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1

Disposal of Hazardous Wastes - Organization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Hazardous waste management in the participating countries -- (Management principles and state of the art, Regulations on waste stream control and practise of control, Planning, limitation of disposal districts, Waste exchange systems, Liability,...

1977-01-01

2

The Disposal of Hazardous Wastes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The highlights of a symposium held in October, 1977 spotlight some problems and solutions. Topics include wastes from coal technologies, radioactive wastes, and industrial and agricultural wastes. (BB)

Barnhart, Benjamin J.

1978-01-01

3

The Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (HW/MWDF) will provide permanent Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted storage, treatment, and disposal for hazardous and mixed waste generated at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) that cannot be disposed of in existing or planned SRS facilities. Final design is complete for Phase I of the project, the Disposal Vaults. The Vaults will provide RCRA permitted, above-grade disposal capacity for treated hazardous and mixed waste generated at the SRS. The RCRA Part B Permit application was submitted upon approval of the Permit application, the first Disposal Vault is scheduled to be operational in mid 1994. The technical baseline has been established for Phase II, the Treatment Building, and preliminary design work has been performed. The Treatment Building will provide RCRA permitted treatment processes to handle a variety of hazardous and mixed waste generated at SRS in preparation for disposal. The processes will treat wastes for disposal in accordance with the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR). A RCRA Part B Permit application has not yet been submitted to SCDHEC for this phase of the project. The Treatment Building is currently scheduled to be operational in late 1996.

Bailey, L.L.

1991-01-01

4

The Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (HW/MWDF) will provide permanent Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted storage, treatment, and disposal for hazardous and mixed waste generated at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) that cannot be disposed of in existing or planned SRS facilities. Final design is complete for Phase I of the project, the Disposal Vaults. The Vaults will provide RCRA permitted, above-grade disposal capacity for treated hazardous and mixed waste generated at the SRS. The RCRA Part B Permit application was submitted upon approval of the Permit application, the first Disposal Vault is scheduled to be operational in mid 1994. The technical baseline has been established for Phase II, the Treatment Building, and preliminary design work has been performed. The Treatment Building will provide RCRA permitted treatment processes to handle a variety of hazardous and mixed waste generated at SRS in preparation for disposal. The processes will treat wastes for disposal in accordance with the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR). A RCRA Part B Permit application has not yet been submitted to SCDHEC for this phase of the project. The Treatment Building is currently scheduled to be operational in late 1996.

Bailey, L.L.

1991-12-31

5

Disposal of hazardous wastes in industrial boilers and furnaces  

SciTech Connect

This book describes industrial boilers, survey of hazardous waste generation and disposal, industrial boiler population, characterization of industrial boilers, theoretical approach to thermal destruction of hazardous wastes, use of industrial boilers to burn hazardous waste, secondary impacts of hazardous waste cofiring, schematics of industrial boiler types showing isothermal zones, heat transfer results - computer listings, model application - an example case, furnaces, kilns, and combustors, introduction, waste selection and characterization, hazardous waste destruction model for identifying waste categories destructible in industrial processes, process assessment, hazardous wastes with potential for thermal destruction, and initial listing of high-temperature processes.

Castaldini, C.

1986-01-01

6

Quantification of Municipal Disposal Methods for Industrially Generated Hazardous Wastes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Estimations of the amounts of industrial hazardous wastes being disposed of according to various methods of disposal were generated for significant portions of the five following SIC codes: 28, Chemical and Allied Products; 29, Petroleum Refining and Rela...

H. VanNoordwyk L. Schalit W. Wyss H. Atkins

1979-01-01

7

QUANTIFICATION OF MUNICIPAL DISPOSAL METHODS FOR INDUSTRIALLY GENERATED HAZARDOUS WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

Estimations of the amounts of industrial hazardous wastes being disposed of according to various methods of disposal were generated for significant portions of the five following SIC codes: 28, Chemical and Allied Products; 29, Petroleum Refining and Related Industries; 30, Rubbe...

8

ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS AT A RCRA HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITY  

SciTech Connect

The use of hazardous waste disposal facilities permitted under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (''RCRA'') to dispose of low concentration and exempt radioactive materials is a cost-effective option for government and industry waste generators. The hazardous and PCB waste disposal facility operated by US Ecology Idaho, Inc. near Grand View, Idaho provides environmentally sound disposal services to both government and private industry waste generators. The Idaho facility is a major recipient of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers FUSRAP program waste and received permit approval to receive an expanded range of radioactive materials in 2001. The site has disposed of more than 300,000 tons of radioactive materials from the federal government during the past five years. This paper presents the capabilities of the Grand View, Idaho hazardous waste facility to accept radioactive materials, site-specific acceptance criteria and performance assessment, radiological safety and environmental monitoring program information.

Romano, Stephen; Welling, Steven; Bell, Simon

2003-02-27

9

Regulating the disposal of cigarette butts as toxic hazardous waste.  

PubMed

The trillions of cigarette butts generated each year throughout the world pose a significant challenge for disposal regulations, primarily because there are millions of points of disposal, along with the necessity to segregate, collect and dispose of the butts in a safe manner, and cigarette butts are toxic, hazardous waste. There are some hazardous waste laws, such as those covering used tyres and automobile batteries, in which the retailer is responsible for the proper disposal of the waste, but most post-consumer waste disposal is the responsibility of the consumer. Concepts such as extended producer responsibility (EPR) are being used for some post-consumer waste to pass the responsibility and cost for recycling or disposal to the manufacturer of the product. In total, 32 states in the US have passed EPR laws covering auto switches, batteries, carpet, cell phones, electronics, fluorescent lighting, mercury thermostats, paint and pesticide containers, and these could be models for cigarette waste legislation. A broader concept of producer stewardship includes EPR, but adds the consumer and the retailer into the regulation. The State of Maine considered a comprehensive product stewardship law in 2010 that is a much better model than EPR. By using either EPR or the Maine model, the tobacco industry will be required to cover the cost of collecting and disposing of cigarette butt waste. Additional requirements included in the Maine model are needed for consumers and businesses to complete the network that will be necessary to maximise the segregation and collection of cigarette butts to protect the environment. PMID:21504925

Barnes, Richard L

2011-05-01

10

Toward Hazardless Waste: A Guide for Safe Use and Disposal of Hazardous Household Products.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is designed to help individuals make responsible decisions about safe use and disposal of household products. It consists of eight sections dealing with: (1) hazardous chemicals in the home, how hazaradous products become hazardous waste, and whether a hazardous waste problem exists in Puget Sound; (2) which household wastes are…

Toteff, Sally; Zehner, Cheri

11

COST COMPARISONS OF TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL ALTERNATIVES FOR HAZARDOUS WASTES. VOLUME II. APPENDICES  

EPA Science Inventory

Treatment and disposal alternatives and costs for hazardous wastes from the organic chemicals, inorganic chemicals, and electroplating and metal finishing industries are evaluated. The 16 treatment and 5 disposal technologies were based on applicability to the industry categories...

12

Hazard analysis of technologies for disposing explosive waste.  

PubMed

Hazards are identified for six different techniques for disposing decommissioned ammunition. Use has been made of functional modelling as a basis for hazard identification. Risk levels are estimated based on general accident rates in the chemical industry. The disposal techniques are "open burning" (OB), "open detonation" (OD), "closed detonation" (CD), "fluidised bed combustion" (FBC), "rotary kiln (RK) incineration", "mobile incineration". Closed detonation leads to most hazards and highest risk, followed by open burning and open detonation. The other three techniques are considerably safer. Risk due to transport is included in the analysis. Transport risk is not negligible for fluidised bed combustion and rotary kiln incineration at centrally located sites. PMID:11827717

Duijm, Nijs Jan

2002-03-01

13

REMEDIAL ACTION, TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS WASTE: PROCEEDINGS OF THE SEVENTEENTH ANNUAL HAZARDOUS WASTE RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM  

EPA Science Inventory

The Seventeenth Annual RREL Research Symposium on Remedial Action, Treatment and Disposal of Hazardous Waste was held in Cincinnati, Ohio, April 9-11, 1991. he purpose of this Symposium was to present the latest significant research findings from ongoing and recently completed pr...

14

REMEDIAL ACTION, TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS WASTE: PROCEEDINGS OF THE SIXTEENTH ANNUAL HAZARDOUS WASTE RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM  

EPA Science Inventory

The Sixteenth Annual Research Symposium on Remedial Action, Treatment and Disposal of Hazardous Waste was held in Cincinnati, Ohio, April 3-5, 1990. he purpose of this Symposium was to present the latest significant research findings from ongoing and recently completed projects f...

15

EVALUATION OF AIR EMISSIONS FROM HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

This study has examined the fugitive air emissions from landfills, surface impoundments, storage tanks, containers (drums), solvent recovery processes, and land treatment technologies at hazardous waste disposal facilities (HWDF's). The main objective of this study was to develop...

16

EXPERT SYSTEMS TO ASSIST IN DECISIONS CONCERNING LAND DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

Review of permits for land disposal of hazardous wastes requires numerous decisions concerning policy and technical issues. ome require interpretation and application of information in research reports, other involve interpretation and evaluation of specialized test data, and oth...

17

LINERS FOR SANITARY LANDFILLS AND CHEMICAL AND HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

This report lists addresses of sanitary landfills and chemical and hazardous waste disposal sites and holding ponds with some form of impermeable lining. Liners included are polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, Hypalon R, ethylene propylene diene monomer, butyl rubber, conventional ...

18

Waste disposal by hydrofracture and application of the technology to the management of hazardous wastes  

SciTech Connect

A unique disposal method, involving hydrofracturing, has been used for management of liquid low-level radioactive wastes at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Wastes are mixed with cement and other solids and injected along bedding plane fractures into highly impermeable shale at a depth of 300 m forming a grout sheet. The process has operated successfully for 20 years and may be applicable to disposal of hazardous wastes. The cement grout represents the primary barrier for immobilization of the wastes; the hydrologically isolated injection horizon represents a secondary barrier. At ORNL work has been conducted to characterize the geology of the disposal site and to determine its relationship to the injection process. The site is structurally quite complex. Research has also been conducted on the development of methods for monitoring the extent and orientation of the grout sheets; these methods include gamma-ray logging of cased observation wells, leveling surveys of benchmarks, tiltmeter surveys, and microseismic arrays. These methods, some of which need further development, offer promise for real-time and post-injection monitoring. Initial suggestions are offered for possible application of the technology to hazardous waste management and technical and regulatory areas needing attention are addressed. 11 refs., 1 fig.

Stow, S.H.; Haase, C.S.; Weeren, H.O.

1985-01-01

19

Future solutions for the treatment and disposal of hazardous wastes in China.  

PubMed

The current status of the treatment and disposal of hazardous wastes in China is summarized on the basis of the results of the Declaring and Registration Project initiated nationally in 1995. A principle framework for the sound management of hazardous wastes is proposed, which includes three levels of technical solutions. Large-scale enterprises are encouraged to recycle, to treat, and to dispose of wastes by means of constructing facilities, and to have their extra capacities available to the public for a reasonable fee. Municipal governments, provincial governments, and the Central Government are to plan and construct centralized facilities to recycle, treat, and dispose of wastes. For a solution at the manufacturing level, recycling is identified as the main approach. Centralized facilities at the municipal level will mainly focus on special wastes that are unsuitable to transport and store, such as hospital waste, and for the technical solution at this level, incineration and recycling are identified as the main approaches. For the technical solution at the provincial and national levels, landfill and incineration are identified as the main approaches. Based on this principle and the current available data on hazardous wastes, a preliminary plan for the spatial distribution of cross-provincial centralized treatment and disposal facilities of hazardous wastes is presented. The construction of approximately nine cross-provincial comprehensive facilities is proposed. A priority list for the construction of these planned facilities is also presented. PMID:12180174

Li, Jinhui; Bai, Qingzhong; Nie, Yongfeng

2002-05-01

20

Preliminary Hazard Analysis for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility  

SciTech Connect

The need for remote handled low level waste (LLW) disposal capability has been identified. A new onsite, remote-handled LLW disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled LLW disposal capability for remote-handled LLW that is generated as part of the nuclear mission of the Idaho National Laboratory and from spent nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled LLW in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This document supports the conceptual design for the proposed remote-handled LLW disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization and by identifying potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled LLW.

Lisa Harvego; Mike Lehto

2010-05-01

21

Preliminary Hazard Analysis for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility  

SciTech Connect

The need for remote handled low level waste (LLW) disposal capability has been identified. A new onsite, remote-handled LLW disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled LLW disposal capability for remote-handled LLW that is generated as part of the nuclear mission of the Idaho National Laboratory and from spent nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled LLW in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This document supports the conceptual design for the proposed remote-handled LLW disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization and by identifying potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled LLW.

Lisa Harvego; Mike Lehto

2010-02-01

22

Preliminary Hazard Analysis for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project  

SciTech Connect

The need for remote handled low level waste (LLW) disposal capability has been identified. A new onsite, remote-handled LLW disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled LLW disposal capability for remote-handled LLW that is generated as part of the nuclear mission of the Idaho National Laboratory and from spent nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled LLW in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This document supports the conceptual design for the proposed remote-handled LLW disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization and by identifying potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled LLW.

Lisa Harvego; Mike Lehto

2010-10-01

23

Hazardous Waste  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Given media attention to the US Navy's recent problems with the disposal of a large amount of napalm, an incendiary compound, this week's In the News examines the issue of hazardous waste and materials. The eight resources discussed provide information on various aspects of the topic. Due to the large number of companies specializing in the management and remediation of hazardous waste contamination, private firms will not be noted.

Harris, Kathryn L.

24

Health effects of hazardous chemical waste disposal sites in New Jersey and in the United States: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hazardous chemical waste disposal issue is a widespread problem. Large quantities of chemical wastes have been produced by the chemical industries in the past forty years. Estimates now number disposal sites in the United States at least 30,000. The public and scientists have grown increasingly concerned about the effects of these waste disposal sites not only on the environment,

G. R. Najem; J. L. Cappadona

1991-01-01

25

40 CFR 264.555 - Disposal of CAMU-eligible wastes in permitted hazardous waste landfills.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...permitted hazardous waste landfills. (a) The Regional...regulatory oversight at the location where the cleanup is...wastes in hazardous waste landfills not located at the...regulatory oversight at the location where the cleanup...permitted hazardous waste landfill, consistent with...

2009-07-01

26

40 CFR 264.555 - Disposal of CAMU-eligible wastes in permitted hazardous waste landfills.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...permitted hazardous waste landfills. (a) The Regional...regulatory oversight at the location where the cleanup is...wastes in hazardous waste landfills not located at the...regulatory oversight at the location where the cleanup...permitted hazardous waste landfill, consistent with...

2010-07-01

27

APPLICATION OF A HAZARD-ASSESSMENT RESEARCH STRATEGY FOR WASTE DISPOSAL AT 106-MILE OCEAN DISPOSAL SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

An application of a hazard-assessment research strategy was made using waste disposal at Deepwater Dumpsite-l06 (DWD-106) as an example. The strategy involved the synthesis of results from separate exposure and effects components in order to provide a scientific basis for estimat...

28

A decision model for evaluating land disposal of hazardous wastes. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

This study examined three land disposal options for military wastes which are deemed hazardous through regulations that support the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976. The study offers a procedure which helps base-level Air Force managers determine whether industrial wastewater treatment sludges should be disposed in a landfill using an arrangement that is either all-government, all-contracted, or partially-contracted.

Stoner, K.M.

1982-10-01

29

REMEDIAL ACTION, TREATMENT, AND DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS WASTE - PROCEEDINGS OF THE 15TH ANNUAL RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM  

EPA Science Inventory

The Fifteenth Annual Research Symposium on Remedial Action, Treatment, and Disposal of Hazardous Waste was held in Cincinnati, OH, April 10-12, 1989. he purpose of this Symposium was to present the latest significant research findings from ongoing and recently completed projects ...

30

COST COMPARISONS OF TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL ALTERNATIVES FOR HAZARDOUS WASTES. VOLUME I  

EPA Science Inventory

Unit costs are estimated for 16 treatment and 5 disposal techniques applicable to hazardous wastes from the organic chemicals, inorganic chemicals, and electroplating and metal finishing industries. Each technology was evaluated by unit processes or modules, and computer-linked m...

31

Waste Disposal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Waste solids (dredge spoil, rubble, sewage sludge, and industrial sludge) are dumped at six major disposal sites in New York Bight. Amounts of waste solids discharged increased between 1968 and 1975 although the number of individual disposal operations de...

M. G. Gross

1976-01-01

32

Grout formulation for disposal of low-level and hazardous waste streams containing fluoride  

DOEpatents

A composition and related process for disposal of hazardous waste streams containing fluoride in cement-based materials is disclosed. the presence of fluoride in cement-based materials is disclosed. The presence of fluoride in waste materials acts as a set retarder and as a result, prevents cement-based grouts from setting. This problem is overcome by the present invention wherein calcium hydroxide is incorporated into the dry-solid portion of the grout mix. The calcium hydroxide renders the fluoride insoluble, allowing the grout to set up and immobilize all hazardous constituents of concern. 4 tabs.

McDaniel, E.W.; Sams, T.L.; Tallent, O.K.

1987-06-02

33

Small mammal populations at hazardous waste disposal sites near Houston, Texas, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Small mammals were trapped, tagged and recaptured in 0?45 ha plots at six hazardous industrial waste disposal sites to determine if populations, body mass and age structures were different from paired control site plots. Low numbers of six species of small mammals were captured on industrial waste sites or control sites. Only populations of hispid cotton rats at industrial waste sites and control sites were large enough for comparisons. Overall population numbers, age structure, and body mass of adult male and female cotton rats were similar at industrial waste sites and control sites. Populations of small mammals (particularly hispid cotton rats) may not suffice as indicators of environments with hazardous industrial waste contamination.

Flickinger, E.L.; Nichols, J.D.

1990-01-01

34

An evaluation of glass-crystal composites for the disposal of nuclear and hazardous waste materials  

SciTech Connect

Waste forms made of a glass-crystal composite (GCC) are being evaluated at Argonne National Laboratory for their potential use in the disposal of low-level nuclear and hazardous waste materials. This waste form is being developed within the framework strategy of DOE`s minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS) Program. The MAWS protocol involves the blending of multiple waste streams to achieve an optimal feed composition, which eliminates the need to use large amounts of additives to produce an acceptable waste form. The GCCs have a particularly useful utility in their ability to incorporate waste streams with high metal contents, including those that contain large amounts of scrap metals, and in their potential for sequestering radionuclide and hazardous constituents in corrosion-resistant mineral phases. This paper reports the results from tests conducted with simulated feeds representative of potential DOE and industry waste streams. Topics addressed include the partitioning of various radioactive and hazardous constituents between the glass and crystalline portions of the waste form, the development of secondary phases on the altered sample surfaces during corrosion testing, and the fate of waste components during corrosion testing, as indicated by elements released to solution and microanalysis of the reacted solid samples.

Wronkiewicz, D.J.; DiSanto, T.; Wolf, S.F.; Buck, E.C.; Dietz, N.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Feng, X. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-03-01

35

Feasibility Study for Hazardous Waste Treatment and Disposal in the City of Shenyang, People's Republic of China.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document is the final report of the feasibility study conducted for the National Environment Protection Agency of China. The purpose of the study was to develop a detailed technical approach for hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal project ...

1989-01-01

36

Economic Implications of Waste Reduction, Recycling, Treatment and Disposal of Hazardous Wastes. The Fourth Biennial Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report serves as a reference to new and innovative hazardous waste treatment technologies currently being studied by the State of California. Chapter 2 is a series of case studies regarding source reduction implementations; each company's motivations ...

K. Barwick L. Dobrovolny D. Garza B. Handley N. S. Ostrom

1988-01-01

37

Hazard Classification of the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is constructing a new facility to replace remote-handled low-level radioactive waste disposal capability for INL and Naval Reactors Facility operations. Current disposal capability at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) will continue until the facility is full or closed for remediation (estimated at approximately fiscal year 2015). Development of a new onsite disposal facility is the highest ranked alternative and will provide RH-LLW disposal capability and will ensure continuity of operations that generate RH-LLW for the foreseeable future. As a part of establishing a safety basis for facility operations, the facility will be categorized according to DOE-STD-1027-92. This classification is important in determining the scope of analyses performed in the safety basis and will also dictate operational requirements of the completed facility. This paper discusses the issues affecting hazard classification in this nuclear facility and impacts of the final hazard categorization.

Boyd D. Christensen

2012-05-01

38

HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

Hazardous waste may be stored, treated and disposed in a variety of ways. Treatment technology exists today for detoxification or destruction of wastes in an environmentally acceptable manner through physical, chemical and biological means. This volume covers several common alter...

39

Hazardous Waste: Cleanup and Prevention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses hazardous waste, waste disposal, unsafe exposure, movement of hazardous waste, and the Superfund clean-up process that consists of site discovery, site assessment, clean-up method selection, site clean up, and site maintenance. Argues that proper disposal of hazardous waste is everybody's responsibility. (JRH)

Vandas, Steve; Cronin, Nancy L.

1996-01-01

40

Hydrologic detection of abandoned wells near proposed injection wells for hazardous waste disposal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep saline aquifers are being used for disposal of hazardous liquid wastes. A thorough knowledge of the competency of such aquifers and their confining geologic beds in permanently isolating the hazardous substances is the key to successful disposal operations. Characterization of such systems, and in particular the detection of any conduit that may permit hydraulic communication between the host aquifer and nearby freshwater aquifers, must be carried out prior to the initiation of disposal projects. In deep, multi-aquifer systems, leaky faults, abandonded wells, highly conductive fractures, or shear zones may all provide leakage paths. If not initially detected, such conduits may show no apparent effect until contaminants in the freshwater aquifer reach detectable levels at the discharge point. By then, of course, detection is generally too late. This paper is an attempt to address the problem of initial detection of improperly plugged or open abandoned wells. A new analytic solution has been derived to calculate the amount of leakage from an abandoned well and the corresponding drawdown at monitoring wells. A method is proposed that can be used to detect such deep abandoned wells in the area of influence of a proposed deep injection well in a multiple-aquifer system.

Javandel, Iraj; Tsang, Chin Fu; Witherspoon, Paul A.; Morganwalp, David

1988-02-01

41

CHARACTERIZATION OF DEFENSE NUCLEAR WASTE USING HAZARDOUS WASTE GUIDANCE. APPLICATIONS TO HANFORD SITE ACCELERATED HIGH-LEVEL WASTE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL MISSION0  

SciTech Connect

Federal hazardous waste regulations were developed for management of industrial waste. These same regulations are also applicable for much of the nation's defense nuclear wastes. At the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in southeast Washington State, one of the nation's largest inventories of nuclear waste remains in storage in large underground tanks. The waste's regulatory designation and its composition and form constrain acceptable treatment and disposal options. Obtaining detailed knowledge of the tank waste composition presents a significant portion of the many challenges in meeting the regulatory-driven treatment and disposal requirements for this waste. Key in applying the hazardous waste regulations to defense nuclear wastes is defining the appropriate and achievable quality for waste feed characterization data and the supporting evidence demonstrating that applicable requirements have been met at the time of disposal. Application of a performance-based approach to demonstrating achievable quality standards will be discussed in the context of the accelerated high-level waste treatment and disposal mission at the Hanford Site.

Hamel, William; Huffman, Lori; Lerchen, Megan; Wiemers, Karyn

2003-02-27

42

Hazard Classification of the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is constructing a new facility to replace remote-handled low-level radioactive waste disposal capability for INL and Naval Reactors Facility operations. Current disposal capability at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) will continue until the facility is full or closed for remediation (estimated at approximately fiscal year 2015). Development of

Boyd D. Christensen

2012-01-01

43

Hazardous Waste to Energy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Of the 260 million metric tonnes (MMT) of hazardous waste generated in the United States in 1981, only 1.70 MMT was disposed of through incineration. In addition, 3.85 MMT of industrial wastes that could be considered hazardous were burned as fuels in ind...

R. A. Olexsey H. M. Freeman R. E. Mournighan

1986-01-01

44

HAZARDOUS WASTE TO ENERGY  

EPA Science Inventory

Of the 260 million metric tonnes (MMT) of hazardous waste generated in the United States in 1981, only 1.70 MMT was disposed of through incineration. In addition, 3.85 MMT of industrial wastes that could be considered hazardous were burned as fuels in industrial processes. The pa...

45

Hazardous Waste: Cleanup and Prevention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Superfund, a federal cleanup program created in response to growing public concern over the health and environmental risks posed by hazardous waste sites. Discusses sources, disposal, and movement and risk of hazardous waste. (JRH)

Vandas, Steve; Cronin, Nancy L.

1996-01-01

46

Multiple-criteria optimization of hazardous-waste disposal by deep-well injection  

SciTech Connect

Application of linear goal programming (LGP) techniques to the analysis of management and operational problems in the area of hazardous waste disposal by deep-well injection is investigated. A typical waste injection system is modeled as a linear goal program, and used to study and resolve the effects of multiple conflicting objectives. The model is validated using field data, and solved for the best design and operating policies that would not only enable the plant to meet the EPA standards, but best minimize capital investment, annual operating expense and deviations from the waste quality requirements before injection. Justification of the use of the model is presented by comparing the actual design with the optimal design obtained from the model solution. The existence of a relationship between the preemptive and nonpreemptive LGP solution procedures is investigated. Mathematical and computational importance of this relationship are explored. The relationships between LGP solution procedures allow large, and network structured preemptive problems to be solved as a nonpreemptive problem using standard, available, computer packages. Minimum requirements for the regulation of the deep-well injection industry are established, and include injection well monitoring, data processing, and reporting to the EPA. A computer package has been developed to assist in the effective and efficient compliance with these regulations. By using the report generator computer package in regulating injection systems, adverse effects on human health and the environment are minimized.

Mogharabi, S.N.

1989-01-01

47

Control technology assessment of hazardous waste disposal operations in chemicals manufacturing: walk-through survey report of Olin Chemicals Group, Charleston, Tennessee  

Microsoft Academic Search

A walk through survey was conducted to assess control technology for hazardous wastes disposal operations at Olin Chemicals Group (SIC-2800, SIC-2812, SIC-2819), Charleston, Tennessee in May 1982. Hazardous wastes generated at the facility included brine sludge, thick mercury (7439954) (Hg) butter, and calcium-hypochlorite (7778543). An estimated 8500 tons of waste were disposed of annually. The Hg waste underwent a retorting

Crandall

1983-01-01

48

Hammering away at waste disposal  

SciTech Connect

The waterhammer piledriver is described. The use of the piledriver in hazardous waste disposal is discussed. One of the safest methods for the disposal of radioactive and other long-term toxic wastes is the deep-ocean bottom. The piledriver drills holes in the ocean floor for safe disposal of these wastes. This puts the wastes away from currents like the Gulf Stream, in water that has no circulation, no oxygen, no nutrients and, consequently, no life.

Wisotsky, S.

1985-07-01

49

Transport and fate of organic wastes in groundwater at the Stringfellow hazardous waste disposal site, southern California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In January 1999, wastewater influent and effluent from the pretreatment plant at the Stringfellow hazardous waste disposal site were sampled along with groundwater at six locations along the groundwater contaminant plume. The objectives of this sampling and study were to identify at the compound class level the unidentified 40-60% of wastewater organic contaminants, and to determine what organic compound classes were being removed by the wastewater pretreatment plant, and what organic compound classes persisted during subsurface waste migration. The unidentified organic wastes are primarily chlorinated aromatic sulfonic acids derived from wastes from DDT manufacture. Trace amounts of EDTA and NTA organic complexing agents were discovered along with carboxylate metabolites of the common alkylphenolpolyethoxylate plasticizers and nonionic surfactants. The wastewater pretreatment plant removed most of the aromatic chlorinated sulfonic acids that have hydrophobic neutral properties, but the p-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid which is the primary waste constituent passed through the pretreatment plant and was discharged in the treated wastewaters transported to an industrial sewer. During migration in groundwater, p-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid is removed by natural remediation processes. Wastewater organic contaminants have decreased 3- to 45-fold in the groundwater from 1985 to 1999 as a result of site remediation and natural remediation processes. The chlorinated aromatic sulfonic acids with hydrophobic neutral properties persist and have migrated into groundwater that underlies the adjacent residential community. Copyright ?? 2001 .

Leenheer, J. A.; Hsu, J.; Barber, L. B.

2001-01-01

50

Preliminary Hazard Analysis for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for remote handled low level waste (LLW) disposal capability has been identified. A new onsite, remote-handled LLW disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled LLW disposal capability for remote-handled LLW that is generated as part of the nuclear mission of the Idaho National Laboratory and from spent nuclear fuel processing

Lisa Harvego; Mike Lehto

2010-01-01

51

Preliminary Hazard Analysis for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for remote handled low level waste (LLW) disposal capability has been identified. A new onsite, remote-handled LLW disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled LLW disposal capability for remote-handled LLW that is generated as part of the nuclear mission of the Idaho National Laboratory and from spent nuclear fuel processing

Lisa Harvego; Mike Lehto

2010-01-01

52

Benefits of Regulating Hazardous Waste Disposal: Land Values as an Estimator. Volume 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Conceptual and empirical examination of whether the social costs imposed by hazardous waste sites are reflected in property values. A hedonic analysis is used, to account for other characteristics of houses that affect their values. After screening many s...

K. J. Adler R. C. Anderson Z. L. Cook R. C. Dower A. R. Ferguson

1982-01-01

53

Household hazardous waste disposal project. Metro toxicant program report number 1c. Public opinions and actions. Final report 1981-82  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of Metro's Household Hazardous Waste Disposal Project, a pilot study was conducted in the Seattle area to determine public awareness of and attitudes about the issues of toxic\\/hazardous substances in the home and their safe disposal. Metro also wished to determine actual response to a collection program in a brief, neighborhood test. An initial telephone survey was conducted

D. V. Galvin; L. Guss; J. L. Leraas

1982-01-01

54

Health effects of hazardous chemical waste disposal sites in New Jersey and in the United States: a review  

SciTech Connect

The hazardous chemical waste disposal issue is a widespread problem. Large quantities of chemical wastes have been produced by the chemical industries in the past forty years. Estimates now number disposal sites in the United States at least 30,000. The public and scientists have grown increasingly concerned about the effects of these waste disposal sites not only on the environment, but also on the human body. In this article, we review the number of hazardous chemical waste disposal sites (HCWDS), their construction, difficulties in defining their contents, and the establishment of the Superfund Act. We then discuss various studies in the literature that have attempted to define adverse health effects of HCWDS, particularly those examining Love Canal and sites in New Jersey. In our conclusions, we note the difficulties in establishing direct causal links between HCWDS and dangerous health effects. We suggest that more epidemiological studies are needed, with improved methodology for gathering complete data and studying large samples. Both positive and negative findings of epidemiological studies are important. Positive results will substantiate an association of health effects with HCWDS. Negative results may reduce the concerns of people living near HCWDS. Future investigators need sufficient information about HCWDS materials, possible routes of exposure, and measurements of exposure, as well as sufficient statistical power to detect even modest associations of health effects with HCWDS exposure.71 references.

Najem, G.R.; Cappadona, J.L. (Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, New Jersey Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark (United States))

1991-11-01

55

40 CFR 264.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). 264.316 Section 264.316...of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). Small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs) may be placed in a landfill if...

2013-07-01

56

40 CFR 264.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). 264.316 Section 264.316...of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). Small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs) may be placed in a landfill if...

2010-07-01

57

40 CFR 265.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). 265.316 Section 265.316...of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). Small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs) may be placed in a landfill if...

2009-07-01

58

40 CFR 265.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). 265.316 Section 265.316...of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). Small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs) may be placed in a landfill if...

2010-07-01

59

40 CFR 264.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). 264.316 Section 264.316...of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). Small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs) may be placed in a landfill if...

2009-07-01

60

40 CFR 265.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). 265.316 Section 265.316...of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). Small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs) may be placed in a landfill if...

2013-07-01

61

TECHNICAL OVERVIEW OF THE CONCEPT OF DISPOSING OF HAZARDOUS WASTES IN INDUSTRIAL BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of industrial boilers for the destruction of hazardous wastes is increasing at a rapid rate. This is partly due to the fact that the practice changes a 'negative value' waste material into a 'positive value' fuel and partly to the fact that current RCRA regulations specif...

62

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS ASSOCIATED WITH STORAGE, TREATMENT, AND DISPOSAL OF SOLID RADIOACTIVE AND CHEMICALLY HAZARDOUS WASTE AT THE HANFORD SITE, RICHLAND, WASHINGTON  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program Environmental Impact Statement (HSW EIS) provides environmental and technical information concerning U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposed waste management practices for certain solid radioactive wastes at the Hanford Site through the year 2046. The HSW EIS covers four primary aspects of waste management at Hanford storage, treatment, transportation, and disposal. It

Wayne L. Johnson; Iral C. Nelson; David R. Payson; Kathleen Rhoads

2004-01-01

63

LAND DISPOSAL, REMEDIAL ACTION, INCINERATION AND TREATMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE. PROCEEDINGS OF THE ANNUAL RESEARCH SYNPOSIUM (14TH) HELD AT CINCINNATI, OHIO, MAY 9-11, 1988  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the Symposium was to present the latest significant research findings from ongoing and recently completed projects funded by the Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL). These Proceedings are organized in four sections: Session A, Hazardous Waste Land Disposal...

64

Approach to the vadose zone monitoring in hazardous and solid waste disposal facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the solid waste (SW)disposal sites, in particular at the unlined facilities, at the remediated or newly-constructed units equipped with novel protective\\/reactive permeable barriers or at lined facilities with leachate collection systems that are prone to failure, the vadose zone monitoring should comprise besides the natural soil layer beneath the landfill, also the anthropogenic vadose zone, i.e. the waste layer

Irena Twardowska

2004-01-01

65

Hospital waste disposal by incineration.  

PubMed

Hospital waste is becoming increasingly complex due to changing technologies and increase in the services that the hospitals perform for the community. Out of the available technology for the final disposal of solid wastes, incineration is best suited for hospital waste as it renders the waste nontoxic, non hazardous, non putrescible and reduces the volume of material for ultimate disposal. Present study was carried out in a service hospital to analyze the requirement of incinerator considering the state of art available in this country. Multi chambered oil fired incinerator installation as an on site facility for hospital solid waste disposal has been recommended as more environment. friendly option. PMID:10537997

Rao, S K; Garg, R K

1994-07-01

66

63 FR 24596 - Organobromine Production Wastes; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Land Disposal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...to known problems with measuring some metals in these type of waste matrices...Technology-Based Standards. \\5\\ Except for Metals (EP or TCLP) and Cyanides (Total and...of composite samples. \\3\\ Except for Metals (EP or TCLP) and Cyanides (Total...

1998-05-04

67

COMBUSTION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

Of the 260 MMT of hazardous waste generated annually in the United States, 1.70 MMT are disposed of in incinerators, 3.50 MMT are burned in boilers and 0.35 MMT are burned in other industrial processes. The paper is an overview of the technologies that can be used to combust haza...

68

Control Technology Assessment of Hazardous Waste Disposal Operations in Chemicals Manufacturing: Walk-Through Survey Report of 3M Company, Cottage Grove, Minnesota.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A walk through survey was conducted to assess control technology of hazardous wastes disposal at the incinerator of 3M Company (SIC-2800), Cottage Grove, Minnesota in June 1981. The incinerator handled 600 gallons of liquid waste and 4000 pounds of semiso...

M. Anastas

1982-01-01

69

ANALYSIS OF GEOTHERMAL WASTES FOR HAZARDOUS COMPONENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Regulations governing the disposal of hazardous wastes led to an assessment for geothermal solid wastes for potentially hazardous properties. Samples were collected from three active geothermal sites in the western United States: The Geysers, Imperial Valley, and northwestern Nev...

70

ENGINEERING GEOLOGY OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three possible methods for future waste disposal are now being ; investigated: fixation in or as solids, disposal into salt, and disposal into ; deep porous formations. The fixation methods now under investigation all involve ; heating the waste, are expensive, and are dangerous to the operators, but the ; solid product once formed would probably be no further hazard.

de Laguna

1962-01-01

71

Preliminary investigation on the suitablity of using fiber reinforced concrete in the construction of a hazardous waste disposal vessel  

SciTech Connect

There are certain hazardous wastes that must be contained in an extremely secure vessel for transportation and disposal. The vessel, among other things, must be able to withstand relatively large impacts without rupturing. Such containment vessels therefore must be able to absorb substantial amounts of energy during an impact and still perform their function. One of the impacts that the vessel must withstand is a 30-foot fall onto an unyielding surface. For some disposal scenarios it is proposed to encase the waste in a steel enclosure which is to be surrounded by a thick layer of concrete which, in turn, is encased by a relatively thin steel shell. Tests on concrete in compression and flexure, including static, dynamic and impact tests, have shown that low modulus concretes tend to behave in a less brittle manner than higher modulus concretes. Tests also show that fiber reinforced concretes have significantly greater ductility, crack propagation resistance and toughness than conventional concretes. Since it is known that concrete is a reasonably brittle material, it is necessary to do impact tests on sample containment structures consisting of thin-walled metal containers having closed ends which are filled with concrete, grout, or fiber reinforced concrete. This report presents the results of simple tests aimed at observing the behavior of sample containment structures subjected to impacts due to a fall from 30 feet. 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Ramey, M.R.; Daie-e, G.

1988-07-01

72

The hazardous waste scene in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

India has made significant advances in the manufacture of basic organic chemicals, dyes, fertilizers, pesticides, drugs, and so forth during the last three decades, resulting in increased generation of hazardous wastes. Presently, these wastes are being indiscriminately disposed of into fallow land in the public domain. Legislation to control air and water pollution has not covered hazardous waste disposal. The

P. V. R. Subrahmanyam; A. D. Bhinde; B. B. Sundaresan

1983-01-01

73

Hazardous Substances and Hazardous Waste  

MedlinePLUS

... our health. For example, when rain falls on soil at a waste site, it can carry hazardous ... to hazardous substances. Also, small children often eat soil or household materials that may be contaminated, such ...

74

LAND DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS WASTE. PROCEEDINGS OF THE ANNUAL RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM (11TH) HELD AT CINCINNATI, OHIO ON APRIL 29-MAY 1, 1985  

EPA Science Inventory

The Eleventh Annual Research Symposium on land disposal, remedial action, incineration and treatment of hazardous waste was held in Cincinnati, OH April 29 through May 1, 1985. The purpose of the Symposium was to present the latest significant research findings of ongoing and rec...

75

LAND DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS WASTE. PROCEEDINGS OF THE ANNUAL RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM (10TH) AT FT. MITCHELL, KENTUCKY HELD ON APRIL 3-5, 1984  

EPA Science Inventory

The Tenth Annual Research Symposium on land disposal, remedial action, incineration and treatment of hazardous waste was held in Fort Mitchell, Kentucky April 3 through 5, 1984. The purpose of the Symposium was to present the latest significant research findings of ongoing and re...

76

LAND DISPOSAL, REMEDIAL ACTION, INCINERATION AND TREATMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE. PROCEEDINGS OF THE ANNUAL RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM (13TH) HELD AT CINCINNATI, OHIO ON MAY 6-8, 1987  

EPA Science Inventory

The Thirteenth Annual Research Symposium on Land Disposal, Remedial Action, Incineration and Treatment of Hazardous Waste was held in Cincinnati, Ohio, May 6-8, 1987. The purpose of the Symposium was to present the latest significant research findings of ongoing and recently comp...

77

Elimination of the hazards from hazardous wastes.  

PubMed Central

The "hazard" associated with a waste essentially controls the overall engineering approach to finding suitable alternatives for solving potential disposal problems. It should be recognized that all factors affecting environmental equilibrium must be considered, including product sales, process design, financing, pre- and end-of-pipe treatment, residuals management, and ultimate bioaccumulation of residuals. To meet this challenge, a systems approach to waste treatment and residuals disposal provides a logical approach, but this management concept requires a thorough understanding of the important physical and chemical aspects of the problem, as well as many social implications of the resulting decisions. Thus waste management within a plant necessarily involves process control, pretreatment and end-of-pipe treatment. Further, it follows that residuals management from a disposal point-of-view must ultimately embrace what is called the "multi-barrier concept." In essence, hazard elimination occurs in varying degrees during each phase of a properly engineered system.

Gloyna, E F; Taylor, R D

1978-01-01

78

Hanford Site Mixed Waste Disposal  

SciTech Connect

Significant volumes of mixed low-level waste (MLLW) will be generated as part of the management and remediation of the Hanford Site. The MLLW that is generated as part of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) process will largely be managed as part of that remediation effort, with disposal likely in the centralized Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). Other unique MLLW streams will be produced as part of the Hanford program to disposition tank wastes, and will include failed equipment (melters) and immobilized low-activity wastes. These disposal operations are in the early planning stages and will likely require development of specialized disposal facilities. This paper will focus on disposal of the more ''routine'' waste streams, those currently stored onsite in permitted Resource Conservation and Recover Act (RCRA) facilities, or those newly-generated MLLW streams requiring management in permitted RCRA facilities. These waste streams typically include RCRA regulated MLLW debris, sludges, soils and solidified liquids. In September 1999, the United States Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office and Fluor Hanford began disposing of Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) compliant MLLW in a RCRA mixed waste disposal facility at the Hanford Site. This facility, one of two at Hanford, is an integral part of a comprehensive program to treat and dispose of the Hanford inventory of stored MLLW, and may aid the DOE Complex in disposing of its legacy of MLLW. The Final Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS) record-of-decision (ROD) for MLLW identifies Hanford as one of the disposal sites for much of the DOE complex MLLW. A few actions remain to be completed before waste from offsite generators can be shipped to the Hanford Mixed Waste Facilities for disposal. These actions include, but are not limited to, completion of the Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program Environmental Impact Statement (SW EIS), resolving equity issues associated with the receipt of offsite MLLW, and verification that the candidate waste streams meet the Hanford Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). The ROD for the SW EIS is expected in 2002, equity discussions are ongoing, and waste acceptance criteria are already established and can be used to determine acceptability.

MCKENNEY, D.E.

2001-01-01

79

Method of recycling hazardous waste  

SciTech Connect

The production of primary metal from ores has long been a necessary, but environmentally devastating process. Over the past 20 years, in an effort to lessen environmental impacts, the metal processing industry has developed methods for recovering metal values from certain hazardous wastes. However, these processes leave residual molten slag that requires disposal in hazardous waste landfills. A new process recovers valuable metals, metal alloys, and metal oxides from hazardous wastes, such as electric arc furnace (EAF) dust from steel mills, mill scale, spent aluminum pot liners, and wastewater treatment sludge from electroplating. At the same time, the process does not create residual waste for disposal. This new method uses all wastes from metal production processes. These hazardous materials are converted to three valuable products - mineral wool, zinc oxide, and high-grade iron.

NONE

1999-11-11

80

Participation in a Household Hazardous Waste Collection Drive and "Before" and "After" Public Knowledge and Disposal Practices: Champaign County.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The extent to which households use, store, and dispose of hazardous materials has become a matter of increasing concern but has been rarely assessed. This report provides an assessment of the first household hazardous materials publicity campaign and collection event held in Illinois. The report describes survey results concerning the state of…

Liebert, Roland J.

81

ALTERNATIVE TREATMENT METHODS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The five-year schedule for the minimization and restrictions on the disposal of hazardous wastes onto the land is described. Two major items are causing a shift in the way hazardous wastes are managed in the United States. Because of liability for hazardous wastes, companies are ...

82

PRETREATMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the waste applicability and performance characteristics of hazardous waste pretreatment processes. Pretreatment processes are those unit operations which must often be carried out on hazardous wastes to make them amenable to subsequent materials or energy rec...

83

US Environmental rotection Agency's strategy for ground-water-quality monitoring at hazardous-waste land-disposal facilities located in karst terranes  

SciTech Connect

Ground-water monitoring of hazardous-waste land-disposal units by a network of wells is ineffective when located in karstic terranes. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently proposing to modify its current ground-water-quality monitoring requirement of one upgradient well and three downgradient wells for disposal units located in karstic terranes. The convergent nature of subsurface flow to cave streams in karstic terranes requires that effective monitoring wells intercept the cave streams. Wells located around a hazardous-waste disposal unit, but not in the specific cave stream draining the site, are only providing irrelevant data and a false sense of security because the water samples from such wells are not necessarily from the hazardous-waste disposal unit. A case study is provided in this paper. EPA is drafting a guidance document that will allow monitoring by wells, only if the up- and down-gradient wells can be demonstrated to be hydraulically connected by means of dye-trace studies. If not, then the monitoring of springs shown to be hydraulically connected to the facility by dye-tracing studies would be required. Monitoring for sinkhole development will also be required to provide advance warning of sinkhole collapse. The investigation and determination of the probability of sinkhole collapse is given special treatment.

Field, M.S.

1988-11-01

84

40 CFR Appendix Vii to Part 268 - LDR Effective Dates of Surface Disposed Prohibited Hazardous Wastes  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...wastes which had treatment standards promulgated in the Third Third rule, for which treatment standards are based on incineration, vitrification, or mercury retorting, acid leaching followed by chemical precipitation, or thermal recovery of metals;...

2009-07-01

85

40 CFR Appendix Vii to Part 268 - LDR Effective Dates of Surface Disposed Prohibited Hazardous Wastes  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...wastes which had treatment standards promulgated in the Third Third rule, for which treatment standards are based on incineration, vitrification, or mercury retorting, acid leaching followed by chemical precipitation, or thermal recovery of metals;...

2010-07-01

86

DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount of radioactive wastes from isotope users in the Federai ; Republic of Germany is rather small. Adequate provisions of the First Radiation ; Protection Ordinance deal with the waste disposal by the deposition into soil or ; ordinary wastes, and the discharge into sewers or surface waters. (auth) O H7655 ; Research progress is reported on biologicai and

Straimer

1962-01-01

87

Vadose zone monitoring for hazardous waste sites  

SciTech Connect

This book is a review and evaluation of vadose (unsaturated) zone monitoring. It describes the applicability of selected monitoring methods to hazardous waste disposal sites. Topics covered include: geohydrologic framework of the vadose zone; premonitoring of storage at disposal sites; premonitoring of water movement at disposal sites; active and abandoned site monitoring methods; waste source pollutant characterization; geohydrologic settings for waste disposals and conceptual vadose zone monitoring descriptions.

Everett, L.G.

1984-01-01

88

Disposal of radioactive waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of radioactive and non-radioactive waste management is to protect man and the environment from unacceptable risks. Protection criteria for both should therefore be based on similar considerations. From overall protection criteria, performance criteria for subsystems in waste management can be derived, for example for waste disposal. International developments in this field are summarized. A brief overview of radioactive waste sorts and disposal concepts is given. Currently being implemented are trench disposal and engineered near-surface facilities for low-level wastes. For low-and intermediate-level waste underground facilities are under construction. For high-level waste site selection and investigation is being carried out in several countries. In all countries with nuclear programmes, the predicted performance of waste disposal systems is being assessed in scenario and consequence analyses. The influences of variability and uncertainty of parameter values are increasingly being treated by probabilistic methods. Results of selected performance assessments show that radioactive waste disposal sites can be found and suitable repositories can be designed so that defined radioprotection limits are not exceeded.

Van Dorp, Frits; Grogan, Helen; McCombie, Charles

89

Hazardous waste: cleanup and prevention  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Our lifestyles are supported by complex Industrial activities that produce many different chemicals and chemical wastes. The Industries that produce our clothing, cars, medicines, paper, food, fuels, steel, plastics, and electric components use and discard thousands of chemicals every year. At home we may use lawn chemicals, solvents, disinfectants, cleaners, and auto products to Improve our quality of life. A chemical that presents a threat or unreasonable risk to people or the environment Is a hazardous material. When a hazardous material can no longer be used, It becomes a hazardous waste. Hazardous wastes come from a variety of sources, from both present and past activities. Impacts to human health and the environment can result from Improper handling and disposal of hazardous waste.

Vandas, Stephen; Cronin, Nancy L.; Artwork by Farrar, Frank; Translated into Spanish by Serrano, Guillermo Eliezer Ávila; Yajimovich, Oscar Efraín González; Muñoz, Aurora R.; Rivera, María del C.

1996-01-01

90

Geochemical behavior of disposed radioactive waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book examines the complex issue of radioactive waste disposal and the health hazards at underground waste sites. It assesses the chemical and physical behavior of wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle, from nuclear weapons testing, and from medical and research activities. It also reports recent findings in this area and looks at ongoing research.

G. S. Barney; W. W. Schulz; J. D. Navratil

1984-01-01

91

Environmental restoration waste materials co-disposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Co-disposal of radioactive and hazardous waste is a highly efficient and cost-saving technology. The technology used for final treatment of soil-washing size fractionization operations is being demonstrated on simulated waste. Treated material (wasterock) is used to stabilize and isolate retired underground waste disposal structures or is used to construct landfills or equivalent surface or subsurface structures. Prototype equipment is under

S. J. Phillips; R. G. Alexander; J. L. England; J. R. Kirdendall; E. A. Raney; W. E. Stewart; E. B. Dagan; R. G. Holt

1993-01-01

92

Municipal solid wastes and their disposal.  

PubMed Central

A brief overview is given of the sources, characteristics, and toxic constituents of municipal solid wastes. Several methods are presented for handling, treating, and disposal of solid wastes. Monitoring the landfill site is necessary; there has been a trend to recognize that municipal solid wastes may be hazardous and to provide separate secure handling, treatment, and disposal for their dangerous constituents. Under current state and Federal regulations, permits are being required to assure that proper handling of conventional solid wastes and more hazardous constituents are carefully managed.

Stone, R

1978-01-01

93

77 FR 50622 - Land Disposal Restrictions: Site-Specific Treatment Variance for Hazardous Selenium-Bearing Waste...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Selenium-Bearing Waste Treated by U.S. Ecology Nevada in Beatty, NV AGENCY: Environmental...Disposal Restrictions program, to U.S. Ecology Nevada in Beatty, Nevada for the treatment...This action applies only to U.S. Ecology Nevada located in Beatty, Nevada....

2012-08-22

94

Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (D-025): Summary of closure under Rules Governing Hazardous Waste Management in Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

On February 29, 1988, the Revised Closure Plan for Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin,'' Y/TS-390 (Reference 1) was submitted to the United States Department of Energy (DOE) for review and transmittal to the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE). The closure activities described in the closure plan have been performed. The purpose of this document is to summarize the closure activities for the Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal (CRSDB). The closure of CRSDB is a final closure. The Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (CRSDB), Unit D-025, was an unlined, man-made sediment disposal facility on Chestnut Ridge, south of New Hope Pond (NHP). The CRSDB was constructed during 1972--73 for the disposal of sediments hydraulically dredged from NHP. It was designed to hold approximately 30,000 cubic yards of sediments. Since 1973, the basin had been used for the periodic disposal of sediments excavated from NHP and its appurtenant structures. NHP has previously received discharges form RCRA-related waste streams. 19 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Stone, J.E.

1989-07-01

95

Household hazardous waste: Implementation of a permanent collection facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improper disposal of household hazardous wastes in the solid or liquid waste stream can cause serious environmental problems. Many local governments in Washington State and throughout the country are attempting to prevent these problems by diverting household hazardous wastes from municipal waste streams. Diversion requires several steps. The first is to make the public aware that household hazardous wastes are

Kissman

1989-01-01

96

Overview of Hazardous/Toxic Waste Incineration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Effective hazardous/toxic waste disposal and safe dumpsite cleanup are two of EPA's major missions in the 1980s. Incineration has been recognized as a very efficient process to destroy the hazardous wastes generated by industry or by the dumpsite remediat...

C. C. Lee G. L. Huffman D. A. Oberacker

1986-01-01

97

INCINERATOR AND KILN CAPACITY FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Estimates of incinerator and cement kiln capacities for hazardous waste treatment are required to evaluate the impacts of banning land disposal of hazardous wastes. RCRA Part B permit applications were reviewed to obtain information about incinerator design capacity, utilization ...

98

Hazardous Waste from Small Quantity Generators in the United States,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The EPA must evaluate the potential impact of small quantity generator hazardous waste on groundwater contamination in the United States, focusing on potential groundwater contamination due to small quantity generator hazardous waste disposal in municipal...

R. C. Herndon J. E. Moerlins C. M. Teaf V. W. Lambou J. D. Koutsandreas

1988-01-01

99

HANDBOOK ON TREATMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE LEACHATE  

EPA Science Inventory

Various treatment processes were evaluated for their applicability and effectiveness in treating leachate from hazardous waste land disposal facilities. These technologies include activated sludge treatment, air stripping, carbon adsorption, flow equalization, granular media filt...

100

Radioactive waste material disposal  

DOEpatents

The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide. 3 figs.

Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

1995-10-24

101

Radioactive waste material disposal  

DOEpatents

The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.

Forsberg, Charles W. (155 Newport Dr., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Beahm, Edward C. (106 Cooper Cir., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Parker, George W. (321 Dominion Cir., Knoxville, TN 37922)

1995-01-01

102

Hazardous solid waste from agriculture.  

PubMed Central

Large quantities of food processing, crop, forestry, and animal solid wastes are generated in the United States each year. The major components of these wastes are biodegradable. However, they also contain components such as nitrogen, human and animal pathogens, medicinals, feed additives, salts, and certain metals, that under uncontrolled conditions can be detrimental to aquatic, plant, animal, or human life. The most common method of disposal of these wastes is application to the land. Thus the major pathways for transmission of hazards are from and through the soil. Use of these wastes as animal feed also can be a pathway. While at this time there are no crises associated with hazardous materials in agricultural solid wastes, the potential for problems should not be underestimated. Manpower and financial support should be provided to obtain more detailed information in this area, esepcially to better delineate transport and dispersal and to determine and evaluate risks.

Loehr, R C

1978-01-01

103

Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company's hazardous waste program.  

PubMed

This paper discusses the present hazardous waste program of 3M Company (Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company). 3M's definition of hazardous waste and the company's position on hazardous waste disposal are first considered. The company position is that wherever and whenever the disposal of a waste material threatens the environment or public safety, then that waste should be considered a hazardous waste and treated accordingly in terms of its handling and ultimate disposal. The generation of hazardous wastes and the differentiation of "hazardous" and "nonhazardous" wastes are described next. Handling of hazardous wastes from their generation to their disposal is then covered. This includes a definition of internal 3M terminology and a description of the hazard rating system used by the company. Finally, 3M disposal practices are presented. It is 3M's position that thermal destruction of hazardous wastes, where appropriate, is the best method for their disposal. With this in mind, 3M has constructed incineration facilities throughout the country. The rotary kiln incinerator at the 3M Chemolite plant in Cottage Grove, Minnesota is briefly described. Disposal of certain hazardous wastes in controlled secure land disposal sites is then briefly discussed. PMID:738241

Van Noordwyk, H J; Santoro, M A

1978-12-01

104

Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company's hazardous waste program.  

PubMed Central

This paper discusses the present hazardous waste program of 3M Company (Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company). 3M's definition of hazardous waste and the company's position on hazardous waste disposal are first considered. The company position is that wherever and whenever the disposal of a waste material threatens the environment or public safety, then that waste should be considered a hazardous waste and treated accordingly in terms of its handling and ultimate disposal. The generation of hazardous wastes and the differentiation of "hazardous" and "nonhazardous" wastes are described next. Handling of hazardous wastes from their generation to their disposal is then covered. This includes a definition of internal 3M terminology and a description of the hazard rating system used by the company. Finally, 3M disposal practices are presented. It is 3M's position that thermal destruction of hazardous wastes, where appropriate, is the best method for their disposal. With this in mind, 3M has constructed incineration facilities throughout the country. The rotary kiln incinerator at the 3M Chemolite plant in Cottage Grove, Minnesota is briefly described. Disposal of certain hazardous wastes in controlled secure land disposal sites is then briefly discussed.

Van Noordwyk, H J; Santoro, M A

1978-01-01

105

Control Techniques for Gas Emissions from Hazardous Waste Landfills  

Microsoft Academic Search

While land disposal of hazardous wastes is being used widely as a practical and economically attractive disposal method, significant damage to the economy, environment, and public health have resulted from inadequate land disposal procedures. The air pollution aspects related to hazardous waste landfills are discussed. Topics addressed include landfill gas generation, problem identification, and control techniques. Three basic ways to

Thomas T. Shen

1981-01-01

106

Environmental restoration waste materials co-disposal  

SciTech Connect

Co-disposal of radioactive and hazardous waste is a highly efficient and cost-saving technology. The technology used for final treatment of soil-washing size fractionization operations is being demonstrated on simulated waste. Treated material (wasterock) is used to stabilize and isolate retired underground waste disposal structures or is used to construct landfills or equivalent surface or subsurface structures. Prototype equipment is under development as well as undergoing standardized testing protocols to prequalify treated waste materials. Polymer and hydraulic cement solidification agents are currently used for geotechnical demonstration activities.

Phillips, S.J.; Alexander, R.G.; England, J.L.; Kirdendall, J.R.; Raney, E.A.; Stewart, W.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Dagan, E.B.; Holt, R.G. [Dept. of Energy, Richland, WA (United States). Richland Operations Office

1993-09-01

107

Co-disposal of mixed waste materials  

SciTech Connect

Co-disposal of process waste streams with hazardous and radioactive materials in landfills results in large, use-efficiencies waste minimization and considerable cost savings. Wasterock, produced from nuclear and chemical process waste streams, is segregated, treated, tested to ensure regulatory compliance, and then is placed in mixed waste landfills, burial trenches, or existing environmental restoration sites. Large geotechnical unit operations are used to pretreat, stabilize, transport, and emplace wasterock into landfill or equivalent subsurface structures. Prototype system components currently are being developed for demonstration of co-disposal.

Phillips, S.J.; Alexander, R.G.; Crane, P.J.; England, J.L.; Kemp, C.J.; Stewart, W.E.

1993-08-01

108

LAND DISPOSAL, REMEDIAL ACTION, INCINERATION AND TREATMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE. PROCEEDINGS OF THE ANNUAL RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM (12TH) HELD AT CINCINNATI, OHIO ON APRIL 21-23, 1986  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the Symposium was to present the latest significant research findings of ongoing and recently completed projects funded by the Hazardous Waste Engineering Research Laboratory (HWERL) to persons concerned with hazardous waste management. These proceedings are for Se...

109

Bacteriological hazards of disposable bedpan systems  

PubMed Central

A system using disposable papier maché bedpans and urinals in hospital has advantages of ease of handling for the nurse and cleanliness for the patient. Disposal of the bedpans and their contents is by destruction and flushing to waste. Some bacteriological hazards of this process in the Haigh Sluicemaster and J.M.L. Clinimatic machines are assessed, particularly the dispersal of the contents in spray and aerosol during opening, closing, and running the machines. Various safety devices were tested and some deficiencies are discussed. A major defect in the system is the need at present for a bedpan carrier or support which is not disposable and requires cleaning and disinfection. Minor problems include ordering and storing bulky items, possibly the texture of the bedpans themselves, and perhaps the effect of the bulk of paper discharged into the sewage system. At present the system seems unsuitable for use in infectious disease hospitals and has some deficiencies in use in general wards. The improvements suggested would greatly increase its acceptability which should then be completely re-assessed. To this end the examination of improved models using totally disposable bedpans is proceeding. Images

Gibson, G. L.

1973-01-01

110

Federal and State Laws on Hazardous Waste  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity familiarizes students with legislation on hazardous waste, how it is developed, enacted, implemented, and enforced in the United States. Students discover that hazardous waste comes from a variety of sources, from both present and past activities. They also learn that years ago, before we understood the dangers of hazardous waste, there were no laws controlling its disposal and many businesses simply threw out their hazardous waste with the rest of their trash, into landfills, rivers or lakes. Congress created the Superfund Program to investigate and clean up hazardous waste sites nationwide. Students gain an understanding of how hazardous waste cleanup laws are enacted and intended to function by creating a statute and set of regulations that parallel the issues covered by Superfund.

111

Controlling the Epidemic of Hazardous Chemicals and Wastes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The disposal of waste products by man has led to the contamination of soil and ground-water. Problems associated with the disposal of hazardous waste are of major concern. Using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's definition of hazardous waste, the...

R. D. Hill

1983-01-01

112

Protecting the hazardous waste worker  

SciTech Connect

Due to the serious safety and health risk posed by hazardous waste, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) issued the Hazardous Waste Operation and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER) standard (29 CFR 1910.120)in March 1990. The most recent protection action is related to 29 CFR 1926.65, the standards that protect hazardous waste workers. As a basis for compliance with the standards, all requirements of Title 29 CFR Parts 1910, General OSHA Guidelines and 1926 Construction Standard apply. If there is any conflict or overlap of the standards, the provision most protective of the employees` safety and health must be implemented. OSHA has issued monetary penalties in the past, but many employers regarded the relatively low dollar amounts as a cost of doing business. In the Omnibus Budget Rehabilitation Act of 1990, Congress increased the maximum penalties for violations by seven times. Also, OSHA previously assessed one penalty for all similar violations at a facility. Under the new, formalized egregious penalty OSHA can cite separate violations and penalize for each violation in flagrant cases. HAZWOPER applies to employees involved in cleanup operations at uncontrolled hazardous waste sites; corrective actions involving cleanup operations at Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) sites; voluntary cleanup operations recognized by any government body as uncontrolled hazardous waste sites; routine operations at hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) facilities or portion of the facility regulated under 40 CFR Parts 264 and 265 pursuant to RCRA; and emergency response operations involving a release or substantial threat of release of a hazardous substance.

Roughton, J.

1995-06-01

113

Mixed waste disposal facilities at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a key installation of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The site is managed by DOE's Savannah River Field Office and operated under contract by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The Site's waste management policies reflect a continuing commitment to the environment. Waste minimization, recycling, use of effective pre-disposal treatments, and repository monitoring are high priorities at the site. One primary objective is to safely treat and dispose of process wastes from operations at the site. To meet this objective, several new projects are currently being developed, including the M-Area Waste Disposal Project (Y-Area) which will treat and dispose of mixed liquid wastes, and the Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (HW/MWDF), which will store, treat, and dispose of solid mixed and hazardous wastes. This document provides a description of this facility and its mission.

Wells, M.N.; Bailey, L.L.

1991-01-01

114

Mixed waste disposal facilities at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a key installation of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The site is managed by DOE`s Savannah River Field Office and operated under contract by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The Site`s waste management policies reflect a continuing commitment to the environment. Waste minimization, recycling, use of effective pre-disposal treatments, and repository monitoring are high priorities at the site. One primary objective is to safely treat and dispose of process wastes from operations at the site. To meet this objective, several new projects are currently being developed, including the M-Area Waste Disposal Project (Y-Area) which will treat and dispose of mixed liquid wastes, and the Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (HW/MWDF), which will store, treat, and dispose of solid mixed and hazardous wastes. This document provides a description of this facility and its mission.

Wells, M.N.; Bailey, L.L.

1991-12-31

115

Fate of high loads of ammonia in a pond and wetland downstream from a hazardous waste disposal site.  

PubMed

Halls Brook (eastern Massachusetts, USA) is a significant source of total dissolved ammonia (sum of NH(3) and NH(4)(+); (NH(3))(T)) to the Aberjona River, a water body listed for NH(3) impairment on the Clean Water Act section 303(d) list. We hypothesized (1) that (NH(3))(T) in Halls Brook derived from a hazardous waste site via groundwater discharging to a two-basin pond that feeds the brook; and (2) that transport of (NH(3))(T) to the Aberjona River was controlled by lacustrine and wetland processes. To test these hypotheses we measured (NH(3))(T) levels in the brook, the pond, and a wetlands directly downstream of the pond during both dry and wet weather over a ten month period. In addition, we analyzed sediment cores and nitrogen isotopes, and performed mass balance calculations. Groundwater discharge from beneath the hazardous waste site was the major source of (NH(3))(T) (20-67 kg d(-1)) and salinity to the north basin of the pond. The salty bottom waters of the north basin were anoxic on all sampling dates, and exhibited relatively stable (NH(3))(T) concentrations between 200 and 600 mg Nl(-1). These levels were >100-times higher than typical background levels, and 8-24-times above the acute effects level for (NH(3))(T) toxicity. Bottom waters from the north basin continuously spill over into the south basin contributing approximately 50% of the (NH(3))(T) load entering this basin. The remainder comes from Halls Brook, which receives (NH(3))(T) loadings from as yet unknown sources upstream. During storm events up to 50% of the mass of (NH(3))(T) was flushed from the south basin and into the wetlands. The wetlands acted as a (NH(3))(T) sink in dry weather in the growing season and a discharge-dependent (NH(3))(T) source to the Aberjona River during rainstorms. PMID:17346773

Cutrofello, Michele; Durant, John L

2007-07-01

116

75 FR 58328 - Nebraska: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SUMMARY: The Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended, commonly...hazardous wastes from regulation as solid waste is not supported by Nebraska Revised...limitations of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) of 1984....

2010-09-24

117

Mixed waste characterization, treatment & disposal focus area  

SciTech Connect

The mission of the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (referred to as the Mixed Waste Focus Area or MWFA) is to provide treatment systems capable of treating DOE`s mixed waste in partnership with users, and with continual participation of stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators. The MWFA deals with the problem of eliminating mixed waste from current and future storage in the DOE complex. Mixed waste is waste that contains both hazardous chemical components, subject to the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and radioactive components, subject to the requirements of the Atomic Energy Act. The radioactive components include transuranic (TRU) and low-level waste (LLW). TRU waste primarily comes from the reprocessing of spent fuel and the use of plutonium in the fabrication of nuclear weapons. LLW includes radioactive waste other than uranium mill tailings, TRU, and high-level waste, including spent fuel.

NONE

1996-08-01

118

HAZARDOUS WASTE FACILITIES, NEUSE RIVER WATERSHED, NC  

EPA Science Inventory

Locations of treatment, storage, and disposal facilities (TSDFs). These facilities are regulated under the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and must have a RCRA permit issued by the Division of Waste Management, Hazardous Waste Section to operat...

119

Special Report: Hazardous Wastes in Academic Labs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Topics and issues related to toxic wastes in academic laboratories are addressed, pointing out that colleges/universities are making efforts to dispose of hazardous wastes safely to comply with tougher federal regulations. University sites on the Environmental Protection Agency Superfund National Priorities List, costs, and use of lab packs are…

Sanders, Howard J.

1986-01-01

120

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) contingency plan for hazardous waste treatment, storage, and disposal units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Y-12 RCRA Contingency Plan will be continually reviewed and revised if any of the following occur: the facility permit is revised, the plan is inadequate in an emergency, the procedures can be improved, the operations of the facility change in a way that alters the plan, the emergency coordinator changes, or the emergency equipment list changes. Copies of the Y-12 Emergency Management Plan are available at the Plant Shift Superintendent`s Office and the Emergency Management Office. This document serves to supplement the Y-12 Emergency Management Plan to be appropriate for all RCRA hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal units. The 90-day accumulation areas at the Y-12 Plant have a separate contingency supplement as required by RCRA and are separate from this supplement.

Not Available

1994-08-01

121

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) general contingency plan for hazardous waste treatment, storage, and disposal units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Y-12 RCRA Contingency Plan will be continually reviewed and revised if any of the following occur: the facility permit is revised, the plan is inadequate in an emergency, the procedures herein can be improved, the operations of the facility change in a way that alters the plan, the emergency coordinator changes, or the emergency equipment list changes. Copies of the Y-12 Emergency Management Plan are available at the Plant Shift Superintendent`s Office and the Emergency Management Office. This document serves to supplement the Y-12 Emergency Management Plan to be appropriate for all RCRA hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal units. The 90-day accumulation areas at the Y-12 Plant have a separate contingency supplement as required by RCRA and are separate from this supplement.

Skaggs, B.E.

1993-11-01

122

Nuclear waste disposal in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Work on nuclear waste disposal in space conducted by the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and contractors are reported. From the aggregate studies, it is concluded that space disposal of nuclear waste is technically feasible.

Burns, R. E.; Causey, W. E.; Galloway, W. E.; Nelson, R. W.

1978-01-01

123

ACTIVATED SLUDGE TREATMENT OF SELECTED AQUEOUS ORGANIC HAZARDOUS WASTE COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

As a result of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 and the concurrent land disposal restrictions rule, EPA is in the process of demonstrating achievable treatment techniques to be used as alternatives to the land disposal of hazardous wastes. ata are being collected ...

124

Hazardous waste management and pollution prevention  

SciTech Connect

The management of hazardous wastes is one of the most critical environmental issues that faces many developing countries. It is one of the areas where institutional control and treatment and disposal technology has not kept pace with economic development. This paper reviews the development of hazardous waste management methods over the past decades, and provides the information on the status and trends of hazardous waste management strategy in selected western nations. Several issues pertinent to hazardous waste management will be reviewed, including: (1) definition of hazard; (2) why are we concerned with hazardous wastes; (3) aspects of hazardous waste management system; and (4) prioritization of hazardous waste management options. Due to regulatory and economic pressure on hazardous waste management, pollution prevention has become a very important environmental strategy in many developed countries. In many developed countries, industry is increasingly considering such alternative approaches, and finding many opportunities for their cost effective implementation. This paper provides a review of the status and trends of pollution prevention in selected western nations.

Chiu, Shen-yann.

1992-01-01

125

Hazardous waste management and pollution prevention  

SciTech Connect

The management of hazardous wastes is one of the most critical environmental issues that faces many developing countries. It is one of the areas where institutional control and treatment and disposal technology has not kept pace with economic development. This paper reviews the development of hazardous waste management methods over the past decades, and provides the information on the status and trends of hazardous waste management strategy in selected western nations. Several issues pertinent to hazardous waste management will be reviewed, including: (1) definition of hazard; (2) why are we concerned with hazardous wastes; (3) aspects of hazardous waste management system; and (4) prioritization of hazardous waste management options. Due to regulatory and economic pressure on hazardous waste management, pollution prevention has become a very important environmental strategy in many developed countries. In many developed countries, industry is increasingly considering such alternative approaches, and finding many opportunities for their cost effective implementation. This paper provides a review of the status and trends of pollution prevention in selected western nations.

Chiu, Shen-yann

1992-03-01

126

Technology transfer in hazardous waste management  

SciTech Connect

Hazardous waste is a growing problem in all parts of the world. Industrialized countries have had to deal with the treatment and disposal of hazardous wastes for many years. The newly industrializing countries of the world are now faced with immediate problems of waste handling. The developing nations of the world are looking at increasing quantities of hazardous waste generation as they move toward higher levels of industrialization. Available data are included on hazardous waste generation in Asia and the Pacific as a function of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Although there are many inconsistencies in the data (inconsistent hazardous waste definitions, inconsistent reporting of wastes, etc.) there is definite indication that a growing economy tends to lead toward larger quantities of hazardous waste generation. In developing countries the industrial sector is growing at a faster rate than in the industrialized countries. In 1965 industry accounted for 29% of GDP in the developing countries of the world. In 1987 this had grown to 37% of GDP. In contrast, industry accounted for 40% of GDP in 1965 in industrialized countries and dropped to 35% in 1987. This growth in industrial activity in the developing countries brings an increase in the need to handle hazardous wastes. Although hazardous wastes are ubiquitous, the control of hazardous wastes varies. The number of regulatory options used by various countries in Asia and the Pacific to control wastes are included. It is evident that the industrialized countries, with a longer history of having to deal with hazardous wastes, have found the need to use more mechanisms to control them. 2 refs., 2 figs.

Drucker, H.

1989-01-01

127

Greater confinement disposal of radioactive wastes  

SciTech Connect

Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) includes a broad spectrum of different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and hazards. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most LLW. A small volume fraction (approx. 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx. 90%) requires specific measures known as greater-confinement disposal (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics.

Trevorrow, L.E.; Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Merry-Libby, P.A.; Meshkov, N.K.; Yu, C.

1985-01-01

128

HANDBOOK FOR REMEDIAL ACTION AT WASTE DISPOSAL SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

This handbook is directed toward technical personnel in federal, state, regional, and municipal agencies involved in the cleanup of hazardous waste disposal sites, industrial surface impoundments, and municipal, industrial, and combined landfills. It contains a summary of the flo...

129

Hazardous Waste Tanks Risk Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this analysis was to assess the human health risks associated with: (1) the population of hazardous waste tanks under the current regulatory approach; and (2) the population of hazardous waste tanks under the various regulatory strategies c...

1986-01-01

130

Hazardous Waste Tanks Risk Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the analysis was to assess the human health risks associated with: (1) the population of hazardous waste tanks under the current regulatory approach; and (2) the population of hazardous waste tanks under the various regulatory strategies co...

1986-01-01

131

Hazardous Waste Reference Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of hazardous wastes is rapidly growing and changing. Many corporations and consultants are engaging in work in the field. Librarians must be familiar with some basic sources in order to provide current information to their users. This article lists sources that can be used as a basis on which to build a collection in this subject area.

Frances Drone-Silvers; Sara Tompson

1993-01-01

132

Natural hazards phenomena mitigation with respect to seismic hazards at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report provides information on the seismic hazard for design of the proposed Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF), a facility designed for the disposal of wastes generated during the cleanup of Hanford Site aggregate areas. The preferred ERDF site is located south and east of 200 East and 200 West Areas. The Washington State Groundwater Protection Program (WAC 173-303-806 (4)(a)(xxi))

Reidel

1994-01-01

133

Packages for Radiactive Waste Disposal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of multi-stage type package for sea disposal of compactable nuclear wastes, is presented. The basic requirements for the project followed the NEA and IAEA recommendations and observations of the solutions adopted by others countries. The p...

R. Oliveira

1983-01-01

134

Hazardous waste management in developing countries (India): a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hazardous waste management in the Medak district of Andhra Pradesh is in the initial stage of development. It is found from the survey that there are a total 111 hazardous waste generating units distributed in different industrial areas, viz. Bollarum, Bonthapallyand Patancheru. Since the wastes generated by the industries in the district are small, mostly on?site storage\\/disposal in lagoons, pits,

Inamul Haq; S. P. Chakrabarti

1997-01-01

135

ESTIMATING LEACHATE PRODUCTION FROM CLOSED HAZARDOUS WASTE LANDFILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Hazardous wastes disposed of in landfills may continue to drain for several years after site closure. The report presents suitable analytical methods for predicting the flow of leachate to underdrains from closed hazardous waste landfills. Leachate sources include waste fluids as...

136

Hanford Site Mixed Waste Disposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant volumes of mixed low-level waste (MLLW) will be generated as part of the management and remediation of the Hanford Site. The MLLW that is generated as part of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) process will largely be managed as part of that remediation effort, with disposal likely in the centralized Environmental Restoration Disposal

2001-01-01

137

Vadose zone monitoring for hazardous waste sites  

SciTech Connect

This book describes the applicability of vadose zone monitoring techniques to hazardous waste site investigations. More than 70 different sampling and nonsampling vadose zone monitoring techniques are described in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. Physical, chemical, geologic, topographic, geohydrologic, and climatic constraints for vadose zone monitoring are quantitatively determined. Vadose zone monitoring techniques are categorized for premonitoring, active, and postclosure site assessments. Waste disposal methods are categorized for piles, landfills, impoundments, and land treatment. Conceptual vadose zone monitoring approaches are developed for specific waste disposal method categories.

Everett, L.G.; Wilson, L.G.; Hoylman, E.W.

1983-10-01

138

Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (D-025): Summary of closure under Rules Governing Hazardous Waste Management in Tennessee.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On February 29, 1988, the ''Revised Closure Plan for Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin,'' Y/TS-390 (Reference 1) was submitted to the United States Department of Energy (DOE) for review and transmittal to the Tennessee Department of Health and Enviro...

J. E. Stone

1989-01-01

139

Tank Waste Disposal Program redefinition  

SciTech Connect

The record of decision (ROD) (DOE 1988) on the Final Environmental Impact Statement, Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic and Tank Wastes, Hanford Site, Richland Washington identifies the method for disposal of double-shell tank waste and cesium and strontium capsules at the Hanford Site. The ROD also identifies the need for additional evaluations before a final decision is made on the disposal of single-shell tank waste. This document presents the results of systematic evaluation of the present technical circumstances, alternatives, and regulatory requirements in light of the values of the leaders and constitutents of the program. It recommends a three-phased approach for disposing of tank wastes. This approach allows mature technologies to be applied to the treatment of well-understood waste forms in the near term, while providing time for the development and deployment of successively more advanced pretreatment technologies. The advanced technologies will accelerate disposal by reducing the volume of waste to be vitrified. This document also recommends integration of the double-and single-shell tank waste disposal programs, provides a target schedule for implementation of the selected approach, and describes the essential elements of a program to be baselined in 1992.

Grygiel, M.L.; Augustine, C.A.; Cahill, M.A.; Garfield, J.S.; Johnson, M.E.; Kupfer, M.J.; Meyer, G.A.; Roecker, J.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Holton, L.K.; Hunter, V.L.; Triplett, M.B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1991-10-01

140

Developments in management and technology of waste reduction and disposal.  

PubMed

Scandals and public dangers from the mismanagement and poor disposal of hazardous wastes during the 1960s and 1970s awakened the modern-day environmental movement. Influential publications such as "Silent Spring" and high-profile disposal failures, for example, Love Canal and Lekkerkerk, focused attention on the use of chemicals in everyday life and the potential dangers from inappropriate disposal. This attention has not abated and developments, invariably increasing expectations and tightening requirements, continue to be implemented. Waste, as a surrogate for environmental improvement, is a topic where elected representatives and administrations continually want to do more. This article will chart the recent changes in hazardous waste management emanating from the European Union legislation, now being implemented in Member States across the continent. These developments widen the range of discarded materials regarded as "hazardous," prohibit the use of specific chemicals, prohibit the use of waste management options, shift the emphasis from risk-based treatment and disposal to inclusive lists, and incorporate waste producers into more stringent regulatory regimes. The impact of the changes is also intended to provide renewed impetus for waste reduction. Under an environmental control system where only certainty is tolerated, the opportunities for innovation within the industry and the waste treatment and disposal sector will be explored. A challenging analysis will be offered on the impact of this regulation-led approach to the nature and sustainability of hazardous waste treatment and disposal in the future. PMID:17119227

Rushbrook, Philip

2006-09-01

141

Practical aspects of hazardous waste management for hospitals.  

PubMed

The two previous articles in this four-part series introduced the need for hazardous waste management in hospitals, the regulatory background, and insight into determining which hospital waste streams are hazardous or infectious. In this article the author focuses on the management of these waste streams including handling, packaging, storage procedures, and methods of disposal, and discusses those factors which need to be considered when choosing a disposal method. PMID:10280341

Kesner, B T

1986-11-01

142

Politics of Radioactive Waste Disposal  

SciTech Connect

What role does public acceptance play in the siting of facilities and the selection of technologies designed to manage nuclear waste That's the question posed by Ray Kemp in The Politics of Radioactive Waste Disposal. To answer this question, Kemp assesses and compares the decision-making processes in Western Europe, Canada, and the United States.

Kemp, R.

1994-01-01

143

USE OF SORBENT MATERIALS FOR TREATING HAZARDOUS WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The Department of Defense (DoD) spends millions of dollars each year to dispose of hazardous liquid wastes from military facilities. The Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) alone spent $23 million during fiscal year 1994 to dispose of 64 million pounds of liquid hazardous materials. T...

144

Managing previously disposed waste to today's standards  

SciTech Connect

A Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) was established at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in 1952 for controlled disposal of radioactive waste generated at the INEL. Between 1954 and 1970 waste characterized by long lived, alpha emitting radionuclides from the Rocky Flats Plant was also buried at this site. Migration of radionuclides and other hazardous substances from the buried Migration of radionuclides and other hazardous substances from the buried waste has recently been detected. A Buried Waste Program (BWP) was established to manage cleanup of the buried waste. This program has four objectives: (1) determine contaminant sources, (2) determine extent of contamination, (3) mitigate migration, and (4) recommend an alternative for long term management of the waste. Activities designed to meet these objectives have been under way since the inception of the program. The regulatory environment governing these activities is evolving. Pursuant to permitting activities under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) entered into a Consent Order Compliance Agreement (COCA) for cleanup of past practice disposal units at the INEL. Subsequent to identification of the RWMC as a release site, cleanup activities proceeded under dual regulatory coverage of RCRA and the Atomic Energy Act. DOE, EPA, and the State of Idaho are negotiating a RCRA/Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Interagency Agreement (IAG) for management of waste disposal sites at the INEL as a result of the November 1989 listing of the INEL on the National Priority List (NPL). Decision making for selection of cleanup technology will be conducted under the CERCLA process supplemented as required to meet the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). 7 figs.

Not Available

1990-01-01

145

Optimizing High Level Waste Disposal  

SciTech Connect

If society is ever to reap the potential benefits of nuclear energy, technologists must close the fuel-cycle completely. A closed cycle equates to a continued supply of fuel and safe reactors, but also reliable and comprehensive closure of waste issues. High level waste (HLW) disposal in borosilicate glass (BSG) is based on 1970s era evaluations. This host matrix is very adaptable to sequestering a wide variety of radionuclides found in raffinates from spent fuel reprocessing. However, it is now known that the current system is far from optimal for disposal of the diverse HLW streams, and proven alternatives are available to reduce costs by billions of dollars. The basis for HLW disposal should be reassessed to consider extensive waste form and process technology research and development efforts, which have been conducted by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), international agencies and the private sector. Matching the waste form to the waste chemistry and using currently available technology could increase the waste content in waste forms to 50% or more and double processing rates. Optimization of the HLW disposal system would accelerate HLW disposition and increase repository capacity. This does not necessarily require developing new waste forms, the emphasis should be on qualifying existing matrices to demonstrate protection equal to or better than the baseline glass performance. Also, this proposed effort does not necessarily require developing new technology concepts. The emphasis is on demonstrating existing technology that is clearly better (reliability, productivity, cost) than current technology, and justifying its use in future facilities or retrofitted facilities. Higher waste processing and disposal efficiency can be realized by performing the engineering analyses and trade-studies necessary to select the most efficient methods for processing the full spectrum of wastes across the nuclear complex. This paper will describe technologies being evaluated at Idaho National Laboratory and the facilities we’ve designed to evaluate options and support optimization.

Dirk Gombert

2005-09-01

146

Navy aquatic hazardous waste sites: the problem and possible solutions. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Data on 367 hazardous waste disposal sites at 58 Navy Marine Corps activities, located in the coastal zone, were reviewed to characterize the contaminants, disposal methods, and potentially impacted environments present at navy aquatic hazardous waste sites. This report identifies Navy aquatic hazardous waste site problems, assesses technology requirements, and describes remedial pilot projects being initiated at impacted aquatic sites.

Johnston, R.K.; Wild, W.J.; Richter, K.E.; Lapota, D.; Stang, P.M.

1989-08-01

147

Natural hazards phenomena mitigation with respect to seismic hazards at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility  

SciTech Connect

This report provides information on the seismic hazard for design of the proposed Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF), a facility designed for the disposal of wastes generated during the cleanup of Hanford Site aggregate areas. The preferred ERDF site is located south and east of 200 East and 200 West Areas. The Washington State Groundwater Protection Program (WAC 173-303-806 (4)(a)(xxi)) requires that the characteristics of local and regional hydrogeology be defined. A plan for that work has been developed (Weekes and Borghese 1993). In addition, WAC 173-303-282 provides regulatory guidance on siting a dangerous waste facility, and US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.28 requires consideration of natural phenomena hazards mitigation for DOE sites and facilities. This report provides information to evaluate the ERDF site with respect to seismic hazard. The ERDF will be a Corrective Action Management Unit (CAMU) as defined by 40 CFR 260.10.

Reidel, S.P.

1994-01-06

148

76 FR 30027 - Land Disposal Restrictions: Site-Specific Treatment Variance for Hazardous Selenium-Bearing Waste...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Selenium-Bearing Waste Treated by U.S. Ecology Nevada in Beatty, NV and Withdrawal of...site-specific treatment variance to U.S. Ecology Nevada in Beatty, Nevada and withdrew...site-specific treatment variance to U.S. Ecology Nevada in Beatty, Nevada and...

2011-05-24

149

Peristaltic pumps for waste disposal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Laboratory robots are capable of generating large volumes of hazardous liquid wastes when they are used to perform chemical analyses of metal finishing solutions. A robot at Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division, generates 30 gallons of acid waste each...

G. W. Griffith

1992-01-01

150

Tritium waste disposal technology in the US  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tritium waste disposal methods in the US range from disposal of low specific activity waste along with other low-level waste in shallow land burial facilities, to disposal of kilocurie amounts in specially designed triple containers in 65' deep augered holes located in an aird region of the US. Total estimated curies disposed of are 500,000 in commercial burial sites and

E. L. Albenesius; O. A. Towler

1983-01-01

151

Organic waste disposal system  

SciTech Connect

Organic waste material is pneumatically transported within air and mixed therewith by swirling flow through an annular ejector passage of varying radial width into a reaction flow passage of an eductor nozzle section receiving the output plume of a plasma torch for initiating therein thermal gasification of the waste mixture. The plasma torch plume projects from the eductor section into a diffuser section within which thermal gasification is continued before discharge of gasified waste.

Nolting, E.E.; Colfield, J.; Richard, R.; Peterson, S.

1997-12-31

152

Radiological hazards of TENORM in the wasted petroleum pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disposal petroleum pipes containing sludge and scale as a technically enhanced natural occurring radioactive material (TENORM) leads to internal and external radiation hazards and then a significant radiation dose to the workers. In order to contribute to a future waste management policy related to the presence of TENORM in the disposal sites of wasted petroleum pipes, scale and sludge as

M. Abo-Elmagd; H. A. Soliman; Kh. A. Salman; N. M. El-Masry

2010-01-01

153

GUIDE TO TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR HAZARDOUS WASTES AT SUPERFUND SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

Over the past fewyears, it has become increasinsly evident that land disposal of hazardous wastes is at least only a temporary solution for much of the wastes present at Superfund sites. The need for more Iong-term, permanent "treatment solutions as alternatives to land disposal ...

154

Improving medical waste disposal  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the use of electron-beam irradiation, steam detoxification, and microwave disinfection systems rather than incineration to rid the waste stream of medical scraps. The topics of the article include biological waste stream sources and amounts, pyrolysis and oxidation, exhaust gas cleanup, superheated steam sterilization and detoxification.

O'Connor, L.

1994-05-01

155

Improving medical waste disposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the use of electron-beam irradiation, steam detoxification, and microwave disinfection systems rather than incineration to rid the waste stream of medical scraps. The topics of the article include biological waste stream sources and amounts, pyrolysis and oxidation, exhaust gas cleanup, superheated steam sterilization and detoxification.

OConnor

1994-01-01

156

HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN THE UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper was prepared for presentation at a joint US/Spain Seminar on Hazardous Waste Management to be held in Madrid, Spain, on May 19-22, 1986. Hazardous waste quantities produced in the United States and how they are handled/disposed of are presented. Major environmental legi...

157

MEASUREMENTS AND MODELS FOR HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL AND MIXED WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

Mixed hazardous and low-level radioactive wastes are in storage at DOE sites around the United States, awaiting treatment and disposal. These hazardous chemical wastes contain many components in multiple phases, presenting very difficult handling and treatment problems. These was...

158

COMPARISON OF ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATORS VERSUS THE 1990 TOXICS RELEASE INVENTORY AIR RELEASES  

EPA Science Inventory

Incineration is often the preferred technology for disposing of hazardous waste and remediating Superfund sites. he effective implementation of this technology is frequently impeded by strong public opposition to hazardous waste incineration (HWI). ne of the reasons cited for thi...

159

A COMPARISON: ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATORS VERSUS THE 1990 TOXICS RELEASE INVENTORY AIR RELEASES.  

EPA Science Inventory

Incineration is often the preferred technology for disposing of hazardous waste, and remediating Superfund sites. The effective implementation of this technology is frequently impeded by strong public opposition `to hazardous waste' incineration HWI). One of the reasons cited for...

160

Organic Waste Disposal System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Organic waste material is pneumatically transported within air and mixed therewith by swirling flow through an annular ejector passage of varying radial width into a reaction flow passage of an eductor nozzle section receiving the output plume of a plasma...

E. E. Nolting J. Colfield R. Richard S. Peterson

1997-01-01

161

Mythology of Waste Disposal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper, while making a parallel between the mythology of the dangers of alcohol when the United States adopted a constitutional amendment prohibiting intoxicating liquor and public attitudes towards the dangers of nuclear waste burial, outlines the re...

Beckhofer

1981-01-01

162

Incinerator and cement kiln capacity for hazardous waste treatment  

SciTech Connect

Estimates of incinerator and cement kiln capacities for hazardous waste treatment are required to evaluate the impacts of banning land disposal of hazardous wastes. Hazardous waste permit applications were reviewed to obtain information about incinerator design capacity, utilization, and the incinerated hazardous wastes. This study identified 208 incinerators within the regulatory program of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act that are presently destroying approximately 2 million metric tons of hazardous waste annually. The unused potential capacity of these units is estimated to be 1 million metric tons of waste per year. The estimated annual hazardous waste treatment capacity available in cement in kilns ranges between 2 and 6 million metric tons. Factors affecting this low utilization include the large geographic distances separating some major waste generation sites from cement kilns, marginal economic benefits, and the uncertainty of some kiln operators about regulatory requirements.

Vogel, G.A.; Goldfarb, A.S.; Zier, R.E.; Jewell, A.

1987-01-01

163

Hospital waste disposal by incineration: waste streams, technology, and state requirements  

SciTech Connect

Biomedical wastes are generated by hospitals, laboratories, animal research facilities, and by other institutional sources. The disposal of these wastes is coming under critical public scrutiny, and regulations are being promulgated to control their disposal. Incineration is not a final disposal method since it generates a solid residue (ash) which must be buried or otherwise disposed. The incineration process, however, renders the waste non-toxic, non-hazardous, and non-putrescible, and reduces the volume of material for ultimate disposal by an order of magnitude. In some instances, the residue may have high levels of heavy metals; however, this is the exception rather than the rule.

Brunner, C.R.; Brown, C.H.

1988-10-01

164

DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS WASTE. PROCEEDINGS OF THE ANNUAL RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM (6TH) HELD AT CHICAGO, ILLINOIS ON MARCH 17-20, 1980  

EPA Science Inventory

These proceedings are a compilation of the papers presented by symposium speakers. They are divided into two volumes representing the technologies of Treatment and Disposal. The primary technical areas covered are: (1) Waste Sampling and Characteristics; (2) Transport and Fate of...

165

[Hospital and environment: waste disposal].  

PubMed

Like all production units, hospitals produce waste and are responsible for waste disposal. Hospital waste is particular due to the environmental risks involved, particularly concerning infection, effluents, and radionucleide contamination. Management plans are required to meet environmental, hygiene and regulatory obligations and to define reference waste products. The first step is to optimize waste sorting, with proper definition of the different categories, adequate containers (collection stations, color-coded sacks), waste circuits, intermediate then central storage areas, and finally transfer to an incineration unit. Volume and delay to elimination must be carefully controlled. Elimination of drugs and related products is a second aspect: packaging, perfusion pouches, tubing, radiopharmaceutic agents. These later products are managed with non-sealed sources whose elimination depends on the radioactive period, requiring selective sorting and specific holding areas while radioactivity declines. Elimination of urine and excreta containing anti-cancer drugs or intravesical drugs, particularly coming from protected rooms using radioactive iodine is another aspect. There is also a marginal flow of unused or expired drugs. For a health establishment, elimination of drugs is not included as part of waste disposal. This requires establishing a specific circuit with selective sorting and carefully applied safety regulations. Market orders for collecting and handling hospital wastes must be implemented in compliance with the rules of Public Health Tenders. PMID:14639187

Faure, P; Rizzo Padoin, N

2003-11-01

166

COMPILATION OF DISPOSABLE SOLID WASTE CASK EVALUATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) is a shielded cask capable of transporting, storing, and disposing of six non-fuel core components or approximately 27 cubic feet of radioactive solid waste. Five existing DSWCs are candidates for use in storing and disposing of non-fuel core components and radioactive solid waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell, ultimately shipping them to

J. R. THIELGES; S. A. CHASTAIN

2007-01-01

167

Concept for Underground Disposal of Nuclear Waste  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Packaged waste placed in empty oil-shale mines. Concept for disposal of nuclear waste economically synergistic with earlier proposal concerning backfilling of oil-shale mines. New disposal concept superior to earlier schemes for disposal in hard-rock and salt mines because less uncertainty about ability of oil-shale mine to contain waste safely for millenium.

Bowyer, J. M.

1987-01-01

168

Hazardous Waste Superfund Collection: Database Thesaurus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Hazardous Waste Superfund Collection Database Thesaurus provides an index to terminology related to hazardous waste and facilitates the use of the Hazardous Waste Superfund Collection Database. The second edition of the Thesaurus includes several new ...

1990-01-01

169

Legislative aspects of hazardous waste management.  

PubMed Central

In the fall of 1976 Congress enacted the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, commonly referred to as RCRA. The objective of the statute is to create an orderly system for the generation, handling and disposal of hazardous waste by means of a comprehensive tracking and record keeping mechanism. RCRA does not regulate directly by statute so much as it delegates rule making authority to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Pursuant to its mandate to develop regulations in accordance with the broad criteria of RCRA, EPA has published extensive regulations. These regulations address hazardous waste generation, transportation, treatment, storage and handling and its final disposal. The statute also offers remedies available to both EPA and the public at large to ensure enforcement of the provisions of RCRA and the EPA regulations. Additionally, it sets guidelines for states to implement their own hazardous waste management programs. This article is intended to introduce this complicated statutory/regulatory package to scientists and health professionals. It outlines the provisions of RCRA and the EPA regulations, abbreviates early judicial decisions interpreting these provisions and sets forth a brief description of various state approaches to hazardous waste management.

Friedman, M

1983-01-01

170

Participatory management of waste disposal.  

PubMed

The general objective of this study was to develop a sustainable waste disposal management model in Yom riverside communities by creating a sense of ownership in the project among the villagers and encourage the community to identify problems based on their socio-cultural background. The participatory approach was applied in developing a continual learning process between the researcher and stakeholders. The Tub Phueng community of Si Samrong, Sukhothai Province was selected as the location for this study. From the population of 240 households in the area, 40 stakeholders were selected to be on the research team. The team found that the waste in this community was comprised of 4 categories: 1. Occupation: discarded insecticide containers used for farming activities; 2. Consumption: plastic bags and wrappers form pre-packed foods; 3. Traditional activities: after holding ceremonies and festivities, the waste was dumped in the river; and 4. Environmental hygiene: waste water from washing, bathing, toileting, cooking and cleaning was directly drained into the Yom River. The sustainable waste disposal model developed to manage these problems included building simple waste-water treatment wells, digging garbage holes, prosecuting people who throw garbage into the river, withdrawing privileges from people who throw garbage into the river, and establishing a garbage center. Most of the villagers were satisfied with the proposed model, looked forward to the expected positive changes, and thought this kind of solution would be easy to put into practice. PMID:16124458

Noosorn, Narongsak

2005-05-01

171

Northeast Regional environmental impact study: Waste disposal technical report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential for cumulative and interactive environmental impacts associated with the conversion of multiple generating stations in the Northeast is assessed. The estimated quantities and composition of wastes resulting from coal conversion, including ash and SO2 scrubber sludge, are presented. Regulations governing the use of ash and scrubber sludge are identified. Currently available waste disposal schemes are described. The location, capacity, and projected life of present and potential disposal sites in the region are identified. Waste disposal problems, both hazardous and nonhazardous, are evaluated. Environmental regulations within the region as they pertain to coal conversion and as they affect the choice of conversion alternatives are discussed. A regional waste management strategy for solid waste disposal is developed.

Saguinsin, J. L. S.

1981-04-01

172

OSHA training requirements for hazardous waste operations  

SciTech Connect

This guidance addresses training requirements for personnel working, auditing, touring, and visiting DOE hazardous waste areas, including treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) facilities regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and environmental restoration sites regulated under RCRA corrective action authority and/or the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). Applicable DOE Orders and the OSHA regulations should be consulted to ensure full compliance with all requirements.

Not Available

1991-12-01

173

The capacitated distribution and waste disposal problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the problem of the simultaneous design of a distribution network with plants and waste disposal units, and the coordination of product flows and waste flows within this network. The objective is to minimize the sum of fixed costs for opening plants and waste disposal units, and variable costs related to product and waste flows. The problem is complicated

Jacqueline M. Bloemhof-Ruwaard; Marc Salomon; Luk N. Van Wassenhove

1996-01-01

174

Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility Complex Waste Acceptance Criteria  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Disposal Facility (ICDF) has been designed to accept CERCLA waste generated within the Idaho National Laboratory. Hazardous, mixed, low-level, and Toxic Substance Control Act waste will be accepted for disposal at the ICDF. The purpose of this document is to provide criteria for the quantities of radioactive and/or hazardous constituents allowable in waste streams designated for disposal at ICDF. This ICDF Complex Waste Acceptance Criteria is divided into four section: (1) ICDF Complex; (2) Landfill; (3) Evaporation Pond: and (4) Staging, Storage, Sizing, and Treatment Facility (SSSTF). The ICDF Complex section contains the compliance details, which are the same for all areas of the ICDF. Corresponding sections contain details specific to the landfill, evaporation pond, and the SSSTF. This document specifies chemical and radiological constituent acceptance criteria for waste that will be disposed of at ICDF. Compliance with the requirements of this document ensures protection of human health and the environment, including the Snake River Plain Aquifer. Waste placed in the ICDF landfill and evaporation pond must not cause groundwater in the Snake River Plain Aquifer to exceed maximum contaminant levels, a hazard index of 1, or 10-4 cumulative risk levels. The defined waste acceptance criteria concentrations are compared to the design inventory concentrations. The purpose of this comparison is to show that there is an acceptable uncertainty margin based on the actual constituent concentrations anticipated for disposal at the ICDF. Implementation of this Waste Acceptance Criteria document will ensure compliance with the Final Report of Decision for the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Operable Unit 3-13. For waste to be received, it must meet the waste acceptance criteria for the specific disposal/treatment unit (on-Site or off-Site) for which it is destined.

W. Mahlon Heileson

2006-10-01

175

Hazardous chemical and radioactive wastes at Hanford  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site was established in 1944 to produce plutonium for defense. During the past four decades, a number of reactors, processing facilities, and waste management facilities have been built at Hanford for plutonium production. Generally, Hanford`s 100 Area was dedicated to reactor operation; the 200 Area to fuel reprocessing, plutonium recovery, and waste management; and the 300 Area to fuel fabrication and research and development. Wastes generated from these operations included highly radioactive liquid wastes, which were discharged to single- and double-shell tanks; solid wastes, including both transuranic (TRU) and low-level wastes, which were buried or discharged to caissons; and waste water containing low- to intermediate-level radioactivity, which was discharged to the soil column via near-surface liquid disposal units such as cribs, ponds, and retention basins. Virtually all of the wastes contained hazardous chemical as well as radioactive constituents. This paper will focus on the hazardous chemical components of the radioactive mixed waste generated by plutonium production at Hanford. The processes, chemicals used, methods of disposition, fate in the environment, and actions being taken to clean up this legacy are described by location.

Keller, J.F.; Stewart, T.L.

1991-07-01

176

Hazardous chemical and radioactive wastes at Hanford  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site was established in 1944 to produce plutonium for defense. During the past four decades, a number of reactors, processing facilities, and waste management facilities have been built at Hanford for plutonium production. Generally, Hanford's 100 Area was dedicated to reactor operation; the 200 Area to fuel reprocessing, plutonium recovery, and waste management; and the 300 Area to fuel fabrication and research and development. Wastes generated from these operations included highly radioactive liquid wastes, which were discharged to single- and double-shell tanks; solid wastes, including both transuranic (TRU) and low-level wastes, which were buried or discharged to caissons; and waste water containing low- to intermediate-level radioactivity, which was discharged to the soil column via near-surface liquid disposal units such as cribs, ponds, and retention basins. Virtually all of the wastes contained hazardous chemical as well as radioactive constituents. This paper will focus on the hazardous chemical components of the radioactive mixed waste generated by plutonium production at Hanford. The processes, chemicals used, methods of disposition, fate in the environment, and actions being taken to clean up this legacy are described by location.

Keller, J.F.; Stewart, T.L.

1991-07-01

177

Hazardous waste lawsuits, stockholder returns, and deterrence  

SciTech Connect

For the RCRA and Superfund Acts, the publicly announced desired effects are the protection of the public and natural resources from, and ultimate cleanup of, hazardous waste materials. If the regulations are working, firms are being deterred from illegal disposal of wastes. If not, the regulations are providing only illusions of improved safety, while the public actually faces a never ending process of site discovery and cleanup. While not addressed in previous empirical literature, the deterrent effects of the RCRA and Superfund Acts are the focus of this paper. The deterrent effects of the RCRA and Superfund Acts stem from the potential for suits against responsible parties seeking an end to violations, site cleanup, and reimbursement for expenditures and damages. This paper measures the impact of hazardous waste mismanagement lawsuits on stockholder returns. Specifically, the standard event-study method is used to directly measure the abnormal losses suffered by stockholders associated with lawsuit filings and settlements between 1977 and 1986.

Muoghalu, M.I. (Pittsburgh State Univ., KS (USA)); Robison, H.D. (LaSalle Univ., Philadelphia, PA (USA)); Glascock, J.L. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge (USA))

1990-10-01

178

ORNL grouting technologies for immobilizing hazardous wastes  

SciTech Connect

The Cement and Concrete Applications Group at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed versatile and inexpensive processes to solidify large quantities of hazardous liquids, sludges, and solids. By using standard off the shelf processing equipment, these batch or continuous processes are compatible with a wide range of disposal methods, such as above-ground storage, shallow-land burial, deep geological disposal, sea-bed dumping, and bulk in-situ solidification. Because of their economic advantages, these latter bulk in-situ disposal scenarios have received the most development. ORNL's experience has shown that tailored cement-based formulas can be developed which tolerate wide fluctuations in waste feed compositions and still maintain mixing properties that are compatible with standard equipment. In addition to cements, these grouts contain pozzolans, clays and other additives to control the flow properties, set-times, phase separations and impacts of waste stream fluctuation. The cements, fly ashes and other grout components are readily available in bulk quantities and the solids-blends typically cost less than $0.05 to 0.15 per waste gallon. Depending on the disposal scenario, total disposal costs (material, capital, and operating) can be as low as $0.10 to 0.50 per gallon.

Dole, L.R.; Trauger, D.B.

1983-01-01

179

Hazardous Waste\\/Mixed Waste Treatment Building Safety Information Document (SID)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Safety Information Document (SID) provides a description and analysis of operations for the Hazardous Waste\\/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility Treatment Building (the Treatment Building). The Treatment Building has been classified as a moderate hazard facility, and the level of analysis performed and the methodology used are based on that classification. Preliminary design of the Treatment Building has identified the need

L. B. Fatell; G. B. Woolsey

1993-01-01

180

Effects from past solid waste disposal practices.  

PubMed

This paper reviews documented environmental effects experience from the disposal of solid waste materials in the U.S. Selected case histories are discussed that illustrate waste migration and its actual or potential effects on human or environmental health. Principal conclusions resulting from this review were: solid waste materials do migrate beyond the geometric confines of the initial placement location; environmental effects have been experienced from disposal of municipal, agricultural, and toxic chemical wastes; and utilization of presently known science and engineering principles in sitting and operating solid waste disposal facilities would make a significant improvement in the containment capability of shallow land disposal facilities. PMID:367769

Johnson, L J; Daniel, D E; Abeele, W V; Ledbetter, J O; Hansen, W R

1978-12-01

181

Portable sensor for hazardous waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are part-way through the second phase of a 4-year program designed to develop a portable monitor for sensitive hazardous waste detection. The ultimate goal of the program is to develop our concept to the prototype instrument level. Our monitor will be a compact, portable instrument that will allow real-time, in situ, monitoring of hazardous wastes. This instrument will be

L. G. Piper; A. J. R. Hunter; M. E. Fraser; S. J. Davis

1996-01-01

182

Waste disposal by shale fracturing at ORNL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shale fracturing process is a method of waste disposal currently in use at ORNL for the permanent disposal of certain locally generated radioactive waste solutions. In this process, the waste solution is mixed with a solids blend of cement and other additives; the resulting grout is injected into an impermeable shale formation at a depth of 700 to 1000

H WEEREN

1977-01-01

183

Overview of Radioactive Waste Disposal at Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

For hundreds of years, the seas have been used as a place to dispose of wastes from human activities. Although no high level radioactive waste has been disposed of into the sea, variable amounts of packaged low level radioactive wastes have been dumped at 47 sites in the northern part of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. in 1946 the first

Dominique Calmet

1992-01-01

184

Disposal requirements for PCB waste  

SciTech Connect

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic chemicals that had become widely used in industrial applications due to their practical physical and chemical properties. Historical uses of PCBs include dielectric fluids (used in utility transformers, capacitors, etc.), hydraulic fluids, and other applications requiring stable, fire-retardant materials. Due to findings that PCBs may cause adverse health effects and due to their persistence and accumulation in the environment, the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), enacted on october 11, 1976, banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 [Section 6(e)]. The first PCB regulations, promulgated at 40 CFR Part 761, were finalized on February 17, 1978. These PCB regulations include requirements specifying disposal methods and marking (labeling) procedures, and controlling PCB use. To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in its efforts to comply with the TSCA statute and implementing regulations, the Office of Environmental Guidance has prepared the document ``Guidance on the Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).`` That document explains the requirements specified in the statute and regulations for managing PCBs including PCB use, storage, transport, and disposal. PCB materials that are no longer in use and have been declared a waste must be disposed of according to the requirements found at 40 CFR 761.60. These requirements establish disposal options for a multitude of PCB materials including soil and debris, liquid PCBs, sludges and slurries, containers, transformers, capacitors, hydraulic machines, and other electrical equipment. This Information Brief supplements the PCB guidance document by responding to common questions concerning disposal requirements for PCBs. It is one of a series of Information Briefs pertinent to PCB management issues.

NONE

1994-12-01

185

Waste mixes study for space disposal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space disposal for certain high level (HLW) and transuranic wastes (TRU) are studied to determine if removal of radionuclides from HLW and TRU significantly reduces the long term radiological risks of geologic disposal, to determine if chemical partitioning of the waste for space disposal is technically feasible, to identify acceptable waste forms for space disposal, and to compare improvements in geologic disposal system performace to impacts of additional treatment, storage and transportation necessary for space disposal. It is concluded that the incentive for space disposal is that it offers a perception of reduced risks rather than significant reduction. Suitable waste forms for space disposal are cermet for HLW, metallic technetium, and lead iodide. Space disposal of HLW appears to offer insignificant safety enhancements when compared to geologic disposal; the disposal of iodine and technetium wastes in space does not offer risk advantages. Increases in short-term doses for the alternatives are minimal; however, incremental costs of treating, storing and transporting wastes for space disposal are substantial.

McCallum, R. F.; Blair, H. T.; McKee, R. W.; Silviera, D. J.; Swanson, J. L.

1983-01-01

186

Control technology assessment of hazardous-waste-disposal operations in chemicals manufacturing: in-depth survey report of San Juan Cement Company, Dorado, Puerto Rico, November 1981  

SciTech Connect

A visit was made to the San Juan Cement Company, Dorado, Puerto Rico to evaluate control methods for a storage and delivery system for hazardous wastes used in a demonstration project as a supplemental fuel for cofiring a cement kiln. Analysis of the material during the visit revealed the presence of methylene chloride, carbon-tetrachloride, chloroform, acetone, hexane, ethanol, and ethyl acetate. Steel storage tanks were placed on an impermeable concrete slab surrounded by a sealed retaining wall. Steel piping with all welded joints carried the waste fuels from storage tanks to the kiln, where fuels were injected through a specially fabricated burner. Vapor emissions were suppressed by venting the displaced vapor through a recycle line. Exhaust gases from the kiln passed through a bag house type dust collector, and were vented to the atmosphere through a single stack. Half-mask air-purifying respirators were used when in the hazardous-waste storage/delivery area. Neoprene gloves were used when performing tasks with potential skin contact. Hard hats, safety glasses, and safety boots were all worn. The author concludes that the control methods used seemed effective in suppressing vapor emissions.

Crandall, M.S.

1982-07-01

187

Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) disposable solid waste cask.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) evaluates and documents the ability of the Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) to meet the packaging requirements of HNF-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping, for the onsite transfer of special form,...

B. D. Flanagan

1996-01-01

188

GASIFICATION OF HAZARDOUS ORGANIC WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this project is to co-gasify a simulated chlorinated organic waste stream with coal and determine if toxic chlorinated organics are formed during the gasification process. EPA's Office of Solid Waste (OSW) recently proposed regulatory changes in which hazardous wa...

189

Comprehensive Hazardous Waste Management: An Achievable Goal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This white paper was prepared for 'Challenges and Opportunities: Managing Hazardous Waste in the Pacific Northwest,' a hazardous waste management symposium. It discusses the elements of a comprehensive waste management system and the response of Federal a...

1987-01-01

190

Hazardous Waste Reduction Program: Phase I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of the hazardous waste reduction program for Santa Monica businesses, an analysis of chemical waste generation is identified by the type; volume of hazardous wastes generated by the city. The report provides a comprehensive strategy which addresse...

1988-01-01

191

VOLATILE EMISSIONS FROM STABILIZATION/SOLIDIFICATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

The EPA Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) and the Office of Solid Waste (OSW) are gathering information to control emissions from hazardous waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities (TSDFs). he EPA Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL) provided t...

192

Hazardous-waste-treatment research - US Environmental Protection Agency (update)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment and thermal destruction are becoming the most viable methods for disposing of hazardous wastes. Wastes can be destroyed through a variety of treatment methods and in incinerators, boilers, kilns, and other high-temperature industrial processes. The destruction of these materials is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act as amended. The Office of Research and Development of the U.S.

Dial

1985-01-01

193

Hazardous-waste-treatment research - US Environmental Protection Agency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment and thermal destruction are becoming the most viable methods for disposing of hazardous wastes. Wastes can be destroyed through a variety of treatment methods and in incinerators, boilers, kilns, and other high-temperature industrial processes. The destruction of these materials is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act as amended. The Office of Research and Development of the U.S.

Dial

1985-01-01

194

HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION IN INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES: CEMENT AND LIME KILNS  

EPA Science Inventory

With more liquid wastes due to be banned from land disposal facilities, expanding hazardous waste incineration capacity becomes increasingly important. At the same time, industrial plants are increasingly seeking to find new sources of lower cost fuel, specifically from the dispo...

195

Current legislation governing clinical waste disposal.  

PubMed

The paper considers UK and EC Legislation regulating clinical waste disposal. The legal definition of clinical waste is distinguished from both 'health care waste' and 'infectious waste'. Waste can be pre-treated so as to enable it to be disposed of through the normal waste stream. The legislation is looked at by reference to (i) production and storage; (ii) handling and transportation; and (iii) disposal. It is vitally important to draw up a waste management strategy. Effective segregation at source is a key factor in the waste management strategy and it will enable hospital authorities to make economic savings in waste disposal costs. The Paper considers the Duty of Care under the Environmental Protection Act 1990 and stresses the obligation on each person in the waste disposal chain to discharge the Duty. Landfilling as a method of disposal is discouraged except for waste where no possibility of infection arises. There are problems with hospital incinerators meeting modern emission standards. Requirements for licensing new incinerators are examined. The new Waste Management Licensing Regulations 1994 require applications for Waste Management Licenses to demonstrate technical and financial competence as 'fit and proper persons'. The Paper concludes by examining penalties for breach of regulatory provisions. PMID:7560993

Moritz, J M

1995-06-01

196

A Comparison of Organic Emissions from Hazardous Waste Incinerators Versus the 1990 Toxics Release Inventory Air Releases  

EPA Science Inventory

Incineration is often the preferred technology for disposing of hazardous waste and remediating Superfund sites. The effective implementation of this technology is frequently impeded by strong public opposition to hazardous waste incineration (HWI). One of the reasons cited for t...

197

Hazardous waste treatment facility and skid-mounted treatment systems at Los Alamos  

SciTech Connect

To centralize treatment, storage, and staging areas for hazardous wastes, Los Alamos National Laboratory has designed a 12,000-ft{sup 2} hazardous waste treatment facility. The facility will house a treatment room for each of four kinds of wastes: nonradioactive characteristic wastes, nonradioactive listed wastes radioactive characteristic wastes, and radioactive listed wastes. The facility will be used for repacking labpacks, bulking small organic waste volumes, processing scintillation vials, treating reactives such as lithium hydride and pyrophoric uranium, treating contaminated solids such as barium sand, and treating plating wastes. The treated wastes will then be appropriately disposed of. This report describes the integral features of the hazardous waste treatment facility.

Lussiez, G.W.; Zygmunt, S.J.

1993-05-01

198

High-level waste processing and disposal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The national high level waste disposal plans for France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, and the United States are covered. Three conclusions are reached. The first conclusion is that an excellent technology already exists for high level waste disposal. With appropriate packaging, spent fuel seems to be an acceptable waste form. Borosilicate glass reprocessing waste forms are well understood, in production in France, and scheduled for production in the next few years in a number of other countries. For final disposal, a number of candidate geological repository sites have been identified and several demonstration sites opened. The second conclusion is that adequate financing and a legal basis for waste disposal are in place in most countries. Costs of high level waste disposal will probably and about 5 to 10% to the costs of nuclear electric power. Third conclusion is less optimistic.

Crandall, J. L.; Drause, H.; Sombret, C.; Uematsu, K.

199

Potentially hazardous waste produced at home  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to identify the sources of waste generation household consisting of biological material and to investigate the knowledge presented by those responsible for the generation of waste in the home environment on the potential health risk human and environmental. Method It is a quantitative survey performed in Parque Capuava, Santo André (SP). The questionnaire was administered by the community employers and nursing students during the consultation with nursing supervision through interview question/answer. The exclusion criteria were patients who were not in the area served by the Basic Health Unit which covers the area of Pq Capuava. The sample was consisted of 99 persons and the data collection a questionnaire was used. Results We observed that 63.3% of people said to use disposables, with the majority (58.7%) of these use the public collection as the final destination of these materials. It was reported that 73.7% of those surveyed reported having knowledge about the risk of disease transmission. Public awareness of the importance of proper packaging and disposal of potentially hazardous household waste may contribute significantly to the preservation of human and environmental health and this procedure can be performed and supervised by professional nurses. Conclusion We suggest implementation of workshops for community health workers and the general population in order to enhance their knowledge about the storage and disposal of potentially infectious waste generated at home, thereby reducing the potential risk of disease transmission by improper management.

2013-01-01

200

Vegetative soil covers for hazardous waste landfills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shallow land burial has been the preferred method for disposing of municipal and hazardous wastes in the United States because it is the simplest, cheapest, and most cost-effective method of disposal. Arid and semiarid regions of the western United States have received considerable attention over the past two decades in reference to hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste disposal. Disposal is based upon the premise that low mean annual precipitation, high evapotranspiration, and low or negligible recharge, favor waste isolation from the environment for long periods of time. The objective of this study is to demonstrate that containment of municipal and hazardous wastes in arid and semiarid environments can be accomplished effectively without traditional, synthetic materials and complex, multi-layer systems. This research demonstrates that closure covers utilizing natural soils and native vegetation i.e., vegetative soil covers, will meet the technical equivalency criteria prescribed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for hazardous waste landfills. Vegetative soil cover design combines layers of natural soil, native plant species, and climatic conditions to form a sustainable, functioning ecosystem that maintains the natural water balance. In this study, percolation through a natural analogue and an engineered cover is simulated using the one-dimensional, numerical code UNSAT-H. UNSAT-H is a Richards' equation-based model that simulates soil water infiltration, unsaturated flow, redistribution, evaporation, plant transpiration, and deep percolation. This study incorporates conservative, site-specific soil hydraulic and vegetation parameters. Historical meteorological data from 1919 to 1996 are used to simulate percolation through the natural analogue and an engineered cover, with and without vegetation. This study indicates that a 1 m (3 ft) cover is the minimum design thickness necessary to meet the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-prescribed technical equivalency criteria of 31.5 mm/year and 1 x 10-7 cm/second for net annual percolation and average flux, respectively. Increasing cover thickness to 1.2 m (4 ft) or 1.5 m (5 ft) results in limited additional improvement in cover performance. Under historical climatic conditions, net annual percolation and average flux through a 1 m (3 ft) cover is directed upward at 0.28 mm/year and 9.03 x 10-10 cm/second, respectively, for a soil cover with vegetation.

Peace, Jerry L.

201

Geological disposal of energy-related waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of waste materials during energy recovery processes is an unavoidable consequence of the need for energy; consequently,\\u000a safe and efficient disposal or reuse alternatives for these waste materials is essential for sustainable development. For\\u000a waste streams that must be geologically disposed, the largest volumes of energy related waste include Coal Combustion Products\\u000a (CCPs) such as fly ash, coal

N. N. N. Yeboah; S. E. Burns

2011-01-01

202

Method for energy recovery from solid hazardous waste  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a method for achieving environmentally sound disposal of hazardous waste in an operating rotary kiln. It comprises a heated, rotating cylinder containing in-process mineral material. The method comprises: the steps of packaging the hazardous waste in containers and charging the containerized hazardous waste into the kiln to contact the mineral material at a point along the length of the kiln cylinder where the kiln gas temperature ranges from about 950{sup 0}C to about 1200{sup 0}C.

Benoit, M.R.; Hansen, E.R.; Reese, T.J.

1989-07-25

203

Low level radioactive waste disposal\\/treatment technology overview: Savannah River site  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Savannah River Site will begin operation of several low-level waste disposal\\/treatment facilities during the next five years, including a new low-level solid waste disposal facility, a low-level liquid effluent treatment facility, and a low-level liquid waste solidification process. Closure of a radioactive hazardous waste burial ground will also be completed. Technical efforts directed toward waste volume reduction include compaction,

Sturm; H. F. Jr

1987-01-01

204

Method and apparatus for incinerating hazardous waste  

DOEpatents

An incineration apparatus and method for disposal of infectious hazardous waste including a fluidized bed reactor containing a bed of granular material. The reactor includes a first chamber, a second chamber, and a vertical partition separating the first and second chambers. A pressurized stream of air is supplied to the reactor at a sufficient velocity to fluidize the granular material in both the first and second chambers. Waste materials to be incinerated are fed into the first chamber of the fluidized bed, the fine waste materials being initially incinerated in the first chamber and subsequently circulated over the partition to the second chamber wherein further incineration occurs. Coarse waste materials are removed from the first chamber, comminuted, and recirculated to the second chamber for further incineration. Any partially incinerated waste materials and ash from the bottom of the second chamber are removed and recirculated to the second chamber for further incineration. This process is repeated until all infectious hazardous waste has been completely incinerated.

Korenberg, Jacob (York, PA)

1990-01-01

205

Biological treatment of hazardous waste  

SciTech Connect

This reference book is intended for individuals interested in or involved with the treatment of hazardous wastes using biological/biochemical processes. Composed of 13 chapters, it covers a wide variety of topics ranging from engineering design to hydrogeologic factors. The first four chapters are devoted to a description of several different types of bioreactors. Chapter 5 discusses the biofiltration of volatile organic compounds. Chapters 6 through 9 discuss specific biological, biochemical, physical, and engineering factors that affect bioremediation of hazardous wastes. Chapter 10 is a very good discussion of successful bioremediation of pentachlorophenol contamination under laboratory and field conditions, and excellent references are provided. The next chapter discusses the natural biodegradation of PCB-contaminated sediments in the Hudson River in New York state. Chapter 12 takes an excellent look at the bioremediation capability of anaerobic organisms. The final chapter discusses composting of hazardous waste.

Lewandowski, G.A.; Filippi, L.J. de [eds.

1998-12-01

206

Waste disposal options report. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

Volume 2 contains the following topical sections: estimates of feed and waste volumes, compositions, and properties; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Zr calcine; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Al calcine; determination of k{sub eff} for high level waste canisters in various configurations; review of ceramic silicone foam for radioactive waste disposal; epoxides for low-level radioactive waste disposal; evaluation of several neutralization cases in processing calcine and sodium-bearing waste; background information for EFEs, dose rates, watts/canister, and PE-curies; waste disposal options assumptions; update of radiation field definition and thermal generation rates for calcine process packages of various geometries-HKP-26-97; and standard criteria of candidate repositories and environmental regulations for the treatment and disposal of ICPP radioactive mixed wastes.

Russell, N.E.; McDonald, T.G.; Banaee, J.; Barnes, C.M.; Fish, L.W.; Losinski, S.J.; Peterson, H.K.; Sterbentz, J.W.; Wenzel, D.R.

1998-02-01

207

The politics of nuclear-waste disposal  

SciTech Connect

After 72 days of public hearings and testimony from more than 100 witnesses, the first commission of its kind in the US found that politics--not science and engineering--led to the selection of Martinsville, Ill. as the host site for a nuclear-waste-disposal facility. This article examines how the plan to dispose of nuclear waste in Martinsville ultimately unraveled.

Tarricone, P.

1994-03-01

208

Disposal of low-level radioactive wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The generation of low-level radioactive waste is a natural consequence of the societal uses of radioactive materials. These uses include the application of radioactive materials to the diagnosis and treatment of human disease and to research into the causes of human disease and their prevention. Currently, low level radioactive wastes are disposed of in one of three shallow land-burial disposal

W HENDEE

1986-01-01

209

Information requirements for the Department of Energy Defense Programs' hazardous and mixed wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document contains viewgraphs from a presentation made to the DOE Low-Level Waste Management Conference in Denver, Colorado. The presentation described information and data base systems that describe hazardous and mixed waste treatment, storage, and disposal. (TEM)

Herron

1987-01-01

210

Nuclear waste disposal educational forum  

SciTech Connect

In keeping with a mandate from the US Congress to provide opportunities for consumer education and information and to seek consumer input on national issues, the Department of Energy's Office of Consumer Affairs held a three-hour educational forum on the proposed nuclear waste disposal legislation. Nearly one hundred representatives of consumer, public interest, civic and environmental organizations were invited to attend. Consumer affairs professionals of utility companies across the country were also invited to attend the forum. The following six papers were presented: historical perspectives; status of legislation (Senate); status of legislation (House of Representatives); impact on the legislation on electric utilities; impact of the legislation on consumers; implementing the legislation. All six papers have been abstracted and indexed for the Energy Data Base.

Not Available

1982-10-18

211

Aerosol can waste disposal device  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a device for removing gases and liquid from containers. The device punctures the bottom of a container for purposes of exhausting gases and liquid from the container without their escaping into the atmosphere. The device includes an inner cup or cylinder having a top portion with an open end for receiving a container and a bottom portion which may be fastened to a disposal or waste container in a substantially leak-proof manner. A piercing device is mounted in the lower portion of the inner cylinder for puncturing the can bottom placed in the inner cylinder. An outer cylinder having an open end and a closed end fits over the top portion of the inner cylinder in telescoping engagement. A force exerted on the closed end of the outer cylinder urges the bottom of a can in the inner cylinder into engagement with the piercing device in the bottom of the inner cylinder to form an opening in the can bottom, thereby permitting the contents of the can to enter the disposal container. 7 figures.

O'Brien, M.D.; Klapperick, R.L.; Bell, C.

1993-12-21

212

DISPOSABLE CANISTER WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this calculation is to provide the bases for defining the preclosure limits on radioactive material releases from radioactive waste forms to be received in disposable canisters at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain. Specifically, this calculation will provide the basis for criteria to be included in a forthcoming revision of the Waste Acceptance System Requirements Document (WASRD) that limits releases in terms of non-isotope-specific canister release dose-equivalent source terms. These criteria will be developed for the Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel (DSNF) standard canister, the Multicanister Overpack (MCO), the naval spent fuel canister, the High-Level Waste (HLW) canister, the plutonium can-in-canister, and the large Multipurpose Canister (MPC). The shippers of such canisters will be required to demonstrate that they meet these criteria before the canisters are accepted at the MGR. The Quality Assurance program is applicable to this calculation. The work reported in this document is part of the analysis of DSNF and is performed using procedure AP-3.124, Calculations. The work done for this analysis was evaluated according to procedure QAP-2-0, Control of Activities, which has been superseded by AP-2.21Q, Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities. This evaluation determined that such activities are subject to the requirements of DOE/RW/0333P, Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (DOE 2000). This work is also prepared in accordance with the development plan titled Design Basis Event Analyses on DOE SNF and Plutonium Can-In-Canister Waste Forms (CRWMS M&O 1999a) and Technical Work Plan For: Department of Energy Spent Nuclear Fuel Work Packages (CRWMS M&O 2000d). This calculation contains no electronic data applicable to any electronic data management system.

R.J. Garrett

2001-07-30

213

Trench design and construction techniques for low-level radioactive waste disposal. [Shallow land burial  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document provides information on trench design and construction techniques which can be used in the disposal of LLW by shallow land burial. It covers practices currently in use not only in the LLW disposal field, but also methods and materials being used in areas of hazardous and municipal waste disposal which are compatible with the performance objectives of 10

1983-01-01

214

Management and disposal of waste from sites contaminated by radioactivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various methods of managing and disposing of wastes generated by decontamination and decommissioning (D & D) activities are described. This review of current waste management practices includes a description of waste minimization and volume reduction techniques and their applicability to various categories of radwaste. The importance of the physical properties of the radiation and radioactivity in determining the methodology of choice throughout the D & D process is stressed. The subject is introduced by a survey of the common types of radioactive contamination that must be managed and the more important hazards associated with each type. Comparisons are made among high level, transuranic, low level, and radioactive mixed waste, and technologically-enhanced, naturally-occurring radioactive material (TENORM). The development of appropriate clean-up criteria for each category of contaminated waste is described with the aid of examples drawn from actual practice. This includes a discussion of the application of pathway analysis to the derivation of residual radioactive material guidelines. The choice between interim storage and permanent disposal of radioactive wastes is addressed. Approaches to permanent disposal of each category of radioactive waste are described and illustrated with examples of facilities that have been constructed or are planned for implementation in the near future. Actual experience at older, existing, low-level waste disposal facilities is discussed briefly.

Roberts, Carlyle J.

1998-06-01

215

Integrating waste management with Job Hazard analysis  

SciTech Connect

The web-based Automated Job Hazard Analysis (AJHA) system is a tool designed to help capture and communicate the results of the hazard review and mitigation process for specific work activities. In Fluor Hanford's day-to-day work planning and execution process, AJHA has become the focal point for integrating Integrated Safety Management (ISM) through industrial health and safety principles; environmental safety measures; and involvement by workers, subject-matter experts and management. This paper illustrates how AJHA has become a key element in involving waste-management and environmental-control professionals in planning and executing work. To support implementing requirements for waste management and environmental compliance within the core function and guiding principles of an integrated safety management system (ISMS), Fluor Hanford has developed the a computer-based application called the 'Automated Job Hazard Analysis' (AJHA), into the work management process. This web-based software tool helps integrate the knowledge of site workers, subject-matter experts, and safety principles and requirements established in standards, and regulations. AJHA facilitates a process of work site review, hazard identification, analysis, and the determination of specific work controls. The AJHA application provides a well-organized job hazard analysis report including training and staffing requirements, prerequisite actions, notifications, and specific work controls listed for each sub-task determined for the job. AJHA lists common hazards addressed in the U.S. Occupational, Safety, and Health Administration (OSHA) federal codes; and State regulations such as the Washington Industrial Safety and Health Administration (WISHA). AJHA also lists extraordinary hazards that are unique to a particular industry sector, such as radiological hazards and waste management. The work-planning team evaluates the scope of work and reviews the work site to identify potential hazards. Hazards relevant to the work activity being analyzed are selected from the listing provided in AJHA. The work team can also enter one-time hazards unique to the work activity. Because AJHA is web based, it can be taken into the field during site walk-downs using wireless or cell- phone technologies. Once hazards are selected, AJHA automatically lists mandatory and optional controls, based on the referenced codes and good work practices. The hazards selected may also require that additional specific analysis be performed, focusing on the unique characteristics of the job being analyzed. For example, the physical characteristics, packaging, handling, and disposal requirements for a specific waste type. The work team then evaluates the identified hazards and related controls and adds details as needed for the specific work activity being analyzed. The selection of relevant hazards also triggers required reviews by subject-matter experts (SMEs) and the on-line completion of necessary forms and permits. The details of the hazard analysis are reviewed on line or in a work- team group setting. SME approvals are entered on-line and are published in the job hazard analysis report. (authors)

NONE

2007-07-01

216

Final Hazard Categorization for the Remediation of the 116-C-3 Chemical Waste Tanks  

SciTech Connect

This final hazard categorization (FHC) document examines the hazards, identifies appropriate controls to manage the hazards, and documents the commitments for the 116-C-3 Chemical Waste Tanks Remediation Project. The remediation activities analyzed in this FHC are based on recommended treatment and disposal alternatives described in the Engineering Evaluation for the Remediation to the 116-C-3 Chemical Waste Tanks (BHI 2005e).

T. M. Blakley; W. D. Schofield

2007-09-10

217

Public opinion and hazardous waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citizen's anxiety over the prospects of a hazardous waste facility in their backyard is a nationwide phenomenon. While at one time communities vied mercilessly for the fruits of public sector spending, changes in US society and technology have created a new attitude toward government projects. Time and again, siting attempts result in anguished local protests and project vetoes. It is

W. Lyons; M. R. Fitzgerald; A. McCabe

1987-01-01

218

THERMAL DESTRUCTION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

Since 1982, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been conducting performance assessments of hazardous waste thermal destruction facilities in the United States. The principal objective of these tests has been to characterize emissions and determine if these faciliti...

219

Treatability study of aqueous, land disposal restricted mixed wastes  

SciTech Connect

Treatment studies have been completed on two aqueous waste streams at the Mixed Waste Storage Facility that are classified as land disposal restricted. Both wastes had mercury and lead as characteristic hazardous constituents. Samples from one of these wastes, composed of mercury and lead sulfide particles along with dissolved mercury and lead, was successfully treated by decanting, filtering, and ion exchanging. The effluent water had an average level of 0.003 and 0.025 mg/L of mercury and lead, respectively. These values are well below the targeted RCRA limits of 0.2 mg/L mercury and 5.0 mg/L lead. An acidic stream, containing the same hazardous metals, was also successfully treated using a treatment process of precipitation, filtering, and then ion exchange. Treatment of another waste was not completely successful, presumably because of the interference of a chelating agent.

Haefner, D.R.

1992-12-01

220

Staged mold for encapsulating hazardous wastes  

DOEpatents

A staged mold for stabilizing hazardous wastes for final disposal by molding an agglomerate of the hazardous wastes and encapsulating the agglomerate. Three stages are employed in the process. In the first stage, a first mold body is positioned on a first mold base, a mixture of the hazardous wastes and a thermosetting plastic is loaded into the mold, the mixture is mechanically compressed, heat is applied to cure the mixture to form a rigid agglomerate, and the first mold body is removed leaving the agglomerate sitting on the first mold base. In the second stage, a clamshell second mold body is positioned around the agglomerate and the first mold base, a powdered thermoplastic resin is poured on top of the agglomerate and in the gap between the sides of the agglomerate and the second mold body, the thermoplastic is compressed, heat is applied to melt the thermoplastic, and the plastic is cooled jacketing the agglomerate on the top and sides. In the third stage, the mold with the jacketed agglomerate is inverted, the first mold base is removed exposing the former bottom of the agglomerate, powdered thermoplastic is poured over the former bottom, the first mold base is replaced to compress the thermoplastic, heat is applied to melt the new thermoplastic and the top part of the jacket on the sides, the plastic is cooled jacketing the bottom and fusing with the jacketing on the sides to complete the seamless encapsulation of the agglomerate.

Unger, Samuel L. (Los Angeles, CA); Telles, Rodney W. (Alhambra, CA); Lubowitz, Hyman R. (Rolling Hills Estates, CA)

1990-01-01

221

Staged mold for encapsulating hazardous wastes  

DOEpatents

A staged mold for stabilizing hazardous wastes for final disposal by molding an agglomerate of the hazardous wastes and encapsulating the agglomerate. Three stages are employed in the process. In the first stage, a first mold body is positioned on a first mold base, a mixture of the hazardous wastes and a thermosetting plastic is loaded into the mold, the mixture is mechanically compressed, heat is applied to cure the mixture to form a rigid agglomerate, and the first mold body is removed leaving the agglomerate sitting on the first mold base. In the second stage, a clamshell second mold body is positioned around the agglomerate and the first mold base, a powdered thermoplastic resin is poured on top of the agglomerate and in the gap between the sides of the agglomerate and the second mold body, the thermoplastic is compressed, heat is applied to melt the thermoplastic, and the plastic is cooled jacketing the agglomerate on the top and sides. In the third stage, the mold with the jacketed agglomerate is inverted, the first mold base is removed exposing the former bottom of the agglomerate, powdered thermoplastic is poured over the former bottom, the first mold base is replaced to compress the thermoplastic, heat is applied to melt the new thermoplastic and the top part of the jacket on the sides, the plastic is cooled jacketing the bottom and fusing with the jacketing on the sides to complete the seamless encapsulation of the agglomerate.

Unger, Samuel L. (Los Angeles, CA); Telles, Rodney W. (Alhambra, CA); Lubowitz, Hyman R. (Rolling Hills Estates, CA)

1988-01-01

222

HAZARDOUS WASTE IDENTIFICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

This research is in direct support of the regulatory reform efforts under the Hazarous Waste Identification (HWIR) and is related to the development of national "exit levels" based on sound scientific data and models. Research focuses on developing a systems approach to modelin...

223

Salt caverns for oil field waste disposal.  

SciTech Connect

Salt caverns used for oil field waste disposal are created in salt formations by solution mining. When created, caverns are filled with brine. Wastes are introduced into the cavern by pumping them under low pressure. Each barrel of waste injected to the cavern displaces a barrel of brine to the surface. The brine is either used for drilling mud or is disposed of in an injection well. Figure 8 shows an injection pump used at disposal cavern facilities in west Texas. Several types of oil field waste may be pumped into caverns for disposal. These include drilling muds, drill cuttings, produced sands, tank bottoms, contaminated soil, and completion and stimulation wastes. Waste blending facilities are constructed at the site of cavern disposal to mix the waste into a brine solution prior to injection. Overall advantages of salt cavern disposal include a medium price range for disposal cost, large capacity and availability of salt caverns, limited surface land requirement, increased safety, and ease of establishment of individual state regulations.

Veil, J.; Ford, J.; Rawn-Schatzinger, V.; Environmental Assessment; RMC, Consultants, Inc.

2000-07-01

224

Integrating Total Quality Management (TQM) and hazardous waste management  

SciTech Connect

The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 and its subsequent amendments have had a dramatic impact on hazardous waste management for business and industry. The complexity of this law and the penalties for noncompliance have made it one of the most challenging regulatory programs undertaken by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The fundamentals of RCRA include ``cradle to grave`` management of hazardous waste, covering generators, transporters, and treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. The regulations also address extensive definitions and listing/identification mechanisms for hazardous waste along with a tracking system. Treatment is favored over disposal and emphasis is on ``front-end`` treatment such as waste minimization and pollution prevention. A study of large corporations such as Xerox, 3M, and Dow Chemical, as well as the public sector, has shown that well known and successful hazardous waste management programs emphasize pollution prevention and employment of techniques such as proactive environmental management, environmentally conscious manufacturing, and source reduction. Nearly all successful hazardous waste programs include some aspects of Total Quality Management, which begins with a strong commitment from top management. Hazardous waste management at the Rocky Flats Plant is further complicated by the dominance of ``mixed waste`` at the facility. The mixed waste stems from the original mission of the facility, which was production of nuclear weapons components for the Department of Energy (DOE). A Quality Assurance Program based on the criterion in DOE Order 5700.6C has been implemented at Rocky Flats. All of the elements of the Quality Assurance Program play a role in hazardous waste management. Perhaps one of the biggest waste management problems facing the Rocky Flats Plant is cleaning up contamination from a forty year mission which focused on production of nuclear weapon components.

Kirk, N. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

1993-11-01

225

MULTIMED, THE MULTIMEDIA EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT MODEL FOR EVALUATING THE LAND DISPOSAL OF WASTES - MODEL THEORY  

EPA Science Inventory

The MULTIMED computer model simulates the transport and transformation of contaminants released from a hazardous waste disposal facility into the multimedia environment. elease to air and soil, including the unsaturated and saturated zones, and possible interception of the subsur...

226

Public Health Aspects of Land Disposal of Sugar Refining Wastes by Spray Irrigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The potential of a public health hazard caused by the spray irrigation disposal of sugar beet processing wastes contaminated with Salmonella bacteria was investigated at the Hillsboro, North Dakota plant of the American Crystal Sugar Company. Incoming sug...

B. R. Funke

1979-01-01

227

MOVEMENT OF SELECTED METALS, ASBESTOS, AND CYANIDE IN SOIL: APPLICATIONS TO WASTE DISPOSAL PROBLEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents information on movement of selected hazardous substances in soil which can be applied to problems of selecting and operating land disposal sites for wastes containing arsenic, asbestos, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, cyanide, iron, lead, mercury, selen...

228

Using an information system to meet Hazardous Waste Management needs  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a large quantity RCRA hazardous waste generator. LLNL also generates low level and transuranic radioactive waste that is managed in accordance with the Department of Energy (DOE) orders. The mixed low level and mixed transuranic waste generated must be managed to comply with both RCRA regulations and DOE orders. LLNL`s hazardous and radioactive waste generation is comprised of 900 generators who contribute to nearly two hundred waste streams. LLNL has a permitted EPA treatment and storage (TSD) facility for handling RCRA hazardous waste that is operated by LLNL`s Hazardous Waste Management (HWM) division. In HWM we have developed an information system, the Total Waste Management System (TWMS), to replace an inadequate ``cradle to grave`` tracking of all the waste types described above. The goals of this system are to facilitate the safe handling and storage of these hazardous wastes, provide compliance with the regulations and serve as an informational tool to help HWM manage and dispose of these wastes in a cost effective manner.

Stewart, J.J. Jr.; Howe, R.E.; Townsend, S.L.; Maloy, D.T.; Kochhar, R.K.

1995-02-01

229

Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation: Waste Disposal In Engineered Trench #3  

SciTech Connect

Because Engineered Trench #3 (ET#3) will be placed in the location previously designated for Slit Trench #12 (ST#12), Solid Waste Management (SWM) requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) determine if the ST#12 limits could be employed as surrogate disposal limits for ET#3 operations. SRNL documented in this Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation (UDQE) that the use of ST#12 limits as surrogates for the new ET#3 disposal unit will provide reasonable assurance that Department of Energy (DOE) 435.1 performance objectives and measures (USDOE, 1999) will be protected. Therefore new ET#3 inventory limits as determined by a Special Analysis (SA) are not required.

Hamm, L. L.; Smith, F. G. III; Flach, G. P.; Hiergesell, R. A.; Butcher, B. T.

2013-07-29

230

Preliminary Safety Design Report for Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility  

SciTech Connect

A new onsite, remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled low-level waste disposal for remote-handled low-level waste from the Idaho National Laboratory and for nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled low-level waste in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This preliminary safety design report supports the design of a proposed onsite remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization, by discussing site characteristics that impact accident analysis, by providing the facility and process information necessary to support the hazard analysis, by identifying and evaluating potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled low-level waste, and by discussing the need for safety features that will become part of the facility design.

Timothy Solack; Carol Mason

2012-03-01

231

Solid waste disposal in district health facilities.  

PubMed

Hospital waste is not necessarily difficult to dispose of. In most cases it can be safely dumped in a properly designed waste pit. Waste management problems at district hospitals in developing countries are usually caused more by lack of information than by financial or technical difficulties. PMID:7999223

Halbwachs, H

1994-01-01

232

Impacts of hazardous waste regulation on low-level waste management  

SciTech Connect

The Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 have greatly expanded the universe of what, and who, is regulated under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Handling requirements for hazardous waste are becoming increasingly more stringent, particularly where land disposal is concerned. DOE needs to begin actively pursuing strategies directed at keeping the management of LLW clearly separated from wastes that are legitimately regulated under RCRA. Such strategies would include instituting systemwide changes in internal management practices, establishing improved location standards for LLW disposal, and negotiating interagency compromise agreements to obtain variances from RCRA requirements where necessary and appropriate.

Sharples, F.E.; Eyman, L.D.

1986-01-01

233

Radioactive waste disposal in the marine environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to find the optimal solution to waste disposal problems, it is necessary to make comparisons between disposal media. It has become obvious to many within the scientific community that the single medium approach leads to over protection of one medium at the expense of the others. Cross media comparisons are being conducted in the Department of Energy ocean

D. R. Anderson

1981-01-01

234

Household Hazardous Waste and Automotive Products: A Pennsylvania Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A significant fraction of household hazardous waste (HHW) is generated by home mechanics who use such products as motor oil, cleaners and solvents, and batteries. This survey assessed the following aspects: (1) perceptions of their health-related effects; (2) perceptions of their pollution potential; and (3) their use and disposal. (LZ)

Shorten, Charles V.; And Others

1995-01-01

235

HANDBOOK FOR STABILIZATION/SOLIDIFICATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The handbook provides designers and reviewers of remedial action plans with the information and general guidance necessary to judge the feasibility of stabilization/solidification technology for the control of pollutant migration from hazardous waste disposed of on land. Topics a...

236

SECURING CONTAINERIZED HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH WELDED POLYETHYLENE ENCAPSULATES  

EPA Science Inventory

Full-scale encapsulation of 208-liter (55-gal) drums was studied as a means for managing corroding containers of hazardous wastes in the field and rendering them suitable for transport and safe deposit within a final disposal site such as a landfill. Polyethylene (PE) receivers w...

237

INCINERATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE: A CRITICAL REVIEW UPDATE  

EPA Science Inventory

Over the last 15 years, concern over improper disposal practices of the past has manifested itself in the passage of a series of federal nd tate-level hazardous waste cleanup and control statutes of unprecedented scope. As a result, there has been a significant modification of wa...

238

AVOIDING FAILURE OF LEACHATE COLLECTION SYSTEMS AT HAZARDOUS WASTE LANDFILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Failure of leachate collection systems is expected to be a problem in the operation of hazardous waste disposal facilities, just as failure of drainage systems has been a problem at agricultural sites. The principal failure mechanisms include sedimentation, clogging by biological...

239

Light remedies for hazardous wastes  

SciTech Connect

The use of solar energy may provide the ultimate solution to waste treatment due to its being an efficient and economic process. The solar-based technologies described have succeeded in breaking down hazardous chemicals in a single step. Different techniques in solar detoxification can be applied to a wide variety of problems, including soil and groundwater remediation, wastewater treatment, and disinfection of hospital waste. Such an innovative approach may outrun traditional methods as it becomes competitive. It is already being considered for treatment of wastewater from the textile and pulp and paper industries, and has been used to clean up contaminated areas at military sites.

Saltiel, C.; Martin, A.

1995-01-01

240

Portable sensor for hazardous waste  

SciTech Connect

We are part-way through the second phase of a 4-year program designed to develop a portable monitor for sensitive hazardous waste detection. The ultimate goal of the program is to develop our concept to the prototype instrument level. Our monitor will be a compact, portable instrument that will allow real-time, in situ, monitoring of hazardous wastes. This instrument will be able to provide the means for rapid field screening of hazardous waste sites to map the areas of greatest contamination. Remediation efforts can then focus on these areas. Our analysis approach is to excite atomic and molecular fluorescence by the technique of active nitrogen energy transfer (ANET). The active nitrogen is made in a dielectric-barrier (D-B) discharge in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure. Only a few emission lines or bands are excited for each hazardous species, so spectral resolution requirements are greatly simplified over those of other spectroscopic techniques. The D-B discharge is compact, 1 to 2 cm in diameter and 1 to 10 cm long. Furthermore, the discharge power requirements are quite modest, so that the unit can be powered by batteries. Thus an instrument based on ANET can readily be made portable. Our results indicate that ANET is a very sensitive technique for monitoring heavy metals and chlorinated hydrocarbons. We have demonstrated an overall detection sensitivity for most species that is at or below ppb levels. ANET alone, however, appears to be most successful in treating hazardous species that have been atomized. We are therefore developing a hybrid technique which combines a miniature, solid-state laser for sample collection and vaporization with ANET for subsequent detection. This approach requires no special sample preparation, can operate continuously, and lends itself well to compact packaging.

Piper, L.G.; Hunter, A.J.R.; Fraser, M.E.; Davis, S.J.

1996-12-31

241

Assessment of Hazardous Wastes for Genotoxicity,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The authors have evaluated a group of short-term bioassays to identify those that may be suitable for screening large numbers of diverse hazardous industrial wastes for genotoxicity. Fifteen wastes (and dichloromethane extracts of these wastes) from a var...

D. M. DeMarini V. S. Houk

1987-01-01

242

Training for hazardous waste workers  

SciTech Connect

This implementation plan describes the system and provides the information and schedules that are necessary to comply with the Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) Memorandum, Reference EPD dated September 11, 1990, Training for Hazardous Waste Workers. The memo establishes the need for identifying employees requiring environmental training, ensuring that the training is received, and meeting documentation and recordkeeping requirements for the training.

Favel, K.

1990-10-26

243

48 CFR 252.223-7006 - Prohibition on storage and disposal of toxic and hazardous materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Prohibition on storage and disposal of toxic and hazardous materials...Prohibition on Storage and Disposal of Toxic and Hazardous Materials...explosive, flammable, or pyrotechnic nature; or (iii) Materials...With respect to treatment or disposal authorized pursuant to...

2010-10-01

244

48 CFR 252.223-7006 - Prohibition on storage and disposal of toxic and hazardous materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Prohibition on storage and disposal of toxic and hazardous materials...Prohibition on Storage and Disposal of Toxic and Hazardous Materials...explosive, flammable, or pyrotechnic nature; or (iii) Materials...With respect to treatment or disposal authorized pursuant to...

2009-10-01

245

Hurricane Andrew: Impact on hazardous waste management  

SciTech Connect

On August 24, 1992, Hurricane Andrew struck the eastern coast of South Florida with winds of 140 mph approximately and a storm surge of 15 ft. The Florida Department of Environmental Regulation finds that the Hurricane Andrew caused a widespread damage throughout Dade and Collier County as well as in Broward and Monroe County and has also greatly harmed the environment. The Department has issued an emergency final order No. 92-1476 on August 26, 1992 to address the environmental cleanup and prevent any further spills of contaminants within the emergency area. The order authorizes the local government officials to designate certain locations in areas remote from habitation for the open burning in air certain incinerators of hurricane generated yard trash and construction and demolition debris. The Department staff has assisted the county and FEMA staff in establishing procedures for Hazardous Waste Management, Waste Segregation and disposal and emergency responses. Local governments have issued these burn permits to public agencies including FDOT and Corps of Engineering (COE). Several case studies will be discussed on the Hazardous Waste Management at this presentation.

Kastury, S.N. (Dept. of Environmental Regulation, Tallahassee, FL (United States))

1993-03-01

246

Environmental Hazards, Health, and Racial Inequity in Hazardous Waste Distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addresses the critical issue of hazardous wastes and associated human health problems. The issue of inequitable distribution of environmental hazards by race is discussed with special reference to a municipal solid waste landfill and the petrochemical plants as the principal environmental stressors in the Baton Rouge Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (SMSA). In a random sample of 213 respondents,

Francis O. Adeola

1994-01-01

247

A disposable choice for hospital waste.  

PubMed

"On-site incineration is becoming an increasingly important alternative for the treatment and disposal of institutional waste. Incineration reduces the weight and volume of most institutional solid waste by 90 to 95 percent, sterilizes pathogenic waste, detoxifies chemical waste, converts obnoxious waste (such as animal carcasses) into innocuous ash, and provides a substantial reduction in off-site disposal costs, making on-site incineration highly cost effective. Many systems have payback periods of less than one year. In addition, on-site incineration reduces the need to depend on off-site disposal contractors, which, in turn, minimizes potential exposures and liabilities associated with illegal or improper waste disposal activities." At this time, the hospital has found its best method for the treatment of infectious and noninfectious medical waste. It is not a perfect method, but all current technologies have limitations. There are several promisingly innovative approaches being pursued; however, they are only in developmental stages. "Winston-Salem, Forsyth Memorial Hospital is reducing infectious wastes ... with an innovative microwave system being used for the first time in the United States. Once the waste is run through the microwave system, the infectious content is destroyed. As a result, ninety percent of the hospital's infectious waste can be sent to the local landfill, which saves more than $200,000 a year in transport and disposal costs. The hospital hopes the $650,000 German system will pay for itself in three years." It is hoped that these new technologies will progress into reliable treatment options for medical waste during the 1990s. In the meantime, our hospital will continue to pursue refinements in its on-site operation, which is already providing cost savings, improved safety, and environmental benefits. PMID:10123400

Brewer, J

1993-02-01

248

System for Odorless Disposal of Human Waste  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conceptual system provides clean, hygienic storage. Disposal system stores human wastes compactly. Releases no odor or bacteria and requires no dangerous chemicals or unpleasant handling. Stabilizes waste by natural process of biodegradation in which microbial activity eventually ceases and ordors and bacteria reduced to easily contained levels. Simple and reliable and needs little maintenance.

Jennings, Dave; Lewis, Tod

1987-01-01

249

Low-level-waste-disposal methodologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report covers the following: (1) history of low level waste disposal; (2) current practice at the five major DOE burial sites and six commercial sites with dominant features of these sites and radionuclide content of major waste types summarized in tables; (3) site performance with performance record on burial sites tabulated; and (4) proposed solutions. Shallow burial of low

M. L. Wheeler; K. Dragonette

1981-01-01

250

Investigating Waste Oil Disposal by Combustion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In response to efforts directed towards waste oil disposal, APG Post Engineers initiated a program in 1968 whereby waste oil was introduced into No. 6 Fuel Oil and subsequently burned for heat. Because of the heavy consistency of No. 6 Fuel Oil, no operat...

G. DeBono

1974-01-01

251

Disposable products in the hospital waste stream.  

PubMed

Use of disposable products in hospitals continues to increase despite limited landfill space and dwindling natural resources. We analyzed the use and disposal patterns of disposable hospital products to identify means of reducing noninfectious, nonhazardous hospital waste. In a 385-bed private teaching hospital, the 20 disposable products of which the greatest amounts (by weight) were purchased, were identified, and total hospital waste was tabulated. Samples of trash from three areas were sorted and weighed, and potential waste reductions from recycling and substituting reusable items were calculated. Business paper, trash liners, diapers, custom surgical packs, paper gowns, plastic suction bottles, and egg-crate pads were among the 20 top items and were analyzed individually. Data from sorted trash documented potential waste reductions through recycling and substitution of 78, 41, and 18 tonnes per year (1 tonne = 1,000 kg = 1.1 tons) from administration, the operating room, and adult wards, respectively (total hospital waste was 939 tonnes per year). We offer specific measures to substantially reduce nonhazardous hospital waste through substitution, minimization, and recycling of select disposable products. PMID:1595242

Gilden, D J; Scissors, K N; Reuler, J B

1992-03-01

252

Disposable products in the hospital waste stream.  

PubMed Central

Use of disposable products in hospitals continues to increase despite limited landfill space and dwindling natural resources. We analyzed the use and disposal patterns of disposable hospital products to identify means of reducing noninfectious, nonhazardous hospital waste. In a 385-bed private teaching hospital, the 20 disposable products of which the greatest amounts (by weight) were purchased, were identified, and total hospital waste was tabulated. Samples of trash from three areas were sorted and weighed, and potential waste reductions from recycling and substituting reusable items were calculated. Business paper, trash liners, diapers, custom surgical packs, paper gowns, plastic suction bottles, and egg-crate pads were among the 20 top items and were analyzed individually. Data from sorted trash documented potential waste reductions through recycling and substitution of 78, 41, and 18 tonnes per year (1 tonne = 1,000 kg = 1.1 tons) from administration, the operating room, and adult wards, respectively (total hospital waste was 939 tonnes per year). We offer specific measures to substantially reduce nonhazardous hospital waste through substitution, minimization, and recycling of select disposable products. Images

Gilden, D. J.; Scissors, K. N.; Reuler, J. B.

1992-01-01

253

Final Draft Guidance for Subpart G of the Interim Status Standards for Owners and Operators of Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage and Disposal Facilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this guidance document is to assist in implementing closure and post-closure plans. The document concentrates on the closure plans specific to six types of Treatment, Storage, or Disposal Facilities (TSDF): tanks; surface impoundments; land...

K. Chrisman, N. Leggett, P. P. Neill, R. E. Burt, R. R. Severn

1981-01-01

254

EVALUATION OF THE FEASIBILITY OF INCINERATING HAZARDOUS WASTE IN HIGH-TEMPERATURE INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

In the search for disposal alternatives, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is evaluating the potential use of high-temperature processes for the incineration of hazardous wastes. Many kinds of waste have already been disposed of in boilers and cement kilns; this report con...

255

APPLICATION OF A SIMPLE SHORT-TERM BIOASSAY FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF GENOTOXINS FROM HAZARDOUS WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The proper disposal of hazardous wastes currently generated and clean up of waste disposal sites of the past are challenges facing regulatory agencies in the industrialized nations. he estimation of levels of toxicity is an essential step in prioritizing industrial effluents and ...

256

Hazardous waste management in educational and research centers: a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hazardous waste management (HWM) practice at Tehran University of Medical Sciences Central Campus, Iran, was investigated in this study. Four schools were selected and the required information such as type and amount of wastes, temporary storage methods, waste discharge frequency, and final waste disposal methods using sampling, questionnaires, interviews with laboratory staff, and reference to available documents were gathered.

M. S. Hassanvand; K. Naddafi; R. Nabizadeh; F. Momeniha; A. Mesdaghinia; K. Yaghmaeian

2011-01-01

257

An n-Bottle Lab Exercise With No Hazardous Waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

n-Bottle lab exercises are popular with both students and instructors. They rely on unique patterns of reaction between substances in aqueous solution. Such exercises test observation, measurement, and deductive reasoning skills of students while presenting the puzzle, "What's in the bottle?" Traditional n-bottle exercises include precipitation reactions of environmentally hazardous substances, thereby creating a waste disposal problem. The lab exercise described here uses substances whose waste can be easily treated and disposed in the trash. Different versions of the lab are presented which pose various levels of difficulty for students.

Olander, Claire R.

1996-09-01

258

TOXICOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS OF REMEDIATING HAZARDOUS WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

Section 121 of the amendments (1986) to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (SUPERFUND) calls for hazardous waste site remediations that will permanently and significantly reduce the volume, toxicity, or mobility of hazardous substance...

259

Apparatus for incinerating hazardous waste  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for incinerating wastes, including an incinerator having a combustion chamber, a fluidtight shell enclosing the combustion chamber, an afterburner, an off-gas particulate removal system and an emergency off-gas cooling system. The region between the inner surface of the shell and the outer surface of the combustion chamber forms a cavity. Air is supplied to the cavity and heated as it passes over the outer surface of the combustion chamber. Heated air is drawn from the cavity and mixed with fuel for input into the combustion chamber. The pressure in the cavity is maintained at least approximately 2.5 cm WC (about 1" WC) higher than the pressure in the combustion chamber. Gases cannot leak from the combustion chamber since the pressure outside the chamber (inside the cavity) is higher than the pressure inside the chamber. The apparatus can be used to treat any combustible wastes, including biological wastes, toxic materials, low level radioactive wastes, and mixed hazardous and low level transuranic wastes.

Chang, Robert C. W. (Martinez, GA)

1994-01-01

260

Federal regulation of hazardous wastes: a guide to RCRA  

SciTech Connect

An overview of key elements, the physical complexities of hazardous waste and groundwater interaction, and the status of the Environmental Protection Agency's efforts to implement the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 makes up Part I of the guide. Parts II and III devote five chapters to regulatory specifics, i.e., what specific obligations are imposed on generators, transporters, and the owners and operators of hazardous waste storage, treatment, or disposal facilities, and three chapters to enforcement and potential liabilities. A detailed table of contents for quick reference and a summary page at the start of each chapter make the guide useful for a diversity of readers. 58 references.

Quarles, J.

1982-01-01

261

Locating hazardous waste facilities: The influence of NIMBY beliefs  

SciTech Connect

The [open quote]Not-In-My-Backyard[close quote] (NIMBY) syndrome is analyzed in economic decision making. Belief statements that reflect specific NIMBY concerns are subjected to factor analysis and the structure reveals two dimensions: tolerance and avoidance. Tolerance reflects an acceptance of rational economic arguments regarding the siting of a hazardous waste facility and avoidance reflects a more personal fear-of-consequences. Analysis identifies demographic characteristics of individuals likely to exhibit these two beliefs. These beliefs also are shown to influence the acceptance of a hazardous waste disposal facility in ones neighborhood when compensation is offered.

Groothuis, P.A.; Miller, G. (Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA (United States))

1994-07-01

262

Solid waste disposal. Volume 1. Incineration and landfill  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cost for solid waste disposal in the U.S. in 1975 is estimated at $7.8 billion. 85 percent of the waste is disposed of simply by open dumping. 15 percent is disposed of by sanitary land fill or incineration. These two disposal methods are discussed in detail. Information is included on solid waste statistics and collection and sorting methods; the

B. Baum; C. H. Parker

1974-01-01

263

Status of Volcanic Hazard Studies for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Volcanism studies of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) region are concerned with hazards of future volcanism with respect to underground disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The hazards of silicic volcanism are judged to be negligible; hazards of basaltic v...

B. M. Crowe D. T. Vaniman W. J. Carr

1983-01-01

264

Dutch geologic radioactive waste disposal project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geologic disposal of radioactive waste is reviewed. The radionuclide release consequences of an accidental flooding of the underground excavations was studied. The results of the quantitative examples made for different effective cross sections of the permeable layer connecting the mine excavations with the boundary of the salt dome are that under all circumstances the concentration of the waste nuclides in drinking water will remain well within the ICRP maximum permissible concentrations. Further analysis work was done on what minima can be achieved for both the maximum local rock salt temperatures at the disposal borehole walls and the maximum global rock salt temperatures halfway between a square of disposal boreholes. Different multilayer disposal configurations were analyzed and compared.

Hamstra, J.; Verkerk, B.

265

Slag from hazardous waste incineration: reduction of heavy metal leaching.  

PubMed

Hazardous waste incineration (HWI) in rotary kilns and the disposal of the residues on landfills play an important role in German waste treatment. In order to reduce costs by disposal on cheaper landfill sites still applying to landfill regulations the leaching behaviour of HWI-slag should be improved further. In a new process-integrated approach hazardous waste is mixed with limestone, which initiates chemical reactions with heavy metals in the rotary kiln yielding new compounds of different solubility. These reactions were observed after treatment at 1200 degrees C combined with fusion processes, at 930 degrees C they also occurred without fusion to the major part. For that purpose HWI-slag/limestone mixtures are thermally treated and then examined by elution tests. A minimum of overall heavy metal leaching was determined at CaO-contents between 15 and 20% after sintering at the average temperature at HWI. PMID:12739725

Reich, Jens

2003-04-01

266

Disposal of low-level radioactive wastes.  

PubMed

The generation of low-level radioactive waste is a natural consequence of the societal uses of radioactive materials. These uses include the application of radioactive materials to the diagnosis and treatment of human disease and to research into the causes of human disease and their prevention. Currently, low level radioactive wastes are disposed of in one of three shallow land-burial disposal sites located in Washington, Nevada, and South Carolina. With the passage in December 1980 of Public Law 96-573, "The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act," the disposal of low-level wastes generated in each state was identified as a responsibility of the state. To fulfill this responsibility, states were encouraged to form interstate compacts for radioactive waste disposal. At the present time, only 37 states have entered into compact agreements, in spite of the clause in Public Law 96-573 that established January 1, 1986, as a target date for implementation of state responsibility for radioactive wastes. Recent action by Congress has resulted in postponement of the implementation date to January 1, 1993. PMID:3749914

Hendee, W R

1986-07-01

267

77 FR 38530 - Louisiana: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commission to conduct an effective program designed to regulate those who generate, transport, treat, store, dispose or recycle hazardous waste. During the 1983 Regular Session of the Louisiana Legislature, Act 97 was adopted, which amended and...

2012-06-28

268

EVALUATION OF THE APPLICABILITY OF SUBSIDENCE MODELS TO HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA has discovered a number of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites in close proximity to abandoned underground mines. Further, several Resource Conservation and Recovery Act permit applications have been received for treatment, storage, or disposal facilities located in areas wher...

269

UNCONTROLLED/UNREGULATED HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES (FORMERLY SUPERFUND), NEUSE RIVER WATERSHED, NC  

EPA Science Inventory

The North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Divison of Waste Management, Superfund Section in cooperation with the North Carolina Center for Geographic Information and Analysis developed the digital Hazardous Substance Disposal Sites data to enhan...

270

Use of Electromagnetic Terrain Conductivity Measurements to Map Liquid Hazardous Waste Migration in Groundwater.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Electromagnetic conductivity measurements have been used to map apparent ground conductivity in the vicinity of a liquid hazardous waste disposal site. An area of approximately 12 ha (30 acres) was surveyed. Approximately 600 conductivity measurements wer...

R. H. Ketelle F. G. Pin

1983-01-01

271

Mapping Liquid Hazardous Waste Migration in Ground Water with Electromagnetic Terrain Conductivity Measurement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Electromagnetic conductivity measurements were used to map apparent ground conductivity in the vicinity of a liquid hazardous waste disposal site. Approximately 600 conductivity measurements were obtained to prepare a conductivity map of the site which in...

R. H. Ketelle F. G. Pin

1984-01-01

272

GEOSYNTHETIC DESIGN GUIDANCE FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE LANDFILL CELLS AND SURFACE IMPOUNDMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report provides guidance design procedures for the use of geosynthetic materials in hazardous waste land disposal cells. Primary geosynthetic components include flexible membrane liners (FML) used to limit the flow of leachate, and leachate collection and removal systems (LCR...

273

75 FR 60398 - California: Proposed Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Certain Processed Materials; (4) Emergency Revision of the Carbamate Land Disposal Restrictions; (5) Clarification of Standards...LDR) Treatment Standards for Listed Hazardous Wastes from Carbamate Production; (10) Extension of Compliance Date for...

2010-09-30

274

76 FR 62303 - California: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Certain Processed Materials; (4) Emergency Revision of the Carbamate Land Disposal Restrictions; (5) Clarification of Standards...LDR) Treatment Standards for Listed Hazardous Wastes from Carbamate Production; (10) Extension of Compliance Date for...

2011-10-07

275

Hazardous Waste Surveys of Two Army Installations and an Army Hospital.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study describes a preliminary assessment of Army hazardous waste production and disposal requirements, as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 and the Environmental Protection Agency's Proposed Guidelines and Regulations and ...

D. Kraybill T. Mullen B. Donahue

1980-01-01

276

Hazardous solid waste from domestic wastewater treatment plants.  

PubMed Central

The treatment of liquid wastes in municipal sewage treatment plants creates significant quantities of solid residue for disposal. The potential hazard from these wastes requires that their characteristics be determined accurately to develop environmentally sound management criteria. It is readily recognized that the sludge characteristics vary with the type and degree of industrial activity within a wastewater collection system and that these characteristics play a significant role in determining whether the material has potential for beneficial reuse or if it must be directed to final disposal. This paper offers an overview of past and present practices of sewage sludge disposal, an indication of quantities produced, and experience with beneficial reuse. An estimated range of costs involved, expected environmental effects and potential for continued use is offered for each disposal or reuse system discussed.

Harrington, W M

1978-01-01

277

LAND DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS WASTE: PROCEEDINGS OF THE ANNUAL RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM (8TH), HELD AT FT. MITCHELL, KENTUCKY, ON MARCH 8-10, 1982  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the symposium was (1) to provide a forum for a state-of-the-art review and discussion of on-going and recently completed research projects dealing with the managment of solid and industrial wastes; (2) to bring together people concerned with municipal solid waste m...

278

Hazardous Waste Management Plan Technical Support Document.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Executive order; Federal and state laws; Superfund sites; Biennial report forms; Hazardous waste types; Wastes by county; Small generator data; Future projections; Management technology costs; Facility description and costs; Management technolog...

1985-01-01

279

Improving Tamper Detection for Hazardous Waste Security  

SciTech Connect

Since September 11, waste managers are increasingly expected to provide effective security for their hazardous wastes. Tamper-indicating seals can help. This paper discusses seals, and offers recommendations for how to choose and use them.

Johnston, R. G.; Garcia, A. R. E.; Pacheco, N.; Martinez, R. K.; Martinez, D. D.; Trujillo, S. J.; Lopez, L. N.

2003-02-26

280

THERMODYNAMIC FUNDAMENTALS USED IN HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Thermodynamics is the basic foundation of many engineeringpractices. nvironmental engineering is no exception, it is usingthermodynamic principles in many applications. n particular,those who are involved in the incineration of various wastes suchas hazardous and municipal wastes...

281

Chromosomal aberrations in the cotton rat, Sigmodon hispidus, exposed to hazardous waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of chromosome damage in rodents living on hazardous-waste sites may provide evidence of important biological consequences of chronic exposure to toxic chemical wastes. This study compared bone-marrow cells of animals (Sigmodon hispidus) taken from two superfund waste-disposal sites with those from an uncontaminated site and demonstrated that both populations exposed to hazardous wastes had significantly more structural and

Ruth A. Thompson; Gene D. Schroder; Thomas H. Connor

1988-01-01

282

The disposal of orphan wastes using the greater confinement disposal concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the United States, radioactive wastes are conventionally classified as high-level wastes, transuranic wastes, or low-level wastes. Each of these types of wastes, by law, has a ``home`` for their final disposal; i.e., high-level wastes are destined for disposal at the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, transuranic waste for the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, and low-level waste for shallow-land

E. J. Bonano; M. S. Y. Chu; L. L. Price; S. H. Conrad; P. T. Dickman

1991-01-01

283

Coal conversion solid waste disposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major solid waste produced at coal conversion facilities will be gasification slag or ash. To evaluate the impact of this waste on the environment, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted extensive characterization and leaching studies on ash\\/slags that had been generated in bench-scale operations, pilot plants, and\\/or process development units for the Cogas, British Gas\\/Lurgi, Grace\\/Texaco, U-Gas, Foster Wheeler\\/Stoic,

C. W. Francis; W. J. Jr. Boegly; R. R. Turner; E. C. Davis

1981-01-01

284

The safe disposal of radioactive wastes  

PubMed Central

A comprehensive review is given of the principles and problems involved in the safe disposal of radioactive wastes. The first part is devoted to a study of the basic facts of radioactivity and of nuclear fission, the characteristics of radioisotopes, the effects of ionizing radiations, and the maximum permissible levels of radioactivity for workers and for the general public. In the second part, the author describes the different types of radioactive waste—reactor wastes and wastes arising from the use of radioisotopes in hospitals and in industry—and discusses the application of the maximum permissible levels of radioactivity to their disposal and treatment, illustrating his discussion with an account of the methods practised at the principal atomic energy establishments.

Kenny, A. W.

1956-01-01

285

LEGACY NONCONFORMANCE ISSUE IN SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL  

SciTech Connect

Beginning in 1968 waste from sectioning, sampling, and assaying of reactor fuels was sent to underground burial caissons in the 200-W Area of the Hanford Plant in Richland, Washington. In 2002 a review of inventory records revealed that criticality safety storage limits had been exceeded. This prompted declaration of a Criticality Prevention Specification nonconformance. The corrective action illustrates the difficulties in demonstrating compliance to fissile material limits decades after waste disposal.

ROGERS, C.A.

2002-12-16

286

Vitrification of hazardous and radioactive wastes  

SciTech Connect

Vitrification offers many attractive waste stabilization options. Versatility of waste compositions, as well as the inherent durability of a glass waste form, have made vitrification the treatment of choice for high-level radioactive wastes. Adapting the technology to other hazardous and radioactive waste streams will provide an environmentally acceptable solution to many of the waste challenges that face the public today. This document reviews various types and technologies involved in vitrification.

Bickford, D.F.; Schumacher, R.

1995-12-31

287

Summary of annual reports on hazardous waste for 1982-1985  

SciTech Connect

The report is a product of Illinois' Annual Report requirements for reporting years 1982 through 1985, for hazardous waste as defined under the Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) and the comparable Illinois regulations. Several comprehensive tables are included: (a) listing by RCRA Hazardous Waste Number of the volume of waste shipped off-site by Illinois generators and the amount of waste stored, treated, or disposed by Illinois facilities; (b) listing by RCRA Hazardous Waste Number of the volume of waste handled on-site and off-site by land treatment sites, landfills, incinerators, injection wells, and surface impoundments; (c) listing by Illinois county of the volume of waste shipped off-site and of the volumes treated, stored, or disposed by on-site generators and by off-site facilities; (d) listing by the various states regarding waste imported into Illinois and exported from Illinois; (e) lists of companies who reported handling over 1 million gallons of waste in 1985.

Zak, G.; Wright, H.A.

1986-12-01

288

Specialized Disposal Sites for Different Reprocessing Plant Wastes  

SciTech Connect

Once-through fuel cycles have one waste form: spent nuclear fuel (SNF). In contrast, the reprocessed SNF yields multiple wastes with different chemical, physical, and radionuclide characteristics. The different characteristics of each waste imply that there are potential cost and performance benefits to developing different disposal sites that match the disposal requirements of different waste. Disposal sites as defined herein may be located in different geologies or in a single repository containing multiple sections, each with different characteristics. The paper describes disposal options for specific wastes and the potential for a waste management system that better couples various reprocessing plant wastes with disposal facilities. (authors)

Forsberg, Charles W. [Nuclear Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831 (United States); Driscoll, Michael J. [Department of Nuclear Science and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA, 02139 (United States)

2007-07-01

289

Waste-acceptance criteria for radioactive waste disposal  

SciTech Connect

A method has been developed for establishing waste-acceptance criteria based on quantitative performance factors that characterize the confinement capabilities of a disposal facility for radioactive waste. The method starts from the objective of protecting public health and safety by assuring that disposal of the waste will not result in a radiation dose of any member of the general public, in either the short or long term, in excess of an established basic dose limit. A key aspect of the method is the introduction of a confinement factor that characterizes the overall confinement capability of a particular disposal facility and can be used for quantitative performance assessments as well as for establishing facility-specific waste-acceptance criteria. Confinement factors enable direct and simple conversion of a basic dose limit into waste-acceptance criteria, specified as concentration limits on rationuclides in the waste streams. Waste-acceptance criteria can be represented visually as activity/time plots for various waste streams. These plots show the concentrations of radionuclides in a waste stream as a function of time and permit a visual, quantitative assessment of long-term performance, relative risks from different radionuclides in the waste stream, and contributions from ingrowth. Application of the method to generic facility designs provides a radional basis for a waste classification system. 14 refs.

Gilbert, T.L.; Meshkov, N.K.

1987-02-01

290

Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL  

SciTech Connect

In part one of this document the Governing Documents and Definitions sections provide general guidelines and regulations applying to the handling of hazardous chemical wastes. The remaining sections provide details on how you can prepare your waste properly for transport and disposal. They are correlated with the steps you must take to properly prepare your waste for pickup. The purpose of the second part of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of radioactive and mixed waste to LBL's Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). These guidelines describe how you, as a generator of radioactive or mixed waste, can meet LBL's acceptance criteria for radioactive and mixed waste.

Not Available

1991-09-01

291

What was leaking from a hazardous-waste dump  

SciTech Connect

The city of Niagara Falls, N.Y., is the home of several toxic waste disposal sites, the most famous of which is Love Canal. Although less well known, the Hyde Park dump is equally noxious. This hazardous-waste dump was operated by the Hooker Chemical Company from about 1953 to 1975. Approximately 55,000 tons of halogenated waste were buried at this site, which is just north of the city. The Hyde Park dump is drained by Bloody Run Creek. Ronald A. Hites of Indiana University outlines the steps taken to identify the structures of organic compounds leaking from the Hyde Park dump.

Hites, R.A.

1988-05-15

292

Radiological hazards of TENORM in the wasted petroleum pipes.  

PubMed

Disposal petroleum pipes containing sludge and scale as a technically enhanced natural occurring radioactive material (TENORM) leads to internal and external radiation hazards and then a significant radiation dose to the workers. In order to contribute to a future waste management policy related to the presence of TENORM in the disposal sites of wasted petroleum pipes, scale and sludge as TENORM wastes are collected form these disposal pipes for radiometric analysis. These pipes are imported from onshore oilfields at south Sinai governorate, Egypt. The highest mean (226)Ra and (228)Ra concentrations of 519 and 50 kBq/kg respectively, were measured in scale samples. Sludge lies within the normal range of radium concentration. The average absorbed dose caused by the exposure to the wasted pipes equal to 4.09 microGy h(-1) from sludge and 262 microGy h(-1) from scale. This is much higher than the acceptable level of 0.059 microGy h(-1). Due to radon inhalation, important radon related parameters are calculated which advantage in internal dose calculation. Fairly good correlation between real radium content and radon exhalation rate for sludge samples is obtained. The hazards from sludge come from its high emanation power for radon which equal to 3.83%. The obtained results demonstrate the need of screening oil residues for their radionuclide content in order to decide about their final disposal. PMID:19782444

Abo-Elmagd, M; Soliman, H A; Salman, Kh A; El-Masry, N M

2010-01-01

293

DISPOSAL OF FLUE-GAS-CLEANING WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The article describes current commercial and emerging technology for disposal of wastes from flue gas cleaning (FGC) systems for coal-fired power plants. Over 80 million metric tons/yr (dry) of coal ash and desulfurization solids are expected to be produced by the 1980's. Althoug...

294

45 CFR 671.12 - Waste disposal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...in accordance with other provisions of this section, shall, to the maximum extent practicable, not be disposed of onto sea ice, ice shelves or grounded ice-sheet unless such wastes were generated by stations located inland on ice shelves or...

2009-10-01

295

45 CFR 671.12 - Waste disposal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...in accordance with other provisions of this section, shall, to the maximum extent practicable, not be disposed of onto sea ice, ice shelves or grounded ice-sheet unless such wastes were generated by stations located inland on ice shelves or...

2010-10-01

296

SAFE DISPOSAL METHODS FOR AGRICULTURAL PESTICIDE WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

A systematic evaluation of disposal systems for diluted waste pesticides was conducted at two Iowa State University experimental farms. One system, located at the Horticultural Research Station, consisted of a 30,000-liter concrete-lined pit filled with a layer of soil between tw...

297

Pollution, politics, and policy: Implementation of hazardous waste policy through the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act  

SciTech Connect

This work is a critical examination of the public policies designed to ameliorate the environmental threat associated with hazardous waste pollution. Public policies in this area have been defined by conflict over the political and social benefits of environmental protection along with the distribution of the political and social costs of changing the way in which waste is handled. A framework for policy implementation is presented. The framework is used to examine the public record on the passage of hazardous waste legislation, the administrative attempts to implement the legislation, the political struggle surrounding implementation, and the resulting changes in the way hazardous waste implementation should be more likely to fail than to succeed. The policy goals fit into three different categories. The first category involves improving the recovery of energy and other resources from waste, the second category involves the safe disposal of waste, and the third category involves regulating the management of waste disposal. Despite extremely limited improvements in safe waste disposal and in regulating waste management, several failures have overwhelmed the nation's attempts to control the excesses of industrial production. Hazardous waste policy has failed to reduce the generation of hazardous waste, the original primary goal of the program. Hazardous waste policy has also failed to control unsafe waste disposal practices at federal facilities as well as failing to address the distributional consequences of waste policy. Since hazardous waste production continues unabated, the benefits of the policy have accured to those citizens who have effectively organized to insure that their own communities do not have waste facilities. The costs of the policy, in terms of health risks and quality of life, have been borne disproportionately by those whose are unaware of the consequences or by those who have lack the political influence to stop pollution of their community.

Keefe, J.M.

1993-01-01

298

RCRA Permit Policy Compendium. Volume 5 (9442. 1980-9444. 1986). Identification and listing of hazardous waste (Part 261). Criteria for identifying hazardous waste, characteristics of hazardous waste, lists of hazardous waste  

SciTech Connect

The document represents all the OSWER Policy Directives that deal with RCRA Permit Policy. The volume discusses criteria for identifying hazardous wastes, characteristics of hazardous wastes, and lists of hazardous wastes.

Eberly, D.

1991-08-01

299

Reducing the risks related to the handling and disposal of health-care waste.  

PubMed

Guidelines on the management of hospital waste aim not only to minimise the risks posed to staff at all levels but also to contain potential environmental hazards, such as infection and sharps injuries. It is therefore important for all personnel to be vigilant and to ensure that they dispose of clinical waste safety and appropriately. PMID:15819317

Burd, Marena

2005-04-01

300

Hydrogeology of a fractured shale (Opalinus Clay): Implications for deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   As part of the Swiss programme for high-level radioactive-waste disposal, a Jurassic shale (Opalinus Clay) is being investigated\\u000a as a potential host rock. Observations in clay pits and the results of a German research programme focusing on hazardous waste\\u000a disposal have demonstrated that, at depths of 10–30 m, the permeability of the Opalinus Clay decreases by several orders of\\u000a magnitude.

Andreas Gautschi

2001-01-01

301

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) General Contingency Plan for Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant  

SciTech Connect

This contingency plan provides a description of the Y-12 plant and its waste units and prescribes control procedures and emergency response procedures. It lists emergency and spill response equipment, provides information on coordination agreements with local agencies, and describes the evacuation plan and reporting requirements.

None

1999-04-01

302

Plywood Plant Glue Wastes Disposal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The cleanup of glue spreaders at plywood mills produces a waste that is high in pollutional strength, though quite low in volume. The plywood industry uses three basic types of glue: the blood-soya, or protein variety, for interior grade plywood; the phen...

D. G. Bodien

1969-01-01

303

21 CFR 1250.75 - Disposal of human wastes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Disposal of human wastes. 1250.75 Section 1250.75...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS...Conveyances § 1250.75 Disposal of human wastes. (a) At servicing...

2013-04-01

304

Optimal evaluation of infectious medical waste disposal companies using the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process  

SciTech Connect

Ever since Taiwan's National Health Insurance implemented the diagnosis-related groups payment system in January 2010, hospital income has declined. Therefore, to meet their medical waste disposal needs, hospitals seek suppliers that provide high-quality services at a low cost. The enactment of the Waste Disposal Act in 1974 had facilitated some improvement in the management of waste disposal. However, since the implementation of the National Health Insurance program, the amount of medical waste from disposable medical products has been increasing. Further, of all the hazardous waste types, the amount of infectious medical waste has increased at the fastest rate. This is because of the increase in the number of items considered as infectious waste by the Environmental Protection Administration. The present study used two important findings from previous studies to determine the critical evaluation criteria for selecting infectious medical waste disposal firms. It employed the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to set the objective weights of the evaluation criteria and select the optimal infectious medical waste disposal firm through calculation and sorting. The aim was to propose a method of evaluation with which medical and health care institutions could objectively and systematically choose appropriate infectious medical waste disposal firms.

Ho, Chao Chung, E-mail: ho919@pchome.com.tw [Department of Industrial Management, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

2011-07-15

305

Hazardous waste containment using day liners  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of clay liners is prevalent in the waste disposal industry. The liner is expected to perform a most critical function. It provides a barrier between the natural environment and the deposited waste. It is obvious that unrestricted migration of the waste could lead to soil, groundwater, and surface water contamina­ tion. However, it has also become evident that

CAROL J. MILLER; MANOJ MBHRA

306

Waste isolation pilot plant disposal room model  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes development of the conceptual and mathematical models for the part of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository performance assessment that is concerned with what happens to the waste over long times after the repository is decommissioned. These models, collectively referred to as the {open_quotes}Disposal Room Model,{close_quotes} describe the repository closure process during which deformation of the surrounding salt consolidates the waste. First, the relationship of repository closure to demonstration of compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard (40 CFR 191 Appendix C) and how sensitive performance results are to it are examined. Next, a detailed description is provided of the elements of the disposal region, and properties selected for the salt, waste, and other potential disposal features such as backfill. Included in the discussion is an explanation of how the various models were developed over time. Other aspects of closure analysis, such as the waste flow model and method of analysis, are also described. Finally, the closure predictions used in the final performance assessment analysis for the WIPP Compliance Certification Application are summarized.

Butcher, B.M.

1997-08-01

307

Nuclear-waste disposal in geologic repositories  

SciTech Connect

Deep geologic repositories are being widely studied as the most favored method of disposal of nuclear waste. Scientists search for repository sites in salt, basalt, tuff and granite that are geologically and hydrologically suitable. The systematic evaluation of the safety and reliability of deep geologic disposal centers around the concept of interacting multiple barriers. The simplest element to describe of the geologic barrier is the physical isolation of the waste in a remote region at some depth within the rock unit. Of greater complexity is the hydrologic barrier which is determined by the waste dilution factors and groundwater flow rates. The least understood is the geochemical barrier, identified as a series of waste/water/rock interactions involving sorption, membrane filtration, precipitation and complexing. In addition to the natural barriers are the engineered barriers, which include the waste form and waste package. The relative effectiveness of these barriers to provide long-term isolation of nuclear waste from the human environment is being assessed through the use of analytical and numerical models. The data used in the models is generally adequate for parameter sensitivity studies which bound the uncertainties in the release and transport predictions; however, much of the data comes from laboratory testing, and the problem of correlating laboratory and field measurements has not been resolved. Although safety assessments based on generic sites have been useful in the past for developing site selection criteria, site-specific studies are needed to judge the suitability of a particular host rock and its environment.

Isherwood, D.

1982-08-02

308

Hazardous Waste Compliance Program Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Hazardous Waste Compliance Program Plan (HWCPP) describes how the Rocky Flats Plant institutes a more effective waste management program designed to achieve and maintain strict adherence to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements. Emphasis is given to improve integration of line operations with programmatic and functional support activities necessary to achieve physical compliance to RCRA regulated equipment, facilities and operations at the floor level. This program focuses on specific activities occurring or which need to occur within buildings containing RCRA regulated units and activities. The plan describes a new approach to achieving and maintaining compliance. This approach concentrates authority and accountability for compliance with the line operating personnel, with support provided from the programmatic functions. This approach requires a higher degree of integration and coordination between operating and program support organizations. The principal changes in emphases are; (1) increased line operations involvement, knowledge and accountability in compliance activities, (2) improved management systems to identify, correct and/or avoid deficiencies and (3) enhanced management attention and employee awareness of compliance related matters.

Potter, G.L.; Holstein, K.A.

1994-05-01

309

Hazardous and solid waste amendments of 1984. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session  

SciTech Connect

The conference committee report recommends that the House of Representatives retract its objections to the amendment to the Solid Waste Disposal Act proposed by the Senate and pass H.R. 2867. The Act authorizes appropriations for fiscal years 1985 through 1988, redefines some terms, and modifies some procedures. The report includes a section-by-section analysis of the Act and proposed amendments. The Act includes budgets for hazardous waste inventories, federal assistance to waste disposal programs, criminal investigations, and storage facilities.

Not Available

1984-01-01

310

Greater-confinement disposal of low-level radioactive wastes  

SciTech Connect

Low-level radioactive wastes include a broad spectrum of wastes that have different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and physical and chemical properties. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most low-level wastes, but a small volume fraction (about 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx.90%) requires specific measures known as ''greater-confinement disposal'' (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics. This paper presents an overview of the factors that must be considered in planning the application of methods proposed for providing greater confinement of low-level wastes. 27 refs.

Trevorrow, L.E.; Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Merry-Libby, P.A.; Meshkov, N.K.; Yu, C.

1985-01-01

311

Municipal solid waste disposal in Portugal  

SciTech Connect

In recent years municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal has been one of the most important environmental problems for all of the Portuguese regions. The basic principles of MSW management in Portugal are: (1) prevention or reduction, (2) reuse, (3) recovery (e.g., recycling, incineration with heat recovery), and (4) polluter-pay principle. A brief history of legislative trends in waste management is provided herein as background for current waste management and recycling activities. The paper also presents and discusses the municipal solid waste management in Portugal and is based primarily on a national inquiry carried out in 2003 and directed to the MSW management entities. Additionally, the MSW responsibility and management structure in Portugal is presented, together with the present situation of production, collection, recycling, treatment and elimination of MSW. Results showed that 96% of MSW was collected mixed (4% was separately collected) and that 68% was disposed of in landfill, 21% was incinerated at waste-to-energy plants, 8% was treated at organic waste recovery plants and 3% was delivered to sorting. The average generation rate of MSW was 1.32 kg/capita/day.

Magrinho, Alexandre [Mechanical Engineering Department, Escola Superior de Tecnologia de Setubal, Campus IPS, Estefanilha, Setubal (Portugal); Didelet, Filipe [Mechanical Engineering Department, Escola Superior de Tecnologia de Setubal, Campus IPS, Estefanilha, Setubal (Portugal); Semiao, Viriato [Mechanical Engineering Department, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: ViriatoSemiao@ist.utl.pt

2006-07-01

312

ASSESSMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTES FOR GENOTOXICITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The authors have evaluated a group of short-term bioassays to identify those that may be suitable for screening large numbers of diverse hazardous industrial wastes for genotoxicity. Fifteen wastes (and dichloromethane extracts of these wastes) from a variety of manufacturing pro...

313

Offshore incineration of hazardous waste materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method and an ocean-going vessel are disclosed for more effectively incinerating hazardous liquid wastes at sea. Intermodal shipping tank containers are filled at waste generation sites; transported to dockside and loaded above decks on an incinerator ship; taken out to sea and incinerated in horizontal, liquid burning type incinerators so that the effluents emerge horizontally. Wastes flow by gravity

Grey

1985-01-01

314

The Groundwater Geochemistry of Waste Disposal Facilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landfills of solid waste are abundant sources of groundwater pollution. The potential for generatingstrongly contaminated leachate from landfill waste is very substantial. Even for small landfills the timescale can be measured in decades or centuries. This indicates that waste dumps with no measures to control leachate entrance into the groundwater may constitute a source of groundwater contamination long after dumping has ceased. In addition to these dumps, engineered landfills with liners and leachate collection systems may also constitute a source of groundwater contamination due to inadequate design, construction, and maintenance, resulting in the leakage of leachate.Landfills may pose several environmental problems (explosion hazards, vegetation damage, dust and air emissions, etc.), but groundwater pollution by leachate is considered to be the most important one and the focus of this chapter. Landfills differ significantly depending on the waste they receive: mineral waste landfills for combustion ashes, hazardous waste landfills, specific industrial landfills serving a single industry, or municipal waste landfills receiving a mixture of municipal waste, construction, and demolition waste, waste from small industries and minor quantities of hazardous waste. The latter type of landfill (termed "old landfills" in this chapter) is very common all over the world. Municipal landfills are characterized by a high content of organic waste that affects the biogeochemical processes in the landfill body and the generation of strongly anaerobic leachate with a high content of dissolved organic carbon, salts, ammonium, and organic compounds and metals released from the waste.This chapter describes the biogeochemistry of a landfill leachate plume as it emerges from the bottom of a landfill and migrates in an aquifer. The landfill hydrology, source composition, and spreading of contaminants are described in introductory sections. The focus of this chapter is on investigating the biogeochemical processes associated with the natural attenuation of organic contaminants in a leachate plume. Studies have shown that microbial processes and geochemical conditions change over time and distance in contaminant plumes, resulting in different rates of degradation (biotic and abiotic). The availability of electron acceptors, such as iron oxides or dissolved sulfate, is an important factor for evaluating the efficacy and sustainability of natural attenuation as a remedy for leachate plumes. Understanding the complex environments developing in leachate plumes is important in assessing the risk to groundwater resources and for developing cost-effective remediation strategies.

Bjerg, P. L.; Albrechtsen, H.-J.; Kjeldsen, P.; Christensen, T. H.; Cozzarelli, I. M.

2003-12-01

315

Decontamination and disposal of PCB wastes.  

PubMed Central

Decontamination and disposal processes for PCB wastes are reviewed. Processes are classed as incineration, chemical reaction or decontamination. Incineration technologies are not limited to the rigorous high temperature but include those where innovations in use of oxident, heat transfer and residue recycle are made. Chemical processes include the sodium processes, radiant energy processes and low temperature oxidations. Typical processing rates and associated costs are provided where possible.

Johnston, L E

1985-01-01

316

Database basics help manage hazardous waste manifest data  

SciTech Connect

Hazardous waste generators spend considerable time filling out uniform hazardous waste manifests and such related documents as land disposal forms, profile sheets and laboratory test results. For many environmental professionals, the continual demand for updating and maintaining records is a burdensome task, especially when some records may be outdated, illegible or otherwise difficult to manage. One solution to the paperwork maze is using a commercial software program that allows users to print legible copies of manifests. Some programs create summary reports detailing shipping destinations, annual waste generation totals and other information. Features vary among available programs, and additional capabilities may require customized programming, which can be expensive. For those with reservations about committing to buying or using software specifically designed to produce or manage manifests -- or who have limited budgets -- generic, off-the-shelf database programs designed for personal computers (PCs) or Apple Macintosh equipment offer low-cost alternatives.

Nielsen, E.S. (Varian Associates Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States))

1993-07-01

317

The performance assessment process for DOE low-level waste disposal facilities  

SciTech Connect

Safety of the low-level waste disposal facilities, as well as al US DOE facilities, is a primary criterion in their design and operation. Safety of low-level waste disposal facilities is evaluated from two perspectives. Operational safety is evaluated based on the perceived level of hazard of the operation. The safety evaluations vary from simple safety assessments to very complex safety analysis reports, depending on the degree of hazard associated with the facility operation. Operational requirements for the Department's low-level waste disposal facilities, including long-term safety are contained in DOE Order 5820.2A, Radioactive Waste Management (1). This paper will focus on the process of conducting long-term performance analyses rather than on operational safety analysis.

Wilhite, E.L.

1992-01-01

318

The performance assessment process for DOE low-level waste disposal facilities  

SciTech Connect

Safety of the low-level waste disposal facilities, as well as al US DOE facilities, is a primary criterion in their design and operation. Safety of low-level waste disposal facilities is evaluated from two perspectives. Operational safety is evaluated based on the perceived level of hazard of the operation. The safety evaluations vary from simple safety assessments to very complex safety analysis reports, depending on the degree of hazard associated with the facility operation. Operational requirements for the Department`s low-level waste disposal facilities, including long-term safety are contained in DOE Order 5820.2A, Radioactive Waste Management (1). This paper will focus on the process of conducting long-term performance analyses rather than on operational safety analysis.

Wilhite, E.L.

1992-11-01

319

Engineering evaluation of projected solid-waste-disposal practices. Volume 2: Case studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimates of the cost impacts of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) for hazardous and non-hazardous large volume waste classification scenarios on eight power plants was presented. Seven of the power plants were chosen to represent the range of waste management technologies and disposal site conditions existing in the United States today. The eighth site was a fictitious site used to further evaluate the feasibility of ocean disposal of large volume utility wastes. For each site, the professional design team acted in the role of a consultant retained by the utility to bring its waste disposal program into complete compliance with RCRA. First, a conceptual design was developed for each scenario. Then, cost estimates were developed for both scenarios, as well as for current operations. The cost estimates for current operations were performed in order to show the base cases necessary to determine RCRA's cost impacts.

Hayward, J. C.; Rothfuss, E. H., Jr.; Flick, W. J.; Hawk, T. S.; Quay, J. A.

1982-09-01

320

Chemical hazard evaluation of material disposal area (MDA) B closure project  

SciTech Connect

TA-21, MDA-B (NES) is the 'contaminated dump,' landfill with radionuclides and chemicals from process waste disposed in 1940s. This paper focuses on chemical hazard categorization and hazard evaluation of chemicals of concern (e.g., peroxide, beryllium). About 170 chemicals were disposed in the landfill. Chemicals included products, unused and residual chemicals, spent, waste chemicals, non-flammable oils, mineral oil, etc. MDA-B was considered a High hazard site. However, based on historical records and best engineering judgment, the chemical contents are probably at best 5% of the chemical inventory. Many chemicals probably have oxidized, degraded or evaporated for volatile elements due to some fire and limited shelf-life over 60 yrs, which made it possible to downgrade from High to Low chemical hazard site. Knowing the site history and physical and chemical properties are very important in characterizing a NES site. Public site boundary is only 20 m, which is a major concern. Chemicals of concern during remediation are peroxide that can cause potential explosion and beryllium exposure due to chronic beryllium disease (CBD). These can be prevented or mitigated using engineering control (EC) and safety management program (SMP) to protect the involved workers and public.

Laul, Jadish C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

321

A perspective of hazardous waste and mixed waste treatment technology at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

Treatment technologies for the preparation and treatment of heavy metal mixed wastes, contaminated soils, and mixed mercury wastes are being considered at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a DOE nuclear material processing facility operated by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The proposed treatment technologies to be included at the Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Treatment Building at SRS are based on the regulatory requirements, projected waste volumes, existing technology, cost effectiveness, and project schedule. Waste sorting and size reduction are the initial step in the treatment process. After sorting/size reduction the wastes would go to the next applicable treatment module. For solid heavy metal mixed wastes the proposed treatment is macroencapsulation using a thermoplastic polymer. This process reduces the leachability of hazardous constituents from the waste and allows easy verification of the coating integrity. Stabilization and solidification in a cement matrix will treat a wide variety of wastes (i.e. soils, decontamination water). Some pretreatments may be required (i.e. Ph adjustment) before stabilization. Other pretreatments such as soil washing can reduce the amount of waste to be stabilized. Radioactive contaminated mercury waste at the SRS comes in numerous forms (i.e. process equipment, soils, and lab waste) with the required treatment of high mercury wastes being roasting/retorting and recovery. Any unrecyclable radioactive contaminated elemental mercury would be amalgamated, utilizing a batch system, before disposal.

England, J.L.; Venkatesh, S.; Bailey, L.L.; Langton, C.A.; Hay, M.S.; Stevens, C.B.; Carroll, S.J.

1991-12-31

322

A perspective of hazardous waste and mixed waste treatment technology at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

Treatment technologies for the preparation and treatment of heavy metal mixed wastes, contaminated soils, and mixed mercury wastes are being considered at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a DOE nuclear material processing facility operated by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The proposed treatment technologies to be included at the Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Treatment Building at SRS are based on the regulatory requirements, projected waste volumes, existing technology, cost effectiveness, and project schedule. Waste sorting and size reduction are the initial step in the treatment process. After sorting/size reduction the wastes would go to the next applicable treatment module. For solid heavy metal mixed wastes the proposed treatment is macroencapsulation using a thermoplastic polymer. This process reduces the leachability of hazardous constituents from the waste and allows easy verification of the coating integrity. Stabilization and solidification in a cement matrix will treat a wide variety of wastes (i.e. soils, decontamination water). Some pretreatments may be required (i.e. Ph adjustment) before stabilization. Other pretreatments such as soil washing can reduce the amount of waste to be stabilized. Radioactive contaminated mercury waste at the SRS comes in numerous forms (i.e. process equipment, soils, and lab waste) with the required treatment of high mercury wastes being roasting/retorting and recovery. Any unrecyclable radioactive contaminated elemental mercury would be amalgamated, utilizing a batch system, before disposal.

England, J.L.; Venkatesh, S.; Bailey, L.L.; Langton, C.A.; Hay, M.S.; Stevens, C.B.; Carroll, S.J.

1991-01-01

323

Stabilization and disposal of Argonne-West low-level mixed wastes in ceramicrete waste forms.  

SciTech Connect

The technology of room-temperature-setting phosphate ceramics or Ceramicrete{trademark} technology, developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)-East is being used to treat and dispose of low-level mixed wastes through the Department of Energy complex. During the past year, Ceramicrete{trademark} technology was implemented for field application at ANL-West. Debris wastes were treated and stabilized: (a) Hg-contaminated low-level radioactive crushed light bulbs and (b) low-level radioactive Pb-lined gloves (part of the MWIR {number_sign} AW-W002 waste stream). In addition to hazardous metals, these wastes are contaminated with low-level fission products. Initially, bench-scale waste forms with simulated and actual waste streams were fabricated by acid-base reactions between mixtures of magnesium oxide powders and an acid phosphate solution, and the wastes. Size reduction of Pb-lined plastic glove waste was accomplished by cryofractionation. The Ceramicrete{trademark} process produces dense, hard ceramic waste forms. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) results showed excellent stabilization of both Hg and Pb in the waste forms. The principal advantage of this technology is that immobilization of contaminants is the result of both chemical stabilization and subsequent microencapsulation of the reaction products. Based on bench-scale studies, Ceramicrete{trademark} technology has been implemented in the fabrication of 5-gal waste forms at ANL-West. Approximately 35 kg of real waste has been treated. The TCLP is being conducted on the samples from the 5-gal waste forms. It is expected that because the waste forms pass the limits set by the EPAs Universal Treatment Standard, they will be sent to a radioactive-waste disposal facility.

Barber, D. B.; Singh, D.; Strain, R. V.; Tlustochowicz, M.; Wagh, A. S.

1998-02-17

324

An industry perspective on commercial radioactive waste disposal conditions and trends.  

PubMed

The United States is presently served by Class-A, -B and -C low-level radioactive waste and naturally-occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive material disposal sites in Washington and South Carolina; a Class-A and mixed waste disposal site in Utah that also accepts naturally-occurring radioactive material; and hazardous and solid waste facilities and uranium mill tailings sites that accept certain radioactive materials on a site-specific basis. The Washington site only accepts low-level radioactive waste from 11 western states due to interstate Compact restrictions on waste importation. The South Carolina site will be subject to geographic service area restrictions beginning 1 July 2008, after which only three states will have continued access. The Utah site dominates the commercial Class-A and mixed waste disposal market due to generally lower state fees than apply in South Carolina. To expand existing commercial services, an existing hazardous waste site in western Texas is seeking a Class-A, -B and -C and mixed waste disposal license. With that exception, no new Compact facilities are proposed. This fluid, uncertain situation has inspired national level rulemaking initiatives and policy studies, as well as alternative disposal practices for certain low-activity materials. PMID:17033459

Romano, Stephen A

2006-11-01

325

CHARACTERIZING SOILS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE SITE ASSESSMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper provides a review and justification of the minimum data needed to characterize soils for hazardous waste site assessments and to comply with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Scientists and managers within the regulatory...

326

Cleanup!: A Hazardous Waste Cleanup Design Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cleanup! is an educational software package that allows students to learn about hazardous waste site characterization and remediation. The software models a contamination scenario that students can experiment with and find solutions to the contamination problem.

Lerman, Prof. Steven R.; McLaughlin, Prof. Dennis; Lerman, Steven R.; Mclaughlin, Dennis

2007-01-21

327

HAZARDOUS WASTE DETOXIFICATION - SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

Current hazardous waste management practices in the United States are discussed. Changes in the management practices required by recent legislative amendments to both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liabil...

328

Hazardous waste management in the Pacific basin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hazardous waste control activities in Asia and the Pacific have been reviewed. The review includes China (mainland, Hong Kong, and Taiwan), Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. It covers the sources of ha...

R. R. Cirillo S. Chiu K. C. Chun G. Conzelmann R. A. Carpenter

1994-01-01

329

Encapsulation of hazardous wastes into agglomerates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using the cementitious properties and agglomeration characteristics of coal conversion byproducts to encapsulate and immobilize hazardous waste materials. The intention was to establish an ...

A. Guloy

1992-01-01

330

A Program on Hazardous Waste Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of the "Hazardous Waste Management Graduate Certificate" program at Wayne State University. Describes four required courses and nine optional courses. Discusses the development of a Master program and the curriculum of the Master program. (YP)

Kummler, Ralph H.; And Others

1989-01-01

331

A paradigm of international environmental law: the case for controlling the transboundary movements of hazardous wastes.  

PubMed

The production of large quantities of wastes globally has created a commercial activity involving the transfrontier shipments of hazardous wastes, intended to be managed at economically attractive waste-handling facilities located elsewhere. In fact, huge quantities of hazardous wastes apparently travel the world in search of "acceptable" waste management facilities. For instance, within the industrialized countries alone, millions of tonnes of potentially hazardous waste cross national frontiers each year on their way for recycling or to treatment, storage, and disposal facilities (TSDFs) because there is no local disposal capacity for these wastes, or because legal disposal or reuse in a foreign country may be more environmentally sound, or managing the wastes in the foreign country may be less expensive than at home. The cross-boundary traffic in hazardous wastes has lately been under close public scrutiny, however, resulting in the accession of several international agreements and laws to regulate such activities. This paper discusses and analyzes the most significant control measures and major agreements in this new commercial activity involving hazardous wastes. In particular, the discussion recognizes the difficulties with trying to implement the relevant international agreements among countries of vastly different socioeconomic backgrounds. Nonetheless, it is also noted that global environmental agreements will generally be a necessary component of ensuring adequate environmental protection for the world community-and thus a need for the careful implementation of such agreements and regulations. PMID:11393313

Asante-Duah, K; Nagy, I V

2001-06-01

332

Bisphenol A in hazardous waste landfill leachates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The levels of bisphenol A in hazardous waste landfill leachates collected in Japan in 1996 were determined by gas chromatograph\\/mass spectrometer (GC\\/MS). Bisphenol A was found in seven of 10 sites investigated. All the hazardous waste landfills with leachates contaminated by bisphenol A were controlled. The concentrations of bisphenol A ranged from 1.3 to 17,200 ?g\\/l with a median concentration

Takashi Yamamoto; Akio Yasuhara; Hiroaki Shiraishi; Osami Nakasugi

2001-01-01

333

MOBILITY OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM HAZARDOUS WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The disposal of municipal and industrial waste in landfills is a widely used waste management practice in the United States. It has become evident during the past few years that there has been serious environmental damage and possible adverse human health effects because of impro...

334

Response actions at offshore hazardous waste sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scores of U.S. offshore continental hazardous wastes sites, including radioactive, bulk industrial chemical, unexploded ordnance, and chemical weapons, as well as sunken vessels containing hazardous cargo have gone uninvestigated as to their potential impact on the marine ecosystem. Only one site investigated, the “Santa Clara I”, with advanced technologies resulted in a successful response action not requiring further attention. Other

J. Lindsay; H. Karl; P. McGillivary; P. Vogt; R. Halls; I. MacDonald; B. Coles

1998-01-01

335

Environmental Hazards of Nuclear Wastes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Present methods for storage of radioactive wastes produced at nuclear power facilities are described. Problems arising from present waste management are discussed and potential solutions explored. (JP)

Micklin, Philip P.

1974-01-01

336

65 FR 58015 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Proposed Exclusion for Identification and Listing Hazardous Waste  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...determination of whether a waste is a liquid waste is made using EPA approved...fail. The DRAS assumes that liquid industrial wastes are disposed...depth (such as the depth of liquid in the impoundment) and...emissions resulting from wind erosion of soil-waste...

2000-09-27

337

30 CFR 47.53 - Alternative for hazardous waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) § 47.53 Alternative for hazardous waste. If the mine produces or uses hazardous waste, the operator must...

2013-07-01

338

Electrochemical treatment of mixed and hazardous waste  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and The University of New Mexico are jointly developing an electrochemical process for treating hazardous and radioactive wastes. The wastes treatable by the process include toxic metal solutions, cyanide solutions, and various organic wastes that may contain chlorinated organic compounds. The main component of the process is a stack of electrolytic cells with peripheral equipment such as a rectifier, feed system, tanks with feed and treated solutions, and a gas-venting system. During the treatment, toxic metals are deposited on the cathode, cyanides are oxidized on the anode, and organic compounds are anodically oxidized by direct or mediated electrooxidation, depending on their type. Bench scale experimental studies have confirmed the feasibility of applying electrochemical systems to processing of a great variety of hazardous and mixed wastes. The operating parameters have been defined for different waste compositions using surrogate wastes. Mixed wastes are currently treated at bench scale as part of the treatability study.

Dziewinski, J.; Marczak, S.; Smith, W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Nuttall, E. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-12-31

339

An Effective Waste Management Process for Segregation and Disposal of Legacy Mixed Waste at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) is a research and development facility that generates many highly diverse, low-volume mixed waste streams. Under the Federal Facility Compliance Act, SNL/NM must treat its mixed waste in storage to meet the Land Disposal Restrictions treatment standards. Since 1989, approximately 70 cubic meters (2500 cubic feet) of heterogeneous, poorly characterized and inventoried mixed waste was placed in storage that could not be treated as specified in the SNL/NM Site Treatment Plan. A process was created to sort the legacy waste into sixteen well- defined, properly characterized, and precisely inventoried mixed waste streams (Treatability Groups) and two low-level waste streams ready for treatment or disposal. From June 1995 through September 1996, the entire volume of this stored mixed waste was sorted and inventoried through this process. This process was planned to meet the technical requirements of the sorting operation and to identify and address the hazards this operation presented. The operations were routinely adapted to safely and efficiently handle a variety of waste matrices, hazards, and radiological conditions. This flexibility was accomplished through administrative and physical controls integrated into the sorting operations. Many Department of Energy facilities are currently facing the prospect of sorting, characterizing, and treating a large inventory of mixed waste. The process described in this paper is a proven method for preparing a diverse, heterogeneous mixed waste volume into segregated, characterized, inventoried, and documented waste streams ready for treatment or disposal.

Hallman, Anne K. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Meyer, Dann [IT Corporation, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rellergert, Carla A. [Roy F. Weston, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schriner, Joseph A. [Automated Solutions of Albuquerque, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1998-06-01

340

An effective waste management process for segregation and disposal of legacy mixed waste at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) is a research and development facility that generates many highly diverse, low-volume mixed waste streams. Under the Federal Facility Compliance Act, SNL/NM must treat its mixed waste in storage to meet the Land Disposal Restrictions treatment standards. Since 1989, approximately 70 cubic meters (2,500 cubic feet) of heterogeneous, poorly characterized and inventoried mixed waste was placed in storage that could not be treated as specified in the SNL/NM Site Treatment Plan. A process was created to sort the legacy waste into sixteen well-defined, properly characterized, and accurately inventoried mixed waste streams (Treatability Groups) and two low-level waste streams ready for treatment or disposal. From June 1995 through September 1996, the entire volume of this stored mixed waste was sorted and inventoried. This process was planned to meet the technical requirements of the sorting operation and to identify and address the hazards this operation presented. The operations were routinely adapted to safely and efficiently handle a variety of waste matrices, hazards, and radiological conditions. This flexibility was accomplished through administrative and physical controls integrated into the sorting operations. Many Department of Energy facilities are currently facing the prospect of sorting, characterizing, and treating a large inventory of mixed waste. The process described in this report is a proven method for preparing a diverse, heterogeneous mixed waste volume into segregated, characterized, inventoried, and documented waste streams ready for treatment or disposal.

Hallman, A.K. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Meyer, D. [IT Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rellergert, C.A. [Roy F. Weston, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schriner, J.A. [Automated Solutions of Albuquerque, Inc., NM (United States)

1998-04-01

341

75 FR 67919 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Proposed Exclusion for Identifying and Listing Hazardous Waste  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...substantial or potential hazard to human health and the environment when disposed...requires Agency action to protect human health or the environment. Further action...appropriate response necessary to protect human health and the environment. (C)...

2010-11-04

342

Disposal of coal mine waste in active underground coal mines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bureau of Mines initiated a mine site specific design of a system of underground disposal of coal wastes. One of the two contracts to prepare this design was awarded to Foster Miller Associates, Inc. (FMA)\\/Western Slope Carbon, Inc. (WCS). This paper describes the mine refuse, waste disposal system and equipment selection, influence of the disposal system on mine productivity,

L. S. Rubin; M. Burnett; A. Amundson; G. J. Colaizzi; R. H. Whaite

1981-01-01

343

Options and cost for disposal of NORM waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil field waste containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is presently disposed of both on the lease site and at off-site commercial disposal facilities. The majority of NORM waste is disposed of through underground injection, most of which presently takes place at a commercial injection facility located in eastern Texas. Several companies offer the service of coming to an operator's

Veil

1998-01-01

344

Processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination of a plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter.

Gotovchikov, Vitaly T. (Moscow, RU); Ivanov, Alexander V. (Moscow, RU); Filippov, Eugene A. (Moscow, RU)

1998-05-12

345

Processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination of a plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter. 6 figs.

Gotovchikov, V.T.; Ivanov, A.V.; Filippov, E.A.

1998-05-12

346

Method for acid oxidation of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed organic waste materials  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a process for reducing the volume of low level radioactive and mixed waste to enable the waste to be more economically stored in a suitable repository, and for placing the waste into a form suitable for permanent disposal. The invention involves a process for preparing radioactive, hazardous, or mixed waste for storage by contacting the waste starting material containing at least one organic carbon-containing compound and at least one radioactive or hazardous waste component with nitric acid and phosphoric acid simultaneously at a contacting temperature in the range of about 140.degree. C. to about 210 .degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to oxidize at least a portion of the organic carbon-containing compound to gaseous products, thereby producing a residual concentrated waste product containing substantially all of said radioactive or inorganic hazardous waste component; and immobilizing the residual concentrated waste product in a solid phosphate-based ceramic or glass form.

Pierce, Robert A. (Aiken, SC); Smith, James R. (Corrales, NM); Ramsey, William G. (Aiken, SC); Cicero-Herman, Connie A. (Aiken, SC); Bickford, Dennis F. (Folly Beach, SC)

1999-01-01

347

SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF HAZARDOUS WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The chapter is a relatively brief overview and guide to the very complicated endeavor of sampling and analysis of hazardous waste and related products. Stack sampling and analysis of waste combustion products is emphasized partly due to the authors' backgrounds and partly due to ...

348

BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF AQUEOUS HAZARDOUS WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes tests performed in order to evaluate the fate of aqueous organic hazardous waste compounds in the activated sludge process. Gas, liguid, and waste solids samples were taken from acclimated activated sludge systems to determine amounts that were volatilized, bi...

349

Hazardous Educational Waste Collections in Illinois.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the status of programs designed to manage hazardous educational waste collections in secondary schools in the state of Illinois. Laboratory wastes, expired chemicals, unstable compounds, and toxic or flammable materials are accounted for in this document. The report contains an executive summary, a review of Illinois statutes…

Illinois State Environmental Protection Agency, Springfield.

350

Conceptual Safety Design Report for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility  

SciTech Connect

A new onsite, remote-handled LLW disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled LLW disposal for remote-handled LLW from the Idaho National Laboratory and for spent nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled LLW in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This conceptual safety design report supports the design of a proposed onsite remote-handled LLW disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization, by identifying potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled LLW, by evaluating consequences of postulated accidents, and by discussing the need for safety features that will become part of the facility design.

Boyd D. Christensen

2010-02-01

351

Innovative Disposal Practices at the Nevada Test Site to Meet Its Low-Level Waste Generators' Future Disposal Needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) streams which have a clear, defined pathway to disposal are becoming less common as U.S. Department of Energy accelerated cleanup sites enters their closure phase. These commonly disposed LLW waste streams are rapidly being disposed and the LLW inventory awaiting disposal is dwindling. However, more complex waste streams that have no path for disposal are now

E. F. Di Sanza; J. T. Carilli

2006-01-01

352

49 CFR 172.205 - Hazardous waste manifest.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PLANS Shipping Papers § 172.205 Hazardous waste manifest. ...subchapter for shipping papers, (3) Given...facility receiving the waste, (4) Returned...manifest or shipping paper. (3) When delivering hazardous waste to the...

2013-10-01

353

TECHNIQUES FOR TREATING HAZARDOUS WASTES TO REMOVE VOLATILE ORGANIC CONSTITUENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper discusses the potential for using commercially available treatment techniques to remove VOCs from hazardous waste streams and addresses some of the issues associated with making waste treatment a viable VOC emission control technique for hazardous waste management faci...

354

Remote vacuum compaction of compressible hazardous waste  

DOEpatents

A system is described for remote vacuum compaction and containment of low-level radioactive or hazardous waste comprising a vacuum source, a sealable first flexible container, and a sealable outer flexible container for receiving one or more first flexible containers. A method for compacting low level radioactive or hazardous waste materials at the point of generation comprising the steps of sealing the waste in a first flexible container, sealing one or more first containers within an outer flexible container, breaching the integrity of the first containers, evacuating the air from the inner and outer containers, and sealing the outer container shut. 8 figs.

Coyne, M.J.; Fiscus, G.M.; Sammel, A.G.

1998-10-06

355

Remote vacuum compaction of compressible hazardous waste  

DOEpatents

A system for remote vacuum compaction and containment of low-level radioactive or hazardous waste comprising a vacuum source, a sealable first flexible container, and a sealable outer flexible container for receiving one or more first flexible containers. A method for compacting low level radioactive or hazardous waste materials at the point of generation comprising the steps of sealing the waste in a first flexible container, sealing one or more first containers within an outer flexible container, breaching the integrity of the first containers, evacuating the air from the inner and outer containers, and sealing the outer container shut.

Coyne, Martin J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Fiscus, Gregory M. (McMurray, PA); Sammel, Alfred G. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1998-01-01

356

HANDBOOK: ASSESSING THE FATE OF DEEP-WELL-INJECTED HAZARDOUS WASTE. Summaries of Recent Research  

EPA Science Inventory

This handbook has been developed for use as a reference tool in evaluating the suitability of disposing of specific hazardous wastes in deep injection wells. sers of the document will get a better understanding of the factors that affect 1) geochemical waste-reservoir reactions o...

357

Characterization and hazard evaluation of bottom ash produced from incinerated hospital waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uncontrolled disposal of bottom ash from incineration units of hazardous and infected wastes in many countries causes significant scale damage, since it contaminates the soil as well as surface and underground waters, putting both the environment and the public health at risk. In view of the above, a study of bottom ash produced at a hospital medical waste incinerator

Evangelos Gidarakos; Maria Petrantonaki; Kalliopi Anastasiadou; Karl-Werner Schramm

2009-01-01

358

EVALUATION OF TECHNOLOGIES FOR TREATING AQUEOUS METAL/CYANIDE BEARING HAZARDOUS WASTE (F007)  

EPA Science Inventory

As a result of recent developments in the area of hazardous waste management, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is evaluating the performance of various technologies for the treatment and/or destruction of certain wastes that are presently being disposed of in landfills an...

359

Radioactive waste disposal assessment - overview of biosphere processes and models.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides an overview of biosphere processes and models in the general context of the radiological assessment of radioactive waste disposal as a basis for HMIP's response to biosphere aspects of Nirex's submissions for disposal of radioactive w...

P. J. Coughtrey

1992-01-01

360

Feasibility Study of The Disposal of Polyethylene Plastic Waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Synthetic plastics as polyethylene do not decompose when disposed of in landfills and can cause air pollution problems if burned. An efficient, safe, and economical method for the disposal of wastes as polyethylene is needed. A feasibility study directed ...

K. Gutfreund

1971-01-01

361

Composition and process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a composition and process for disposal of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. The present invention preferably includes a process for multibarrier encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially simultaneously dry waste powder, a non-biodegradable thermoplastic polymer and an anhydrous additive in an extruder to form a homogeneous molten matrix. The molten matrix may be directed in a ``clean`` polyethylene liner, allowed to cool, thus forming a monolithic waste form which provides a multibarrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment. 2 figs.

Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

1998-03-24

362

Composition and process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a composition and process for disposal of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. The present invention preferably includes a process for multibarrier encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially simultaneously dry waste powder, a non-biodegradable thermoplastic polymer and an anhydrous additive in an extruder to form a homogenous molten matrix. The molten matrix may be directed in a "clean" polyethylene liner, allowed to cool, thus forming a monolithic waste form which provides a multibarrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment.

Kalb, Paul D. (Wading River, NY); Colombo, Peter (Patchogue, NY)

1999-07-20

363

Composition and process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a composition and process for disposal of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. The present invention preferably includes a process for multibarrier encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially simultaneously dry waste powder, a non-biodegradable thermoplastic polymer and an anhydrous additive in an extruder to form a homogenous molten matrix. The molten matrix may be directed in a "clean" polyethylene liner, allowed to cool, thus forming a monolithic waste form which provides a multibarrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment.

Kalb, Paul D. (Wading River, NY); Colombo, Peter (Patchogue, NY)

1998-03-24

364

Composition and process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a composition and process for disposal of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. The present invention preferably includes a process for multibarrier encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially simultaneously dry waste powder, a non-biodegradable thermoplastic polymer and an anhydrous additive in an extruder to form a homogeneous molten matrix. The molten matrix may be directed in a clean'' polyethylene liner, allowed to cool, thus forming a monolithic waste form which provides a multibarrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment. 2 figs.

Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

1999-07-20

365

Composition and process for the encapsulation and stabilization of radioactive hazardous and mixed wastes  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a composition and process for disposal of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. The present invention preferably includes a process for multibarrier encapsulation of radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes by combining substantially simultaneously dry waste powder, a non-biodegradable thermoplastic polymer and an anhydrous additive in an extruder to form a homogenous molten matrix. The molten matrix may be directed in a "clean" polyethylene liner, allowed to cool, thus forming a monolithic waste form which provides a multibarrier to the dispersion of wastes into the environment.

Kalb, Paul D. (21 Barnes Road, Wading River, NY 11792); Colombo, Peter (44 N. Pinelake Dr., Patchogue, NY 11772)

1997-01-01

366

64 FR 46166 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Proposed Exclusion  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The furnace dust is captured in the baghouse during the steelmaking process and is a listed hazardous waste classified as K061...furnace dust, which is captured in the baghouse during the steelmaking process, is a listed hazardous waste (K061). In the...

1999-08-24

367

Hazardous-waste technical-assistance survey, McChord AFB, Washington. Final report, 22-26 Oct 90  

SciTech Connect

A hazardous waste survey was conducted at McChord AFB, Washington, from 22-26 Oct 90 which addressed hazardous waste management and waste disposal practices, explored opportunities for waste minimization, and determined waste-streams. Recommendations include: (1) Shops using aircraft soap should switch to a milder soap; (2) Consider using a siliceous-based absorbant; (3) Use a contractor who accepts wet batteries or neutralize the acid; (4) Accumulation point managers should maintain a log; (5) Conduct frequent refresher training; (6) Upgrade accumulation sites; (7) Analyze used paint filters; (8) Dispose of anti-freeze in the sanitary sewer; (9) Sample NDI chemicals to determine if hazardous; (10) Update the Waste Analysis Plan; (11) Find a method to recover solvent from the washrack; (12) Entomology needs to comply with FIFRA; (13) Triple-rinse pesticide containers; (14) List all accumulation sites and managers in the hazardous waste management plan; (15) Use an off-the-shelf filtration unit in the waterfall paint booths; (16) Label all hazardous waste drums; (17) Dispose of waste latex paint as municiple waste; (18) Disposal of old hazardous waste drums; and (19) Analyze shop rags from CATM to determine toxicity.

Albrecht, L.B.

1991-03-01

368

Certification Plan, low-level waste Hazardous Waste Handling Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this plan is to describe the organization and methodology for the certification of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) handled in the Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). This plan also incorporates the applicable elements of waste reduction, which include both up-front minimization and end-product treatment to reduce the volume and toxicity of the waste;

1992-01-01

369

LISA. A Code for Safety Assessment in Nuclear Waste Disposals Program Description and User Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The code LISA (Long term Isolation Safety Assessment), developed at the Joint Research Centre, Ispra is a useful tool in the analysis of the hazard due to the disposal of nuclear waste in geological formations. The risk linked to preestablished release sc...

A. Saltelli G. Bertozzi D. A. Stanners

1984-01-01

370

Property-close source separation of hazardous waste and waste electrical and electronic equipment - A Swedish case study  

SciTech Connect

Through an agreement with EEE producers, Swedish municipalities are responsible for collection of hazardous waste and waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). In most Swedish municipalities, collection of these waste fractions is concentrated to waste recycling centres where households can source-separate and deposit hazardous waste and WEEE free of charge. However, the centres are often located on the outskirts of city centres and cars are needed in order to use the facilities in most cases. A full-scale experiment was performed in a residential area in southern Sweden to evaluate effects of a system for property-close source separation of hazardous waste and WEEE. After the system was introduced, results show a clear reduction in the amount of hazardous waste and WEEE disposed of incorrectly amongst residual waste or dry recyclables. The systems resulted in a source separation ratio of 70 wt% for hazardous waste and 76 wt% in the case of WEEE. Results show that households in the study area were willing to increase source separation of hazardous waste and WEEE when accessibility was improved and that this and similar collection systems can play an important role in building up increasingly sustainable solid waste management systems.

Bernstad, Anna, E-mail: anna.bernstad@chemeng.lth.se [Dep. of Chem. Eng., Faculty of Eng., Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Cour Jansen, Jes la [Dep. of Chem. Eng., Faculty of Eng., Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Aspegren, Henrik [VA SYD, City of Malmoe (Sweden)

2011-03-15

371

64 FR 63382 - Hazardous Waste Identification Rule (HWIR): Identification and Listing of Hazardous Wastes  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...land areas through runoff and erosion. Indeed, after some period of time during which runoff and erosion have occurred from a waste...after extensive runoff and erosion from a waste management unit...to simulate the disposal of liquid wastes in an earthen...

1999-11-19

372

Remediation of Hanford's N-Reactor Liquid Waste Disposal Sites.  

PubMed

Hanford's N-Reactor operated from 1963 to 1987 generating approximately 9 x 10 m of radioactive and hazardous liquid effluent as a result of reactor operations. Two liquid waste disposal sites, essentially large trenches designed to filter contaminants from the water as it percolates through the soil column, were established to dispose of the effluent. The discharges to the sites included cooling water from the reactor primary, spent fuel storage, and periphery systems, along with miscellaneous drainage from reactor support facilities. Today, both sites are classified as Treatment Storage and Disposal Facilities under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976, which makes them priority sites for remediation. The two sites cover approximately 4,100 m and 9,300 m, respectively. Remediation of the sites requires removing a combined total of approximately 2.6 x 10 kg of contaminated soil and debris. Principal radionuclides contained in the soil/debris are Co, Cs, Pu, and Sr. Remediation of these waste sites requires demolishing concrete structures and excavating, hauling, and disposing of contaminated soils in work areas containing high levels of contamination and whole body dose rates in excess of 1 mSv h. The work presents unique radiological control challenges, such as minimizing external dose to workers in a constantly changing outdoor work environment, maintaining contamination control during removal of a water distribution trough filled with highly contaminated sludge, and minimizing outdoor airborne contamination during size reduction of highly contaminated pipelines. Through innovative approaches to dose reduction and contamination control, Hanford's Environmental Restoration Contractor has met the challenge, completing the first phase on schedule and with a total project exposure below the goal of 0.1 person-Sv. PMID:12555036

Sitsler, Robert B.; DeMers, Steven K.

2003-02-01

373

Methodologies for estimating one-time hazardous waste generation for capacity generation for capacity assurance planning  

SciTech Connect

This report contains descriptions of methodologies to be used to estimate the one-time generation of hazardous waste associated with five different types of remediation programs: Superfund sites, RCRA Corrective Actions, Federal Facilities, Underground Storage Tanks, and State and Private Programs. Estimates of the amount of hazardous wastes generated from these sources to be shipped off-site to commercial hazardous waste treatment and disposal facilities will be made on a state by state basis for the years 1993, 1999, and 2013. In most cases, estimates will be made for the intervening years, also.

Tonn, B.; Hwang, Ho-Ling; Elliot, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Peretz, J.; Bohm, R.; Hendrucko, B. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

1994-04-01

374

Geologic disposal of radioactive waste, 1983  

SciTech Connect

Geologic repositories for radioactive waste are evolving from conceptualization to the development of specific designs. Estimates of long-term hazards must be based upon quantitative predictions of environmental releases over time periods of hundreds of thousands of years and longer. This paper summarizes new techniques for predicting the long-term performance of repositories, it presents estimates of future environmental releases and radiation doses that may result for conceptual repositories in various geologic media, and it compares these predictions with an individual dose criterion of 10{sup -4} Sv/y. 50 references, 11 figures, 6 tables.

Pigford, T.H.

1983-10-01

375

METHODS/MATERIALS MATRIX OF ULTIMATE DISPOSAL TECHNIQUES FOR SPILLED HAZARDOUS MATERIALS  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was undertaken to evaluate conventional and novel methods for the ultimate disposal of spilled or released hazardous substances. Disposal methods studied include incineration, pyrolysis, landfilling, fixation, biological treatment, and chemical treatment. Applications of ...

376

Household waste disposal in Mekelle city, Northern Ethiopia  

SciTech Connect

In many cities of developing countries, such as Mekelle (Ethiopia), waste management is poor and solid wastes are dumped along roadsides and into open areas, endangering health and attracting vermin. The effects of demographic factors, economic and social status, waste and environmental attributes on household solid waste disposal are investigated using data from household survey. Household level data are then analyzed using multinomial logit estimation to determine the factors that affect household waste disposal decision making. Results show that demographic features such as age, education and household size have an insignificant impact over the choice of alternative waste disposal means, whereas the supply of waste facilities significantly affects waste disposal choice. Inadequate supply of waste containers and longer distance to these containers increase the probability of waste dumping in open areas and roadsides relative to the use of communal containers. Higher household income decreases the probability of using open areas and roadsides as waste destinations relative to communal containers. Measures to make the process of waste disposal less costly and ensuring well functioning institutional waste management would improve proper waste disposal.

Tadesse, Tewodros [Agricultural Economics and Rural Policy Group, Wageningen University, Hollandseweg 1 6706 KN Wageningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: tewodroslog@yahoo.com; Ruijs, Arjan [Environmental Economics and Natural Resources Group, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 8130, 6700 EW Wageningen (Netherlands); Hagos, Fitsum [International Water Management Institute (IWMI), Subregional Office for the Nile Basin and East Africa, P.O. Box 5689, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)

2008-07-01

377

Managing the uncertainties of low-level radioactive waste disposal.  

PubMed

The disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) entails financial and safety risks not common to most market commodities. This manifests debilitating uncertainty regarding future waste volume and disposal technology performance in the market for waste disposal services. Dealing with the publicly perceived risks of LLRW disposal increases the total cost of the technology by an order of magnitude, relative to traditional shallow land burial. Therefore, this analysis first examines five proposed disposal facility designs and quantifies the costs associated with these two important sources of uncertainty. Based upon this analysis, a marketable disposal permit mechanism is proposed and analyzed for the purpose of reducing market uncertainty and thereby facilitating a market solution to the waste disposal problem. In addition to quantifying the costs, the results illustrate the ways in which the design of a technology is influenced by its institutional environment, and vice versa. PMID:9739624

Bullard, C W; Weger, H T; Wagner, J

1998-08-01

378

Accepting Mixed Waste as Alternate Feed Material for Processing and Disposal at a Licensed Uranium Mill  

SciTech Connect

Certain categories of mixed wastes that contain recoverable amounts of natural uranium can be processed for the recovery of valuable uranium, alone or together with other metals, at licensed uranium mills, and the resulting tailings permanently disposed of as 11e.(2) byproduct material in the mill's tailings impoundment, as an alternative to treatment and/or direct disposal at a mixed waste disposal facility. This paper discusses the regulatory background applicable to hazardous wastes, mixed wastes and uranium mills and, in particular, NRC's Alternate Feed Guidance under which alternate feed materials that contain certain types of mixed wastes may be processed and disposed of at uranium mills. The paper discusses the way in which the Alternate Feed Guidance has been interpreted in the past with respect to processing mixed wastes and the significance of recent changes in NRC's interpretation of the Alternate Feed Guidance that sets the stage for a broader range of mixed waste materials to be processed as alternate feed materials. The paper also reviews the le gal rationale and policy reasons why materials that would otherwise have to be treated and/or disposed of as mixed waste, at a mixed waste disposal facility, are exempt from RCRA when reprocessed as alternate feed material at a uranium mill and become subject to the sole jurisdiction of NRC, and some of the reasons why processing mixed wastes as alternate feed materials at uranium mills is preferable to direct disposal. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion of the specific acceptance, characterization and certification requirements applicable to alternate feed materials and mixed wastes at International Uranium (USA) Corporation's White Mesa Mill, which has been the most active uranium mill in the processing of alternate feed materials under the Alternate Feed Guidance.

Frydenland, D. C.; Hochstein, R. F.; Thompson, A. J.

2002-02-26

379

Management of hazardous wastes Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), during the course of numerous research activities, generates hazardous, radioactive, and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. The management of these waste materials is highly regulated in the United States (US). This paper focuses on the hazardous waste regulations that limit and prescribe waste management at LLNL.

Jackson, C.S.

1993-11-01

380

After the Bell: Hazardous waste roundup  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When most people think ofhazardous waste, they generally think of materials used in construction, the defense industry, mining, manufacturing, and agriculture. Few people think of hazardous substances found in their homes. From flammable cleaning products to toxic pesticides, the average U.S. home is full of hazardous products. The activities discussed in this column will help students to use the process of scientific inquiry to take inventory of the risks in their own homes.

Joyce, Beverly A.; Ness, Daniel; Farenga, Stephen J.

2004-04-01

381

Improving tamper detection for hazardous waste security  

SciTech Connect

After September 11, waste managers are increasingly expected to provide improved levels of security for the hazardous materials in their charge. Many low-level wastes that previously had minimal or no security must now be well protected, while high-level wastes require even greater levels of security than previously employed. This demand for improved security comes, in many cases, without waste managers being provided the necessary additional funding, personnel, or security expertise. Contributing to the problem is the fact that--at least in our experience--waste managers often fail to appreciate certain types of security vulnerabilities. They frequently overlook or underestimate the security risks associated with disgruntled or compromised insiders, or the potential legal and political liabilities associated with nonexistent or ineffective security. Also frequently overlooked are potential threats from waste management critics who could resort to sabotage, vandalism, or civil disobedience for purposes of discrediting a waste management program.

Johnston, R. G. (Roger G.); Garcia, A. R. E. (Anthony R. E.); Pacheco, A. N. (Adam N.); Trujillo, S. J. (Sonia J.); Martinez, R. K. (Ronald K.); Martinez, D. D. (Debbie D.); Lopez, L. N. (Leon N.)

2002-01-01

382

Repository Disposal Requirements for Commercial Transuranic Wastes (Generated Without Reprocessing).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report forms a preliminary planning basis for disposal of commercial transuranic (TRU) wastes in a geologic repository. Because of the unlikely prospects for commercial spent nuclear fuel reprocessing in the near-term, this report focuses on TRU wast...

P. M. Daling J. D. Ludwick G. B. Mellinger R. W. McKee

1986-01-01

383

Legal Aspects of sub-Seabed Disposal of Radioactive Waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In connection with methods for disposal of highly radioactive waste, that consisting of burying such waste in the sub-seabed arouses an increasingly marked interest among specialists. Apart from the technical difficulties still to be overcome and current ...

P. Reyners

1981-01-01

384

Wet precipitator design for hazardous waste incineration  

SciTech Connect

Currently there are fluid plate precipitators operating on both liquid and solid hazardous waste incinerators with flue gas volumes ranging from 7,000 to 40,000 ACFM. The oldest unit has been in operation since 1976 with no replacement or major repair to either the FRP components or the Hastelloy C-276, emitting electrodes due to corrosion. The authors discuss how the high concentrations of chlorides, fluorides, and sulfur compounds encountered in conjunction with the successful control of acid mist and ash emissions has demonstrated the merit of the corrosion resistant wet precipitator for the control of hazardous waste incinerator emissions.

Sebille, A.J.; Swift, A.E. (Dresser Industries, Inc., Houston, TX (USA). Petroleum Services Div.)

1987-01-01

385

Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Treatment Building throughput study  

SciTech Connect

The hazardous waste/mixed waste HW/MW Treatment Building (TB) is the specified treatment location for solid hazardous waste/mixed waste at SRS. This report provides throughput information on the facility based on known and projected waste generation rates. The HW/MW TB will have an annual waste input for the first four years of approximately 38,000 ft{sup 3} and have an annual treated waste output of approximately 50,000 ft{sup 3}. After the first four years of operation it will have an annual waste input of approximately 16,000 ft{sup 3} and an annual waste output of approximately 18,000 ft. There are several waste streams that cannot be accurately predicted (e.g. environmental restoration, decommissioning, and decontamination). The equipment and process area sizing for the initial four years should allow excess processing capability for these poorly defined waste streams. A treatment process description and process flow of the waste is included to aid in understanding the computations of the throughput. A description of the treated wastes is also included.

England, J.L.; Kanzleiter, J.P.

1991-12-18

386

High integrity container evaluation for solid waste disposal burial containers  

SciTech Connect

In order to provide radioactive waste disposal practices with the greatest measure of public protection, Solid Waste Disposal (SWD) adopted the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirement to stabilize high specific activity radioactive waste prior to disposal. Under NRC guidelines, stability may be provided by several mechanisms, one of which is by placing the waste in a high integrity container (HIC). During the implementation process, SWD found that commercially-available HICs could not accommodate the varied nature of weapons complex waste, and in response developed a number of disposal containers to function as HICs. This document summarizes the evaluation of various containers that can be used for the disposal of Category 3 waste in the Low Level Burial Grounds. These containers include the VECTRA reinforced concrete HIC, reinforced concrete culvert, and the reinforced concrete vault. This evaluation provides justification for the use of these containers and identifies the conditions for use of each.

Josephson, W.S. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1996-06-19

387

COMPATIBILITY OF GROUTS WITH HAZARDOUS WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was conducted to determine the known information on the compatibility of grouts with different classes of chemicals. The information gathered here can be used as a basis for testing and selecting grouts to be used at specific waste disposal sites with various leachates. T...

388

COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

The article describes basic incineration technology. Terminology is defined and EPA's regulations stated. The universe of incinerated and incinerable waste is described. Technology descriptions are provided for liquid injection incineration, rotary kiln incineration, at-sea incin...

389

Hazardous solid waste from metallurgical industries.  

PubMed Central

Types of land disposed residuals from selected metal smelting and refining industries are described, as are the origin and disposition of land disposed residuals from the primary copper industry as an example. Quantities of land-disposed or stored residuals, including slags, sludges, and dusts, are given per unit of metal production for most primary and secondary metal smelting and refining industries. Assessments of the hazard potential of residuals are given. Present treatment and disposal of residuals are discussed and assessed for health and environmental protection. Possible technologies for protection of ground and surface water contamination are presented. These include lined lagoons, chemical fixation of sludge, and ground sealing. Possibilities of resource recovery from residuals are discussed. Data are presented showing attenuation of heavy metal ions and fluorides in selected soils. The leachability and mobility of smelting and refining residuals constituents, including heavy metals and fluorides, and other potential toxicants in specific soil, geologic, and hydrologic disposal environments must be carefully considered in setting disposal requirements.

Leonard, R P

1978-01-01

390

Hazardous solid waste from metallurgical industries.  

PubMed

Types of land disposed residuals from selected metal smelting and refining industries are described, as are the origin and disposition of land disposed residuals from the primary copper industry as an example. Quantities of land-disposed or stored residuals, including slags, sludges, and dusts, are given per unit of metal production for most primary and secondary metal smelting and refining industries. Assessments of the hazard potential of residuals are given. Present treatment and disposal of residuals are discussed and assessed for health and environmental protection. Possible technologies for protection of ground and surface water contamination are presented. These include lined lagoons, chemical fixation of sludge, and ground sealing. Possibilities of resource recovery from residuals are discussed. Data are presented showing attenuation of heavy metal ions and fluorides in selected soils. The leachability and mobility of smelting and refining residuals constituents, including heavy metals and fluorides, and other potential toxicants in specific soil, geologic, and hydrologic disposal environments must be carefully considered in setting disposal requirements. PMID:738242

Leonard, R P

1978-12-01

391

Repository disposal requirements for commercial transuranic wastes (generated without reprocessing)  

SciTech Connect

This report forms a preliminary planning basis for disposal of commercial transuranic (TRU) wastes in a geologic repository. Because of the unlikely prospects for commercial spent nuclear fuel reprocessing in the near-term, this report focuses on TRU wastes generated in a once-through nuclear fuel cycle. The four main objectives of this study were to: develop estimates of the current inventories, projected generation rates, and characteristics of commercial TRU wastes; develop proposed acceptance requirements for TRU wastes forms and waste canisters that ensure a safe and effective disposal system; develop certification procedures and processing requirements that ensure that TRU wastes delivered to a repository for disposal meet all applicable waste acceptance requirements; and identify alternative conceptual strategies for treatment and certification of commercial TRU first objective was accomplished through a survey of commercial producers of TRU wastes. The TRU waste acceptance and certification requirements that were developed were based on regulatory requirements, information in the literature, and from similar requirements already established for disposal of defense TRU wastes in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) which were adapted, where necessary, to disposal of commercial TRU wastes. The results of the TRU waste-producer survey indicated that there were a relatively large number of producers of small quantities of TRU wastes.

Daling, P.M.; Ludwick, J.D.; Mellinger, G.B.; McKee, R.W.

1986-06-01

392

Application for a Permit to Operate a Class III Solid Waste Disposal Site at the Nevada Test Site Area 5 Asbestiform Low-Level Solid Waste Disposal Site  

SciTech Connect

The NTS solid waste disposal sites must be permitted by the state of Nevada Solid Waste Management Authority (SWMA). The SWMA for the NTS is the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Federal Facilities (NDEP/BFF). The U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) as land manager (owner), and National Security Technologies (NSTec), as operator, will store, collect, process, and dispose all solid waste by means that do not create a health hazard, a public nuisance, or cause impairment of the environment. NTS disposal sites will not be included in the Nye County Solid Waste Management Plan. The NTS is located approximately 105 kilometers (km) (65 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the federal lands management authority for the NTS, and NSTec is the Management and Operations contractor. Access on and off the NTS is tightly controlled, restricted, and guarded on a 24-hour basis. The NTS has signs posted along its entire perimeter. NSTec is the operator of all solid waste disposal sites on the NTS. The Area 5 RWMS is the location of the permitted facility for the Solid Waste Disposal Site (SWDS). The Area 5 RWMS is located near the eastern edge of the NTS (Figure 2), approximately 26 km (16 mi) north of Mercury, Nevada. The Area 5 RWMS is used for the disposal of low-level waste (LLW) and mixed low-level waste. Many areas surrounding the RWMS have been used in conducting nuclear tests. A Notice of Intent to operate the disposal site as a Class III site was submitted to the state of Nevada on January 28, 1994, and was acknowledged as being received in a letter to the NNSA/NSO on August 30, 1994. Interim approval to operate a Class III SWDS for regulated asbestiform low-level waste (ALLW) was authorized on August 12, 1996 (in letter from Paul Liebendorfer to Runore Wycoff), with operations to be conducted in accordance with the ''Management Plan for the Disposal of Low-Level Waste with Regulated Asbestos Waste.'' A requirement of the authorization was that on or before October 9, 1999, a permit was required to be issued. Because of NDEP and NNSA/NSO review cycles, the final permit was issued on April 5, 2000, for the operation of the Area 5 Low-Level Waste Disposal Site, utilizing Pit 7 (P07) as the designated disposal cell. The original permit applied only to Pit 7, with a total design capacity of 5,831 cubic yards (yd{sup 3}) (157,437 cubic feet [ft{sup 3}]). NNSA/NSO is expanding the SWDS to include the adjacent Upper Cell of Pit 6 (P06), with an additional capacity of 28,037 yd{sup 3} (756,999 ft{sup 3}) (Figure 3). The proposed total capacity of ALLW in Pit 7 and P06 will be approximately 33,870 yd{sup 3} (0.9 million ft{sup 3}). The site will be used for the disposal of regulated ALLW, small quantities of low-level radioactive hydrocarbon-burdened (LLHB) media and debris, LLW, LLW that contains PCB Bulk Product Waste greater than 50 ppm that leaches at a rate of less than 10 micrograms of PCB per liter of water, and small quantities of LLHB demolition and construction waste (hereafter called permissible waste). Waste containing free liquids, or waste that is regulated as hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or state-of-generation hazardous waste regulations, will not be accepted for disposal at the site. The only waste regulated under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) that will be accepted at the disposal site is regulated asbestos-containing materials (RACM). The term asbestiform is used throughout this document to describe this waste. Other TSCA waste (i.e., polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]) will not be accepted for disposal at the SWDS. The disposal site will be used as a depository of permissible waste generated both on site and off site. All generators designated by NNSA/NSO will be eligible to dispose regulated ALLW at the Asbestiform Low-Level Waste Disposal Site in accordance with the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) 325

NSTec Environmental Programs

2010-09-14

393

Ground freezing for containment of hazardous waste  

SciTech Connect

The freezing of ground for the containment of subsurface hazardous waste is a promising method that is environmentally friendly and offers a safe alternative to other methods of waste retention in many cases. The frozen soil method offers two concepts for retaining waste. One concept is to freeze the entire waste area into a solid block of frozen soil thus locking the waste in situ. For small areas where the contaminated soil does not include vessels that would rupture from frost action, this concept may be simpler to install. A second concept, of course, is to create a frozen soil barrier to confine the waste within prescribed unfrozen soil boundaries; initial research in this area was funded by EPA, Cincinnati, OH, and the Army Corps of Engineers. The paper discusses advantages and limitations, a case study from Oak Ridge, TN, and a mesh generation program that simulates the cryogenic technology.

Sayles, F.N.; Iskandar, I.K.

1998-07-01

394

77 FR 58591 - Report on Waste Burial Charges: Changes in Decommissioning Waste Disposal Costs at Low-Level...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Charges: Changes in Decommissioning Waste Disposal Costs...Charges: Changes in Decommissioning Waste Disposal Costs...Documents Access and Management System (ADAMS...Charges: Changes in Decommissioning Waste Disposal Costs...and International Projects Branch,...

2012-09-21

395

Waste salt disposal at the Savannah River Plant. [Saltstone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste salt solution, produced during processing of high-level nuclear waste, will be incorporated in a cement matrix for emplacement in an engineered disposal facility. Wasteform characteristics and disposal facility details will be presented along with results of a field test of wasteform contaminant release and of modeling studies to predict releases. 5 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

C. A. Langton; S. B. Oblath; D. W. Pepper; E. L. Wilhite

1986-01-01

396

Waste disposal technologies for polychlorinated biphenyls.  

PubMed Central

Improper practices in the disposal of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes by land burial, chemical means and incineration distribute these chemicals and related compounds such as polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) throughout the environment. The complete range of methods for disposal that have been proposed and are in use are examined and analyzed, with emphasis given to the two most commonly used methods: land burial and incineration. The understanding of aquifer contamination caused by migration of PCBs from subsurface burial sites requires a description of the physical, chemical and biological processes governing transport in unsaturated and saturated soils. For this purpose, a model is developed and solved for different soil conditions and external driving functions. The model couples together the fundamental transport phenomena for heat, mass, and moisture flow within the soil. To rehabilitate a contaminated aquifer, contaminated groundwaters are withdrawn through drainage wells, PCBs are extracted with solvents or activated carbon and treated by chemical, photochemical or thermal methods. The chemical and photochemical methods are reviewed, but primary emphasis is devoted to the use of incineration as the preferred method of disposal. After discussing the formation of PCDFs and PCDDs during combustion from chloroaromatic, chloroaliphatic, as well as organic and inorganic chloride precursors, performance characteristics of different thermal destructors are presented and analyzed. To understand how this information can be used, basic design equations are developed from governing heat and mass balances that can be applied to the construction of incinerators capable of more than 99.99% destruction with minimal to nondetectable levels of PCDFs and PCDDs.

Piver, W T; Lindstrom, F T

1985-01-01

397

Spray-on Polyurea Coatings For Use as Hazardous & Radioactive Waste Shipping Containers  

SciTech Connect

Decommissioning activities at radiological and hazardous waste facilities often requires the removal of large pieces of contaminated tanks, equipment, and machinery. Size reducing these large objects for disposal in standard waste containers presents major challenges. The use of a spray-applied polyurea coating has the potential to eliminate the need for size-reduction activities and reduce worker risk. Cost savings to the decommissioning project are an added benefit to using this alternative waste packaging system.

Neveau, R.; Kimokeo, M.

2003-02-26

398

Remedial Action and Waste Disposal Conduct of OperationsMatrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Conduct of Operations (CONOPS) matrix incorporates the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) CONOPS matrix (BHI-00746, Rev. 0). The ERDF CONOPS matrix has been expanded to cover all aspects of the RAWD project. All remedial action and waste disposal (RAWD) operations, including waste remediation, transportation, and disposal at the ERDF consist of construction-type activities as opposed to nuclear power plant-like

M. A. Casbon

1999-01-01

399

Remedial Action and Waste Disposal Conduct of OperationsMatrix  

SciTech Connect

This Conduct of Operations (CONOPS) matrix incorporates the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) CONOPS matrix (BHI-00746, Rev. 0). The ERDF CONOPS matrix has been expanded to cover all aspects of the RAWD project. All remedial action and waste disposal (RAWD) operations, including waste remediation, transportation, and disposal at the ERDF consist of construction-type activities as opposed to nuclear power plant-like operations. In keeping with this distinction, the graded approach has been applied to the developmentof this matrix.

M. A. Casbon.

1999-05-24

400

Department of Energy low-level radioactive waste disposal concepts  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) manages its low-level waste (LLW), regulated by DOE Order 5820.2A by using an overall systems approach. This systems approach provides an improved and consistent management system for all DOE LLW waste, from generation to disposal. This paper outlines six basic disposal concepts used in the systems approach, discusses issues associated with each of the concepts, and outlines both present and future disposal concepts used at six DOE sites. 3 refs., 9 figs.

Ozaki, C.; Page, L.; Morreale, B.; Owens, C.

1990-01-01

401

Draft Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for managing treatment, storage, and disposal of radioactive and hazardous waste. Volume 3, Appendix A: Public response to revised NOI, Appendix B: Environmental restoration, Appendix C, Environmental impact analysis methods, Appendix D, Risk  

SciTech Connect

Volume three contains appendices for the following: Public comments do DOE`s proposed revisions to the scope of the waste management programmatic environmental impact statement; Environmental restoration sensitivity analysis; Environmental impacts analysis methods; and Waste management facility human health risk estimates.

NONE

1995-08-01

402

Boilers Cofiring Hazardous Waste: Effects of Hysteresis on Performance Measurements,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Hazardous Waste Engineering Research Laboratory (HWERL) has conducted full scale and pilot scale boiler testing to determine hazardous waste destruction and removal efficiencies (DRE's) and other associated boiler performance parameters during the las...

I. J. Licis H. B. Mason

1988-01-01

403

BOILERS COFIRING HAZARDOUS WASTE: EFFECTS OF HYSTERESIS ON PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Hazardous Waste Engineering Research Laboratory (HWERL) has conducted full scale and pilot scale boiler testing to determine hazardous waste destruction and removal efficiencies (DRE's) and other associated boiler performance parameters during the last five years. The effort ...

404

NEW APPROACHES TO THE DECONTAMINATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The Hazardous Waste Engineering Research Laboratory is currently supporting a number of research projects to develop innovative chemical and biological systems capable of detoxifying hazardous wastes. Recent emphasis has been on the destruction of chlorinated dioxins, chlorinated...

405

ADVANCES IN HAZARDOUS WASTE SITE ALLUVIAL SAMPLING  

EPA Science Inventory

Ground-water remediation at hazardous waste sites quite often fails to meet state and federal established goals. n recent pump-and-treat study of 19 active systems, Haley et al (1989) found that most systems had been operated longer than their initial projection for clean-up. sti...

406

REMAINING ISSUES OVER HAZARDOUS WASTE THERMAL DESTRUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Since 1980, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has conducted extensive research to assess the performance of hazardous waste thermal destruction processes. Some members of the scientific and the environmental action community remain concerned about the long-term safet...

407

HAZARDOUS WASTE DECONTAMINATION WITH PLASMA REACTORS  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of electrical energy in the form of plasma has been considered as a potentially efficient means of decontaminating hazardous waste, although to date only a few attempts have been made to do so. There are a number of relative advantages and some potential disadvantages to...

408

REMEDIAL RESPONSE AT HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

In response to the threat to human health and the environment posed by numerous uncontrolled hazardous waste sites across the country, new remedial action technologies are evolving and known technologies are being retrofitted and adapted for use in cleaning up these sites. This r...

409

Managing hazardous waste: Fulfilling the public trust  

SciTech Connect

Managing hazardous waste means dealing responsibly with the by-products of our industrialized society. Everyday essentials from medicine to textiles, from furniture to vehicles, are all manufactured by processes that generate by-products that must be properly managed to safeguard human health and the environment.

NONE

1989-12-31

410

DRUM HANDLING PRACTICES AT HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the research effort was to provide technical guidance on planning and implementing safe and cost-effective response actions applicable to hazardous waste sites containing drums. The manual provides detailed technical guidance on methods, procedures, and equipment s...

411

FIELD EXPERIENCE IN SAMPLING HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATORS  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper is for presentation at the 77th annual meeting of the Air Pollution Control Association, June 24-29, 1984. The paper contains much useful, pragmatic information gained through numerous hazardous waste incinerator trial burn-type investigations performed for EPA by the ...

412

Navigating the Hazardous Waste Management Maze.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hazardous waste management is a continual process. Administrators should maintain good relations with state agencies and the Environmental Protection Agency and use them as resources. Contacts with businesses and professional groups as well as forming coalitions with neighboring districts are ways to share information and expenses. (MLF)

Voelkle, James P.

1997-01-01

413

One-Stop Waste Disposal -- Enhancing Force Protection in Afghanistan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sound environmental practices in the theater of operations, principally hazardous and solid waste management, are truly an area of force protection. How much waste can a contingency base camp generate. Seemingly more than it can handle. By Spring 2002, un...

G. Anderson W. Wolf

2004-01-01

414

Certification Plan, low-level waste Hazardous Waste Handling Facility  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this plan is to describe the organization and methodology for the certification of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) handled in the Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). This plan also incorporates the applicable elements of waste reduction, which include both up-front minimization and end-product treatment to reduce the volume and toxicity of the waste; segregation of the waste as it applies to certification; an executive summary of the Waste Management Quality Assurance Implementing Management Plan (QAIMP) for the HWHF and a list of the current and planned implementing procedures used in waste certification. This plan provides guidance from the HWHF to waste generators, waste handlers, and the Waste Certification Specialist to enable them to conduct their activities and carry out their responsibilities in a manner that complies with the requirements of WHC-WAC. Waste generators have the primary responsibility for the proper characterization of LLW. The Waste Certification Specialist verifies and certifies that LBL LLW is characterized, handled, and shipped in accordance with the requirements of WHC-WAC. Certification is the governing process in which LBL personnel conduct their waste generating and waste handling activities in such a manner that the Waste Certification Specialist can verify that the requirements of WHC-WAC are met.

Albert, R.

1992-06-30

415

Immobilization of hazardous and radioactive wastes into glass structures  

SciTech Connect

As a result of more than three decades of international research, glass has emerged as the material of choice for immobilization of a wide range of potentially hazardous radioactive and non-radioactive materials. The ability of glass structures to incorporate and then immobilize many different elements into durable, high integrity, waste glass products is a direct function of the unique random network structure of the glassy state. Every major country involved with long-term management of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) has either selected or is considering glass as the matrix of choice for immobilizing and ultimately, disposing of the potentially hazardous, high-level radioactive material. There are many reasons why glass is preferred. Among the most important considerations are the ability of glass structures to accommodate and immobilize the many different types of radionuclides present in HLW, and to produce a product that not only has excellent technical properties, but also possesses good processing features. Good processability allows the glass to be fabricated with relative ease even under difficult remote-handling conditions necessary for vitrification of highly radioactive material. The single most important property of the waste glass produced is its ability to retain hazardous species within the glass structure and this is reflected by its excellent chemical durability and corrosion resistance to a wide range of environmental conditions.

Wicks, G.G.

1997-10-01

416

Method for encapsulating hazardous wastes using a staged mold  

DOEpatents

A staged mold and method for stabilizing hazardous wastes for final disposal by molding an agglomerate of the hazardous wastes and encapsulating the agglomerate. Three stages are employed in the process. In the first stage, a first mold body is positioned on a first mold base, a mixture of the hazardous wastes and a thermosetting plastic is loaded into the mold, the mixture is mechanically compressed, heat is applied to cure the mixture to form a rigid agglomerate, and the first mold body is removed leaving the agglomerate sitting on the first mold base. In the second stage, a clamshell second mold body is positioned around the agglomerate and the first mold base, a powdered thermoplastic resin is poured on top of the agglomerate and in the gap between the sides of the agglomerate and the second mold body, the thermoplastic is compressed, heat is applied to melt the thermoplastic, and the plastic is cooled jacketing the agglomerate on the top and sides. In the third stage, the mold with the jacketed agglomerate is inverted, the first mold base is removed exposing the former bottom of the agglomerate, powdered thermoplastic is poured over the former bottom, the first mold base is replaced to compress the thermoplastic, heat is applied to melt the new thermoplastic and the top part of the jacket on the sides, the plastic is cooled jacketing the bottom and fusing with the jacketing on the sides to complete the seamless encapsulation of the agglomerate.

Unger, Samuel L. (Los Angeles, CA); Telles, Rodney W. (Alhambra, CA); Lubowitz, Hyman R. (Rolling Hills Estates, CA)

1989-01-01

417

Vitrification of M-Area Mixed (Hazardous and Radioactive) F006 Wastes: I. Sludge and Supernate Characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technologies are being developed by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Nuclear Facility sites to convert low-level and mixed (hazardous and radioactive) wastes to a solid stabilized waste form for permanent disposal. One of the alternative technologies is vitrification into a borosilicate glass waste form. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has declared vitrification the Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) for

Jantzen

2001-01-01

418

Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Treatment Building Safety Information Document (SID)  

SciTech Connect

This Safety Information Document (SID) provides a description and analysis of operations for the Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility Treatment Building (the Treatment Building). The Treatment Building has been classified as a moderate hazard facility, and the level of analysis performed and the methodology used are based on that classification. Preliminary design of the Treatment Building has identified the need for two separate buildings for waste treatment processes. The term Treatment Building applies to all these facilities. The evaluation of safety for the Treatment Building is accomplished in part by the identification of hazards associated with the facility and the analysis of the facility`s response to postulated events involving those hazards. The events are analyzed in terms of the facility features that minimize the causes of such events, the quantitative determination of the consequences, and the ability of the facility to cope with each event should it occur. The SID presents the methodology, assumptions, and results of the systematic evaluation of hazards associated with operation of the Treatment Building. The SID also addresses the spectrum of postulated credible events, involving those hazards, that could occur. Facility features important to safety are identified and discussed in the SID. The SID identifies hazards and reports the analysis of the spectrum of credible postulated events that can result in the following consequences: Personnel exposure to radiation; Radioactive material release to the environment; Personnel exposure to hazardous chemicals; Hazardous chemical release to the environment; Events leading to an onsite/offsite fatality; and Significant damage to government property. The SID addresses the consequences to the onsite and offsite populations resulting from postulated credible events and the safety features in place to control and mitigate the consequences.

Fatell, L.B.; Woolsey, G.B.

1993-04-15

419

60 FR 57747 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste: Petroleum...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...proposed decision. 6. Spent Caustic From Liquid Treating a. Summary. The Agency is proposing not to list spent caustic from liquid treating as a hazardous waste. After...acidic compounds like mercaptans from liquid petroleum streams to reduce product...

1995-11-20

420

76 FR 55846 - Hazardous Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste: Carbon Dioxide...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Listing of Hazardous Waste: Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Streams in Geologic Sequestration Activities AGENCY: Environmental...to conditionally exclude carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) streams...to conditionally exclude carbon dioxide (CO 2 )...

2011-09-09

421

75 FR 11002 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Rule  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Valero Refining Company--Tennessee, LLC (Valero) to exclude or ``delist'' a certain sediment generated by its Memphis Refinery in Memphis, Tennessee from the lists of hazardous wastes. This final rule responds to a petition submitted by Valero to...

2010-03-10

422

76 FR 74709 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ExxonMobil Refining and Supply Company--Beaumont Refinery (Beaumont Refinery) to exclude from hazardous waste control (or delist...rule responds to the petition submitted by Beaumont Refinery to delist to have centrifuge solids generated...

2011-12-01

423

Low-Level Waste Disposal Alternatives Analysis Report  

SciTech Connect

This report identifies and compares on-site and off-site disposal options for the disposal of contract-handled and remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Potential disposal options are screened for viability by waste type resulting in a short list of options for further consideration. The most crediable option are selected after systematic consideration of cost, schedule constraints, and risk. In order to holistically address the approach for low-level waste disposal, options are compiled into comprehensive disposal schemes, that is, alternative scenarios. Each alternative scenario addresses the disposal path for all low-level waste types over the period of interest. The alternative scenarios are compared and ranked using cost, risk and complexity to arrive at the recommended approach. Schedule alignment with disposal needs is addressed to ensure that all waste types are managed appropriately. The recommended alternative scenario for the disposal of low-level waste based on this analysis is to build a disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

Timothy Carlson; Kay Adler-Flitton; Roy Grant; Joan Connolly; Peggy Hinman; Charles Marcinkiewicz

2006-09-01

424

Apparatus for incinerating hazardous waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention is comprised of an apparatus for incinerating wastes, including an incinerator having a combustion chamber, a fluid-tight shell enclosing the combustion chamber, an afterburner, an off-gas particulate removal system, and an emergency off-ga...

R. C. W. Chang

1993-01-01

425

Municipal solid waste management in India: From waste disposal to recovery of resources?  

SciTech Connect

Unlike that of western countries, the solid waste of Asian cities is often comprised of 70-80% organic matter, dirt and dust. Composting is considered to be the best option to deal with the waste generated. Composting helps reduce the waste transported to and disposed of in landfills. During the course of the research, the author learned that several developing countries established large-scale composting plants that eventually failed for various reasons. The main flaw that led to the unsuccessful establishment of the plants was the lack of application of simple scientific methods to select the material to be composted. Landfills have also been widely unsuccessful in countries like India because the landfill sites have a very limited time frame of usage. The population of the developing countries is another factor that detrimentally impacts the function of landfill sites. As the population keeps increasing, the garbage quantity also increases, which, in turn, exhausts the landfill sites. Landfills are also becoming increasingly expensive because of the rising costs of construction and operation. Incineration, which can greatly reduce the amount of incoming municipal solid waste, is the second most common method for disposal in developed countries. However, incinerator ash may contain hazardous materials including heavy metals and organic compounds such as dioxins, etc. Recycling plays a large role in solid waste management, especially in cities in developing countries. None of the three methods mentioned here are free from problems. The aim of this study is thus to compare the three methods, keeping in mind the costs that would be incurred by the respective governments, and identify the most economical and best option possible to combat the waste disposal problem.

Narayana, Tapan [Hidayatullah National Law University, HNLU Bhawan, Civil Lines, Raipur 492001, Chhattisgarh (India)], E-mail: tapan.narayana@gmail.com

2009-03-15

426

Systems engineering programs for geologic nuclear waste disposal  

SciTech Connect

The design sequence and system programs presented begin with general approximate solutions that permit inexpensive analysis of a multitude of possible wastes, disposal media, and disposal process properties and configurations. It then continues through progressively more precise solutions as parts of the design become fixed, and ends with repository and waste form optimization studies. The programs cover both solid and gaseous waste forms. The analytical development, a program listing, a users guide, and examples are presented for each program. Sensitivity studies showing the effects of disposal media and waste form thermophysical properties and repository layouts are presented as examples.

Klett, R. D.; Hertel, Jr., E. S.; Ellis, M. A.

1980-06-01

427

Low-level radioactive waste disposal at a humid site  

SciTech Connect

Waste management in humid environments poses a continuing challenge because of the potential contamination of groundwater in the long term. Short-term needs for waste disposal, regulatory uncertainty, and unique site and waste characteristics have led to the development of a site-specific waste classification and management system proposed for the Oak Ridge Reservation. The overlying principle of protection of public health and safety is used to define waste classes compatible with generated waste types, disposal sites and technologies, and treatment technologies. 1 fig., 1 tab.

Lee, D.W.

1987-03-01

428

Certification Plan, Radioactive Mixed Waste Hazardous Waste Handling Facility  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this plan is to describe the organization and methodology for the certification of radioactive mixed waste (RMW) handled in the Hazardous Waste Handling Facility at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). RMW is low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or transuranic (TRU) waste that is co-contaminated with dangerous waste as defined in the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) and the Washington State Dangerous Waste Regulations, 173-303-040 (18). This waste is to be transferred to the Hanford Site Central Waste Complex and Burial Grounds in Hanford, Washington. This plan incorporates the applicable elements of waste reduction, which include both up-front minimization and end-product treatment to reduce the volume and toxicity of the waste; segregation of the waste as it applies to certification; an executive summary of the Waste Management Quality Assurance Implementing Management Plan (QAIMP) for the HWHF (Section 4); and a list of the current and planned implementing procedures used in waste certification.

Albert, R.

1992-06-30

429

The political science of radioactive waste disposal  

SciTech Connect

This paper was first presented at the annual meeting of the HPS in New Orleans in 1984. Twelve years later, the basic lessons learned are still found to be valid. In 1984, the following things were found to be true: A government agency is preferred by the public over a private company to manage radioactive waste. Semantics are important--How you say it is important, but how it is heard is more important. Public information and public relations are very important, but they are the last thing of concern to a scientist. Political constituency is important. Don`t overlook the need for someone to be on your side. Don`t forget that the media is part of the political process-they can make you or break you. Peer technical review is important, but so is citizen review. Sociology is an important issue that scientists and technical people often overlook. In summary, despite the political nature of radioactive waste disposal, it is as true today as it was in 1984 that technical facts must be used to reach sound technical conclusions. Only then, separately and openly, should political factors be considered. So, what can be said today that wasn`t said in 1984? Nothing. {open_quotes}It`s deja vu all over again.{close_quotes}

Jacobi, L.R. Jr. [Texas Los Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority, Austin, TX (United States)

1996-06-01

430

Performance assessment for TRU waste disposal  

SciTech Connect

The authors present results of an analysis of radionuclide release from a deep geologic repository for transuranic (TRU) wastes surrounded by a water-saturated porous rock. It is assumed that plutonium is recovered by Purex reprocessing of spent UO{sub 2} fuel and is fabricated into mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel for pressurized water reactors. TRU wastes are generated from reprocessing 100,000 UO{sub 2} spent-fuel assemblies and fabricating 20,000 MOX fuel assemblies. Spent MOX fuel is assumed to be disposed of without recycling. The radiological impact of the repository is measured by the toxicity index (in cubic meters) of radionuclides in the far field. The far field is mathematically considered to extend from the repository surface to infinity. The toxicity index of radionuclide k is calculated by dividing the mass M{sub k}{sup F}(t) (mol) of radionuclide k in the far field by the maximum permissible concentration; M{sub k}{sup F}(t) is governed by daughters of actinides keep increasing throughout. While such long-lived species as {sup 235}U, {sup 236}U, {sup 238}U, and {sup 232}Th contribute to the far-field toxicity index mainly by release from the repository, the far-field toxicity contributed by other radionuclides in the actinide decay chains are generated by decay of their precursors that exist in the far field.

Denda, Yasutaka; Ahn, J.; Chambre, P.L.

1999-07-01

431

Lessons Learned from Radioactive Waste Storage and Disposal Facilities  

SciTech Connect

The safety of radioactive waste disposal facilities and the decommissioning of complex sites may be predicated on the performance of engineered and natural barriers. For assessing the safety of a waste disposal facility or a decommissioned site, a performance assessment or similar analysis is often completed. The analysis is typically based on a site conceptual model that is developed from site characterization information, observations, and, in many cases, expert judgment. Because waste disposal facilities are sited, constructed, monitored, and maintained, a fair amount of data has been generated at a variety of sites in a variety of natural systems. This paper provides select examples of lessons learned from the observations developed from the monitoring of various radioactive waste facilities (storage and disposal), and discusses the implications for modeling of future waste disposal facilities that are yet to be constructed or for the development of dose assessments for the release of decommissioning sites. Monitoring has been and continues to be performed at a variety of different facilities for the disposal of radioactive waste. These include facilities for the disposal of commercial low-level waste (LLW), reprocessing wastes, and uranium mill tailings. Many of the lessons learned and problems encountered provide a unique opportunity to improve future designs of waste disposal facilities, to improve dose modeling for decommissioning sites, and to be proactive in identifying future problems. Typically, an initial conceptual model was developed and the siting and design of the disposal facility was based on the conceptual model. After facility construction and operation, monitoring data was collected and evaluated. In many cases the monitoring data did not comport with the original site conceptual model, leading to additional investigation and changes to the site conceptual model and modifications to the design of the facility. The following cases are discussed: commercial LLW disposal facilities; uranium mill tailings disposal facilities; and reprocessing waste storage and disposal facilities. The observations developed from the monitoring and maintenance of waste disposal and storage facilities provide valuable lessons learned for the design and modeling of future waste disposal facilities and the decommissioning of complex sites.

Esh, David W.; Bradford, Anna H. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Two White Flint North, MS T7J8, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)

2008-01-15

432

Defense waste salt disposal at the Savannah River Plant. [Cement-based waste form, saltstone  

SciTech Connect

A cement-based waste form, saltstone, has been designed for disposal of Savannah River Plant low-level radioactive salt waste. The disposal process includes emplacing the saltstone in engineered trenches above the water table but below grade at SRP. Design of the waste form and disposal system limits the concentration of salts and radionuclides in the groundwater so that EPA drinking water standards will not be exceeded at the perimeter of the disposal site. 10 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

Langton, C A; Dukes, M D

1984-01-01

433

Deposit-refund systems for managing hazardous wastes produced by small businesses  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the potential of an economic incentive device virtually unused in the United States for managing hazardous wastes-- deposit-refund systems. The emphasis is on reducing the high rate of illegal disposal of hazardous wastes by small firms. We give evidence that illegal disposal is a problem and identify its underlying causes, principally lack of enforcement. Theory and operation of deposit-refund systems are described, with illustrative situations showing the crucial role of the size of the refund relative to the cost of legal disposal. Economic effects, advantages, and problems of design and implementation are examined. We conclude that deposit-refund systems are potentially effective for reducing illegal disposal, and that they promote economic efficiency and equity. Pilot programs are recommended.

Cuckovich, W.P.; Schwartz, S.I. (Univ. of California, Davis (USA))

1989-09-01

434

Hanford radioactive solid waste packaging, storage, and disposal requirements  

SciTech Connect

Westinghouse Hanford Company manages and operates the Hanford Site 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities for the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office under contract AC06-87RL10930. These facilities include radioactive solid waste disposal sites and radioactive solid waste storage areas. This manual defines the requirements that must be met by waste generators for radioactive solid waste to be accepted by Westinghouse Hanford Company for storage or disposal at the 200 Area facilities. It is to be used by all waste generators preparing radioactive solid waste for storage or disposal at the Hanford Site facilities. This manual is also intended for use by Westinghouse Hanford Company solid waste technical staff involved with approval and acceptance of radioactive solid waste. Requirements in the manual represent a compilation of state and federal regulations, US Department of Energy Orders, Hanford Site requirements, and other rules, regulations, guidelines, and standards as they apply to storage or disposal of radioactive solid waste. Where appropriate, these requirements are included in the manual by reference. It is the intent of this manual to provide guidance to the waste generator in meeting the applicable requirements. 20 refs.

Stickney, R.G.

1988-09-01

435

Waste minimization: hazardous and non-hazardous solid waste (1980 to present). Information guide 1980-87  

Microsoft Academic Search

The minimization of hazardous and non-hazardous solid waste has become an increasingly important topic in recent years. More and more, people are becoming concerned that the country's landfills are nearing capacity, and that hazardous and non-hazardous solid wastes pose a severe threat to human health and the environment. Federal, State, and local governments have been grappling with methods for minimizing

S. A. Richard; A. Berger

1987-01-01

436

Assessment of non-hazardous industrial waste codisposal in Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

This study addresses the issues associated with the codisposal of the diverse non-hazardous industrial wastes (NHIWs) in Oklahoma's municipal sanitary waste landfills (MSWLs). One aspect of the study focused on the selection of a representative cross section of NHIWs, typical of those wastes currently being codisposed in Oklahoma, and to characterize the representative waste streams based on all available physical and chemical data. Following the waste characterizations, a NHIW classification scheme was developed to distinguish amongst the potential risks posed by the different NHIWs if codisposed in municipal landfills. Another aspect of the study examined other state regulatory programs in an effort to determine the overall direction of NHIW codisposal regulations, nationwide. All state agencies were contacted and subsequently interviewed by telephone, followed by a request to send any pertinent literature and/or regulations. A synopsis of each state's general solid waste management practices were included, in addition to any specific details on NHIW regulations and/or handling procedures. The results of this specific survey indicated that a wide spectrum of NHIW regulations and procedures are being implemented nationwide. A final aspect of the study identified the best management and disposal options currently available for the NHIWs requiring codisposal. The basis for the pretreatment and/or disposal recommendations includes data obtained from both the waste characterization documentation and other state programs. Finally, the study made recommendations to the Oklahoma State Department of Health for the step-by-step development of comprehensive NHIW codisposal guidelines and recommendations, i.e., a major objective of this study.

Raleigh, L.H.

1991-01-01

437

Decision analysis for INEL hazardous waste storage  

SciTech Connect

In mid-November 1993, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Waste Reduction Operations Complex (WROC) Manager requested that the INEL Hazardous Waste Type Manager perform a decision analysis to determine whether or not a new Hazardous Waste Storage Facility (HWSF) was needed to store INEL hazardous waste (HW). In response to this request, a team was formed to perform a decision analysis for recommending the best configuration for storage of INEL HW. Personnel who participated in the decision analysis are listed in Appendix B. The results of the analysis indicate that the existing HWSF is not the best configuration for storage of INEL HW. The analysis detailed in Appendix C concludes that the best HW storage configuration would be to modify and use a portion of the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) Waste Storage Building (WWSB), PBF-623 (Alternative 3). This facility was constructed in 1991 to serve as a waste staging facility for WERF incineration. The modifications include an extension of the current Room 105 across the south end of the WWSB and installing heating, ventilation, and bay curbing, which would provide approximately 1,600 ft{sup 2} of isolated HW storage area. Negotiations with the State to discuss aisle space requirements along with modifications to WWSB operating procedures are also necessary. The process to begin utilizing the WWSB for HW storage includes planned closure of the HWSF, modification to the WWSB, and relocation of the HW inventory. The cost to modify the WWSB can be funded by a reallocation of funding currently identified to correct HWSF deficiencies.

Page, L.A.; Roach, J.A.

1994-01-01

438

Liner materials exposed to toxic and hazardous wastes  

SciTech Connect

This exploratory experimental research project was conducted (1975-1983) to assess the relative effectiveness and durability of a wide variety of liner materials when exposed to hazardous wastes under conditions that simulate different aspects of service in on-land waste storage and disposal facilities. The materials studied included compacted soil, polymer-treated bentonite-sand mixtures, soil cement, hydraulic asphalt concrete, sprayed-on asphalt, and 31 flexible polymeric membranes based on polyvinyl chloride, chlorinated polyethylene, chlorosulfonated polyethylene, ethylene propylene rubber, neoprene, butyl rubber, elasticized polyolefin, and polyester elastomer. Four semicrystalline polymeric sheetings (polybutylene, low-density polyethylene, high-density polyethylene, and polypropylene), though not compounded for use as liners, were included in the study because of their known chemical resistance and use in applications requiring good chemical and aging resistance.

Haxo, H.E.; Haxo, R.S.; Nelson, N.A.; Haxo, P.D.; White, R.M.

1986-01-01

439

Liquid effluent services and solid waste disposal interface control document  

SciTech Connect

This interface control document between Liquid Effluent Services (LES) and Solid Waste Disposal (SWD) establishes the functional responsibilities of each division where interfaces exist between the two divisions. The document includes waste volumes and timing for use in planning the proper waste management capabilities. The interface control document also facilitates integration of existing or planned waste management capabilities of the Liquid Effluent Services and Solid Waste divisions.

Carlson, A.B.

1994-10-27

440

Household hazardous waste and automotive products: A Pennsylvania survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Household Hazardous Waste (HHW) is defined by the US Environmental Protection Agency as solid wastes, discarded from homes or similar sources, that are either hazardous wastes or wastes that exhibit any of the following characteristics: ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, or toxicity. A significant fraction of HHW is generated by home mechanics who use such products as motor oil, cleaners and solvents,

C. V. Shorten; M. L. Glowacki; M. M. Lynch

1995-01-01

441

Management and disposal of waste from sites contaminated by radioactivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various methods of managing and disposing of wastes generated by decontamination and decommissioning (D & D) activities are described. This review of current waste management practices includes a description of waste minimization and volume reduction techniques and their applicability to various categories of radwaste. The importance of the physical properties of the radiation and radioactivity in determining the methodology of

C. J. Roberts

1998-01-01

442

Science and technology for disposal of radioactive tank wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the legacies of the Cold War is a huge stockpile of radioactive wastes generated by over 40 years of nuclear weapons production. Safe treatment and disposal of these wastes, together with the associated problems of facility decommissioning and site clean-up, represents one of the largest and most complex environmental challenges of the present-day. Amongst these nuclear wastes is

W. W. Schulz; N. J. Lombardo

1998-01-01

443

LIQUID RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITY. Final Engineering Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A liquld radioactive waste disposal facility was designed, developed, ; and installed at Nuclear Defense Laboratory for extensive tests and evaluation. ; The facility is being used for concentration of radioactive wastes from the Army ; nuclear power program and biological and medical research. It employs a Pfaulder ; Wiped Film Evaporator to effect gross decontamination of the waste and

W. F. Swanton; M. L. Hyman

1962-01-01

444

Hazardous waste landfill site selection in Khorasan Razavi Province, Northeastern Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disposal is the final step of any hazardous waste management plan. An inappropriate landfill site may have negative environmental,\\u000a economical, and ecological impacts. Therefore, landfills should be sited carefully by taking into account various rules, regulations,\\u000a factors, and constraints. In this study, candidate sites for hazardous landfills in the northeastern Khorasan Razavi province\\u000a are determined using the integration of

Naser Hafezi Moghaddas; Hadi Hajizadeh Namaghi

2011-01-01

445

Immobilized low-level waste disposal options configuration study  

SciTech Connect

This report compiles information that supports the eventual conceptual and definitive design of a disposal facility for immobilized low-level waste. The report includes the results of a joint Westinghouse/Fluor Daniel Inc. evaluation of trade-offs for glass manufacturing and product (waste form) disposal. Though recommendations for the preferred manufacturing and disposal option for low-level waste are outside the scope of this document, relative ranking as applied to facility complexity, safety, remote operation concepts and ease of retrieval are addressed.

Mitchell, D.E.

1995-02-01

446

INJECTION OF HAZARDOUS WASTES INTO DEEP WELLS: STATE-OF-THE-ART REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

About 11 percent of all hazardous wastes are presently disposed of by injection wells into deep subsurface environments. There are approximately 250 of these Class I wells in the United States and to date their record of performance has been good. Provisions of the Resource Conse...

447

Economic incentives for hazardous-waste management: Deposit-refunded systems and used lubricating oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic incentives have been widely advocated for controlling environmental externalities. There has been increasing interest in devising such incentives to reduce the generation of hazardous waste. It is demonstrated that since firms comply with existing disposal rules, there is no efficiency basis for additional incentives. In contrast, incentives may be appropriate for firms that do not comply with existing rules.

Belzer

1989-01-01

448

Evaluating the quality and effectiveness of hazardous waste training programs  

SciTech Connect

An installation`s compliance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste regulations is strongly dependent on the knowledge, skill, and behavior of all individuals involved in the generation and management of hazardous waste. Recognizing this, Headquarters Air Force Materiel Command (HQ/AFMC) determined that an in-depth evaluation of hazardous waste training programs at each AFMC installation was an appropriate element in assessing the overall effectiveness of installation hazardous waste management programs in preventing noncompliant conditions. Consequently, pursuant to its authority under Air Force Instruction (AFI) 32-7042, Solid and Hazardous Waste Compliance (May 12, 1994) to support and maintain hazardous waste training, HQ/AFMC directed Argonne National Laboratory to undertake the Hazardous Waste Training Initiative. This paper summarizes the methodology employed in performing the evaluation and presents the initiative`s salient conclusions.

Kolpa, R.L.; Haffenden, R.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Weaver, M.A. [Headquarters Air Force Materiel Command, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH (United States)

1996-05-01

449

EVALUATION OF CONTINUOUS PERFORMANCE MONITORING TECHNIQUES FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATORS  

EPA Science Inventory

The article discusses monitoring the waste destruction efficiency of hazardous waste incinerators, to ensure that incinerators do not release, without detection, significant quantities of waste as a result of operating fluctuations or equipment degration. To detect these conditio...

450

40 CFR 261.11 - Criteria for listing hazardous waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...designated Acute Hazardous Waste.) (3) It contains any of the toxic constituents listed...constituent in the waste. (iii) The potential...constituent or any toxic degradation product...will be designated Toxic wastes.) (b) The...

2010-07-01

451

40 CFR 261.11 - Criteria for listing hazardous waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...designated Acute Hazardous Waste.) (3) It contains any of the toxic constituents listed...constituent in the waste. (iii) The potential...constituent or any toxic degradation product...will be designated Toxic wastes.) (b) The...

2009-07-01

452

The Hybrid Treatment Process for mixed radioactive and hazardous waste treatment  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a new process for treating mixed hazardous and radioactive waste, commonly called mixed waste. The process is called the Hybrid Treatment Process (HTP), so named because it is built on the 20 years of experience with vitrification of wastes in melters, and the 12 years of experience with treatment of wastes by the in situ vitrification (ISV) process. It also uses techniques from several additional technologies. Mixed wastes are being generated by both the US Department of Energy (DOE) and by commercial sources. The wastes are those that contain both a hazardous waste regulated under the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Resource, Conservation, and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations and a radioactive waste with source, special nuclear, or byproduct materials. The dual regulation of the wastes increases the complexity of the treatment, handling, and storage of the waste. The DOE is the largest holder and generator of mixed waste. Its mixed wastes are classified as either high-level, transuranic (TRU), or low-level waste (LLW). High-level mixed wastes will be treated in vitrification plants. Transuranic wastes may be disposed of without treatment by obtaining a no-migration variance from the EPA. Lowlevel wastes, however, will require treatment, but treatment systems with sufficient capacity are not yet available to DOE. Various facilities are being proposed for the treatment of low-level waste. The concept described in this paper represents one option for establishing that treatment capacity.

Ross, W.A.; Kindle, C.H.

1992-06-01

453

The Hybrid Treatment Process for mixed radioactive and hazardous waste treatment  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a new process for treating mixed hazardous and radioactive waste, commonly called mixed waste. The process is called the Hybrid Treatment Process (HTP), so named because it is built on the 20 years of experience with vitrification of wastes in melters, and the 12 years of experience with treatment of wastes by the in situ vitrification (ISV) process. It also uses techniques from several additional technologies. Mixed wastes are being generated by both the US Department of Energy (DOE) and by commercial sources. The wastes are those that contain both a hazardous waste regulated under the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Resource, Conservation, and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations and a radioactive waste with source, special nuclear, or byproduct materials. The dual regulation of the wastes increases the complexity of the treatment, handling, and storage of the waste. The DOE is the largest holder and generator of mixed waste. Its mixed wastes are classified as either high-level, transuranic (TRU), or low-level waste (LLW). High-level mixed wastes will be treated in vitrification plants. Transuranic wastes may be disposed of without treatment by obtaining a no-migration variance from the EPA. Lowlevel wastes, however, will require treatment, but treatment systems with sufficient capacity are not yet available to DOE. Various facilities are being proposed for the treatment of low-level waste. The concept described in this paper represents one option for establishing that treatment capacity.

Ross, W.A.; Kindle, C.H.

1992-06-01

454

Evaluation program effectiveness of household hazardous waste collection: The Seattle-King County experience  

SciTech Connect

The Seattle-King County Hazardous Waste Management Plan provides the framework for an intensive effort to keep Household Hazardous and Small Quantity Generator (SQG) wastes from entering the ``normal`` municipal waste streams. The Plan sets ambitious goals for diverting thousands of tons of hazardous wastes from being thrown, poured or dumped in the municipal waste stream. During the first five years, over $30 millon will be spent for a variety of HHW and SQG programs. The Plan incorporates a wide range of elements, including education, collection, and compliance components. Many of the hazardous waste education and collection programs have been developed in response to the Plan, so their effectiveness is still undetermined. A key component of the Plan is program evaluation. This report provides descriptions of two evaluation methods used to establish baselines for assessing the effectiveness of the Hazardous Waste Management Plan`s programs. Focusing on the Plan`s household hazardous waste programs, the findings of the baseline evaluations are discussed and conclusions are made. A general population survey, conducted through telephone interviews, was designed to assess changes in knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of area residents. Characterization of the solid waste stream was used to identify the hazardous constituents contributed to municipal solid waste by households. Monitoring changes in the amount of hazardous materials present in the waste stream was used to indicate whether or not Program strategies are influencing disposal behaviors. Comparing the data gathered by these two evaluation methods provided a unique opportunity to cross-check the findings and validate that change, if any, has occurred. From the comparisons, the report draws a number of conclusions.

Not Available

1991-10-01

455

CONVECTIVE-DISPERSIVE TRANSPORT MODEL FOR WASTES DISPOSED AT THE 106-MILE OCEAN DISPOSAL SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

A two-dimensional, convective-dispersive transport model was used to predict bounds on the expected long-term time-averaged dilutions for wastes disposed of at the 106-Mile Ocean Disposal Site (between 38 degrees 40' and 39 degrees 00'N, and 72 degrees 00' and 72 degrees 30'W). o...

456

Influence of animal waste disposal pits on groundwater quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the implementation of the Law on Promoting Proper Management and Use of Livestock Excreta in 1999, the number of the farmers that do not meet the management criteria is on the decline. However, there is a possibility that many of the animal waste disposal pits that have been either abandoned or refilled according to the law have been the potential contamination source. In this study, we discussed the impacts of the abandoned disposal pits to groundwater quality. The results showed that high concentrations of nitrate (above 100mg/L) were observed in the downstream of the disposal pits. It suggests that the abandoned animal waste disposal pits have been the potential pollution source even after the period of 15 years since the termination of use. Implementation of immediate countermeasure is necessary because the animal waste disposal pits are the long-term-sources of high levels of nitrate.

Lee, Seongwon; Hosaka, Akiko; Tase, Norio

457

Assessment of hazardous wastes for genotoxicity  

SciTech Connect

The authors have evaluated a group of short-term bioassays to identify those that may be suitable for screening large numbers of diverse hazardous industrial wastes for genotoxicity. Fifteen wastes (and dichloromethane extracts of these wastes) from a variety of manufacturing processes were tested for mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 with and without Aroclor 1254-induced rat-liver S9. Ten of these wastes were fed by gavage to F-344 male rats, and the raw urines were assayed for mutagenicity in the presence of beta-glucuronidase in strain TA98 with S9. Six of these urines were extracted by C18/methanol elution, incubated with beta-glucuronidase, and evaluated in strain TA98 with S9 and beta-glucuronidase. Fourteen of the wastes were examined for their ability to induce prophage lambda in Escherichia coli in a microsuspension assay. A second set of wastes, consisting of four industrial wastes, were evaluated in Salmonella and in a series of mammalian cell assays to measure mutagenicity, cytogenetic effects, and transformation.

DeMarini, D.M.; Houk, V.S.

1987-09-01

458

Standardization of DOE Disposal Facilities Waste Acceptance Processes  

SciTech Connect

On February 25, 2000, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issued the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS) for low-level and mixed low-level wastes (LLW/ MLLW) treatment and disposal. The ROD designated the disposal sites at Hanford and the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to dispose of LLW/MLLW from sites without their own disposal facilities. DOE's Richland Operations Office (RL) and the National Nuclear Security Administration's Nevada Operations Office (NV) have been charged with effectively implementing the ROD. To accomplish this task NV and RL, assisted by their operating contractors Bechtel Nevada (BN), Fluor Hanford (FH), and Bechtel Hanford (BH) assembled a task team to systematically map out and evaluate the current waste acceptance processes and develop an integrated, standardized process for the acceptance of LLW/MLLW. A structured, systematic, analytical process using the Six Sigma system identified dispos al process improvements and quantified the associated efficiency gains to guide changes to be implemented. The review concluded that a unified and integrated Hanford/NTS Waste Acceptance Process would be a benefit to the DOE Complex, particularly the waste generators. The Six Sigma review developed quantitative metrics to address waste acceptance process efficiency improvements, and provides an initial look at development of comparable waste disposal cost models between the two disposal sites to allow quantification of the proposed improvements.

Shrader, T. A.; Macbeth, P. J.

2002-02-26

459

Special case waste hazard categorization. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

In this document, the hazard categorization is determined for activities associated with Project W-272, Special Case Waste (SWC) Storage Modules that will be placed on concrete slabs in the Solid Waste Operations Complex (SWOC) in the 200 West Area of the Hanford site. In this categorization, the activities that take place within the boundaries of the SWOC are addressed; therefore, only the receipt, offloading, handling, and storing of the Special Case Waste at the SWOC are of concern. This revision updates the radioactive material inventory, reverses the assumption that the SCW meets the criteria of Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials (10 CFR 71), Section 71.75, Qualification of Special Form Radioactive Material, and evaluates the project based upon the criteria and guidance provided by US Department of Energy (DOE)-STD-1027-92, Hazard Categorization and Accident Analysis Techniques for Compliance with DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory Building 324 B-Cell waste inventory consists of reactor fuel, irradiated fuel, fuel cladding, and vitrified forms of these fuel elements. The waste contains no toxic chemicals or hydrogenous materials. The proposed storage method is placement of the SCW in special waste overpacks (SWOs) that are then placed in a vendor-provided canister that is then placed in prefabricated, reinforced-concrete structures. These structures meet the requirements of Licensing Requirements for the Independent Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste (10 CFR 72) and serve as a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) installation.

Armstrong, D.L.

1995-02-02

460

Mathematical Model for Barged Ocean Disposal of Wastes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Theoretical and experimental studies were performed on the dispersion and settling of barge disposed wastes in the ocean. A computer program based on the mathematical model has also been written. Comparison of predictions with experiments, both in this st...

R. C. Y. Koh Y. C. Change

1973-01-01

461

Summary Review of Rock Mechanics Workshop on Radioactive Waste Disposal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Presentations, critiques and recommendations for the disposal of commercial radioactive waste based upon an analysis of the information presented at the Rock Mechanics Review/Workshop, Denver, Colorado, December 16-17, 1976 are summarized. The workshop, c...

N. L. Carter R. E. Goodman R. H. Merrill

1977-01-01

462

Supply, Operation and Radioactive Waste Disposal of Nuclear Power Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The subject of 'Nuclear Fuel Cycle' is treated in 5 reports: 1. Uranium supply; 2. Fabrication and characteristics of fuel elements; 3. Design, operation and safety of nuclear power plants after Harrisburg; 4. Radioactive waste disposal of nuclear power p...

H. Mohrhauer M. Krey G. Haag J. Wolters E. Merz

1981-01-01

463

Disposal of solid wastes with simultaneous energy recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for resource recovery from solid wastes is discussed. The incentives for a comprehensive system, a gasification based disposal system, and biological recovery methods are reviewed. Biogas process development and the Lanfilgas process are described. (MHR)

1980-01-01

464

29 CFR 1926.252 - Disposal of waste materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Disposal § 1926.252 Disposal of waste materials. (a) Whenever materials are dropped more than 20 feet to any point lying outside the exterior walls of the building, an enclosed chute of wood, or equivalent material, shall be used. For...

2013-07-01

465

Environmental Management of Human Waste Disposal for Recreational Boating Activities  

PubMed

/ A methodology to estimate the number of pump-out facilities and dump stations required to service human waste disposal for recreational power boating activities in Pennsylvania during the 1994 boating season is described. Study results suggest that a total of 39 additional pump-out stations and 13 dump stations may be required on seven major waterbodies: The Three Rivers Area, Lake Erie/Presque Isle Bay, Raystown Lake, the Susquehanna River, the Delaware River, Lake Wallenpaupack, and the Kinzua Reservoir. Suggestions for improving the methodology are provided. KEY WORDS: Human waste; Recreation; Power boating; Waste facilities; Waste disposal; Pennsylvania PMID:9419288

Shafer; Yoon

1998-01-01

466

Toxic-Waste Disposal by Combustion in Containers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemical wastes burned with minimal handling in storage containers. Technique for disposing of chemical munitions by burning them inside shells applies to disposal of toxic materials stored in drums. Fast, economical procedure overcomes heat-transfer limitations of conventional furnace designs by providing direct contact of oxygenrich combustion gases with toxic agent. No need to handle waste material, and container also decontaminated in process. Oxygen-rich torch flame cuts burster well and causes vaporization and combustion of toxic agent contained in shell.

Houseman, J.; Stephens, J. B.; Moynihan, P. I.; Compton, L. E.; Kalvinskas, J. J.

1986-01-01

467

Economics of low-level radioactive waste disposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regardless of who develops new low-level radioactive waste disposal sites or when, economics will play a role. To assist in this area the Department of Energy's Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program has developed a computer program, LLWECON, and data base for projecting disposal site costs. This program and its non-site specific data base can currently be used to compare the

J. Schafer; E. Jennrich

1983-01-01

468

Assessment of DOE low-level radioactive solid waste disposal storage activities: task 103. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

From a survey of DOE sites, facilities, and practices for the disposal\\/storage of low-level radioactive solid waste, the following can be summarized: (1) No health hazard has been reported. (2) Some burial grounds are releasing small quantities of radionuclides to the immediate environment. These releases are well within release limits at all sites with the exception of on-site concentrations at

Duguid

1977-01-01

469