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Sample records for hdac histone deacetylase

  1. Histone deacetylases (HDACs): characterization of the classical HDAC family.

    PubMed Central

    de Ruijter, Annemieke J M; van Gennip, Albert H; Caron, Huib N; Kemp, Stephan; van Kuilenburg, André B P

    2003-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation in eukaryotes occurs within a chromatin setting, and is strongly influenced by the post-translational modification of histones, the building blocks of chromatin, such as methylation, phosphorylation and acetylation. Acetylation is probably the best understood of these modifications: hyperacetylation leads to an increase in the expression of particular genes, and hypoacetylation has the opposite effect. Many studies have identified several large, multisubunit enzyme complexes that are responsible for the targeted deacetylation of histones. The aim of this review is to give a comprehensive overview of the structure, function and tissue distribution of members of the classical histone deacetylase (HDAC) family, in order to gain insight into the regulation of gene expression through HDAC activity. SAGE (serial analysis of gene expression) data show that HDACs are generally expressed in almost all tissues investigated. Surprisingly, no major differences were observed between the expression pattern in normal and malignant tissues. However, significant variation in HDAC expression was observed within tissue types. HDAC inhibitors have been shown to induce specific changes in gene expression and to influence a variety of other processes, including growth arrest, differentiation, cytotoxicity and induction of apoptosis. This challenging field has generated many fascinating results which will ultimately lead to a better understanding of the mechanism of gene transcription as a whole. PMID:12429021

  2. Light-Controlled Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) Inhibitors: Towards Photopharmacological Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Szymanski, Wiktor; Ourailidou, Maria E; Velema, Willem A; Dekker, Frank J; Feringa, Ben L

    2015-11-01

    Cancer treatment suffers from limitations that have a major impact on the patient's quality of life and survival. In the case of chemotherapy, the systemic distribution of cytotoxic drugs reduces their efficacy and causes severe side effects due to nonselective toxicity. Photopharmacology allows a novel approach to address these problems because it employs external, local activation of chemotherapeutic agents by using light. The development of photoswitchable histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors as potential antitumor agents is reported herein. Analogues of the clinically used chemotherapeutic agents vorinostat, panobinostat, and belinostat were designed with a photoswitchable azobenzene moiety incorporated into their structure. The most promising compound exhibits high inhibitory potency in the thermodynamically less stable cis form and a significantly lower activity for the trans form, both in terms of HDAC activity and proliferation of HeLa cells. This approach offers a clear prospect towards local photoactivation of HDAC inhibition to avoid severe side effects in chemotherapy. PMID:26418117

  3. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) in XPC gene silencing and bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Bladder cancer is one of the most common malignancies and causes hundreds of thousands of deaths worldwide each year. Bladder cancer is strongly associated with exposure to environmental carcinogens. It is believed that DNA damage generated by environmental carcinogens and their metabolites causes development of bladder cancer. Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is the major DNA repair pathway for repairing bulk DNA damage generated by most environmental carcinogens, and XPC is a DNA damage recognition protein required for initiation of the NER process. Recent studies demonstrate reduced levels of XPC protein in tumors for a majority of bladder cancer patients. In this work we investigated the role of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in XPC gene silencing and bladder cancer development. The results of our HDAC inhibition study revealed that the treatment of HTB4 and HTB9 bladder cancer cells with the HDAC inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) caused an increase in transcription of the XPC gene in these cells. The results of our chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) studies indicated that the VPA treatment caused increased binding of both CREB1 and Sp1 transcription factors at the promoter region of the XPC gene for both HTB4 and HTB9 cells. The results of our immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining studies further revealed a strong correlation between the over-expression of HDAC4 and increased bladder cancer occurrence (p < 0.001) as well as a marginal significance of increasing incidence of HDAC4 positivity seen with an increase in severity of bladder cancer (p = 0.08). In addition, the results of our caspase 3 activation studies demonstrated that prior treatment with VPA increased the anticancer drug cisplatin-induced activation of caspase 3 in both HTB4 and HTB9 cells. All of these results suggest that the HDACs negatively regulate transcription of the XPC gene in bladder cancer cells and contribute to the severity of bladder tumors. PMID:21507255

  4. Cloning and functional characterization of HDAC11, a novel member of the human histone deacetylase family.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lin; Cueto, Maria A; Asselbergs, Fred; Atadja, Peter

    2002-07-12

    We have cloned and characterized a human cDNA that belongs to the histone deacetylase family, which we designate as HDAC11. The predicted HDAC11 amino acid sequence reveals an open reading frame of 347 residues with a corresponding molecular mass of 39 kDa. Sequence analyses of the putative HDAC11 protein indicate that it contains conserved residues in the catalytic core regions shared by both class I and II mammalian HDAC enzymes. Putative orthologues of HDAC11 exist in primate, mouse, Drosophila, and plant. Epitope-tagged HDAC11 protein expressed in mammalian cells displays histone deacetylase activity in vitro. Furthermore, HDAC11's enzymatic activity is inhibited by trapoxin, a known histone deacetylase inhibitor. Multiple tissue Northern blot and real-time PCR experiments show that the high expression level of HDAC11 transcripts is limited to kidney, heart, brain, skeletal muscle, and testis. Epitope-tagged HDAC11 protein localizes predominantly to the cell nucleus. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments indicate that HDAC11 may be present in protein complexes that also contain HDAC6. These results indicate that HDAC11 is a novel and unique member of the histone deacetylase family and it may have distinct physiological roles from those of the known HDACs. PMID:11948178

  5. Induction of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in human abdominal aortic aneurysm: therapeutic potential of HDAC inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Galán, María; Varona, Saray; Orriols, Mar; Rodríguez, José Antonio; Aguiló, Silvia; Dilmé, Jaume; Camacho, Mercedes; Martínez-González, José; Rodriguez, Cristina

    2016-05-01

    Clinical management of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is currently limited to elective surgical repair because an effective pharmacotherapy is still awaited. Inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity could be a promising therapeutic option in cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to characterise HDAC expression in human AAA and to evaluate the therapeutic potential of class I and IIa HDAC inhibitors in the AAA model of angiotensin II (Ang II)-infused apolipoprotein-E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice. Real-time PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry evidenced an increased expression of HDACs 1, 2 (both class I), 4 and 7 (both class IIa) in abdominal aorta samples from patients undergoing AAA open repair (n=22) compared with those from donors (n=14). Aortic aneurysms from Ang-II-infused ApoE(-/-) mice exhibited a similar HDAC expression profile. In these animals, treatment with a class I HDAC inhibitor (MS-275) or a class IIa inhibitor (MC-1568) improved survival, reduced the incidence and severity of AAA and limited aneurysmal expansion evaluated by Doppler ultrasonography. These beneficial effects were more potent in MC-1568-treated mice. The disorganisation of elastin and collagen fibres and lymphocyte and macrophage infiltration were effectively reduced by both inhibitors. Additionally, HDAC inhibition attenuated the exacerbated expression of pro-inflammatory markers and the increase in metalloproteinase-2 and -9 activity induced by Ang II in this model. Therefore, our data evidence that HDAC expression is deregulated in human AAA and that class-selective HDAC inhibitors limit aneurysm expansion in an AAA mouse model. New-generation HDAC inhibitors represent a promising therapeutic approach to overcome human aneurysm progression. PMID:26989193

  6. Histone Deacetylase 4 (HDAC4): Mechanism of Regulations and Biological Functions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhengke; Qin, Gangjian; Zhao, Ting C.

    2015-01-01

    The acetylation and deacetylation of histones play an important role in the regulation of gene transcriptions. Histone acetylation is mediated by histone acetyltransferase (HAT). The resulting modification in the structure of chromatin leads to nucleosomal relaxation and altered transcriptional activation. The reverse reaction is mediated by histone deacetylase (HDAC), which induces deacetylation, chromatin condensation, and transcriptional repression. HDACs are divided into three distinct classes, I, II, and III, on the basis of size, sequence homology, as well as formation of distinct complexes. Among class II HDACs, HDAC4 is implicated in controlling gene expression important for diverse cellular functions. Basic and clinical experimental evidence have well established that HDAC4 performs a wide variety of functions. Understanding the biological significance of HDAC4 will not only provide new insight into the mechanisms of HDAC4 involved in mediating biological response, but also form a platform to develop a therapeutic strategy to achieve clinical implications. PMID:24579951

  7. Human HDAC7 Harbors a Class IIa Histone Deacetylase-specific Zinc Binding Motif and Cryptic Deacetylase Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Schuetz, Anja; Min, Jinrong; Allali-Hassani, Abdellah; Schapira, Matthieu; Shuen, Michael; Loppnau, Peter; Mazitschek, Ralph; Kwiatkowski, Nick P.; Lewis, Timothy A.; Maglathin, Rebecca L.; McLean, Thomas H.; Bochkarev, Alexey; Plotnikov, Alexander N.; Vedadi, Masoud; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.

    2010-10-18

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are protein deacetylases that play a role in repression of gene transcription and are emerging targets in cancer therapy. Here, we characterize the structure and enzymatic activity of the catalytic domain of human HDAC7 (cdHDAC7). Although HDAC7 normally exists as part of a multiprotein complex, we show that cdHDAC7 has a low level of deacetylase activity which can be inhibited by known HDAC inhibitors. The crystal structures of human cdHDAC7 and its complexes with two hydroxamate inhibitors are the first structures of the catalytic domain of class IIa HDACs and demonstrate significant differences with previously reported class I and class IIb-like HDAC structures. We show that cdHDAC7 has an additional class IIa HDAC-specific zinc binding motif adjacent to the active site which is likely to participate in substrate recognition and protein-protein interaction and may provide a site for modulation of activity. Furthermore, a different active site topology results in modified catalytic properties and in an enlarged active site pocket. Our studies provide mechanistic insights into class IIa HDACs and facilitate the design of specific modulators.

  8. Histone Deacetylases

    PubMed Central

    Parbin, Sabnam; Kar, Swayamsiddha; Shilpi, Arunima; Sengupta, Dipta; Deb, Moonmoon; Rath, Sandip Kumar

    2014-01-01

    In the current era of genomic medicine, diseases are identified as manifestations of anomalous patterns of gene expression. Cancer is the principal example among such maladies. Although remarkable progress has been achieved in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the genesis and progression of cancer, its epigenetic regulation, particularly histone deacetylation, demands further studies. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are one of the key players in the gene expression regulation network in cancer because of their repressive role on tumor suppressor genes. Higher expression and function of deacetylases disrupt the finely tuned acetylation homeostasis in both histone and non-histone target proteins. This brings about alterations in the genes implicated in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and other cellular processes. Moreover, the reversible nature of epigenetic modulation by HDACs makes them attractive targets for cancer remedy. This review summarizes the current knowledge of HDACs in tumorigenesis and tumor progression as well as their contribution to the hallmarks of cancer. The present report also describes briefly various assays to detect histone deacetylase activity and discusses the potential role of histone deacetylase inhibitors as emerging epigenetic drugs to cure cancer. PMID:24051359

  9. Design and development of histone deacetylase (HDAC) chemical probes for cell-based profiling.

    PubMed

    Albrow, Victoria E; Grimley, Rachel L; Clulow, James; Rose, Colin R; Sun, Jianmin; Warmus, Joseph S; Tate, Edward W; Jones, Lyn H; Storer, R Ian

    2016-05-24

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) contribute to regulation of gene expression by mediating higher-order chromatin structures. They assemble into large multiprotein complexes that regulate activity and specificity. We report the development of small molecule probes with class IIa and pan-HDAC activity that contain photoreactive crosslinking groups and either a biotin reporter, or a terminal alkyne handle for subsequent bioorthogonal ligation. The probes retained inhibitory activity against recombinant HDAC proteins and caused an accumulation of acetylated histone and tubulin following cell treatment. The versatility of the probes has been demonstrated by their ability to photoaffinity modify HDAC targets in vitro. An affinity enrichment probe was used in conjunction with mass spectrometry proteomics to isolate HDACs and their interacting proteins in a native proteome. The performance of the probes in recombinant versus cell-based systems highlights issues for the development of chemoproteomic technologies targeting class IIa HDACs in particular. PMID:27021930

  10. The Role of Dietary Histone Deacetylases (HDACs) Inhibitors in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bassett, Shalome A.; Barnett, Matthew P. G.

    2014-01-01

    Modification of the histone proteins associated with DNA is an important process in the epigenetic regulation of DNA structure and function. There are several known modifications to histones, including methylation, acetylation, and phosphorylation, and a range of factors influence each of these. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) remove the acetyl group from lysine residues within a range of proteins, including transcription factors and histones. Whilst this means that their influence on cellular processes is more complex and far-reaching than histone modifications alone, their predominant function appears to relate to histones; through deacetylation of lysine residues they can influence expression of genes encoded by DNA linked to the histone molecule. HDAC inhibitors in turn regulate the activity of HDACs, and have been widely used as therapeutics in psychiatry and neurology, in which a number of adverse outcomes are associated with aberrant HDAC function. More recently, dietary HDAC inhibitors have been shown to have a regulatory effect similar to that of pharmacological HDAC inhibitors without the possible side-effects. Here, we discuss a number of dietary HDAC inhibitors, and how they may have therapeutic potential in the context of a whole food. PMID:25322459

  11. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity is critical for embryonic kidney gene expression, growth, and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaowei; Bellew, Christine; Yao, Xiao; Stefkova, Jana; Dipp, Susana; Saifudeen, Zubaida; Bachvarov, Dimcho; El-Dahr, Samir S

    2011-09-16

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) regulate fundamental biological processes such as cellular proliferation, differentiation, and survival via genomic and nongenomic effects. This study examined the importance of HDAC activity in the regulation of gene expression and differentiation of the developing mouse kidney. Class I HDAC1-3 and class II HDAC4, -7, and -9 genes are developmentally regulated. Moreover, HDAC1-3 are highly expressed in nephron precursors. Short term treatment of cultured mouse embryonic kidneys with HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) induced global histone H3 and H4 hyperacetylation and H3K4 hypermethylation. However, genome-wide profiling revealed that the HDAC-regulated transcriptome is restricted and encompasses regulators of the cell cycle, Wnt/β-catenin, TGF-β/Smad, and PI3K-AKT pathways. Further analysis demonstrated that base-line expression of key developmental renal regulators, including Osr1, Eya1, Pax2/8, WT1, Gdnf, Wnt9b, Sfrp1/2, and Emx2, is dependent on intact HDAC activity. Treatment of cultured embryonic kidney cells with HDACi recapitulated these gene expression changes, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that HDACi is associated with histone hyperacetylation of Pax2/Pax8, Gdnf, Sfrp1, and p21. Gene knockdown studies demonstrated that HDAC1 and HDAC2 play a redundant role in regulation of Pax2/8 and Sfrp1 but not Gdnf. Long term treatment of embryonic kidneys with HDACi impairs the ureteric bud branching morphogenesis program and provokes growth arrest and apoptosis. We conclude that HDAC activity is critical for normal embryonic kidney homeostasis, and we implicate class I HDACs in the regulation of early nephron gene expression, differentiation, and survival. PMID:21778236

  12. Post-translational Modifications Regulate Class IIa Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) Function in Health and Disease*

    PubMed Central

    Mathias, Rommel A.; Guise, Amanda J.; Cristea, Ileana M.

    2015-01-01

    Class IIa histone deacetylases (HDACs4, -5, -7, and -9) modulate the physiology of the human cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, nervous, and immune systems. The regulatory capacity of this family of enzymes stems from their ability to shuttle between nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments in response to signal-driven post-translational modification. Here, we review the current knowledge of modifications that control spatial and temporal histone deacetylase functions by regulating subcellular localization, transcriptional functions, and cell cycle-dependent activity, ultimately impacting on human disease. We discuss the contribution of these modifications to cardiac and vascular hypertrophy, myoblast differentiation, neuronal cell survival, and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:25616866

  13. Probing phosphorylation-dependent protein interactions within functional domains of histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5)

    PubMed Central

    Guise, Amanda J.; Mathias, Rommel A.; Rowland, Elizabeth A.; Yu, Fang; Cristea, Ileana M.

    2014-01-01

    Class IIa histone deacetylases (HDACs) are critical transcriptional regulators, shuttling between nuclear and cytoplasmic cellular compartments. Within the nucleus, these HDACs repress transcription as components of multi-protein complexes, such as the nuclear co-repressor (NCoR) and beclin-6 co-repressor (BCoR) complexes. Cytoplasmic relocalization releases this transcriptional repressive function. Class IIa HDAC shuttling is controlled, in part, by phosphorylations flanking the nuclear localization signal (NLS). Furthermore, we have reported that phosphorylation within the NLS by the kinase Aurora B modulates the localization and function of the class IIa HDAC5 during mitosis. While we identified numerous additional HDAC5 phosphorylations, their regulatory functions remain unknown. Here we studied phosphorylation sites within functional HDAC5 domains, including the deacetylation domain (DAC, Ser755), nuclear export signal (NES, S1108), and an acidic domain (AD, Ser611). We have generated phosphomutant cell lines to investigate how absence of phosphorylation at these sites impacts HDAC5 localization, enzymatic activity, and protein interactions. Combining molecular biology and quantitative mass spectrometry, we have defined the interactions and HDAC5-containing complexes mediated by site-specific phosphorylation and quantified selected changes using parallel reaction monitoring (PRM). These results expand the current understanding regarding HDAC regulation, and the functions of this critical family of proteins within human cells. PMID:24920159

  14. In vivo imaging of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in the central nervous system and major peripheral organs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changning; Schroeder, Frederick A; Wey, Hsiao-Ying; Borra, Ronald; Wagner, Florence F; Reis, Surya; Kim, Sung Won; Holson, Edward B; Haggarty, Stephen J; Hooker, Jacob M

    2014-10-01

    Epigenetic enzymes are now targeted to treat the underlying gene expression dysregulation that contribute to disease pathogenesis. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have shown broad potential in treatments against cancer and emerging data supports their targeting in the context of cardiovascular disease and central nervous system dysfunction. Development of a molecular agent for non-invasive imaging to elucidate the distribution and functional roles of HDACs in humans will accelerate medical research and drug discovery in this domain. Herein, we describe the synthesis and validation of an HDAC imaging agent, [(11)C]6. Our imaging results demonstrate that this probe has high specificity, good selectivity, and appropriate kinetics and distribution for imaging HDACs in the brain, heart, kidney, pancreas, and spleen. Our findings support the translational potential for [(11)C]6 for human epigenetic imaging. PMID:25203558

  15. In Vivo Imaging of Histone Deacetylases (HDACs) in the Central Nervous System and Major Peripheral Organs

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic enzymes are now targeted to treat the underlying gene expression dysregulation that contribute to disease pathogenesis. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have shown broad potential in treatments against cancer and emerging data supports their targeting in the context of cardiovascular disease and central nervous system dysfunction. Development of a molecular agent for non-invasive imaging to elucidate the distribution and functional roles of HDACs in humans will accelerate medical research and drug discovery in this domain. Herein, we describe the synthesis and validation of an HDAC imaging agent, [11C]6. Our imaging results demonstrate that this probe has high specificity, good selectivity, and appropriate kinetics and distribution for imaging HDACs in the brain, heart, kidney, pancreas, and spleen. Our findings support the translational potential for [11C]6 for human epigenetic imaging. PMID:25203558

  16. The Microtubule-associated Histone Deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) Regulates Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Endocytic Trafficking and Degradation*

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ya-sheng; Hubbert, Charlotte C.; Yao, Tso-Pang

    2010-01-01

    Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) is a microtubule-associated deacetylase with tubulin deacetylase activity, and it binds dynein motors. Recent studies revealed that microtubule acetylation affects the affinity and processivity of microtubule motors. These unique properties implicate a role for HDAC6 in intracellular organelle transport. Here, we show that HDAC6 associates with the endosomal compartments and controls epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) trafficking and degradation. We found that loss of HDAC6 promoted EGFR degradation. Mechanistically, HDAC6 deficiency did not cause aberrant EGFR internalization and recycling. Rather, it resulted in accelerated segregation of EGFR from early endosomes and premature delivery of EGFR to the late endosomal and lysosomal compartments. The deregulated EGFR endocytic trafficking was accompanied by an increase in microtubule-dependent movement of EGFR-bearing vesicles, revealing a novel regulation of EGFR vesicular trafficking and degradation by the microtubule deacetylase HDAC6. PMID:20133936

  17. The role of class I histone deacetylase (HDAC) on gluconeogenesis in liver

    SciTech Connect

    Oiso, Hiroshi; Furukawa, Noboru; Suefuji, Mihoshi; Shimoda, Seiya; Ito, Akihiro; Furumai, Ryohei; Nakagawa, Junichi; Yoshida, Minoru; Nishino, Norikazu; Araki, Eiichi

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} A novel class I HDAC inhibitor decreased hepatic PEPCK mRNA and gluconeogenesis. {yields} Inhibition of HDAC decreased PEPCK by reducing HNF4{alpha} expression and FoxO1 activity. {yields} siRNA knockdown of HDAC1 in HepG2 cells reduced the expression of PEPCK and HNF4{alpha}. {yields} Inhibition of class I HDAC improves glucose homeostasis in HFD mice. -- Abstract: Hepatic gluconeogenesis is crucial for glucose homeostasis. Although sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) is implicated in the regulation of gluconeogenesis in the liver, the effects of other histone deacetylases (HDAC) on gluconeogenesis are unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the role of class I HDACs in hepatic gluconeogenesis. In HepG2 cells and the liver of mice, the expressions of phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4{alpha} (HNF4{alpha}) were significantly decreased by treatment with a newly designed class I HDAC inhibitor, Ky-2. SiRNA knockdown of HDAC1 expression, but not of HDAC2 or HDAC3, in HepG2 cells decreased PEPCK and HNF4{alpha} expression. In HepG2 cells, insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt and forkhead box O 1 (FoxO1) was increased by Ky-2. Pyruvate tolerance tests in Ky-2-treated high-fat-diet (HFD)-fed mice showed a marked reduction in blood glucose compared with vehicle-treated HFD mice. These data suggest that class I HDACs increase HNF4{alpha} protein expression and the transcriptional activity of FoxO1, followed by the induction of PEPCK mRNA expression and gluconeogenesis in liver.

  18. Histone deacetylase HDAC4 promotes gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells progression via p21 repression.

    PubMed

    Kang, Zhen-Hua; Wang, Chun-Yan; Zhang, Wen-Liang; Zhang, Jian-Tao; Yuan, Chun-Hua; Zhao, Ping-Wei; Lin, Yu-Yang; Hong, Sen; Li, Chen-Yao; Wang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the leading causes of cancer death in the world. The role of histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) in specific cell and tissue types has been identified. However, its biological roles in the development of gastric cancer remain largely unexplored. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blot were used to analyze the expression of HDAC4 in the clinical samples. siRNA and overexpression of HDAC4 and siRNA p21 were used to study functional effects in a proliferation, a colony formation, a adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) assay and reactive oxygen species(ROS) generation, cell cycle, cell apoptosis rates, and autophagy assays. HDAC4 was up-regulated in gastric cancer tissues and several gastric cancer cell lines. The proliferation, colony formation ability and ATP level were enhanced in HDAC4 overexpression SGC-7901 cells, but inhibited in HDAC4 knockdown SGC-7901 cells. HDAC4 knockdown led to G0/G1 phase cell arrest and caused apoptosis and ROS increase. Moreover, HDAC4 was found to inhibit p21 expression in gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. p21 knockdown dramatically attenuated cell proliferation inhibition, cell cycle arrest, cell apoptosis promotion and autophagy up-regulation in HDAC4-siRNA SGC-7901 cells. We demonstrated that HDAC4 promotes gastric cancer cell progression mediated through the repression of p21. Our results provide an experimental basis for understanding the pro-tumor mechanism of HDAC4 as treatment for gastric cancer. PMID:24896240

  19. Transcription Regulation by Class III Histone Deacetylases (HDACs)—Sirtuins

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Yan; Faller, Douglas V.

    2008-01-01

    Sirtuins are NAD+-dependent histone deacetylases (Class III HDACs). Recently, Sirtuins have been shown to play important roles, both direct and indirect, in transcriptional regulation. This transcriptional control, through incorporation of Sirtuins into transcription complexes and deacetylation of histones locally at gene promoters, or direct interaction with specific transcription factors, is central to the participation of Sirtuins in multiple diverse processes, including aging, apoptosis, hormone responses, stress tolerance, differentiation, metabolism and development. Here we review the contribution of the Sirtuin family, at multiple molecular levels, to transcriptional regulation. PMID:21566744

  20. Histone Deacetylase HDAC8 Promotes Insulin Resistance and ?-Catenin Activation in NAFLD-Associated Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yuan; Wong, Vincent W S; Wong, Grace L H; Yang, Weiqin; Sun, Hanyong; Shen, Jiayun; Tong, Joanna H M; Go, Minnie Y Y; Cheung, Yue S; Lai, Paul B S; Zhou, Mingyan; Xu, Gang; Huang, Tim H M; Yu, Jun; To, Ka F; Cheng, Alfred S L; Chan, Henry L Y

    2015-11-15

    The growing epidemic of obesity, which causes nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the more severe phenotype nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), has paralleled the increasing incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Accumulating evidence demonstrates that overnutrition and metabolic pathways can trigger modifications of DNA and histones via deregulation of chromatin modifiers, resulting in aberrant transcriptional activity. However, the epigenetic regulation of HCC development in NAFLD remains obscure. Here, we uncover key epigenetic regulators using both dietary and genetic obesity-promoted HCC models through quantitative expression profiling and characterize the oncogenic activities of histone deacetylase HDAC8 in NAFLD-associated hepatocarcinogenesis. HDAC8 is directly upregulated by the lipogenic transcription factor SREBP-1 where they are coexpressed in dietary obesity models of NASH and HCC. Lentiviral-mediated HDAC8 attenuation in vivo reversed insulin resistance and reduced NAFLD-associated tumorigenicity. HDAC8 modulation by genetic and pharmacologic approaches inhibited p53/p21-mediated apoptosis and G2-M phase cell-cycle arrest and stimulated ?-catenin-dependent cell proliferation. Mechanistically, HDAC8 physically interacted with the chromatin modifier EZH2 to concordantly repress Wnt antagonists via histone H4 deacetylation and H3 lysine 27 trimethylation. In human NAFLD-associated HCC, levels of SREBP-1, HDAC8, EZH2, H4 deacetylation, H3K27me3, and active ?-catenin were all correlated positively in tumors compared with nontumor tissues. Overall, our findings show how HDAC8 drives NAFLD-associated hepatocarcinogenesis, offering a novel epigenetic target to prevent or treat HCC in obese patients. PMID:26383163

  1. Loss of the deubiquitylase BAP1 alters class I histone deacetylase expression and sensitivity of mesothelioma cells to HDAC inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Sacco, Joseph J.; Kenyani, Jenna; Butt, Zohra; Carter, Rachel; Chew, Hui Yi; Cheeseman, Liam P.; Darling, Sarah; Denny, Michael; Urbé, Sylvie; Clague, Michael J.; Coulson, Judy M.

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylases are important targets for cancer therapeutics, but their regulation is poorly understood. Our data show coordinated transcription of HDAC1 and HDAC2 in lung cancer cell lines, but suggest HDAC2 protein expression is cell-context specific. Through an unbiased siRNA screen we found that BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP1) regulates their expression, with HDAC2 reduced and HDAC1 increased in BAP1 depleted cells. BAP1 loss-of-function is increasingly reported in cancers including thoracic malignancies, with frequent mutation in malignant pleural mesothelioma. Endogenous HDAC2 directly correlates with BAP1 across a panel of lung cancer cell lines, and is downregulated in mesothelioma cell lines with genetic BAP1 inactivation. We find that BAP1 regulates HDAC2 by increasing transcript abundance, rather than opposing its ubiquitylation. Importantly, although total cellular HDAC activity is unaffected by transient depletion of HDAC2 or of BAP1 due to HDAC1 compensation, this isoenzyme imbalance sensitizes MSTO-211H cells to HDAC inhibitors. However, other established mesothelioma cell lines with low endogenous HDAC2 have adapted to become more resistant to HDAC inhibition. Our work establishes a mechanism by which BAP1 loss alters sensitivity of cancer cells to HDAC inhibitors. Assessment of BAP1 and HDAC expression may ultimately help identify patients likely to respond to HDAC inhibitors. PMID:25970771

  2. HDAC2 blockade by nitric oxide and histone deacetylase inhibitors reveals a common target in Duchenne muscular dystrophy treatment.

    PubMed

    Colussi, Claudia; Mozzetta, Chiara; Gurtner, Aymone; Illi, Barbara; Rosati, Jessica; Straino, Stefania; Ragone, Gianluca; Pescatori, Mario; Zaccagnini, Germana; Antonini, Annalisa; Minetti, Giulia; Martelli, Fabio; Piaggio, Giulia; Gallinari, Paola; Steinkuhler, Christian; Steinkulher, Christian; Clementi, Emilio; Dell'Aversana, Carmela; Altucci, Lucia; Mai, Antonello; Capogrossi, Maurizio C; Puri, Pier Lorenzo; Gaetano, Carlo

    2008-12-01

    The overlapping histological and biochemical features underlying the beneficial effect of deacetylase inhibitors and NO donors in dystrophic muscles suggest an unanticipated molecular link among dystrophin, NO signaling, and the histone deacetylases (HDACs). Higher global deacetylase activity and selective increased expression of the class I histone deacetylase HDAC2 were detected in muscles of dystrophin-deficient MDX mice. In vitro and in vivo siRNA-mediated down-regulation of HDAC2 in dystrophic muscles was sufficient to replicate the morphological and functional benefits observed with deacetylase inhibitors and NO donors. We found that restoration of NO signaling in vivo, by adenoviral-mediated expression of a constitutively active endothelial NOS mutant in MDX muscles, and in vitro, by exposing MDX-derived satellite cells to NO donors, resulted in HDAC2 blockade by cysteine S-nitrosylation. These data reveal a special contribution of HDAC2 in the pathogenesis of Duchenne muscular dystrophy and indicate that HDAC2 inhibition by NO-dependent S-nitrosylation is important for the therapeutic response to NO donors in MDX mice. They also define a common target for independent pharmacological interventions in the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. PMID:19047631

  3. HDAC2 blockade by nitric oxide and histone deacetylase inhibitors reveals a common target in Duchenne muscular dystrophy treatment

    PubMed Central

    Colussi, Claudia; Mozzetta, Chiara; Gurtner, Aymone; Illi, Barbara; Rosati, Jessica; Straino, Stefania; Ragone, Gianluca; Pescatori, Mario; Zaccagnini, Germana; Antonini, Annalisa; Minetti, Giulia; Martelli, Fabio; Piaggio, Giulia; Gallinari, Paola; Steinkuhler, Christian; Clementi, Emilio; Dell'Aversana, Carmela; Altucci, Lucia; Mai, Antonello; Capogrossi, Maurizio C.; Puri, Pier Lorenzo; Gaetano, Carlo

    2008-01-01

    The overlapping histological and biochemical features underlying the beneficial effect of deacetylase inhibitors and NO donors in dystrophic muscles suggest an unanticipated molecular link among dystrophin, NO signaling, and the histone deacetylases (HDACs). Higher global deacetylase activity and selective increased expression of the class I histone deacetylase HDAC2 were detected in muscles of dystrophin-deficient MDX mice. In vitro and in vivo siRNA-mediated down-regulation of HDAC2 in dystrophic muscles was sufficient to replicate the morphological and functional benefits observed with deacetylase inhibitors and NO donors. We found that restoration of NO signaling in vivo, by adenoviral-mediated expression of a constitutively active endothelial NOS mutant in MDX muscles, and in vitro, by exposing MDX-derived satellite cells to NO donors, resulted in HDAC2 blockade by cysteine S-nitrosylation. These data reveal a special contribution of HDAC2 in the pathogenesis of Duchenne muscular dystrophy and indicate that HDAC2 inhibition by NO-dependent S-nitrosylation is important for the therapeutic response to NO donors in MDX mice. They also define a common target for independent pharmacological interventions in the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. PMID:19047631

  4. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors reduce the glial inflammatory response in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Faraco, Giuseppe; Pittelli, Maria; Cavone, Leonardo; Fossati, Silvia; Porcu, Marco; Mascagni, Paolo; Fossati, Gianluca; Moroni, Flavio; Chiarugi, Alberto

    2009-11-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are emerging tools for epigenetic modulation of gene expression and suppress the inflammatory response in models of systemic immune activation. Yet, their effects within the brain are still controversial. Also, whether HDACs are expressed in astrocytes or microglia is unclear. Here, we report the identification of transcripts for HDAC 1-11 in cultured mouse glial cells. Two HDACi such as SAHA and ITF2357 induce dramatic increase of histone acetylation without causing cytotoxicity of cultured cells. Of note, the two compounds inhibit expression of pro-inflammatory mediators by LPS-challenged glial cultures, and potentiate immunosuppression triggered by dexamethasone in vitro. The anti-inflammatory effect is not due to HDACi-induced transcription of immunosuppressant proteins, (including SOCS-1/3) or microRNA-146. Rather, it is accompanied by direct alteration of transcription factor DNA binding and ensuing transcriptional activation. Indeed, both HDACi impair NFkappaB-dependent IkappaBalpha resynthesis in glial cells exposed to LPS, and, among various AP1 subunits and NFkappaB p65, affect the DNA binding activity of c-FOS, c-JUN and FRA2. Importantly, ITF2357 reduces the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators in the striatum of mice iontophoretically injected with LPS. Data demonstrate that mouse glial cells have ongoing HDAC activity, and its inhibition suppresses the neuroinflammatory response because of a direct impairment of the transcriptional machinery. PMID:19635561

  5. Targeting pancreatic cancer cells by a novel hydroxamate-based histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor ST-3595.

    PubMed

    Minjie, Shang; Defei, Hong; Zhimin, Hu; Weiding, Wu; Yuhua, Zhang

    2015-11-01

    In the current study, we tested the potential anti-pancreatic cancer activity of a novel hydroxamate-based histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor ST-3595. We showed that ST-3595 exerted potent anti-proliferative and cytotoxic activities against both established pancreatic cancer cell lines (PANC-1, AsPC-1, and Mia-PaCa-2), and patient-derived primary cancer cells. It was, however, generally safe to non-cancerous pancreatic epithelial HPDE6c7 cells. ST-3595-induced cytotoxicity to pancreatic cancer cells was associated with significant apoptosis activation. Reversely, the pan caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk and the caspase-8 inhibitor z-ITED-fmk alleviated ST-3595-mediated anti-pancreatic cancer activity in vitro. For the mechanism study, ST-3595 inhibited HDAC activity, and induced mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening in pancreatic cancer cells. Inhibition of MPTP, by cyclosporin A, sanglifehrin A, or by cyclophilin-D (Cyp-D) siRNA knockdown, dramatically inhibited ST-3595-induced pancreatic cancer cell apoptosis. Meanwhile, we found that a low concentration of ST-3595 dramatically sensitized gemcitabine-induced anti-pancreatic cancer cell activity in vitro. In vivo, ST-3595 oral administration inhibited PANC-1 xenograft growth in nude mice, and this activity was further enhanced when in combination with gemcitabine. In summary, the results of this study suggest that targeting HDACs by ST-3595 might represent as a novel and promising anti-pancreatic cancer strategy. PMID:26084607

  6. The Effects of Pharmacological Inhibition of Histone Deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) in Huntington’s Disease Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Haiqun; Wang, Ying; Morris, Charles D.; Jacques, Vincent; Gottesfeld, Joel M.; Rusche, James R.; Thomas, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    An important epigenetic modification in Huntington’s disease (HD) research is histone acetylation, which is regulated by histone acetyltransferase and histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes. HDAC inhibitors have proven effective in HD model systems, and recent work is now focused on functional dissection of the individual HDAC enzymes in these effects. Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3), a member of the class I subfamily of HDACs, has previously been implicated in neuronal toxicity and huntingtin-induced cell death. Hence, we tested the effects of RGFP966 ((E)-N-(2-amino-4-fluorophenyl)-3-(1-cinnamyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)acrylamide), a benzamide-type HDAC inhibitor that selectively targets HDAC3, in the N171-82Q transgenic mouse model of HD. We found that RGFP966 at doses of 10 and 25 mg/kg improves motor deficits on rotarod and in open field exploration, accompanied by neuroprotective effects on striatal volume. In light of previous studies implicating HDAC3 in immune function, we measured gene expression changes for 84 immune-related genes elicited by RGFP966 using quantitative PCR arrays. RGFP966 treatment did not cause widespread changes in cytokine/chemokine gene expression patterns, but did significantly alter the striatal expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (Mif), a hormone immune modulator associated with glial cell activation, in N171-82Q transgenic mice, but not WT mice. Accordingly, RGFP966-treated mice showed decreased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity, a marker of astrocyte activation, in the striatum of N171-82Q transgenic mice compared to vehicle-treated mice. These findings suggest that the beneficial actions of HDAC3 inhibition could be related, in part, with lowered Mif levels and its associated downstream effects. PMID:27031333

  7. Valproic Acid as a Potential Inhibitor of Plasmodium falciparum Histone Deacetylase 1 (PfHDAC1): An in Silico Approach

    PubMed Central

    Elbadawi, Mohamed A. Abdallah; Awadalla, Mohamed Khalid Alhaj; Abdel Hamid, Muzamil Mahdi; Mohamed, Magdi Awadalla; Awad, Talal Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    A new Plasmodium falciparum histone deacetylase1 (PfHDAC1) homology model was built based on the highest sequence identity available template human histone deacetylase 2 structure. The generated model was carefully evaluated for stereochemical accuracy, folding correctness and overall structure quality. All evaluations were acceptable and consistent. Docking a group of hydroxamic acid histone deacetylase inhibitors and valproic acid has shown binding poses that agree well with inhibitor-bound histone deacetylase-solved structural interactions. Docking affinity dG scores were in agreement with available experimental binding affinities. Further, enzyme-ligand complex stability and reliability were investigated by running 5-nanosecond molecular dynamics simulations. Thorough analysis of the simulation trajectories has shown that enzyme-ligand complexes were stable during the simulation period. Interestingly, the calculated theoretical binding energies of the docked hydroxamic acid inhibitors have shown that the model can discriminate between strong and weaker inhibitors and agrees well with the experimental affinities reported in the literature. The model and the docking methodology can be used in screening virtual libraries for PfHDAC1 inhibitors, since the docking scores have ranked ligands in accordance with experimental binding affinities. Valproic acid calculated theoretical binding energy suggests that it may inhibit PfHDAC1. PMID:25679451

  8. Valproic acid as a potential inhibitor of Plasmodium falciparum histone deacetylase 1 (PfHDAC1): an in silico approach.

    PubMed

    Elbadawi, Mohamed A Abdallah; Awadalla, Mohamed Khalid Alhaj; Hamid, Muzamil Mahdi Abdel; Mohamed, Magdi Awadalla; Awad, Talal Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    A new Plasmodium falciparum histone deacetylase1 (PfHDAC1) homology model was built based on the highest sequence identity available template human histone deacetylase 2 structure. The generated model was carefully evaluated for stereochemical accuracy, folding correctness and overall structure quality. All evaluations were acceptable and consistent. Docking a group of hydroxamic acid histone deacetylase inhibitors and valproic acid has shown binding poses that agree well with inhibitor-bound histone deacetylase-solved structural interactions. Docking affinity dG scores were in agreement with available experimental binding affinities. Further, enzyme-ligand complex stability and reliability were investigated by running 5-nanosecond molecular dynamics simulations. Thorough analysis of the simulation trajectories has shown that enzyme-ligand complexes were stable during the simulation period. Interestingly, the calculated theoretical binding energies of the docked hydroxamic acid inhibitors have shown that the model can discriminate between strong and weaker inhibitors and agrees well with the experimental affinities reported in the literature. The model and the docking methodology can be used in screening virtual libraries for PfHDAC1 inhibitors, since the docking scores have ranked ligands in accordance with experimental binding affinities. Valproic acid calculated theoretical binding energy suggests that it may inhibit PfHDAC1. PMID:25679451

  9. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors down-regulate endothelial lineage commitment of umbilical cord blood derived endothelial progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Iordache, Florin; Buzila, Cosmin; Constantinescu, Andrei; Andrei, Eugen; Maniu, Horia

    2012-01-01

    To test the involvement of histone deacetylases (HDACs) activity in endothelial lineage progression, we investigated the effects of HDAC inhibitors on endothelial progenitors cells (EPCs) derived from umbilical cord blood (UCB). Adherent EPCs, that expressed the endothelial marker proteins (PCAM-1, CD105, CD133, and VEGFR(2)) revealed by flow cytometry were treated with three HDAC inhibitors: Butyrate (BuA), Trichostatin A (TSA), and Valproic acid (VPA). RT-PCR assay showed that HDAC inhibitors down-regulated the expression of endothelial genes such as VE-cadherin, CD133, CXCR4 and Tie-2. Furthermore, flow cytometry analysis illustrated that HDAC inhibitors selectively reduce the expression of VEGFR(2), CD117, VE-cadherin, and ICAM-1, whereas the expression of CD34 and CD45 remained unchanged, demonstrating that HDAC is involved in endothelial differentiation of progenitor cells. Real-Time PCR demonstrated that TSA down-regulated telomerase activity probably via suppression of hTERT expression, suggesting that HDAC inhibitor decreased cell proliferation. Cell motility was also decreased after treatment with HDAC inhibitors as shown by wound-healing assay. The balance of acethylation/deacethylation kept in control by the activity of HAT (histone acetyltransferases)/HDAC enzymes play an important role in differentiation of stem cells by regulating proliferation and endothelial lineage commitment. PMID:23203112

  10. Effects of Alcohol on Histone Deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) and the Neuroprotective Role of Trichostatin A (TSA)

    PubMed Central

    Agudelo, Marisela; Gandhi, Nimisha; Saiyed, Zainulabedin; Pichili, Vijaya; Thangavel, Samikkannu; Khatavkar, Pradnya; Yndart-Arias, Adriana; Nair, Madhavan

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies have implicated histone deacetylases (HDACs) and HDAC inhibitors (HDIs) such as Trichostatin A (TSA) in the regulation of gene expression during drug addiction. Furthermore, an increase in HDAC activity has been linked to neurodegeneration. Alcohol has also been shown to promote abundant generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting in oxidative stress. TSA inhibits HDACs and has been shown to be neuroprotective in other neurodegenerative disease models. Although HDACs and HDIs have been associated with drug addiction, there is no evidence of the neurodegenerative role of HDAC2 and neuroprotective role of TSA in alcohol addiction. Therefore, we hypothesize that alcohol modulates HDAC2 through mechanisms involving oxidative stress. Methods In order to test our hypothesis, the human neuronal cell line, SK-N-MC, was treated with different concentrations of alcohol (EtOH); and HDAC2 gene and protein expression were assessed at different time points. Pharmacological inhibition of HDAC2 with TSA was evaluated at the gene level using qRT-PCR and at the protein level using western blot and flow cytometry. ROS production was measured with a fluorescence microplate reader and fluorescence microscopy. Results Our results showed a dose dependent increase of HDAC2 expression with EtOH treatment. Additionally, alcohol significantly induced ROS, and pharmacological inhibition of HDAC2 with TSA was shown to be neuroprotective by significantly inhibiting HDAC2 and ROS. Conclusion These results suggest that EtOH can upregulate HDAC2 through mechanisms involving oxidative stress and HDACs may play an important role in Alcohol Use Disorders (AUDs). Moreover, the use of HDIs may be of therapeutic significance for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders including AUDs. PMID:21447001

  11. Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) Inhibitor Kinetic Rate Constants Correlate with Cellular Histone Acetylation but Not Transcription and Cell Viability

    PubMed Central

    Lauffer, Benjamin E. L.; Mintzer, Robert; Fong, Rina; Mukund, Susmith; Tam, Christine; Zilberleyb, Inna; Flicke, Birgit; Ritscher, Allegra; Fedorowicz, Grazyna; Vallero, Roxanne; Ortwine, Daniel F.; Gunzner, Janet; Modrusan, Zora; Neumann, Lars; Koth, Christopher M.; Lupardus, Patrick J.; Kaminker, Joshua S.; Heise, Christopher E.; Steiner, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are critical in the control of gene expression, and dysregulation of their activity has been implicated in a broad range of diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular, and neurological diseases. HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) employing different zinc chelating functionalities such as hydroxamic acids and benzamides have shown promising results in cancer therapy. Although it has also been suggested that HDACi with increased isozyme selectivity and potency may broaden their clinical utility and minimize side effects, the translation of this idea to the clinic remains to be investigated. Moreover, a detailed understanding of how HDACi with different pharmacological properties affect biological functions in vitro and in vivo is still missing. Here, we show that a panel of benzamide-containing HDACi are slow tight-binding inhibitors with long residence times unlike the hydroxamate-containing HDACi vorinostat and trichostatin-A. Characterization of changes in H2BK5 and H4K14 acetylation following HDACi treatment in the neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y revealed that the timing and magnitude of histone acetylation mirrored both the association and dissociation kinetic rates of the inhibitors. In contrast, cell viability and microarray gene expression analysis indicated that cell death induction and changes in transcriptional regulation do not correlate with the dissociation kinetic rates of the HDACi. Therefore, our study suggests that determining how the selective and kinetic inhibition properties of HDACi affect cell function will help to evaluate their therapeutic utility. PMID:23897821

  12. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) 1 and 2 are essential for accurate cell division and the pluripotency of embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Jamaladdin, Shereen; Kelly, Richard D. W.; ORegan, Laura; Dovey, Oliver M.; Hodson, Grace E.; Millard, Christopher J.; Portolano, Nicola; Fry, Andrew M.; Schwabe, John W. R.; Cowley, Shaun M.

    2014-01-01

    Histone deacetylases 1 and 2 (HDAC1/2) form the core catalytic components of corepressor complexes that modulate gene expression. In most cell types, deletion of both Hdac1 and Hdac2 is required to generate a discernible phenotype, suggesting their activity is largely redundant. We have therefore generated an ES cell line in which Hdac1 and Hdac2 can be inactivated simultaneously. Loss of HDAC1/2 resulted in a 60% reduction in total HDAC activity and a loss of cell viability. Cell death is dependent upon cell cycle progression, because differentiated, nonproliferating cells retain their viability. Furthermore, we observe increased mitotic defects, chromatin bridges, and micronuclei, suggesting HDAC1/2 are necessary for accurate chromosome segregation. Consistent with a critical role in the regulation of gene expression, microarray analysis of Hdac1/2-deleted cells reveals 1,708 differentially expressed genes. Significantly for the maintenance of stem cell self-renewal, we detected a reduction in the expression of the pluripotent transcription factors, Oct4, Nanog, Esrrb, and Rex1. HDAC1/2 activity is regulated through binding of an inositol tetraphosphate molecule (IP4) sandwiched between the HDAC and its cognate corepressor. This raises the important question of whether IP4 regulates the activity of the complex in cells. By rescuing the viability of double-knockout cells, we demonstrate for the first time (to our knowledge) that mutations that abolish IP4 binding reduce the activity of HDAC1/2 in vivo. Our data indicate that HDAC1/2 have essential and pleiotropic roles in cellular proliferation and regulate stem cell self-renewal by maintaining expression of key pluripotent transcription factors. PMID:24958871

  13. Antitumor activity of a novel histone deacetylase inhibitor (S)-HDAC42 in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bai, Li-Yuan; Chiu, Chang-Fang; Pan, Shiow-Lin; Sargeant, Aaron M; Shieh, Tzong-Ming; Wang, Ying-Chu; Weng, Jing-Ru

    2011-12-01

    The aberrant regulation of epigenetic systems including histone acetylation contributes to inappropriate gene expression in cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the antitumor effects of the novel histone deacetylase inhibitor (S)-HDAC42 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells. The antiproliferative effect of (S)-HDAC42 was multifold higher than that of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid in a panel of oral squamous carcinoma cell lines examined. (S)-HDAC42 mediated caspase-dependent apoptosis by targeting multiple signaling pathways relevant to cell cycle progression and survival. We demonstrated that (S)-HDAC42 downregulated the levels of phospho-Akt, cyclin D1, and cyclin-dependent kinase 6, accompanied by increased p27 and p21 expression. In addition, (S)-HDAC42 suppressed NF-κB signaling by blocking tumor necrosis factor-α-induced nuclear translocation, and activated reactive oxygen species generation. Finally, (S)-HDAC42 exhibited high potency in suppressing OSCC tumor growth in a Ca922 xenograft nude mouse model. Together, these findings underscore the translational value of (S)-HDAC42 in fostering new therapeutic strategies for OSCC. PMID:21865079

  14. Histone deacetylases in monocyte/macrophage development, activation and metabolism: refining HDAC targets for inflammatory and infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Das Gupta, Kaustav; Shakespear, Melanie R; Iyer, Abishek; Fairlie, David P; Sweet, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages have central roles in danger detection, inflammation and host defense, and consequently, these cells are intimately linked to most disease processes. Major advances in our understanding of the development and function of macrophages have recently come to light. For example, it is now clear that tissue-resident macrophages can be derived from either blood monocytes or through local proliferation of phagocytes that are originally seeded during embryonic development. Metabolic state has also emerged as a major control point for macrophage activation phenotypes. Herein, we review recent literature linking the histone deacetylase (HDAC) family of enzymes to macrophage development and activation, particularly in relation to these recent developments. There has been considerable interest in potential therapeutic applications for small molecule inhibitors of HDACs (HDACi), not only for cancer, but also for inflammatory and infectious diseases. However, the enormous range of molecular and cellular processes that are controlled by different HDAC enzymes presents a potential stumbling block to clinical development. We therefore present examples of how classical HDACs control macrophage functions, roles of specific HDACs in these processes and approaches for selective targeting of drugs, such as HDACi, to macrophages. Development of selective inhibitors of macrophage-expressed HDACs and/or selective delivery of pan HDACi to macrophages may provide avenues for enhancing efficacy of HDACi in therapeutic applications, while limiting unwanted side effects. PMID:26900475

  15. Requirement of histone deacetylase1 (HDAC1) in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) nucleocytoplasmic distribution.

    PubMed

    Ray, Sutapa; Lee, Chang; Hou, Tieying; Boldogh, Istvan; Brasier, Allan R

    2008-08-01

    Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) is a transcription factor that plays a crucial role in interleukin-6 (IL-6) signaling, mediating the acute-phase induction of the human Angiotensinogen (hAGT) gene in hepatocytes. We showed earlier that IL-6 induces acetylation of the STAT3 NH(2)-terminus by the recruitment of the p300 coactivator. We had also observed a physical interaction of STAT3 and Histone Deacetylase1 (HDAC1) in an IL-6-dependent manner that leads to transcriptional repression. In this study, we sought to elucidate the mechanism by which HDAC1 controls STAT3 transcriptional activity. Here, we mapped the interacting domains of both STAT3 and HDAC1 and found that the COOH-terminal domain of HDAC1 is necessary for IL-6-induced STAT3 transcriptional repression, whereas the NH(2)-terminal acetylation domain of STAT3 is required for HDAC1 binding. Interestingly, over expression of HDAC1 in HepG2 cells leads to significantly reduced amounts of nuclear STAT3 after IL-6 induction, whereas silencing of HDAC1 resulted in accumulation of total and acetylated STAT3 in the nucleus. We have found that HDAC1 knockdown also interferes with the responsiveness of the STAT3-dependent MCP1 target gene expression to IL-6, as confirmed by real-time RT-PCR analysis. Together, our study reveals the novel functional consequences of IL-6-induced STAT3-HDAC1 interaction on nucleocytoplasmic distribution of STAT3. PMID:18611949

  16. Histone Deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) Negatively Regulates Thermogenic Program in Brown Adipocytes via Coordinated Regulation of Histone H3 Lysine 27 (H3K27) Deacetylation and Methylation.

    PubMed

    Li, Fenfen; Wu, Rui; Cui, Xin; Zha, Lin; Yu, Liqing; Shi, Hang; Xue, Bingzhong

    2016-02-26

    Inhibiting class I histone deacetylases (HDACs) increases energy expenditure, reduces adiposity, and improves insulin sensitivity in obese mice. However, the precise mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that HDAC1 is a negative regulator of the brown adipocyte thermogenic program. The Hdac1 level is lower in mouse brown fat (BAT) than white fat, is suppressed in mouse BAT during cold exposure or β3-adrenergic stimulation, and is down-regulated during brown adipocyte differentiation. Remarkably, overexpressing Hdac1 profoundly blocks, whereas deleting Hdac1 significantly enhances, β-adrenergic activation-induced BAT-specific gene expression in brown adipocytes. β-Adrenergic activation in brown adipocytes results in a dissociation of HDAC1 from promoters of BAT-specific genes, including uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α (Pgc1α), leading to increased acetylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27), an epigenetic mark of gene activation. This is followed by dissociation of the polycomb repressive complexes, including the H3K27 methyltransferase enhancer of zeste homologue (EZH2), suppressor of zeste 12 (SUZ12), and ring finger protein 2 (RNF2) from (and concomitant recruitment of H3K27 demethylase ubiquitously transcribed tetratricopeptide repeat on chromosome X (UTX) to) Ucp1 and Pgc1α promoters, leading to decreased H3K27 trimethylation, a histone transcriptional repression mark. Thus, HDAC1 negatively regulates the brown adipocyte thermogenic program, and inhibiting Hdac1 promotes BAT-specific gene expression through a coordinated control of increased acetylation and decreased methylation of H3K27, thereby switching the transcriptional repressive state to the active state at the promoters of Ucp1 and Pgc1α. Targeting HDAC1 may be beneficial in prevention and treatment of obesity by enhancing BAT thermogenesis. PMID:26733201

  17. The histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor valproic acid reduces ethanol consumption and ethanol-conditioned place preference in rats.

    PubMed

    Al Ameri, Mouza; Al Mansouri, Shamma; Al Maamari, Alyazia; Bahi, Amine

    2014-10-01

    Recent evidence suggests that epigenetic mechanisms such as chromatin modification (specifically histone acetylation) may play a crucial role in the development of addictive behavior. However, little is known about the role of epigenetic modifications in the rewarding properties of ethanol. In the current study, we studied the effects of systemic injection of the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, valproic acid (VPA) on ethanol consumption and ethanol-elicited conditioned place preference (CPP). The effect of VPA (300 mg/kg) on voluntary ethanol intake and preference was assessed using continuous two-bottle choice procedure with escalating concentrations of alcohol (2.5-20% v/v escalating over 4 weeks). Taste sensitivity was studies using saccharin (sweet; 0.03% and 0.06%) and quinine (bitter; 20 µM and 40 µM) tastants solutions. Ethanol conditioned reward was investigated using an unbiased CPP model. Blood ethanol concentration (BEC) was also measured. Compared to vehicle, VPA-injected rats displayed significantly lower preference and consumption of ethanol in a two-bottle choice paradigm, with no significant difference observed with saccharin and quinine. More importantly, 0.5 g/kg ethanol-induced-CPP acquisition was blocked following VPA administration. Finally, vehicle- and VPA-treated mice had similar BECs. Taken together, our results implicated HDAC inhibition in the behavioral and reinforcement-related effects of alcohol and raise the question of whether specific drugs that target HDAC could potentially help to tackle alcoholism in humans. PMID:25108044

  18. Mechanism of N-Acylthiourea-mediated Activation of Human Histone Deacetylase 8 (HDAC8) at Molecular and Cellular Levels*

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Raushan K.; Cho, Kyongshin; Padi, Satish K. R.; Yu, Junru; Haldar, Manas; Mandal, Tanmay; Yan, Changhui; Cook, Gregory; Guo, Bin; Mallik, Sanku; Srivastava, D. K.

    2015-01-01

    We reported previously that an N-acylthiourea derivative (TM-2-51) serves as a potent and isozyme-selective activator for human histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8). To probe the molecular mechanism of the enzyme activation, we performed a detailed account of the steady-state kinetics, thermodynamics, molecular modeling, and cell biology studies. The steady-state kinetic data revealed that TM-2-51 binds to HDAC8 at two sites in a positive cooperative manner. Isothermal titration calorimetric and molecular modeling data conformed to the two-site binding model of the enzyme-activator complex. We evaluated the efficacy of TM-2-51 on SH-SY5Y and BE(2)-C neuroblastoma cells, wherein the HDAC8 expression has been correlated with cellular malignancy. Whereas TM-2-51 selectively induced cell growth inhibition and apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells, it showed no such effects in BE(2)-C cells, and this discriminatory feature appears to be encoded in the p53 genotype of the above cells. Our mechanistic and cellular studies on HDAC8 activation have the potential to provide insight into the development of novel anticancer drugs. PMID:25605725

  19. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) Inhibitors Preserve White Matter Structure and Function During Ischemia by Conserving ATP and Reducing Excitotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Baltan, Selva; Murphy, Sean P.; Danilov, Camelia A.; Bachleda, Amelia; Morrison, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    The importance of white matter (WM) injury to stroke pathology has been underestimated in experimental animal models and this may have contributed to the failure to translate potential therapeutics into the stroke clinic. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are neuroprotective and also promote neurogenesis. These properties make them ideal candidates for stroke therapy. In a pure WM tract (isolated mouse optic nerve) we show that pan- and Class I specific HDAC inhibitors, administered before or after a period of oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD), promote functional recovery of axons and preserve WM cellular architecture. This protection correlates with the up-regulation of an astrocyte glutamate transporter, delayed and reduced glutamate accumulation during OGD, preservation of axonal mitochondria and oligodendrocytes, and maintenance of ATP levels. Interestingly, the expression of HDACs 1, 2 and 3 is localized to astrocytes, suggesting that changes in glial cell gene transcription and/or protein acetylation may confer protection to axons. Our findings suggest that a therapeutic opportunity exists for the use of HDAC inhibitors, targeting mitochondrial energy regulation and excitotoxicity in ischemic WM injury. PMID:21411642

  20. A lazy learning-based QSAR classification study for screening potential histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Cao, G P; Arooj, M; Thangapandian, S; Park, C; Arulalapperumal, V; Kim, Y; Kwon, Y J; Kim, H H; Suh, J K; Lee, K W

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylases 8 (HDAC8) is an enzyme repressing the transcription of various genes including tumour suppressor gene and has already become a target of human cancer treatment. In an effort to facilitate the discovery of HDAC8 inhibitors, two quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) classification models were developed using K nearest neighbours (KNN) and neighbourhood classifier (NEC). Molecular descriptors were calculated for the data set and database compounds using ADRIANA.Code of Molecular Networks. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to select the descriptors. The developed models were validated by leave-one-out cross validation (LOO CV). The performances of the developed models were evaluated with an external test set. Highly predictive models were used for database virtual screening. Furthermore, hit compounds were subsequently subject to molecular docking. Five hits were obtained based on consensus scoring function and binding affinity as potential HDAC8 inhibitors. Finally, HDAC8 structures in complex with five hits were also subjected to 5 ns molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to evaluate the complex structure stability. To the best of our knowledge, the NEC classification model used in this study is the first application of NEC to virtual screening for drug discovery. PMID:25986171

  1. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of potent and selective class IIa histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors as a potential therapy for Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Bürli, Roland W; Luckhurst, Christopher A; Aziz, Omar; Matthews, Kim L; Yates, Dawn; Lyons, Kathy A; Beconi, Maria; McAllister, George; Breccia, Perla; Stott, Andrew J; Penrose, Stephen D; Wall, Michael; Lamers, Marieke; Leonard, Philip; Müller, Ilka; Richardson, Christine M; Jarvis, Rebecca; Stones, Liz; Hughes, Samantha; Wishart, Grant; Haughan, Alan F; O'Connell, Catherine; Mead, Tania; McNeil, Hannah; Vann, Julie; Mangette, John; Maillard, Michel; Beaumont, Vahri; Munoz-Sanjuan, Ignacio; Dominguez, Celia

    2013-12-27

    Inhibition of class IIa histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes have been suggested as a therapeutic strategy for a number of diseases, including Huntington's disease. Catalytic-site small molecule inhibitors of the class IIa HDAC4, -5, -7, and -9 were developed. These trisubstituted diarylcyclopropanehydroxamic acids were designed to exploit a lower pocket that is characteristic for the class IIa HDACs, not present in other HDAC classes. Selected inhibitors were cocrystallized with the catalytic domain of human HDAC4. We describe the first HDAC4 catalytic domain crystal structure in a "closed-loop" form, which in our view represents the biologically relevant conformation. We have demonstrated that these molecules can differentiate class IIa HDACs from class I and class IIb subtypes. They exhibited pharmacokinetic properties that should enable the assessment of their therapeutic benefit in both peripheral and CNS disorders. These selective inhibitors provide a means for evaluating potential efficacy in preclinical models in vivo. PMID:24261862

  2. Histone deacetylase inhibitors suppress mutant p53 transcription via HDAC8/YY1 signals in triple negative breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao-Tong; Chen, Zhuo-Jia; Jiang, Guan-Min; Wu, Ying-Min; Liu, Tao; Yi, Yan-Mei; Zeng, Jun; Du, Jun; Wang, Hong-Sheng

    2016-05-01

    There is an urgent need to investigate the potential targeted therapy approach for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Our present study reveals that histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) suberoyl anilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and sodium butyrate (NaB) significantly inhibit cell proliferation, arrest cell cycle at G0/G1 phase, and induce mitochondrial related apoptosis of TNBC cells. Further, SAHA and NaB decrease the phosphorylation, protein and mRNA levels of mutant p53 (mtp53) in TNBC cells. While SAHA or NaB has no similar inhibition effect on wild type p53 (wtp53). The inhibition apparently occurs at the level of transcription because the down regulation of precursor p53 transcription is much more rapid (less than 2h) and sharp than that of mature p53. The knockdown of HDAC8, while not HDAC6, inhibits the transcription of mtp53 in TNBC cells. The luciferase assay and ChIP analysis reveal that both SAHA and NaB can reduce the binding of transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) with the -102 to -96 position of human p53 promoter. Knockdown of YY1 also significantly inhibits the transcription of mtp53 in TNBC cells. Further, SAHA and NaB can inhibit the association of HDAC8 and YY1, increase acetylation of residues 170-200 of YY1, then decrease its transcription activities, and finally suppress YY1 induced p53 transcription. Together, our data establish that SAHA and NaB can be considered as drug candidates for TNBC patients, and HDAC8/YY1/mtp53 signals act as an important target for TNBC treatment. PMID:26876786

  3. HDAC8 Substrates: Histones and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Wolfson, Noah A.; Pitcairn, Carol Ann; Fierke, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    The lysine deacetylase family of enzymes (HDACs) was first demonstrated to catalyze deacetylation of acetyllysine residues on histones. In subsequent years, HDACs have been shown to recognize a large pool of acetylated non-histone proteins as substrates. Recently, thousands of acetylated proteins have been discovered, yet in most cases, the HDAC that catalyzes deacetylation in vivo has not been identified. This gap has created the need for better in vivo, in vitro, and in silico approaches for determining HDAC substrates. While HDAC8 is the best kinetically and structurally characterized HDAC, few efficient substrates have yet been substantiated in vivo. In this review we delineate factors that may be important for determining HDAC8 substrate recognition and catalytic activity, including structure, complex formation, and post-translational modifications. This summary provides insight into the challenges of identifying in vivo substrates for HDAC8, and provides a good vantage point for understanding the variables important for predicting HDAC substrate recognition. PMID:23175386

  4. Expression of the class 1 histone deacetylases HDAC8 and 3 are associated with improved survival of patients with metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Wilmott, James S; Colebatch, Andrew J; Kakavand, Hojabr; Shang, Ping; Carlino, Matteo S; Thompson, John F; Long, Georgina V; Scolyer, Richard A; Hersey, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Prior studies have shown that combinations of histone deacetylase (HDAC) and BRAF inhibitors (BRAFi) have synergistic effects on BRAFi-resistant melanoma through enhanced apoptosis and inhibition of the cAMP-dependent drug resistance pathway. However, little is known about the expression of various HDACs and their associations with BRAF/NRAS mutation status, clinicopathologic characteristics, and patient outcome. The present study extensively profiled HDAC class 1 and their targets/regulators utilizing immunohistochemistry in human melanoma samples from patients with stage IV melanoma, known BRAF/NRAS mutational status, and detailed clinicopatholgical data. HDAC8 was increased in BRAF-mutated melanoma (P=0.016), however, no association between expression of other HDACs and NRAS/BRAF status was identified. There was also a correlation between HDAC1, HDAC8 expression, and phosphorylated NFκb p65 immunoreactivity (P<0.001). Increased cytoplasmic HDAC8 immunoreactivity was independently associated with an improved survival from both diagnosis of primary melanoma and from first detection of stage IV disease to melanoma death on multivariate analysis (HR 0.992, 95% CI 0.987-0.996; P<0.001 and HR 0.993, 95% CI 0.988-0.998; P=0.009, respectively). These results suggest not only that HDAC8 may be a prognostic biomarker in melanoma, but also provide important data regarding the regulation of HDACs in melanoma and a rational basis for targeting them therapeutically. PMID:25836739

  5. Acetylation of retinal histones in diabetes increases inflammatory proteins: effects of minocycline and manipulation of histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and histone deacetylase (HDAC).

    PubMed

    Kadiyala, Chandra Sekhar Rao; Zheng, Ling; Du, Yunpeng; Yohannes, Elizabeth; Kao, Hung-Ying; Miyagi, Masaru; Kern, Timothy S

    2012-07-27

    Histone acetylation was significantly increased in retinas from diabetic rats, and this acetylation was inhibited in diabetics treated with minocycline, a drug known to inhibit early diabetic retinopathy in animals. Histone acetylation and expression of inflammatory proteins that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy were increased likewise in cultured retinal Müller glia grown in a diabetes-like concentration of glucose. Both the acetylation and induction of the inflammatory proteins in elevated glucose levels were significantly inhibited by inhibitors of histone acetyltransferase (garcinol and antisense against the histone acetylase, p300) or activators of histone deacetylase (theophylline and resveratrol) and were increased by the histone deacetylase inhibitor, suberolylanilide hydroxamic acid. We conclude that hyperglycemia causes acetylation of retinal histones (and probably other proteins) and that the acetylation contributes to the hyperglycemia-induced up-regulation of proinflammatory proteins and thereby to the development of diabetic retinopathy. PMID:22648458

  6. Inhibition of Interleukin 1β (IL-1β) Expression by Anthrax Lethal Toxin (LeTx) Is Reversed by Histone Deacetylase 8 (HDAC8) Inhibition in Murine Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ha, Soon-Duck; Reid, Chantelle; Meshkibaf, Shahab; Kim, Sung Ouk

    2016-04-15

    Many pathogenic microbes often release toxins that subvert the host's immune responses to render the environment suitable for their survival and proliferation. LeTx is one of the toxins causing immune paralysis by cleaving and inactivating the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinases (MEKs). Here, we show that inhibition of the histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8) by either the HDAC8-specific inhibitor PCI-34051 or small interference (si)RNAs rendered LeTx-exposed murine macrophages responsive to LPS in pro-IL-1β production. HDAC8 selectively targeted acetylated histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27Ac), which is known to associate with active enhancers. LeTx induced HDAC8 expression, in part through inhibiting p38 MAPK, which resulted in a decrease of H3K27Ac levels. Inhibition of HDAC8 increased H3K27Ac levels and enhanced NF-κB-mediated pro-IL-1β enhancer and messenger RNA production in LeTx-exposed macrophages. Collectively, this study demonstrates a novel role of HDAC8 in LeTx immunotoxicity and regulation of pro-IL-1β production likely through eRNAs. Targeting HDAC8 could be a strategy for enhancing immune responses in macrophages exposed to LeTx or other toxins that inhibit MAPKs. PMID:26912657

  7. Potent, Selective, and CNS-Penetrant Tetrasubstituted Cyclopropane Class IIa Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Luckhurst, Christopher A; Breccia, Perla; Stott, Andrew J; Aziz, Omar; Birch, Helen L; Bürli, Roland W; Hughes, Samantha J; Jarvis, Rebecca E; Lamers, Marieke; Leonard, Philip M; Matthews, Kim L; McAllister, George; Pollack, Scott; Saville-Stones, Elizabeth; Wishart, Grant; Yates, Dawn; Dominguez, Celia

    2016-01-14

    Potent and selective class IIa HDAC tetrasubstituted cyclopropane hydroxamic acid inhibitors were identified with high oral bioavailability that exhibited good brain and muscle exposure. Compound 14 displayed suitable properties for assessment of the impact of class IIa HDAC catalytic site inhibition in preclinical disease models. PMID:26819662

  8. Lithium down-regulates histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) and induces degradation of mutant huntingtin.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shuai; Zheng, Shui-Di; Huang, Hong-Ling; Yan, Li-Chong; Yin, Xiao-Fei; Xu, Hai-Neng; Zhang, Kang-Jian; Gui, Jing-Hua; Chu, Liang; Liu, Xin-Yuan

    2013-12-01

    Lithium is an effective mood stabilizer that has been clinically used to treat bipolar disorder for several decades. Recent studies have suggested that lithium possesses robust neuroprotective and anti-tumor properties. Thus far, a large number of lithium targets have been discovered. Here, we report for the first time that HDAC1 is a target of lithium. Lithium significantly down-regulated HDAC1 at the translational level by targeting HDAC1 mRNA. We also showed that depletion of HDAC1 is essential for the neuroprotective effects of lithium and for the lithium-mediated degradation of mutant huntingtin through the autophagic pathway. Our studies explain the multiple functions of lithium and reveal a novel mechanism for the function of lithium in neurodegeneration. PMID:24165128

  9. Erasers of Histone Acetylation: The Histone Deacetylase Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Seto, Edward; Yoshida, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are enzymes that catalyze the removal of acetyl functional groups from the lysine residues of both histone and nonhistone proteins. In humans, there are 18 HDAC enzymes that use either zinc- or NAD+-dependent mechanisms to deacetylate acetyl lysine substrates. Although removal of histone acetyl epigenetic modification by HDACs regulates chromatin structure and transcription, deacetylation of nonhistones controls diverse cellular processes. HDAC inhibitors are already known potential anticancer agents and show promise for the treatment of many diseases. PMID:24691964

  10. Histone deacetylase inhibitors and cell death

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Zhong, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a vast family of enzymes involved in chromatin remodeling and have crucial roles in numerous biological processes, largely through their repressive influence on transcription. In addition to modifying histones, HDACs also target many other non-histone protein substrates to regulate gene expression. Recently, HDACs have gained growing attention as HDAC-inhibiting compounds are being developed as promising cancer therapeutics. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have been shown to induce differentiation, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, autophagy and necrosis in a variety of transformed cell lines. In this review, we mainly discuss how HDACi may elicit a therapeutic response to human cancers through different cell death pathways, in particular, apoptosis and autophagy. PMID:24898083

  11. Histone deacetylase 3 indirectly modulates tubulin acetylation.

    PubMed

    Bacon, Travis; Seiler, Caroline; Wolny, Marcin; Hughes, Ruth; Watson, Peter; Schwabe, John; Grigg, Ronald; Peckham, Michelle

    2015-12-15

    Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3), a member of the Class I subfamily of HDACs, is found in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Its roles in the nucleus have been well characterized, but its cytoplasmic roles are still not elucidated fully. We found that blocking HDAC3 activity using MI192, a compound specific for HDAC3, modulated tubulin acetylation in the human prostate cancer cell line PC3. A brief 1 h treatment of PC3 cells with MI192 significantly increased levels of tubulin acetylation and ablated the dynamic behaviour of microtubules in live cells. siRNA-mediated knockdown (KD) of HDAC3 in PC3 cells, significantly increased levels of tubulin acetylation, and overexpression reduced it. However, the active HDAC3-silencing mediator of retinoic and thyroid receptors (SMRT)-deacetylase-activating domain (DAD) complex did not directly deacetylate tubulin in vitro. These data suggest that HDAC3 indirectly modulates tubulin acetylation. PMID:26450925

  12. Amino acid starvation induces reactivation of silenced transgenes and latent HIV-1 provirus via down-regulation of histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4).

    PubMed

    Palmisano, Ilaria; Della Chiara, Giulia; D'Ambrosio, Rosa Lucia; Huichalaf, Claudia; Brambilla, Paola; Corbetta, Silvia; Riba, Michela; Piccirillo, Rosanna; Valente, Sergio; Casari, Giorgio; Mai, Antonello; Martinelli Boneschi, Filippo; Gabellini, Davide; Poli, Guido; Schiaffino, Maria Vittoria

    2012-08-21

    The epigenetic silencing of exogenous transcriptional units integrated into the genome represents a critical problem both for long-term gene therapy efficacy and for the eradication of latent viral infections. We report here that limitation of essential amino acids, such as methionine and cysteine, causes selective up-regulation of exogenous transgene expression in mammalian cells. Prolonged amino acid deprivation led to significant and reversible increase in the expression levels of stably integrated transgenes transcribed by means of viral or human promoters in HeLa cells. This phenomenon was mediated by epigenetic chromatin modifications, because histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors reproduced starvation-induced transgene up-regulation, and transcriptome analysis, ChIP, and pharmacological and RNAi approaches revealed that a specific class II HDAC, namely HDAC4, plays a critical role in maintaining the silencing of exogenous transgenes. This mechanism was also operational in cells chronically infected with HIV-1, the etiological agent of AIDS, in a latency state. Indeed, both amino acid starvation and pharmacological inhibition of HDAC4 promoted reactivation of HIV-1 transcription and reverse transcriptase activity production in HDAC4(+) ACH-2 T-lymphocytic cells but not in HDAC4(-) U1 promonocytic cells. Thus, amino acid deprivation leads to transcriptional derepression of silenced transgenes, including integrated plasmids and retroviruses, by a process involving inactivation or down-regulation of HDAC4. These findings suggest that selective targeting of HDAC4 might represent a unique strategy for modulating the expression of therapeutic viral vectors, as well as that of integrated HIV-1 proviruses in latent reservoirs without significant cytotoxicity. PMID:22826225

  13. Histone Deacetylase Inhibition with Valproic Acid Downregulates Osteocalcin Gene Expression in Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells and Osteoblasts: Evidence for HDAC2 Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Paino, Francesca; la Noce, Marcel; Tirino, Virginia; Naddeo, Pasqualina; Desiderio, Vincenzo; Pirozzi, Giuseppe; De Rosa, Alfredo; Laino, Luigi; Altucci, Lucia; Papaccio, Gianpaolo

    2014-01-01

    Adult mesenchymal stem cells, such as dental pulp stem cells, are of great interest for cell-based tissue engineering strategies because they can differentiate into a variety of tissue-specific cells, above all, into osteoblasts. In recent years, epigenetic studies on stem cells have indicated that specific histone alterations and modifying enzymes play essential roles in cell differentiation. However, although several studies have reported that valproic acid (VPA)a selective inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDAC)enhances osteoblast differentiation, data on osteocalcin expressiona late-stage marker of differentiationare limited. We therefore decided to study the effect of VPA on dental pulp stem cell differentiation. A low concentration of VPA did not reduce cell viability, proliferation, or cell cycle profile. However, it was sufficient to significantly enhance matrix mineralization by increasing osteopontin and bone sialoprotein expression. In contrast, osteocalcin levels were decreased, an effect induced at the transcriptional level, and were strongly correlated with inhibition of HDAC2. In fact, HDAC2 silencing with shRNA produced a similar effect to that of VPA treatment on the expression of osteoblast-related markers. We conclude that VPA does not induce terminal differentiation of osteoblasts, but stimulates the generation of less mature cells. Moreover, specific suppression of an individual HDAC by RNA interference could enhance only a single aspect of osteoblast differentiation, and thus produce selective effects. PMID:24105979

  14. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors: Potential in Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Marks, P.A.; Xu, W-S

    2009-01-01

    The role of histone deacetylases (HDAC) and the potential of these enzymes as therapeutic targets for cancer, neurodegenerative diseases and a number of other disorders is an area of rapidly expanding investigation. There are 18 HDACs in humans. These enzymes are not redundant in function. Eleven of the HDACs are zinc dependent, classified on the basis of homology to yeast HDACs: Class I includes HDACs 1, 2, 3, and 8; Class IIA includes HDACs 4, 5, 7, and 9; Class IIB, HDACs 6 and 10; and Class IV, HDAC11. Class III HDACs, sirtuins 1–7, have an absolute requirement for NAD+, are not zinc dependent and generally not inhibited by compounds that inhibit zinc dependent deacetylases. In addition to histones, HDACs have many nonhistone protein substrates which have a role in regulation of gene expression, cell proliferation, cell migration, cell death, and angiogenesis. HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) have been discovered of different chemical structure. HDACi cause accumulation of acetylated forms of proteins which can alter their structure and function. HDACi can induce different phenotypes in various transformed cells, including growth arrest, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species facilitated cell death and mitotic cell death. Normal cells are relatively resistant to HDACi induced cell death. Several HDACi are in various stages of development, including clinical trials as monotherapy and in combination with other anti-cancer drugs and radiation. The first HDACi approved by the FDA for cancer therapy is suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, vorinostat, Zolinza), approved for treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. PMID:19459166

  15. Rho-kinase signaling controls nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of class IIa Histone Deacetylase (HDAC7) and transcriptional activation of orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1

    SciTech Connect

    Compagnucci, Claudia; Barresi, Sabina; Petrini, Stefania; Bertini, Enrico; Zanni, Ginevra

    2015-04-03

    Rho-kinase (ROCK) has been well documented to play a key role in RhoA-induced actin remodeling. ROCK activation results in myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation either by direct action on MLC kinase (MLCK) or by inhibition of MLC phosphatase (MLCP), modulating actin–myosin contraction. We found that inhibition of the ROCK pathway in induced pluripotent stem cells, leads to nuclear export of HDAC7 and transcriptional activation of the orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1 while in cells with constitutive ROCK hyperactivity due to loss of function of the RhoGTPase activating protein Oligophrenin-1 (OPHN1), the orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1 is downregulated. Our study identify a new target of ROCK signaling via myosin phosphatase subunit (MYPT1) and Histone Deacetylase (HDAC7) at the nuclear level and provide new insights in the cellular functions of ROCK. - Highlights: • ROCK regulates nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HDAC7 via phosphorylation of MYPT1. • Nuclear export of HDAC7 and upregulation of NR4A1 occurs with low ROCK activity. • High levels of ROCK activity due to OPHN1 loss of function downregulate NR4A1.

  16. Anticancer activities of histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bolden, Jessica E; Peart, Melissa J; Johnstone, Ricky W

    2006-09-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are enzymes involved in the remodelling of chromatin, and have a key role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. In addition, the activity of non-histone proteins can be regulated through HDAC-mediated hypo-acetylation. In recent years, inhibition of HDACs has emerged as a potential strategy to reverse aberrant epigenetic changes associated with cancer, and several classes of HDAC inhibitors have been found to have potent and specific anticancer activities in preclinical studies. However, such studies have also indicated that the effects of HDAC inhibitors could be considerably broader and more complicated than originally understood. Here we summarize recent advances in the understanding of the molecular events that underlie the anticancer effects of HDAC inhibitors, and discuss how such information could be used in optimizing the development and application of these agents in the clinic, either as monotherapies or in combination with other anticancer drugs. PMID:16955068

  17. Histone Deacetylases and Mechanisms of Regulation of Gene Expression (Histone deacetylases in cancer)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hong Ping; Zhao, Yu Tina; Zhao, Ting C

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, it has become widely recognized that histone modification plays a pivotal role in controlling gene expression, and is involved in a wide spectrum of disease regulation. Histone acetylation is a major modification that affects gene transcription and is controlled by histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDAC). HATs acetylate lysines of histone proteins, resulting in relaxation of chromatin structure, and they also facilitate gene activation. Conversely, HDACs remove acetyl groups from hyperacetylated histones and suppress general gene transcription. In addition to histones, numerous non-histone proteins can be acetylated and deacetylated, and they are also involved in a wide range of disease regulation. To date, there are 18 HDACs in mammals classified into four classes based on homology to yeast HDACs. Accumulating evidence has revealed that HDACs play crucial roles in a variety of biological processes including inflammation, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and carcinogenesis. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge of HDACs in carcinogenesis and describe the involvement of HDACs in cancer-associated molecular processes. It is hoped than our understanding of the role of HDACs in cancer will lead to the design of more potent and specific drugs targeting selective HDAC proteins for the treatment of the disease. PMID:25746103

  18. Selective histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition imparts beneficial effects in Huntington's disease mice: implications for the ubiquitin–proteasomal and autophagy systems

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Haiqun; Kast, Ryan J.; Steffan, Joan S.; Thomas, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, 4b, which preferentially targets HDAC1 and HDAC3, ameliorates Huntington's disease (HD)-related phenotypes in different HD model systems. In the current study, we investigated extensive behavioral and biological effects of 4b in N171-82Q transgenic mice and further explored potential molecular mechanisms of 4b action. We found that 4b significantly prevented body weight loss, improved several parameters of motor function and ameliorated Huntingtin (Htt)-elicited cognitive decline in N171-82Q transgenic mice. Pathways analysis of microarray data from the mouse brain revealed gene networks involving post-translational modification, including protein phosphorylation and ubiquitination pathways, associated with 4b drug treatment. Using real-time qPCR analysis, we validated differential regulation of several genes in these pathways by 4b, including Ube2K, Ubqln, Ube2e3, Usp28 and Sumo2, as well as several other related genes. Additionally, 4b elicited increases in the expression of genes encoding components of the inhibitor of kappaB kinase (IKK) complex. IKK activation has been linked to phosphorylation, acetylation and clearance of the Htt protein by the proteasome and the lysosome, and accordingly, we found elevated levels of phosphorylated endogenous wild-type (wt) Htt protein at serine 16 and threonine 3, and increased AcK9/pS13/pS16 immunoreactivity in cortical samples from 4b-treated mice. We further show that HDAC inhibitors prevent the formation of nuclear Htt aggregates in the brains of N171-82Q mice. Our findings suggest that one mechanism of 4b action is associated with the modulation of the ubiquitin–proteasomal and autophagy pathways, which could affect accumulation, stability and/or clearance of important disease-related proteins, such as Htt. PMID:22965876

  19. Histone deacetylase inhibitors and cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    La Thangue, N B

    2004-11-01

    Cancer drug development has moved from conventional cytotoxic chemotherapeutics to a more mechanism-based targeted approach towards the common goal of tumour growth arrest. The rapid progress in chromatin research and understanding epigenetic control has supplied a plethora of potential targets for intervention in cancer. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have been widely implicated in growth and transcriptional control, and inhibition of HDAC activity using small molecules causes apoptosis in tumour cells. Here, we review HDAC inhibitors, together with their current status of clinical development and potential utility in cancer therapy. PMID:15688613

  20. Redundant control of adipogenesis by histone deacetylases 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Haberland, Michael; Carrer, Michele; Mokalled, Mayssa H; Montgomery, Rusty L; Olson, Eric N

    2010-05-01

    Adipocyte differentiation is a well defined process that is under the control of transcriptional activators and repressors. We show that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors efficiently block adipocyte differentiation in vitro. This effect is specific to adipogenesis, as another mesenchymal differentiation process, osteoblastogenesis, is enhanced upon HDAC inhibition. Through the systematic genetic deletion of HDAC genes in cultured mesenchymal precursor cells, we show that deletion of HDAC1 and HDAC2 leads to reduced lipid accumulation, revealing redundant and requisite roles of these class I HDACs in adipogenesis. These findings unveil a previously unrecognized role for HDACs in the control of adipogenesis. PMID:20190228

  1. Hepatic steatosis in transgenic mice overexpressing human histone deacetylase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ai-Guo; Seo, Sang-Beom; Moon, Hyung-Bae; Shin, Hye-Jun; Kim, Dong Hoon; Kim, Jin-Man; Lee, Tae-Hoon; Kwon, Ho Jeong; Yu, Dae-Yeul . E-mail: dyyu10@kribb.re.kr; Lee, Dong-Seok . E-mail: lee10@kribb.re.kr

    2005-05-06

    It is generally thought that histone deacetylases (HDACs) play important roles in the transcriptional regulation of genes. However, little information is available concerning the specific functions of individual HDACs in disease states. In this study, two transgenic mice lines were established which harbored the human HDAC1 gene. Overexpressed HDAC1 was detected in the nuclei of transgenic liver cells, and HDAC1 enzymatic activity was significantly higher in the transgenic mice than in control littermates. The HDAC1 transgenic mice exhibited a high incidence of hepatic steatosis and nuclear pleomorphism. Molecular studies showed that HDAC1 may contribute to nuclear pleomorphism through the p53/p21 signaling pathway.

  2. Depression of mitochondrial metabolism by downregulation of cytoplasmic deacetylase, HDAC6.

    PubMed

    Kamemura, Kazuo; Ogawa, Mitsutaka; Ohkubo, Saki; Ohtsuka, Yasuhiro; Shitara, Yu; Komiya, Tohru; Maeda, Satoko; Ito, Akihiro; Yoshida, Minoru

    2012-05-01

    Mitochondria perform multiple functions critical to the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Here we report that the downregulation of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) causes a reduction in the net activity of mitochondrial enzymes, including respiratory complex II and citrate synthase. HDAC6 deacetylase and ubiquitin-binding activities were both required for recovery of reduced mitochondrial metabolic activity due to the loss of HDAC6. Hsp90, a substrate of HDAC6, localizes to mitochondria and partly mediates the regulation of mitochondrial metabolic activity by HDAC6. Our finding suggests that HDAC6 regulates mitochondrial metabolism and might serve as a cellular homeostasis surveillance factor. PMID:22504143

  3. Histone deacetylase inhibitors: emerging anticancer therapeutic agents?

    PubMed

    Kristeleit, Rebecca; Fong, Peter; Aherne, G Wynne; de Bono, Johann

    2005-09-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors are novel anticancer agents in clinical development that target the family of histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes responsible for deacetylating core nucleosomal histones and other proteins. The precise mechanisms resulting in the antiproliferative biologic effects of these agents are not yet known, but there are several proposed mechanistic models, including transcriptional and nontranscriptional processes. Clinical experience with these agents indicates that they are generally well tolerated, and anticancer activity has been observed in early clinical trials in several tumor types including non-small-cell lung cancer. The development of these agents continues, with an emphasis on the discovery of HDAC isoform-selective compounds. Successful future development relies on clearer understanding of the dominant mechanisms involved in the observed antiproliferative effects. PMID:16159416

  4. Histone deacetylase 3 indirectly modulates tubulin acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Bacon, Travis; Seiler, Caroline; Wolny, Marcin; Hughes, Ruth; Watson, Peter; Schwabe, John; Grigg, Ronald; Peckham, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3), a member of the Class I subfamily of HDACs, is found in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Its roles in the nucleus have been well characterized, but its cytoplasmic roles are still not elucidated fully. We found that blocking HDAC3 activity using MI192, a compound specific for HDAC3, modulated tubulin acetylation in the human prostate cancer cell line PC3. A brief 1 h treatment of PC3 cells with MI192 significantly increased levels of tubulin acetylation and ablated the dynamic behaviour of microtubules in live cells. siRNA-mediated knockdown (KD) of HDAC3 in PC3 cells, significantly increased levels of tubulin acetylation, and overexpression reduced it. However, the active HDAC3–silencing mediator of retinoic and thyroid receptors (SMRT)–deacetylase-activating domain (DAD) complex did not directly deacetylate tubulin in vitro. These data suggest that HDAC3 indirectly modulates tubulin acetylation. PMID:26450925

  5. Inhibition of histone deacetylases in cancer therapy: lessons from leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Ceccacci, Elena; Minucci, Saverio

    2016-03-15

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a key component of the epigenetic machinery regulating gene expression, and behave as oncogenes in several cancer types, spurring the development of HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) as anticancer drugs. This review discusses new results regarding the role of HDACs in cancer and the effect of HDACi on tumour cells, focusing on haematological malignancies, particularly acute myeloid leukaemia. Histone deacetylases may have opposite roles at different stages of tumour progression and in different tumour cell sub-populations (cancer stem cells), highlighting the importance of investigating these aspects for further improving the clinical use of HDACi in treating cancer. PMID:26908329

  6. Inhibition of histone deacetylases in cancer therapy: lessons from leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Ceccacci, Elena; Minucci, Saverio

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a key component of the epigenetic machinery regulating gene expression, and behave as oncogenes in several cancer types, spurring the development of HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) as anticancer drugs. This review discusses new results regarding the role of HDACs in cancer and the effect of HDACi on tumour cells, focusing on haematological malignancies, particularly acute myeloid leukaemia. Histone deacetylases may have opposite roles at different stages of tumour progression and in different tumour cell sub-populations (cancer stem cells), highlighting the importance of investigating these aspects for further improving the clinical use of HDACi in treating cancer. PMID:26908329

  7. Regulation of kidney development by histone deacetylases.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Stacy L; Chen, Shaowei; McLaughlin, Nathan; El-Dahr, Samir S

    2011-09-01

    There is accumulating evidence that gene expression can be regulated independently of DNA sequence changes, also called epigenetic modifications. Histone deacetylases (HDACs), a specific epigenetic group of enzymes, dynamically and reversibly removes acetyl groups from histone tails projecting from the nucleosome. Clinically, valproic acid fetopathy sheds some insight into the effects of altered HDACs on human embryonic development, since valproic acid is an antiepileptic drug and an HDAC inhibitor. The fetal anomalies include severe renal dysgenesis, supporting the role played by HDACs in human kidney development. Our recent studies have shown that HDACs regulate the transcriptional networks required for controlling the cell cycle, Wnt signaling, and the pathway upstream of the GDNF/RET signaling pathway in the developing kidney. Here, we describe novel HDAC target genes not previously implicated in renal development based on studies using genome-wide microarrays. These genes can be divided into transcription factors, modulators of matrix biology, chromatin remodelers, and DNA repair genes. We also report that HDACs are requisite for tissue-specific gene expression. PMID:21336812

  8. Metabolism-related liabilities of a potent histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor and relevance of the route of administration on its metabolic fate.

    PubMed

    Fonsi, M; Fiore, F; Jones, P; Kinzel, O; Laufer, R; Rowley, M; Monteagudo, E

    2009-10-01

    Compound A [1-methyl-N-{(1S)-1-[5-(2-naphthyl)-1H-imidazol-2-yl]-7-oxooctyl}piperidine-4-carboxamide is a potent class I histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor that demonstrated good antiproliferative activity against human tumour cell lines of different origin. This compound showed high in vivo clearance in rats (160 ml min(-1) kg(-1)) due to metabolism. The main metabolite detected in urine after intravenous dosing was characterized as a dihydrohydroxy S-mercapturic acid conjugate. Following oral dosing, however, the mercapturic acid derivative was no longer the main metabolite but the major metabolites were mono- and di-glucuronide conjugates of oxidized species having a mass shift of +34 m/z with respect to the parent. Comparison of plasma concentration after intra-arterial infusion and intravenous infusion and incubation with microsomes from different tissues (liver, kidney, small intestine and lung) in the presence of beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) indicated that the compound was highly cleared by the lung. Oxidation of the naphthalene moiety was demonstrated to be the cause of the high in vivo clearance of compound A and the potential for bioactivation of this group was flagged. PMID:19569735

  9. The microRNA miR-22 inhibits the histone deacetylase HDAC4 to promote T(H)17 cell-dependent emphysema.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wen; You, Ran; Yuan, Xiaoyi; Yang, Tianshu; Samuel, Errol L G; Marcano, Daniela C; Sikkema, William K A; Tour, James M; Rodriguez, Antony; Kheradmand, Farrah; Corry, David B

    2015-11-01

    Smoking-related emphysema is a chronic inflammatory disease driven by the T(H)17 subset of helper T cells through molecular mechanisms that remain obscure. Here we explored the role of the microRNA miR-22 in emphysema. We found that miR-22 was upregulated in lung myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) of smokers with emphysema and antigen-presenting cells (APCs) of mice exposed to smoke or nanoparticulate carbon black (nCB) through a mechanism that involved the transcription factor NF-κB. Mice deficient in miR-22, but not wild-type mice, showed attenuated T(H)17 responses and failed to develop emphysema after exposure to smoke or nCB. We further found that miR-22 controlled the activation of APCs and T(H)17 responses through the activation of AP-1 transcription factor complexes and the histone deacetylase HDAC4. Thus, miR-22 is a critical regulator of both emphysema and T(H)17 responses. PMID:26437241

  10. Deacetylase-Independent Function of HDAC3 in Transcription and Metabolism Requires Nuclear Receptor Corepressor

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zheng; Feng, Dan; Fang, Bin; Mullican, Shannon E.; You, Seo-Hee; Lim, Hee-Woong; Everett, Logan J.; Nabel, Christopher S.; Li, Yun; Selvakumaran, Vignesh; Won, Kyoung-Jae; Lazar, Mitchell A.

    2013-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are believed to regulate gene transcription by catalyzing deacetylation reactions. HDAC3 depletion in mouse liver upregulates lipogenic genes and results in severe hepatosteatosis. Here we show that pharmacologic HDAC inhibition in primary hepatocytes causes histone hyperacetylation but does not upregulate expression of HDAC3 target genes. Meanwhile, deacetylase-dead HDAC3 mutants can rescue hepatosteatosis and repress lipogenic genes expression in HDAC3-depleted mouse liver, demonstrating that histone acetylation is insufficient to activate gene transcription. Mutations abolishing interactions with the nuclear receptor corepressor (NCOR or SMRT) render HDAC3 nonfunctional in vivo. Additionally, liver-specific knockout of NCOR, but not SMRT, causes metabolic and transcriptomal alterations resembling those of mice without hepatic HDAC3, demonstrating that interaction with NCOR is essential for deacetylase-independent function of HDAC3. These findings highlight non-enzymatic roles of a major HDAC in transcriptional regulation in vivo and warrant reconsideration of the mechanism of action of HDAC inhibitors. PMID:24268577

  11. Histone deacetylases and cardiovascular cell lineage commitment

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jun-Yao; Wang, Qian; Wang, Wen; Zeng, Ling-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), which include all diseases of the heart and circulation system, are the leading cause of deaths on the globally. During the development of CVDs, choric inflammatory, lipid metabolism disorder and endothelial dysfunction are widely recognized risk factors. Recently, the new treatment for CVDs that designed to regenerate the damaged myocardium and injured vascular endothelium and improve recovery by the use of stem cells, attracts more and more public attention. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a family of enzymes that remove acetyl groups from lysine residues of histone proteins allowing the histones to wrap the DNA more tightly and commonly known as epigenetic regulators of gene transcription. HDACs play indispensable roles in nearly all biological processes, such as transcriptional regulation, cell cycle progression and developmental events, and have originally shown to be involved in cancer and neurological diseases. HDACs are also found to play crucial roles in cardiovascular diseases by modulating vascular cell homeostasis (e.g., proliferation, migration, and apoptosis of both ECs and SMCs). This review focuses on the roles of different members of HDACs and HDAC inhibitor on stem cell/ progenitor cell differentiation toward vascular cell lineages (endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and Cardiomyocytes) and its potential therapeutics. PMID:26131315

  12. [Histone-deacetylases inhibitors: from TSA to SAHA].

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Paul; Lansiaux, Amlie

    2006-01-01

    Histone-deacetylase inhibitors (HDCACi) represent a new class of antitumor agents currently in clinical development. They target a family of enzymes which catalyse histone acetylation modifications, in particular for histones H2A, H2B, H3 and H4. These proteins stabilize the nucleosome core, fundamental unity of chromatin which represents the first level of DNA nuclear compaction. The balance of histone acetylation is maintained by histone-acetyltransferases (HAT) and histone-deacetylases (HDAC) which play an important role in gene transcription. Alterations of HDACs were identified in tumor cells and contribute to the massive perturbations of gene expression in numerous tumors. HDAC inhibition leads to differentiation, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in tumor cells. HDACi efficiently prevent tumor growth in a variety of in vivo preclinical models. Several structurally distinct classes of HDACi have entered in clinical trials and a significant antitumor activity was reported in several cases. However, a better understanding of the biological effects of this class of enzymes is mandatory for the successful development of these new antitumoral agents. In this review, are exposed the main drug candidates in clinical development. In the near future, it will be interesting to define direct relationships between specific inhibition of one or several HDAC and the subsequent HDAC-dependent antitumor effects to define a new generation of specific histone-deacetylase inhibitors. PMID:16455503

  13. Post-Training Intrahippocampal Inhibition of Class I Histone Deacetylases Enhances Long-Term Object-Location Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawk, Joshua D.; Florian, Cedrick; Abel, Ted

    2011-01-01

    Long-term memory formation involves covalent modification of the histone proteins that package DNA. Reducing histone acetylation by mutating histone acetyltransferases impairs long-term memory, and enhancing histone acetylation by inhibiting histone deacetylases (HDACs) improves long-term memory. Previous studies using HDAC inhibitors to enhance…

  14. Post-Training Intrahippocampal Inhibition of Class I Histone Deacetylases Enhances Long-Term Object-Location Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawk, Joshua D.; Florian, Cedrick; Abel, Ted

    2011-01-01

    Long-term memory formation involves covalent modification of the histone proteins that package DNA. Reducing histone acetylation by mutating histone acetyltransferases impairs long-term memory, and enhancing histone acetylation by inhibiting histone deacetylases (HDACs) improves long-term memory. Previous studies using HDAC inhibitors to enhance

  15. Development of histone deacetylase inhibitors for cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Marchion, Douglas; Mnster, Pamela

    2007-04-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are an exciting new addition to the arsenal of cancer therapeutics. The inhibition of HDAC enzymes by HDAC inhibitors shifts the balance between the deacetylation activity of HDAC enzymes and the acetylation activity of histone acetyltransferases, resulting in hyperacetylation of core histones. Exposure of cancer cells to HDAC inhibitors has been associated with a multitude of molecular and biological effects, ranging from transcriptional control, chromatin plasticity, protein-DNA interaction to cellular differentiation, growth arrest and apoptosis. In addition to the antitumor effects seen with HDAC inhibitors alone, these compounds may also potentiate cytotoxic agents or synergize with other targeted anticancer agents. The exact mechanism by which HDAC inhibitors cause cell death is still unclear and the specific roles of individual HDAC enzymes as therapeutic targets has not been established. However, emerging evidence suggests that the effects of HDAC inhibitors on tumor cells may not only depend on the specificity and selectivity of the HDAC inhibitor, but also on the expression patterns of HDAC enzymes in the tumor tissue. In this review, the recent advances in the understanding and clinical development of HDAC inhibitors, as well as their current role in cancer therapy, will be discussed. PMID:17428177

  16. Histone deacetylase inhibitors in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Walid K; Johnstone, Ricky W; Prince, H Miles

    2007-05-01

    Histones are a family of nuclear proteins that interact with DNA, resulting in DNA being wrapped around a core of histone octamer within the nucleosome. Acetylation/deacetylation of histones is an important mechanism that regulates gene expression and chromatin remodeling. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are a new class of chemotherapeutic drugs that regulate gene expression by enhancing the acetylation of histones, and thus inducing chromatin relaxation and altering gene expression. HDAC inhibitors have been shown in preclinical studies to have potent anticancer activities. A range of structurally diverse HDAC inhibitors have been purified as natural products or synthetically produced. Due to the promising preclinical activity of these agents, numerous clinical trials have been initiated. In this review, the results of published data of single agent and combination trials of these drugs are reviewed, with a focus on dosing, scheduling and toxicity. Although still early in drug development, there is a picture that is starting to develop as to the common toxicities and which tumors seem to be the most susceptible to this class of drugs. PMID:17461739

  17. Targeting histone deacetylases for the treatment of disease

    PubMed Central

    Lawless, M W; Norris, S; O’Byrne, K J; Gray, S G

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The ‘histone code’ is a well-established hypothesis describing the idea that specific patterns of post-translational modifications to histones act like a molecular ‘code’ recognized and used by non-histone proteins to regulate specific chromatin functions. One modification, which has received significant attention, is that of histone acetylation. The enzymes that regulate this modification are described as lysine acetyltransferases or KATs, and histone deacetylases or HDACs. Due to their conserved catalytic domain HDACs have been actively targeted as a therapeutic target. The pro-inflammatory environment is increasingly being recognized as a critical element for both degenerative diseases and cancer. The present review will discuss the current knowledge surrounding the clinical potential and current development of histone deacetylases for the treatment of diseases for which a pro-inflammatory environment plays important roles, and the molecular mechanisms by which such inhibitors may play important functions in modulating the pro-inflammatory environment. PMID:19175682

  18. Suppression of caspase-11 expression by histone deacetylase inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Heo, Hyejung; Yoo, Lang; Shin, Ki Soon; Kang, Shin Jung

    2009-01-02

    It has been well documented that histone deacetylase inhibitors suppress inflammatory gene expression. Therefore, we investigated whether histone deacetylase inhibitors modulate the expression of caspase-11 that is known as an inducible caspase regulating both inflammation and apoptosis. In the present study, we show that sodium butyrate and trichostatin A, two structurally unrelated inhibitors of histone deacetylase (HDAC), effectively suppressed the induction of caspase-11 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts stimulated with lipopolysaccharides. Sodium butyrate inhibited the activation of upstream signaling events for the caspase-11 induction such as activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase, degradation of inhibitor of {kappa}B, and activation of nuclear factor-{kappa}B. These results suggest that the HDAC inhibitor suppressed cytosolic signaling events for the induction of caspase-11 by inhibiting the deacetylation of non-histone proteins.

  19. Histone deacetylases in kidney development: implications for disease and therapy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaowei; El-Dahr, Samir S

    2013-05-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are an evolutionarily conserved group of enzymes that regulate a broad range of biological processes through removal of acetyl groups from histones as well as non-histone proteins. Recent studies using a variety of pharmacological inhibitors and genetic models of HDACs have revealed a central role of HDACs in control of kidney development. These findings provide new insights into the epigenetic mechanisms underlying congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) and implicate the potential of HDACs as therapeutic targets in kidney diseases, such as cystic kidney diseases and renal cell cancers. Determining the specific functions of individual HDAC members would be an important task of future research. PMID:22722820

  20. Histone deacetylase inhibitors merged with protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Nan; Xu, Wenfang; Zhang, Yingjie

    2015-06-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a family of metal enzymes which mainly regulates the acetylation level of histone, together with histone acetyl transferases (HATs). Recently, because many HDAC inhibitors (HDACis) have entered clinical trials for both solid and liquid tumors, HDACs are recognized as one of the promising targets for cancer treatment. The current trend is that more and more HDAC inhibitors are used in combination with other antitumor agents in order to optimize their effect and toxicity. Protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) which play important roles in cellular signal transduction pathways and regulate series of physiological and biochemical processes, are another family of hot antitumor targets. This brief review will mainly talk about several reported chimeric HDACs-PTKs inhibitors. PMID:26193935

  1. Histone deacetylase inhibition as an alternative strategy against invasive aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Lamoth, Frédéric; Juvvadi, Praveen R.; Steinbach, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a life-threatening infection due to Aspergillus fumigatus and other Aspergillus spp. Drugs targeting the fungal cell membrane (triazoles, amphotericin B) or cell wall (echinocandins) are currently the sole therapeutic options against IA. Their limited efficacy and the emergence of resistance warrant the identification of new antifungal targets. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are enzymes responsible of the deacetylation of lysine residues of core histones, thus controlling chromatin remodeling and transcriptional activation. HDACs also control the acetylation and activation status of multiple non-histone proteins, including the heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), an essential molecular chaperone for fungal virulence and antifungal resistance. This review provides an overview of the different HDACs in Aspergillus spp. as well as their respective contribution to total HDAC activity, fungal growth, stress responses, and virulence. The potential of HDAC inhibitors, currently under development for cancer therapy, as novel alternative antifungal agents against IA is discussed. PMID:25762988

  2. Histone deacetylase: a potential therapeutic target for fibrotic disorders.

    PubMed

    Pang, Maoyin; Zhuang, Shougang

    2010-11-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are enzymes that balance the acetylation activities of histone acetyltransferases on chromatin remodeling and play essential roles in regulating gene transcription. In the past several years, the role of HDACs in cancer initiation and progression, as well as the therapeutic effects of HDAC inhibitors in various types of cancer, has been well studied. Recent studies indicated that HDAC activity is also associated with the development and progression of some chronic diseases characterized by fibrosis, including chronic kidney disease, cardiac hypertrophy, and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Here, we review what is known about HDACs in the progression of tissue fibrosis and the potential applications of HDAC inhibitors in the treatment of disorders associated with fibroblast activation and proliferation. PMID:20719940

  3. Targeting histone deacetylases: A novel therapeutic strategy for atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Lkhagva, Baigalmaa; Kao, Yu-Hsun; Chen, Yao-Chang; Chao, Tze-Fan; Chen, Shih-Ann; Chen, Yi-Jen

    2016-06-15

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia associated with high mortality and morbidity. Current treatments of AF have limited efficacy and considerable side effects. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play critical roles in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases and contribute to the genesis of AF. Therefore, HDAC inhibition may prove a novel therapeutic strategy for AF through upstream therapy and modifications of AF electrical and structural remodeling. In this review, we provide an update of the knowledge of the effects of HDACs and HDAC inhibitors on AF, and dissect potential underlying mechanisms. PMID:27089819

  4. Histone Deacetylase: Therapeutic Targets in Retinal Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Daly, Conor; Yin, Jun; Kennedy, Breandán N

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies report that retinitis pigmentosa (RP) patients treated with the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) valproic acid (VPA) present with improved visual fields and delayed vision loss. However, other studies report poor efficacy and safety of HDACi in other cohorts of retinal degeneration patients. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms by which HDACi can improve visual function is unknown, albeit HDACi can attenuate pro-apoptotic stimuli and induce expression of neuroprotective factors. Thus, further analysis of HDACi is warranted in pre-clinical models of retinal degeneration including zebrafish. Analysis of HDAC expression in developing zebrafish reveals diverse temporal expression patterns during development and maturation of visual function. PMID:26427446

  5. Creation of a histone deacetylase 6 inhibitor and its biological effects [corrected].

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju-Hee; Yao, Yuanshan; Mahendran, Adaickapillai; Ngo, Lang; Venta-Perez, Gisela; Choy, Megan L; Breslow, Ronald; Marks, Paul A

    2015-09-29

    We report the development of a potent, selective histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) inhibitor. This HDAC6 inhibitor blocks growth of normal and transformed cells but does not induce death of normal cells. The HDAC6 inhibitor alone is as effective as paclitaxel in anticancer activity in tumor-bearing mice. PMID:26371309

  6. Creation of a histone deacetylase 6 inhibitor and its biological effects

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ju-Hee; Yao, Yuanshan; Mahendran, Adaickapillai; Ngo, Lang; Venta-Perez, Gisela; Choy, Megan L.; Breslow, Ronald; Marks, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    We report the development of a potent, selective histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) inhibitor. This HDAC6 inhibitor blocks growth of normal and transformed cells but does not induce death of normal cells. The HDAC6 inhibitor alone is as effective as paclitaxel in anticancer activity in tumor-bearing mice. PMID:26371309

  7. Histone Deacetylase 9 Is a Negative Regulator of Adipogenic Differentiation*

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Tapan K.; Idelman, Gila; Blanco, Victor; Blomkalns, Andra L.; Piegore, Mark G.; Weintraub, Daniel S.; Kumar, Santosh; Rajsheker, Srinivas; Manka, David; Rudich, Steven M.; Tang, Yaoliang; Hui, David Y.; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda; Olson, Eric N.; Lingrel, Jerry B.; Ho, Shuk-Mei; Weintraub, Neal L.

    2011-01-01

    Differentiation of preadipocytes into mature adipocytes capable of efficiently storing lipids is an important regulatory mechanism in obesity. Here, we examined the involvement of histone deacetylases (HDACs) and histone acetyltransferases (HATs) in the regulation of adipogenesis. We find that among the various members of the HDAC and HAT families, only HDAC9 exhibited dramatic down-regulation preceding adipogenic differentiation. Preadipocytes from HDAC9 gene knock-out mice exhibited accelerated adipogenic differentiation, whereas HDAC9 overexpression in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes suppressed adipogenic differentiation, demonstrating its direct role as a negative regulator of adipogenesis. HDAC9 expression was higher in visceral as compared with subcutaneous preadipocytes, negatively correlating with their potential to undergo adipogenic differentiation in vitro. HDAC9 localized in the nucleus, and its negative regulation of adipogenesis segregates with the N-terminal nuclear targeting domain, whereas the C-terminal deacetylase domain is dispensable for this function. HDAC9 co-precipitates with USF1 and is recruited with USF1 at the E-box region of the C/EBPα gene promoter in preadipocytes. Upon induction of adipogenic differentiation, HDAC9 is down-regulated, leading to its dissociation from the USF1 complex, whereas p300 HAT is up-regulated to allow its association with USF1 and accumulation at the E-box site of the C/EBPα promoter in differentiated adipocytes. This reciprocal regulation of HDAC9 and p300 HAT in the USF1 complex is associated with increased C/EBPα expression, a master regulator of adipogenic differentiation. These findings provide new insights into mechanisms of adipogenic differentiation and document a critical regulatory role for HDAC9 in adipogenic differentiation through a deacetylase-independent mechanism. PMID:21680747

  8. Clinical development of histone deacetylase inhibitors as anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Daryl C; Noble, Charles O; Kirpotin, Dmitri B; Guo, Zexiong; Scott, Gary K; Benz, Christopher C

    2005-01-01

    Acetylation is a key posttranslational modification of many proteins responsible for regulating critical intracellular pathways. Although histones are the most thoroughly studied of acetylated protein substrates, histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and deacetylases (HDACs) are also responsible for modifying the activity of diverse types of nonhistone proteins, including transcription factors and signal transduction mediators. HDACs have emerged as uncredentialed molecular targets for the development of enzymatic inhibitors to treat human cancer, and six structurally distinct drug classes have been identified with in vivo bioavailability and intracellular capability to inhibit many of the known mammalian members representing the two general types of NAD+-independent yeast HDACs, Rpd3 (HDACs 1, 2, 3, 8) and Hda1 (HDACs 4, 5, 6, 7, 9a, 9b, 10). Initial clinical trials indicate that HDAC inhibitors from several different structural classes are very well tolerated and exhibit clinical activity against a variety of human malignancies; however, the molecular basis for their anticancer selectivity remains largely unknown. HDAC inhibitors have also shown preclinical promise when combined with other therapeutic agents, and innovative drug delivery strategies, including liposome encapsulation, may further enhance their clinical development and anticancer potential. An improved understanding of the mechanistic role of specific HDACs in human tumorigenesis, as well as the identification of more specific HDAC inhibitors, will likely accelerate the clinical development and broaden the future scope and utility of HDAC inhibitors for cancer treatment. PMID:15822187

  9. Caspase-mediated specific cleavage of human histone deacetylase 4.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Dowling, Melissa; Yang, Xiang-Jiao; Kao, Gary D

    2004-08-13

    Histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) is a class II HDAC implicated in controlling gene expression important for diverse cellular functions, but little is known about how its expression and stability are regulated. We report here that this deacetylase is unusually unstable, with a half-life of less than 8 h. Consistent with the instability of HDAC4 protein, its mRNA was also highly unstable (with a half-life of less than 4 h). The degradation of HDAC4 could be accelerated by exposure of cells to ultraviolet irradiation. HDAC4 degradation was not dependent on proteasome or CRM1-mediated export activity but instead was caspase-dependent and was detectable in diverse human cancer lines. Of two potential caspase consensus motifs in HDAC4, both lying within a region containing proline-, glutamic acid-, serine-, and threonine-rich (PEST) sequences, we identified, by site-directed mutagenesis, Asp-289 as the prime cleavage site. Notably, this residue is not conserved among other class IIa members, HDAC5, -7, and -9. Finally, the induced expression of caspase-cleavable HDAC4 led to markedly increased apoptosis. These results therefore unexpectedly link the regulation of HDAC4 protein stability to caspases, enzymes that are important for controlling cell death and differentiation. PMID:15205465

  10. Loss of epigenetic Kruppel-like factor 4 histone deacetylase (KLF-4-HDAC)-mediated transcriptional suppression is crucial in increasing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ray, Alpana; Alalem, Mohamed; Ray, Bimal K

    2013-09-20

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is recognized as an important angiogenic factor that promotes angiogenesis in a series of pathological conditions, including cancer, inflammation, and ischemic disorders. We have recently shown that the inflammatory transcription factor SAF-1 is, at least in part, responsible for the marked increase of VEGF levels in breast cancer. Here, we show that SAF-1-mediated induction of VEGF is repressed by KLF-4 transcription factor. KLF-4 is abundantly present in normal breast epithelial cells, but its level is considerably reduced in breast cancer cells and clinical cancer tissues. In the human VEGF promoter, SAF-1- and KLF-4-binding elements are overlapping, whereas SAF-1 induces and KLF-4 suppresses VEGF expression. Ectopic overexpression of KLF-4 and RNAi-mediated inhibition of endogenous KLF-4 supported the role of KLF-4 as a transcriptional repressor of VEGF and an inhibitor of angiogenesis in breast cancer cells. We show that KLF-4 recruits histone deacetylases (HDACs) -2 and -3 at the VEGF promoter. Chronological ChIP assays demonstrated the occupancy of KLF-4, HDAC2, and HDAC3 in the VEGF promoter in normal MCF-10A cells but not in MDA-MB-231 cancer cells. Co-transfection of KLF-4 and HDAC expression plasmids in breast cancer cells results in synergistic repression of VEGF expression and inhibition of angiogenic potential of these carcinoma cells. Together these results identify a new mechanism of VEGF up-regulation in cancer that involves concomitant loss of KLF-4-HDAC-mediated transcriptional repression and active recruitment of SAF-1-mediated transcriptional activation. PMID:23926105

  11. Histone deacetylase inhibitors as potential treatment for spinal muscular atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Mohseni, Jafar; Zabidi-Hussin, Z.A.M.H.; Sasongko, Teguh Haryo

    2013-01-01

    Histone acetylation plays an important role in regulation of transcription in eukaryotic cells by promoting a more relaxed chromatin structure necessary for transcriptional activation. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) remove acetyl groups and suppress gene expression. HDAC inhibitors (HDACIs) are a group of small molecules that promote gene transcription by chromatin remodeling and have been extensively studied as potential drugs for treating of spinal muscular atrophy. Various drugs in this class have been studied with regard to their efficacy in increasing the expression of survival of motor neuron (SMN) protein. In this review, we discuss the current literature on this topic and summarize the findings of the main studies in this field. PMID:24130434

  12. Histone deacetylase inhibitors from the rhizomes of Zingiber zerumbet.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ill-Min; Kim, Min-Young; Park, Won-Hwan; Moon, Hyung-In

    2008-10-01

    Histone acetylation and deacetylation play fundamental roles in the modulation of chromatin topology and the regulation of gene transcription. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors that inhibit proliferation and induce differentiation and/or apoptosis of tumor cells in culture and in animal models have been identified. A number of structurally diverse histone deacetylase inhibitors have shown potent antitumor efficacy with little toxicity in vivo in animal models. In the context of our natural product chemistry program dealing with the development of new potent anticancer agents, we have examined the isolation from Zingiber zerumbet as leads for novel HDAC inhibitors. Zingiber zerumbet (L.) J. E. Smith (Zingiberaceae) is a wild ginger that typically grows widely in Southeast Asia. Isolation of the n-hexane soluble fraction from Zingiber zerumbet yielded two major sesequiterpenoids, 6-methoxy-2E,9E-humuladien-8-one (1) and zerumbone (2). The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. The histone deacetylase (HDAC) activities of compounds 1 and 2 were determined in vitro against HDAC enzyme assay. Compound 1 exhibited growth inhibitory activity on six human tumor cell lines, and showed potential inhibitory activity in histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzyme assay (GI50 = 1.25 microM). It also exhibited growth inhibitory activity on five human tumor cell lines and more sensitive inhibitory activity on the MDA-MB-231 breast tumor cell line (IC50 = 1.45 microM). Further structure-activity relationships of position C-6 and C-7 from aromatic ring will be reported in due course. PMID:18972844

  13. Metabolic Reprogramming by Class I and II Histone Deacetylases

    PubMed Central

    Mihaylova, Maria M.; Shaw, Reuben J.

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that protein acetylation plays a major regulatory role in many facets of transcriptional control of metabolism. The enzymes that catalyze the addition and removal of acetyl moieties are the Histone Acetyl Transferases (HATs) and Histone Deacetylases (HDACs), respectively. A number of recent studies have uncovered novel mechanisms and contexts in which different HDACs play critical roles in metabolic control. Understanding the role of Class I and II HDACs in different metabolic programs during development, as well as in the physiology and pathology of the adult organism, will lead to novel therapeutics for metabolic disease. Here, we review the current understanding of how Class I and Class II HDACs contribute to metabolic control. PMID:23062770

  14. Treatment of chronic kidney diseases with histone deacetylase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Na; Zhuang, Shougang

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) induce deacetylation of both histone and non-histone proteins and play a critical role in the modulation of physiological and pathological gene expression. Pharmacological inhibition of HDAC has been reported to attenuate progression of renal fibrogenesis in obstructed kidney and reduce cyst formation in polycystic kidney disease. HDAC inhibitors (HDACis) are also able to ameliorate renal lesions in diabetes nephropathy, lupus nephritis, aristolochic acid nephropathy, and transplant nephropathy. The beneficial effects of HDACis are associated with their anti-fibrosis, anti-inflammation, and immunosuppressant effects. In this review, we summarize recent advances on the treatment of various chronic kidney diseases with HDACis in pre-clinical models. PMID:25972812

  15. Treatment of chronic kidney diseases with histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; Zhuang, Shougang

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) induce deacetylation of both histone and non-histone proteins and play a critical role in the modulation of physiological and pathological gene expression. Pharmacological inhibition of HDAC has been reported to attenuate progression of renal fibrogenesis in obstructed kidney and reduce cyst formation in polycystic kidney disease. HDAC inhibitors (HDACis) are also able to ameliorate renal lesions in diabetes nephropathy, lupus nephritis, aristolochic acid nephropathy, and transplant nephropathy. The beneficial effects of HDACis are associated with their anti-fibrosis, anti-inflammation, and immunosuppressant effects. In this review, we summarize recent advances on the treatment of various chronic kidney diseases with HDACis in pre-clinical models. PMID:25972812

  16. Assembly of the SMRT-histone deacetylase 3 repression complex requires the TCP-1 ring complex.

    PubMed

    Guenther, Matthew G; Yu, Jiujiu; Kao, Gary D; Yen, Tim J; Lazar, Mitchell A

    2002-12-15

    The acetylation of histone tails is a primary determinant of gene activity. Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) requires the nuclear receptor corepressor SMRT for HDAC enzyme activity. Here we report that HDAC3 interacts with SMRT only after priming by cellular chaperones including the TCP-1 ring complex (TRiC), which is required for proper folding of HDAC3 in an ATP-dependent process. SMRT displaces TRiC from HDAC3, yielding an active HDAC enzyme. The SMRT-HDAC3 repression complex thus joins the VHL-elongin BC tumor suppression complex and the cyclin E-Cdk2 cell cycle regulation complex as critical cellular machines requiring TRiC for proper assembly and function. The strict control of HDAC3 activity underscores the cellular imperative that histone deacetylation occur only in targeted regions of the genome. PMID:12502735

  17. Assembly of the SMRT–histone deacetylase 3 repression complex requires the TCP-1 ring complex

    PubMed Central

    Guenther, Matthew G.; Yu, Jiujiu; Kao, Gary D.; Yen, Tim J.; Lazar, Mitchell A.

    2002-01-01

    The acetylation of histone tails is a primary determinant of gene activity. Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) requires the nuclear receptor corepressor SMRT for HDAC enzyme activity. Here we report that HDAC3 interacts with SMRT only after priming by cellular chaperones including the TCP-1 ring complex (TRiC), which is required for proper folding of HDAC3 in an ATP-dependent process. SMRT displaces TRiC from HDAC3, yielding an active HDAC enzyme. The SMRT–HDAC3 repression complex thus joins the VHL–elongin BC tumor suppression complex and the cyclin E–Cdk2 cell cycle regulation complex as critical cellular machines requiring TRiC for proper assembly and function. The strict control of HDAC3 activity underscores the cellular imperative that histone deacetylation occur only in targeted regions of the genome. PMID:12502735

  18. Interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) and ISG15-linked proteins can associate with members of the selective autophagic process, histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) and SQSTM1/p62.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Hiroshi; Nguyen, Tran; Goins, William F; Chiocca, Ennio Antonio

    2015-01-16

    The ubiquitin-like interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) and its specific E1, E2, and E3 enzymes are transcriptionally induced by type I IFNs. ISG15 conjugates newly synthesized proteins. ISG15 linkage to proteins appears to be an important downstream IFN signaling event that discriminates cellular and pathogenic proteins synthesized during IFN stimulation from existing proteins. This eliminates potentially pathogenic proteins as the cell attempts to return to normal homeostasis after IFN "stressed" conditions. However, the molecular events that occur in this process are not well known. Here, we show that the C-terminal LRLRGG of ISG15 interacts with the binder of ubiquitin zinc finger (BUZ) domain of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6). Because HDAC6 is involved in the autophagic clearance of ubiquitinated aggregates during which SQSTM1/p62 plays a major role as a cargo adapter, we also were able to confirm that p62 binds to ISG15 protein and its conjugated proteins upon forced expression. Both HDAC6 and p62 co-localized with ISG15 in an insoluble fraction of the cytosol, and this co-localization was magnified by the proteasome inhibitor MG132. In addition, ISG15 was degraded via the lysosome. Overexpression of ISG15, which leads to an increased conjugation level of the cellular proteome, enhanced autophagic degradation independently of IFN signaling transduction. These results thus indicate that ISG15 conjugation marks proteins for interaction with HDAC6 and p62 upon forced stressful conditions likely as a step toward autophagic clearance. PMID:25429107

  19. Interferon-stimulated Gene 15 (ISG15) and ISG15-linked Proteins Can Associate with Members of the Selective Autophagic Process, Histone Deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) and SQSTM1/p62*

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Hiroshi; Nguyen, Tran; Goins, William F.; Chiocca, Ennio Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquitin-like interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) and its specific E1, E2, and E3 enzymes are transcriptionally induced by type I IFNs. ISG15 conjugates newly synthesized proteins. ISG15 linkage to proteins appears to be an important downstream IFN signaling event that discriminates cellular and pathogenic proteins synthesized during IFN stimulation from existing proteins. This eliminates potentially pathogenic proteins as the cell attempts to return to normal homeostasis after IFN “stressed” conditions. However, the molecular events that occur in this process are not well known. Here, we show that the C-terminal LRLRGG of ISG15 interacts with the binder of ubiquitin zinc finger (BUZ) domain of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6). Because HDAC6 is involved in the autophagic clearance of ubiquitinated aggregates during which SQSTM1/p62 plays a major role as a cargo adapter, we also were able to confirm that p62 binds to ISG15 protein and its conjugated proteins upon forced expression. Both HDAC6 and p62 co-localized with ISG15 in an insoluble fraction of the cytosol, and this co-localization was magnified by the proteasome inhibitor MG132. In addition, ISG15 was degraded via the lysosome. Overexpression of ISG15, which leads to an increased conjugation level of the cellular proteome, enhanced autophagic degradation independently of IFN signaling transduction. These results thus indicate that ISG15 conjugation marks proteins for interaction with HDAC6 and p62 upon forced stressful conditions likely as a step toward autophagic clearance. PMID:25429107

  20. Essential Nonredundant Function of the Catalytic Activity of Histone Deacetylase 2 in Mouse Development

    PubMed Central

    Hagelkruys, Astrid; Mattes, Katharina; Moos, Verena; Rennmayr, Magdalena; Ringbauer, Manuela; Sawicka, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The class I histone deacetylases (HDACs) HDAC1 and HDAC2 play partially redundant roles in the regulation of gene expression and mouse development. As part of multisubunit corepressor complexes, these two deacetylases exhibit both enzymatic and nonenzymatic functions. To examine the impact of the catalytic activities of HDAC1 and HDAC2, we generated knock-in mice expressing catalytically inactive isoforms, which are still incorporated into the HDAC1/HDAC2 corepressor complexes. Surprisingly, heterozygous mice expressing catalytically inactive HDAC2 die within a few hours after birth, while heterozygous HDAC1 mutant mice are indistinguishable from wild-type littermates. Heterozygous HDAC2 mutant mice show an unaltered composition but reduced associated deacetylase activity of corepressor complexes and exhibit a more severe phenotype than HDAC2-null mice. They display changes in brain architecture accompanied by premature expression of the key regulator protein kinase C delta. Our study reveals a dominant negative effect of catalytically inactive HDAC2 on specific corepressor complexes resulting in histone hyperacetylation, transcriptional derepression, and, ultimately, perinatal lethality. PMID:26598605

  1. Identification and characterization of histone deacetylases in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Linmao; Lu, Jingxia; Zhang, Jianxia; Wu, Pei-Ying; Yang, Songguang; Wu, Keqiang

    2015-01-01

    Histone acetylation and deacetylation at the N-terminus of histone tails play crucial roles in the regulation of eukaryotic gene activity. Histone acetylation and deacetylation are catalyzed by histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases (HDACs), respectively. A growing number of studies have demonstrated the importance of histone deacetylation/acetylation on genome stability, transcriptional regulation, development and response to stress in Arabidopsis. However, the biological functions of HDACs in tomato have not been investigated previously. Fifteen HDACs identified from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) can be grouped into RPD3/HDA1, SIR2 and HD2 families based on phylogenetic analysis. Meanwhile, 10 members of the RPD3/HDA1 family can be further subdivided into four groups, namely Class I, Class II, Class III, and Class IV. High similarities of protein sequences and conserved domains were identified among SlHDACs and their homologs in Arabidopsis. Most SlHDACs were expressed in all tissues examined with different transcript abundance. Transient expression in Arabidopsis protoplasts showed that SlHDA8, SlHDA1, SlHDA5, SlSRT1 and members of the HD2 family were localized to the nucleus, whereas SlHDA3 and SlHDA4 were localized in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. The difference in the expression patterns and subcellular localization of SlHDACs suggest that they may play distinct functions in tomato. Furthermore, we found that three members of the RPD3/HDA1 family, SlHDA1, SIHDA3 and SlHDA4, interacted with TAG1 (TOMATO AGAMOUS1) and TM29 (TOMATO MADS BOX29), two MADS-box proteins associated with tomato reproductive development, indicating that these HDACs may be involved in gene regulation in reproductive development. PMID:25610445

  2. Identification and characterization of histone deacetylases in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Linmao; Lu, Jingxia; Zhang, Jianxia; Wu, Pei-Ying; Yang, Songguang; Wu, Keqiang

    2014-01-01

    Histone acetylation and deacetylation at the N-terminus of histone tails play crucial roles in the regulation of eukaryotic gene activity. Histone acetylation and deacetylation are catalyzed by histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases (HDACs), respectively. A growing number of studies have demonstrated the importance of histone deacetylation/acetylation on genome stability, transcriptional regulation, development and response to stress in Arabidopsis. However, the biological functions of HDACs in tomato have not been investigated previously. Fifteen HDACs identified from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) can be grouped into RPD3/HDA1, SIR2 and HD2 families based on phylogenetic analysis. Meanwhile, 10 members of the RPD3/HDA1 family can be further subdivided into four groups, namely Class I, Class II, Class III, and Class IV. High similarities of protein sequences and conserved domains were identified among SlHDACs and their homologs in Arabidopsis. Most SlHDACs were expressed in all tissues examined with different transcript abundance. Transient expression in Arabidopsis protoplasts showed that SlHDA8, SlHDA1, SlHDA5, SlSRT1 and members of the HD2 family were localized to the nucleus, whereas SlHDA3 and SlHDA4 were localized in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. The difference in the expression patterns and subcellular localization of SlHDACs suggest that they may play distinct functions in tomato. Furthermore, we found that three members of the RPD3/HDA1 family, SlHDA1, SIHDA3 and SlHDA4, interacted with TAG1 (TOMATO AGAMOUS1) and TM29 (TOMATO MADS BOX29), two MADS-box proteins associated with tomato reproductive development, indicating that these HDACs may be involved in gene regulation in reproductive development. PMID:25610445

  3. Quantification of Histone Deacetylase Isoforms in Human Frontal Cortex, Human Retina, and Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kyle W.; Chen, Junjun; Wang, Meiyao; Mast, Natalia; Pikuleva, Irina A.; Turko, Illarion V.

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition has promise as a therapy for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative diseases. Currently, therapeutic HDAC inhibitors target many HDAC isoforms, a particularly detrimental approach when HDAC isoforms are known to have different and specialized functions. We have developed a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry assay using stable isotope-labeled QconCATs as internal standards to quantify HDAC isoforms. We further determined a quantitative pattern of specific HDACs expressed in various human and mouse neural tissues. In human AD frontal cortex, HDAC1,2 decreased 32%, HDAC5 increased 47%, and HDAC6 increased 31% in comparison to age-matched controls. Human neural retina concentrations of HDAC1, 2, HDAC5, HDAC6, and HDAC7 decreased in age-related macular degeneration (AMD)-affected donors and exhibited a greater decrease in AD-affected donors in comparison to age-matched control neural retinas. Additionally, HDAC concentrations were measured in whole hemisphere of brain of 5XFAD mice, a model of β-amyloid deposition, to assess similarity to AD in human frontal cortex. HDAC profiles of human frontal cortex and mouse hemisphere had noticeable differences and relatively high concentrations of HDAC3 and HDAC4 in mice, which were undetectable in humans. Our method for quantification of HDAC isoforms is a practical and efficient technique to quantify isoforms in various tissues and diseases. Changes in HDAC concentrations reported herein contribute to the understanding of the pathology of neurodegeneration. PMID:25962138

  4. Tetrahydroisoquinolines as novel histone deacetylase inhibitors for treatment of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Danqi; Shen, Aijun; Fang, Guanghua; Liu, Hongchun; Zhang, Minmin; Tang, Shuai; Xiong, Bing; Ma, Lanping; Geng, Meiyu; Shen, Jingkang

    2016-01-01

    Histone acetylation is a critical process in the regulation of chromatin structure and gene expression. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) remove the acetyl group, leading to chromatin condensation and transcriptional repression. HDAC inhibitors are considered a new class of anticancer agents and have been shown to alter gene transcription and exert antitumor effects. This paper describes our work on the structural determination and structure-activity relationship (SAR) optimization of tetrahydroisoquinoline compounds as HDAC inhibitors. These compounds were tested for their ability to inhibit HDAC 1, 3, 6 and for their ability to inhibit the proliferation of a panel of cancer cell lines. Among these, compound 82 showed the greatest inhibitory activity toward HDAC 1, 3, 6 and strongly inhibited growth of the cancer cell lines, with results clearly superior to those of the reference compound, vorinostat (SAHA). Compound 82 increased the acetylation of histones H3, H4 and tubulin in a concentration-dependent manner, suggesting that it is a broad inhibitor of HDACs. PMID:26904403

  5. Histone deacetylase 5 regulates the inflammatory response of macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Poralla, Lukas; Stroh, Thorsten; Erben, Ulrike; Sittig, Marie; Liebig, Sven; Siegmund, Britta; Glauben, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Modifying the chromatin structure and interacting with non-histone proteins, histone deacetylases (HDAC) are involved in vital cellular processes at different levels. We here specifically investigated the direct effects of HDAC5 in macrophage activation in response to bacterial or cytokine stimuli. Using murine and human macrophage cell lines, we studied the expression profile and the immunological function of HDAC5 at transcription and protein level in over-expression as well as RNA interference experiments. Toll-like receptor-mediated stimulation of murine RAW264.7 cells significantly reduced HDAC5 mRNA within 7 hrs but presented baseline levels after 24 hrs, a mechanism that was also found for Interferon-γ treatment. If treated with lipopolysaccharide, RAW264.7 cells transfected for over-expression only of full-length but not of mutant HDAC5, significantly elevated secretion of tumour necrosis factor α and of the monocyte chemotactic protein-1. These effects were accompanied by increased nuclear factor-κB activity. Accordingly, knock down of HDAC5-mRNA expression using specific siRNA significantly reduced the production of these cytokines in RAW264.7 or human U937 cells. Taken together, our results suggest a strong regulatory function of HDAC5 in the pro-inflammatory response of macrophages. PMID:26059794

  6. Histone deacetylase 5 regulates the inflammatory response of macrophages.

    PubMed

    Poralla, Lukas; Stroh, Thorsten; Erben, Ulrike; Sittig, Marie; Liebig, Sven; Siegmund, Britta; Glauben, Rainer

    2015-09-01

    Modifying the chromatin structure and interacting with non-histone proteins, histone deacetylases (HDAC) are involved in vital cellular processes at different levels. We here specifically investigated the direct effects of HDAC5 in macrophage activation in response to bacterial or cytokine stimuli. Using murine and human macrophage cell lines, we studied the expression profile and the immunological function of HDAC5 at transcription and protein level in over-expression as well as RNA interference experiments. Toll-like receptor-mediated stimulation of murine RAW264.7 cells significantly reduced HDAC5 mRNA within 7 hrs but presented baseline levels after 24 hrs, a mechanism that was also found for Interferon-γ treatment. If treated with lipopolysaccharide, RAW264.7 cells transfected for over-expression only of full-length but not of mutant HDAC5, significantly elevated secretion of tumour necrosis factor α and of the monocyte chemotactic protein-1. These effects were accompanied by increased nuclear factor-κB activity. Accordingly, knock down of HDAC5-mRNA expression using specific siRNA significantly reduced the production of these cytokines in RAW264.7 or human U937 cells. Taken together, our results suggest a strong regulatory function of HDAC5 in the pro-inflammatory response of macrophages. PMID:26059794

  7. Targeting Histone Deacetylases: A Novel Approach in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sorabh; Taliyan, Rajeev

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide prevalence of movement disorders is increasing day by day. Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common movement disorder. In general, the clinical manifestations of PD result from dysfunction of the basal ganglia. Although the exact underlying mechanisms leading to neural cell death in this disease remains unknown, the genetic causes are often established. Indeed, it is becoming increasingly evident that chromatin acetylation status can be impaired during the neurological disease conditions. The acetylation and deacetylation of histone proteins are carried out by opposing actions of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs), respectively. In the recent past, studies with HDAC inhibitors result in beneficial effects in both in vivo and in vitro models of PD. Various clinical trials have also been initiated to investigate the possible therapeutic potential of HDAC inhibitors in patients suffering from PD. The possible mechanisms assigned for these neuroprotective actions of HDAC inhibitors involve transcriptional activation of neuronal survival genes and maintenance of histone acetylation homeostasis, both of which have been shown to be dysregulated in PD. In this review, the authors have discussed the putative role of HDAC inhibitors in PD and associated abnormalities and suggest new directions for future research in PD. PMID:25694842

  8. Dietary sulforaphane, a histone deacetylase inhibitor for cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Ho, Emily; Clarke, John D; Dashwood, Roderick H

    2009-12-01

    The reversible acetylation of histones is an important mechanism of gene regulation. During prostate cancer progression, specific modifications in acetylation patterns on histones are apparent. Targeting the epigenome, including the use of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, is a novel strategy for cancer chemoprevention. Recently, drugs classified as HDAC inhibitors have shown promise in cancer clinical trials. We have previously found that sulforaphane (SFN), a compound found in cruciferous vegetables, inhibits HDAC activity in human colorectal and prostate cancer cells. Based on the similarity of SFN metabolites and other phytochemicals to known HDAC inhibitors, we previously demonstrated that sulforaphane acted as an HDAC inhibitor in the prostate, causing enhanced histone acetylation, derepression of P21 and Bax, and induction of cell cycle arrest/apoptosis, leading to cancer prevention. The ability of SFN to target aberrant acetylation patterns, in addition to effects on phase 2 enzymes, may make it an effective chemoprevention agent. These studies are important because of the potential to qualify or change recommendations for high-risk prostate cancer patients and thereby increase their survival through simple dietary choices incorporating easily accessible foods into their diets. These studies also will provide a strong scientific foundation for future large-scale human clinical intervention studies. PMID:19812222

  9. Inhibition of histone deacetylase expands the renal progenitor cell population.

    PubMed

    de Groh, Eric D; Swanhart, Lisa M; Cosentino, Chiara Cianciolo; Jackson, Rachel L; Dai, Weixiang; Kitchens, Carolyn A; Day, Billy W; Smithgall, Thomas E; Hukriede, Neil A

    2010-05-01

    One of the first hallmarks of kidney regeneration is the reactivation of genes normally required during organogenesis. Identification of chemicals with the potential to enhance this reactivation could therapeutically promote kidney regeneration. Here, we found that 4-(phenylthio)butanoic acid (PTBA) expanded the expression domains of molecular markers of kidney organogenesis in zebrafish. PTBA exhibits structural and functional similarity to the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors 4-phenylbutanoic acid and trichostatin A; treatment with these HDAC inhibitors also expanded the renal progenitor cell population. Analyses in vitro and in vivo confirmed that PTBA functions as an inhibitor of HDAC activity. Furthermore, PTBA-mediated renal progenitor cell expansion required retinoic acid signaling. In summary, these results support a mechanistic link among renal progenitor cells, HDAC, and the retinoid pathway. Whether PTBA holds promise as a therapeutic agent to promote renal regeneration requires further study. PMID:20378823

  10. Histone Deacetylases in Skeletal Development and Bone Mass Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E.; Westendorf, Jennifer J.

    2011-01-01

    The skeleton is a multifunctional and regenerative organ. Dynamic activities within the bone microenvironment necessitate and instigate rapid and temporal changes in gene expression within the cells (osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and osteocytes) responsible for skeletal maintenance. Regulation of gene expression is controlled, in part, by histone deacetylases (Hdacs), which are intracellular enzymes that directly affect chromatin structure and transcription factor activity. Key roles for several Hdacs in bone development and biology have been elucidated though in vitro and in vivo models. Recent findings suggest that clinical usage of small molecule Hdac inhibitors for conditions like epilepsy, bipolar disorder, cancer, and a multitude of other ailments may have unintended effects on bone cell populations. Here we review the progress that has been made in the last decade in understanding how Hdacs contribute to bone development and maintenance. PMID:21185361

  11. The pharmaceutical potential of histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Elaut, Greetje; Rogiers, Vera; Vanhaecke, Tamara

    2007-01-01

    Protein acetylation, catalyzed by the opposing activities of histone deacetylases (HDAC) and histone acetyltransferases, is now recognized to be an important epigenetic modulator of gene transcriptional activity and cell function. As a result of the intense search for HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) during the past fifteen years, a large number of structurally divergent classes with variable potencies and isoenzyme selectivities have been identified. They occupy an important and promising position in a number of therapeutic areas. Several HDACi are under clinical evaluation as tumor cell-selective chemotherapeutics, and show great promise for the treatment of inflammatory disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, protozoal and latent viral infections, and (fibro)proliferative disorders. Recently, it was discovered that they might be used as enhancers of differentiation in stem cell therapy, and as medium supplements that stabilize the phenotype of primary cells in culture. Next to biological activity, the pharmaceutical potential of a compound is also dependent on the adequate translation of in vitro potency into in vivo efficacy whilst maintaining an acceptable safety profile. Therefore, this review will not only address the formerly mentioned applications, but will also deal with the pharmacokinetic and toxicological properties of currently available HDACi. Several compounds exert potent activities in vitro, but have been shown to be of limited therapeutic value due to rapid biotransformation, and thus poor in vivo bioavailability. The first attempts to improve the metabolic properties of HDACi have been made and will be discussed. In contrast to conventional chemotherapeutics, HDACi exert no drastic side effects at therapeutically effective doses. Although a bulk effect on histone acetylation is observed, HDACi display a remarkable tumor cell-selective toxicity. The mechanisms underlying these cell type-dependent differences in sensitivity to HDACi-mediated effects, however, remain largely elusive. PMID:17897003

  12. Regulation of Primitive Hematopoiesis by Class I Histone Deacetylases

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Rishita R.; Koniski, Anne; Shinde, Mansi; Blythe, Shelby A.; Fass, Daniel M.; Haggarty, Stephen J.; Palis, James; Klein, Peter S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Histone deacetylases (HDACs) regulate multiple developmental processes and cellular functions. However, their roles in blood development have not been determined, and in Xenopus laevis, a specific function for HDACs has yet to be identified. Here, we employed the class I selective HDAC inhibitor, valproic acid (VPA), to show that HDAC activity is required for primitive hematopoiesis. Results VPA treatment during gastrulation resulted in a complete absence of red blood cells (RBCs) in Xenopus tadpoles, but did not affect development of other mesodermal tissues, including myeloid and endothelial lineages. These effects of VPA were mimicked by Trichostatin A (TSA), a well-established pan-HDAC inhibitor, but not by valpromide, which is structurally similar to VPA but does not inhibit HDACs. VPA also caused a marked, dose-dependent loss of primitive erythroid progenitors in mouse yolk sac explants at clinically relevant concentrations. In addition, VPA treatment inhibited erythropoietic development downstream of bmp4 and gata1 in Xenopus ectodermal explants. Conclusions These findings suggest an important role for class I HDACs in primitive hematopoiesis. Our work also demonstrates that specific developmental defects associated with exposure to VPA, a significant teratogen in humans, arise through inhibition of class I HDACs. PMID:23184530

  13. Metabolism as a key to histone deacetylase inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Praveen; Williams, David E.; Ho, Emily; Dashwood, Roderick H.

    2012-01-01

    There is growing interest in the epigenetic mechanisms that are dysregulated in cancer and other human pathologies. Under this broad umbrella, modulators of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity have gained interest as both cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic agents. Of the first generation, FDA-approved HDAC inhibitors to have progressed to clinical trials, vorinostat represents a “direct acting” compound with structural features suitable for docking into the HDAC pocket, whereas romidepsin can be considered a prodrug that undergoes reductive metabolism to generate the active intermediate (a zinc-binding thiol). It is now evident that other agents, including those in the human diet, can be converted by metabolism to intermediates that affect HDAC activity. Examples are cited of short-chain fatty acids, seleno-α-keto acids, small molecule thiols, mercapturic acid metabolites, indoles, and polyphenols. The findings are discussed in the context of putative endogenous HDAC inhibitors generated by intermediary metabolism (e.g. pyruvate), the yin–yang of HDAC inhibition versus HDAC activation, and the screening assays that might be most appropriate for discovery of novel HDAC inhibitors in the future. PMID:21599534

  14. Targeting macrophage Histone deacetylase 3 stabilizes atherosclerotic lesions

    PubMed Central

    Hoeksema, Marten A; Gijbels, Marion JJ; Van den Bossche, Jan; van der Velden, Saskia; Sijm, Ayestha; Neele, Annette E; Seijkens, Tom; Stöger, J Lauran; Meiler, Svenja; Boshuizen, Marieke CS; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M; Levels, Johannes HM; Boon, Louis; Mullican, Shannon E; Spann, Nathanael J; Cleutjens, Jack P; Glass, Chris K; Lazar, Mitchell A; de Vries, Carlie JM; Biessen, Erik AL; Daemen, Mat JAP; Lutgens, Esther; de Winther, Menno PJ

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages are key immune cells found in atherosclerotic plaques and critically shape atherosclerotic disease development. Targeting the functional repertoire of macrophages may hold novel approaches for future atherosclerosis management. Here, we describe a previously unrecognized role of the epigenomic enzyme Histone deacetylase 3 (Hdac3) in regulating the atherosclerotic phenotype of macrophages. Using conditional knockout mice, we found that myeloid Hdac3 deficiency promotes collagen deposition in atherosclerotic lesions and thus induces a stable plaque phenotype. Also, macrophages presented a switch to anti-inflammatory wound healing characteristics and showed improved lipid handling. The pro-fibrotic phenotype was directly linked to epigenetic regulation of the Tgfb1 locus upon Hdac3 deletion, driving smooth muscle cells to increased collagen production. Moreover, in humans, HDAC3 was the sole Hdac upregulated in ruptured atherosclerotic lesions, Hdac3 associated with inflammatory macrophages, and HDAC3 expression inversely correlated with pro-fibrotic TGFB1 expression. Collectively, we show that targeting the macrophage epigenome can improve atherosclerosis outcome and we identify Hdac3 as a potential novel therapeutic target in cardiovascular disease. PMID:25007801

  15. Histone deacetylase inhibitors in hematological malignancies and solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Chun, Pusoon

    2015-06-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are emerging as promising anticancer drugs. Because aberrant activity and expression of HDACs have been implicated in various cancer types, a wide range of HDAC inhibitors are being investigated as anticancer agents. Furthermore, due to the demonstrable anticancer activity in both in vitro and in vivo studies, numerous HDAC inhibitors have undergone a rapid phase of clinical development in various cancer types, either as a monotherapy or in combination with other anticancer agents. Although preclinical trials show that HDAC inhibitors have a variety of biological effects across multiple pathways, including regulation of gene expression, inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, inhibiting angiogenesis, and regulation of DNA damage and repair, the mechanism by which the clinical activity is mediated remains unclear. Understanding the mechanisms of anticancer activity of HDAC inhibitors is essential not only for rational drug design for targeted therapies, but for the design of optimized clinical protocols. This paper describes the links between HDACs and cancer, and the underlying mechanisms of action of HDAC inhibitors against hematological malignancies and solid tumors. Further, this review presents the clinical outcomes of vorinostat, romidepsin, and belinostat, which are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of lymphomas. PMID:25653088

  16. Selectively Targeting Prostate Cancer with Antiandrogen Equipped Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Gryder, Berkley E.; Akbashev, Michelle J.; Rood, Michael K.; Raftery, Eric D.; Meyers, Warren M.; Dillard, Paulette; Khan, Shafiq; Oyelere, Adegboyega K.

    2013-01-01

    Diverse cellular processes relevant to cancer progression are regulated by the acetylation status of proteins. Among such processes is chromatin remodeling via histone proteins, controlled by opposing histone deacetylase (HDAC) and histone acetyltransferase (HAT) enzymes. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) show great promise in preclinical cancer models, but clinical trials treating solid tumors have failed to improve patient survival. This is due in part to an inability of HDACi to effectively accumulate in cancerous cells. To address this problem we designed HDACi with secondary pharmacophores to facilitate selective accumulation in malignant cells. We present the first example of HDACi compounds targeted to prostate tumors by equipping them with the additional ability to bind the androgen receptor (AR) with non-steroidal antiandrogen moieties. Leads among these new dual-acting molecules bind to the AR and halt AR transcriptional activity at lower concentrations than clinical antiandrogens. They inhibit key isoforms of HDAC with low nanomolar potency. Fluorescent microscopy reveals varying degrees of AR nuclear localization in response to these compounds that correlates with their HDAC activity. These biological properties translate into potent anticancer activity against hormone dependent (AR+) LNCaP and to a lesser extent against hormone independent (AR−) DU145 prostate cancer, while having greatly reduced toxicity in non-cancerous cells. This illustrates that engaging multiple biological targets with a single chemical probe can achieve both potent and cell-type selective responses. PMID:24004176

  17. Histone deacetylase modulates the proinflammatory and -fibrotic changes in tubulointerstitial injury.

    PubMed

    Marumo, Takeshi; Hishikawa, Keiichi; Yoshikawa, Masahiro; Hirahashi, Junichi; Kawachi, Shoji; Fujita, Toshiro

    2010-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) regulates gene expression by modifying chromatin structure. Although changes in the expression and activities of HDAC may affect the course of kidney disease, the role of HDAC in tubulointerstitial injury has not been explored. We therefore investigated the alterations in HDAC expression and determined the effects of HDAC inhibition on the tubulointerstitial injury induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction. The induction of HDAC1 and HDAC2, accompanied by a decrease in histone acetylation was observed in kidneys injured by ureteral obstruction. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that HDAC1 and HDAC2 were induced in renal tubular cells. Treatment with an HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA), attenuated macrophage infiltration and fibrotic changes in tubulointerstitial injury induced by ureteral obstruction. The induction of colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1), a chemokine known to be involved in macrophage infiltration in tubulointerstitial injury, was reduced in injured kidneys from mice treated with TSA. TSA, valproate, and the knockdown of HDAC1 or HDAC2 significantly reduced CSF-1 induced by TNF-alpha in renal tubular cells. These results suggest that tubular HDAC1 and HDAC2, induced in response to injury, may contribute to the induction of CSF-1 and the initiation of macrophage infiltration and profibrotic responses. These findings suggest a potential of HDAC inhibition therapy aimed at reducing inflammation and fibrosis in tubulointerstitial injury. PMID:19906951

  18. Histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases in B- and T-cell development, physiology and malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Haery, Leila; Thompson, Ryan C.; Gilmore, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    The development of B and T cells from hematopoietic precursors and the regulation of the functions of these immune cells are complex processes that involve highly regulated signaling pathways and transcriptional control. The signaling pathways and gene expression patterns that give rise to these developmental processes are coordinated, in part, by two opposing classes of broad-based enzymatic regulators: histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs). HATs and HDACs can modulate gene transcription by altering histone acetylation to modify chromatin structure, and by regulating the activity of non-histone substrates, including an array of immune-cell transcription factors. In addition to their role in normal B and T cells, dysregulation of HAT and HDAC activity is associated with a variety of B- and T-cell malignancies. In this review, we describe the roles of HATs and HDACs in normal B- and T-cell physiology, describe mutations and dysregulation of HATs and HDACs that are implicated lymphoma and leukemia, and discuss HAT and HDAC inhibitors that have been explored as treatment options for leukemias and lymphomas. PMID:26124919

  19. A Role for Histone Deacetylases in the Cellular and Behavioral Mechanisms Underlying Learning and Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahgoub, Melissa; Monteggia, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a family of chromatin remodeling enzymes that restrict access of transcription factors to the DNA, thereby repressing gene expression. In contrast, histone acetyltransferases (HATs) relax the chromatin structure allowing for an active chromatin state and promoting gene transcription. Accumulating data have…

  20. A Role for Histone Deacetylases in the Cellular and Behavioral Mechanisms Underlying Learning and Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahgoub, Melissa; Monteggia, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a family of chromatin remodeling enzymes that restrict access of transcription factors to the DNA, thereby repressing gene expression. In contrast, histone acetyltransferases (HATs) relax the chromatin structure allowing for an active chromatin state and promoting gene transcription. Accumulating data have

  1. Aurora B-dependent Regulation of Class IIa Histone Deacetylases by Mitotic Nuclear Localization Signal Phosphorylation*

    PubMed Central

    Guise, Amanda J.; Greco, Todd M.; Zhang, Irene Y.; Yu, Fang; Cristea, Ileana M.

    2012-01-01

    Class IIa histone deacetylases (HDACs 4/5/7/9) are transcriptional regulators with critical roles in cardiac disease and cancer. HDAC inhibitors are promising anticancer agents, and although they are known to disrupt mitotic progression, the underlying mechanisms of mitotic regulation by HDACs are not fully understood. Here we provide the first identification of histone deacetylases as substrates of Aurora B kinase (AurB). Our study identifies class IIa HDACs as a novel family of AurB targets and provides the first evidence that HDACs are temporally and spatially regulated by phosphorylation during the cell cycle. We define the precise site of AurB-mediated phosphorylation as a conserved serine within the nuclear localization signals of HDAC4, HDAC5, and HDAC9 at Ser265, Ser278, and Ser242, respectively. We establish that AurB interacts with these HDACs in vivo, and that this association increases upon disruption of 14-3-3 binding. We observe colocalization of endogenous, phosphorylated HDACs with AurB at the mitotic midzone in late anaphase and the midbody during cytokinesis, complemented by a reduction in HDAC interactions with components of the nuclear corepressor complex. We propose that AurB-dependent phosphorylation of HDACs induces sequestration within a phosphorylation gradient at the midzone, maintaining separation from re-forming nuclei and contributing to transcriptional control. PMID:22865920

  2. Histone deacetylases 1 and 2 maintain S-phase chromatin and DNA replication fork progression

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play a critical role in the maintenance of genome stability. Class I HDACs, histone deacetylase 1 and 2 (Hdac1 and Hdac2) are recruited to the replication fork by virtue of their interactions with the replication machinery. However, functions for Hdac1 and Hdac2 (Hdacs1,2) in DNA replication are not fully understood. Results Using genetic knockdown systems and novel Hdacs1,2-selective inhibitors, we found that loss of Hdacs1,2 leads to a reduction in the replication fork velocity, and an increase in replication stress response culminating in DNA damage. These observed defects are due to a direct role for Hdacs1,2 in DNA replication, as transcription of genes involved in replication was not affected in the absence of Hdacs1,2. We found that loss of Hdacs1,2 functions increases histone acetylation (ac) on chromatin in S-phase cells and affects nascent chromatin structure, as evidenced by the altered sensitivity of newly synthesized DNA to nuclease digestion. Specifically, H4K16ac, a histone modification involved in chromatin decompaction, is increased on nascent chromatin upon abolishing Hdacs1,2 activities. It was previously shown that H4K16ac interferes with the functions of SMARCA5, an ATP-dependent ISWI family chromatin remodeler. We found SMARCA5 also associates with nascent DNA and loss of SMARCA5 decreases replication fork velocity similar to the loss or inhibition of Hdacs1,2. Conclusions Our studies reveal important roles for Hdacs1,2 in nascent chromatin structure maintenance and regulation of SMARCA5 chromatin-remodeler function, which together are required for proper replication fork progression and genome stability in S-phase. PMID:23947532

  3. Alcohol-induced serotonergic modulation: the role of histone deacetylases.

    PubMed

    Agudelo, Marisela; Yoo, Changwon; Nair, Madhavan P

    2012-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are regulated by multiple mechanisms such as neurotransmitters and enzymes. The neurotransmitter, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) may contribute to alcohol effects and serotonin receptors, including 5-HT3, play an important role in AUDs. Recent studies have also implicated histone deacetylases (HDACs) and acetyltransferases (HATS) in regulation of drug addiction, and HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) have been reported as transcriptional modulators of monoaminergic neurotransmission. Therefore, we hypothesize that HDACs may play a role in ethanol-induced serotonergic modulation. The effects of ethanol on serotonin and 5-HT3, and the role HDACs, HDAC activity and the HDACi, trichostatin A (TSA), play in alcohol-induced serotonergic effects were studied. Human SK-N-MC and neurons, were treated with ethanol (0.05, 0.1 and 0.2%), and/or TSA (50 nM), and 5-HT3 levels were assessed at 24-72 h. Gene expression was evaluated by qRT-PCR and protein by western blot and flow cytometry. Serotonin release was assessed by ELISA and HDAC activity by fluorometric assay. Our results show an increase in 5-HT3 gene after ethanol treatment. Further, ethanol significantly increased HDACs 1 and 3 genes accompanied by an increased in HDAC activity while TSA significantly inhibited HDACs. Studies with TSA show a significant upregulation of ethanol effects on 5-HT3, while surprisingly TSA inhibited ethanol-induced serotonin production. These results suggest that ethanol affects 5-HT3 and serotonin through mechanisms involving HDACs and HATs. In summary, our studies demonstrate some of the novel properties of HDAC inhibitors and contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms involve in alcohol-serotonergic modulation in the CNS. PMID:22796363

  4. Non-sirtuin histone deacetylases in the control of cardiac aging.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Bradley S; McKinsey, Timothy A

    2015-06-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) catalyze the removal of acetyl-groups from lysine residues within nucelosomal histone tails and thousands of non-histone proteins. The 18 mammalian HDACs are grouped into four classes. Classes I, II and IV HDACs employ zinc as a co-factor for catalytic activity, while class III HDACs (also known as sirtuins) require NAD+ for enzymatic function. Small molecule inhibitors of zinc-dependent HDACs are efficacious in multiple pre-clinical models of pressure overload and ischemic cardiomyopathy, reducing pathological hypertrophy and fibrosis, and improving contractile function. Emerging data have revealed numerous mechanisms by which HDAC inhibitors benefit the heart, including suppression of oxidative stress and inflammation, inhibition of MAP kinase signaling, and enhancement of cardiac protein aggregate clearance and autophagic flux. Here, we summarize recent findings with zinc-dependent HDACs and HDAC inhibitors in the heart, focusing on newly described functions for distinct HDAC isoforms (e.g. HDAC2, HDAC3 and HDAC6). Potential for pharmacological HDAC inhibition as a means of treating age-related cardiac dysfunction is also discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: CV Aging. PMID:25791169

  5. Regulation of Immune Responses by Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Licciardi, Paul V.; Karagiannis, Tom C.

    2012-01-01

    Both genetic and epigenetic factors are important regulators of the immune system. There is an increasing body of evidence attesting to epigenetic modifications that influence the development of distinct innate and adaptive immune response cells. Chromatin remodelling via acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation, and ubiquitination of histone proteins as well as DNA, methylation is epigenetic mechanisms by which immune gene expression can be controlled. In this paper, we will discuss the role of epigenetics in the regulation of host immunity, with particular emphasis on histone deacetylase inhibitors. In particular, the role of HDAC inhibitors as a new class of immunomodulatory therapeutics will also be reviewed. PMID:22461998

  6. Hypothalamic leptin action is mediated by histone deacetylase 5

    PubMed Central

    Kabra, Dhiraj G.; Pfuhlmann, Katrin; García-Cáceres, Cristina; Schriever, Sonja C.; Casquero García, Veronica; Kebede, Adam Fiseha; Fuente-Martin, Esther; Trivedi, Chitrang; Heppner, Kristy; Uhlenhaut, N. Henriette; Legutko, Beata; Kabra, Uma D.; Gao, Yuanqing; Yi, Chun-Xia; Quarta, Carmelo; Clemmensen, Christoffer; Finan, Brian; Müller, Timo D.; Meyer, Carola W.; Paez-Pereda, Marcelo; Stemmer, Kerstin; Woods, Stephen C.; Perez-Tilve, Diego; Schneider, Robert; Olson, Eric N.; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Pfluger, Paul T.

    2016-01-01

    Hypothalamic leptin signalling has a key role in food intake and energy-balance control and is often impaired in obese individuals. Here we identify histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) as a regulator of leptin signalling and organismal energy balance. Global HDAC5 KO mice have increased food intake and greater diet-induced obesity when fed high-fat diet. Pharmacological and genetic inhibition of HDAC5 activity in the mediobasal hypothalamus increases food intake and modulates pathways implicated in leptin signalling. We show HDAC5 directly regulates STAT3 localization and transcriptional activity via reciprocal STAT3 deacetylation at Lys685 and phosphorylation at Tyr705. In vivo, leptin sensitivity is substantially impaired in HDAC5 loss-of-function mice. Hypothalamic HDAC5 overexpression improves leptin action and partially protects against HFD-induced leptin resistance and obesity. Overall, our data suggest that hypothalamic HDAC5 activity is a regulator of leptin signalling that adapts food intake and body weight to our dietary environment. PMID:26923837

  7. Histone deacetylase 3 coordinates commensal-bacteria-dependent intestinal homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Alenghat, Theresa; Osborne, Lisa C; Saenz, Steven A; Kobuley, Dmytro; Ziegler, Carly G K; Mullican, Shannon E; Choi, Inchan; Grunberg, Stephanie; Sinha, Rohini; Wynosky-Dolfi, Meghan; Snyder, Annelise; Giacomin, Paul R; Joyce, Karen L; Hoang, Tram B; Bewtra, Meenakshi; Brodsky, Igor E; Sonnenberg, Gregory F; Bushman, Frederic D; Won, Kyoung-Jae; Lazar, Mitchell A; Artis, David

    2013-12-01

    The development and severity of inflammatory bowel diseases and other chronic inflammatory conditions can be influenced by host genetic and environmental factors, including signals derived from commensal bacteria. However, the mechanisms that integrate these diverse cues remain undefined. Here we demonstrate that mice with an intestinal epithelial cell (IEC)-specific deletion of the epigenome-modifying enzyme histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3(ΔIEC) mice) exhibited extensive dysregulation of IEC-intrinsic gene expression, including decreased basal expression of genes associated with antimicrobial defence. Critically, conventionally housed HDAC3(ΔIEC) mice demonstrated loss of Paneth cells, impaired IEC function and alterations in the composition of intestinal commensal bacteria. In addition, HDAC3(ΔIEC) mice showed significantly increased susceptibility to intestinal damage and inflammation, indicating that epithelial expression of HDAC3 has a central role in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Re-derivation of HDAC3(ΔIEC) mice into germ-free conditions revealed that dysregulated IEC gene expression, Paneth cell homeostasis and intestinal barrier function were largely restored in the absence of commensal bacteria. Although the specific mechanisms through which IEC-intrinsic HDAC3 expression regulates these complex phenotypes remain to be determined, these data indicate that HDAC3 is a critical factor that integrates commensal-bacteria-derived signals to calibrate epithelial cell responses required to establish normal host-commensal relationships and maintain intestinal homeostasis. PMID:24185009

  8. Hypothalamic leptin action is mediated by histone deacetylase 5.

    PubMed

    Kabra, Dhiraj G; Pfuhlmann, Katrin; García-Cáceres, Cristina; Schriever, Sonja C; Casquero García, Veronica; Kebede, Adam Fiseha; Fuente-Martin, Esther; Trivedi, Chitrang; Heppner, Kristy; Uhlenhaut, N Henriette; Legutko, Beata; Kabra, Uma D; Gao, Yuanqing; Yi, Chun-Xia; Quarta, Carmelo; Clemmensen, Christoffer; Finan, Brian; Müller, Timo D; Meyer, Carola W; Paez-Pereda, Marcelo; Stemmer, Kerstin; Woods, Stephen C; Perez-Tilve, Diego; Schneider, Robert; Olson, Eric N; Tschöp, Matthias H; Pfluger, Paul T

    2016-01-01

    Hypothalamic leptin signalling has a key role in food intake and energy-balance control and is often impaired in obese individuals. Here we identify histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) as a regulator of leptin signalling and organismal energy balance. Global HDAC5 KO mice have increased food intake and greater diet-induced obesity when fed high-fat diet. Pharmacological and genetic inhibition of HDAC5 activity in the mediobasal hypothalamus increases food intake and modulates pathways implicated in leptin signalling. We show HDAC5 directly regulates STAT3 localization and transcriptional activity via reciprocal STAT3 deacetylation at Lys685 and phosphorylation at Tyr705. In vivo, leptin sensitivity is substantially impaired in HDAC5 loss-of-function mice. Hypothalamic HDAC5 overexpression improves leptin action and partially protects against HFD-induced leptin resistance and obesity. Overall, our data suggest that hypothalamic HDAC5 activity is a regulator of leptin signalling that adapts food intake and body weight to our dietary environment. PMID:26923837

  9. Cloning, expression, and biochemical characterization of a new histone deacetylase-like protein from Thermus caldophilus GK24

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Young Mi; Kim, You Sun; Kim, Dooil; Lee, Dae Sil; Kwon, Ho Jeong . E-mail: kwonhj@yonsei.ac.kr

    2007-09-14

    Histone deactylases (HDACs) are members of an ancient enzyme family found in eukaryotes as well as in prokaryotes such as archaebacteria and eubacteria. We here report a new histone deacetylase (Tca HDAC) that was cloned from the genomic library of Thermus caldophilus GK24 based on homology analysis with human histone deacetylase1 (HDAC1). The gene contains an open reading frame encoding 375 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 42,188 Da and the deduced amino acid sequence of Tca HDAC showed a 31% homology to human HDAC1. The Tca HDAC gene was over-expressed in Escherichia coli using a Glutathione-S transferase (GST) fusion vector (pGEX-4T-1) and the purified protein showed a deacetylase activity toward the fluorogenic substrate for HDAC. Moreover, the enzyme activity was inhibited by trichostatin A, a specific HDAC inhibitor, in a dose-dependent manner. Optimum temperature and pH of the enzyme was found to be approximately 70 {sup o}C and 7.0, respectively. In addition, zinc ion is required for catalytic activity of the enzyme. Together, these data demonstrate that Tca HDAC is a new histone deacetylase-like enzyme from T. caldophilus GK24 and will be a useful tool for deciphering the role of HDAC in the prokaryote and development of new biochemical reactions.

  10. Subcellular Localization of Class I Histone Deacetylases in the Developing Xenopus tectum

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xia; Ruan, Hangze; Li, Xia; Qin, Liming; Tao, Yi; Qi, Xianjie; Gao, Juanmei; Gan, Lin; Duan, Shumin; Shen, Wanhua

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are thought to localize in the nucleus to regulate gene transcription and play pivotal roles in neurogenesis, apoptosis, and plasticity. However, the subcellular distribution of class I HDACs in the developing brain remains unclear. Here, we show that HDAC1 and HDAC2 are located in both the mitochondria and the nucleus in the Xenopus laevis stage 34 tectum and are mainly restricted to the nucleus following further brain development. HDAC3 is widely present in the mitochondria, nucleus, and cytoplasm during early tectal development and is mainly distributed in the nucleus in stage 45 tectum. In contrast, HDAC8 is broadly located in the mitochondria, nucleus, and cytoplasm during tectal development. These data demonstrate that HDAC1, HDAC2, and HDAC3 are transiently localized in the mitochondria and that the subcellular distribution of class I HDACs in the Xenopus tectum is heterogeneous. Furthermore, we observed that spherical mitochondria accumulate in the cytoplasm at earlier stages, whereas elongated mitochondria are evenly distributed in the tectum at later stages. The activity of histone acetylation (H4K12) remains low in mitochondria during tectal development. Pharmacological blockades of HDACs using a broad spectrum HDAC inhibitor of Trichostatin A (TSA) or specific class I HDAC inhibitors of MS-275 and MGCD0103 decrease the number of mitochondria in the tectum at stage 34. These findings highlight a link between the subcellular distribution of class I HDACs and mitochondrial dynamics in the developing optic tectum of Xenopus laevis. PMID:26793062

  11. Ex Vivo Response to Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) Inhibitors of the HIV Long Terminal Repeat (LTR) Derived from HIV-Infected Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hao K.; Gray, Lachlan R.; Wightman, Fiona; Ellenberg, Paula; Khoury, Gabriela; Cheng, Wan-Jung; Mota, Talia M.; Wesselingh, Steve; Gorry, Paul R.; Cameron, Paul U.

    2014-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) can induce human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transcription from the HIV long terminal repeat (LTR). However, ex vivo and in vivo responses to HDACi are variable and the activity of HDACi in cells other than T-cells have not been well characterised. Here, we developed a novel assay to determine the activity of HDACi on patient-derived HIV LTRs in different cell types. HIV LTRs from integrated virus were amplified using triple-nested Alu-PCR from total memory CD4+ T-cells (CD45RO+) isolated from HIV-infected patients prior to and following suppressive antiretroviral therapy. NL4-3 or patient-derived HIV LTRs were cloned into the chromatin forming episomal vector pCEP4, and the effect of HDACi investigated in the astrocyte and epithelial cell lines SVG and HeLa, respectively. There were no significant differences in the sequence of the HIV LTRs isolated from CD4+ T-cells prior to and after 18 months of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). We found that in both cell lines, the HDACi panobinostat, trichostatin A, vorinostat and entinostat activated patient-derived HIV LTRs to similar levels seen with NL4-3 and all patient derived isolates had similar sensitivity to maximum HDACi stimulation. We observed a marked difference in the maximum fold induction of luciferase by HDACi in HeLa and SVG, suggesting that the effect of HDACi may be influenced by the cellular environment. Finally, we observed significant synergy in activation of the LTR with vorinostat and the viral protein Tat. Together, our results suggest that the LTR sequence of integrated virus is not a major determinant of a functional response to an HDACi. PMID:25409334

  12. Non-Peptide Macrocyclic Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Derived from Tricyclic Ketolide Skeleton

    PubMed Central

    Mwakwari, Sandra C.; Guerrant, William; Patil, Vishal; Khan, Shabana I.; Tekwani, Babu L.; Gurard-Levin, Zachary A.; Mrksich, Milan; Oyelere, Adegboyega K.

    2010-01-01

    Inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) function is a validated therapeutic strategy for cancer treatment. Of the several structurally distinct small molecule histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) reported, macrocyclic depsipeptides possess the most complex cap-groups and have demonstrated excellent HDAC inhibition potency and isoform selectivity. Unfortunately, the development of macrocyclic depsipeptides has been hampered in part due to development problems characteristic of large peptides and the complex reaction schemes required for their synthesis. Herein we report that tricyclic ketolide TE-802 is an excellent mimetic for the peptide backbone of macrocyclic HDACi. Compounds derived from this template are particularly selective against HDAC 1 and 2 with nanomolar inhibitory activity. Interrogation of the association between a subset of these compounds and key HDAC isoforms, using AutoDock, enables a molecular description of the interaction between the HDAC enzyme's outer rim and the inhibitors’ macrocyclic cap group that are responsible for compound affinity and presumably isoform selectivity. PMID:20669972

  13. Histone Deacetylase 3 Is Required for T Cell Maturation.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Fan-Chi; Belmonte, Paul J; Constans, Megan M; Chen, Meibo W; McWilliams, Douglas C; Hiebert, Scott W; Shapiro, Virginia Smith

    2015-08-15

    Recent thymic emigrants are newly generated T cells that need to undergo postthymic maturation to gain functional competency and enter the long-lived naive T cell pool. The mechanism of T cell maturation remains incompletely understood. Previously, we demonstrated that the transcriptional repressor NKAP is required for T cell maturation. Because NKAP associates with histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3), we examined whether HDAC3 is also required for T cell maturation. Although thymic populations are similar in CD4-cre HDAC3 conditional knockout mice compared with wild-type mice, the peripheral numbers of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells are dramatically decreased. In the periphery, the majority of HDAC3-deficient naive T cells are recent thymic emigrants, indicating a block in T cell maturation. CD55 upregulation during T cell maturation is substantially decreased in HDAC3-deficient T cells. Consistent with a block in functional maturation, HDAC3-deficient peripheral T cells have a defect in TNF licensing after TCR/CD28 stimulation. CD4-cre HDAC3 conditional knockout mice do not have a defect in intrathymic migration, thymic egress, T cell survival, or homeostasis. In the periphery, similar to immature NKAP-deficient peripheral T cells, HDAC3-deficient peripheral T cells were bound by IgM and complement proteins, leading to the elimination of these cells. In addition, HDAC3-deficient T cells display decreases in the sialic acid modifications on the cell surface that recruit natural IgM to initiate the classical complement pathway. Therefore, HDAC3 is required for T cell maturation. PMID:26163592

  14. Comparative Modeling and Benchmarking Data Sets for Human Histone Deacetylases and Sirtuin Families

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Jie; Tilahun, Ermias Lemma; Kebede, Eyob Hailu; Reid, Terry-Elinor; Zhang, Liangren; Wang, Xiang Simon

    2015-01-01

    Histone Deacetylases (HDACs) are an important class of drug targets for the treatment of cancers, neurodegenerative diseases and other types of diseases. Virtual screening (VS) has become fairly effective approaches for drug discovery of novel and highly selective Histone Deacetylases Inhibitors (HDACIs). To facilitate the process, we constructed the Maximal Unbiased Benchmarking Data Sets for HDACs (MUBD-HDACs) using our recently published methods that were originally developed for building unbiased benchmarking sets for ligand-based virtual screening (LBVS). The MUBD-HDACs covers all 4 Classes including Class III (Sirtuins family) and 14 HDACs isoforms, composed of 631 inhibitors and 24,609 unbiased decoys. Its ligand sets have been validated extensively as chemically diverse, while the decoy sets were shown to be property-matching with ligands and maximal unbiased in terms of “artificial enrichment” and “analogue bias”. We also conducted comparative studies with DUD-E and DEKOIS 2.0 sets against HDAC2 and HDAC8 targets, and demonstrate that our MUBD-HDACs is unique in that it can be applied unbiasedly to both LBVS and SBVS approaches. In addition, we defined a novel metric, i.e. NLBScore, to detect the “2D bias” and “LBVS favorable” effect within the benchmarking sets. In summary, MUBD-HDACs is the only comprehensive and maximal-unbiased benchmark data sets for HDACs (including Sirtuins) that is available so far. MUBD-HDACs is freely available at http://www.xswlab.org/. PMID:25633490

  15. Antimalarial Activity of the Anticancer Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor SB939

    PubMed Central

    Sumanadasa, Subathdrage D. M.; Goodman, Christopher D.; Lucke, Andrew J.; Skinner-Adams, Tina; Sahama, Ishani; Haque, Ashraful; Do, Tram Anh; McFadden, Geoffrey I.; Fairlie, David P.

    2012-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes posttranslationally modify lysines on histone and nonhistone proteins and play crucial roles in epigenetic regulation and other important cellular processes. HDAC inhibitors (e.g., suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid [SAHA; also known as vorinostat]) are used clinically to treat some cancers and are under investigation for use against many other diseases. Development of new HDAC inhibitors for noncancer indications has the potential to be accelerated by piggybacking onto cancer studies, as several HDAC inhibitors have undergone or are undergoing clinical trials. One such compound, SB939, is a new orally active hydroxamate-based HDAC inhibitor with an improved pharmacokinetic profile compared to that of SAHA. In this study, the in vitro and in vivo antiplasmodial activities of SB939 were investigated. SB939 was found to be a potent inhibitor of the growth of Plasmodium falciparum asexual-stage parasites in vitro (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50], 100 to 200 nM), causing hyperacetylation of parasite histone and nonhistone proteins. In combination with the aspartic protease inhibitor lopinavir, SB939 displayed additive activity. SB939 also potently inhibited the in vitro growth of exoerythrocytic-stage Plasmodium parasites in liver cells (IC50, ∼150 nM), suggesting that inhibitor targeting to multiple malaria parasite life cycle stages may be possible. In an experimental in vivo murine model of cerebral malaria, orally administered SB939 significantly inhibited P. berghei ANKA parasite growth, preventing development of cerebral malaria-like symptoms. These results identify SB939 as a potent new antimalarial HDAC inhibitor and underscore the potential of investigating next-generation anticancer HDAC inhibitors as prospective new drug leads for treatment of malaria. PMID:22508312

  16. Computational design of a time-dependent histone deacetylase 2 selective inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jingwei; Li, Min; Chen, Nanhao; Wang, Shenglong; Luo, Hai-Bin; Zhang, Yingkai; Wu, Ruibo

    2015-03-20

    Development of isoform-selective histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors is of great biological and medical interest. Among 11 zinc-dependent HDAC isoforms, it is particularly challenging to achieve isoform inhibition selectivity between HDAC1 and HDAC2 due to their very high structural similarities. In this work, by developing and applying a novel de novo reaction-mechanism-based inhibitor design strategy to exploit the reactivity difference, we have discovered the first HDAC2-selective inhibitor, β-hydroxymethyl chalcone. Our bioassay experiments show that this new compound has a unique time-dependent selective inhibition on HDAC2, leading to about 20-fold isoform-selectivity against HDAC1. Furthermore, our ab initio QM/MM molecular dynamics simulations, a state-of-the-art approach to study reactions in biological systems, have elucidated how the β-hydroxymethyl chalcone can achieve the distinct time-dependent inhibition toward HDAC2. PMID:25546141

  17. Histone Deacetylases in Bone Development and Skeletal Disorders.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Elizabeth W; Carpio, Lomeli R; van Wijnen, Andre J; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; Westendorf, Jennifer J

    2015-10-01

    Histone deacetylases (Hdacs) are conserved enzymes that remove acetyl groups from lysine side chains in histones and other proteins. Eleven of the 18 Hdacs encoded by the human and mouse genomes depend on Zn(2+) for enzymatic activity, while the other 7, the sirtuins (Sirts), require NAD2(+). Collectively, Hdacs and Sirts regulate numerous cellular and mitochondrial processes including gene transcription, DNA repair, protein stability, cytoskeletal dynamics, and signaling pathways to affect both development and aging. Of clinical relevance, Hdacs inhibitors are United States Food and Drug Administration-approved cancer therapeutics and are candidate therapies for other common diseases including arthritis, diabetes, epilepsy, heart disease, HIV infection, neurodegeneration, and numerous aging-related disorders. Hdacs and Sirts influence skeletal development, maintenance of mineral density and bone strength by affecting intramembranous and endochondral ossification, as well as bone resorption. With few exceptions, inhibition of Hdac or Sirt activity though either loss-of-function mutations or prolonged chemical inhibition has negative and/or toxic effects on skeletal development and bone mineral density. Specifically, Hdac/Sirt suppression causes abnormalities in physiological development such as craniofacial dimorphisms, short stature, and bone fragility that are associated with several human syndromes or diseases. In contrast, activation of Sirts may protect the skeleton from aging and immobilization-related bone loss. This knowledge may prolong healthspan and prevent adverse events caused by epigenetic therapies that are entering the clinical realm at an unprecedented rate. In this review, we summarize the general properties of Hdacs/Sirts and the research that has revealed their essential functions in bone forming cells (e.g., osteoblasts and chondrocytes) and bone resorbing osteoclasts. Finally, we offer predictions on future research in this area and the utility of this knowledge for orthopedic applications and bone tissue engineering. PMID:26378079

  18. Loss of histone deacetylase 2 improves working memory and accelerates extinction learning.

    PubMed

    Morris, Michael J; Mahgoub, Melissa; Na, Elisa S; Pranav, Heena; Monteggia, Lisa M

    2013-04-10

    Histone acetylation and deacetylation can be dynamically regulated in response to environmental stimuli and play important roles in learning and memory. Pharmacological inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs) improves performance in learning tasks; however, many of these classical agents are "pan-HDAC" inhibitors, and their use makes it difficult to determine the roles of specific HDACs in cognitive function. We took a genetic approach using mice lacking the class I HDACs, HDAC1 or HDAC2, in postmitotic forebrain neurons to investigate the specificity or functional redundancy of these HDACs in learning and synaptic plasticity. We show that selective knock-out of Hdac2 led to a robust acceleration of the extinction rate of conditioned fear responses and a conditioned taste aversion as well as enhanced performance in an attentional set-shifting task. Hdac2 knock-out had no impact on episodic memory or motor learning, suggesting that the effects are task-dependent, with the predominant impact of HDAC2 inhibition being an enhancement in an animal's ability to rapidly adapt its behavioral strategy as a result of changes in associative contingencies. Our results demonstrate that the loss of HDAC2 improves associative learning, with no effect in nonassociative learning tasks, suggesting a specific role for HDAC2 in particular types of learning. HDAC2 may be an intriguing target for cognitive and psychiatric disorders that are characterized by an inability to inhibit behavioral responsiveness to maladaptive or no longer relevant associations. PMID:23575838

  19. Molecular cloning and nuclear localization of a histone deacetylase homologue in Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Joshi, M B; Lin, D T; Chiang, P H; Goldman, N D; Fujioka, H; Aikawa, M; Syin, C

    1999-03-15

    Reversible acetylation of core histones plays an important role in transcriptional regulation, cell cycle progression and developmental events. The acetylation state of histones is controlled by a dynamic equilibrium between activities of histone acetylase and deacetylase enzymes. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) was recently suggested to be the target of a fungus-derived antiprotozoal agent exhibiting structural similarity to known HDAC inhibitors. We have initiated a study of HDAC of human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, to evaluate its potential as the target for novel antimalarials and its role in parasite development. We have isolated HDAC1 gene from the P. falciparum genomic and cDNA libraries. The nucleotide sequence contains no intervening sequence and its open reading frame (ORF) codes for a protein of 449 amino acid residues. We have named the protein, PfHDAC1, as the sequence shows significant homology to yeast, human and other eukaryotic HDACs. Northern blot analysis of the total RNA from different asexual and sexual stages of the parasite reveals the presence of single mRNA transcript, which is predominantly expressed in mature asexual blood stages and in gametocytes. Antiserum raised against a carboxyl terminal peptide immunoprecipitated an in vitro translated P. falciparum HDAC gene product and recognized an approximately 50 kDa protein in the Triton X-100 insoluble fraction of parasites. Immunoelectron microscopy analysis showed majority of the protein localized in the nucleus of P. falciparum. To our knowledge, this is the first HDAC gene isolated from the malaria parasite. PMID:10215020

  20. Histone deacetylase inhibitors enhance phosphorylation of histone H2AX after ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yubin; Adachi, Masaaki . E-mail: adachi@sapmed.ac.jp; Zou Huichao; Hareyama, Masato; Imai, Kohzoh; Shinomura, Yasuhisa

    2006-07-01

    Purpose Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are believed to be promising radiosensitizers. To explore their effects on ionizing radiation (IR), we examined whether the HDAC inhibitors m-carboxycinnamic acid bis-hydroxamide (CBHA) and depsipeptide FK228 affect H2AX phosphorylation ({gamma}-H2AX), a landmark of DNA double-strand breaks after IR exposure. Methods and Materials We evaluated the effects of the HDAC inhibitors on clonogenic assay in human lung carcinoma A549 cells and progression of A549 xenograft tumors. IR-induced DNA damage was evaluated by histone {gamma}-H2AX. Histone hyperacetylation was induced by overexpression of histone acetyltransferase p300 and evaluated by Western blots. Results M-carboxycinnamic acid bishydroxyamide pretreatment radiosensitized A549 cells and strongly inhibited A549 xenograft tumor progression. CBHA and FK228, but not 5-fluorouracil, enhanced IR-induced {gamma}-H2AX in A549 and other cancer cell lines. Overexpression of p300 similarly augmented IR-induced {gamma}-H2AX. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that HDAC inhibitors enhance IR-induced {gamma}-H2AX, most likely through histone hyperacetylation, and radiosensitize various cancers.

  1. A microplate reader-based nonisotopic histone deacetylase activity assay.

    PubMed

    Heltweg, Birgit; Jung, Manfred

    2002-03-15

    Recent years have brought an enormous increase in knowledge concerning the involvement of histone deacetylase (HDAC) in gene regulation and the potential use of its inhibitors in transcription therapy. This also stimulates research toward new methods for the determination of HDAC activity and thus the potency of potential inhibitors. We have previously succeeded in developing a nonisotopic assay for HDAC using a fluorescent coumarin derivative of epsilon-acetyllysine. Here we present plate reader-based quantitation as an alternative means for the determination of substrate conversion. A new validated assay procedure with a boradiazaindacene (BODIPY 530/550) rather than a coumarin internal standard was established to allow for fluorescence measurement without chromatographic separation. The method is equal in its sensitivity, accuracy, and precision to the previously published HPLC method. A comparison with a new commercially available homogeneous plate reader assay leads to similar inhibition constants for the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A. The commercial assay has a higher throughput but its procedure for the detection of HDAC activity could not be applied to our enzyme preparation, while our substrate is also converted by HeLa HDAC. This indicates a broader range of potential applications for our system. PMID:11878795

  2. Curbing autophagy and histone deacetylases to kill cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gammoh, Noor; Marks, Paul A; Jiang, Xuejun

    2012-10-01

    Cells respond to cytotoxicity by activating a variety of signal transduction pathways. One pathway frequently upregulated during cytotoxic response is macroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy). Previously, we demonstrated that pan-histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, such as the anticancer agent suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, Vorinostat), can induce autophagy. In this study, we show that HDAC inhibition triggers autophagy by suppressing MTOR and activating the autophagic kinase ULK1. Furthermore, autophagy inhibition can sensitize cells to both apoptotic and nonapoptotic cell death induced by SAHA, suggesting the therapeutic potential of autophagy targeting in combination with SAHA therapy. This study also raised a series of questions: What is the role of HDACs in regulating autophagy? Do individual HDACs have distinct functions in autophagy? How do HDACs regulate the nutrient-sensing kinase MTOR? Since SAHA-induced nonapoptotic cell death is not driven by autophagy, what then is the mechanism underlying the apoptosis-independent death? Tackling these questions should lead to a better understanding of autophagy and HDAC biology and contribute to the development of novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:22894919

  3. Requirement of a novel splicing variant of human histone deacetylase 6 for TGF-{beta}1-mediated gene activation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuang, Yan; Nguyen, Hong T.; Lasky, Joseph A.; Cao, Subing; Li, Cui; Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Hunan 41008 ; Hu, Jiyao; Guo, Xinyue; Burow, Matthew E.; Shan, Bin

    2010-02-19

    Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) belongs to the family of class IIb HDACs and predominantly deacetylates non-histone proteins in the cytoplasm via the C-terminal deacetylase domain of its two tandem deacetylase domains. HDAC6 modulates fundamental cellular processes via deacetylation of {alpha}-tubulin, cortactin, molecular chaperones, and other peptides. Our previous study indicates that HDAC6 mediates TGF-{beta}1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in A549 cells. In the current study, we identify a novel splicing variant of human HDAC6, hHDAC6p114. The hHDAC6p114 mRNA arises from incomplete splicing and encodes a truncated isoform of the hHDAC6p114 protein of 114 kDa when compared to the major isoform hHDAC6p131. The hHDAC6p114 protein lacks the first 152 amino acids from N-terminus in the hHDAC6p131 protein, which harbors a nuclear export signal peptide and 76 amino acids of the N-terminal deacetylase domain. hHDAC6p114 is intact in its deacetylase activity against {alpha}-tubulin. The expression hHDAC6p114 is elevated in a MCF-7 derivative that exhibits an EMT-like phenotype. Moreover, hHDAC6p114 is required for TGF-{beta}1-activated gene expression associated with EMT in A549 cells. Taken together, our results implicate that expression and function of hHDAC6p114 is differentially regulated when compared to hHDAC6p131.

  4. Histone Deacetylase 9 Activates γ-Globin Gene Expression in Primary Erythroid Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Muralidhar, Shalini A.; Ramakrishnan, Valya; Kalra, Inderdeep S.; Li, Wei; Pace, Betty S.

    2011-01-01

    Strategies to induce fetal hemoglobin (HbF) synthesis for the treatment of β-hemoglobinopathies probably involve protein modifications by histone deacetylases (HDACs) that mediate γ-globin gene regulation. However, the role of individual HDACs in globin gene expression is not very well understood; thus, the focus of our study was to identify HDACs involved in γ-globin activation. K562 erythroleukemia cells treated with the HbF inducers hemin, trichostatin A, and sodium butyrate had significantly reduced mRNA levels of HDAC9 and its splice variant histone deacetylase-related protein. Subsequently, HDAC9 gene knockdown produced dose-dependent γ-globin gene silencing over an 80–320 nm range. Enforced expression with the pTarget-HDAC9 vector produced a dose-dependent 2.5-fold increase in γ-globin mRNA (p < 0.05). Furthermore, ChIP assays showed HDAC9 binding in vivo in the upstream Gγ-globin gene promoter region. To determine the physiological relevance of these findings, human primary erythroid progenitors were treated with HDAC9 siRNA; we observed 40 and 60% γ-globin gene silencing in day 11 (early) and day 28 (late) progenitors. Moreover, enforced HDAC9 expression increased γ-globin mRNA levels by 2.5-fold with a simultaneous 7-fold increase in HbF. Collectively, these data support a positive role for HDAC9 in γ-globin gene regulation. PMID:21078662

  5. Histone Deacetylase 6 Regulates Bladder Architecture and Host Susceptibility to Uropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Adam J.; Dhakal, Bijaya K.; Liu, Ting; Mulvey, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) is a non-canonical, mostly cytosolic histone deacetylase that has a variety of interacting partners and substrates. Previous work using cell-culture based assays coupled with pharmacological inhibitors and gene-silencing approaches indicated that HDAC6 promotes the actin- and microtubule-dependent invasion of host cells by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). These facultative intracellular pathogens are the major cause of urinary tract infections. Here, we examined the involvement of HDAC6 in bladder colonization by UPEC using HDAC6 knockout mice. Though UPEC was unable to invade HDAC6−/− cells in culture, the bacteria had an enhanced ability to colonize the bladders of mice that lacked HDAC6. This effect was transient, and by six hours post-inoculation bacterial titers in the HDAC6−/− mice were reduced to levels seen in wild type control animals. Subsequent analyses revealed that the mutant mice had greater bladder volume capacity and fluid retention, along with much higher levels of acetylated α-tubulin. In addition, infiltrating neutrophils recovered from the HDAC6−/− bladder harbored significantly more viable bacteria than their wild type counterparts. Cumulatively, these changes may negate any inhibitory effects that the lack of HDAC6 has on UPEC entry into individual host cells, and suggest roles for HDAC6 in other urological disorders such as urinary retention. PMID:26907353

  6. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Enhance Memory and Synaptic Plasticity via CREB: CBP-Dependent Transcriptional Activation

    PubMed Central

    Vecsey, Christopher G.; Hawk, Joshua D.; Lattal, K. Matthew; Stein, Joel M.; Fabian, Sara A.; Attner, Michelle A.; Cabrera, Sara M.; McDonough, Conor B.; Brindle, Paul K.; Abel, Ted; Wood, Marcelo A.

    2010-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors increase histone acetylation and enhance both memory and synaptic plasticity. The current model for the action of HDAC inhibitors assumes that they alter gene expression globally and thus affect memory processes in a nonspecific manner. Here, we show that the enhancement of hippocampus-dependent memory and hippocampal synaptic plasticity by HDAC inhibitors is mediated by the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and the recruitment of the transcriptional coactivator and histone acetyltransferase CREB-binding protein (CBP) via the CREB-binding domain of CBP. Furthermore, we show that the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A does not globally alter gene expression but instead increases the expression of specific genes during memory consolidation. Our results suggest that HDAC inhibitors enhance memory processes by the activation of key genes regulated by the CREB:CBP transcriptional complex. PMID:17553985

  7. Rational therapeutic combinations with histone deacetylase inhibitors for the treatment of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Thurn, K Ted; Thomas, Scott; Moore, Amy; Munster, Pamela N

    2011-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) regulate the acetylation of a variety of histone and nonhistone proteins, controlling the transcription and regulation of genes involved in cell cycle control, proliferation, survival, DNA repair and differentiation. Unsurprisingly, HDAC expression is frequently altered in hematologic and solid tumor malignancies. Two HDAC inhibitors (vorinostat and romidepsin) have been approved by the US FDA for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. As single agents, treatment with HDAC inhibitors has demonstrated limited clinical benefit for patients with solid tumors, prompting the investigation of novel treatment combinations with other cancer therapeutics. In this article, the rationales and clinical progress of several combinations with HDAC inhibitors are presented, including DNA-damaging chemotherapeutic agents, radiotherapy, hormonal therapies, DNA methyltransferase inhibitors and various small-molecule inhibitors. The future application of HDAC inhibitors as a treatment for cancer is discussed, examining current hurdles to overcome before realizing the potential of this new approach. PMID:21345145

  8. Histone deacetylase inhibitors: a novel class of therapeutic agents in diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Lee, H B; Noh, H; Seo, J Y; Yu, M R; Ha, H

    2007-08-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are currently being tested as anticancer agents in clinical trials. Chromatin remodeling, such as through histone acetylation, is a fundamental phenomenon in eukaryotic cell biology, bearing implications to numerous physiological and pathological phenomena. Here, we discuss recent data from our own laboratory and those of others demonstrating antifibrotic and renoprotective effect of HDAC inhibitors in diabetic kidneys, and the possible mechanisms including the role of reactive oxygen species. HDAC inhibitors may prove to be a novel class of multitarget agents in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:17653213

  9. Inhibition of Histone Deacetylase 3 Causes Replication Stress in Cutaneous T Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Christina E.; Bhaskara, Srividya; Stengel, Kristy R.; Zhao, Yue; Sirbu, Bianca; Chagot, Benjamin; Cortez, David; Khabele, Dineo; Chazin, Walter J.; Cooper, Andrew; Jacques, Vincent; Rusche, James; Eischen, Christine M.; McGirt, Laura Y.; Hiebert, Scott W.

    2013-01-01

    Given the fundamental roles of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in the regulation of DNA repair, replication, transcription and chromatin structure, it is fitting that therapies targeting HDAC activities are now being explored as anti-cancer agents. In fact, two histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs), SAHA and Depsipeptide, are FDA approved for single-agent treatment of refractory cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL). An important target of these HDIs, histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3), regulates processes such as DNA repair, metabolism, and tumorigenesis through the regulation of chromatin structure and gene expression. Here we show that HDAC3 inhibition using a first in class selective inhibitor, RGFP966, resulted in decreased cell growth in CTCL cell lines due to increased apoptosis that was associated with DNA damage and impaired S phase progression. Through isolation of proteins on nascent DNA (iPOND), we found that HDAC3 was associated with chromatin and is present at and around DNA replication forks. DNA fiber labeling analysis showed that inhibition of HDAC3 resulted in a significant reduction in DNA replication fork velocity within the first hour of drug treatment. These results suggest that selective inhibition of HDAC3 could be useful in treatment of CTCL by disrupting DNA replication of the rapidly cycling tumor cells, ultimately leading to cell death. PMID:23894374

  10. Inhibition of histone deacetylase 3 causes replication stress in cutaneous T cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Wells, Christina E; Bhaskara, Srividya; Stengel, Kristy R; Zhao, Yue; Sirbu, Bianca; Chagot, Benjamin; Cortez, David; Khabele, Dineo; Chazin, Walter J; Cooper, Andrew; Jacques, Vincent; Rusche, James; Eischen, Christine M; McGirt, Laura Y; Hiebert, Scott W

    2013-01-01

    Given the fundamental roles of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in the regulation of DNA repair, replication, transcription and chromatin structure, it is fitting that therapies targeting HDAC activities are now being explored as anti-cancer agents. In fact, two histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs), SAHA and Depsipeptide, are FDA approved for single-agent treatment of refractory cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL). An important target of these HDIs, histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3), regulates processes such as DNA repair, metabolism, and tumorigenesis through the regulation of chromatin structure and gene expression. Here we show that HDAC3 inhibition using a first in class selective inhibitor, RGFP966, resulted in decreased cell growth in CTCL cell lines due to increased apoptosis that was associated with DNA damage and impaired S phase progression. Through isolation of proteins on nascent DNA (iPOND), we found that HDAC3 was associated with chromatin and is present at and around DNA replication forks. DNA fiber labeling analysis showed that inhibition of HDAC3 resulted in a significant reduction in DNA replication fork velocity within the first hour of drug treatment. These results suggest that selective inhibition of HDAC3 could be useful in treatment of CTCL by disrupting DNA replication of the rapidly cycling tumor cells, ultimately leading to cell death. PMID:23894374

  11. Histone modifiers and marks define heterogeneous groups of colorectal carcinomas and affect responses to HDAC inhibitors in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Lisa; Fitzner, Ingrid Coutiño; Ahrens, Theresa; Geißler, Anna-Lena; Makowiec, Frank; Hopt, Ulrich T; Bogatyreva, Lioudmila; Hauschke, Dieter; Werner, Martin; Lassmann, Silke

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about histone modifiers and histone marks in colorectal cancers (CRC). The present study therefore addressed the role of histone acetylation and histone deacetylases (HDAC) in CRCs in situ and in vitro. Immunohistochemistry of primary CRCs (n=47) revealed that selected histone marks were frequently present (H3K4me3: 100%; H3K9me3: 77%; H3K9ac: 75%), partially displayed intratumoral heterogeneity (H3K9me3; H3K9ac) and were significantly linked to higher pT category (H3K9me3: p=0.023; H3K9ac: p=0.028). Furthermore, also HDAC1 (62%), HDAC2 (100%) and HDAC3 (72%) expression was frequent, revealing four CRC types: cases expressing 1) HDAC1, HDAC2 and HDAC3 (49%), 2) HDAC2 and HDAC3 (30%), 3) HDAC1 and HDAC2 (10.5%) and 4) exclusively HDAC2 (10.5%). Correlation to clinico-pathological parameters (pT, pN, G, MSI status) revealed that heterogeneous HDAC1 expression correlated with lymph node status (p=0.012). HDAC expression in situ was partially reflected by six CRC cell lines, with similar expression of all three HDACs (DLD1, LS174T), preferential HDAC2 and HDAC3 expression (SW480, Caco2) or lower HDAC2 and HDAC3 expression (HCT116, HT29). HDAC activity was variably higher in HCT116, HT29, DLD1 and SW480 compared to LS174T and Caco2 cells. Treatment with broad (SAHA) and specific (MS-275; FK228) HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) caused loss of cell viability in predominantly MSIpositive CRC cells (HCT116, LS174T, DLD1; SAHA, MS-275 and in part FK228). In contrast, MSI-negative CRC cells (Caco2, HT29, SW480) were resistant, except for high doses of FK228 (Caco2, HT29). Cell viability patterns were not linked to different efficacies of HDACi on reduction of HDAC activity or histone acetylation, p21 expression and/or induction of DNA damage (γH2A-X levels). In summary, this study reveals inter- and intra-tumoral heterogeneity of histone marks and HDAC expression in CRCs. This is reflected by diverse HDACi responses in vitro, which do not follow known modes of action. Together, this implies further exploitation of histone alterations in CRC for molecular classification and/or novel treatment options.

  12. Vascular histone deacetylation by pharmacological HDAC inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Rafehi, Haloom; Balcerczyk, Aneta; Lunke, Sebastian; Kaspi, Antony; Ziemann, Mark; KN, Harikrishnan; Okabe, Jun; Khurana, Ishant; Ooi, Jenny; Khan, Abdul Waheed; Chang, Lisa; Haviv, Izhak; Keating, Samuel T.; Karagiannis, Tom C.

    2014-01-01

    HDAC inhibitors can regulate gene expression by post-translational modification of histone as well as nonhistone proteins. Often studied at single loci, increased histone acetylation is the paradigmatic mechanism of action. However, little is known of the extent of genome-wide changes in cells stimulated by the hydroxamic acids, TSA and SAHA. In this article, we map vascular chromatin modifications including histone H3 acetylation of lysine 9 and 14 (H3K9/14ac) using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) coupled with massive parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq). Since acetylation-mediated gene expression is often associated with modification of other lysine residues, we also examined H3K4me3 and H3K9me3 as well as changes in CpG methylation (CpG-seq). RNA sequencing indicates the differential expression of ∼30% of genes, with almost equal numbers being up- and down-regulated. We observed broad deacetylation and gene expression changes conferred by TSA and SAHA mediated by the loss of EP300/CREBBP binding at multiple gene promoters. This study provides an important framework for HDAC inhibitor function in vascular biology and a comprehensive description of genome-wide deacetylation by pharmacological HDAC inhibition. PMID:24732587

  13. Loss of histone deacetylase 2 improves working memory and accelerates extinction learning

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Michael J.; Mahgoub, Melissa; Na, Elisa S.; Pranav, Heena; Monteggia, Lisa. M.

    2013-01-01

    Histone acetylation and deacetylation can be dynamically regulated in response to environmental stimuli and play important roles in learning and memory. Pharmacological inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs) improves performance in learning tasks, however these classical agents are ‘pan-HDAC’ inhibitors and their use makes it difficult to determine the roles of specific HDACs in cognitive function. We took a genetic approach using mice lacking the class I HDACs, HDAC1 or HDAC2, in postmitotic forebrain neurons to investigate the specificity or functional redundancy of these HDACs in learning and synaptic plasticity. We show that selective knockout of HDAC2 led to a robust acceleration of the extinction rate of conditioned fear responses and a conditioned taste aversion as well as enhanced performance in an attentional set-shifting task. HDAC2 knockout had no impact on episodic memory or motor learning suggesting that the effects are task-dependent, with the predominant impact of HDAC2 inhibition being an enhancement in an animal’s ability to rapidly adapt its behavioral strategy as a result of changes in associative contingencies. Our results demonstrate that the loss of HDAC2 improves associative learning, with no effect in non-associative learning tasks, suggesting a specific role for HDAC2 in particular types of learning. HDAC2 may be an intriguing target for cognitive and psychiatric disorders that are characterized by an inability to inhibit behavioral responsiveness to maladaptive or no longer relevant associations. PMID:23575838

  14. Molecular Modeling Study on Tunnel Behavior in Different Histone Deacetylase Isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Thangapandian, Sundarapandian; John, Shalini; Lee, Yuno; Arulalapperumal, Venkatesh; Lee, Keun Woo

    2012-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have emerged as effective therapeutic targets in the treatment of various diseases including cancers as these enzymes directly involved in the epigenetic regulation of genes. However the development of isoform-selective HDAC inhibitors has been a challenge till date since all HDAC enzymes possess conserved tunnel-like active site. In this study, using molecular dynamics simulation we have analyzed the behavior of tunnels present in HDAC8, 10, and 11 enzymes of class I, II, and IV, respectively. We have identified the equivalent tunnel forming amino acids in these three isoforms and found that they are very much conserved with subtle differences to be utilized in selective inhibitor development. One amino acid, methionine of HDAC8, among six tunnel forming residues is different in isoforms of other classes (glutamic acid (E) in HDAC10 and leucine (L) in HDAC 11) based on which mutations were introduced in HDAC11, the less studied HDAC isoform, to observe the effects of this change. The HDAC8-like (L268M) mutation in the tunnel forming residues has almost maintained the deep and narrow tunnel as present in HDAC8 whereas HDAC10-like (L268E) mutation has changed the tunnel wider and shallow as observed in HDAC10. These results explained the importance of the single change in the tunnel formation in different isoforms. The observations from this study can be utilized in the development of isoform-selective HDAC inhibitors. PMID:23209570

  15. Preclinical studies on histone deacetylase inhibitors as therapeutic reagents for endometrial and ovarian cancers

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Brahma N; Zhou, Hongyuan; Li, Jinping; Tipton, Tracy; Wang, Bin; Shao, Guo; Gilbert, E Nickolas; Li, Qiang; Jiang, Shi-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) remove acetyl groups from lysine residues of histones and the deacetylation allows for tighter electrostatic interactions between DNA and histones, leading to a more compact chromatin conformation with limited access for transactivators and the suppression of transcription. HDAC mRNA and protein overexpression was observed in endometrial and ovarian cancers. Numerous in vitro studies have shown that HDAC inhibitors, through their actions on histone and nonhistone proteins, are able to reactivate the tumor suppressor genes, inhibit cell cycle progression and induce cell apoptosis in endometrial and ovarian cancer cell cultures. Results from mou se xenograft models also demonstrated the potency of HDAC inhibitors as anticancer reagents when used as single agent or in combination with classical chemotherapy drugs. PMID:22112317

  16. Recruitment of CREB1 and Histone Deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) to the Mouse Ltbp-1 Promoter Regulates its Constitutive Expression in a Dioxin Receptor-dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Duran, Aurea; Ballestar, Esteban; Carvajal-Gonzalez, Jose M.; Marlowe, Jennifer L.; Puga, Alvaro; Esteller, Manel; Fernandez-Salguero, Pedro M.

    2010-01-01

    Latent TGFβ-binding protein 1 (LTBP-1) is a key regulator of TGFβ targeting and activation in the extracellular matrix. LTBP-1 is recognized as a major docking molecule to localize, and possibly to activate, TGFβ in the extracellular matrix. Despite this relevant function, the molecular mechanisms regulating Ltbp-1 transcription remain largely unknown. Previous results from our laboratory revealed that mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) lacking dioxin receptor (AhR) had increased Ltbp-1 mRNA expression and elevated TGFβ activity, suggesting that AhR repressed Ltbp-1 transcription. Here, we have cloned the mouse Ltbp-1 gene promoter and analysed its mechanism of transcriptional repression by AhR. Reporter gene assays, AhR over-expression and site-directed mutagenesis showed that basal Ltbp-1 transcription is AhR-dependent. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and RNA interference (RNAi) revealed that AhR regulates Ltbp-1 transcription by a mechanism involving recruitment of co-activators such as CREB1 and co-repressors such as HDAC2 to the Ltbp-1 promoter. In AhR-expressing (AhR+/+) MEF cells, the recruitment of HDAC1, 2 and 4 correlated with decreased K8H4 acetylation and impaired binding of pCREBSer133 to the Ltbp-1 promoter, likely maintaining a constitutive repressed state. AhR−/− MEF cells had the opposite pattern of HDACs and pCREB1Ser133 binding to Ltbp-1 promoter, and therefore, over-expressed Ltbp-1 mRNA. In agreement, siRNA for HDAC2 increased Ltbp-1 expression and K8H4 acetylation in AhR+/+ but not in AhR−/− MEF cells. We suggest that HDAC2 binding keeps Ltbp-1 promoter repressed in AhR+/+ MEF cells, whereas in AhR-null MEF cells the absence of HDAC2 and the binding of pCREBSer133 allow Ltbp-1 transcription. Thus, epigenetics can contribute to constitutive Ltbp-1 repression by a mechanism requiring AhR activity. PMID:18508077

  17. Histone deacetylase 1 is required for the development of the zebrafish inner ear.

    PubMed

    He, Yingzi; Tang, Dongmei; Li, Wenyan; Chai, Renjie; Li, Huawei

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) has been reported to be important for multiple aspects of normal embryonic development, but little is known about its function in the development of mechanosensory organs. Here, we first confirmed that HDAC1 is expressed in the developing otic vesicles of zebrafish by whole-mount in situ hybridization. Knockdown of HDAC1 using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides in zebrafish embryos induced smaller otic vesicles, abnormal otoliths, malformed or absent semicircular canals, and fewer sensory hair cells. HDAC1 loss of function also caused attenuated expression of a subset of key genes required for otic vesicle formation during development. Morpholino-mediated knockdown of HDAC1 resulted in decreased expression of members of the Fgf family in the otic vesicles, suggesting that HDAC1 is involved in the development of the inner ear through regulation of Fgf signaling pathways. Taken together, our results indicate that HDAC1 plays an important role in otic vesicle formation. PMID:26832938

  18. Histone deacetylase 1 is required for the development of the zebrafish inner ear

    PubMed Central

    He, Yingzi; Tang, Dongmei; Li, Wenyan; Chai, Renjie; Li, Huawei

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) has been reported to be important for multiple aspects of normal embryonic development, but little is known about its function in the development of mechanosensory organs. Here, we first confirmed that HDAC1 is expressed in the developing otic vesicles of zebrafish by whole-mount in situ hybridization. Knockdown of HDAC1 using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides in zebrafish embryos induced smaller otic vesicles, abnormal otoliths, malformed or absent semicircular canals, and fewer sensory hair cells. HDAC1 loss of function also caused attenuated expression of a subset of key genes required for otic vesicle formation during development. Morpholino-mediated knockdown of HDAC1 resulted in decreased expression of members of the Fgf family in the otic vesicles, suggesting that HDAC1 is involved in the development of the inner ear through regulation of Fgf signaling pathways. Taken together, our results indicate that HDAC1 plays an important role in otic vesicle formation. PMID:26832938

  19. Histone deacetylases as therapeutic targets--from cancer to cardiac disease.

    PubMed

    Abend, Alon; Kehat, Izhak

    2015-03-01

    Heart failure is a major public health problem in western society. Recently, agents that inhibit histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes were developed and approved by the FDA as anticancer agents. This breakthrough has provided the motivation to develop more potent and more selective HDAC inhibitors and to target other pathologic conditions with these drugs. Here we review experimental evidence showing that these drugs may be beneficial in preventing cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Several lines of evidence show that inhibitors of Class I HDACs can blunt cardiac hypertrophy and preserve cardiac function in several small animal models. In contrast, Class IIa HDACs appear to be suppressors of hypertrophy, though experimental data with small molecule blockers of this class is largely lacking. The effects of HDAC inhibition in cardiac diseases, the cell population in the heart that is targeted by HDAC blockers, as well as the relative roles of specific HDACs are still under intense investigation. PMID:25444758

  20. Recent Advances in Computer-Assisted Structure-Based Identification and Design of Histone Deacetylases Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Shagun; Kumar, Vikash; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant epigenetic control is a common phenomenon in tumour progression. The epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation, histone modification and nucleosome remodelling are involved in the regulation of many biological processes, alteration in which can result into tumourogenesis. Histone acetylation is often associated with gene expression; however deacetylated histones generally results in gene suppression. This whole reversible process is mediated by Histone acetyltranferase and Histone deacetylases (HDACs) respectively. HDACs perform the deacetylation of histones in nucleosomes, which intervenes changes in chromatin remodelling, prompting regulation of gene expression. HDACs likewise direct the acetylation status of various other non-histone substrates that includes oncogenes and tumour silencing proteins. As HDAC inhibition induces various tumour cells to enter apoptosis and consequently cell cycle arrest therefore, a large number of HDAC inhibitors have been reported to develop as a new class of anti-cancer agents. Apart from the two existing FDA approved HDAC inhibitors- Varinostat and Depsipetide, recently a new drug Farydak has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of multiple myeloma which thus validated the use of HDAC inhibitors for the treatment of cancer. Also, several other HDAC inhibitors are undergoing clinical trials. Here, we have reviewed the current status of structure based computational studies that has helped to rationalize the successful identification of HDAC inhibitors. The objective of the present review is to provide an overview of contribution of structure-based computational studies that have helped in identifying HDAC inhibitors with an emphasis on the perspectives of its insight, current status, advances and future opportunities as well as the evolving efforts to characterize the structural dynamics of HDACs. PMID:26303428

  1. Emerin and histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) cooperatively regulate expression and nuclear positions of MyoD, Myf5, and Pax7 genes during myogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Demmerle, Justin; Koch, Adam J.; Holaska, James M.

    2016-01-01

    The spatial organization of chromatin is critical in establishing cell-type dependent gene expression programs. The inner nuclear membrane protein emerin has been implicated in regulating global chromatin architecture. We show emerin associates with genomic loci of muscle differentiation promoting factors in murine myogenic progenitors, including Myf5 and MyoD. Prior to their transcriptional activation Myf5 and MyoD loci localized to the nuclear lamina in proliferating progenitors and moved to the nucleoplasm upon transcriptional activation during differentiation. The Pax7 locus, which is transcribed in proliferating progenitors, localized to the nucleoplasm and Pax7 moved to the nuclear lamina upon repression during differentiation. Localization of Myf5, MyoD, and Pax7 to the nuclear lamina and proper temporal expression of these genes required emerin and HDAC3. Interestingly, activation of HDAC3 catalytic activity rescued both Myf5 localization to the nuclear lamina and its expression. Collectively, these data support a model whereby emerin facilitates repressive chromatin formation at the nuclear lamina by activating the catalytic activity of HDAC3 to regulate the coordinated spatiotemporal expression of myogenic differentiation genes. PMID:24062260

  2. Melatonin prevents neonatal dexamethasone induced programmed hypertension: histone deacetylase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ting-Hsin; Kuo, Hsuan-Chang; Lin, I-Chun; Chien, Shao-Ju; Huang, Li-Tung; Tain, You-Lin

    2014-10-01

    Adulthood hypertension can be programmed by corticosteroid exposure in early life. Oxidative stress, epigenetic regulation by histone deacetylases (HDACs), and alterations of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) are involved in the developmental programming of hypertension. We examined whether melatonin prevented neonatal dexamethasone (DEX)-induced programmed hypertension and how melatonin prevented these processes. We also examined whether HDAC inhibition by trichostatin A (TSA, a HDAC inhibitor) had similar effects. Male offspring were assigned to 5 groups (n=6/group): control, DEX, melatonin, DEX+melatonin, and DEX+TSA. Male rat pups were injected i.p. with DEX on day 1 (0.5mg/kg BW), day 2 (0.3mg/kg BW), and day 3 (0.1mg/kg BW) after birth. Melatonin was administered in drinking water at the dose of 0.01% during the lactation period. The DEX+TSA group received DEX and 0.5mg/kg TSA subcutaneous injection once daily for 1 week. All rats were killed at 16 weeks of age. Neonatal DEX exposure induced hypertension in male offspring at 16 weeks of age, which melatonin prevented. Neonatal DEX exposure decreased gene expression related to apoptosis, nephrogenesis, RAS, and sodium transporters. Yet DEX treatment increased protein levels of HDAC-1, -2, and -3 in the kidney. Melatonin therapy preserved the decreases of gene expression and decreased HDACs. Similarly, HDAC inhibition prevented DEX-induced programmed hypertension. In conclusion, melatonin therapy exerts a long-term protection against neonatal DEX-induced programmed hypertension. Its beneficial effects include alterations of RAS components and inhibition of class I HDACs. Given that the similar protective effects of melatonin and TSA, melatonin might inhibit HDACs to epigenetic regulation of hypertension-related genes to prevent programmed hypertension. PMID:25090636

  3. Inhibitors of Histone Deacetylases Enhance Neurotoxicity of DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Vashishta, A.

    2014-01-01

    The nonselective inhibitors of class I/II histone deacetylases (HDACs) including trichostatin A and the clinically used suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, vorinostat) are neuroprotective in several models of neuronal injury. Here, we report that in cultured cortical neurons from newborn rats and in the cerebral cortex of whole neonate rats, these HDAC inhibitors exacerbated cytotoxicity of the DNA double-strand break (DSB)-inducing anticancer drug etoposide by enhancing apoptosis. Similar neurotoxic interactions were also observed in neurons that were treated with other DNA damaging drugs including cisplatin and camptothecin. In addition, in rat neonates, SAHA increased cortical neuron apoptosis that was induced by a single injection of the NMDA receptor antagonist dizocilpine (MK801). In etoposide-treated neurons, the nonselective HDAC inhibition resulted in more DSBs. It also potentiated etoposide-induced accumulation and phosphorylation of the pro-apoptotic transcription factor p53. Moreover, nonselective HDAC inhibition exacerbated neuronal apoptosis that was induced by the overexpressed p53. Importantly, such effects cannot be fully explained by inhibition of HDAC1, which is known to play a role in DSB repair and regulation of p53. The specific HDAC1 inhibitor MS275 only moderately enhanced etoposide-induced neuronal death. Although in etoposide-treated neurons MS275 increased DSBs, it did not affect activation of p53. Our findings suggest that besides HDAC1, there are other class I/II HDACs that participate in neuronal DNA damage response attenuating neurotoxic consequences of genotoxic insults to the developing brain. PMID:25063076

  4. Inhibitors of histone deacetylases enhance neurotoxicity of DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Vashishta, A; Hetman, M

    2014-12-01

    The nonselective inhibitors of class I/II histone deacetylases (HDACs) including trichostatin A and the clinically used suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, vorinostat) are neuroprotective in several models of neuronal injury. Here, we report that in cultured cortical neurons from newborn rats and in the cerebral cortex of whole neonate rats, these HDAC inhibitors exacerbated cytotoxicity of the DNA double-strand break (DSB)-inducing anticancer drug etoposide by enhancing apoptosis. Similar neurotoxic interactions were also observed in neurons that were treated with other DNA damaging drugs including cisplatin and camptothecin. In addition, in rat neonates, SAHA increased cortical neuron apoptosis that was induced by a single injection of the NMDA receptor antagonist dizocilpine (MK801). In etoposide-treated neurons, the nonselective HDAC inhibition resulted in more DSBs. It also potentiated etoposide-induced accumulation and phosphorylation of the pro-apoptotic transcription factor p53. Moreover, nonselective HDAC inhibition exacerbated neuronal apoptosis that was induced by the overexpressed p53. Importantly, such effects cannot be fully explained by inhibition of HDAC1, which is known to play a role in DSB repair and regulation of p53. The specific HDAC1 inhibitor MS275 only moderately enhanced etoposide-induced neuronal death. Although in etoposide-treated neurons MS275 increased DSBs, it did not affect activation of p53. Our findings suggest that besides HDAC1, there are other class I/II HDACs that participate in neuronal DNA damage response attenuating neurotoxic consequences of genotoxic insults to the developing brain. PMID:25063076

  5. Histone Deacetylase 3 and 4 Complex Stimulates the Transcriptional Activity of the Mineralocorticoid Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hae-Ahm; Song, Min-Ji; Seok, Young-Mi; Kang, Seol-Hee; Kim, Sang-Yeob; Kim, Inkyeom

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) act as corepressors in gene transcription by altering the acetylation of histones, resulting in epigenetic gene silencing. We previously reported that HDAC3 acts as a coactivator of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). Although HDAC3 forms complexes with class II HDACs, their potential role in the transcriptional activity of MR is unclear. We hypothesized that HDAC4 of the class II family stimulates the transcriptional activity of MR. The expression of MR target genes was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. MR and RNA polymerase II recruitment to promoters of MR target genes was analyzed by chromatin immunoprecipitation. The association of MR with HDACs was investigated by co-immunoprecipitation. MR acetylation was determined with an anti-acetyl-lysine antibody after immunoprecipitation with an anti-MR antibody. Among the class II HDACs, HDAC4 interacted with both MR and HDAC3 after aldosterone stimulation. The nuclear translocation of HDAC4 was mediated by protein kinase A (PKA) and protein phosphatases (PP). The transcriptional activity of MR was significantly decreased by inhibitors of PKA (H89), PP1/2 (calyculin A), class I HDACs (MS-275), but not class II HDACs (MC1568). MR acetylation was increased by H89, calyculin A, and MS-275, but not by MC1568. Interaction between MR and HDAC3 was significantly decreased by H89, calyculin A, and HDAC4 siRNA. A non-genomic effect of MR via PKA and PP1/2 induced nuclear translocation of HDAC4 to facilitate the interaction between MR and HDAC3. Thus, we have uncovered a crucial role for a class II HDAC in the activation of MR-dependent transcription. PMID:26305553

  6. Role of histone deacetylases and their inhibitors in cancer biology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Beumer, Jan H; Tawbi, Hussein

    2010-08-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors constitute a new group of epigenetic agents that has gained much attention in cancer drug development. Research in the field of epigenetics is furthering our understanding of malignant behavior and providing novel targets to improve the outcomes of cancer therapy. In this review we present an overview of the complex landscape of HDAC inhibitor development starting from a discussion of the various HDAC isotypes and their roles in cancer biology, to mechanisms of action of HDAC inhibitors and their current state of development. The large gamut of HDACs are classified into 3 classes of "classical HDACs" and the "sirtuins" but in general lack specificity of deacetylation targets as they deacetylate both histone and non-histone targets. This non-specifity underlies the pleiotropic effects of HDAC inhibitors that does not stop at alteration of gene expression but extends into a wide array of cellular (nuclear and/or cytoplasmic) processes. The potential of HDAC inhibitors for cancer therapy has been explored in preclinical models and has reached the clinic as some agents are FDA-approved in hematologic malignancies where they function as differentiation agents. In solid tumors, HDAC inhibitors are used in combination with chemotherapy, which raises issues of mechanisms of potentiation and optimal administration (schedule and dose). Lastly, we discuss the need for biomarker development which will facilitate and guide the rational development of HDAC inhibitors as anticancer therapy. PMID:20406169

  7. Histone Deacetylase Enzymes as Potential Drug Targets in Cancer and Parasitic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ouaissi, Mehdi; Ouaissi, Ali

    2006-01-01

    The elucidation of the mechanisms of transcriptional activation and repression in eukaryotic cells has shed light on the important role of acetylation-deacetylation of histones mediated by histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs), respectively. Another group belonging to the large family of sirtuins (silent information regulators (SIRs)) has an (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) NAD+-dependent HDAC activity. Several inhibitors of HDACs (HDIs) have been shown to exert antitumor effects. Interestingly, some of the HDIs exerted a broad spectrum of antiprotozoal activity. The purpose of this review is to analyze some of the current data related to the deacetylase enzymes as a possible target for drug development in cancer and parasitic diseases with special reference to protozoan infections. Given the structural differences among members of this family of enzymes, development of specific inhibitors will not only allow selective therapeutic intervention, but may also provide a powerful tool for functional study of these enzymes. PMID:16883049

  8. Effect of histone deacetylase inhibitor JNJ-26481585 in pain.

    PubMed

    Capasso, Kathryn E; Manners, Melissa T; Quershi, Rehman A; Tian, Yuzhen; Gao, Ruby; Hu, Huijuan; Barrett, James E; Sacan, Ahmet; Ajit, Seena K

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors can alleviate inflammatory and neuropathic pain. We investigated the effects of JNJ-26481585, a pan-HDAC inhibitor on basal mechanical sensitivity. Unlike previous reports for HDAC inhibitors, JNJ-26481585 induced mechanical hypersensitivity in mice. This effect was reversible with gabapentin. Voltage-dependent calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-1, one of the putative targets for gabapentin, was upregulated in the spinal cord from JNJ-26481585-treated mice. Transcriptional profiling of spinal cord from JNJ-26481585-treated mice showed significant alterations in pathways involved in axon guidance, suggesting overlap in mechanisms underlying neurotoxicity caused by other known chemotherapeutic agents. To investigate the mechanisms underlying the development of pain, RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cells were treated with JNJ-26481585. There was a dose- and time-dependent activation of nuclear factor-kappaB and interleukin-1β increase. Thus, alterations in the axon guidance pathway, increase in voltage-dependent calcium channel alpha(2)delta-1 subunit, and the induction of proinflammatory mediators by JNJ-26481585 could all contribute to increased mechanical sensitivity. Our data indicate that the effect of HDAC inhibitors may be unique to the compound studied and highlights the potential to develop chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy with the use of a pan-HDAC inhibitor for cancer treatment, and this pain may be alleviated by gabapentin. PMID:25085711

  9. Transcriptional dysregulation in Huntington's disease: The role of histone deacetylases.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sorabh; Taliyan, Rajeev

    2015-10-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurological disorder for which there are no disease-modifying treatments. Although, the exact underlying mechanism(s) leading to the neural cell death in HD still remains elusive, the transcriptional dysregulation is a major molecular feature. Recently, the transcriptional activation and repression regulated by chromatin acetylation has been found to be impaired in HD pathology. The acetylation and deacetylation of histone proteins is carried out by opposing actions of histone acetyl-transferases and histone deacetylases (HDACs), respectively. Studies carried out in cell culture, yeast, Drosophila and rodent model(s) have indicated that HDAC inhibitors (HDACIs) might provide useful class of therapeutic agents for HD. Clinical trials have also reported the beneficial effects of HDACIs in patients suffering from HD. Therefore, the development of HDACIs as therapeutics for HD has been vigorously pursued. In this review, we highlight and summarize the putative role of HDACs in HD like pathology and further discuss the potential of HDACIs as new therapeutic avenues for the treatment of HD. PMID:26254871

  10. Histone deacetylase 4 selectively contributes to podocyte injury in diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojie; Liu, Jiang; Zhen, Junhui; Zhang, Chun; Wan, Qiang; Liu, Guangyi; Wei, Xinbing; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Ziying; Han, Huirong; Xu, Huiyan; Bao, Chanchan; Song, Zhenyu; Zhang, Xiumei; Li, Ningjun; Yi, Fan

    2014-10-01

    Studies have highlighted the importance of histone deacetylase (HDAC)-mediated epigenetic processes in the development of diabetic complications. Inhibitors of HDAC are a novel class of therapeutic agents in diabetic nephropathy, but currently available inhibitors are mostly nonselective inhibit multiple HDACs, and different HDACs serve very distinct functions. Therefore, it is essential to determine the role of individual HDACs in diabetic nephropathy and develop HDAC inhibitors with improved specificity. First, we identified the expression patterns of HDACs and found that, among zinc-dependent HDACs, HDAC2/4/5 were upregulated in the kidney from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, diabetic db/db mice, and in kidney biopsies from diabetic patients. Podocytes treated with high glucose, advanced glycation end products, or transforming growth factor-β (common detrimental factors in diabetic nephropathy) selectively increased HDAC4 expression. The role of HDAC4 was evaluated by in vivo gene silencing by intrarenal lentiviral gene delivery and found to reduce renal injury in diabetic rats. Podocyte injury was associated with suppressing autophagy and exacerbating inflammation by HDAC4-STAT1 signaling in vitro. Thus, HDAC4 contributes to podocyte injury and is one of critical components of a signal transduction pathway that links renal injury to autophagy in diabetic nephropathy. PMID:24717296

  11. Histone deacetylase 4 selectively contributes to podocyte injury in diabetic nephropathy.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Wang X; Liu J; Zhen J; Zhang C; Wan Q; Liu G; Wei X; Zhang Y; Wang Z; Han H; Xu H; Bao C; Song Z; Zhang X; Li N; Yi F

    2014-10-01

    Studies have highlighted the importance of histone deacetylase (HDAC)-mediated epigenetic processes in the development of diabetic complications. Inhibitors of HDAC are a novel class of therapeutic agents in diabetic nephropathy, but currently available inhibitors are mostly nonselective inhibit multiple HDACs, and different HDACs serve very distinct functions. Therefore, it is essential to determine the role of individual HDACs in diabetic nephropathy and develop HDAC inhibitors with improved specificity. First, we identified the expression patterns of HDACs and found that, among zinc-dependent HDACs, HDAC2/4/5 were upregulated in the kidney from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, diabetic db/db mice, and in kidney biopsies from diabetic patients. Podocytes treated with high glucose, advanced glycation end products, or transforming growth factor-β (common detrimental factors in diabetic nephropathy) selectively increased HDAC4 expression. The role of HDAC4 was evaluated by in vivo gene silencing by intrarenal lentiviral gene delivery and found to reduce renal injury in diabetic rats. Podocyte injury was associated with suppressing autophagy and exacerbating inflammation by HDAC4-STAT1 signaling in vitro. Thus, HDAC4 contributes to podocyte injury and is one of critical components of a signal transduction pathway that links renal injury to autophagy in diabetic nephropathy.

  12. Regulation of C/EBPdelta-dependent transactivation by histone deacetylases in intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Turgeon, Naomie; Valiquette, Caroline; Blais, Mylène; Routhier, Sophie; Seidman, Ernest G; Asselin, Claude

    2008-04-01

    The C/EBPdelta transcription factor is involved in the positive regulation of the intestinal epithelial cell acute phase response. C/EBPdelta regulation by histone deacetylases (HDACs) during the course of inflammation remains to be determined. Our aim was to examine the effect of HDACs on C/EBPdelta-dependent regulation of haptoglobin, an acute phase protein induced in intestinal epithelial cells in response to pro-inflammatory cytokines. HDAC1, HDAC3, and HDAC4 were expressed in intestinal epithelial cells, as determined by Western blot. GST pull-down assays showed specific HDAC1 interactions with the transcriptional activation and the b-ZIP C/EBPdelta domains, while the co-repressor mSin3A interacts with the C-terminal domain. Immunoprecipitation assays confirmed the interaction between HDAC1 and the N-terminal C/EBPdelta amino acid 36-164 domain. HDAC1 overexpression decreased C/EBPdelta transcriptional activity of the haptoglobin promoter, as assessed by transient transfection and luciferase assays. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed a displacement of HDAC1 from the haptoglobin promoter in response to inflammatory stimuli and an increased acetylation of histone H3 and H4. HDAC1 silencing by shRNA expression increased both basal and IL-1beta-induced haptoglobin mRNA levels in epithelial intestinal cells. Our results suggest that interactions between C/EBPs and HDAC1 negatively regulate C/EBPdelta-dependent haptoglobin expression in intestinal epithelial cells. PMID:17910034

  13. Histone deacetylases and their role in motor neuron degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Lazo-Gómez, Rafael; Ramírez-Jarquín, Uri N.; Tovar-y-Romo, Luis B.; Tapia, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease, characterized by the progressive loss of motor neurons. The cause of this selective neuronal death is unknown, but transcriptional dysregulation is recently emerging as an important factor. The physical substrate for the regulation of the transcriptional process is chromatin, a complex assembly of histones and DNA. Histones are subject to several post-translational modifications, like acetylation, that are a component of the transcriptional regulation process. Histone acetylation and deacetylation is performed by a group of enzymes (histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and deacetylases, respectively) whose modulation can alter the transcriptional state of many regions of the genome, and thus may be an important target in diseases that share this pathogenic process, as is the case for ALS. This review will discuss the present evidence of transcriptional dysregulation in ALS, the role of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in disease pathogenesis, and the novel pharmacologic strategies that are being comprehensively studied to prevent motor neuron death, with focus on sirtuins (SIRT) and their effectors. PMID:24367290

  14. Inhibition of Histone Deacetylases Enhances the Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Periodontal Ligament Cells.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Nam Cong-Nhat; Everts, Vincent; Pavasant, Prasit; Ampornaramveth, Ruchanee Salingcarnboriboon

    2016-06-01

    One of the characteristics of periodontal ligament (PDL) cells is their plasticity. Yet, the underlying mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon are unknown. One possible mechanism might be related to epigenetics, since histone deacetylases (HDACs) have been shown to play a role in osteoblast differentiation. This study was aimed to investigate the role of HDACs in osteogenic differentiation of human PDL (hPDL) cells. HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) had no effect on cell viability as was assessed by MTT assay. Osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation was analyzed by gene expression, ALP activity and mineral deposition. Western blotting was used to investigate the effect of TSA on histone acetylation and protein expression. In the presence of the HDAC inhibitor osteogenic differentiation was induced; osteoblast-related gene expression was increased significantly. ALP activity and mineral nodule formation were also enhanced. Inhibition of HDACs did not induce differentiation into the adipocyte lineage. hPDL highly expressed HDACs of both class I (HDAC 1, 2, 3) and class II (HDAC 4, 6). During osteogenic differentiation HDAC 3 expression gradually decreased. This was apparent in the absence and presence of the inhibitor. The level of acetylated Histone H3 was increased during osteogenic differentiation. Inhibition of HDAC activity induced hyperacetylation of Histone H3, therefore, demonstrating Histone H3 as a candidate target molecule for HDAC inhibition. In conclusion, hPDL cells express a distinguished series of HDACs and these enzymes appear to be involved in osteogenic differentiation. This finding suggests a potential application of TSA for bone regeneration therapy by hPDL cells. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1384-1395, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27043246

  15. Histone deacetylase inhibitors and cancer: from cell biology to the clinic.

    PubMed

    Hess-Stumpp, Holger

    2005-03-01

    Aberrant gene regulation plays an important role in tumor initiation and progression, and the acetylation of histones is a well understood key component of gene regulation. Histone acetylation involves the opposing activities of the histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs)--histone acetylation is associated with increased transcriptional activity while histone deacetylation is associated with repression of gene expression. In addition, the modification of non-histone proteins by HATs and HDACs is also an important process in regulating gene expression. Several lines of evidence suggest that inappropriate transcriptional activation and repression mediated by HATs and HDACs is a common occurrence in the formation of many different types of cancer. These enzymes thus represent novel molecular targets for which inhibitors are sought that could reprogram transcription and inhibit tumor cell growth and progression. Much of the research has focused on HDAC inhibitors, where several agents have demonstrated in vitro and in vivo activity against different tumor cell models and have entered Phase I clinical trials. HDAC inhibitors are believed to exert their antiproliferative effects by inducing a small set of genes involved in regulating cellular activities such as proliferation and differentiation. Future research is expected to lead to a better understanding of the molecular targets of HDACs and facilitate the development of more potent inhibitors of these enzymes. First results from clinical trials will help to determine the optimal strategy for utilizing these agents for the treatment of cancer patients. PMID:15819394

  16. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors in Cell Pluripotency, Differentiation, and Reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Kretsovali, Androniki; Hadjimichael, Christiana; Charmpilas, Nikolaos

    2012-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are small molecules that have important and pleiotropic effects on cell homeostasis. Under distinct developmental conditions, they can promote either self-renewal or differentiation of embryonic stem cells. In addition, they can promote directed differentiation of embryonic and tissue-specific stem cells along the neuronal, cardiomyocytic, and hepatic lineages. They have been used to facilitate embryo development following somatic cell nuclear transfer and induced pluripotent stem cell derivation by ectopic expression of pluripotency factors. In the latter method, these molecules not only increase effectiveness, but can also render the induction independent of the oncogenes c-Myc and Klf4. Here we review the molecular pathways that are involved in the functions of HDAC inhibitors on stem cell differentiation and reprogramming of somatic cells into pluripotency. Deciphering the mechanisms of HDAC inhibitor actions is very important to enable their exploitation for efficient and simple tissue regeneration therapies. PMID:22550500

  17. gp-91 mediates histone deacetylase inhibition-induced cardioprotection

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ting C; Zhang, Ling X; Cheng, Guangmao; Liu, Jun T

    2010-01-01

    We have recently shown that the inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDAC) protects the heart against ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury. The mechanism by which HDAC inhibition induces cardioprotection remains unknown. We sought to investigate whether the genetic disruption of gp-91, a subunit of NADPH-oxidase, would mitigate cardioprotection of HDAC inhibition. Wild-type and gp-91−/− mice were treated with a potent inhibitor of HDACs, trichostatin A (TSA, 0.1mg/kg, i.p.). Twenty-four hours later, the perfused hearts were subjected to 30 min of ischemia and 30 min of reperfusion. HDAC inhibition in wild-type mice produced marked improvements in ventricular functional recovery and the reduction of infarct size. TSA-induced cardioprotection was eliminated with genetic deletion of gp91. Notably, Western blot and immunostaining displayed a significant increase in gp-91 in myocardium following HDAC inhibition, which resulted in a mildly subsequent increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The pretreatment of H9c2 cardiomyoblasts with TSA (50 nmol/L) decreased cell necrosis and increased viability in response to simulated ischemia (SI), which was abrogated by the transfection of cells with gp-91 siRNA, but not by scrambled siRNA. Furthermore, treatment of PLB-985 gp91+/+cells with TSA increased the resistance to SI, which also diminished with genetic disruption of gp91 in gp91phox-deficient PLB-985 cells. TSA treatment inhibited the increased active caspase-3 in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts and PLB-985 gp91+/+cells exposed to SI, which were prevented by knockdown of gp-91 by siRNA. These results suggest that a cascade consisting of gp-91 and HDAC inhibition plays an essential role in orchestrating the cardioprotective effect. PMID:20433879

  18. Roles and post-translational regulation of cardiac class IIa histone deacetylase isoforms.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Kate L; Avkiran, Metin

    2015-04-15

    Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is an integral component of pathological cardiac remodelling in response to mechanical and chemical stresses in settings such as chronic hypertension or myocardial infarction. For hypertrophy to ensue, the pertinent mechanical and chemical signals need to be transmitted from membrane sensors (such as receptors for neurohormonal mediators) to the cardiomyocyte nucleus, leading to altered transcription of the genes that regulate cell growth. In recent years, nuclear histone deacetylases (HDACs) have attracted considerable attention as signal-responsive, distal regulators of the transcriptional reprogramming that in turn precipitates cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, with particular focus on the role of members of the class IIa family, such as HDAC4 and HDAC5. These histone deacetylase isoforms appear to repress cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through mechanisms that involve protein interactions in the cardiomyocyte nucleus, particularly with pro-hypertrophic transcription factors, rather than via histone deacetylation. In contrast, evidence indicates that class I HDACs promote cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through mechanisms that are dependent on their enzymatic activity and thus sensitive to pharmacological HDAC inhibitors. Although considerable progress has been made in understanding the roles of post-translational modifications (PTMs) such as phosphorylation, oxidation and proteolytic cleavage in regulating class IIa HDAC localisation and function, more work is required to explore the contributions of other PTMs, such as ubiquitination and sumoylation, as well as potential cross-regulatory interactions between distinct PTMs and between class IIa and class I HDAC isoforms. PMID:25362149

  19. Roles and post-translational regulation of cardiac class IIa histone deacetylase isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, Kate L; Avkiran, Metin

    2015-01-01

    Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is an integral component of pathological cardiac remodelling in response to mechanical and chemical stresses in settings such as chronic hypertension or myocardial infarction. For hypertrophy to ensue, the pertinent mechanical and chemical signals need to be transmitted from membrane sensors (such as receptors for neurohormonal mediators) to the cardiomyocyte nucleus, leading to altered transcription of the genes that regulate cell growth. In recent years, nuclear histone deacetylases (HDACs) have attracted considerable attention as signal-responsive, distal regulators of the transcriptional reprogramming that in turn precipitates cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, with particular focus on the role of members of the class IIa family, such as HDAC4 and HDAC5. These histone deacetylase isoforms appear to repress cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through mechanisms that involve protein interactions in the cardiomyocyte nucleus, particularly with pro-hypertrophic transcription factors, rather than via histone deacetylation. In contrast, evidence indicates that class I HDACs promote cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through mechanisms that are dependent on their enzymatic activity and thus sensitive to pharmacological HDAC inhibitors. Although considerable progress has been made in understanding the roles of post-translational modifications (PTMs) such as phosphorylation, oxidation and proteolytic cleavage in regulating class IIa HDAC localisation and function, more work is required to explore the contributions of other PTMs, such as ubiquitination and sumoylation, as well as potential cross-regulatory interactions between distinct PTMs and between class IIa and class I HDAC isoforms. PMID:25362149

  20. Complex structure of a bacterial class 2 histone deacetylase homologue with a trifluoromethylketone inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Tine Kragh; Hildmann, Christian; Riester, Daniel; Wegener, Dennis; Schwienhorst, Andreas; Ficner, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have emerged as attractive targets in anticancer drug development. To date, a number of HDAC inhibitors have been developed and most of them are hydroxamic acid derivatives, typified by suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA). Not surprisingly, structural information that can greatly enhance the design of novel HDAC inhibitors is so far only available for hydroxamic acids in complex with HDAC or HDAC-like enzymes. Here, the first structure of an enzyme complex with a nonhydroxamate HDAC inhibitor is presented. The structure of the trifluoromethyl ketone inhibitor 9,9,9-trifluoro-8-oxo-N-phenylnonanamide in complex with bacterial FB188 HDAH (histone deacetylase-like amidohydrolase from Bordetella/Alcaligenes strain FB188) has been determined. HDAH reveals high sequential and functional homology to human class 2 HDACs and a high structural homology to human class 1 HDACs. Comparison with the structure of HDAH in complex with SAHA reveals that the two inhibitors superimpose well. However, significant differences in binding to the active site of HDAH were observed. In the presented structure the O atom of the trifluoromethyl ketone moiety is within binding distance of the Zn atom of the enzyme and the F atoms participate in interactions with the enzyme, thereby involving more amino acids in enzyme–inhibitor binding. PMID:17401192

  1. HISTONE DEACETYLASES AS TARGETS FOR THE TREATMENT OF HUMAN NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES

    PubMed Central

    D’Mello, Santosh R.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a family of proteins that play an important role in regulating transcription as well as the function of a variety of cellular proteins. While these proteins are expressed abundantly in the brain, little is known about their roles in brain function. A growing body of evidence suggests that HDACs regulate neuronal survival. Results from studies conducted in vertebrate and mammalian experimental systems indicate that while some of these proteins are involved in promoting neuronal death, a majority of the HDACs studied thus far protect against neurodegeneration. Here we review the research performed on the role played by individual members of the HDAC family in the regulation of neuronal death. Chemical inhibitors of HDACs have been used in a variety of models of neurodegenerative disorders. We summarize the results from these studies, which indicate that HDAC inhibitors show great promise as therapeutic agents for human neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:20072728

  2. 14-3-3 regulates the nuclear import of class IIa histone deacetylases

    SciTech Connect

    Nishino, Tomonori G.; Miyazaki, Masaya; Hoshino, Hideto; Miwa, Yoshihiro; Horinouchi, Sueharu; Yoshida, Minoru

    2008-12-19

    Class IIa histone deacetylases (HDACs) form complexes with a class of transcriptional repressors in the nucleus. While screening for compounds that could block the association of HDAC4 with the BTB domain-containing transcriptional repressor Bach2, we discovered that phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) induced the cytoplasmic retention of HDAC4 mutants lacking a nuclear export signal (NES). Although PMA treatment and PKD overexpression has been proposed to facilitate the nuclear export of class IIa HDACs by creating 14-3-3 binding sites containing phosphoserines, our experiments using HDAC mutants demonstrated that PMA greatly reduces nuclear import. PMA treatment repressed the NLS activity in a manner dependent on 14-3-3 binding. These results suggest that nuclear HDAC4 is not tethered in the nucleus, but instead shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Phosphorylation-induced 14-3-3 binding biases the balance of nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling toward the cytoplasm by inhibiting nuclear import.

  3. Targeting histone deacetylases: perspectives for epigenetic-based therapy in cardio-cerebrovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zi-Ying; Qin, Wen; Yi, Fan

    2015-01-01

    Although the pathogenesis of cardio-cerebrovascular disease (CCVD) is multifactorial, an increasing number of experimental and clinical studies have highlighted the importance of histone deacetylase (HDAC)-mediated epigenetic processes in the development of cardio-cerebrovascular injury. HDACs are a family of enzymes to balance the acetylation activities of histone acetyltransferases on chromatin remodeling and play essential roles in regulating gene transcription. To date, 18 mammalian HDACs are identified and grouped into four classes based on similarity to yeast orthologs. The zinc-dependent HDAC family currently consists of 11 members divided into three classes (class I, II, and IV) on the basis of structure, sequence homology, and domain organization. In comparison, class III HDACs (also known as the sirtuins) are composed of a family of NAD+-dependent protein-modifying enzymes related to the Sir2 gene. HDAC inhibitors are a group of compounds that block HDAC activities typically by binding to the zinc-containing catalytic domain of HDACs and have displayed anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects in the cardio-cerebrovascular system. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about classifications, functions of HDACs and their roles and regulatory mechanisms in the cardio-cerebrovascular system. Pharmacological targeting of HDAC-mediated epigenetic processes may open new therapeutic avenues for the treatment of CCVD. PMID:25870619

  4. Boric acid inhibits embryonic histone deacetylases: A suggested mechanism to explain boric acid-related teratogenicity

    SciTech Connect

    Di Renzo, Francesca; Cappelletti, Graziella; Broccia, Maria L.; Giavini, Erminio; Menegola, Elena . E-mail: elena.menegola@unimi.it

    2007-04-15

    Histone deacetylases (HDAC) control gene expression by changing histonic as well as non histonic protein conformation. HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) are considered to be among the most promising drugs for epigenetic treatment for cancer. Recently a strict relationship between histone hyperacetylation in specific tissues of mouse embryos exposed to two HDACi (valproic acid and trichostatin A) and specific axial skeleton malformations has been demonstrated. The aim of this study is to verify if boric acid (BA), that induces in rodents malformations similar to those valproic acid and trichostatin A-related, acts through similar mechanisms: HDAC inhibition and histone hyperacetylation. Pregnant mice were treated intraperitoneally with a teratogenic dose of BA (1000 mg/kg, day 8 of gestation). Western blot analysis and immunostaining were performed with anti hyperacetylated histone 4 (H4) antibody on embryos explanted 1, 3 or 4 h after treatment and revealed H4 hyperacetylation at the level of somites. HDAC enzyme assay was performed on embryonic nuclear extracts. A significant HDAC inhibition activity (compatible with a mixed type partial inhibition mechanism) was evident with BA. Kinetic analyses indicate that BA modifies substrate affinity by a factor {alpha} = 0.51 and maximum velocity by a factor {beta} = 0.70. This work provides the first evidence for HDAC inhibition by BA and suggests such a molecular mechanism for the induction of BA-related malformations.

  5. Modulation of immune responses by histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Schotterl, Sonja; Brennenstuhl, Heiko; Naumann, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors (HDACi) have potential immunomodulatory activity since they affect the immune surveillance by regulating the production of cytokines, alter the activity and function of macrophages and dendritic cells (DC), regulate the transcription of a variety of immune-stimulating genes, and can modulate the activity of immune effector cells of both the innate and adaptive immune system. Besides their immunostimulatory activity, HDACi can induce growth arrest and cell death, and modulate a subset of cellular functions such as cell motility or differentiation. This makes HDACi interesting therapeutic candidates for the treatment of a variety of human diseases like cancer, autoimmune, and graft versus host diseases. Besides these, HDACs have been shown to be involved in virus replication and pathogenesis, and it was recently shown that HDACi provide therapeutic effects in the treatment of oncogenic virus infections and associated malignancies. This review will further give information about the different families of HDACs and their opponents, the histone acetylases (HATs), about the classes and function of specific HDACi, and their use in the treatment of human diseases. PMID:25746108

  6. Histone deacetylase 6 inhibition enhances oncolytic viral replication in glioma.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Hiroshi; Kaufmann, Johanna K; Wang, Pin-Yi; Nguyen, Tran; Speranza, Maria-Carmela; Kasai, Kazue; Okemoto, Kazuo; Otsuki, Akihiro; Nakano, Ichiro; Fernandez, Soledad; Goins, William F; Grandi, Paola; Glorioso, Joseph C; Lawler, Sean; Cripe, Timothy P; Chiocca, E Antonio

    2015-11-01

    Oncolytic viral (OV) therapy, which uses genetically engineered tumor-targeting viruses, is being increasingly used in cancer clinical trials due to the direct cytolytic effects of this treatment that appear to provoke a robust immune response against the tumor. As OVs enter tumor cells, intrinsic host defenses have the potential to hinder viral replication and spread within the tumor mass. In this report, we show that histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) in tumor cells appears to alter the trafficking of post-entry OVs from the nucleus toward lysosomes. In glioma cell lines and glioma-stem-like cells, HDAC6 inhibition (HDAC6i) by either pharmacologic or genetic means substantially increased replication of oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1 (oHSV). Moreover, HDAC6i increased shuttling of post-entry oHSV to the nucleus. In addition, electron microscopic analysis revealed that post-entry oHSVs are preferentially taken up into glioma cells through the endosomal pathway rather than via fusion at the cell surface. Together, these findings illustrate a mechanism of glioma cell defense against an incoming infection by oHSV and identify possible approaches to enhance oHSV replication and subsequent lysis of tumor cells. PMID:26524593

  7. Nuclear translocation of histone deacetylase 4 induces neuronal death in stroke.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hui; Denton, Kyle; Liu, Lin; Li, Xue-Jun; Benashski, Sharon; McCullough, Louise; Li, Jun

    2016-07-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that epigenetic modifications play critical roles in the survival/death of stressed neurons. Chief among these modifications is the deacetylation of histones within the chromatin by histone deacetylases (HDACs). HDAC4 is highly expressed in neurons and is usually trapped in cytosol. However, tightly regulated signal-dependent shuttling of this molecule between cytosol and nucleus occurs. Here, we studied the intracellular trafficking of HDAC4 and regulatory mechanisms during stroke. HDAC4 translocated from the cytosol into the nucleus of neurons in response to stroke induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in mice. Similar translocation was seen after oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) in cultured mouse neurons. Expression of nuclear-restricted HDAC4 increased neuronal death after OGD and worsened infarcts and functional deficits in mice following MCAO; however, expression of cytosolic-restricted HDAC4 did not affect outcome after ischemia. In contrast, HDAC4 knockdown with siRNA improved neuronal survival after OGD. Furthermore, expression of nuclear-restricted HDAC4 reduced the acetylation of histones 3 and 4 as well as the levels of pro-survival downstream molecules after OGD. Finally, genetic deletion of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV) increased the nuclear accumulation of HDAC4 in MCAO model, while overexpression of CaMKIV reduced the levels of nuclear HDAC4 following OGD. When HDAC4 was inhibited, the neuroprotection provided by CaMKIV overexpression was absent during OGD. Our data demonstrate a detrimental role of the nuclear accumulation of HDAC4 following stroke and identify CaMKIV as a key regulator of neuronal intracellular HDAC4 trafficking during stroke. PMID:26969532

  8. Identification of new quinic acid derivatives as histone deacetylase inhibitors by fluorescence-based cellular assay.

    PubMed

    Son, Dohyun; Kim, Chung Sub; Lee, Kang Ro; Park, Hyun-Ju

    2016-05-01

    A fluorescence-based cellular assay system was established to identify potential epigenetic modulator ligands. This assay method is to detect the de-repression of an EGFP reporter in cancer cells by the treatment of HDAC (histone deacetylase) or DNMT (DNA methyltransferase) inhibitor. Using this system, we conducted a preliminary screening of in-house natural product library containing extracts and pure compounds, and identified several active compounds. Among them, novel quinic acid derivatives were recognized as excellent HDAC inhibitors by both enzymatic and cell-based HDAC assays. PMID:26996372

  9. Design and synthesis of a new generation of substituted purine hydroxamate analogs as histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Renshuai; Wang, Junhua; Tang, Weiping; Fang, Hao

    2016-04-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors have been proved to be great potential for the treatment of cancer. Recently, we designed and modified a series of substituted purine hydroxamate analogs as potent HDAC inhibitors based on our previous studies. The target compounds were investigated for their in vitro HDAC inhibitory activities and anti-proliferative activities. Results indicated that these compounds could effectively inhibit HDAC and possess obvious anti-proliferative activity against tumor cells. Promisingly, target compounds 4m and 4n outperformed SAHA in both enzymatic inhibitory activity and cellular anti-proliferative activity assay. PMID:26907204

  10. Genomic targets, and histone acetylation and gene expression profiling of neural HDAC inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Atalaya, Jose P.; Ito, Satomi; Valor, Luis M.; Benito, Eva; Barco, Angel

    2013-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) have been shown to potentiate hippocampal-dependent memory and synaptic plasticity and to ameliorate cognitive deficits and degeneration in animal models for different neuropsychiatric conditions. However, the impact of these drugs on hippocampal histone acetylation and gene expression profiles at the genomic level, and the molecular mechanisms that underlie their specificity and beneficial effects in neural tissue, remains obscure. Here, we mapped four relevant histone marks (H3K4me3, AcH3K9,14, AcH4K12 and pan-AcH2B) in hippocampal chromatin and investigated at the whole-genome level the impact of HDAC inhibition on acetylation profiles and basal and activity-driven gene expression. HDAC inhibition caused a dramatic histone hyperacetylation that was largely restricted to active loci pre-marked with H3K4me3 and AcH3K9,14. In addition, the comparison of Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing and gene expression profiles indicated that Trichostatin A-induced histone hyperacetylation, like histone hypoacetylation induced by histone acetyltransferase deficiency, had a modest impact on hippocampal gene expression and did not affect the transient transcriptional response to novelty exposure. However, HDAC inhibition caused the rapid induction of a homeostatic gene program related to chromatin deacetylation. These results illuminate both the relationship between hippocampal gene expression and histone acetylation and the mechanism of action of these important neuropsychiatric drugs. PMID:23821663

  11. Genomic targets, and histone acetylation and gene expression profiling of neural HDAC inhibition.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Atalaya, Jose P; Ito, Satomi; Valor, Luis M; Benito, Eva; Barco, Angel

    2013-09-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) have been shown to potentiate hippocampal-dependent memory and synaptic plasticity and to ameliorate cognitive deficits and degeneration in animal models for different neuropsychiatric conditions. However, the impact of these drugs on hippocampal histone acetylation and gene expression profiles at the genomic level, and the molecular mechanisms that underlie their specificity and beneficial effects in neural tissue, remains obscure. Here, we mapped four relevant histone marks (H3K4me3, AcH3K9,14, AcH4K12 and pan-AcH2B) in hippocampal chromatin and investigated at the whole-genome level the impact of HDAC inhibition on acetylation profiles and basal and activity-driven gene expression. HDAC inhibition caused a dramatic histone hyperacetylation that was largely restricted to active loci pre-marked with H3K4me3 and AcH3K9,14. In addition, the comparison of Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing and gene expression profiles indicated that Trichostatin A-induced histone hyperacetylation, like histone hypoacetylation induced by histone acetyltransferase deficiency, had a modest impact on hippocampal gene expression and did not affect the transient transcriptional response to novelty exposure. However, HDAC inhibition caused the rapid induction of a homeostatic gene program related to chromatin deacetylation. These results illuminate both the relationship between hippocampal gene expression and histone acetylation and the mechanism of action of these important neuropsychiatric drugs. PMID:23821663

  12. Therapy for latent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection: the role of histone deacetylase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    McManamy, Mary E Manson; Hakre, Shweta; Verdin, Eric M; Margolis, David M

    2014-01-01

    Persistence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in latently infected CD4+ T cells prevents eradication in HIV-infected treated patients. Latency is characterized by a reversible silencing of transcription of integrated HIV-1. Several molecular mechanisms have been described which contribute to latency, including the establishment and maintenance of repressive chromatin on the HIV-1 promoter. Histone deacetylation is a landmark modification associated with transcriptional repression of the HIV-1 promoter and inhibition of histone deacetylase enzymes (HDACs) reactivates latent HIV-1. Here we review the different HDAC inhibitors that have been studied in HIV-1 latency and their therapeutic potential in reactivating latent HIV-1. PMID:24318952

  13. Thailandepsins: bacterial products with potent histone deacetylase inhibitory activities and broad-spectrum antiproliferative activities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng; Henkes, Leonhard M; Doughty, Leah B; He, Min; Wang, Difei; Meyer-Almes, Franz-Josef; Cheng, Yi-Qiang

    2011-10-28

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have emerged as a new class of anticancer drugs, with one synthetic compound, SAHA (vorinostat, Zolinza; 1), and one natural product, FK228 (depsipeptide, romidepsin, Istodax; 2), approved by FDA for clinical use. Our studies of FK228 biosynthesis in Chromobacterium violaceum no. 968 led to the identification of a cryptic biosynthetic gene cluster in the genome of Burkholderia thailandensis E264. Genome mining and genetic manipulation of this gene cluster further led to the discovery of two new products, thailandepsin A (6) and thailandepsin B (7). HDAC inhibition assays showed that thailandepsins have selective inhibition profiles different from that of FK228, with comparable inhibitory activities to those of FK228 toward human HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC3, HDAC6, HDAC7, and HDAC9 but weaker inhibitory activities than FK228 toward HDAC4 and HDAC8, the latter of which could be beneficial. NCI-60 anticancer screening assays showed that thailandepsins possess broad-spectrum antiproliferative activities with GI50 for over 90% of the tested cell lines at low nanomolar concentrations and potent cytotoxic activities toward certain types of cell lines, particularly for those derived from colon, melanoma, ovarian, and renal cancers. Thailandepsins thus represent new naturally produced HDAC inhibitors that are promising for anticancer drug development. PMID:21793558

  14. Kinetics and thermodynamics of metal-binding to histone deacetylase 8

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byungchul; Pithadia, Amit S; Fierke, Carol A

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8) was originally classified as a Zn(II)-dependent deacetylase on the basis of Zn(II)-dependent HDAC8 activity in vitro and illumination of a Zn(II) bound to the active site. However, in vitro measurements demonstrated that HDAC8 has higher activity with a bound Fe(II) than Zn(II), although Fe(II)-HDAC8 rapidly loses activity under aerobic conditions. These data suggest that in the cell HDAC8 could be activated by either Zn(II) or Fe(II). Here we detail the kinetics, thermodynamics, and selectivity of Zn(II) and Fe(II) binding to HDAC8. To this end, we have developed a fluorescence anisotropy assay using fluorescein-labeled suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (fl-SAHA). fl-SAHA binds specifically to metal-bound HDAC8 with affinities comparable to SAHA. To measure the metal affinity of HDAC, metal binding was coupled to fl-SAHA and assayed from the observed change in anisotropy. The metal KD values for HDAC8 are significantly different, ranging from picomolar to micromolar for Zn(II) and Fe(II), respectively. Unexpectedly, the Fe(II) and Zn(II) dissociation rate constants from HDAC8 are comparable, koff ∼0.0006 s−1, suggesting that the apparent association rate constant for Fe(II) is slow (∼3 × 103 M−1 s−1). Furthermore, monovalent cations (K+ or Na+) that bind to HDAC8 decrease the dissociation rate constant of Zn(II) by ≥100-fold for K+ and ≥10-fold for Na+, suggesting a possible mechanism for regulating metal exchange in vivo. The HDAC8 metal affinities are comparable to the readily exchangeable Zn(II) and Fe(II) concentrations in cells, consistent with either or both metal cofactors activating HDAC8. PMID:25516458

  15. Hydroxamate-based histone deacetylase inhibitors can protect neurons from oxidative stress via a histone deacetylase-independent catalase-like mechanism.

    PubMed

    Olson, David E; Sleiman, Sama F; Bourassa, Megan W; Wagner, Florence F; Gale, Jennifer P; Zhang, Yan-Ling; Ratan, Rajiv R; Holson, Edward B

    2015-04-23

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have shown enormous promise for treating various disease states, presumably due to their ability to modulate acetylation of histone and non-histone proteins. Many of these inhibitors contain functional groups capable of strongly chelating metal ions. We demonstrate that several members of one such class of compounds, the hydroxamate-based HDAC inhibitors, can protect neurons from oxidative stress via an HDAC-independent mechanism. This previously unappreciated antioxidant mechanism involves the in situ formation of hydroxamate-iron complexes that catalyze the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in a manner reminiscent of catalase. We demonstrate that while many hydroxamate-containing HDAC inhibitors display a propensity for binding iron, only a subset form active catalase mimetics capable of protecting neurons from exogenous H2O2. In addition to their impact on stroke and neurodegenerative disease research, these results highlight the possibility that HDAC-independent factors might play a role in the therapeutic effects of hydroxamate-based HDAC inhibitors. PMID:25892200

  16. Class I histone deacetylase activity is required for proliferation of renal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jinhua; Yan, Yanli; Zhao, Ting C; Bayliss, George; Yan, Haidong; Zhuang, Shougang

    2013-08-01

    The process of renal regeneration after acute kidney injury is thought to recapitulate renal development, and proliferation of renal proximal tubular cells (RPTCs) is a critical step in the regenerative response. Recent studies indicate that class I histone deacetylases (HDACs) are required for embryonic kidney gene expression, growth, and differentiation. The role and underlying mechanisms of class I HDAC activation in RPTC proliferation, however, remain unclear. In this study, we used cultured RPTCs to examine this issue since four class I HDAC isoforms (1, 2, 3, and 8) are abundantly expressed in this cell type. Blocking class I HDAC activity with a highly selective inhibitor, MS-275, induced global histone H3 hyperacetylation, reduced RPTC proliferation, and diminished expression of cyclin D1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Silencing HDAC1, 3, or 8 with small interfering RNA resulted in similar biological effects. Activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) was required for RPTC proliferation, and STAT3 functioned downstream of EGFR. Treatment with MS-275 or knockdown of HDAC1, 3, or 8 suppressed EGFR expression and phosphorylation, and silencing HDAC1 and 3 also reduced STAT3 phosphorylation. However, HDAC2 downregulation did not affect RPTC proliferation and phosphorylation of EGFR and STAT3. Collectively, these data reveal a critical role of class I HDACs in mediating proliferation of renal epithelial cells through activation of the EGFR/STAT3 signaling pathway. PMID:23698124

  17. Histone deacetylase 3 is required for maintenance of bone mass during aging

    PubMed Central

    McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E.; Bradley, Elizabeth W.; Dudakovic, Amel; Carlson, Samuel W.; Ryan, Zachary C.; Kumar, Rajiv; Dadsetan, Mahrokh; Yaszemski, Michael J.; Chen, Qingshan; An, Kai-Nan; Westendorf, Jennifer J.

    2012-01-01

    Histone deacetylase 3 (Hdac3) is a nuclear enzyme that removes acetyl groups from lysine residues in histones and other proteins to epigenetically regulate gene expression. Hdac3 interacts with bone-related transcription factors and co-factors such as Runx2 and Zfp521, and thus is poised to play a key role in the skeletal system. To understand the role of Hdac3 in osteoblasts and osteocytes, Hdac3 conditional knockout (CKO) mice were created with the Osteocalcin (OCN) promoter driving Cre expression. Hdac3 CKOOCN mice were of normal size and weight, but progressively lost trabecular and cortical bone mass with age. The Hdac3 CKOOCN mice exhibited reduced cortical bone mineralization and material properties and suffered frequent fractures. Bone resorption was lower, not higher, in the Hdac3 CKOOCN mice, suggesting that primary defects in osteoblasts caused the reduced bone mass. Indeed, reductions in bone formation were observed. Osteoblasts and osteocytes from Hdac3 CKOOCN mice showed increased DNA damage and reduced functional activity in vivo and in vitro. Thus, Hdac3 expression in osteoblasts and osteocytes is essential for bone maintenance during aging. PMID:23085085

  18. Catalytic activity and inhibition of human histone deacetylase 8 is dependent on the identity of the active site metal ion.

    PubMed

    Gantt, Stephanie L; Gattis, Samuel G; Fierke, Carol A

    2006-05-16

    Histone deacetylases play a key role in regulating transcription and other cellular processes by catalyzing the hydrolysis of epsilon-acetyl-lysine residues. For this reason, inhibitors of histone deacetylases are potential targets for the treatment of cancer. A subset of these enzymes has previously been shown to require divalent metal ions for catalysis. Here we demonstrate that histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8) is catalytically active with a number of divalent metal ions in a 1:1 stoichiometry with the following order of specific activity: Co(II) > Fe(II) > Zn(II) > Ni(II). The identity of the catalytic metal ion influences both the affinity of the HDAC inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and the Michaelis constant, with Fe(II)- and Co(II)-HDAC8 having K(M) values that are over 5-fold lower than that of Zn(II)-HDAC8. These data suggest that Fe(II), rather than Zn(II), may be the in vivo catalytic metal. In further support of this hypothesis, recombinant HDAC8 purified from E. coli contains 8-fold more iron than zinc before dialysis, and the HDAC8 activity in cell lysates is oxygen-sensitive. Identification of the in vivo metal ion of HDAC8 is essential for understanding the biological function and regulation of HDAC8 and for the development of improved inhibitors of this class of enzymes. PMID:16681389

  19. Yeast HOS3 forms a novel trichostatin A-insensitive homodimer with intrinsic histone deacetylase activity

    PubMed Central

    Carmen, Andrew A.; Griffin, Patrick R.; Calaycay, Jimmy R.; Rundlett, Stephen E.; Suka, Yuko; Grunstein, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Histone deacetylases such as human HDAC1 and yeast RPD3 are trichostatin A (TSA)-sensitive enzymes that are members of large, multiprotein complexes. These contain specialized subunits that help target the catalytic protein to histones at the appropriate DNA regulatory element, where the enzyme represses transcription. To date, no deacetylase catalytic subunits have been shown to have intrinsic activity, suggesting that noncatalytic subunits of the deacetylase complex are required for their enzymatic function. In this paper we describe a novel yeast histone deacetylase HOS3 that is relatively insensitive to the histone deacetylase inhibitor TSA, forms a homodimer when expressed ectopically both in yeast and Escherichia coli, and has intrinsic activity when produced in the bacterium. Most HOS3 protein can be found associated with a larger complex in partially purified yeast nuclear extracts, arguing that the HOS3 homodimer may be dissociated from a very large nuclear structure during purification. We also demonstrate, using a combination of mass spectrometry, tandem mass spectrometry, and proteolytic digestion, that recombinant HOS3 has a distinct specificity in vitro for histone H4 sites K5 and K8, H3 sites K14 and K23, H2A site K7, and H2B site K11. We propose that while factors that interact with HOS3 may sequester the catalytic subunit at specific cellular sites, they are not required for HOS3 histone deacetylase activity. PMID:10535926

  20. The effect of sulforaphane on histone deacetylase activity in keratinocytes: Differences between in vitro and in vivo analyses.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Sally E; Rusche, Jadrian J; Bec, Sergiu L; Horn, David J; Janda, Jaroslav; Rim, So Hyun; Smith, Catharine L; Bowden, G Timothy

    2015-11-01

    Sulforaphane is a natural product found in broccoli, which is known to exert many different molecular effects in the cell, including inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes. Here, we examine for the first time the potential for sulforaphane to inhibit HDACs in HaCaT keratinocytes and compare our results with those found using HCT116 colon cancer cells. Significant inhibition of HDAC activity in HCT116 nuclear extracts required prolonged exposure to sulforaphane in the presence of serum. Under the same conditions HaCaT nuclear extracts did not exhibit reduced HDAC activity with sulforaphane treatment. Both cell types displayed down-regulation of HDAC protein levels by sulforaphane treatment. Despite these reductions in HDAC family member protein levels, acetylation of marker proteins (acetylated Histone H3, H4, and tubulin) was decreased by sulforaphane treatment. Time-course analysis revealed that HDAC6, HDAC3, and acetylated histone H3 protein levels are significantly inhibited as early as 6 h into sulforaphane treatment. Transcript levels of HDAC6 are also suppressed after 48 h of treatment. These results suggest that HDAC activity noted in nuclear extracts is not always translated as expected to target protein acetylation patterns, despite dramatic inhibition of some HDAC protein levels. In addition, our data suggest that keratinocytes are at least partially resistant to the nuclear HDAC inhibitory effects of sulforaphane, which is exhibited in HCT116 and other cells. PMID:25307283

  1. Novel Histone Deacetylase Class IIa Selective Substrate Radiotracers for PET Imaging of Epigenetic Regulation in the Brain.

    PubMed

    Bonomi, Robin; Mukhopadhyay, Uday; Shavrin, Aleksandr; Yeh, Hsien-Hsien; Majhi, Anjoy; Dewage, Sajeewa W; Najjar, Amer; Lu, Xin; Cisneros, G Andrs; Tong, William P; Alauddin, Mian M; Liu, Ren-Shuan; Mangner, Thomas J; Turkman, Nashaat; Gelovani, Juri G

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDAC's) became increasingly important targets for therapy of various diseases, resulting in a pressing need to develop HDAC class- and isoform-selective inhibitors. Class IIa deacetylases possess only minimal deacetylase activity against acetylated histones, but have several other client proteins as substrates through which they participate in epigenetic regulation. Herein, we report the radiosyntheses of the second generation of HDAC class IIa-specific radiotracers: 6-(di-fluoroacetamido)-1-hexanoicanilide (DFAHA) and 6-(tri-fluoroacetamido)-1-hexanoicanilide ([18F]-TFAHA). The selectivity of these radiotracer substrates to HDAC class IIa enzymes was assessed in vitro, in a panel of recombinant HDACs, and in vivo using PET/CT imaging in rats. [18F]TFAHA showed significantly higher selectivity for HDAC class IIa enzymes, as compared to [18F]DFAHA and previously reported [18F]FAHA. PET imaging with [18F]TFAHA can be used to visualize and quantify spatial distribution and magnitude of HDAC class IIa expression-activity in different organs and tissues in vivo. Furthermore, PET imaging with [18F]TFAHA may advance the understanding of HDACs class IIa mediated epigenetic regulation of normal and pathophysiological processes, and facilitate the development of novel HDAC class IIa-specific inhibitors for therapy of different diseases. PMID:26244761

  2. HDACiDB: a database for histone deacetylase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Murugan, Kasi; Sangeetha, Shanmugasamy; Ranjitha, Shanmugasamy; Vimala, Antony; Al-Sohaibani, Saleh; Rameshkumar, Gopal

    2015-01-01

    An histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor database (HDACiDB) was constructed to enable rapid access to data relevant to the development of epigenetic modulators (HDAC inhibitors [HDACi]), helping bring precision cancer medicine a step closer. Thousands of HDACi targeting HDACs are in various stages of development and are being tested in clinical trials as monotherapy and in combination with other cancer agents. Despite the abundance of HDACi, information resources are limited. Tools for in silico experiments on specific HDACi prediction, for designing and analyzing the generated data, as well as custom-made specific tools and interactive databases, are needed. We have developed an HDACiDB that is a composite collection of HDACi and currently comprises 1,445 chemical compounds, including 419 natural and 1,026 synthetic ones having the potential to inhibit histone deacetylation. Most importantly, it will allow application of Lipinski’s rule of five drug-likeness and other physicochemical property-based screening of the inhibitors. It also provides easy access to information on their source of origin, molecular properties, drug likeness, as well as bioavailability with relevant references cited. Being the first comprehensive database on HDACi that contains all known natural and synthetic HDACi, the HDACiDB may help to improve our knowledge concerning the mechanisms of actions of available HDACi and enable us to selectively target individual HDAC isoforms and establish a new paradigm for intelligent epigenetic cancer drug design. The database is freely available on the http://hdacidb.bioinfo.au-kbc.org.in/hdacidb/website. PMID:25945037

  3. The potential use of histone deacetylase inhibitors in the treatment of depression.

    PubMed

    Fuchikami, Manabu; Yamamoto, Shigeto; Morinobu, Shigeru; Okada, Satoshi; Yamawaki, Yosuke; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2016-01-01

    Numerous preclinical studies demonstrate that changes in gene expression in the brain occur in animal models of depression using exposure to stress, such as social defeat and leaned helplessness, and that repeated administration of antidepressants ameliorates these stress-induced changes in gene expression. These findings suggest that alteration in gene transcription in the central nervous system in response to stress plays an important role in the pathophysiology of depression. Recent advances in epigenetics have led to the realization that chromatin remodeling mediated by histone deacetylase (HDAC) is closely involved in the regulation of gene transcription. In this context, we first review several preclinical studies demonstrating the antidepressant-like efficacy of HDAC inhibitors. We then suggest the efficacy of HDAC inhibitors in treatment-resistant depression based on the mechanism of action of HDAC. Finally, we discuss the possibility of using HDAC inhibitors in patients with treatment-resistant depression. PMID:25818247

  4. Differential Regulation of Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase Promoter Activation and Protein Degradation by Histone Deacetylase Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Qing, Hua; Aono, Jun; Findeisen, Hannes M; Jones, Karrie L; Heywood, Elizabeth B; Bruemmer, Dennis

    2016-06-01

    Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) maintains telomeres and is rate limiting for replicative life span. While most somatic tissues silence TERT transcription resulting in telomere shortening, cells derived from cancer or cardiovascular diseases express TERT and activate telomerase. In the present study, we demonstrate that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition induces TERT transcription and promoter activation. At the protein level in contrast, HDAC inhibition decreases TERT protein abundance through enhanced degradation, which decreases telomerase activity and induces senescence. Finally, we demonstrate that HDAC inhibition decreases TERT expression during vascular remodeling in vivo. These data illustrate a differential regulation of TERT transcription and protein stability by HDAC inhibition and suggest that TERT may constitute an important target for the anti-proliferative efficacy of HDAC inhibitors. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1276-1282, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26505494

  5. Single-Molecule Electronic Measurements of the Dynamic Flexibility of Histone Deacetylases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froberg, James; You, Seungyong; Yu, Junru; Haldar, Manas; Sedigh, Abbas; Mallik, Sanku; Srivastava, D. K.; Choi, Yongki

    Due to their involvement in epigenetic regulation, histone deacetylases (HDACs) have gained considerable interest in designing drugs for treatment of a variety of human diseases including cancers. Recently, we applied a label-free, electronic single-molecule nano-circuit technique to gain insight into the contribution of the dynamic flexibility in HDACs structure during the course of substrates/ ligands binding and catalysis. We observed that HDAC8 has two major (dynamically interconvertible) conformational states, ``ground (catalytically unfavorable)'' and ``transition (catalytically favorable)''. In addition, we found that its cognate substrates/ligands reciprocally catalyze the transition of the ground to the transition state conformation of HDAC8. Thus, we propose that both enzymes and their substrates/ligands serve as ``catalysts'' in facilitating the structural changes of each other and promoting the overall chemical transformation reaction. Such new information provides the potential for designing a new class of mechanism-based inhibitors and activators of HDAC8 for treating human diseases.

  6. Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 3C Interacts with Histone Deacetylase To Repress Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Radkov, Stoyan A.; Touitou, Robert; Brehm, Alex; Rowe, Martin; West, Michelle; Kouzarides, Tony; Allday, Martin J.

    1999-01-01

    EBNA3C can specifically repress the expression of reporter plasmids containing EBV Cp latency-associated promoter elements. Cp is normally the main promoter for EBNA mRNA initiation, so it appears that EBNA3C contributes to a negative autoregulatory control loop. By mutational analysis it was previously established that this repression is consistent with EBNA3C being targeted to Cp by binding the cellular sequence-specific DNA-binding protein CBF1 (also known as recombination signal-binding protein [RBP]-Jκ. Further analysis suggested that in vivo a corepressor interacts with EBNA3C in this DNA binding complex. Results presented here are all consistent with a component of such a corepressor exhibiting histone deacetylase activity. The drug trichostatin A, which specifically inhibits histone deacetylases, relieved two- to threefold the repression of Cp induced by EBNA3C in two different cell types. Moreover, repression of pTK-CAT-Cp4× by EBNA3C was specifically enhanced by cotransfection of an expression plasmid for human histone deacetylase-1 (HDAC1). Consistent with these functional assays, in vitro-translated HDAC1 bound to a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein including full-length EBNA3C, and in the reciprocal experiment EBNA3C bound to a GST fusion with the N terminus of HDAC1. Coimmunoprecipitations also revealed an EBNA3C-HDAC1 interaction in vivo, and GST-EBNA3C bound functional histone deacetylase enzyme activity from HeLa cell nuclear extracts. The region of EBNA3C involved in the interaction with HDAC1 appears to correspond to the region which is necessary for binding to CBF1/RBP-Jκ. A direct physical interaction between EBNA3C and HDAC1 was demonstrated with recombinant proteins purified from bacterial cells, and we therefore conclude that HDAC1 and CBF1/RBP-Jκ bind to the same or adjacent regions of EBNA3C. These data suggest that recruitment of histone deacetylase activity makes a significant contribution to the repression of transcription from Cp because EBNA3C bridges an interaction between CBF1/RBP-Jκ and HDAC1. PMID:10364319

  7. Rational development of histone deacetylase inhibitors as anticancer agents: a review.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Milin R; Sparreboom, Alex; Venitz, Jrgen; Figg, William D

    2005-10-01

    The epigenome is defined by DNA methylation patterns and the associated post-translational modifications of histones. This histone code determines the expression status of individual genes dependent upon their localization on the chromatin. The histone deacetylases (HDACs) play a major role in keeping the balance between the acetylated and deacetylated states of chromatin and eventually regulate gene expression. Recent developments in understanding the cancer cell cycle, specifically the interplay with chromatin control, are providing opportunities for developing mechanism-based therapeutic drugs. Inhibitors of HDACs are under considerable exploration, in part because of their potential roles in reversing the silenced genes in transformed tumor cells by modulating transcriptional processes. This review is an effort to summarize the nonclinical and clinical status of HDAC inhibitors currently under development in anticancer therapy. PMID:15955865

  8. Regulated Clearance of Histone Deacetylase 3 Protects Independent Formation of Nuclear Receptor Corepressor Complexes*

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Chun; Gow, Chien-Hung; Li, Yali; Gardner, Amanda; Khan, Sohaib; Zhang, Jinsong

    2012-01-01

    An important step in transcriptional regulation by corepressors N-CoR and SMRT is the formation of a stable and active histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3)-containing complex. Although N-CoR and SMRT are thought to bind HDAC3 competitively, multiple studies have shown that they do not interfere with the function of each other. How this functional independence is sustained under the competitive interaction is unclear. Here, we show that the coupling of corepressor expression with HDAC3 degradation allows cells to maintain a stable level of uncomplexed HDAC3, thereby preventing mutual interference in the assembly of N-CoR and SMRT complexes. The free uncomplexed HDAC3 is highly unstable. Unexpectedly, the rate of HDAC3 degradation is inversely correlated with the expression level of corepressors. Our results indicate that reducing one corepressor accelerates HDAC3 clearance, thus preventing an increase in complex formation between HDAC3 and the other corepressor. In addition, this study also indicates that the formation of a stable and active HDAC3-corepressor complex is a stepwise process in which the C terminus of HDAC3 plays a critical role at late steps of the assembly process. PMID:22337871

  9. Histone Deacetylases Inhibitors in the Treatment of Retinal Degenerative Diseases: Overview and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xufeng; Du, Wei; Pang, Ji-jing

    2015-01-01

    Retinal degenerative diseases are one of the important refractory ophthalmic diseases, featured with apoptosis of photoreceptor cells. Histone acetylation and deacetylation can regulate chromosome assembly, gene transcription, and posttranslational modification, which are regulated by histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs), respectively. The histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) have the ability to cause hyperacetylation of histone and nonhistone proteins, resulting in a variety of effects on cell proliferation, differentiation, anti-inflammation, and anti-apoptosis. Several HDACis have been approved for clinical trials to treat cancer. Studies have shown that HDACis have neuroprotective effects in nervous system damage. In this paper, we will summarize the neuroprotective effects of common HDACis in retinal degenerative diseases and make a prospect to the applications of HDACis in the treatment of retinal degenerative diseases in the future. PMID:26137316

  10. HDAC inhibitors induce global changes in histone lysine and arginine methylation and alter expression of lysine demethylases.

    PubMed

    Lillico, Ryan; Sobral, Marina Gomez; Stesco, Nicholas; Lakowski, Ted M

    2016-02-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are cancer treatments that inhibit the removal of the epigenetic modification acetyllysine on histones, resulting in altered gene expression. Such changes in expression may influence other histone epigenetic modifications. We describe a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to quantify lysine acetylation and methylation and arginine methylation on histones extracted from cultured cells treated with HDAC inhibitors. The HDAC inhibitors vorinostat, mocetinostat and entinostat induced 400-600% hyperacetylation in HEK 293 and K562 cells. All HDAC inhibitors decreased histone methylarginines in HEK 293 cells but entinostat produced dose dependent reductions in asymmetric dimethylarginine, not observed in K562 cells. Vorinostat produced increases in histone lysine methylation and decreased expression of some lysine demethylases (KDM), measured by quantitative PCR. Entinostat had variable effects on lysine methylation and decreased expression of some KDM while increasing expression of others. Mocetinostat produced dose dependent increases in histone lysine methylation by LC-MS/MS. This was corroborated with a multiplex colorimetric assay showing increases in histone H3 lysine 4, 9, 27, 36 and 79 methylation. Increases in lysine methylation were correlated with dose dependent decreases in the expression of seven KDM. Mocetinostat functions as an HDAC inhibitor and a de facto KDM inhibitor. PMID:26721445

  11. Histone Deacetylase 6 Regulates Bladder Architecture and Host Susceptibility to Uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Adam J; Dhakal, Bijaya K; Liu, Ting; Mulvey, Matthew A

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) is a non-canonical, mostly cytosolic histone deacetylase that has a variety of interacting partners and substrates. Previous work using cell-culture based assays coupled with pharmacological inhibitors and gene-silencing approaches indicated that HDAC6 promotes the actin- and microtubule-dependent invasion of host cells by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). These facultative intracellular pathogens are the major cause of urinary tract infections. Here, we examined the involvement of HDAC6 in bladder colonization by UPEC using HDAC6 knockout mice. Though UPEC was unable to invade HDAC6(-/-) cells in culture, the bacteria had an enhanced ability to colonize the bladders of mice that lacked HDAC6. This effect was transient, and by six hours post-inoculation bacterial titers in the HDAC6(-/-) mice were reduced to levels seen in wild type control animals. Subsequent analyses revealed that the mutant mice had greater bladder volume capacity and fluid retention, along with much higher levels of acetylated a-tubulin. In addition, infiltrating neutrophils recovered from the HDAC6(-/-) bladder harbored significantly more viable bacteria than their wild type counterparts. Cumulatively, these changes may negate any inhibitory effects that the lack of HDAC6 has on UPEC entry into individual host cells, and suggest roles for HDAC6 in other urological disorders such as urinary retention. PMID:26907353

  12. Histone deacetylase inhibitors in multiple myeloma: rationale and evidence for their use in combination therapy.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Jonathan L; Fabre, Claire; Lonial, Sagar; Richardson, Paul G

    2013-08-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) arises from abnormal proliferation and survival (ie, a high proliferative index and a low apoptotic index) of mature immunoglobulin-producing plasma cells in the bone marrow. Development of novel therapeutic options, such as proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory agents (IMiDs), has improved treatment outcomes. However, patients often develop relapsed and refractory MM, thus requiring alternative treatment approaches. Histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases (HDACs) control the acetylation status of proteins and affect a broad array of physiologic processes (eg, cell cycle, apoptosis, and protein folding) involved in cell growth and survival. The discovery that HDACs might have a role in various hematologic malignancies, including MM, has led to the development of HDAC inhibitors as potential antitumor agents. Preclinical evidence from studies of HDAC inhibitors in combination with proteasome inhibitors (eg, bortezomib and carfilzomib), other antimyeloma agents, including IMiDs (eg, lenalidomide), and cytotoxic agents (eg, melphalan, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin), provides a strong scientific rationale for the evaluation of these regimens. Results from early stage clinical trials further support the use of HDAC inhibitors as a therapeutic option for MM, in combination with current and emerging antimyeloma agents. In this review, we examine the role of protein acetylation that underlies the antimyeloma effects of HDAC inhibitors, discuss the preclinical rationale for the use of HDAC inhibitors in combination with other antimyeloma agents, and provide an overview of the current clinical evidence supporting the use of HDAC inhibitors as a therapeutic option in MM. PMID:23787122

  13. Comprehensive analysis for histone acetylation of human colon cancer cells treated with a novel HDAC inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunlong; Fang, Xiuli; Wang, Ye; Zhang, Junmei; Jiang, Sheng; Liu, Zhe; Ma, Zhenyi; Xu, Liyan; Li, Enmin; Zhang, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Extensive evidence suggests that dysregulation of histone lysine acetylation is intimately linked with the development of cancer in epigenetic level. Histone acetylation on lysine is regulated mainly by the "pencil"--Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and the "eraser"--Histone deacetylases HDACs. Dramatic elevation of global histone deacetylation is considered as a biomarker for cancer. Therefore, current antitumor drug design often targets HDACs, inhibiting overexpressed HDAC in tumor cells with natural or synthesized small molecules like largazole. Recently, a novel largazole derivative (largazole-7) was designed and prepared by replacement of Val 1 with tyrosine, and this modification increases selectivity toward human cancer cells over normal cells more than 100-fold. However, it is unclear about the dynamic level of histone acetylation under the treatment of this drug. It is also unclear whether the other modifications are also affected by largazole-7 treatment. Therefore, a global mapping of modifications on the histone proteins of cancer cell line treated by this drug may be of great benefit to elucidating its molecular mechanisms and exploring its potent as an antitumor drug. To realize the goal, we combined stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) and high resolution MS for comprehensive identification and quantitative analysis of histone lysine acetylation and other modifications of Human Colon Cancer Cells (HCT-116) with and without treatment of largazole-7. In this analysis, we identified 68 histone PTMs in 38 sites on core histones, including lysine acetylation, methylation and butyrylation, a novel lysine modification. Further quantitative analysis not only discovered the global increased acetylated lysines, but also observed the changes of abundance of lysine methylation and butyrylation under stimulation of the drug. To our knowledge, it is the first report that regulation of largazole-7 against lysine butyrylation. Our study expands the catalog of histone marks in cancer, and provides an approach for understanding the known and new epigenetic marks under treatment of drugs. PMID:23888955

  14. Novel Histone Deacetylase Class IIa Selective Substrate Radiotracers for PET Imaging of Epigenetic Regulation in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Bonomi, Robin; Mukhopadhyay, Uday; Shavrin, Aleksandr; Yeh, Hsien-Hsien; Majhi, Anjoy; Dewage, Sajeewa W.; Najjar, Amer; Lu, Xin; Cisneros, G. Andrés; Tong, William P.; Alauddin, Mian M.; Liu, Ren-Shuan; Mangner, Thomas J.; Turkman, Nashaat; Gelovani, Juri G.

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDAC’s) became increasingly important targets for therapy of various diseases, resulting in a pressing need to develop HDAC class- and isoform-selective inhibitors. Class IIa deacetylases possess only minimal deacetylase activity against acetylated histones, but have several other client proteins as substrates through which they participate in epigenetic regulation. Herein, we report the radiosyntheses of the second generation of HDAC class IIa–specific radiotracers: 6-(di-fluoroacetamido)-1-hexanoicanilide (DFAHA) and 6-(tri-fluoroacetamido)-1-hexanoicanilide ([18F]-TFAHA). The selectivity of these radiotracer substrates to HDAC class IIa enzymes was assessed in vitro, in a panel of recombinant HDACs, and in vivo using PET/CT imaging in rats. [18F]TFAHA showed significantly higher selectivity for HDAC class IIa enzymes, as compared to [18F]DFAHA and previously reported [18F]FAHA. PET imaging with [18F]TFAHA can be used to visualize and quantify spatial distribution and magnitude of HDAC class IIa expression-activity in different organs and tissues in vivo. Furthermore, PET imaging with [18F]TFAHA may advance the understanding of HDACs class IIa mediated epigenetic regulation of normal and pathophysiological processes, and facilitate the development of novel HDAC class IIa-specific inhibitors for therapy of different diseases. PMID:26244761

  15. Histone deacetylase 1/2 mediates proliferation of renal interstitial fibroblasts and expression of cell cycle proteins.

    PubMed

    Pang, Maoyin; Ma, Li; Liu, Na; Ponnusamy, Murugavel; Zhao, Ting C; Yan, Haidong; Zhuang, Shougang

    2011-08-01

    We recently reported that the histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity is required for activation of renal interstitial fibroblasts. In this study, we further examined the role of HDACs, in particular, HDAC1 and HDAC2, in proliferation of cultured rat renal interstitial fibroblasts (NRK-49F) and expression of cell cycle proteins. Inhibition of HDAC activity with trichostatin A (TSA), blocked cell proliferation, decreased expression of Cyclin D1, a positive cell cycle regulator, and increased expression of p27 and p57, two negative cell cycle regulators. Silencing either HDAC1 or HDAC2 with siRNA also significantly inhibited cell proliferation, decreased expression of Cyclin D1, and increased expression of p57. However, down-regulation of HDAC2, but not HDAC1 resulted in increased expression of p27. Furthermore, HDAC1 and HDAC2 down-regulation was associated with dephosphorylation and hyperacetylation of STAT3 (Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3). Blockade of STAT3 with S3I-201 or siRNA decreased renal fibroblast proliferation. Finally, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking STAT3 reduced the inhibitory effect of TSA on cell proliferation, add-back of wild type STAT3 to STAT3(-/-) MEFs restored the effect of TSA. Collectively, our results reveal an important role of HDAC1 and HDAC2 in regulating proliferation of renal interstitial fibroblasts, expression of cell cycle proteins and activation of STAT3. Further, STAT3 mediates the proliferative action of HDACs. PMID:21465537

  16. 3,3′-diindolylmethane, but not indole-3-carbinol, inhibits histone deacetylase activity in prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Beaver, Laura M.; Yu, Tian-Wei; Sokolowski, Elizabeth I.; Williams, David E.; Dashwood, Roderick H.; Ho, Emily

    2012-01-01

    Increased consumption of cruciferous vegetables is associated with a reduced risk of developing prostate cancer. Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM) are phytochemicals derived from cruciferous vegetables that have shown promise in inhibiting prostate cancer in experimental models. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition is an emerging target for cancer prevention and therapy. We sought to examine the effects of I3C and DIM on HDACs in human prostate cancer cell lines: androgen insensitive PC-3cells and androgen sensitive LNCaP cells. I3C modestly inhibited HDAC activity in LNCaP cells by 25% but no inhibition of HDAC activity was detected in PC-3 cells. In contrast, DIM significantly inhibited HDAC activity in both cell lines by as much as 66%. Decreases in HDAC activity correlated with increased expression of p21, a known target of HDAC inhibitors. DIM treatment caused a significant decrease in the expression of HDAC2 protein in both cancer cell lines but no significant change in the protein levels of HDAC1, HDAC3, HDAC4, HDAC6 or HDAC8 were detected. Taken together, these results show that inhibition of HDAC activity by DIM may contribute to the phytochemicals anti-proliferative effects in the prostate. The ability of DIM to target aberrant epigenetic patterns, in addition to its effects on detoxification of carcinogens, may make it an effective chemopreventive agent by targeting multiple stages of prostate carcinogenesis. PMID:22800507

  17. 3,3′-Diindolylmethane, but not indole-3-carbinol, inhibits histone deacetylase activity in prostate cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Beaver, Laura M.; Yu, Tian-Wei; Sokolowski, Elizabeth I.; Williams, David E.; Dashwood, Roderick H.; Ho, Emily; School of Biological and Population Health Sciences, Oregon State University, 103 Milam Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331

    2012-09-15

    Increased consumption of cruciferous vegetables is associated with a reduced risk of developing prostate cancer. Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM) are phytochemicals derived from cruciferous vegetables that have shown promise in inhibiting prostate cancer in experimental models. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition is an emerging target for cancer prevention and therapy. We sought to examine the effects of I3C and DIM on HDACs in human prostate cancer cell lines: androgen insensitive PC-3 cells and androgen sensitive LNCaP cells. I3C modestly inhibited HDAC activity in LNCaP cells by 25% but no inhibition of HDAC activity was detected in PC-3 cells. In contrast, DIM significantly inhibited HDAC activity in both cell lines by as much as 66%. Decreases in HDAC activity correlated with increased expression of p21, a known target of HDAC inhibitors. DIM treatment caused a significant decrease in the expression of HDAC2 protein in both cancer cell lines but no significant change in the protein levels of HDAC1, HDAC3, HDAC4, HDAC6 or HDAC8 was detected. Taken together, these results show that inhibition of HDAC activity by DIM may contribute to the phytochemicals' anti-proliferative effects in the prostate. The ability of DIM to target aberrant epigenetic patterns, in addition to its effects on detoxification of carcinogens, may make it an effective chemopreventive agent by targeting multiple stages of prostate carcinogenesis. -- Highlights: ► DIM inhibits HDAC activity and decreases HDAC2 expression in prostate cancer cells. ► DIM is significantly more effective than I3C at inhibiting HDAC activity. ► I3C has no effect on HDAC protein expression. ► Inhibition of HDAC activity by DIM is associated with increased p21 expression. ► HDAC inhibition may be a novel epigenetic mechanism for cancer prevention with DIM.

  18. Tetraspanin CD9 modulates human lymphoma cellular proliferation via histone deacetylase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Herr, Michael J.; Longhurst, Celia M.; Baker, Benjamin; Homayouni, Ramin; Speich, Henry E.; Kotha, Jayaprakash; Jennings, Lisa K.

    2014-05-16

    Highlights: • CD9 is differentially expressed in human Burkitt’s lymphoma cells. • We found that CD9 expression promotes these cells proliferation. • CD9 expression also increases HDAC activity. • HDAC inhibition decreased both cell proliferation and importantly CD9 expression. • CD9 may dictate HDAC efficacy and play a role in HDAC regulation. - Abstract: Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) is a type of hematological malignancy that affects two percent of the overall population in the United States. Tetraspanin CD9 is a cell surface protein that has been thoroughly demonstrated to be a molecular facilitator of cellular phenotype. CD9 expression varies in two human lymphoma cell lines, Raji and BJAB. In this report, we investigated the functional relationship between CD9 and cell proliferation regulated by histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity in these two cell lines. Introduction of CD9 expression in Raji cells resulted in significantly increased cell proliferation and HDAC activity compared to Mock transfected Raji cells. The increase in CD9–Raji cell proliferation was significantly inhibited by HDAC inhibitor (HDACi) treatment. Pretreatment of BJAB cells with HDAC inhibitors resulted in a significant decrease in endogenous CD9 mRNA and cell surface expression. BJAB cells also displayed decreased cell proliferation after HDACi treatment. These results suggest a significant relationship between CD9 expression and cell proliferation in human lymphoma cells that may be modulated by HDAC activity.

  19. Histone deacetylases 1 and 2 regulate autophagy flux and skeletal muscle homeostasis in mice.

    PubMed

    Moresi, Viviana; Carrer, Michele; Grueter, Chad E; Rifki, Oktay F; Shelton, John M; Richardson, James A; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda; Olson, Eric N

    2012-01-31

    Maintenance of skeletal muscle structure and function requires efficient and precise metabolic control. Autophagy plays a key role in metabolic homeostasis of diverse tissues by recycling cellular constituents, particularly under conditions of caloric restriction, thereby normalizing cellular metabolism. Here we show that histone deacetylases (HDACs) 1 and 2 control skeletal muscle homeostasis and autophagy flux in mice. Skeletal muscle-specific deletion of both HDAC1 and HDAC2 results in perinatal lethality of a subset of mice, accompanied by mitochondrial abnormalities and sarcomere degeneration. Mutant mice that survive the first day of life develop a progressive myopathy characterized by muscle degeneration and regeneration, and abnormal metabolism resulting from a blockade to autophagy. HDAC1 and HDAC2 regulate skeletal muscle autophagy by mediating the induction of autophagic gene expression and the formation of autophagosomes, such that myofibers of mice lacking these HDACs accumulate toxic autophagic intermediates. Strikingly, feeding HDAC1/2 mutant mice a high-fat diet from the weaning age releases the block in autophagy and prevents myopathy in adult mice. These findings reveal an unprecedented and essential role for HDAC1 and HDAC2 in maintenance of skeletal muscle structure and function and show that, at least in some pathological conditions, myopathy may be mitigated by dietary modifications. PMID:22307625

  20. Selective class IIa histone deacetylase inhibition via a nonchelating zinc-binding group.

    PubMed

    Lobera, Mercedes; Madauss, Kevin P; Pohlhaus, Denise T; Wright, Quentin G; Trocha, Mark; Schmidt, Darby R; Baloglu, Erkan; Trump, Ryan P; Head, Martha S; Hofmann, Glenn A; Murray-Thompson, Monique; Schwartz, Benjamin; Chakravorty, Subhas; Wu, Zining; Mander, Palwinder K; Kruidenier, Laurens; Reid, Robert A; Burkhart, William; Turunen, Brandon J; Rong, James X; Wagner, Craig; Moyer, Mary B; Wells, Carrow; Hong, Xuan; Moore, John T; Williams, Jon D; Soler, Dulce; Ghosh, Shomir; Nolan, Michael A

    2013-05-01

    In contrast to studies on class I histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms and therapeutic potential of class IIa HDACs (HDAC4, HDAC5, HDAC7 and HDAC9) is impaired by the lack of potent and selective chemical probes. Here we report the discovery of inhibitors that fill this void with an unprecedented metal-binding group, trifluoromethyloxadiazole (TFMO), which circumvents the selectivity and pharmacologic liabilities of hydroxamates. We confirm direct metal binding of the TFMO through crystallographic approaches and use chemoproteomics to demonstrate the superior selectivity of the TFMO series relative to a hydroxamate-substituted analog. We further apply these tool compounds to reveal gene regulation dependent on the catalytic active site of class IIa HDACs. The discovery of these inhibitors challenges the design process for targeting metalloenzymes through a chelating metal-binding group and suggests therapeutic potential for class IIa HDAC enzyme blockers distinct in mechanism and application compared to current HDAC inhibitors. PMID:23524983

  1. Global Histone Profiling by LC-FTMS after Inhibition and Knockdown of Deacetylases in Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mingxi; Jiang, Lihua; Kelleher, Neil L.

    2009-01-01

    Global histone modifications and their putative relevance to short and long term cellular programming have drawn substantial interest in the study of chromatin. Here we describe the use of reverse-phase liquid chromatography coupled to Linear Ion Trap-Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry (RPLC–LTQ-FTMS) to quickly profile post-translationally modified isoforms and variants for core histone proteins from as few as 5×104 cells at isotopic resolution. Such LC-MS profiling greatly facilitated detection of histones from HeLa S3 or 293T cells experiencing shRNA- or siRNA-knockdown of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 1, 2, 3 or 1 and 2 together. In no case was significant global histone hyperacetylation relative to control cells observed, suggesting possible compensation of deacetylation activity by partially redundant enzymes in the 18-member HDAC family. This contrasts sharply with yeast where genetic deletion of HDAC rpd3 causes massive hyperacetylation. Treatment of cells with TSA and class I selective HDAC inhibitors had similar ability to induce global histone hyperactylation, though to different extents in HeLa S3 vs. 293T cells. PMID:19828382

  2. Human endometrial cytodifferentiation by histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Hiroshi; Maruyama, Tetsuo; Nagashima, Takashi; Ono, Masanori; Masuda, Hirotaka; Arase, Toru; Sugiura, Ikuko; Onouchi, Maki; Kajitani, Takashi; Asada, Hironori; Yoshimura, Yasunori

    2006-02-01

    Abstract Human uterine endometrium repeats proliferation, differentiation (decidualization) and tissue breakdown during the menstrual period. Appropriate secretion of ovarian steroid hormones regulates these sequential endometrial remodeling cycles. While progesterone replacement therapy is adopted for endometrial dysfunction of differentiation, including recurrent impairment of implantation, no obvious effective results are obtained. Histone reversible acetylation, regulated by histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases plays a pivotal role in gene transcription. Although, in cells cultured with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACI), the expression of only about 2% of expressed genes is changed twofold or more compared with untreated control cells. Numerous previous works have demonstrated that HDACI affect cell proliferation/apoptosis in a variety of types of cells. To date, several HDACI are in phase I or phase II clinical trials as anticancer drugs. However, no reports have been found that HDACI is useful for transdifferentiation in human endometrium. Recently, we reported that HDACI could induce the expression of differentiation marker proteins, morphological change and functional cytodifferentiation in both human endometrial stromal and epithelial cells. In this review, we summarize the effect of HDACI against the human endometrial cytodifferentiation, indicating the possibility that HDACI can be used not only as an anticancer drug, but also as a transdifferentiation reagent, based on a new strategy. PMID:16643606

  3. Silencing histone deacetylase-specific isoforms enhances expression of pluripotency genes in bovine fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Staszkiewicz, Jaroslaw; Power, Rachel A; Harkins, Lettie L; Barnes, Christian W; Strickler, Karen L; Rim, Jong S; Bondioli, Kenneth R; Eilersten, Kenneth J

    2013-10-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) catalyze deacetylation of histones that results in altered transcriptional activity. Inhibitors of HDACs have been shown to induce transcriptional changes that contribute positively to reprogramming somatic cells either by nuclear transfer or inducing a pluripotent state. However, the exact molecular mechanisms whereby HDAC inhibitors function and the specificity of the HDAC isoforms in cell reprogramming are not yet fully understood. Herein, we report the ability of individual isoform-specific HDACs to modulate endogenous expression of pluripotency-associated genes in bovine somatic cells. This in vitro study showed that a transient selective depletion of HDACs resulted in elevated mRNA levels of Oct-4, Sox2, and Nanog. In particular, we found that inhibition of specific HDAC isoforms using small interfering (si) RNA significantly increased expression of Nanog, a key factor required for totipotency induced by somatic cell nuclear transfer and for maintaining pluripotency in embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells. Our study suggests that this gene might be the most susceptible to HDAC activity inhibition. Moreover, a regulatory role of the class III HDAC, SIRT3, on an Oct4-Sox2-Nanog transcriptional network was revealed. We observed the upregulation of pluripotency-related genes by depletion of SIRT3. SIRT3 is localized to mitochondria and is associated with energy metabolism processes, suggesting metabolic changes may be linked to reprogramming in bovine fibroblasts. In conclusion, we show that targeting selective HDACs can potentially be useful to enhance reprogramming and that sirtuins may play a pivotal role in somatic cell reprogramming by upregulating an Oct4-Sox2-Nanog transcriptional network. Dedifferentiating donor somatic cells by upregulating developmentally important genes through specific knockdown of epigenetic targets, in particular HDACs, may provide a path to improving livestock cloning and the in vitro production of pluripotent cells. PMID:24020699

  4. Protein acetylation in the cardiorenal axis: the promise of histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bush, Erik W; McKinsey, Timothy A

    2010-02-01

    Acetylation of histone and nonhistone proteins provides a key mechanism for controlling signaling and gene expression in heart and kidney. Pharmacological inhibition of protein deacetylation with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors has shown promise in preclinical models of cardiovascular and renal disease. Efficacy of HDAC inhibitors appears to be governed by pleiotropic salutary actions on a variety of cell types and pathophysiological processes, including myocyte hypertrophy, fibrosis, inflammation and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, and occurs at compound concentrations below the threshold required to elicit toxic side effects. We review the roles of acetylation/deacetylation in the heart and kidney and provide rationale for extending HDAC inhibitors into clinical testing for indications involving these organs. PMID:20133912

  5. Novel Inhibitor of Plasmodium Histone Deacetylase That Cures P. berghei-Infected Mice▿

    PubMed Central

    Agbor-Enoh, S.; Seudieu, C.; Davidson, E.; Dritschilo, A.; Jung, M.

    2009-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDAC) are potential targets for the development of new antimalarial drugs. The growth of Plasmodium falciparum and other apicomplexans can be suppressed in the presence of potent HDAC inhibitors in vitro and in vivo; however, in vivo parasite suppression is generally incomplete or reversible after the discontinuation of drug treatment. Furthermore, most established HDAC inhibitors concurrently show broad toxicities against parasites and human cells and high drug concentrations are required for effective antimalarial activity. Here, we report on HDAC inhibitors that are potent against P. falciparum at subnanomolar concentrations and that have high selectivities; the lead compounds have mean 50% inhibitory concentrations for the killing of the malaria parasite up to 950 times lower than those for the killing of mammalian cells. These potential drugs improved survival and completely and irreversibly suppressed parasitemia in P. berghei-infected mice. PMID:19223622

  6. Nitric oxide modulates chromatin folding in human endothelial cells via protein phosphatase 2A activation and class II histone deacetylases nuclear shuttling.

    PubMed

    Illi, Barbara; Dello Russo, Claudio; Colussi, Claudia; Rosati, Jessica; Pallaoro, Michele; Spallotta, Francesco; Rotili, Dante; Valente, Sergio; Ragone, Gianluca; Martelli, Fabio; Biglioli, Paolo; Steinkuhler, Christian; Gallinari, Paola; Mai, Antonello; Capogrossi, Maurizio C; Gaetano, Carlo

    2008-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) modulates important endothelial cell (EC) functions and gene expression by a molecular mechanism which is still poorly characterized. Here we show that in human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs) NO inhibited serum-induced histone acetylation and enhanced histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity. By immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses it was found that NO induced class II HDAC4 and 5 nuclear shuttling and that class II HDACs selective inhibitor MC1568 rescued serum-dependent histone acetylation above control level in NO-treated HUVECs. In contrast, class I HDACs inhibitor MS27-275 had no effect, indicating a specific role for class II HDACs in NO-dependent histone deacetylation. In addition, it was found that NO ability to induce HDAC4 and HDAC5 nuclear shuttling involved the activation of the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). In fact, HDAC4 nuclear translocation was impaired in ECs expressing small-t antigen and exposed to NO. Finally, in cells engineered to express a HDAC4-Flag fusion protein, NO induced the formation of a macromolecular complex including HDAC4, HDAC3, HDAC5, and an active PP2A. The present results show that NO-dependent PP2A activation plays a key role in class II HDACs nuclear translocation. PMID:17975112

  7. Kinetic method for the large-scale analysis of the binding mechanism of histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Meyners, Christian; Baud, Matthias G J; Fuchter, Matthew J; Meyer-Almes, Franz-Josef

    2014-09-01

    Performing kinetic studies on protein ligand interactions provides important information on complex formation and dissociation. Beside kinetic parameters such as association rates and residence times, kinetic experiments also reveal insights into reaction mechanisms. Exploiting intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence a parallelized high-throughput Frster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based reporter displacement assay with very low protein consumption was developed to enable the large-scale kinetic characterization of the binding of ligands to recombinant human histone deacetylases (HDACs) and a bacterial histone deacetylase-like amidohydrolase (HDAH) from Bordetella/Alcaligenes. For the binding of trichostatin A (TSA), suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), and two other SAHA derivatives to HDAH, two different modes of action, simple one-step binding and a two-step mechanism comprising initial binding and induced fit, were verified. In contrast to HDAH, all compounds bound to human HDAC1, HDAC6, and HDAC8 through a two-step mechanism. A quantitative view on the inhibitor-HDAC systems revealed two types of interaction, fast binding and slow dissociation. We provide arguments for the thesis that the relationship between quantitative kinetic and mechanistic information and chemical structures of compounds will serve as a valuable tool for drug optimization. PMID:24882269

  8. Mitotic Activation of a Novel Histone Deacetylase 3-Linker Histone H1.3 Protein Complex by Protein Kinase CK2*

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Hemangi; Wilks, Carrie; Gonzalez, Rhiannon W.; Dhanireddy, Sudheer; Conrad-Webb, Heather; Bergel, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) and linker histone H1 are involved in both chromatin compaction and the regulation of mitotic progression. However, the mechanisms by which HDAC3 and H1 regulate mitosis and the factors controlling HDAC3 and H1 activity during mitosis are unclear. Furthermore, as of now, no association between class I, II, or IV (non-sirtuin) HDACs and linker histones has been reported. Here we describe a novel HDAC3-H1.3 complex containing silencing mediator of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptor (SMRT) and nuclear receptor corepressor 1 (N-CoR) that accumulated in synchronized HeLa cells in late G2 phase and mitosis. Nonetheless, the deacetylation activity by HDAC3 in the complex was evident only in mitotic complexes. HDAC3 associated with H1.3 was highly phosphorylated on Ser-424 only during mitosis. Isolation of inactive HDAC3-H1.3 complexes from late G2 phase cells, and phosphorylation of HDAC3 in the complexes at serine 424 by protein kinase CK2 (also known as casein kinase 2) activated the HDAC3 in vitro. In vivo, CK2α and CK2α' double knockdown cells demonstrated a significant decrease in HDAC3 Ser-424 phosphorylation during mitosis. HDAC3 and H1.3 co-localized in between the chromosomes, with polar microtubules and spindle poles during metaphase through telophase, and partially co-localized with chromatin during prophase and interphase. H1 has been reported previously to associate with microtubules and, therefore, could potentially function in targeting HDAC3 to the microtubules. We suggest that phosphorylation of HDAC3 in the complex by CK2 during mitosis activates the complex for a dual role: compaction of the mitotic chromatin and regulation of polar microtubules dynamic instability. PMID:26663086

  9. Identification of type-specific anticancer histone deacetylase inhibitors: road to success.

    PubMed

    Noureen, Nighat; Rashid, Hamid; Kalsoom, Saima

    2010-09-01

    Cancer is a serious and life-eliminating disease. Majority of anticancer agents are non-selective. Along with the cancerous cells they also target the normal ones. An important aspect is to hit the developing mechanism of the tumor, which is highlighted by in silico drug designing. On the basis of novel molecular targets, in silico (computational approach) drug discovery has emerged as today's need. Histone deacetylases are an important therapeutic target for many human cancers. The first and only approved (in 2006) histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) is Zolinza. Depending on the types of the histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes, discovery of type-specific inhibitors is important. With continued research and development, in near future HDACIs are likely to figure prominently in cancer treatment plans. This review presents the overview of HDACs, their role in cancer, their structural classes, activity, catalytic domain and the inhibitors of HDACs for cancer therapy. Also it helps in understanding the open directions in this area of research and highlights the importance of computational approaches in discovering specific drugs for cancer therapy. PMID:20401613

  10. Investigation on the ZBG-functionality of phenyl-4-yl-acrylohydroxamic acid derivatives as histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Musso, Loana; Cincinelli, Raffaella; Zuco, Valentina; Zunino, Franco; Nurisso, Alessandra; Cuendet, Muriel; Giannini, Giuseppe; Vesci, Loredana; Pisano, Claudio; Dallavalle, Sabrina

    2015-10-15

    A series of alternative Zn-binding groups were explored in the design of phenyl-4-yl-acrylohydroxamic acid derivatives as histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. Most of the synthesized compounds were less effective than the parent hydroxamic acid. However, the profile of activity shown by the analog bearing a hydroxyurea head group, makes this derivative promising for further investigation. PMID:26376355

  11. Histone Deacetylase 11 Regulates Oligodendrocyte-Specific Gene Expression and Cell Development in OL-1 Oligodendroglia Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hedi; Hu, Qichen; D’Ercole, A. Joseph; Ye, Ping

    2008-01-01

    Both in vivo and in vitro studies indicate a correlation between reduced acetylation of histone core proteins and oligodendrocyte development. The nature of these histone modifications and the mechanisms mediating them remain undefined. To address these issues we utilized OL-1 cells, a rat non-transformed oligodendrocyte cell line, and primary oligodendrocyte cultures. We found that the acetylated histone H3 at lysine 9 and lysine 14 (H3K9/K14ac) is reduced in both the myelin basic protein (MBP) and proteolipid protein (PLP) genes of maturing oligodendroglial OL-1 cells, and furthermore, this temporally correlates with increases in MBP, PLP, and histone deacetylase (HDAC) 11 expression. Disruption of developmentally-regulated histone H3 deacetylation within the MBP and PLP genes by the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A blunts MBP and PLP expression. With its increased expression, interaction of HDAC 11 with acetylated histone H3 and recruitment of HDAC 11 to the MBP and PLP genes markedly increases in maturing OL-1 cells. Moreover, suppressing HDAC 11 expression with small interfering RNA significantly: 1) increases H3K9/K14ac globally and within the MBP and PLP genes, 2) decreases MBP and PLP mRNA expression, and 3) blunts the morphological changes associated with oligodendrocyte development. Our data strongly support a specific role for HDAC 11 in histone deacetylation and in turn the regulation of oligodendrocyte-specific protein gene expression and oligodendrocyte development. PMID:18627006

  12. Role of histone deacetylases in pancreas: Implications for pathogenesis and therapy

    PubMed Central

    Klieser, Eckhard; Swierczynski, Stefan; Mayr, Christian; Schmidt, Johanna; Neureiter, Daniel; Kiesslich, Tobias; Illig, Romana

    2015-01-01

    In the last years, our knowledge of the pathogenesis in acute and chronic pancreatitis (AP/CP) as well as in pancreatic cancerogenesis has significantly diversified. Nevertheless, the medicinal therapeutic options are still limited and therapeutic success and patient outcome are poor. Epigenetic deregulation of gene expression is known to contribute to development and progression of AP and CP as well as of pancreatic cancer. Therefore, the selective inhibition of aberrantly active epigenetic regulators can be an effective option for future therapies. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are enzymes that remove an acetyl group from histone tails, thereby causing chromatin compaction and repression of transcription. In this review we present an overview of the currently available literature addressing the role of HDACs in the pancreas and in pancreatic diseases. In pancreatic cancerogenesis, HDACs play a role in the important process of epithelial-mesenchymal-transition, ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and, hypoxia-inducible-factor-1-angiogenesis. Finally, we focus on HDACs as potential therapeutic targets by summarizing currently available histone deacetylase inhibitors. PMID:26691388

  13. Dosage-dependent tumor suppression by histone deacetylases 1 and 2 through regulation of c-Myc collaborating genes and p53 function

    PubMed Central

    Heideman, Marinus R.; Wilting, Roel H.; Yanover, Eva; Velds, Arno; de Jong, Johann; Kerkhoven, Ron M.; Jacobs, Heinz; Wessels, Lodewyk F.

    2013-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are epigenetic erasers of lysine-acetyl marks. Inhibition of HDACs using small molecule inhibitors (HDACi) is a potential strategy in the treatment of various diseases and is approved for treating hematological malignancies. Harnessing the therapeutic potential of HDACi requires knowledge of HDAC-function in vivo. Here, we generated a thymocyte-specific gradient of HDAC-activity using compound conditional knockout mice for Hdac1 and Hdac2. Unexpectedly, gradual loss of HDAC-activity engendered a dosage-dependent accumulation of immature thymocytes and correlated with the incidence and latency of monoclonal lymphoblastic thymic lymphomas. Strikingly, complete ablation of Hdac1 and Hdac2 abrogated lymphomagenesis due to a block in early thymic development. Genomic, biochemical and functional analyses of pre-leukemic thymocytes and tumors revealed a critical role for Hdac1/Hdac2-governed HDAC-activity in regulating a p53-dependent barrier to constrain Myc-overexpressing thymocytes from progressing into lymphomas by regulating Myc-collaborating genes. One Myc-collaborating and p53-suppressing gene, Jdp2, was derepressed in an Hdac1/2-dependent manner and critical for the survival of Jdp2-overexpressing lymphoma cells. Although reduced HDAC-activity facilitates oncogenic transformation in normal cells, resulting tumor cells remain highly dependent on HDAC-activity, indicating that a critical level of Hdac1 and Hdac2 governed HDAC-activity is required for tumor maintenance. PMID:23327920

  14. Anti-tumor activity of N-hydroxy-7-(2-naphthylthio) heptanomide, a novel histone deacetylase inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong Hoon; Lee, Jiyong; Kim, Kyung Noo; Kim, Hye Jin; Jeung, Hei Cheul; Chung, Hyun Cheol; Kwon, Ho Jeong . E-mail: kwonhj@yonsei.ac.kr

    2007-04-27

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC), a key enzyme in gene expression and carcinogenesis, is considered an attractive target molecule for cancer therapy. Here, we report a new synthetic small molecule, N-hydroxy-7-(2-naphthylthio) heptanomide (HNHA), as a HDAC inhibitor with anti-tumor activity both in vitro and in vivo. The compound inhibited HDAC enzyme activity as well as proliferation of human fibrosarcoma cells (HT1080) in vitro. Treatment of cells with HNHA elicited histone hyperacetylation leading to an up-regulation of p21 transcription, cell cycle arrest, and an inhibition of HT1080 cell invasion. Moreover, HNHA effectively inhibited the growth of tumor tissue in a mouse xenograph assay in vivo. Together, these data demonstrate that this novel HDAC inhibitor could be developed as a potential anti-tumor agent targeting HDAC.

  15. Histone deacetylase inhibitors target diabetes via chromatin remodeling or as chemical chaperones?

    PubMed

    Lawless, M W; O'Byrne, K J; Gray, S G

    2009-08-01

    Globally, obesity and diabetes (particularly type 2 diabetes) represents a major challenge to world health. Despite decades of intense research efforts, the genetic basis involved in diabetes pathogenesis & conditions associated with obesity are still poorly understood. Recent advances have led to exciting new developments implicating epigenetics as an important mechanism underpinning diabetes and obesity related disease. One epigenetic mechanism known as the "histone code" describes the idea that specific patterns of post-translational modifications to histones act like a molecular "code" recognised and used by non-histone proteins to regulate specific chromatin functions. One modification which has received significant attention is that of histone acetylation. The enzymes which regulate this modification are described as lysine acetyltransferases or KATs and histone deacetylases or HDACs. Due to their conserved catalytic domain HDACs have been actively targeted as a therapeutic target. Some of the known inhibitors of HDACs (HDACi) have also been shown to act as "chemical chaperones" to alleviate diabetic symptoms. In this review, we discuss the available evidence concerning the roles of HDACs in regulating chaperone function and how this may have implications in the management of diabetes. PMID:19689255

  16. Histone deacetylase inhibitor attenuates neurotoxicity of clioquinol in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Takao; Asakura, Kunihiko; Hikichi, Chika; Ishikawa, Tomomasa; Murai, Rie; Hirota, Seiko; Murate, Ken-Ichiro; Kizawa, Madoko; Ueda, Akihiro; Ito, Shinji; Mutoh, Tatsuro

    2015-05-01

    Clioquinol is considered to be a causative agent of subacute myelo-optico neuropathy (SMON), although the pathogenesis of SMON is yet to be elucidated. We have previously shown that clioquinol inhibits nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced Trk autophosphorylation in PC12 cells transformed with human Trk cDNA. To explore the further mechanism of neuronal damage by clioquinol, we evaluated the acetylation status of histones in PC12 cells. Clioquinol reduced the level of histone acetylation, and the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor Trichostatin A upregulated acetylated histones and prevented the neuronal cell damage caused by clioquinol. In addition, treatment with HDAC inhibitor decreased neurite retraction and restored the inhibition of NGF-induced Trk autophosphorylation by clioquinol. Thus, clioquinol induced neuronal cell death via deacetylation of histones, and HDAC inhibitor alleviates the neurotoxicity of clioquinol. Clioquinol is now used as a potential medicine for malignancies and neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, HDAC inhibitors can be used as a candidate medicine for the prevention of its side effects on neuronal cells. PMID:25758465

  17. Isolation and characterization of an osmotic stress and ABA induced histone deacetylase in Arachis hygogaea

    PubMed Central

    Su, Liang-Chen; Deng, Bin; Liu, Shuai; Li, Li-Mei; Hu, Bo; Zhong, Yu-Ting; Li, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Histone acetylation, which together with histone methylation regulates gene activity in response to stress, is an important epigenetic modification. There is an increasing research focus on histone acetylation in crops, but there is no information to date in peanut (Arachis hypogaea). We showed that osmotic stress and ABA affect the acetylation of histone H3 loci in peanut seedlings by immunoblotting experiments. Using RNA-seq data for peanut, we found a RPD3/HDA1-like superfamily histone deacetylase (HDAC), termed AhHDA1, whose gene is up-regulated by PEG-induced water limitation and ABA signaling. We isolated and characterized AhHDA1 from A. hypogaea, showing that AhHDA1 is very similar to an Arabidopsis HDAC (AtHDA6) and, in recombinant form, possesses HDAC activity. To understand whether and how osmotic stress and ABA mediate the peanut stress response by epigenetics, the expression of AhHDA1 and stress-responsive genes following treatment with PEG, ABA, and the specific HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) were analyzed. AhHDA1 transcript levels were enhanced by all three treatments, as was expression of peanut transcription factor genes, indicating that AhHDA1 might be involved in the epigenetic regulation of stress resistance genes that comprise the responses to osmotic stress and ABA. PMID:26217363

  18. Histone deacetylases and cancer-associated angiogenesis: current understanding of the biology and clinical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Turtoi, Andrei; Peixoto, Paul; Castronovo, Vincent; Bellahcne, Akeila

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylase enzymes (HDACs) have been shown to be important to the development and progression of human cancers. Angiogenesis is a vital process that facilitates tumor growth and survival. More than a dozen of different activators and inhibitors are involved in at least as many diverse mechanisms to control angiogenesis. HDACs directly or indirectly control many of these regulators. In the current review, we give a brief overview of molecular mechanisms of HDAC actions and link these to the current knowledge concerning HDAC-mediated regulation of tumor-associated angiogenesis. HDAC specific knockdown studies and the use of pan-HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) contributed to the identification of: (i) HDACs that are key to angiogenesis and (ii) their multiple protein targets essential for angiogenic process. The clinical development of HDACi is an active area of investigation. In the scope of this review, we highlight several preclinical studies that examine the anti-angiogenic role of HDACi. Certainly, there is still much to be learned about the use of HDACi to inhibit tumoral angiogenesis. Recent efforts in the clinics aiming to combine broad HDACi (mainly vorinostat, which is FDA approved for T-cell lymphoma) with other anti-angiogenic therapies could, however, bring the proof that the lack of specificity of pan-HDACi may not be a major issue as compared with (long-time idealized) selective inhibitors targeting one particular HDAC. PMID:25746107

  19. Histone Deacetylase Classes I and II Regulate Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Reactivation

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hye Jin; DeCotiis, Jennifer; Giron, Mario; Palmeri, Diana

    2014-01-01

    In primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) cells infected with latent Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), the promoter of the viral lytic switch gene, Rta, is organized into bivalent chromatin, similar to cellular developmental switch genes. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors (HDACis) reactivate latent KSHV and dramatically remodel the viral genome topology and chromatin architecture. However, reactivation is not uniform across a population of infected cells. We sought to identify an HDACi cocktail that would uniformly reactivate KSHV and reveal the regulatory HDACs. Using HDACis with various specificities, we found that class I HDACis were sufficient to reactivate the virus but differed in potency. Valproic acid (VPA) was the most effective HDACi, inducing lytic cycle gene expression in 75% of cells, while trichostatin A (TSA) induced less widespread lytic gene expression and inhibited VPA-stimulated reactivation. VPA was only slightly superior to TSA in inducing histone acetylation of Rta's promoter, but only VPA induced significant production of infectious virus, suggesting that HDAC regulation after Rta expression has a dramatic effect on reactivation progression. Ectopic HDACs 1, 3, and 6 inhibited TPA-stimulated KSHV reactivation. Surprisingly, ectopic HDACs 1 and 6 stimulated reactivation independently, suggesting that the stoichiometries of HDAC complexes are critical for the switch. Tubacin, a specific inhibitor of the ubiquitin-binding, proautophagic HDAC6, also inhibited VPA-stimulated reactivation. Immunofluorescence indicated that HDAC6 is expressed diffusely throughout latently infected cells, but its expression level and nuclear localization is increased during reactivation. Overall, our data suggest that inhibition of HDAC classes I and IIa and maintenance of HDAC6 (IIb) activity are required for optimal KSHV reactivation. PMID:24227836

  20. Modulation of Histone Deacetylase Activity by Dietary Isothiocyanates and Allyl Sulfides: Studies with Sulforaphane and Garlic Organosulfur Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Nian, Hui; Delage, Barbara; Ho, Emily; Dashwood, Roderick H.

    2009-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors reactivate epigenetically-silenced genes in cancer cells, triggering cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Recent evidence suggests that dietary constituents can act as HDAC inhibitors, such as the isothiocyanates found in cruciferous vegetables and the allyl compounds present in garlic. Broccoli sprouts are a rich source of sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate that is metabolized via the mercapturic acid pathway and inhibits HDAC activity in human colon, prostate, and breast cancer cells. In mouse preclinical models, SFN inhibited HDAC activity and induced histone hyperacetylation coincident with tumor suppression. Inhibition of HDAC activity also was observed in circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from people who consumed a single serving of broccoli sprouts. Garlic organosulfur compounds can be metabolized to allyl mercaptan (AM), a competitive HDAC inhibitor that induced rapid and sustained histone hyperacetylation in human colon cancer cells. Inhibition of HDAC activity by AM was associated with increased histone acetylation and Sp3 transcription factor binding to the promoter region of the P21WAF1 gene, resulting in elevated p21 protein expression and cell cycle arrest. Collectively, the results from these studies, and others reviewed herein, provide new insights into the relationships between reversible histone modifications, diet, and cancer chemoprevention. PMID:19197985

  1. Disrupted ectodermal organ morphogenesis in mice with a conditional histone deacetylase 1, 2 deletion in the epidermis.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Michael W; Jiang, Ting-Xin; Lin, Sung-Jan; Leung, Yvonne; Kobielak, Krzysztof; Widelitz, Randall B; Chuong, Cheng M

    2014-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are present in the epidermal layer of the skin, outer root sheath, and hair matrix. To investigate how histone acetylation affects skin morphogenesis and homeostasis, mice were generated with a K14 promoter-mediated reduction of Hdac1 or Hdac2. The skin of HDAC1 null (K14-Cre Hdac1(cKO/cKO)) mice exhibited a spectrum of lesions, including irregularly thickened interfollicular epidermis, alopecia, hair follicle dystrophy, claw dystrophy, and abnormal pigmentation. Hairs are sparse, short, and intermittently coiled. The distinct pelage hair types are lost. During the first hair cycle, hairs are lost and replaced by dystrophic hair follicles with dilated infundibulae. The dystrophic hair follicle epithelium is stratified and is positive for K14, involucrin, and TRP63, but negative for keratin 10. Some dystrophic follicles are K15 positive, but mature hair fiber keratins are absent. The digits form extra hyperpigmented claws on the lateral sides. Hyperpigmentation is observed in the interfollicular epithelium, the tail, and the feet. Hdac1 and Hdac2 dual transgenic mice (K14-Cre Hdac1(cKO/cKO) Hdac2(+/cKO)) have similar but more obvious abnormalities. These results show that suppression of epidermal HDAC activity leads to improper ectodermal organ morphogenesis and disrupted hair follicle regeneration and homeostasis, as well as indirect effects on pigmentation. PMID:23792463

  2. The role dietary of bioactive compounds on the regulation of histone acetylases and deacetylases: a review.

    PubMed

    Vahid, F; Zand, H; Nosrat-Mirshekarlou, E; Najafi, R; Hekmatdoost, A

    2015-05-10

    Nutrigenomics is an area of epigenomics that explores and defines the rapidly evolving field of diet-genome interactions. Lifestyle and diet can significantly influence epigenetic mechanisms, which cause heritable changes in gene expression without changes in DNA sequence. Nutrient-dependent epigenetic variations can significantly affect genome stability, mRNA and protein expression, and metabolic changes, which in turn influence food absorption and the activity of its constituents. Dietary bioactive compounds can affect epigenetic alterations, which are accumulated over time and are shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of age-related diseases such as diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. Histone acetylation is an epigenetic modification mediated by histone acetyl transferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) critically involved in regulating affinity binding between the histones and DNA backbone. The HDAC-mediated increase in histone affinity to DNA causes DNA condensation, preventing transcription, whereas HAT-acetylated chromatin is transcriptionally active. HDAC and HAT activities are reported to be associated with signal transduction, cell growth and death, as well as with the pathogenesis of various diseases. The aim of this review was to evaluate the role of diet and dietary bioactive compounds on the regulation of HATs and HDACs in epigenetic diseases. Dietary bioactive compounds such as genistein, phenylisothiocyanate, curcumin, resveratrol, indole-3-carbinol, and epigallocatechin-3-gallate can regulate HDAC and HAT activities and acetylation of histones and non-histone chromatin proteins, and their health benefits are thought to be attributed to these epigenetic mechanisms. The intake of dietary compounds that regulate epigenetic modifications can provide significant health effects and may prevent various pathological processes involved in the development of cancer and other life-threatening diseases. PMID:25701602

  3. Cyclin D1 inhibits peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-mediated adipogenesis through histone deacetylase recruitment.

    PubMed

    Fu, Maofu; Rao, Mahadev; Bouras, Toula; Wang, Chenguang; Wu, Kongming; Zhang, Xueping; Li, Zhiping; Yao, Tso-Pang; Pestell, Richard G

    2005-04-29

    The cyclin D1 gene encodes the labile serum-inducible regulatory subunit of a holoenzyme that phosphorylates and inactivates the retinoblastoma protein. Overexpression of cyclin D1 promotes cellular proliferation and normal physiological levels of cyclin D1 function to inhibit adipocyte differentiation in vivo. We have previously shown that cyclin D1 inhibits peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma-dependent activity through a cyclin-dependent kinase- and retinoblastoma protein-binding-independent mechanism. In this study, we determined the molecular mechanism by which cyclin D1 regulated PPARgamma function. Herein, murine embryonic fibroblast (MEF) differentiation by PPARgamma ligand was associated with a reduction in histone deacetylase (HDAC1) activity. Cyclin D1-/- MEFs showed an increased propensity to undergo differentiation into adipocytes. Genetic deletion of cyclin D1 reduced HDAC1 activity. Reconstitution of cyclin D1 into the cyclin D1-/- MEFs increased HDAC1 activity and blocked PPARgamma-mediated adipogenesis. PPARgamma activity was enhanced in cyclin D1-/- cells. Reintroduction of cyclin D1 inhibited basal and ligand-induced PPARgamma activity and enhanced HDAC repression of PPARgamma activity. Cyclin D1 bound HDAC in vivo and preferentially physically associated with HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC3, and HDAC5. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that cyclin D1 enhanced recruitment of HDAC1 and HDAC3 and histone methyltransferase SUV39H1 to the PPAR response element of the lipoprotein lipase promoter and decreased acetylation of total histone H3 and histone H3 lysine 9. Collectively, these studies suggest an important role of cyclin D1 in regulation of PPARgamma-mediated adipocyte differentiation through recruitment of HDACs to regulate PPAR response element local chromatin structure and PPARgamma function. PMID:15713663

  4. Histone deacetylase inhibitors modulate renal disease in the MRL-lpr/lpr mouse.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Nilamadhab; Reilly, Christopher M; Brown, Doris R; Ruiz, Phil; Gilkeson, Gary S

    2003-02-01

    Studies in human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) suggest a possible role for histone deacetylases (HDACs) in skewed gene expression and disease pathogenesis. We used the MRL-lpr/lpr murine model of lupus to demonstrate that HDACs play a key role in the heightened levels of both Th1 and Th2 cytokine expression that contribute to disease. The availability of specific HDAC inhibitors (HDIs) such as trichostatin A (TSA) and suberonylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) permits the study of the role of HDACs in gene regulation. Our results indicate that HDIs downregulate IL-12, IFN-gamma, IL-6, and IL-10 mRNA and protein levels in MRL-lpr/lpr splenocytes. This effect on gene transcription is associated with an increased accumulation of acetylated histones H3 and H4 in total cellular chromatin. To elucidate the in vivo effects of TSA on lupuslike disease, we treated MRL-lpr/lpr mice with TSA (0.5 mg/kg/d) for 5 weeks. Compared with vehicle-treated control mice, TSA-treated mice exhibited a significant reduction in proteinuria, glomerulonephritis, and spleen weight. Taken together, these findings suggest that increased expression of HDACs leading to an altered state of histone acetylation may be of pathologic significance in MRL-lpr/lpr mice. In addition, TSA or other HDIs may have therapeutic benefit in the treatment of SLE. PMID:12588892

  5. The Antiparasitic Clioquinol Induces Apoptosis in Leukemia and Myeloma Cells by Inhibiting Histone Deacetylase Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Biyin; Li, Jie; Zhu, Jingyu; Shen, Mingyun; Han, Kunkun; Zhang, Zubin; Yu, Yang; Wang, Yali; Wu, Depei; Chen, Suning; Sun, Aining; Tang, Xiaowen; Zhao, Yun; Qiao, Chunhua; Hou, Tingjun; Mao, Xinliang

    2013-01-01

    The antiparasitic clioquinol (CQ) represents a class of novel anticancer drugs by interfering with proteasome activity. In the present study, we found that CQ induced blood cancer cell apoptosis by inhibiting histone deacetylases (HDACs). CQ accumulated the acetylation levels of several key proteins including histone H3 (H3), p53, HSP90, and α-tubulin. In the mechanistic study, CQ was found to down-regulate HDAC1, -3, -4, and -5 in both myeloma and leukemia cells. Computer modeling analysis revealed that CQ was well docked into the active pocket of the enzyme, where the oxygen and nitrogen atoms in CQ formed stable coordinate bonds with the zinc ion, and the hydroxyl group from CQ formed an effective hydrogen bond with Asp-267. Moreover, co-treatment with CQ and zinc/copper chloride led to decreased Ac-H3. Furthermore, CQ inhibited the activity of Class I and IIa HDACs in the cell-free assays, demonstrating that CQ interfered with HDAC activity. By inhibiting HDAC activity, CQ induced expression of p21, p27, and p53, cell cycle arrest at G1 phase, and cell apoptosis. This study suggested that the HDAC enzymes are targets of CQ, which provided a novel insight into the molecular mechanism of CQ in the treatment of hematological malignancies. PMID:24114842

  6. Identification of Histone Deacetylase 3 as a Biomarker for Tumor Recurrence Following Liver Transplantation in HBV-Associated Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng; Xie, Hai-Yang; Feng, Xiao-Wen; Wu, Jian; Zheng, Shu-Sen

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown that high expression levels of class I histone deacetylases (HDACs) correlate with malignant phenotype and poor prognosis in some human tumors. However, the expression patterns and prognostic role of class I HDAC isoforms in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings The expression patterns and clinical significance of class I HDAC isoforms were assessed by immunohistochemistry in a cohort of 43 hepatitis B virus-associated HCC patients treated with liver transplantation. In addition, the effects of HDAC inhibition on HCC cell behavior were investigated by knockdown of the HDAC isoform with short interfering RNA. Class I HDACs were highly expressed in a subset of HCCs with positivity for HDAC1 in 51.2%, HDAC2 in 48.8%, and HDAC3 in 32.6% of cases. The expression levels of HDAC isoforms were significantly associated with the proliferation index of HCC. Kaplan-Meier curves showed that a high expression level of HDAC2 or HDAC3 implicated significantly reduced recurrence-free survival. Cox proportional hazards model analysis revealed HDAC3 overexpression was an unfavorable independent prognostic factor (P?=?0.002; HR 3.907). In vitro, inhibition of HDAC2 and HDAC3, but not HDAC1, suppressed proliferation and the invasiveness of liver cancer cells. Conclusions/Significance Our findings demonstrate that HDAC3 plays a significant role in regulating tumor cell proliferation and invasion, and it could be served as a candidate biomarker for predicting the recurrence of hepatitis B virus-associated HCC following liver transplantation and a potential therapeutic target. PMID:21206745

  7. Expression and functional analysis of the plant-specific histone deacetylase HDT701 in rice

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jinhui; Zhang, Jianxia; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Kunlin; Zheng, Feng; Tian, Lining; Liu, Xuncheng; Duan, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Reversible histone acetylation and deacetylation at the N-terminus of histone tails play a crucial role in regulating eukaryotic gene activity. Acetylation of core histones is associated with gene activation, whereas deacetylation of histone is often correlated with gene repression. The level of histone acetylation is antagonistically catalyzed by histone acetyltransferases citation(HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs). In this work, we examined the subcellular localization, expression pattern and function of HDT701, a member of the plant-specific HD2-type histone deacetylase in rice. HDT701 is localized at the subcellular level in the nucleus. Histochemical GUS-staining analysis revealed that HDT701 is constitutively expressed throughout the life cycle of rice. Overexpression of HDT701 in rice decreases ABA, salt and osmotic stress resistance during seed germination. Delayed seed germination of HDT701 overexpression lines is associated with decreased histone H4 acetylation and down-regulated expression of GA biosynthetic genes. Moreover, overexpression of HDT701 in rice enhances salt and osmotic stress resistance during the seedling stage. Taken together, our findings suggested that HDT701 may play an important role in regulating seed germination in response to abiotic stresses in rice. PMID:25653654

  8. A novel mechanism of chemoprotection by sulforaphane: inhibition of histone deacetylase.

    PubMed

    Myzak, Melinda C; Karplus, P Andrew; Chung, Fung-Lung; Dashwood, Roderick H

    2004-08-15

    Sulforaphane (SFN), a compound found at high levels in broccoli and broccoli sprouts, is a potent inducer of phase 2 detoxification enzymes and inhibits tumorigenesis in animal models. SFN also has a marked effect on cell cycle checkpoint controls and cell survival and/or apoptosis in various cancer cells, through mechanisms that are poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that SFN acts as an inhibitor of histone deacetylase (HDAC). In human embryonic kidney 293 cells, SFN dose-dependently increased the activity of a beta-catenin-responsive reporter (TOPflash), without altering beta-catenin or HDAC protein levels. Cytoplasmic and nuclear extracts from these cells had diminished HDAC activity, and both global and localized histone acetylation was increased, compared with untreated controls. Studies with SFN and with media from SFN-treated cells indicated that the parent compound was not responsible for the inhibition of HDAC, and this was confirmed using an inhibitor of glutathione S-transferase, which blocked the first step in the metabolism of SFN, via the mercapturic acid pathway. Whereas SFN and its glutathione conjugate (SFN-GSH) had little or no effect, the two major metabolites SFN-cysteine and SFN-N-acetylcysteine were effective HDAC inhibitors in vitro. Finally, several of these findings were recapitulated in HCT116 human colorectal cancer cells: SFN dose-dependently increased TOPflash reporter activity and inhibited HDAC activity, there was an increase in acetylated histones and in p21(Cip1/Waf1), and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed an increase in acetylated histones bound to the P21 promoter. Collectively, these findings suggest that SFN may be effective as a tumor-suppressing agent and as a chemotherapeutic agent, alone or in combination with other HDAC inhibitors currently undergoing clinical trials. PMID:15313918

  9. Histone deacetylase inhibitors: a new wave of molecular targeted anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Budillon, Alfredo; Di Gennaro, Elena; Bruzzese, Francesca; Rocco, Monia; Manzo, Giuseppe; Caraglia, Michele

    2007-06-01

    Epigenetics as well as post-translational modifications of proteins are emerging as novel attractive targets for anti-cancer therapy. Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) are two classes of enzymes regulating histone acetylation and whose altered activity has been identified in several cancers. In particular, imbalance in histone acetylation can lead to changes in chromatin structure and transcriptional dysregulation of genes that are involved in the control of proliferation, cell-cycle progression, differentiation and/or apoptosis. In addition, several non histone protein substrates such as transcription factors, chaperone proteins or tubulin, undergo acetylation as key post-translation modification regulating their half-life and function. On this regard, several inhibitors of HDAC, selected by academic as well as industrial research, have been recently shown to induce growth arrest and apoptosis in a variety of human cancer cells and have been patented as anti-cancer agents. Although several clinical studies with HDAC inhibitors are ongoing, their mechanism of action cannot be solely attributed to the level of histone acetylation and molecular basis for their tumor selectivity remains unknown, presenting a challenge for the cancer research community. PMID:18221057

  10. Histone deacetylase enzymes as drug targets for the control of the sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina.

    PubMed

    Kotze, Andrew C; Hines, Barney M; Bagnall, Neil H; Anstead, Clare A; Gupta, Praveer; Reid, Robert C; Ruffell, Angela P; Fairlie, David P

    2015-12-01

    The Australian sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina, is an ecto-parasite that causes significant economic losses in the sheep industry. Emerging resistance to insecticides used to protect sheep from this parasite is driving the search for new drugs that act via different mechanisms. Inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDACs), enzymes essential for regulating eukaryotic gene transcription, are prospective new insecticides based on their capacity to kill human parasites. The blowfly genome was found here to contain five HDAC genes corresponding to human HDACs 1, 3, 4, 6 and 11. The catalytic domains of blowfly HDACs 1 and 3 have high sequence identity with corresponding human and other Dipteran insect HDACs (Musca domestica and Drosophila melanogaster). On the other hand, HDACs 4, 6 and 11 from the blowfly and the other Dipteran species showed up to 53% difference in catalytic domain amino acids from corresponding human sequences, suggesting the possibility of developing HDAC inhibitors specific for insects as desired for a commercial insecticide. Differences in transcription patterns for different blowfly HDACs through the life cycle, and between the sexes of adult flies, suggest different functions in regulating gene transcription within this organism and possibly different vulnerabilities. Data that supports HDACs as possible new insecticide targets is the finding that trichostatin A and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid retarded growth of early instar blowfly larvae in vitro, and reduced the pupation rate. Trichostatin A was 8-fold less potent than the commercial insecticide cyromazine in inhibiting larval growth. Our results support further development of inhibitors of blowfly HDACs with selectivity over human and other mammalian HDACs as a new class of prospective insecticides for sheep blowfly. PMID:27120067

  11. Histone deacetylase enzymes as drug targets for the control of the sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina

    PubMed Central

    Kotze, Andrew C.; Hines, Barney M.; Bagnall, Neil H.; Anstead, Clare A.; Gupta, Praveer; Reid, Robert C.; Ruffell, Angela P.; Fairlie, David P.

    2015-01-01

    The Australian sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina, is an ecto-parasite that causes significant economic losses in the sheep industry. Emerging resistance to insecticides used to protect sheep from this parasite is driving the search for new drugs that act via different mechanisms. Inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDACs), enzymes essential for regulating eukaryotic gene transcription, are prospective new insecticides based on their capacity to kill human parasites. The blowfly genome was found here to contain five HDAC genes corresponding to human HDACs 1, 3, 4, 6 and 11. The catalytic domains of blowfly HDACs 1 and 3 have high sequence identity with corresponding human and other Dipteran insect HDACs (Musca domestica and Drosophila melanogaster). On the other hand, HDACs 4, 6 and 11 from the blowfly and the other Dipteran species showed up to 53% difference in catalytic domain amino acids from corresponding human sequences, suggesting the possibility of developing HDAC inhibitors specific for insects as desired for a commercial insecticide. Differences in transcription patterns for different blowfly HDACs through the life cycle, and between the sexes of adult flies, suggest different functions in regulating gene transcription within this organism and possibly different vulnerabilities. Data that supports HDACs as possible new insecticide targets is the finding that trichostatin A and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid retarded growth of early instar blowfly larvae in vitro, and reduced the pupation rate. Trichostatin A was 8-fold less potent than the commercial insecticide cyromazine in inhibiting larval growth. Our results support further development of inhibitors of blowfly HDACs with selectivity over human and other mammalian HDACs as a new class of prospective insecticides for sheep blowfly. PMID:27120067

  12. Histone deacetylase 8 is deregulated in urothelial cancer but not a target for efficient treatment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that class-I histone deacetylase (HDAC) 8 mRNA is upregulated in urothelial cancer tissues and urothelial cancer cell lines compared to benign controls. Using urothelial cancer cell lines we evaluated whether specific targeting of HDAC8 might be a therapeutic option in bladder cancer treatment. Methods We conducted siRNA-mediated knockdown and specific pharmacological inhibition of HDAC8 with the three different inhibitors compound 2, compound 5, and compound 6 in several urothelial carcinoma cell lines with distinct HDAC8 expression profiles. Levels of HDAC and marker proteins were determined by western blot analysis and mRNA levels were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Cellular effects of HDAC8 suppression were analyzed by ATP assay, flow cytometry, colony forming assay and migration assay. Results Efficient siRNA-mediated knockdown of HDAC8 reduced proliferation up to 45%. The HDAC8 specific inhibitors compound 5 and compound 6 significantly reduced viability of all urothelial cancer cell lines (IC50 9 – 21 μM). Flow cytometry revealed only a slight increase in the sub-G1 fraction indicating a limited induction of apoptosis. Expression of thymidylate synthase was partly reduced; PARP-cleavage was not detected. The influence of the pharmacological inhibition on clonogenic growth and migration show a cell line- and inhibitor-dependent reduction with the strongest effects after treatment with compound 5 and compound 6. Conclusions Deregulation of HDAC8 is frequent in urothelial cancer, but neither specific pharmacological inhibition nor siRNA-mediated knockdown of HDAC8 impaired viability of urothelial cancer cell lines in a therapeutic useful manner. Accordingly, HDAC8 on its own is not a promising drug target in bladder cancer. PMID:25011684

  13. Activation of p53 Transcriptional Activity by SMRT: a Histone Deacetylase 3-Independent Function of a Transcriptional Corepressor

    PubMed Central

    Adikesavan, Anbu Karani; Karmakar, Sudipan; Pardo, Patricia; Wang, Liguo; Liu, Shuang; Li, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The silencing mediator of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptors (SMRT) is an established histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3)-dependent transcriptional corepressor. Microarray analyses of MCF-7 cells transfected with control or SMRT small interfering RNA revealed SMRT regulation of genes involved in DNA damage responses, and the levels of the DNA damage marker ?H2AX as well as poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage were elevated in SMRT-depleted cells treated with doxorubicin. A number of these genes are established p53 targets. SMRT knockdown decreased the activity of two p53-dependent reporter genes as well as the expression of p53 target genes, such as CDKN1A (which encodes p21). SMRT bound directly to p53 and was recruited to p53 binding sites within the p21 promoter. Depletion of GPS2 and TBL1, components of the SMRT corepressor complex, but not histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) decreased p21-luciferase activity. p53 bound to the SMRT deacetylase activation domain (DAD), which mediates HDAC3 binding and activation, and HDAC3 could attenuate p53 binding to the DAD region of SMRT. Moreover, an HDAC3 binding-deficient SMRT DAD mutant coactivated p53 transcriptional activity. Collectively, these data highlight a biological role for SMRT in mediating DNA damage responses and suggest a model where p53 binding to the DAD limits HDAC3 interaction with this coregulator, thereby facilitating SMRT coactivation of p53-dependent gene expression. PMID:24449765

  14. Suppression of oxidative stress by β-hydroxybutyrate, an endogenous histone deacetylase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Shimazu, Tadahiro; Hirschey, Matthew D; Newman, John; He, Wenjuan; Shirakawa, Kotaro; Le Moan, Natacha; Grueter, Carrie A; Lim, Hyungwook; Saunders, Laura R; Stevens, Robert D; Newgard, Christopher B; Farese, Robert V; de Cabo, Rafael; Ulrich, Scott; Akassoglou, Katerina; Verdin, Eric

    2013-01-11

    Concentrations of acetyl-coenzyme A and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) affect histone acetylation and thereby couple cellular metabolic status and transcriptional regulation. We report that the ketone body d-β-hydroxybutyrate (βOHB) is an endogenous and specific inhibitor of class I histone deacetylases (HDACs). Administration of exogenous βOHB, or fasting or calorie restriction, two conditions associated with increased βOHB abundance, all increased global histone acetylation in mouse tissues. Inhibition of HDAC by βOHB was correlated with global changes in transcription, including that of the genes encoding oxidative stress resistance factors FOXO3A and MT2. Treatment of cells with βOHB increased histone acetylation at the Foxo3a and Mt2 promoters, and both genes were activated by selective depletion of HDAC1 and HDAC2. Consistent with increased FOXO3A and MT2 activity, treatment of mice with βOHB conferred substantial protection against oxidative stress. PMID:23223453

  15. Delayed and Prolonged Histone Hyperacetylation with a Selective HDAC1/HDAC2 Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The identification and in vitro and in vivo characterization of a potent SHI-1:2 are described. Kinetic analysis indicated that biaryl inhibitors exhibit slow binding kinetics in isolated HDAC1 and HDAC2 preparations. Delayed histone hyperacetylation and gene expression changes were also observed in cell culture, and histone acetylation was observed in vivo beyond disappearance of drug from plasma. In vivo studies further demonstrated that continuous target inhibition was well tolerated and efficacious in tumor-bearing mice, leading to tumor growth inhibition with either once-daily or intermittent administration. PMID:24900838

  16. Valproic Acid Limits Pancreatic Recovery after Pancreatitis by Inhibiting Histone Deacetylases and Preventing Acinar Redifferentiation Programs.

    PubMed

    Eisses, John F; Criscimanna, Angela; Dionise, Zachary R; Orabi, Abrahim I; Javed, Tanveer A; Sarwar, Sheharyar; Jin, Shunqian; Zhou, Lili; Singh, Sucha; Poddar, Minakshi; Davis, Amy W; Tosun, Akif Burak; Ozolek, John A; Lowe, Mark E; Monga, Satdarshan P; Rohde, Gustavo K; Esni, Farzad; Husain, Sohail Z

    2015-12-01

    The mechanisms by which drugs induce pancreatitis are unknown. A definite cause of pancreatitis is due to the antiepileptic drug valproic acid (VPA). On the basis of three crucial observations-that VPA inhibits histone deacetylases (HDACs), HDACs mediate pancreas development, and aspects of pancreas development are recapitulated during recovery of the pancreas after injury-we hypothesized that VPA does not cause injury on its own, but it predisposes patients to pancreatitis by inhibiting HDACs and provoking an imbalance in pancreatic recovery. In an experimental model of pancreatic injury, we found that VPA delayed recovery of the pancreas and reduced acinar cell proliferation. In addition, pancreatic expression of class I HDACs (which are the primary VPA targets) increased in the midphase of pancreatic recovery. VPA administration inhibited pancreatic HDAC activity and led to the persistence of acinar-to-ductal metaplastic complexes, with prolonged Sox9 expression and sustained β-catenin nuclear activation, findings that characterize a delay in regenerative reprogramming. These effects were not observed with valpromide, an analog of VPA that lacks HDAC inhibition. This is the first report, to our knowledge, that VPA shifts the balance toward pancreatic injury and pancreatitis through HDAC inhibition. The work also identifies a new paradigm for therapies that could exploit epigenetic reprogramming to enhance pancreatic recovery and disorders of pancreatic injury. PMID:26476347

  17. Neural Stem Cell Differentiation Is Dictated by Distinct Actions of Nuclear Receptor Corepressors and Histone Deacetylases

    PubMed Central

    Castelo-Branco, Gonçalo; Lilja, Tobias; Wallenborg, Karolina; Falcão, Ana M.; Marques, Sueli C.; Gracias, Aileen; Solum, Derek; Paap, Ricardo; Walfridsson, Julian; Teixeira, Ana I.; Rosenfeld, Michael G.; Jepsen, Kristen; Hermanson, Ola

    2014-01-01

    Summary Signaling factors including retinoic acid (RA) and thyroid hormone (T3) promote neuronal, oligodendrocyte, and astrocyte differentiation of cortical neural stem cells (NSCs). However, the functional specificity of transcriptional repressor checkpoints controlling these differentiation programs remains unclear. Here, we show by genome-wide analysis that histone deacetylase (HDAC)2 and HDAC3 show overlapping and distinct promoter occupancy at neuronal and oligodendrocyte-related genes in NSCs. The absence of HDAC3, but not HDAC2, initiated a neuronal differentiation pathway in NSCs. The ablation of the corepressor NCOR or HDAC2, in conjunction with T3 treatment, resulted in increased expression of oligodendrocyte genes, revealing a direct HDAC2-mediated repression of Sox8 and Sox10 expression. Interestingly, Sox10 was required also for maintaining the more differentiated state by repression of stem cell programming factors such as Sox2 and Sox9. Distinct and nonredundant actions of NCORs and HDACs are thus critical for control of lineage progression and differentiation programs in neural progenitors. PMID:25241747

  18. Radionuclide Labeling and Evaluation of Candidate Radioligands for PET Imaging of Histone Deacetylase in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Young Jun; Muench, Lisa; Reid, Alicia; Chen, Jinzhu; Kang, Yeona; Hooker, Jacob M.; Volkow, Nora D.; Fowler, Joanna S.; Kim, Sung Won

    2013-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) regulate gene expression by inducing conformational changes in chromatin. Ever since the discovery of a naturally occurring HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA) stimulated the recent development of suberoylanilide (SAHA, Zolinza), HDAC has become an important molecular target for drug development. This has created the need to develop specific in vivo radioligands to study epigenetic regulation and HDAC engagement for drug development for diseases including cancer and psychiatric disorders. 6-([18F]Fluoroacetamido)-1-hexanoicanilide ([18F]FAHA) was recently developed as a HDAC substrate and shows moderate blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and specific signal (by metabolic trapping/or deacetylation) but rapid metabolism. Here, we report the radiosynthesis of two carbon-11 labeled candidate radiotracers (substrate- and inhibitor-based radioligand) for HDAC and their evaluation in non-human primate brain. PET studies showed very low brain uptake and rapid metabolism of both labeled compounds but revealed a surprising enhancement of brain penetration by F for H substitution when comparing one of these to [18F]FAHA. Further structural refinement is needed for the development of brain-penetrant, metabolically stable HDAC radiotracers and to understand the role of fluorine substitution on brain penetration. PMID:24210501

  19. Quantification and Gene Expression Analysis of Histone Deacetylases in Common Bean during Rust Fungal Inoculation

    PubMed Central

    Melmaiee, Kalpalatha; Kalavacharla, Venu (Kal); Brown, Adrianne; Todd, Antonette; Thurston, Yaqoob; Elavarthi, Sathya

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play an important role in plant growth, development, and defense processes and are one of the primary causes of epigenetic modifications in a genome. There was only one study reported on epigenetic modifications of the important legume crop, common bean, and its interaction with the fungal rust pathogen Uromyces appendiculatus prior to this project. We measured the total active HDACs levels in leaf tissues and observed expression patterns for the selected HDAC genes at 0, 12, and 84 hours after inoculation in mock inoculated and inoculated plants. Colorimetric analysis showed that the total amount of HDACs present in the leaf tissue decreased at 12 hours in inoculated plants compared to mock inoculated control plants. Gene expression analyses indicated that the expression pattern of gene PvSRT1 is similar to the trend of total active HDACs in this time course experiment. Gene PvHDA6 showed increased expression in the inoculated plants during the time points measured. This is one of the first attempts to study expression levels of HDACs in economically important legumes in the context of plant pathogen interactions. Findings from our study will be helpful to understand trends of total active HDACs and expression patterns of these genes under study during biotic stress. PMID:26824033

  20. Histone deacetylase-2 is a key regulator of diabetes- and transforming growth factor-beta1-induced renal injury.

    PubMed

    Noh, Hyunjin; Oh, Eun Young; Seo, Ji Yeon; Yu, Mi Ra; Kim, Young Ok; Ha, Hunjoo; Lee, Hi Bahl

    2009-09-01

    Excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the kidneys and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of renal tubular epithelial cells contributes to the renal fibrosis that is associated with diabetic nephropathy. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) determines the acetylation status of histones and thereby controls the regulation of gene expression. This study examined the effect of HDAC inhibition on renal fibrosis induced by diabetes or transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 and determined the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as mediators of HDAC activation. In streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic kidneys and TGF-beta1-treated normal rat kidney tubular epithelial cells (NRK52-E), we found that trichostatin A, a nonselective HDAC inhibitor, decreased mRNA and protein expressions of ECM components and prevented EMT. Valproic acid and class I-selective HDAC inhibitor SK-7041 also showed similar effects in NRK52-E cells. Among the six HDACs tested (HDAC-1 through -5 and HDAC-8), HDAC-2 activity significantly increased in the kidneys of STZ-induced diabetic rats and db/db mice and TGF-beta1-treated NRK52-E cells. Levels of mRNA expression of fibronectin and alpha-smooth muscle actin were decreased, whereas E-cadherin mRNA was increased when HDAC-2 was knocked down using RNA interference in NRK52-E cells. Interestingly, hydrogen peroxide increased HDAC-2 activity, and the treatment with an antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine, almost completely reduced TGF-beta1-induced activation of HDAC-2. These findings suggest that HDAC-2 plays an important role in the development of ECM accumulation and EMT in diabetic kidney and that ROS mediate TGF-beta1-induced activation of HDAC-2. PMID:19553350

  1. Histone deacetylase inhibitors prevent pulmonary endothelial hyperpermeability and acute lung injury by regulating heat shock protein 90 function.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Atul D; Barabutis, Nektarios; Birmpas, Charalampos; Dimitropoulou, Christiana; Thangjam, Gagan; Cherian-Shaw, Mary; Dennison, John; Catravas, John D

    2015-12-15

    Transendothelial hyperpermeability caused by numerous agonists is dependent on heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) and leads to endothelial barrier dysfunction (EBD). Inhibition of Hsp90 protects and restores transendothelial permeability. Hyperacetylation of Hsp90, as by inhibitors of histone deacetylase (HDAC), suppresses its chaperone function and mimics the effects of Hsp90 inhibitors. In this study we assessed the role of HDAC in mediating lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced transendothelial hyperpermeability and acute lung injury (ALI). We demonstrate that HDAC inhibition protects against LPS-mediated EBD. Inhibition of multiple HDAC by the general inhibitors panobinostat or trichostatin provided protection against LPS-induced transendothelial hyperpermeability, acetylated and suppressed Hsp90 chaperone function, and attenuated RhoA activity and signaling crucial to endothelial barrier function. Treatment with the HDAC3-selective inhibitor RGFP-966 or the HDAC6-selective inhibitor tubastatin A provided partial protection against LPS-mediated transendothelial hyperpermeability. Similarly, knock down of HDAC3 and HDAC6 by specific small-interfering RNAs provided significant protection against LPS-induced EBD. Furthermore, combined pharmacological inhibition of both HDAC3 and -6 attenuated the inflammation, capillary permeability, and structural abnormalities associated with LPS-induced ALI in mice. Together these data indicate that HDAC mediate increased transendothelial hyperpermeability caused by LPS and that inhibition of HDAC protects against LPS-mediated EBD and ALI by suppressing Hsp90-dependent RhoA activity and signaling. PMID:26498249

  2. The C. elegans histone deacetylase HDA-1 is required for cell migration and axon pathfinding.

    PubMed

    Zinovyeva, Anna Y; Graham, Serena M; Cloud, Veronica J; Forrester, Wayne C

    2006-01-01

    Histone proteins play integral roles in chromatin structure and function. Histones are subject to several types of posttranslational modifications, including acetylation, which can produce transcriptional activation. The converse, histone deacetylation, is mediated by histone deacetylases (HDACs) and often is associated with transcriptional silencing. We identified a new mutation, cw2, in the Caenorhabditis elegans hda-1 gene, which encodes a histone deacetylase. Previous studies showed that a mutation in hda-1, e1795, or reduction of hda-1 RNA by RNAi causes defective vulval and gonadal development leading to sterility. The hda-1(cw2) mutation causes defective vulval development and reduced fertility, like hda-1(e1795), albeit with reduced severity. Unlike the previously reported hda-1 mutation, hda-1(cw2) mutants are viable as homozygotes, although many die as embryos or larvae, and are severely uncoordinated. Strikingly, in hda-1(cw2) mutants, axon pathfinding is defective; specific axons often appear to wander randomly or migrate in the wrong direction. In addition, the long range migrations of three neuron types and fasciculation of the ventral nerve cord are defective. Together, our studies define a new role for HDA-1 in nervous system development, and provide the first evidence for HDAC function in regulating neuronal axon guidance. PMID:16313898

  3. HDAC inhibition imparts beneficial transgenerational effects in Huntington's disease mice via altered DNA and histone methylation

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Haiqun; Morris, Charles D.; Williams, Roy M.; Loring, Jeanne F.; Thomas, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence has demonstrated that epigenetic factors can profoundly influence gene expression and, in turn, influence resistance or susceptibility to disease. Epigenetic drugs, such as histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, are finding their way into clinical practice, although their exact mechanisms of action are unclear. To identify mechanisms associated with HDAC inhibition, we performed microarray analysis on brain and muscle samples treated with the HDAC1/3-targeting inhibitor, HDACi 4b. Pathways analyses of microarray datasets implicate DNA methylation as significantly associated with HDAC inhibition. Further assessment of DNA methylation changes elicited by HDACi 4b in human fibroblasts from normal controls and patients with Huntington’s disease (HD) using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip revealed a limited, but overlapping, subset of methylated CpG sites that were altered by HDAC inhibition in both normal and HD cells. Among the altered loci of Y chromosome-linked genes, KDM5D, which encodes Lys (K)-specific demethylase 5D, showed increased methylation at several CpG sites in both normal and HD cells, as well as in DNA isolated from sperm from drug-treated male mice. Further, we demonstrate that first filial generation (F1) offspring from drug-treated male HD transgenic mice show significantly improved HD disease phenotypes compared with F1 offspring from vehicle-treated male HD transgenic mice, in association with increased Kdm5d expression, and decreased histone H3 Lys4 (K4) (H3K4) methylation in the CNS of male offspring. Additionally, we show that overexpression of Kdm5d in mutant HD striatal cells significantly improves metabolic deficits. These findings indicate that HDAC inhibitors can elicit transgenerational effects, via cross-talk between different epigenetic mechanisms, to have an impact on disease phenotypes in a beneficial manner. PMID:25535382

  4. Structure-based optimization of phenylbutyrate-derived histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qiang; Wang, Da-Sheng; Chen, Chang-Shi; Hu, Yuan-Dong; Chen, Ching-Shih

    2005-08-25

    Previously, we developed a strategy to develop a novel class of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors by tethering short-chain fatty acids with Zn(2+)-chelating motifs, which led to N-hydroxy-4-(4-phenylbutyryl-amino)benzamide (HTPB), a hydroxamate-tethered phenylbutyrate derivative with sub-micromolar potency in inhibiting HDAC activity and cancer cell proliferation. In this study, we carried out structure-based optimization of HTPB by using the framework generated by the structure of histone deacetylase-like protein (HDLP)-trichostatin A (TSA) complexes. Docking of HTPB into the HDLP binding domain suggested that the hydrophobic microenvironment encompassed by Phe-198 and Phe-200 could be exploited for structural optimization. This premise was corroborated by the greater potency of (S)-(+)-N-hydroxy-4-(3-methyl-2-phenylbutyrylamino)-benzamide [(S)-11] (IC(50) in HDAC inhibition, 16 nM), of which the isopropyl moiety was favorable in interacting with this hydrophobic motif. (S)-11 at concentrations as low as 0.1 microM was effective in causing histone hyperacetylation and p21(WAF/CIP1) overexpression and suppressing proliferation in cancer cells. PMID:16107152

  5. Computer-aided identification of new histone deacetylase 6 selective inhibitor with anti-sepsis activity.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jakyung; Kim, So-Jin; Son, Dohyun; Seo, Heewon; Baek, Seung Yeop; Maeng, Cheol-Young; Lee, Changsik; Kim, In Su; Jung, Young Hoon; Lee, Sun-Mee; Park, Hyun-Ju

    2016-06-30

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been recognized as promising approaches to the treatment of various human diseases including cancer, inflammation, neurodegenerative diseases, and metabolic disorders. Several pan-HDAC inhibitors are currently approved only as anticancer drugs. Interestingly, SAHA (vorinostat), one of clinically available pan-HDAC inhibitors, shows an anti-inflammatory effect at concentrations lower than those required for inhibition of tumor cell growth. It was also reported that HDAC6 selective inhibitor tubastatin A has anti-inflammatory and anti-rheumatic effect. In our efforts to develop novel HDAC inhibitors, we rationally designed various HDAC inhibitors based on the structures of two hit compounds identified by virtual screening of chemical database. Among them, 9a ((E)-N-hydroxy-4-(2-styrylthiazol-4-yl)butanamide) was identified as a HDAC6 selective inhibitor (IC50 values of 0.199 μM for HDAC6 versus 13.8 μM for HDAC1), and it did not show significant cytotoxicity against HeLa cells. In vivo biological evaluation of 9a was conducted on a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mouse model of sepsis. The compound 9a significantly improved 40% survival rate (P = 0.0483), and suppressed the LPS-induced increase of TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expression in the liver of mice. Our study identified novel HDAC6 selective inhibitor 9a, which may serve as a potential lead for the development of anti-inflammatory or anti-sepsis agents. PMID:27060764

  6. Decreased histone deacetylase 2 impairs Nrf2 activation by oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Mercado, Nicolas; Thimmulappa, Rajesh; Thomas, Catherine M.R.; Fenwick, Peter S.; Chana, Kirandeep K.; Donnelly, Louise E.; Biswal, Shyam; Ito, Kazuhiro; Barnes, Peter J.

    2011-03-11

    Research highlights: {yields} Nrf2 anti-oxidant function is impaired when HDAC activity is inhibited. {yields} HDAC inhibition decreases Nrf2 protein stability. {yields} HDAC2 is involved in reduced Nrf2 stability and both correlate in COPD samples. {yields} HDAC inhibition increases Nrf2 acetylation. -- Abstract: Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays a crucial role in cellular defence against oxidative stress by inducing the expression of multiple anti-oxidant genes. However, where high levels of oxidative stress are observed, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), Nrf2 activity is reduced, although the molecular mechanism for this defect is uncertain. Here, we show that down-regulation of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 2 causes Nrf2 instability, resulting in reduced anti-oxidant gene expression and increase sensitivity to oxidative stress. Although Nrf2 protein was clearly stabilized after hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) stimulation in a bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS2B), Nrf2 stability was decreased and Nrf2 acetylation increased in the presence of an HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA). TSA also reduced Nrf2-regulated heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in these cells, and this was confirmed in acute cigarette-smoke exposed mice in vivo. HDAC2 knock-down by RNA interference resulted in reduced H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced Nrf2 protein stability and activity in BEAS2B cells, whereas HDAC1 knockdown had no effect. Furthermore, monocyte-derived macrophages obtained from healthy volunteers (non-smokers and smokers) and COPD patients showed a significant correlation between HDAC2 expression and Nrf2 expression (r = 0.92, p < 0.0001). Thus, reduced HDAC2 activity in COPD may account for increased Nrf2 acetylation, reduced Nrf2 stability and impaired anti oxidant defences.

  7. Histone deacetylase inhibition suppresses myogenin-dependent atrogene activation in spinal muscular atrophy mice

    PubMed Central

    Bricceno, Katherine V.; Sampognaro, Paul J.; Van Meerbeke, James P.; Sumner, Charlotte J.; Fischbeck, Kenneth H.; Burnett, Barrington G.

    2012-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disease caused by mutations in the survival of motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene and deficient expression of the ubiquitously expressed SMN protein. Pathologically, SMA is characterized by motor neuron loss and severe muscle atrophy. During muscle atrophy, the E3 ligase atrogenes, atrogin-1 and muscle ring finger 1 (MuRF1), mediate muscle protein breakdown through the ubiquitin proteasome system. Atrogene expression can be induced by various upstream regulators. During acute denervation, they are activated by myogenin, which is in turn regulated by histone deacetylases 4 and 5. Here we show that atrogenes are induced in SMA model mice and in SMA patient muscle in association with increased myogenin and histone deacetylase-4 (HDAC4) expression. This activation during both acute denervation and SMA disease progression is suppressed by treatment with a histone deacetylase inhibitor; however, this treatment has no effect when atrogene induction occurs independently of myogenin. These results indicate that myogenin-dependent atrogene induction is amenable to pharmacological intervention with histone deacetylase inhibitors and help to explain the beneficial effects of these agents on SMA and other denervating diseases. PMID:22798624

  8. Therapeutic Effect of Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, Sodium Butyrate, on Allergic Rhinitis In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Wen, Liting; Wang, Ye; Chen, Fuquan

    2016-04-01

    Despite the well-documented therapeutic effects of histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) on various diseases, including arthritis and asthma, the therapeutic effect of HDACi on allergic rhinitis remains unmentioned in the literature. This study investigated the therapeutic effect of sodium butyrate (SoB), a form of HDACi, on mice with allergic rhinitis. The results showed that the expression levels of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1), histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3), and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) were significantly upregulated in mice with allergic rhinitis, whereas H3 acetylation at lysine 9 (H3AcK9) was decreased. The intranasal application of SoB inhibited the expression levels of TSLP levels and upregulated the expression of H3AcK9 in a mouse model of allergic rhinitis. Furthermore, SoB treatment significantly decreased the increased levels of ovalbumin-specific IgE and improved clinical symptoms and nasal mucosa epithelial morphology in the mouse model of allergic rhinitis. In addition, we further demonstrated that SoB treatment significantly increased the serum levels of IL-2 and IFN-γ and decreased the serum levels of IL-4 and IL-10, correcting the Th1/Th2 imbalance in the mouse model of allergic rhinitis. Taken together, our study suggests that SoB has the potential to treat allergic rhinitis. PMID:26859163

  9. Histone deacetylase inhibitors induce apoptosis in both Type I and Type II endometrial cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shujuan; Dowdy, Sean C.; Meng, Xue W.; Wang, Zhaoyu; Jones, Monica B.; Podratz, Karl C.; Jiang, Shi-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Objective To characterize the molecular pathways involved in apoptosis following administration of histone deacetylase inhibitors to Type I and II endometrial cancer cells. Methods Ark2, Ishikawa, and AN3 cell lines representing both Type I and II endometrial cancers were treated with various concentrations of oxamflatin and HDAC inhibitor-1. Cell apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry, nuclear staining, Western blotting, and mitochondrial membrane potential assays. Results Compared to controls, there was a 95% reduction in the growth of Ark2 cells following administration of histone deacetylase inhibitors and this response was dose-dependent. These agents also caused profound morphologic changes and loss of mitochondrial membrane potentials consistent with the induction of apoptosis. Cleavage of PARP, caspase-9, and caspase-8 was detected, confirming the activation of apoptotic cascades in endometrial carcinoma cells. This effect was present in both serous and endometrioid cell types. Conclusion Our results suggest that oxamflatin and HDAC inhibitor-1 have potent cytotoxicity in endometrial cancer cells by inducing cell apoptosis. Histone deacetylase inhibitors are promising agents for the treatment of both Type I and II endometrial carcinoma. PMID:17303224

  10. A Chimeric SERM-Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Approach to Breast Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Hitisha K.; Siklos, Marton I.; Abdelkarim, Hazem; Mendonca, Emma L.; Vaidya, Aditya; Petukhov, Pavel A.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer remains a significant cause of death in women and few therapeutic options exist for estrogen receptor negative ER(−) cancers. Epigenetic re-activation of target genes using histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors has been proposed in ER(−) cancers to resensitize to therapy using selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) that are effective in ER(+) cancer treatment. Based upon preliminary studies in ER(+) and ER(−) breast cancer cells treated with combinations of HDAC inhibitors and SERMs, hybrid drugs were designed with computational guidance. Assay for inhibition of four Type I HDAC isoforms and antagonism of estrogenic activity in two cell lines yielded a “SERMostat” with 1–3 μM potency across all targets. The superior hybrid caused significant cell death in ER(−) human breast cancer cells and elicited cell death at the same concentration as the parent SERM in combination treatment and at an earlier time point. PMID:23956109

  11. Chemical Inhibition of Histone Deacetylases 1 and 2 Induces Fetal Hemoglobin through Activation of GATA2

    PubMed Central

    Golonzhka, Olga; Chonkar, Apurva; Tamang, David; van Duzer, John H.; Jones, Simon S.; Jarpe, Matthew B.

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic intervention aimed at reactivation of fetal hemoglobin protein (HbF) is a promising approach for ameliorating sickle cell disease (SCD) and β-thalassemia. Previous studies showed genetic knockdown of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 1 or 2 is sufficient to induce HbF. Here we show that ACY-957, a selective chemical inhibitor of HDAC1 and 2 (HDAC1/2), elicits a dose and time dependent induction of γ-globin mRNA (HBG) and HbF in cultured primary cells derived from healthy individuals and sickle cell patients. Gene expression profiling of erythroid progenitors treated with ACY-957 identified global changes in gene expression that were significantly enriched in genes previously shown to be affected by HDAC1 or 2 knockdown. These genes included GATA2, which was induced greater than 3-fold. Lentiviral overexpression of GATA2 in primary erythroid progenitors increased HBG, and reduced adult β-globin mRNA (HBB). Furthermore, knockdown of GATA2 attenuated HBG induction by ACY-957. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and sequencing (ChIP-Seq) of primary erythroid progenitors demonstrated that HDAC1 and 2 occupancy was highly correlated throughout the GATA2 locus and that HDAC1/2 inhibition led to elevated histone acetylation at well-known GATA2 autoregulatory regions. The GATA2 protein itself also showed increased binding at these regions in response to ACY-957 treatment. These data show that chemical inhibition of HDAC1/2 induces HBG and suggest that this effect is mediated, at least in part, by histone acetylation-induced activation of the GATA2 gene. PMID:27073918

  12. Histone deacetylases are required for amphibian tail and limb regeneration but not development.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Amy J; Beck, Caroline W

    2012-01-01

    Amphibians such as Xenopus laevis and Ambystoma mexicanum are capable of whole structure regeneration. However, transcriptional control over these events is not well understood. Here, we investigate the role of histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes in regeneration using HDAC inhibitors. The class I/II HDAC inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) inhibits tail regeneration in embryos of the anuran amphibian Xenopus laevis, confirming a recent report by others (Tseng et al., 2011). This inhibition correlates with a sixfold reduction in endogenous HDAC activity. VPA also inhibited tail regeneration in post-refractory stage Xenopus larvae and larvae of the urodele A. mexicanum (axolotl). Furthermore, Xenopus limb regeneration was also significantly impaired by post-amputation treatment with VPA, suggesting a general requirement for HDAC activity in the process of appendage regeneration in amphibians. The most potent inhibition of tail regeneration was observed following treatment with VPA during the wound healing, pre-blastema phase. A second HDAC inhibitor, sodium butyrate, was also shown to inhibit tail regeneration. While both VPA and sodium butyrate are reported to block sodium channel function as well as HDACs, regeneration was not inhibited by valpromide, an analogue of VPA that lacks HDAC inhibition but retains sodium channel blocking activity. Finally, although VPA is a known teratogen, we show that neither tailbud nor limb bud development are affected by exposure to this compound. We conclude that histone deacetylation is specifically required for the earliest events in appendage regeneration in amphibians, and suggest that this may act as a switch to trigger re-expression of developmental genes. PMID:22947425

  13. The Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Trichostatin A Promotes Totipotency in the Male Gametophyte[W

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Soriano, Mercedes; Cordewener, Jan; Muiño, Jose M.; Riksen, Tjitske; Fukuoka, Hiroyuki; Angenent, Gerco C.; Boutilier, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The haploid male gametophyte, the pollen grain, is a terminally differentiated structure whose function ends at fertilization. Plant breeding and propagation widely use haploid embryo production from in vitro–cultured male gametophytes, but this technique remains poorly understood at the mechanistic level. Here, we show that histone deacetylases (HDACs) regulate the switch to haploid embryogenesis. Blocking HDAC activity with trichostatin A (TSA) in cultured male gametophytes of Brassica napus leads to a large increase in the proportion of cells that switch from pollen to embryogenic growth. Embryogenic growth is enhanced by, but not dependent on, the high-temperature stress that is normally used to induce haploid embryogenesis in B. napus. The male gametophyte of Arabidopsis thaliana, which is recalcitrant to haploid embryo development in culture, also forms embryogenic cell clusters after TSA treatment. Genetic analysis suggests that the HDAC protein HDA17 plays a role in this process. TSA treatment of male gametophytes is associated with the hyperacetylation of histones H3 and H4. We propose that the totipotency of the male gametophyte is kept in check by an HDAC-dependent mechanism and that the stress treatments used to induce haploid embryo development in culture impinge on this HDAC-dependent pathway. PMID:24464291

  14. A novel histone deacetylase 1 and 2 isoform-specific inhibitor alleviates experimental Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Choong, Chi-Jing; Sasaki, Tsutomu; Hayakawa, Hideki; Yasuda, Toru; Baba, Kousuke; Hirata, Yoshiyuki; Uesato, Shinichi; Mochizuki, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    With increased histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity and histone hypoacetylation being implicated in neurodegeneration, HDAC inhibitors have been reported to have considerable therapeutic potential. Yet, existing inhibitors lack specificity and may show substantial adverse effect. In this study, we identified a novel HDAC1/2 isoform-specific inhibitor, K560, with protective effects against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+))- and/or 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced neuronal death in both in vitro and in vivo Parkinson's disease model. K560 attenuated cell death induced by MPP(+) in differentiated SH-SY5Y cells through the sustained expression of an antiapoptotic protein, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP). Inhibition of XIAP expression by locked nucleic acid antisense oligonucleotides abolished the protective effect of K560. Inactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades, reduced p53 phosphorylation, and down-regulation of p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis on K560 treatment were also observed. Furthermore, pre- and post-oral administration of K560 to mice prevented MPTP-induced loss of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra, suggesting that selective inhibition of HDAC1 and HDAC2 by K560 may pave the way to new strategies for Parkinson's disease treatment. PMID:26545632

  15. A novel histone deacetylase inhibitor Chidamide induces apoptosis of human colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Lin; Chen, Baoan; Qin, Shukui; Li, Suyi; He, Xiangming; Qiu, Shaomin; Zhao, Wei; Zhao, Hong

    2010-02-05

    Many studies have demonstrated that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors induce various tumor cells to undergo apoptosis, and such inhibitors have been used in different clinical trials against different human cancers. In this study, we designed and synthesized a novel HDAC inhibitor, Chidamide. We showed that Chidamide was able to increase the acetylation levels of histone H3 and to inhibit the PI3K/Akt and MAPK/Ras signaling pathways, which resulted in arresting colon cancer cells at the G1 phase of the cell cycle and promoting apoptosis. As a result, the proliferation of colon cancer cells was suppressed in vitro. Our data support the potential application of Chidamide as an anticancer agent in treating colon cancer. Future studies are needed to demonstrate its in vivo efficacy.

  16. The histone deacetylase inhibitor Entinostat enhances polymer-mediated transgene expression in cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Elmer, Jacob J; Christensen, Matthew D; Barua, Sutapa; Lehrman, Jennifer; Haynes, Karmella A; Rege, Kaushal

    2016-06-01

    Eukaryotic cells maintain an immense amount of genetic information by tightly wrapping their DNA around positively charged histones. While this strategy allows human cells to maintain more than 25,000 genes, histone binding can also block gene expression. Consequently, cells express histone acetyl transferases (HATs) to acetylate histone lysines and release DNA for transcription. Conversely, histone deacetylases (HDACs) are employed for restoring the positive charge on the histones, thereby silencing gene expression by increasing histone-DNA binding. It has previously been shown that histones bind and silence viral DNA, while hyperacetylation of histones via HDAC inhibition restores viral gene expression. In this study, we demonstrate that treatment with Entinostat, an HDAC inhibitor, enhances transgene (luciferase) expression by up to 25-fold in human prostate and murine bladder cancer cell lines when used with cationic polymers for plasmid DNA delivery. Entinostat treatment altered cell cycle progression, resulting in a significant increase in the fraction of cells present in the G0/G1 phase at low micromolar concentrations. While this moderate G0/G1 arrest disappeared at higher concentrations, a modest increase in the fraction of apoptotic cells and a decrease in cell proliferation were observed, consistent with the known anticancer effects of the drug. DNase accessibility studies revealed no significant change in plasmid transcriptional availability with Entinostat treatment. However, quantitative PCR studies indicated that Entinostat treatment, at the optimal dose for enhancing transgene expression, led to an increase in the amount of plasmid present in the nucleus in two cancer cell lines. Taken together, our results show that Entinostat enhances polymer- mediated transgene expression and can be useful in applications related to transient protein expression in mammalian cells. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1345-1356. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26614912

  17. Polyaminohydroxamic Acids and Polyaminobenzamides as Isoform Selective Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors§

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Sheeba; Senanayake, Thulani; Murray-Stewart, Tracey; Doering, Kim; Fraser, Alison; Casero, Robert A.; Woster, Patrick M.

    2013-01-01

    A series of polyaminohydroxamic acids (PAHAs) and polyaminobenzamides (PABAs) were synthesized and evaluated as isoform-selective histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. These analogues contain a polyamine chain to increase affinity for chromatin and facilitate cellular import. Seven PAHAs inhibited HDAC >50% (1 µM), and two PABAs inhibited HDAC >50% (5 µM). Compound 17 increased acetylated α-tubulin in HCT116 colon tumor cells 253-fold but only modestly increased p21waf1 and acetylated histones 3 and 4, suggesting that 17 selectively inhibits HDAC 6. PABA 22 alone minimally increased p21waf1 and acetylated histones 3 and 4 but caused dose-dependent increases in p21waf1 in combination with 0.1 µM 5-azadeoxycytidine. Finally, 22 appeared to be a substrate for the polyamine transport system. None of these compounds were cytotoxic at 100 µM. PAHAs and PABAs exhibit strikingly different cellular effects from SAHA and have the potential for use in combination antitumor therapies with reduced toxicity. PMID:18348516

  18. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Antagonize Distinct Pathways to Suppress Tumorigenesis of Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Vleeshouwer-Neumann, Terra; Phelps, Michael; Bammler, Theo K.; MacDonald, James W.; Jenkins, Isaac; Chen, Eleanor Y.

    2015-01-01

    Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS) is the most common soft tissue cancer in children. The prognosis of patients with relapsed or metastatic disease remains poor. ERMS genomes show few recurrent mutations, suggesting that other molecular mechanisms such as epigenetic regulation might play a major role in driving ERMS tumor biology. In this study, we have demonstrated the diverse roles of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in the pathogenesis of ERMS by characterizing effects of HDAC inhibitors, trichostatin A (TSA) and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA; also known as vorinostat) in vitro and in vivo. TSA and SAHA suppress ERMS tumor growth and progression by inducing myogenic differentiation as well as reducing the self-renewal and migratory capacity of ERMS cells. Differential expression profiling and pathway analysis revealed downregulation of key oncogenic pathways upon HDAC inhibitor treatment. By gain-of-function, loss-of-function, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) studies, we show that Notch1- and EphrinB1-mediated pathways are regulated by HDACs to inhibit differentiation and enhance migratory capacity of ERMS cells, respectively. Our study demonstrates that aberrant HDAC activity plays a major role in ERMS pathogenesis. Druggable targets in the molecular pathways affected by HDAC inhibitors represent novel therapeutic options for ERMS patients. PMID:26636678

  19. Histone deacetylase inhibition reduces hypothyroidism-induced neurodevelopmental defects in rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Praveen; Mohan, Vishwa; Sinha, Rohit Anthony; Chagtoo, Megha; Godbole, Madan M

    2015-11-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) through its receptor (TRα/β) influences spatio-temporal regulation of its target gene repertoire during brain development. Though hypothyroidism in WT rodent models of perinatal hypothyroidism severely impairs neurodevelopment, its effect on TRα/β knockout mice is less severe. An explanation to this paradox is attributed to a possible repressive action of unliganded TRs during development. Since unliganded TRs suppress gene expression through the recruitment of histone deacetylase (HDACs) via co-repressor complexes, we tested whether pharmacological inhibition of HDACs may prevent the effects of hypothyroidism on brain development. Using valproate, an HDAC inhibitor, we show that HDAC inhibition significantly blocks the deleterious effects of hypothyroidism on rat cerebellum, evident by recovery of TH target genes like Bdnf, Pcp2 and Mbp as well as improved dendritic structure of cerebellar Purkinje neurons. Together with this, HDAC inhibition also rescues hypothyroidism-induced motor and cognitive defects. This study therefore provides an insight into the role of HDACs in TH insufficiency during neurodevelopment and their inhibition as a possible therapeutics for treatment. PMID:26427529

  20. Interference of the Histone Deacetylase Inhibits Pollen Germination and Pollen Tube Growth in Picea wilsonii Mast

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Junhui; Li, Xiaojuan

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) is a crucial component in the regulation of gene expression in various cellular processes in animal and plant cells. HDAC has been reported to play a role in embryogenesis. However, the effect of HDAC on androgamete development remains unclear, especially in gymnosperms. In this study, we used the HDAC inhibitors trichostatin A (TSA) and sodium butyrate (NaB) to examine the role of HDAC in Picea wilsonii pollen germination and pollen tube elongation. Measurements of the tip-focused Ca2+ gradient revealed that TSA and NaB influenced this gradient. Immunofluorescence showed that actin filaments were disrupted into disorganized fragments. As a result, the vesicle trafficking was disturbed, as determined by FM4-64 labeling. Moreover, the distribution of pectins and callose in cell walls was significantly altered in response to TSA and NaB. Our results suggest that HDAC affects pollen germination and polarized pollen tube growth in Picea wilsonii by affecting the intracellular Ca2+ concentration gradient, actin organization patterns, vesicle trafficking, as well as the deposition and configuration of cell wall components. PMID:26710276

  1. Interference of the Histone Deacetylase Inhibits Pollen Germination and Pollen Tube Growth in Picea wilsonii Mast.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yaning; Ling, Yu; Zhou, Junhui; Li, Xiaojuan

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) is a crucial component in the regulation of gene expression in various cellular processes in animal and plant cells. HDAC has been reported to play a role in embryogenesis. However, the effect of HDAC on androgamete development remains unclear, especially in gymnosperms. In this study, we used the HDAC inhibitors trichostatin A (TSA) and sodium butyrate (NaB) to examine the role of HDAC in Picea wilsonii pollen germination and pollen tube elongation. Measurements of the tip-focused Ca2+ gradient revealed that TSA and NaB influenced this gradient. Immunofluorescence showed that actin filaments were disrupted into disorganized fragments. As a result, the vesicle trafficking was disturbed, as determined by FM4-64 labeling. Moreover, the distribution of pectins and callose in cell walls was significantly altered in response to TSA and NaB. Our results suggest that HDAC affects pollen germination and polarized pollen tube growth in Picea wilsonii by affecting the intracellular Ca2+ concentration gradient, actin organization patterns, vesicle trafficking, as well as the deposition and configuration of cell wall components. PMID:26710276

  2. Cyclic Equibiaxial Tensile Strain Alters Gene Expression of Chondrocytes via Histone Deacetylase 4 Shuttling

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chongwei; Wei, Xiaochun; Lv, Zhi; Sun, Xiaojuan; Wang, Shaowei; Zhang, Yang; Jiao, Qiang; Wang, Xiaohu; Li, Yongping; Wei, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This paper aims to investigate whether equibiaxial tensile strain alters chondrocyte gene expression via controlling subcellular localization of histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4). Materials and Methods Murine chondrocytes transfected with GFP-HDAC4 were subjected to 3 h cyclic equibiaxial tensile strain (CTS, 6% strain at 0.25 Hz) by a Flexcell® FX-5000™ Tension System. Fluorescence microscope and western blot were used to observe subcellular location of HDAC4. The gene expression was analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. The concentration of Glycosaminoglycans in culture medium was quantified by bimethylmethylene blue dye; Collagen II protein was evaluated by western blot. Cells phenotype was identified by immunohistochemistry. Cell viability was evaluated by live-dead cell detect kit. Okadaic acid, an inhibitor of HDAC4 nuclear relocation, was used to further validate whether HDAC4 nuclear relocation plays a role in gene expression in response to tension stimulation. Results 87.5% of HDAC4 was located in the cytoplasm in chondrocytes under no loading condition, but it was relocated to the nucleus after CTS. RT-PCR analysis showed that levels of mRNA for aggrecan, collagen II, LK1 and SOX9 were all increased in chondrocytes subjected to CTS as compared to no loading control chondrocytes; in contrast, the levels of type X collagen, MMP-13, IHH and Runx2 gene expression were decreased in the chondrocytes subjected to CTS as compared to control chondrocytes. Meanwhile, CTS contributed to elevation of glycosaminoglycans and collagen II protein, but did not change collagen I production. When Okadaic acid blocked HDAC4 relocation from the cytoplasm to nucleus, the changes of the chondrocytes induced by CTS were abrogated. There was no chondrocyte dead detected in this study in response to CTS. Conclusions CTS is able to induce HDAC4 relocation from cytoplasm to nucleus. Thus, CTS alters chondrocytes gene expression in association with the relocation of HDAC4 induced by CTS. PMID:27149270

  3. Structures of Metal-Substituted Human Histone Deacetylase 8 Provide Mechanistic Inferences on Biological Function

    SciTech Connect

    Dowling, Daniel P.; Gattis, Samuel G.; Fierke, Carol A.; Christianson, David W.

    2010-08-23

    The metal-dependent histone deacetylases (HDACs) adopt an {alpha}/{beta} protein fold first identified in rat liver arginase. Despite insignificant overall amino acid sequence identity, these enzymes share a strictly conserved metal binding site with divergent metal specificity and stoichiometry. HDAC8, originally thought to be a Zn{sup 2+}-metallohydrolase, exhibits increased activity with Co{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 2+} cofactors based on k{sub cat}/K{sub M} (Gantt, S. L., Gattis, S. G., and Fierke, C. A. (2006) Biochemistry 45, 6170-6178). Here, we report the first X-ray crystal structures of metallo-substituted HDAC8, Co{sup 2+}-HDAC8, D101L Co{sup 2+}-HDAC8, D101L Mn{sup 2+}-HDAC8, and D101L Fe{sup 2+}-HDAC8, each complexed with the inhibitor M344. Metal content of protein samples in solution is confirmed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. For the crystalline enzymes, peaks in Bijvoet difference Fourier maps calculated from X-ray diffraction data collected near the respective elemental absorption edges confirm metal substitution. Additional solution studies confirm incorporation of Cu{sup 2+}; Fe{sup 3+} and Ni{sup 2+} do not bind under conditions tested. The metal dependence of the substrate K{sub M} values and the K{sub i} values of hydroxamate inhibitors that chelate the active site metal are consistent with substrate-metal coordination in the precatalytic Michaelis complex that enhances catalysis. Additionally, although HDAC8 binds Zn{sup 2+} nearly 106-fold more tightly than Fe{sup 2+}, the affinities for both metal ions are comparable to the readily exchangeable metal concentrations estimated in living cells, suggesting that HDAC8 could bind either or both Fe{sup 2+} or Zn{sup 2+} in vivo.

  4. Structures of metal-substituted human histone deacetylase 8 provide mechanistic inferences on biological function .

    PubMed

    Dowling, Daniel P; Gattis, Samuel G; Fierke, Carol A; Christianson, David W

    2010-06-22

    The metal-dependent histone deacetylases (HDACs) adopt an alpha/beta protein fold first identified in rat liver arginase. Despite insignificant overall amino acid sequence identity, these enzymes share a strictly conserved metal binding site with divergent metal specificity and stoichiometry. HDAC8, originally thought to be a Zn(2+)-metallohydrolase, exhibits increased activity with Co(2+) and Fe(2+) cofactors based on k(cat)/K(M) (Gantt, S. L., Gattis, S. G., and Fierke, C. A. (2006) Biochemistry 45, 6170-6178). Here, we report the first X-ray crystal structures of metallo-substituted HDAC8, Co(2+)-HDAC8, D101L Co(2+)-HDAC8, D101L Mn(2+)-HDAC8, and D101L Fe(2+)-HDAC8, each complexed with the inhibitor M344. Metal content of protein samples in solution is confirmed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. For the crystalline enzymes, peaks in Bijvoet difference Fourier maps calculated from X-ray diffraction data collected near the respective elemental absorption edges confirm metal substitution. Additional solution studies confirm incorporation of Cu(2+); Fe(3+) and Ni(2+) do not bind under conditions tested. The metal dependence of the substrate K(M) values and the K(i) values of hydroxamate inhibitors that chelate the active site metal are consistent with substrate-metal coordination in the precatalytic Michaelis complex that enhances catalysis. Additionally, although HDAC8 binds Zn(2+) nearly 10(6)-fold more tightly than Fe(2+), the affinities for both metal ions are comparable to the readily exchangeable metal concentrations estimated in living cells, suggesting that HDAC8 could bind either or both Fe(2+) or Zn(2+) in vivo. PMID:20545365

  5. Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress and Histone Deacetylase-2 Activity in Exacerbations of COPD

    PubMed Central

    Footitt, Joseph; Mallia, Patrick; Durham, Andrew L.; Ho, W. Eugene; Trujillo-Torralbo, Maria-Belen; Telcian, Aurica G.; Del Rosario, Ajerico; Chang, Cheng; Peh, Hong-Yong; Kebadze, Tatiana; Aniscenko, Julia; Stanciu, Luminita; Essilfie-Quaye, Sarah; Ito, Kazuhiro; Barnes, Peter J.; Elkin, Sarah L.; Kon, Onn M.; Wong, W. S. Fred; Adcock, Ian M.; Johnston, Sebastian L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Respiratory virus infections are commonly associated with COPD exacerbations, but little is known about the mechanisms linking virus infection to exacerbations. Pathogenic mechanisms in stable COPD include oxidative and nitrosative stress and reduced activity of histone deacetylase-2 (HDAC2), but their roles in COPD exacerbations is unknown. We investigated oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS) and HDAC2 in COPD exacerbations using experimental rhinovirus infection. Methods Nine subjects with COPD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage II), 10 smokers, and 11 nonsmokers were successfully infected with rhinovirus. Markers of O&NS-associated cellular damage, and inflammatory mediators and proteases were measured in sputum, and HDAC2 activity was measured in sputum and bronchoalveolar macrophages. In an in vitro model, monocyte-derived THP-1 cells were infected with rhinovirus and nitrosylation and activity of HDAC2 was measured. Results Rhinovirus infection induced significant increases in airways inflammation and markers of O&NS in subjects with COPD. O&NS markers correlated with virus load and inflammatory markers. Macrophage HDAC2 activity was reduced during exacerbation and correlated inversely with virus load, inflammatory markers, and nitrosative stress. Sputum macrophage HDAC2 activity pre-infection was inversely associated with sputum virus load and inflammatory markers during exacerbation. Rhinovirus infection of monocytes induced nitrosylation of HDAC2 and reduced HDAC2 activity; inhibition of O&NS inhibited rhinovirus-induced inflammatory cytokines. Conclusions O&NS, airways inflammation, and impaired HDAC2 may be important mechanisms of virus-induced COPD exacerbations. Therapies targeting these mechanisms offer potential new treatments for COPD exacerbations. PMID:25790167

  6. Pharmacological Selectivity Within Class I Histone Deacetylases Predicts Effects on Synaptic Function and Memory Rescue.

    PubMed

    Rumbaugh, Gavin; Sillivan, Stephanie E; Ozkan, Emin D; Rojas, Camilo S; Hubbs, Christopher R; Aceti, Massimiliano; Kilgore, Mark; Kudugunti, Shashi; Puthanveettil, Sathyanarayanan V; Sweatt, J David; Rusche, James; Miller, Courtney A

    2015-09-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are promising therapeutic targets for neurological and psychiatric disorders that impact cognitive ability, but the relationship between various HDAC isoforms and cognitive improvement is poorly understood, particularly in mouse models of memory impairment. A goal shared by many is to develop HDAC inhibitors with increased isoform selectivity in order to reduce unwanted side effects, while retaining procognitive effects. However, studies addressing this tack at the molecular, cellular and behavioral level are limited. Therefore, we interrogated the biological effects of class I HDAC inhibitors with varying selectivity and assessed a subset of these compounds for their ability to regulate transcriptional activity, synaptic function and memory. The HDAC-1, -2, and -3 inhibitors, RGFP963 and RGFP968, were most effective at stimulating synaptogenesis, while the selective HDAC3 inhibitor, RGFP966, with known memory enhancing abilities, had minimal impact. Furthermore, RGFP963 increased hippocampal spine density, while HDAC3 inhibition was ineffective. Genome-wide gene expression analysis by RNA sequencing indicated that RGFP963 and RGFP966 induce largely distinct transcriptional profiles in the dorsal hippocampus of mature mice. The results of bioinformatic analyses were consistent with RGFP963 inducing a transcriptional program that enhances synaptic efficacy. Finally, RGFP963, but not RGFP966, rescued memory in a mouse model of Alzheimer's Disease. Together, these studies suggest that the specific memory promoting properties of class I HDAC inhibitors may depend on isoform selectivity and that certain pathological brain states may be more receptive to HDAC inhibitors that improve network function by enhancing synapse efficacy. PMID:25837283

  7. Active, phosphorylated fingolimod inhibits histone deacetylases and facilitates fear extinction memory

    PubMed Central

    Hait, Nitai C; Wise, Laura E; Allegood, Jeremy C; OBrien, Megan; Avni, Dorit; Reeves, Thomas M; Knapp, Pamela E; Lu, Junyan; Luo, Cheng; Miles, Michael F; Milstien, Sheldon; Lichtman, Aron H; Spiegel, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    FTY720 (fingolimod), an FDA-approved drug for treatment of multiple sclerosis, has beneficial effects in the CNS that are not yet well understood, independent of its effects on immune cell trafficking. We show that FTY720 enters the nucleus, where it is phosphorylated by sphingosine kinase 2 (SphK2), and that nuclear FTY720-P binds and inhibits class I histone deacetylases (HDACs), enhancing specific histone acetylations. FTY720 is also phosphorylated in mice and accumulates in the brain, including the hippocampus, inhibits HDACs and enhances histone acetylation and gene expression programs associated with memory and learning, and rescues memory deficits independently of its immunosuppressive actions. Sphk2?/? mice have lower levels of hippocampal sphingosine-1-phosphate, an endogenous HDAC inhibitor, and reduced histone acetylation, and display deficits in spatial memory and impaired contextual fear extinction. Thus, sphingosine-1-phosphate and SphK2 play specific roles in memory functions and FTY720 may be a useful adjuvant therapy to facilitate extinction of aversive memories. PMID:24859201

  8. Active, phosphorylated fingolimod inhibits histone deacetylases and facilitates fear extinction memory.

    PubMed

    Hait, Nitai C; Wise, Laura E; Allegood, Jeremy C; O'Brien, Megan; Avni, Dorit; Reeves, Thomas M; Knapp, Pamela E; Lu, Junyan; Luo, Cheng; Miles, Michael F; Milstien, Sheldon; Lichtman, Aron H; Spiegel, Sarah

    2014-07-01

    FTY720 (fingolimod), an FDA-approved drug for treatment of multiple sclerosis, has beneficial effects in the CNS that are not yet well understood, independent of its effects on immune cell trafficking. We show that FTY720 enters the nucleus, where it is phosphorylated by sphingosine kinase 2 (SphK2), and that nuclear FTY720-P binds and inhibits class I histone deacetylases (HDACs), enhancing specific histone acetylations. FTY720 is also phosphorylated in mice and accumulates in the brain, including the hippocampus, inhibits HDACs and enhances histone acetylation and gene expression programs associated with memory and learning, and rescues memory deficits independently of its immunosuppressive actions. Sphk2(-/-) mice have lower levels of hippocampal sphingosine-1-phosphate, an endogenous HDAC inhibitor, and reduced histone acetylation, and display deficits in spatial memory and impaired contextual fear extinction. Thus, sphingosine-1-phosphate and SphK2 play specific roles in memory functions and FTY720 may be a useful adjuvant therapy to facilitate extinction of aversive memories. PMID:24859201

  9. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Equipped with Estrogen Receptor Modulation Activity

    PubMed Central

    Gryder, Berkley E.; Rood, Michael K.; Johnson, Kenyetta A.; Patil, Vishal; Raftery, Eric D.; Yao, Li-Pan D.; Rice, Marcie; Azizi, Bahareh; Doyle, Donald F.; Oyelere, Adegboyega K.

    2013-01-01

    We described a set of novel histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) equipped with either an antagonist or an agonist of the estrogen receptor (ER) to confer selective activity against breast cancers. These bifunctional compounds potently inhibit HDAC at nanomolar concentrations, and either agonize or antagonize ERα and ERβ. The ER antagonist activities of tamoxifen-HDACi conjugates (Tam-HDACi) are nearly identical to those of tamoxifen. Conversely, ethynyl-estradiol HDACi conjugates (EED-HDACi) have attenuated ER agonist activities relative to the parent ethynyl-estradiol. In silico docking analysis provides structural basis for the trends of ER agonism/antagonism and ER subtype selectivity. Excitingly, lead Tam-HDACi conjugates show anticancer activity that is selectively more potent against MCF-7 (ERα positive breast) compared to MDA-MB-231 (triple negative breast cancer), DU145 (prostate cancer) or Vero (non-cancerous cell line). This dual-targeting approach illustrates the utility of designing small molecules with an emphasis on cell-type selectivity, not merely improved potency, working towards a higher therapeutic index at the earliest stages of drug development. PMID:23786452

  10. Class II histone deacetylases are associated with VHL-independent regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha.

    PubMed

    Qian, David Z; Kachhap, Sushant K; Collis, Spencer J; Verheul, Henk M W; Carducci, Michael A; Atadja, Peter; Pili, Roberto

    2006-09-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha) plays a critical role in transcriptional gene activation involved in tumor angiogenesis. A novel class of agents, the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, has been shown to inhibit tumor angiogenesis and HIF-1 alpha protein expression. However, the molecular mechanism responsible for this inhibition remains to be elucidated. In the current study, we investigated the molecular link between HIF-1 alpha inhibition and HDAC inhibition. Treatment of the VHL-deficient human renal cell carcinoma cell line UMRC2 with the hydroxamic HDAC inhibitor LAQ824 resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of HIF-1 alpha protein via a VHL-independent mechanism and reduction of HIF-1 alpha transcriptional activity. HIF-1 alpha inhibition by LAQ824 was associated with HIF-1 alpha acetylation and polyubiquitination. HIF-1 alpha immunoprecipitates contained HDAC activity. Then, we tested different classes of HDAC inhibitors with diverse inhibitory activity of class I versus class II HDACs and assessed their capability of targeting HIF-1 alpha. Hydroxamic acid derivatives with known activity against both class I and class II HDACs were effective in inhibiting HIF-1 alpha at low nanomolar concentrations. In contrast, valproic acid and trapoxin were able to inhibit HIF-1 alpha only at concentrations that are effective against class II HDACs. Coimmunoprecipitation studies showed that class II HDAC4 and HDAC6 were associated with HIF-1 alpha protein. Inhibition by small interfering RNA of HDAC4 and HDAC6 reduced HIF-1 alpha protein expression and transcriptional activity. Taken together, these results suggest that class II HDACs are associated with HIF-1 alpha stability and provide a rationale for targeting HIF-1 alpha with HDAC inhibitors against class II isozymes. PMID:16951198

  11. Promoter specific sensitivity to inhibition of histone deacetylases: implications for hormonal gene control, cellular differentiation and cancer.

    PubMed

    Dressel, U; Renkawitz, R; Baniahmad, A

    2000-01-01

    Alterations in histone acetylation status appear to play a central role in the regulation of neoplasia, tumor suppression, cell cycle control, hormone responsiveness and senescence. These alterations of chromatin control gene transcription. The histone acetylation status is regulated by the equilibrium of histone acetyl-transferase activity (HAT) and the histone deacetylase activity (HDAC). Commonly, DNA-transfection assays are used to measure the effect of histone acetylation and deacetylation on gene transcription. Here we have analyzed the response of various viral long terminal repeats and vertebrate promoters to the specific histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA). We show that the activity of many, but not all, promoters is increased upon TSA treatment. Interestingly, the lysozyme promoter exhibited TSA resistance, while the activity of metallothionine, the human growth hormone, and the thymidine kinase promoters was increased. Furthermore, we found that all tested viral promoters are induced by TSA. Analysis of the transcriptional behaviour of the thyroid hormone receptor (TR), the cellular homologue of the v-erbA oncogene, revealed that TSA reduced the gene silencing function but had no influence on the hormone-induced gene activation function of the receptor. These results on gene specific effects, together with the HDAC structural data (1), may be a basis for the development of HDAC inhibitors as antitumor agents. PMID:10810390

  12. Histone deacetylase inhibitor-polymer conjugate nanoparticles for acid-responsive drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Denis, Iza; el Bahhaj, Fatima; Collette, Floraine; Delatouche, Régis; Gueugnon, Fabien; Pouliquen, Daniel; Pichavant, Loic; Héroguez, Valérie; Grégoire, Marc; Bertrand, Philippe; Blanquart, Christophe

    2015-05-01

    We report the synthesis of acid-responsive polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) consisting of a polymer-histone deacetylase inhibitor conjugate. An innovative aspect of this drug delivery particle lies in the NP conjugation of a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, CI-994 (Tacedinaline), introduced with a clickable acid-responsive prodrug during monomer synthesis, prior to polymerization. Another novelty lies in the selected norbornene (NB)-polyethylene oxide (PEO) macromonomer allowing standardization of the polymerization process by Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization (ROMP) and functionalization through azide-alkyne click chemistry. Herein we demonstrate that the synthesized polymer gave 300 nm core-shell spherical nanoparticles with low dispersity (0.04), high water dispersability thanks to the PEO shell and well controlled HDAC inhibitor prodrug loading. Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (BRET) assay in living cells and viability experiments demonstrated efficient cellular internalization without additional chemistry, drug release inside cells with restoration of the HDAC inhibition and induction of apoptosis. Such NPs should minimize drug release in vivo during blood circulation and trigger intracellular delivery after endocytosis, holding promises for improved efficacy of this class of epigenetic inhibitors. This standardized synthesis paves the way for multifunctional nanoparticles synthesis. PMID:25827403

  13. Antioxidant, lipoxygenase and histone deacetylase inhibitory activities of Acridocarbus orientalis from Al Ain and Oman.

    PubMed

    Ksiksi, Taoufik; Hamza, Alaaeldin A

    2012-01-01

    Acridocarpus orientalis (AO) is a traditional medicinal plant used for treatment of inflammatory diseases that may have potential in cancer treatment. In the present study, the aqueous ethanolic crude extract of Acridocarpus aerial parts obtained from Al Ain and Oman were evaluated for their antioxidant capability, polyphenolic content, anti-lipoxygenase and anti-histone deacetylase (HDAC) properties. The total antioxidant capacity was estimated by the FRAP, DPPH, ABTS and b-carotene bleaching assays. Acridocarpus-Al Ain exhibited the highest polyphenolic content (184.24 mg gallic acid/g) and the best antioxidant activity (1.1, 1.04, 1.14 mmol ascorbic acid equivalent/g in the FRAP, ABTS and DPPH assays, respectively). Additionally, the same extract showed significant anti-inflammatory properties via lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitory activity (IC(50) = 50.58 µg/mL). Acridocarpus-Al Ain also showed the strongest histone deacetylase (HDACs) inhibitory activity (IC(50) = 93.28 µg/mL). The results reported here suggest that there was a significant influence of location and the plant may be considered a good source of compounds with antioxidant, anti-LOX and HDAC properties for therapeutic, nutraceutical and functional food applications. PMID:23095895

  14. An active site tyrosine residue is essential for amidohydrolase but not for esterase activity of a class 2 histone deacetylase-like bacterial enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Moreth, Kristin; Riester, Daniel; Hildmann, Christian; Hempel, René; Wegener, Dennis; Schober, Andreas; Schwienhorst, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    HDACs (histone deacetylases) are considered to be among the most important enzymes that regulate gene expression in eukaryotic cells acting through deacetylation of ϵ-acetyl-lysine residues within the N-terminal tail of core histones. In addition, both eukaryotic HDACs as well as their bacterial counterparts were reported to also act on non-histone targets. However, we are still far from a comprehensive understanding of the biological activities of this ancient class of enzymes. In the present paper, we studied in more detail the esterase activity of HDACs, focussing on the HDAH (histone deacetylase-like amidohydrolase) from Bordetella/Alcaligenes strain FB188. This enzyme was classified as a class 2 HDAC based on sequence comparison as well as functional data. Using chromogenic and fluorogenic ester substrates we show that HDACs such as FB188 HDAH indeed have esterase activity that is comparable with those of known esterases. Similar results were obtained for human HDAC1, 3 and 8. Standard HDAC inhibitors were able to block both activities with similar IC50 values. Interestingly, HDAC inhibitors such as suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) also showed inhibitory activity against porcine liver esterase and Pseudomonas fluorescens lipase. The esterase and the amidohydrolase activity of FB188 HDAH both appear to have the same substrate specificity concerning the acyl moiety. Interestingly, a Y312F mutation in the active site of HDAH obstructed amidohydrolase activity but significantly improved esterase activity, indicating subtle differences in the mechanism of both catalytic activities. Our results suggest that, in principle, HDACs may have other biological roles besides acting as protein deacetylases. Furthermore, data on HDAC inhibitors affecting known esterases indicate that these molecules, which are currently among the most promising drug candidates in cancer therapy, may have a broader target profile requiring further exploration. PMID:17037985

  15. An Isochemogenic Set of Inhibitors To Define the Therapeutic Potential of Histone Deacetylases in β-Cell Protection.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Florence F; Lundh, Morten; Kaya, Taner; McCarren, Patrick; Zhang, Yan-Ling; Chattopadhyay, Shrikanta; Gale, Jennifer P; Galbo, Thomas; Fisher, Stewart L; Meier, Bennett C; Vetere, Amedeo; Richardson, Sarah; Morgan, Noel G; Christensen, Dan Ploug; Gilbert, Tamara J; Hooker, Jacob M; Leroy, Mélanie; Walpita, Deepika; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas; Wagner, Bridget K; Holson, Edward B

    2016-02-19

    Modulation of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity has been implicated as a potential therapeutic strategy for multiple diseases. However, it has been difficult to dissect the role of individual HDACs due to a lack of selective small-molecule inhibitors. Here, we report the synthesis of a series of highly potent and isoform-selective class I HDAC inhibitors, rationally designed by exploiting minimal structural changes to the clinically experienced HDAC inhibitor CI-994. We used this toolkit of isochemogenic or chemically matched inhibitors to probe the role of class I HDACs in β-cell pathobiology and demonstrate for the first time that selective inhibition of an individual HDAC isoform retains beneficial biological activity and mitigates mechanism-based toxicities. The highly selective HDAC3 inhibitor BRD3308 suppressed pancreatic β-cell apoptosis induced by inflammatory cytokines, as expected, or now glucolipotoxic stress, and increased functional insulin release. In addition, BRD3308 had no effect on human megakaryocyte differentiation, while inhibitors of HDAC1 and 2 were toxic. Our findings demonstrate that the selective inhibition of HDAC3 represents a potential path forward as a therapy to protect pancreatic β-cells from inflammatory cytokines and nutrient overload in diabetes. PMID:26640968

  16. Identification of Highly Selective and Potent Histone Deacetylase 3 Inhibitors Using Click Chemistry-Based Combinatorial Fragment Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Takayoshi; Kasuya, Yuki; Itoh, Yukihiro; Ota, Yosuke; Zhan, Peng; Asamitsu, Kaori; Nakagawa, Hidehiko; Okamoto, Takashi; Miyata, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    To find histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3)-selective inhibitors, a series of 504 candidates was assembled using click chemistry, by reacting nine alkynes bearing a zinc-binding group with 56 azide building blocks in the presence of Cu(I) catalyst. Screening of the 504-member triazole library against HDAC3 and other HDAC isozymes led to the identification of potent and selective HDAC3 inhibitors T247 and T326. These compounds showed potent HDAC3 inhibition with submicromolar IC50s, whereas they did not strongly inhibit other isozymes. Compounds T247 and T326 also induced a dose-dependent selective increase of NF-?B acetylation in human colon cancer HCT116 cells, indicating selective inhibition of HDAC3 in the cells. In addition, these HDAC3-selective inhibitors induced growth inhibition of cancer cells, and activated HIV gene expression in latent HIV-infected cells. These findings indicate that HDAC3-selective inhibitors are promising candidates for anticancer drugs and antiviral agents. This work also suggests the usefulness of the click chemistry approach to find isozyme-selective HDAC inhibitors. PMID:23874714

  17. Regulation of Neuronal Gene Expression and Survival by Basal NMDA Receptor Activity: A Role for Histone Deacetylase 4

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yelin; Wang, Yuanyuan; Modrusan, Zora

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal gene expression is modulated by activity via calcium-permeable receptors such as NMDA receptors (NMDARs). While gene expression changes downstream of evoked NMDAR activity have been well studied, much less is known about gene expression changes that occur under conditions of basal neuronal activity. In mouse dissociated hippocampal neuronal cultures, we found that a broad NMDAR antagonist, AP5, induced robust gene expression changes under basal activity, but subtype-specific antagonists did not. While some of the gene expression changes are also known to be downstream of stimulated NMDAR activity, others appear specific to basal NMDAR activity. The genes altered by AP5 treatment of basal cultures were enriched for pathways related to class IIa histone deacetylases (HDACs), apoptosis, and synapse-related signaling. Specifically, AP5 altered the expression of all three class IIa HDACs that are highly expressed in the brain, HDAC4, HDAC5, and HDAC9, and also induced nuclear accumulation of HDAC4. HDAC4 knockdown abolished a subset of the gene expression changes induced by AP5, and led to neuronal death under long-term tetrodotoxin or AP5 treatment in rat hippocampal organotypic slice cultures. These data suggest that basal, but not evoked, NMDAR activity regulates gene expression in part through HDAC4, and, that HDAC4 has neuroprotective functions under conditions of low NMDAR activity. PMID:25392500

  18. Histone deacetylase 4 associates with extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2, and its cellular localization is regulated by oncogenic Ras.

    PubMed

    Zhou, X; Richon, V M; Wang, A H; Yang, X J; Rifkind, R A; Marks, P A

    2000-12-19

    Histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) is a member of a family of enzymes that catalyze the removal of acetyl groups from core histones, resulting in a compact chromatin structure that is generally associated with repressed gene transcription. Protein phosphorylation has been implicated in the regulation of the corepressor activity of the deacetylase. Here we report that serine/threonine kinases are found in association with HDAC4 and phosphorylate HDAC4 in vitro, and HDAC4 is phosphorylated in cells. The extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), also known as p44(MAPK) and p42(MAPK), respectively, are two of the kinases associated with HDAC4. ERK1/2 are components of the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction pathway. Activation of the Ras-MAPK pathway by expression of oncogenic Ras or constitutively active MAPK/ERK kinase 1 results in an increased percentage of cells (from approximately 10% to approximately 70%) that express HDAC4 in the nucleus in C2C12 myoblast cells. In cells transfected with oncogenic Ras, nuclear HDAC4 is associated with kinase activity. Our results provide evidence that protein kinase activity is present in a protein complex with HDAC4 and directly links the Ras-MAPK signal transduction pathway to a mechanism for chromatin remodeling (i.e., histone deacetylation). PMID:11114188

  19. HDAC3 as a molecular chaperone for shuttling phosphorylated TR2 to PML: a novel deacetylase activity-independent function of HDAC3.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Pawan; Ho, Ping-Chih; Ha, Sung Gil; Lin, Yi-Wei; Wei, Li-Na

    2009-01-01

    TR2 is an orphan nuclear receptor specifically expressed in early embryos (Wei and Hsu, 1994), and a transcription factor for transcriptional regulation of important genes in stem cells including the gate keeper Oct4 (Park et al. 2007). TR2 is known to function as an activator (Wei et al. 2000), or a repressor (Chinpaisal et al., 1998, Gupta et al. 2007). Due to the lack of specific ligands, mechanisms triggering its activator or repressor function have remained puzzling for decades. Recently, we found that all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) triggers the activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2), which phosphorylates TR2 and stimulates its partitioning to promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies, thereby converting the activator function of TR2 into repression (Gupta et al. 2008; Park et al. 2007). Recruitment of TR2 to PML is a crucial step in the conversion of TR2 from an activator to a repressor. However, it is unclear how phosphorylated TR2 is recruited to PML, an essential step in converting TR2 from an activator to a repressor. In the present study, we use both in vitro and in vivo systems to address the problem of recruiting TR2 to PML nuclear bodies. First, we identify histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) as an effector molecule. HDAC3 is known to interact with TR2 (Franco et al. 2001) and this interaction is enhanced by the atRA-stimulated phosphorylation of TR2 at Thr-210 (Gupta et al. 2008). Secondly, in this study, we also find that the carrier function of HDAC3 is independent of its deacetylase activity. Thirdly, we find another novel activity of atRA that stimulates nuclear enrichment of HDAC3 to form nuclear complex with PML, which is ERK2 independent. This is the first report identifying a deacetylase-independent function for HDAC3, which serves as a specific carrier molecule that targets a specifically phosphorylated protein to PML NBs. This is also the first study delineating how protein recruitment to PML nuclear bodies occurs, which can be stimulated by atRA in an ERK2-independent manner. These findings could provide new insights into the development of potential therapeutics and in understanding how orphan nuclear receptor activities can be regulated without ligands. PMID:19204783

  20. Class IIa histone deacetylases affect neuronal remodeling and functional outcome after stroke.

    PubMed

    Kassis, Haifa; Shehadah, Amjad; Li, Chao; Zhang, Yi; Cui, Yisheng; Roberts, Cynthia; Sadry, Neema; Liu, Xianshuang; Chopp, Michael; Zhang, Zheng Gang

    2016-06-01

    We have previously demonstrated that stroke induces nuclear shuttling of class IIa histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4). Stroke-induced nuclear shuttling of HDAC4 is positively and significantly correlated with improved indices of neuronal remodeling in the peri-infarct cortex. In this study, using a rat model for middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), we tested the effects of selective inhibition of class IIa HDACs on functional recovery and neuronal remodeling when administered 24hr after stroke. Adult male Wistar rats (n = 15-17/group) were subjected to 2 h MCAO and orally gavaged with MC1568 (a selective class IIa HDAC inhibitor), SAHA (a non-selective HDAC inhibitor), or vehicle-control for 7 days starting 24 h after MCAO. A battery of behavioral tests was performed. Lesion volume measurement and immunohistochemistry were performed 28 days after MCAO. We found that stroke increased total HDAC activity in the ipsilateral hemisphere compared to the contralateral hemisphere. Stroke-increased HDAC activity was significantly decreased by the administration of SAHA as well as by MC1568. However, SAHA significantly improved functional outcome compared to vehicle control, whereas selective class IIa inhibition with MC1568 increased mortality and lesion volume and did not improve functional outcome. In addition, MC1568 decreased microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP2, dendrites), phosphorylated neurofilament heavy chain (pNFH, axons) and myelin basic protein (MBP, myelination) immunoreactivity in the peri-infarct cortex. Quantitative RT-PCR of cortical neurons isolated by laser capture microdissection revealed that MC1568, but not SAHA, downregulated CREB and c-fos expression. Additionally, MC1568 decreased the expression of phosphorylated CREB (active) in neurons. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that selective inhibition of class IIa HDACs impairs neuronal remodeling and neurological outcome. Inactivation of CREB and c-fos by MC1568 likely contributes to this detrimental effect. PMID:27103167

  1. Identification of Histone Deacetylase 2 as a Functional Gene for Skeletal Muscle Development in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Shahjahan, Md.; Liu, Ranran; Zhao, Guiping; Wang, Fangjie; Zheng, Maiqing; Zhang, Jingjing; Song, Jiao; Wen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    A previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) exposed histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) as a possible candidate gene for breast muscle weight in chickens. The present research has examined the possible role of HDAC2 in skeletal muscle development in chickens. Gene expression was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in breast and thigh muscles during both embryonic (four ages) and post-hatch (five ages) development and in cultures of primary myoblasts during both proliferation and differentiation. The expression of HDAC2 increased significantly across embryonic days (ED) in breast (ED 14, 16, 18, and 21) and thigh (ED 14 and 18, and ED 14 and 21) muscles suggesting that it possibly plays a role in myoblast hyperplasia in both breast and thigh muscles. Transcript abundance of HDAC2 identified significantly higher in fast growing muscle than slow growing in chickens at d 90 of age. Expression of HDAC2 during myoblast proliferation in vitro declined between 24 h and 48 h when expression of the marker gene paired box 7 (PAX7) increased and cell numbers increased throughout 72 h of culture. During induced differentiation of myoblasts to myotubes, the abundance of HDAC2 and the marker gene myogenic differentiation 1 (MYOD1), both increased significantly. Taken together, it is suggested that HDAC2 is most likely involved in a suppressive fashion in myoblast proliferation and may play a positive role in myoblast differentiation. The present results confirm the suggestion that HDAC2 is a functional gene for pre-hatch and post-hatch (fast growing muscle) development of chicken skeletal muscle. PMID:26949948

  2. Identification of Histone Deacetylase 2 as a Functional Gene for Skeletal Muscle Development in Chickens.

    PubMed

    Shahjahan, Md; Liu, Ranran; Zhao, Guiping; Wang, Fangjie; Zheng, Maiqing; Zhang, Jingjing; Song, Jiao; Wen, Jie

    2016-04-01

    A previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) exposed histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) as a possible candidate gene for breast muscle weight in chickens. The present research has examined the possible role of HDAC2 in skeletal muscle development in chickens. Gene expression was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in breast and thigh muscles during both embryonic (four ages) and post-hatch (five ages) development and in cultures of primary myoblasts during both proliferation and differentiation. The expression of HDAC2 increased significantly across embryonic days (ED) in breast (ED 14, 16, 18, and 21) and thigh (ED 14 and 18, and ED 14 and 21) muscles suggesting that it possibly plays a role in myoblast hyperplasia in both breast and thigh muscles. Transcript abundance of HDAC2 identified significantly higher in fast growing muscle than slow growing in chickens at d 90 of age. Expression of HDAC2 during myoblast proliferation in vitro declined between 24 h and 48 h when expression of the marker gene paired box 7 (PAX7) increased and cell numbers increased throughout 72 h of culture. During induced differentiation of myoblasts to myotubes, the abundance of HDAC2 and the marker gene myogenic differentiation 1 (MYOD1), both increased significantly. Taken together, it is suggested that HDAC2 is most likely involved in a suppressive fashion in myoblast proliferation and may play a positive role in myoblast differentiation. The present results confirm the suggestion that HDAC2 is a functional gene for pre-hatch and post-hatch (fast growing muscle) development of chicken skeletal muscle. PMID:26949948

  3. Histone deacetylases are critical regulators of the renin-angiotensin system during ureteric bud branching morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Song, Renfang; Van Buren, Thomas; Yosypiv, Ihor V

    2010-06-01

    Mutations in the genes encoding components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in mice or humans cause congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract. We hypothesized that absence of angiotensin (Ang) II in angiotensinogen (AGT)-deficient mice leads to defects in ureteric bud (UB) branching and that RAS genes are critically dependent on histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity. The number of UB tips was lower in AGT-/- compared with AGT+/+ embryonic (E) day E13.5 metanephroi (24+/-1.5 versus 36+/-3.7, p<0.05). Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated that pharmacological inhibition of HDAC activity with Scriptaid increases AGT, renin, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and AT1 receptor (AT1R) mRNA levels in E12.5 mouse metanephroi and early mesenchymal (MK3) cells. Furthermore, Scriptaid enhanced Ang II induced decrease in Sprouty (Spry) 1 gene expression in cultured UB cells. Treatment of intact E12.5 mouse metanephroi grown ex vivo with Ang II (10(-5) M, 24 h) increased HDAC-1 and decreased total acetylated histone H3 protein levels. These findings indicate that lack of endogenous Ang II in AGT-deficient mice inhibits UB branching. We conclude that intact RAS is critical in structural integrity of the renal collecting system and that UB morphogenetic program genes, such as AGT, renin, ACE, AT1R, or Spry1, are epigenetically controlled via HDACs. PMID:20496471

  4. A Novel Histone Deacetylase Complex in the Control of Transcription and Genome Stability

    PubMed Central

    Zilio, Nicola; Codlin, Sandra; Vashisht, Ajay A.; Bitton, Danny A.; Head, Steven R.; Wohlschlegel, James A.; Bähler, Jürg

    2014-01-01

    The acetylation state of histones, controlled by histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and deacetylases (HDACs), profoundly affects DNA transcription and repair by modulating chromatin accessibility to the cellular machinery. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe HDAC Clr6 (human HDAC1) binds to different sets of proteins that define functionally distinct complexes: I, I′, and II. Here, we determine the composition, architecture, and functions of a new Clr6 HDAC complex, I′′, delineated by the novel proteins Nts1, Mug165, and Png3. Deletion of nts1 causes increased sensitivity to genotoxins and deregulated expression of Tf2 elements, long noncoding RNA, and subtelomeric and stress-related genes. Similar, but more pervasive, phenotypes are observed upon Clr6 inactivation, supporting the designation of complex I′′ as a mediator of a key subset of Clr6 functions. We also reveal that with the exception of Tf2 elements, the genome-wide loading sites and loci regulated by Clr6 I″ do not correlate. Instead, Nts1 loads at genes that are expressed in midmeiosis, following oxidative stress, or are periodically expressed. Collective data suggest that Clr6 I′′ has (i) indirect effects on gene expression, conceivably by mediating higher-order chromatin organization of subtelomeres and Tf2 elements, and (ii) direct effects on the transcription of specific genes in response to certain cellular or environmental stimuli. PMID:25002536

  5. Trichostatin A, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, suppresses proliferation and promotes apoptosis of esophageal squamous cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ma, Junfen; Guo, Xiaobing; Zhang, Shijie; Liu, Hongchun; Lu, Jing; Dong, Ziming; Liu, Kangdong; Ming, Liang

    2015-06-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC)‑mediated epigenetic modification plays crucial roles in numerous biological processes, including cell cycle regulation, cell proliferation and apoptosis. HDAC inhibitors demonstrate antitumor effects in various cancers, including glioblastoma and breast cancer. HDAC inhibitors are therefore promising antitumor drugs for these tumors. The tumorigenesis and development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) involve genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. However, the effects of the HDAC inhibitor on ESCC are not fully investigated. In the present study, ESCC cells were treated with trichostatin A (TSA) and its antitumor effects and related mechanisms were investigated. The results indicated that TSA suppressed the proliferation of ESCCs and caused G1 phase arrest by inducing the expression of p21 and p27. TSA also induced cell apoptosis by enhancing the expression of pro‑apoptotic protein Bax and decreasing the expression of anti‑apoptotic protein Bcl‑2. Furthermore, TSA inhibited the expression of phosphatidylinositol‑3‑kinase (PI3K) and reduced the phosphorylation of Akt and extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 in EC9706 and EC1 cell lines. High levels of acetylated histone H4 were detected in TSA‑treated ESCC cell lines. Overall, these results indicate that TSA suppresses ESCC cell growth by inhibiting the activation of the PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 pathways. TSA also promotes cell apoptosis through epigenetic regulation of the expression of apoptosis‑related protein. PMID:25634603

  6. Histone deacetylase 4 increases progressive epithelial ovarian cancer cells via repression of p21 on fibrillar collagen matrices.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yu-Fei; Wei, Ai-Min; Kou, Qing; Zhu, Qiao-Ying; Zhang, Lei

    2016-02-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) 4 is an emerging target in cancer therapeutics, but little is known about the function of HDAC4 in gynecologic malignancies. Therefore we investigated the mechanism of HDAC4 promoting the proliferation of epithelial ovarian cancer cells (OV). In this study, we observed that the proliferation of cells with HDAC4 inhibitor Trichostatin A (TSA) treatment was markedly decreased, Further, we showed that epithelial ovarian cancer tissues with stage III/IV had higher HDAC4 expression, compared to that with stage I/II. We examined first that the HDAC4 expression was increased in response to fibrillar collagen matrices. In addition, we found that HDAC4 was retained in the nucleus by regulation of PP1α, which regulated HDAC4 cellular fraction via phosphorylation of HDAC4. In addition, we found that HDAC4 bound to Sp1 in epithelial ovarian cancer cells. Finally, ovarian cancer cell line OVCAR3 was evaluated via gain/loss-of-function of HDAC4 by either overexpression of HDCA4 or knock-down of HDAC4 with shRNA. We examined both protein and mRNA of p21 by western blotting and qPCR. We performed analysis of colony formation in matrigel and migration by ECIS. Our results suggest that the accumulation of HDAC4 induced by fibrillar collagen matrices in the nucleus via co-localization of PP1α, leads to repression of the mRNA/protein of p21 and in turn promotes the proliferation and migration of epithelial ovarian cancer cells. PMID:26572940

  7. Targeted cancer therapy: giving histone deacetylase inhibitors all they need to succeed

    PubMed Central

    Gryder, Berkley E; Sodji, Quaovi H; Oyelere, Adegboyega K

    2012-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) have now emerged as a powerful new class of small-molecule therapeutics acting through the regulation of the acetylation states of histone proteins (a form of epigenetic modulation) and other non-histone protein targets. Over 490 clinical trials have been initiated in the last 10 years, culminating in the approval of two structurally distinct HDACis – SAHA (vorinostat, Zolinza™) and FK228 (romidepsin, Istodax™). However, the current HDACis have serious limitations, including ineffectively low concentrations in solid tumors and cardiac toxicity, which is hindering their progress in the clinic. Herein, we review the primary paradigms being pursued to overcome these hindrances, including HDAC isoform selectivity, localized administration, and targeting cap groups to achieve selective tissue and cell type distribution. PMID:22416777

  8. Inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum proliferation in vitro by double-stranded RNA directed against malaria histone deacetylase

    SciTech Connect

    Sriwilaijaroen, N.; Boonma, S.; Attasart, P.; Pothikasikorn, J.; Panyim, S.; Noonpakdee, W.

    2009-04-03

    Acetylation and deacetylation of histones play important roles in transcription regulation, cell cycle progression and development events. The steady state status of histone acetylation is controlled by a dynamic equilibrium between competing histone acetylase and deacetylase (HDAC). We have used long PfHDAC-1 double-stranded (ds)RNA to interfere with its cognate mRNA expression and determined the effect on malaria parasite growth and development. Chloroquine- and pyrimethamine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum K1 strain was exposed to 1-25 {mu}g of dsRNA/ml of culture for 48 h and growth was determined by [{sup 3}H]-hypoxanthine incorporation and microscopic examination. Parasite culture treated with 10 {mu}g/ml pfHDAC-1 dsRNA exhibited 47% growth inhibition when compared with either untreated control or culture treated with an unrelated dsRNA. PfHDAC-1 dsRNA specifically blocked maturation of trophozoite to schizont stages and decreased PfHDAC-1 transcript 44% in treated trophozoites. These results indicate the potential of HDAC-1 as a target for development of novel antimalarials.

  9. Histone deacetylase inhibitors decrease Toll-like receptor-mediated activation of proinflammatory gene expression by impairing transcription factor recruitment.

    PubMed

    Bode, Konrad A; Schroder, Kate; Hume, David A; Ravasi, Timothy; Heeg, Klaus; Sweet, Matthew J; Dalpke, Alexander H

    2007-12-01

    Post-translational modifications of histone proteins are major mechanisms that modify chromatin structure and regulate gene expression in eukaryotes. Activation of histone acetyltransferases or inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs) is generally believed to allow chromatin to assume a more open state, permitting transcriptional activity. We report here the surprising observation that treatment of murine dendritic cells with the HDAC inhibitors trichostatin A (TSA) or suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) in non-apoptotic concentrations strongly inhibited induction of both interleukin-12 protein p40 (IL-12p40) mRNA and protein upon stimulation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Moreover, TLR-mediated up-regulation of costimulatory molecules was also inhibited. Up-regulation of tumour necrosis factor-alpha mRNA and protein in response to TLR agonists was only affected upon prolonged exposure to HDAC inhibitors and regulation of IL-1 beta was not affected. Similar effects were apparent in murine and human macrophages. Regarding the mode of action, HDAC inhibition increased the acetylation status at the IL-12p40 locus. Nevertheless, IL-12p40 chromatin remodelling, binding of Rel-A and IRF1 to the IL-12p40 promoter and transcriptional activation were abrogated. In contrast, HDAC inhibitors had no effects on upstream nuclear factor-kappaB and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. Thus HDACs positively regulate the expression of a subset of cytokine genes by enabling transcription factor recruitment. PMID:17635610

  10. Histone deacetylase inhibitory effect of Brazilian propolis and its association with the antitumor effect in Neuro2a cells

    PubMed Central

    Ishiai, Shinobu; Tahara, Wataru; Yamamoto, Etsuko; Yamamoto, Rindai; Nagai, Kaoru

    2014-01-01

    Propolis is a resinous product produced by honey bees and is known to have antitumor functions. On the other hand, histone deacetylase (Hdac) inhibitors have recently attracted attention for their antitumor effects. In this study, we examined whether Brazilian green propolis has an Hdac inhibitory activity and its contribution on antitumor effects. By in vitro Hdac activity assay, Brazilian propolis extract (BPE) significantly inhibited the enzyme activity. Actually, BPE treatment increased the intracellular histone acetylation in Neuro2a cells. Regarding antitumor effect in Neuro2a cells, BPE treatment significantly decreased cell viability. An Hdac activator theophylline significantly attenuated the effect. Then, we analyzed whether the decreasing effect on cell number was caused by cell death or growth retardation. By live/dead cell staining, BPE treatment significantly increased the dead cell number. By cell cycle analysis, BPE treatment retarded cell cycle at the M-phase. Both of these cellular effects were suppressed by addition of theophylline. These data indicate that BPE induced both cell death and growth retardation via Hdac inhibitory activity. We demonstrated that Brazilian propolis bears regulatory functions on histone acetylation via Hdac inhibition, and the effect contributes antitumor functions. Our data suggest that intake of Brazilian propolis shows preventing effects against cancer. PMID:25473514

  11. Hyperbranched polyester-based fluorescent probe for histone deacetylase via aggregation-induced emission.

    PubMed

    Yu, Changmin; Wu, Yinglong; Zeng, Fang; Li, Xizhen; Shi, Jianbin; Wu, Shuizhu

    2013-12-01

    Aberrant expression of histone deacetylases (HDACs) is related to various types of cancer and is associated with increased proliferation of tumor cells. Hence, the detection of HDAC activities is of great significance for medical sciences as well as biological diagnostics. Herein, we report a hyperbranched polyester-based one-step fluorescent assay for HDAC. This assay system consists of two water-soluble components: the hyperbranched polyester coupled with the acetylated lysine groups (H40-Lys(Ac)) and the negatively charged TPE derivative bearing two sulfonic acid groups (TPE-2SO3(-)). HDAC triggers the deacetylation of H40-Lys(Ac), thereby turning the electroneutral polymer into the positively charged one. Consequently, complexation occurs between the positively charged polymer and the negatively charged TPE-2SO3(-), thereby leading to the formation of nanoaggregates due to electrostatic interaction. Eventually, the fluorescence enhancement as a result of AIE effect is achieved. This assay system is operable in aqueous media with very low detection limit of 25 ng/mL. The system is capable of detecting HDAC in such biological fluid as serum, and this strategy may provide a new and effective approach for enzyme assay. PMID:24251690

  12. The tobacco smoke component acrolein induces glucocorticoid resistant gene expression via inhibition of histone deacetylase.

    PubMed

    Randall, Matthew J; Haenen, Guido R M M; Bouwman, Freek G; van der Vliet, Albert; Bast, Aalt

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the leading cause of cigarette smoke-related death worldwide. Acrolein, a crucial reactive electrophile found in cigarette smoke mimics many of the toxic effects of cigarette smoke-exposure in the lung. In macrophages, cigarette smoke is known to hinder histone deacetylases (HDACs), glucocorticoid-regulated enzymes that play an important role in the pathogenesis of glucocorticoid resistant inflammation, a common feature of COPD. Thus, we hypothesize that acrolein plays a role in COPD-associated glucocorticoid resistance. To examine the role of acrolein on glucocorticoid resistance, U937 monocytes, differentiated with PMA to macrophage-like cells were treated with acrolein for 0.5h followed by stimulation with hydrocortisone for 8h, or treated simultaneously with LPS and hydrocortisone for 8h without acrolein. GSH and nuclear HDAC activity were measured, or gene expression was analyzed by qPCR. Acrolein-mediated TNFα gene expression was not suppressed by hydrocortisone whereas LPS-induced TNFα expression was suppressed. Acrolein also significantly inhibited nuclear HDAC activity in macrophage-like cells. Incubation of recombinant HDAC2 with acrolein led to the formation of an HDAC2-acrolein adduct identified by mass spectrometry. Therefore, these results suggest that acrolein-induced inflammatory gene expression is resistant to suppression by the endogenous glucocorticoid, hydrocortisone. PMID:26481333

  13. Impact of histone deacetylase 1 and metastasis-associated gene 1 expression in esophageal carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Tomoharu; Tajima, Hidehiro; Munemoto, Masayoshi; Shah, Furhawn A; Harmon, John W; Watanabe, Toshifumi; Shoji, Masatoshi; Okamoto, Koichi; Nakanuma, Shinichi; Sakai, Seisho; Kinoshita, Jun; Makino, Isamu; Nakamura, Keishi; Hayashi, Hironori; Oyama, Katsunobu; Inokuchi, Masafumi; Nakagawara, Hisatoshi; Takamura, Hiroyuki; Ninomiya, Itasu; Kitagawa, Hirohisa; Fushida, Sachio; Mukaisho, Kenichi; Fujimura, Takashi; Ohta, Tetsuo

    2014-08-01

    Animal models are important for the development of novel therapies for esophageal cancer. Histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1)/metastasis-associated gene (MTA1) complexes inhibit p53 acetylation and thus, inhibit p53-induced apoptosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate HDAC1 and MTA1 expression in esophageal carcinogenesis in rats. The rats underwent a total gastrectomy followed by esophagojejunostomy to induce chronic duodenal content reflux esophagitis. The rats were sacrificed sequentially at 20, 30, 40 and 50 weeks post-surgery and the esophagi were examined. Immunohistochemical analysis was conducted to assess the expression and localization of HDAC1 and MTA1. At 20 weeks post-surgery, squamous proliferative hyperplasia and Barrett's metaplasia (BM) were observed. While, adenocarcinoma-associated BM and squamous cell carcinoma were observed at 30-50 weeks post-surgery. The nuclear expression of HDAC1 and MTA1 was observed in all of the stages of squamous carcinogenesis and adenocarcinogenesis, although not in the normal esophageal epithelium. The expression of HDAC1 and MTA1 may be involved in duodenoesophageal reflux-induced neoplastic transformation of the esophageal mucosa into cancer cells with squamous and adeno differentiation. PMID:25009653

  14. Structural Basis of the Antiproliferative Activity of Largazole a Depsipeptide Inhibitor of the Histone Deacetylases

    SciTech Connect

    K Cole; D Dowling; M Boone; A Phillips; D Christianson

    2011-12-31

    Largazole is a macrocyclic depsipeptide originally isolated from the marine cyanobacterium Symploca sp., which is indigenous to the warm, blue-green waters of Key Largo, Florida (whence largazole derives its name). Largazole contains an unusual thiazoline-thiazole ring system that rigidifies its macrocyclic skeleton, and it also contains a lipophilic thioester side chain. Hydrolysis of the thioester in vivo yields largazole thiol, which exhibits remarkable antiproliferative effects and is believed to be the most potent inhibitor of the metal-dependent histone deacetylases (HDACs). Here, the 2.14 {angstrom}-resolution crystal structure of the HDAC8-largazole thiol complex is the first of an HDAC complexed with a macrocyclic inhibitor and reveals that ideal thiolate-zinc coordination geometry is the key chemical feature responsible for its exceptional affinity and biological activity. Notably, the core structure of largazole is conserved in romidepsin, a depsipeptide natural product formulated as the drug Istodax recently approved for cancer chemotherapy. Accordingly, the structure of the HDAC8-largazole thiol complex is the first to illustrate the mode of action of a new class of therapeutically important HDAC inhibitors.

  15. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors in the Treatment of Muscular Dystrophies: Epigenetic Drugs for Genetic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Consalvi, Silvia; Saccone, Valentina; Giordani, Lorenzo; Minetti, Giulia; Mozzetta, Chiara; Puri, Pier Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    Histone deacetylases inhibitors (HDACi) include a growing number of drugs that share the ability to inhibit the enzymatic activity of some or all the HDACs. Experimental and preclinical evidence indicates that these epigenetic drugs not only can be effective in the treatment of malignancies, inflammatory diseases and degenerative disorders, but also in the treatment of genetic diseases, such as muscular dystrophies. The ability of HDACi to counter the progression of muscular dystrophies points to HDACs as a crucial link between specific genetic mutations and downstream determinants of disease progression. It also suggests the contribution of epigenetic events to the pathogenesis of muscular dystrophies. Here we describe the experimental evidence supporting the key role of HDACs in the control of the transcriptional networks underlying the potential of dystrophic muscles either to activate compensatory regeneration or to undergo fibroadipogenic degeneration. Studies performed in mouse models of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) indicate that dystrophin deficiency leads to deregulated HDAC activity, which perturbs downstream networks and can be restored directly, by HDAC blockade, or indirectly, by reexpression of dystrophin. This evidence supports the current view that HDACi are emerging candidate drugs for pharmacological interventions in muscular dystrophies, and reveals unexpected common beneficial outcomes of pharmacological treatment or gene therapy. PMID:21308150

  16. Histone Deacetylase Complex1 Expression Level Titrates Plant Growth and Abscisic Acid Sensitivity in Arabidopsis[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Perrella, Giorgio; Lopez-Vernaza, Manuel A.; Carr, Craig; Sani, Emanuela; Gosselé, Veronique; Verduyn, Christoph; Kellermeier, Fabian; Hannah, Matthew A.; Amtmann, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Histone deacetylation regulates gene expression during plant stress responses and is therefore an interesting target for epigenetic manipulation of stress sensitivity in plants. Unfortunately, overexpression of the core enzymes (histone deacetylases [HDACs]) has either been ineffective or has caused pleiotropic morphological abnormalities. In yeast and mammals, HDACs operate within multiprotein complexes. Searching for putative components of plant HDAC complexes, we identified a gene with partial homology to a functionally uncharacterized member of the yeast complex, which we called Histone Deacetylation Complex1 (HDC1). HDC1 is encoded by a single-copy gene in the genomes of model plants and crops and therefore presents an attractive target for biotechnology. Here, we present a functional characterization of HDC1 in Arabidopsis thaliana. We show that HDC1 is a ubiquitously expressed nuclear protein that interacts with at least two deacetylases (HDA6 and HDA19), promotes histone deacetylation, and attenuates derepression of genes under water stress. The fast-growing HDC1-overexpressing plants outperformed wild-type plants not only on well-watered soil but also when water supply was reduced. Our findings identify HDC1 as a rate-limiting component of the histone deacetylation machinery and as an attractive tool for increasing germination rate and biomass production of plants. PMID:24058159

  17. Exploring inhibitor release pathways in histone deacetylases using random acceleration molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Kalyaanamoorthy, Subha; Chen, Yi-Ping Phoebe

    2012-02-27

    Molecular channel exploration perseveres to be the prominent solution for eliciting structure and accessibility of active site and other internal spaces of macromolecules. The volume and silhouette characterization of these channels provides answers for the issues of substrate access and ligand swapping between the obscured active site and the exterior of the protein. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are metal-dependent enzymes that are involved in the cell growth, cell cycle regulation, and progression, and their deregulations have been linked with different types of cancers. Hence HDACs, especially the class I family, are widely recognized as the important cancer targets, and the characterizations of their structures and functions have been of special interest in cancer drug discovery. The class I HDACs are known to possess two different protein channels, an 11 Å and a 14 Å (named channels A and B1, respectively), of which the former is a ligand or substrate occupying tunnel that leads to the buried active site zinc ion and the latter is speculated to be involved in product release. In this work, we have carried out random acceleration molecular dynamics (RAMD) simulations coupled with the classical molecular dynamics to explore the release of the ligand, N-(2-aminophenyl) benzamide (LLX) from the active sites of the recently solved X-ray crystal structure of HDAC2 and the computationally modeled HDAC1 proteins. The RAMD simulations identified significant structural and dynamic features of the HDAC channels, especially the key 'gate-keeping' amino acid residues that control these channels and the ligand release events. Further, this study identified a novel and unique channel B2, a subchannel from channel B1, in the HDAC1 protein structure. The roles of water molecules in the LLX release from the HDAC1 and HDAC2 enzymes are also discussed. Such structural and dynamic properties of the HDAC protein channels that govern the ligand escape reactions will provide further mechanistic insights into the HDAC enzymes, which, in the long run, have a potential to bring new ideas for developing more promising HDAC inhibitors as well as extend our atomic level understandings on their mechanisms of action. PMID:22263580

  18. Histone deacetylase inhibitor screening identifies HC toxin as the most effective in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenjie; Chen, Xiaoxun; He, Ke; Xiao, Jinfeng; Duan, Xiaopeng; Huang, Rui; Xia, Zhenglin; He, Jingliang; Zhang, Jinqian; Xiang, Guoan

    2016-05-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are highly expressed in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) and are associated with poor prognosis of these patients. The aim of the present study was to explore the inhibitory effects of HDAC inhibitors on ICC cells and identify effective and sensitive drugs for ICC. Effects of 34 HDAC inhibitors were screened through two rounds of cell viability assays, and HC toxin, a cyclic tetrapeptide first isolated from the secondary metabolite of Helminthosporium carbonum, exhibited an antitumor activity superior to that of the other HDAC inhibitors and gemcitabine. The mechanisms involved in the inhibitory effects of HC toxin on CCLP-1 cells were investigated by cell counting, colony formation assay, cell morphological observation, real-time PCR, western blotting and flow cytometry. It was demonstrated that HC toxin inhibited the cell proliferation and clone formation ability of the CCLP-1 cells. HC toxin increased the acetyl-histone H4 level and this was associated with the inhibitory effect of HC toxin on the CCLP-1 cells. We also found that HC toxin reduced the level of HDAC1 protein in a post-transcriptional manner. Morphological observation showed multiple morphological changes and indicated the possibility of cell differentiation owing to HC toxin. With increasing concentration of HC toxin, the cell cycle was gradually arrested at the G0/G1 stage and the percentage of apoptotic cells increased which was not mainly through the caspase-3-dependent ways. These results indicated that HC toxin was the most effective among the various HDAC inhibitors with multiple functions in the suppression of ICC in vitro. Thus, HC may be a potential chemotherapeutic for ICC. PMID:26935789

  19. Histone deacetylase inhibitor screening identifies HC toxin as the most effective in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, WENJIE; CHEN, XIAOXUN; HE, KE; XIAO, JINFENG; DUAN, XIAOPENG; HUANG, RUI; XIA, ZHENGLIN; HE, JINGLIANG; ZHANG, JINQIAN; XIANG, GUOAN

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are highly expressed in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) and are associated with poor prognosis of these patients. The aim of the present study was to explore the inhibitory effects of HDAC inhibitors on ICC cells and identify effective and sensitive drugs for ICC. Effects of 34 HDAC inhibitors were screened through two rounds of cell viability assays, and HC toxin, a cyclic tetrapeptide first isolated from the secondary metabolite of Helminthosporium carbonum, exhibited an antitumor activity superior to that of the other HDAC inhibitors and gemcitabine. The mechanisms involved in the inhibitory effects of HC toxin on CCLP-1 cells were investigated by cell counting, colony formation assay, cell morphological observation, real-time PCR, western blotting and flow cytometry. It was demonstrated that HC toxin inhibited the cell proliferation and clone formation ability of the CCLP-1 cells. HC toxin increased the acetyl-histone H4 level and this was associated with the inhibitory effect of HC toxin on the CCLP-1 cells. We also found that HC toxin reduced the level of HDAC1 protein in a post-transcriptional manner. Morphological observation showed multiple morphological changes and indicated the possibility of cell differentiation owing to HC toxin. With increasing concentration of HC toxin, the cell cycle was gradually arrested at the G0/G1 stage and the percentage of apoptotic cells increased which was not mainly through the caspase-3-dependent ways. These results indicated that HC toxin was the most effective among the various HDAC inhibitors with multiple functions in the suppression of ICC in vitro. Thus, HC may be a potential chemotherapeutic for ICC. PMID:26935789

  20. Differential Requirement of Histone Acetylase and Deacetylase Activities for IRF5-Mediated Proinflammatory Cytokine Expression

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Di; Sangster-Guity, Niquiche; Stone, Rivka; Korczeniewska, Justyna; Mancl, Margo E.; Fitzgerald-Bocarsly, Patricia; Barnes, Betsy J.

    2011-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates a new role for histone deacetylases (HDACs) in the activation of genes governing the host immune response. Virus, along with other pathogenic stimuli, triggers an antiviral defense mechanism through the induction of IFN, IFN-stimulated genes, and other proinflammatory cytokines. Many of these genes have been shown to be regulated by transcription factors of the IFN regulatory factor (IRF) family. Recent studies from IRF5 knockout mice have confirmed a critical role for IRF5 in virus-induced type I IFN expression and proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-12, and TNF-?; yet, little is known of the molecular mechanism of IRF5-mediated proinflammatory cytokine expression. In this study, we show that both HDACs and histone acetyltransferases (HATs) associate with IRF5, leading to alterations in its transactivation ability. Using the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A, we demonstrate that ISRE, IFNA, and IL6 promoters require HDAC activity for transactivation and transcription, whereas TNF? does not. Mapping the interaction of corepressor proteins (HDAC1, silencing mediator of retinoid and thyroid receptor/nuclear corepressor of retinoid receptor, and Sin3a) and HATs to IRF5 revealed distinct differences, including the dependence of IRF5 phosphorylation on HAT association resulting in IRF5 acetylation. Data presented in this study support a mechanism whereby virus triggers the dynamic conversion of an IRF5-mediated silencing complex to that of an activating complex on promoters of target genes. These data provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, of a tightly controlled transcriptional mechanism whereby IRF5 regulates proinflammatory cytokine expression in conjunction with HATs and HDACs. PMID:20935208

  1. Histone Deacetylase 6 Regulates Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela-Fernndez, Agustn; lvarez, Susana; Gordon-Alonso, Mnica; Barrero, Marta; Ursa, ngeles; Cabrero, J. Romn; Fernndez, Gernimo; Naranjo-Surez, Salvador; Yez-Mo, Maria; Serrador, Juan M.; Muoz-Fernndez, M. ngeles; Snchez-Madrid, Francisco

    2005-01-01

    Efficient human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection depends on multiple interactions between the viral gp41/gp120 envelope (Env) proteins and cell surface receptors. However, cytoskeleton-associated proteins that modify membrane dynamics may also regulate the formation of the HIV-mediated fusion pore and hence viral infection. Because the effects of HDAC6-tubulin deacetylase on cortical ?-tubulin regulate cell migration and immune synapse organization, we explored the possible role of HDAC6 in HIV-1-envelope-mediated cell fusion and infection. The binding of the gp120 protein to CD4+-permissive cells increased the level of acetylated ?-tubulin in a CD4-dependent manner. Furthermore, overexpression of active HDAC6 inhibited the acetylation of ?-tubulin, and remarkably, prevented HIV-1 envelope-dependent cell fusion and infection without affecting the expression and codistribution of HIV-1 receptors. In contrast, knockdown of HDAC6 expression or inhibition of its tubulin deacetylase activity strongly enhanced HIV-1 infection and syncytia formation. These results demonstrate that HDAC6 plays a significant role in regulating HIV-1 infection and Env-mediated syncytia formation. PMID:16148047

  2. Histone Deacetylase 1/mSin3A Disrupts Gamma Interferon-Induced CIITA Function and Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Enhanceosome Formation

    PubMed Central

    Zika, Eleni; Greer, Susanna F.; Zhu, Xin-Sheng; Ting, Jenny P.-Y.

    2003-01-01

    The class II transactivator (CIITA) is a master transcriptional regulator of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) promoters. CIITA does not bind DNA, but it interacts with the transcription factors RFX5, NF-Y, and CREB and associated chromatin-modifying enzymes to form an enhanceosome. This report examines the effects of histone deacetylases 1 and 2 (HDAC1/HDAC2) on MHC-II gene induction by gamma interferon (IFN-?) and CIITA. The results show that an inhibitor of HDACs, trichostatin A, enhances IFN-?-induced MHC-II expression, while HDAC1/HDAC2 inhibits IFN-?- and CIITA-induced MHC-II gene expression. mSin3A, a corepressor of HDAC1/HDAC2, is important for this inhibition, while NcoR, a corepressor of HDAC3, is not. The effect of this inhibition is directed at CIITA, since HDAC1/HDAC2 reduces transactivation by a GAL4-CIITA fusion protein. CIITA binds to overexpressed and endogenous HDAC1, suggesting that HDAC and CIITA may affect each other by direct or indirect association. Inhibition of HDAC activity dramatically increases the association of NF-YB and RFX5 with CIITA, the assembly of CIITA, NF-YB, and RFX5 enhanceosome, and the extent of H3 acetylation at the MHC-II promoter. These results suggest a model where HDAC1/HDAC2 affect the function of CIITA through a disruption of MHC-II enhanceosome and relevant coactivator-transcription factor association and provide evidence that CIITA may act as a molecular switch to modulate MHC-II transcription by coordinating the functions of both histone acetylases and HDACs. PMID:12697811

  3. Exploration of Novel Inhibitors for Class I Histone Deacetylase Isoforms by QSAR Modeling and Molecular Dynamics Simulation Assays

    PubMed Central

    Noor, Zainab; Afzal, Noreen; Rashid, Sajid

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDAC) are metal-dependent enzymes and considered as important targets for cell functioning. Particularly, higher expression of class I HDACs is common in the onset of multiple malignancies which results in deregulation of many target genes involved in cell growth, differentiation and survival. Although substantial attempts have been made to control the irregular functioning of HDACs by employing various inhibitors with high sensitivity towards transformed cells, limited success has been achieved in epigenetic cancer therapy. Here in this study, we used ligand-based pharmacophore and 2-dimensional quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) modeling approaches for targeting class I HDAC isoforms. Pharmacophore models were generated by taking into account the known IC50 values and experimental energy scores with extensive validations. The QSAR model having an external R2 value of 0.93 was employed for virtual screening of compound libraries. 10 potential lead compounds (C1-C10) were short-listed having strong binding affinities for HDACs, out of which 2 compounds (C8 and C9) were able to interact with all members of class I HDACs. The potential binding modes of HDAC2 and HDAC8 to C8 were explored through molecular dynamics simulations. Overall, bioactivity and ligand efficiency (binding energy/non-hydrogen atoms) profiles suggested that proposed hits may be more effective inhibitors for cancer therapy. PMID:26431201

  4. Plant Polyphenols and Oxidative Metabolites of the Herbal Alkenylbenzene Methyleugenol Suppress Histone Deacetylase Activity in Human Colon Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Groh, Isabel Anna Maria; Chen, Chen; Lüske, Claudia; Cartus, Alexander Thomas; Esselen, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    Evidence has been provided that diet and environmental factors directly influence epigenetic mechanisms associated with cancer development in humans. The inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity and the disruption of the HDAC complex have been recognized as a potent strategy for cancer therapy and chemoprevention. In the present study, we investigated whether selected plant constituents affect HDAC activity or HDAC1 protein status in the human colon carcinoma cell line HT29. The polyphenols (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and genistein (GEN) as well as two oxidative methyleugenol (ME) metabolites were shown to inhibit HDAC activity in intact HT29 cells. Concomitantly, a significant decrease of the HDAC1 protein level was observed after incubation with EGCG and GEN, whereas the investigated ME metabolites did not affect HDAC1 protein status. In conclusion, dietary compounds were found to possess promising HDAC-inhibitory properties, contributing to epigenetic alterations in colon tumor cells, which should be taken into account in further risk/benefit assessments of polyphenols and alkenylbenzenes. PMID:23476753

  5. Droxinostat, a Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, Induces Apoptosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Lines via Activation of the Mitochondrial Pathway and Downregulation of FLIP1

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Li, Guangming; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Liang; Zhao, Rui; Wang, Juanxia; Kong, Yin; Ding, Jie; Li, Juan; Zhang, Lingyi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The current chemotherapeutic outcomes for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are not encouraging, and long-term survival of this patient group remains poor. Recent studies have demonstrated the utility of histone deacetylase inhibitors that can disrupt cell proliferation and survival in HCC management. However, the effects of droxinostat, a type of histone deacetylase inhibitor, on HCC remain to be established. Methods: The effects of droxinostat on HCC cell lines SMMC-7721 and HepG2 were investigated. Histone acetylation and apoptosis-modulating proteins were assessed via Western blot. Proliferation was examined with 3-(4, 5 dimetyl-2-thiazolyl)-2, 5-diphenyl 2H-tetrazolium bromide, cell proliferation, and real-time cell viability assays, and apoptosis with flow cytometry. Results: Droxinostat inhibited proliferation and colony formation of the HCC cell lines examined. Hepatoma cell death was induced through activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and downregulation of FLIP expression. Droxinostat suppressed histone deacetylase (HDAC) 3 expression and promoted acetylation of histones H3 and H4. Knockdown of HDAC3 induced hepatoma cell apoptosis and histone H3 and H4 acetylation. Conclusions: Droxinostat suppresses HDAC3 expression and induces histone acetylation and HCC cell death through activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and downregulation of FLIP, supporting its potential application in the treatment of HCC. PMID:26947884

  6. Histone deacetylase 1 reduces NO production in endothelial cells via lysine deacetylation of NO synthase 3

    PubMed Central

    Hyndman, Kelly A.; Ho, Dao H.; Sega, Martiana F.

    2014-01-01

    The lysine acetylation state of nonhistone proteins may be regulated through histone deacetylases (HDACs). Evidence suggests that nitric oxide (NO) synthase 3 (NOS3; endothelial NOS) is posttranslationally lysine acetylated, leading to increased NO production in the endothelium. We tested the hypothesis that NOS3 is lysine acetylated and that upregulated HDAC1-mediated deacetylation leads to reduced NO production in endothelial cells. We determined that NOS3 is basally lysine acetylated in cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs). In BAECs, HDAC1 is expressed in the nucleus and cytosol and forms a novel protein-protein interaction with NOS3. Overexpression of HDAC1 in BAECs resulted in a significant reduction in NOS3 lysine acetylation (control = 1.0 ± 0.1 and HDAC1 = 0.59 ± 0.08 arbitrary units, P < 0.01) and significantly blunted basal nitrite production (control 287.7 ± 29.1 and HDAC1 172.4 ± 31.7 pmol·mg−1·h−1, P < 0.05) as well as attenuating endothelin-1-stimulated nitrite production (control = 481.8 ± 50.3 and HDAC1 243.1 ± 48.2 pmol·mg−1·h−1, P < 0.05). While HDAC1 knockdown with small-interfering RNA resulted in no change in NOS3 acetylation level, yet increased basal nitrite production (730.6 ± 99.1 pmol·mg−1·h−1) and further exaggerated increases in endothelin-1 stimulated nitrite production (1276.9 ± 288.2 pmol·mg−1·h−1) was observed. Moreover, overexpression or knockdown of HDAC1 resulted in no significant effect on NOS3 protein expression or NOS3 phosphorylation sites T497, S635, or S1179. Thus these data indicate that upregulated HDAC1 decreases NOS3 activity, most likely through direct lysine deacetylation of NOS3. We propose that HDAC1-mediated deacetylation of NOS3 may represent a novel target for endothelial dysfunction. PMID:25015965

  7. Antitumor action of a novel histone deacetylase inhibitor, YF479, in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Chen, Yihua; Li, Jingjie; Yang, Feifei; Wu, Haigang; Dai, Fujun; Hu, Meichun; Lu, Xiaoling; Peng, Yi; Liu, Mingyao; Zhao, Yongxiang; Yi, Zhengfang

    2014-08-01

    Accumulating evidence demonstrates important roles for histone deacetylase in tumorigenesis (HDACs), highlighting them as attractive targets for antitumor drug development. Histone deactylase inhibitors (HDACIs), which have shown favorable anti-tumor activity with low toxicity in clinical investigations, are a promising class of anticancer therapeutics. Here, we screened our compound library to explore small molecules that possess anti-HDAC activity and identified a novel HDACI, YF479. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), which was the first approved HDAC inhibitor for clinical treatment by the FDA, was as positive control in our experiments. We further demonstrated YF479 abated cell viability, suppressed colony formation and tumor cell motility in vitro. To investigate YF479 with superior pharmacodynamic properties, we developed spontaneous and experimental breast cancer animal models. Our results showed YF479 significantly inhibited breast tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. Further study indicated YF479 suppressed both early and end stages of metastatic progression. Subsequent adjuvant chemotherapy animal experiment revealed the elimination of local-regional recurrence (LRR) and distant metastasis by YF479. More important, YF479 remarkably prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice. Intriguingly, YF479 displayed more potent anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo compared with SAHA. Together, our results suggest that YF479, a novel HDACI, inhibits breast tumor growth, metastasis and recurrence. In light of these results, YF479 may be an effective therapeutic option in clinical trials for patients burdened by breast cancer. PMID:25220594

  8. Dietary Regulation of Histone Acetylases and Deacetylases for the Prevention of Metabolic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Tho X.; Lee, Jiyoung

    2012-01-01

    Age-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer involve epigenetic modifications, where accumulation of minute changes in the epigenome over time leads to disease manifestation. Epigenetic changes are influenced by life style and diets. This represents an avenue whereby dietary components could accelerate or prevent age-related diseases through their effects on epigenetic modifications. Histone acetylation is an epigenetic modification that is regulated through the opposing action of histone acetylases (HATs) and deacetylases (HDACs). These two families of enzymes play critical roles in metabolic processes and their dysregulation is associated with pathogenesis of several diseases. Dietary components, such as butyrate, sulforaphane, and curcumin, have been shown to affect HAT and HDAC activity, and their health benefits are attributed, at least in part, to epigenetic modifications. Given the decades that it takes to accumulate epigenetic changes, it is unlikely that pharmaceuticals could undo epigenetic changes without side effects. Therefore, long term consumption of dietary components that can alter the epigenome could be an attractive means of disease prevention. The goal of this review is to highlight the roles of diets and food components in epigenetic modifications through the regulation of HATs and HDACs for disease prevention. PMID:23363995

  9. Thiamine biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is regulated by the NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase Hst1.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingguang; Petteys, Brian J; McClure, Julie M; Valsakumar, Veena; Bekiranov, Stefan; Frank, Elizabeth L; Smith, Jeffrey S

    2010-07-01

    Genes encoding thiamine biosynthesis enzymes in microorganisms are tightly regulated such that low environmental thiamine concentrations activate transcription and high concentrations are repressive. We have determined that multiple thiamine (THI) genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are also regulated by the intracellular NAD(+) concentration via the NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase (HDAC) Hst1 and, to a lesser extent, Sir2. Both of these HDACs associate with a distal region of the affected THI gene promoters that does not overlap with a previously defined enhancer region bound by the thiamine-responsive Thi2/Thi3/Pdc2 transcriptional activators. The specificity of histone H3 and/or H4 deacetylation carried out by Hst1 and Sir2 at the distal promoter region depends on the THI gene being tested. Hst1/Sir2-mediated repression of the THI genes occurs at the level of basal expression, thus representing the first set of transcription factors shown to actively repress this gene class. Importantly, lowering the NAD(+) concentration and inhibiting the Hst1/Sum1 HDAC complex elevated the intracellular thiamine concentration due to increased thiamine biosynthesis and transport, implicating NAD(+) in the control of thiamine homeostasis. PMID:20439498

  10. Inhibition of histone deacetylases facilitates extinction and attenuates reinstatement of nicotine self-administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Castino, Matthew R; Cornish, Jennifer L; Clemens, Kelly J

    2015-01-01

    Chromatin remodelling is integral to the formation of long-term memories. Recent evidence suggests that histone modification may play a role in the persistence of memories associated with drug use. The present series of experiments aimed to examine the effect of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition on the extinction and reinstatement of nicotine self-administration. Rats were trained to intravenously self-administer nicotine for 12 days on a fixed-ratio 1 schedule. In Experiment 1, responding was then extinguished through removal of nicotine and response-contingent cues. After each extinction session, the HDAC inhibitor, sodium butyrate (NaB), was administered immediately, or six hours after each session. In Experiment 2, response-contingent cues remained available across extinction to increase rates of responding during this phase, and NaB was administered immediately after the session. Finally, in Experiment 3, the effect of NaB treatment on extinction of responding for sucrose pellets was assessed. Across all experiments reinstatement to the cue and/or the reward itself was then tested. In the first experiment, treatment with NaB significantly attenuated nicotine and nicotine + cue reinstatement when administered immediately, but not six hours after each extinction session. When administered after cue-extinction (Expt. 2), NaB treatment specifically facilitated the rate of extinction across sessions, indicating that HDAC inhibition enhanced consolidation of the extinction memory. In contrast, there was no effect of NaB on the extinction and reinstatement of sucrose-seeking (Expt. 3), indicating that the observed effects are specific to a drug context. These results provide the first demonstration that HDAC inhibition facilitates the extinction of responding for an intravenously self-administered drug of abuse and further highlight the potential of HDAC inhibitors in the treatment of drug addiction. PMID:25880762

  11. Inhibition of Histone Deacetylases Facilitates Extinction and Attenuates Reinstatement of Nicotine Self-Administration in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Castino, Matthew R.; Cornish, Jennifer L.; Clemens, Kelly J.

    2015-01-01

    Chromatin remodelling is integral to the formation of long-term memories. Recent evidence suggests that histone modification may play a role in the persistence of memories associated with drug use. The present series of experiments aimed to examine the effect of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition on the extinction and reinstatement of nicotine self-administration. Rats were trained to intravenously self-administer nicotine for 12 days on a fixed-ratio 1 schedule. In Experiment 1, responding was then extinguished through removal of nicotine and response-contingent cues. After each extinction session, the HDAC inhibitor, sodium butyrate (NaB), was administered immediately, or six hours after each session. In Experiment 2, response-contingent cues remained available across extinction to increase rates of responding during this phase, and NaB was administered immediately after the session. Finally, in Experiment 3, the effect of NaB treatment on extinction of responding for sucrose pellets was assessed. Across all experiments reinstatement to the cue and/or the reward itself was then tested. In the first experiment, treatment with NaB significantly attenuated nicotine and nicotine + cue reinstatement when administered immediately, but not six hours after each extinction session. When administered after cue-extinction (Expt. 2), NaB treatment specifically facilitated the rate of extinction across sessions, indicating that HDAC inhibition enhanced consolidation of the extinction memory. In contrast, there was no effect of NaB on the extinction and reinstatement of sucrose-seeking (Expt. 3), indicating that the observed effects are specific to a drug context. These results provide the first demonstration that HDAC inhibition facilitates the extinction of responding for an intravenously self-administered drug of abuse and further highlight the potential of HDAC inhibitors in the treatment of drug addiction. PMID:25880762

  12. Selective transcription and cellular proliferation induced by PDGF require histone deacetylase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Catania, Annunziata; Iavarone, Carlo; Carlomagno, Stella M.; Chiariello, Mario . E-mail: chiariel@unina.it

    2006-05-05

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are key regulatory enzymes involved in the control of gene expression and their inhibition by specific drugs has been widely correlated to cell cycle arrest, terminal differentiation, and apoptosis. Here, we investigated whether HDAC activity was required for PDGF-dependent signal transduction and cellular proliferation. Exposure of PDGF-stimulated NIH3T3 fibroblasts to the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) potently repressed the expression of a group of genes correlated to PDGF-dependent cellular growth and pro-survival activity. Moreover, we show that TSA interfered with STAT3-dependent transcriptional activity induced by PDGF. Still, neither phosphorylation nor nuclear translocation and DNA-binding in vitro and in vivo of STAT3 were affected by using TSA to interfere with PDGF stimulation. Finally, TSA treatment resulted in the suppression of PDGF-dependent cellular proliferation without affecting cellular survival of NIH3T3 cells. Our data indicate that inhibition of HDAC activity antagonizes the mitogenic effect of PDGF, suggesting that these drugs may specifically act on the expression of STAT-dependent, PDGF-responsive genes.

  13. Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid (SAHA)-Induced Dynamics of a Human Histone Deacetylase Protein Interaction Network*

    PubMed Central

    Sardiu, Mihaela E.; Smith, Karen T.; Groppe, Brad D.; Gilmore, Joshua M.; Saraf, Anita; Egidy, Rhonda; Peak, Allison; Seidel, Chris W.; Florens, Laurence; Workman, Jerry L.; Washburn, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are targets for cancer therapy. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) is an HDAC inhibitor approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. To obtain a better mechanistic understanding of the Sin3/HDAC complex in cancer, we extended its protein–protein interaction network and identified a mutually exclusive pair within the complex. We then assessed the effects of SAHA on the disruption of the complex network through six homologous baits. SAHA perturbs multiple protein interactions and therefore compromises the composition of large parts of the Sin3/HDAC network. A comparison of the effect of SAHA treatment on gene expression in breast cancer cells to a knockdown of the ING2 subunit indicated that a portion of the anticancer effects of SAHA may be attributed to the disruption of ING2's association with the complex. Our dynamic protein interaction network resource provides novel insights into the molecular mechanism of SAHA action and demonstrates the potential for drugs to rewire networks. PMID:25073741

  14. Contrasting Effects of Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors on Reward and Aversive Olfactory Memories in the Honey Bee

    PubMed Central

    Lockett, Gabrielle A; Wilkes, Fiona; Helliwell, Paul; Maleszka, Ryszard

    2014-01-01

    Much of what we have learnt from rodent models about the essential role of epigenetic processes in brain plasticity has made use of aversive learning, yet the role of histone acetylation in aversive memory in the honey bee, a popular invertebrate model for both memory and epigenetics, was previously unknown. We examined the effects of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition on both aversive and reward olfactory associative learning in a discrimination proboscis extension reflex (PER) assay. We report that treatment with the HDAC inhibitors APHA compound 8 (C8), phenylbutyrate (PB) or sodium butyrate (NaB) impaired discrimination memory due to impairment of aversive memory in a dose-dependent manner, while simultaneously having no effect on reward memory. Treatment with C8 1 h before training, 1 h after training or 1 h before testing, impaired aversive but not reward memory at test. C8 treatment 1 h before training also improved aversive but not reward learning during training. PB treatment only impaired aversive memory at test when administered 1 h after training, suggesting an effect on memory consolidation specifically. Specific impairment of aversive memory (but not reward memory) by HDAC inhibiting compounds was robust, reproducible, occurred following treatment with three drugs targeting the same mechanism, and is likely to be genuinely due to alterations to memory as sucrose sensitivity and locomotion were unaffected by HDAC inhibitor treatment. This pharmacological dissection of memory highlights the involvement of histone acetylation in aversive memory in the honey bee, and expands our knowledge of epigenetic control of neural plasticity in invertebrates. PMID:26462690

  15. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Trichostatin A and MCP30 Relieve Benzene-Induced Hematotoxicity via Restoring Topoisomerase IIα

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi; Li, Jiaqi; Qian, Shanhu; Shi, Yifen; Sun, Lan; Han, Yixiang; Zhang, Shenghui; Yu, Kang

    2016-01-01

    Dysfunction of histone acetylation inhibits topoisomerase IIα (Topo IIα), which is implicated in benzene-induced hematotoxicity in patients with chronic benzene exposure. Whether histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors can relieve benzene-induced hematotoxicity remains unclear. Here we showed that hydroquinone, a main metabolite of benzene, increased the HDAC activity, decreased the Topo IIα expression and induced apoptosis in human bone marrow mononuclear cells in vitro, and treatment with two HDAC inhibitors, namely trichostatin A (TSA) or a mixture of ribosome-inactivating proteins MCP30, almost completely reversed these effects. We further established a benzene poisoning murine model by inhaling benzene vapor in a container and found that benzene poisoning decreased the expression and activity of Topo IIα, and impaired acetylation of histone H4 and H3. The analysis of regulatory factors of Topo IIα promoter found that benzene poisoning decreased the mRNA levels of SP1 and C-MYB, and increased the mRNA level of SP3. Both TSA and MCP30 significantly enhanced the acetylation of histone H3 and H4 in Topo IIα promoter and increased the expression and activity of Topo IIα in benzene poisoning mice, which contributed to relieve the symptoms of hematotoxicity. Thus, treatment with HDAC inhibitors represents an attractive approach to reduce benzene-induced hematotoxicity. PMID:27058040

  16. Epigenetic targeting of histone deacetylase: therapeutic potential in Parkinson's disease?

    PubMed

    Harrison, Ian F; Dexter, David T

    2013-10-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common movement disorder affecting more than 4million people worldwide. The primary motor symptoms of the disease are due to degeneration of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons. Dopamine replacement therapies have therefore revolutionised disease management by partially controlling these symptoms. However these drugs can produce debilitating side effects when used long term and do not protect degenerating neurons against death. Recent evidence has highlighted a pathological imbalance in PD between the acetylation and deacetylation of the histone proteins around which deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is coiled, in favour of excessive histone deacetylation. This mechanism of adding/removing acetyl groups to histone lysine residues is one of many epigenetic regulatory processes which control the expression of genes, many of which will be essential for neuronal survival. Hence, such epigenetic modifications may have a pathogenic role in PD. It has therefore been hypothesised that if this pathological imbalance can be corrected with the use of histone deacetylase inhibiting agents then neurodegeneration observed in PD can be ameliorated. This article will review the current literature with regard to epigenetic changes in PD and the use of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) in PD: examining the evidence of the neuroprotective effects of numerous HDACIs in cellular and animal models of Parkinsonian cell death. Ultimately answering the question: does epigenetic targeting of histone deacetylases hold therapeutic potential in PD? PMID:23711791

  17. The Hos2 Histone Deacetylase Controls Ustilago maydis Virulence through Direct Regulation of Mating-Type Genes.

    PubMed

    Elías-Villalobos, Alberto; Fernández-Álvarez, Alfonso; Moreno-Sánchez, Ismael; Helmlinger, Dominique; Ibeas, José I

    2015-08-01

    Morphological changes are critical for host colonisation in plant pathogenic fungi. These changes occur at specific stages of their pathogenic cycle in response to environmental signals and are mediated by transcription factors, which act as master regulators. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play crucial roles in regulating gene expression, for example by locally modulating the accessibility of chromatin to transcriptional regulators. It has been reported that HDACs play important roles in the virulence of plant fungi. However, the specific environment-sensing pathways that control fungal virulence via HDACs remain poorly characterised. Here we address this question using the maize pathogen Ustilago maydis. We find that the HDAC Hos2 is required for the dimorphic switch and pathogenic development in U. maydis. The deletion of hos2 abolishes the cAMP-dependent expression of mating type genes. Moreover, ChIP experiments detect Hos2 binding to the gene bodies of mating-type genes, which increases in proportion to their expression level following cAMP addition. These observations suggest that Hos2 acts as a downstream component of the cAMP-PKA pathway to control the expression of mating-type genes. Interestingly, we found that Clr3, another HDAC present in U. maydis, also contributes to the cAMP-dependent regulation of mating-type gene expression, demonstrating that Hos2 is not the only HDAC involved in this control system. Overall, our results provide new insights into the role of HDACs in fungal phytopathogenesis. PMID:26317403

  18. Histone deacetylase inhibitors: a new class of immunosuppressors targeting a novel signal pathway essential for CD154 expression.

    PubMed

    Skov, Søren; Rieneck, Klaus; Bovin, Lone Frier; Skak, Kresten; Tomra, Søren; Michelsen, Birgitte K; Ødum, Niels

    2003-02-15

    Here we report that histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDAC-i) comprise a new class of immunosuppressive agents. HDAC-i inhibited CD4 T-cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, which was not caused by apoptosis or decreased viability. Although early intracellular signals such as tyrosine kinase activity and elevation of intracellular calcium concentration were not affected, the characteristic aggregation of T cells following activation was completely abrogated. This correlated with diminished activation-induced expression of the adhesion molecules. HDAC-i furthermore inhibited activation-induced CD25 and CD154 expression on CD4 cells, without affecting induction of CD69. HDAC-i inhibited CD154 expression by a mechanism distinctly different from cyclosporine-mediated inhibition. HDAC-i thus inhibited interleukin 2 (IL-2)-induced CD154 expression on effector T cells and constitutively expressed CD154 on various tumor cells, events that were not affected by cyclosporine. Additional studies showed that HDAC-i treatment inhibited c-Myc expression, which was further shown to be important for CD154 gene activation. These results demonstrate pronounced T-cell inhibitory activity of HDAC-i, which may form the basis of novel therapeutic interventions against autoimmune diseases and allograft rejection. PMID:12393479

  19. The Hos2 Histone Deacetylase Controls Ustilago maydis Virulence through Direct Regulation of Mating-Type Genes

    PubMed Central

    Elías-Villalobos, Alberto; Fernández-Álvarez, Alfonso; Moreno-Sánchez, Ismael; Helmlinger, Dominique; Ibeas, José I.

    2015-01-01

    Morphological changes are critical for host colonisation in plant pathogenic fungi. These changes occur at specific stages of their pathogenic cycle in response to environmental signals and are mediated by transcription factors, which act as master regulators. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play crucial roles in regulating gene expression, for example by locally modulating the accessibility of chromatin to transcriptional regulators. It has been reported that HDACs play important roles in the virulence of plant fungi. However, the specific environment-sensing pathways that control fungal virulence via HDACs remain poorly characterised. Here we address this question using the maize pathogen Ustilago maydis. We find that the HDAC Hos2 is required for the dimorphic switch and pathogenic development in U. maydis. The deletion of hos2 abolishes the cAMP-dependent expression of mating type genes. Moreover, ChIP experiments detect Hos2 binding to the gene bodies of mating-type genes, which increases in proportion to their expression level following cAMP addition. These observations suggest that Hos2 acts as a downstream component of the cAMP-PKA pathway to control the expression of mating-type genes. Interestingly, we found that Clr3, another HDAC present in U. maydis, also contributes to the cAMP-dependent regulation of mating-type gene expression, demonstrating that Hos2 is not the only HDAC involved in this control system. Overall, our results provide new insights into the role of HDACs in fungal phytopathogenesis. PMID:26317403

  20. Biochemical Analysis of Histone Deacetylase-independent Transcriptional Repression by MeCP2*

    PubMed Central

    Theisen, Joshua W. M.; Gucwa, James S.; Yusufzai, Timur; Khuong, Mai T.; Kadonaga, James T.

    2013-01-01

    MeCP2 is an abundant methyl-cytosine-guanine (CG)-binding protein and transcriptional repressor. We developed a biochemical system that exhibits CG methylation-specific transcriptional repression by purified human MeCP2. MeCP2 represses transcription by histone deacetylase (HDAC)-dependent and HDAC-independent mechanisms. Our system appears to recreate the HDAC-independent component of MeCP2-mediated repression and occurs via inhibition of the assembly of transcription preinitiation complexes. At a ratio of approximately one molecule of MeCP2 per two methyl-CG dinucleotides, as found in mammalian neurons, the magnitude of methylation-specific repression was greater than 10-fold. Notably, the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A had no effect on MeCP2-mediated repression with either naked DNA or chromatin templates. We designed a CG-deficient core promoter that is resistant to MeCP2-mediated repression when placed in a plasmid lacking CG dinucleotides. By using this CG-deficient reporter as a reference, we found that eight CG dinucleotides in the core promoter region are sufficient for strong methylation-specific repression by MeCP2. In contrast, MeCP2 does not repress a construct with 13 CG dinucleotides located ∼1.7 kbp upstream of the promoter. Furthermore, by analysis of C-terminally truncated MeCP2 proteins, we found that binding of MeCP2 to methyl-CG dinucleotides is not sufficient for transcriptional repression. Hence, MeCP2-mediated repression is not due to the simple steric blockage of the transcriptional machinery. These experiments suggest that MeCP2 can function as a global methyl-CG-specific, HDAC-independent repressor. This HDAC-independent mechanism of MeCP2-mediated repression may be important in cells, such as mammalian neurons, that have high levels of CG methylation and MeCP2. PMID:23349465

  1. A conserved histone deacetylase with a role in the regulation of cytokinesis in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In Schizosaccharomyces pombe the SET domain protein, Set3p - together with its interacting partners, Snt1p, and Hif2p - form a complex that aids in preventing cell division failure upon mild cytokinetic stress. Intriguingly, the human orthologs of these proteins (MLL5, NCOR2, and TBL1X) are also important for the faithful completion of cytokinesis in tissue culture cells. Since MLL5, NCOR2, and TBL1X form a complex with the histone deacetylase, HDAC3, we sought to determine if an orthologous counterpart played a regulatory role in fission yeast cytokinesis. Results In this report we identify the hos2 gene as the fission yeast HDAC3 ortholog. We show that Hos2p physically interacts with Set3p, Snt1p, and Hif2p, and that hos2∆ mutants are indeed compromised in their ability to reliably complete cell division in the presence of mild cytokinetic stresses. Furthermore, we demonstrate that over-expression of hos2 causes severe morphological and cytokinetic defects. Lastly, through recombinase mediated cassette exchange, we show that expression of human HDAC3 complements the cytokinetic defects exhibited by hos2∆ cells. Conclusions These data support a model in which Hos2p functions as an essential component of the Set3p-Snt1p-Hif2p complex with respect to the regulation of cytokinesis. The ability of human HDAC3 to complement the cytokinesis defects associated with the deletion of the hos2 gene suggests that further analysis of this system could provide insight into the role of HDAC3 in both the regulation of cell division, as well as other biological processes influenced by HDAC3 deacetylation. PMID:22559741

  2. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Trichostatin A Ameliorated Endotoxin-Induced Neuroinflammation and Cognitive Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Hsing, Chung-Hsi; Hung, Shih-Kai; Chen, Yeong-Chang; Wei, Tsui-Shan; Sun, Ding-Ping; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Yeh, Ching-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Excessive production of cytokines by microglia may cause cognitive dysfunction and long-lasting behavioral changes. Activating the peripheral innate immune system stimulates cytokine secretion in the central nervous system, which modulates cognitive function. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) modulate cytokine synthesis and release. Trichostatin A (TSA), an HDAC inhibitor, is documented to be anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective. We investigated whether TSA reduces lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced neuroinflammation and cognitive dysfunction. ICR mice were first intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with vehicle or TSA (0.3 mg/kg). One hour later, they were injected (i.p.) with saline or Escherichia coli LPS (1 mg/kg). We analyzed the food and water intake, body weight loss, and sucrose preference of the injected mice and then determined the microglia activation and inflammatory cytokine expression in the brains of LPS-treated mice and LPS-treated BV-2 microglial cells. In the TSA-pretreated mice, microglial activation was lower, anhedonia did not occur, and LPS-induced cognitive dysfunction (anorexia, weight loss, and social withdrawal) was attenuated. Moreover, mRNA expression of HDAC2, HDAC5, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), TNF-α, MCP-1, and IL-1β in the brain of LPS-challenged mice and in the LPS-treated BV-2 microglial cells was lower. TSA diminished LPS-induced inflammatory responses in the mouse brain and modulated the cytokine-associated changes in cognitive function, which might be specifically related to reducing HDAC2 and HDAC5 expression. PMID:26273133

  3. Histone acetylation and histone deacetylase activity of magnesium valproate in tumor and peripheral blood of patients with cervical cancer. A phase I study

    PubMed Central

    Chavez-Blanco, Alma; Segura-Pacheco, Blanca; Perez-Cardenas, Enrique; Taja-Chayeb, Lucia; Cetina, Lucely; Candelaria, Myrna; Cantu, David; Gonzalez-Fierro, Aurora; Garcia-Lopez, Patricia; Zambrano, Pilar; Perez-Plasencia, Carlos; Cabrera, Gustavo; Trejo-Becerril, Catalina; Angeles, Enrique; Duenas-Gonzalez, Alfonso

    2005-01-01

    Background The development of cancer has been associated with epigenetic alterations such as aberrant histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity. It was recently reported that valproic acid is an effective inhibitor of histone deacetylases and as such induces tumor cell differentiation, apoptosis, or growth arrest. Methods Twelve newly diagnosed patients with cervical cancer were treated with magnesium valproate after a baseline tumor biopsy and blood sampling at the following dose levels (four patients each): 20 mg/kg; 30 mg/kg, or 40 mg/kg for 5 days via oral route. At day 6, tumor and blood sampling were repeated and the study protocol ended. Tumor acetylation of H3 and H4 histones and HDAC activity were evaluated by Western blot and colorimetric HDAC assay respectively. Blood levels of valproic acid were determined at day 6 once the steady-state was reached. Toxicity of treatment was evaluated at the end of study period. Results All patients completed the study medication. Mean daily dose for all patients was 1,890 mg. Corresponding means for the doses 20-, 30-, and 40-mg/kg were 1245, 2000, and 2425 mg, respectively. Depressed level of consciousness grade 2 was registered in nine patients. Ten patients were evaluated for H3 and H4 acetylation and HDAC activity. After treatment, we observed hyperacetylation of H3 and H4 in the tumors of nine and seven patients, respectively, whereas six patients demonstrated hyperacetylation of both histones. Serum levels of valproic acid ranged from 73.6–170.49 μg/mL. Tumor deacetylase activity decreased in eight patients (80%), whereas two had either no change or a mild increase. There was a statistically significant difference between pre and post-treatment values of HDAC activity (mean, 0.36 vs. 0.21, two-tailed t test p < 0.0264). There was no correlation between H3 and H4 tumor hyperacetylation with serum levels of valproic acid. Conclusion Magnesium valproate at a dose between 20 and 40 mg/kg inhibits deacetylase activity and hyperacetylates histones in tumor tissues. PMID:16001982

  4. Histone deacetylases 1 and 2 regulate DNA replication and DNA repair: potential targets for genome stability-mechanism-based therapeutics for a subset of cancers

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskara, Srividya

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylases 1 and 2 (HDAC1,2) belong to the class I HDAC family, which are targeted by the FDA-approved small molecule HDAC inhibitors currently used in cancer therapy. HDAC1,2 are recruited to DNA break sites during DNA repair and to chromatin around forks during DNA replication. Cancer cells use DNA repair and DNA replication as survival mechanisms and to evade chemotherapy-induced cytotoxicity. Hence, it is vital to understand how HDAC1,2 function during the genome maintenance processes (DNA replication and DNA repair) in order to gain insights into the mode-of-action of HDAC inhibitors in cancer therapeutics. The first-in-class HDAC1,2-selective inhibitors and Hdac1,2 conditional knockout systems greatly facilitated dissecting the precise mechanisms by which HDAC1,2 control genome stability in normal and cancer cells. In this perspective, I summarize the findings on the mechanistic functions of class I HDACs, specifically, HDAC1,2 in genome maintenance, unanswered questions for future investigations and views on how this knowledge could be harnessed for better-targeted cancer therapeutics for a subset of cancers. PMID:25942572

  5. The deacetylase HDAC6 regulates aggresome formation and cell viability in response to misfolded protein stress.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Yoshiharu; Kovacs, Jeffrey J; McLaurin, Adam; Vance, Jeffery M; Ito, Akihiro; Yao, Tso Pang

    2003-12-12

    The efficient clearance of cytotoxic misfolded protein aggregates is critical for cell survival. Misfolded protein aggregates are transported and removed from the cytoplasm by dynein motors via the microtubule network to a novel organelle termed the aggresome where they are processed. However, the means by which dynein motors recognize misfolded protein cargo, and the cellular factors that regulate aggresome formation, remain unknown. We have discovered that HDAC6, a microtubule-associated deacetylase, is a component of the aggresome. We demonstrate that HDAC6 has the capacity to bind both polyubiquitinated misfolded proteins and dynein motors, thereby acting to recruit misfolded protein cargo to dynein motors for transport to aggresomes. Indeed, cells deficient in HDAC6 fail to clear misfolded protein aggregates from the cytoplasm, cannot form aggresomes properly, and are hypersensitive to the accumulation of misfolded proteins. These findings identify HDAC6 as a crucial player in the cellular management of misfolded protein-induced stress. PMID:14675537

  6. Elevated nuclear sphingoid base-1-phosphates and decreased histone deacetylase activity after fumonisin B1 treatment in mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Nicole M; Riley, Ronald T; Showker, Jency L; Voss, Kenneth A; Sachs, Andrew J; Maddox, Joyce R; Gelineau-van Waes, Janee B

    2016-05-01

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a mycotoxin produced by a common fungal contaminant of corn. Administration of FB1 to pregnant LM/Bc mice induces exencephaly in embryos, and ingestion of FB1-contaminated food during early pregnancy is associated with increased risk for neural tube defects (NTDs) in humans. FB1 inhibits ceramide synthase enzymes in sphingolipid biosynthesis, causing sphinganine (Sa) and bioactive sphinganine-1-phosphate (Sa1P) accumulation in blood, cells, and tissues. Sphingosine kinases (Sphk) phosphorylate Sa to form Sa1P. Upon activation, Sphk1 associates primarily with the plasma membrane, while Sphk2 is found predominantly in the nucleus. In cells over-expressing Sphk2, accumulation of Sa1P in the nuclear compartment inhibits histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity, causing increased acetylation of histone lysine residues. In this study, FB1 treatment in LM/Bc mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) resulted in significant accumulation of Sa1P in nuclear extracts relative to cytoplasmic extracts. Elevated nuclear Sa1P corresponded to decreased histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity and increased histone acetylation at H2BK12, H3K9, H3K18, and H3K23. Treatment of LM/Bc MEFs with a selective Sphk1 inhibitor, PF-543, or with ABC294640, a selective Sphk2 inhibitor, significantly reduced nuclear Sa1P accumulation after FB1, although Sa1P levels remained significantly increased relative to basal levels. Concurrent treatment with both PF-543 and ABC294640 prevented nuclear accumulation of Sa1P in response to FB1. Other HDAC inhibitors are known to cause NTDs, so these results suggest that FB1-induced disruption of sphingolipid metabolism leading to nuclear Sa1P accumulation, HDAC inhibition, and histone hyperacetylation is a potential mechanism for FB1-induced NTDs. PMID:26905748

  7. Selective boosting of transcriptional and behavioral responses to drugs of abuse by histone deacetylase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Sanchis-Segura, Carles; Lopez-Atalaya, Jose P; Barco, Angel

    2009-12-01

    Histone acetylation and other modifications of the chromatin are important regulators of gene expression and, consequently, may contribute to drug-induced behaviors and neuroplasticity. Earlier studies have shown that a reduction in histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity results in the enhancement of some psychostimulant-induced behaviors. In this study, we extend those seminal findings by showing that the administration of the HDAC inhibitor sodium butyrate enhances morphine-induced locomotor sensitization and conditioned place preference. In contrast, this compound has no effects on the development of morphine tolerance and dependence. Similar effects were observed for cocaine and ethanol-induced behaviors. These behavioral changes were accompanied by a selective boosting of a component of the transcriptional program activated by chronic morphine administration that included circadian clock genes and other genes relevant to addictive behavior. Our results support a specific function for histone acetylation and the epigenetic modulation of transcription at a reduced number of biologically relevant loci on non-homeostatic, long-lasting, drug-induced behavioral plasticity. PMID:19727068

  8. [Histone deacetylases: a new class of efficient anti-tumor drugs].

    PubMed

    Mottet, Denis; Castronovo, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Circa twenty-five years ago, cancer research was dominated by the concept that the origin of cancer was genetic. Thousands of genetic alterations have indeed been identified involving more than hundred different genes in cancer development. Today, the model has evolved: it has been demonstrated that malignancies can be initiated not only through genetic alterations but also through epigenetic deregulations. By altering the expression of gene involved in cell regulation, epigenetic alterations, such as histone acetylation, play a key role in the initiation and progression of neoplasm. It has been shown that an imbalance between the acelylated and deacetylated status of chromatin is significantly involved in the acquisition of a malignant phenotype. Thus, the modulation of the histone acetylation level by histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors could lead to a genetic re-programmation in cancer cells that would favor apoptosis and prevent proliferation. The potential therapeutic value of several HDAC inhibitors for cancer patients has been evaluated in clinical assays with very promising outcome. Indeed, the first inhibitors available for patients has been recently approved for cancer patients tracing the way for a new class of promising anti-cancer therapy modalities. PMID:18789222

  9. Histone deacetylase inhibitors in castration-resistant prostate cancer: molecular mechanism of action and recent clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Dharam; Vashistha, Vishal; Isharwal, Sudhir; Sediqe, Soud A.; Lin, Ming-Fong

    2015-01-01

    Historically, androgen-deprivation therapy has been the cornerstone for treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. Unfortunately, nearly majority patients with prostate cancer transition to the refractory state of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Newer therapeutic agents are needed for treating these CRPC patients that are unresponsive to androgen deprivation and/or chemotherapy. The histone deacetylase (HDAC) family of enzymes limits the expression of genomic regions by improving binding between histones and the DNA backbone. Modulating the role of HDAC enzymes can alter the cell’s regulation of proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, thereby regulating potential neoplastic proliferation. As a result, histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are now being evaluated for CRPC or chemotherapy-resistant prostate cancer due to their effects on the expression of the androgen receptor gene. In this paper, we review the molecular mechanism and functional target molecules of different HDACi as applicable to CRPC as well as describe recent and current clinical trials involving HDACi in prostate cancer. To date, four HDAC classes comprising 18 isoenzymes have been identified. Recent clinical trials of vorinostat, romidepsin, and panobinostat have provided cautious optimism towards improved outcomes using these novel therapeutic agents for CPRC patients. Nevertheless, no phase III trial has been conducted to cement one of these drugs as an adjunct to androgen-deprivation therapy. Consequently, further investigation is necessary to delineate the benefits and drawbacks of these medications. PMID:26622323

  10. Histone Deacetylase III as a Potential Therapeutic Target for the Treatment of Lethal Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ting; Li, Yongqing; Liu, Baoling; Bronson, Roderick T.; Halaweish, Ihab; Alam, Hasan B.

    2016-01-01

    Background We have recently demonstrated that inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) class I, II and IV with non-specific HDAC inhibitors improves survival in a mouse model of lethal cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). However, the consequence of HDAC class III inhibition is unknown in this model. The aims of present study were to explore the effect of EX-527, a selective SIRT1 inhibitor, on survival in the lethal model of CLP-sepsis, and to assess the impact of the treatment on inflammatory cytokine production, coagulopathy and bone marrow atrophy during severe sepsis. Methods Experiment I: C57BL/6J mice were subjected to CLP, and 1 h later intraperitoneally injected with either EX-527 dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), or DMSO only. Survival was monitored for 10 days. Experiment II: One hour after CLP animals were randomly treated with: (i) DMSO vehicle, and (ii) EX-527. Peritoneal fluid and blood samples were collected for measurement of cytokines, and blood was also used to evaluate coagulation status using Thrombelastography. In addition, long bones (femurs and tibias) were harvested from animals to determine morphological changes of bone marrow by H&E staining. Experiment III: Normal primary splenocytes were cultured, and treated with lipopolysaccharide in the presence or absence of EX-527 to assess cytokine production. Results EX-527 significantly improved survival, and attenuated levels of cytokines in blood and peritoneal fluid compared to the vehicle control. It also decreased TNF-α and IL-6 production by splenocytes in vitro. Selective inhibition of SIRT1 was associated with dramatic improvements in fibrin cross-linkage, platelet function and clot rigidity, but without a significant impact on the clot initiation parameters. Moreover, inhibition of SIRT1 decreased bone marrow atrophy significantly. Conclusions Selective inhibition of Class III histone deacetylase SIRT1 significantly improves survival, attenuates “cytokine storm” and sepsis-associated coagulopathy, and decreases bone marrow atrophy in a lethal mouse septic model. PMID:25051385

  11. LSD1 Regulates Pluripotency of Embryonic Stem/Carcinoma Cells through Histone Deacetylase 1-Mediated Deacetylation of Histone H4 at Lysine 16

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Feng; Lan, Rongfeng; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhu, Linyu; Chen, Fangfang; Xu, Zhengshuang; Liu, Yuqing; Ye, Tao; Sun, Hong

    2014-01-01

    LSD1 is essential for the maintenance of pluripotency of embryonic stem (ES) or embryonic carcinoma/teratocarcinoma (EC) cells. We have previously developed novel LSD1 inhibitors that selectively inhibit ES/EC cells. However, the critical targets of LSD1 remain unclear. Here, we found that LSD1 interacts with histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) to regulate the proliferation of ES/EC cells through acetylation of histone H4 at lysine 16 (H4K16), which we show is a critical substrate of HDAC1. The LSD1 demethylase and HDAC1 deacetylase activities were both inactivated if one of them in the complex was chemically inhibited in ES/EC cells or in reconstituted protein complexes. Loss of HDAC1 phenocopied the selective growth-inhibitory effects and increased the levels of H3K4 methylation and H4K16 acetylation of LSD1 inactivation on ES/EC cells. Reduction of acetylated H4K16 by ablation of the acetyltransferase males absent on the first (MOF) is sufficient to rescue the growth inhibition induced by LSD1 inactivation. While LSD1 or HDAC1 inactivation caused the downregulation of Sox2 and Oct4 and induction of differentiation genes, such as FOXA2 or BMP2, depletion of MOF restored the levels of Sox2, Oct4, and FoxA2 in LSD1-deficient cells. Our studies reveal a novel mechanism by which LSD1 acts through the HDAC1- and MOF-mediated regulation of H4K16 acetylation to maintain the pluripotency of ES/EC cells. PMID:24190971

  12. Polymorphisms in histone deacetylases improve the predictive value of IL-28B for chronic hepatitis C therapy.

    PubMed

    López-Rodríguez, R; Hernández-Bartolomé, Á; Borque, M J; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Y; Martín-Vílchez, S; Trapero-Marugán, M; García-Buey, L; Muñoz de Rueda, P; Rodrigo, L; Vidal-Castiñeira, J R; Salmerón, J; Moreno-Otero, R; Sanz-Cameno, P

    2013-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) influence many cellular processes, including the modulation of signal transducer and activator of transcription activity (STAT) in response to interferon (IFN). To identify genetic markers that help optimize the IL-28B prediction of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) sustained virological response (SVR), we evaluated 27 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in HDAC1-11. Three SNPs, rs3778216, rs976552 and rs368328 in HDAC2, HDAC3 and HDAC5, respectively, were independently associated with SVR (P<0.05). The addition of these three HDAC's SNPs to the IL-28B predictive model (area under the curve (AUC)=0.630) rendered an important improvement of AUC-receiver operating characteristic value (AUC=0.747, P=0.021). Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID) analysis denoted the significance of the rs3778216 C/C genotype in identifying a group of good responders despite carrying IL-28B T allele (79.2% of SVR), whereas HDAC5 G allele characterized a subgroup with poor response rate (25.5%). However, HDAC3 rs976552 did not display a relevant role for the hierarchical classification of patients. Variables related to SVR in hepatitis C virus genotype 1 (HCV-1) cohort were the same of those obtained for the overall population. Interestingly, in non-HCV-1 patients (n=56) the HDAC2 C/C genotype was the unique predictive variable related to SVR (AUC=0.733, P<0.007). Thus, these preliminary results suggest the potential usefulness of combined IL-28B and HDAC genotyping for the CHC patients' classification by likelihood of an SVR. PMID:23615070

  13. A novel role for histone deacetylase 6 in the regulation of the tolerogenic STAT3/IL-10 pathway in APCs.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fengdong; Lienlaf, Maritza; Wang, Hong-Wei; Perez-Villarroel, Patricio; Lee, Calvin; Woan, Karrune; Rock-Klotz, Jennifer; Sahakian, Eva; Woods, David; Pinilla-Ibarz, Javier; Kalin, Jay; Tao, Jianguo; Hancock, Wayne; Kozikowski, Alan; Seto, Edward; Villagra, Alejandro; Sotomayor, Eduardo M

    2014-09-15

    APCs are critical in T cell activation and in the induction of T cell tolerance. Epigenetic modifications of specific genes in the APC play a key role in this process, and among them histone deacetylases (HDACs) have emerged as key participants. HDAC6, one of the members of this family of enzymes, has been shown to be involved in regulation of inflammatory and immune responses. In this study, to our knowledge we show for the first time that genetic or pharmacologic disruption of HDAC6 in macrophages and dendritic cells results in diminished production of the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10 and induction of inflammatory APCs that effectively activate Ag-specific naive T cells and restore the responsiveness of anergic CD4(+) T cells. Mechanistically, we have found that HDAC6 forms a previously unknown molecular complex with STAT3, association that was detected in both the cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments of the APC. By using HDAC6 recombinant mutants we identified the domain comprising amino acids 503-840 as being required for HDAC6 interaction with STAT3. Furthermore, by re-chromatin immunoprecipitation we confirmed that HDAC6 and STAT3 are both recruited to the same DNA sequence within the Il10 gene promoter. Of note, disruption of this complex by knocking down HDAC6 resulted in decreased STAT3 phosphorylation--but no changes in STAT3 acetylation--as well as diminished recruitment of STAT3 to the Il10 gene promoter region. The additional demonstration that a selective HDAC6 inhibitor disrupts this STAT3/IL-10 tolerogenic axis points to HDAC6 as a novel molecular target in APCs to overcome immune tolerance and tips the balance toward T cell immunity. PMID:25108026

  14. Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy identifies protein propionylation in histone deacetylase inhibitor treated glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bhawana; Boopathy, Sivaraman; Somasundaram, Kumaravel; Umapathy, Siva

    2012-03-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) have attracted considerable attention as potential drug molecules in tumour biology. In order to optimise chemotherapy, it is important to understand the mechanisms of regulation of histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes and modifications brought by various HDIs. In the present study, we have employed Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FT-IRMS) to evaluate modifications in cellular macromolecules subsequent to treatment with various HDIs. In addition to CH(3) (methyl) stretching bands at 2872 and 2960 cm(-1) , which arises due to acetylation, we also found major changes in bands at 2851 and 2922 cm(-1) , which originates from stretching vibrations of CH(2) (methylene) groups, in valproic acid treated cells. We further demonstrate that the changes in CH(2) stretching are concentration-dependent and also induced by several other HDIs. Recently, HDIs have been shown to induce propionylation besides acetylation [1]. Since propionylation involves CH(2) groups, we hypothesized that CH(2) vibrational frequency changes seen in HDI treated cells could arise due to propionylation. As verification, pre-treatment of cells with propionyl CoA synthetase inhibitor resulted in loss of CH(2) vibrational changes in histones, purified from valproic acid treated cells. This was further proved by western blot using propionyl-lysine specific antibody. Thus we demonstrate for the first time that propionylation could be monitored by studying CH(2) stretching using IR spectroscopy and further provide a platform for monitoring HDI induced multiple changes in cells. PMID:22259119

  15. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Activate Tristetraprolin Expression through Induction of Early Growth Response Protein 1 (EGR1) in Colorectal Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sobolewski, Cyril; Sanduja, Sandhya; Blanco, Fernando F.; Hu, Liangyan; Dixon, Dan A.

    2015-01-01

    The RNA-binding protein tristetraprolin (TTP) promotes rapid decay of mRNAs bearing 3' UTR AU-rich elements (ARE). In many cancer types, loss of TTP expression is observed allowing for stabilization of ARE-mRNAs and their pathologic overexpression. Here we demonstrate that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors (Trichostatin A, SAHA and sodium butyrate) promote TTP expression in colorectal cancer cells (HCA-7, HCT-116, Moser and SW480 cells) and cervix carcinoma cells (HeLa). We found that HDAC inhibitors-induced TTP expression, promote the decay of COX-2 mRNA, and inhibit cancer cell proliferation. HDAC inhibitors were found to promote TTP transcription through activation of the transcription factor Early Growth Response protein 1 (EGR1). Altogether, our findings indicate that loss of TTP in tumors occurs through silencing of EGR1 and suggests a therapeutic approach to rescue TTP expression in colorectal cancer. PMID:26343742

  16. Mitochondrial Apoptosis and FAK Signaling Disruption by a Novel Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, HTPB, in Antitumor and Antimetastatic Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Shieh, Jiunn-Min; Wei, Tzu-Tang; Tang, Yen-An; Huang, Sin-Ming; Wen, Wei-Ling; Chen, Mei-Yu; Cheng, Hung-Chi; Salunke, Santosh B.; Chen, Ching-Shih; Lin, Pinpin; Chen, Chien-Tien; Wang, Yi-Ching

    2012-01-01

    Background Compound targeting histone deacetylase (HDAC) represents a new era in molecular cancer therapeutics. However, effective HDAC inhibitors for the treatment of solid tumors remain to be developed. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we propose a novel HDAC inhibitor, N-Hydroxy-4-(4-phenylbutyryl-amino) benzamide (HTPB), as a potential chemotherapeutic drug for solid tumors. The HDAC inhibition of HTPB was confirmed using HDAC activity assay. The antiproliferative and anti-migratory mechanisms of HTPB were investigated by cell proliferation, flow cytometry, DNA ladder, caspase activity, Rho activity, F-actin polymerization, and gelatin-zymography for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Mice with tumor xenograft and experimental metastasis model were used to evaluate effects on tumor growth and metastasis. Our results indicated that HTPB was a pan-HDAC inhibitor in suppressing cell viability specifically of lung cancer cells but not of the normal lung cells. Upon HTPB treatment, cell cycle arrest was induced and subsequently led to mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. HTPB disrupted F-actin dynamics via downregulating RhoA activity. Moreover, HTPB inhibited activity of MMP2 and MMP9, reduced integrin-β1/focal adhesion complex formation and decreased pericellular poly-fibronectin assemblies. Finally, intraperitoneal injection or oral administration of HTPB efficiently inhibited A549 xenograft tumor growth in vivo without side effects. HTPB delayed lung metastasis of 4T1 mouse breast cancer cells. Acetylation of histone and non-histone proteins, induction of apoptotic-related proteins and de-phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase were confirmed in treated mice. Conclusions/Significance These results suggested that intrinsic apoptotic pathway may involve in anti-tumor growth effects of HTPB in lung cancer cells. HTPB significantly suppresses tumor metastasis partly through inhibition of integrin-β1/FAK/MMP/RhoA/F-actin pathways. We have provided convincing preclinical evidence that HTPB is a potent HDAC targeted inhibitor and is thus a promising candidate for lung cancer chemotherapy. PMID:22279574

  17. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors (HDACi) Cause the Selective Depletion of Bromodomain Containing Proteins (BCPs)*

    PubMed Central

    Mackmull, Marie-Therese; Iskar, Murat; Parca, Luca; Singer, Stephan; Bork, Peer; Ori, Alessandro; Beck, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) and acetyltransferases control the epigenetic regulation of gene expression through modification of histone marks. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are small molecules that interfere with histone tail modification, thus altering chromatin structure and epigenetically controlled pathways. They promote apoptosis in proliferating cells and are promising anticancer drugs. While some HDACi have already been approved for therapy and others are in different phases of clinical trials, the exact mechanism of action of this drug class remains elusive. Previous studies have shown that HDACis cause massive changes in chromatin structure but only moderate changes in gene expression. To what extent these changes manifest at the protein level has never been investigated on a proteome-wide scale. Here, we have studied HDACi-treated cells by large-scale mass spectrometry based proteomics. We show that HDACi treatment affects primarily the nuclear proteome and induces a selective decrease of bromodomain-containing proteins (BCPs), the main readers of acetylated histone marks. By combining time-resolved proteome and transcriptome profiling, we show that BCPs are affected at the protein level as early as 12 h after HDACi treatment and that their abundance is regulated by a combination of transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. Using gene silencing, we demonstrate that the decreased abundance of BCPs is sufficient to mediate important transcriptional changes induced by HDACi. Our data reveal a new aspect of the mechanism of action of HDACi that is mediated by an interplay between histone acetylation and the abundance of BCPs. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001660 and NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus with identifier GSE64689. PMID:25755299

  18. Inhibition of class I histone deacetylases blunts cardiac hypertrophy through TSC2-dependent mTOR repression

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Cyndi R.; Li, Dan L.; Pedrozo, Zully; May, Herman I.; Jiang, Nan; Kyrychenko, Viktoriia; Cho, Geoffrey; Kim, Soo Young; Wang, Zhao V.; Rotter, David; Rothermel, Beverly A.; Schneider, Jay W.; Lavandero, Sergio; Gillette, Thomas G.; Hill, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    Altering chromatin structure through histone posttranslational modifications has emerged as a key driver of transcriptional responses in cells. Modulation of these transcriptional responses by pharmacological inhibition of class I histone deacetylases (HDACs), a group of chromatin remodeling enzymes, has been successful in blocking the growth of some cancer cell types. These inhibitors also attenuate the pathogenesis of pathological cardiac remodeling by blunting and even reversing pathological hypertrophy. The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a critical sensor and regulator of cell growth that as part of mTOR complex I (mTORC1) drives changes in protein synthesis and metabolism in both pathological and physiological hypertrophy. Here, we demonstrated through pharmacological and genetic methods that inhibition of class I HDACs suppressed pathological cardiac hypertrophy through inhibition of mTOR activity. Mice genetically silenced for HDAC1 and HDAC2 had a reduced hypertrophic response to TAC and showed reduced mTOR activity. We determined that the abundance of tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2), an mTOR inhibitor, was increased through a transcriptional mechanism in cardiomyocytes when class I HDACs were inhibited. In neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, loss of TSC2 abolished HDAC-dependent inhibition of mTOR activity, and increased expression of TSC2 was sufficient to reduce hypertrophy in response to phenylephrine. These findings point to mTOR and TSC2-dependent control of mTOR as critical components of the mechanism by which HDAC inhibitors blunt pathological cardiac growth. These results also suggest a strategy to modulate mTOR activity and facilitate the translational exploitation of HDAC inhibitors in heart disease. PMID:27048565

  19. Inhibition of class I histone deacetylases blunts cardiac hypertrophy through TSC2-dependent mTOR repression.

    PubMed

    Morales, Cyndi R; Li, Dan L; Pedrozo, Zully; May, Herman I; Jiang, Nan; Kyrychenko, Viktoriia; Cho, Geoffrey W; Kim, Soo Young; Wang, Zhao V; Rotter, David; Rothermel, Beverly A; Schneider, Jay W; Lavandero, Sergio; Gillette, Thomas G; Hill, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    Altering chromatin structure through histone posttranslational modifications has emerged as a key driver of transcriptional responses in cells. Modulation of these transcriptional responses by pharmacological inhibition of class I histone deacetylases (HDACs), a group of chromatin remodeling enzymes, has been successful in blocking the growth of some cancer cell types. These inhibitors also attenuate the pathogenesis of pathological cardiac remodeling by blunting and even reversing pathological hypertrophy. The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a critical sensor and regulator of cell growth that, as part of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1), drives changes in protein synthesis and metabolism in both pathological and physiological hypertrophy. We demonstrated through pharmacological and genetic methods that inhibition of class I HDACs suppressed pathological cardiac hypertrophy through inhibition of mTOR activity. Mice genetically silenced for HDAC1 and HDAC2 had a reduced hypertrophic response to thoracic aortic constriction (TAC) and showed reduced mTOR activity. We determined that the abundance of tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2), an mTOR inhibitor, was increased through a transcriptional mechanism in cardiomyocytes when class I HDACs were inhibited. In neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, loss of TSC2 abolished HDAC-dependent inhibition of mTOR activity, and increased expression of TSC2 was sufficient to reduce hypertrophy in response to phenylephrine. These findings point to mTOR and TSC2-dependent control of mTOR as critical components of the mechanism by which HDAC inhibitors blunt pathological cardiac growth. These results also suggest a strategy to modulate mTOR activity and facilitate the translational exploitation of HDAC inhibitors in heart disease. PMID:27048565

  20. Zn2+-chelating motif-tethered short-chain fatty acids as a novel class of histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qiang; Yang, Ya-Ting; Chen, Chang-Shi; Davis, Melanie; Byrd, John C; Etherton, Mark R; Umar, Asad; Chen, Ching-Shih

    2004-01-15

    Among various classes of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, short-chain fatty acids exhibit the least potency, with IC(50) in the millimolar range. We rationalized that this weak potency was, in part, attributable to their inability to access the zinc cation in the HDAC active-site pocket, which is pivotal to the deacetylation catalysis. We thus explored the structural optimization of valproate, butyrate, phenylacetate, and phenylbutyrate by coupling them with Zn(2+)-chelating motifs (hydroxamic acid and o-phenylenediamine) through aromatic omega-amino acid linkers. This strategy has led to a novel class of Zn(2+)-chelating, motif-tethered, short-chain fatty acids that exhibited varying degrees of HDAC inhibitory potency. One hydroxamate-tethered phenylbutyrate compound, N-hydroxy-4-(4-phenylbutyrylamino)benzamide (HTPB), displayed nanomolar potency in inhibiting HDAC activity. Exposure of several cancer cell lines to HTPB at the submicromolar level showed reduced cell proliferation accompanied by histone hyperacetylation and elevated p21(WAF/CIP1) expression, which are hallmark features associated with intracellular HDAC inhibition. PMID:14711316

  1. Bicyclic-Capped Histone Deacetylase 6 Inhibitors with Improved Activity in a Model of Axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease.

    PubMed

    Shen, Sida; Benoy, Veronick; Bergman, Joel A; Kalin, Jay H; Frojuello, Mariana; Vistoli, Giulio; Haeck, Wanda; Van Den Bosch, Ludo; Kozikowski, Alan P

    2016-02-17

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is a disorder of the peripheral nervous system where progressive degeneration of motor and sensory nerves leads to motor problems and sensory loss and for which no pharmacological treatment is available. Recently, it has been shown in a model for the axonal form of CMT that histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) can serve as a target for the development of a pharmacological therapy. Therefore, we aimed at developing new selective and activity-specific HDAC6 inhibitors with improved biochemical properties. By utilizing a bicyclic cap as the structural scaffold from which to build upon, we developed several analogues that showed improved potency compared to tubastatin A while maintaining excellent selectivity compared to HDAC1. Further screening in N2a cells examining both the acetylation of α-tubulin and histones narrowed down the library of compounds to three potent and selective HDAC6 inhibitors. In mutant HSPB1-expressing DRG neurons, serving as an in vitro model for CMT2, these inhibitors were able to restore the mitochondrial axonal transport deficits. Combining structure-based development of HDAC6 inhibitors, screening in N2a cells and in a neuronal model for CMT2F, and preliminary ADMET and pharmacokinetic profiles, resulted in the selection of compound 23d that possesses improved biochemical, functional, and druglike properties compared to tubastatin A. PMID:26599234

  2. Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Histone Deacetylase-3 Containing Chiral Oxazoline Capping Groups and a N-(2-Aminophenyl)-benzamide Binding Unit.

    PubMed

    Marson, Charles M; Matthews, Christopher J; Atkinson, Stephen J; Lamadema, Nermina; Thomas, N Shaun B

    2015-09-10

    A novel series of potent chiral inhibitors of histone deacetylase (HDAC) is described that contains an oxazoline capping group and a N-(2-aminophenyl)-benzamide unit. Among several new inhibitors of this type exhibiting Class I selectivity and potent inhibition of HDAC3-NCoR2, in vitro assays for the inhibition of HDAC1, HDAC2, and HDAC3-NCoR2 by N-(2-aminophenyl)-benzamide 15k gave respective IC50 values of 80, 110, and 6 nM. Weak inhibition of all other HDAC isoforms (HDAC4, 5, 6, 7, and 9: IC50 > 100 000 nM; HDAC8: IC50 = 25 000 nM; HDAC10: IC50 > 4000 nM; HDAC11: IC50 > 2000 nM) confirmed the Class I selectivity of 15k. 2-Aminoimidazolinyl, 2-thioimidazolinyl, and 2-aminooxazolinyl units were shown to be effective replacements for the pyrimidine ring present in many other 2-(aminophenyl)-benzamides previously reported, but the 2-aminooxazolinyl unit was the most potent in inhibiting HDAC3-NCoR2. Many of the new HDAC inhibitors showed higher solubilities and lower binding to human serum albumin than that of Mocetinostat. Increases in histone H3K9 acetylation in the human cell lines U937 and PC-3 was observed for all three oxazolinyl inhibitors evaluated; those HDAC inhibitors also lowered cyclin E expression in U937 cells but not in PC-3 cells, indicating underlying differences in the mechanisms of action of the inhibitors on those two cell lines. PMID:26287310

  3. Structure of Prokaryotic Polyamine Deacetylase Reveals Evolutionary Functional Relationships with Eukaryotic Histone Deacetylases

    PubMed Central

    Lombardi, Patrick M.; Angell, Heather D.; Whittington, Douglas A.; Flynn, Erin F.; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Christianson, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Polyamines are a ubiquitous class of polycationic small molecules that can influence gene expression by binding to nucleic acids. Reversible polyamine acetylation regulates nucleic acid binding and is required for normal cell cycle progression and proliferation. Here, we report the structures of Mycoplana ramosa acetylpolyamine amidohydrolase (APAH) complexed with a transition state analogue and a hydroxamate inhibitor, and an inactive mutant complexed with two acetylpolyamine substrates. The structure of APAH is the first of a histone deacetylase-like oligomer and reveals that an 18-residue insert in the L2 loop promotes dimerization and the formation of an 18- long L-shaped active site tunnel at the dimer interface, accessible only to narrow and flexible substrates. The importance of dimerization for polyamine deacetylase function leads to the suggestion that a comparable dimeric or double-domain histone deacetylase could catalyze polyamine deacetylation reactions in eukaryotes. PMID:21268586

  4. Structure of Prokaryotic Polyamine Deacetylase Reveals Evolutionary Functional Relationships with Eukaryotic Histone Deacetylases

    SciTech Connect

    P Lombardi; H Angell; D Whittington; E Flynn; K Rajashankar; D Christianson

    2011-12-31

    Polyamines are a ubiquitous class of polycationic small molecules that can influence gene expression by binding to nucleic acids. Reversible polyamine acetylation regulates nucleic acid binding and is required for normal cell cycle progression and proliferation. Here, we report the structures of Mycoplana ramosa acetylpolyamine amidohydrolase (APAH) complexed with a transition state analogue and a hydroxamate inhibitor and an inactive mutant complexed with two acetylpolyamine substrates. The structure of APAH is the first of a histone deacetylase-like oligomer and reveals that an 18-residue insert in the L2 loop promotes dimerization and the formation of an 18 {angstrom} long 'L'-shaped active site tunnel at the dimer interface, accessible only to narrow and flexible substrates. The importance of dimerization for polyamine deacetylase function leads to the suggestion that a comparable dimeric or double-domain histone deacetylase could catalyze polyamine deacetylation reactions in eukaryotes.

  5. In Vivo PET-imaging of Histone Deacetylases by 18F-Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid (18F-SAHA)1

    PubMed Central

    Hendricks, J. Adam; Keliher, Edmund J.; Marinelli, Brett; Reiner, Thomas; Weissleder, Ralph; Mazitschek, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a group of enzymes that modulate gene expression and cell state by deacetylation of both histone and non-histone proteins. A variety of HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) have already undergone clinical testing in cancer. Real-time in vivo imaging of HDACs and their inhibition would be invaluable; however, the development of appropriate imaging agents has remained a major challenge. Here, we describe the development and evaluation of 18F-suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (18F-SAHA 1a), a close analog of the most clinically relevant HDACi, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA). We demonstrate that 1a has near identical biochemical activity profiles to SAHA, and report findings from pharmacokinetic studies. Using a murine ovarian cancer model, we likewise show that HDACi target binding efficacy can be quantitated within 24 hours of administration. 1a thus represents the first 18F-positron emission tomography (PET) HDAC imaging agent, which also exhibits low nanomolar potency and is pharmacologically analogous to a clinically relevant HDACi. PMID:21721525

  6. Novel thiol-based histone deacetylase inhibitors bearing 3-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxamide scaffold as surface recognition motif: Design, synthesis and SAR study.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jiachen; Niu, Qun; Liu, Jiang; Bao, Yu; Yang, Jinyu; Luan, Shenglin; Fan, Yinbo; Liu, Dan; Zhao, Linxiang

    2016-01-15

    A series of novel thiol-based histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors bearing 3-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxamide scaffold as surface recognition motif was designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their HDAC inhibition activity. Among them, 15j (IC50=0.08μM) was identified as a better inhibitor than Vorinostat (IC50=0.25μM) against total HDACs. In addition, Structure-activity relationships (SAR) analyses indicated that (i) compounds with different substituents on pyrazole N-1 position exhibited superior activities than those on pyrazole N-2 position, (ii) variation of functional groups on N-1'-alkyl chain terminus followed the trends of carboxyl group>hydroxyl group≫alkyl group, and (iii) methylation on pyrazole C-4 position diminished the HDAC inhibition activity. The SAR will guide us to further refine compounds bearing 3-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxamide scaffold to achieve better HDAC inhibitors. PMID:26706171

  7. A new amidohydrolase from Bordetella or Alcaligenes strain FB188 with similarities to histone deacetylases.

    PubMed

    Hildmann, Christian; Ninkovic, Milena; Dietrich, Rüdiger; Wegener, Dennis; Riester, Daniel; Zimmermann, Thomas; Birch, Olwen M; Bernegger, Christine; Loidl, Peter; Schwienhorst, Andreas

    2004-04-01

    The full-length gene encoding the histone deacetylase (HDAC)-like amidohydrolase (HDAH) from Bordetella or Alcaligenes (Bordetella/Alcaligenes) strain FB188 (DSM 11172) was cloned using degenerate primer PCR combined with inverse-PCR techniques and ultimately expressed in Escherichia coli. The expressed enzyme was biochemically characterized and found to be similar to the native enzyme for all properties examined. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of 1,110 bp which encodes a polypeptide with a theoretical molecular mass of 39 kDa. Interestingly, peptide sequencing disclosed that the N-terminal methionine is lacking in the mature wild-type enzyme, presumably due to the action of methionyl aminopeptidase. Sequence database searches suggest that the new amidohydrolase belongs to the HDAC superfamily, with the closest homologs being found in the subfamily assigned acetylpolyamine amidohydrolases (APAH). The APAH subfamily comprises enzymes or putative enzymes from such diverse microorganisms as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Archaeoglobus fulgidus, and the actinomycete Mycoplana ramosa (formerly M. bullata). The FB188 HDAH, however, is only moderately active in catalyzing the deacetylation of acetylpolyamines. In fact, FB188 HDAH exhibits significant activity in standard HDAC assays and is inhibited by known HDAC inhibitors such as trichostatin A and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA). Several lines of evidence indicate that the FB188 HDAH is very similar to class 1 and 2 HDACs and contains a Zn(2+) ion in the active site which contributes significantly to catalytic activity. Initial biotechnological applications demonstrated the extensive substrate spectrum and broad optimum pH range to be excellent criteria for using the new HDAH from Bordetella/Alcaligenes strain FB188 as a biocatalyst in technical biotransformations, e.g., within the scope of human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase inhibitor synthesis. PMID:15060035

  8. mTOR kinase inhibitors synergize with histone deacetylase inhibitors to kill B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Beagle, Brandon R.; Nguyen, Duc M.; Mallya, Sharmila; Tang, Sarah S.; Lu, Mengrou; Zeng, Zhihong; Konopleva, Marina; Vo, Thanh-Trang; Fruman, David A.

    2015-01-01

    High activity of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is associated with poor prognosis in pre-B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), suggesting that inhibiting mTOR might be clinically useful. However, emerging data indicate that mTOR inhibitors are most effective when combined with other target agents. One strategy is to combine with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, since B-ALL is often characterized by epigenetic changes that silence the expression of pro-apoptotic factors. Here we tested combinations of mTOR and pan-HDAC inhibitors on B-ALL cells, including both Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) and non-Ph cell lines. We found that mTOR kinase inhibitors (TOR-KIs) synergize with HDAC inhibitors to cause apoptosis in B-ALL cells and the effect is greater when compared to rapamycin plus HDAC inhibitors. The combination of TOR-KIs with the clinically approved HDAC inhibitor vorinostat increased apoptosis in primary pediatric B-ALL cells in vitro. Mechanistically, TOR-KI and HDAC inhibitor combinations increased expression of pro-death genes, including targets of the Forkhead Box O (FOXO) transcription factors, and increased sensitivity to apoptotic triggers at the mitochondria. These findings suggest that targeting epigenetic factors can unmask the cytotoxic potential of TOR-KIs towards B-ALL cells. PMID:25576920

  9. Discovery of 1-hydroxypyridine-2-thiones as selective histone deacetylase inhibitors and their potential application for treating leukemia.

    PubMed

    Muthyala, Ramaiah; Shin, Woo Shik; Xie, Jiashu; Sham, Yuk Yin

    2015-10-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) is a validated target for pursuing anticancer agents. However, obtaining a selective inhibitor against a given HDAC member remains a significant challenge. We report here the use of 1-hydroxypyridine-2-thione (1HPT) as a key pharmacophore for zinc-binding can result in highly selective HDAC inhibitors. 1HPT-6-carboxylic acid exhibits selective inhibition of HDAC6 with an IC50 of 150 nM that corresponds to a remarkable 0.9 ligand efficiency. Two analogs with simple amino acids shows nearly 600-fold selectivity among the eleven zinc-dependent HDACs. At low micromolar concentration these compounds inhibit the growth of HDAC8-overexpressing chronic myelogenous leukemia cells and specific form of acute myelogenous leukemia cells. Their potential mode of binding was examined by molecular docking and their stability was assessed in mouse and human plasma. Together the results suggest 1HPT analogs exhibit promising therapeutic potential for further development as anticancer agents to treat leukemia. PMID:26264503

  10. Discovery of Selective Histone Deacetylase 6 Inhibitors Using the Quinazoline as the Cap for the Treatment of Cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhuang; Wang, Taijin; Wang, Fang; Niu, Ting; Liu, Zhuowei; Chen, Xiaoxin; Long, Chaofeng; Tang, Minghai; Cao, Dong; Wang, Xiaoyan; Xiang, Wei; Yi, Yuyao; Ma, Liang; You, Jingsong; Chen, Lijuan

    2016-02-25

    Novel selective histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) inhibitors using the quinazoline as the cap were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for HDAC enzymatic assays. N-Hydroxy-4-(2-methoxy-5-(methyl(2-methylquinazolin-4-yl)amino)phenoxy)butanamide, 23bb, was the most potent selective inhibitor for HDAC6 with an IC50 of 17 nM and showed 25-fold and 200-fold selectivity relative to HDAC1 and HDAC8, respectively. In vitro, 23bb presented low nanomolar antiproliferative effects against panel of cancer cell lines. Western blot analysis further confirmed that 23bb increased acetylation level of α-tubulin in vitro. 23bb has a good pharmacokinetic profile with oral bioavailability of 47.0% in rats. In in vivo efficacy evaluations of colorectal HCT116, acute myelocytic leukemia MV4-11, and B cell lymphoma Romas xenografts, 23bb more effectively inhibited the tumor growth than SAHA even at a 4-fold reduced dose or ACY-1215 at the same dose. Our results indicated that 23bb is a potent oral anticancer candidate for selective HDAC6 inhibitor and deserves further investigation. PMID:26443078

  11. mTOR kinase inhibitors synergize with histone deacetylase inhibitors to kill B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Beagle, Brandon R; Nguyen, Duc M; Mallya, Sharmila; Tang, Sarah S; Lu, Mengrou; Zeng, Zhihong; Konopleva, Marina; Vo, Thanh-Trang; Fruman, David A

    2015-02-10

    High activity of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is associated with poor prognosis in pre-B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), suggesting that inhibiting mTOR might be clinically useful. However, emerging data indicate that mTOR inhibitors are most effective when combined with other target agents. One strategy is to combine with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, since B-ALL is often characterized by epigenetic changes that silence the expression of pro-apoptotic factors. Here we tested combinations of mTOR and pan-HDAC inhibitors on B-ALL cells, including both Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) and non-Ph cell lines. We found that mTOR kinase inhibitors (TOR-KIs) synergize with HDAC inhibitors to cause apoptosis in B-ALL cells and the effect is greater when compared to rapamycin plus HDAC inhibitors. The combination of TOR-KIs with the clinically approved HDAC inhibitor vorinostat increased apoptosis in primary pediatric B-ALL cells in vitro. Mechanistically, TOR-KI and HDAC inhibitor combinations increased expression of pro-death genes, including targets of the Forkhead Box O (FOXO) transcription factors, and increased sensitivity to apoptotic triggers at the mitochondria. These findings suggest that targeting epigenetic factors can unmask the cytotoxic potential of TOR-KIs towards B-ALL cells. PMID:25576920

  12. Inhibition of histone deacetylase activity attenuates renal fibroblast activation and interstitial fibrosis in obstructive nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Pang, Maoyin; Kothapally, Jagan; Mao, Haiping; Tolbert, Evelyn; Ponnusamy, Murugavel; Chin, Y Eugene; Zhuang, Shougang

    2009-10-01

    Activation of renal interstitial fibroblasts is critically involved in the development of tubulointerstitial fibrosis in chronic kidney diseases. In this study, we investigated the effect of trichostatin A (TSA), a specific histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, on the activation of renal interstitial fibroblasts in a rat renal interstitial fibroblast line (NRK-49F) and the development of renal fibrosis in a murine model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). alpha-Smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) and fibronectin, two hallmarks of fibroblast activation, were highly expressed in cultured NRK-49F cells, and their expression was inhibited in the presence of TSA. Similarly, administration of TSA suppressed the expression of alpha-SMA and fibronectin and attenuated the accumulation of renal interstitial fibroblasts in the kidney after the obstructive injury. Activation of renal interstitial fibroblasts was accompanied by phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), and TSA treatment also abolished these responses. Furthermore, inhibition of the STAT3 pathway with AG490 inhibited expression of alpha-SMA and fibronectin in NRK-49F cells. Finally, TSA treatment inhibited tubular cell apoptosis and caspase-3 activation in the obstructive kidney. Collectively, we suggest that pharmacological HDAC inhibition may induce antifibrotic activity by inactivation of renal interstitial fibroblasts and inhibition of renal tubular cell death. STAT3 may mediate those actions of HDACs. PMID:19640900

  13. Histone deacetylases inhibitors as anti-angiogenic agents altering vascular endothelial growth factor signaling.

    PubMed

    Deroanne, Christophe F; Bonjean, Karine; Servotte, Sandrine; Devy, Laetitia; Colige, Alain; Clausse, Nathalie; Blacher, Sylvia; Verdin, Eric; Foidart, Jean-Michel; Nusgens, Betty V; Castronovo, Vincent

    2002-01-17

    Angiogenesis is a complex biological process involving the coordinated modulation of many genes. Histone deacetylases (HDAC) are a growing family of enzymes that mediate the availability of chromatin to the transcriptional machinery. Trichostatin-A (TSA) and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), two HDAC inhibitors known to relieve gene silencing, were evaluated as potential antiangiogenic agents. TSA and SAHA were shown to prevent vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-stimulated human umbilical cord endothelial cells (HUVEC) from invading a type I collagen gel and forming capillary-like structures. SAHA and TSA inhibited the VEGF-induced formation of a CD31-positive capillary-like network in embryoid bodies and inhibited the VEGF-induced angiogenesis in the CAM assay. TSA also prevented, in a dose-response relationship, the sprouting of capillaries from rat aortic rings. TSA inhibited in a dose-dependent and reversible fashion the VEGF-induced expression of VEGF receptors, VEGFR1, VEGFR2, and neuropilin-1. TSA and SAHA upregulated the expression by HUVEC of semaphorin III, a recently described VEGF competitor, at both mRNA and protein levels. This effect was specific to endothelial cells and was not observed in human fibroblasts neither in vascular smooth muscle cells. These observations provide a conspicuous demonstration that HDAC inhibitors are potent anti-angiogenic factors altering VEGF signaling. PMID:11821955

  14. Gene expression profiling in response to the histone deacetylase inhibitor BL1521 in neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ruijter, Annemieke J.M. de; Kemp, Stephan . E-mail: a.b.vankuilenburg@amc.uva.nl

    2005-10-01

    Neuroblastoma is a childhood tumor with a poor survival in advanced stage disease despite intensive chemotherapeutic regimes. The new histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor BL1521 has shown promising results in neuroblastoma. Inhibition of HDAC resulted in a decrease in proliferation and metabolic activity, induction of apoptosis and differentiation of neuroblastoma cells. In order to elucidate the mechanism mediating the effects of BL1521 on neuroblastoma cells, we investigated the gene expression profile of an MYCN single copy (SKNAS) and an MYCN amplified (IMR32) neuroblastoma cell line after treatment with BL1521 using the Affymetrix oligonucleotide array U133A. An altered expression of 255 genes was observed in both neuroblastoma cell lines. The majority of these genes were involved in gene expression, cellular metabolism, and cell signaling. We observed changes in the expression of vital genes belonging to the cell cycle (cyclin D1 and CDK4) and apoptosis (BNIP3, BID, and BCL2) pathway in response to BL1521. The expression of 37 genes was altered by both BL1521 and Trichostatin A, which could indicate a common gene set regulated by different HDAC inhibitors. BL1521 treatment changed the expression of a number of MYCN-associated genes. Several genes in the Wnt and the Delta/Notch pathways were changed in response to BL1521 treatment, suggesting that BL1521 is able to induce the differentiation of neuroblastoma cells into a more mature phenotype.

  15. Design, synthesis, and antitumor evaluation of histone deacetylase inhibitors with l-phenylglycine scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yingjie; Li, Xiaoguang; Hou, Jinning; Huang, Yongxue; Xu, Wenfang

    2015-01-01

    In our previous research, a novel series of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors with l-phenylglycine scaffold were designed and synthesized, among which amides D3 and D7 and ureido D18 were far superior to the positive control (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid [SAHA]) in HDAC inhibition, but were only comparable to SAHA in antiproliferation on tumor cell lines. Herein, further structural derivation of lead compounds D3, D7, and D18 was carried out to improve their cellular activities. Most of our newly synthesized compounds exhibited more potent HDAC inhibitory activities than the positive control SAHA, and several derivatives were even better than their parent compounds. However, compared with SAHA and our lead compounds, only secondary amine series compounds exhibited improved antiproliferative activities, likely due to their appropriate topological polar surface area values and cell permeabilities. In a human histiocytic lymphoma (U937) xenograft model, the most potent secondary amine 9d exhibited similar in vivo antitumor activity to that of SAHA. PMID:26504374

  16. Probing the elusive catalytic activity of vertebrate class IIa histone deacetylases.

    PubMed

    Jones, Philip; Altamura, Sergio; De Francesco, Raffaele; Gallinari, Paola; Lahm, Armin; Neddermann, Petra; Rowley, Michael; Serafini, Sergio; Steinkühler, Christian

    2008-03-15

    It has been widely debated whether class IIa HDACs have catalytic deacetylase activity, and whether this plays any part in controlling gene expression. Herein, it has been demonstrated that class IIa HDACs isolated from mammalian cells are contaminated with other deacetylases, but can be prepared cleanly in Escherichia coli. These bacteria preparations have weak but measurable deacetylase activity. The low efficiency can be restored either by: mutation of an active site histidine to tyrosine, or by the use of a non-acetylated lysine substrate, allowing the development of assays to identify class IIa HDAC inhibitors. PMID:18308563

  17. Increased Histone Deacetylase Activity Involved in the Suppressed Invasion of Cancer Cells Survived from ALA-Mediated Photodynamic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pei-Tzu; Tsai, Yi-Jane; Lee, Ming-Jen; Chen, Chin-Tin

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we have found that cancer cells survived from 5-Aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) have abnormal mitochondrial function and suppressed cellular invasiveness. Here we report that both the mRNA expression level and enzymatic activity of histone deacetylase (HDAC) were elevated in the PDT-derived variants with dysfunctional mitochondria. The activated HDAC deacetylated histone H3 and further resulted in the reduced migration and invasion, which correlated with the reduced expression of the invasion-related genes, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), paternally expressed gene 1 (PEG1), and miR-355, the intronic miRNA. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we further demonstrate the reduced amount of acetylated histone H3 on the promoter regions of MMP9 and PEG1, supporting the down-regulation of these two genes in PDT-derived variants. These results indicate that HDAC activation induced by mitochondrial dysfunction could modulate the cellular invasiveness and its related gene expression. This argument was further verified in the 51-10 cybrid cells with the 4977 bp mtDNA deletion and A375 ρ0 cells with depleted mitochondria. These results indicate that mitochondrial dysfunction might suppress tumor invasion through modulating histone acetylation. PMID:26473836

  18. Redirection of Epithelial Immune Responses by Short-Chain Fatty Acids through Inhibition of Histone Deacetylases

    PubMed Central

    Lin, May Young; de Zoete, Marcel R.; van Putten, Jos P. M.; Strijbis, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are products of microbial fermentation that are important for intestinal epithelial health. Here, we describe that SCFAs have rapid and reversible effects on toll-like receptor (TLR) responses in epithelial cells. Incubation of HEK293 or HeLa epithelial cells with the SCFAs butyrate or propionate at physiological concentrations enhanced NF-κB activation induced by TLR5, TLR2/1, TLR4, and TLR9 agonists. NF-κB activation in response to tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) was also increased by SCFAs. Comparative transcript analysis of HT-29 colon epithelial cells revealed that SCFAs enhanced TLR5-induced transcription of TNFα but dampened or even abolished the TLR5-mediated induction of IL-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein 1. SCFAs are known inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDACs). Butyrate or propionate caused a rapid increase in histone acetylation in epithelial cells, similar to the small molecule HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA). TSA also mimicked the effects of SCFAs on TLR–NF-κB responses. This study shows that bacterial SCFAs rapidly alter the epigenetic state of host cells resulting in redirection of the innate immune response and selective reprograming of cytokine/chemokine expression. PMID:26579129

  19. Redirection of Epithelial Immune Responses by Short-Chain Fatty Acids through Inhibition of Histone Deacetylases.

    PubMed

    Lin, May Young; de Zoete, Marcel R; van Putten, Jos P M; Strijbis, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are products of microbial fermentation that are important for intestinal epithelial health. Here, we describe that SCFAs have rapid and reversible effects on toll-like receptor (TLR) responses in epithelial cells. Incubation of HEK293 or HeLa epithelial cells with the SCFAs butyrate or propionate at physiological concentrations enhanced NF-κB activation induced by TLR5, TLR2/1, TLR4, and TLR9 agonists. NF-κB activation in response to tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) was also increased by SCFAs. Comparative transcript analysis of HT-29 colon epithelial cells revealed that SCFAs enhanced TLR5-induced transcription of TNFα but dampened or even abolished the TLR5-mediated induction of IL-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein 1. SCFAs are known inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDACs). Butyrate or propionate caused a rapid increase in histone acetylation in epithelial cells, similar to the small molecule HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA). TSA also mimicked the effects of SCFAs on TLR-NF-κB responses. This study shows that bacterial SCFAs rapidly alter the epigenetic state of host cells resulting in redirection of the innate immune response and selective reprograming of cytokine/chemokine expression. PMID:26579129

  20. Understanding histone deacetylases in the cancer development and treatment: an epigenetic perspective of cancer chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mudassier; Hamid, Abid; Hussain, Aashiq; Majeed, Rabiya; Qurishi, Yasrib; Bhat, Javeed Ahmad; Najar, Rauf Ahmad; Qazi, Asif Khurshid; Zargar, Mohmmad Afzal; Singh, Shashank Kumar; Saxena, Ajit Kumar

    2012-10-01

    Cancer is a pathologic condition that involves genetic and epigenetic events culminating in neoplastic transformation. Alteration in epigenetic events that regulate the transcriptional activity of genes associated with various signaling pathways can influence multiple stages of tumorigenesis. In cancer cells, an imbalance often exists between histone acetyl transferase and histone deacetylase (HDAC) activities, and current research focuses actively on seeking competitive HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) for chemotherapeutic intervention. HDACi are proving useful for cancer prevention and therapy by virtue of their ability to reactivate the expression of epigenetically silenced genes, including those involved in differentiation, cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Furthermore, epidemiological studies suggest that different diets such as intake of cruciferous vegetables may lower the risk of different cancers, and there is growing interest in identifying the specific chemoprotective constituents and mechanistic insights of their action. Interestingly, it has been observed that cancer cells are more sensitive than nontransformed cells to apoptotic induction by some HDACi. Although the mechanistic basis for this sensitivity is unclear, yet HDACi have emerged as important epigenetic target for single and combinatorial chemotherapy. HDACi derived from diverse sources such as microbial, dietary, and synthetic increase acetylation level of cells and bring about anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects specific to cancer cells by way of their role in cell cycle regulation and expression of epigenetically silenced genes. PMID:22462686

  1. Understanding histone deacetylases in the cancer development and treatment: an epigenetic perspective of cancer chemotherapy.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Ahmad M; Hamid A; Hussain A; Majeed R; Qurishi Y; Bhat JA; Najar RA; Qazi AK; Zargar MA; Singh SK; Saxena AK

    2012-10-01

    Cancer is a pathologic condition that involves genetic and epigenetic events culminating in neoplastic transformation. Alteration in epigenetic events that regulate the transcriptional activity of genes associated with various signaling pathways can influence multiple stages of tumorigenesis. In cancer cells, an imbalance often exists between histone acetyl transferase and histone deacetylase (HDAC) activities, and current research focuses actively on seeking competitive HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) for chemotherapeutic intervention. HDACi are proving useful for cancer prevention and therapy by virtue of their ability to reactivate the expression of epigenetically silenced genes, including those involved in differentiation, cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Furthermore, epidemiological studies suggest that different diets such as intake of cruciferous vegetables may lower the risk of different cancers, and there is growing interest in identifying the specific chemoprotective constituents and mechanistic insights of their action. Interestingly, it has been observed that cancer cells are more sensitive than nontransformed cells to apoptotic induction by some HDACi. Although the mechanistic basis for this sensitivity is unclear, yet HDACi have emerged as important epigenetic target for single and combinatorial chemotherapy. HDACi derived from diverse sources such as microbial, dietary, and synthetic increase acetylation level of cells and bring about anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects specific to cancer cells by way of their role in cell cycle regulation and expression of epigenetically silenced genes.

  2. Structural insights into the assembly of the histone deacetylase-associated Sin3L/Rpd3L corepressor complex

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Michael D.; Marcum, Ryan; Graveline, Richard; Chan, Clarence W.; Xie, Tao; Chen, Zhonglei; Ding, Yujia; Zhang, Yongbo; Mondragón, Alfonso; David, Gregory; Radhakrishnan, Ishwar

    2015-01-01

    Acetylation is correlated with chromatin decondensation and transcriptional activation, but its regulation by histone deacetylase (HDAC)-bearing corepressor complexes is poorly understood. Here, we describe the mechanism of assembly of the mammalian Sin3L/Rpd3L complex facilitated by Sds3, a conserved subunit deemed critical for proper assembly. Sds3 engages a globular, helical region of the HDAC interaction domain (HID) of the scaffolding protein Sin3A through a bipartite motif comprising a helix and an adjacent extended segment. Sds3 dimerizes through not only one of the predicted coiled-coil motifs but also, the segment preceding it, forming an ∼150-Å-long antiparallel dimer. Contrary to previous findings in yeast, Sin3A rather than Sds3 functions in recruiting HDAC1 into the complex by engaging the latter through a highly conserved segment adjacent to the helical HID subdomain. In the resulting model for the ternary complex, the two copies of the HDACs are situated distally and dynamically because of a natively unstructured linker connecting the dimerization domain and the Sin3A interaction domain of Sds3; these features contrast with the static organization described previously for the NuRD (nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase) complex. The Sds3 linker features several conserved basic residues that could potentially maintain the complex on chromatin by nonspecific interactions with DNA after initial recruitment by sequence-specific DNA-binding repressors. PMID:26124119

  3. Sequence-dependent interaction between cisplatin and histone deacetylase inhibitors in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tomonori; Suzuki, Maiko; Sato, Yoshitaro; Echigo, Seishi; Rikiishi, Hidemi

    2006-05-01

    Chemotherapeutic treatment with combinations of drugs is front-line therapy for many types of cancer. Combining drugs that target different signaling pathways often lessens adverse side-effects while increasing the efficacy of treatment and reducing patient morbidity. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors represent a novel class of anti-neoplastic agents that act by promoting acetylation of core histones, leading in turn to the uncoiling of chromatin and activation of a variety of genes implicated in the regulation of cell survival, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. A defined scheduling protocol is described by which HDAC inhibitors facilitate the cytotoxic effectiveness of cisplatin (CDDP) in the killing of carcinoma cells. An oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line (HSC-3) was treated with sodium butyrate (NaB), suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) or MS-275 on the day of, the day before, or the day after addition of CDDP. The IC50 (48-h assay) value of 3.48 microg/ml CDDP could be lowered to 0.41 microg/ml CDDP when concurrently combined with an HDAC inhibitor (MS-275). The percentage of apoptosis by treatment with CDDP for 24 h, followed by NaB for an additional 24 h without washing was significantly greater than that observed in the reverse order. Depending on the time of addition of HDAC inhibitors, CDDP-treated cells displayed varying degrees of apoptotic responses, indicating the critical nature of timing in the use of HDAC inhibitors. Interestingly, experiments suggested that cells arrested at the G1/S checkpoint by CDDP were more sensitive to subsequent treatment with an HDAC inhibitor. Moreover, these events were associated with an enhancement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and caspase-3 activation by HDAC inhibitors. They raise the possibility that combining these agents may represent a novel anti-neoplastic strategy. PMID:16596240

  4. Chromium Cross-Links Histone Deacetylase 1-DNA Methyltransferase 1 Complexes to Chromatin, Inhibiting Histone-Remodeling Marks Critical for Transcriptional Activation▿

    PubMed Central

    Schnekenburger, Michael; Talaska, Glenn; Puga, Alvaro

    2007-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation of gene expression requires posttranslational modification of histone proteins, which, in concert with chromatin-remodeling factors, modulate chromatin structure. Exposure to environmental agents may interfere with specific histone modifications and derail normal patterns of gene expression. To test this hypothesis, we coexposed cells to binary mixtures of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), an environmental procarcinogen that activates Cyp1a1 transcriptional responses mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), and chromium, a carcinogenic heavy metal that represses B[a]P-inducible AHR-mediated gene expression. We show that chromium cross-links histone deacetylase 1-DNA methyltransferase 1 (HDAC1-DNMT1) complexes to Cyp1a1 promoter chromatin and inhibits histone marks induced by AHR-mediated gene transactivation, including phosphorylation of histone H3 Ser-10, trimethylation of H3 Lys-4, and various acetylation marks in histones H3 and H4. These changes inhibit RNA polymerase II recruitment without affecting the kinetics of AHR DNA binding. HDAC1 and DNMT1 inhibitors or depletion of HDAC1 or DNMT1 with siRNAs blocks chromium-induced transcriptional repression by decreasing the interaction of these proteins with the Cyp1a1 promoter and allowing histone acetylation to proceed. By inhibiting Cyp1a1 expression, chromium stimulates the formation of B[a]P DNA adducts. Epigenetic modification of gene expression patterns may be a key element of the developmental and carcinogenic outcomes of exposure to chromium and to other environmental agents. PMID:17682057

  5. Conformationally locked calixarene-based histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Chini, Maria Giovanna; Terracciano, Stefania; Riccio, Raffaele; Bifulco, Giuseppe; Ciao, Roberta; Gaeta, Carmine; Troisi, Francesco; Neri, Placido

    2010-12-01

    Alkyl- and arylamidocalix[4]arene derivatives 1-11 have been designed and theoretically evaluated by docking studies as potential histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi). On the basis of the trimodal distribution of the calculated inhibition constants (K(i)), five alkyl- or arylamido derivatives (3, 7, 8, 9, and 11) were synthesized and tested. A qualitative accordance between the experimental results and the theoretical predictions was obtained, confirming that appropriately substituted arylamidocalix[4]arenes are active HDACi. PMID:21038870

  6. Anti-breast cancer effects of histone deacetylase inhibitors and calpain inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Mataga, Megan A; Rosenthal, Shoshana; Heerboth, Sarah; Devalapalli, Amrita; Kokolus, Shannon; Evans, Leah R; Longacre, McKenna; Housman, Genevieve; Sarkar, Sibaji

    2012-07-01

    Development of new breast cancer therapies is needed, particularly as cells become refractory or develop increased drug resistance. In an effort to develop such treatments, class I and II histone deacetylases (HDACs), alone and in combination with other cytotoxic agents, are currently in clinical trial. Herein, we discuss the effects of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) when used in combination with calpeptin, an inhibitor of the regulatory protease, calpain. We present results of study in two breast cancer cells lines with distinct characteristics: MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7. When used in combination with calpeptin, two chemically distinct HDACi significantly inhibited growth and increased cell death by inducing cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. MCF-7 cells exhibited a greater proportion of arrest at the G(1) phase, whereas triple-negative MDA-MB-231 cells exhibited increased cell cycle arrest at the S phase. Methylation of the imprinted and silenced proapoptoic tumor suppressor gene aplasia Ras homolog member I (ARHI) was reduced in both cell lines after treatment with HDACi. However, it was only re-expressed on such treatment in MDA-MB-231 cells, suggesting that re-expression operates under differential mechanisms in these two cell lines. Collectively, these results showed that the combination of HDACi and calpeptin inhibited the growth of two distinctly different types of breast cancer cells and could have wide clinical applications, though the mechanisms of inhibition are possibly different. PMID:22753709

  7. Developing a Novel Indolocarbazole as Histone Deacetylases Inhibitor against Leukemia Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenjing; Lv, Maomin; Zhao, Xiong; Zhang, Jingang

    2015-01-01

    A novel indolocarbazole (named as ZW2-1) possessing HDAC inhibition activity was synthesized and evaluated against human leukemia cell lines HL-60 and NB4. ZW2-1 performed anti-population growth effect which was in a concentration-dependent manner (212??M) by inducing both apoptosis and autophagy in cells. The compound also caused differentiation of HL-60 and NB4 cells as shown by increasing expression of CD11b, CD14, and CD38 at moderate concentration (4??M). At relatively high concentration (8??M), ZW2-1 significantly decreased intracellular histone deacetylase 1 level which was also observed. All the results indicated that ZW2-1 could be a novel antileukemia lead capable of simultaneously inducing apoptosis, autophagy, and differentiation. PMID:26649226

  8. Histone deacetylase inhibitors in the treatment of cancer: overview and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Giannini, Giuseppe; Cabri, Walter; Fattorusso, Caterina; Rodriquez, Manuela

    2012-07-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) are one of the last frontiers in pharmaceutical research. Several classes of HDACi have been identified. Although more than 20 HDACi are under preclinical and clinical investigation as single agents and in combination therapies against different cancers, just two of them were approved by the US FDA: Zolinza() and Istodax(), both licensed for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, the latter also of peripheral T-cell lymphoma. Since HDAC enzymes act by forming multiprotein complexes (clusters), containing cofactors, the main problem in designing new HDACi is that the inhibition activity evaluated on isolated enzyme isoforms does not match the in vivo outcomes. In the coming years, the research will be oriented toward a better understanding of the functioning of these protein complexes as well as the development of new screening assays, with the final goal to obtain new drug candidates for the treatment of cancer. PMID:22857533

  9. Search for novel histone deacetylase inhibitors. Part II: design and synthesis of novel isoferulic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wen; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Tao; Dong, Jinyun; Gao, Hongping; Su, Ping; Shi, Yaling; Zhang, Jie

    2014-05-01

    Previously, we described the discovery of potent ferulic acid-based histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) with halogeno-acetanilide as novel surface recognition moiety (SRM). In order to improve the affinity and activity of these HDACIs, twenty seven isoferulic acid derivatives were described herein. The majority of title compounds displayed potent HDAC inhibitory activity. In particular, IF5 and IF6 exhibited significant enzymatic inhibitory activities, with IC50 values of 0.73 ± 0.08 and 0.57 ± 0.16 μM, respectively. Furthermore, these compounds showed moderate antiproliferative activity against human cancer cells. Especially, IF6 displayed promising profile as an antitumor candidate with IC50 value of 3.91 ± 0.97 μM against HeLa cells. The results indicated that these isoferulic acid derivatives could serve as promising lead compounds for further optimization. PMID:24702857

  10. Development of novel ferulic acid derivatives as potent histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Lu, Wen; Zhang, Tao; Dong, Jinyun; Gao, Hongping; Li, Pengfei; Wang, Sicen; Zhang, Jie

    2013-11-15

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) offer a promising strategy for cancer therapy. The discovery of potent ferulic acid-based HDACIs with hydroxamic acid or 2-aminobenzamide group as zinc binding group was reported. The halogeno-acetanilide was introduced as novel surface recognition moiety (SRM). The majority of title compounds displayed potent HDAC inhibitory activity. In particular, FA6 and FA16 exhibited significant enzymatic inhibitory activities, with IC50 values of 3.94 and 2.82 μM, respectively. Furthermore, these compounds showed moderate antiproliferative activity against a panel of human cancer cells. FA17 displayed promising profile as an antitumor candidate. The results indicated that these ferulic acid derivatives could serve as promising lead compounds for further optimization. PMID:24095016

  11. MS-275, a class I histone deacetylase inhibitor, protects the p53-deficient mouse against ischemic injury.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Sean P; Lee, Rona J; McClean, Megan E; Pemberton, Heather E; Uo, Takuma; Morrison, Richard S; Bastian, Chinthasagar; Baltan, Selva

    2014-05-01

    The administration of pan histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors reduces ischemic damage to the CNS, both in vitro and in animal models of stroke, via mechanisms which we are beginning to understand. The acetylation of p53 is regulated by Class I HDACs and, because p53 appears to play a role in ischemic pathology, the purpose of this study was to discover, using an in vitro white matter ischemia model and an in vivo cerebral ischemia model, if neuroprotection mediated by HDAC inhibition depended on p53 expression. Optic nerves were excised from wild-type and p53-deficient mice, and then subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation in the presence and absence of a specific inhibitor of Class I HDACs (MS-275, entinostat) while compound action potentials were recorded. Furthermore, transient focal ischemia was imposed on wild-type and p53-deficient mice, which were subsequently treated with MS-275. Interestingly, and in both scenarios, the beneficial effects of MS-275 were most pronounced when p53 was absent. These results suggest that modulation of p53 activity is not responsible for MS-275-mediated neuroprotection, and further illustrate how HDAC inhibitors variably influence p53 and associated apoptotic pathways. Optic nerves from wild-type and p53-deficient mice, engineered to express cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) in neuronal mitochondria, were subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) in the presence and absence of a specific inhibitor of Class I histone deacetylases. The protective effect of MS-275 was evidenced by mitochondrial preservation, and this was most pronounced in the absence of p53. PMID:24147654

  12. Mechanisms of G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in myeloma cells induced by hybrid-compound histone deacetylase inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, Seiko; Division of Maxillofacial Surgery, Kyushu Dental University ; Okinaga, Toshinori; Ariyoshi, Wataru; Oral Biology Research Center, Kyushu Dental University ; Takahashi, Osamu; Iwanaga, Kenjiro; Nishino, Norikazu; Tominaga, Kazuhiro; Nishihara, Tatsuji; Oral Biology Research Center, Kyushu Dental University

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: •Novel histone deacetylase inhibitor Ky-2, remarkably inhibits myeloma cell growth. •Ky-2 demonstrates no cytotoxicity against normal lymphocytic cells. •Ky-2 induces cell cycle arrest through the cell cycle-associated proteins. •Ky-2 induces Bcl-2-inhibitable apoptosis through a caspase-dependent cascade. -- Abstract: Objectives: Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are new therapeutic agents, used to treat various types of malignant cancers. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Ky-2, a hybrid-compound HDAC inhibitor, on the growth of mouse myeloma cells. Materials and methods: Myeloma cells, HS-72, P3U1, and mouse normal cells were used in this study. Effect of HDAC inhibitors on cell viability was determined by WST-assay and trypan blue assay. Cell cycle was analyzed using flow cytometer. The expression of cell cycle regulatory and the apoptosis associated proteins were examined by Western blot analysis. Hoechst’s staining was used to detect apoptotic cells. Results: Our findings showed that Ky-2 decreased the levels of HDACs, while it enhanced acetylation of histone H3. Myeloma cell proliferation was inhibited by Ky-2 treatment. Interestingly, Ky-2 had no cytotoxic effects on mouse normal cells. Ky-2 treatment induced G1-phase cell cycle arrest and accumulation of a sub-G1 phase population, while Western blotting analysis revealed that expressions of the cell cycle-associated proteins were up-regulated. Also, Ky-2 enhanced the cleavage of caspase-9 and -3 in myeloma cells, followed by DNA fragmentation. In addition, Ky-2 was not found to induce apoptosis in bcl-2 overexpressing myeloma cells. Conclusion: These findings suggest that Ky-2 induces apoptosis via a caspase-dependent cascade and Bcl-2-inhibitable mechanism in myeloma cells.

  13. Histone deacetylase 3 represses p15{sup INK4b} and p21{sup WAF1/cip1} transcription by interacting with Sp1

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Weifeng; Tan Dapeng; Wang Xiuli; Han Songyan; Tan Jiang; Zhao Yanmei; Lu Jun . E-mail: ycsuo@nenu.edu.cn; Huang Baiqu

    2006-01-06

    Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) has been implicated to play roles in governing cell proliferation. Here we demonstrated that the overexpression of HDAC3 repressed transcription of p15{sup INK4b} and p21{sup WAF1/cip1} genes in 293T cells, and that the recruitment of HDAC3 to the promoter regions of these genes was critical to this repression. We also showed that HDAC3 repressed GAL4-Sp1 transcriptional activity, and that Sp1 was co-immunoprecipitated with FLAG-tagged HDAC3. We conclude that HDAC3 can repress p15{sup INK4b} and p21{sup WAF1/cip1} transcription by interacting with Sp1. Furthermore, knockdown of HDAC3 by RNAi up-regulated the transcriptional expression of p15{sup INK4b}, but not that of p21{sup WAF1/cip1}, implicating the different roles of HDAC3 in repression of p15{sup INK4b} and p21{sup WAF1/cip1} transcription. Data from this study indicate that the inhibition of p15{sup INK4b} and p21{sup WAF1/cip1} may be one of the mechanisms by which HDAC3 participates in cell cycle regulation and oncogenesis.

  14. A Novel Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Exhibits Antitumor Activity via Apoptosis Induction, F-Actin Disruption and Gene Acetylation in Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yen-An; Wen, Wei-Ling; Chang, Jer-Wei; Wei, Tzi-Tang; Tan, Yi-Hung Carol; Salunke, Santosh; Chen, Chien-Tien; Chen, Ching-Shih; Wang, Yi-Ching

    2010-01-01

    Background Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide, yet the therapeutic strategy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is limitedly effective. In addition, validated histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors for the treatment of solid tumors remain to be developed. Here, we propose a novel HDAC inhibitor, OSU-HDAC-44, as a chemotherapeutic drug for NSCLC. Methodology/Principal Findings The cytotoxicity effect of OSU-HDAC-44 was examined in three human NSCLC cell lines including A549 (p53 wild-type), H1299 (p53 null), and CL1-1 (p53 mutant). The antiproliferatative mechanisms of OSU-HDAC-44 were investigated by flow cytometric cell cycle analysis, apoptosis assays and genome-wide chromatin-immunoprecipitation-on-chip (ChIP-on-chip) analysis. Mice with established A549 tumor xenograft were treated with OSU-HDAC-44 or vehicle control and were used to evaluate effects on tumor growth, cytokinesis inhibition and apoptosis. OSU-HDAC-44 was a pan-HDAC inhibitor and exhibits 3–4 times more effectiveness than suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) in suppressing cell viability in various NSCLC cell lines. Upon OSU-HDAC-44 treatment, cytokinesis was inhibited and subsequently led to mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. The cytokinesis inhibition resulted from OSU-HDAC-44-mediated degradation of mitosis and cytokinesis regulators Auroroa B and survivin. The deregulation of F-actin dynamics induced by OSU-HDAC-44 was associated with reduction in RhoA activity resulting from srGAP1 induction. ChIP-on-chip analysis revealed that OSU-HDAC-44 induced chromatin loosening and facilitated transcription of genes involved in crucial signaling pathways such as apoptosis, axon guidance and protein ubiquitination. Finally, OSU-HDAC-44 efficiently inhibited A549 xenograft tumor growth and induced acetylation of histone and non-histone proteins and apoptosis in vivo. Conclusions/Significance OSU-HDAC-44 significantly suppresses tumor growth via induction of cytokinesis defect and intrinsic apoptosis in preclinical models of NSCLC. Our data provide compelling evidence that OSU-HDAC-44 is a potent HDAC targeted inhibitor and can be tested for NSCLC chemotherapy. PMID:20856855

  15. The benzamide MS-275 is a potent, long-lasting brain region-selective inhibitor of histone deacetylases

    PubMed Central

    Simonini, M. V.; Camargo, L. M.; Dong, E.; Maloku, E.; Veldic, M.; Costa, E.; Guidotti, A.

    2006-01-01

    The association of the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor valproate (VPA) with atypical antipsychotics has become a frequent treatment strategy for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Because the VPA doses administered are elevated, one cannot assume that the benefits of the VPA plus antipsychotic treatment are exclusively related to the covalent modifications of nucleosomal histone tails. We compared the actions of N-(2-aminophenyl)-4-[N-(pyridin-3-yl-methoxycarbonyl)aminomethyl]benzamide derivative (MS-275), which is a potent HDAC inhibitor in vitro, with the actions of VPA for their ability to (i) increase the acetylated status of brain nucleosomal histone tail domains and (ii) to regulate brain histone-RELN and histone-GAD67 promoter interactions. MS-275 increases the content of acetylhistone 3 (Ac-H3) in the frontal cortex. Whereas this response peaks after a s.c. injection of 15 ?mol/kg, the increase in Ac-H3 content in the hippocampus becomes significant only after an injection of 60 ?mol/kg, suggesting that MS-275 is 30- to 100-fold more potent than VPA in increasing Ac-H3 in these brain regions. In contrast to VPA, MS-275, in doses up to 120 ?mol/kg, fails to increase Ac-H3 content in the striatum. Chromatin immunoprecipitation shows that MS-275 increases Ac-H3-RELN and Ac-H3-GAD67 promoter interaction in the frontal cortex. These results suggest that MS-275 is a potent brain region-selective HDAC inhibitor. It is likely that, in addition to MS-275, other benzamide derivatives, such as sulpiride, are brain-region selective inhibitors of HDACs. Hence, some benzamide derivatives may express a greater efficacy than VPA as an adjunctive to antipsychotics in the treatment of epigentically induced psychiatric disorders. PMID:16432198

  16. Dual targeting of retinoid X receptor and histone deacetylase with DW22 as a novel antitumor approach

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lihui; Chen, Guoliang; Chen, Kang; Ren, Yong; Li, Huahuan; Jiang, Xiaorui; Jia, Lina; Fu, Shiyuan; Li, Yi; Liu, Xinwei; Wang, Shuang; Yang, Jingyu; Wu, Chunfu

    2015-01-01

    Retinoid X receptor (RXR) and Histone deacetylase (HDAC) are considered important targets for cancer therapy due to their crucial roles in genetic or epigenetic regulations of cancer development and progression. Here, we evaluated the potential of dual targeting of RXR and HDAC using DW22 as a novel therapeutic approach to cancer treatment. We found that the co-expression of RXR-? and HDAC1 was frequently appeared in lung cancer and breast cancer tissues and cell lines. RXR was activated by DW22 in RXR? and HDAC1 overexpressed A549 and MDA-MB-435 cell lines. Meanwhile, DW22 inhibited the activity of HDAC by decreasing its expression in A549 and MDA-MB-435 cell lines, but not in RXR? and HDAC1 deficient cell lines. Moreover, DW22 suppressed cell growth, induced cell differentiation, prompted cell apoptosis and arrested cell cycle in A549, MDA-MB-435 or HL60 cell lines. Treatment human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) with DW22 suppressed migration, invasion and tube formation through decreasing VEGF expression. The up-regulation of Ac-H3 and p21, and down-regulation of VEGF caused by DW22 was markedly attenuated by silencing of HDAC1. Furthermore, knockdown of RXR? by siRNA completely blocked DW22-induced cell differentiation, but partially attenuated DW22-caused inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of cell apoptosis, and suppression of cell migration, invasion and tube formation. Moreover, intravenous administration of DW22 significantly retarded tumor growth of A549 and MDA-MB-435 xenograft mice models, and induced no substantial weight loss and gross toxicity. In addition, DW22 also reduced cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and induced cell apoptosis in vivo. Collectively, our data demonstrates that dual targeting of RXR and HDAC using DW22 possesses pleiotropic antitumor activities both in vitro and in vivo, providing a novel therapeutic approach for cancer treatment. PMID:25762635

  17. Sodium valproate ameliorates diabetes-induced fibrosis and renal damage by the inhibition of histone deacetylases in diabetic rat.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sabbir; Jena, Gopabandhu; Tikoo, Kulbhushan

    2015-04-01

    Recent reports emphasize the contribution of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in the pathogenesis of diabetic renal injury and fibrosis. Valproic acid (VPA) is a first-line drug used for the treatment of epilepsy and migraine as well as established as a HDAC inhibitor. The present study was aimed to evaluate the anti-fibrotic and renoprotective effects of VPA in diabetic nephropathy (DN). Diabetes was induced by single injection of STZ (50mg/kg), whereas VPA at the doses of 150 and 300mg/kg/day was administered for 8 consecutive weeks by oral route in Sprague Dawley rats. The renal injuries and fibrosis were assessed by histology, fibrosis specific staining and fibroblast activation by a transmission electron microscope, while expression of proteins of interest was evaluated by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. VPA treatment ameliorated the histological alterations as well as fibrosis, and decreased the expression of TGF-β1, CTGF, α-SMA, fibronectin, collagen I, COX-2, ICAM-1 and HDAC4/5/7. Further, VPA treatment significantly increased histone H3 acetylation and MMP-2 expression. The present study clearly established that VPA treatment ameliorates the renal injury and fibrosis in diabetic kidney by preventing the myofibroblast activation and fibrogenesis by HDAC inhibition and associated mechanisms, thereby improving the profibrotic and anti-fibrotic protein balance. PMID:25576297

  18. Augmentation of Cationic Antimicrobial Peptide Production with Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors as a Novel Epigenetic Therapy for Bacterial Infections

    PubMed Central

    Yedery, Roshan D.; Jerse, Ann E.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of antibiotic resistance seriously threatens our ability to treat many common and medically important bacterial infections. Novel therapeutics are needed that can be used alone or in conjunction with antibiotics. Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) are important effectors of the host innate defense that exhibit broad-spectrum activity against a wide range of microorganisms. CAMPs are carried within phagocytic granules and are constitutively or inducibly expressed by multiple cell types, including epithelial cells. The role of histone modification enzymes, specifically the histone deacetylases (HDAC), in down-regulating the transcription of CAMP-encoding genes is increasingly appreciated as is the capacity of HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) to block the action of HDACs to increase CAMP expression. The use of synthetic and natural HDACi molecules to increase CAMPs on mucosal surfaces, therefore, has potential therapeutic applications. Here, we review host and pathogen regulation of CAMP expression through the induction of HDACs and assess the therapeutic potential of natural and synthetic HDACi based on evidence from tissue culture systems, animal models, and clinical trials.

  19. Epigenetic Regulation of the Blimp-1 Gene (Prdm1) in B Cells Involves Bach2 and Histone Deacetylase 3.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiromu; Muto, Akihiko; Shima, Hiroki; Katoh, Yasutake; Sax, Nicolas; Tajima, Shinya; Brydun, Andrey; Ikura, Tsuyoshi; Yoshizawa, Naoko; Masai, Hisao; Hoshikawa, Yutaka; Noda, Tetsuo; Nio, Masaki; Ochiai, Kyoko; Igarashi, Kazuhiko

    2016-03-18

    B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (Blimp-1) encoded by Prdm1 is a master regulator of plasma cell differentiation. The transcription factor Bach2 represses Blimp-1 expression in B cells to stall terminal differentiation, by which it supports reactions such as class switch recombination of the antibody genes. We found that histones H3 and H4 around the Prdm1 intron 5 Maf recognition element were acetylated at higher levels in X63/0 plasma cells expressing Blimp-1 than in BAL17 mature B cells lacking its expression. Conversely, methylation of H3-K9 was lower in X63/0 cells than BAL17 cells. Purification of the Bach2 complex in BAL17 cells revealed its interaction with histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3), nuclear co-repressors NCoR1 and NCoR2, transducin β-like 1X-linked (Tbl1x), and RAP1-interacting factor homolog (Rif1). Chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed the binding of HDAC3 and Rif1 to the Prdm1 locus. Reduction of HDAC3 or NCoR1 expression by RNA interference in B cells resulted in an increased Prdm1 mRNA expression. Bach2 is suggested to cooperate with HDAC3-containing co-repressor complexes in B cells to regulate the stage-specific expression of Prdm1 by writing epigenetic modifications at the Prdm1 locus. PMID:26786103

  20. Rapid changes in histone deacetylases and inflammatory gene expression in expert meditators

    PubMed Central

    Kaliman, Perla; Álvarez-López, María Jesús; Cosín-Tomás, Marta; Rosenkranz, Melissa A.; Lutz, Antoine; Davidson, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND A growing body of research shows that mindfulness meditation can alter neural, behavioral and biochemical processes. However, the mechanisms responsible for such clinically relevant effects remain elusive. METHODS Here we explored the impact of a day of intensive practice of mindfulness meditation in experienced subjects (n= 19) on the expression of circadian, chromatin modulatory and inflammatory genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). In parallel, we analyzed a control group of subjects with no meditation experience who engaged in leisure activities in the same environment (n= 21). PBMCs from all participants were obtained before (t1) and after (t2) the intervention (t2-t1= 8 hours) and gene expression was analyzed using custom pathway focused quantitative-real time PCR assays. Both groups were also presented with the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). RESULTS Core clock gene expression at baseline (t1) was similar between groups and their rhythmicity was not influenced in meditators by the intensive day of practice. Similarly, we found that all the epigenetic regulatory enzymes and inflammatory genes analyzed exhibited similar basal expression levels in the two groups. In contrast, after the brief intervention we detected reduced expression of histone deacetylase genes (HDAC2, 3 and 9), alterations in global modification of histones (H4ac; H3K4me3) and decreased expression of pro-inflammatory genes (RIPK2 and COX2) in meditators compared with controls. We found that the expression of RIPK2 and HDAC2 genes was associated with a faster cortisol recovery to the TSST in both groups. CONCLUSIONS The regulation of HDACs and inflammatory pathways may represent some of the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic potential of mindfulness-based interventions. Our findings set the foundation for future studies to further assess meditation strategies for the treatment of chronic inflammatory conditions. PMID:24485481

  1. Transcription factor NF-kappaB differentially regulates death receptor 5 expression involving histone deacetylase 1.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Shashirekha; Graham, Bonnie A; Brown, Jennifer G; Hu, Xiaojie; Vegh-Yarema, Nicolette; Harding, Gary; Paul, James T; Gibson, Spencer B

    2005-07-01

    The transcription factor nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) regulates the expression of both anti-apoptotic and proapoptotic genes. Death receptor 5 (DR5, TRAIL-R2) is a proapoptotic protein considered to be a potential target for cancer therapy, and its expression is mediated by NF-kappaB. The mechanism of NF-kappaB-induced DR5 expression is, however, unknown. Herein, we determined that etoposide-induced DR5 expression requires the first intronic region of the DR5 gene. Mutation of a putative NF-kappaB binding site in this intron eliminates DR5 promoter activity, as do mutations in the p53 binding site in this region. Reduction in p53 expression also blocks p65 binding to the intronic region of the DR5 gene, indicating cooperation between p53 and p65 in DR5 expression. In contrast, the anti-apoptotic stimulus, epidermal growth factor (EGF), fails to increase DR5 expression but effectively activates NF-kappaB and induces p65 binding to the DR5 gene. EGF, however, induces the association of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) with the DR5 gene, whereas etoposide treatment fails to induce this association. Indeed, HDAC inhibitors activate NF-kappaB and p53 and upregulate DR5 expression. Blockage of DR5 activation decreased HDAC inhibitor-induced apoptosis, and a combination of HDAC inhibitors and TRAIL increased apoptosis. This provides a mechanism for regulating NF-kappaB-mediated DR5 expression and could explain the differential roles NF-kappaB plays in regulating apoptosis. PMID:15964798

  2. Inhibition of histone deacetylases targets the transcription regulator Id2 to attenuate cystic epithelial cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lucy X; Li, Xinjian; Magenheimer, Brenda; Calvet, James P; Li, Xiaogang

    2012-01-01

    The pan-histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, trichostatin A, was found to reduce cyst progression and slow the decline of kidney function in Pkd2 knockout mice, model of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Here we determine whether HDAC inhibition acts by regulating cell proliferation to prevent cyst formation, or by other mechanisms. The loss of Pkd1 caused an upregulation of the inhibitor of differentiation 2 (Id2), a transcription regulator, triggering an Id2-mediated downregulation of p21 in mutant mouse embryonic kidney cells in vitro. Using mouse embryonic kidney cells, mutant for Pkd1, we found that trichostatin A decreased Id2, which resulted in upregulation of p21. Further, phosphorylated retinoblastoma (Rb), usually regulated by Cdk2/Cdk4 activity, was also reduced in these cells. Since these latter enzymes are under the control of p21, these studies suggest that the proliferation of cyst epithelial cells that is reduced by trichostatin A might result from p21 upregulation, or alternatively through the Rb-E2F pathway. Additional studies showed that Id2 directly bound to Rb, releasing the transcription activator E2F from transcriptionally inactive Rb-E2F complexes. HDAC inhibition was able to reverse this process by downregulation of Id2. Furthermore, treatment of pregnant Pkd1 mice with trichostatin A prevented cyst formation in the developing embryonic kidneys, showing that this inhibition is effective in vivo during early cyst formation. Thus, HDAC inhibition targets Id2-mediated pathways to downregulate cystic epithelial cell proliferation and hence cystogenesis. PMID:21900881

  3. Effect of the immunosuppressant histone deacetylase inhibitor FR276457 in a canine renal transplant model.

    PubMed

    Kinugasa, Fumitaka; Nagatomi, Itsuo; Nakanishi, Tomonori; Noto, Takahisa; Mori, Hiroaki; Matsuoka, Hideaki; Sudo, Yuji; Mutoh, Seitaro

    2009-09-01

    The histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor FR276457, a hydroxamic derivative, was identified during chemical library screening and was found to exhibit potent inhibitory effects on the activity of mammalian HDACs. It has been shown that FR276457 exhibited marked immunosuppressive effects in a rat heterotopic cardiac transplant model. To predict clinical efficacy of FR276457, we investigated the inhibitory effect of the proliferation of Jurkat cells in vitro and immunosuppressive effect of orally administered FR276457 on allograft rejection as a monotherapy or in combination with tacrolimus (0.04 mg/kg) injected intramuscularly (i.m.) in a canine renal transplant model. Animal survival, the plasma creatinine level, and histopathology were evaluated. FR276457 inhibited the proliferation of Jurkat cells probably by targeting activity of NF-kappaB. FR276457 prolonged the median survival time (MST) of transplanted grafts from 11.5 days (untreated group) to 29.0 days (FR276457-treated group). FR276457 administered 1 mg/kg twice a day in combination with tacrolimus prevented allograft rejection. In addition, a dose of 1.5 mg/kg twice a day or 5.0 mg/kg once a day prolonged the MST from 18 days (control group) to >73 or >90 days, respectively. Histopathological analysis showed that FR276457 suppressed the score for mononuclear cell infiltration and vasculitis. In conclusion, the HDAC inhibitor FR276457 inhibited the proliferation of T cell line established from human in vitro. And more, FR276457 clinically prolonged allograft survival when administered as a monotherapy, and had additive or synergistic effects when combined with tacrolimus with the canine renal transplant model. These results showed HDAC inhibitor is a promising biological target for treatment in transplant field. PMID:19409992

  4. Analysis of the genomic response of human prostate cancer cells to histone deacetylase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Kortenhorst, Madeleine SQ; Wissing, Michel D; Rodriguez, Ronald; Kachhap, Sushant K; Jans, Judith JM; Van der Groep, Petra; Verheul, Henk MW; Gupta, Anuj; Aiyetan, Paul O; van der Wall, Elsken; Carducci, Michael A; Van Diest, Paul J; Marchionni, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have emerged as important targets for cancer treatment. HDAC-inhibitors (HDACis) are well tolerated in patients and have been approved for the treatment of patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). To improve the clinical benefit of HDACis in solid tumors, combination strategies with HDACis could be employed. In this study, we applied Analysis of Functional Annotation (AFA) to provide a comprehensive list of genes and pathways affected upon HDACi-treatment in prostate cancer cells. This approach provides an unbiased and objective approach to high throughput data mining. By performing AFA on gene expression data from prostate cancer cell lines DU-145 (an HDACi-sensitive cell line) and PC3 (a relatively HDACi-resistant cell line) treated with HDACis valproic acid or vorinostat, we identified biological processes that are affected by HDACis and are therefore potential treatment targets for combination therapy. Our analysis revealed that HDAC-inhibition resulted among others in upregulation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes and deregulation of the mitotic spindle checkpoint by downregulation of genes involved in mitosis. These findings were confirmed by AFA on publicly available data sets from HDACi-treated prostate cancer cells. In total, we analyzed 375 microarrays with HDACi treated and non-treated (control) prostate cancer cells. All results from this extensive analysis are provided as an online research source (available at the journal’s website and at http://luigimarchionni.org/HDACIs.html). By publishing this data, we aim to enhance our understanding of the cellular changes after HDAC-inhibition, and to identify novel potential combination strategies with HDACis for the treatment of prostate cancer patients. PMID:23880963

  5. Inhibition of Histone Deacetylase Activity in Human Endometrial Stromal Cells Promotes Extracellular Matrix Remodelling and Limits Embryo Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Stuart P.; Quiñonero, Alicia; Martínez, Sebastián; Pellicer, Antonio; Simón, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Invasion of the trophoblast into the maternal decidua is regulated by both the trophoectoderm and the endometrial stroma, and entails the action of tissue remodeling enzymes. Trophoblast invasion requires the action of metalloproteinases (MMPs) to degrade extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and in turn, decidual cells express tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs). The balance between these promoting and restraining factors is a key event for the successful outcome of pregnancy. Gene expression is post-transcriptionally regulated by histone deacetylases (HDACs) that unpacks condensed chromatin activating gene expression. In this study we analyze the effect of histone acetylation on the expression of tissue remodeling enzymes and activity of human endometrial stromal cells (hESCs) related to trophoblast invasion control. Treatment of hESCs with the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) increased the expression of TIMP-1 and TIMP-3 while decreased MMP-2, MMP-9 and uPA and have an inhibitory effect on trophoblast invasion. Moreover, histone acetylation is detected at the promoters of TIMP-1 and TIMP-3 genes in TSA-treated. In addition, in an in vitro decidualized hESCs model, the increase of TIMP-1 and TIMP-3 expression is associated with histone acetylation at the promoters of these genes. Our results demonstrate that histone acetylation disrupt the balance of ECM modulators provoking a restrain of trophoblast invasion. These findings are important as an epigenetic mechanism that can be used to control trophoblast invasion. PMID:22291969

  6. NF-kappaB inhibits transcription of the H(+)-K(+)-ATPase alpha(2)-subunit gene: role of histone deacetylases.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenzheng; Kone, Bruce C

    2002-11-01

    The H(+)-K(+)-ATPase alpha(2) (HKalpha(2)) gene plays a central role in potassium homeostasis, yet little is known about its transcriptional control. We recently demonstrated that the proximal promoter confers basal transcriptional activity in mouse inner medullary collecting duct 3 cells. We sought to determine whether the kappaB DNA binding element at -104 to -94 influences basal HKalpha(2) gene transcription in these cells. Recombinant NF-kappaB p50 footprinted the region -116/-94 in vitro. Gel shift and supershift analysis revealed NF-kappaB p50- and p65-containing DNA-protein complexes in nuclear extracts of mouse inner medullary collecting duct 3 cells. A promoter-luciferase construct with a mutated -104/-94 NF-kappaB element exhibited higher activity than the wild-type promoter in transfection assays. Overexpression of NF-kappaB p50, p65, or their combination trans-repressed the HKalpha(2) promoter. The histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor trichostatin A partially reversed NF-kappaB-mediated trans-repression of the HKalpha(2) promoter. HDAC6 overexpression inhibited HKalpha(2) promoter activity, and HDAC6 coimmunoprecipitated with NF-kappaB p50 and p65. These results suggest that HDAC6, recruited to the DNA protein complex, acts with NF-kappaB to suppress HKalpha(2) transcription and identify NF-kappaB p50 and p65 as novel binding partners for HDAC6. PMID:12372765

  7. Inhibition of Histone Deacetylases Permits Lipopolysaccharide-Mediated Secretion of Bioactive IL-1β via a Caspase-1-Independent Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Stammler, Dominik; Eigenbrod, Tatjana; Menz, Sarah; Frick, Julia S; Sweet, Matthew J; Shakespear, Melanie R; Jantsch, Jonathan; Siegert, Isabel; Wölfle, Sabine; Langer, Julian D; Oehme, Ina; Schaefer, Liliana; Fischer, Andre; Knievel, Judith; Heeg, Klaus; Dalpke, Alexander H; Bode, Konrad A

    2015-12-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors (HDACi) are clinically approved anticancer drugs that have important immune-modulatory properties. We report the surprising finding that HDACi promote LPS-induced IL-1β processing and secretion in human and murine dendritic cells and murine macrophages. HDACi/LPS-induced IL-1β maturation and secretion kinetics differed completely from those observed upon inflammasome activation. Moreover, this pathway of IL-1β secretion was dependent on caspase-8 but was independent of the inflammasome components NACHT, LRR, and PYD domains-containing protein 3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a carboxyl-terminal caspase-recruitment domain, and caspase-1. Genetic studies excluded HDAC6 and HDAC10 as relevant HDAC targets in this pathway, whereas pharmacological inhibitor studies implicated the involvement of HDAC11. Treatment of mice with HDACi in a dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis model resulted in a strong increase in intestinal IL-1β, confirming that this pathway is also operative in vivo. Thus, in addition to the conventional inflammasome-dependent IL-1β cleavage pathway, dendritic cells and macrophages are capable of generating, secreting, and processing bioactive IL-1β by a novel, caspase-8-dependent mechanism. Given the widespread interest in the therapeutic targeting of IL-1β, as well as the use of HDACi for anti-inflammatory applications, these findings have substantial clinical implications. PMID:26519528

  8. A phase II study of the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat combined with tamoxifen for the treatment of patients with hormone therapy-resistant breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Munster, P N; Thurn, K T; Thomas, S; Raha, P; Lacevic, M; Miller, A; Melisko, M; Ismail-Khan, R; Rugo, H; Moasser, M; Minton, S E

    2011-01-01

    Background: Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are crucial components of the oestrogen receptor (ER) transcriptional complex. Preclinically, HDAC inhibitors can reverse tamoxifen/aromatase inhibitor resistance in hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. This concept was examined in a phase II combination trial with correlative end points. Methods: Patients with ER-positive metastatic breast cancer progressing on endocrine therapy were treated with 400 mg of vorinostat daily for 3 of 4 weeks and 20 mg tamoxifen daily, continuously. Histone acetylation and HDAC2 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were also evaluated. Results: In all, 43 patients (median age 56 years (31–71)) were treated, 25 (58%) received prior adjuvant tamoxifen, 29 (67%) failed one prior chemotherapy regimen, 42 (98%) progressed after one, and 23 (54%) after two aromatase inhibitors. The objective response rate by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours criteria was 19% and the clinical benefit rate (response or stable disease >24 weeks) was 40%. The median response duration was 10.3 months (confidence interval: 8.1–12.4). Histone hyperacetylation and higher baseline HDAC2 levels correlated with response. Conclusion: The combination of vorinostat and tamoxifen is well tolerated and exhibits encouraging activity in reversing hormone resistance. Correlative studies suggest that HDAC2 expression is a predictive marker and histone hyperacetylation is a useful pharmacodynamic marker for the efficacy of this combination. PMID:21559012

  9. Effect of histone deacetylase inhibitors trichostatin A and valproic acid on hair cell regeneration in zebrafish lateral line neuromasts

    PubMed Central

    He, Yingzi; Cai, Chengfu; Tang, Dongmei; Sun, Shan; Li, Huawei

    2014-01-01

    In humans, auditory hair cells are not replaced when injured. Thus, cochlear hair cell loss causes progressive and permanent hearing loss. Conversely, non-mammalian vertebrates are capable of regenerating lost sensory hair cells. The zebrafish lateral line has numerous qualities that make it well-suited for studying hair cell development and regeneration. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity has been shown to have an important role in regenerative processes in vertebrates, but its function in hair cell regeneration in vivo is not fully understood. Here, we have examined the role of HDAC activity in hair cell regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line. We eliminated lateral line hair cells of 5-day post-fertilization larvae using neomycin and then treated the larvae with HDAC inhibitors. To assess hair cell regeneration, we used 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation in zebrafish larvae to label mitotic cells after hair cell loss. We found that pharmacological inhibition of HDACs using trichostatin A (TSA) or valproic acid (VPA) increased histone acetylation in the regenerated neuromasts following neomycin-induced damage. We also showed that treatment with TSA or VPA decreased the number of supporting cells and regenerated hair cells in response to hair cell damage. Additionally, BrdU immunostaining and western blot analysis showed that TSA or VPA treatment caused a significant decrease in the percentage of S-phase cells and induced p21Cip1 and p27Kip1 expression, both of which are likely to explain the decrease in the amount of newly regenerated hair cells in treated embryos. Finally, we showed that HDAC inhibitors induced no observable cell death in neuromasts as measured by cleaved caspase-3 immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Taken together, our results demonstrate that HDAC activity has an important role in the regeneration of hair cells in the lateral line. PMID:25431550

  10. Why Hydroxamates May Not Be the Best Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors—What Some May Have Forgotten or Would Rather Forget?

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Sida

    2016-01-01

    Hydroxamate-based histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) have been approved as therapeutic agents by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in oncology applications. While the potential utility of such HDACIs in other areas of medicinal chemistry is tremendous, there are significant concerns that “pan-HDAC inhibitors” may be too broadly acting and/or toxic for clinical use beyond oncology. In addition to the isozyme selectivity challenge, the potential mutagenicity of hydroxamate-containing HDAC inhibitors represents a major hindrance in their application to other therapeutic areas. Herein we report on the mutagenicity of known hydroxamates, discuss the mechanisms responsible for their genotoxicity, and review some of the current alternatives to hydroxamates. We conclude that the hydroxamate group, while providing high-potency HDACIs, is not necessarily the best zinc-binding group for HDACI drug discovery. PMID:26603496

  11. Why Hydroxamates May Not Be the Best Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors--What Some May Have Forgotten or Would Rather Forget?

    PubMed

    Shen, Sida; Kozikowski, Alan P

    2016-01-01

    Hydroxamate-based histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) have been approved as therapeutic agents by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in oncology applications. While the potential utility of such HDACIs in other areas of medicinal chemistry is tremendous, there are significant concerns that "pan-HDAC inhibitors" may be too broadly acting and/or toxic for clinical use beyond oncology. In addition to the isozyme selectivity challenge, the potential mutagenicity of hydroxamate-containing HDAC inhibitors represents a major hindrance in their application to other therapeutic areas. Herein we report on the mutagenicity of known hydroxamates, discuss the mechanisms responsible for their genotoxicity, and review some of the current alternatives to hydroxamates. We conclude that the hydroxamate group, while providing high-potency HDACIs, is not necessarily the best zinc-binding group for HDACI drug discovery. PMID:26603496

  12. Histone deacetylase inhibition modulates indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase–dependent DC functions and regulates experimental graft-versus-host disease in mice

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Pavan; Sun, Yaping; Toubai, Tomomi; Duran-Struuck, Raimon; Clouthier, Shawn G.; Weisiger, Elizabeth; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Tawara, Isao; Krijanovski, Oleg; Gatza, Erin; Liu, Chen; Malter, Chelsea; Mascagni, Paolo; Dinarello, Charles A.; Ferrara, James L.M.

    2008-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are antitumor agents that also have antiinflammatory properties. However, the mechanisms of their immunomodulatory functions are not known. We investigated the mechanisms of action of 2 HDAC inhibitors, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and ITF 2357, on mouse DC responses. Pretreatment of DCs with HDAC inhibitors significantly reduced TLR-induced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, suppressed the expression of CD40 and CD80, and reduced the in vitro and in vivo allostimulatory responses induced by the DCs. In addition, injection of DCs treated ex vivo with HDAC inhibitors reduced experimental graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in a murine allogeneic BM transplantation model. Exposure of DCs to HDAC inhibitors increased expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), a suppressor of DC function. Blockade of IDO in WT DCs with siRNA and with DCs from IDO-deficient animals caused substantial reversal of HDAC inhibition–induced in vitro suppression of DC-stimulated responses. Direct injection of HDAC inhibitors early after allogeneic BM transplantation to chimeric animals whose BM-derived cells lacked IDO failed to protect from GVHD, demonstrating an in vivo functional role for IDO. Together, these data show that HDAC inhibitors regulate multiple DC functions through the induction of IDO and suggest that they may represent a novel class of agents to treat immune-mediated diseases. PMID:18568076

  13. CAMKII-conditional deletion of histone deacetylase 2 potentiates acute methamphetamine-induced expression of immediate early genes in the mouse nucleus accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Oscar V.; McCoy, Michael T.; Ladenheim, Bruce; Jayanthi, Subramaniam; Brannock, Christie; Tulloch, Ingrid; Krasnova, Irina N.; Cadet, Jean Lud

    2015-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) produces increases in the expression of immediate early genes (IEGs) and of histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) in the rat nucleus accumbens (NAc). Here, we tested whether HDAC2 deletion influenced the effects of METH on IEG expression in the NAc. Microarray analyses showed no baseline differences in IEG expression between wild-type (WT) and HDAC2 knockout (KO) mice. Quantitative-PCR analysis shows that an acute METH injection produced time-dependent increases in mRNA levels of several IEGs in both genotypes. Interestingly, HDAC2KO mice displayed greater METH-induced increases in Egr1 and Egr2 mRNA levels measured at one hour post-injection. The levels of Fosb, Fra2, Egr1, and Egr3 mRNAs stayed elevated in the HDAC2KO mice 2 hours after the METH injection whereas these mRNAs had normalized in the WT mice. In WT mice, METH caused increased HDAC2 recruitment to the promoters some IEGs at 2 hours post injection. METH-induced prolonged increases in Fosb, Fra2, Egr1, and Egr3 mRNA levels in HDAC2KO mice were associated with increased enrichment of phosphorylated CREB (pCREB) on the promoters of these genes. Based on our observations, we hypothesize that HDAC2 may regulate the expression of these genes, in part, by prolonging the actions of pCREB in the mouse NAc. PMID:26300473

  14. CAMKII-conditional deletion of histone deacetylase 2 potentiates acute methamphetamine-induced expression of immediate early genes in the mouse nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Torres, Oscar V; McCoy, Michael T; Ladenheim, Bruce; Jayanthi, Subramaniam; Brannock, Christie; Tulloch, Ingrid; Krasnova, Irina N; Cadet, Jean Lud

    2015-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) produces increases in the expression of immediate early genes (IEGs) and of histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) in the rat nucleus accumbens (NAc). Here, we tested whether HDAC2 deletion influenced the effects of METH on IEG expression in the NAc. Microarray analyses showed no baseline differences in IEG expression between wild-type (WT) and HDAC2 knockout (KO) mice. Quantitative-PCR analysis shows that an acute METH injection produced time-dependent increases in mRNA levels of several IEGs in both genotypes. Interestingly, HDAC2KO mice displayed greater METH-induced increases in Egr1 and Egr2 mRNA levels measured at one hour post-injection. The levels of Fosb, Fra2, Egr1, and Egr3 mRNAs stayed elevated in the HDAC2KO mice 2 hours after the METH injection whereas these mRNAs had normalized in the WT mice. In WT mice, METH caused increased HDAC2 recruitment to the promoters some IEGs at 2 hours post injection. METH-induced prolonged increases in Fosb, Fra2, Egr1, and Egr3 mRNA levels in HDAC2KO mice were associated with increased enrichment of phosphorylated CREB (pCREB) on the promoters of these genes. Based on our observations, we hypothesize that HDAC2 may regulate the expression of these genes, in part, by prolonging the actions of pCREB in the mouse NAc. PMID:26300473

  15. Development of an ELISA-Based HDAC Activity Assay for Characterization of Isoform-Selective Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Padige, Geetha; Negmeldin, Ahmed T; Pflum, Mary Kay H

    2015-12-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) proteins are promising targets for cancer treatment, with several HDAC inhibitors used clinically as anticancer drugs. Most HDAC inhibitors nonspecifically interact with all or many of the 11 HDAC isoforms. Isoform-selective HDAC inhibitors would be useful tools to dissect the individual functions of HDAC proteins in cancer formation, in addition to potentially displaying effective anticancer properties. We report here a robust HDAC activity assay for screening selective HDAC inhibitors, which is inspired by the traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The key feature of the ELISA-based HDAC activity assay is use of mammalian cell-derived HDAC isoforms instead of recombinant proteins. Importantly, the assay was validated with several known HDAC inhibitors. The ELISA-based HDAC activity assay will facilitate the characterization of isoform-selective HDAC inhibitors against mammalian cell-derived HDAC proteins, which will enhance HDAC-centered cancer research and provide a foundation for anticancer drug development. PMID:26232305

  16. Activation of Mir-29a in Activated Hepatic Stellate Cells Modulates Its Profibrogenic Phenotype through Inhibition of Histone Deacetylases 4

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying-Hsien; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Huang, Li-Tung; Chuang, Jiin-Haur; Kuo, Kuang-Che; Yang, Ya-Ling; Wang, Feng-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown that microRNA-29 (miR-29) is significantly decreased in liver fibrosis and that its downregulation influences the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). In addition, inhibition of the activity of histone deacetylases 4 (HDAC4) has been shown to strongly reduce HSC activation in the context of liver fibrosis. Objectives In this study, we examined whether miR-29a was involved in the regulation of HDAC4 and modulation of the profibrogenic phenotype in HSCs. Methods We employed miR-29a transgenic mice (miR-29aTg mice) and wild-type littermates to clarify the role of miR-29a in cholestatic liver fibrosis, using the bile duct-ligation (BDL) mouse model. Primary HSCs from both mice were treated with a miR-29a mimic and antisense inhibitor in order to analyze changes in profibrogenic gene expression and HSC activation using real-time quantitative RT-PCR, immunofluorescence staining, western blotting, and cell proliferation and migration assays. Results After BDL, overexpression of miR-29a decreased collagen-1α1, HDAC4 and activated HSC markers of glial fibrillary acidic protein expression in miR-29aTg mice compared to wild-type littermates. Overexpression of miR-29a and HDAC4 RNA-interference decreased the expression of fibrotic genes, HDAC4 signaling, and HSC migration and proliferation. In contrast, knockdown of miR-29a with an antisense inhibitor increased HDAC4 function, restored HSC migration, and accelerated HSC proliferation. Conclusions Our results indicate that miR-29a ameliorates cholestatic liver fibrosis after BDL, at least partially, by modulating the profibrogenic phenotype of HSCs through inhibition of HDAC4 function. PMID:26305546

  17. Glucocorticoid Receptor Recruitment of Histone Deacetylase 2 Inhibits Interleukin-1β-Induced Histone H4 Acetylation on Lysines 8 and 12

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Kazuhiro; Barnes, Peter J.; Adcock, Ian M.

    2000-01-01

    We have investigated the ability of dexamethasone to regulate interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-induced gene expression, histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity. Low concentrations of dexamethasone (10−10 M) repress IL-1β-stimulated granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) expression and fail to stimulate secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor expression. Dexamethasone (10−7 M) and IL-1β (1 ng/ml) both stimulated HAT activity but showed a different pattern of histone H4 acetylation. Dexamethasone targeted lysines K5 and K16, whereas IL-1β targeted K8 and K12. Low concentrations of dexamethasone (10−10 M), which do not transactivate, repressed IL-1β-stimulated K8 and K12 acetylation. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we show that dexamethasone inhibits IL-1β-enhanced acetylated K8-associated GM-CSF promoter enrichment in a concentration-dependent manner. Neither IL-1β nor dexamethasone elicited any GM-CSF promoter association at acetylated K5 residues. Furthermore, we show that GR acts both as a direct inhibitor of CREB binding protein (CBP)-associated HAT activity and also by recruiting HDAC2 to the p65-CBP HAT complex. This action does not involve de novo synthesis of HDAC protein or altered expression of CBP or p300/CBP-associated factor. This mechanism for glucocorticoid repression is novel and establishes that inhibition of histone acetylation is an additional level of control of inflammatory gene expression. This further suggests that pharmacological manipulation of of specific histone acetylation status is a potentially useful approach for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:10958685

  18. Prevention of renal interstitial fibrosis via histone deacetylase inhibition in rats with unilateral ureteral obstruction.

    PubMed

    Kinugasa, Fumitaka; Noto, Takahisa; Matsuoka, Hideaki; Urano, Yasuharu; Sudo, Yuji; Takakura, Shoji; Mutoh, Seitaro

    2010-05-01

    Acute rejection following renal transplantation has become manageable with the introduction of calcineurin inhibitors, FK506 and cyclosporine A. However, chronic allograft dysfunction accompanied by renal interstitial fibrosis, which induces graft loss, remains unresolved. Here, we evaluated the effect of FR276457, a pan-histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, on interstitial fibrosis in the injured kidneys of a rat model of unilateral ureteral obstruction. The injured kidneys, harvested on Day 14 following the operation, showed progression of interstitial fibrosis, increases of hydroxyproline contents, and mRNA expression of collagen type Ialpha1 and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1). However, these changes were found to be prevented with daily oral administration of FR276457. In addition, given that MCP-1 is believed to contribute to progressive fibrosis, we investigated the direct effect of FR276457 on MCP-1 production by activated THP-1 cells in vitro. Results showed that FR276457 administration decreased MCP-1 production in these cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Findings from the present study suggested that a pan-HDAC inhibitor may exert a prophylactic effect against renal interstitial fibrosis by inhibiting MCP-1 production. PMID:20206695

  19. Enhancement of Ad5-TRAIL cytotoxicity against renal cell carcinoma with histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    VanOosten, R L; Earel, J K; Griffith, T S

    2006-06-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) will cause greater than 12,000 deaths in the United States this year. The lack of effective therapy for disseminated RCC has stimulated the search for novel treatments including immunotherapeutic strategies, but poor therapeutic responses and marked toxicity have limited their use. The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family member TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)/Apo-2L induces apoptosis in various tumor cell types, while having little cytotoxicity against normal cells. In this study, we investigated the tumoricidal potential of a recombinant adenovirus encoding human TNFSF10 (Ad5-TRAIL), alone and in combination with a panel of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), against the TRAIL/Apo-2L-resistant RCC line 786-O and normal human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (RPTEC). Ad5-TRAIL was unable to induce apoptosis in either 786-O or RPTEC alone; however, tumor cell apoptosis occurred when Ad5-TRAIL was combined with HDAC inhibition. Except when combined with trichostatin A, RPTEC were not sensitized to Ad5-TRAIL by HDACi. In 786-O, HDAC inhibition induced CAR expression, permitting increased adenoviral infection and transgene expression. It also induced TRAIL-R2 expression, accelerated the death-inducing signaling complex formation and enhanced caspase-8 activation. Our results demonstrate the utility of combining Ad5-TRAIL with HDACi against RCC, and mechanistically define how this combination modulates RCC sensitivity to TRAIL/Apo-2L and adenoviral infection. PMID:16456549

  20. Antimalarial and Antileishmanial Activities of Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors with Triazole-Linked Cap Group

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Vishal; Guerrant, William; Chen, Po C.; Gryder, Berkley; Benicewicz, Derek B.; Khan, Shabana I.; Tekwani, Babu L.; Oyelere, Adegboyega K.

    2009-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are endowed with plethora of biological functions including anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-parasitic, and cognition-enhancing activities. Parsing the structure–activity relationship (SAR) for each disease condition is vital for long-term therapeutic applications of HDACi. We report in the present study specific cap group substitution patterns and spacer-group chain lengths that enhance the antimalarial and antileishmanial activity of aryltriazolylhydroxamates-based HDACi. We identified many compounds that are several folds selectively cytotoxic to the plasmodium parasites compared to standard HDACi. Also, a few of these compounds have antileishmanial activity that rivals that of miltefosine, the only currently available oral agent against visceral leishmaniasis. The anti-parasite properties of several of these compounds tracked well with their anti-HDAC activities. The results presented here provide further evidence on the suitability of HDAC inhibition as a viable therapeutic option to curb infections caused by apicomplexan protozoans and trypanosomatids. PMID:19914074

  1. New histone deacetylase inhibitors improve cisplatin antitumor properties against thoracic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Gueugnon, Fabien; Cartron, Pierre-François; Charrier, Cedric; Bertrand, Philippe; Fonteneau, Jean-François; Gregoire, Marc; Blanquart, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have shown promising antitumor effects on numerous cancer cells including malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) and lung adenocarcinoma (ADCA) cells. However, clinical trials using these compounds alone have shown limited efficacy against solid tumors. Therefore, new molecules are being developed and combinations with classical chemotherapeutic drugs are being tested. Here, we have evaluated on three MPM and three lung ADCA cell lines the antitumor potential of four new HDACi compounds, either alone or in combination with cisplatin. These effects were compared with those of vorinostat, an HDACi approved for cancer treatments. First, we characterized the HDAC mRNA expression profiles of tumor cells and showed an increase of the classI/classII HDAC ratio. We then treated cancer cells with these new HDACi and observed a cell-death induction and an increase of HDACi target genes and proteins expression. This was particularly evident for NODH compound (pan-HDACi) which had similar effects at nanomolar concentrations as micromolar concentrations of vorinostat. Interestingly, we observed that the HDACi/cisplatin combination strongly increased cell-death and limited resistance-phenotype emergence as compared with results obtained when the drugs were used alone. These results could be exploited to develop MPM and lung ADCA treatments combining chemotherapeutic approaches. PMID:24980825

  2. New histone deacetylase inhibitors improve cisplatin antitumor properties against thoracic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gueugnon, Fabien; Cartron, Pierre-François; Charrier, Cedric; Bertrand, Philippe; Fonteneau, Jean-François; Gregoire, Marc; Blanquart, Christophe

    2014-06-30

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have shown promising antitumor effects on numerous cancer cells including malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) and lung adenocarcinoma (ADCA) cells. However, clinical trials using these compounds alone have shown limited efficacy against solid tumors. Therefore, new molecules are being developed and combinations with classical chemotherapeutic drugs are being tested. Here, we have evaluated on three MPM and three lung ADCA cell lines the antitumor potential of four new HDACi compounds, either alone or in combination with cisplatin. These effects were compared with those of vorinostat, an HDACi approved for cancer treatments. First, we characterized the HDAC mRNA expression profiles of tumor cells and showed an increase of the classI/classII HDAC ratio. We then treated cancer cells with these new HDACi and observed a cell-death induction and an increase of HDACi target genes and proteins expression. This was particularly evident for NODH compound (pan-HDACi) which had similar effects at nanomolar concentrations as micromolar concentrations of vorinostat. Interestingly, we observed that the HDACi/cisplatin combination strongly increased cell-death and limited resistance-phenotype emergence as compared with results obtained when the drugs were used alone. These results could be exploited to develop MPM and lung ADCA treatments combining chemotherapeutic approaches. PMID:24980825

  3. Inhibition of Histone Deacetylase Activity Aggravates Coxsackievirus B3-Induced Myocarditis by Promoting Viral Replication and Myocardial Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lei; He, Xiran

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Viral myocarditis, which is most prevalently caused by coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), is a serious clinical condition characterized by excessive myocardial inflammation. Recent studies suggest that regulation of protein acetylation levels by inhibiting histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity modulates inflammatory response and shows promise as a therapy for several inflammatory diseases. However, the role of HDAC activity in viral myocarditis is still not fully understood. Here, we aim to investigate the role of HDAC activity in viral myocarditis and its underlying mechanism. CVB3-infected BALB/c mice were treated with the HDAC inhibitor (HDACI) suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) or trichostatin A (TSA). We found inhibition of HDAC activity aggravated rather than ameliorated the severity of CVB3-induced myocarditis, which was contrary to our expectations. The aggravated myocarditis by HDACI treatment seemed not to be caused by an elevated inflammatory response but by the increased CVB3 replication. Further, it was revealed that the increased CVB3 replication was closely associated with the HDACI-enhanced autophagosome formation. Inhibition of autophagosome formation by wortmannin or ATG5 short hairpin RNA dramatically suppressed the HDACI-increased CVB3 replication. The increased viral replication subsequently elevated CVB3-induced myocardial apoptosis. Conversely, inhibition of CVB3 replication and ensuing myocardial apoptosis by the antiviral drug ribavirin significantly reversed the HDACI-aggravated viral myocarditis. In conclusion, we elucidate that the inhibition of HDAC activity increases CVB3 replication and ensuing myocardial apoptosis, resulting in aggravated viral myocarditis. Possible adverse consequences of administering HDACI should be considered in patients infected (or coinfected) with CVB3. IMPORTANCE Viral myocarditis, which is most prevalently caused by CVB3, is characterized by excessive myocardial inflammation. Inhibition of HDAC activity was originally identified as a powerful anti-cancer therapeutic strategy and was recently found to be implicated in the regulation of inflammatory response. HDACI has been demonstrated to be efficacious in animal models of several inflammatory diseases. Thus, we hypothesize that inhibition of HDAC activity also protects against CVB3-induced viral myocarditis. Surprisingly, we found inhibition of HDAC activity enhanced myocardial autophagosome formation, which led to the elevated CVB3 viral replication and ensuing increased myocardial apoptosis. Viral myocarditis was eventually aggravated rather than ameliorated by HDAC inhibition. In conclusion, we elucidate the role of HDAC activity in viral myocarditis. Moreover, given the importance of HDACI in preclinical and clinical treatments, the possible unfavorable effect of HDACI should be carefully evaluated in patients infected with viruses, including CVB3. PMID:26269170

  4. Histone deacetylase inhibitors modulate the transcriptional regulation of guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-a gene: interactive roles of modified histones, histone acetyltransferase, p300, AND Sp1.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Prerna; Tripathi, Satyabha; Pandey, Kailash N

    2014-03-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) binds guanylyl cyclase-A/natriuretic peptide receptor-A (GC-A/NPRA) and produces the intracellular second messenger, cGMP, which regulates cardiovascular homeostasis. We sought to determine the function of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in regulating Npr1 (coding for GC-A/NPRA) gene transcription, using primary mouse mesangial cells treated with class-specific HDAC inhibitors (HDACi). Trichostatin A, a pan inhibitor, and mocetinostat (MGCD0103), a class I HDAC inhibitor, significantly enhanced Npr1 promoter activity (by 8- and 10-fold, respectively), mRNA levels (4- and 5.3-fold, respectively), and NPRA protein (2.7- and 3.5-fold, respectively). However, MC1568 (class II HDAC inhibitor) had no discernible effect. Overexpression of HDAC1 and HDAC2 significantly attenuated Npr1 promoter activity, whereas HDAC3 and HDAC8 had no effect. HDACi-treated cultured cells in vitro and intact animals in vivo showed significantly reduced binding of HDAC1 and -2 and increased accumulation of acetylated H3-K9/14 and H4-K12 at the Npr1 promoter. Deletional analyses of the Npr1 promoter along with ectopic overexpression and inhibition of Sp1 confirmed that HDACi-induced Npr1 gene transcription is accomplished by Sp1 activation. Furthermore, HDACi attenuated the interaction of Sp1 with HDAC1/2 and promoted Sp1 association with p300 and p300/cAMP-binding protein-associated factor; it also promoted the recruitment of p300 and p300/cAMP-binding protein-associated factor to the Npr1 promoter. Our results demonstrate that trichostatin A and MGCD0103 enhanced Npr1 gene expression through inhibition of HDAC1/2 and increased both acetylation of histones (H3-K9/14, H4-K12) and Sp1 by p300, and their recruitment to Npr1 promoter. Our findings define a novel epigenetic regulatory mechanism that governs Npr1 gene transcription. PMID:24451378

  5. Discovery of potent, isoform-selective inhibitors of histone deacetylase containing chiral heterocyclic capping groups and a N-(2-aminophenyl)benzamide binding unit.

    PubMed

    Marson, Charles M; Matthews, Christopher J; Yiannaki, Elena; Atkinson, Stephen J; Soden, Peter E; Shukla, Lena; Lamadema, Nermina; Thomas, N Shaun B

    2013-08-01

    The synthesis of a novel series of potent chiral inhibitors of histone deacetylase (HDAC) is described that contain a heterocyclic capping group and a N-(2-aminophenyl)benzamide unit that binds in the active site. In vitro assays for the inhibition of HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC3-NCoR1, and HDAC8 by the N-(2-aminophenyl)benzamide 24a gave respective IC50 values of 930, 85, 12, and 4100 nM, exhibiting class I selectivity and potent inhibition of HDAC3-NCoR1. Both imidazolinone and thiazoline rings are shown to be effective replacements for the pyrimidine ring present in many other 2-(aminophenyl)benzamides previously reported, an example of each ring system at 1 ?M causing an increase in histone H3K9 acetylation in the human cell lines Jurkat and HeLa and an increase in cell death consistent with induction of apoptosis. Inhibition of the growth of MCF-7, A549, DU145, and HCT116 cell lines by 24a was observed, with respective IC50 values of 5.4, 5.8, 6.4, and 2.2 mM. PMID:23829483

  6. Radiosensitizing Effect of a Phenylbutyrate-Derived Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Yen-Shen; Chou, Chia-Hung; Tzen, Kai-Yuan; Gao, Ming; Cheng, Ann-Lii; Kulp, Samuel K.; Cheng, Jason Chia-Hsien

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy is integrated into the multimodal treatment of localized hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) refractory to conventional treatment. Tumor control remains unsatisfactory and the sublethal effect associates with secondary spread. The use of an effective molecularly targeted agent in combination with radiotherapy is a potential therapeutic approach. Our aim was to assess the effect of combining a phenylbutyrate-derived histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, AR-42, with radiotherapy in in vitro and in vivo models of human HCC. Methods and Materials: Human HCC cell lines (Huh-7 and PLC-5) were used to evaluate the in vitro synergism of combining AR-42 with irradiation. Flow cytometry analyzed the cell cycle changes, whereas Western blot investigated the protein expressions after the combined treatment. Severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice bearing ectopic and orthotopic HCC xenografts were treated with AR-42 and/or radiotherapy for the in vivo response. Results: AR-42 significantly enhanced radiation-induced cell death by the inhibition of the DNA end-binding activity of Ku70, a highly versatile regulatory protein for DNA repair, telomere maintenance, and apoptosis. In ectopic xenografts of Huh-7 and PLC-5, pretreatment with AR-42 significantly enhanced the tumor-suppressive effect of radiotherapy by 48% and 66%, respectively. A similar combinatorial effect of AR-42 (10 and 25 mg/kg) and radiotherapy was observed in Huh-7 orthotopic model of tumor growth by 52% and 82%, respectively. This tumor suppression was associated with inhibition of intratumoral Ku70 activity as well as reductions in markers of HDAC activity and proliferation, and increased apoptosis. Conclusion: AR-42 is a potent, orally bioavailable inhibitor of HDAC with therapeutic value as a radiosensitizer of HCC.

  7. Inhibition of class I histone deacetylases by romidepsin potently induces Epstein-Barr virus lytic cycle and mediates enhanced cell death with ganciclovir.

    PubMed

    Hui, Kwai Fung; Cheung, Arthur Kwok Leung; Choi, Chung King; Yeung, Po Ling; Middeldorp, Jaap M; Lung, Maria Li; Tsao, Sai Wah; Chiang, Alan Kwok Shing

    2016-01-01

    Pan-histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, which inhibit 11 HDAC isoforms, are widely used to induce Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) lytic cycle in EBV-associated cancers in vitro and in clinical trials. Here, we hypothesized that inhibition of one or several specific HDAC isoforms by selective HDAC inhibitors could potently induce EBV lytic cycle in EBV-associated malignancies such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and gastric carcinoma (GC). We found that inhibition of class I HDACs, particularly HDAC-1, -2 and -3, was sufficient to induce EBV lytic cycle in NPC and GC cells in vitro and in vivo. Among a panel of selective HDAC inhibitors, the FDA-approved HDAC inhibitor romidepsin was found to be the most potent lytic inducer, which could activate EBV lytic cycle at ∼0.5 to 5 nM (versus ∼800 nM achievable concentration in patients' plasma) in more than 75% of cells. Upregulation of p21(WAF1) , which is negatively regulated by class I HDACs, was observed before the induction of EBV lytic cycle. The upregulation of p21(WAF1) and induction of lytic cycle were abrogated by a specific inhibitor of PKC-δ but not the inhibitors of PI3K, MEK, p38 MAPK, JNK or ATM pathways. Interestingly, inhibition of HDAC-1, -2 and -3 by romidepsin or shRNA knockdown could confer susceptibility of EBV-positive epithelial cells to the treatment with ganciclovir (GCV). In conclusion, we demonstrated that inhibition of class I HDACs by romidepsin could potently induce EBV lytic cycle and mediate enhanced cell death with GCV, suggesting potential application of romidepsin for the treatment of EBV-associated cancers. PMID:26205347

  8. Thiamine Biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Is Regulated by the NAD+-Dependent Histone Deacetylase Hst1▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mingguang; Petteys, Brian J.; McClure, Julie M.; Valsakumar, Veena; Bekiranov, Stefan; Frank, Elizabeth L.; Smith, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    Genes encoding thiamine biosynthesis enzymes in microorganisms are tightly regulated such that low environmental thiamine concentrations activate transcription and high concentrations are repressive. We have determined that multiple thiamine (THI) genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are also regulated by the intracellular NAD+ concentration via the NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase (HDAC) Hst1 and, to a lesser extent, Sir2. Both of these HDACs associate with a distal region of the affected THI gene promoters that does not overlap with a previously defined enhancer region bound by the thiamine-responsive Thi2/Thi3/Pdc2 transcriptional activators. The specificity of histone H3 and/or H4 deacetylation carried out by Hst1 and Sir2 at the distal promoter region depends on the THI gene being tested. Hst1/Sir2-mediated repression of the THI genes occurs at the level of basal expression, thus representing the first set of transcription factors shown to actively repress this gene class. Importantly, lowering the NAD+ concentration and inhibiting the Hst1/Sum1 HDAC complex elevated the intracellular thiamine concentration due to increased thiamine biosynthesis and transport, implicating NAD+ in the control of thiamine homeostasis. PMID:20439498

  9. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Inhibit Rhabdomyosarcoma by Reactive Oxygen Species-Dependent Targeting of Specificity Protein Transcription Factors.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Erik; Crose, Lisa; Linardic, Corinne M; Safe, Stephen

    2015-09-01

    The two major types of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) are predominantly diagnosed in children, namely embryonal (ERMS) and alveolar (ARMS) RMS, and patients are treated with cytotoxic drugs, which results in multiple toxic side effects later in life. Therefore, development of innovative chemotherapeutic strategies is imperative, and a recent genomic analysis suggested the potential efficacy of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-inducing agents. Here, we demonstrate the efficacy of the potent histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, panobinostat and vorinostat, as agents that inhibit RMS tumor growth in vivo, induce apoptosis, and inhibit invasion of RD and Rh30 RMS cell lines. These effects are due to epigenetic repression of cMyc, which leads to decreased expression of cMyc-regulated miRs-17, -20a, and -27a; upregulation of ZBTB4, ZBTB10, and ZBTB34; and subsequent downregulation of Sp transcription factors. We also show that inhibition of RMS cell growth, survival and invasion, and repression of Sp transcription factors by the HDAC inhibitors are independent of histone acetylation but reversible after cotreatment with the antioxidant glutathione. These results show a novel ROS-dependent mechanism of antineoplastic activity for panobinostat and vorinostat that lies outside of their canonical HDAC-inhibitory activity and demonstrates the potential clinical utility for treating RMS patients with ROS-inducing agents. PMID:26162688

  10. Class-specific histone/protein deacetylase inhibition protects against renal ischemia reperfusion injury and fibrosis formation.

    PubMed

    Levine, M H; Wang, Z; Bhatti, T R; Wang, Y; Aufhauser, D D; McNeal, S; Liu, Y; Cheraghlou, S; Han, R; Wang, L; Hancock, W W

    2015-04-01

    Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a common cause of renal dysfunction and renal failure. Histone/protein deacetylases (HDACs) regulate gene accessibility and higher order protein structures and may alter cellular responses to a variety of stresses. We investigated whether use of pan- and class-specific HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) could improve IRI tolerance in the kidney. Using a model of unilateral renal IRI, we investigated early renal function after IRI, and calculated fibrosis after IRI using an automated scoring system. We found that pan-HDAC inhibition using trichostatin (TSA) yielded significant renal functional benefit at 24-96 hours (p < 0.001). Treated mice developed significantly less fibrosis at 30 days (p < 0.0004). Class I HDAC inhibition with MS-275 yielded similar effects. Protection from fibrosis formation was also noted in a cold ischemia transplant model (p < 0.008) with a trend toward improved cold ischemic survival in TSA-treated mice. These effects were not accompanied by induction of typical ischemic tolerance pathways or by priming of heat shock protein expression. In fact, heat shock protein 70 deletion or overexpression did not alter renal ischemia tolerance. Micro-RNA 21, known to be enhanced in vitro in renal tubular cells that survive stress, was enhanced by treatment with HDACi, pointing to possible mechanism. PMID:25708614

  11. Polycystin-dependent fluid flow sensing targets histone deacetylase 5 to prevent the development of renal cysts.

    PubMed

    Xia, Sheng; Li, Xiaogang; Johnson, Teri; Seidel, Chris; Wallace, Darren P; Li, Rong

    2010-04-01

    Polycystin 1 and polycystin 2 are large transmembrane proteins, which, when mutated, cause autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), a highly prevalent human genetic disease. The polycystins are thought to form a receptor-calcium channel complex in the plasma membrane of renal epithelial cells and elicit a calcium influx in response to mechanical stimulation, such as fluid flow across the apical surface of renal epithelial cells. The functional role of the polycystins in mechanosensation remains largely unknown. Here, we found that myocyte enhancer factor 2C (MEF2C) and histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5), two key regulators of cardiac hypertrophy, are targets of polycystin-dependent fluid stress sensing in renal epithelial cells in mice. We show that fluid flow stimulation of polarized epithelial monolayers induced phosphorylation and nuclear export of HDAC5, which are crucial events in the activation of MEF2C-based transcription. Kidney-specific knockout of Mef2c, or genetrap-inactivation of a MEF2C transcriptional target, MIM, resulted in extensive renal tubule dilation and cysts, whereas Hdac5 heterozygosity or treatment with TSA, an HDAC inhibitor, reduced cyst formation in Pkd2(-/-) mouse embryos. These findings suggest a common signaling motif between myocardial hypertrophy and maintenance of renal epithelial architecture, and a potential therapeutic approach to treat ADPKD. PMID:20181743

  12. Histone deacetylase inhibitor, trichostatin A, improves learning and memory in high-fat diet-induced cognitive deficits in mice.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sorabh; Taliyan, Rajeev; Ramagiri, Shruti

    2015-05-01

    Metabolic syndrome is increasingly recognized for its effects on cognitive health. Recent studies have highlighted the role of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in metabolic syndrome and cognitive functions. The present study was designed to investigate the possible therapeutic role of a HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA), in cognitive impairment associated with metabolic syndrome. To ascertain the mechanisms involved, we fed mice with high-fat diet (HFD) for 4 weeks and examined changes in behavioral and biochemical/oxidative stress markers. Mice subjected to HFD exhibited characteristic features of metabolic disorder, viz., hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, and lo