world. Municipal landfills are characterized by a high content of organic waste that affects the biogeochemical processes in the landfill body and the generation of strongly anaerobic leachate with a high content of dissolved organic carbon, salts, ammonium, and organic compounds and metals released from the waste.This chapter describes the biogeochemistry of a landfill leachate plume as it emerges from the bottom of a landfill and migrates in an aquifer. The landfill hydrology, source composition, and spreading of contaminants are described in introductory sections. The focus of this chapter is on investigating the biogeochemical processes associated with the natural attenuation of organic contaminants in a leachate plume. Studies have shown that microbial processes and geochemical conditions change over time and distance in contaminant plumes, resulting in different rates of degradation (biotic and abiotic). The availability of electron acceptors, such as iron oxides or dissolved sulfate, is an important factor for evaluating the efficacy and sustainability of natural attenuation as a remedy for leachate plumes. Understanding the complex environments developing in leachate plumes is important in assessing the risk to groundwater resources and for developing cost-effective remediation strategies.

Bjerg, P. L.; Albrechtsen, H.-J.; Kjeldsen, P.; Christensen, T. H.; Cozzarelli, I. M.

2003-12-01

284

CHARACTERIZING SOILS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE SITE ASSESSMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper provides a review and justification of the minimum data needed to characterize soils for hazardous waste site assessments and to comply with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Scientists and managers within the regulatory...

285

GEOSTATISTICAL SAMPLING DESIGNS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

This chapter discusses field sampling design for environmental sites and hazardous waste sites with respect to random variable sampling theory, Gy's sampling theory, and geostatistical (kriging) sampling theory. The literature often presents these sampling methods as an adversari...

286

A Program on Hazardous Waste Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of the "Hazardous Waste Management Graduate Certificate" program at Wayne State University. Describes four required courses and nine optional courses. Discusses the development of a Master program and the curriculum of the Master program. (YP)

Kummler, Ralph H.; And Others

1989-01-01

287

Hazards assessment for the Hazardous Waste Storage Facility  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the hazards assessment for the Hazardous Waste Storage Facility (HWSF) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility`s operational emergency management program. The area surrounding HWSF, the buildings and structures at HWSF, and the processes used at HWSF are described in this report. All nonradiological hazardous materials at the HWSF were identified (radiological hazardous materials are not stored at HWSF) and screened against threshold quantities according to DOE Order 5500.3A guidance. Two of the identified hazardous materials exceeded their specified threshold quantity. This report discusses the potential release scenarios and consequences associated with an accidental release for each of the two identified hazardous materials, lead and mercury. Emergency considerations, such as emergency planning zones, emergency classes, protective actions, and emergency action levels, are also discussed based on the analysis of potential consequences. Evaluation of the potential consequences indicated that the highest emergency class for operational emergencies at the HWSF would be a Site Area Emergency.

Knudsen, J.K.; Calley, M.B.

1994-04-01

288

Environmental Hazards of Nuclear Wastes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Present methods for storage of radioactive wastes produced at nuclear power facilities are described. Problems arising from present waste management are discussed and potential solutions explored. (JP)

Micklin, Philip P.

1974-01-01

289

MOBILITY OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM HAZARDOUS WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The disposal of municipal and industrial waste in landfills is a widely used waste management practice in the United States. It has become evident during the past few years that there has been serious environmental damage and possible adverse human health effects because of impro...

290

Conceptual Design Report: Nevada Test Site Mixed Waste Disposal Facility Project  

SciTech Connect

Environmental cleanup of contaminated nuclear weapons manufacturing and test sites generates radioactive waste that must be disposed. Site cleanup activities throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex are projected to continue through 2050. Some of this waste is mixed waste (MW), containing both hazardous and radioactive components. In addition, there is a need for MW disposal from other mission activities. The Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision designates the Nevada Test Site (NTS) as a regional MW disposal site. The NTS has a facility that is permitted to dispose of onsite- and offsite-generated MW until November 30, 2010. There is not a DOE waste management facility that is currently permitted to dispose of offsite-generated MW after 2010, jeopardizing the DOE environmental cleanup mission and other MW-generating mission-related activities. A mission needs document (CD-0) has been prepared for a newly permitted MW disposal facility at the NTS that would provide the needed capability to support DOE's environmental cleanup mission and other MW-generating mission-related activities. This report presents a conceptual engineering design for a MW facility that is fully compliant with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and DOE O 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management'. The facility, which will be located within the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the NTS, will provide an approximately 20,000-cubic yard waste disposal capacity. The facility will be licensed by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP).

NSTec Environmental Management

2009-01-31

291

Stabilization and disposal of Argonne-West low-level mixed wastes in ceramicrete waste forms.  

SciTech Connect

The technology of room-temperature-setting phosphate ceramics or Ceramicrete{trademark} technology, developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)-East is being used to treat and dispose of low-level mixed wastes through the Department of Energy complex. During the past year, Ceramicrete{trademark} technology was implemented for field application at ANL-West. Debris wastes were treated and stabilized: (a) Hg-contaminated low-level radioactive crushed light bulbs and (b) low-level radioactive Pb-lined gloves (part of the MWIR {number_sign} AW-W002 waste stream). In addition to hazardous metals, these wastes are contaminated with low-level fission products. Initially, bench-scale waste forms with simulated and actual waste streams were fabricated by acid-base reactions between mixtures of magnesium oxide powders and an acid phosphate solution, and the wastes. Size reduction of Pb-lined plastic glove waste was accomplished by cryofractionation. The Ceramicrete{trademark} process produces dense, hard ceramic waste forms. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) results showed excellent stabilization of both Hg and Pb in the waste forms. The principal advantage of this technology is that immobilization of contaminants is the result of both chemical stabilization and subsequent microencapsulation of the reaction products. Based on bench-scale studies, Ceramicrete{trademark} technology has been implemented in the fabrication of 5-gal waste forms at ANL-West. Approximately 35 kg of real waste has been treated. The TCLP is being conducted on the samples from the 5-gal waste forms. It is expected that because the waste forms pass the limits set by the EPAs Universal Treatment Standard, they will be sent to a radioactive-waste disposal facility.

Barber, D. B.; Singh, D.; Strain, R. V.; Tlustochowicz, M.; Wagh, A. S.

1998-02-17

292

An industry perspective on commercial radioactive waste disposal conditions and trends.  

PubMed

The United States is presently served by Class-A, -B and -C low-level radioactive waste and naturally-occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive material disposal sites in Washington and South Carolina; a Class-A and mixed waste disposal site in Utah that also accepts naturally-occurring radioactive material; and hazardous and solid waste facilities and uranium mill tailings sites that accept certain radioactive materials on a site-specific basis. The Washington site only accepts low-level radioactive waste from 11 western states due to interstate Compact restrictions on waste importation. The South Carolina site will be subject to geographic service area restrictions beginning 1 July 2008, after which only three states will have continued access. The Utah site dominates the commercial Class-A and mixed waste disposal market due to generally lower state fees than apply in South Carolina. To expand existing commercial services, an existing hazardous waste site in western Texas is seeking a Class-A, -B and -C and mixed waste disposal license. With that exception, no new Compact facilities are proposed. This fluid, uncertain situation has inspired national level rulemaking initiatives and policy studies, as well as alternative disposal practices for certain low-activity materials. PMID:17033459

Romano, Stephen A

2006-11-01

293

Hazardous-waste technical-assistance survey, McChord AFB, Washington. Final report, 22-26 Oct 90  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hazardous waste survey was conducted at McChord AFB, Washington, from 22-26 Oct 90 which addressed hazardous waste management and waste disposal practices, explored opportunities for waste minimization, and determined waste-streams. Recommendations include: (1) Shops using aircraft soap should switch to a milder soap; (2) Consider using a siliceous-based absorbant; (3) Use a contractor who accepts wet batteries or neutralize

Albrecht

1991-01-01

294

Selection of infectious medical waste disposal firms by using the analytic hierarchy process and sensitivity analysis.  

PubMed

While Taiwanese hospitals dispose of large amounts of medical waste to ensure sanitation and personal hygiene, doing so inefficiently creates potential environmental hazards and increases operational expenses. However, hospitals lack objective criteria to select the most appropriate waste disposal firm and evaluate its performance, instead relying on their own subjective judgment and previous experiences. Therefore, this work presents an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method to objectively select medical waste disposal firms based on the results of interviews with experts in the field, thus reducing overhead costs and enhancing medical waste management. An appropriate weight criterion based on AHP is derived to assess the effectiveness of medical waste disposal firms. The proposed AHP-based method offers a more efficient and precise means of selecting medical waste firms than subjective assessment methods do, thus reducing the potential risks for hospitals. Analysis results indicate that the medical sector selects the most appropriate infectious medical waste disposal firm based on the following rank: matching degree, contractor's qualifications, contractor's service capability, contractor's equipment and economic factors. By providing hospitals with an effective means of evaluating medical waste disposal firms, the proposed AHP method can reduce overhead costs and enable medical waste management to understand the market demand in the health sector. Moreover, performed through use of Expert Choice software, sensitivity analysis can survey the criterion weight of the degree of influence with an alternative hierarchy. PMID:17689065

Hsu, Pi-Fang; Wu, Cheng-Ru; Li, Ya-Ting

2008-01-01

295

Selection of infectious medical waste disposal firms by using the analytic hierarchy process and sensitivity analysis  

SciTech Connect

While Taiwanese hospitals dispose of large amounts of medical waste to ensure sanitation and personal hygiene, doing so inefficiently creates potential environmental hazards and increases operational expenses. However, hospitals lack objective criteria to select the most appropriate waste disposal firm and evaluate its performance, instead relying on their own subjective judgment and previous experiences. Therefore, this work presents an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method to objectively select medical waste disposal firms based on the results of interviews with experts in the field, thus reducing overhead costs and enhancing medical waste management. An appropriate weight criterion based on AHP is derived to assess the effectiveness of medical waste disposal firms. The proposed AHP-based method offers a more efficient and precise means of selecting medical waste firms than subjective assessment methods do, thus reducing the potential risks for hospitals. Analysis results indicate that the medical sector selects the most appropriate infectious medical waste disposal firm based on the following rank: matching degree, contractor's qualifications, contractor's service capability, contractor's equipment and economic factors. By providing hospitals with an effective means of evaluating medical waste disposal firms, the proposed AHP method can reduce overhead costs and enable medical waste management to understand the market demand in the health sector. Moreover, performed through use of Expert Choice software, sensitivity analysis can survey the criterion weight of the degree of influence with an alternative hierarchy.

Hsu, P.-F. [Department of Communications Management, Shih Hsin University, No.1, Lane 17, Mu-Cha Road, Sec.1, Taipei 11604, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: celina9@ms26.hinet.net; Wu, C.-R. [Graduate Institute of Business and Management, Yuanpei University, 306 Yuanpei Street, Hsin Chu 300, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: alexru00@ms41.hinet.net; Li, Y.-T. [Graduate Institute of Business and Management, Yuanpei University, 306 Yuanpei Street, Hsin Chu 300, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: ting.ding@msa.hinet.net

2008-07-01

296

Processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination of a plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter. 6 figs.

Gotovchikov, V.T.; Ivanov, A.V.; Filippov, E.A.

1998-05-12

297

Processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination of a plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter.

Gotovchikov, Vitaly T. (Moscow, RU); Ivanov, Alexander V. (Moscow, RU); Filippov, Eugene A. (Moscow, RU)

1998-05-12

298

Evaluation of Proposed New LLW Disposal Activity: Disposal of Aqueous PUREX Waste Stream in the Saltstone Disposal Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Aqueous PUREX waste stream from Tanks 33 and 35, which have been blended in Tank 34, has been identified for possible processing through the Saltstone Processing Facility for disposal in the Saltstone Disposal Facility.

Cook, J.R.

2003-10-09

299

Hazardous Educational Waste Collections in Illinois.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the status of programs designed to manage hazardous educational waste collections in secondary schools in the state of Illinois. Laboratory wastes, expired chemicals, unstable compounds, and toxic or flammable materials are accounted for in this document. The report contains an executive summary, a review of Illinois statutes

Illinois State Environmental Protection Agency, Springfield.

300

ENE 486 - SOLID AND HAZARDOUS WASTES ENGINEERING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Course Objectives and Description: This course is designed to provide students with the necessary background and knowledge pertaining to the engineering design of solid and hazardous waste facilities, and consists of three major components. The first component of the class includes three main parts which are devoted to the following: (1) the description of waste generation, effects of improper management,

R. Eliassen

301

Linear programming in hazardous waste management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linear programming techniques are applied to investigate the relative costs of regional and state-wide hazardous waste management schemes. The focus is the identification of a cost effective configuration of transportation routes, transfer stations, processing facilities and secure long-term storage impoundments. Wastes generated in North Carolina are studied as a useful example of linear programming applications in general and options available

M. Chiampi; J. J. Peirce; G. M. Davidson; M. Tartaglia

1982-01-01

302

Appendix B: Wastes and Potential Hazards for  

E-print Network

variety of industries that produce mixtures of different and sometimes complex wastes. B Environment edition v2.1) B1 #12;Environment Agency Hazardous Waste: Interpretation of the definition; tellurium; arsenic; cadmium; mercury; thorium; lead. 01 03 05* other tailings containing dangerous

Siddharthan, Advaith

303

Leaching behavior of cadmium from hazardous waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid residues from hydrometallurgical zinc plants contain high concentrations of heavy metals such as zinc, cadmium and nickel, and these residues are considered as hazardous waste. Recovery of cadmium from this waste using sulfuric acid leaching has been studied. It was found that the cadmium extraction rate increased by increasing acid concentration, stirring speed and temperature and decreasing solid-to-liquid ratio

Mahdi Gharabaghi; Mehdi Irannajad; Amir Reza Azadmehr

304

University of Delaware Laboratory Chemical Waste Disposal Guide ALL CHEMICAL WASTE MUST BE DISPOSED OF THROUGH THE  

E-print Network

University of Delaware Laboratory Chemical Waste Disposal Guide ALL CHEMICAL WASTE MUST BE DISPOSED OF THROUGH THE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH & SAFETY http://www.udel.edu/ HS EXAMPLES OF CHEMICAL WASTE INCLUDE BUT ARE NOT LIMITED TO: Unused and surplus reagent chemicals Chemical waste generated from research & educational

Firestone, Jeremy

305

40 CFR 279.21 - Hazardous waste mixing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Hazardous waste mixing. 279.21 Section...AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for...Generators 279.21 Hazardous waste mixing. (a)...

2010-07-01

306

40 CFR 279.21 - Hazardous waste mixing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Hazardous waste mixing. 279.21 Section...AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for...Generators 279.21 Hazardous waste mixing. (a)...

2011-07-01

307

40 CFR 279.21 - Hazardous waste mixing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Hazardous waste mixing. 279.21 Section...AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for...Generators 279.21 Hazardous waste mixing. (a)...

2013-07-01

308

40 CFR 279.21 - Hazardous waste mixing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Hazardous waste mixing. 279.21 Section...AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for...Generators 279.21 Hazardous waste mixing. (a)...

2012-07-01

309

Radioactive waste disposal fees-Methodology for calculation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper summarizes the methodological approach used for calculation of fee for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal and for spent fuel disposal. The methodology itself is based on simulation of cash flows related to the operation of system for waste disposal. The paper includes demonstration of methodology application on the conditions of the Czech Republic.

Bem, Jlius; Krlk, Tom; Kuban?k, Jn; Va?ek, Ji?; Star, Old?ich

2014-11-01

310

Biological treatment of aqueous hazardous wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes tests performed in order to evaluate the fate of aqueous organic hazardous-waste compounds in the activated sludge process. Gas, liguid, and waste-solids samples were taken from acclimated activated-sludge systems to determine amounts that were volatilized, biodegraded, and associated with the wasted solids. Results discussed here include two compounds: methyl ethyl ketone and 1,1,1-trichloroethane.

J. E. Park; M. K. Koczwara; R. J. Lesiecki

1987-01-01

311

International perspectives on hazardous waste management  

SciTech Connect

In 1984, the International Solid Wastes and Public Cleansing Association (I.S.W.A.) approved the formation of an international working group on hazardous wastes. This book contains the edited final reports of the twelve national organisations which formed this working group. Also included is a review and assessment of various national policies and programs for waste management, together with recommendations and suggested strategies for the future.

Forester, W.S.

1987-01-01

312

MOBILITY AND DEGRADATION OF RESIDUES AT HAZARDOUS WASTE LAND TREATMENT SITES AT CLOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Soil treatment systems that are designed and managed based on a knowledge of soil-waste interactions may represent a significant technology for simultaneous treatment and ultimate disposal of selected hazardous wastes in an environmentally acceptable manner. hese soil treatment s...

313

MOBILITY AND DEGRADTION OF RESIDUES AT HAZARDOUS WASTE LAND TREATMENT SITES AT CLOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Soil treatment systems that are designed and managed based on a knowledge of soil-waste interactions may represent a significant technology for simultaneous treatment and ultimate disposal of selected hazardous wastes in an environmentally acceptable manner. hese soil treatment s...

314

EVALUATION OF TECHNOLOGIES FOR TREATING AQUEOUS METAL/CYANIDE BEARING HAZARDOUS WASTE (F007)  

EPA Science Inventory

As a result of recent developments in the area of hazardous waste management, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is evaluating the performance of various technologies for the treatment and/or destruction of certain wastes that are presently being disposed of in landfills an...

315

HANDBOOK: ASSESSING THE FATE OF DEEP-WELL-INJECTED HAZARDOUS WASTE. Summaries of Recent Research  

EPA Science Inventory

This handbook has been developed for use as a reference tool in evaluating the suitability of disposing of specific hazardous wastes in deep injection wells. sers of the document will get a better understanding of the factors that affect 1) geochemical waste-reservoir reactions o...

316

Hazardous waste treatment and environmental remediation research  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is currently evaluating hazardous waste treatment and environmental remediation technologies in existence and under development to determine applicability to remediation needs of the DOE facilities under the Albuquerque Operations Office and to determine areas of research need. To assist LANL is this effort, Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) conducted an assessment of technologies and monitoring methods that have been demonstrated or are under development. The focus of this assessment is to: (1) identify existing technologies for hazardous waste treatment and environmental remediation of old waste sites; (2) identify technologies under development and the status of the technology; (3) assess new technologies that need development to provide adequate hazardous waste treatment and remedial action technologies for DOD and DOE sites; and (4) identify hazardous waste and remediation problems for environmental research and development. There are currently numerous research and development activities underway nationwide relating to environmental contaminants and the remediation of waste sites. To perform this effort, SAIC evaluated current technologies and monitoring methods development programs in EPA, DOD, and DOE, as these are the primary agencies through which developmental methods are being demonstrated. This report presents this evaluation and provides recommendations as to pertinent research needs or activities to address waste site contamination problems. The review and assessment have been conducted at a programmatic level; site-specific and contaminant-specific evaluations are being performed by LANL staff as a separate, related activity.

Not Available

1989-09-29

317

Criteria and Processes for the Certification of Non-Radioactive Hazardous and Non-Hazardous Wastes  

SciTech Connect

This document details Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) criteria and processes for determining if potentially volumetrically contaminated or potentially surface contaminated wastes are to be managed as material containing residual radioactivity or as non-radioactive. This document updates and replaces UCRL-AR-109662, Criteria and Procedures for the Certification of Nonradioactive Hazardous Waste (Reference 1), also known as 'The Moratorium', and follows the guidance found in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) document, Performance Objective for Certification of Non-Radioactive Hazardous Waste (Reference 2). The 1992 Moratorium document (UCRL-AR-109662) is three volumes and 703 pages. The first volume provides an overview of the certification process and lists the key radioanalytical methods and their associated Limits of Sensitivities. Volumes Two and Three contain supporting documents and include over 30 operating procedures, QA plans, training documents and organizational charts that describe the hazardous and radioactive waste management system in place in 1992. This current document is intended to update the previous Moratorium documents and to serve as the top-tier LLNL institutional Moratorium document. The 1992 Moratorium document was restricted to certification of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), State and Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) hazardous waste from Radioactive Material Management Areas (RMMA). This still remains the primary focus of the Moratorium; however, this document increases the scope to allow use of this methodology to certify other LLNL wastes and materials destined for off-site disposal, transfer, and re-use including non-hazardous wastes and wastes generated outside of RMMAs with the potential for DOE added radioactivity. The LLNL organization that authorizes off-site transfer/disposal of a material or waste stream is responsible for implementing the requirements of this document. The LLNL Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) organization is responsible for the review and maintenance of this document. It should be noted that the DOE metal recycling moratorium is still in effect and is implemented as outlined in reference 17 when metals are being dispositioned for disposal/re-use/recycling off-site. This document follows the same methodology as described in the previously approved 1992 Moratorium document. Generator knowledge and certification are the primary means of characterization. Sampling and analysis are used when there is insufficient knowledge of a waste to determine if it contains added radioactivity. Table 1 (page 12) presents a list of LLNL's analytical methods for evaluating volumetrically contaminated waste and updates the reasonably achievable analytical-method-specific Minimum Detectable Concentrations (MDCs) for various matrices. Results from sampling and analysis are compared against the maximum MDCs for the given analytical method and the sample specific MDC to determine if the sample contains DOE added volumetric radioactivity. The evaluation of an item that has a physical form, and history of use, such that accessible surfaces may be potentially contaminated, is based on DOE Order 5400.5 (Reference 3), and its associated implementation guidance document DOE G 441.1-XX, Control and Release of Property with Residual Radioactive Material (Reference 4). The guidance document was made available for use via DOE Memorandum (Reference 5). Waste and materials containing residual radioactivity transferred off-site must meet the receiving facilities Waste Acceptance Criteria (if applicable) and be in compliance with other applicable federal or state requirements.

Dominick, J

2008-12-18

318

Activities at the Louisiana State University hazardous waste research center - A status report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hazardous waste and the problems associated with its proper disposal are the concerns of the Hazardous Waste Research Center (H.W.R.C.), located on the Baton Rouge Campus of Louisiana State University. Initial experiments confirmed the validity of the basic experimental procedures and suggested an appropriate modeling approach based upon the narrow plume hypothesis and suitable integrations of the K-theory governing equation.

R. Segesta; L. J. Thibodeaux

1987-01-01

319

29 CFR 1926.252 - Disposal of waste materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Disposal 1926.252 Disposal of waste materials. (a) Whenever materials are dropped more than 20 feet to any point lying outside the exterior walls of the building, an enclosed chute of wood, or equivalent material, shall be used. For...

2011-07-01

320

29 CFR 1926.252 - Disposal of waste materials.  

...Disposal 1926.252 Disposal of waste materials. (a) Whenever materials are dropped more than 20 feet to any point lying outside the exterior walls of the building, an enclosed chute of wood, or equivalent material, shall be used. For...

2014-07-01

321

Effects of actinide burning on waste disposal at Yucca Mountain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partitioning the actinides in spent fuel and transmuting them in actinide-burning liquid-metal reactors (ALMRs) is a potential method of reducing public risks from the geologic disposal of nuclear waste. In this paper, the authors present a comparison of radionuclide releases from burial at Yucca Mountain of spent fuel and of ALMR wastes. Two waste disposal schemes are considered. In each,

J. Hirschfelder; P. L. Chambre; W. W. L. Lee; T. H. Pigford; M. M. Sadeghi

1991-01-01

322

Methodologies for estimating one-time hazardous waste generation for capacity generation for capacity assurance planning  

SciTech Connect

This report contains descriptions of methodologies to be used to estimate the one-time generation of hazardous waste associated with five different types of remediation programs: Superfund sites, RCRA Corrective Actions, Federal Facilities, Underground Storage Tanks, and State and Private Programs. Estimates of the amount of hazardous wastes generated from these sources to be shipped off-site to commercial hazardous waste treatment and disposal facilities will be made on a state by state basis for the years 1993, 1999, and 2013. In most cases, estimates will be made for the intervening years, also.

Tonn, B.; Hwang, Ho-Ling; Elliot, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Peretz, J.; Bohm, R.; Hendrucko, B. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

1994-04-01

323

Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns.  

SciTech Connect

Salt caverns can be formed in underground salt formations incidentally as a result of mining or intentionally to create underground chambers for product storage or waste disposal. For more than 50 years, salt caverns have been used to store hydrocarbon products. Recently, concerns over the costs and environmental effects of land disposal and incineration have sparked interest in using salt caverns for waste disposal. Countries using or considering using salt caverns for waste disposal include Canada (oil-production wastes), Mexico (purged sulfates from salt evaporators), Germany (contaminated soils and ashes), the United Kingdom (organic residues), and the Netherlands (brine purification wastes). In the US, industry and the regulatory community are pursuing the use of salt caverns for disposal of oil-field wastes. In 1988, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a regulatory determination exempting wastes generated during oil and gas exploration and production (oil-field wastes) from federal hazardous waste regulations--even though such wastes may contain hazardous constituents. At the same time, EPA urged states to tighten their oil-field waste management regulations. The resulting restrictions have generated industry interest in the use of salt caverns for potentially economical and environmentally safe oil-field waste disposal. Before the practice can be implemented commercially, however, regulators need assurance that disposing of oil-field wastes in salt caverns is technically and legally feasible and that potential health effects associated with the practice are acceptable. In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. It investigated regulatory issues; the types of oil-field wastes suitable for cavern disposal; cavern design and location considerations; and disposal operations, closure and remediation issues. It determined that if caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they could, from technical and legal perspectives, be suitable for disposing of oil-field wastes. On the basis of these findings, ANL subsequently conducted a preliminary risk assessment on the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from the NOW disposed of in salt caverns. The methodology for the risk assessment included the following steps: identifying potential contaminants of concern; determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants; assessing contaminant toxicities; estimating contaminant intakes; and estimating human cancer and noncancer risks. To estimate exposure routes and pathways, four postclosure cavern release scenarios were assessed. These were inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks, failure of the cavern through leaky interbeds, and partial collapse of the cavern roof. Assuming a single, generic, salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, potential human health effects associated with constituent hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) were assessed under each of these scenarios. Preliminary results provided excess cancer risk and hazard index (for noncancer health effects) estimates that were well within the EPA target range for acceptable exposure risk levels. These results lead to the preliminary conclusion that from a human health perspective, salt caverns can provide an acceptable disposal method for nonhazardous oil-field wastes.

Elcock, D.

1998-03-10

324

Waste component recycle, treatment, and disposal integrated demonstration (WeDID) nuclear weapon dismantlement activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the drivers in the dismantlement and disposal of nuclear weapon components is Envirorunental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines. The primary regulatory driver for these components is the Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA). Nuclear weapon components are heterogeneous and contain a number of hazardous materials including heavy metals, PCB`S, selfcontained explosives, radioactive materials, gas-filled tubes, etc. The Waste Component Recycle,

Wheelis

1993-01-01

325

Waste component recycle, treatment, and disposal integrated demonstration (WeDID) nuclear weapon dismantlement activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the drivers in the dismantlement and disposal of nuclear weapon components is Envirorunental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines. The primary regulatory driver for these components is the Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA). Nuclear weapon components are heterogeneous and contain a number of hazardous materials including heavy metals, PCB'S, selfcontained explosives, radioactive materials, gas-filled tubes, etc. The Waste Component Recycle,

Wheelis

1993-01-01

326

Microwave remediation of hazardous and radioactive wastes  

SciTech Connect

A team from the Westinghouse Savannah River Technology Center (WSRC - a DOE Laboratory), and the University of Florida (UF - academia), has been active for about a decade in development of microwave technology for specialized waste management applications. This interaction has resulted in the development of unique equipment and uses of microwave energy for a variety of important applications for remediation of hazardous and radioactive wastes. Discussed are results of this unique technology for processing of electronic circuitry and components, medical wastes, discarded tires, and transuranic radioactive wastes.

Wicks, G.G.

2000-04-28

327

Management of hazardous wastes Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), during the course of numerous research activities, generates hazardous, radioactive, and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. The management of these waste materials is highly regulated in the United States (US). This paper focuses on the hazardous waste regulations that limit and prescribe waste management at LLNL.

Jackson, C.S.

1993-11-01

328

Improving tamper detection for hazardous waste security  

SciTech Connect

After September 11, waste managers are increasingly expected to provide improved levels of security for the hazardous materials in their charge. Many low-level wastes that previously had minimal or no security must now be well protected, while high-level wastes require even greater levels of security than previously employed. This demand for improved security comes, in many cases, without waste managers being provided the necessary additional funding, personnel, or security expertise. Contributing to the problem is the fact that--at least in our experience--waste managers often fail to appreciate certain types of security vulnerabilities. They frequently overlook or underestimate the security risks associated with disgruntled or compromised insiders, or the potential legal and political liabilities associated with nonexistent or ineffective security. Also frequently overlooked are potential threats from waste management critics who could resort to sabotage, vandalism, or civil disobedience for purposes of discrediting a waste management program.

Johnston, R. G. (Roger G.); Garcia, A. R. E. (Anthony R. E.); Pacheco, A. N. (Adam N.); Trujillo, S. J. (Sonia J.); Martinez, R. K. (Ronald K.); Martinez, D. D. (Debbie D.); Lopez, L. N. (Leon N.)

2002-01-01

329

Commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the US  

SciTech Connect

Why are 11 states attempting to develop new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities? Why is only on disposal facility accepting waste nationally? What is the future of waste disposal? These questions are representative of those being asked throughout the country. This paper attempts to answer these questions in terms of where we are, how we got there, and where we might be going.

Smith, P.

1995-10-01

330

Challenges in Disposing of Anthrax Waste  

SciTech Connect

Disasters often create large amounts of waste that must be managed as part of both immediate response and long-term recovery. While many federal, state, and local agencies have debris management plans, these plans often do not address chemical, biological, and radiological contamination. The Interagency Biological Restoration Demonstrations (IBRD) purpose was to holistically assess all aspects of an anthrax incident and assist the development of a plan for long-term recovery. In the case of wide-area anthrax contamination and the follow-on response and recovery activities, a significant amount of material will require decontamination and disposal. Accordingly, IBRD facilitated the development of debris management plans to address contaminated waste through a series of interviews and workshops with local, state, and federal representatives. The outcome of these discussion was the identification of three primary topical areas that must be addressed: 1) Planning; 2) Unresolved research questions, and resolving regulatory issues.

Lesperance, Ann M.; Stein, Steven L.; Upton, Jaki F.; Toomey, Christopher

2011-09-01

331

Remediation of Hanford's N-reactor liquid waste disposal sites.  

PubMed

Hanford's N-Reactor operated from 1963 to 1987 generating approximately 9 x 10(7) m3 of radioactive and hazardous liquid effluent as a result of reactor operations. Two liquid waste disposal sites, essentially large trenches designed to filter contaminants from the water as it percolates through the soil column, were established to dispose of the effluent. The discharges to the sites included cooling water from the reactor primary, spent fuel storage, and periphery systems, along with miscellaneous drainage from reactor support facilities. Today, both sites are classified as Treatment Storage and Disposal Facilities under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976, which makes them priority sites for remediation. The two sites cover approximately 4,100 m2 and 9,300 m2, respectively. Remediation of the sites requires removing a combined total of approximately 2.6 x 10(8) kg of contaminated soil and debris. Principal radionuclides contained in the soil/debris are 60Co, 137Cs, 239Pu, and 90Sr. Remediation of these waste sites requires demolishing concrete structures and excavating, hauling, and disposing of contaminated soils in work areas containing high levels of contamination and whole body dose rates in excess of 1 mSv h-1. The work presents unique radiological control challenges, such as minimizing external dose to workers in a constantly changing outdoor work environment, maintaining contamination control during removal of a water distribution trough filled with highly contaminated sludge, and minimizing outdoor airborne contamination during size reduction of highly contaminated pipelines. Through innovative approaches to dose reduction and contamination control, Hanford's Environmental Restoration Contractor has met the challenge, completing the first phase on schedule and with a total project exposure below the goal of 0.1 person-Sv. PMID:12564346

Sitsler, Robert B; DeMers, Steven K

2003-02-01

332

Household waste disposal in Mekelle city, Northern Ethiopia.  

PubMed

In many cities of developing countries, such as Mekelle (Ethiopia), waste management is poor and solid wastes are dumped along roadsides and into open areas, endangering health and attracting vermin. The effects of demographic factors, economic and social status, waste and environmental attributes on household solid waste disposal are investigated using data from household survey. Household level data are then analyzed using multinomial logit estimation to determine the factors that affect household waste disposal decision making. Results show that demographic features such as age, education and household size have an insignificant impact over the choice of alternative waste disposal means, whereas the supply of waste facilities significantly affects waste disposal choice. Inadequate supply of waste containers and longer distance to these containers increase the probability of waste dumping in open areas and roadsides relative to the use of communal containers. Higher household income decreases the probability of using open areas and roadsides as waste destinations relative to communal containers. Measures to make the process of waste disposal less costly and ensuring well functioning institutional waste management would improve proper waste disposal. PMID:17936609

Tadesse, Tewodros; Ruijs, Arjan; Hagos, Fitsum

2008-01-01

333

Accepting Mixed Waste as Alternate Feed Material for Processing and Disposal at a Licensed Uranium Mill  

SciTech Connect

Certain categories of mixed wastes that contain recoverable amounts of natural uranium can be processed for the recovery of valuable uranium, alone or together with other metals, at licensed uranium mills, and the resulting tailings permanently disposed of as 11e.(2) byproduct material in the mill's tailings impoundment, as an alternative to treatment and/or direct disposal at a mixed waste disposal facility. This paper discusses the regulatory background applicable to hazardous wastes, mixed wastes and uranium mills and, in particular, NRC's Alternate Feed Guidance under which alternate feed materials that contain certain types of mixed wastes may be processed and disposed of at uranium mills. The paper discusses the way in which the Alternate Feed Guidance has been interpreted in the past with respect to processing mixed wastes and the significance of recent changes in NRC's interpretation of the Alternate Feed Guidance that sets the stage for a broader range of mixed waste materials to be processed as alternate feed materials. The paper also reviews the le gal rationale and policy reasons why materials that would otherwise have to be treated and/or disposed of as mixed waste, at a mixed waste disposal facility, are exempt from RCRA when reprocessed as alternate feed material at a uranium mill and become subject to the sole jurisdiction of NRC, and some of the reasons why processing mixed wastes as alternate feed materials at uranium mills is preferable to direct disposal. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion of the specific acceptance, characterization and certification requirements applicable to alternate feed materials and mixed wastes at International Uranium (USA) Corporation's White Mesa Mill, which has been the most active uranium mill in the processing of alternate feed materials under the Alternate Feed Guidance.

Frydenland, D. C.; Hochstein, R. F.; Thompson, A. J.

2002-02-26

334

COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

The article describes basic incineration technology. Terminology is defined and EPA's regulations stated. The universe of incinerated and incinerable waste is described. Technology descriptions are provided for liquid injection incineration, rotary kiln incineration, at-sea incin...

335

Biomedical waste disposal: A systems analysis  

PubMed Central

Background In view of the contemporary relevance of BMW Management, a system analysis of BMW management was conducted to ascertain the views of Service hospitals/HCE's on the current system in BMW management in-vogue; to know the composition and quantity of waste generated; to get information on equipment held & equipment required and to explore the possibility of outsourcing, its relevance and feasibility. Methods A qualitative study in which various stake holders in BMW management were studied using both primary (Observation, In-depth Interview of Key Personnel, Group Discussions: and user perspective survey) and secondary data. Results All the stake holders were of the opinion that where ever possible outsourcing should be explored as a viable method of BMW disposal. Waste generated in Colour code Yellow (Cat 1,2,3,5,6) ranged from 64.25 to 27.345g/day/bed; in Colour code Red (Cat 7) from 19.37 to 10.97g/day/bed and in Colour code Blue (Cat 4) from 3.295 to 3.82g/day/bed in type 1 hospitals to type 5 hospitals respectively. Conclusion Outsourcing should be explored as a viable method of BMW disposal, were there are government approved local agencies. Facilities authorized by the Prescribed Authority should be continued and maintained where outsourcing is not feasible. PMID:24600142

Jindal, A.K.; Gupta, Arun; Grewal, V.S.; Mahen, Ajoy

2012-01-01

336

METHODS/MATERIALS MATRIX OF ULTIMATE DISPOSAL TECHNIQUES FOR SPILLED HAZARDOUS MATERIALS  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was undertaken to evaluate conventional and novel methods for the ultimate disposal of spilled or released hazardous substances. Disposal methods studied include incineration, pyrolysis, landfilling, fixation, biological treatment, and chemical treatment. Applications of ...

337

Revised Draft Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program Environmental Impact Statement, Richland, Washington  

SciTech Connect

This ''Revised Draft Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program Environmental Impact Statement'' (HSW EIS) covers three primary aspects of waste management at Hanford--waste treatment, storage, and disposal. It also addresses four kinds of solid waste--low-level waste (LLW), mixed (radioactive and chemically hazardous) low-level waste (MLLW), transuranic (TRU) waste, and immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW). It fundamentally asks the question: how should we manage the waste we have now and will have in the future? This EIS analyzes the impacts of the LLW, MLLW, TRU waste, and ILAW we currently have in storage, will generate, or expect to receive at Hanford. The HSW EIS is intended to help us determine what specific facilities we will continue to use, modify, or construct to treat, store, and dispose of these wastes (Figure S.1). Because radioactive and chemically hazardous waste management is a complex, technical, and difficult subject, we have made every effort to minimize the use of acronyms (making an exception for our four waste types listed above), use more commonly understood words, and provide the ''big picture'' in this summary. An acronym list, glossary of terms, and conversions for units of measure are provided in a readers guide in Volume 1 of this EIS.

N /A

2003-04-11

338

Ground freezing for containment of hazardous waste  

SciTech Connect

The freezing of ground for the containment of subsurface hazardous waste is a promising method that is environmentally friendly and offers a safe alternative to other methods of waste retention in many cases. The frozen soil method offers two concepts for retaining waste. One concept is to freeze the entire waste area into a solid block of frozen soil thus locking the waste in situ. For small areas where the contaminated soil does not include vessels that would rupture from frost action, this concept may be simpler to install. A second concept, of course, is to create a frozen soil barrier to confine the waste within prescribed unfrozen soil boundaries; initial research in this area was funded by EPA, Cincinnati, OH, and the Army Corps of Engineers. The paper discusses advantages and limitations, a case study from Oak Ridge, TN, and a mesh generation program that simulates the cryogenic technology.

Sayles, F.N.; Iskandar, I.K.

1998-07-01

339

Minor actinide waste disposal in deep geological boreholes  

E-print Network

The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate a waste canister design suitable for the disposal of vitrified minor actinide waste in deep geological boreholes using conventional oil/gas/geothermal drilling technology. ...

Sizer, Calvin Gregory

2006-01-01

340

36 CFR 13.1604 - Solid waste disposal.  

... (b) A solid waste disposal site...area. (c) A transfer station located wholly...The transfer station complies with...this section, a transfer station means a public...storage of solid waste, excluding...

2014-07-01

341

36 CFR 13.1912 - Solid waste disposal.  

... (b) A solid waste disposal site...area. (c) A transfer station located wholly...The transfer station complies with...this section, a transfer station means a public...storage of solid waste, excluding...

2014-07-01

342

36 CFR 13.1604 - Solid waste disposal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (b) A solid waste disposal site...area. (c) A transfer station located wholly...The transfer station complies with...this section, a transfer station means a public...storage of solid waste, excluding...

2013-07-01

343

36 CFR 13.1912 - Solid waste disposal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (b) A solid waste disposal site...area. (c) A transfer station located wholly...The transfer station complies with...this section, a transfer station means a public...storage of solid waste, excluding...

2010-07-01

344

36 CFR 13.1912 - Solid waste disposal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... (b) A solid waste disposal site...area. (c) A transfer station located wholly...The transfer station complies with...this section, a transfer station means a public...storage of solid waste, excluding...

2011-07-01

345

36 CFR 13.1912 - Solid waste disposal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (b) A solid waste disposal site...area. (c) A transfer station located wholly...The transfer station complies with...this section, a transfer station means a public...storage of solid waste, excluding...

2013-07-01

346

36 CFR 13.1604 - Solid waste disposal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (b) A solid waste disposal site...area. (c) A transfer station located wholly...The transfer station complies with...this section, a transfer station means a public...storage of solid waste, excluding...

2010-07-01

347

36 CFR 13.1604 - Solid waste disposal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... (b) A solid waste disposal site...area. (c) A transfer station located wholly...The transfer station complies with...this section, a transfer station means a public...storage of solid waste, excluding...

2011-07-01

348

36 CFR 13.1604 - Solid waste disposal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... (b) A solid waste disposal site...area. (c) A transfer station located wholly...The transfer station complies with...this section, a transfer station means a public...storage of solid waste, excluding...

2012-07-01

349

36 CFR 13.1912 - Solid waste disposal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... (b) A solid waste disposal site...area. (c) A transfer station located wholly...The transfer station complies with...this section, a transfer station means a public...storage of solid waste, excluding...

2012-07-01

350

Containment of solidified liquid hazardous waste in domal salt  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, the solidification of hazardous liquid waste has become a viable option in waste management. The solidification process results in an increased volume but more stable waste form that must be disposed of or stored in a dry environment. An environment of choice in south central Texas is domal salt. The salt dome currently under investigation has a water content of 0.002 percent by weight and a permeability less than one nanodarcy. A question that must be addressed is whether a salt dome has a particular set of attributes that will prevent the release of contaminants to the environment. From a regulatory perspective, a no migration'' petition must be approved by the U.S.E.P.A. for the containment facility. By no migration'' it is implied that the waste must be contained for 10,000 years. A demonstration that this condition will be met will require model calculations and such models must be based on the physical and chemical characteristics of the waste form and the geologic environment. In particular, the models must address the rate of brine infiltration into the caverns, providing information on how fast an immobile solid waste form could convert to a more mobile liquid state. Additionally, the potential for migration by both diffusion and advection is of concern. Lastly, given a partially saturated cavern, the question of how far gaseous waste will be transported over the 10,000 year containment period must also be addressed. Results indicate that the containment capabilities of domal salt are exceptional. A nominal volume of brine will seep into the cavern and most voids between the injected solidified waste pellets will remain unsaturated. Very small quantities of hazardous constituents will be leached from the waste pellets.

Domenico, P.A. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Geology Dept.); Lerman, A. (Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. Geological Sciences)

1992-01-01

351

Savannah River Site waste vitrification projects initiated throughout the United States: Disposal and recycle options  

SciTech Connect

A vitrification process was developed and successfully implemented by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) and at the West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS) to convert high-level liquid nuclear wastes (HLLW) to a solid borosilicate glass for safe long term geologic disposal. Over the last decade, SRS has successfully completed two additional vitrification projects to safely dispose of mixed low level wastes (MLLW) (radioactive and hazardous) at the SRS and at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The SRS, in conjunction with other laboratories, has also demonstrated that vitrification can be used to dispose of a wide variety of MLLW and low-level wastes (LLW) at the SRS, at ORR, at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), at Rocky Flats (RF), at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), and at the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP). The SRS, in conjunction with the Electric Power Research Institute and the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina (CNEA), have demonstrated that vitrification can also be used to safely dispose of ion-exchange (IEX) resins and sludges from commercial nuclear reactors. In addition, the SRS has successfully demonstrated that numerous wastes declared hazardous by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) can be vitrified, e.g. mining industry wastes, contaminated harbor sludges, asbestos containing material (ACM), Pb-paint on army tanks and bridges. Once these EPA hazardous wastes are vitrified, the waste glass is rendered non-hazardous allowing these materials to be recycled as glassphalt (glass impregnated asphalt for roads and runways), roofing shingles, glasscrete (glass used as aggregate in concrete), or other uses. Glass is also being used as a medium to transport SRS americium (Am) and curium (Cm) to the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) for recycle in the ORR medical source program and use in smoke detectors at an estimated value of $1.5 billion to the general public.

Jantzen, C.M.

2000-04-10

352

Hazardous Waste Certification Plan: Hazardous Waste Handling Facility, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this plan is to describe the organization and methodology for the certification of hazardous waste (HW) handled in the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). The plan also incorporates the applicable elements of waste reduction, which include both up-front minimization and end- product treatment to reduce the volume and toxicity of the waste; segregation of the waste as it applies to certification; and executive summary of the Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) for the HWHF and a list of the current and planned implementing procedures used in waste certification. The plan provides guidance from the HWHF to waste generators, waste handlers, and the Systems Group Manager to enable them to conduct their activities and carry out their responsibilities in a manner that complies with several requirements of the Federal Resource Conservation and Resource Recovery Act (RCRA), the Federal Department of Transportation (DOT), and the State of California, Code of Regulations (CCR), Title 22.

Not Available

1992-02-01

353

Alternative disposal for Investigation Derived Wastes (IDW) containing low activity source material  

SciTech Connect

As part of a Remedial Investigation (RI) at a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Site, approximately 77,111 kg (85 tons) I would use the actual tons of investigation derived wastes (IDW) were generated from exploratory soil borings and as part of removal activities at a former drum burial area. Characterization of these materials indicated elevated concentrations of metals including uranium and thorium (source material). Concentrations of uranium and thorium were at levels less than 0.05% by mass, which is the threshold for exempt source material under Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. Disposal of this material was evaluated as low-level radioactive waste and as exempt radioactive waste. The NRC has established a process for evaluation and review of exempt source material transfer and direct disposal in a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) landfill. These requests are normally approved if the dose to a member of the general public is unlikely to exceed 0.25 mSv per year (25 milli-rem per year). The soil was evaluated for disposal as exempt radioactive waste at a RCRA landfill, which included dose modeling to workers during transportation and disposal as well as potential dose to members of the public after closure of the disposal facility. These evaluations determined that the potential dose was very small, and review by the agreement state regulatory agency indicated that this disposal process should not result in any undue hazard to public health and safety or property. The advantage of this approach is that disposal of 77,111 kg (85 tons) of IDW at a RCRA landfill is estimated to result in a savings of $80,000 as compared to disposal as low-level radioactive waste. Alternative waste disposal of exempt source material provides more disposal options and can lead to significant cost savings. (authors)

Downey, H.T. [MACTEC, Portland, ME (United States); Majer, T. [de maximis, inc., Windsor, CT (United States)

2007-07-01

354

Compliance of Hazardous Waste Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs)  

E-print Network

, other DOE and University waste organizations · Flammable waste cans, 30-gallon, 55-gallon drums (steelCompliance of Hazardous Waste Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs) All Hazardous waste generated and California state regulations. All waste that is ignitable, toxic corrosive and /or reactive is determined

355

POLYETHYLENE ENCAPSULATES FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE DRUMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This capsule report summarizes studies of the use of polyethylene (P.E.) for encapsulating drums of hazardous wastes. Flat PE sheet is welded to roto moded PE containers which forms the encapsulates. Plastic pipe welding art was used, but the prototype welding apparatus required ...

356

DRUM HANDLING PRACTICES AT HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the research effort was to provide technical guidance on planning and implementing safe and cost-effective response actions applicable to hazardous waste sites containing drums. The manual provides detailed technical guidance on methods, procedures, and equipment s...

357

Managing hazardous waste: Fulfilling the public trust  

SciTech Connect

Managing hazardous waste means dealing responsibly with the by-products of our industrialized society. Everyday essentials from medicine to textiles, from furniture to vehicles, are all manufactured by processes that generate by-products that must be properly managed to safeguard human health and the environment.

NONE

1989-12-31

358

EXPERT SYSTEMS - TOOLS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGERS  

EPA Science Inventory

It is well known that protection of human health and the environment from the risks of hazardous wastes involves evaluation of numerous complex issues. pproximately 4 years ago a few people began to explore the possibility of using expert system techniques to expedite the transfe...

359

Planning for hazardous campus waste collection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines a procedure developed for planning a nation-wide hazardous campus waste (HCW) collection system. Alternative HCW plans were designed for different collection frequencies, truckloads, storage limits, and also for establishing an additional transfer station. Two clustering methods were applied to group adjacent campuses into clusters based on their locations, HCW quantities, the type of vehicles used and collection

Kun-Hsing Liu; Shao-Yang Shih; Jehng-Jung Kao

2011-01-01

360

HAZARDOUS WASTE DECONTAMINATION WITH PLASMA REACTORS  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of electrical energy in the form of plasma has been considered as a potentially efficient means of decontaminating hazardous waste, although to date only a few attempts have been made to do so. There are a number of relative advantages and some potential disadvantages to...

361

Navigating the Hazardous Waste Management Maze.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hazardous waste management is a continual process. Administrators should maintain good relations with state agencies and the Environmental Protection Agency and use them as resources. Contacts with businesses and professional groups as well as forming coalitions with neighboring districts are ways to share information and expenses. (MLF)

Voelkle, James P.

1997-01-01

362

EMISSIONS TESTING OF INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES BURNING HAZARDOUS WASTE MATERIALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Hazardous waste incinerators are regulated under the Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA). On the other hand processes that produce energy and only incidently burn hazardous waste materials are currently exempt from the RCRA incinerator regulations. EPA has initiated a Regul...

363

TOTAL MASS EMISSIONS FROM A HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATOR  

EPA Science Inventory

Past studies of hazardous waste incinerators by the Hazardous Waste Engineering Research Laboratory have primarily examined the performance of combustion systems relative to the destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Appendix VI...

364

Former Hazardous Waste Management Facility -Perimeter Soils Update  

E-print Network

Former Hazardous Waste Management Facility - Perimeter Soils Update Brookhaven National Laboratory Division #12;2 Background Cesium -137 contamination found outside the Former Hazardous Waste Management Community Advisory Council September 9, 2010 Robert J. Lee, Interim Manager Environmental Protection

Homes, Christopher C.

365

BOILERS COFIRING HAZARDOUS WASTE: EFFECTS OF HYSTERESIS ON PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Hazardous Waste Engineering Research Laboratory (HWERL) has conducted full scale and pilot scale boiler testing to determine hazardous waste destruction and removal efficiencies (DRE's) and other associated boiler performance parameters during the last five years. The effort ...

366

Nuclear and coal waste disposal hampered by legal, regulatory, and technical uncertainties. [Coal wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous legal, regulatory, and technical problems and uncertainties are hampering disposal of nuclear and coal fuel cycle wastes. Although federal agencies are working on these problems, progress has been slow and many uncertainties still need to be resolved. While available information indicates that coal waste disposal costs are roughly three times higher than nuclear waste disposal costs, this cost comparison

1982-01-01

367

Technological options for management of hazardous wastes from US Department of Energy facilities  

SciTech Connect

This report provides comprehensive information on the technological options for management of hazardous wastes generated at facilities owned or operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE). These facilities annually generate a large quantity of wastes that could be deemed hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Included in these wastes are liquids or solids containing polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, heavy metals, waste oils, spent solvents, acids, bases, carcinogens, and numerous other pollutants. Some of these wastes consist of nonnuclear hazardous chemicals; others are mixed wastes containing radioactive materials and hazardous chemicals. Nearly 20 unit processes and disposal methods are presented in this report. They were selected on the basis of their proven utility in waste management and potential applicability at DOE sites. These technological options fall into five categories: physical processes, chemical processes, waste exchange, fixation, and ultimate disposal. The options can be employed for either resource recovery, waste detoxification, volume reduction, or perpetual storage. Detailed descriptions of each technological option are presented, including information on process performance, cost, energy and environmental considerations, waste management of applications, and potential applications at DOE sites. 131 references, 25 figures, 23 tables.

Chiu, S.; Newsom, D.; Barisas, S.; Humphrey, J.; Fradkin, L.; Surles, T.

1982-08-01

368

Characterization of the atmospheric pathway at hazardous waste sites  

SciTech Connect

Evaluation of potential health effects for populations surrounding hazardous waste sites requires consideration of all potential contaminant transport pathways through groundwater, surface water, and the atmosphere. A comprehensive pathway model that includes emission, dispersion, and deposition computations has been developed as a component of the Remedial Action Priority System (RAPS). RAPS is designed to assess the relative potential risks associated with hazardous and radioactive mixed-waste disposal sites. The atmospheric component includes optional volatilization and suspension emission routines. Atmospheric transport, dispersion, and deposition are computed using relatively standard modeling techniques expanded to incorporate topographical influences. This sector-averaged Gaussian model accounts for local channeling, terrain heights, and terrain roughness effects. Long-term total deposition is computed for the terrain surrounding the hazardous waste site. An example is given of applications at a US Department of Energy site, where atmospheric emissions are potentially important. The multiple applications of RAPS have provided information on the relative importance of different constitutent transport pathways from a potential population risk basis. Our results show that the atmospheric pathway is often equally as important as other pathways such as groundwater and direct soil ingestion. 6 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Droppo, J.G. Jr.; Buck, J.W.

1988-10-01

369

Immobilization of hazardous and radioactive wastes into glass structures  

SciTech Connect

As a result of more than three decades of international research, glass has emerged as the material of choice for immobilization of a wide range of potentially hazardous radioactive and non-radioactive materials. The ability of glass structures to incorporate and then immobilize many different elements into durable, high integrity, waste glass products is a direct function of the unique random network structure of the glassy state. Every major country involved with long-term management of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) has either selected or is considering glass as the matrix of choice for immobilizing and ultimately, disposing of the potentially hazardous, high-level radioactive material. There are many reasons why glass is preferred. Among the most important considerations are the ability of glass structures to accommodate and immobilize the many different types of radionuclides present in HLW, and to produce a product that not only has excellent technical properties, but also possesses good processing features. Good processability allows the glass to be fabricated with relative ease even under difficult remote-handling conditions necessary for vitrification of highly radioactive material. The single most important property of the waste glass produced is its ability to retain hazardous species within the glass structure and this is reflected by its excellent chemical durability and corrosion resistance to a wide range of environmental conditions.

Wicks, G.G.

1997-10-01

370

76 FR 55846 - Hazardous Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste: Carbon Dioxide...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Listing of Hazardous Waste: Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Streams in Geologic Sequestration Activities AGENCY: Environmental...to conditionally exclude carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) streams...to conditionally exclude carbon dioxide (CO 2 )...

2011-09-09

371

40 CFR 266.206 - Standards applicable to the treatment and disposal of waste military munitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Military Munitions 266.206...

2013-07-01

372

Global dumping ground: The international traffic in hazardous waste  

SciTech Connect

This book is based on the PBS's television documentary. It vividly describes the forces that encourage the USA and other industrialized nations to condone the disposal of industrial and domestic hazardous wastes in other countries. Often conducted illegally, this disposal affects the unsuspecting people of less developed nations, many of whom have less stringent environmental laws and regulations. The book also portrays the ill effects of this dumping on the health and environment and convey and important messages: something must be done to get the public involved in repairing a serious global problem and even small measures, illustrated in the book, are a good start. However, the book fails to confront the question of how the public wants the government to be involved.

Moyers, B.

1993-01-01

373

Future costs of low-level radioactive waste disposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

US Ecology is in the forefront of the development of future low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facilities with its current projects in California and Nebraska. As the site characterization work proceeds and engineering efforts become refined, new cost estimates are made that can be used to predict a major component of future disposal costs. The unknown portion of disposal costs

Scoville

1989-01-01

374

WASTE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL FROM SEAFOOD PROCESSING PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Examinations of current wastewater and solid waste disposal practices and characterization of the wastewater effluent for seafood processing were carried out in a project within the state of Maryland in order to recommend economical waste treatment and disposal systems for the in...

375

Grassroots mobilisations against waste disposal sites in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

The government of Greece has gained notoriety for its failure to implement EU environmental directives in general, and is criticised specifically for its lack of an effective plan for the safe disposal of waste. Local mobilisations against a series of planned Sanitary Waste Disposal Sites (HETAs) in three municipalities of Attica are examined. Should such protests be classified as NIMBY

Iosif Botetzagias; John Karamichas

2009-01-01

376

The economics of waste disposal in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current disposal options in the United Kingdom continue to favor landfills, with local authorities selecting the optimum level of recycling for their budget. Waste collection differs from other economic activities because it is mandated and expected to be accomplished at minimum cost, a process in which private and social concerns can have divergent cost and benefit. Waste disposal includes collection,

David Pearce

1976-01-01

377

University of Twente hazardous wast regulations 1 Introduction  

E-print Network

1 University of Twente hazardous wast regulations 1 Introduction Effective from June 2011 of the regulation hazardous waste University of Twente and in accordance with the instructions of the collector. 5 University of Twente Within the University of Twente hazardous waste is divided into six main categories

Twente, Universiteit

378

Waste Toolkit A-Z Electrical (non-hazardous)  

E-print Network

-hazardous electrical items are often referred to as `non-haz WEEE'. WEEE stands for Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment, after the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) Directive, which came into forceWaste Toolkit A-Z Electrical (non-hazardous) What are non-hazardous electrical items? Non

Melham, Tom

379

Hazardous Waste: Evolution of a National Environmental Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of hazardous waste into a national environmental problem is a puzzling phenomenon. The public and media perceive hazardous waste to be a major environmental and public health risk. Yet, although the problem of hazardous waste and its resultant contamination has long been known, no one took it seriously until about 1978. An interesting question is, Why did the

Travis Wagner

2004-01-01

380

UCB Campus Policy Topic: HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT POLICIES,  

E-print Network

6 UCB Campus Policy Topic: HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT POLICIES, GENERATOR TRAINING, COMPLIANCE and management of Hazardous Waste (HW) on Campus shall be properly trained and comply with all rules as specified, student and staff) are responsible for proper manage- ment of hazardous waste and inspections

Stowell, Michael

381

Waste disposal technologies for polychlorinated biphenyls.  

PubMed Central

Improper practices in the disposal of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes by land burial, chemical means and incineration distribute these chemicals and related compounds such as polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) throughout the environment. The complete range of methods for disposal that have been proposed and are in use are examined and analyzed, with emphasis given to the two most commonly used methods: land burial and incineration. The understanding of aquifer contamination caused by migration of PCBs from subsurface burial sites requires a description of the physical, chemical and biological processes governing transport in unsaturated and saturated soils. For this purpose, a model is developed and solved for different soil conditions and external driving functions. The model couples together the fundamental transport phenomena for heat, mass, and moisture flow within the soil. To rehabilitate a contaminated aquifer, contaminated groundwaters are withdrawn through drainage wells, PCBs are extracted with solvents or activated carbon and treated by chemical, photochemical or thermal methods. The chemical and photochemical methods are reviewed, but primary emphasis is devoted to the use of incineration as the preferred method of disposal. After discussing the formation of PCDFs and PCDDs during combustion from chloroaromatic, chloroaliphatic, as well as organic and inorganic chloride precursors, performance characteristics of different thermal destructors are presented and analyzed. To understand how this information can be used, basic design equations are developed from governing heat and mass balances that can be applied to the construction of incinerators capable of more than 99.99% destruction with minimal to nondetectable levels of PCDFs and PCDDs. PMID:3921358

Piver, W T; Lindstrom, F T

1985-01-01

382

Waste disposal technologies for polychlorinated biphenyls.  

PubMed

Improper practices in the disposal of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes by land burial, chemical means and incineration distribute these chemicals and related compounds such as polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) throughout the environment. The complete range of methods for disposal that have been proposed and are in use are examined and analyzed, with emphasis given to the two most commonly used methods: land burial and incineration. The understanding of aquifer contamination caused by migration of PCBs from subsurface burial sites requires a description of the physical, chemical and biological processes governing transport in unsaturated and saturated soils. For this purpose, a model is developed and solved for different soil conditions and external driving functions. The model couples together the fundamental transport phenomena for heat, mass, and moisture flow within the soil. To rehabilitate a contaminated aquifer, contaminated groundwaters are withdrawn through drainage wells, PCBs are extracted with solvents or activated carbon and treated by chemical, photochemical or thermal methods. The chemical and photochemical methods are reviewed, but primary emphasis is devoted to the use of incineration as the preferred method of disposal. After discussing the formation of PCDFs and PCDDs during combustion from chloroaromatic, chloroaliphatic, as well as organic and inorganic chloride precursors, performance characteristics of different thermal destructors are presented and analyzed. To understand how this information can be used, basic design equations are developed from governing heat and mass balances that can be applied to the construction of incinerators capable of more than 99.99% destruction with minimal to nondetectable levels of PCDFs and PCDDs. PMID:3921358

Piver, W T; Lindstrom, F T

1985-02-01

383

Department of Energy low-level radioactive waste disposal concepts  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) manages its low-level waste (LLW), regulated by DOE Order 5820.2A by using an overall systems approach. This systems approach provides an improved and consistent management system for all DOE LLW waste, from generation to disposal. This paper outlines six basic disposal concepts used in the systems approach, discusses issues associated with each of the concepts, and outlines both present and future disposal concepts used at six DOE sites. 3 refs., 9 figs.

Ozaki, C.; Page, L.; Morreale, B.; Owens, C.

1990-01-01

384

Quantitative study of controlled substance bedside wasting, disposal and evaluation of potential ecologic effects.  

PubMed

Drugs in wastewater arise from many sources. For health care, these include excretion and direct disposal (bedside wasting). The present study reports on the dispensing and wasting of 15 controlled substances (CS) at two health care facilities in Albany, NY over a nearly two year period. The study considered measures of ecotoxicity, drug metabolism, excretion and disposal of these CS. Potential alternatives to flushing of CS into wastewaters from healthcare facilities are discussed. Drug medication and waste collection records (12,345) included: numbers of drugs dispensed, returned and wasted. Overall, 8528 g of 15 CS were wasted. Three (midazolam, acetaminophen-codeine and fentanyl) accounted for 87.5% of the total wasted. Wasting varied by hospital, 14 CS at the academic medical center hospital and 8 at the surgical care center were wasted. Liquids were more frequently wasted than tablets or pills. Some combination drugs (acetaminophen (APAP)-codeine) were frequently (50% of drug dispensed) wasted while others were less wasted (APAP-hydrocodone-6.3%; APAP-oxycodone-1.3%). The 8 CS judged more hazardous to aquatic life were: APAP-codeine, APAP-hydrocodone, APAP-oxycodone, alprazolam, diazepam, fentanyl, midazolam, and testosterone. Ketamine, morphine, oxycodone and zolpidem were of lesser acute toxicity based on available LC50 values. These CS might provide a therapeutically equivalent alternative to the more environmentally harmful drugs. In health care facilities, professionals dispose of CS by bedside wasting into water or other receptacles. This can be avoided by returning CS to the hospital's pharmacy department, thence to a licensed distributor. Study of this process of drug wasting can identify opportunities for process improvements. We found 3 CS (APAP-codeine, midazolam and testosterone) where to 1/3 of the drug was wasted and 5 others with 30 to 13% wasted. Knowledge of the adverse impacts from the release of highly toxic drugs into the environment might influence CS selection and disposal alternatives. PMID:23274246

Mankes, Russell F; Silver, Charles D

2013-02-01

385

Can chemicals go down the drain? The management of hazardous waste is regulated at the federal level by the United States Environmental  

E-print Network

Can chemicals go down the drain? The management of hazardous waste is regulated at the federal Resources (PADEP) also regulates the disposal of hazardous waste. These regulations are contained in 25 PA and effective operation of our waste water treatment plant. · Addition of unacceptable amounts of toxic

Maroncelli, Mark

386

Low-Level Waste Disposal Alternatives Analysis Report  

SciTech Connect

This report identifies and compares on-site and off-site disposal options for the disposal of contract-handled and remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Potential disposal options are screened for viability by waste type resulting in a short list of options for further consideration. The most crediable option are selected after systematic consideration of cost, schedule constraints, and risk. In order to holistically address the approach for low-level waste disposal, options are compiled into comprehensive disposal schemes, that is, alternative scenarios. Each alternative scenario addresses the disposal path for all low-level waste types over the period of interest. The alternative scenarios are compared and ranked using cost, risk and complexity to arrive at the recommended approach. Schedule alignment with disposal needs is addressed to ensure that all waste types are managed appropriately. The recommended alternative scenario for the disposal of low-level waste based on this analysis is to build a disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

Timothy Carlson; Kay Adler-Flitton; Roy Grant; Joan Connolly; Peggy Hinman; Charles Marcinkiewicz

2006-09-01

387

Systems engineering programs for geologic nuclear waste disposal  

SciTech Connect

The design sequence and system programs presented begin with general approximate solutions that permit inexpensive analysis of a multitude of possible wastes, disposal media, and disposal process properties and configurations. It then continues through progressively more precise solutions as parts of the design become fixed, and ends with repository and waste form optimization studies. The programs cover both solid and gaseous waste forms. The analytical development, a program listing, a users guide, and examples are presented for each program. Sensitivity studies showing the effects of disposal media and waste form thermophysical properties and repository layouts are presented as examples.

Klett, R. D.; Hertel, Jr., E. S.; Ellis, M. A.

1980-06-01

388

The political science of radioactive waste disposal  

SciTech Connect

This paper was first presented at the annual meeting of the HPS in New Orleans in 1984. Twelve years later, the basic lessons learned are still found to be valid. In 1984, the following things were found to be true: A government agency is preferred by the public over a private company to manage radioactive waste. Semantics are important--How you say it is important, but how it is heard is more important. Public information and public relations are very important, but they are the last thing of concern to a scientist. Political constituency is important. Don`t overlook the need for someone to be on your side. Don`t forget that the media is part of the political process-they can make you or break you. Peer technical review is important, but so is citizen review. Sociology is an important issue that scientists and technical people often overlook. In summary, despite the political nature of radioactive waste disposal, it is as true today as it was in 1984 that technical facts must be used to reach sound technical conclusions. Only then, separately and openly, should political factors be considered. So, what can be said today that wasn`t said in 1984? Nothing. {open_quotes}It`s deja vu all over again.{close_quotes}

Jacobi, L.R. Jr. [Texas Los Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority, Austin, TX (United States)

1996-06-01

389

Options and cost for disposal of NORM waste.  

SciTech Connect

Oil field waste containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is presently disposed of both on the lease site and at off-site commercial disposal facilities. The majority of NORM waste is disposed of through underground injection, most of which presently takes place at a commercial injection facility located in eastern Texas. Several companies offer the service of coming to an operator's site, grinding the NORM waste into a fine particle size, slurrying the waste, and injecting it into the operator's own disposal well. One company is developing a process whereby the radionuclides are dissolved out of the NORM wastes, leaving a nonhazardous oil field waste and a contaminated liquid stream that is injected into the operator's own injection well. Smaller quantities of NORM are disposed of through burial in landfills, encapsulation inside the casing of wells that are being plugged and abandoned, or land spreading. It is difficult to quantify the total cost for disposing of NORM waste. The cost components that must be considered, in addition to the cost of the operation, include analytical costs, transportation costs, container decontamination costs, permitting costs, and long-term liability costs. Current NORM waste disposal costs range from $15/bbl to $420/bbl.

Veil, J. A.

1998-10-22

390

Solid waste disposal options: an optimum disposal model for the management of municipal solid waste  

E-print Network

leachate collection and treatment systems, gas collection systems, double liners, groundwater and air monitoring sys- tems. Long term post-closure care is required as part of landfill designs. ' Q~mg~in Composting is the biological degradation... is that waste remaining after composting is largely inert. Most of the soluble components were removed and the compost is less likely 15 to produce environmentally hazardous leachate when landfilled. " Smaller incinerators are required when used...

Haney, Brenda Ann

2012-06-07

391

Hazardous waste incineration emissions in perspective.  

PubMed

There has been increasing concern over the stack emissions of toxic substances from hazardous waste incinerators, and with improved sampling and analytical technology, measurements are being made at lower and lower levels to support risk assessment and various types of decision-making. However, it is generally difficult to visualize these levels of emissions, which span many orders of magnitude. Data on stack emissions were compiled from various research and compliance testing programs, and representative examples of various types of emissions were plotted on a series of graphs that spans the entire range of concentrations that may be encountered. The result is an illustrative tool for communication as to what emissions from hazardous waste incinerators are actually like. PMID:11280989

Hinshaw, G D; Trenholm, A R

2001-01-01

392

Evaluating the quality and effectiveness of hazardous waste training programs  

SciTech Connect

An installation`s compliance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste regulations is strongly dependent on the knowledge, skill, and behavior of all individuals involved in the generation and management of hazardous waste. Recognizing this, Headquarters Air Force Materiel Command (HQ/AFMC) determined that an in-depth evaluation of hazardous waste training programs at each AFMC installation was an appropriate element in assessing the overall effectiveness of installation hazardous waste management programs in preventing noncompliant conditions. Consequently, pursuant to its authority under Air Force Instruction (AFI) 32-7042, Solid and Hazardous Waste Compliance (May 12, 1994) to support and maintain hazardous waste training, HQ/AFMC directed Argonne National Laboratory to undertake the Hazardous Waste Training Initiative. This paper summarizes the methodology employed in performing the evaluation and presents the initiative`s salient conclusions.

Kolpa, R.L.; Haffenden, R.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Weaver, M.A. [Headquarters Air Force Materiel Command, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH (United States)

1996-05-01

393

DESTRUCTION OF HAZARDOUS WASTES COFIRED IN INDUSTRIAL BOILERS: PILOT-SCALE PARAMETRICS TESTING  

EPA Science Inventory

Thermal destruction of wastes by direct incineration or by cofiring with conventional fuels in boilers, furnaces, or kilns is one of the most effective methods currently available for disposal of hazardous organic material. However, more information is needed on the potential for...

394

ASSESSING THE GEOCHEMICAL FATE OF DEEP-WELL-INJECTED HAZARDOUS WASTE: RECENT RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

This is the second volume of a two-volume handbook which has been developed for use as a reference tool in evaluating the suitability of disposing of specific hazardous wastes in deep injection wells. his volume contains summaries of recent research. sers of this handbook will ge...

395

CARBON MONOXIDE AND TOTAL HYDROCARBON CONTINUOUS MONITORING AT HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION FACILITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Incineration is being viewed increasingly as the most practical, least harmful means of disposing of hazardous waste. he EPA has recently proposed continuous monitoring specifications and regulatory requirements which expand those established in 40 CFR Part 264, Subpart 0, and th...

396

The Hybrid Treatment Process for mixed radioactive and hazardous waste treatment  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a new process for treating mixed hazardous and radioactive waste, commonly called mixed waste. The process is called the Hybrid Treatment Process (HTP), so named because it is built on the 20 years of experience with vitrification of wastes in melters, and the 12 years of experience with treatment of wastes by the in situ vitrification (ISV) process. It also uses techniques from several additional technologies. Mixed wastes are being generated by both the US Department of Energy (DOE) and by commercial sources. The wastes are those that contain both a hazardous waste regulated under the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Resource, Conservation, and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations and a radioactive waste with source, special nuclear, or byproduct materials. The dual regulation of the wastes increases the complexity of the treatment, handling, and storage of the waste. The DOE is the largest holder and generator of mixed waste. Its mixed wastes are classified as either high-level, transuranic (TRU), or low-level waste (LLW). High-level mixed wastes will be treated in vitrification plants. Transuranic wastes may be disposed of without treatment by obtaining a no-migration variance from the EPA. Lowlevel wastes, however, will require treatment, but treatment systems with sufficient capacity are not yet available to DOE. Various facilities are being proposed for the treatment of low-level waste. The concept described in this paper represents one option for establishing that treatment capacity.

Ross, W.A.; Kindle, C.H.

1992-06-01

397

The Hybrid Treatment Process for mixed radioactive and hazardous waste treatment  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a new process for treating mixed hazardous and radioactive waste, commonly called mixed waste. The process is called the Hybrid Treatment Process (HTP), so named because it is built on the 20 years of experience with vitrification of wastes in melters, and the 12 years of experience with treatment of wastes by the in situ vitrification (ISV) process. It also uses techniques from several additional technologies. Mixed wastes are being generated by both the US Department of Energy (DOE) and by commercial sources. The wastes are those that contain both a hazardous waste regulated under the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Resource, Conservation, and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations and a radioactive waste with source, special nuclear, or byproduct materials. The dual regulation of the wastes increases the complexity of the treatment, handling, and storage of the waste. The DOE is the largest holder and generator of mixed waste. Its mixed wastes are classified as either high-level, transuranic (TRU), or low-level waste (LLW). High-level mixed wastes will be treated in vitrification plants. Transuranic wastes may be disposed of without treatment by obtaining a no-migration variance from the EPA. Lowlevel wastes, however, will require treatment, but treatment systems with sufficient capacity are not yet available to DOE. Various facilities are being proposed for the treatment of low-level waste. The concept described in this paper represents one option for establishing that treatment capacity.

Ross, W.A.; Kindle, C.H.

1992-06-01

398

Management of household and small-quantity-generator hazardous waste in the United States  

SciTech Connect

The International Solid Waste and Public Cleansing Association (ISWA), an international nongovernmental organization comprising twenty-seven national organizations of waste management professionals, conducted a survey to obtain information regarding household and small-quantity-generator hazardous wastes. The report presents the U.S. response to the survey. The questionnaire covered five different areas: (1) problems, (2) policy approach, (3) technical and organizational aspects, (4) case studies, and (5) treatment and disposal research and development. Comments were also invited. The appendices include the ISWA Questionnaire, a table and other information regarding State laws and regulations governing household hazardous waste, and a listing of the permanent household hazardous waste collection programs operating in 1988.

Duxbury, D.

1989-12-01

399

Assessment of hazardous wastes for genotoxicity  

SciTech Connect

The authors have evaluated a group of short-term bioassays to identify those that may be suitable for screening large numbers of diverse hazardous industrial wastes for genotoxicity. Fifteen wastes (and dichloromethane extracts of these wastes) from a variety of manufacturing processes were tested for mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 with and without Aroclor 1254-induced rat-liver S9. Ten of these wastes were fed by gavage to F-344 male rats, and the raw urines were assayed for mutagenicity in the presence of beta-glucuronidase in strain TA98 with S9. Six of these urines were extracted by C18/methanol elution, incubated with beta-glucuronidase, and evaluated in strain TA98 with S9 and beta-glucuronidase. Fourteen of the wastes were examined for their ability to induce prophage lambda in Escherichia coli in a microsuspension assay. A second set of wastes, consisting of four industrial wastes, were evaluated in Salmonella and in a series of mammalian cell assays to measure mutagenicity, cytogenetic effects, and transformation.

DeMarini, D.M.; Houk, V.S.

1987-09-01

400

Evaluation program effectiveness of household hazardous waste collection: The Seattle-King County experience  

SciTech Connect

The Seattle-King County Hazardous Waste Management Plan provides the framework for an intensive effort to keep Household Hazardous and Small Quantity Generator (SQG) wastes from entering the ``normal`` municipal waste streams. The Plan sets ambitious goals for diverting thousands of tons of hazardous wastes from being thrown, poured or dumped in the municipal waste stream. During the first five years, over $30 millon will be spent for a variety of HHW and SQG programs. The Plan incorporates a wide range of elements, including education, collection, and compliance components. Many of the hazardous waste education and collection programs have been developed in response to the Plan, so their effectiveness is still undetermined. A key component of the Plan is program evaluation. This report provides descriptions of two evaluation methods used to establish baselines for assessing the effectiveness of the Hazardous Waste Management Plan`s programs. Focusing on the Plan`s household hazardous waste programs, the findings of the baseline evaluations are discussed and conclusions are made. A general population survey, conducted through telephone interviews, was designed to assess changes in knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of area residents. Characterization of the solid waste stream was used to identify the hazardous constituents contributed to municipal solid waste by households. Monitoring changes in the amount of hazardous materials present in the waste stream was used to indicate whether or not Program strategies are influencing disposal behaviors. Comparing the data gathered by these two evaluation methods provided a unique opportunity to cross-check the findings and validate that change, if any, has occurred. From the comparisons, the report draws a number of conclusions.

Not Available

1991-10-01

401

Evaluation program effectiveness of household hazardous waste collection: The Seattle-King County experience  

SciTech Connect

The Seattle-King County Hazardous Waste Management Plan provides the framework for an intensive effort to keep Household Hazardous and Small Quantity Generator (SQG) wastes from entering the normal'' municipal waste streams. The Plan sets ambitious goals for diverting thousands of tons of hazardous wastes from being thrown, poured or dumped in the municipal waste stream. During the first five years, over $30 millon will be spent for a variety of HHW and SQG programs. The Plan incorporates a wide range of elements, including education, collection, and compliance components. Many of the hazardous waste education and collection programs have been developed in response to the Plan, so their effectiveness is still undetermined. A key component of the Plan is program evaluation. This report provides descriptions of two evaluation methods used to establish baselines for assessing the effectiveness of the Hazardous Waste Management Plan's programs. Focusing on the Plan's household hazardous waste programs, the findings of the baseline evaluations are discussed and conclusions are made. A general population survey, conducted through telephone interviews, was designed to assess changes in knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of area residents. Characterization of the solid waste stream was used to identify the hazardous constituents contributed to municipal solid waste by households. Monitoring changes in the amount of hazardous materials present in the waste stream was used to indicate whether or not Program strategies are influencing disposal behaviors. Comparing the data gathered by these two evaluation methods provided a unique opportunity to cross-check the findings and validate that change, if any, has occurred. From the comparisons, the report draws a number of conclusions.

Not Available

1991-10-01

402

DISPOSAL OF LIQUID WASTES AT THE KNOLLS ATOMIC POWER LABORATORY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The liquid wastes at KAPL are separated into two categories, regulated ; and unregulated effluent. Section 1 is devoted to the source, treatment, and ; subsequent discharge of the unregulated or nonradioactive effluent. Section 11 ; presents the source, processing, and ultimate disposal of radioactive wastes ; together with a summary of the radioactivity content of all liquid wastes ;

M. M. Cohn; L. L. German; C. N. Perleberg

1951-01-01

403

Immobilized low-level waste disposal options configuration study  

SciTech Connect

This report compiles information that supports the eventual conceptual and definitive design of a disposal facility for immobilized low-level waste. The report includes the results of a joint Westinghouse/Fluor Daniel Inc. evaluation of trade-offs for glass manufacturing and product (waste form) disposal. Though recommendations for the preferred manufacturing and disposal option for low-level waste are outside the scope of this document, relative ranking as applied to facility complexity, safety, remote operation concepts and ease of retrieval are addressed.

Mitchell, D.E.

1995-02-01

404

Uranium waste disposal at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site generates waste containing depleted, natural, and enriched uranium residue. The past and current practice for disposal of this waste at the Savannah River Site have been assessed using radionuclide pathway analysis to estimate environmental impact of closure alternatives for existing disposal sites, and to assist in the development of improved disposal facilities in the near future. This paper outlines the status of uranium waste management technology as currently practiced to maintain the environmental impact within an acceptable limit at the Savannah River Site, and indicates those steps being taken to improve future operations.

Cook, J.R.; McDonell, W.R.; Wilhite, E.L.

1990-12-31

405

Uranium waste disposal at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site generates waste containing depleted, natural, and enriched uranium residue. The past and current practice for disposal of this waste at the Savannah River Site have been assessed using radionuclide pathway analysis to estimate environmental impact of closure alternatives for existing disposal sites, and to assist in the development of improved disposal facilities in the near future. This paper outlines the status of uranium waste management technology as currently practiced to maintain the environmental impact within an acceptable limit at the Savannah River Site, and indicates those steps being taken to improve future operations.

Cook, J.R.; McDonell, W.R.; Wilhite, E.L.

1990-01-01

406

Transboundary hazardous waste management. Part I: Waste management policy of importing countries.  

PubMed

Mixed metal-containing waste, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) containing capacitors, printed circuit boards, steel mill dust and metal sludge were among the most common wastes exported from Taiwan. Before the implementation of the self-monitoring model programme of the Basel Convention (secretariat of the Basel Convention 2001) in the Asia region, Taiwan conducted a comprehensive 4-year follow-up project involving government authorities and the waste disposal facilities of the importing countries. A total of five countries and nine plants were visited in 2001-2002. The following outcomes can be drawn from these investigations. The Chinese government adopts the strategies of 'on-site processing' and 'relative centralization' on the waste management by tightening permitting and increasing site inspection. A three-level reviewing system is adopted for the import application. The United States have not signed the Basel Convention yet; the procedures of hazardous waste import rely on bilateral agreements. Importers are not required to provide official notification from the waste exporting countries. The operation, administration, monitoring and licensing of waste treatment plants are governed by the state environmental bureau. Finland, France and Belgium are members of the European Union. The procedures and policies of waste import are similar. All of the documents associated with transboundary movement require the approval of each government involved. Practically, the notification forms and tracking forms effectively manage the waste movement. PMID:16379119

Fan, Kuo-Shuh; Chang, Tien Chin; Ni, Shih-Piao; Lee, Ching-Hwa

2005-12-01

407

PROHIBITION AGAINST THE DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES TO THE SANITARY SEWER  

E-print Network

PROHIBITION AGAINST THE DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES TO THE SANITARY SEWER Please be aware that at Berkeley Lab, pouring hazardous substances down sink drains is strictly prohibited. Hazardous substances from the East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD) puts strict limits on the substances that we can

Knowles, David William

408

FUNDING ALTERNATIVES FOR LOW-LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL  

SciTech Connect

For 13 years, low-level waste (LLW) generator fees and disposal volumes for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) had been on a veritable roller coaster ride. As forecast volumes and disposal volumes fluctuated wildly, generator fees were difficult to determine and implement. Fiscal Year (FY) 2000 forecast projections were so low, the very existence of disposal operations at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) were threatened. Providing the DOE Complex with a viable, cost-effective disposal option, while assuring the disposal site a stable source of funding, became the driving force behind the development of the Waste Generator Access Fee at the NTS. On September 26, 2000, NNSA/NV (after seeking input from DOE/Headquarters [HQ]), granted permission to Bechtel Nevada (BN) to implement the Access Fee for FY 2001 as a two-year Pilot Program. In FY 2001 (the first year the Access Fee was implemented), the NTS Disposal Operations experienced a 90 percent increase in waste receipts from the previous year and a 33 percent reduction in disposal fee charged to the waste generators. Waste receipts for FY 2002 were projected to be 63 percent higher than FY 2001 and 15 percent lower in cost. Forecast data for the outyears are just as promising. This paper describes the development, implementation, and ultimate success of this fee strategy.

Becker, Bruce D.; Carilli, Jhon

2003-02-27

409

Effects of waste content of glass waste forms on Savannah River high-level waste disposal costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of the waste content of glass waste forms of Savannah River high-level waste disposal costs are evaluated by their impact on the number of waste canisters produced. Changes in waste content affect onsite Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) costs as well as offsite shipping and repository emplacement charges. A nominal 1% increase over the 28 wt % waste loading

W. R. McDonell; C. M. Jantzen

1985-01-01

410

Radioactive high level waste insight modelling for geological disposal facilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within this paper we present a simplified analytical model to provide insight into the key performance measures of a generic disposal system for high level waste within a geological disposal facility. The model assumes a low solubility waste matrix within a corrosion resistant disposal container surrounded by a low permeability buffer. Radionuclides migrate from the disposal area through a porous geosphere to the biosphere and give a radiological dose to a receptor. The system of equations describing the migration is transformed into Laplace space and an approximation used to determine peak values for the radionuclide mass transfer rate entering the biosphere. Results from the model are compared with those from more detailed numerical models for key radionuclides in the UK high level waste inventory. Such an insight model can provide a valuable second line of argument to assist in confirming the results of more detailed models and build confidence in the safety case for a geological disposal facility.

Carter, Alexander; Kelly, Martin; Bailey, Lucy

411

Influence of animal waste disposal pits on groundwater quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the implementation of the Law on Promoting Proper Management and Use of Livestock Excreta in 1999, the number of the farmers that do not meet the management criteria is on the decline. However, there is a possibility that many of the animal waste disposal pits that have been either abandoned or refilled according to the law have been the potential contamination source. In this study, we discussed the impacts of the abandoned disposal pits to groundwater quality. The results showed that high concentrations of nitrate (above 100mg/L) were observed in the downstream of the disposal pits. It suggests that the abandoned animal waste disposal pits have been the potential pollution source even after the period of 15 years since the termination of use. Implementation of immediate countermeasure is necessary because the animal waste disposal pits are the long-term-sources of high levels of nitrate.

Lee, Seongwon; Hosaka, Akiko; Tase, Norio

412

CONVECTIVE-DISPERSIVE TRANSPORT MODEL FOR WASTES DISPOSED AT THE 106-MILE OCEAN DISPOSAL SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

A two-dimensional, convective-dispersive transport model was used to predict bounds on the expected long-term time-averaged dilutions for wastes disposed of at the 106-Mile Ocean Disposal Site (between 38 degrees 40' and 39 degrees 00'N, and 72 degrees 00' and 72 degrees 30'W). o...

413

Silicon polymer encapsulation of high level calcine waste for transportation or disposal  

SciTech Connect

Engineers at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are investigating the use of a proprietary silicon-polymer to encapsulate high-level calcine waste stored at the INEEL's Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC). The silicon-polymer-encapsulated waste may be suitable for direct disposal at a radioactive waste disposal facility or for transport to an offsite melter for further processing. In connection with silicon-polymer encapsulation, the University of Akron, under special arrangement with Orbit Technologies, the originator of the Polymer Encapsulation Technology (PET), has studied a simulated waste material from INTEC called pilot-scale calcine that contains hazardous materials but no radioactive isotopes. In this study, Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and Materials Characterization Center Test 1P were performed to test the waste form for disposal. In addition, a maximum waste loading was established for transporting the calcine waste at INTEC to an offsite melter. For this maximum waste loading, compressive strength testing, 10-m drop testing, melt testing, and a Department of Transportation (DOT) oxidizer test were performed.

G. G. Loomis

2000-02-27

414

Silicon Polymer Encapsulation of High Level Calcine Waste for Transportation or Disposal  

SciTech Connect

Engineers at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are investigating the use of a proprietary silicon-polymer to encapsulate high-level calcine waste stored at the INEEL's Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC). The silicon-polymer-encapsulated waste may be suitable for direct disposal at a radioactive waste disposal facility or for transport to an offsite melter for further processing. In connection with silicon-polymer encapsulation, the University of Akron, under special arrangement with Orbit Technologies, the originator of the Polymer Encapsulation Technology (PET), has studied a simulated waste material from INTEC called pilot-scale calcine that contains hazardous materials but no radioactive isotopes. In this study, Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and Materials Characterization Center Test 1P were performed to test the waste form for disposal. In addition, a maximum waste loading was established for transporting the calcine waste at INTEC to an offsite melter. For this maximum waste loading, compressive strength testing, 10-m drop testing, melt testing, and a Department of Transportation (DOT) oxidizer test were performed.

Loomis, Guy George; Miller, Carla Jean; Kimmel, Richard John

2000-03-01

415

Who regulates the disposal of low-level radioactive waste under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present existence of immense quantities of low-level nuclear waste, a federal law providing for state or regional control of such waste disposal, and a number of state disposal laws challenged on a variety of constitutional grounds underscore what currently may be the most serious problem in nuclear waste disposal: who is to regulate the disposal of low-level nuclear wastes.

Mostaghel

1988-01-01

416

Medical aspects of the hazardous waste problem  

SciTech Connect

Although no one knows exactly how much toxic material continues to be released into our environment, most observers believe the amount is substantial. In the last few years, in the state of Massachusetts alone, 22 communities have had their municipal water supplies seriously compromised by chemical contamination, causing alarm and dismay among water users. Nation-wide, public concern has reached the point that in some opinion polls, hazardous waste ranks second only behind inflation as a cause of serious worry. Despite widespread anxiety, shared by public health officials, few studies have shown conclusive evidence of health consequences from toxic materials in the environment. Even in the case of such gross contamination as in the Love Canal area of Niagara Falls, New York, health effects have been difficult to establish. This is partly due to intrusion of the adversary process in cases where liability is involved; it is also a result, however, of inherent technical problems that plague any determination of health hazard. This paper reviews some of these problems, considers some current risk assessment approaches, and touches on medicolegal and regulatory aspects of the hazardous waste problem.

Ozonoff, D.

1982-12-01

417

Canister design for deep borehole disposal of nuclear waste  

E-print Network

The objective of this thesis was to design a canister for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and other high-level waste in deep borehole repositories using currently available and proven oil, gas, and geothermal drilling ...

Hoag, Christopher Ian

2006-01-01

418

49 CFR 228.327 - Waste collection and disposal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... HOURS OF SERVICE OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES; RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING; SLEEPING QUARTERS Safety and Health Requirements for Camp Cars Provided by Railroads as Sleeping Quarters 228.327 Waste collection and disposal. (a)...

2012-10-01

419

49 CFR 228.327 - Waste collection and disposal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... HOURS OF SERVICE OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES; RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING; SLEEPING QUARTERS Safety and Health Requirements for Camp Cars Provided by Railroads as Sleeping Quarters 228.327 Waste collection and disposal. (a)...

2013-10-01

420

Grouting as a waste immobilization/disposal method  

SciTech Connect

Many options are available today for the immobilization and disposal of wastes that contain environmentally harmful materials. The option chosen depends upon the type of waste, regulatory requirements, and economics of process. Some options are specific to a given waste type; others are more versatile. This presentation discusses a very versatile option for waste immobilization/disposal - grouting. Many types of grout are available, such as chemical, clays or other particulates, fly ash, cements, or a combination of these. This presentation discusses the application of a variety of cement-based grouting techniques available for disposal of environmentally harmful materials. Areas discussed are in situ grouting of pits, ponds and lagoons, grouting as remedial action, and fixation for disposal in burial trenches or vaults. 6 refs.

McDaniel, E.W.

1987-01-01

421

21 CFR 1250.75 - Disposal of human wastes.  

...CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION INTERSTATE CONVEYANCE SANITATION Servicing Areas for Land and Air Conveyances 1250.75 Disposal of human wastes. (a) At servicing areas...

2014-04-01

422

Health Hazard Evaluation Report HETA 83-326-1535, Liquid Disposal Incorporated, Shelby Township, Michigan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An evaluation of possible health effects among firefighters (SIC-9224) in Shelby Township, Michigan, following a fire at Liquid Disposal Incorporated (a storage facility for waste oils, volatile, and semivolatile wastes) was conducted in July, 1983. The e...

K. E. Anderson

1984-01-01

423

Nuclear fuel waste disposal - status of the Canadian program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canada has sufficient uranium reserves to fuel its nuclear power program well into the next century. To ensure a long-term future, the prospects of using the thorium cycle in Canada's reactors are being examined. Pending a decision on fuel recycling, two options for the management of nuclear fuel wastes are being studied: disposal of intact used fuel bundles or disposal

E. L. J. Rosinger; T. E. Rummery

1981-01-01

424

Recent international developments in low-level waste disposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent international developments in low-level waste (LLW) disposal have included a move away from ocean dumping and a trend towards engineered and deeper dispoosal. Siting efforts have accelerated as interim storage facilities and existing sites reach capacity. The suspension of ocean dumping by the London Dumping Conventions of 1983 and 1985 has affected the LLW disposal practices of several countries,

S. J. Mitchell; L. T. Lakey; K. M. Harmon

1986-01-01

425

Waste disposal technology transfer matching requirement clusters for waste disposal facilities in China  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We outline the differences of Chinese MSW characteristics from Western MSW. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model the requirements of four clusters of plant owner/operators in China. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine the best technology fit for these requirements via a matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Variance in waste input affects result more than training and costs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For China technology adaptation and localisation could become push, not pull factors. - Abstract: Even though technology transfer has been part of development aid programmes for many decades, it has more often than not failed to come to fruition. One reason is the absence of simple guidelines or decision making tools that help operators or plant owners to decide on the most suitable technology to adopt. Practical suggestions for choosing the most suitable technology to combat a specific problem are hard to get and technology drawbacks are not sufficiently highlighted. Western counterparts in technology transfer or development projects often underestimate or don't sufficiently account for the high investment costs for the imported incineration plant; the differing nature of Chinese MSW; the need for trained manpower; and the need to treat flue gas, bunker leakage water, and ash, all of which contain highly toxic elements. This article sets out requirements for municipal solid waste disposal plant owner/operators in China as well as giving an attribute assessment for the prevalent waste disposal plant types in order to assist individual decision makers in their evaluation process for what plant type might be most suitable in a given situation. There is no 'best' plant for all needs and purposes, and requirement constellations rely on generalisations meaning they cannot be blindly applied, but an alignment of a type of plant to a type of owner or operator can realistically be achieved. To this end, a four-step approach is suggested and a technology matrix is set out to ease the choice of technology to transfer and avoid past errors. The four steps are (1) Identification of plant owner/operator requirement clusters; (2) Determination of different municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment plant attributes; (3) Development of a matrix matching requirement clusters to plant attributes; (4) Application of Quality Function Deployment Method to aid in technology localisation. The technology transfer matrices thus derived show significant performance differences between the various technologies available. It is hoped that the resulting research can build a bridge between technology transfer research and waste disposal research in order to enhance the exchange of more sustainable solutions in future.

Dorn, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.dorn@uni-rostock.de [University of Rostock, Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Department Waste Management, Justus-v.-Liebig-Weg 6, 18059 Rostock (Germany); Nelles, Michael, E-mail: michael.nelles@uni-rostock.de [University of Rostock, Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Department Waste Management, Justus-v.-Liebig-Weg 6, 18059 Rostock (Germany); Flamme, Sabine, E-mail: flamme@fh-muenster.de [University of Applied Sciences Muenster, Corrensstrasse 25, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Jinming, Cai [Hefei University of Technology, 193 Tunxi Road, 230009 Hefei (China)

2012-11-15

426

Toxic-Waste Disposal by Combustion in Containers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemical wastes burned with minimal handling in storage containers. Technique for disposing of chemical munitions by burning them inside shells applies to disposal of toxic materials stored in drums. Fast, economical procedure overcomes heat-transfer limitations of conventional furnace designs by providing direct contact of oxygenrich combustion gases with toxic agent. No need to handle waste material, and container also decontaminated in process. Oxygen-rich torch flame cuts burster well and causes vaporization and combustion of toxic agent contained in shell.

Houseman, J.; Stephens, J. B.; Moynihan, P. I.; Compton, L. E.; Kalvinskas, J. J.

1986-01-01

427

7 CFR 319.8-24 - Collection and disposal of waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Collection and disposal of waste. 319.8-24...319.8-24 Collection and disposal of waste. (a) Importers...the inspector. (c) All costs incident to such collection, disposal, and cleaning other...

2010-01-01

428

7 CFR 319.8-24 - Collection and disposal of waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Collection and disposal of waste. 319.8-24...319.8-24 Collection and disposal of waste. (a) Importers...the inspector. (c) All costs incident to such collection, disposal, and cleaning other...

2013-01-01

429

7 CFR 319.8-24 - Collection and disposal of waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Collection and disposal of waste. 319.8-24...319.8-24 Collection and disposal of waste. (a) Importers...the inspector. (c) All costs incident to such collection, disposal, and cleaning other...

2011-01-01

430

7 CFR 319.8-24 - Collection and disposal of waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Collection and disposal of waste. 319.8-24...319.8-24 Collection and disposal of waste. (a) Importers...the inspector. (c) All costs incident to such collection, disposal, and cleaning other...

2012-01-01

431

40 CFR 761.63 - PCB household waste storage and disposal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false PCB household waste storage and disposal. 761.63 Section 761...DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal 761.63 PCB household waste storage and disposal. PCB household...

2010-07-01

432

Assessment of hazardous air pollutants from disposal of munitions in a prototype fluidized bed incinerator.  

PubMed

As part of the control technology development for the disposal of waste munitions, an assessment of potential emissions of hazardous air pollutants from a prototype fluidized bed incinerator was conducted. Assessment program elements included identification of potentially toxic emissions through material input analysis and computer simulation modeling of the combustion cycle; development of emission limitations criteria for substances having no present air pollution emission standards; evaluation and development of analytical procedures; and design of a sampling system to condition an emission stream characterized by high temperature and humidity resulting from burning water slurries of explosive materials. Emphasis is placed on the potential emission of nickel and its compounds, particulate and vapor emissions of cyanides, nitrogen oxides, and TNT and RDX energetic residuals. PMID:495446

Carroll, J W; Guinivan, T L; Tuggle, R M; Williams, K E; Lillian, D L

1979-02-01

433

Characterizing soils for hazardous waste site assessments.  

PubMed

This paper provides a review and justification of the minimum data needed to characterize soils for hazardous waste site assessments and to comply with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Scientists and managers within the regulatory agency and the liable party need to know what are the important soil characteristics needed to make decisions about risk assessment, what areas need remediation and what remediation options are available. If all parties involved in characterizing a hazardous waste site can agree on the required soils data set prior to starting a site investigation, data can be collected in a more efficient and less costly manner. Having the proper data will aid in reaching decisions on how to address concerns at, and close-out, hazardous waste sites.This paper was prepared to address two specific concerns related to soil characterization for CERCLA remedial response. The first concern is the applicability of traditional soil classification methods to CERCLA soil characterization. The second is the identification of soil characterization data type required for CERCLA risk assessment and analysis of remedial alternatives. These concerns are related, in that the Data Quality Objective (DQO) process addresses both. The DQO process was developed in part to assist CERCLA decision-makers in identifying the data types, data quality, and data quantity required to support decisions that must be made during the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process. Data Quality Objectives for Remedial Response Activities: Development Process (US EPA, 1987a) is a guidebook on developing DQOs. This process as it relates to CERCLA soil characterization is discussed in the Data Quality Objective Section of this paper. PMID:24213742

Breckenridge, R P; Keck, J F; Williams, J R

1994-04-01

434

Decision document for function 4.2.4 dispose waste  

SciTech Connect

This report formally documents the planning assumptions for Function 4.2.4, {ital Dispose Waste} to provide a basis for lower level Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Disposal Program decisions and analyses. The TWRS Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS 1996) and a supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for closure of operable units will provide the ultimate Records of Decision for the TWRS strategy at this level. However, in the interim, this decision document provides a formal basis for the TWRS Dispose Waste planning assumptions. Function 4.2.4 addresses the disposition of immobilized high-level waste (IHLW), the disposition of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW), and closure of the tank farm operable units.

Mcconville, C.M.

1996-09-23

435

Decision document for function 4.2.4 dispose waste  

SciTech Connect

This report formally documents the planning assumptions for Function 4.2.4, Dispose Waste, to provide a basis for lower level Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Disposal Program decisions and analyses. The TWRS Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS 1996) and a supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for closure of operable units will provide the ultimate Records of Decision for the TWRS strategy at this level. However, in the interim, this decision document provides a formal basis for the TWRS Dispose Waste planning assumptions. Function 4.2.4 addresses the disposition of immobilized high-level waste (IHLW), the disposition of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW), and closure of the tank farm operable units.

Claghorn, R.D.

1996-09-23

436

10 CFR 20.2008 - Disposal of certain byproduct material.  

...PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Waste Disposal 20.2008 Disposal...even though it is not defined as low-level radioactive waste. Therefore, any licensed...Federal or State solid or hazardous waste law, including the Solid...

2014-01-01

437

10 CFR 20.2008 - Disposal of certain byproduct material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Waste Disposal 20.2008 Disposal...even though it is not defined as low-level radioactive waste. Therefore, any licensed...Federal or State solid or hazardous waste law, including the Solid...

2013-01-01

438

10 CFR 20.2008 - Disposal of certain byproduct material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Waste Disposal 20.2008 Disposal...even though it is not defined as low-level radioactive waste. Therefore, any licensed...Federal or State solid or hazardous waste law, including the Solid...

2012-01-01

439

10 CFR 20.2008 - Disposal of certain byproduct material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Waste Disposal 20.2008 Disposal...even though it is not defined as low-level radioactive waste. Therefore, any licensed...Federal or State solid or hazardous waste law, including the Solid...

2011-01-01

440

10 CFR 20.2008 - Disposal of certain byproduct material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Waste Disposal 20.2008 Disposal...even though it is not defined as low-level radioactive waste. Therefore, any licensed...Federal or State solid or hazardous waste law, including the Solid...

2010-01-01

441

Fire hazard analysis of the radioactive mixed waste trenchs  

SciTech Connect

This Fire Hazards Analysis (FHA) is intended to assess comprehensively the risk from fire associated with the disposal of low level radioactive mixed waste in trenches within the lined landfills, provided by Project W-025, designated Trench 31 and 34 of the Burial Ground 218-W-5. Elements within the FHA make recommendations for minimizing risk to workers, the public, and the environment from fire during the course of the operation`s activity. Transient flammables and combustibles present that support the operation`s activity are considered and included in the analysis. The graded FHA contains the following elements: description of construction, protection of essential safety class equipment, fire protection features, description of fire hazards, life safety considerations, critical process equipment, high value property, damage potential--maximum credible fire loss (MCFL) and maximum possible fire loss (MPFL), fire department/brigade response, recovery potential, potential for a toxic, biological and/or radiation incident due to a fire, emergency planning, security considerations related to fire protection, natural hazards (earthquake, flood, wind) impact on fire safety, and exposure fire potential, including the potential for fire spread between fire areas. Recommendations for limiting risk are made in the text of this report and printed in bold type. All recommendations are repeated in a list in Section 18.0.

McDonald, K.M. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-04-27

442

The Australian Waste Database : An Information Management System for Regional Solid and Hazardous Waste Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Australian Waste Database (AWD) has been established by the CRC for Waste Management & Pollution Control Ltd for Environment Australia. It compiles information on urban solid waste and manifested hazardous waste generation, in accordance with uniform national classification systems. This paper analyses trends in manifested hazardous waste generation; and presents an analysis of changes in amounts of urban solid

S J Moore; J Marquez; S-Y Tu

443

41 CFR 102-75.340 - Where hazardous substance activity has been identified on property proposed for disposal, what...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Where hazardous substance activity has been identified on property...Disposal Provisions Relating to Hazardous Substance Activity 102-75.340 Where hazardous substance activity has been identified on...

2012-01-01

444

41 CFR 102-75.340 - Where hazardous substance activity has been identified on property proposed for disposal, what...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Where hazardous substance activity has been identified on property...Disposal Provisions Relating to Hazardous Substance Activity 102-75.340 Where hazardous substance activity has been identified on...

2011-01-01

445

41 CFR 102-75.340 - Where hazardous substance activity has been identified on property proposed for disposal, what...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Where hazardous substance activity has been identified on property...Disposal Provisions Relating to Hazardous Substance Activity 102-75.340 Where hazardous substance activity has been identified on...

2013-07-01

446

41 CFR 102-75.340 - Where hazardous substance activity has been identified on property proposed for disposal, what...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Where hazardous substance activity has been identified on property...Disposal Provisions Relating to Hazardous Substance Activity 102-75.340 Where hazardous substance activity has been identified on...

2010-07-01

447

PROBABILISTIC RISK ANALYSIS OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSALS - a case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The storage of contaminant material in superficial or sub-superficial repositories, such as tailing piles for mine waste or disposal sites for low and intermediate nuclear waste, poses a potential threat for the surrounding biosphere. The minimization of these risks can be achieved by supporting decision-makers with quantitative tools capable to incorporate all source of uncertainty within a rigorous probabilistic framework. A case study is presented where we assess the risks associated to the superficial storage of hazardous waste close to a populated area. The intrinsic complexity of the problem, involving many events with different spatial and time scales and many uncertainty parameters is overcome by using a formal PRA (probabilistic risk assessment) procedure that allows decomposing the system into a number of key events. Hence, the failure of the system is directly linked to the potential contamination of one of the three main receptors: the underlying karst aquifer, a superficial stream that flows near the storage piles and a protection area surrounding a number of wells used for water supply. The minimal cut sets leading to the failure of the system are obtained by defining a fault-tree that incorporates different events including the failure of the engineered system (e.g. cover of the piles) and the failure of the geological barrier (e.g. clay layer that separates the bottom of the pile from the karst formation). Finally the probability of failure is quantitatively assessed combining individual independent or conditional probabilities that are computed numerically or borrowed from reliability database.

Trinchero, P.; Delos, A.; Tartakovsky, D. M.; Fernandez-Garcia, D.; Bolster, D.; Dentz, M.; Sanchez-Vila, X.; Molinero, J.

2009-12-01

448

Safety aspects of nuclear waste disposal in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Safety issues involved in the disposal of nuclear wastes in space as a complement to mined geologic repositories are examined as part of an assessment of the feasibility of nuclear waste disposal in space. General safety guidelines for space disposal developed in the areas of radiation exposure and shielding, containment, accident environments, criticality, post-accident recovery, monitoring systems and isolation are presented for a nuclear waste disposal in space mission employing conventional space technology such as the Space Shuttle. The current reference concept under consideration by NASA and DOE is then examined in detail, with attention given to the waste source and mix, the waste form, waste processing and payload fabrication, shipping casks and ground transport vehicles, launch site operations and facilities, Shuttle-derived launch vehicle, orbit transfer vehicle, orbital operations and space destination, and the system safety aspects of the concept are discussed for each component. It is pointed out that future work remains in the development of an improved basis for the safety guidelines and the determination of the possible benefits and costs of the space disposal option for nuclear wastes.

Rice, E. E.; Edgecombe, D. S.; Compton, P. R.

1981-01-01

449

Silicon-Polymer Encapsulation of High-Level Calcine Waste for Transportation or Disposal  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of an experimental study investigating the potential uses for silicon-polymer encapsulation of High Level Calcine Waste currently stored within the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The study investigated two different applications of silicon polymer encapsulation. One application uses silicon polymer to produce a waste form suitable for disposal at a High Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility directly, and the other application encapsulates the calcine material for transportation to an offsite melter for further processing. A simulated waste material from INTEC, called pilot scale calcine, which contained hazardous materials but no radioactive isotopes was used for the study, which was performed at the University of Akron under special arrangement with Orbit Technologies, the originators of the silicon polymer process called Polymer Encapsulation Technology (PET). This document first discusses the PET process, followed by a presentation of past studies involving PET applications to waste problems. Next, the results of an experimental study are presented on encapsulation of the INTEC calcine waste as it applies to transportation or disposal of calcine waste. Results relating to long-term disposal include: (1) a characterization of the pilot calcine waste; (2) Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing of an optimum mixture of pilot calcine, polysiloxane and special additives; and, (3) Material Characterization Center testing MCC-1P evaluation of the optimum waste form. Results relating to transportation of the calcine material for a mixture of maximum waste loading include: compressive strength testing, 10-m drop test, melt testing, and a Department of Transportation (DOT) oxidizer test.

G. G. Loomis; C. M. Miller; J. A. Giansiracusa; R. Kimmel; S. V. Prewett

2000-01-01

450

Polysiloxane Encapsulation of High Level Calcine Waste for Transportation or Disposal  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of an experimental study investigating the potential uses for silicon-polymer encapsulation of High Level Calcine Waste currently stored within the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The study investigated two different applications of silicon polymer encapsulation. One application uses silicon polymer to produce a waste form suitable for disposal at a High Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility directly, and the other application encapsulates the calcine material for transportation to an offsite melter for further processing. A simulated waste material from INTEC, called pilot scale calcine, which contained hazardous materials but no radioactive isotopes was used for the study, which was performed at the University of Akron under special arrangement with Orbit Technologies, the originators of the silicon polymer process called Polymer Encapsulation Technology (PET). This document first discusses the PET process, followed by a presentation of past studies involving PET applications to waste problems. Next, the results of an experimental study are presented on encapsulation of the INTEC calcine waste as it applies to transportation or disposal of calcine waste. Results relating to long-term disposal include: 1) a characterization of the pilot calcine waste; 2) Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing of an optimum mixture of pilot calcine, polysiloxane and special additives; and, 3) Material Characterization Center testing MCC-1P evaluation of the optimum waste form. Results relating to transportation of the calcine material for a mixture of maximum waste loading include: compressive strength testing, 10-m drop test, melt testing, and a Department of Transportation (DOT) oxidizer test.

Loomis, Guy George

2000-03-01

451

Analysis of alternatives for immobilized low activity waste disposal  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a study of alternative disposal system architectures and implementation strategies to provide onsite near-surface disposal capacity to receive the immobilized low-activity waste produced by the private vendors. The analysis shows that a flexible unit strategy that provides a suite of design solutions tailored to the characteristics of the immobilized low-activity waste will provide a disposal system that best meets the program goals of reducing the environmental, health, and safety impacts; meeting the schedule milestones; and minimizing the life-cycle cost of the program.

Burbank, D.A.

1997-10-28

452

76 FR 4823 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identifying and Listing Hazardous Waste Exclusion  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SW-FRL-9259-1] Hazardous Waste Management System; Identifying...submitted by Owosso Graphic Arts Inc. (OGAI), in...review by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB...rules relating to agency management or personnel; and...Owosso Graphic Arts Inc..........

2011-01-27

453

CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SITE-GENERATED HAZAROUS NONHAZARDOUS & SANITARY WASTE DISPOSAL SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) site generated hazardous, non-hazardous and sanitary waste disposal system system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

J.A. Ziegler

1999-08-31

454

Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 137: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.:0  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information including facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 137: Waste Disposal Sites. This CAIP has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 137 contains sites that are located in Areas 1, 3, 7, 9, and 12 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 137 is comprised of the eight corrective action sites (CASs) shown on Figure 1-1 and listed below: (1) CAS 01-08-01, Waste Disposal Site; (2) CAS 03-23-01, Waste Disposal Site; (3) CAS 03-23-07, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (4) CAS 03-99-15, Waste Disposal Site; (5) CAS 07-23-02, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (6) CAS 09-23-07, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (7) CAS 12-08-01, Waste Disposal Site; and (8) CAS 12-23-07, Waste Disposal Site. The Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) will include field inspections, radiological surveys, geophysical surveys, sampling of environmental media, analysis of samples, and assessment of investigation results, where appropriate. Data will be obtained to support corrective action alternative evaluations and waste management decisions. The CASs in CAU 137 are being investigated because hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. Existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives for the CASs. Additional information will be generated by conducting a CAI before evaluating and selecting corrective action alternatives.

Wickline, Alfred

2005-12-01

455

Comparative assessment of disposal of TRU waste in a greater-confinement disposal facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reviewed previous work that established generic limits for shallow land burial of TRU contaminated wastes and extended previous methodology to estimate approximate appropriate burial limits for TRU wastes in an arid zone greater confinement disposal facility (GCDF). An erosion scenario provided the limiting pathway in the previous determination of generic shallow land burial limits. Erosion removed the cover

J. J. Cohn; C. F. Smith; F. J. Ciminesi; P. T. Dickman; D. A. ONeal

1982-01-01

456

Medications at School: Disposing of Pharmaceutical Waste  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This project quantified and categorized medications left unclaimed by students at the end of the school year. It determined the feasibility of a model medication disposal program and assessed school nurses' perceptions of environmentally responsible medication disposal. Methods: At a large urban school district all unclaimed

Taras, Howard; Haste, Nina M.; Berry, Angela T.; Tran, Jennifer; Singh, Renu F.

2014-01-01

457

Fire hazards analysis of transuranic waste storage and assay facility  

SciTech Connect

This document analyzes the fire hazards associated with operations at the Central Waste Complex. It provides the analysis and recommendations necessary to ensure compliance with applicable fire codes.

Busching, K.R., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-07-31

458

In-plant management of hazardous waste  

SciTech Connect

One of the earliest sustainable technologies for the management of hazardous industrial wastes, and one of the most successful, is {open_quotes}In-Plant Control{close_quotes} Waste elimination, reuse and/or minimization can encourage improved utilization of resources, decreased environmental degradation and increased profits at individual industrial product ion sites, or within an industry. For new facilities and industries, putting such programs in place is relatively easy. Experience has shown, however, that this may be more difficult to initiate in existing facilities, especially in older and heavier industries. This task can be made easier by promoting a mutually respectful partnership between production and environmental interests within the facility or industry. This permits {open_quotes}common sense{close_quotes} thinking and a cooperative, proactive strategy for securing an appropriate balance between economic growth, environmental protection and social responsibility. Case studies are presented wherein a phased, incremental in-plant system for waste management was developed and employed to good effect, using a model that entailed {open_quotes}Consciousness, Commitment, Training, Recognition, Re-engineering and Continuous Improvement{close_quotes} to promote waste minimization or elimination.

Hall, M.W.; Howell, W.L. Jr. [FAMU/FSU College of Engineering, Tallahassee, FL (United States); [Engelhard Corporation, Savannah, GA (United States)

1995-12-31

459

Subsurface disposal of liquid low-level radioactive wastes at Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) subsurface injection has been used to dispose of low-level liquid nuclear waste for the last two decades. The process consists of mixing liquid waste with cement and other additives to form a slurry that is injected under pressure through a cased well into a low-permeability shale at a depth of 300 m. The slurry spreads from the injection well along bedding plane fractures and forms solid grout sheets of up to 200 m in radius. Using this process, ORNL has disposed of over 1.5 x 10/sup 6/ Ci of activity; the principal nuclides are /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs. In 1982, a new injection facility was put into operation. Each injection, which lasts some two days, results in the emplacement of approximately 750,000 liters of slurry. Disposal cost per liter is about $0.30, including capital costs of the facility. This subsurface disposal process is fundamentally different from other operations. Wastes are injected into a low-permeability aquitard, and the process is designed to isolate nuclides, preventing dispersion in groundwaters. The porosity into which wastes are injected is created by hydraulically fracturing the host formation along bedding planes. Investigations are under way to determine the long-term hydrologic isolation of the injection zone and the geochemical impact of saline groundwater on nuclide mobility. Injections are monitored by gamma-ray logging of cased observation wells to determine grout sheet orientation after an injection. Recent monitoring work has involved the use of tiltmeters, surface uplift surveys, and seismic arrays. Recent regulatory constraints may cause permanent cessation of the operation. Federal and state statutes, written for other types of injection facilities, impact the ORNL facility. This disposal process, which may have great applicability for disposal of many wastes, including hazardous wastes, may not be developed for future use.

Stow, S.H.; Haase, C.S.

1986-01-01

460

Chemical Waste Disposal-Chemicals Identified in Terrestrial and Aquatic Waste Disposal Processes: A Selected Bibliography with Abstracts 1964-1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chemical Waste Disposal - Chemicals Identified in Terrestrial and Aquatic Waste Disposal Processes contains 150 bibliographic references to the published literature from 1964 to 1979. Each bibliographic listing contains a citation (in alphabetical order b...

J. G. Pruett, S. G. Winslow

1980-01-01

461

Toxic-Waste Disposal by Drain-in-Furnace Technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compact furnace moved from site to site. Toxic industrial waste destroyed using furnace concept developed for disposal of toxic munitions. Toxic waste drained into furnace where incinerated immediately. In furnace toxic agent rapidly drained and destroyed in small combustion chamber between upper and lower layers of hot ceramic balls

Compton, L. E.; Stephens, J. B.; Moynihan, P. I.; Houseman, J.; Kalvinskas, J. J.

1986-01-01

462

Low-level radioactive waste disposal facility closure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Part I of this report describes and evaluates potential impacts associated with changes in environmental conditions on a low-level radioactive waste disposal site over a long period of time. Ecological processes are discussed and baselines are established consistent with their potential for causing a significant impact to low-level radioactive waste facility. A variety of factors that might disrupt or act

G. J. White; T. W. Ferns; M. D. Otis; S. T. Marts; M. S. DeHaan; R. G. Schwaller

1990-01-01

463

Groundwater data analyses at utility waste disposal sites. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed technical analysis was made of waste and ground water data from six utility solid waste disposal sites. The six sites investigated were Allen (Duke Power Co.), Elrama (Duquesne Light Co.), Dave Johnston (Pacific Power and Light Co.), Powerton (Commonwealth Edison Co.), Sherco (Northern State Power Co.) and Lansing Smith (Gulf Power Co.). The sites included unlined ash ponds,

K. V. Summers; G. L. Rupp; G. F. Davis; S. A. Gherini

1985-01-01

464

77 FR 14307 - Water and Waste Disposal Loans and Grants  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...comments on other potential modifications that...that lack access to water or waste disposal...seeks comment on potential incentives to encourage...regional or other rural water systems, in good...seeking input on potential amendments to 7...successful eligible water and waste...

2012-03-09

465

The University of Georgia Chemical Waste Disposal Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a university-wide program directed at reducing the improper storage and disposal of toxic chemical wastes from laboratories. Specific information is included on the implementation of a waste pick-up service, safety equipment, materials and methods for packaging, and costs of the program. (CS)

Dreesen, David W.; Pohlman, Thomas J.

1980-01-01

466

PRETREATMENT OF LIQUID RADIOACTIVE WASTES FOR UNDERGROUND DISPOSAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper summarizes the experimental data on pretreatment of liquid radioactive wastes for underground disposal. The technologies of the pretreatment of low -, intermediate - and high- level radioactive wastes which is necessary to exclude the appearance of precipitates in geological formation are described in some detail. The pH values are controlled and addition of complexing agents (to form the

I. M. Kosareva; M. K. Savushkina; A. K. Pikaev

467

HANDBOOK: VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR TREATMENT OF HAZARDOUS AND RADIOACTIVE WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

The applications and limitations of vitrification technologies for treating hazardous and radioactive waste are presented. everal subgroups of vitrifications technologies exist. iscussions of glass structure, applicable waste types, off gas treatment, testing and evaluation proce...

468

Packed bed reactor treatment of liquid hazardous and mixed wastes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We are developing thermal-based packed bed reactor (PBR) technology as an alternative to incineration for treatment of hazardous organic liquid wastes. The waste streams targeted by this technology are machining fluids contaminated with chlorocarbons and/...

R. A. Tennant, P. J. Wantuck, R. Vargas

1992-01-01

469

Measurements and models for hazardous chemical and mixed wastes. 1998 annual progress report  

SciTech Connect

'Aqueous waste of various chemical compositions constitutes a significant fraction of the total waste produced by industry in the US. A large quantity of the waste generated by the US chemical process industry is waste water. In addition, the majority of the waste inventory at DoE sites previously used for nuclear weapons production is aqueous waste. Large quantities of additional aqueous waste are expected to be generated during the clean-up of those sites. In order to effectively treat, safely handle, and properly dispose of these wastes, accurate and comprehensive knowledge of basic thermophysical property information is paramount. This knowledge will lead to huge savings by aiding in the design and optimization of treatment and disposal processes. The main objectives of this project are: Develop and validate models that accurately predict the phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties of hazardous aqueous systems necessary for the safe handling and successful design of separation and treatment processes for hazardous chemical and mixed wastes. Accurately measure the phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties of a representative system (water + acetone + isopropyl alcohol + sodium nitrate) over the applicable ranges of temperature, pressure, and composition to provide the pure component, binary, ternary, and quaternary experimental data required for model development. As of May, 1998, nine months into the first year of a three year project, the authors have made significant progress in the database development, have begun testing the models, and have been performance testing the apparatus on the pure components.'

Holcomb, C.; Watts, L.; Outcalt, S.L.; Louie, B. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO (US); Mullins, M.E.; Rogers, T.N. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (US)

1998-06-01

470

40 CFR 257.3 - Criteria for classification of solid waste disposal facilities and practices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Criteria for classification of solid waste disposal facilities and practices. ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR CLASSIFICATION OF SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITIES AND PRACTICES...

2010-07-01

471

36 CFR 6.5 - Solid waste disposal sites in operation on September 1, 1984.  

...that: (i) The solid waste is generated solely from...and (iii) the solid waste disposal site lacks road...existing landfill solid waste disposal site may convert that site to a transfer station only after...

2014-07-01

472

Description of the Northwest hazardous waste site data base and preliminary analysis of site characteristics  

SciTech Connect

The Northwest Hazardous Waste RD and D Center (the Center) conducts research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) activities for hazardous and radioactive mixed-waste technologies applicable to remediating sites in the states of Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington. To properly set priorities for these RD and D activities and to target development efforts it is necessary to understand the nature of the sites requiring remediation. A data base of hazardous waste site characteristics has been constructed to facilitate this analysis. The data base used data from EPA's Region X Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) and from Preliminary Assessment/Site Investigation (PA/SI) forms for sites in Montana. The Center's data base focuses on two sets of sites--those on the National Priorities List (NPL) and other sites that are denoted as ''active'' CERCLIS sites. Active CERCLIS sites are those sites that are undergoing active investigation and analysis. The data base contains information for each site covering site identification and location, type of industry associated with the site, waste categories present (e.g., heavy metals, pesticides, etc.), methods of disposal (e.g., tanks, drums, land, etc.), waste forms (e.g., liquid, solid, etc.), and hazard targets (e.g., surface water, groundwater, etc.). As part of this analysis, the Northwest region was divided into three geographic subregions to identify differences in disposal site characteristics within the Northwest. 2 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

Woodruff, D.L.; Hartz, K.E.; Triplett, M.B.

1988-08-01

473

RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL AT KNOLLS ATOMIC POWER LABORATORY  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of Its Monograph Series The Industrial Atom.'' Disposal of ;\\u000a radioactive wastes from KAPL is considered with respect to the three physical ;\\u000a categories of waste--solid, liquid, and airborne---and the three environmental ;\\u000a recipients ---ground, surface water, and atmosphere. Solid waste-handling ;\\u000a includes monitoring radiation levels, segregation, collection, processing, ;\\u000a packaging, storing if necessary, and shipping to a remote

D. A. Manieri; W. H. Truran

1958-01-01

474

Disposal of Savannah River Plant Waste Salt.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Approximately 26-million gallons of soluble low-level waste salts will be produced during solidification of 6-million gallons of high-level defense waste in the proposed Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). Soluble w...

M. D. Dukes

1982-01-01

475

78 FR 15299 - New York: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...used oil containing greater than 50 ppm of PCB wastes as hazardous waste, unless the PCBs were derived solely from small capacitors; however, these wastes are not considered hazardous wastes under the Federal RCRA program. PCB wastes are regulated...

2013-03-11

476

Groundwater Flow and Transport Calculations Supporting the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Disposal Facility Performance Assessment  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the Hanford Site-Wide Groundwater Model and its application to the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (ILAW) Disposal Facility Performance Assessment (PA). The site-wide model and supporting local-scale models are used to evaluate impacts from the transport of contaminants at a hypothetical well 100 m downgradient of the disposal facilities and to evaluate regional flow conditions and transport from the ILAW disposal facilities to the Columbia River. These models were used to well-intercept factors (WIFs) or dilution factors from a given areal flux of a hypothetical contaminant released to the unconfined aquifer from the ILAW disposal facilities for two waste-disposal options: 1) a remote-handled trench concept and 2) a concrete-vault concept. The WIF is defined as the ratio of the concentration at a well location in the aquifer to the concentration of infiltrating water entering the aquifer. These WIFs are being used in conjunction with calculations of released contaminant fluxes through the vadose zone to estimate potential impacts from radiological and hazardous chemical contaminants within the ILAW disposal facility at compliance points.

Bergeron, Marcel P.; Wurstner, Signe K.

2000-12-04

477

Preliminary risk benefit assessment for nuclear waste disposal in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the recent work of the authors on the evaluation of health risk benefits of space disposal of nuclear waste. The paper describes a risk model approach that has been developed to estimate the non-recoverable, cumulative, expected radionuclide release to the earth's biosphere for different options of nuclear waste disposal in space. Risk estimates for the disposal of nuclear waste in a mined geologic repository and the short- and long-term risk estimates for space disposal were developed. The results showed that the preliminary estimates of space disposal risks are low, even with the estimated uncertainty bounds. If calculated release risks for mined geologic repositories remain as low as given by the U.S. DOE, and U.S. EPA requirements continue to be met, then no additional space disposal study effort in the U.S. is warranted at this time. If risks perceived by the public are significant in the acceptance of mined geologic repositories, then consideration of space disposal as a complement to the mined geologic repository is warranted.

Rice, E. E.; Denning, R. S.; Friedlander, A. L.; Priest, C. C.

1982-01-01

478

Alternative methods for disposal of low-level radioactive wastes. Task 2d: technical requirements for mined cavity disposal of low-level waste. Volume 6  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current practice in the US for disposal of commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLW) is shallow land burial (SLB). However, several alternative disposal methods utilizing engineered facilities are possible and may be considered for licensing in coming years. One such method is disposal in mined cavities. Any disposal method, current or alternative, must satisfy Performance Objectives for land disposal of LLW

McAneny

1986-01-01

479

Household Waste Management in a Swedish Municipality: Determinants of Waste Disposal, Recycling and Composting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes waste disposal, recycling and composting in a municipality in southwest Sweden. In 1994, Varberg introduced a weight-based billing system for household waste charging 1 kr\\/kg of waste and at the same time recycling centers were set up and a green shopping campaign was launched. This led to a significant reduction in waste collected and increased recycling. This

Heleen Bartelings; Thomas Sterner

1999-01-01

480

Data base for radioactive waste management: review of low-level radioactive waste disposal history  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document is prepared in three volumes and provides part of the technical support to the draft environmental impact statement (NUREG-0782) on a proposed regulation, 10CFR Part 61, setting forth licensing requirements for land disposal of low level radioactive waste. Volume 1 is a summary and analysis of the history of low level waste disposal at both commercial and government

J. J. Clancy; D. F. Gray; O. I. Oztunali

1981-01-01

481

Recommended methods for the disposal of sanitary wastes from temporary field medical facilities.  

PubMed

Emergency field medical facilities constructed after a disaster are frequently managed by medical staff even though many of the day-to-day problems of hospital management are unrelated to medicine. In this paper we discuss the short-term management of one of these problems, namely the control and disposal of sanitary wastes. It is aimed at persons in the medical profession who may find themselves responsible for a temporary hospital and have little or no previous experience of managing such situations. The wastes commonly generated are excreta, sullage and refuse. In addition, surface water must also be considered because its inadequate disposal is a potential health hazard. The paper concentrates on short-term measures appropriate for the first six months of the hospital or clinic's existence. Facilities expected to last longer are recommended to install conventional waste management systems appropriate to the local community and conditions. In most situations, wastes should be disposed of underground either by burial (for solids) or infiltration (for liquids). The design, co