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Sample records for hdac histone deacetylase

  1. Histone deacetylases (HDACs): characterization of the classical HDAC family.

    PubMed Central

    de Ruijter, Annemieke J M; van Gennip, Albert H; Caron, Huib N; Kemp, Stephan; van Kuilenburg, André B P

    2003-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation in eukaryotes occurs within a chromatin setting, and is strongly influenced by the post-translational modification of histones, the building blocks of chromatin, such as methylation, phosphorylation and acetylation. Acetylation is probably the best understood of these modifications: hyperacetylation leads to an increase in the expression of particular genes, and hypoacetylation has the opposite effect. Many studies have identified several large, multisubunit enzyme complexes that are responsible for the targeted deacetylation of histones. The aim of this review is to give a comprehensive overview of the structure, function and tissue distribution of members of the classical histone deacetylase (HDAC) family, in order to gain insight into the regulation of gene expression through HDAC activity. SAGE (serial analysis of gene expression) data show that HDACs are generally expressed in almost all tissues investigated. Surprisingly, no major differences were observed between the expression pattern in normal and malignant tissues. However, significant variation in HDAC expression was observed within tissue types. HDAC inhibitors have been shown to induce specific changes in gene expression and to influence a variety of other processes, including growth arrest, differentiation, cytotoxicity and induction of apoptosis. This challenging field has generated many fascinating results which will ultimately lead to a better understanding of the mechanism of gene transcription as a whole. PMID:12429021

  2. Light-Controlled Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) Inhibitors: Towards Photopharmacological Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Szymanski, Wiktor; Ourailidou, Maria E; Velema, Willem A; Dekker, Frank J; Feringa, Ben L

    2015-11-01

    Cancer treatment suffers from limitations that have a major impact on the patient's quality of life and survival. In the case of chemotherapy, the systemic distribution of cytotoxic drugs reduces their efficacy and causes severe side effects due to nonselective toxicity. Photopharmacology allows a novel approach to address these problems because it employs external, local activation of chemotherapeutic agents by using light. The development of photoswitchable histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors as potential antitumor agents is reported herein. Analogues of the clinically used chemotherapeutic agents vorinostat, panobinostat, and belinostat were designed with a photoswitchable azobenzene moiety incorporated into their structure. The most promising compound exhibits high inhibitory potency in the thermodynamically less stable cis form and a significantly lower activity for the trans form, both in terms of HDAC activity and proliferation of HeLa cells. This approach offers a clear prospect towards local photoactivation of HDAC inhibition to avoid severe side effects in chemotherapy. PMID:26418117

  3. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) in XPC gene silencing and bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Bladder cancer is one of the most common malignancies and causes hundreds of thousands of deaths worldwide each year. Bladder cancer is strongly associated with exposure to environmental carcinogens. It is believed that DNA damage generated by environmental carcinogens and their metabolites causes development of bladder cancer. Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is the major DNA repair pathway for repairing bulk DNA damage generated by most environmental carcinogens, and XPC is a DNA damage recognition protein required for initiation of the NER process. Recent studies demonstrate reduced levels of XPC protein in tumors for a majority of bladder cancer patients. In this work we investigated the role of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in XPC gene silencing and bladder cancer development. The results of our HDAC inhibition study revealed that the treatment of HTB4 and HTB9 bladder cancer cells with the HDAC inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) caused an increase in transcription of the XPC gene in these cells. The results of our chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) studies indicated that the VPA treatment caused increased binding of both CREB1 and Sp1 transcription factors at the promoter region of the XPC gene for both HTB4 and HTB9 cells. The results of our immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining studies further revealed a strong correlation between the over-expression of HDAC4 and increased bladder cancer occurrence (p < 0.001) as well as a marginal significance of increasing incidence of HDAC4 positivity seen with an increase in severity of bladder cancer (p = 0.08). In addition, the results of our caspase 3 activation studies demonstrated that prior treatment with VPA increased the anticancer drug cisplatin-induced activation of caspase 3 in both HTB4 and HTB9 cells. All of these results suggest that the HDACs negatively regulate transcription of the XPC gene in bladder cancer cells and contribute to the severity of bladder tumors. PMID:21507255

  4. Cloning and functional characterization of HDAC11, a novel member of the human histone deacetylase family.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lin; Cueto, Maria A; Asselbergs, Fred; Atadja, Peter

    2002-07-12

    We have cloned and characterized a human cDNA that belongs to the histone deacetylase family, which we designate as HDAC11. The predicted HDAC11 amino acid sequence reveals an open reading frame of 347 residues with a corresponding molecular mass of 39 kDa. Sequence analyses of the putative HDAC11 protein indicate that it contains conserved residues in the catalytic core regions shared by both class I and II mammalian HDAC enzymes. Putative orthologues of HDAC11 exist in primate, mouse, Drosophila, and plant. Epitope-tagged HDAC11 protein expressed in mammalian cells displays histone deacetylase activity in vitro. Furthermore, HDAC11's enzymatic activity is inhibited by trapoxin, a known histone deacetylase inhibitor. Multiple tissue Northern blot and real-time PCR experiments show that the high expression level of HDAC11 transcripts is limited to kidney, heart, brain, skeletal muscle, and testis. Epitope-tagged HDAC11 protein localizes predominantly to the cell nucleus. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments indicate that HDAC11 may be present in protein complexes that also contain HDAC6. These results indicate that HDAC11 is a novel and unique member of the histone deacetylase family and it may have distinct physiological roles from those of the known HDACs. PMID:11948178

  5. Histone Deacetylase 4 (HDAC4): Mechanism of Regulations and Biological Functions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhengke; Qin, Gangjian; Zhao, Ting C.

    2015-01-01

    The acetylation and deacetylation of histones play an important role in the regulation of gene transcriptions. Histone acetylation is mediated by histone acetyltransferase (HAT). The resulting modification in the structure of chromatin leads to nucleosomal relaxation and altered transcriptional activation. The reverse reaction is mediated by histone deacetylase (HDAC), which induces deacetylation, chromatin condensation, and transcriptional repression. HDACs are divided into three distinct classes, I, II, and III, on the basis of size, sequence homology, as well as formation of distinct complexes. Among class II HDACs, HDAC4 is implicated in controlling gene expression important for diverse cellular functions. Basic and clinical experimental evidence have well established that HDAC4 performs a wide variety of functions. Understanding the biological significance of HDAC4 will not only provide new insight into the mechanisms of HDAC4 involved in mediating biological response, but also form a platform to develop a therapeutic strategy to achieve clinical implications. PMID:24579951

  6. Loss of histone deacetylase Hdac1 disrupts metabolic processes in intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gonneaud, Alexis; Turgeon, Naomie; Boisvert, Franois-Michel; Boudreau, Franois; Asselin, Claude

    2015-09-14

    By using acetyl-CoA as a substrate, acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases regulate protein acetylation by adding or removing an acetyl group on lysines. Nuclear-located Hdac1 is a regulator of intestinal homeostasis. We have previously shown that Hdac1 define specific intestinal epithelial cell basal and inflammatory-dependent gene expression patterns and control cell proliferation. We show here that Hdac1 depletion in cellulo leads to increased histone acetylation after metabolic stresses, and to metabolic disturbances resulting in impaired responses to oxidative stresses, AMPK kinase activation and mitochondrial biogenesis. Thus, nuclear Hdac1 may control intestinal epithelial cell metabolism by regulating the supply of acetyl groups. PMID:26297832

  7. Human HDAC7 Harbors a Class IIa Histone Deacetylase-specific Zinc Binding Motif and Cryptic Deacetylase Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Schuetz, Anja; Min, Jinrong; Allali-Hassani, Abdellah; Schapira, Matthieu; Shuen, Michael; Loppnau, Peter; Mazitschek, Ralph; Kwiatkowski, Nick P.; Lewis, Timothy A.; Maglathin, Rebecca L.; McLean, Thomas H.; Bochkarev, Alexey; Plotnikov, Alexander N.; Vedadi, Masoud; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.

    2010-10-18

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are protein deacetylases that play a role in repression of gene transcription and are emerging targets in cancer therapy. Here, we characterize the structure and enzymatic activity of the catalytic domain of human HDAC7 (cdHDAC7). Although HDAC7 normally exists as part of a multiprotein complex, we show that cdHDAC7 has a low level of deacetylase activity which can be inhibited by known HDAC inhibitors. The crystal structures of human cdHDAC7 and its complexes with two hydroxamate inhibitors are the first structures of the catalytic domain of class IIa HDACs and demonstrate significant differences with previously reported class I and class IIb-like HDAC structures. We show that cdHDAC7 has an additional class IIa HDAC-specific zinc binding motif adjacent to the active site which is likely to participate in substrate recognition and protein-protein interaction and may provide a site for modulation of activity. Furthermore, a different active site topology results in modified catalytic properties and in an enlarged active site pocket. Our studies provide mechanistic insights into class IIa HDACs and facilitate the design of specific modulators.

  8. Histone Deacetylases

    PubMed Central

    Parbin, Sabnam; Kar, Swayamsiddha; Shilpi, Arunima; Sengupta, Dipta; Deb, Moonmoon; Rath, Sandip Kumar

    2014-01-01

    In the current era of genomic medicine, diseases are identified as manifestations of anomalous patterns of gene expression. Cancer is the principal example among such maladies. Although remarkable progress has been achieved in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the genesis and progression of cancer, its epigenetic regulation, particularly histone deacetylation, demands further studies. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are one of the key players in the gene expression regulation network in cancer because of their repressive role on tumor suppressor genes. Higher expression and function of deacetylases disrupt the finely tuned acetylation homeostasis in both histone and non-histone target proteins. This brings about alterations in the genes implicated in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and other cellular processes. Moreover, the reversible nature of epigenetic modulation by HDACs makes them attractive targets for cancer remedy. This review summarizes the current knowledge of HDACs in tumorigenesis and tumor progression as well as their contribution to the hallmarks of cancer. The present report also describes briefly various assays to detect histone deacetylase activity and discusses the potential role of histone deacetylase inhibitors as emerging epigenetic drugs to cure cancer. PMID:24051359

  9. The Role of Dietary Histone Deacetylases (HDACs) Inhibitors in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bassett, Shalome A.; Barnett, Matthew P. G.

    2014-01-01

    Modification of the histone proteins associated with DNA is an important process in the epigenetic regulation of DNA structure and function. There are several known modifications to histones, including methylation, acetylation, and phosphorylation, and a range of factors influence each of these. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) remove the acetyl group from lysine residues within a range of proteins, including transcription factors and histones. Whilst this means that their influence on cellular processes is more complex and far-reaching than histone modifications alone, their predominant function appears to relate to histones; through deacetylation of lysine residues they can influence expression of genes encoded by DNA linked to the histone molecule. HDAC inhibitors in turn regulate the activity of HDACs, and have been widely used as therapeutics in psychiatry and neurology, in which a number of adverse outcomes are associated with aberrant HDAC function. More recently, dietary HDAC inhibitors have been shown to have a regulatory effect similar to that of pharmacological HDAC inhibitors without the possible side-effects. Here, we discuss a number of dietary HDAC inhibitors, and how they may have therapeutic potential in the context of a whole food. PMID:25322459

  10. Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) as a novel therapeutic target in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Minami, Jiro; Suzuki, Rikio; Mazitschek, Ralph; Gorgun, Gullu; Ghosh, Balaram; Cirstea, Diana; Hu, Yiguo; Mimura, Naoya; Ohguchi, Hiroto; Cottini, Francesca; Jakubikova, Jana; Munshi, Nikhil C.; Haggarty, Stephen J.; Richardson, Paul G.; Hideshima, Teru; Anderson, Kenneth C.

    2014-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) represent novel molecular targets for the treatment of various types of cancers, including multiple myeloma (MM). Many HDAC inhibitors have already shown remarkable anti-tumor activities in the preclinical setting; however, their clinical utility is limited due to unfavorable toxicities associated with their broad range HDAC inhibitory effects. Isoform-selective HDAC inhibition may allow for MM cytotoxicity without attendant side effects. In this study, we demonstrated that HDAC3 knockdown and a small molecule HDAC3 inhibitor BG45 trigger significant MM cell growth inhibition via apoptosis, evidenced by caspase and PARP cleavage. Importantly, HDAC3 inhibition downregulates phosphorylation (tyrosine 705 and serine 727) of STAT3. Neither IL-6 nor bone marrow stromal cells overcome this inhibitory effect of HDAC3 inhibition on p-STAT3 and MM cell growth. Moreover, HDAC3 inhibition also triggers hyperacetylation of STAT3, suggesting crosstalk signaling between phosphorylation and acetylation of STAT3. Importantly, inhibition of HDAC3, but not HDAC1 or HDAC2, significantly enhances bortezomib-induced cytotoxicity. Finally, we confirm that BG45 alone and in combination with bortezomib trigger significant tumor growth inhibition in vivo in a murine xenograft model of human MM. Our results indicate that HDAC3 represents a promising therapeutic target, and validate a prototype novel HDAC3 inhibitor BG45 in MM. PMID:23913134

  11. Decreased Histone Deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) in Peripheral Blood Monocytes (PBMCs) of COPD Patients

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chunting; Hou, Qi; Wang, Haoyan

    2016-01-01

    Background Histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) is a class I histone deacetylase family member that plays a critical role in suppressing inflammatory gene expression in the airways, lung parenchyma, and alveolar macrophages in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the expression of HDAC2 in peripheral blood monocytes (PBMCs), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) p65, and serum inflammatory cytokine levels in COPD patients, smokers, and non-smokers remains unclear. Methods PBMCs were obtained from COPD patients, healthy smokers, and healthy nonsmokers. The HDAC2 and NF-?B p65 expression were quantified by Western Blot. HDAC activity was assessed by an HDAC fluorometric immunoprecipitation activity assay kit. Serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) levels were measured by ELISA. Results HDAC2 expression and HDAC activity were decreased in PBMCs in COPD patients compared with smokers and non-smokers. Increased NF-?B p65 expression, serum TNF-? and IL-8 levels were observed in COPD patients compared with nonsmokers. The FEV1%pred was positively correlated with HDAC2 expression and HDAC activity in COPD patients. Smokers had decreased HDAC activity, increased NF-?B p65 expression and serum TNF-? compared with nonsmokers. Conclusions HDAC2 expression was decreased in PBMCs of COPD patients and was correlated with disease severity. The reduction of HDAC2 expression not only directly enhances the expression of inflammatory genes, but may account for the activation of NF-?B mediated inflammation. Decreased HDAC2 may serve as a potential biomarker of COPD and predict the decline of lung function. PMID:26809128

  12. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity is critical for embryonic kidney gene expression, growth, and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaowei; Bellew, Christine; Yao, Xiao; Stefkova, Jana; Dipp, Susana; Saifudeen, Zubaida; Bachvarov, Dimcho; El-Dahr, Samir S

    2011-09-16

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) regulate fundamental biological processes such as cellular proliferation, differentiation, and survival via genomic and nongenomic effects. This study examined the importance of HDAC activity in the regulation of gene expression and differentiation of the developing mouse kidney. Class I HDAC1-3 and class II HDAC4, -7, and -9 genes are developmentally regulated. Moreover, HDAC1-3 are highly expressed in nephron precursors. Short term treatment of cultured mouse embryonic kidneys with HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) induced global histone H3 and H4 hyperacetylation and H3K4 hypermethylation. However, genome-wide profiling revealed that the HDAC-regulated transcriptome is restricted and encompasses regulators of the cell cycle, Wnt/β-catenin, TGF-β/Smad, and PI3K-AKT pathways. Further analysis demonstrated that base-line expression of key developmental renal regulators, including Osr1, Eya1, Pax2/8, WT1, Gdnf, Wnt9b, Sfrp1/2, and Emx2, is dependent on intact HDAC activity. Treatment of cultured embryonic kidney cells with HDACi recapitulated these gene expression changes, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that HDACi is associated with histone hyperacetylation of Pax2/Pax8, Gdnf, Sfrp1, and p21. Gene knockdown studies demonstrated that HDAC1 and HDAC2 play a redundant role in regulation of Pax2/8 and Sfrp1 but not Gdnf. Long term treatment of embryonic kidneys with HDACi impairs the ureteric bud branching morphogenesis program and provokes growth arrest and apoptosis. We conclude that HDAC activity is critical for normal embryonic kidney homeostasis, and we implicate class I HDACs in the regulation of early nephron gene expression, differentiation, and survival. PMID:21778236

  13. Post-translational Modifications Regulate Class IIa Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) Function in Health and Disease*

    PubMed Central

    Mathias, Rommel A.; Guise, Amanda J.; Cristea, Ileana M.

    2015-01-01

    Class IIa histone deacetylases (HDACs4, -5, -7, and -9) modulate the physiology of the human cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, nervous, and immune systems. The regulatory capacity of this family of enzymes stems from their ability to shuttle between nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments in response to signal-driven post-translational modification. Here, we review the current knowledge of modifications that control spatial and temporal histone deacetylase functions by regulating subcellular localization, transcriptional functions, and cell cycle-dependent activity, ultimately impacting on human disease. We discuss the contribution of these modifications to cardiac and vascular hypertrophy, myoblast differentiation, neuronal cell survival, and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:25616866

  14. Probing phosphorylation-dependent protein interactions within functional domains of histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5)

    PubMed Central

    Guise, Amanda J.; Mathias, Rommel A.; Rowland, Elizabeth A.; Yu, Fang; Cristea, Ileana M.

    2014-01-01

    Class IIa histone deacetylases (HDACs) are critical transcriptional regulators, shuttling between nuclear and cytoplasmic cellular compartments. Within the nucleus, these HDACs repress transcription as components of multi-protein complexes, such as the nuclear co-repressor (NCoR) and beclin-6 co-repressor (BCoR) complexes. Cytoplasmic relocalization releases this transcriptional repressive function. Class IIa HDAC shuttling is controlled, in part, by phosphorylations flanking the nuclear localization signal (NLS). Furthermore, we have reported that phosphorylation within the NLS by the kinase Aurora B modulates the localization and function of the class IIa HDAC5 during mitosis. While we identified numerous additional HDAC5 phosphorylations, their regulatory functions remain unknown. Here we studied phosphorylation sites within functional HDAC5 domains, including the deacetylation domain (DAC, Ser755), nuclear export signal (NES, S1108), and an acidic domain (AD, Ser611). We have generated phosphomutant cell lines to investigate how absence of phosphorylation at these sites impacts HDAC5 localization, enzymatic activity, and protein interactions. Combining molecular biology and quantitative mass spectrometry, we have defined the interactions and HDAC5-containing complexes mediated by site-specific phosphorylation and quantified selected changes using parallel reaction monitoring (PRM). These results expand the current understanding regarding HDAC regulation, and the functions of this critical family of proteins within human cells. PMID:24920159

  15. In Vivo Imaging of Histone Deacetylases (HDACs) in the Central Nervous System and Major Peripheral Organs

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic enzymes are now targeted to treat the underlying gene expression dysregulation that contribute to disease pathogenesis. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have shown broad potential in treatments against cancer and emerging data supports their targeting in the context of cardiovascular disease and central nervous system dysfunction. Development of a molecular agent for non-invasive imaging to elucidate the distribution and functional roles of HDACs in humans will accelerate medical research and drug discovery in this domain. Herein, we describe the synthesis and validation of an HDAC imaging agent, [11C]6. Our imaging results demonstrate that this probe has high specificity, good selectivity, and appropriate kinetics and distribution for imaging HDACs in the brain, heart, kidney, pancreas, and spleen. Our findings support the translational potential for [11C]6 for human epigenetic imaging. PMID:25203558

  16. In vivo imaging of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in the central nervous system and major peripheral organs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changning; Schroeder, Frederick A; Wey, Hsiao-Ying; Borra, Ronald; Wagner, Florence F; Reis, Surya; Kim, Sung Won; Holson, Edward B; Haggarty, Stephen J; Hooker, Jacob M

    2014-10-01

    Epigenetic enzymes are now targeted to treat the underlying gene expression dysregulation that contribute to disease pathogenesis. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have shown broad potential in treatments against cancer and emerging data supports their targeting in the context of cardiovascular disease and central nervous system dysfunction. Development of a molecular agent for non-invasive imaging to elucidate the distribution and functional roles of HDACs in humans will accelerate medical research and drug discovery in this domain. Herein, we describe the synthesis and validation of an HDAC imaging agent, [(11)C]6. Our imaging results demonstrate that this probe has high specificity, good selectivity, and appropriate kinetics and distribution for imaging HDACs in the brain, heart, kidney, pancreas, and spleen. Our findings support the translational potential for [(11)C]6 for human epigenetic imaging. PMID:25203558

  17. The role of class I histone deacetylase (HDAC) on gluconeogenesis in liver

    SciTech Connect

    Oiso, Hiroshi; Furukawa, Noboru; Suefuji, Mihoshi; Shimoda, Seiya; Ito, Akihiro; Furumai, Ryohei; Nakagawa, Junichi; Yoshida, Minoru; Nishino, Norikazu; Araki, Eiichi

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} A novel class I HDAC inhibitor decreased hepatic PEPCK mRNA and gluconeogenesis. {yields} Inhibition of HDAC decreased PEPCK by reducing HNF4{alpha} expression and FoxO1 activity. {yields} siRNA knockdown of HDAC1 in HepG2 cells reduced the expression of PEPCK and HNF4{alpha}. {yields} Inhibition of class I HDAC improves glucose homeostasis in HFD mice. -- Abstract: Hepatic gluconeogenesis is crucial for glucose homeostasis. Although sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) is implicated in the regulation of gluconeogenesis in the liver, the effects of other histone deacetylases (HDAC) on gluconeogenesis are unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the role of class I HDACs in hepatic gluconeogenesis. In HepG2 cells and the liver of mice, the expressions of phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4{alpha} (HNF4{alpha}) were significantly decreased by treatment with a newly designed class I HDAC inhibitor, Ky-2. SiRNA knockdown of HDAC1 expression, but not of HDAC2 or HDAC3, in HepG2 cells decreased PEPCK and HNF4{alpha} expression. In HepG2 cells, insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt and forkhead box O 1 (FoxO1) was increased by Ky-2. Pyruvate tolerance tests in Ky-2-treated high-fat-diet (HFD)-fed mice showed a marked reduction in blood glucose compared with vehicle-treated HFD mice. These data suggest that class I HDACs increase HNF4{alpha} protein expression and the transcriptional activity of FoxO1, followed by the induction of PEPCK mRNA expression and gluconeogenesis in liver.

  18. Histone deacetylase HDAC4 promotes gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells progression via p21 repression.

    PubMed

    Kang, Zhen-Hua; Wang, Chun-Yan; Zhang, Wen-Liang; Zhang, Jian-Tao; Yuan, Chun-Hua; Zhao, Ping-Wei; Lin, Yu-Yang; Hong, Sen; Li, Chen-Yao; Wang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the leading causes of cancer death in the world. The role of histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) in specific cell and tissue types has been identified. However, its biological roles in the development of gastric cancer remain largely unexplored. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blot were used to analyze the expression of HDAC4 in the clinical samples. siRNA and overexpression of HDAC4 and siRNA p21 were used to study functional effects in a proliferation, a colony formation, a adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) assay and reactive oxygen species(ROS) generation, cell cycle, cell apoptosis rates, and autophagy assays. HDAC4 was up-regulated in gastric cancer tissues and several gastric cancer cell lines. The proliferation, colony formation ability and ATP level were enhanced in HDAC4 overexpression SGC-7901 cells, but inhibited in HDAC4 knockdown SGC-7901 cells. HDAC4 knockdown led to G0/G1 phase cell arrest and caused apoptosis and ROS increase. Moreover, HDAC4 was found to inhibit p21 expression in gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. p21 knockdown dramatically attenuated cell proliferation inhibition, cell cycle arrest, cell apoptosis promotion and autophagy up-regulation in HDAC4-siRNA SGC-7901 cells. We demonstrated that HDAC4 promotes gastric cancer cell progression mediated through the repression of p21. Our results provide an experimental basis for understanding the pro-tumor mechanism of HDAC4 as treatment for gastric cancer. PMID:24896240

  19. Transcription Regulation by Class III Histone Deacetylases (HDACs)—Sirtuins

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Yan; Faller, Douglas V.

    2008-01-01

    Sirtuins are NAD+-dependent histone deacetylases (Class III HDACs). Recently, Sirtuins have been shown to play important roles, both direct and indirect, in transcriptional regulation. This transcriptional control, through incorporation of Sirtuins into transcription complexes and deacetylation of histones locally at gene promoters, or direct interaction with specific transcription factors, is central to the participation of Sirtuins in multiple diverse processes, including aging, apoptosis, hormone responses, stress tolerance, differentiation, metabolism and development. Here we review the contribution of the Sirtuin family, at multiple molecular levels, to transcriptional regulation. PMID:21566744

  20. Histone Deacetylase HDAC8 Promotes Insulin Resistance and ?-Catenin Activation in NAFLD-Associated Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yuan; Wong, Vincent W S; Wong, Grace L H; Yang, Weiqin; Sun, Hanyong; Shen, Jiayun; Tong, Joanna H M; Go, Minnie Y Y; Cheung, Yue S; Lai, Paul B S; Zhou, Mingyan; Xu, Gang; Huang, Tim H M; Yu, Jun; To, Ka F; Cheng, Alfred S L; Chan, Henry L Y

    2015-11-15

    The growing epidemic of obesity, which causes nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the more severe phenotype nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), has paralleled the increasing incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Accumulating evidence demonstrates that overnutrition and metabolic pathways can trigger modifications of DNA and histones via deregulation of chromatin modifiers, resulting in aberrant transcriptional activity. However, the epigenetic regulation of HCC development in NAFLD remains obscure. Here, we uncover key epigenetic regulators using both dietary and genetic obesity-promoted HCC models through quantitative expression profiling and characterize the oncogenic activities of histone deacetylase HDAC8 in NAFLD-associated hepatocarcinogenesis. HDAC8 is directly upregulated by the lipogenic transcription factor SREBP-1 where they are coexpressed in dietary obesity models of NASH and HCC. Lentiviral-mediated HDAC8 attenuation in vivo reversed insulin resistance and reduced NAFLD-associated tumorigenicity. HDAC8 modulation by genetic and pharmacologic approaches inhibited p53/p21-mediated apoptosis and G2-M phase cell-cycle arrest and stimulated ?-catenin-dependent cell proliferation. Mechanistically, HDAC8 physically interacted with the chromatin modifier EZH2 to concordantly repress Wnt antagonists via histone H4 deacetylation and H3 lysine 27 trimethylation. In human NAFLD-associated HCC, levels of SREBP-1, HDAC8, EZH2, H4 deacetylation, H3K27me3, and active ?-catenin were all correlated positively in tumors compared with nontumor tissues. Overall, our findings show how HDAC8 drives NAFLD-associated hepatocarcinogenesis, offering a novel epigenetic target to prevent or treat HCC in obese patients. PMID:26383163

  1. Histone deacetylase HDAC1 downregulates transcription of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene in tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Phi van, Daniel K; Mhlbauer, Eckhard; Phi-van, Loc

    2015-08-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) has been reported to be involved in cancer progression by stimulating angiogenesis and cell growth. In this study, we examined the expression of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) and the role of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in regulating the 5-HTT gene in tumor cells. The 5-HTT gene expression was almost silenced in chicken lymphoma DT40, myelomonocytic tumor HD11 and hepatoma DU249 cells, compared to their physiological counterpart. In contrast, HDAC1 mRNA expression was increased in these cell lines. Indeed, the pan-HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) enhanced the 5-HTT mRNA expression in several tumor cell lines including the human cell lines HepG2 and THP-1 and increased the 5-HT uptake in HD11 cells. In addition, treatment with parthenolide, which is capable of depleting HDAC1, and knockdown of HDAC1 using siRNA resulted in increased 5-HTT mRNA expression, confirming the role of HDAC1 in the down-regulation of 5-HTT in the tumor cells. Deletion analysis of the 5-HTT promoter and site-directed mutagenesis revealed that the transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBP), in interacting with the 5-HTT promoter, mediated both the inhibition of the 5-HTT expression by HDAC1 and the activation by CREB-binding protein (CBP). Using a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, we found increased acetylation of histone H4 associated with the 5-HTT promoter in cells treated with TSA. Our results suggest that the 5-HTT gene is epigenetically downregulated by HDAC1 in several types of cancer. PMID:26024595

  2. Loss of the deubiquitylase BAP1 alters class I histone deacetylase expression and sensitivity of mesothelioma cells to HDAC inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Sacco, Joseph J.; Kenyani, Jenna; Butt, Zohra; Carter, Rachel; Chew, Hui Yi; Cheeseman, Liam P.; Darling, Sarah; Denny, Michael; Urbé, Sylvie; Clague, Michael J.; Coulson, Judy M.

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylases are important targets for cancer therapeutics, but their regulation is poorly understood. Our data show coordinated transcription of HDAC1 and HDAC2 in lung cancer cell lines, but suggest HDAC2 protein expression is cell-context specific. Through an unbiased siRNA screen we found that BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP1) regulates their expression, with HDAC2 reduced and HDAC1 increased in BAP1 depleted cells. BAP1 loss-of-function is increasingly reported in cancers including thoracic malignancies, with frequent mutation in malignant pleural mesothelioma. Endogenous HDAC2 directly correlates with BAP1 across a panel of lung cancer cell lines, and is downregulated in mesothelioma cell lines with genetic BAP1 inactivation. We find that BAP1 regulates HDAC2 by increasing transcript abundance, rather than opposing its ubiquitylation. Importantly, although total cellular HDAC activity is unaffected by transient depletion of HDAC2 or of BAP1 due to HDAC1 compensation, this isoenzyme imbalance sensitizes MSTO-211H cells to HDAC inhibitors. However, other established mesothelioma cell lines with low endogenous HDAC2 have adapted to become more resistant to HDAC inhibition. Our work establishes a mechanism by which BAP1 loss alters sensitivity of cancer cells to HDAC inhibitors. Assessment of BAP1 and HDAC expression may ultimately help identify patients likely to respond to HDAC inhibitors. PMID:25970771

  3. HDAC2 blockade by nitric oxide and histone deacetylase inhibitors reveals a common target in Duchenne muscular dystrophy treatment.

    PubMed

    Colussi, Claudia; Mozzetta, Chiara; Gurtner, Aymone; Illi, Barbara; Rosati, Jessica; Straino, Stefania; Ragone, Gianluca; Pescatori, Mario; Zaccagnini, Germana; Antonini, Annalisa; Minetti, Giulia; Martelli, Fabio; Piaggio, Giulia; Gallinari, Paola; Steinkuhler, Christian; Steinkulher, Christian; Clementi, Emilio; Dell'Aversana, Carmela; Altucci, Lucia; Mai, Antonello; Capogrossi, Maurizio C; Puri, Pier Lorenzo; Gaetano, Carlo

    2008-12-01

    The overlapping histological and biochemical features underlying the beneficial effect of deacetylase inhibitors and NO donors in dystrophic muscles suggest an unanticipated molecular link among dystrophin, NO signaling, and the histone deacetylases (HDACs). Higher global deacetylase activity and selective increased expression of the class I histone deacetylase HDAC2 were detected in muscles of dystrophin-deficient MDX mice. In vitro and in vivo siRNA-mediated down-regulation of HDAC2 in dystrophic muscles was sufficient to replicate the morphological and functional benefits observed with deacetylase inhibitors and NO donors. We found that restoration of NO signaling in vivo, by adenoviral-mediated expression of a constitutively active endothelial NOS mutant in MDX muscles, and in vitro, by exposing MDX-derived satellite cells to NO donors, resulted in HDAC2 blockade by cysteine S-nitrosylation. These data reveal a special contribution of HDAC2 in the pathogenesis of Duchenne muscular dystrophy and indicate that HDAC2 inhibition by NO-dependent S-nitrosylation is important for the therapeutic response to NO donors in MDX mice. They also define a common target for independent pharmacological interventions in the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. PMID:19047631

  4. HDAC2 blockade by nitric oxide and histone deacetylase inhibitors reveals a common target in Duchenne muscular dystrophy treatment

    PubMed Central

    Colussi, Claudia; Mozzetta, Chiara; Gurtner, Aymone; Illi, Barbara; Rosati, Jessica; Straino, Stefania; Ragone, Gianluca; Pescatori, Mario; Zaccagnini, Germana; Antonini, Annalisa; Minetti, Giulia; Martelli, Fabio; Piaggio, Giulia; Gallinari, Paola; Steinkuhler, Christian; Clementi, Emilio; Dell'Aversana, Carmela; Altucci, Lucia; Mai, Antonello; Capogrossi, Maurizio C.; Puri, Pier Lorenzo; Gaetano, Carlo

    2008-01-01

    The overlapping histological and biochemical features underlying the beneficial effect of deacetylase inhibitors and NO donors in dystrophic muscles suggest an unanticipated molecular link among dystrophin, NO signaling, and the histone deacetylases (HDACs). Higher global deacetylase activity and selective increased expression of the class I histone deacetylase HDAC2 were detected in muscles of dystrophin-deficient MDX mice. In vitro and in vivo siRNA-mediated down-regulation of HDAC2 in dystrophic muscles was sufficient to replicate the morphological and functional benefits observed with deacetylase inhibitors and NO donors. We found that restoration of NO signaling in vivo, by adenoviral-mediated expression of a constitutively active endothelial NOS mutant in MDX muscles, and in vitro, by exposing MDX-derived satellite cells to NO donors, resulted in HDAC2 blockade by cysteine S-nitrosylation. These data reveal a special contribution of HDAC2 in the pathogenesis of Duchenne muscular dystrophy and indicate that HDAC2 inhibition by NO-dependent S-nitrosylation is important for the therapeutic response to NO donors in MDX mice. They also define a common target for independent pharmacological interventions in the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. PMID:19047631

  5. Differential effects of binge methamphetamine injections on the mRNA expression of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in the rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Omonijo, Oluwaseyi; Wongprayoon, Pawaris; Ladenheim, Bruce; McCoy, Michael T; Govitrapong, Piyarat; Jayanthi, Subramaniam; Cadet, Jean Lud

    2014-12-01

    Methamphetamine use disorder is characterized by recurrent binge episodes. Humans addicted to methamphetamine experience various degrees of cognitive deficits and show evidence of neurodegenerative processes in the brain. Binge injections of METH to rodents also cause significant toxic changes in the brain. In addition, this pattern of METH injections can alter gene expression in the dorsal striatum. Gene expression is regulated, in part, by histone deacetylation. We thus tested the possibility that METH toxic doses might cause changes in the mRNA levels of histone deacetylases (HDACs). We found that METH did produce significant decreases in the mRNA expression of HDAC8, which is a class I HDAC. METH also decreased expression of HDAC6, HDAC9, and HDAC10 that are class II HDACs. The expression of the class IV HDAC, HDAC11, was also suppressed by METH. The expression of Sirt2, Sirt5, and Sirt6 that are members of class III HDACs was also downregulated by METH injections. Our findings implicate changes in HDAC expression may be an early indicator of impending METH-induced neurotoxicity in the striatum. This idea is consistent with the accumulated evidence that some HDACs are involved in neurodegenerative processes in the brain. PMID:25452209

  6. Differential effects of binge methamphetamine injections on the mRNA expression of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in the rat striatum

    PubMed Central

    Omonijo, Oluwaseyi; Wongprayoon, Pawaris; Ladenheim, Bruce; McCoy, Michael T.; Govitrapong, Piyarat; Jayanthi, Subramaniam; Cadet, Jean Lud

    2014-01-01

    Methamphetamine use disorder is characterized by recurrent binge episodes. Humans addicted to methamphetamine experience various degrees of cognitive deficits and show evidence of neurodegenerative processes in the brain. Binge injections of METH to rodents also cause significant toxic changes in the brain. In addition, this pattern of METH injections can alter gene expression in the dorsal striatum. Gene expression is regulated, in part, by histone deacetylation. We thus tested the possibility that METH toxic doses might cause changes in the mRNA levels of histone deacetylases (HDACs). We found that METH did produce significant decreases in the mRNA expression of HDAC8, which is a class I HDAC. METH also decreased expression of HDAC6, HDAC9, and HDAC10 that are class II HDACs. The expression of the class IV HDAC, HDAC11, was also suppressed by METH. The expression of Sirt2, Sirt5, and Sirt6 that are members of class III HDACs was also downregulated by METH injections. Our findings implicate changes in HDAC expression may be an early indicator of impending METH-induced neurotoxicity in the striatum. This idea is consistent with the accumulated evidence that some HDACs are involved in neurodegenerative processes in the brain. PMID:25452209

  7. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors reduce the glial inflammatory response in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Faraco, Giuseppe; Pittelli, Maria; Cavone, Leonardo; Fossati, Silvia; Porcu, Marco; Mascagni, Paolo; Fossati, Gianluca; Moroni, Flavio; Chiarugi, Alberto

    2009-11-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are emerging tools for epigenetic modulation of gene expression and suppress the inflammatory response in models of systemic immune activation. Yet, their effects within the brain are still controversial. Also, whether HDACs are expressed in astrocytes or microglia is unclear. Here, we report the identification of transcripts for HDAC 1-11 in cultured mouse glial cells. Two HDACi such as SAHA and ITF2357 induce dramatic increase of histone acetylation without causing cytotoxicity of cultured cells. Of note, the two compounds inhibit expression of pro-inflammatory mediators by LPS-challenged glial cultures, and potentiate immunosuppression triggered by dexamethasone in vitro. The anti-inflammatory effect is not due to HDACi-induced transcription of immunosuppressant proteins, (including SOCS-1/3) or microRNA-146. Rather, it is accompanied by direct alteration of transcription factor DNA binding and ensuing transcriptional activation. Indeed, both HDACi impair NFkappaB-dependent IkappaBalpha resynthesis in glial cells exposed to LPS, and, among various AP1 subunits and NFkappaB p65, affect the DNA binding activity of c-FOS, c-JUN and FRA2. Importantly, ITF2357 reduces the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators in the striatum of mice iontophoretically injected with LPS. Data demonstrate that mouse glial cells have ongoing HDAC activity, and its inhibition suppresses the neuroinflammatory response because of a direct impairment of the transcriptional machinery. PMID:19635561

  8. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of saccharin-based N-hydroxybenzamides as histone deacetylases (HDACs) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Fu, Huansheng; Han, Leiqiang; Hou, Xuben; Dun, Yanyan; Wang, Lei; Gong, Xiaowei; Fang, Hao

    2015-09-01

    We report the development of a novel series of saccharin-based N-hydroxybenzamides as histone deacetylases inhibitors. Among them, 6 j exhibited potent HDACs inhibitory activity against Hela nuclear extract. Further biological evaluation found 6 i showed similar antiproliferative activities in vitro compared with the approved SAHA. PMID:26216016

  9. Valproic acid as a potential inhibitor of Plasmodium falciparum histone deacetylase 1 (PfHDAC1): an in silico approach.

    PubMed

    Elbadawi, Mohamed A Abdallah; Awadalla, Mohamed Khalid Alhaj; Hamid, Muzamil Mahdi Abdel; Mohamed, Magdi Awadalla; Awad, Talal Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    A new Plasmodium falciparum histone deacetylase1 (PfHDAC1) homology model was built based on the highest sequence identity available template human histone deacetylase 2 structure. The generated model was carefully evaluated for stereochemical accuracy, folding correctness and overall structure quality. All evaluations were acceptable and consistent. Docking a group of hydroxamic acid histone deacetylase inhibitors and valproic acid has shown binding poses that agree well with inhibitor-bound histone deacetylase-solved structural interactions. Docking affinity dG scores were in agreement with available experimental binding affinities. Further, enzyme-ligand complex stability and reliability were investigated by running 5-nanosecond molecular dynamics simulations. Thorough analysis of the simulation trajectories has shown that enzyme-ligand complexes were stable during the simulation period. Interestingly, the calculated theoretical binding energies of the docked hydroxamic acid inhibitors have shown that the model can discriminate between strong and weaker inhibitors and agrees well with the experimental affinities reported in the literature. The model and the docking methodology can be used in screening virtual libraries for PfHDAC1 inhibitors, since the docking scores have ranked ligands in accordance with experimental binding affinities. Valproic acid calculated theoretical binding energy suggests that it may inhibit PfHDAC1. PMID:25679451

  10. Valproic Acid as a Potential Inhibitor of Plasmodium falciparum Histone Deacetylase 1 (PfHDAC1): An in Silico Approach

    PubMed Central

    Elbadawi, Mohamed A. Abdallah; Awadalla, Mohamed Khalid Alhaj; Abdel Hamid, Muzamil Mahdi; Mohamed, Magdi Awadalla; Awad, Talal Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    A new Plasmodium falciparum histone deacetylase1 (PfHDAC1) homology model was built based on the highest sequence identity available template human histone deacetylase 2 structure. The generated model was carefully evaluated for stereochemical accuracy, folding correctness and overall structure quality. All evaluations were acceptable and consistent. Docking a group of hydroxamic acid histone deacetylase inhibitors and valproic acid has shown binding poses that agree well with inhibitor-bound histone deacetylase-solved structural interactions. Docking affinity dG scores were in agreement with available experimental binding affinities. Further, enzyme-ligand complex stability and reliability were investigated by running 5-nanosecond molecular dynamics simulations. Thorough analysis of the simulation trajectories has shown that enzyme-ligand complexes were stable during the simulation period. Interestingly, the calculated theoretical binding energies of the docked hydroxamic acid inhibitors have shown that the model can discriminate between strong and weaker inhibitors and agrees well with the experimental affinities reported in the literature. The model and the docking methodology can be used in screening virtual libraries for PfHDAC1 inhibitors, since the docking scores have ranked ligands in accordance with experimental binding affinities. Valproic acid calculated theoretical binding energy suggests that it may inhibit PfHDAC1. PMID:25679451

  11. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors down-regulate endothelial lineage commitment of umbilical cord blood derived endothelial progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Iordache, Florin; Buzila, Cosmin; Constantinescu, Andrei; Andrei, Eugen; Maniu, Horia

    2012-01-01

    To test the involvement of histone deacetylases (HDACs) activity in endothelial lineage progression, we investigated the effects of HDAC inhibitors on endothelial progenitors cells (EPCs) derived from umbilical cord blood (UCB). Adherent EPCs, that expressed the endothelial marker proteins (PCAM-1, CD105, CD133, and VEGFR(2)) revealed by flow cytometry were treated with three HDAC inhibitors: Butyrate (BuA), Trichostatin A (TSA), and Valproic acid (VPA). RT-PCR assay showed that HDAC inhibitors down-regulated the expression of endothelial genes such as VE-cadherin, CD133, CXCR4 and Tie-2. Furthermore, flow cytometry analysis illustrated that HDAC inhibitors selectively reduce the expression of VEGFR(2), CD117, VE-cadherin, and ICAM-1, whereas the expression of CD34 and CD45 remained unchanged, demonstrating that HDAC is involved in endothelial differentiation of progenitor cells. Real-Time PCR demonstrated that TSA down-regulated telomerase activity probably via suppression of hTERT expression, suggesting that HDAC inhibitor decreased cell proliferation. Cell motility was also decreased after treatment with HDAC inhibitors as shown by wound-healing assay. The balance of acethylation/deacethylation kept in control by the activity of HAT (histone acetyltransferases)/HDAC enzymes play an important role in differentiation of stem cells by regulating proliferation and endothelial lineage commitment. PMID:23203112

  12. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor kinetic rate constants correlate with cellular histone acetylation but not transcription and cell viability.

    PubMed

    Lauffer, Benjamin E L; Mintzer, Robert; Fong, Rina; Mukund, Susmith; Tam, Christine; Zilberleyb, Inna; Flicke, Birgit; Ritscher, Allegra; Fedorowicz, Grazyna; Vallero, Roxanne; Ortwine, Daniel F; Gunzner, Janet; Modrusan, Zora; Neumann, Lars; Koth, Christopher M; Lupardus, Patrick J; Kaminker, Joshua S; Heise, Christopher E; Steiner, Pascal

    2013-09-13

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are critical in the control of gene expression, and dysregulation of their activity has been implicated in a broad range of diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular, and neurological diseases. HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) employing different zinc chelating functionalities such as hydroxamic acids and benzamides have shown promising results in cancer therapy. Although it has also been suggested that HDACi with increased isozyme selectivity and potency may broaden their clinical utility and minimize side effects, the translation of this idea to the clinic remains to be investigated. Moreover, a detailed understanding of how HDACi with different pharmacological properties affect biological functions in vitro and in vivo is still missing. Here, we show that a panel of benzamide-containing HDACi are slow tight-binding inhibitors with long residence times unlike the hydroxamate-containing HDACi vorinostat and trichostatin-A. Characterization of changes in H2BK5 and H4K14 acetylation following HDACi treatment in the neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y revealed that the timing and magnitude of histone acetylation mirrored both the association and dissociation kinetic rates of the inhibitors. In contrast, cell viability and microarray gene expression analysis indicated that cell death induction and changes in transcriptional regulation do not correlate with the dissociation kinetic rates of the HDACi. Therefore, our study suggests that determining how the selective and kinetic inhibition properties of HDACi affect cell function will help to evaluate their therapeutic utility. PMID:23897821

  13. Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) Inhibitor Kinetic Rate Constants Correlate with Cellular Histone Acetylation but Not Transcription and Cell Viability

    PubMed Central

    Lauffer, Benjamin E. L.; Mintzer, Robert; Fong, Rina; Mukund, Susmith; Tam, Christine; Zilberleyb, Inna; Flicke, Birgit; Ritscher, Allegra; Fedorowicz, Grazyna; Vallero, Roxanne; Ortwine, Daniel F.; Gunzner, Janet; Modrusan, Zora; Neumann, Lars; Koth, Christopher M.; Lupardus, Patrick J.; Kaminker, Joshua S.; Heise, Christopher E.; Steiner, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are critical in the control of gene expression, and dysregulation of their activity has been implicated in a broad range of diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular, and neurological diseases. HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) employing different zinc chelating functionalities such as hydroxamic acids and benzamides have shown promising results in cancer therapy. Although it has also been suggested that HDACi with increased isozyme selectivity and potency may broaden their clinical utility and minimize side effects, the translation of this idea to the clinic remains to be investigated. Moreover, a detailed understanding of how HDACi with different pharmacological properties affect biological functions in vitro and in vivo is still missing. Here, we show that a panel of benzamide-containing HDACi are slow tight-binding inhibitors with long residence times unlike the hydroxamate-containing HDACi vorinostat and trichostatin-A. Characterization of changes in H2BK5 and H4K14 acetylation following HDACi treatment in the neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y revealed that the timing and magnitude of histone acetylation mirrored both the association and dissociation kinetic rates of the inhibitors. In contrast, cell viability and microarray gene expression analysis indicated that cell death induction and changes in transcriptional regulation do not correlate with the dissociation kinetic rates of the HDACi. Therefore, our study suggests that determining how the selective and kinetic inhibition properties of HDACi affect cell function will help to evaluate their therapeutic utility. PMID:23897821

  14. Snail Mediates E-Cadherin Repression by the Recruitment of the Sin3A/Histone Deacetylase 1 (HDAC1)/HDAC2 Complex

    PubMed Central

    Peinado, Hector; Ballestar, Esteban; Esteller, Manel; Cano, Amparo

    2004-01-01

    The transcription factor Snail has been described as a direct repressor of E-cadherin expression during development and carcinogenesis; however, the specific mechanisms involved in this process remain largely unknown. Here we show that mammalian Snail requires histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity to repress E-cadherin promoter and that treatment with trichostatin A (TSA) is sufficient to block the repressor effect of Snail. Moreover, overexpression of Snail is correlated with deacetylation of histones H3 and H4 at the E-cadherin promoter, and TSA treatment in Snail-expressing cells reverses the acetylation status of histones. Additionally, we demonstrate that Snail interacts in vivo with the E-cadherin promoter and recruits HDAC activity. Most importantly, we demonstrate an interaction between Snail, histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) and HDAC2, and the corepressor mSin3A. This interaction is dependent on the SNAG domain of Snail, indicating that the Snail transcription factor mediates the repression by recruitment of chromatin-modifying activities, forming a multimolecular complex to repress E-cadherin expression. Our results establish a direct causal relationship between Snail-dependent repression of E-cadherin and the modification of chromatin at its promoter. PMID:14673164

  15. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) 1 and 2 are essential for accurate cell division and the pluripotency of embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Jamaladdin, Shereen; Kelly, Richard D. W.; ORegan, Laura; Dovey, Oliver M.; Hodson, Grace E.; Millard, Christopher J.; Portolano, Nicola; Fry, Andrew M.; Schwabe, John W. R.; Cowley, Shaun M.

    2014-01-01

    Histone deacetylases 1 and 2 (HDAC1/2) form the core catalytic components of corepressor complexes that modulate gene expression. In most cell types, deletion of both Hdac1 and Hdac2 is required to generate a discernible phenotype, suggesting their activity is largely redundant. We have therefore generated an ES cell line in which Hdac1 and Hdac2 can be inactivated simultaneously. Loss of HDAC1/2 resulted in a 60% reduction in total HDAC activity and a loss of cell viability. Cell death is dependent upon cell cycle progression, because differentiated, nonproliferating cells retain their viability. Furthermore, we observe increased mitotic defects, chromatin bridges, and micronuclei, suggesting HDAC1/2 are necessary for accurate chromosome segregation. Consistent with a critical role in the regulation of gene expression, microarray analysis of Hdac1/2-deleted cells reveals 1,708 differentially expressed genes. Significantly for the maintenance of stem cell self-renewal, we detected a reduction in the expression of the pluripotent transcription factors, Oct4, Nanog, Esrrb, and Rex1. HDAC1/2 activity is regulated through binding of an inositol tetraphosphate molecule (IP4) sandwiched between the HDAC and its cognate corepressor. This raises the important question of whether IP4 regulates the activity of the complex in cells. By rescuing the viability of double-knockout cells, we demonstrate for the first time (to our knowledge) that mutations that abolish IP4 binding reduce the activity of HDAC1/2 in vivo. Our data indicate that HDAC1/2 have essential and pleiotropic roles in cellular proliferation and regulate stem cell self-renewal by maintaining expression of key pluripotent transcription factors. PMID:24958871

  16. Antitumor activity of a novel histone deacetylase inhibitor (S)-HDAC42 in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bai, Li-Yuan; Chiu, Chang-Fang; Pan, Shiow-Lin; Sargeant, Aaron M; Shieh, Tzong-Ming; Wang, Ying-Chu; Weng, Jing-Ru

    2011-12-01

    The aberrant regulation of epigenetic systems including histone acetylation contributes to inappropriate gene expression in cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the antitumor effects of the novel histone deacetylase inhibitor (S)-HDAC42 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells. The antiproliferative effect of (S)-HDAC42 was multifold higher than that of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid in a panel of oral squamous carcinoma cell lines examined. (S)-HDAC42 mediated caspase-dependent apoptosis by targeting multiple signaling pathways relevant to cell cycle progression and survival. We demonstrated that (S)-HDAC42 downregulated the levels of phospho-Akt, cyclin D1, and cyclin-dependent kinase 6, accompanied by increased p27 and p21 expression. In addition, (S)-HDAC42 suppressed NF-κB signaling by blocking tumor necrosis factor-α-induced nuclear translocation, and activated reactive oxygen species generation. Finally, (S)-HDAC42 exhibited high potency in suppressing OSCC tumor growth in a Ca922 xenograft nude mouse model. Together, these findings underscore the translational value of (S)-HDAC42 in fostering new therapeutic strategies for OSCC. PMID:21865079

  17. Santacruzamate A, a Potent and Selective Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) Inhibitor from the Panamanian Marine Cyanobacterium cf. Symploca sp.

    PubMed Central

    Pavlik, Christopher M.; Wong, Christina Y.B.; Ononye, Sophia; Lopez, Dioxelis D.; Engene, Niclas; McPhail, Kerry L.; Gerwick, William H.; Balunas, Marcy J.

    2013-01-01

    A dark-brown tuft-forming cyanobacterium, morphologically resembling the genus Symploca, was collected during an expedition to the Coiba National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site on the Pacific coast of Panama. Phylogenetic analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that it is 4.5% divergent from the type strain for Symploca, and thus is likely a new genus. Fractionation of the crude extract led to the isolation of a new cytotoxin, designated santacruzamate A (1), which has several structural features in common with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid [(2), SAHA, trade name Vorinostat], a clinically approved histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor used to treat refractory cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Recognition of the structural similarly of 1 and SAHA led to the characterization of santacruzamate A as a picomolar level selective inhibitor of HDAC2, a Class I HDAC, with relatively little inhibition of HDAC4 or HDAC6, both Class II HDACs. As a result, chemical syntheses of santacruzamate A as well as a structurally intriguing hybrid molecule, which blends aspects of both agents (1 and 2), were achieved and evaluated for their HDAC activity and specificity. PMID:24164245

  18. Insights into the Recruitment of Class IIa Histone Deacetylases (HDACs) to the SMRT/NCoR Transcriptional Repression Complex*

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Gregg M.; Watson, Peter J.; Fairall, Louise; Jamieson, Andrew G.; Schwabe, John W. R.

    2015-01-01

    Class IIa histone deacetylases repress transcription of target genes. However, their mechanism of action is poorly understood because they exhibit very low levels of deacetylase activity. The class IIa HDACs are associated with the SMRT/NCoR repression complexes and this may, at least in part, account for their repressive activity. However, the molecular mechanism of recruitment to co-repressor proteins has yet to be established. Here we show that a repeated peptide motif present in both SMRT and NCoR is sufficient to mediate specific interaction, with micromolar affinity, with all the class IIa HDACs (HDACs 4, 5, 7, and 9). Mutations in the consensus motif abrogate binding. Mutational analysis of HDAC4 suggests that the peptide interacts in the vicinity of the active site of the enzyme and requires the closed conformation of the zinc-binding loop on the surface of the enzyme. Together these findings represent the first insights into the molecular mechanism of recruitment of class IIa HDACs to the SMRT/NCoR repression complexes. PMID:26055705

  19. Preclinical antitumor activity of ST7612AA1: a new oral thiol-based histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Milazzo, Ferdinando Maria; De Santis, Rita; Gaudio, Eugenio; Kwee, Ivo; Rinaldi, Andrea; Pace, Silvia; Carollo, Valeria; Giannini, Giuseppe; Bertoni, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    ST7612AA1 (property of Sigma-Tau), a thioacetate-? (?-lactam amide) derivative, is a potent, second generation, oral pan-histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi). Aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of ST7612AA1 in solid and haematological tumors, and to characterize its mechanism of action. In vitro, ST7612AA1 potently inhibited different class I and class II HDACs, leading to restore the balance of both histone and non-histone protein acetylation. In vivo, it induced significant anti-tumor effects in xenograft models of lung, colon, breast and ovarian carcinomas, leukemia and lymphoma. This was likely due to the modulation of different HDAC substrates and induction of transcriptional changes with respect to several genes involved in key processes, such as cell cycle regulation, DNA damage checkpoints, immune response, cell adhesion and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. PK analysis confirmed the pro-drug nature of ST7612AA1, which is rapidly absorbed and converted to ST7464AA1 after a single oral dose in mice. ST7612AA1 was selected from a novel generation of oral HDAC inhibitors. Its high efficacy correlated with its potent and selective inhibitory activity of HDAC and was combined with a favorable pharmacodynamics profile. These aspects support a clinical development of ST7612AA1 towards a broad spectrum of human solid and haematologic malignancies. PMID:25671299

  20. Ketamine produces antidepressant-like effects through phosphorylation-dependent nuclear export of histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) in rats.

    PubMed

    Choi, Miyeon; Lee, Seung Hoon; Wang, Sung Eun; Ko, Seung Yeon; Song, Mihee; Choi, June-Seek; Kim, Yong-Seok; Duman, Ronald S; Son, Hyeon

    2015-12-22

    Ketamine produces rapid antidepressant-like effects in animal assays for depression, although the molecular mechanisms underlying these behavioral actions remain incomplete. Here, we demonstrate that ketamine rapidly stimulates histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) phosphorylation and nuclear export in rat hippocampal neurons through calcium/calmodulin kinase II- and protein kinase D-dependent pathways. Consequently, ketamine enhanced the transcriptional activity of myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2), which leads to regulation of MEF2 target genes. Transfection of a HDAC5 phosphorylation-defective mutant (Ser259/Ser498 replaced by Ala259/Ala498, HDAC5-S/A), resulted in resistance to ketamine-induced nuclear export, suppression of ketamine-mediated MEF2 transcriptional activity, and decreased expression of MEF2 target genes. Behaviorally, viral-mediated hippocampal knockdown of HDAC5 blocked or occluded the antidepressant effects of ketamine both in unstressed and stressed animals. Taken together, our results reveal a novel role of HDAC5 in the actions of ketamine and suggest that HDAC5 could be a potential mechanism contributing to the therapeutic actions of ketamine. PMID:26647181

  1. Histone deacetylases in monocyte/macrophage development, activation and metabolism: refining HDAC targets for inflammatory and infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Das Gupta, Kaustav; Shakespear, Melanie R; Iyer, Abishek; Fairlie, David P; Sweet, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages have central roles in danger detection, inflammation and host defense, and consequently, these cells are intimately linked to most disease processes. Major advances in our understanding of the development and function of macrophages have recently come to light. For example, it is now clear that tissue-resident macrophages can be derived from either blood monocytes or through local proliferation of phagocytes that are originally seeded during embryonic development. Metabolic state has also emerged as a major control point for macrophage activation phenotypes. Herein, we review recent literature linking the histone deacetylase (HDAC) family of enzymes to macrophage development and activation, particularly in relation to these recent developments. There has been considerable interest in potential therapeutic applications for small molecule inhibitors of HDACs (HDACi), not only for cancer, but also for inflammatory and infectious diseases. However, the enormous range of molecular and cellular processes that are controlled by different HDAC enzymes presents a potential stumbling block to clinical development. We therefore present examples of how classical HDACs control macrophage functions, roles of specific HDACs in these processes and approaches for selective targeting of drugs, such as HDACi, to macrophages. Development of selective inhibitors of macrophage-expressed HDACs and/or selective delivery of pan HDACi to macrophages may provide avenues for enhancing efficacy of HDACi in therapeutic applications, while limiting unwanted side effects. PMID:26900475

  2. A New Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, MHY219, Inhibits the Migration of Human Prostate Cancer Cells via HDAC1

    PubMed Central

    De, Umasankar; Kundu, Soma; Patra, Nabanita; Ahn, Mee Young; Ahn, Ji Hae; Son, Ji Yeon; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Moon, Hyung Ryoung; Lee, Byung Mu; Kim, Hyung Sik

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are considered novel agents for cancer chemotherapy. We previously investigated MHY219, a new HDAC inhibitor, and its potent anticancer activity in human prostate cancer cells. In the present study, we evaluated MHY219 molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of prostate cancer cell migration. Similar to suberanilohydroxamic acid (SAHA), MHY219 inhibited HDAC1 enzyme activity in a dose-dependent manner. MHY219 cytotoxicity was higher in LNCaP (IC50=0.67 ?M) than in DU145 cells (IC50=1.10 ?M) and PC3 cells (IC50=5.60 ?M) after 48 h of treatment. MHY219 significantly inhibited the HDAC1 protein levels in LNCaP and DU145 cells at high concentrations. However, inhibitory effects of MHY219 on HDAC proteins levels varied based on the cell type. MHY219 significantly inhibited LNCaP and DU145 cells migration by down-regulation of matrix metalloprotease-1 (MMP-1) and MMP-2 and induction of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1). These results suggest that MHY219 may potentially be used as an anticancer agent to block cancer cell migration through the repression of MMP-1 and MMP-2, which is related to the reduction of HDAC1. PMID:26336583

  3. Requirement of histone deacetylase1 (HDAC1) in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) nucleocytoplasmic distribution.

    PubMed

    Ray, Sutapa; Lee, Chang; Hou, Tieying; Boldogh, Istvan; Brasier, Allan R

    2008-08-01

    Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) is a transcription factor that plays a crucial role in interleukin-6 (IL-6) signaling, mediating the acute-phase induction of the human Angiotensinogen (hAGT) gene in hepatocytes. We showed earlier that IL-6 induces acetylation of the STAT3 NH(2)-terminus by the recruitment of the p300 coactivator. We had also observed a physical interaction of STAT3 and Histone Deacetylase1 (HDAC1) in an IL-6-dependent manner that leads to transcriptional repression. In this study, we sought to elucidate the mechanism by which HDAC1 controls STAT3 transcriptional activity. Here, we mapped the interacting domains of both STAT3 and HDAC1 and found that the COOH-terminal domain of HDAC1 is necessary for IL-6-induced STAT3 transcriptional repression, whereas the NH(2)-terminal acetylation domain of STAT3 is required for HDAC1 binding. Interestingly, over expression of HDAC1 in HepG2 cells leads to significantly reduced amounts of nuclear STAT3 after IL-6 induction, whereas silencing of HDAC1 resulted in accumulation of total and acetylated STAT3 in the nucleus. We have found that HDAC1 knockdown also interferes with the responsiveness of the STAT3-dependent MCP1 target gene expression to IL-6, as confirmed by real-time RT-PCR analysis. Together, our study reveals the novel functional consequences of IL-6-induced STAT3-HDAC1 interaction on nucleocytoplasmic distribution of STAT3. PMID:18611949

  4. Histone Deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) Negatively Regulates Thermogenic Program in Brown Adipocytes via Coordinated Regulation of Histone H3 Lysine 27 (H3K27) Deacetylation and Methylation.

    PubMed

    Li, Fenfen; Wu, Rui; Cui, Xin; Zha, Lin; Yu, Liqing; Shi, Hang; Xue, Bingzhong

    2016-02-26

    Inhibiting class I histone deacetylases (HDACs) increases energy expenditure, reduces adiposity, and improves insulin sensitivity in obese mice. However, the precise mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that HDAC1 is a negative regulator of the brown adipocyte thermogenic program. The Hdac1 level is lower in mouse brown fat (BAT) than white fat, is suppressed in mouse BAT during cold exposure or ?3-adrenergic stimulation, and is down-regulated during brown adipocyte differentiation. Remarkably, overexpressing Hdac1 profoundly blocks, whereas deleting Hdac1 significantly enhances, ?-adrenergic activation-induced BAT-specific gene expression in brown adipocytes. ?-Adrenergic activation in brown adipocytes results in a dissociation of HDAC1 from promoters of BAT-specific genes, including uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? co-activator 1? (Pgc1?), leading to increased acetylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27), an epigenetic mark of gene activation. This is followed by dissociation of the polycomb repressive complexes, including the H3K27 methyltransferase enhancer of zeste homologue (EZH2), suppressor of zeste 12 (SUZ12), and ring finger protein 2 (RNF2) from (and concomitant recruitment of H3K27 demethylase ubiquitously transcribed tetratricopeptide repeat on chromosome X (UTX) to) Ucp1 and Pgc1? promoters, leading to decreased H3K27 trimethylation, a histone transcriptional repression mark. Thus, HDAC1 negatively regulates the brown adipocyte thermogenic program, and inhibiting Hdac1 promotes BAT-specific gene expression through a coordinated control of increased acetylation and decreased methylation of H3K27, thereby switching the transcriptional repressive state to the active state at the promoters of Ucp1 and Pgc1?. Targeting HDAC1 may be beneficial in prevention and treatment of obesity by enhancing BAT thermogenesis. PMID:26733201

  5. Effect of a new immunosuppressant histon deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor FR276457 in a rat cardiac transplant model.

    PubMed

    Kinugasa, Fumitaka; Yamada, Toshiko; Noto, Takahisa; Matsuoka, Hideaki; Mori, Hiroaki; Sudo, Yuji; Mutoh, Seitaro

    2008-09-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) is a known modulator of gene transcription, and the immunosuppressive activity of HDAC inhibitors has been demonstrated in recent several reports. In this study, the HDAC inhibitor FR276457, a hydroxamic derivative, was found to have a similar inhibitory effect on all mammalian HDACs tested, but no isozyme selectivity. Both FR276457 and tacrolimus exerted an immunosuppressive effect on in vitro rat splenocyte proliferation stimulated with Concanavalin A. Next, the effect of FR276457 on allograft rejection when administered either as a monotherapy or in combination with tacrolimus was investigated in a rat heterotopic cardiac transplant model. Orally administered FR276457 prolonged the median survival times (MST) of the transplanted grafts in the vehicle group from 6 d to 17 or 21 d at doses of 20 or 40 mg/kg, respectively. Histopathological analysis showed the structures of the myocardium were not affected, but interstitial cellular infiltration could not be suppressed completely. Tacrolimus (0.032 mg/kg) prolonged allograft MST to 16 d. FR276457, when combined with tacrolimus, prevented allograft rejection at a dose lower than that of the monotherapy. The combination dose prolonged the MST in the groups treated with 10 and 20 mg/kg to >28 d, and cellular infiltration was suppressed completely. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the oral administration of HDAC inhibitor FR276457 can prevent allograft rejection as a monotherapy, and has additive or synergistic effects when combined with tacrolimus. PMID:18758066

  6. Restoring histone deacetylase activity by waste product release. A view from molecular mechanics simulations with mammalian HDAC8.

    PubMed

    Pietra, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    HDAC8 is a Zn(II) -based, single-peptide mammalian histone deacetylase that is localized mainly in the cytoskeleton of smooth muscle cells, thus regulating muscle contractility. HDACs are also widely involved in cellular processes, ranging from cell differentiation to proliferation, senescence, and apoptosis; in particular, protecting a telomerase activator from ubiquitin-mediated degradation. How HDACs can eliminate the hydrolytic reaction products, in order that the process of deacetylation of the acetyllysine moiety of histones can take place again, has long been debated in the scientific literature, without reaching any firm conclusion, however. This question is the subject of the present work, carried out along a theoretical line that is capable of describing the whole pathway followed by the acetate product (ACT). A model was built here on the crystal data for the Y306F-mutated HDAC8 complex with a diacetylated peptide of the p53-tumor-suppressor class. That was followed by manually hydrolyzing the acetylated moiety bound to Zn(II) and discharging the monoacetylated peptide product (MAP). The latter was replaced by a H2 O molecule bound to Zn(II) , while ACT was left free in the reaction cage. This Zn(II) cluster was DFT-parameterized for the ff99SB force field without any further bias. As the result of random-acceleration molecular dynamics (RAMD) simulations, egress of ACT from the reaction cage toward the aqueous environment can follow three pathways. Two of them utilize the channel for peptide (or histone) uptake and are preferred, if ACT leaves the reaction center before MAP (or the deacetylated histone). The third pathway, developing along the internal channel, is available to ACT even if MAP is still in place. PMID:25879496

  7. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of potent and selective class IIa histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors as a potential therapy for Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Brli, Roland W; Luckhurst, Christopher A; Aziz, Omar; Matthews, Kim L; Yates, Dawn; Lyons, Kathy A; Beconi, Maria; McAllister, George; Breccia, Perla; Stott, Andrew J; Penrose, Stephen D; Wall, Michael; Lamers, Marieke; Leonard, Philip; Mller, Ilka; Richardson, Christine M; Jarvis, Rebecca; Stones, Liz; Hughes, Samantha; Wishart, Grant; Haughan, Alan F; O'Connell, Catherine; Mead, Tania; McNeil, Hannah; Vann, Julie; Mangette, John; Maillard, Michel; Beaumont, Vahri; Munoz-Sanjuan, Ignacio; Dominguez, Celia

    2013-12-27

    Inhibition of class IIa histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes have been suggested as a therapeutic strategy for a number of diseases, including Huntington's disease. Catalytic-site small molecule inhibitors of the class IIa HDAC4, -5, -7, and -9 were developed. These trisubstituted diarylcyclopropanehydroxamic acids were designed to exploit a lower pocket that is characteristic for the class IIa HDACs, not present in other HDAC classes. Selected inhibitors were cocrystallized with the catalytic domain of human HDAC4. We describe the first HDAC4 catalytic domain crystal structure in a "closed-loop" form, which in our view represents the biologically relevant conformation. We have demonstrated that these molecules can differentiate class IIa HDACs from class I and class IIb subtypes. They exhibited pharmacokinetic properties that should enable the assessment of their therapeutic benefit in both peripheral and CNS disorders. These selective inhibitors provide a means for evaluating potential efficacy in preclinical models in vivo. PMID:24261862

  8. A lazy learning-based QSAR classification study for screening potential histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Cao, G P; Arooj, M; Thangapandian, S; Park, C; Arulalapperumal, V; Kim, Y; Kwon, Y J; Kim, H H; Suh, J K; Lee, K W

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylases 8 (HDAC8) is an enzyme repressing the transcription of various genes including tumour suppressor gene and has already become a target of human cancer treatment. In an effort to facilitate the discovery of HDAC8 inhibitors, two quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) classification models were developed using K nearest neighbours (KNN) and neighbourhood classifier (NEC). Molecular descriptors were calculated for the data set and database compounds using ADRIANA.Code of Molecular Networks. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to select the descriptors. The developed models were validated by leave-one-out cross validation (LOO CV). The performances of the developed models were evaluated with an external test set. Highly predictive models were used for database virtual screening. Furthermore, hit compounds were subsequently subject to molecular docking. Five hits were obtained based on consensus scoring function and binding affinity as potential HDAC8 inhibitors. Finally, HDAC8 structures in complex with five hits were also subjected to 5 ns molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to evaluate the complex structure stability. To the best of our knowledge, the NEC classification model used in this study is the first application of NEC to virtual screening for drug discovery. PMID:25986171

  9. Mechanism of N-Acylthiourea-mediated Activation of Human Histone Deacetylase 8 (HDAC8) at Molecular and Cellular Levels*

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Raushan K.; Cho, Kyongshin; Padi, Satish K. R.; Yu, Junru; Haldar, Manas; Mandal, Tanmay; Yan, Changhui; Cook, Gregory; Guo, Bin; Mallik, Sanku; Srivastava, D. K.

    2015-01-01

    We reported previously that an N-acylthiourea derivative (TM-2-51) serves as a potent and isozyme-selective activator for human histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8). To probe the molecular mechanism of the enzyme activation, we performed a detailed account of the steady-state kinetics, thermodynamics, molecular modeling, and cell biology studies. The steady-state kinetic data revealed that TM-2-51 binds to HDAC8 at two sites in a positive cooperative manner. Isothermal titration calorimetric and molecular modeling data conformed to the two-site binding model of the enzyme-activator complex. We evaluated the efficacy of TM-2-51 on SH-SY5Y and BE(2)-C neuroblastoma cells, wherein the HDAC8 expression has been correlated with cellular malignancy. Whereas TM-2-51 selectively induced cell growth inhibition and apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells, it showed no such effects in BE(2)-C cells, and this discriminatory feature appears to be encoded in the p53 genotype of the above cells. Our mechanistic and cellular studies on HDAC8 activation have the potential to provide insight into the development of novel anticancer drugs. PMID:25605725

  10. Novel inhibitors of human histone deacetylase (HDAC) identified by QSAR modeling of known inhibitors, virtual screening, and experimental validation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hao; Wang, Xiang S; Huang, Xi-Ping; Roth, Bryan L; Butler, Kyle V; Kozikowski, Alan P; Jung, Mira; Tropsha, Alexander

    2009-02-01

    Inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDACIs) have emerged as a new class of drugs for the treatment of human cancers and other diseases because of their effects on cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. In this study we have developed several quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models for 59 chemically diverse histone deacetylase class 1 (HDAC1) inhibitors. The variable selection k nearest neighbor (kNN) and support vector machines (SVM) QSAR modeling approaches using both MolconnZ and MOE chemical descriptors generated from two-dimensional rendering of compounds as chemical graphs have been employed. We have relied on a rigorous model development workflow including the division of the data set into training, test, and external sets and extensive internal and external validation. Highly predictive QSAR models were generated with leave-one-out cross-validated (LOO-CV) q2 and external R2 values as high as 0.80 and 0.87, respectively, using the kNN/MolconnZ approach and 0.93 and 0.87, respectively, using the SVM/MolconnZ approach. All validated QSAR models were employed concurrently for virtual screening (VS) of an in-house compound collection including 9.5 million molecules compiled from the ZINC7.0 database, the World Drug Index (WDI) database, the ASINEX Synergy libraries, and other commercial databases. VS resulted in 45 structurally unique consensus hits that were considered novel putative HDAC1 inhibitors. These computational hits had several novel structural features that were not present in the original data set. Four computational hits with novel scaffolds were tested experimentally, and three of them were confirmed active against HDAC1, with IC50 values for the most active compound of 1.00 microM. The fourth compound was later identified to be a selective inhibitor of HDAC6, a Class II HDAC. Moreover, two of the confirmed hits are marketed drugs, which could potentially facilitate their further development as anticancer agents. This study illustrates the power of the combined QSAR-VS method as a general approach for the effective identification of structurally novel bioactive compounds. PMID:19182860

  11. HDAC8 Substrates: Histones and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Wolfson, Noah A.; Pitcairn, Carol Ann; Fierke, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    The lysine deacetylase family of enzymes (HDACs) was first demonstrated to catalyze deacetylation of acetyllysine residues on histones. In subsequent years, HDACs have been shown to recognize a large pool of acetylated non-histone proteins as substrates. Recently, thousands of acetylated proteins have been discovered, yet in most cases, the HDAC that catalyzes deacetylation in vivo has not been identified. This gap has created the need for better in vivo, in vitro, and in silico approaches for determining HDAC substrates. While HDAC8 is the best kinetically and structurally characterized HDAC, few efficient substrates have yet been substantiated in vivo. In this review we delineate factors that may be important for determining HDAC8 substrate recognition and catalytic activity, including structure, complex formation, and post-translational modifications. This summary provides insight into the challenges of identifying in vivo substrates for HDAC8, and provides a good vantage point for understanding the variables important for predicting HDAC substrate recognition. PMID:23175386

  12. Histone deacetylase inhibitors suppress mutant p53 transcription via HDAC8/YY1 signals in triple negative breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao-Tong; Chen, Zhuo-Jia; Jiang, Guan-Min; Wu, Ying-Min; Liu, Tao; Yi, Yan-Mei; Zeng, Jun; Du, Jun; Wang, Hong-Sheng

    2016-05-01

    There is an urgent need to investigate the potential targeted therapy approach for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Our present study reveals that histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) suberoyl anilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and sodium butyrate (NaB) significantly inhibit cell proliferation, arrest cell cycle at G0/G1 phase, and induce mitochondrial related apoptosis of TNBC cells. Further, SAHA and NaB decrease the phosphorylation, protein and mRNA levels of mutant p53 (mtp53) in TNBC cells. While SAHA or NaB has no similar inhibition effect on wild type p53 (wtp53). The inhibition apparently occurs at the level of transcription because the down regulation of precursor p53 transcription is much more rapid (less than 2h) and sharp than that of mature p53. The knockdown of HDAC8, while not HDAC6, inhibits the transcription of mtp53 in TNBC cells. The luciferase assay and ChIP analysis reveal that both SAHA and NaB can reduce the binding of transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) with the -102 to -96 position of human p53 promoter. Knockdown of YY1 also significantly inhibits the transcription of mtp53 in TNBC cells. Further, SAHA and NaB can inhibit the association of HDAC8 and YY1, increase acetylation of residues 170-200 of YY1, then decrease its transcription activities, and finally suppress YY1 induced p53 transcription. Together, our data establish that SAHA and NaB can be considered as drug candidates for TNBC patients, and HDAC8/YY1/mtp53 signals act as an important target for TNBC treatment. PMID:26876786

  13. Expression of the class 1 histone deacetylases HDAC8 and 3 are associated with improved survival of patients with metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Wilmott, James S; Colebatch, Andrew J; Kakavand, Hojabr; Shang, Ping; Carlino, Matteo S; Thompson, John F; Long, Georgina V; Scolyer, Richard A; Hersey, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Prior studies have shown that combinations of histone deacetylase (HDAC) and BRAF inhibitors (BRAFi) have synergistic effects on BRAFi-resistant melanoma through enhanced apoptosis and inhibition of the cAMP-dependent drug resistance pathway. However, little is known about the expression of various HDACs and their associations with BRAF/NRAS mutation status, clinicopathologic characteristics, and patient outcome. The present study extensively profiled HDAC class 1 and their targets/regulators utilizing immunohistochemistry in human melanoma samples from patients with stage IV melanoma, known BRAF/NRAS mutational status, and detailed clinicopatholgical data. HDAC8 was increased in BRAF-mutated melanoma (P=0.016), however, no association between expression of other HDACs and NRAS/BRAF status was identified. There was also a correlation between HDAC1, HDAC8 expression, and phosphorylated NFκb p65 immunoreactivity (P<0.001). Increased cytoplasmic HDAC8 immunoreactivity was independently associated with an improved survival from both diagnosis of primary melanoma and from first detection of stage IV disease to melanoma death on multivariate analysis (HR 0.992, 95% CI 0.987-0.996; P<0.001 and HR 0.993, 95% CI 0.988-0.998; P=0.009, respectively). These results suggest not only that HDAC8 may be a prognostic biomarker in melanoma, but also provide important data regarding the regulation of HDACs in melanoma and a rational basis for targeting them therapeutically. PMID:25836739

  14. Potent, Selective, and CNS-Penetrant Tetrasubstituted Cyclopropane Class IIa Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Luckhurst, Christopher A; Breccia, Perla; Stott, Andrew J; Aziz, Omar; Birch, Helen L; Brli, Roland W; Hughes, Samantha J; Jarvis, Rebecca E; Lamers, Marieke; Leonard, Philip M; Matthews, Kim L; McAllister, George; Pollack, Scott; Saville-Stones, Elizabeth; Wishart, Grant; Yates, Dawn; Dominguez, Celia

    2016-01-14

    Potent and selective class IIa HDAC tetrasubstituted cyclopropane hydroxamic acid inhibitors were identified with high oral bioavailability that exhibited good brain and muscle exposure. Compound 14 displayed suitable properties for assessment of the impact of class IIa HDAC catalytic site inhibition in preclinical disease models. PMID:26819662

  15. Ginsenoside Rg3 Inhibits Melanoma Cell Proliferation through Down-Regulation of Histone Deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) and Increase of p53 Acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Xiu; Fu, Yuan-Shan; Aziz, Faisal; Wang, Xiao-Qi; Yan, Qiu; Liu, Ji-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is an aggressive and deadly form of skin cancer, and despite recent advances in available therapies, is still lacking in completely effective treatments. Rg3, a monomer extracted from ginseng roots, has been attempted for the treatment of many cancers. It is reported that the expressions of histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) and p53 acetylation correlate with tumor cell growth. However, the antitumor effect of Rg3 on melanoma and the mechanism by which it regulates HDAC3 expression and p53 acetylation remain unknown. We found high expression of HDAC3 in human melanoma tissues to be significantly correlated to lymph node metastasis and clinical stage of disease (p<0.05). In melanoma cells, Rg3 inhibited cell proliferation and induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. Rg3 also decreased the expression of HDAC3 and increased the acetylation of p53 on lysine (k373/k382). Moreover, suppression of HDAC3 by either siRNA or a potent HDAC3 inhibitor (MS-275) inhibited cell proliferation, increased p53 acetylation and transcription activity. In A375 melanoma xenograft studies, we demonstrated that Rg3 and HDAC3 short hairpin RNA (shHDAC3) inhibited the growth of xenograft tumors with down-regulation of HDAC3 expression and up-regulation of p53 acetylation. In conclusion, Rg3 has antiproliferative activity against melanoma by decreasing HDAC3 and increasing acetylation of p53 both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, Rg3 serves as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of melanoma. PMID:25521755

  16. Erasers of Histone Acetylation: The Histone Deacetylase Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Seto, Edward; Yoshida, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are enzymes that catalyze the removal of acetyl functional groups from the lysine residues of both histone and nonhistone proteins. In humans, there are 18 HDAC enzymes that use either zinc- or NAD+-dependent mechanisms to deacetylate acetyl lysine substrates. Although removal of histone acetyl epigenetic modification by HDACs regulates chromatin structure and transcription, deacetylation of nonhistones controls diverse cellular processes. HDAC inhibitors are already known potential anticancer agents and show promise for the treatment of many diseases. PMID:24691964

  17. Histone deacetylase inhibitors and cell death

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Zhong, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a vast family of enzymes involved in chromatin remodeling and have crucial roles in numerous biological processes, largely through their repressive influence on transcription. In addition to modifying histones, HDACs also target many other non-histone protein substrates to regulate gene expression. Recently, HDACs have gained growing attention as HDAC-inhibiting compounds are being developed as promising cancer therapeutics. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have been shown to induce differentiation, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, autophagy and necrosis in a variety of transformed cell lines. In this review, we mainly discuss how HDACi may elicit a therapeutic response to human cancers through different cell death pathways, in particular, apoptosis and autophagy. PMID:24898083

  18. Histone deacetylase 3 indirectly modulates tubulin acetylation.

    PubMed

    Bacon, Travis; Seiler, Caroline; Wolny, Marcin; Hughes, Ruth; Watson, Peter; Schwabe, John; Grigg, Ronald; Peckham, Michelle

    2015-12-15

    Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3), a member of the Class I subfamily of HDACs, is found in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Its roles in the nucleus have been well characterized, but its cytoplasmic roles are still not elucidated fully. We found that blocking HDAC3 activity using MI192, a compound specific for HDAC3, modulated tubulin acetylation in the human prostate cancer cell line PC3. A brief 1 h treatment of PC3 cells with MI192 significantly increased levels of tubulin acetylation and ablated the dynamic behaviour of microtubules in live cells. siRNA-mediated knockdown (KD) of HDAC3 in PC3 cells, significantly increased levels of tubulin acetylation, and overexpression reduced it. However, the active HDAC3-silencing mediator of retinoic and thyroid receptors (SMRT)-deacetylase-activating domain (DAD) complex did not directly deacetylate tubulin in vitro. These data suggest that HDAC3 indirectly modulates tubulin acetylation. PMID:26450925

  19. Histone Deacetylase Inhibition with Valproic Acid Downregulates Osteocalcin Gene Expression in Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells and Osteoblasts: Evidence for HDAC2 Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Paino, Francesca; la Noce, Marcel; Tirino, Virginia; Naddeo, Pasqualina; Desiderio, Vincenzo; Pirozzi, Giuseppe; De Rosa, Alfredo; Laino, Luigi; Altucci, Lucia; Papaccio, Gianpaolo

    2014-01-01

    Adult mesenchymal stem cells, such as dental pulp stem cells, are of great interest for cell-based tissue engineering strategies because they can differentiate into a variety of tissue-specific cells, above all, into osteoblasts. In recent years, epigenetic studies on stem cells have indicated that specific histone alterations and modifying enzymes play essential roles in cell differentiation. However, although several studies have reported that valproic acid (VPA)a selective inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDAC)enhances osteoblast differentiation, data on osteocalcin expressiona late-stage marker of differentiationare limited. We therefore decided to study the effect of VPA on dental pulp stem cell differentiation. A low concentration of VPA did not reduce cell viability, proliferation, or cell cycle profile. However, it was sufficient to significantly enhance matrix mineralization by increasing osteopontin and bone sialoprotein expression. In contrast, osteocalcin levels were decreased, an effect induced at the transcriptional level, and were strongly correlated with inhibition of HDAC2. In fact, HDAC2 silencing with shRNA produced a similar effect to that of VPA treatment on the expression of osteoblast-related markers. We conclude that VPA does not induce terminal differentiation of osteoblasts, but stimulates the generation of less mature cells. Moreover, specific suppression of an individual HDAC by RNA interference could enhance only a single aspect of osteoblast differentiation, and thus produce selective effects. PMID:24105979

  20. Anticancer activities of histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bolden, Jessica E; Peart, Melissa J; Johnstone, Ricky W

    2006-09-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are enzymes involved in the remodelling of chromatin, and have a key role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. In addition, the activity of non-histone proteins can be regulated through HDAC-mediated hypo-acetylation. In recent years, inhibition of HDACs has emerged as a potential strategy to reverse aberrant epigenetic changes associated with cancer, and several classes of HDAC inhibitors have been found to have potent and specific anticancer activities in preclinical studies. However, such studies have also indicated that the effects of HDAC inhibitors could be considerably broader and more complicated than originally understood. Here we summarize recent advances in the understanding of the molecular events that underlie the anticancer effects of HDAC inhibitors, and discuss how such information could be used in optimizing the development and application of these agents in the clinic, either as monotherapies or in combination with other anticancer drugs. PMID:16955068

  1. CD1d induction in solid tumor cells by histone deacetylase inhibitors through inhibition of HDAC1/2 and activation of Sp1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Pei-Ming; Lin, Pei-Jie; Chen, Ching-Chow

    2012-01-01

    CD1d is a MHC class-like molecule that presents glycolipids to natural killer T (NKT) cells, then regulates innate and adaptive immunity. The regulation of CD1d gene expression in solid tumors is still largely unknown. Gene expression can be epigenetically regulated by DNA methylation and histone acetylation. We found that histone deacetylase inhibitors, trichostatin A (TSA) and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), induced CD1d gene expression in human (A549 and NCI-H292) and mouse (TC-1 and B16/F0) cancer cells. Simultaneous knockdown of HDAC1 and 2 induced CD1d gene expression. Sp1 inhibitor mitramycin A (MTM) blocked TSA- and SAHA-induced CD1d mRNA expression and Sp1 luciferase activity. Co-transfection of GAL4-Sp1 and Fc-luciferase reporters demonstrated that TSA and SAHA induced Sp1 luciferase reporter activity by enhancing Sp1 transactivation activity. The binding of Sp1 to CD1d promoter and histone H3 acetylation on Sp1 sites were increased by TSA and SAHA. These results indicate that TSA and SAHA could up-regulate CD1d expression in tumor cells through inhibition of HDAC1/2 and activation of Sp1. PMID:22419072

  2. Histone Deacetylases and Mechanisms of Regulation of Gene Expression (Histone deacetylases in cancer)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hong Ping; Zhao, Yu Tina; Zhao, Ting C

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, it has become widely recognized that histone modification plays a pivotal role in controlling gene expression, and is involved in a wide spectrum of disease regulation. Histone acetylation is a major modification that affects gene transcription and is controlled by histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDAC). HATs acetylate lysines of histone proteins, resulting in relaxation of chromatin structure, and they also facilitate gene activation. Conversely, HDACs remove acetyl groups from hyperacetylated histones and suppress general gene transcription. In addition to histones, numerous non-histone proteins can be acetylated and deacetylated, and they are also involved in a wide range of disease regulation. To date, there are 18 HDACs in mammals classified into four classes based on homology to yeast HDACs. Accumulating evidence has revealed that HDACs play crucial roles in a variety of biological processes including inflammation, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and carcinogenesis. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge of HDACs in carcinogenesis and describe the involvement of HDACs in cancer-associated molecular processes. It is hoped than our understanding of the role of HDACs in cancer will lead to the design of more potent and specific drugs targeting selective HDAC proteins for the treatment of the disease. PMID:25746103

  3. Histone and Non-Histone Targets of Dietary Deacetylase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunah; Bisson, William H; Lhr, Christiane V; Williams, David E; Ho, Emily; Dashwood, Roderick H; Rajendran, Praveen

    2016-01-01

    Acetylation is an important, reversible post-translational modification affecting histone and non-histone proteins with critical roles in gene transcription, DNA replication, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. Key regulatory enzymes include histone deacetylase (HDACs) and histone acetyltransferases (HATs). Overexpressed HDACs have been identified in many human cancers, resulting in repressed chromatin states that interfere with vital tumor suppressor functions. Inhibition of HDAC activity has been pursued as a mechanism for re-activating repressed genes in cancers, with some HDAC inhibitors showing promise in the clinical setting. Dietary compounds and their metabolites also have been shown to modulate HDAC activity or expression. Out of this body of research, attention increasingly has shifted towards non-histone targets of HDACs and HATs, such as transcriptions factors, hormone receptors, DNA repair proteins, and cytoskeletal components. These aspects are covered in present review, along with the possible clinical significance. Where such data are available, examples are cited from the literature of studies with short chain fatty acids, polyphenols, isoflavones, indoles, organosulfur compounds, organoselenium compounds, sesquiterpene lactones, isoflavones, and various miscellaneous agents. By virtue of their effects on both histone and non-histone proteins, dietary chemopreventive agents modulate the cellular acetylome in ways that are only now becoming apparent. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms will likely enhance the potential to more effectively combat diseases harboring altered epigenetic landscapes and dysregulated protein signaling. PMID:26303421

  4. Runx1 Phosphorylation by Src Increases Trans-activation via Augmented Stability, Reduced Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) Binding, and Increased DNA Affinity, and Activated Runx1 Favors Granulopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Leong, Wan Yee; Guo, Hong; Ma, Ou; Huang, Hui; Cantor, Alan B; Friedman, Alan D

    2016-01-01

    Src phosphorylates Runx1 on one central and four C-terminal tyrosines. We find that activated Src synergizes with Runx1 to activate a Runx1 luciferase reporter. Mutation of the four Runx1 C-terminal tyrosines to aspartate or glutamate to mimic phosphorylation increases trans-activation of the reporter in 293T cells and allows induction of Cebpa or Pu.1 mRNAs in 32Dcl3 myeloid cells, whereas mutation of these residues to phenylalanine to prevent phosphorylation obviates these effects. Three mechanisms contribute to increased Runx1 activity upon tyrosine modification as follows: increased stability, reduced histone deacetylase (HDAC) interaction, and increased DNA binding. Mutation of the five modified Runx1 tyrosines to aspartate markedly reduced co-immunoprecipitation with HDAC1 and HDAC3, markedly increased stability in cycloheximide or in the presence of co-expressed Cdh1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase coactivator, with reduced ubiquitination, and allowed DNA-binding in gel shift assay similar to wild-type Runx1. In contrast, mutation of these residues to phenylalanine modestly increased HDAC interaction, modestly reduced stability, and markedly reduced DNA binding in gel shift assays and as assessed by chromatin immunoprecipitation with the -14-kb Pu.1 or +37-kb Cebpa enhancers after stable expression in 32Dcl3 cells. Affinity for CBF?, the Runx1 DNA-binding partner, was not affected by these tyrosine modifications, and in vitro translated CBF? markedly increased DNA affinity of both the translated phenylalanine and aspartate Runx1 variants. Finally, further supporting a positive role for Runx1 tyrosine phosphorylation during granulopoiesis, mutation of the five Src-modified residues to aspartate but not phenylalanine allows Runx1 to increase Cebpa and granulocyte colony formation by Runx1-deleted murine marrow. PMID:26598521

  5. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of hydroxamic acid-based molecular probes for in vivo imaging of histone deacetylase (HDAC) in brain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changning; Eessalu, Thomas E; Barth, Vanessa N; Mitch, Charles H; Wagner, Florence F; Hong, Yijia; Neelamegam, Ramesh; Schroeder, Frederick A; Holson, Edward B; Haggarty, Stephen J; Hooker, Jacob M

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxamic acid-based histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) are a class of molecules with therapeutic potential currently reflected in the use of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA; Vorinostat) to treat cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL). HDACis may have utility beyond cancer therapy, as preclinical studies have ascribed HDAC inhibition as beneficial in areas such as heart disease, diabetes, depression, neurodegeneration, and other disorders of the central nervous system (CNS). However, little is known about the pharmacokinetics (PK) of hydroxamates, particularly with respect to CNS-penetration, distribution, and retention. To explore the rodent and non-human primate (NHP) brain permeability of hydroxamic acid-based HDAC inhibitors using positron emission tomography (PET), we modified the structures of belinostat (PXD101) and panobinostat (LBH-589) to incorporate carbon-11. We also labeled PCI 34051 through carbon isotope substitution. After characterizing the in vitro affinity and efficacy of these compounds across nine recombinant HDAC isoforms spanning Class I and Class II family members, we determined the brain uptake of each inhibitor. Each labeled compound has low uptake in brain tissue when administered intravenously to rodents and NHPs. In rodent studies, we observed that brain accumulation of the radiotracers were unaffected by the pre-administration of unlabeled inhibitors. Knowing that CNS-penetration may be desirable for both imaging applications and therapy, we explored whether a liquid chromatography, tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method to predict brain penetrance would be an appropriate method to pre-screen compounds (hydroxamic acid-based HDACi) prior to PET radiolabeling. LC-MS-MS data were indeed useful in identifying additional lead molecules to explore as PET imaging agents to visualize HDAC enzymes in vivo. However, HDACi brain penetrance predicted by LC-MS-MS did not strongly correlate with PET imaging results. This underscores the importance of in vivo PET imaging tools in characterizing putative CNS drug lead compounds and the continued need to discover effect PET tracers for neuroepigenetic imaging. PMID:24380043

  6. Selective Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors with Anticancer Activity.

    PubMed

    Ma, Nan; Luo, Ying; Wang, Ying; Liao, Chenzhong; Ye, Wen-Cai; Jiang, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    HDAC inhibitors (HDACIs), which can be used to kill cancer cells through inhibiting histone deacetylase activity or altering the structure of chromatin, have emerged as efficacious agents in the treatment of cancer. With SAHA, FK228, belinostat and panobinostat approved by the FDA, displaying satisfying activity in both haematological and solid tumors of various tissues, efforts to create selective HDACIs have been attracted attention over the past several years. Herein, we mainly review the progress of selective HDAC inhibitors including class-selective and isoform-selective HDAC inhibitors. PMID:26268343

  7. Histone deacetylase inhibitors and cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    La Thangue, N B

    2004-11-01

    Cancer drug development has moved from conventional cytotoxic chemotherapeutics to a more mechanism-based targeted approach towards the common goal of tumour growth arrest. The rapid progress in chromatin research and understanding epigenetic control has supplied a plethora of potential targets for intervention in cancer. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have been widely implicated in growth and transcriptional control, and inhibition of HDAC activity using small molecules causes apoptosis in tumour cells. Here, we review HDAC inhibitors, together with their current status of clinical development and potential utility in cancer therapy. PMID:15688613

  8. Histone deacetylase turnover and recovery in sulforaphane-treated colon cancer cells: competing actions of 14-3-3 and Pin1 in HDAC3/SMRT corepressor complex dissociation/reassembly

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are currently undergoing clinical evaluation as anti-cancer agents. Dietary constituents share certain properties of HDAC inhibitor drugs, including the ability to induce global histone acetylation, turn-on epigenetically-silenced genes, and trigger cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, or differentiation in cancer cells. One such example is sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate derived from the glucosinolate precursor glucoraphanin, which is abundant in broccoli. Here, we examined the time-course and reversibility of SFN-induced HDAC changes in human colon cancer cells. Results Cells underwent progressive G2/M arrest over the period 6-72 h after SFN treatment, during which time HDAC activity increased in the vehicle-treated controls but not in SFN-treated cells. There was a time-dependent loss of class I and selected class II HDAC proteins, with HDAC3 depletion detected ahead of other HDACs. Mechanism studies revealed no apparent effect of calpain, proteasome, protease or caspase inhibitors, but HDAC3 was rescued by cycloheximide or actinomycin D treatment. Among the protein partners implicated in the HDAC3 turnover mechanism, silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors (SMRT) was phosphorylated in the nucleus within 6 h of SFN treatment, as was HDAC3 itself. Co-immunoprecipitation assays revealed SFN-induced dissociation of HDAC3/SMRT complexes coinciding with increased binding of HDAC3 to 14-3-3 and peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase 1 (Pin1). Pin1 knockdown blocked the SFN-induced loss of HDAC3. Finally, SFN treatment for 6 or 24 h followed by SFN removal from the culture media led to complete recovery of HDAC activity and HDAC protein expression, during which time cells were released from G2/M arrest. Conclusion The current investigation supports a model in which protein kinase CK2 phosphorylates SMRT and HDAC3 in the nucleus, resulting in dissociation of the corepressor complex and enhanced binding of HDAC3 to 14-3-3 or Pin1. In the cytoplasm, release of HDAC3 from 14-3-3 followed by nuclear import is postulated to compete with a Pin1 pathway that directs HDAC3 for degradation. The latter pathway predominates in colon cancer cells exposed continuously to SFN, whereas the former pathway is likely to be favored when SFN has been removed within 24 h, allowing recovery from cell cycle arrest. PMID:21624135

  9. Histone deacetylase inhibitors: emerging anticancer therapeutic agents?

    PubMed

    Kristeleit, Rebecca; Fong, Peter; Aherne, G Wynne; de Bono, Johann

    2005-09-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors are novel anticancer agents in clinical development that target the family of histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes responsible for deacetylating core nucleosomal histones and other proteins. The precise mechanisms resulting in the antiproliferative biologic effects of these agents are not yet known, but there are several proposed mechanistic models, including transcriptional and nontranscriptional processes. Clinical experience with these agents indicates that they are generally well tolerated, and anticancer activity has been observed in early clinical trials in several tumor types including non-small-cell lung cancer. The development of these agents continues, with an emphasis on the discovery of HDAC isoform-selective compounds. Successful future development relies on clearer understanding of the dominant mechanisms involved in the observed antiproliferative effects. PMID:16159416

  10. Dendritic cell development requires histone deacetylase activity

    PubMed Central

    Chauvistr, Heike; Kstermann, Caroline; Rehage, Nina; Klisch, Theresa; Mitzka, Saskia; Felker, Piritta; Rose-John, Stefan; Zenke, Martin; Ser, Kristin M

    2014-01-01

    DCs develop from multipotent progenitors (MPPs), which commit into DC-restricted common dendritic cell progenitors (CDPs). CDPs further differentiate into classical DCs (cDCs) and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs). Here, we studied the impact of histone acetylation on DC development in C57BL/6 mice by interfering with histone acetylation and deacetylation, employing histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. We observed that commitment of MPPs into CDPs was attenuated by HDAC inhibition and that pDC development was specifically blocked. Gene expression profiling revealed that HDAC inhibition prevents establishment of a DC-specific gene expression repertoire. Importantly, protein levels of the core DC transcription factor PU.1 were reduced in HDAC inhibitor-treated cells and consequently PU.1 recruitment at PU.1 target genes Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (Flt3), interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8), and PU.1 itself was impaired. Thus, our results demonstrate that attenuation of PU.1 expression by HDAC inhibition causes reduced expression of key DC regulators, which results in attenuation of DC development. We propose that chromatin modifiers, such as HDACs, are required for establishing a DC gene network, where Flt3/STAT3 signaling drives PU.1 and IRF8 expression and DC development. Taken together, our study identifies HDACs as critical regulators of DC lineage commitment and development. PMID:24810486

  11. Transcriptional Regulation of JARID1B/KDM5B Histone Demethylase by Ikaros, Histone Deacetylase 1 (HDAC1), and Casein Kinase 2 (CK2) in B-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haijun; Song, Chunhua; Ding, Yali; Pan, Xiaokang; Ge, Zheng; Tan, Bi-Hua; Gowda, Chandrika; Sachdev, Mansi; Muthusami, Sunil; Ouyang, Hongsheng; Lai, Liangxue; Francis, Olivia L; Morris, Christopher L; Abdel-Azim, Hisham; Dorsam, Glenn; Xiang, Meixian; Payne, Kimberly J; Dovat, Sinisa

    2016-02-19

    Impaired function of the Ikaros (IKZF1) protein is associated with the development of high-risk B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). The mechanisms of Ikaros tumor suppressor activity in leukemia are unknown. Ikaros binds to the upstream regulatory elements of its target genes and regulates their transcription via chromatin remodeling. Here, we report that Ikaros represses transcription of the histone H3K4 demethylase, JARID1B (KDM5B). Transcriptional repression of JARID1B is associated with increased global levels of H3K4 trimethylation. Ikaros-mediated repression of JARID1B is dependent on the activity of the histone deacetylase, HDAC1, which binds to the upstream regulatory element of JARID1B in complex with Ikaros. In leukemia, JARID1B is overexpressed, and its inhibition results in cellular growth arrest. Ikaros-mediated repression of JARID1B in leukemia is impaired by pro-oncogenic casein kinase 2 (CK2). Inhibition of CK2 results in increased binding of the Ikaros-HDAC1 complex to the promoter of JARID1B, with increased formation of trimethylated histone H3 lysine 27 and decreased histone H3 Lys-9 acetylation. In cases of high-risk B-ALL that carry deletion of one Ikaros (IKZF1) allele, targeted inhibition of CK2 restores Ikaros binding to the JARID1B promoter and repression of JARID1B. In summary, the presented data suggest a mechanism through which Ikaros and HDAC1 regulate the epigenetic signature in leukemia: via regulation of JARID1B transcription. The presented data identify JARID1B as a novel therapeutic target in B-ALL and provide a rationale for the use of CK2 inhibitors in the treatment of high-risk B-ALL. PMID:26655717

  12. Histone deacetylase 3 indirectly modulates tubulin acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Bacon, Travis; Seiler, Caroline; Wolny, Marcin; Hughes, Ruth; Watson, Peter; Schwabe, John; Grigg, Ronald; Peckham, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3), a member of the Class I subfamily of HDACs, is found in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Its roles in the nucleus have been well characterized, but its cytoplasmic roles are still not elucidated fully. We found that blocking HDAC3 activity using MI192, a compound specific for HDAC3, modulated tubulin acetylation in the human prostate cancer cell line PC3. A brief 1 h treatment of PC3 cells with MI192 significantly increased levels of tubulin acetylation and ablated the dynamic behaviour of microtubules in live cells. siRNA-mediated knockdown (KD) of HDAC3 in PC3 cells, significantly increased levels of tubulin acetylation, and overexpression reduced it. However, the active HDAC3–silencing mediator of retinoic and thyroid receptors (SMRT)–deacetylase-activating domain (DAD) complex did not directly deacetylate tubulin in vitro. These data suggest that HDAC3 indirectly modulates tubulin acetylation. PMID:26450925

  13. Inhibition of histone deacetylases in cancer therapy: lessons from leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Ceccacci, Elena; Minucci, Saverio

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a key component of the epigenetic machinery regulating gene expression, and behave as oncogenes in several cancer types, spurring the development of HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) as anticancer drugs. This review discusses new results regarding the role of HDACs in cancer and the effect of HDACi on tumour cells, focusing on haematological malignancies, particularly acute myeloid leukaemia. Histone deacetylases may have opposite roles at different stages of tumour progression and in different tumour cell sub-populations (cancer stem cells), highlighting the importance of investigating these aspects for further improving the clinical use of HDACi in treating cancer. PMID:26908329

  14. Inhibition of histone deacetylases in cancer therapy: lessons from leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Ceccacci, Elena; Minucci, Saverio

    2016-03-15

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a key component of the epigenetic machinery regulating gene expression, and behave as oncogenes in several cancer types, spurring the development of HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) as anticancer drugs. This review discusses new results regarding the role of HDACs in cancer and the effect of HDACi on tumour cells, focusing on haematological malignancies, particularly acute myeloid leukaemia. Histone deacetylases may have opposite roles at different stages of tumour progression and in different tumour cell sub-populations (cancer stem cells), highlighting the importance of investigating these aspects for further improving the clinical use of HDACi in treating cancer. PMID:26908329

  15. Regulation of kidney development by histone deacetylases

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Stacy; Chen, Shaowei; McLaughlin, Nathan; El-Dahr, Samir S.

    2011-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that gene expression can be regulated independently of DNA sequence changes, also called epigenetic modifications. Histone deacetylases (HDACs), a specific epigenetic group of enzymes, dynamically and reversibly removes acetyl groups from histone tails projecting from the nucleosome. Clinically, valproic acid fetopathy sheds some insight on the effects of altered HDACs on human embryonic development since valproic acid is an antiepileptic drug and an HDAC inhibitor. The fetal anomalies include severe renal dysgenesis supporting a role of HDACs in human kidney development. Our recent studies have shown that HDACs regulate the transcriptional networks required for controlling the cell cycle, Wnt signaling, and the pathway upstream of the GDNF/RET signaling pathway in the developing kidney. Here, we describe novel HDAC target genes not previously implicated in renal development based on studies using genome-wide microarrays. These genes can be divided into transcription factors, modulators of matrix biology, chromatin remodelers, and DNA repair genes. We also report that HDACs are requisite for tissue specific gene expression. PMID:21336812

  16. Regulation of kidney development by histone deacetylases.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Stacy L; Chen, Shaowei; McLaughlin, Nathan; El-Dahr, Samir S

    2011-09-01

    There is accumulating evidence that gene expression can be regulated independently of DNA sequence changes, also called epigenetic modifications. Histone deacetylases (HDACs), a specific epigenetic group of enzymes, dynamically and reversibly removes acetyl groups from histone tails projecting from the nucleosome. Clinically, valproic acid fetopathy sheds some insight into the effects of altered HDACs on human embryonic development, since valproic acid is an antiepileptic drug and an HDAC inhibitor. The fetal anomalies include severe renal dysgenesis, supporting the role played by HDACs in human kidney development. Our recent studies have shown that HDACs regulate the transcriptional networks required for controlling the cell cycle, Wnt signaling, and the pathway upstream of the GDNF/RET signaling pathway in the developing kidney. Here, we describe novel HDAC target genes not previously implicated in renal development based on studies using genome-wide microarrays. These genes can be divided into transcription factors, modulators of matrix biology, chromatin remodelers, and DNA repair genes. We also report that HDACs are requisite for tissue-specific gene expression. PMID:21336812

  17. Metabolism-related liabilities of a potent histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor and relevance of the route of administration on its metabolic fate.

    PubMed

    Fonsi, M; Fiore, F; Jones, P; Kinzel, O; Laufer, R; Rowley, M; Monteagudo, E

    2009-10-01

    Compound A [1-methyl-N-{(1S)-1-[5-(2-naphthyl)-1H-imidazol-2-yl]-7-oxooctyl}piperidine-4-carboxamide is a potent class I histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor that demonstrated good antiproliferative activity against human tumour cell lines of different origin. This compound showed high in vivo clearance in rats (160 ml min(-1) kg(-1)) due to metabolism. The main metabolite detected in urine after intravenous dosing was characterized as a dihydrohydroxy S-mercapturic acid conjugate. Following oral dosing, however, the mercapturic acid derivative was no longer the main metabolite but the major metabolites were mono- and di-glucuronide conjugates of oxidized species having a mass shift of +34 m/z with respect to the parent. Comparison of plasma concentration after intra-arterial infusion and intravenous infusion and incubation with microsomes from different tissues (liver, kidney, small intestine and lung) in the presence of beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) indicated that the compound was highly cleared by the lung. Oxidation of the naphthalene moiety was demonstrated to be the cause of the high in vivo clearance of compound A and the potential for bioactivation of this group was flagged. PMID:19569735

  18. Optimization of a series of potent and selective ketone histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Pescatore, Giovanna; Kinzel, Olaf; Attenni, Barbara; Cecchetti, Ottavia; Fiore, Fabrizio; Fonsi, Massimiliano; Rowley, Michael; Schultz-Fademrecht, Carsten; Serafini, Sergio; Steinkhler, Christian; Jones, Philip

    2008-10-15

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors offer a promising strategy for cancer therapy and the first generation HDAC inhibitors are currently in the clinic. Herein we describe the optimization of a series of ketone small molecule HDAC inhibitors leading to potent and selective class I HDAC inhibitors with good dog PK. PMID:18809328

  19. Deacetylase-Independent Function of HDAC3 in Transcription and Metabolism Requires Nuclear Receptor Corepressor

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zheng; Feng, Dan; Fang, Bin; Mullican, Shannon E.; You, Seo-Hee; Lim, Hee-Woong; Everett, Logan J.; Nabel, Christopher S.; Li, Yun; Selvakumaran, Vignesh; Won, Kyoung-Jae; Lazar, Mitchell A.

    2013-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are believed to regulate gene transcription by catalyzing deacetylation reactions. HDAC3 depletion in mouse liver upregulates lipogenic genes and results in severe hepatosteatosis. Here we show that pharmacologic HDAC inhibition in primary hepatocytes causes histone hyperacetylation but does not upregulate expression of HDAC3 target genes. Meanwhile, deacetylase-dead HDAC3 mutants can rescue hepatosteatosis and repress lipogenic genes expression in HDAC3-depleted mouse liver, demonstrating that histone acetylation is insufficient to activate gene transcription. Mutations abolishing interactions with the nuclear receptor corepressor (NCOR or SMRT) render HDAC3 nonfunctional in vivo. Additionally, liver-specific knockout of NCOR, but not SMRT, causes metabolic and transcriptomal alterations resembling those of mice without hepatic HDAC3, demonstrating that interaction with NCOR is essential for deacetylase-independent function of HDAC3. These findings highlight non-enzymatic roles of a major HDAC in transcriptional regulation in vivo and warrant reconsideration of the mechanism of action of HDAC inhibitors. PMID:24268577

  20. Histone deacetylases and mechanisms of regulation of gene expression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong Ping; Zhao, Yu Tina; Zhao, Ting C

    2015-01-01

    In recent years it has become widely recognized that histone modification plays a pivotal role in controlling gene expression and is involved in a wide spectrum of disease regulation. Histone acetylation is a major modification that affects gene transcription and is controlled by histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs). HATs acetylate lysines of histone proteins, resulting in the relaxation of chromatin structure, and they also facilitate gene activation. Conversely, HDACs remove acetyl groups from hyperacetylated histones and suppress general gene transcription. In addition to histones, numerous nonhistone proteins can be acetylated and deacetylated, and they also are involved in the regulation of a wide range of diseases. To date there are 18 HDACs in mammals classified into 4 classes based on homology to yeast HDACs. Accumulating evidence has revealed that HDACs play crucial roles in a variety of biological processes including inflammation, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and carcinogenesis. In this review we summarize the current state of knowledge of HDACs in carcinogenesis and describe the involvement of HDACs in cancer-associated molecular processes. It is hoped than an understanding of the role of HDACs in cancer will lead to the design of more potent and specific drugs targeting selective HDAC proteins for the treatment of the disease. PMID:25746103

  1. Histone deacetylases and cardiovascular cell lineage commitment

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jun-Yao; Wang, Qian; Wang, Wen; Zeng, Ling-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), which include all diseases of the heart and circulation system, are the leading cause of deaths on the globally. During the development of CVDs, choric inflammatory, lipid metabolism disorder and endothelial dysfunction are widely recognized risk factors. Recently, the new treatment for CVDs that designed to regenerate the damaged myocardium and injured vascular endothelium and improve recovery by the use of stem cells, attracts more and more public attention. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a family of enzymes that remove acetyl groups from lysine residues of histone proteins allowing the histones to wrap the DNA more tightly and commonly known as epigenetic regulators of gene transcription. HDACs play indispensable roles in nearly all biological processes, such as transcriptional regulation, cell cycle progression and developmental events, and have originally shown to be involved in cancer and neurological diseases. HDACs are also found to play crucial roles in cardiovascular diseases by modulating vascular cell homeostasis (e.g., proliferation, migration, and apoptosis of both ECs and SMCs). This review focuses on the roles of different members of HDACs and HDAC inhibitor on stem cell/ progenitor cell differentiation toward vascular cell lineages (endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and Cardiomyocytes) and its potential therapeutics. PMID:26131315

  2. Histone Deacetylases and Cardiometabolic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Yiew, Kan Hui; Chatterjee, Tapan K; Hui, David Y; Weintraub, Neal L

    2015-09-01

    Cardiometabolic disease, emerging as a worldwide epidemic, is a combination of metabolic derangements leading to type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Genetic and environmental factors are linked through epigenetic mechanisms to the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic disease. Post-translational modifications of histone tails, including acetylation and deacetylation, epigenetically alter chromatin structure and dictate cell-specific gene expression patterns. The histone deacetylase family comprises 18 members that regulate gene expression by altering the acetylation status of nucleosomal histones and by functioning as nuclear transcriptional corepressors. Histone deacetylases regulate key aspects of metabolism, inflammation, and vascular function pertinent to cardiometabolic disease in a cell- and tissue-specific manner. Histone deacetylases also likely play a role in the metabolic memory of diabetes mellitus, an important clinical aspect of the disease. Understanding the molecular, cellular, and physiological functions of histone deacetylases in cardiometabolic disease is expected to provide insight into disease pathogenesis, risk factor control, and therapeutic development. PMID:26183616

  3. The histone deacetylase 9 gene encodes multiple protein isoforms.

    PubMed

    Petrie, Kevin; Guidez, Fabien; Howell, Louise; Healy, Lyn; Waxman, Samuel; Greaves, Mel; Zelent, Arthur

    2003-05-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) perform an important function in transcriptional regulation by modifying the core histones of the nucleosome. We have now fully characterized a new member of the Class II HDAC family, HDAC9. The enzyme contains a conserved deacetylase domain, represses reporter activity when recruited to a promoter, and utilizes histones H3 and H4 as substrates in vitro and in vivo. HDAC9 is expressed in a tissue-specific pattern that partially overlaps that of HDAC4. Within the human hematopoietic system, expression of HDAC9 is biased toward cells of monocytic and lymphoid lineages. The HDAC9 gene encodes multiple protein isoforms, some of which display distinct cellular localization patterns. For example, full-length HDAC9 is localized in the nucleus, but the isoform lacking the region encoded by exon 7 is in the cytoplasm. HDAC9 interacts and co-localizes in vivo with a number of transcriptional repressors and co-repressors, including TEL and N-CoR, whose functions have been implicated in the pathogenesis of hematological malignancies. These results suggest that HDAC9 plays a role in hematopoiesis; its deregulated expression may be associated with some human cancers. PMID:12590135

  4. [Histone-deacetylases inhibitors: from TSA to SAHA].

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Paul; Lansiaux, Amlie

    2006-01-01

    Histone-deacetylase inhibitors (HDCACi) represent a new class of antitumor agents currently in clinical development. They target a family of enzymes which catalyse histone acetylation modifications, in particular for histones H2A, H2B, H3 and H4. These proteins stabilize the nucleosome core, fundamental unity of chromatin which represents the first level of DNA nuclear compaction. The balance of histone acetylation is maintained by histone-acetyltransferases (HAT) and histone-deacetylases (HDAC) which play an important role in gene transcription. Alterations of HDACs were identified in tumor cells and contribute to the massive perturbations of gene expression in numerous tumors. HDAC inhibition leads to differentiation, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in tumor cells. HDACi efficiently prevent tumor growth in a variety of in vivo preclinical models. Several structurally distinct classes of HDACi have entered in clinical trials and a significant antitumor activity was reported in several cases. However, a better understanding of the biological effects of this class of enzymes is mandatory for the successful development of these new antitumoral agents. In this review, are exposed the main drug candidates in clinical development. In the near future, it will be interesting to define direct relationships between specific inhibition of one or several HDAC and the subsequent HDAC-dependent antitumor effects to define a new generation of specific histone-deacetylase inhibitors. PMID:16455503

  5. Post-Training Intrahippocampal Inhibition of Class I Histone Deacetylases Enhances Long-Term Object-Location Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawk, Joshua D.; Florian, Cedrick; Abel, Ted

    2011-01-01

    Long-term memory formation involves covalent modification of the histone proteins that package DNA. Reducing histone acetylation by mutating histone acetyltransferases impairs long-term memory, and enhancing histone acetylation by inhibiting histone deacetylases (HDACs) improves long-term memory. Previous studies using HDAC inhibitors to enhance…

  6. Post-Training Intrahippocampal Inhibition of Class I Histone Deacetylases Enhances Long-Term Object-Location Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawk, Joshua D.; Florian, Cedrick; Abel, Ted

    2011-01-01

    Long-term memory formation involves covalent modification of the histone proteins that package DNA. Reducing histone acetylation by mutating histone acetyltransferases impairs long-term memory, and enhancing histone acetylation by inhibiting histone deacetylases (HDACs) improves long-term memory. Previous studies using HDAC inhibitors to enhance

  7. Development of histone deacetylase inhibitors for cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Marchion, Douglas; Mnster, Pamela

    2007-04-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are an exciting new addition to the arsenal of cancer therapeutics. The inhibition of HDAC enzymes by HDAC inhibitors shifts the balance between the deacetylation activity of HDAC enzymes and the acetylation activity of histone acetyltransferases, resulting in hyperacetylation of core histones. Exposure of cancer cells to HDAC inhibitors has been associated with a multitude of molecular and biological effects, ranging from transcriptional control, chromatin plasticity, protein-DNA interaction to cellular differentiation, growth arrest and apoptosis. In addition to the antitumor effects seen with HDAC inhibitors alone, these compounds may also potentiate cytotoxic agents or synergize with other targeted anticancer agents. The exact mechanism by which HDAC inhibitors cause cell death is still unclear and the specific roles of individual HDAC enzymes as therapeutic targets has not been established. However, emerging evidence suggests that the effects of HDAC inhibitors on tumor cells may not only depend on the specificity and selectivity of the HDAC inhibitor, but also on the expression patterns of HDAC enzymes in the tumor tissue. In this review, the recent advances in the understanding and clinical development of HDAC inhibitors, as well as their current role in cancer therapy, will be discussed. PMID:17428177

  8. Targeting histone deacetylases for the treatment of disease

    PubMed Central

    Lawless, M W; Norris, S; OByrne, K J; Gray, S G

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The histone code is a well-established hypothesis describing the idea that specific patterns of post-translational modifications to histones act like a molecular code recognized and used by non-histone proteins to regulate specific chromatin functions. One modification, which has received significant attention, is that of histone acetylation. The enzymes that regulate this modification are described as lysine acetyltransferases or KATs, and histone deacetylases or HDACs. Due to their conserved catalytic domain HDACs have been actively targeted as a therapeutic target. The pro-inflammatory environment is increasingly being recognized as a critical element for both degenerative diseases and cancer. The present review will discuss the current knowledge surrounding the clinical potential and current development of histone deacetylases for the treatment of diseases for which a pro-inflammatory environment plays important roles, and the molecular mechanisms by which such inhibitors may play important functions in modulating the pro-inflammatory environment. PMID:19175682

  9. Histone deacetylase inhibitors merged with protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Nan; Xu, Wenfang; Zhang, Yingjie

    2015-06-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a family of metal enzymes which mainly regulates the acetylation level of histone, together with histone acetyl transferases (HATs). Recently, because many HDAC inhibitors (HDACis) have entered clinical trials for both solid and liquid tumors, HDACs are recognized as one of the promising targets for cancer treatment. The current trend is that more and more HDAC inhibitors are used in combination with other antitumor agents in order to optimize their effect and toxicity. Protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) which play important roles in cellular signal transduction pathways and regulate series of physiological and biochemical processes, are another family of hot antitumor targets. This brief review will mainly talk about several reported chimeric HDACs-PTKs inhibitors. PMID:26193935

  10. Histone deacetylases in kidney development: implications for disease and therapy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaowei; El-Dahr, Samir S

    2013-05-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are an evolutionarily conserved group of enzymes that regulate a broad range of biological processes through removal of acetyl groups from histones as well as non-histone proteins. Recent studies using a variety of pharmacological inhibitors and genetic models of HDACs have revealed a central role of HDACs in control of kidney development. These findings provide new insights into the epigenetic mechanisms underlying congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) and implicate the potential of HDACs as therapeutic targets in kidney diseases, such as cystic kidney diseases and renal cell cancers. Determining the specific functions of individual HDAC members would be an important task of future research. PMID:22722820

  11. Histone deacetylase inhibition as an alternative strategy against invasive aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Lamoth, Frédéric; Juvvadi, Praveen R.; Steinbach, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a life-threatening infection due to Aspergillus fumigatus and other Aspergillus spp. Drugs targeting the fungal cell membrane (triazoles, amphotericin B) or cell wall (echinocandins) are currently the sole therapeutic options against IA. Their limited efficacy and the emergence of resistance warrant the identification of new antifungal targets. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are enzymes responsible of the deacetylation of lysine residues of core histones, thus controlling chromatin remodeling and transcriptional activation. HDACs also control the acetylation and activation status of multiple non-histone proteins, including the heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), an essential molecular chaperone for fungal virulence and antifungal resistance. This review provides an overview of the different HDACs in Aspergillus spp. as well as their respective contribution to total HDAC activity, fungal growth, stress responses, and virulence. The potential of HDAC inhibitors, currently under development for cancer therapy, as novel alternative antifungal agents against IA is discussed. PMID:25762988

  12. Histone deacetylase: a potential therapeutic target for fibrotic disorders.

    PubMed

    Pang, Maoyin; Zhuang, Shougang

    2010-11-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are enzymes that balance the acetylation activities of histone acetyltransferases on chromatin remodeling and play essential roles in regulating gene transcription. In the past several years, the role of HDACs in cancer initiation and progression, as well as the therapeutic effects of HDAC inhibitors in various types of cancer, has been well studied. Recent studies indicated that HDAC activity is also associated with the development and progression of some chronic diseases characterized by fibrosis, including chronic kidney disease, cardiac hypertrophy, and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Here, we review what is known about HDACs in the progression of tissue fibrosis and the potential applications of HDAC inhibitors in the treatment of disorders associated with fibroblast activation and proliferation. PMID:20719940

  13. Histone deacetylase inhibitors in the treatment of lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Lemoine, Manuela; Younes, Anas

    2010-11-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play an important role in the regulation of gene expression. In addition to histones, HDACs can modulate the function of many other proteins involved in the regulation of cell survival and proliferation, angiogenesis, inflammation, and immunity. Deregulated HDACs have been shown to be commonly associated with many types of cancer, and are considered promising targets for cancer therapy. Several HDAC inhibitors are in clinical trials as monotherapies or in combination with other anticancer agents, but only two such inhibitors -- vorinostat (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid) and romidepsin (depsipeptide) -- have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for treating relapsed cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Other HDAC inhibitors, such as belinostat (PXD101), mocetinostat (MGCD0103), entinostat (SNDX-275), and panobinostat (LBH589), are currently in clinical development. This review focuses on the use of HDAC inhibitors in the treatment of relapsed lymphoma. PMID:21122478

  14. Stimulation of histone deacetylase activity by metabolites of intermediary metabolism.

    PubMed

    Vogelauer, Maria; Krall, Abigail S; McBrian, Matthew A; Li, Jing-Yu; Kurdistani, Siavash K

    2012-09-14

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) function in a wide range of molecular processes, including gene expression, and are of significant interest as therapeutic targets. Although their native complexes, subcellular localization, and recruitment mechanisms to chromatin have been extensively studied, much less is known about whether the enzymatic activity of non-sirtuin HDACs can be regulated by natural metabolites. Here, we show that several coenzyme A (CoA) derivatives, such as acetyl-CoA, butyryl-CoA, HMG-CoA, and malonyl-CoA, as well as NADPH but not NADP(+), NADH, or NAD(+), act as allosteric activators of recombinant HDAC1 and HDAC2 in vitro following a mixed activation kinetic. In contrast, free CoA, like unconjugated butyrate, inhibits HDAC activity in vitro. Analysis of a large number of engineered HDAC1 mutants suggests that the HDAC activity can potentially be decoupled from "activatability" by the CoA derivatives. In vivo, pharmacological inhibition of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) to decrease NADPH levels led to significant increases in global levels of histone H3 and H4 acetylation. The similarity in structures of the identified metabolites and the exquisite selectivity of NADPH over NADP(+), NADH, and NAD(+) as an HDAC activator reveal a previously unrecognized biochemical feature of the HDAC proteins with important consequences for regulation of histone acetylation as well as the development of more specific and potent HDAC inhibitors. PMID:22822071

  15. Histone Deacetylase: Therapeutic Targets in Retinal Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Daly, Conor; Yin, Jun; Kennedy, Breandn N

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies report that retinitis pigmentosa (RP) patients treated with the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) valproic acid (VPA) present with improved visual fields and delayed vision loss. However, other studies report poor efficacy and safety of HDACi in other cohorts of retinal degeneration patients. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms by which HDACi can improve visual function is unknown, albeit HDACi can attenuate pro-apoptotic stimuli and induce expression of neuroprotective factors. Thus, further analysis of HDACi is warranted in pre-clinical models of retinal degeneration including zebrafish. Analysis of HDAC expression in developing zebrafish reveals diverse temporal expression patterns during development and maturation of visual function. PMID:26427446

  16. Effect of histone deacetylase on prostate carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuanfeng; Xu, Qingchun; Liu, Guoyuan; Huang, Hong; Lin, Weiqiang; Huang, Yueying; Chi, Zepai; Chen, Shaochuan; Lan, Kaijian; Lin, Jiahua; Zhang, Yonghai

    2015-01-01

    Commonly occurred in aged males, the incidence of prostate carcinoma is increasing by years. Histone deacetylase (HDACs) as one key enzyme in regulating gene transcription has been found to be related with cancer occurrence. Trichostatin A (TSA) is one HDAC inhibitor for suppressing tumor growth. This study thus treated prostate carcinoma cell line PC3 with TSA, to analyze the effect of HDAC on the occurrence and progression of HDAC. PC3 cells were treated with gradient concentrations of TSA. MTT assay was employed to detect the proliferation of PC3 cells, while flow cytometry was used to detect the cell apoptosis and cell cycle. Apoptotic proteins including caspase-3, caspase-9 and bcl-2 were further quantified by Western blotting. MTT assays showed a dose- and time-dependent manner of TSA in inhibiting PC3 cell proliferation. Most of PC3 cells were arrested at G1 phase after treating with TSA. The apoptotic ratio of cells was also elevated by higher concentrations of drugs. Apoptotic proteins including caspase-3, caspase-9 and bcl-2 were all up-regulated by TSA. HDAC inhibitor can effectively suppress the proliferation of prostate carcinoma cells, which can be arrested at G1 phase. The elevated apoptotic ratio was caused by up-regulation of apoptosis-related proteins caspase-3, caspase-9 and bcl-2, in both dose- and time-dependent manners. PMID:26823840

  17. Determination of the class and isoform selectivity of small-molecule histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nagma; Jeffers, Michael; Kumar, Sampath; Hackett, Craig; Boldog, Ferenc; Khramtsov, Nicholai; Qian, Xiaozhong; Mills, Evan; Berghs, Stanny C; Carey, Nessa; Finn, Paul W; Collins, Laura S; Tumber, Anthony; Ritchie, James W; Jensen, Peter Buhl; Lichenstein, Henri S; Sehested, Maxwell

    2008-01-15

    The human HDAC (histone deacetylase) family, a well-validated anticancer target, plays a key role in the control of gene expression through regulation of transcription. While HDACs can be subdivided into three main classes, the class I, class II and class III HDACs (sirtuins), it is presently unclear whether inhibiting multiple HDACs using pan-HDAC inhibitors, or targeting specific isoforms that show aberrant levels in tumours, will prove more effective as an anticancer strategy in the clinic. To address the above issues, we have tested a number of clinically relevant HDACis (HDAC inhibitors) against a panel of rhHDAC (recombinant human HDAC) isoforms. Eight rhHDACs were expressed using a baculoviral system, and a Fluor de Lystrade mark (Biomol International) HDAC assay was optimized for each purified isoform. The potency and selectivity of ten HDACs on class I isoforms (rhHDAC1, rhHDAC2, rhHDAC3 and rhHDAC8) and class II HDAC isoforms (rhHDAC4, rhHDAC6, rhHDAC7 and rhHDAC9) was determined. MS-275 was HDAC1-selective, MGCD0103 was HDAC1- and HDAC2-selective, apicidin was HDAC2- and HDAC3-selective and valproic acid was a specific inhibitor of class I HDACs. The hydroxamic acid-derived compounds (trichostatin A, NVP-LAQ824, panobinostat, ITF2357, vorinostat and belinostat) were potent pan-HDAC inhibitors. The growth-inhibitory effect of the HDACis on HeLa cells showed that both pan-HDAC and class-I-specific inhibitors inhibited cell growth. The results also showed that both pan-HDAC and class-I-specific inhibitor treatment resulted in increased acetylation of histones, but only pan-HDAC inhibitor treatment resulted in increased tubulin acetylation, which is in agreement with their activity towards the HDAC6 isoform. PMID:17868033

  18. Clinical development of histone deacetylase inhibitors as anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Daryl C; Noble, Charles O; Kirpotin, Dmitri B; Guo, Zexiong; Scott, Gary K; Benz, Christopher C

    2005-01-01

    Acetylation is a key posttranslational modification of many proteins responsible for regulating critical intracellular pathways. Although histones are the most thoroughly studied of acetylated protein substrates, histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and deacetylases (HDACs) are also responsible for modifying the activity of diverse types of nonhistone proteins, including transcription factors and signal transduction mediators. HDACs have emerged as uncredentialed molecular targets for the development of enzymatic inhibitors to treat human cancer, and six structurally distinct drug classes have been identified with in vivo bioavailability and intracellular capability to inhibit many of the known mammalian members representing the two general types of NAD+-independent yeast HDACs, Rpd3 (HDACs 1, 2, 3, 8) and Hda1 (HDACs 4, 5, 6, 7, 9a, 9b, 10). Initial clinical trials indicate that HDAC inhibitors from several different structural classes are very well tolerated and exhibit clinical activity against a variety of human malignancies; however, the molecular basis for their anticancer selectivity remains largely unknown. HDAC inhibitors have also shown preclinical promise when combined with other therapeutic agents, and innovative drug delivery strategies, including liposome encapsulation, may further enhance their clinical development and anticancer potential. An improved understanding of the mechanistic role of specific HDACs in human tumorigenesis, as well as the identification of more specific HDAC inhibitors, will likely accelerate the clinical development and broaden the future scope and utility of HDAC inhibitors for cancer treatment. PMID:15822187

  19. Histone Deacetylase 1 and p300 Can Directly Associate with Chromatin and Compete for Binding in a Mutually Exclusive Manner

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuehui; Yang, Hui; Huang, Suming; Qiu, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Lysine acetyltransferases (KATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) are important epigenetic modifiers and dynamically cycled on active gene promoters to regulate transcription. Although HDACs are recruited to gene promoters and DNA hypersensitive sites through interactions with DNA binding factors, HDAC activities are also found globally in intergenic regions where DNA binding factors are not present. It is suggested that HDACs are recruited to those regions through other distinct, yet undefined mechanisms. Here we show that HDACs can be directly recruited to chromatin in the absence of other factors through direct interactions with both DNA and core histone subunits. HDACs interact with DNA in a non-sequence specific manner. HDAC1 and p300 directly bind to the overlapping regions of the histone H3 tail and compete for histone binding. Previously we show that p300 can acetylate HDAC1 to attenuate deacetylase activity. Here we have further mapped two distinct regions of HDAC1 that interact with p300. Interestingly, these regions of HDAC1 also associate with histone H3. More importantly, p300 and HDAC1 compete for chromatin binding both in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, the mutually exclusive associations of HDAC1/p300, p300/histone, and HDAC1/histone on chromatin contribute to the dynamic regulation of histone acetylation by balancing HDAC or KAT activity present at histones to reorganize chromatin structure and regulate transcription. PMID:24722339

  20. Histone deacetylase inhibitors as potential treatment for spinal muscular atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Mohseni, Jafar; Zabidi-Hussin, Z.A.M.H.; Sasongko, Teguh Haryo

    2013-01-01

    Histone acetylation plays an important role in regulation of transcription in eukaryotic cells by promoting a more relaxed chromatin structure necessary for transcriptional activation. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) remove acetyl groups and suppress gene expression. HDAC inhibitors (HDACIs) are a group of small molecules that promote gene transcription by chromatin remodeling and have been extensively studied as potential drugs for treating of spinal muscular atrophy. Various drugs in this class have been studied with regard to their efficacy in increasing the expression of survival of motor neuron (SMN) protein. In this review, we discuss the current literature on this topic and summarize the findings of the main studies in this field. PMID:24130434

  1. Histone deacetylase inhibitors from the rhizomes of Zingiber zerumbet.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ill-Min; Kim, Min-Young; Park, Won-Hwan; Moon, Hyung-In

    2008-10-01

    Histone acetylation and deacetylation play fundamental roles in the modulation of chromatin topology and the regulation of gene transcription. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors that inhibit proliferation and induce differentiation and/or apoptosis of tumor cells in culture and in animal models have been identified. A number of structurally diverse histone deacetylase inhibitors have shown potent antitumor efficacy with little toxicity in vivo in animal models. In the context of our natural product chemistry program dealing with the development of new potent anticancer agents, we have examined the isolation from Zingiber zerumbet as leads for novel HDAC inhibitors. Zingiber zerumbet (L.) J. E. Smith (Zingiberaceae) is a wild ginger that typically grows widely in Southeast Asia. Isolation of the n-hexane soluble fraction from Zingiber zerumbet yielded two major sesequiterpenoids, 6-methoxy-2E,9E-humuladien-8-one (1) and zerumbone (2). The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. The histone deacetylase (HDAC) activities of compounds 1 and 2 were determined in vitro against HDAC enzyme assay. Compound 1 exhibited growth inhibitory activity on six human tumor cell lines, and showed potential inhibitory activity in histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzyme assay (GI50 = 1.25 microM). It also exhibited growth inhibitory activity on five human tumor cell lines and more sensitive inhibitory activity on the MDA-MB-231 breast tumor cell line (IC50 = 1.45 microM). Further structure-activity relationships of position C-6 and C-7 from aromatic ring will be reported in due course. PMID:18972844

  2. Metabolic Reprogramming by Class I and II Histone Deacetylases

    PubMed Central

    Mihaylova, Maria M.; Shaw, Reuben J.

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that protein acetylation plays a major regulatory role in many facets of transcriptional control of metabolism. The enzymes that catalyze the addition and removal of acetyl moieties are the Histone Acetyl Transferases (HATs) and Histone Deacetylases (HDACs), respectively. A number of recent studies have uncovered novel mechanisms and contexts in which different HDACs play critical roles in metabolic control. Understanding the role of Class I and II HDACs in different metabolic programs during development, as well as in the physiology and pathology of the adult organism, will lead to novel therapeutics for metabolic disease. Here, we review the current understanding of how Class I and Class II HDACs contribute to metabolic control. PMID:23062770

  3. The SUMO E3 ligase RanBP2 promotes modification of the HDAC4 deacetylase

    PubMed Central

    Kirsh, Olivier; Seeler, Jacob-S.; Pichler, Andrea; Gast, Andreas; Mller, Stefan; Miska, Eric; Mathieu, Marion; Harel-Bellan, Annick; Kouzarides, Tony; Melchior, Frauke; Dejean, Anne

    2002-01-01

    Transcriptional repression mediated through histone deacetylation is a critical component of eukaryotic gene regulation. Here we demonstrate that the class II histone deacetylase HDAC4 is covalently modified by the ubiquitin-related SUMO-1 modifier. A sumoylation-deficient point mutant (HDAC4-K559R) shows a slightly impaired ability to repress transcription as well as reduced histone deacetylase activity. The ability of HDAC4 to self-aggregate is a prerequisite for proper sumoylation in vivo. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) signalling, which induces nuclear export, abrogates SUMO-1 modification of HDAC4. Moreover, the modification depends on the presence of an intact nuclear localization signal and is catalysed by the nuclear pore complex (NPC) RanBP2 protein, a factor newly identified as a SUMO E3 ligase. These findings suggest that sumoylation of HDAC4 takes place at the NPC and is coupled to its nuclear import. Finally, modification experiments indicate that the MEF2-interacting transcription repressor (MITR) as well as HDAC1 and -6 are similarly SUMO modified, indicating that sumoylation may be an important regulatory mechanism for the control of transcriptional repression mediated by both class I and II HDACs. PMID:12032081

  4. Treatment of chronic kidney diseases with histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; Zhuang, Shougang

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) induce deacetylation of both histone and non-histone proteins and play a critical role in the modulation of physiological and pathological gene expression. Pharmacological inhibition of HDAC has been reported to attenuate progression of renal fibrogenesis in obstructed kidney and reduce cyst formation in polycystic kidney disease. HDAC inhibitors (HDACis) are also able to ameliorate renal lesions in diabetes nephropathy, lupus nephritis, aristolochic acid nephropathy, and transplant nephropathy. The beneficial effects of HDACis are associated with their anti-fibrosis, anti-inflammation, and immunosuppressant effects. In this review, we summarize recent advances on the treatment of various chronic kidney diseases with HDACis in pre-clinical models. PMID:25972812

  5. Treatment of chronic kidney diseases with histone deacetylase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Na; Zhuang, Shougang

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) induce deacetylation of both histone and non-histone proteins and play a critical role in the modulation of physiological and pathological gene expression. Pharmacological inhibition of HDAC has been reported to attenuate progression of renal fibrogenesis in obstructed kidney and reduce cyst formation in polycystic kidney disease. HDAC inhibitors (HDACis) are also able to ameliorate renal lesions in diabetes nephropathy, lupus nephritis, aristolochic acid nephropathy, and transplant nephropathy. The beneficial effects of HDACis are associated with their anti-fibrosis, anti-inflammation, and immunosuppressant effects. In this review, we summarize recent advances on the treatment of various chronic kidney diseases with HDACis in pre-clinical models. PMID:25972812

  6. Assembly of the SMRT-histone deacetylase 3 repression complex requires the TCP-1 ring complex.

    PubMed

    Guenther, Matthew G; Yu, Jiujiu; Kao, Gary D; Yen, Tim J; Lazar, Mitchell A

    2002-12-15

    The acetylation of histone tails is a primary determinant of gene activity. Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) requires the nuclear receptor corepressor SMRT for HDAC enzyme activity. Here we report that HDAC3 interacts with SMRT only after priming by cellular chaperones including the TCP-1 ring complex (TRiC), which is required for proper folding of HDAC3 in an ATP-dependent process. SMRT displaces TRiC from HDAC3, yielding an active HDAC enzyme. The SMRT-HDAC3 repression complex thus joins the VHL-elongin BC tumor suppression complex and the cyclin E-Cdk2 cell cycle regulation complex as critical cellular machines requiring TRiC for proper assembly and function. The strict control of HDAC3 activity underscores the cellular imperative that histone deacetylation occur only in targeted regions of the genome. PMID:12502735

  7. Assembly of the SMRT–histone deacetylase 3 repression complex requires the TCP-1 ring complex

    PubMed Central

    Guenther, Matthew G.; Yu, Jiujiu; Kao, Gary D.; Yen, Tim J.; Lazar, Mitchell A.

    2002-01-01

    The acetylation of histone tails is a primary determinant of gene activity. Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) requires the nuclear receptor corepressor SMRT for HDAC enzyme activity. Here we report that HDAC3 interacts with SMRT only after priming by cellular chaperones including the TCP-1 ring complex (TRiC), which is required for proper folding of HDAC3 in an ATP-dependent process. SMRT displaces TRiC from HDAC3, yielding an active HDAC enzyme. The SMRT–HDAC3 repression complex thus joins the VHL–elongin BC tumor suppression complex and the cyclin E–Cdk2 cell cycle regulation complex as critical cellular machines requiring TRiC for proper assembly and function. The strict control of HDAC3 activity underscores the cellular imperative that histone deacetylation occur only in targeted regions of the genome. PMID:12502735

  8. Histone deacetylase 1 regulates tissue destruction in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Hawtree, Sarah; Muthana, Munitta; Wilkinson, J Mark; Akil, Mohammed; Wilson, Anthony G

    2015-10-01

    Emerging evidence implicates epigenetic mechanisms in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this study, we have investigated the role of histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes in RA synovial fibroblasts (RASFs), a key cellular mediator of cartilage and bone destruction and determined effects of HDAC1 inhibition on both RASF phenotype in vitro, and joint inflammation and damage in the collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model. Expression of HDACs 1-11 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) was compared between RASFs and osteoarthritic synovial fibroblast (OASFs) using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. HDAC1 expression in RASFs was inhibited using small interfering RNA (siRNA) technology to assess effects on invasiveness, migration, proliferation and apoptosis. Effects of HDAC1 knockdown (KD) on the transcriptome were assessed using gene microarrays. The effects of siRNA-mediated HDAC(KD) on clinical scores, tissue inflammation and damage were assessed on CIA up to 47 days following immunization. Expression of HDAC1 was significantly higher in RASFs than OASFs. HDAC1(KD) resulted in reduced proliferation, invasion and migration in vitro and transcriptome profiling revealed effects on expression of genes regulating proliferation migration and inflammation. Furthermore, inhibition of HDAC1 in CIA resulted in reduced joint swelling, cartilage and bone damage and lower tumor necrosis factor in joint tissue. These results implicate HDAC1 as an important mediator of tissue damage in RA and support the potential therapeutic utility of inhibitors of this enzyme. PMID:26152200

  9. The functional interactome landscape of the human histone deacetylase family

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Preeti; Greco, Todd M; Guise, Amanda J; Luo, Yang; Yu, Fang; Nesvizhskii, Alexey I; Cristea, Ileana M

    2013-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a diverse family of essential transcriptional regulatory enzymes, that function through the spatial and temporal recruitment of protein complexes. As the composition and regulation of HDAC complexes are only partially characterized, we built the first global protein interaction network for all 11 human HDACs in T cells. Integrating fluorescence microscopy, immunoaffinity purifications, quantitative mass spectrometry, and bioinformatics, we identified over 200 unreported interactions for both well-characterized and lesser-studied HDACs, a subset of which were validated by orthogonal approaches. We establish HDAC11 as a member of the survival of motor neuron complex and pinpoint a functional role in mRNA splicing. We designed a complementary label-free and metabolic-labeling mass spectrometry-based proteomics strategy for profiling interaction stability among different HDAC classes, revealing that HDAC1 interactions within chromatin-remodeling complexes are largely stable, while transcription factors preferentially exist in rapid equilibrium. Overall, this study represents a valuable resource for investigating HDAC functions in health and disease, encompassing emerging themes of HDAC regulation in cell cycle and RNA processing and a deeper functional understanding of HDAC complex stability. PMID:23752268

  10. Interpreting clinical assays for histone deacetylase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Martinet, Nadine; Bertrand, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    As opposed to genetics, dealing with gene expressions by direct DNA sequence modifications, the term epigenetics applies to all the external influences that target the chromatin structure of cells with impact on gene expression unrelated to the sequence coding of DNA itself. In normal cells, epigenetics modulates gene expression through all development steps. When imprinted early by the environment, epigenetic changes influence the organism at an early stage and can be transmitted to the progeny. Together with DNA sequence alterations, DNA aberrant cytosine methylation and microRNA deregulation, epigenetic modifications participate in the malignant transformation of cells. Their reversible nature has led to the emergence of the promising field of epigenetic therapy. The efforts made to inhibit in particular the epigenetic enzyme family called histone deacetylases (HDACs) are described. HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) have been proposed as a viable clinical therapeutic approach for the treatment of leukemia and solid tumors, but also to a lesser degree for noncancerous diseases. Three epigenetic drugs are already arriving at the patients bedside, and more than 100 clinical assays for HDACi are registered on the National Cancer Institute website. They explore the eventual additive benefits of combined therapies. In the context of the pleiotropic effects of HDAC isoforms, more specific HDACi and more informative screening tests are being developed for the benefit of the patients. PMID:21625397

  11. Interferon-stimulated Gene 15 (ISG15) and ISG15-linked Proteins Can Associate with Members of the Selective Autophagic Process, Histone Deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) and SQSTM1/p62*

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Hiroshi; Nguyen, Tran; Goins, William F.; Chiocca, Ennio Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquitin-like interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) and its specific E1, E2, and E3 enzymes are transcriptionally induced by type I IFNs. ISG15 conjugates newly synthesized proteins. ISG15 linkage to proteins appears to be an important downstream IFN signaling event that discriminates cellular and pathogenic proteins synthesized during IFN stimulation from existing proteins. This eliminates potentially pathogenic proteins as the cell attempts to return to normal homeostasis after IFN stressed conditions. However, the molecular events that occur in this process are not well known. Here, we show that the C-terminal LRLRGG of ISG15 interacts with the binder of ubiquitin zinc finger (BUZ) domain of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6). Because HDAC6 is involved in the autophagic clearance of ubiquitinated aggregates during which SQSTM1/p62 plays a major role as a cargo adapter, we also were able to confirm that p62 binds to ISG15 protein and its conjugated proteins upon forced expression. Both HDAC6 and p62 co-localized with ISG15 in an insoluble fraction of the cytosol, and this co-localization was magnified by the proteasome inhibitor MG132. In addition, ISG15 was degraded via the lysosome. Overexpression of ISG15, which leads to an increased conjugation level of the cellular proteome, enhanced autophagic degradation independently of IFN signaling transduction. These results thus indicate that ISG15 conjugation marks proteins for interaction with HDAC6 and p62 upon forced stressful conditions likely as a step toward autophagic clearance. PMID:25429107

  12. Interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) and ISG15-linked proteins can associate with members of the selective autophagic process, histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) and SQSTM1/p62.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Hiroshi; Nguyen, Tran; Goins, William F; Chiocca, Ennio Antonio

    2015-01-16

    The ubiquitin-like interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) and its specific E1, E2, and E3 enzymes are transcriptionally induced by type I IFNs. ISG15 conjugates newly synthesized proteins. ISG15 linkage to proteins appears to be an important downstream IFN signaling event that discriminates cellular and pathogenic proteins synthesized during IFN stimulation from existing proteins. This eliminates potentially pathogenic proteins as the cell attempts to return to normal homeostasis after IFN "stressed" conditions. However, the molecular events that occur in this process are not well known. Here, we show that the C-terminal LRLRGG of ISG15 interacts with the binder of ubiquitin zinc finger (BUZ) domain of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6). Because HDAC6 is involved in the autophagic clearance of ubiquitinated aggregates during which SQSTM1/p62 plays a major role as a cargo adapter, we also were able to confirm that p62 binds to ISG15 protein and its conjugated proteins upon forced expression. Both HDAC6 and p62 co-localized with ISG15 in an insoluble fraction of the cytosol, and this co-localization was magnified by the proteasome inhibitor MG132. In addition, ISG15 was degraded via the lysosome. Overexpression of ISG15, which leads to an increased conjugation level of the cellular proteome, enhanced autophagic degradation independently of IFN signaling transduction. These results thus indicate that ISG15 conjugation marks proteins for interaction with HDAC6 and p62 upon forced stressful conditions likely as a step toward autophagic clearance. PMID:25429107

  13. Essential Nonredundant Function of the Catalytic Activity of Histone Deacetylase 2 in Mouse Development

    PubMed Central

    Hagelkruys, Astrid; Mattes, Katharina; Moos, Verena; Rennmayr, Magdalena; Ringbauer, Manuela; Sawicka, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The class I histone deacetylases (HDACs) HDAC1 and HDAC2 play partially redundant roles in the regulation of gene expression and mouse development. As part of multisubunit corepressor complexes, these two deacetylases exhibit both enzymatic and nonenzymatic functions. To examine the impact of the catalytic activities of HDAC1 and HDAC2, we generated knock-in mice expressing catalytically inactive isoforms, which are still incorporated into the HDAC1/HDAC2 corepressor complexes. Surprisingly, heterozygous mice expressing catalytically inactive HDAC2 die within a few hours after birth, while heterozygous HDAC1 mutant mice are indistinguishable from wild-type littermates. Heterozygous HDAC2 mutant mice show an unaltered composition but reduced associated deacetylase activity of corepressor complexes and exhibit a more severe phenotype than HDAC2-null mice. They display changes in brain architecture accompanied by premature expression of the key regulator protein kinase C delta. Our study reveals a dominant negative effect of catalytically inactive HDAC2 on specific corepressor complexes resulting in histone hyperacetylation, transcriptional derepression, and, ultimately, perinatal lethality. PMID:26598605

  14. Quantification of Histone Deacetylase Isoforms in Human Frontal Cortex, Human Retina, and Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kyle W.; Chen, Junjun; Wang, Meiyao; Mast, Natalia; Pikuleva, Irina A.; Turko, Illarion V.

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition has promise as a therapy for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative diseases. Currently, therapeutic HDAC inhibitors target many HDAC isoforms, a particularly detrimental approach when HDAC isoforms are known to have different and specialized functions. We have developed a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry assay using stable isotope-labeled QconCATs as internal standards to quantify HDAC isoforms. We further determined a quantitative pattern of specific HDACs expressed in various human and mouse neural tissues. In human AD frontal cortex, HDAC1,2 decreased 32%, HDAC5 increased 47%, and HDAC6 increased 31% in comparison to age-matched controls. Human neural retina concentrations of HDAC1, 2, HDAC5, HDAC6, and HDAC7 decreased in age-related macular degeneration (AMD)-affected donors and exhibited a greater decrease in AD-affected donors in comparison to age-matched control neural retinas. Additionally, HDAC concentrations were measured in whole hemisphere of brain of 5XFAD mice, a model of β-amyloid deposition, to assess similarity to AD in human frontal cortex. HDAC profiles of human frontal cortex and mouse hemisphere had noticeable differences and relatively high concentrations of HDAC3 and HDAC4 in mice, which were undetectable in humans. Our method for quantification of HDAC isoforms is a practical and efficient technique to quantify isoforms in various tissues and diseases. Changes in HDAC concentrations reported herein contribute to the understanding of the pathology of neurodegeneration. PMID:25962138

  15. Identification and characterization of histone deacetylases in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Linmao; Lu, Jingxia; Zhang, Jianxia; Wu, Pei-Ying; Yang, Songguang; Wu, Keqiang

    2015-01-01

    Histone acetylation and deacetylation at the N-terminus of histone tails play crucial roles in the regulation of eukaryotic gene activity. Histone acetylation and deacetylation are catalyzed by histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases (HDACs), respectively. A growing number of studies have demonstrated the importance of histone deacetylation/acetylation on genome stability, transcriptional regulation, development and response to stress in Arabidopsis. However, the biological functions of HDACs in tomato have not been investigated previously. Fifteen HDACs identified from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) can be grouped into RPD3/HDA1, SIR2 and HD2 families based on phylogenetic analysis. Meanwhile, 10 members of the RPD3/HDA1 family can be further subdivided into four groups, namely Class I, Class II, Class III, and Class IV. High similarities of protein sequences and conserved domains were identified among SlHDACs and their homologs in Arabidopsis. Most SlHDACs were expressed in all tissues examined with different transcript abundance. Transient expression in Arabidopsis protoplasts showed that SlHDA8, SlHDA1, SlHDA5, SlSRT1 and members of the HD2 family were localized to the nucleus, whereas SlHDA3 and SlHDA4 were localized in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. The difference in the expression patterns and subcellular localization of SlHDACs suggest that they may play distinct functions in tomato. Furthermore, we found that three members of the RPD3/HDA1 family, SlHDA1, SIHDA3 and SlHDA4, interacted with TAG1 (TOMATO AGAMOUS1) and TM29 (TOMATO MADS BOX29), two MADS-box proteins associated with tomato reproductive development, indicating that these HDACs may be involved in gene regulation in reproductive development. PMID:25610445

  16. Tetrahydroisoquinolines as novel histone deacetylase inhibitors for treatment of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Danqi; Shen, Aijun; Fang, Guanghua; Liu, Hongchun; Zhang, Minmin; Tang, Shuai; Xiong, Bing; Ma, Lanping; Geng, Meiyu; Shen, Jingkang

    2016-01-01

    Histone acetylation is a critical process in the regulation of chromatin structure and gene expression. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) remove the acetyl group, leading to chromatin condensation and transcriptional repression. HDAC inhibitors are considered a new class of anticancer agents and have been shown to alter gene transcription and exert antitumor effects. This paper describes our work on the structural determination and structure-activity relationship (SAR) optimization of tetrahydroisoquinoline compounds as HDAC inhibitors. These compounds were tested for their ability to inhibit HDAC 1, 3, 6 and for their ability to inhibit the proliferation of a panel of cancer cell lines. Among these, compound 82 showed the greatest inhibitory activity toward HDAC 1, 3, 6 and strongly inhibited growth of the cancer cell lines, with results clearly superior to those of the reference compound, vorinostat (SAHA). Compound 82 increased the acetylation of histones H3, H4 and tubulin in a concentration-dependent manner, suggesting that it is a broad inhibitor of HDACs. PMID:26904403

  17. Targeting Histone Deacetylases: A Novel Approach in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sorabh; Taliyan, Rajeev

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide prevalence of movement disorders is increasing day by day. Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common movement disorder. In general, the clinical manifestations of PD result from dysfunction of the basal ganglia. Although the exact underlying mechanisms leading to neural cell death in this disease remains unknown, the genetic causes are often established. Indeed, it is becoming increasingly evident that chromatin acetylation status can be impaired during the neurological disease conditions. The acetylation and deacetylation of histone proteins are carried out by opposing actions of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs), respectively. In the recent past, studies with HDAC inhibitors result in beneficial effects in both in vivo and in vitro models of PD. Various clinical trials have also been initiated to investigate the possible therapeutic potential of HDAC inhibitors in patients suffering from PD. The possible mechanisms assigned for these neuroprotective actions of HDAC inhibitors involve transcriptional activation of neuronal survival genes and maintenance of histone acetylation homeostasis, both of which have been shown to be dysregulated in PD. In this review, the authors have discussed the putative role of HDAC inhibitors in PD and associated abnormalities and suggest new directions for future research in PD. PMID:25694842

  18. FOXP3 interactions with histone acetyltransferase and class II histone deacetylases are required for repression

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bin; Samanta, Arabinda; Song, Xiaomin; Iacono, Kathryn T.; Bembas, Kathryn; Tao, Ran; Basu, Samik; Riley, James L.; Hancock, Wayne W.; Shen, Yuan; Saouaf, Sandra J.; Greene, Mark I.

    2007-01-01

    The forkhead family protein FOXP3 acts as a repressor of transcription and is both an essential and sufficient regulator of the development and function of regulatory T cells. The molecular mechanism by which FOXP3-mediated transcriptional repression occurs remains unclear. Here, we report that transcriptional repression by FOXP3 involves a histone acetyltransferasedeacetylase complex that includes histone acetyltransferase TIP60 (Tat-interactive protein, 60 kDa) and class II histone deacetylases HDAC7 and HDAC9. The N-terminal 106190 aa of FOXP3 are required for TIP60FOXP3, HDAC7FOXP3 association, as well as for the transcriptional repression of FOXP3 via its forkhead domain. FOXP3 can be acetylated in primary human regulatory T cells, and TIP60 promotes FOXP3 acetylation in vivo. Overexpression of TIP60 but not its histone acetyltransferase-deficient mutant promotes, whereas knockdown of endogenous TIP60 relieved, FOXP3-mediated transcriptional repression. A minimum FOXP3 ensemble containing native TIP60 and HDAC7 is necessary for IL-2 production regulation in T cells. Moreover, FOXP3 association with HDAC9 is antagonized by T cell stimulation and can be restored by the protein deacetylation inhibitor trichostatin A, indicating a complex dynamic aspect of T suppressor cell regulation. These findings identify a previously uncharacterized complex-based mechanism by which FOXP3 actively mediates transcriptional repression. PMID:17360565

  19. Valproic Acid (VPA), a Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) Inhibitor, Diminishes Lymphoproliferation in the Fas Deficient MRL/lpr?/? Murine Model of Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS)

    PubMed Central

    Dowdell, Kennichi C; Pesnicak, Lesley; Hoffmann, Victoria; Steadman, Kenneth; Remaley, Alan T.; Cohen, Jeffrey I.; Straus, Stephen E; Rao, V. Koneti

    2009-01-01

    Objective Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a disorder of apoptosis, often presenting in childhood. Similarly, MRL/lpr?/? mice homozygous for Fas mutations develop an ALPS-like disease with autoimmunity, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and expansion of double negative T (DNT) cells. Currently, there are no proven therapies with adequate safety margins for sustained abolition of the lymphoproliferation associated with ALPS. We sought to test the ability of valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, to induce apoptosis and inhibit lymphoproliferation. Methods Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with ALPS and normal controls were tested in vitro to determine the efficacy of VPA at inducing cell death. VPA was used in vivo to control lymphoproliferation in MRL/lpr?/? mice, a model for ALPS. Results VPA induced cell death in vitro, and was partially inhibited by the pan caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK. MRL/lpr?/? mice treated with VPA for 8 weeks showed significant reductions in spleen and lymph node weights and cellularity compared to controls. A concomitant decrease in DNT cells was observed in the spleen, lymph nodes, and peripheral blood. Serum levels of VPA peaked 1 hour after injection, and a 2.5 fold increase in histone acetylation was observed in the spleen at 4 hours after injection. Conclusion Based on our data, VPA is effective at reducing lymphoproliferation in mice, and is currently being studied in a clinical trial as a lympholytic agent in patients with ALPS. PMID:19217201

  20. Inhibition of Histone Deacetylase Expands the Renal Progenitor Cell Population

    PubMed Central

    de Groh, Eric D.; Swanhart, Lisa M.; Cosentino, Chiara Cianciolo; Jackson, Rachel L.; Dai, Weixiang; Kitchens, Carolyn A.; Day, Billy W.; Smithgall, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    One of the first hallmarks of kidney regeneration is the reactivation of genes normally required during organogenesis. Identification of chemicals with the potential to enhance this reactivation could therapeutically promote kidney regeneration. Here, we found that 4-(phenylthio)butanoic acid (PTBA) expanded the expression domains of molecular markers of kidney organogenesis in zebrafish. PTBA exhibits structural and functional similarity to the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors 4-phenylbutanoic acid and trichostatin A; treatment with these HDAC inhibitors also expanded the renal progenitor cell population. Analyses in vitro and in vivo confirmed that PTBA functions as an inhibitor of HDAC activity. Furthermore, PTBA-mediated renal progenitor cell expansion required retinoic acid signaling. In summary, these results support a mechanistic link among renal progenitor cells, HDAC, and the retinoid pathway. Whether PTBA holds promise as a therapeutic agent to promote renal regeneration requires further study. PMID:20378823

  1. Histone Deacetylases in Skeletal Development and Bone Mass Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E.; Westendorf, Jennifer J.

    2011-01-01

    The skeleton is a multifunctional and regenerative organ. Dynamic activities within the bone microenvironment necessitate and instigate rapid and temporal changes in gene expression within the cells (osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and osteocytes) responsible for skeletal maintenance. Regulation of gene expression is controlled, in part, by histone deacetylases (Hdacs), which are intracellular enzymes that directly affect chromatin structure and transcription factor activity. Key roles for several Hdacs in bone development and biology have been elucidated though in vitro and in vivo models. Recent findings suggest that clinical usage of small molecule Hdac inhibitors for conditions like epilepsy, bipolar disorder, cancer, and a multitude of other ailments may have unintended effects on bone cell populations. Here we review the progress that has been made in the last decade in understanding how Hdacs contribute to bone development and maintenance. PMID:21185361

  2. Inhibition of histone deacetylase expands the renal progenitor cell population.

    PubMed

    de Groh, Eric D; Swanhart, Lisa M; Cosentino, Chiara Cianciolo; Jackson, Rachel L; Dai, Weixiang; Kitchens, Carolyn A; Day, Billy W; Smithgall, Thomas E; Hukriede, Neil A

    2010-05-01

    One of the first hallmarks of kidney regeneration is the reactivation of genes normally required during organogenesis. Identification of chemicals with the potential to enhance this reactivation could therapeutically promote kidney regeneration. Here, we found that 4-(phenylthio)butanoic acid (PTBA) expanded the expression domains of molecular markers of kidney organogenesis in zebrafish. PTBA exhibits structural and functional similarity to the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors 4-phenylbutanoic acid and trichostatin A; treatment with these HDAC inhibitors also expanded the renal progenitor cell population. Analyses in vitro and in vivo confirmed that PTBA functions as an inhibitor of HDAC activity. Furthermore, PTBA-mediated renal progenitor cell expansion required retinoic acid signaling. In summary, these results support a mechanistic link among renal progenitor cells, HDAC, and the retinoid pathway. Whether PTBA holds promise as a therapeutic agent to promote renal regeneration requires further study. PMID:20378823

  3. The pharmaceutical potential of histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Elaut, Greetje; Rogiers, Vera; Vanhaecke, Tamara

    2007-01-01

    Protein acetylation, catalyzed by the opposing activities of histone deacetylases (HDAC) and histone acetyltransferases, is now recognized to be an important epigenetic modulator of gene transcriptional activity and cell function. As a result of the intense search for HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) during the past fifteen years, a large number of structurally divergent classes with variable potencies and isoenzyme selectivities have been identified. They occupy an important and promising position in a number of therapeutic areas. Several HDACi are under clinical evaluation as tumor cell-selective chemotherapeutics, and show great promise for the treatment of inflammatory disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, protozoal and latent viral infections, and (fibro)proliferative disorders. Recently, it was discovered that they might be used as enhancers of differentiation in stem cell therapy, and as medium supplements that stabilize the phenotype of primary cells in culture. Next to biological activity, the pharmaceutical potential of a compound is also dependent on the adequate translation of in vitro potency into in vivo efficacy whilst maintaining an acceptable safety profile. Therefore, this review will not only address the formerly mentioned applications, but will also deal with the pharmacokinetic and toxicological properties of currently available HDACi. Several compounds exert potent activities in vitro, but have been shown to be of limited therapeutic value due to rapid biotransformation, and thus poor in vivo bioavailability. The first attempts to improve the metabolic properties of HDACi have been made and will be discussed. In contrast to conventional chemotherapeutics, HDACi exert no drastic side effects at therapeutically effective doses. Although a bulk effect on histone acetylation is observed, HDACi display a remarkable tumor cell-selective toxicity. The mechanisms underlying these cell type-dependent differences in sensitivity to HDACi-mediated effects, however, remain largely elusive. PMID:17897003

  4. Regulation of Primitive Hematopoiesis by Class I Histone Deacetylases

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Rishita R.; Koniski, Anne; Shinde, Mansi; Blythe, Shelby A.; Fass, Daniel M.; Haggarty, Stephen J.; Palis, James; Klein, Peter S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Histone deacetylases (HDACs) regulate multiple developmental processes and cellular functions. However, their roles in blood development have not been determined, and in Xenopus laevis, a specific function for HDACs has yet to be identified. Here, we employed the class I selective HDAC inhibitor, valproic acid (VPA), to show that HDAC activity is required for primitive hematopoiesis. Results VPA treatment during gastrulation resulted in a complete absence of red blood cells (RBCs) in Xenopus tadpoles, but did not affect development of other mesodermal tissues, including myeloid and endothelial lineages. These effects of VPA were mimicked by Trichostatin A (TSA), a well-established pan-HDAC inhibitor, but not by valpromide, which is structurally similar to VPA but does not inhibit HDACs. VPA also caused a marked, dose-dependent loss of primitive erythroid progenitors in mouse yolk sac explants at clinically relevant concentrations. In addition, VPA treatment inhibited erythropoietic development downstream of bmp4 and gata1 in Xenopus ectodermal explants. Conclusions These findings suggest an important role for class I HDACs in primitive hematopoiesis. Our work also demonstrates that specific developmental defects associated with exposure to VPA, a significant teratogen in humans, arise through inhibition of class I HDACs. PMID:23184530

  5. Metabolism as a key to histone deacetylase inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Praveen; Williams, David E.; Ho, Emily; Dashwood, Roderick H.

    2012-01-01

    There is growing interest in the epigenetic mechanisms that are dysregulated in cancer and other human pathologies. Under this broad umbrella, modulators of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity have gained interest as both cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic agents. Of the first generation, FDA-approved HDAC inhibitors to have progressed to clinical trials, vorinostat represents a “direct acting” compound with structural features suitable for docking into the HDAC pocket, whereas romidepsin can be considered a prodrug that undergoes reductive metabolism to generate the active intermediate (a zinc-binding thiol). It is now evident that other agents, including those in the human diet, can be converted by metabolism to intermediates that affect HDAC activity. Examples are cited of short-chain fatty acids, seleno-α-keto acids, small molecule thiols, mercapturic acid metabolites, indoles, and polyphenols. The findings are discussed in the context of putative endogenous HDAC inhibitors generated by intermediary metabolism (e.g. pyruvate), the yin–yang of HDAC inhibition versus HDAC activation, and the screening assays that might be most appropriate for discovery of novel HDAC inhibitors in the future. PMID:21599534

  6. Histone Deacetylase Regulation of ATM-Mediated DNA Damage Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Thurn, K. Ted; Thomas, Scott; Raha, Paromita; Qureshi, Ian; Munster, Pamela N.

    2013-01-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a major regulator of the DNA damage response. ATM promotes the activation of BRCA1, CHK2, and p53 leading to the induction of response genes such as CDKN1A (p21), GADD45A and RRM2B that promote cell cycle arrest and DNA repair. The up-regulation of these response genes may contribute to resistance of cancer cells to genotoxic therapies. Here we show that histone deacetylases (HDACs) play a major role in mitigating the response of the ATM pathway to DNA damage. HDAC inhibition decreased ATM activation and expression, and attenuated the activation of p53 in vitro and in vivo. Select depletion of HDAC1 and HDAC2 was sufficient to modulate ATM activation, reduce GADD45A and RRM2B induction, and increase sensitivity to DNA strand breaks. The regulation of ATM by HDAC enzymes therefore suggests a vital role for HDAC1 and HDAC2 in the DNA damage response, and the potential use of the ATM pathway as a pharmacodynamic marker for combination therapies involving HDAC inhibitors. PMID:23939379

  7. Targeting macrophage Histone deacetylase 3 stabilizes atherosclerotic lesions

    PubMed Central

    Hoeksema, Marten A; Gijbels, Marion JJ; Van den Bossche, Jan; van der Velden, Saskia; Sijm, Ayestha; Neele, Annette E; Seijkens, Tom; Stger, J Lauran; Meiler, Svenja; Boshuizen, Marieke CS; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M; Levels, Johannes HM; Boon, Louis; Mullican, Shannon E; Spann, Nathanael J; Cleutjens, Jack P; Glass, Chris K; Lazar, Mitchell A; de Vries, Carlie JM; Biessen, Erik AL; Daemen, Mat JAP; Lutgens, Esther; de Winther, Menno PJ

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages are key immune cells found in atherosclerotic plaques and critically shape atherosclerotic disease development. Targeting the functional repertoire of macrophages may hold novel approaches for future atherosclerosis management. Here, we describe a previously unrecognized role of the epigenomic enzyme Histone deacetylase 3 (Hdac3) in regulating the atherosclerotic phenotype of macrophages. Using conditional knockout mice, we found that myeloid Hdac3 deficiency promotes collagen deposition in atherosclerotic lesions and thus induces a stable plaque phenotype. Also, macrophages presented a switch to anti-inflammatory wound healing characteristics and showed improved lipid handling. The pro-fibrotic phenotype was directly linked to epigenetic regulation of the Tgfb1 locus upon Hdac3 deletion, driving smooth muscle cells to increased collagen production. Moreover, in humans, HDAC3 was the sole Hdac upregulated in ruptured atherosclerotic lesions, Hdac3 associated with inflammatory macrophages, and HDAC3 expression inversely correlated with pro-fibrotic TGFB1 expression. Collectively, we show that targeting the macrophage epigenome can improve atherosclerosis outcome and we identify Hdac3 as a potential novel therapeutic target in cardiovascular disease. PMID:25007801

  8. Targeting macrophage Histone deacetylase 3 stabilizes atherosclerotic lesions.

    PubMed

    Hoeksema, Marten A; Gijbels, Marion Jj; Van den Bossche, Jan; van der Velden, Saskia; Sijm, Ayestha; Neele, Annette E; Seijkens, Tom; Stger, J Lauran; Meiler, Svenja; Boshuizen, Marieke Cs; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M; Levels, Johannes Hm; Boon, Louis; Mullican, Shannon E; Spann, Nathanael J; Cleutjens, Jack P; Glass, Chris K; Lazar, Mitchell A; de Vries, Carlie Jm; Biessen, Erik Al; Daemen, Mat Jap; Lutgens, Esther; de Winther, Menno Pj

    2014-09-01

    Macrophages are key immune cells found in atherosclerotic plaques and critically shape atherosclerotic disease development. Targeting the functional repertoire of macrophages may hold novel approaches for future atherosclerosis management. Here, we describe a previously unrecognized role of the epigenomic enzyme Histone deacetylase 3 (Hdac3) in regulating the atherosclerotic phenotype of macrophages. Using conditional knockout mice, we found that myeloid Hdac3 deficiency promotes collagen deposition in atherosclerotic lesions and thus induces a stable plaque phenotype. Also, macrophages presented a switch to anti-inflammatory wound healing characteristics and showed improved lipid handling. The pro-fibrotic phenotype was directly linked to epigenetic regulation of the Tgfb1 locus upon Hdac3 deletion, driving smooth muscle cells to increased collagen production. Moreover, in humans, HDAC3 was the sole Hdac upregulated in ruptured atherosclerotic lesions, Hdac3 associated with inflammatory macrophages, and HDAC3 expression inversely correlated with pro-fibrotic TGFB1 expression. Collectively, we show that targeting the macrophage epigenome can improve atherosclerosis outcome and we identify Hdac3 as a potential novel therapeutic target in cardiovascular disease. PMID:25007801

  9. Histone deacetylase inhibitors in hematological malignancies and solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Chun, Pusoon

    2015-06-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are emerging as promising anticancer drugs. Because aberrant activity and expression of HDACs have been implicated in various cancer types, a wide range of HDAC inhibitors are being investigated as anticancer agents. Furthermore, due to the demonstrable anticancer activity in both in vitro and in vivo studies, numerous HDAC inhibitors have undergone a rapid phase of clinical development in various cancer types, either as a monotherapy or in combination with other anticancer agents. Although preclinical trials show that HDAC inhibitors have a variety of biological effects across multiple pathways, including regulation of gene expression, inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, inhibiting angiogenesis, and regulation of DNA damage and repair, the mechanism by which the clinical activity is mediated remains unclear. Understanding the mechanisms of anticancer activity of HDAC inhibitors is essential not only for rational drug design for targeted therapies, but for the design of optimized clinical protocols. This paper describes the links between HDACs and cancer, and the underlying mechanisms of action of HDAC inhibitors against hematological malignancies and solid tumors. Further, this review presents the clinical outcomes of vorinostat, romidepsin, and belinostat, which are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of lymphomas. PMID:25653088

  10. Histone deacetylase modulates the proinflammatory and -fibrotic changes in tubulointerstitial injury.

    PubMed

    Marumo, Takeshi; Hishikawa, Keiichi; Yoshikawa, Masahiro; Hirahashi, Junichi; Kawachi, Shoji; Fujita, Toshiro

    2010-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) regulates gene expression by modifying chromatin structure. Although changes in the expression and activities of HDAC may affect the course of kidney disease, the role of HDAC in tubulointerstitial injury has not been explored. We therefore investigated the alterations in HDAC expression and determined the effects of HDAC inhibition on the tubulointerstitial injury induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction. The induction of HDAC1 and HDAC2, accompanied by a decrease in histone acetylation was observed in kidneys injured by ureteral obstruction. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that HDAC1 and HDAC2 were induced in renal tubular cells. Treatment with an HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA), attenuated macrophage infiltration and fibrotic changes in tubulointerstitial injury induced by ureteral obstruction. The induction of colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1), a chemokine known to be involved in macrophage infiltration in tubulointerstitial injury, was reduced in injured kidneys from mice treated with TSA. TSA, valproate, and the knockdown of HDAC1 or HDAC2 significantly reduced CSF-1 induced by TNF-alpha in renal tubular cells. These results suggest that tubular HDAC1 and HDAC2, induced in response to injury, may contribute to the induction of CSF-1 and the initiation of macrophage infiltration and profibrotic responses. These findings suggest a potential of HDAC inhibition therapy aimed at reducing inflammation and fibrosis in tubulointerstitial injury. PMID:19906951

  11. Selectively Targeting Prostate Cancer with Antiandrogen Equipped Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Gryder, Berkley E.; Akbashev, Michelle J.; Rood, Michael K.; Raftery, Eric D.; Meyers, Warren M.; Dillard, Paulette; Khan, Shafiq; Oyelere, Adegboyega K.

    2013-01-01

    Diverse cellular processes relevant to cancer progression are regulated by the acetylation status of proteins. Among such processes is chromatin remodeling via histone proteins, controlled by opposing histone deacetylase (HDAC) and histone acetyltransferase (HAT) enzymes. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) show great promise in preclinical cancer models, but clinical trials treating solid tumors have failed to improve patient survival. This is due in part to an inability of HDACi to effectively accumulate in cancerous cells. To address this problem we designed HDACi with secondary pharmacophores to facilitate selective accumulation in malignant cells. We present the first example of HDACi compounds targeted to prostate tumors by equipping them with the additional ability to bind the androgen receptor (AR) with non-steroidal antiandrogen moieties. Leads among these new dual-acting molecules bind to the AR and halt AR transcriptional activity at lower concentrations than clinical antiandrogens. They inhibit key isoforms of HDAC with low nanomolar potency. Fluorescent microscopy reveals varying degrees of AR nuclear localization in response to these compounds that correlates with their HDAC activity. These biological properties translate into potent anticancer activity against hormone dependent (AR+) LNCaP and to a lesser extent against hormone independent (AR−) DU145 prostate cancer, while having greatly reduced toxicity in non-cancerous cells. This illustrates that engaging multiple biological targets with a single chemical probe can achieve both potent and cell-type selective responses. PMID:24004176

  12. Histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases in B- and T-cell development, physiology and malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Haery, Leila; Thompson, Ryan C.; Gilmore, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    The development of B and T cells from hematopoietic precursors and the regulation of the functions of these immune cells are complex processes that involve highly regulated signaling pathways and transcriptional control. The signaling pathways and gene expression patterns that give rise to these developmental processes are coordinated, in part, by two opposing classes of broad-based enzymatic regulators: histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs). HATs and HDACs can modulate gene transcription by altering histone acetylation to modify chromatin structure, and by regulating the activity of non-histone substrates, including an array of immune-cell transcription factors. In addition to their role in normal B and T cells, dysregulation of HAT and HDAC activity is associated with a variety of B- and T-cell malignancies. In this review, we describe the roles of HATs and HDACs in normal B- and T-cell physiology, describe mutations and dysregulation of HATs and HDACs that are implicated lymphoma and leukemia, and discuss HAT and HDAC inhibitors that have been explored as treatment options for leukemias and lymphomas. PMID:26124919

  13. A Role for Histone Deacetylases in the Cellular and Behavioral Mechanisms Underlying Learning and Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahgoub, Melissa; Monteggia, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a family of chromatin remodeling enzymes that restrict access of transcription factors to the DNA, thereby repressing gene expression. In contrast, histone acetyltransferases (HATs) relax the chromatin structure allowing for an active chromatin state and promoting gene transcription. Accumulating data have

  14. A Role for Histone Deacetylases in the Cellular and Behavioral Mechanisms Underlying Learning and Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahgoub, Melissa; Monteggia, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a family of chromatin remodeling enzymes that restrict access of transcription factors to the DNA, thereby repressing gene expression. In contrast, histone acetyltransferases (HATs) relax the chromatin structure allowing for an active chromatin state and promoting gene transcription. Accumulating data have…

  15. Aurora B-dependent Regulation of Class IIa Histone Deacetylases by Mitotic Nuclear Localization Signal Phosphorylation*

    PubMed Central

    Guise, Amanda J.; Greco, Todd M.; Zhang, Irene Y.; Yu, Fang; Cristea, Ileana M.

    2012-01-01

    Class IIa histone deacetylases (HDACs 4/5/7/9) are transcriptional regulators with critical roles in cardiac disease and cancer. HDAC inhibitors are promising anticancer agents, and although they are known to disrupt mitotic progression, the underlying mechanisms of mitotic regulation by HDACs are not fully understood. Here we provide the first identification of histone deacetylases as substrates of Aurora B kinase (AurB). Our study identifies class IIa HDACs as a novel family of AurB targets and provides the first evidence that HDACs are temporally and spatially regulated by phosphorylation during the cell cycle. We define the precise site of AurB-mediated phosphorylation as a conserved serine within the nuclear localization signals of HDAC4, HDAC5, and HDAC9 at Ser265, Ser278, and Ser242, respectively. We establish that AurB interacts with these HDACs in vivo, and that this association increases upon disruption of 14-3-3 binding. We observe colocalization of endogenous, phosphorylated HDACs with AurB at the mitotic midzone in late anaphase and the midbody during cytokinesis, complemented by a reduction in HDAC interactions with components of the nuclear corepressor complex. We propose that AurB-dependent phosphorylation of HDACs induces sequestration within a phosphorylation gradient at the midzone, maintaining separation from re-forming nuclei and contributing to transcriptional control. PMID:22865920

  16. Histone deacetylases 1 and 2 maintain S-phase chromatin and DNA replication fork progression

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play a critical role in the maintenance of genome stability. Class I HDACs, histone deacetylase 1 and 2 (Hdac1 and Hdac2) are recruited to the replication fork by virtue of their interactions with the replication machinery. However, functions for Hdac1 and Hdac2 (Hdacs1,2) in DNA replication are not fully understood. Results Using genetic knockdown systems and novel Hdacs1,2-selective inhibitors, we found that loss of Hdacs1,2 leads to a reduction in the replication fork velocity, and an increase in replication stress response culminating in DNA damage. These observed defects are due to a direct role for Hdacs1,2 in DNA replication, as transcription of genes involved in replication was not affected in the absence of Hdacs1,2. We found that loss of Hdacs1,2 functions increases histone acetylation (ac) on chromatin in S-phase cells and affects nascent chromatin structure, as evidenced by the altered sensitivity of newly synthesized DNA to nuclease digestion. Specifically, H4K16ac, a histone modification involved in chromatin decompaction, is increased on nascent chromatin upon abolishing Hdacs1,2 activities. It was previously shown that H4K16ac interferes with the functions of SMARCA5, an ATP-dependent ISWI family chromatin remodeler. We found SMARCA5 also associates with nascent DNA and loss of SMARCA5 decreases replication fork velocity similar to the loss or inhibition of Hdacs1,2. Conclusions Our studies reveal important roles for Hdacs1,2 in nascent chromatin structure maintenance and regulation of SMARCA5 chromatin-remodeler function, which together are required for proper replication fork progression and genome stability in S-phase. PMID:23947532

  17. Non-sirtuin histone deacetylases in the control of cardiac aging.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Bradley S; McKinsey, Timothy A

    2015-06-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) catalyze the removal of acetyl-groups from lysine residues within nucelosomal histone tails and thousands of non-histone proteins. The 18 mammalian HDACs are grouped into four classes. Classes I, II and IV HDACs employ zinc as a co-factor for catalytic activity, while class III HDACs (also known as sirtuins) require NAD+ for enzymatic function. Small molecule inhibitors of zinc-dependent HDACs are efficacious in multiple pre-clinical models of pressure overload and ischemic cardiomyopathy, reducing pathological hypertrophy and fibrosis, and improving contractile function. Emerging data have revealed numerous mechanisms by which HDAC inhibitors benefit the heart, including suppression of oxidative stress and inflammation, inhibition of MAP kinase signaling, and enhancement of cardiac protein aggregate clearance and autophagic flux. Here, we summarize recent findings with zinc-dependent HDACs and HDAC inhibitors in the heart, focusing on newly described functions for distinct HDAC isoforms (e.g. HDAC2, HDAC3 and HDAC6). Potential for pharmacological HDAC inhibition as a means of treating age-related cardiac dysfunction is also discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: CV Aging. PMID:25791169

  18. Cloning and characterization of histone deacetylase from Babesia bovis.

    PubMed

    Munkhjargal, Tserendorj; Aboulaila, Mahmoud; Ueno, Akio; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Nakano, Yuka; Yokoyama, Miki; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Igarashi, Ikuo

    2012-12-21

    The effect of inhibitors of histone deacetylase (HDAC) on Apicomplexa has been previously reported with the discovery of apicidin, a cyclic tetrapeptide having broad-spectrum antiparasitic activity. In the current study, we expressed Babesia bovis (B. bovis) recombinant-HDAC 3 (rBbHDAC3) as a GST-fusion protein in Escherichia coli (E. coli) and found that it was antigenic. An antiserum against the recombinant protein was generated in mice. The mice serum demonstrated the presence of HDAC in B. bovis by a Western blot assay. The murine anti-rBbHDAC3 reacted with B. bovis, Babesia bigemina (B. bigemina), Theileria equi (T. equi), and Babeisa caballi (B. caballi) merozoites in the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Furthermore, the HDAC-enzymatic activity of the rBbHDAC3 protein was evaluated by a colorimetric assay. The enzymatic activity of rBbHDAC3 was inhibited by 100 ng/ml of apicidin, and the inhibitory effect of apicidin was dose-dependent. The inhibition of BbHDAC3 by apicidin was confirmed by Western blot, IFAT, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Finally, apicidin potentially inhibited the in vitro growth of Babesia parasites. The lower IC(50) values of apicidin against apicomplexan parasites than those of mammalian cells point to HDAC as an excellent drug target. The findings of the present study indicate that BbHDAC3 is a potential target for apicidin and might be a promising target for the development of novel anti-babesial drugs. PMID:22818786

  19. The Metabolic Regulator Histone Deacetylase 9 Contributes to Glucose Homeostasis Abnormality Induced by Hepatitis C Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jizheng; Wang, Ning; Dong, Mei; Guo, Min; Zhao, Yang; Zhuo, Zhiyong; Zhang, Chao; Chi, Xiumei; Pan, Yu; Jiang, Jing; Tang, Hong; Niu, Junqi; Yang, Dongliang; Li, Zhong; Han, Xiao; Wang, Qian; Chen, Xinwen

    2015-12-01

    Class IIa histone deacetylases (HDACs), such as HDAC4, HDAC5, and HDAC7, provide critical mechanisms for regulating glucose homeostasis. Here we report that HDAC9, another class IIa HDAC, regulates hepatic gluconeogenesis via deacetylation of a Forkhead box O (FoxO) family transcription factor, FoxO1, together with HDAC3. Specifically, HDAC9 expression can be strongly induced upon hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. HCV-induced HDAC9 upregulation enhances gluconeogenesis by promoting the expression of gluconeogenic genes, including phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase, indicating a major role for HDAC9 in the development of HCV-associated exaggerated gluconeogenic responses. Moreover, HDAC9 expression levels and gluconeogenic activities were elevated in livers from HCV-infected patients and persistent HCV-infected mice, emphasizing the clinical relevance of these results. Our results suggest HDAC9 is involved in glucose metabolism, HCV-induced abnormal glucose homeostasis, and type 2 diabetes. PMID:26420860

  20. Cloning, expression, and biochemical characterization of a new histone deacetylase-like protein from Thermus caldophilus GK24

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Young Mi; Kim, You Sun; Kim, Dooil; Lee, Dae Sil; Kwon, Ho Jeong . E-mail: kwonhj@yonsei.ac.kr

    2007-09-14

    Histone deactylases (HDACs) are members of an ancient enzyme family found in eukaryotes as well as in prokaryotes such as archaebacteria and eubacteria. We here report a new histone deacetylase (Tca HDAC) that was cloned from the genomic library of Thermus caldophilus GK24 based on homology analysis with human histone deacetylase1 (HDAC1). The gene contains an open reading frame encoding 375 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 42,188 Da and the deduced amino acid sequence of Tca HDAC showed a 31% homology to human HDAC1. The Tca HDAC gene was over-expressed in Escherichia coli using a Glutathione-S transferase (GST) fusion vector (pGEX-4T-1) and the purified protein showed a deacetylase activity toward the fluorogenic substrate for HDAC. Moreover, the enzyme activity was inhibited by trichostatin A, a specific HDAC inhibitor, in a dose-dependent manner. Optimum temperature and pH of the enzyme was found to be approximately 70 {sup o}C and 7.0, respectively. In addition, zinc ion is required for catalytic activity of the enzyme. Together, these data demonstrate that Tca HDAC is a new histone deacetylase-like enzyme from T. caldophilus GK24 and will be a useful tool for deciphering the role of HDAC in the prokaryote and development of new biochemical reactions.

  1. Subcellular Localization of Class I Histone Deacetylases in the Developing Xenopus tectum

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xia; Ruan, Hangze; Li, Xia; Qin, Liming; Tao, Yi; Qi, Xianjie; Gao, Juanmei; Gan, Lin; Duan, Shumin; Shen, Wanhua

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are thought to localize in the nucleus to regulate gene transcription and play pivotal roles in neurogenesis, apoptosis, and plasticity. However, the subcellular distribution of class I HDACs in the developing brain remains unclear. Here, we show that HDAC1 and HDAC2 are located in both the mitochondria and the nucleus in the Xenopus laevis stage 34 tectum and are mainly restricted to the nucleus following further brain development. HDAC3 is widely present in the mitochondria, nucleus, and cytoplasm during early tectal development and is mainly distributed in the nucleus in stage 45 tectum. In contrast, HDAC8 is broadly located in the mitochondria, nucleus, and cytoplasm during tectal development. These data demonstrate that HDAC1, HDAC2, and HDAC3 are transiently localized in the mitochondria and that the subcellular distribution of class I HDACs in the Xenopus tectum is heterogeneous. Furthermore, we observed that spherical mitochondria accumulate in the cytoplasm at earlier stages, whereas elongated mitochondria are evenly distributed in the tectum at later stages. The activity of histone acetylation (H4K12) remains low in mitochondria during tectal development. Pharmacological blockades of HDACs using a broad spectrum HDAC inhibitor of Trichostatin A (TSA) or specific class I HDAC inhibitors of MS-275 and MGCD0103 decrease the number of mitochondria in the tectum at stage 34. These findings highlight a link between the subcellular distribution of class I HDACs and mitochondrial dynamics in the developing optic tectum of Xenopus laevis. PMID:26793062

  2. Hypothalamic leptin action is mediated by histone deacetylase 5

    PubMed Central

    Kabra, Dhiraj G.; Pfuhlmann, Katrin; García-Cáceres, Cristina; Schriever, Sonja C.; Casquero García, Veronica; Kebede, Adam Fiseha; Fuente-Martin, Esther; Trivedi, Chitrang; Heppner, Kristy; Uhlenhaut, N. Henriette; Legutko, Beata; Kabra, Uma D.; Gao, Yuanqing; Yi, Chun-Xia; Quarta, Carmelo; Clemmensen, Christoffer; Finan, Brian; Müller, Timo D.; Meyer, Carola W.; Paez-Pereda, Marcelo; Stemmer, Kerstin; Woods, Stephen C.; Perez-Tilve, Diego; Schneider, Robert; Olson, Eric N.; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Pfluger, Paul T.

    2016-01-01

    Hypothalamic leptin signalling has a key role in food intake and energy-balance control and is often impaired in obese individuals. Here we identify histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) as a regulator of leptin signalling and organismal energy balance. Global HDAC5 KO mice have increased food intake and greater diet-induced obesity when fed high-fat diet. Pharmacological and genetic inhibition of HDAC5 activity in the mediobasal hypothalamus increases food intake and modulates pathways implicated in leptin signalling. We show HDAC5 directly regulates STAT3 localization and transcriptional activity via reciprocal STAT3 deacetylation at Lys685 and phosphorylation at Tyr705. In vivo, leptin sensitivity is substantially impaired in HDAC5 loss-of-function mice. Hypothalamic HDAC5 overexpression improves leptin action and partially protects against HFD-induced leptin resistance and obesity. Overall, our data suggest that hypothalamic HDAC5 activity is a regulator of leptin signalling that adapts food intake and body weight to our dietary environment. PMID:26923837

  3. Hypothalamic leptin action is mediated by histone deacetylase 5.

    PubMed

    Kabra, Dhiraj G; Pfuhlmann, Katrin; García-Cáceres, Cristina; Schriever, Sonja C; Casquero García, Veronica; Kebede, Adam Fiseha; Fuente-Martin, Esther; Trivedi, Chitrang; Heppner, Kristy; Uhlenhaut, N Henriette; Legutko, Beata; Kabra, Uma D; Gao, Yuanqing; Yi, Chun-Xia; Quarta, Carmelo; Clemmensen, Christoffer; Finan, Brian; Müller, Timo D; Meyer, Carola W; Paez-Pereda, Marcelo; Stemmer, Kerstin; Woods, Stephen C; Perez-Tilve, Diego; Schneider, Robert; Olson, Eric N; Tschöp, Matthias H; Pfluger, Paul T

    2016-01-01

    Hypothalamic leptin signalling has a key role in food intake and energy-balance control and is often impaired in obese individuals. Here we identify histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) as a regulator of leptin signalling and organismal energy balance. Global HDAC5 KO mice have increased food intake and greater diet-induced obesity when fed high-fat diet. Pharmacological and genetic inhibition of HDAC5 activity in the mediobasal hypothalamus increases food intake and modulates pathways implicated in leptin signalling. We show HDAC5 directly regulates STAT3 localization and transcriptional activity via reciprocal STAT3 deacetylation at Lys685 and phosphorylation at Tyr705. In vivo, leptin sensitivity is substantially impaired in HDAC5 loss-of-function mice. Hypothalamic HDAC5 overexpression improves leptin action and partially protects against HFD-induced leptin resistance and obesity. Overall, our data suggest that hypothalamic HDAC5 activity is a regulator of leptin signalling that adapts food intake and body weight to our dietary environment. PMID:26923837

  4. Intracellular trafficking of histone deacetylase 4 regulates long-term memory formation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Han; Cheng, Li-Cheng; Pan, Fei-Yan; Xue, Bin; Wang, Da-Yong; Chen, Zhong; Li, Chao-Jun

    2011-06-01

    Histone acetylation is important for gene transcription, which is controlled by the balance between two kinds of opposing enzymes: histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases (HDACs). HDACs repress gene transcription by decreasing histone acetylation levels. Our hypothesis was that shuttling of Class II HDACs, such as HDAC4, between the nucleus and cytoplasm is critical for its function. We constructed mutants of mammalian HDAC4 that had different cellular locations and checked their function during memory formation using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model. The deletion of hda4, a homolog of HDAC4, was able to enhance learning and long-term memory (LTM) in a thermotaxis model. Transgenic experiments showed that mammalian wild-type HDAC4 rescued the phenotype of hda4-deleted worms but impaired LTM formation in wild-type worms. The cytosol-localized HDAC4 mutant was not able to alter the phenotype of knock-out worms but led to enhanced LTM formation in wild-type worms similar to hda4-deletion mutants. Constitutive nuclear localization of HDAC4 rescued the phenotype of deletion worms similar to wild-type HDAC4 but had no effect on wild-type worms. These results support our hypothesis that HDAC4's biological function is regulated by its intracellular distribution. PMID:21542139

  5. Comparative Modeling and Benchmarking Data Sets for Human Histone Deacetylases and Sirtuin Families

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Jie; Tilahun, Ermias Lemma; Kebede, Eyob Hailu; Reid, Terry-Elinor; Zhang, Liangren; Wang, Xiang Simon

    2015-01-01

    Histone Deacetylases (HDACs) are an important class of drug targets for the treatment of cancers, neurodegenerative diseases and other types of diseases. Virtual screening (VS) has become fairly effective approaches for drug discovery of novel and highly selective Histone Deacetylases Inhibitors (HDACIs). To facilitate the process, we constructed the Maximal Unbiased Benchmarking Data Sets for HDACs (MUBD-HDACs) using our recently published methods that were originally developed for building unbiased benchmarking sets for ligand-based virtual screening (LBVS). The MUBD-HDACs covers all 4 Classes including Class III (Sirtuins family) and 14 HDACs isoforms, composed of 631 inhibitors and 24,609 unbiased decoys. Its ligand sets have been validated extensively as chemically diverse, while the decoy sets were shown to be property-matching with ligands and maximal unbiased in terms of artificial enrichment and analogue bias. We also conducted comparative studies with DUD-E and DEKOIS 2.0 sets against HDAC2 and HDAC8 targets, and demonstrate that our MUBD-HDACs is unique in that it can be applied unbiasedly to both LBVS and SBVS approaches. In addition, we defined a novel metric, i.e. NLBScore, to detect the 2D bias and LBVS favorable effect within the benchmarking sets. In summary, MUBD-HDACs is the only comprehensive and maximal-unbiased benchmark data sets for HDACs (including Sirtuins) that is available so far. MUBD-HDACs is freely available at http://www.xswlab.org/. PMID:25633490

  6. Ex vivo response to histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors of the HIV long terminal repeat (LTR) derived from HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hao K; Gray, Lachlan R; Wightman, Fiona; Ellenberg, Paula; Khoury, Gabriela; Cheng, Wan-Jung; Mota, Talia M; Wesselingh, Steve; Gorry, Paul R; Cameron, Paul U; Churchill, Melissa J; Lewin, Sharon R

    2014-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) can induce human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transcription from the HIV long terminal repeat (LTR). However, ex vivo and in vivo responses to HDACi are variable and the activity of HDACi in cells other than T-cells have not been well characterised. Here, we developed a novel assay to determine the activity of HDACi on patient-derived HIV LTRs in different cell types. HIV LTRs from integrated virus were amplified using triple-nested Alu-PCR from total memory CD4+ T-cells (CD45RO+) isolated from HIV-infected patients prior to and following suppressive antiretroviral therapy. NL4-3 or patient-derived HIV LTRs were cloned into the chromatin forming episomal vector pCEP4, and the effect of HDACi investigated in the astrocyte and epithelial cell lines SVG and HeLa, respectively. There were no significant differences in the sequence of the HIV LTRs isolated from CD4+ T-cells prior to and after 18 months of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). We found that in both cell lines, the HDACi panobinostat, trichostatin A, vorinostat and entinostat activated patient-derived HIV LTRs to similar levels seen with NL4-3 and all patient derived isolates had similar sensitivity to maximum HDACi stimulation. We observed a marked difference in the maximum fold induction of luciferase by HDACi in HeLa and SVG, suggesting that the effect of HDACi may be influenced by the cellular environment. Finally, we observed significant synergy in activation of the LTR with vorinostat and the viral protein Tat. Together, our results suggest that the LTR sequence of integrated virus is not a major determinant of a functional response to an HDACi. PMID:25409334

  7. Ex Vivo Response to Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) Inhibitors of the HIV Long Terminal Repeat (LTR) Derived from HIV-Infected Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hao K.; Gray, Lachlan R.; Wightman, Fiona; Ellenberg, Paula; Khoury, Gabriela; Cheng, Wan-Jung; Mota, Talia M.; Wesselingh, Steve; Gorry, Paul R.; Cameron, Paul U.

    2014-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) can induce human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transcription from the HIV long terminal repeat (LTR). However, ex vivo and in vivo responses to HDACi are variable and the activity of HDACi in cells other than T-cells have not been well characterised. Here, we developed a novel assay to determine the activity of HDACi on patient-derived HIV LTRs in different cell types. HIV LTRs from integrated virus were amplified using triple-nested Alu-PCR from total memory CD4+ T-cells (CD45RO+) isolated from HIV-infected patients prior to and following suppressive antiretroviral therapy. NL4-3 or patient-derived HIV LTRs were cloned into the chromatin forming episomal vector pCEP4, and the effect of HDACi investigated in the astrocyte and epithelial cell lines SVG and HeLa, respectively. There were no significant differences in the sequence of the HIV LTRs isolated from CD4+ T-cells prior to and after 18 months of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). We found that in both cell lines, the HDACi panobinostat, trichostatin A, vorinostat and entinostat activated patient-derived HIV LTRs to similar levels seen with NL4-3 and all patient derived isolates had similar sensitivity to maximum HDACi stimulation. We observed a marked difference in the maximum fold induction of luciferase by HDACi in HeLa and SVG, suggesting that the effect of HDACi may be influenced by the cellular environment. Finally, we observed significant synergy in activation of the LTR with vorinostat and the viral protein Tat. Together, our results suggest that the LTR sequence of integrated virus is not a major determinant of a functional response to an HDACi. PMID:25409334

  8. Histone Deacetylase 3 Is Required for T Cell Maturation.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Fan-Chi; Belmonte, Paul J; Constans, Megan M; Chen, Meibo W; McWilliams, Douglas C; Hiebert, Scott W; Shapiro, Virginia Smith

    2015-08-15

    Recent thymic emigrants are newly generated T cells that need to undergo postthymic maturation to gain functional competency and enter the long-lived naive T cell pool. The mechanism of T cell maturation remains incompletely understood. Previously, we demonstrated that the transcriptional repressor NKAP is required for T cell maturation. Because NKAP associates with histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3), we examined whether HDAC3 is also required for T cell maturation. Although thymic populations are similar in CD4-cre HDAC3 conditional knockout mice compared with wild-type mice, the peripheral numbers of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells are dramatically decreased. In the periphery, the majority of HDAC3-deficient naive T cells are recent thymic emigrants, indicating a block in T cell maturation. CD55 upregulation during T cell maturation is substantially decreased in HDAC3-deficient T cells. Consistent with a block in functional maturation, HDAC3-deficient peripheral T cells have a defect in TNF licensing after TCR/CD28 stimulation. CD4-cre HDAC3 conditional knockout mice do not have a defect in intrathymic migration, thymic egress, T cell survival, or homeostasis. In the periphery, similar to immature NKAP-deficient peripheral T cells, HDAC3-deficient peripheral T cells were bound by IgM and complement proteins, leading to the elimination of these cells. In addition, HDAC3-deficient T cells display decreases in the sialic acid modifications on the cell surface that recruit natural IgM to initiate the classical complement pathway. Therefore, HDAC3 is required for T cell maturation. PMID:26163592

  9. Computational design of a time-dependent histone deacetylase 2 selective inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jingwei; Li, Min; Chen, Nanhao; Wang, Shenglong; Luo, Hai-Bin; Zhang, Yingkai; Wu, Ruibo

    2015-03-20

    Development of isoform-selective histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors is of great biological and medical interest. Among 11 zinc-dependent HDAC isoforms, it is particularly challenging to achieve isoform inhibition selectivity between HDAC1 and HDAC2 due to their very high structural similarities. In this work, by developing and applying a novel de novo reaction-mechanism-based inhibitor design strategy to exploit the reactivity difference, we have discovered the first HDAC2-selective inhibitor, β-hydroxymethyl chalcone. Our bioassay experiments show that this new compound has a unique time-dependent selective inhibition on HDAC2, leading to about 20-fold isoform-selectivity against HDAC1. Furthermore, our ab initio QM/MM molecular dynamics simulations, a state-of-the-art approach to study reactions in biological systems, have elucidated how the β-hydroxymethyl chalcone can achieve the distinct time-dependent inhibition toward HDAC2. PMID:25546141

  10. Histone Deacetylases in Bone Development and Skeletal Disorders.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Elizabeth W; Carpio, Lomeli R; van Wijnen, Andre J; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; Westendorf, Jennifer J

    2015-10-01

    Histone deacetylases (Hdacs) are conserved enzymes that remove acetyl groups from lysine side chains in histones and other proteins. Eleven of the 18 Hdacs encoded by the human and mouse genomes depend on Zn(2+) for enzymatic activity, while the other 7, the sirtuins (Sirts), require NAD2(+). Collectively, Hdacs and Sirts regulate numerous cellular and mitochondrial processes including gene transcription, DNA repair, protein stability, cytoskeletal dynamics, and signaling pathways to affect both development and aging. Of clinical relevance, Hdacs inhibitors are United States Food and Drug Administration-approved cancer therapeutics and are candidate therapies for other common diseases including arthritis, diabetes, epilepsy, heart disease, HIV infection, neurodegeneration, and numerous aging-related disorders. Hdacs and Sirts influence skeletal development, maintenance of mineral density and bone strength by affecting intramembranous and endochondral ossification, as well as bone resorption. With few exceptions, inhibition of Hdac or Sirt activity though either loss-of-function mutations or prolonged chemical inhibition has negative and/or toxic effects on skeletal development and bone mineral density. Specifically, Hdac/Sirt suppression causes abnormalities in physiological development such as craniofacial dimorphisms, short stature, and bone fragility that are associated with several human syndromes or diseases. In contrast, activation of Sirts may protect the skeleton from aging and immobilization-related bone loss. This knowledge may prolong healthspan and prevent adverse events caused by epigenetic therapies that are entering the clinical realm at an unprecedented rate. In this review, we summarize the general properties of Hdacs/Sirts and the research that has revealed their essential functions in bone forming cells (e.g., osteoblasts and chondrocytes) and bone resorbing osteoclasts. Finally, we offer predictions on future research in this area and the utility of this knowledge for orthopedic applications and bone tissue engineering. PMID:26378079

  11. Dysregulation of Histone Acetyltransferases and Deacetylases in Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yonggang; Miao, Xiao; Liu, Yucheng; Li, Fengsheng; Liu, Quan; Sun, Jian; Cai, Lu

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide despite advances in its prevention and management. A comprehensive understanding of factors which contribute to CVD is required in order to develop more effective treatment options. Dysregulation of epigenetic posttranscriptional modifications of histones in chromatin is thought to be associated with the pathology of many disease models, including CVD. Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and deacetylases (HDACs) are regulators of histone lysine acetylation. Recent studies have implicated a fundamental role of reversible protein acetylation in the regulation of CVDs such as hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, diabetic cardiomyopathy, coronary artery disease, arrhythmia, and heart failure. This reversible acetylation is governed by enzymes that HATs add or HDACs remove acetyl groups respectively. New evidence has revealed that histone acetylation regulators blunt cardiovascular and related disease states in certain cellular processes including myocyte hypertrophy, apoptosis, fibrosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation. The accumulating evidence of the detrimental role of histone acetylation in cardiac disease combined with the cardioprotective role of histone acetylation regulators suggests that the use of histone acetylation regulators may serve as a novel approach to treating the millions of patients afflicted by cardiac diseases worldwide. PMID:24693336

  12. Loss of histone deacetylase 2 improves working memory and accelerates extinction learning

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Michael J.; Mahgoub, Melissa; Na, Elisa S.; Pranav, Heena; Monteggia, Lisa. M.

    2013-01-01

    Histone acetylation and deacetylation can be dynamically regulated in response to environmental stimuli and play important roles in learning and memory. Pharmacological inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs) improves performance in learning tasks, however these classical agents are pan-HDAC inhibitors and their use makes it difficult to determine the roles of specific HDACs in cognitive function. We took a genetic approach using mice lacking the class I HDACs, HDAC1 or HDAC2, in postmitotic forebrain neurons to investigate the specificity or functional redundancy of these HDACs in learning and synaptic plasticity. We show that selective knockout of HDAC2 led to a robust acceleration of the extinction rate of conditioned fear responses and a conditioned taste aversion as well as enhanced performance in an attentional set-shifting task. HDAC2 knockout had no impact on episodic memory or motor learning suggesting that the effects are task-dependent, with the predominant impact of HDAC2 inhibition being an enhancement in an animals ability to rapidly adapt its behavioral strategy as a result of changes in associative contingencies. Our results demonstrate that the loss of HDAC2 improves associative learning, with no effect in non-associative learning tasks, suggesting a specific role for HDAC2 in particular types of learning. HDAC2 may be an intriguing target for cognitive and psychiatric disorders that are characterized by an inability to inhibit behavioral responsiveness to maladaptive or no longer relevant associations. PMID:23575838

  13. Histone deacetylase inhibitors impair antibacterial defenses of macrophages.

    PubMed

    Mombelli, Matteo; Lugrin, Jrme; Rubino, Ivana; Chanson, Anne-Laure; Giddey, Marlyse; Calandra, Thierry; Roger, Thierry

    2011-11-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) control gene expression by deacetylating histones and nonhistone proteins. HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) are powerful anticancer drugs that exert anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. We recently reported a proof-of-concept study demonstrating that HDACi increase susceptibility to bacterial infections in vivo. Yet, still little is known about the effects of HDACi on antimicrobial innate immune defenses. Here we show that HDACi belonging to different chemical classes inhibit at multiple levels the response of macrophages to bacterial infection. HDACi reduce the phagocytosis and the killing of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by macrophages. In line with these findings, HDACi decrease the expression of phagocytic receptors and inhibit bacteria-induced production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species by macrophages. Consistently, HDACi impair the expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase subunits and inducible nitric oxide synthase. These data indicate that HDACi have a strong impact on critical antimicrobial defense mechanisms in macrophages. PMID:21921209

  14. Molecular cloning and nuclear localization of a histone deacetylase homologue in Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Joshi, M B; Lin, D T; Chiang, P H; Goldman, N D; Fujioka, H; Aikawa, M; Syin, C

    1999-03-15

    Reversible acetylation of core histones plays an important role in transcriptional regulation, cell cycle progression and developmental events. The acetylation state of histones is controlled by a dynamic equilibrium between activities of histone acetylase and deacetylase enzymes. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) was recently suggested to be the target of a fungus-derived antiprotozoal agent exhibiting structural similarity to known HDAC inhibitors. We have initiated a study of HDAC of human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, to evaluate its potential as the target for novel antimalarials and its role in parasite development. We have isolated HDAC1 gene from the P. falciparum genomic and cDNA libraries. The nucleotide sequence contains no intervening sequence and its open reading frame (ORF) codes for a protein of 449 amino acid residues. We have named the protein, PfHDAC1, as the sequence shows significant homology to yeast, human and other eukaryotic HDACs. Northern blot analysis of the total RNA from different asexual and sexual stages of the parasite reveals the presence of single mRNA transcript, which is predominantly expressed in mature asexual blood stages and in gametocytes. Antiserum raised against a carboxyl terminal peptide immunoprecipitated an in vitro translated P. falciparum HDAC gene product and recognized an approximately 50 kDa protein in the Triton X-100 insoluble fraction of parasites. Immunoelectron microscopy analysis showed majority of the protein localized in the nucleus of P. falciparum. To our knowledge, this is the first HDAC gene isolated from the malaria parasite. PMID:10215020

  15. Histone deacetylase inhibitors: a review on class-I specific inhibition.

    PubMed

    Behera, Jagannath; Jayprakash, Venkatesan; Sinha, Barij Nayan

    2015-01-01

    Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) is an established and validated target for the treatment of cancer. It has been attempted to present a comprehensive review on the inhibitors for Class-I Histone Deacetylase enzyme family, reported during the period from 2002 to 2012. This review has summarized the inhibitors, based on their specificity towards different isoforms within this class. Further various recent United State (US) patents and the HDAC inhibitors, used singly or in combination undergoing clinical trial as anticancer agents have been reviewed. Three such inhibitors SAHA, Romidepsin and Belinostat have already been approved by the US-FDA for the treatment of cancer. PMID:25994050

  16. Curbing autophagy and histone deacetylases to kill cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gammoh, Noor; Marks, Paul A; Jiang, Xuejun

    2012-10-01

    Cells respond to cytotoxicity by activating a variety of signal transduction pathways. One pathway frequently upregulated during cytotoxic response is macroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy). Previously, we demonstrated that pan-histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, such as the anticancer agent suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, Vorinostat), can induce autophagy. In this study, we show that HDAC inhibition triggers autophagy by suppressing MTOR and activating the autophagic kinase ULK1. Furthermore, autophagy inhibition can sensitize cells to both apoptotic and nonapoptotic cell death induced by SAHA, suggesting the therapeutic potential of autophagy targeting in combination with SAHA therapy. This study also raised a series of questions: What is the role of HDACs in regulating autophagy? Do individual HDACs have distinct functions in autophagy? How do HDACs regulate the nutrient-sensing kinase MTOR? Since SAHA-induced nonapoptotic cell death is not driven by autophagy, what then is the mechanism underlying the apoptosis-independent death? Tackling these questions should lead to a better understanding of autophagy and HDAC biology and contribute to the development of novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:22894919

  17. Requirement of a novel splicing variant of human histone deacetylase 6 for TGF-{beta}1-mediated gene activation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuang, Yan; Nguyen, Hong T.; Lasky, Joseph A.; Cao, Subing; Li, Cui; Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Hunan 41008 ; Hu, Jiyao; Guo, Xinyue; Burow, Matthew E.; Shan, Bin

    2010-02-19

    Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) belongs to the family of class IIb HDACs and predominantly deacetylates non-histone proteins in the cytoplasm via the C-terminal deacetylase domain of its two tandem deacetylase domains. HDAC6 modulates fundamental cellular processes via deacetylation of {alpha}-tubulin, cortactin, molecular chaperones, and other peptides. Our previous study indicates that HDAC6 mediates TGF-{beta}1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in A549 cells. In the current study, we identify a novel splicing variant of human HDAC6, hHDAC6p114. The hHDAC6p114 mRNA arises from incomplete splicing and encodes a truncated isoform of the hHDAC6p114 protein of 114 kDa when compared to the major isoform hHDAC6p131. The hHDAC6p114 protein lacks the first 152 amino acids from N-terminus in the hHDAC6p131 protein, which harbors a nuclear export signal peptide and 76 amino acids of the N-terminal deacetylase domain. hHDAC6p114 is intact in its deacetylase activity against {alpha}-tubulin. The expression hHDAC6p114 is elevated in a MCF-7 derivative that exhibits an EMT-like phenotype. Moreover, hHDAC6p114 is required for TGF-{beta}1-activated gene expression associated with EMT in A549 cells. Taken together, our results implicate that expression and function of hHDAC6p114 is differentially regulated when compared to hHDAC6p131.

  18. Histone Deacetylase 9 Activates γ-Globin Gene Expression in Primary Erythroid Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Muralidhar, Shalini A.; Ramakrishnan, Valya; Kalra, Inderdeep S.; Li, Wei; Pace, Betty S.

    2011-01-01

    Strategies to induce fetal hemoglobin (HbF) synthesis for the treatment of β-hemoglobinopathies probably involve protein modifications by histone deacetylases (HDACs) that mediate γ-globin gene regulation. However, the role of individual HDACs in globin gene expression is not very well understood; thus, the focus of our study was to identify HDACs involved in γ-globin activation. K562 erythroleukemia cells treated with the HbF inducers hemin, trichostatin A, and sodium butyrate had significantly reduced mRNA levels of HDAC9 and its splice variant histone deacetylase-related protein. Subsequently, HDAC9 gene knockdown produced dose-dependent γ-globin gene silencing over an 80–320 nm range. Enforced expression with the pTarget-HDAC9 vector produced a dose-dependent 2.5-fold increase in γ-globin mRNA (p < 0.05). Furthermore, ChIP assays showed HDAC9 binding in vivo in the upstream Gγ-globin gene promoter region. To determine the physiological relevance of these findings, human primary erythroid progenitors were treated with HDAC9 siRNA; we observed 40 and 60% γ-globin gene silencing in day 11 (early) and day 28 (late) progenitors. Moreover, enforced HDAC9 expression increased γ-globin mRNA levels by 2.5-fold with a simultaneous 7-fold increase in HbF. Collectively, these data support a positive role for HDAC9 in γ-globin gene regulation. PMID:21078662

  19. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Enhance Memory and Synaptic Plasticity via CREB: CBP-Dependent Transcriptional Activation

    PubMed Central

    Vecsey, Christopher G.; Hawk, Joshua D.; Lattal, K. Matthew; Stein, Joel M.; Fabian, Sara A.; Attner, Michelle A.; Cabrera, Sara M.; McDonough, Conor B.; Brindle, Paul K.; Abel, Ted; Wood, Marcelo A.

    2010-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors increase histone acetylation and enhance both memory and synaptic plasticity. The current model for the action of HDAC inhibitors assumes that they alter gene expression globally and thus affect memory processes in a nonspecific manner. Here, we show that the enhancement of hippocampus-dependent memory and hippocampal synaptic plasticity by HDAC inhibitors is mediated by the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and the recruitment of the transcriptional coactivator and histone acetyltransferase CREB-binding protein (CBP) via the CREB-binding domain of CBP. Furthermore, we show that the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A does not globally alter gene expression but instead increases the expression of specific genes during memory consolidation. Our results suggest that HDAC inhibitors enhance memory processes by the activation of key genes regulated by the CREB:CBP transcriptional complex. PMID:17553985

  20. Histone deacetylase inhibitors: a novel class of therapeutic agents in diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Lee, H B; Noh, H; Seo, J Y; Yu, M R; Ha, H

    2007-08-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are currently being tested as anticancer agents in clinical trials. Chromatin remodeling, such as through histone acetylation, is a fundamental phenomenon in eukaryotic cell biology, bearing implications to numerous physiological and pathological phenomena. Here, we discuss recent data from our own laboratory and those of others demonstrating antifibrotic and renoprotective effect of HDAC inhibitors in diabetic kidneys, and the possible mechanisms including the role of reactive oxygen species. HDAC inhibitors may prove to be a novel class of multitarget agents in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:17653213

  1. Inhibition of histone deacetylase 3 causes replication stress in cutaneous T cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Wells, Christina E; Bhaskara, Srividya; Stengel, Kristy R; Zhao, Yue; Sirbu, Bianca; Chagot, Benjamin; Cortez, David; Khabele, Dineo; Chazin, Walter J; Cooper, Andrew; Jacques, Vincent; Rusche, James; Eischen, Christine M; McGirt, Laura Y; Hiebert, Scott W

    2013-01-01

    Given the fundamental roles of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in the regulation of DNA repair, replication, transcription and chromatin structure, it is fitting that therapies targeting HDAC activities are now being explored as anti-cancer agents. In fact, two histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs), SAHA and Depsipeptide, are FDA approved for single-agent treatment of refractory cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL). An important target of these HDIs, histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3), regulates processes such as DNA repair, metabolism, and tumorigenesis through the regulation of chromatin structure and gene expression. Here we show that HDAC3 inhibition using a first in class selective inhibitor, RGFP966, resulted in decreased cell growth in CTCL cell lines due to increased apoptosis that was associated with DNA damage and impaired S phase progression. Through isolation of proteins on nascent DNA (iPOND), we found that HDAC3 was associated with chromatin and is present at and around DNA replication forks. DNA fiber labeling analysis showed that inhibition of HDAC3 resulted in a significant reduction in DNA replication fork velocity within the first hour of drug treatment. These results suggest that selective inhibition of HDAC3 could be useful in treatment of CTCL by disrupting DNA replication of the rapidly cycling tumor cells, ultimately leading to cell death. PMID:23894374

  2. Inhibition of Histone Deacetylase 3 Causes Replication Stress in Cutaneous T Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Christina E.; Bhaskara, Srividya; Stengel, Kristy R.; Zhao, Yue; Sirbu, Bianca; Chagot, Benjamin; Cortez, David; Khabele, Dineo; Chazin, Walter J.; Cooper, Andrew; Jacques, Vincent; Rusche, James; Eischen, Christine M.; McGirt, Laura Y.; Hiebert, Scott W.

    2013-01-01

    Given the fundamental roles of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in the regulation of DNA repair, replication, transcription and chromatin structure, it is fitting that therapies targeting HDAC activities are now being explored as anti-cancer agents. In fact, two histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs), SAHA and Depsipeptide, are FDA approved for single-agent treatment of refractory cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL). An important target of these HDIs, histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3), regulates processes such as DNA repair, metabolism, and tumorigenesis through the regulation of chromatin structure and gene expression. Here we show that HDAC3 inhibition using a first in class selective inhibitor, RGFP966, resulted in decreased cell growth in CTCL cell lines due to increased apoptosis that was associated with DNA damage and impaired S phase progression. Through isolation of proteins on nascent DNA (iPOND), we found that HDAC3 was associated with chromatin and is present at and around DNA replication forks. DNA fiber labeling analysis showed that inhibition of HDAC3 resulted in a significant reduction in DNA replication fork velocity within the first hour of drug treatment. These results suggest that selective inhibition of HDAC3 could be useful in treatment of CTCL by disrupting DNA replication of the rapidly cycling tumor cells, ultimately leading to cell death. PMID:23894374

  3. Preclinical studies on histone deacetylase inhibitors as therapeutic reagents for endometrial and ovarian cancers

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Brahma N; Zhou, Hongyuan; Li, Jinping; Tipton, Tracy; Wang, Bin; Shao, Guo; Gilbert, E Nickolas; Li, Qiang; Jiang, Shi-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) remove acetyl groups from lysine residues of histones and the deacetylation allows for tighter electrostatic interactions between DNA and histones, leading to a more compact chromatin conformation with limited access for transactivators and the suppression of transcription. HDAC mRNA and protein overexpression was observed in endometrial and ovarian cancers. Numerous in vitro studies have shown that HDAC inhibitors, through their actions on histone and nonhistone proteins, are able to reactivate the tumor suppressor genes, inhibit cell cycle progression and induce cell apoptosis in endometrial and ovarian cancer cell cultures. Results from mou se xenograft models also demonstrated the potency of HDAC inhibitors as anticancer reagents when used as single agent or in combination with classical chemotherapy drugs. PMID:22112317

  4. Histone deacetylases as therapeutic targets--from cancer to cardiac disease.

    PubMed

    Abend, Alon; Kehat, Izhak

    2015-03-01

    Heart failure is a major public health problem in western society. Recently, agents that inhibit histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes were developed and approved by the FDA as anticancer agents. This breakthrough has provided the motivation to develop more potent and more selective HDAC inhibitors and to target other pathologic conditions with these drugs. Here we review experimental evidence showing that these drugs may be beneficial in preventing cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Several lines of evidence show that inhibitors of Class I HDACs can blunt cardiac hypertrophy and preserve cardiac function in several small animal models. In contrast, Class IIa HDACs appear to be suppressors of hypertrophy, though experimental data with small molecule blockers of this class is largely lacking. The effects of HDAC inhibition in cardiac diseases, the cell population in the heart that is targeted by HDAC blockers, as well as the relative roles of specific HDACs are still under intense investigation. PMID:25444758

  5. Histone deacetylase 1 is required for the development of the zebrafish inner ear

    PubMed Central

    He, Yingzi; Tang, Dongmei; Li, Wenyan; Chai, Renjie; Li, Huawei

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) has been reported to be important for multiple aspects of normal embryonic development, but little is known about its function in the development of mechanosensory organs. Here, we first confirmed that HDAC1 is expressed in the developing otic vesicles of zebrafish by whole-mount in situ hybridization. Knockdown of HDAC1 using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides in zebrafish embryos induced smaller otic vesicles, abnormal otoliths, malformed or absent semicircular canals, and fewer sensory hair cells. HDAC1 loss of function also caused attenuated expression of a subset of key genes required for otic vesicle formation during development. Morpholino-mediated knockdown of HDAC1 resulted in decreased expression of members of the Fgf family in the otic vesicles, suggesting that HDAC1 is involved in the development of the inner ear through regulation of Fgf signaling pathways. Taken together, our results indicate that HDAC1 plays an important role in otic vesicle formation. PMID:26832938

  6. Development of a histone deacetylase 6 inhibitor and its biological effects

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ju-Hee; Mahendran, Adaickapillai; Yao, Yuanshan; Ngo, Lang; Venta-Perez, Gisela; Choy, Megan L.; Kim, Nathaniel; Ham, Won-Seok; Breslow, Ronald; Marks, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Development of isoform-selective histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors is important in elucidating the function of individual HDAC enzymes and their potential as therapeutic agents. Among the eleven zinc-dependent HDACs in humans, HDAC6 is structurally and functionally unique. Here, we show that a hydroxamic acid-based small-molecule N-hydroxy-4-(2-[(2-hydroxyethyl)(phenyl)amino]-2-oxoethyl)benzamide (HPOB) selectively inhibits HDAC6 catalytic activity in vivo and in vitro. HPOB causes growth inhibition of normal and transformed cells but does not induce cell death. HPOB enhances the effectiveness of DNA-damaging anticancer drugs in transformed cells but not normal cells. HPOB does not block the ubiquitin-binding activity of HDAC6. The HDAC6-selective inhibitor HPOB has therapeutic potential in combination therapy to enhance the potency of anticancer drugs. PMID:24023063

  7. Histone deacetylase 1 is required for the development of the zebrafish inner ear.

    PubMed

    He, Yingzi; Tang, Dongmei; Li, Wenyan; Chai, Renjie; Li, Huawei

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) has been reported to be important for multiple aspects of normal embryonic development, but little is known about its function in the development of mechanosensory organs. Here, we first confirmed that HDAC1 is expressed in the developing otic vesicles of zebrafish by whole-mount in situ hybridization. Knockdown of HDAC1 using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides in zebrafish embryos induced smaller otic vesicles, abnormal otoliths, malformed or absent semicircular canals, and fewer sensory hair cells. HDAC1 loss of function also caused attenuated expression of a subset of key genes required for otic vesicle formation during development. Morpholino-mediated knockdown of HDAC1 resulted in decreased expression of members of the Fgf family in the otic vesicles, suggesting that HDAC1 is involved in the development of the inner ear through regulation of Fgf signaling pathways. Taken together, our results indicate that HDAC1 plays an important role in otic vesicle formation. PMID:26832938

  8. Development of a histone deacetylase 6 inhibitor and its biological effects.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju-Hee; Mahendran, Adaickapillai; Yao, Yuanshan; Ngo, Lang; Venta-Perez, Gisela; Choy, Megan L; Kim, Nathaniel; Ham, Won-Seok; Breslow, Ronald; Marks, Paul A

    2013-09-24

    Development of isoform-selective histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors is important in elucidating the function of individual HDAC enzymes and their potential as therapeutic agents. Among the eleven zinc-dependent HDACs in humans, HDAC6 is structurally and functionally unique. Here, we show that a hydroxamic acid-based small-molecule N-hydroxy-4-(2-[(2-hydroxyethyl)(phenyl)amino]-2-oxoethyl)benzamide (HPOB) selectively inhibits HDAC6 catalytic activity in vivo and in vitro. HPOB causes growth inhibition of normal and transformed cells but does not induce cell death. HPOB enhances the effectiveness of DNA-damaging anticancer drugs in transformed cells but not normal cells. HPOB does not block the ubiquitin-binding activity of HDAC6. The HDAC6-selective inhibitor HPOB has therapeutic potential in combination therapy to enhance the potency of anticancer drugs. PMID:24023063

  9. Recent Advances in Computer-Assisted Structure-Based Identification and Design of Histone Deacetylases Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Shagun; Kumar, Vikash; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant epigenetic control is a common phenomenon in tumour progression. The epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation, histone modification and nucleosome remodelling are involved in the regulation of many biological processes, alteration in which can result into tumourogenesis. Histone acetylation is often associated with gene expression; however deacetylated histones generally results in gene suppression. This whole reversible process is mediated by Histone acetyltranferase and Histone deacetylases (HDACs) respectively. HDACs perform the deacetylation of histones in nucleosomes, which intervenes changes in chromatin remodelling, prompting regulation of gene expression. HDACs likewise direct the acetylation status of various other non-histone substrates that includes oncogenes and tumour silencing proteins. As HDAC inhibition induces various tumour cells to enter apoptosis and consequently cell cycle arrest therefore, a large number of HDAC inhibitors have been reported to develop as a new class of anti-cancer agents. Apart from the two existing FDA approved HDAC inhibitors- Varinostat and Depsipetide, recently a new drug Farydak has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of multiple myeloma which thus validated the use of HDAC inhibitors for the treatment of cancer. Also, several other HDAC inhibitors are undergoing clinical trials. Here, we have reviewed the current status of structure based computational studies that has helped to rationalize the successful identification of HDAC inhibitors. The objective of the present review is to provide an overview of contribution of structure-based computational studies that have helped in identifying HDAC inhibitors with an emphasis on the perspectives of its insight, current status, advances and future opportunities as well as the evolving efforts to characterize the structural dynamics of HDACs. PMID:26303428

  10. Recruitment of CREB1 and Histone Deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) to the Mouse Ltbp-1 Promoter Regulates its Constitutive Expression in a Dioxin Receptor-dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Duran, Aurea; Ballestar, Esteban; Carvajal-Gonzalez, Jose M.; Marlowe, Jennifer L.; Puga, Alvaro; Esteller, Manel; Fernandez-Salguero, Pedro M.

    2010-01-01

    Latent TGF?-binding protein 1 (LTBP-1) is a key regulator of TGF? targeting and activation in the extracellular matrix. LTBP-1 is recognized as a major docking molecule to localize, and possibly to activate, TGF? in the extracellular matrix. Despite this relevant function, the molecular mechanisms regulating Ltbp-1 transcription remain largely unknown. Previous results from our laboratory revealed that mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) lacking dioxin receptor (AhR) had increased Ltbp-1 mRNA expression and elevated TGF? activity, suggesting that AhR repressed Ltbp-1 transcription. Here, we have cloned the mouse Ltbp-1 gene promoter and analysed its mechanism of transcriptional repression by AhR. Reporter gene assays, AhR over-expression and site-directed mutagenesis showed that basal Ltbp-1 transcription is AhR-dependent. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and RNA interference (RNAi) revealed that AhR regulates Ltbp-1 transcription by a mechanism involving recruitment of co-activators such as CREB1 and co-repressors such as HDAC2 to the Ltbp-1 promoter. In AhR-expressing (AhR+/+) MEF cells, the recruitment of HDAC1, 2 and 4 correlated with decreased K8H4 acetylation and impaired binding of pCREBSer133 to the Ltbp-1 promoter, likely maintaining a constitutive repressed state. AhR?/? MEF cells had the opposite pattern of HDACs and pCREB1Ser133 binding to Ltbp-1 promoter, and therefore, over-expressed Ltbp-1 mRNA. In agreement, siRNA for HDAC2 increased Ltbp-1 expression and K8H4 acetylation in AhR+/+ but not in AhR?/? MEF cells. We suggest that HDAC2 binding keeps Ltbp-1 promoter repressed in AhR+/+ MEF cells, whereas in AhR-null MEF cells the absence of HDAC2 and the binding of pCREBSer133 allow Ltbp-1 transcription. Thus, epigenetics can contribute to constitutive Ltbp-1 repression by a mechanism requiring AhR activity. PMID:18508077

  11. Histone Deacetylase 3 and 4 Complex Stimulates the Transcriptional Activity of the Mineralocorticoid Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hae-Ahm; Song, Min-Ji; Seok, Young-Mi; Kang, Seol-Hee; Kim, Sang-Yeob; Kim, Inkyeom

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) act as corepressors in gene transcription by altering the acetylation of histones, resulting in epigenetic gene silencing. We previously reported that HDAC3 acts as a coactivator of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). Although HDAC3 forms complexes with class II HDACs, their potential role in the transcriptional activity of MR is unclear. We hypothesized that HDAC4 of the class II family stimulates the transcriptional activity of MR. The expression of MR target genes was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. MR and RNA polymerase II recruitment to promoters of MR target genes was analyzed by chromatin immunoprecipitation. The association of MR with HDACs was investigated by co-immunoprecipitation. MR acetylation was determined with an anti-acetyl-lysine antibody after immunoprecipitation with an anti-MR antibody. Among the class II HDACs, HDAC4 interacted with both MR and HDAC3 after aldosterone stimulation. The nuclear translocation of HDAC4 was mediated by protein kinase A (PKA) and protein phosphatases (PP). The transcriptional activity of MR was significantly decreased by inhibitors of PKA (H89), PP1/2 (calyculin A), class I HDACs (MS-275), but not class II HDACs (MC1568). MR acetylation was increased by H89, calyculin A, and MS-275, but not by MC1568. Interaction between MR and HDAC3 was significantly decreased by H89, calyculin A, and HDAC4 siRNA. A non-genomic effect of MR via PKA and PP1/2 induced nuclear translocation of HDAC4 to facilitate the interaction between MR and HDAC3. Thus, we have uncovered a crucial role for a class II HDAC in the activation of MR-dependent transcription. PMID:26305553

  12. Inhibitors of Histone Deacetylases Enhance Neurotoxicity of DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Vashishta, A.

    2014-01-01

    The nonselective inhibitors of class I/II histone deacetylases (HDACs) including trichostatin A and the clinically used suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, vorinostat) are neuroprotective in several models of neuronal injury. Here, we report that in cultured cortical neurons from newborn rats and in the cerebral cortex of whole neonate rats, these HDAC inhibitors exacerbated cytotoxicity of the DNA double-strand break (DSB)-inducing anticancer drug etoposide by enhancing apoptosis. Similar neurotoxic interactions were also observed in neurons that were treated with other DNA damaging drugs including cisplatin and camptothecin. In addition, in rat neonates, SAHA increased cortical neuron apoptosis that was induced by a single injection of the NMDA receptor antagonist dizocilpine (MK801). In etoposide-treated neurons, the nonselective HDAC inhibition resulted in more DSBs. It also potentiated etoposide-induced accumulation and phosphorylation of the pro-apoptotic transcription factor p53. Moreover, nonselective HDAC inhibition exacerbated neuronal apoptosis that was induced by the overexpressed p53. Importantly, such effects cannot be fully explained by inhibition of HDAC1, which is known to play a role in DSB repair and regulation of p53. The specific HDAC1 inhibitor MS275 only moderately enhanced etoposide-induced neuronal death. Although in etoposide-treated neurons MS275 increased DSBs, it did not affect activation of p53. Our findings suggest that besides HDAC1, there are other class I/II HDACs that participate in neuronal DNA damage response attenuating neurotoxic consequences of genotoxic insults to the developing brain. PMID:25063076

  13. Melatonin prevents neonatal dexamethasone induced programmed hypertension: histone deacetylase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ting-Hsin; Kuo, Hsuan-Chang; Lin, I-Chun; Chien, Shao-Ju; Huang, Li-Tung; Tain, You-Lin

    2014-10-01

    Adulthood hypertension can be programmed by corticosteroid exposure in early life. Oxidative stress, epigenetic regulation by histone deacetylases (HDACs), and alterations of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) are involved in the developmental programming of hypertension. We examined whether melatonin prevented neonatal dexamethasone (DEX)-induced programmed hypertension and how melatonin prevented these processes. We also examined whether HDAC inhibition by trichostatin A (TSA, a HDAC inhibitor) had similar effects. Male offspring were assigned to 5 groups (n=6/group): control, DEX, melatonin, DEX+melatonin, and DEX+TSA. Male rat pups were injected i.p. with DEX on day 1 (0.5mg/kg BW), day 2 (0.3mg/kg BW), and day 3 (0.1mg/kg BW) after birth. Melatonin was administered in drinking water at the dose of 0.01% during the lactation period. The DEX+TSA group received DEX and 0.5mg/kg TSA subcutaneous injection once daily for 1 week. All rats were killed at 16 weeks of age. Neonatal DEX exposure induced hypertension in male offspring at 16 weeks of age, which melatonin prevented. Neonatal DEX exposure decreased gene expression related to apoptosis, nephrogenesis, RAS, and sodium transporters. Yet DEX treatment increased protein levels of HDAC-1, -2, and -3 in the kidney. Melatonin therapy preserved the decreases of gene expression and decreased HDACs. Similarly, HDAC inhibition prevented DEX-induced programmed hypertension. In conclusion, melatonin therapy exerts a long-term protection against neonatal DEX-induced programmed hypertension. Its beneficial effects include alterations of RAS components and inhibition of class I HDACs. Given that the similar protective effects of melatonin and TSA, melatonin might inhibit HDACs to epigenetic regulation of hypertension-related genes to prevent programmed hypertension. PMID:25090636

  14. Prefrontal Cortical Dysfunction After Overexpression of Histone Deacetylase 1

    PubMed Central

    Jakovcevski, Mira; Bharadwaj, Rahul; Straubhaar, Juerg; Gao, Guangping; Gavin, David P.; Jakovcevski, Igor; Mitchell, Amanda C.; Akbarian, Schahram

    2013-01-01

    Background Postmortem brain studies have shown that HDAC1a lysine deacetylase with broad activity against histones and nonhistone proteinsis frequently expressed at increased levels in prefrontal cortex (PFC) of subjects diagnosed with schizophrenia and related disease. However, it remains unclear whether upregulated expression of Hdac1 in the PFC could affect cognition and behavior. Methods Using adeno-associated virus, an Hdac1 transgene was expressed in young adult mouse PFC, followed by behavioral assays for working and long-term memory, repetitive activity, and response to novelty. Prefrontal cortex transcriptomes were profiled by microarray. Antipsychotic drug effects were explored in mice treated for 21 days with haloperidol or clozapine. Results Hdac1 overexpression in PFC neurons and astrocytes resulted in robust impairments in working memory, increased repetitive behaviors, and abnormal locomotor response profiles in novel environments. Long-term memory remained intact. Over 300 transcripts showed subtle but significant changes in Hdac1-overexpressing PFC. Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II)-related transcripts, including HLA-DQA1/H2-Aa, HLA-DQB1/H2-Ab1, and HLA-DRB1/H2-Eb1, located in the chromosome 6p21.3-22.1 schizophrenia and bipolar disorder risk locus, were among the subset of genes with a more robust (>1.5-fold) downregulation in expression. Hdac1 levels declined during the course of normal PFC development. Antipsychotic drug treatment, including the atypical clozapine, did not affect Hdac1 levels in PFC but induced expression of multiple MHC II transcripts. Conclusions Excessive HDAC1 activity, due to developmental defects or other factors, is associated with behavioral alterations and dysregulated expression of MHC II and other gene transcripts in the PFC. PMID:23664640

  15. Role of histone deacetylases and their inhibitors in cancer biology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Beumer, Jan H; Tawbi, Hussein

    2010-08-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors constitute a new group of epigenetic agents that has gained much attention in cancer drug development. Research in the field of epigenetics is furthering our understanding of malignant behavior and providing novel targets to improve the outcomes of cancer therapy. In this review we present an overview of the complex landscape of HDAC inhibitor development starting from a discussion of the various HDAC isotypes and their roles in cancer biology, to mechanisms of action of HDAC inhibitors and their current state of development. The large gamut of HDACs are classified into 3 classes of "classical HDACs" and the "sirtuins" but in general lack specificity of deacetylation targets as they deacetylate both histone and non-histone targets. This non-specifity underlies the pleiotropic effects of HDAC inhibitors that does not stop at alteration of gene expression but extends into a wide array of cellular (nuclear and/or cytoplasmic) processes. The potential of HDAC inhibitors for cancer therapy has been explored in preclinical models and has reached the clinic as some agents are FDA-approved in hematologic malignancies where they function as differentiation agents. In solid tumors, HDAC inhibitors are used in combination with chemotherapy, which raises issues of mechanisms of potentiation and optimal administration (schedule and dose). Lastly, we discuss the need for biomarker development which will facilitate and guide the rational development of HDAC inhibitors as anticancer therapy. PMID:20406169

  16. Targeting Histone Deacetylases for Cancer Therapy: From Molecular Mechanisms to Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiming; Zhu, Wei-Guo

    2014-01-01

    Genetic abnormalities have been conventionally considered as hallmarks of cancer. However, studies over the past decades have demonstrated that epigenetic regulation also participates in the development of cancer. The fundamental patterns of epigenetic components, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, are frequently altered in tumor cells. Acetylation is one of the best characterized modifications of histones, which is controlled by histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs). HDACs are a group of enzymes which catalyze the removal of the acetyl groups of both histones and non-histone proteins. HDACs are involved in modulating most key cellular processes, including transcriptional regulation, apoptosis, DNA damage repair, cell cycle control, autophagy, metabolism, senescence and chaperone function. Because HDACs have been found to function incorrectly in cancer, various HDAC inhibitors are being investigated to act as cancer chemotherapeutics. The primary purpose of this paper is to summarize recent studies of the links between HDACs and cancer, and further discuss the underlying mechanisms of anti-tumor activities of HDAC inhibitors and clinical implications. PMID:25013383

  17. Histone deacetylase activity is required for human oligodendrocyte progenitor differentiation.

    PubMed

    Conway, Gregory D; O'Bara, Melanie A; Vedia, Bansi H; Pol, Suyog U; Sim, Fraser J

    2012-12-01

    The molecular mechanisms controlling human oligodendrocyte development are poorly characterized. Microarray analysis of human oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) and immature oligodendrocytes revealed that specific-class I histone deacetylase (HDAC) target genes were actively repressed during oligodendrocyte commitment. Although epigenetic regulation of oligodendrocyte differentiation has been established in rodent development, the role of HDACs in human OPCs remains undefined. We used HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) trichostatin A (TSA) and sodium butyrate to determine the importance of HDAC activity in human primary OPC differentiation. Treatment with either drug resulted in significant dose-dependent inhibition of O4(+) oligodendrocyte cell differentiation, reduction of oligodendrocyte morphological maturation, and downregulation of myelin basic protein mRNA. High dose TSA treatment was also associated with reduction in OPC proliferation. HDACi treatment prevented downregulation of SOX2, ID4, and TCF7L2 mRNAs but did not regulate HES5, suggesting that targets of HDAC repression may differ between species. These results predict that HDACi treatment would impair proliferation and differentiation by parenchymal oligodendrocyte progenitors, and thereby degrade their potential for endogenous repair in human demyelinating disease. 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22927334

  18. Histone Deacetylase 3 Is Necessary for Proper Brain Development*

    PubMed Central

    Norwood, Jordan; Franklin, Jade M.; Sharma, Dharmendra; D'Mello, Santosh R.

    2014-01-01

    The functional role of histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) in the developing brain has yet to be elucidated. We show that mice lacking HDAC3 in neurons and glia of the central nervous system, Nes-Cre/HDAC3 conditional KO mice, show major abnormalities in the cytoarchitecture of the neocortex and cerebellum and die within 24 h of birth. Later-born neurons do not localize properly in the cortex. A similar mislocalization is observed with cerebellar Purkinje neurons. Although the proportion of astrocytes is higher than normal, the numbers of oligodendrocytes are reduced. In contrast, conditional knockout of HDAC3 in neurons of the forebrain and certain other brain regions, using Thy1-Cre and calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II ?-Cre for ablation, produces no overt abnormalities in the organization of cells within the cortex or of cerebellar Purkinje neurons at birth. However, both lines of conditional knockout mice suffer from progressive hind limb paralysis and ataxia and die around 6 weeks after birth. The mice display an increase in overall numbers of cells, higher numbers of astrocytes, and Purkinje neuron degeneration. Taken together, our results demonstrate that HDAC3 plays an essential role in regulating brain development, with effects on both neurons and glia in different brain regions. PMID:25339172

  19. Histone deacetylase 4 selectively contributes to podocyte injury in diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojie; Liu, Jiang; Zhen, Junhui; Zhang, Chun; Wan, Qiang; Liu, Guangyi; Wei, Xinbing; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Ziying; Han, Huirong; Xu, Huiyan; Bao, Chanchan; Song, Zhenyu; Zhang, Xiumei; Li, Ningjun; Yi, Fan

    2014-10-01

    Studies have highlighted the importance of histone deacetylase (HDAC)-mediated epigenetic processes in the development of diabetic complications. Inhibitors of HDAC are a novel class of therapeutic agents in diabetic nephropathy, but currently available inhibitors are mostly nonselective inhibit multiple HDACs, and different HDACs serve very distinct functions. Therefore, it is essential to determine the role of individual HDACs in diabetic nephropathy and develop HDAC inhibitors with improved specificity. First, we identified the expression patterns of HDACs and found that, among zinc-dependent HDACs, HDAC2/4/5 were upregulated in the kidney from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, diabetic db/db mice, and in kidney biopsies from diabetic patients. Podocytes treated with high glucose, advanced glycation end products, or transforming growth factor-β (common detrimental factors in diabetic nephropathy) selectively increased HDAC4 expression. The role of HDAC4 was evaluated by in vivo gene silencing by intrarenal lentiviral gene delivery and found to reduce renal injury in diabetic rats. Podocyte injury was associated with suppressing autophagy and exacerbating inflammation by HDAC4-STAT1 signaling in vitro. Thus, HDAC4 contributes to podocyte injury and is one of critical components of a signal transduction pathway that links renal injury to autophagy in diabetic nephropathy. PMID:24717296

  20. Histone deacetylase 4 selectively contributes to podocyte injury in diabetic nephropathy.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Wang X; Liu J; Zhen J; Zhang C; Wan Q; Liu G; Wei X; Zhang Y; Wang Z; Han H; Xu H; Bao C; Song Z; Zhang X; Li N; Yi F

    2014-10-01

    Studies have highlighted the importance of histone deacetylase (HDAC)-mediated epigenetic processes in the development of diabetic complications. Inhibitors of HDAC are a novel class of therapeutic agents in diabetic nephropathy, but currently available inhibitors are mostly nonselective inhibit multiple HDACs, and different HDACs serve very distinct functions. Therefore, it is essential to determine the role of individual HDACs in diabetic nephropathy and develop HDAC inhibitors with improved specificity. First, we identified the expression patterns of HDACs and found that, among zinc-dependent HDACs, HDAC2/4/5 were upregulated in the kidney from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, diabetic db/db mice, and in kidney biopsies from diabetic patients. Podocytes treated with high glucose, advanced glycation end products, or transforming growth factor-β (common detrimental factors in diabetic nephropathy) selectively increased HDAC4 expression. The role of HDAC4 was evaluated by in vivo gene silencing by intrarenal lentiviral gene delivery and found to reduce renal injury in diabetic rats. Podocyte injury was associated with suppressing autophagy and exacerbating inflammation by HDAC4-STAT1 signaling in vitro. Thus, HDAC4 contributes to podocyte injury and is one of critical components of a signal transduction pathway that links renal injury to autophagy in diabetic nephropathy.

  1. Transcriptional dysregulation in Huntington's disease: The role of histone deacetylases.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sorabh; Taliyan, Rajeev

    2015-10-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurological disorder for which there are no disease-modifying treatments. Although, the exact underlying mechanism(s) leading to the neural cell death in HD still remains elusive, the transcriptional dysregulation is a major molecular feature. Recently, the transcriptional activation and repression regulated by chromatin acetylation has been found to be impaired in HD pathology. The acetylation and deacetylation of histone proteins is carried out by opposing actions of histone acetyl-transferases and histone deacetylases (HDACs), respectively. Studies carried out in cell culture, yeast, Drosophila and rodent model(s) have indicated that HDAC inhibitors (HDACIs) might provide useful class of therapeutic agents for HD. Clinical trials have also reported the beneficial effects of HDACIs in patients suffering from HD. Therefore, the development of HDACIs as therapeutics for HD has been vigorously pursued. In this review, we highlight and summarize the putative role of HDACs in HD like pathology and further discuss the potential of HDACIs as new therapeutic avenues for the treatment of HD. PMID:26254871

  2. The FK506-binding protein 25 functionally associates with histone deacetylases and with transcription factor YY1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wen-Ming; Yao, Ya-Li; Seto, Edward

    2001-01-01

    FK506-binding proteins (FKBPs) are cellular receptors for immunosuppressants that belong to a subgroup of proteins, known as immunophilins, with peptidylprolyl cistrans isomerase (PPIase) activity. Sequence comparison suggested that the HD2-type histone deacetylases and the FKBP-type PPIases may have evolved from a common ancestor enzyme. Here we show that FKBP25 physically associates with the histone deacetylases HDAC1 and HDAC2 and with the HDAC-binding transcriptional regulator YY1. An FKBP25 immunoprecipitated complex contains deacetylase activity, and this activity is associated with the N-terminus of FKBP25, distinct from the FK506/rapamycin-binding domain. Furthermore, FKBP25 can alter the DNA-binding activity of YY1. Together, our data firmly establish a relationship between histone deacetylases and the FKBP enzymes and provide a novel and critical function for the FKBPs. PMID:11532945

  3. Histone deacetylases and their role in motor neuron degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Lazo-Gómez, Rafael; Ramírez-Jarquín, Uri N.; Tovar-y-Romo, Luis B.; Tapia, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease, characterized by the progressive loss of motor neurons. The cause of this selective neuronal death is unknown, but transcriptional dysregulation is recently emerging as an important factor. The physical substrate for the regulation of the transcriptional process is chromatin, a complex assembly of histones and DNA. Histones are subject to several post-translational modifications, like acetylation, that are a component of the transcriptional regulation process. Histone acetylation and deacetylation is performed by a group of enzymes (histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and deacetylases, respectively) whose modulation can alter the transcriptional state of many regions of the genome, and thus may be an important target in diseases that share this pathogenic process, as is the case for ALS. This review will discuss the present evidence of transcriptional dysregulation in ALS, the role of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in disease pathogenesis, and the novel pharmacologic strategies that are being comprehensively studied to prevent motor neuron death, with focus on sirtuins (SIRT) and their effectors. PMID:24367290

  4. Histone deacetylase inhibitors and cancer: from cell biology to the clinic.

    PubMed

    Hess-Stumpp, Holger

    2005-03-01

    Aberrant gene regulation plays an important role in tumor initiation and progression, and the acetylation of histones is a well understood key component of gene regulation. Histone acetylation involves the opposing activities of the histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs)--histone acetylation is associated with increased transcriptional activity while histone deacetylation is associated with repression of gene expression. In addition, the modification of non-histone proteins by HATs and HDACs is also an important process in regulating gene expression. Several lines of evidence suggest that inappropriate transcriptional activation and repression mediated by HATs and HDACs is a common occurrence in the formation of many different types of cancer. These enzymes thus represent novel molecular targets for which inhibitors are sought that could reprogram transcription and inhibit tumor cell growth and progression. Much of the research has focused on HDAC inhibitors, where several agents have demonstrated in vitro and in vivo activity against different tumor cell models and have entered Phase I clinical trials. HDAC inhibitors are believed to exert their antiproliferative effects by inducing a small set of genes involved in regulating cellular activities such as proliferation and differentiation. Future research is expected to lead to a better understanding of the molecular targets of HDACs and facilitate the development of more potent inhibitors of these enzymes. First results from clinical trials will help to determine the optimal strategy for utilizing these agents for the treatment of cancer patients. PMID:15819394

  5. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors in Cell Pluripotency, Differentiation, and Reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Kretsovali, Androniki; Hadjimichael, Christiana; Charmpilas, Nikolaos

    2012-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are small molecules that have important and pleiotropic effects on cell homeostasis. Under distinct developmental conditions, they can promote either self-renewal or differentiation of embryonic stem cells. In addition, they can promote directed differentiation of embryonic and tissue-specific stem cells along the neuronal, cardiomyocytic, and hepatic lineages. They have been used to facilitate embryo development following somatic cell nuclear transfer and induced pluripotent stem cell derivation by ectopic expression of pluripotency factors. In the latter method, these molecules not only increase effectiveness, but can also render the induction independent of the oncogenes c-Myc and Klf4. Here we review the molecular pathways that are involved in the functions of HDAC inhibitors on stem cell differentiation and reprogramming of somatic cells into pluripotency. Deciphering the mechanisms of HDAC inhibitor actions is very important to enable their exploitation for efficient and simple tissue regeneration therapies. PMID:22550500

  6. A monoclonal antibody specific for prophase phosphorylation of histone deacetylase 1: a readout for early mitotic cells.

    PubMed

    Segr, Chiara V; Senese, Silvia; Loponte, Sara; Santaguida, Stefano; Soffientini, Paolo; Grigorean, Gabriela; Cinquanta, Mario; Ossolengo, Giuseppe; Seiser, Christian; Chiocca, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are modification enzymes that regulate a plethora of biological processes. HDAC1, a crucial epigenetic modifier, is deregulated in cancer and subjected to a variety of post-translational modifications. Here, we describe the generation of a new monoclonal antibody that specifically recognizes a novel highly dynamic prophase phosphorylation of serine 406-HDAC1, providing a powerful tool for detecting early mitotic cells. PMID:26467746

  7. Regulation of Histone Deacetylase 4 by Binding of 14-3-3 Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Audrey H.; Kruhlak, Michael J.; Wu, Jiong; Bertos, Nicholas R.; Vezmar, Marko; Posner, Barry I.; Bazett-Jones, David P.; Yang, Xiang-Jiao

    2000-01-01

    Histone (de)acetylation is important for the regulation of fundamental biological processes such as gene expression and DNA recombination. Distinct classes of histone deacetylases (HDACs) have been identified, but how they are regulated in vivo remains largely unexplored. Here we describe results demonstrating that HDAC4, a member of class II human HDACs, is localized in the cytoplasm and/or the nucleus. Moreover, we have found that HDAC4 interacts with the 14-3-3 family of proteins that are known to bind specifically to conserved phosphoserine-containing motifs. Deletion analyses suggested that S246, S467, and S632 of HDAC4 mediate this interaction. Consistent with this, alanine substitutions of these serine residues abrogated 14-3-3 binding. Although these substitutions had minimal effects on the deacetylase activity of HDAC4, they stimulated its nuclear localization and thus led to enhanced transcriptional repression. These results indicate that 14-3-3 proteins negatively regulate HDAC4 by preventing its nuclear localization and thereby uncover a novel regulatory mechanism for HDACs. PMID:10958686

  8. Complex structure of a bacterial class 2 histone deacetylase homologue with a trifluoromethylketone inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, Tine Kragh; Hildmann, Christian; Riester, Daniel; Wegener, Dennis; Schwienhorst, Andreas; Ficner, Ralf

    2007-04-01

    The crystal structure of HDAH FB188 in complex with a trifluoromethylketone at 2.2 resolution is reported and compared to a previously determined inhibitor complex. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have emerged as attractive targets in anticancer drug development. To date, a number of HDAC inhibitors have been developed and most of them are hydroxamic acid derivatives, typified by suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA). Not surprisingly, structural information that can greatly enhance the design of novel HDAC inhibitors is so far only available for hydroxamic acids in complex with HDAC or HDAC-like enzymes. Here, the first structure of an enzyme complex with a nonhydroxamate HDAC inhibitor is presented. The structure of the trifluoromethyl ketone inhibitor 9,9,9-trifluoro-8-oxo-N-phenylnonanamide in complex with bacterial FB188 HDAH (histone deacetylase-like amidohydrolase from Bordetella/Alcaligenes strain FB188) has been determined. HDAH reveals high sequential and functional homology to human class 2 HDACs and a high structural homology to human class 1 HDACs. Comparison with the structure of HDAH in complex with SAHA reveals that the two inhibitors superimpose well. However, significant differences in binding to the active site of HDAH were observed. In the presented structure the O atom of the trifluoromethyl ketone moiety is within binding distance of the Zn atom of the enzyme and the F atoms participate in interactions with the enzyme, thereby involving more amino acids in enzymeinhibitor binding.

  9. Complex structure of a bacterial class 2 histone deacetylase homologue with a trifluoromethylketone inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Tine Kragh; Hildmann, Christian; Riester, Daniel; Wegener, Dennis; Schwienhorst, Andreas; Ficner, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have emerged as attractive targets in anticancer drug development. To date, a number of HDAC inhibitors have been developed and most of them are hydroxamic acid derivatives, typified by suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA). Not surprisingly, structural information that can greatly enhance the design of novel HDAC inhibitors is so far only available for hydroxamic acids in complex with HDAC or HDAC-like enzymes. Here, the first structure of an enzyme complex with a nonhydroxamate HDAC inhibitor is presented. The structure of the trifluoromethyl ketone inhibitor 9,9,9-trifluoro-8-oxo-N-phenylnonanamide in complex with bacterial FB188 HDAH (histone deacetylase-like amidohydrolase from Bordetella/Alcaligenes strain FB188) has been determined. HDAH reveals high sequential and functional homology to human class 2 HDACs and a high structural homology to human class 1 HDACs. Comparison with the structure of HDAH in complex with SAHA reveals that the two inhibitors superimpose well. However, significant differences in binding to the active site of HDAH were observed. In the presented structure the O atom of the trifluoromethyl ketone moiety is within binding distance of the Zn atom of the enzyme and the F atoms participate in interactions with the enzyme, thereby involving more amino acids in enzyme–inhibitor binding. PMID:17401192

  10. HISTONE DEACETYLASES AS TARGETS FOR THE TREATMENT OF HUMAN NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES

    PubMed Central

    D’Mello, Santosh R.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a family of proteins that play an important role in regulating transcription as well as the function of a variety of cellular proteins. While these proteins are expressed abundantly in the brain, little is known about their roles in brain function. A growing body of evidence suggests that HDACs regulate neuronal survival. Results from studies conducted in vertebrate and mammalian experimental systems indicate that while some of these proteins are involved in promoting neuronal death, a majority of the HDACs studied thus far protect against neurodegeneration. Here we review the research performed on the role played by individual members of the HDAC family in the regulation of neuronal death. Chemical inhibitors of HDACs have been used in a variety of models of neurodegenerative disorders. We summarize the results from these studies, which indicate that HDAC inhibitors show great promise as therapeutic agents for human neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:20072728

  11. 14-3-3 regulates the nuclear import of class IIa histone deacetylases

    SciTech Connect

    Nishino, Tomonori G.; Miyazaki, Masaya; Hoshino, Hideto; Miwa, Yoshihiro; Horinouchi, Sueharu; Yoshida, Minoru

    2008-12-19

    Class IIa histone deacetylases (HDACs) form complexes with a class of transcriptional repressors in the nucleus. While screening for compounds that could block the association of HDAC4 with the BTB domain-containing transcriptional repressor Bach2, we discovered that phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) induced the cytoplasmic retention of HDAC4 mutants lacking a nuclear export signal (NES). Although PMA treatment and PKD overexpression has been proposed to facilitate the nuclear export of class IIa HDACs by creating 14-3-3 binding sites containing phosphoserines, our experiments using HDAC mutants demonstrated that PMA greatly reduces nuclear import. PMA treatment repressed the NLS activity in a manner dependent on 14-3-3 binding. These results suggest that nuclear HDAC4 is not tethered in the nucleus, but instead shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Phosphorylation-induced 14-3-3 binding biases the balance of nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling toward the cytoplasm by inhibiting nuclear import.

  12. Targeting histone deacetylases: perspectives for epigenetic-based therapy in cardio-cerebrovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zi-Ying; Qin, Wen; Yi, Fan

    2015-01-01

    Although the pathogenesis of cardio-cerebrovascular disease (CCVD) is multifactorial, an increasing number of experimental and clinical studies have highlighted the importance of histone deacetylase (HDAC)-mediated epigenetic processes in the development of cardio-cerebrovascular injury. HDACs are a family of enzymes to balance the acetylation activities of histone acetyltransferases on chromatin remodeling and play essential roles in regulating gene transcription. To date, 18 mammalian HDACs are identified and grouped into four classes based on similarity to yeast orthologs. The zinc-dependent HDAC family currently consists of 11 members divided into three classes (class I, II, and IV) on the basis of structure, sequence homology, and domain organization. In comparison, class III HDACs (also known as the sirtuins) are composed of a family of NAD+-dependent protein-modifying enzymes related to the Sir2 gene. HDAC inhibitors are a group of compounds that block HDAC activities typically by binding to the zinc-containing catalytic domain of HDACs and have displayed anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects in the cardio-cerebrovascular system. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about classifications, functions of HDACs and their roles and regulatory mechanisms in the cardio-cerebrovascular system. Pharmacological targeting of HDAC-mediated epigenetic processes may open new therapeutic avenues for the treatment of CCVD. PMID:25870619

  13. FOXP3+ regulatory T cell development and function require histone/protein deacetylase 3

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liqing; Liu, Yujie; Han, Rongxiang; Beier, Ulf H.; Bhatti, Tricia R.; Akimova, Tatiana; Greene, Mark I.; Hiebert, Scott W.; Hancock, Wayne W.

    2015-01-01

    Treg dysfunction is associated with a variety of inflammatory diseases. Treg populations are defined by expression of the oligomeric transcription factor FOXP3 and inability to produce IL-2, a cytokine required for T cell maintenance and survival. FOXP3 activity is regulated post-translationally by histone/protein acetyltransferases and histone/protein deacetylases (HDACs). Here, we determined that HDAC3 mediates both the development and function of the two main Treg subsets, thymus-derived Tregs and induced Tregs (iTregs). We determined that HDAC3 and FOXP3 physically interact and that HDAC3 expression markedly reduces Il2 promoter activity. In murine models, conditional deletion of Hdac3 during thymic Treg development restored Treg production of IL-2 and blocked the suppressive function of Tregs. HDAC3-deficient mice died from autoimmunity by 46 weeks of age; however, injection of WT FOXP3+ Tregs prolonged survival. Adoptive transfer of Hdac3-deficient Tregs, unlike WT Tregs, did not control T cell proliferation in naive mice and did not prevent allograft rejection or colitis. HDAC3 also regulated the development of iTregs, as HDAC3-deficient conventional T cells were not converted into iTregs under polarizing conditions and produced large amounts of IL-2, IL-6, and IL-17. We conclude that HDAC3 is essential for the normal development and suppressive functions of thymic and peripheral FOXP3+ Tregs. PMID:25642770

  14. Histone deacetylase 8 regulates cortactin deacetylation and contraction in smooth muscle tissues

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jia; Chen, Shu; Cleary, Rachel A.; Wang, Ruping; Gannon, Olivia J.; Seto, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a family of enzymes that mediate nucleosomal histone deacetylation and gene expression. Some members of the HDAC family have also been implicated in nonhistone protein deacetylation, which modulates cell-cycle control, differentiation, and cell migration. However, the role of HDACs in smooth muscle contraction is largely unknown. Here, HDAC8 was localized both in the cytoplasm and the nucleus of mouse and human smooth muscle cells. Knockdown of HDAC8 by lentivirus-encoding HDAC8 shRNA inhibited force development in response to acetylcholine. Treatment of smooth muscle tissues with HDAC8 inhibitor XXIV (OSU-HDAC-44) induced relaxation of precontracted smooth muscle tissues. In addition, cortactin is an actin-regulatory protein that undergoes deacetylation during migration of NIH 3T3 cells. In this study, acetylcholine stimulation induced cortactin deacetylation in mouse and human smooth muscle tissues, as evidenced by immunoblot analysis using antibody against acetylated lysine. Knockdown of HDAC8 by RNAi or treatment with the inhibitor attenuated cortactin deacetylation and actin polymerization without affecting myosin activation. Furthermore, expression of a charge-neutralizing cortactin mutant inhibited contraction and actin dynamics during contractile activation. These results suggest a novel mechanism for the regulation of smooth muscle contraction. In response to contractile stimulation, HDAC8 may mediate cortactin deacetylation, which subsequently promotes actin filament polymerization and smooth muscle contraction. PMID:24920679

  15. Boric acid inhibits embryonic histone deacetylases: A suggested mechanism to explain boric acid-related teratogenicity

    SciTech Connect

    Di Renzo, Francesca; Cappelletti, Graziella; Broccia, Maria L.; Giavini, Erminio; Menegola, Elena . E-mail: elena.menegola@unimi.it

    2007-04-15

    Histone deacetylases (HDAC) control gene expression by changing histonic as well as non histonic protein conformation. HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) are considered to be among the most promising drugs for epigenetic treatment for cancer. Recently a strict relationship between histone hyperacetylation in specific tissues of mouse embryos exposed to two HDACi (valproic acid and trichostatin A) and specific axial skeleton malformations has been demonstrated. The aim of this study is to verify if boric acid (BA), that induces in rodents malformations similar to those valproic acid and trichostatin A-related, acts through similar mechanisms: HDAC inhibition and histone hyperacetylation. Pregnant mice were treated intraperitoneally with a teratogenic dose of BA (1000 mg/kg, day 8 of gestation). Western blot analysis and immunostaining were performed with anti hyperacetylated histone 4 (H4) antibody on embryos explanted 1, 3 or 4 h after treatment and revealed H4 hyperacetylation at the level of somites. HDAC enzyme assay was performed on embryonic nuclear extracts. A significant HDAC inhibition activity (compatible with a mixed type partial inhibition mechanism) was evident with BA. Kinetic analyses indicate that BA modifies substrate affinity by a factor {alpha} = 0.51 and maximum velocity by a factor {beta} = 0.70. This work provides the first evidence for HDAC inhibition by BA and suggests such a molecular mechanism for the induction of BA-related malformations.

  16. Novel Histone Deacetylase Class IIa Selective Substrate Radiotracers for PET Imaging of Epigenetic Regulation in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Bonomi, Robin; Mukhopadhyay, Uday; Shavrin, Aleksandr; Yeh, Hsien-Hsien; Majhi, Anjoy; Dewage, Sajeewa W.; Najjar, Amer; Lu, Xin; Cisneros, G. Andrs; Tong, William P.; Alauddin, Mian M.; Liu, Ren-Shuan; Mangner, Thomas J.; Turkman, Nashaat; Gelovani, Juri G.

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) became increasingly important targets for therapy of various diseases, resulting in a pressing need to develop HDAC class- and isoform-selective inhibitors. Class IIa deacetylases possess only minimal deacetylase activity against acetylated histones, but have several other client proteins as substrates through which they participate in epigenetic regulation. Herein, we report the radiosyntheses of the second generation of HDAC class IIaspecific radiotracers: 6-(di-fluoroacetamido)-1-hexanoicanilide (DFAHA) and 6-(tri-fluoroacetamido)-1-hexanoicanilide ([18F]-TFAHA). The selectivity of these radiotracer substrates to HDAC class IIa enzymes was assessed in vitro, in a panel of recombinant HDACs, and in vivo using PET/CT imaging in rats. [18F]TFAHA showed significantly higher selectivity for HDAC class IIa enzymes, as compared to [18F]DFAHA and previously reported [18F]FAHA. PET imaging with [18F]TFAHA can be used to visualize and quantify spatial distribution and magnitude of HDAC class IIa expression-activity in different organs and tissues in vivo. Furthermore, PET imaging with [18F]TFAHA may advance the understanding of HDACs class IIa mediated epigenetic regulation of normal and pathophysiological processes, and facilitate the development of novel HDAC class IIa-specific inhibitors for therapy of different diseases. PMID:26244761

  17. Type-II histone deacetylases: elusive plant nuclear signal transducers.

    PubMed

    Grandperret, Vincent; Nicolas-Francs, Valrie; Wendehenne, David; Bourque, Stphane

    2014-06-01

    Since the beginning of the 21st century, numerous studies have concluded that the plant cell nucleus is one of the cellular compartments that define the specificity of the cellular response to an external stimulus or to a specific developmental stage. To that purpose, the nucleus contains all the enzymatic machinery required to carry out a wide variety of nuclear protein post-translational modifications (PTMs), which play an important role in signal transduction pathways leading to the modulation of specific sets of genes. PTMs include protein (de)acetylation which is controlled by the antagonistic activities of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs). Regarding protein deacetylation, plants are of particular interest: in addition to the RPD3-HDA1 and Sir2 HDAC families that they share with other eukaryotic organisms, plants have developed a specific family called type-II HDACs (HD2s). Interestingly, these HD2s are well conserved in plants and control fundamental biological processes such as seed germination, flowering or the response to pathogens. The aim of this review was to summarize current knowledge regarding this fascinating, but still poorly understood nuclear protein family. PMID:24236403

  18. Histone deacetylase 6 inhibition enhances oncolytic viral replication in glioma.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Hiroshi; Kaufmann, Johanna K; Wang, Pin-Yi; Nguyen, Tran; Speranza, Maria-Carmela; Kasai, Kazue; Okemoto, Kazuo; Otsuki, Akihiro; Nakano, Ichiro; Fernandez, Soledad; Goins, William F; Grandi, Paola; Glorioso, Joseph C; Lawler, Sean; Cripe, Timothy P; Chiocca, E Antonio

    2015-11-01

    Oncolytic viral (OV) therapy, which uses genetically engineered tumor-targeting viruses, is being increasingly used in cancer clinical trials due to the direct cytolytic effects of this treatment that appear to provoke a robust immune response against the tumor. As OVs enter tumor cells, intrinsic host defenses have the potential to hinder viral replication and spread within the tumor mass. In this report, we show that histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) in tumor cells appears to alter the trafficking of post-entry OVs from the nucleus toward lysosomes. In glioma cell lines and glioma-stem-like cells, HDAC6 inhibition (HDAC6i) by either pharmacologic or genetic means substantially increased replication of oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1 (oHSV). Moreover, HDAC6i increased shuttling of post-entry oHSV to the nucleus. In addition, electron microscopic analysis revealed that post-entry oHSVs are preferentially taken up into glioma cells through the endosomal pathway rather than via fusion at the cell surface. Together, these findings illustrate a mechanism of glioma cell defense against an incoming infection by oHSV and identify possible approaches to enhance oHSV replication and subsequent lysis of tumor cells. PMID:26524593

  19. Design and synthesis of a new generation of substituted purine hydroxamate analogs as histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Renshuai; Wang, Junhua; Tang, Weiping; Fang, Hao

    2016-04-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors have been proved to be great potential for the treatment of cancer. Recently, we designed and modified a series of substituted purine hydroxamate analogs as potent HDAC inhibitors based on our previous studies. The target compounds were investigated for their in vitro HDAC inhibitory activities and anti-proliferative activities. Results indicated that these compounds could effectively inhibit HDAC and possess obvious anti-proliferative activity against tumor cells. Promisingly, target compounds 4m and 4n outperformed SAHA in both enzymatic inhibitory activity and cellular anti-proliferative activity assay. PMID:26907204

  20. The clinical development of histone deacetylase inhibitors as targeted anticancer drugs

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Importance of the field Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are being developed as a new, targeted class of anticancer drugs. Area covered in this review This review focuses on the mechanisms of action of the HDAC inhibitors, which selectively induce cancer cell death. What the reader will gain There are 11 zinc-dependent HDACs in humans and the biological roles of these lysine deacetylases are not completely understood. It is clear that these different HDACs are not redundant in their activity. This review focuses on the mechanisms by which HDAC inhibitors can induce transformed cell growth arrest and cell death, inhibit cell mobility and have antiangiogenesis activity. There are more than a dozen HDAC inhibitors, including hydroxamates, cyclic peptides, benzamides and fatty acids, in various stages of clinical trials and many more compounds in preclinical development. The chemically different HDAC inhibitors may target different HDACs. Take home message There are extensive preclinical studies with transformed cells in culture and tumor-bearing animal models, as well as limited clinical studies reported to date, which indicate that HDAC inhibitors will be most useful when used in combination with cytotoxic or other targeted anticancer agents. PMID:20687783

  1. Thailandepsins: Bacterial Products with Potent Histone Deacetylase Inhibitory Activities and Broad-Spectrum Antiproliferative Activities

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cheng; Henkes, Leonhard M.; Doughty, Leah B.; He, Min; Wang, Difei; Meyer-Almes, Franz-Josef; Cheng, Yi-Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have emerged as a new class of anticancer drugs, with one synthetic compound, SAHA (vorinostat, Zolinza; 1), and one natural product, FK228 (depsipeptide, romidepsin, Istodax; 2), approved by FDA for clinical use. Our studies of FK228 biosynthesis in Chromobacterium violaceum No. 968 led to the identification of a cryptic biosynthetic gene cluster in the genome of Burkholderia thailandensis E264. Genome mining and genetic manipulation of this gene cluster further led to the discovery of two new products, thailandepsin A (6) and thailandepsin B (7). HDAC inhibition assays showed that thailandepsins have selective inhibition profiles different from that of FK228, with comparable inhibitory activities to those of FK228 toward human HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC3, HDAC6, HDAC7 and HDAC9, but weaker inhibitory activities than FK228 toward HDAC4 and HDAC8, the later of which could be beneficial. NCI-60 anticancer screening assays showed that thailandepsins possess broad-spectrum antiproliferative activities with GI50 for over 90% of the tested cell lines at low nanomolar concentrations, and potent cytotoxic activities towards certain types of cell lines, particularly for those derived from colon, melanoma, ovarian and renal cancers. Thailandepsins thus represent new naturally produced HDAC inhibitors that are promising for anticancer drug development. PMID:21793558

  2. Histone Deacetylase 2 Is Phosphorylated, Ubiquitinated, and Degraded by Cigarette Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Adenuga, David; Yao, Hongwei; March, Thomas H.; Seagrave, JeanClare; Rahman, Irfan

    2009-01-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS)induced lung inflammation involves the reduction of histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) abundance, which is associated with steroid resistance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and in individuals with severe asthma who smoke cigarettes. However, the molecular mechanism of CS-mediated reduction of HDAC2 is not clearly known. We hypothesized that HDAC2 is phosphorylated and subsequently degraded by the proteasome in vitro in macrophages (MonoMac6), human bronchial and primary small airway epithelial cells, and in vivo in mouse lungs in response to chronic CS exposure. Cigarette smoke extract (CSE) exposure in MonoMac6 and in bronchial and airway epithelial cells led to phosphorylation of HDAC2 on serine/threonine residues by a protein kinase CK2-mediated mechanism, decreased HDAC2 activity, and increased ubiquitin-proteasomedependent HDAC2 degradation. CK2 and proteasome inhibitors reversed CSE-mediated HDAC2 degradation, whereas serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitor, okadaic acid, caused phosphorylation and subsequent ubiquitination of HDAC2. CS-induced HDAC2 phosphorylation was detected in mouse lungs from 2 weeks to 4 months of CS exposure, and mice showed significantly lower lung HDAC2 levels. Thus, CS-mediated down-regulation of HDAC2 in human macrophages and lung epithelial cells in vitro and in mouse lung in vivo involves the induction of serine/threonine phosphorylation and proteasomal degradation, which may have implications for steroid resistance and abnormal inflammation caused by cigarette smoke. PMID:18927347

  3. Therapy for latent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection: the role of histone deacetylase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    McManamy, Mary E Manson; Hakre, Shweta; Verdin, Eric M; Margolis, David M

    2014-01-01

    Persistence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in latently infected CD4+ T cells prevents eradication in HIV-infected treated patients. Latency is characterized by a reversible silencing of transcription of integrated HIV-1. Several molecular mechanisms have been described which contribute to latency, including the establishment and maintenance of repressive chromatin on the HIV-1 promoter. Histone deacetylation is a landmark modification associated with transcriptional repression of the HIV-1 promoter and inhibition of histone deacetylase enzymes (HDACs) reactivates latent HIV-1. Here we review the different HDAC inhibitors that have been studied in HIV-1 latency and their therapeutic potential in reactivating latent HIV-1. PMID:24318952

  4. Emerging roles for histone deacetylases in pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular remodeling (2013 Grover Conference series)

    PubMed Central

    Cavasin, Maria A.; Stenmark, Kurt R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Reversible lysine acetylation has emerged as a critical mechanism for controlling the function of nucleosomal histones as well as diverse nonhistone proteins. Acetyl groups are conjugated to lysine residues in proteins by histone acetyltransferases and removed by histone deacetylases (HDACs), which are also commonly referred to as lysine deacetylases. Over the past decade, many studies have shown that HDACs play crucial roles in the control of left ventricular (LV) cardiac remodeling in response to stress. Small molecule HDAC inhibitors block pathological hypertrophy and fibrosis and improve cardiac function in various preclinical models of LV failure. Only recently have HDACs been studied in the context of right ventricular (RV) failure, which commonly occurs in patients who experience pulmonary hypertension (PH). Here, we review recent findings with HDAC inhibitors in models of PH and RV remodeling, propose next steps for this newly uncovered area of research, and highlight potential for isoform-selective HDAC inhibitors for the treatment of PH and RV failure. PMID:25992271

  5. Design, synthesis and preliminary bioactivity studies of 1,2-dihydrobenzo[d]isothiazol-3-one-1,1-dioxide hydroxamic acid derivatives as novel histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Han, Leiqiang; Wang, Lei; Hou, Xuben; Fu, Huansheng; Song, Weiguo; Tang, Weiping; Fang, Hao

    2014-03-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) is a clinically validated target for antitumor therapy. In order to increase HDAC inhibition and efficiency, we developed a novel series of saccharin hydroxamic acids as potent HDAC inhibitors. Among them, compounds 11e, 11m, 11p exhibited similar or better HDACs inhibitory activity compared with the approved drug SAHA. Further biological evaluation indicated that compound 11m had potent antiproliferative activities against MDA-MB-231 and PC-3. PMID:24525003

  6. Class I histone deacetylase activity is required for proliferation of renal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jinhua; Yan, Yanli; Zhao, Ting C; Bayliss, George; Yan, Haidong; Zhuang, Shougang

    2013-08-01

    The process of renal regeneration after acute kidney injury is thought to recapitulate renal development, and proliferation of renal proximal tubular cells (RPTCs) is a critical step in the regenerative response. Recent studies indicate that class I histone deacetylases (HDACs) are required for embryonic kidney gene expression, growth, and differentiation. The role and underlying mechanisms of class I HDAC activation in RPTC proliferation, however, remain unclear. In this study, we used cultured RPTCs to examine this issue since four class I HDAC isoforms (1, 2, 3, and 8) are abundantly expressed in this cell type. Blocking class I HDAC activity with a highly selective inhibitor, MS-275, induced global histone H3 hyperacetylation, reduced RPTC proliferation, and diminished expression of cyclin D1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Silencing HDAC1, 3, or 8 with small interfering RNA resulted in similar biological effects. Activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) was required for RPTC proliferation, and STAT3 functioned downstream of EGFR. Treatment with MS-275 or knockdown of HDAC1, 3, or 8 suppressed EGFR expression and phosphorylation, and silencing HDAC1 and 3 also reduced STAT3 phosphorylation. However, HDAC2 downregulation did not affect RPTC proliferation and phosphorylation of EGFR and STAT3. Collectively, these data reveal a critical role of class I HDACs in mediating proliferation of renal epithelial cells through activation of the EGFR/STAT3 signaling pathway. PMID:23698124

  7. Catalytic activity and inhibition of human histone deacetylase 8 is dependent on the identity of the active site metal ion.

    PubMed

    Gantt, Stephanie L; Gattis, Samuel G; Fierke, Carol A

    2006-05-16

    Histone deacetylases play a key role in regulating transcription and other cellular processes by catalyzing the hydrolysis of epsilon-acetyl-lysine residues. For this reason, inhibitors of histone deacetylases are potential targets for the treatment of cancer. A subset of these enzymes has previously been shown to require divalent metal ions for catalysis. Here we demonstrate that histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8) is catalytically active with a number of divalent metal ions in a 1:1 stoichiometry with the following order of specific activity: Co(II) > Fe(II) > Zn(II) > Ni(II). The identity of the catalytic metal ion influences both the affinity of the HDAC inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and the Michaelis constant, with Fe(II)- and Co(II)-HDAC8 having K(M) values that are over 5-fold lower than that of Zn(II)-HDAC8. These data suggest that Fe(II), rather than Zn(II), may be the in vivo catalytic metal. In further support of this hypothesis, recombinant HDAC8 purified from E. coli contains 8-fold more iron than zinc before dialysis, and the HDAC8 activity in cell lysates is oxygen-sensitive. Identification of the in vivo metal ion of HDAC8 is essential for understanding the biological function and regulation of HDAC8 and for the development of improved inhibitors of this class of enzymes. PMID:16681389

  8. The effect of sulforaphane on histone deacetylase activity in keratinocytes: Differences between in vitro and in vivo analyses.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Sally E; Rusche, Jadrian J; Bec, Sergiu L; Horn, David J; Janda, Jaroslav; Rim, So Hyun; Smith, Catharine L; Bowden, G Timothy

    2015-11-01

    Sulforaphane is a natural product found in broccoli, which is known to exert many different molecular effects in the cell, including inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes. Here, we examine for the first time the potential for sulforaphane to inhibit HDACs in HaCaT keratinocytes and compare our results with those found using HCT116 colon cancer cells. Significant inhibition of HDAC activity in HCT116 nuclear extracts required prolonged exposure to sulforaphane in the presence of serum. Under the same conditions HaCaT nuclear extracts did not exhibit reduced HDAC activity with sulforaphane treatment. Both cell types displayed down-regulation of HDAC protein levels by sulforaphane treatment. Despite these reductions in HDAC family member protein levels, acetylation of marker proteins (acetylated Histone H3, H4, and tubulin) was decreased by sulforaphane treatment. Time-course analysis revealed that HDAC6, HDAC3, and acetylated histone H3 protein levels are significantly inhibited as early as 6 h into sulforaphane treatment. Transcript levels of HDAC6 are also suppressed after 48 h of treatment. These results suggest that HDAC activity noted in nuclear extracts is not always translated as expected to target protein acetylation patterns, despite dramatic inhibition of some HDAC protein levels. In addition, our data suggest that keratinocytes are at least partially resistant to the nuclear HDAC inhibitory effects of sulforaphane, which is exhibited in HCT116 and other cells. PMID:25307283

  9. Toward isozyme-selective inhibitors of histone deacetylase as therapeutic agents for the treatment of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ononye, Sophia N; van Heyst, Michael; Falcone, Eric M; Anderson, Amy C; Wright, Dennis L

    2013-01-01

    Since post-translational modifications of proteins are key mechanisms for controlling cellular function, targeting the machinery involved in these modifications offers new opportunities for the development of therapeutic agents. The histone deacetylases (HDACs) represent an important family of enzymes that are involved in controlling the acetylation state of key lysine residues in histones and other proteins. The development of HDAC inhibitors for the treatment of several diseases, most notably cancer, has proceeded rapidly. Recent attention has turned towards the development of isozyme-specific inhibitors that will provide selective targeting. It is believed that the ability to target-specific HDACs rather than all family members will lead to superior therapeutics with better efficacy and lower toxicity. A review of recent patents shows that researchers are targeting a wide range of isozymes and that key advances in the structural biology of HDACs are providing important design information. PMID:24163736

  10. Novel Histone Deacetylase Class IIa Selective Substrate Radiotracers for PET Imaging of Epigenetic Regulation in the Brain.

    PubMed

    Bonomi, Robin; Mukhopadhyay, Uday; Shavrin, Aleksandr; Yeh, Hsien-Hsien; Majhi, Anjoy; Dewage, Sajeewa W; Najjar, Amer; Lu, Xin; Cisneros, G Andrs; Tong, William P; Alauddin, Mian M; Liu, Ren-Shuan; Mangner, Thomas J; Turkman, Nashaat; Gelovani, Juri G

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDAC's) became increasingly important targets for therapy of various diseases, resulting in a pressing need to develop HDAC class- and isoform-selective inhibitors. Class IIa deacetylases possess only minimal deacetylase activity against acetylated histones, but have several other client proteins as substrates through which they participate in epigenetic regulation. Herein, we report the radiosyntheses of the second generation of HDAC class IIa-specific radiotracers: 6-(di-fluoroacetamido)-1-hexanoicanilide (DFAHA) and 6-(tri-fluoroacetamido)-1-hexanoicanilide ([18F]-TFAHA). The selectivity of these radiotracer substrates to HDAC class IIa enzymes was assessed in vitro, in a panel of recombinant HDACs, and in vivo using PET/CT imaging in rats. [18F]TFAHA showed significantly higher selectivity for HDAC class IIa enzymes, as compared to [18F]DFAHA and previously reported [18F]FAHA. PET imaging with [18F]TFAHA can be used to visualize and quantify spatial distribution and magnitude of HDAC class IIa expression-activity in different organs and tissues in vivo. Furthermore, PET imaging with [18F]TFAHA may advance the understanding of HDACs class IIa mediated epigenetic regulation of normal and pathophysiological processes, and facilitate the development of novel HDAC class IIa-specific inhibitors for therapy of different diseases. PMID:26244761

  11. Class I and IIa Histone Deacetylases Have Opposite Effects on Sclerostin Gene Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Baertschi, Stefan; Baur, Nina; Lueders-Lefevre, Valerie; Voshol, Johannes; Keller, Hansjoerg

    2014-01-01

    Adult bone mass is controlled by the bone formation repressor sclerostin (SOST). Previously, we have shown that intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) bone anabolic therapy involves SOST expression reduction by inhibiting myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2), which activates a distant bone enhancer. Here, we extended our SOST gene regulation studies by analyzing a role of class I and IIa histone deacetylases (HDACs), which are known regulators of MEF2s. Expression analysis using quantitative PCR (qPCR) showed high expression of HDACs 1 and 2, lower amounts of HDACs 3, 5, and 7, low amounts of HDAC4, and no expression of HDACs 8 and 9 in constitutively SOST-expressing UMR106 osteocytic cells. PTH-induced Sost suppression was associated with specific rapid nuclear accumulation of HDAC5 and co-localization with MEF2s in nuclear speckles requiring serine residues 259 and 498, whose phosphorylations control nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. Increasing nuclear levels of HDAC5 in UMR106 by blocking nuclear export with leptomycin B (LepB) or overexpression in transient transfection assays inhibited endogenous Sost transcription and reporter gene expression, respectively. This repressor effect of HDAC5 did not require catalytic activity using specific HDAC inhibitors. In contrast, inhibition of class I HDAC activities and expression using RNA interference suppressed constitutive Sost expression in UMR106 cells. An unbiased comprehensive search for involved HDAC targets using an acetylome analysis revealed several non-histone proteins as candidates. These findings suggest that PTH-mediated Sost repression involves nuclear accumulation of HDAC inhibiting the MEF2-dependent Sost bone enhancer, and class I HDACs are required for constitutive Sost expression in osteocytes. PMID:25012661

  12. Deletion of Histone Deacetylase 7 in Osteoclasts Decreases Bone Mass in Mice by Interactions with MITF

    PubMed Central

    Stemig, Melissa; Astelford, Kristina; Emery, Ann; Cho, Jangyeun J.; Allen, Ben; Huang, Tsang-hai; Gopalakrishnan, Rajaram; Mansky, Kim C.; Jensen, Eric D.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular regulators of osteoclast formation and function are an important area of research due to the central role of osteoclasts in bone resorption. Transcription factors such as MITF are essential for osteoclast generation by regulating expression of the genes required for cellular differentiation and resorptive function. We recently reported that histone deacetylase 7 (HDAC7) binds to and represses the transcriptional activity of MITF in osteoclasts, and that loss of HDAC7 in vitro accelerated osteoclastogenesis. In the current study, we extend this initial observation by showing that conditional deletion of HDAC7 in osteoclasts of mice leads to an in vivo enhancement in osteoclast formation, associated with increased bone resorption and lower bone mass. Expression of multiple MITF target genes is increased in bone marrow derived osteoclast cultures from the HDAC7 knockout mice. Interestingly, multiple regions of the HDAC7 amino-terminus can bind to MITF or exert repressive activity. Moreover, mutation or deletion of the HDAC7 conserved deacetylase catalytic domain had little effect on repressive function. These observations identify HDAC7 in osteoclasts as an important molecular regulator of MITF activity and bone homeostasis, but also highlight a gap in our understanding of exactly how HDAC7 functions as a corepressor. PMID:25875108

  13. Differential Regulation of Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase Promoter Activation and Protein Degradation by Histone Deacetylase Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Qing, Hua; Aono, Jun; Findeisen, Hannes M; Jones, Karrie L; Heywood, Elizabeth B; Bruemmer, Dennis

    2016-06-01

    Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) maintains telomeres and is rate limiting for replicative life span. While most somatic tissues silence TERT transcription resulting in telomere shortening, cells derived from cancer or cardiovascular diseases express TERT and activate telomerase. In the present study, we demonstrate that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition induces TERT transcription and promoter activation. At the protein level in contrast, HDAC inhibition decreases TERT protein abundance through enhanced degradation, which decreases telomerase activity and induces senescence. Finally, we demonstrate that HDAC inhibition decreases TERT expression during vascular remodeling in vivo. These data illustrate a differential regulation of TERT transcription and protein stability by HDAC inhibition and suggest that TERT may constitute an important target for the anti-proliferative efficacy of HDAC inhibitors. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1276-1282, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26505494

  14. HDACiDB: a database for histone deacetylase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Murugan, Kasi; Sangeetha, Shanmugasamy; Ranjitha, Shanmugasamy; Vimala, Antony; Al-Sohaibani, Saleh; Rameshkumar, Gopal

    2015-01-01

    An histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor database (HDACiDB) was constructed to enable rapid access to data relevant to the development of epigenetic modulators (HDAC inhibitors [HDACi]), helping bring precision cancer medicine a step closer. Thousands of HDACi targeting HDACs are in various stages of development and are being tested in clinical trials as monotherapy and in combination with other cancer agents. Despite the abundance of HDACi, information resources are limited. Tools for in silico experiments on specific HDACi prediction, for designing and analyzing the generated data, as well as custom-made specific tools and interactive databases, are needed. We have developed an HDACiDB that is a composite collection of HDACi and currently comprises 1,445 chemical compounds, including 419 natural and 1,026 synthetic ones having the potential to inhibit histone deacetylation. Most importantly, it will allow application of Lipinski’s rule of five drug-likeness and other physicochemical property-based screening of the inhibitors. It also provides easy access to information on their source of origin, molecular properties, drug likeness, as well as bioavailability with relevant references cited. Being the first comprehensive database on HDACi that contains all known natural and synthetic HDACi, the HDACiDB may help to improve our knowledge concerning the mechanisms of actions of available HDACi and enable us to selectively target individual HDAC isoforms and establish a new paradigm for intelligent epigenetic cancer drug design. The database is freely available on the http://hdacidb.bioinfo.au-kbc.org.in/hdacidb/website. PMID:25945037

  15. Rational development of histone deacetylase inhibitors as anticancer agents: a review.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Milin R; Sparreboom, Alex; Venitz, Jrgen; Figg, William D

    2005-10-01

    The epigenome is defined by DNA methylation patterns and the associated post-translational modifications of histones. This histone code determines the expression status of individual genes dependent upon their localization on the chromatin. The histone deacetylases (HDACs) play a major role in keeping the balance between the acetylated and deacetylated states of chromatin and eventually regulate gene expression. Recent developments in understanding the cancer cell cycle, specifically the interplay with chromatin control, are providing opportunities for developing mechanism-based therapeutic drugs. Inhibitors of HDACs are under considerable exploration, in part because of their potential roles in reversing the silenced genes in transformed tumor cells by modulating transcriptional processes. This review is an effort to summarize the nonclinical and clinical status of HDAC inhibitors currently under development in anticancer therapy. PMID:15955865

  16. Histone Deacetylase 3 Depletion in Osteo/Chondroprogenitor Cells Decreases Bone Density and Increases Marrow Fat

    PubMed Central

    Casper, Michelle E.; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E.; Stensgard, Bridget A.; Li, Xiaodong; Secreto, Frank J.; Knutson, Sarah K.; Hiebert, Scott W.; Westendorf, Jennifer J.

    2010-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (Hdac)3 is a nuclear enzyme that contributes to epigenetic programming and is required for embryonic development. To determine the role of Hdac3 in bone formation, we crossed mice harboring loxP sites around exon 7 of Hdac3 with mice expressing Cre recombinase under the control of the osterix promoter. The resulting Hdac3 conditional knockout (CKO) mice were runted and had severe deficits in intramembranous and endochondral bone formation. Calvarial bones were significantly thinner and trabecular bone volume in the distal femur was decreased 75% in the Hdac3 CKO mice due to a substantial reduction in trabecular number. Hdac3-CKO mice had fewer osteoblasts and more bone marrow adipocytes as a proportion of tissue area than their wildtype or heterozygous littermates. Bone formation rates were depressed in both the cortical and trabecular regions of Hdac3 CKO femurs. Microarray analyses revealed that numerous developmental signaling pathways were affected by Hdac3-deficiency. Thus, Hdac3 depletion in osterix-expressing progenitor cells interferes with bone formation and promotes bone marrow adipocyte differentiation. These results demonstrate that Hdac3 inhibition is detrimental to skeletal health. PMID:20628553

  17. Regulation of Histone Deacetylase 4 Expression by the SP Family of Transcription FactorsD?

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fang; Pore, Nabendu; Kim, Mijin; Voong, K. Ranh; Dowling, Melissa; Maity, Amit; Kao, Gary D.

    2006-01-01

    Histone deacetylases mediate critical cellular functions but relatively little is known about mechanisms controlling their expression, including expression of HDAC4, a class II HDAC implicated in the modulation of cellular differentiation and viability. Endogenous HDAC4 mRNA, protein levels and promoter activity were all readily repressed by mithramycin, suggesting regulation by GC-rich DNA sequences. We validated consensus binding sites for Sp1/Sp3 transcription factors in the HDAC4 promoter through truncation studies and targeted mutagenesis. Specific and functional binding by Sp1/Sp3 at these sites was confirmed with chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and electromobility shift assays (EMSA). Cotransfection of either Sp1 or Sp3 with a reporter driven by the HDAC4 promoter led to high activities in SL2 insect cells (which lack endogenous Sp1/Sp3). In human cells, restored expression of Sp1 and Sp3 up-regulated HDAC4 protein levels, whereas levels were decreased by RNA-interference-mediated knockdown of either protein. Finally, variable levels of Sp1 were in concordance with that of HDAC4 in a number of human tissues and cancer cell lines. These studies together characterize for the first time the activity of the HDAC4 promoter, through which Sp1 and Sp3 modulates expression of HDAC4 and which may contribute to tissue or cell-line-specific expression of HDAC4. PMID:16280357

  18. Histone deacetylase inhibitors as potential therapeutic approaches for chordoma: an immunohistochemical and functional analysis.

    PubMed

    Scheipl, Susanne; Lohberger, Birgit; Rinner, Beate; Froehlich, Elke Verena; Beham, Alfred; Quehenberger, Franz; Lazry, Aron; Pal Varga, Peter; Haybaeck, Johannes; Leithner, Andreas; Liegl, Bernadette

    2013-12-01

    Chordomas are rare malignancies of the axial skeleton. Therapy is mainly restricted to surgery. This study investigates histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors as potential therapeutics for chordomas. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed using the HDAC 1-6 antibodies on 50 chordoma samples (34 primary tumors, 16 recurrences) from 44 patients (27 male, 17 female). Pan-HDAC-inhibitors Vorinostat (SAHA), Panobinostat (LBH-589), and Belinostat (PXD101) were tested for their efficacy in the chordoma cell line MUG-Chor1 via Western blot, cell cycle analysis, caspase 3/7 activity (MUG-Chor1, UCh-1), cleaved caspase-3, and PARP cleavage. p-Values below 0.05 were considered significant. IHC was negative for HDAC1, positive for HDAC2 in most (n = 36; 72%), and for HDACs 3-6 in all specimens available (n = 43; 86%). HDAC6 expression was strongest. SAHA and LBH-589, but not PXD101 caused a significant increase of G2/M phase cells and of cleaved caspase-3 (p = 0.0003, and p = 0.0014 after 72 h, respectively), and a peak of caspase 3/7 activity. PARP cleavage confirmed apoptosis. The presented chordoma series expressed HDACs 2-6 with strongest expression of HDAC6. SAHA and LBH-589 significantly increased apoptosis and changed cell cycle distribution in vitro. HDAC-inhibitors should be further evaluated as therapeutic options for chordoma. PMID:23893747

  19. Regulated Clearance of Histone Deacetylase 3 Protects Independent Formation of Nuclear Receptor Corepressor Complexes*

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Chun; Gow, Chien-Hung; Li, Yali; Gardner, Amanda; Khan, Sohaib; Zhang, Jinsong

    2012-01-01

    An important step in transcriptional regulation by corepressors N-CoR and SMRT is the formation of a stable and active histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3)-containing complex. Although N-CoR and SMRT are thought to bind HDAC3 competitively, multiple studies have shown that they do not interfere with the function of each other. How this functional independence is sustained under the competitive interaction is unclear. Here, we show that the coupling of corepressor expression with HDAC3 degradation allows cells to maintain a stable level of uncomplexed HDAC3, thereby preventing mutual interference in the assembly of N-CoR and SMRT complexes. The free uncomplexed HDAC3 is highly unstable. Unexpectedly, the rate of HDAC3 degradation is inversely correlated with the expression level of corepressors. Our results indicate that reducing one corepressor accelerates HDAC3 clearance, thus preventing an increase in complex formation between HDAC3 and the other corepressor. In addition, this study also indicates that the formation of a stable and active HDAC3-corepressor complex is a stepwise process in which the C terminus of HDAC3 plays a critical role at late steps of the assembly process. PMID:22337871

  20. HDAC inhibitors induce global changes in histone lysine and arginine methylation and alter expression of lysine demethylases.

    PubMed

    Lillico, Ryan; Sobral, Marina Gomez; Stesco, Nicholas; Lakowski, Ted M

    2016-02-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are cancer treatments that inhibit the removal of the epigenetic modification acetyllysine on histones, resulting in altered gene expression. Such changes in expression may influence other histone epigenetic modifications. We describe a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to quantify lysine acetylation and methylation and arginine methylation on histones extracted from cultured cells treated with HDAC inhibitors. The HDAC inhibitors vorinostat, mocetinostat and entinostat induced 400-600% hyperacetylation in HEK 293 and K562 cells. All HDAC inhibitors decreased histone methylarginines in HEK 293 cells but entinostat produced dose dependent reductions in asymmetric dimethylarginine, not observed in K562 cells. Vorinostat produced increases in histone lysine methylation and decreased expression of some lysine demethylases (KDM), measured by quantitative PCR. Entinostat had variable effects on lysine methylation and decreased expression of some KDM while increasing expression of others. Mocetinostat produced dose dependent increases in histone lysine methylation by LC-MS/MS. This was corroborated with a multiplex colorimetric assay showing increases in histone H3 lysine 4, 9, 27, 36 and 79 methylation. Increases in lysine methylation were correlated with dose dependent decreases in the expression of seven KDM. Mocetinostat functions as an HDAC inhibitor and a de facto KDM inhibitor. PMID:26721445

  1. Histone Deacetylases Inhibitors in the Treatment of Retinal Degenerative Diseases: Overview and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xufeng; Du, Wei; Pang, Ji-jing

    2015-01-01

    Retinal degenerative diseases are one of the important refractory ophthalmic diseases, featured with apoptosis of photoreceptor cells. Histone acetylation and deacetylation can regulate chromosome assembly, gene transcription, and posttranslational modification, which are regulated by histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs), respectively. The histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) have the ability to cause hyperacetylation of histone and nonhistone proteins, resulting in a variety of effects on cell proliferation, differentiation, anti-inflammation, and anti-apoptosis. Several HDACis have been approved for clinical trials to treat cancer. Studies have shown that HDACis have neuroprotective effects in nervous system damage. In this paper, we will summarize the neuroprotective effects of common HDACis in retinal degenerative diseases and make a prospect to the applications of HDACis in the treatment of retinal degenerative diseases in the future. PMID:26137316

  2. Comprehensive analysis for histone acetylation of human colon cancer cells treated with a novel HDAC inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunlong; Fang, Xiuli; Wang, Ye; Zhang, Junmei; Jiang, Sheng; Liu, Zhe; Ma, Zhenyi; Xu, Liyan; Li, Enmin; Zhang, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Extensive evidence suggests that dysregulation of histone lysine acetylation is intimately linked with the development of cancer in epigenetic level. Histone acetylation on lysine is regulated mainly by the "pencil"--Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and the "eraser"--Histone deacetylases HDACs. Dramatic elevation of global histone deacetylation is considered as a biomarker for cancer. Therefore, current antitumor drug design often targets HDACs, inhibiting overexpressed HDAC in tumor cells with natural or synthesized small molecules like largazole. Recently, a novel largazole derivative (largazole-7) was designed and prepared by replacement of Val 1 with tyrosine, and this modification increases selectivity toward human cancer cells over normal cells more than 100-fold. However, it is unclear about the dynamic level of histone acetylation under the treatment of this drug. It is also unclear whether the other modifications are also affected by largazole-7 treatment. Therefore, a global mapping of modifications on the histone proteins of cancer cell line treated by this drug may be of great benefit to elucidating its molecular mechanisms and exploring its potent as an antitumor drug. To realize the goal, we combined stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) and high resolution MS for comprehensive identification and quantitative analysis of histone lysine acetylation and other modifications of Human Colon Cancer Cells (HCT-116) with and without treatment of largazole-7. In this analysis, we identified 68 histone PTMs in 38 sites on core histones, including lysine acetylation, methylation and butyrylation, a novel lysine modification. Further quantitative analysis not only discovered the global increased acetylated lysines, but also observed the changes of abundance of lysine methylation and butyrylation under stimulation of the drug. To our knowledge, it is the first report that regulation of largazole-7 against lysine butyrylation. Our study expands the catalog of histone marks in cancer, and provides an approach for understanding the known and new epigenetic marks under treatment of drugs. PMID:23888955

  3. Histone deacetylase inhibitors in multiple myeloma: rationale and evidence for their use in combination therapy.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Jonathan L; Fabre, Claire; Lonial, Sagar; Richardson, Paul G

    2013-08-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) arises from abnormal proliferation and survival (ie, a high proliferative index and a low apoptotic index) of mature immunoglobulin-producing plasma cells in the bone marrow. Development of novel therapeutic options, such as proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory agents (IMiDs), has improved treatment outcomes. However, patients often develop relapsed and refractory MM, thus requiring alternative treatment approaches. Histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases (HDACs) control the acetylation status of proteins and affect a broad array of physiologic processes (eg, cell cycle, apoptosis, and protein folding) involved in cell growth and survival. The discovery that HDACs might have a role in various hematologic malignancies, including MM, has led to the development of HDAC inhibitors as potential antitumor agents. Preclinical evidence from studies of HDAC inhibitors in combination with proteasome inhibitors (eg, bortezomib and carfilzomib), other antimyeloma agents, including IMiDs (eg, lenalidomide), and cytotoxic agents (eg, melphalan, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin), provides a strong scientific rationale for the evaluation of these regimens. Results from early stage clinical trials further support the use of HDAC inhibitors as a therapeutic option for MM, in combination with current and emerging antimyeloma agents. In this review, we examine the role of protein acetylation that underlies the antimyeloma effects of HDAC inhibitors, discuss the preclinical rationale for the use of HDAC inhibitors in combination with other antimyeloma agents, and provide an overview of the current clinical evidence supporting the use of HDAC inhibitors as a therapeutic option in MM. PMID:23787122

  4. Histone deacetylase 1/2 mediates proliferation of renal interstitial fibroblasts and expression of cell cycle proteins.

    PubMed

    Pang, Maoyin; Ma, Li; Liu, Na; Ponnusamy, Murugavel; Zhao, Ting C; Yan, Haidong; Zhuang, Shougang

    2011-08-01

    We recently reported that the histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity is required for activation of renal interstitial fibroblasts. In this study, we further examined the role of HDACs, in particular, HDAC1 and HDAC2, in proliferation of cultured rat renal interstitial fibroblasts (NRK-49F) and expression of cell cycle proteins. Inhibition of HDAC activity with trichostatin A (TSA), blocked cell proliferation, decreased expression of Cyclin D1, a positive cell cycle regulator, and increased expression of p27 and p57, two negative cell cycle regulators. Silencing either HDAC1 or HDAC2 with siRNA also significantly inhibited cell proliferation, decreased expression of Cyclin D1, and increased expression of p57. However, down-regulation of HDAC2, but not HDAC1 resulted in increased expression of p27. Furthermore, HDAC1 and HDAC2 down-regulation was associated with dephosphorylation and hyperacetylation of STAT3 (Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3). Blockade of STAT3 with S3I-201 or siRNA decreased renal fibroblast proliferation. Finally, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking STAT3 reduced the inhibitory effect of TSA on cell proliferation, add-back of wild type STAT3 to STAT3(-/-) MEFs restored the effect of TSA. Collectively, our results reveal an important role of HDAC1 and HDAC2 in regulating proliferation of renal interstitial fibroblasts, expression of cell cycle proteins and activation of STAT3. Further, STAT3 mediates the proliferative action of HDACs. PMID:21465537

  5. 3,3′-Diindolylmethane, but not indole-3-carbinol, inhibits histone deacetylase activity in prostate cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Beaver, Laura M.; Yu, Tian-Wei; Sokolowski, Elizabeth I.; Williams, David E.; Dashwood, Roderick H.; Ho, Emily; School of Biological and Population Health Sciences, Oregon State University, 103 Milam Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331

    2012-09-15

    Increased consumption of cruciferous vegetables is associated with a reduced risk of developing prostate cancer. Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM) are phytochemicals derived from cruciferous vegetables that have shown promise in inhibiting prostate cancer in experimental models. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition is an emerging target for cancer prevention and therapy. We sought to examine the effects of I3C and DIM on HDACs in human prostate cancer cell lines: androgen insensitive PC-3 cells and androgen sensitive LNCaP cells. I3C modestly inhibited HDAC activity in LNCaP cells by 25% but no inhibition of HDAC activity was detected in PC-3 cells. In contrast, DIM significantly inhibited HDAC activity in both cell lines by as much as 66%. Decreases in HDAC activity correlated with increased expression of p21, a known target of HDAC inhibitors. DIM treatment caused a significant decrease in the expression of HDAC2 protein in both cancer cell lines but no significant change in the protein levels of HDAC1, HDAC3, HDAC4, HDAC6 or HDAC8 was detected. Taken together, these results show that inhibition of HDAC activity by DIM may contribute to the phytochemicals' anti-proliferative effects in the prostate. The ability of DIM to target aberrant epigenetic patterns, in addition to its effects on detoxification of carcinogens, may make it an effective chemopreventive agent by targeting multiple stages of prostate carcinogenesis. -- Highlights: ► DIM inhibits HDAC activity and decreases HDAC2 expression in prostate cancer cells. ► DIM is significantly more effective than I3C at inhibiting HDAC activity. ► I3C has no effect on HDAC protein expression. ► Inhibition of HDAC activity by DIM is associated with increased p21 expression. ► HDAC inhibition may be a novel epigenetic mechanism for cancer prevention with DIM.

  6. TDP-43 knockdown impairs neurite outgrowth dependent on its target histone deacetylase 6

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Trans-activation response element (TAR) DNA binding protein of 43kDa (TDP-43) is causally related to the neurodegenerative diseases frontotemporal dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis being the hallmark protein in the disease-characteristic neuropathological lesions and via genetic linkage. Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) is an established target of the RNA-binding protein TDP-43. HDAC6 is an unusual cytosolic deacetylase enzyme, central for a variety of pivotal cellular functions including aggregating protein turnover, microtubular dynamics and filopodia formation. All these functions are important in the context of neurodegenerative proteinopathies involving TDP-43. We have previously shown in a human embryonic kidney cell line that TDP-43 knockdown significantly impairs the removal of a toxic, aggregating polyQ ataxin-3 fusion protein in an HDAC6-dependent manner. Here we investigated the influence of TDP-43 and its target HDAC6 on neurite outgrowth. Results Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells with stably silenced TDP-43 showed a significant reduction of neurite outgrowth induced by retinoic acid and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Re-transfection with TDP-43 as well as HDAC6 rescued retinoic acid-induced neurite outgrowth. In addition, we show that silencing of HDAC6 alone is sufficient to reduce neurite outgrowth of in vitro differentiated SH-SY5Y cells. Conclusions TDP-43 deficiency leads to impairment of neurite growth in an HDAC6-dependent manner, thereby contributing to neurodegenerative events in TDP-43 diseases. PMID:21878116

  7. Histone Deacetylase 3 Coordinates Deacetylase-independent Epigenetic Silencing of Transforming Growth Factor-?1 (TGF-?1) to Orchestrate Second Heart Field Development.

    PubMed

    Lewandowski, Sara L; Janardhan, Harish P; Trivedi, Chinmay M

    2015-11-01

    About two-thirds of human congenital heart disease involves second heart field-derived structures. Histone-modifying enzymes, histone deacetylases (HDACs), regulate the epigenome; however, their functions within the second heart field remain elusive. Here we demonstrate that histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) orchestrates epigenetic silencing of Tgf-?1, a causative factor in congenital heart disease pathogenesis, in a deacetylase-independent manner to regulate development of second heart field-derived structures. In murine embryos lacking HDAC3 in the second heart field, increased TGF-?1 bioavailability is associated with ascending aortic dilatation, outflow tract malrotation, overriding aorta, double outlet right ventricle, aberrant semilunar valve development, bicuspid aortic valve, ventricular septal defects, and embryonic lethality. Activation of TGF-? signaling causes aberrant endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition and altered extracellular matrix homeostasis in HDAC3-null outflow tracts and semilunar valves, and pharmacological inhibition of TGF-? rescues these defects. HDAC3 recruits components of the PRC2 complex, methyltransferase EZH2, EED, and SUZ12, to the NCOR complex to enrich trimethylation of Lys-27 on histone H3 at the Tgf-?1 regulatory region and thereby maintains epigenetic silencing of Tgf-?1 specifically within the second heart field-derived mesenchyme. Wild-type HDAC3 or catalytically inactive HDAC3 expression rescues aberrant endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition and epigenetic silencing of Tgf-?1 in HDAC3-null outflow tracts and semilunar valves. These findings reveal that epigenetic dysregulation within the second heart field is a predisposing factor for congenital heart disease. PMID:26420484

  8. Histone deacetylase inhibitors for purging HIV-1 from the latent reservoir.

    PubMed

    Matalon, Shay; Rasmussen, Thomas A; Dinarello, Charles A

    2011-01-01

    A reservoir of latently infected memory CD4(+) T cells is believed to be the source of HIV-1 reemergence after discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy. HIV-1 eradication may depend on depletion of this reservoir. Integrated HIV-1 is inaccessible for expression, in part because of histone deacetylases (HDACs). One approach is to exploit the ability of HDAC inhibitors to induce HIV-1 expression from an integrated virus. With effective antiretroviral therapy, newly expressed HIV-1 is incapable of reinfecting naive cells. With HIV-1 expression, one assumes the infected cell dies and there is a progressive reduction in the size of the reservoir. The concept was tested using the HDAC inhibitor valproic acid. However, valproic acid is weak in inducing HIV-1 from latency in vitro. As such, clinical trials revealed a small or no effect on reducing the number of latently infected T cells in the peripheral blood. However, the new HDAC inhibitors vorinostat, belinostat and givinostat are more effective at targeting specific HDACs for HIV-1 expression than valproic acid. Here, we review studies on HDAC inhibitor-induced expression of latent HIV-1, with an emphasis on new and specific HDAC inhibitors. With increased potency for HIV-1 expression as well as safety and ease of oral administration, new HDAC inhibitors offer a unique opportunity to deplete the latent reservoir. An additional benefit is the antiinflammatory properties of HDAC inhibitors, including downregulation of HIV-1 coreceptor expression. PMID:21424110

  9. Tetraspanin CD9 modulates human lymphoma cellular proliferation via histone deacetylase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Herr, Michael J.; Longhurst, Celia M.; Baker, Benjamin; Homayouni, Ramin; Speich, Henry E.; Kotha, Jayaprakash; Jennings, Lisa K.

    2014-05-16

    Highlights: • CD9 is differentially expressed in human Burkitt’s lymphoma cells. • We found that CD9 expression promotes these cells proliferation. • CD9 expression also increases HDAC activity. • HDAC inhibition decreased both cell proliferation and importantly CD9 expression. • CD9 may dictate HDAC efficacy and play a role in HDAC regulation. - Abstract: Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) is a type of hematological malignancy that affects two percent of the overall population in the United States. Tetraspanin CD9 is a cell surface protein that has been thoroughly demonstrated to be a molecular facilitator of cellular phenotype. CD9 expression varies in two human lymphoma cell lines, Raji and BJAB. In this report, we investigated the functional relationship between CD9 and cell proliferation regulated by histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity in these two cell lines. Introduction of CD9 expression in Raji cells resulted in significantly increased cell proliferation and HDAC activity compared to Mock transfected Raji cells. The increase in CD9–Raji cell proliferation was significantly inhibited by HDAC inhibitor (HDACi) treatment. Pretreatment of BJAB cells with HDAC inhibitors resulted in a significant decrease in endogenous CD9 mRNA and cell surface expression. BJAB cells also displayed decreased cell proliferation after HDACi treatment. These results suggest a significant relationship between CD9 expression and cell proliferation in human lymphoma cells that may be modulated by HDAC activity.

  10. Histone deacetylases 1 and 2 regulate autophagy flux and skeletal muscle homeostasis in mice.

    PubMed

    Moresi, Viviana; Carrer, Michele; Grueter, Chad E; Rifki, Oktay F; Shelton, John M; Richardson, James A; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda; Olson, Eric N

    2012-01-31

    Maintenance of skeletal muscle structure and function requires efficient and precise metabolic control. Autophagy plays a key role in metabolic homeostasis of diverse tissues by recycling cellular constituents, particularly under conditions of caloric restriction, thereby normalizing cellular metabolism. Here we show that histone deacetylases (HDACs) 1 and 2 control skeletal muscle homeostasis and autophagy flux in mice. Skeletal muscle-specific deletion of both HDAC1 and HDAC2 results in perinatal lethality of a subset of mice, accompanied by mitochondrial abnormalities and sarcomere degeneration. Mutant mice that survive the first day of life develop a progressive myopathy characterized by muscle degeneration and regeneration, and abnormal metabolism resulting from a blockade to autophagy. HDAC1 and HDAC2 regulate skeletal muscle autophagy by mediating the induction of autophagic gene expression and the formation of autophagosomes, such that myofibers of mice lacking these HDACs accumulate toxic autophagic intermediates. Strikingly, feeding HDAC1/2 mutant mice a high-fat diet from the weaning age releases the block in autophagy and prevents myopathy in adult mice. These findings reveal an unprecedented and essential role for HDAC1 and HDAC2 in maintenance of skeletal muscle structure and function and show that, at least in some pathological conditions, myopathy may be mitigated by dietary modifications. PMID:22307625

  11. Silencing histone deacetylase-specific isoforms enhances expression of pluripotency genes in bovine fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Staszkiewicz, Jaroslaw; Power, Rachel A; Harkins, Lettie L; Barnes, Christian W; Strickler, Karen L; Rim, Jong S; Bondioli, Kenneth R; Eilersten, Kenneth J

    2013-10-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) catalyze deacetylation of histones that results in altered transcriptional activity. Inhibitors of HDACs have been shown to induce transcriptional changes that contribute positively to reprogramming somatic cells either by nuclear transfer or inducing a pluripotent state. However, the exact molecular mechanisms whereby HDAC inhibitors function and the specificity of the HDAC isoforms in cell reprogramming are not yet fully understood. Herein, we report the ability of individual isoform-specific HDACs to modulate endogenous expression of pluripotency-associated genes in bovine somatic cells. This in vitro study showed that a transient selective depletion of HDACs resulted in elevated mRNA levels of Oct-4, Sox2, and Nanog. In particular, we found that inhibition of specific HDAC isoforms using small interfering (si) RNA significantly increased expression of Nanog, a key factor required for totipotency induced by somatic cell nuclear transfer and for maintaining pluripotency in embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells. Our study suggests that this gene might be the most susceptible to HDAC activity inhibition. Moreover, a regulatory role of the class III HDAC, SIRT3, on an Oct4-Sox2-Nanog transcriptional network was revealed. We observed the upregulation of pluripotency-related genes by depletion of SIRT3. SIRT3 is localized to mitochondria and is associated with energy metabolism processes, suggesting metabolic changes may be linked to reprogramming in bovine fibroblasts. In conclusion, we show that targeting selective HDACs can potentially be useful to enhance reprogramming and that sirtuins may play a pivotal role in somatic cell reprogramming by upregulating an Oct4-Sox2-Nanog transcriptional network. Dedifferentiating donor somatic cells by upregulating developmentally important genes through specific knockdown of epigenetic targets, in particular HDACs, may provide a path to improving livestock cloning and the in vitro production of pluripotent cells. PMID:24020699

  12. Silencing Histone DeacetylaseSpecific Isoforms Enhances Expression of Pluripotency Genes in Bovine Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Power, Rachel A.; Harkins, Lettie L.; Barnes, Christian W.; Strickler, Karen L.; Rim, Jong S.; Bondioli, Kenneth R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Histone deacetylases (HDACs) catalyze deacetylation of histones that results in altered transcriptional activity. Inhibitors of HDACs have been shown to induce transcriptional changes that contribute positively to reprogramming somatic cells either by nuclear transfer or inducing a pluripotent state. However, the exact molecular mechanisms whereby HDAC inhibitors function and the specificity of the HDAC isoforms in cell reprogramming are not yet fully understood. Herein, we report the ability of individual isoform-specific HDACs to modulate endogenous expression of pluripotency-associated genes in bovine somatic cells. This in vitro study showed that a transient selective depletion of HDACs resulted in elevated mRNA levels of Oct-4, Sox2, and Nanog. In particular, we found that inhibition of specific HDAC isoforms using small interfering (si) RNA significantly increased expression of Nanog, a key factor required for totipotency induced by somatic cell nuclear transfer and for maintaining pluripotency in embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells. Our study suggests that this gene might be the most susceptible to HDAC activity inhibition. Moreover, a regulatory role of the class III HDAC, SIRT3, on an Oct4Sox2Nanog transcriptional network was revealed. We observed the upregulation of pluripotency-related genes by depletion of SIRT3. SIRT3 is localized to mitochondria and is associated with energy metabolism processes, suggesting metabolic changes may be linked to reprogramming in bovine fibroblasts. In conclusion, we show that targeting selective HDACs can potentially be useful to enhance reprogramming and that sirtuins may play a pivotal role in somatic cell reprogramming by upregulating an Oct4Sox2Nanog transcriptional network. Dedifferentiating donor somatic cells by upregulating developmentally important genes through specific knockdown of epigenetic targets, in particular HDACs, may provide a path to improving livestock cloning and the in vitro production of pluripotent cells. PMID:24020699

  13. Histone deacetylase complex1 expression level titrates plant growth and abscisic acid sensitivity in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Perrella, Giorgio; Lopez-Vernaza, Manuel A; Carr, Craig; Sani, Emanuela; Gossel, Veronique; Verduyn, Christoph; Kellermeier, Fabian; Hannah, Matthew A; Amtmann, Anna

    2013-09-01

    Histone deacetylation regulates gene expression during plant stress responses and is therefore an interesting target for epigenetic manipulation of stress sensitivity in plants. Unfortunately, overexpression of the core enzymes (histone deacetylases [HDACs]) has either been ineffective or has caused pleiotropic morphological abnormalities. In yeast and mammals, HDACs operate within multiprotein complexes. Searching for putative components of plant HDAC complexes, we identified a gene with partial homology to a functionally uncharacterized member of the yeast complex, which we called Histone Deacetylation Complex1 (HDC1). HDC1 is encoded by a single-copy gene in the genomes of model plants and crops and therefore presents an attractive target for biotechnology. Here, we present a functional characterization of HDC1 in Arabidopsis thaliana. We show that HDC1 is a ubiquitously expressed nuclear protein that interacts with at least two deacetylases (HDA6 and HDA19), promotes histone deacetylation, and attenuates derepression of genes under water stress. The fast-growing HDC1-overexpressing plants outperformed wild-type plants not only on well-watered soil but also when water supply was reduced. Our findings identify HDC1 as a rate-limiting component of the histone deacetylation machinery and as an attractive tool for increasing germination rate and biomass production of plants. PMID:24058159

  14. Human endometrial cytodifferentiation by histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Hiroshi; Maruyama, Tetsuo; Nagashima, Takashi; Ono, Masanori; Masuda, Hirotaka; Arase, Toru; Sugiura, Ikuko; Onouchi, Maki; Kajitani, Takashi; Asada, Hironori; Yoshimura, Yasunori

    2006-02-01

    Abstract Human uterine endometrium repeats proliferation, differentiation (decidualization) and tissue breakdown during the menstrual period. Appropriate secretion of ovarian steroid hormones regulates these sequential endometrial remodeling cycles. While progesterone replacement therapy is adopted for endometrial dysfunction of differentiation, including recurrent impairment of implantation, no obvious effective results are obtained. Histone reversible acetylation, regulated by histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases plays a pivotal role in gene transcription. Although, in cells cultured with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACI), the expression of only about 2% of expressed genes is changed twofold or more compared with untreated control cells. Numerous previous works have demonstrated that HDACI affect cell proliferation/apoptosis in a variety of types of cells. To date, several HDACI are in phase I or phase II clinical trials as anticancer drugs. However, no reports have been found that HDACI is useful for transdifferentiation in human endometrium. Recently, we reported that HDACI could induce the expression of differentiation marker proteins, morphological change and functional cytodifferentiation in both human endometrial stromal and epithelial cells. In this review, we summarize the effect of HDACI against the human endometrial cytodifferentiation, indicating the possibility that HDACI can be used not only as an anticancer drug, but also as a transdifferentiation reagent, based on a new strategy. PMID:16643606

  15. Nitric oxide modulates chromatin folding in human endothelial cells via protein phosphatase 2A activation and class II histone deacetylases nuclear shuttling.

    PubMed

    Illi, Barbara; Dello Russo, Claudio; Colussi, Claudia; Rosati, Jessica; Pallaoro, Michele; Spallotta, Francesco; Rotili, Dante; Valente, Sergio; Ragone, Gianluca; Martelli, Fabio; Biglioli, Paolo; Steinkuhler, Christian; Gallinari, Paola; Mai, Antonello; Capogrossi, Maurizio C; Gaetano, Carlo

    2008-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) modulates important endothelial cell (EC) functions and gene expression by a molecular mechanism which is still poorly characterized. Here we show that in human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs) NO inhibited serum-induced histone acetylation and enhanced histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity. By immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses it was found that NO induced class II HDAC4 and 5 nuclear shuttling and that class II HDACs selective inhibitor MC1568 rescued serum-dependent histone acetylation above control level in NO-treated HUVECs. In contrast, class I HDACs inhibitor MS27-275 had no effect, indicating a specific role for class II HDACs in NO-dependent histone deacetylation. In addition, it was found that NO ability to induce HDAC4 and HDAC5 nuclear shuttling involved the activation of the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). In fact, HDAC4 nuclear translocation was impaired in ECs expressing small-t antigen and exposed to NO. Finally, in cells engineered to express a HDAC4-Flag fusion protein, NO induced the formation of a macromolecular complex including HDAC4, HDAC3, HDAC5, and an active PP2A. The present results show that NO-dependent PP2A activation plays a key role in class II HDACs nuclear translocation. PMID:17975112

  16. Protein acetylation in the cardiorenal axis: the promise of histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bush, Erik W; McKinsey, Timothy A

    2010-02-01

    Acetylation of histone and nonhistone proteins provides a key mechanism for controlling signaling and gene expression in heart and kidney. Pharmacological inhibition of protein deacetylation with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors has shown promise in preclinical models of cardiovascular and renal disease. Efficacy of HDAC inhibitors appears to be governed by pleiotropic salutary actions on a variety of cell types and pathophysiological processes, including myocyte hypertrophy, fibrosis, inflammation and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, and occurs at compound concentrations below the threshold required to elicit toxic side effects. We review the roles of acetylation/deacetylation in the heart and kidney and provide rationale for extending HDAC inhibitors into clinical testing for indications involving these organs. PMID:20133912

  17. Hydroxamic acid based histone deacetylase inhibitors with confirmed activity against the malaria parasite.

    PubMed

    Giannini, Giuseppe; Battistuzzi, Gianfranco; Vignola, Davide

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies have highlighted a key role in regulating gene transcription, in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, by enzymes that control the acetylation and deacetylation of histones. In particular, inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDAC-Is) have been shown effective in controlling the development of many parasites, such as the plasmodium of malaria. Here we report the results of a study aimed at evaluating antiparasitic effect of two classes of HDAC-Is bearing different zinc binding group (hydroxamic acid vs thiol). The study showed that only the hydroxamic acid based HDAC inhibitors were active, with Plasmodium falciparum being the most sensitive parasite, having from low double-digit to single-digit nanomolar range in vitro activities. Among three derivatives evaluated also in vivo, ST8086AA1 (8) effectively inhibited 88% of the development of Plasmodium falciparum. PMID:25563890

  18. Design, synthesis and evaluation of antiestrogen and histone deacetylase inhibitor molecular hybrids.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Sanchez, Rodrigo; Cotnoir-White, David; Kulpa, Justyna; Jutras, Isabel; Pottel, Joshua; Moitessier, Nicolas; Mader, Sylvie; Gleason, James L

    2015-12-15

    The combination of antiestrogens and histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) has been found to be antiproliferative in breast cancer models. We designed and synthesized hybrid structures which combined structural features of the pure antiestrogen ICI-164,384 and HDACi's SAHA and entinostat in a single bifunctional molecule. The hybrids retained antiestrogenic and HDACi activity and, in the case of benzamide hybrids, were selective for Class I HDAC3 over Class II HDAC6. The hybrids possessed low micromolar to high nanomolar activity against both ER+ MCF-7 and ER- MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell models. PMID:26613635

  19. Mitotic Activation of a Novel Histone Deacetylase 3-Linker Histone H1.3 Protein Complex by Protein Kinase CK2*

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Hemangi; Wilks, Carrie; Gonzalez, Rhiannon W.; Dhanireddy, Sudheer; Conrad-Webb, Heather; Bergel, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) and linker histone H1 are involved in both chromatin compaction and the regulation of mitotic progression. However, the mechanisms by which HDAC3 and H1 regulate mitosis and the factors controlling HDAC3 and H1 activity during mitosis are unclear. Furthermore, as of now, no association between class I, II, or IV (non-sirtuin) HDACs and linker histones has been reported. Here we describe a novel HDAC3-H1.3 complex containing silencing mediator of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptor (SMRT) and nuclear receptor corepressor 1 (N-CoR) that accumulated in synchronized HeLa cells in late G2 phase and mitosis. Nonetheless, the deacetylation activity by HDAC3 in the complex was evident only in mitotic complexes. HDAC3 associated with H1.3 was highly phosphorylated on Ser-424 only during mitosis. Isolation of inactive HDAC3-H1.3 complexes from late G2 phase cells, and phosphorylation of HDAC3 in the complexes at serine 424 by protein kinase CK2 (also known as casein kinase 2) activated the HDAC3 in vitro. In vivo, CK2α and CK2α' double knockdown cells demonstrated a significant decrease in HDAC3 Ser-424 phosphorylation during mitosis. HDAC3 and H1.3 co-localized in between the chromosomes, with polar microtubules and spindle poles during metaphase through telophase, and partially co-localized with chromatin during prophase and interphase. H1 has been reported previously to associate with microtubules and, therefore, could potentially function in targeting HDAC3 to the microtubules. We suggest that phosphorylation of HDAC3 in the complex by CK2 during mitosis activates the complex for a dual role: compaction of the mitotic chromatin and regulation of polar microtubules dynamic instability. PMID:26663086

  20. Mitotic Activation of a Novel Histone Deacetylase 3-Linker Histone H1.3 Protein Complex by Protein Kinase CK2.

    PubMed

    Patil, Hemangi; Wilks, Carrie; Gonzalez, Rhiannon W; Dhanireddy, Sudheer; Conrad-Webb, Heather; Bergel, Michael

    2016-02-12

    Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) and linker histone H1 are involved in both chromatin compaction and the regulation of mitotic progression. However, the mechanisms by which HDAC3 and H1 regulate mitosis and the factors controlling HDAC3 and H1 activity during mitosis are unclear. Furthermore, as of now, no association between class I, II, or IV (non-sirtuin) HDACs and linker histones has been reported. Here we describe a novel HDAC3-H1.3 complex containing silencing mediator of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptor (SMRT) and nuclear receptor corepressor 1 (N-CoR) that accumulated in synchronized HeLa cells in late G2 phase and mitosis. Nonetheless, the deacetylation activity by HDAC3 in the complex was evident only in mitotic complexes. HDAC3 associated with H1.3 was highly phosphorylated on Ser-424 only during mitosis. Isolation of inactive HDAC3-H1.3 complexes from late G2 phase cells, and phosphorylation of HDAC3 in the complexes at serine 424 by protein kinase CK2 (also known as casein kinase 2) activated the HDAC3 in vitro. In vivo, CK2? and CK2?' double knockdown cells demonstrated a significant decrease in HDAC3 Ser-424 phosphorylation during mitosis. HDAC3 and H1.3 co-localized in between the chromosomes, with polar microtubules and spindle poles during metaphase through telophase, and partially co-localized with chromatin during prophase and interphase. H1 has been reported previously to associate with microtubules and, therefore, could potentially function in targeting HDAC3 to the microtubules. We suggest that phosphorylation of HDAC3 in the complex by CK2 during mitosis activates the complex for a dual role: compaction of the mitotic chromatin and regulation of polar microtubules dynamic instability. PMID:26663086

  1. The interplay between microRNAs and histone deacetylases in neurological diseases.

    PubMed

    Bourassa, Megan W; Ratan, Rajiv R

    2014-11-01

    Neurological conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease and stroke, represent a prevalent group of devastating illnesses with few treatments. Each of these diseases or conditions is in part characterized by the dysregulation of many genes, including those that code for microRNAs (miRNAs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs). Recently, a complex relationship has been uncovered linking miRNAs and HDACs and their ability to regulate one another. This provides a new avenue for potential therapeutics as the ability to reinstate a careful balance between miRNA and HDACs has lead to improved outcomes in a number of in vitro and in vivo models of neurological conditions. In this review, we will discuss recent findings on the interplay between miRNAs and HDACs and its implications for pathogenesis and treatment of neurological conditions, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease and stroke. PMID:24681158

  2. Synergism of Heat Shock Protein 90 and Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors in Synovial Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Anne; Su, Le; Campbell, Belinda; Poulin, Neal M.; Nielsen, Torsten O.

    2009-01-01

    Current systemic therapies have little curative benefit for synovial sarcoma. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors and the heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor 17-AAG have recently been shown to inhibit synovial sarcoma in preclinical models. We tested combinations of 17-AAG with the HDAC inhibitor MS-275 for synergism by proliferation and apoptosis assays. The combination was found to be synergistic at multiple time points in two synovial sarcoma cell lines. Previous studies have shown that HDAC inhibitors not only induce cell death but also activate the survival pathway NF-?B, potentially limiting therapeutic benefit. As 17-AAG inhibits activators of NF-?B, we tested if 17-AAG synergizes with MS-275 through abrogating NF-?B activation. In our assays, adding 17-AAG blocks NF-?B activation by MS-275 and siRNA directed against histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) recapitulates the effects of MS-275. Additionally, we find that the NF-?B inhibitor BAY 11-7085 synergizes with MS-275. We conclude that agents inhibiting NF-?B synergize with HDAC inhibitors against synovial sarcoma. PMID:19325926

  3. Histone Deacetylase 1 Can Repress Transcription by Binding to Sp1

    PubMed Central

    Doetzlhofer, Angelika; Rotheneder, Hans; Lagger, Gerda; Koranda, Manfred; Kurtev, Vladislav; Brosch, Gerald; Wintersberger, Erhard; Seiser, Christian

    1999-01-01

    The members of the Sp1 transcription factor family can act as both negative and positive regulators of gene expression. Here we show that Sp1 can be a target for histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1)-mediated transcriptional repression. The histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A activates the chromosomally integrated murine thymidine kinase promoter in an Sp1-dependent manner. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments with Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts and 293 cells demonstrate that Sp1 and HDAC1 can be part of the same complex. The interaction between Sp1 and HDAC1 is direct and requires the carboxy-terminal domain of Sp1. Previously we have shown that the C terminus of Sp1 is necessary for the interaction with the transcription factor E2F1 (J. Karlseder, H. Rotheneder, and E. Wintersberger, Mol. Cell. Biol. 16:16591667, 1996). Coexpression of E2F1 interferes with HDAC1 binding to Sp1 and abolishes Sp1-mediated transcriptional repression. Our results indicate that one component of Sp1-dependent gene regulation involves competition between the transcriptional repressor HDAC1 and the transactivating factor E2F1. PMID:10409740

  4. Kinetic method for the large-scale analysis of the binding mechanism of histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Meyners, Christian; Baud, Matthias G J; Fuchter, Matthew J; Meyer-Almes, Franz-Josef

    2014-09-01

    Performing kinetic studies on protein ligand interactions provides important information on complex formation and dissociation. Beside kinetic parameters such as association rates and residence times, kinetic experiments also reveal insights into reaction mechanisms. Exploiting intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence a parallelized high-throughput Frster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based reporter displacement assay with very low protein consumption was developed to enable the large-scale kinetic characterization of the binding of ligands to recombinant human histone deacetylases (HDACs) and a bacterial histone deacetylase-like amidohydrolase (HDAH) from Bordetella/Alcaligenes. For the binding of trichostatin A (TSA), suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), and two other SAHA derivatives to HDAH, two different modes of action, simple one-step binding and a two-step mechanism comprising initial binding and induced fit, were verified. In contrast to HDAH, all compounds bound to human HDAC1, HDAC6, and HDAC8 through a two-step mechanism. A quantitative view on the inhibitor-HDAC systems revealed two types of interaction, fast binding and slow dissociation. We provide arguments for the thesis that the relationship between quantitative kinetic and mechanistic information and chemical structures of compounds will serve as a valuable tool for drug optimization. PMID:24882269

  5. Dosage-dependent tumor suppression by histone deacetylases 1 and 2 through regulation of c-Myc collaborating genes and p53 function

    PubMed Central

    Heideman, Marinus R.; Wilting, Roel H.; Yanover, Eva; Velds, Arno; de Jong, Johann; Kerkhoven, Ron M.; Jacobs, Heinz; Wessels, Lodewyk F.

    2013-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are epigenetic erasers of lysine-acetyl marks. Inhibition of HDACs using small molecule inhibitors (HDACi) is a potential strategy in the treatment of various diseases and is approved for treating hematological malignancies. Harnessing the therapeutic potential of HDACi requires knowledge of HDAC-function in vivo. Here, we generated a thymocyte-specific gradient of HDAC-activity using compound conditional knockout mice for Hdac1 and Hdac2. Unexpectedly, gradual loss of HDAC-activity engendered a dosage-dependent accumulation of immature thymocytes and correlated with the incidence and latency of monoclonal lymphoblastic thymic lymphomas. Strikingly, complete ablation of Hdac1 and Hdac2 abrogated lymphomagenesis due to a block in early thymic development. Genomic, biochemical and functional analyses of pre-leukemic thymocytes and tumors revealed a critical role for Hdac1/Hdac2-governed HDAC-activity in regulating a p53-dependent barrier to constrain Myc-overexpressing thymocytes from progressing into lymphomas by regulating Myc-collaborating genes. One Myc-collaborating and p53-suppressing gene, Jdp2, was derepressed in an Hdac1/2-dependent manner and critical for the survival of Jdp2-overexpressing lymphoma cells. Although reduced HDAC-activity facilitates oncogenic transformation in normal cells, resulting tumor cells remain highly dependent on HDAC-activity, indicating that a critical level of Hdac1 and Hdac2 governed HDAC-activity is required for tumor maintenance. PMID:23327920

  6. Identification of type-specific anticancer histone deacetylase inhibitors: road to success.

    PubMed

    Noureen, Nighat; Rashid, Hamid; Kalsoom, Saima

    2010-09-01

    Cancer is a serious and life-eliminating disease. Majority of anticancer agents are non-selective. Along with the cancerous cells they also target the normal ones. An important aspect is to hit the developing mechanism of the tumor, which is highlighted by in silico drug designing. On the basis of novel molecular targets, in silico (computational approach) drug discovery has emerged as today's need. Histone deacetylases are an important therapeutic target for many human cancers. The first and only approved (in 2006) histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) is Zolinza. Depending on the types of the histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes, discovery of type-specific inhibitors is important. With continued research and development, in near future HDACIs are likely to figure prominently in cancer treatment plans. This review presents the overview of HDACs, their role in cancer, their structural classes, activity, catalytic domain and the inhibitors of HDACs for cancer therapy. Also it helps in understanding the open directions in this area of research and highlights the importance of computational approaches in discovering specific drugs for cancer therapy. PMID:20401613

  7. Investigation on the ZBG-functionality of phenyl-4-yl-acrylohydroxamic acid derivatives as histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Musso, Loana; Cincinelli, Raffaella; Zuco, Valentina; Zunino, Franco; Nurisso, Alessandra; Cuendet, Muriel; Giannini, Giuseppe; Vesci, Loredana; Pisano, Claudio; Dallavalle, Sabrina

    2015-10-15

    A series of alternative Zn-binding groups were explored in the design of phenyl-4-yl-acrylohydroxamic acid derivatives as histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. Most of the synthesized compounds were less effective than the parent hydroxamic acid. However, the profile of activity shown by the analog bearing a hydroxyurea head group, makes this derivative promising for further investigation. PMID:26376355

  8. Role of histone deacetylases in pancreas: Implications for pathogenesis and therapy

    PubMed Central

    Klieser, Eckhard; Swierczynski, Stefan; Mayr, Christian; Schmidt, Johanna; Neureiter, Daniel; Kiesslich, Tobias; Illig, Romana

    2015-01-01

    In the last years, our knowledge of the pathogenesis in acute and chronic pancreatitis (AP/CP) as well as in pancreatic cancerogenesis has significantly diversified. Nevertheless, the medicinal therapeutic options are still limited and therapeutic success and patient outcome are poor. Epigenetic deregulation of gene expression is known to contribute to development and progression of AP and CP as well as of pancreatic cancer. Therefore, the selective inhibition of aberrantly active epigenetic regulators can be an effective option for future therapies. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are enzymes that remove an acetyl group from histone tails, thereby causing chromatin compaction and repression of transcription. In this review we present an overview of the currently available literature addressing the role of HDACs in the pancreas and in pancreatic diseases. In pancreatic cancerogenesis, HDACs play a role in the important process of epithelial-mesenchymal-transition, ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and, hypoxia-inducible-factor-1-angiogenesis. Finally, we focus on HDACs as potential therapeutic targets by summarizing currently available histone deacetylase inhibitors. PMID:26691388

  9. Anti-tumor activity of N-hydroxy-7-(2-naphthylthio) heptanomide, a novel histone deacetylase inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong Hoon; Lee, Jiyong; Kim, Kyung Noo; Kim, Hye Jin; Jeung, Hei Cheul; Chung, Hyun Cheol; Kwon, Ho Jeong . E-mail: kwonhj@yonsei.ac.kr

    2007-04-27

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC), a key enzyme in gene expression and carcinogenesis, is considered an attractive target molecule for cancer therapy. Here, we report a new synthetic small molecule, N-hydroxy-7-(2-naphthylthio) heptanomide (HNHA), as a HDAC inhibitor with anti-tumor activity both in vitro and in vivo. The compound inhibited HDAC enzyme activity as well as proliferation of human fibrosarcoma cells (HT1080) in vitro. Treatment of cells with HNHA elicited histone hyperacetylation leading to an up-regulation of p21 transcription, cell cycle arrest, and an inhibition of HT1080 cell invasion. Moreover, HNHA effectively inhibited the growth of tumor tissue in a mouse xenograph assay in vivo. Together, these data demonstrate that this novel HDAC inhibitor could be developed as a potential anti-tumor agent targeting HDAC.

  10. Isolation and characterization of an osmotic stress and ABA induced histone deacetylase in Arachis hygogaea

    PubMed Central

    Su, Liang-Chen; Deng, Bin; Liu, Shuai; Li, Li-Mei; Hu, Bo; Zhong, Yu-Ting; Li, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Histone acetylation, which together with histone methylation regulates gene activity in response to stress, is an important epigenetic modification. There is an increasing research focus on histone acetylation in crops, but there is no information to date in peanut (Arachis hypogaea). We showed that osmotic stress and ABA affect the acetylation of histone H3 loci in peanut seedlings by immunoblotting experiments. Using RNA-seq data for peanut, we found a RPD3/HDA1-like superfamily histone deacetylase (HDAC), termed AhHDA1, whose gene is up-regulated by PEG-induced water limitation and ABA signaling. We isolated and characterized AhHDA1 from A. hypogaea, showing that AhHDA1 is very similar to an Arabidopsis HDAC (AtHDA6) and, in recombinant form, possesses HDAC activity. To understand whether and how osmotic stress and ABA mediate the peanut stress response by epigenetics, the expression of AhHDA1 and stress-responsive genes following treatment with PEG, ABA, and the specific HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) were analyzed. AhHDA1 transcript levels were enhanced by all three treatments, as was expression of peanut transcription factor genes, indicating that AhHDA1 might be involved in the epigenetic regulation of stress resistance genes that comprise the responses to osmotic stress and ABA. PMID:26217363

  11. Histone deacetylase inhibitors target diabetes via chromatin remodeling or as chemical chaperones?

    PubMed

    Lawless, M W; O'Byrne, K J; Gray, S G

    2009-08-01

    Globally, obesity and diabetes (particularly type 2 diabetes) represents a major challenge to world health. Despite decades of intense research efforts, the genetic basis involved in diabetes pathogenesis & conditions associated with obesity are still poorly understood. Recent advances have led to exciting new developments implicating epigenetics as an important mechanism underpinning diabetes and obesity related disease. One epigenetic mechanism known as the "histone code" describes the idea that specific patterns of post-translational modifications to histones act like a molecular "code" recognised and used by non-histone proteins to regulate specific chromatin functions. One modification which has received significant attention is that of histone acetylation. The enzymes which regulate this modification are described as lysine acetyltransferases or KATs and histone deacetylases or HDACs. Due to their conserved catalytic domain HDACs have been actively targeted as a therapeutic target. Some of the known inhibitors of HDACs (HDACi) have also been shown to act as "chemical chaperones" to alleviate diabetic symptoms. In this review, we discuss the available evidence concerning the roles of HDACs in regulating chaperone function and how this may have implications in the management of diabetes. PMID:19689255

  12. Knockdown of transactive response DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) downregulates histone deacetylase 6

    PubMed Central

    Fiesel, Fabienne C; Voigt, Aaron; Weber, Stephanie S; Van den Haute, Chris; Waldenmaier, Andrea; Grner, Karin; Walter, Michael; Anderson, Marlene L; Kern, Jeannine V; Rasse, Tobias M; Schmidt, Thorsten; Springer, Wolfdieter; Kirchner, Roland; Bonin, Michael; Neumann, Manuela; Baekelandt, Veerle; Alunni-Fabbroni, Marianna; Schulz, Jrg B; Kahle, Philipp J

    2010-01-01

    TDP-43 is an RNA/DNA-binding protein implicated in transcriptional repression and mRNA processing. Inclusions of TDP-43 are hallmarks of frontotemporal dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Besides aggregation of TDP-43, loss of nuclear localization is observed in disease. To identify relevant targets of TDP-43, we performed expression profiling. Thereby, histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) downregulation was discovered on TDP-43 silencing and confirmed at the mRNA and protein level in human embryonic kidney HEK293E and neuronal SH-SY5Y cells. This was accompanied by accumulation of the major HDAC6 substrate, acetyl-tubulin. HDAC6 levels were restored by re-expression of TDP-43, dependent on RNA binding and the C-terminal protein interaction domains. Moreover, TDP-43 bound specifically to HDAC6 mRNA arguing for a direct functional interaction. Importantly, in vivo validation in TDP-43 knockout Drosophila melanogaster confirmed the specific downregulation of HDAC6. HDAC6 is necessary for protein aggregate formation and degradation. Indeed, HDAC6-dependent reduction of cellular aggregate formation and increased cytotoxicity of polyQ-expanded ataxin-3 were found in TDP-43 silenced cells. In conclusion, loss of functional TDP-43 causes HDAC6 downregulation and might thereby contribute to pathogenesis. PMID:19910924

  13. Histone deacetylases and cancer-associated angiogenesis: current understanding of the biology and clinical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Turtoi, Andrei; Peixoto, Paul; Castronovo, Vincent; Bellahcne, Akeila

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylase enzymes (HDACs) have been shown to be important to the development and progression of human cancers. Angiogenesis is a vital process that facilitates tumor growth and survival. More than a dozen of different activators and inhibitors are involved in at least as many diverse mechanisms to control angiogenesis. HDACs directly or indirectly control many of these regulators. In the current review, we give a brief overview of molecular mechanisms of HDAC actions and link these to the current knowledge concerning HDAC-mediated regulation of tumor-associated angiogenesis. HDAC specific knockdown studies and the use of pan-HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) contributed to the identification of: (i) HDACs that are key to angiogenesis and (ii) their multiple protein targets essential for angiogenic process. The clinical development of HDACi is an active area of investigation. In the scope of this review, we highlight several preclinical studies that examine the anti-angiogenic role of HDACi. Certainly, there is still much to be learned about the use of HDACi to inhibit tumoral angiogenesis. Recent efforts in the clinics aiming to combine broad HDACi (mainly vorinostat, which is FDA approved for T-cell lymphoma) with other anti-angiogenic therapies could, however, bring the proof that the lack of specificity of pan-HDACi may not be a major issue as compared with (long-time idealized) selective inhibitors targeting one particular HDAC. PMID:25746107

  14. Histone Deacetylase Classes I and II Regulate Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Reactivation

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hye Jin; DeCotiis, Jennifer; Giron, Mario; Palmeri, Diana

    2014-01-01

    In primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) cells infected with latent Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), the promoter of the viral lytic switch gene, Rta, is organized into bivalent chromatin, similar to cellular developmental switch genes. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors (HDACis) reactivate latent KSHV and dramatically remodel the viral genome topology and chromatin architecture. However, reactivation is not uniform across a population of infected cells. We sought to identify an HDACi cocktail that would uniformly reactivate KSHV and reveal the regulatory HDACs. Using HDACis with various specificities, we found that class I HDACis were sufficient to reactivate the virus but differed in potency. Valproic acid (VPA) was the most effective HDACi, inducing lytic cycle gene expression in 75% of cells, while trichostatin A (TSA) induced less widespread lytic gene expression and inhibited VPA-stimulated reactivation. VPA was only slightly superior to TSA in inducing histone acetylation of Rta's promoter, but only VPA induced significant production of infectious virus, suggesting that HDAC regulation after Rta expression has a dramatic effect on reactivation progression. Ectopic HDACs 1, 3, and 6 inhibited TPA-stimulated KSHV reactivation. Surprisingly, ectopic HDACs 1 and 6 stimulated reactivation independently, suggesting that the stoichiometries of HDAC complexes are critical for the switch. Tubacin, a specific inhibitor of the ubiquitin-binding, proautophagic HDAC6, also inhibited VPA-stimulated reactivation. Immunofluorescence indicated that HDAC6 is expressed diffusely throughout latently infected cells, but its expression level and nuclear localization is increased during reactivation. Overall, our data suggest that inhibition of HDAC classes I and IIa and maintenance of HDAC6 (IIb) activity are required for optimal KSHV reactivation. PMID:24227836

  15. Modulation of Histone Deacetylase Activity by Dietary Isothiocyanates and Allyl Sulfides: Studies with Sulforaphane and Garlic Organosulfur Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Nian, Hui; Delage, Barbara; Ho, Emily; Dashwood, Roderick H.

    2009-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors reactivate epigenetically-silenced genes in cancer cells, triggering cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Recent evidence suggests that dietary constituents can act as HDAC inhibitors, such as the isothiocyanates found in cruciferous vegetables and the allyl compounds present in garlic. Broccoli sprouts are a rich source of sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate that is metabolized via the mercapturic acid pathway and inhibits HDAC activity in human colon, prostate, and breast cancer cells. In mouse preclinical models, SFN inhibited HDAC activity and induced histone hyperacetylation coincident with tumor suppression. Inhibition of HDAC activity also was observed in circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from people who consumed a single serving of broccoli sprouts. Garlic organosulfur compounds can be metabolized to allyl mercaptan (AM), a competitive HDAC inhibitor that induced rapid and sustained histone hyperacetylation in human colon cancer cells. Inhibition of HDAC activity by AM was associated with increased histone acetylation and Sp3 transcription factor binding to the promoter region of the P21WAF1 gene, resulting in elevated p21 protein expression and cell cycle arrest. Collectively, the results from these studies, and others reviewed herein, provide new insights into the relationships between reversible histone modifications, diet, and cancer chemoprevention. PMID:19197985

  16. Entinostat is a histone deacetylase inhibitor selective for class 1 histone deacetylases and activates HIV production from latently infected primary T cells

    PubMed Central

    Wightman, Fiona; Lu, Hao K.; Solomon, Ajantha E.; Saleh, Suha; Harman, Andrew N.; Cunningham, Anthony L.; Gray, Lachlan; Churchill, Melissa; Cameron, Paul U.; Dear, Anthony E.; Lewin, Sharon R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare the potency, toxicity and mechanism of action of multiple histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) in activating HIV production from latency. Design In-vitro analysis of HDACi in a primary T-cell model of HIV latency and latently infected cell lines. Methods Latently infected chemokine ligand 19 (CCL19)-treated CD4+ T cells and the latently infected cell lines ACH2 and J-Lat were treated with a panel of HDACi, including entinostat, vorinostat, panonbinostat and MCT3. Viral production and cell viability were compared. Expression of cellular HDACs was measured by western blot and PCR. Association of HDACs with the HIV long-terminal repeat (LTR) using latently infected CCL19-treated primary CD4+ T cells in the presence and absence of specific HDACi was determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Results We demonstrated considerable variation in the potency and toxicity of HDACi in latently infected primary CD4+ T cells and cell lines. All HDACi tested activated HIV production in latently infected primary T cells with greatest potency demonstrated with entinostat and vorinostat and greatest toxicity with panobinostat. Following the addition of HDACi in vitro, there were no changes in markers of T-cell activation or expression of the HIV coreceptors chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4) or chemokine (C-C motif) receptor type 5 (CCR5). ChIP analysis of latently infected CCL19-treated primary CD4+ T cells showed binding by HDAC1, HDAC2 and HDAC3 to the LTR with removal of HDAC1 and HDAC2 following treatment with the HDACi vorinostat and HDAC1 only following treatment with entinostat. Conclusion The HDACi entinostat, selective for inhibition of class I HDACs, induced virus expression in latently infected primary CD4+ T cells making this compound an attractive novel option for future clinical trials. PMID:24189584

  17. Disrupted ectodermal organ morphogenesis in mice with a conditional histone deacetylase 1, 2 deletion in the epidermis.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Michael W; Jiang, Ting-Xin; Lin, Sung-Jan; Leung, Yvonne; Kobielak, Krzysztof; Widelitz, Randall B; Chuong, Cheng M

    2014-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are present in the epidermal layer of the skin, outer root sheath, and hair matrix. To investigate how histone acetylation affects skin morphogenesis and homeostasis, mice were generated with a K14 promoter-mediated reduction of Hdac1 or Hdac2. The skin of HDAC1 null (K14-Cre Hdac1(cKO/cKO)) mice exhibited a spectrum of lesions, including irregularly thickened interfollicular epidermis, alopecia, hair follicle dystrophy, claw dystrophy, and abnormal pigmentation. Hairs are sparse, short, and intermittently coiled. The distinct pelage hair types are lost. During the first hair cycle, hairs are lost and replaced by dystrophic hair follicles with dilated infundibulae. The dystrophic hair follicle epithelium is stratified and is positive for K14, involucrin, and TRP63, but negative for keratin 10. Some dystrophic follicles are K15 positive, but mature hair fiber keratins are absent. The digits form extra hyperpigmented claws on the lateral sides. Hyperpigmentation is observed in the interfollicular epithelium, the tail, and the feet. Hdac1 and Hdac2 dual transgenic mice (K14-Cre Hdac1(cKO/cKO) Hdac2(+/cKO)) have similar but more obvious abnormalities. These results show that suppression of epidermal HDAC activity leads to improper ectodermal organ morphogenesis and disrupted hair follicle regeneration and homeostasis, as well as indirect effects on pigmentation. PMID:23792463

  18. Histone deacetylase inhibitor for NUT midline carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Maher, Ossama M; Christensen, Anthony M; Yedururi, Sireesha; Bell, Diana; Tarek, Nidale

    2015-04-01

    NUT Midline carcinoma (NMC) is a rare and invariably fatal poorly differentiated carcinoma characterized by chromosomal rearrangement involving the nuclear protein of the testis (NUT) gene. Current approaches do not provide durable response. We report a case of widely metastatic NMC in a 17-year-old female who, following an initial response to combination chemotherapy developed rapid disease progression. Treatment with vorinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) resulted in an objective response, yet she died in less than one year from initial diagnosis. This report shows a potentially promising activity of HDACi in the treatment of NMC that needs further exploration. PMID:25557064

  19. Cyclin D1 inhibits peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-mediated adipogenesis through histone deacetylase recruitment.

    PubMed

    Fu, Maofu; Rao, Mahadev; Bouras, Toula; Wang, Chenguang; Wu, Kongming; Zhang, Xueping; Li, Zhiping; Yao, Tso-Pang; Pestell, Richard G

    2005-04-29

    The cyclin D1 gene encodes the labile serum-inducible regulatory subunit of a holoenzyme that phosphorylates and inactivates the retinoblastoma protein. Overexpression of cyclin D1 promotes cellular proliferation and normal physiological levels of cyclin D1 function to inhibit adipocyte differentiation in vivo. We have previously shown that cyclin D1 inhibits peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma-dependent activity through a cyclin-dependent kinase- and retinoblastoma protein-binding-independent mechanism. In this study, we determined the molecular mechanism by which cyclin D1 regulated PPARgamma function. Herein, murine embryonic fibroblast (MEF) differentiation by PPARgamma ligand was associated with a reduction in histone deacetylase (HDAC1) activity. Cyclin D1-/- MEFs showed an increased propensity to undergo differentiation into adipocytes. Genetic deletion of cyclin D1 reduced HDAC1 activity. Reconstitution of cyclin D1 into the cyclin D1-/- MEFs increased HDAC1 activity and blocked PPARgamma-mediated adipogenesis. PPARgamma activity was enhanced in cyclin D1-/- cells. Reintroduction of cyclin D1 inhibited basal and ligand-induced PPARgamma activity and enhanced HDAC repression of PPARgamma activity. Cyclin D1 bound HDAC in vivo and preferentially physically associated with HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC3, and HDAC5. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that cyclin D1 enhanced recruitment of HDAC1 and HDAC3 and histone methyltransferase SUV39H1 to the PPAR response element of the lipoprotein lipase promoter and decreased acetylation of total histone H3 and histone H3 lysine 9. Collectively, these studies suggest an important role of cyclin D1 in regulation of PPARgamma-mediated adipocyte differentiation through recruitment of HDACs to regulate PPAR response element local chromatin structure and PPARgamma function. PMID:15713663

  20. Histone deacetylase inhibitors modulate renal disease in the MRL-lpr/lpr mouse.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Nilamadhab; Reilly, Christopher M; Brown, Doris R; Ruiz, Phil; Gilkeson, Gary S

    2003-02-01

    Studies in human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) suggest a possible role for histone deacetylases (HDACs) in skewed gene expression and disease pathogenesis. We used the MRL-lpr/lpr murine model of lupus to demonstrate that HDACs play a key role in the heightened levels of both Th1 and Th2 cytokine expression that contribute to disease. The availability of specific HDAC inhibitors (HDIs) such as trichostatin A (TSA) and suberonylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) permits the study of the role of HDACs in gene regulation. Our results indicate that HDIs downregulate IL-12, IFN-gamma, IL-6, and IL-10 mRNA and protein levels in MRL-lpr/lpr splenocytes. This effect on gene transcription is associated with an increased accumulation of acetylated histones H3 and H4 in total cellular chromatin. To elucidate the in vivo effects of TSA on lupuslike disease, we treated MRL-lpr/lpr mice with TSA (0.5 mg/kg/d) for 5 weeks. Compared with vehicle-treated control mice, TSA-treated mice exhibited a significant reduction in proteinuria, glomerulonephritis, and spleen weight. Taken together, these findings suggest that increased expression of HDACs leading to an altered state of histone acetylation may be of pathologic significance in MRL-lpr/lpr mice. In addition, TSA or other HDIs may have therapeutic benefit in the treatment of SLE. PMID:12588892

  1. The Antiparasitic Clioquinol Induces Apoptosis in Leukemia and Myeloma Cells by Inhibiting Histone Deacetylase Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Biyin; Li, Jie; Zhu, Jingyu; Shen, Mingyun; Han, Kunkun; Zhang, Zubin; Yu, Yang; Wang, Yali; Wu, Depei; Chen, Suning; Sun, Aining; Tang, Xiaowen; Zhao, Yun; Qiao, Chunhua; Hou, Tingjun; Mao, Xinliang

    2013-01-01

    The antiparasitic clioquinol (CQ) represents a class of novel anticancer drugs by interfering with proteasome activity. In the present study, we found that CQ induced blood cancer cell apoptosis by inhibiting histone deacetylases (HDACs). CQ accumulated the acetylation levels of several key proteins including histone H3 (H3), p53, HSP90, and ?-tubulin. In the mechanistic study, CQ was found to down-regulate HDAC1, -3, -4, and -5 in both myeloma and leukemia cells. Computer modeling analysis revealed that CQ was well docked into the active pocket of the enzyme, where the oxygen and nitrogen atoms in CQ formed stable coordinate bonds with the zinc ion, and the hydroxyl group from CQ formed an effective hydrogen bond with Asp-267. Moreover, co-treatment with CQ and zinc/copper chloride led to decreased Ac-H3. Furthermore, CQ inhibited the activity of Class I and IIa HDACs in the cell-free assays, demonstrating that CQ interfered with HDAC activity. By inhibiting HDAC activity, CQ induced expression of p21, p27, and p53, cell cycle arrest at G1 phase, and cell apoptosis. This study suggested that the HDAC enzymes are targets of CQ, which provided a novel insight into the molecular mechanism of CQ in the treatment of hematological malignancies. PMID:24114842

  2. Identification of Histone Deacetylase 3 as a Biomarker for Tumor Recurrence Following Liver Transplantation in HBV-Associated Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng; Xie, Hai-Yang; Feng, Xiao-Wen; Wu, Jian; Zheng, Shu-Sen

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown that high expression levels of class I histone deacetylases (HDACs) correlate with malignant phenotype and poor prognosis in some human tumors. However, the expression patterns and prognostic role of class I HDAC isoforms in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings The expression patterns and clinical significance of class I HDAC isoforms were assessed by immunohistochemistry in a cohort of 43 hepatitis B virus-associated HCC patients treated with liver transplantation. In addition, the effects of HDAC inhibition on HCC cell behavior were investigated by knockdown of the HDAC isoform with short interfering RNA. Class I HDACs were highly expressed in a subset of HCCs with positivity for HDAC1 in 51.2%, HDAC2 in 48.8%, and HDAC3 in 32.6% of cases. The expression levels of HDAC isoforms were significantly associated with the proliferation index of HCC. Kaplan-Meier curves showed that a high expression level of HDAC2 or HDAC3 implicated significantly reduced recurrence-free survival. Cox proportional hazards model analysis revealed HDAC3 overexpression was an unfavorable independent prognostic factor (P?=?0.002; HR 3.907). In vitro, inhibition of HDAC2 and HDAC3, but not HDAC1, suppressed proliferation and the invasiveness of liver cancer cells. Conclusions/Significance Our findings demonstrate that HDAC3 plays a significant role in regulating tumor cell proliferation and invasion, and it could be served as a candidate biomarker for predicting the recurrence of hepatitis B virus-associated HCC following liver transplantation and a potential therapeutic target. PMID:21206745

  3. A novel mechanism of chemoprotection by sulforaphane: inhibition of histone deacetylase.

    PubMed

    Myzak, Melinda C; Karplus, P Andrew; Chung, Fung-Lung; Dashwood, Roderick H

    2004-08-15

    Sulforaphane (SFN), a compound found at high levels in broccoli and broccoli sprouts, is a potent inducer of phase 2 detoxification enzymes and inhibits tumorigenesis in animal models. SFN also has a marked effect on cell cycle checkpoint controls and cell survival and/or apoptosis in various cancer cells, through mechanisms that are poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that SFN acts as an inhibitor of histone deacetylase (HDAC). In human embryonic kidney 293 cells, SFN dose-dependently increased the activity of a beta-catenin-responsive reporter (TOPflash), without altering beta-catenin or HDAC protein levels. Cytoplasmic and nuclear extracts from these cells had diminished HDAC activity, and both global and localized histone acetylation was increased, compared with untreated controls. Studies with SFN and with media from SFN-treated cells indicated that the parent compound was not responsible for the inhibition of HDAC, and this was confirmed using an inhibitor of glutathione S-transferase, which blocked the first step in the metabolism of SFN, via the mercapturic acid pathway. Whereas SFN and its glutathione conjugate (SFN-GSH) had little or no effect, the two major metabolites SFN-cysteine and SFN-N-acetylcysteine were effective HDAC inhibitors in vitro. Finally, several of these findings were recapitulated in HCT116 human colorectal cancer cells: SFN dose-dependently increased TOPflash reporter activity and inhibited HDAC activity, there was an increase in acetylated histones and in p21(Cip1/Waf1), and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed an increase in acetylated histones bound to the P21 promoter. Collectively, these findings suggest that SFN may be effective as a tumor-suppressing agent and as a chemotherapeutic agent, alone or in combination with other HDAC inhibitors currently undergoing clinical trials. PMID:15313918

  4. Histone deacetylase 8 is deregulated in urothelial cancer but not a target for efficient treatment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that class-I histone deacetylase (HDAC) 8 mRNA is upregulated in urothelial cancer tissues and urothelial cancer cell lines compared to benign controls. Using urothelial cancer cell lines we evaluated whether specific targeting of HDAC8 might be a therapeutic option in bladder cancer treatment. Methods We conducted siRNA-mediated knockdown and specific pharmacological inhibition of HDAC8 with the three different inhibitors compound 2, compound 5, and compound 6 in several urothelial carcinoma cell lines with distinct HDAC8 expression profiles. Levels of HDAC and marker proteins were determined by western blot analysis and mRNA levels were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Cellular effects of HDAC8 suppression were analyzed by ATP assay, flow cytometry, colony forming assay and migration assay. Results Efficient siRNA-mediated knockdown of HDAC8 reduced proliferation up to 45%. The HDAC8 specific inhibitors compound 5 and compound 6 significantly reduced viability of all urothelial cancer cell lines (IC50 9 – 21 μM). Flow cytometry revealed only a slight increase in the sub-G1 fraction indicating a limited induction of apoptosis. Expression of thymidylate synthase was partly reduced; PARP-cleavage was not detected. The influence of the pharmacological inhibition on clonogenic growth and migration show a cell line- and inhibitor-dependent reduction with the strongest effects after treatment with compound 5 and compound 6. Conclusions Deregulation of HDAC8 is frequent in urothelial cancer, but neither specific pharmacological inhibition nor siRNA-mediated knockdown of HDAC8 impaired viability of urothelial cancer cell lines in a therapeutic useful manner. Accordingly, HDAC8 on its own is not a promising drug target in bladder cancer. PMID:25011684

  5. Histone deacetylase inhibitors: a new wave of molecular targeted anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Budillon, Alfredo; Di Gennaro, Elena; Bruzzese, Francesca; Rocco, Monia; Manzo, Giuseppe; Caraglia, Michele

    2007-06-01

    Epigenetics as well as post-translational modifications of proteins are emerging as novel attractive targets for anti-cancer therapy. Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) are two classes of enzymes regulating histone acetylation and whose altered activity has been identified in several cancers. In particular, imbalance in histone acetylation can lead to changes in chromatin structure and transcriptional dysregulation of genes that are involved in the control of proliferation, cell-cycle progression, differentiation and/or apoptosis. In addition, several non histone protein substrates such as transcription factors, chaperone proteins or tubulin, undergo acetylation as key post-translation modification regulating their half-life and function. On this regard, several inhibitors of HDAC, selected by academic as well as industrial research, have been recently shown to induce growth arrest and apoptosis in a variety of human cancer cells and have been patented as anti-cancer agents. Although several clinical studies with HDAC inhibitors are ongoing, their mechanism of action cannot be solely attributed to the level of histone acetylation and molecular basis for their tumor selectivity remains unknown, presenting a challenge for the cancer research community. PMID:18221057

  6. Potential non-oncological applications of histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ververis, Katherine; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2011-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors have emerged as a new class of anticancer therapeutic drugs. Their clinical utility in oncology stems from their intrinsic cytotoxic properties and combinatorial effects with other conventional cancer therapies. To date, the histone deacetylase inhibitors suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (Vorinostat, Zolinza) and depsipeptide (Romidepsin, Istodax) have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of refractory cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Further, there are currently over 100 clinical trials involving the use of histone deacetylase inhibitors in a wide range of solid and hematological malignancies. The therapeutic potential of histone deacetylase inhibitors has also been investigated for numerous other diseases. For example, the cytotoxic properties of histone deacetylase inhibitors are currently being harnessed as a potential treatment for malaria, whereas the efficacy of these compounds for HIV relies on de-silencing latent virus. The anti-inflammatory properties of histone deacetylase inhibitors are the predominant mechanisms for other diseases, such as hepatitis, systemic lupus erythematosus and a wide range of neurodegenerative conditions. Additionally, histone deacetylase inhibitors have been shown to be efficacious in animal models of cardiac hypertrophy and asthma. Broad-spectrum histone deacetylase inhibitors are clinically available and have been used almost exclusively in preclinical systems to date. However, it is emerging that class- or isoform-specific compounds, which are becoming more readily available, may be more efficacious particularly for non-oncological applications. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the effects and clinical potential of histone deacetylase inhibitors in various diseases. Apart from applications in oncology, the discussion is focused on the potential efficacy of histone deacetylase inhibitors for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, cardiac hypertrophy and asthma. PMID:22046487

  7. Activation of p53 Transcriptional Activity by SMRT: a Histone Deacetylase 3-Independent Function of a Transcriptional Corepressor

    PubMed Central

    Adikesavan, Anbu Karani; Karmakar, Sudipan; Pardo, Patricia; Wang, Liguo; Liu, Shuang; Li, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The silencing mediator of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptors (SMRT) is an established histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3)-dependent transcriptional corepressor. Microarray analyses of MCF-7 cells transfected with control or SMRT small interfering RNA revealed SMRT regulation of genes involved in DNA damage responses, and the levels of the DNA damage marker ?H2AX as well as poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage were elevated in SMRT-depleted cells treated with doxorubicin. A number of these genes are established p53 targets. SMRT knockdown decreased the activity of two p53-dependent reporter genes as well as the expression of p53 target genes, such as CDKN1A (which encodes p21). SMRT bound directly to p53 and was recruited to p53 binding sites within the p21 promoter. Depletion of GPS2 and TBL1, components of the SMRT corepressor complex, but not histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) decreased p21-luciferase activity. p53 bound to the SMRT deacetylase activation domain (DAD), which mediates HDAC3 binding and activation, and HDAC3 could attenuate p53 binding to the DAD region of SMRT. Moreover, an HDAC3 binding-deficient SMRT DAD mutant coactivated p53 transcriptional activity. Collectively, these data highlight a biological role for SMRT in mediating DNA damage responses and suggest a model where p53 binding to the DAD limits HDAC3 interaction with this coregulator, thereby facilitating SMRT coactivation of p53-dependent gene expression. PMID:24449765

  8. Delayed and Prolonged Histone Hyperacetylation with a Selective HDAC1/HDAC2 Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The identification and in vitro and in vivo characterization of a potent SHI-1:2 are described. Kinetic analysis indicated that biaryl inhibitors exhibit slow binding kinetics in isolated HDAC1 and HDAC2 preparations. Delayed histone hyperacetylation and gene expression changes were also observed in cell culture, and histone acetylation was observed in vivo beyond disappearance of drug from plasma. In vivo studies further demonstrated that continuous target inhibition was well tolerated and efficacious in tumor-bearing mice, leading to tumor growth inhibition with either once-daily or intermittent administration. PMID:24900838

  9. Alkyl-Substituted Polyaminohydroxamic Acids: A Novel Class of Targeted Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Sheeba; Gupta, Deepak; Baran, Tiffany; Jiemjit, Anchalee; Gore, Steven D.; Casero, Robert A.; Woster, Patrick M.

    2013-01-01

    The reversible acetylation of histones is critical for regulation of eukaryotic gene expression. The histone deacetylase inhibitors trichostatin (TSA, 1), MS-275 (2) and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, 3) arrest growth in transformed cells and in human tumor xenografts. However, 13 suffer from lack of specificity among the various HDAC isoforms, prompting us to design and synthesize polyaminohydroxamic acid (PAHA) derivatives 621. We felt that PAHAs would be selectively directed to chromatin and associated histones by the positively charged polyamine side chain. At 1 ?M, compounds 12, 15 and 20 inhibited HDAC by 74.86, 59.99 and 73.85%, respectively. Although 20 was a less potent HDAC inhibitor than 1, it was more potent than 2, more effective as an initiator of histone hyperacetylation, and significantly more effective than 2 at re-expressing p21Waf1 in ML-1 leukemia cells. On the basis of these results, PAHAs 621 represent an important new chemical class of HDAC inhibitors. PMID:16190761

  10. Suppression of oxidative stress by β-hydroxybutyrate, an endogenous histone deacetylase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Shimazu, Tadahiro; Hirschey, Matthew D; Newman, John; He, Wenjuan; Shirakawa, Kotaro; Le Moan, Natacha; Grueter, Carrie A; Lim, Hyungwook; Saunders, Laura R; Stevens, Robert D; Newgard, Christopher B; Farese, Robert V; de Cabo, Rafael; Ulrich, Scott; Akassoglou, Katerina; Verdin, Eric

    2013-01-11

    Concentrations of acetyl-coenzyme A and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) affect histone acetylation and thereby couple cellular metabolic status and transcriptional regulation. We report that the ketone body d-β-hydroxybutyrate (βOHB) is an endogenous and specific inhibitor of class I histone deacetylases (HDACs). Administration of exogenous βOHB, or fasting or calorie restriction, two conditions associated with increased βOHB abundance, all increased global histone acetylation in mouse tissues. Inhibition of HDAC by βOHB was correlated with global changes in transcription, including that of the genes encoding oxidative stress resistance factors FOXO3A and MT2. Treatment of cells with βOHB increased histone acetylation at the Foxo3a and Mt2 promoters, and both genes were activated by selective depletion of HDAC1 and HDAC2. Consistent with increased FOXO3A and MT2 activity, treatment of mice with βOHB conferred substantial protection against oxidative stress. PMID:23223453

  11. Modulation of radiation response by histone deacetylase inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Chinnaiyan, Prakash; Vallabhaneni, Geetha; Armstrong, Eric M.S.; Huang, Shyh-Min; Harari, Paul M. . E-mail: harari@humonc.wisc.edu

    2005-05-01

    Purpose: Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, which modulate chromatin structure and gene expression, represent a class of anticancer agents that hold particular potential as radiation sensitizers. In this study, we examine the capacity of the HDAC inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) to modulate radiation response in human tumor cell lines and explore potential mechanisms underlying these interactions. Methods and materials: Cell proliferation: Exponentially growing tumor cells were incubated in medium containing 0-10 {mu}M of SAHA for 72 h. Cells were fixed/stained with crystal violet to estimate cell viability. Apoptosis: Caspase activity was analyzed by fluorescence spectroscopy using a fluorescein labeled pan-caspase inhibitor. Cells were harvested after 48 h of exposure to SAHA (1.0 {mu}M), radiation (6 Gy), or the combination. Whole cell lysates were evaluated for poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage by western blot analysis. Radiation survival: Cells were exposed to varying doses of radiation {+-} 3 days pretreatment with SAHA (0.75-1.0 {mu}M). After incubation intervals of 14-21 days, colonies were stained with crystal violet and manually counted. Immunocytochemistry: Cells were grown and treated in chamber slides. At specified times after treatment with SAHA, cells were fixed in paraformaldehyde, permeabilized in methanol, and probed with primary and secondary antibody solutions. Slides were analyzed using an epifluorescent microscope. Results: SAHA induced a dose-dependent inhibition of proliferation in human prostate (DU145) and glioma (U373vIII) cancer cell lines. Exposure to SAHA enhanced radiation-induced apoptosis as measured by caspase activity (p < 0.05) and PARP cleavage. The impact of SAHA on radiation response was further characterized using clonogenic survival analysis, which demonstrated that treatment with SAHA reduced tumor survival after radiation exposure. We identified several oncoproteins and DNA damage repair proteins (epidermal growth factor receptor, AKT, DNA-PK, and Rad51) that show differential expression after exposure to SAHA. These proteins may contribute to mechanistic synergy between HDAC inhibition and radiation response. Conclusion: These preclinical results suggest that treatment with the HDAC inhibitor SAHA can enhance radiation-induced cytotoxicity in human prostate and glioma cells. We are examining the capacity of HDAC inhibitors to modulate radiation response and tumor control in animal xenograft model systems to strengthen the rationale for future clinical trial exploration.

  12. Hdac3 Interaction with p300 Histone Acetyltransferase Regulates the Oligodendrocyte and Astrocyte Lineage Fate Switch.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liguo; He, Xuelian; Liu, Lei; Jiang, Minqing; Zhao, Chuntao; Wang, Haibo; He, Danyang; Zheng, Tao; Zhou, Xianyao; Hassan, Aishlin; Ma, Zhixing; Xin, Mei; Sun, Zheng; Lazar, Mitchell A; Goldman, Steven A; Olson, Eric N; Lu, Q Richard

    2016-02-01

    Establishment and maintenance of CNS glial cell identity ensures proper brain development and function, yet the epigenetic mechanisms underlying glial fate control remain poorly understood. Here, we show that the histone deacetylase Hdac3 controls oligodendrocyte-specification gene Olig2 expression and functions as a molecular switch for oligodendrocyte and astrocyte lineage determination. Hdac3 ablation leads to a significant increase of astrocytes with a concomitant loss of oligodendrocytes. Lineage tracing indicates that the ectopic astrocytes originate from oligodendrocyte progenitors. Genome-wide occupancy analysis reveals that Hdac3 interacts with p300 to activate oligodendroglial lineage-specific genes, while suppressing astroglial differentiation genes including NFIA. Furthermore, we find that Hdac3 modulates the acetylation state of Stat3 and competes with Stat3 for p300 binding to antagonize astrogliogenesis. Thus, our data suggest that Hdac3 cooperates with p300 to prime and maintain oligodendrocyte identity while inhibiting NFIA and Stat3-mediated astrogliogenesis, and thereby regulates phenotypic commitment at the point of oligodendrocyte-astrocytic fate decision. PMID:26859354

  13. Quantification and Gene Expression Analysis of Histone Deacetylases in Common Bean during Rust Fungal Inoculation

    PubMed Central

    Melmaiee, Kalpalatha; Kalavacharla, Venu (Kal); Brown, Adrianne; Todd, Antonette; Thurston, Yaqoob; Elavarthi, Sathya

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play an important role in plant growth, development, and defense processes and are one of the primary causes of epigenetic modifications in a genome. There was only one study reported on epigenetic modifications of the important legume crop, common bean, and its interaction with the fungal rust pathogen Uromyces appendiculatus prior to this project. We measured the total active HDACs levels in leaf tissues and observed expression patterns for the selected HDAC genes at 0, 12, and 84 hours after inoculation in mock inoculated and inoculated plants. Colorimetric analysis showed that the total amount of HDACs present in the leaf tissue decreased at 12 hours in inoculated plants compared to mock inoculated control plants. Gene expression analyses indicated that the expression pattern of gene PvSRT1 is similar to the trend of total active HDACs in this time course experiment. Gene PvHDA6 showed increased expression in the inoculated plants during the time points measured. This is one of the first attempts to study expression levels of HDACs in economically important legumes in the context of plant pathogen interactions. Findings from our study will be helpful to understand trends of total active HDACs and expression patterns of these genes under study during biotic stress. PMID:26824033

  14. Valproic Acid Limits Pancreatic Recovery after Pancreatitis by Inhibiting Histone Deacetylases and Preventing Acinar Redifferentiation Programs.

    PubMed

    Eisses, John F; Criscimanna, Angela; Dionise, Zachary R; Orabi, Abrahim I; Javed, Tanveer A; Sarwar, Sheharyar; Jin, Shunqian; Zhou, Lili; Singh, Sucha; Poddar, Minakshi; Davis, Amy W; Tosun, Akif Burak; Ozolek, John A; Lowe, Mark E; Monga, Satdarshan P; Rohde, Gustavo K; Esni, Farzad; Husain, Sohail Z

    2015-12-01

    The mechanisms by which drugs induce pancreatitis are unknown. A definite cause of pancreatitis is due to the antiepileptic drug valproic acid (VPA). On the basis of three crucial observations-that VPA inhibits histone deacetylases (HDACs), HDACs mediate pancreas development, and aspects of pancreas development are recapitulated during recovery of the pancreas after injury-we hypothesized that VPA does not cause injury on its own, but it predisposes patients to pancreatitis by inhibiting HDACs and provoking an imbalance in pancreatic recovery. In an experimental model of pancreatic injury, we found that VPA delayed recovery of the pancreas and reduced acinar cell proliferation. In addition, pancreatic expression of class I HDACs (which are the primary VPA targets) increased in the midphase of pancreatic recovery. VPA administration inhibited pancreatic HDAC activity and led to the persistence of acinar-to-ductal metaplastic complexes, with prolonged Sox9 expression and sustained β-catenin nuclear activation, findings that characterize a delay in regenerative reprogramming. These effects were not observed with valpromide, an analog of VPA that lacks HDAC inhibition. This is the first report, to our knowledge, that VPA shifts the balance toward pancreatic injury and pancreatitis through HDAC inhibition. The work also identifies a new paradigm for therapies that could exploit epigenetic reprogramming to enhance pancreatic recovery and disorders of pancreatic injury. PMID:26476347

  15. Effects of the Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Valproic Acid on Human Pericytes In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Friman, Tomas; Dencker, Lennart; Sundberg, Christian; Scholz, Birger

    2011-01-01

    Microvascular pericytes are of key importance in neoformation of blood vessels, in stabilization of newly formed vessels as well as maintenance of angiostasis in resting tissues. Furthermore, pericytes are capable of differentiating into pro-fibrotic collagen type I producing fibroblasts. The present study investigates the effects of the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) on pericyte proliferation, cell viability, migration and differentiation. The results show that HDAC inhibition through exposure of pericytes to VPA in vitro causes the inhibition of pericyte proliferation and migration with no effect on cell viability. Pericyte exposure to the potent HDAC inhibitor Trichostatin A caused similar effects on pericyte proliferation, migration and cell viability. HDAC inhibition also inhibited pericyte differentiation into collagen type I producing fibroblasts. Given the importance of pericytes in blood vessel biology a qPCR array focusing on the expression of mRNAs coding for proteins that regulate angiogenesis was performed. The results showed that HDAC inhibition promoted transcription of genes involved in vessel stabilization/maturation in human microvascular pericytes. The present in vitro study demonstrates that VPA influences several aspects of microvascular pericyte biology and suggests an alternative mechanism by which HDAC inhibition affects blood vessels. The results raise the possibility that HDAC inhibition inhibits angiogenesis partly through promoting a pericyte phenotype associated with stabilization/maturation of blood vessels. PMID:21966390

  16. Radionuclide Labeling and Evaluation of Candidate Radioligands for PET Imaging of Histone Deacetylase in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Young Jun; Muench, Lisa; Reid, Alicia; Chen, Jinzhu; Kang, Yeona; Hooker, Jacob M.; Volkow, Nora D.; Fowler, Joanna S.; Kim, Sung Won

    2013-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) regulate gene expression by inducing conformational changes in chromatin. Ever since the discovery of a naturally occurring HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA) stimulated the recent development of suberoylanilide (SAHA, Zolinza), HDAC has become an important molecular target for drug development. This has created the need to develop specific in vivo radioligands to study epigenetic regulation and HDAC engagement for drug development for diseases including cancer and psychiatric disorders. 6-([18F]Fluoroacetamido)-1-hexanoicanilide ([18F]FAHA) was recently developed as a HDAC substrate and shows moderate blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and specific signal (by metabolic trapping/or deacetylation) but rapid metabolism. Here, we report the radiosynthesis of two carbon-11 labeled candidate radiotracers (substrate- and inhibitor-based radioligand) for HDAC and their evaluation in non-human primate brain. PET studies showed very low brain uptake and rapid metabolism of both labeled compounds but revealed a surprising enhancement of brain penetration by F for H substitution when comparing one of these to [18F]FAHA. Further structural refinement is needed for the development of brain-penetrant, metabolically stable HDAC radiotracers and to understand the role of fluorine substitution on brain penetration. PMID:24210501

  17. Histone deacetylase-2 is a key regulator of diabetes- and transforming growth factor-beta1-induced renal injury.

    PubMed

    Noh, Hyunjin; Oh, Eun Young; Seo, Ji Yeon; Yu, Mi Ra; Kim, Young Ok; Ha, Hunjoo; Lee, Hi Bahl

    2009-09-01

    Excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the kidneys and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of renal tubular epithelial cells contributes to the renal fibrosis that is associated with diabetic nephropathy. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) determines the acetylation status of histones and thereby controls the regulation of gene expression. This study examined the effect of HDAC inhibition on renal fibrosis induced by diabetes or transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 and determined the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as mediators of HDAC activation. In streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic kidneys and TGF-beta1-treated normal rat kidney tubular epithelial cells (NRK52-E), we found that trichostatin A, a nonselective HDAC inhibitor, decreased mRNA and protein expressions of ECM components and prevented EMT. Valproic acid and class I-selective HDAC inhibitor SK-7041 also showed similar effects in NRK52-E cells. Among the six HDACs tested (HDAC-1 through -5 and HDAC-8), HDAC-2 activity significantly increased in the kidneys of STZ-induced diabetic rats and db/db mice and TGF-beta1-treated NRK52-E cells. Levels of mRNA expression of fibronectin and alpha-smooth muscle actin were decreased, whereas E-cadherin mRNA was increased when HDAC-2 was knocked down using RNA interference in NRK52-E cells. Interestingly, hydrogen peroxide increased HDAC-2 activity, and the treatment with an antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine, almost completely reduced TGF-beta1-induced activation of HDAC-2. These findings suggest that HDAC-2 plays an important role in the development of ECM accumulation and EMT in diabetic kidney and that ROS mediate TGF-beta1-induced activation of HDAC-2. PMID:19553350

  18. HDAC inhibition imparts beneficial transgenerational effects in Huntington's disease mice via altered DNA and histone methylation

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Haiqun; Morris, Charles D.; Williams, Roy M.; Loring, Jeanne F.; Thomas, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence has demonstrated that epigenetic factors can profoundly influence gene expression and, in turn, influence resistance or susceptibility to disease. Epigenetic drugs, such as histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, are finding their way into clinical practice, although their exact mechanisms of action are unclear. To identify mechanisms associated with HDAC inhibition, we performed microarray analysis on brain and muscle samples treated with the HDAC1/3-targeting inhibitor, HDACi 4b. Pathways analyses of microarray datasets implicate DNA methylation as significantly associated with HDAC inhibition. Further assessment of DNA methylation changes elicited by HDACi 4b in human fibroblasts from normal controls and patients with Huntingtons disease (HD) using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip revealed a limited, but overlapping, subset of methylated CpG sites that were altered by HDAC inhibition in both normal and HD cells. Among the altered loci of Y chromosome-linked genes, KDM5D, which encodes Lys (K)-specific demethylase 5D, showed increased methylation at several CpG sites in both normal and HD cells, as well as in DNA isolated from sperm from drug-treated male mice. Further, we demonstrate that first filial generation (F1) offspring from drug-treated male HD transgenic mice show significantly improved HD disease phenotypes compared with F1 offspring from vehicle-treated male HD transgenic mice, in association with increased Kdm5d expression, and decreased histone H3 Lys4 (K4) (H3K4) methylation in the CNS of male offspring. Additionally, we show that overexpression of Kdm5d in mutant HD striatal cells significantly improves metabolic deficits. These findings indicate that HDAC inhibitors can elicit transgenerational effects, via cross-talk between different epigenetic mechanisms, to have an impact on disease phenotypes in a beneficial manner. PMID:25535382

  19. Structure-based optimization of phenylbutyrate-derived histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qiang; Wang, Da-Sheng; Chen, Chang-Shi; Hu, Yuan-Dong; Chen, Ching-Shih

    2005-08-25

    Previously, we developed a strategy to develop a novel class of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors by tethering short-chain fatty acids with Zn(2+)-chelating motifs, which led to N-hydroxy-4-(4-phenylbutyryl-amino)benzamide (HTPB), a hydroxamate-tethered phenylbutyrate derivative with sub-micromolar potency in inhibiting HDAC activity and cancer cell proliferation. In this study, we carried out structure-based optimization of HTPB by using the framework generated by the structure of histone deacetylase-like protein (HDLP)-trichostatin A (TSA) complexes. Docking of HTPB into the HDLP binding domain suggested that the hydrophobic microenvironment encompassed by Phe-198 and Phe-200 could be exploited for structural optimization. This premise was corroborated by the greater potency of (S)-(+)-N-hydroxy-4-(3-methyl-2-phenylbutyrylamino)-benzamide [(S)-11] (IC(50) in HDAC inhibition, 16 nM), of which the isopropyl moiety was favorable in interacting with this hydrophobic motif. (S)-11 at concentrations as low as 0.1 microM was effective in causing histone hyperacetylation and p21(WAF/CIP1) overexpression and suppressing proliferation in cancer cells. PMID:16107152

  20. Decreased histone deacetylase 2 impairs Nrf2 activation by oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Mercado, Nicolas; Thimmulappa, Rajesh; Thomas, Catherine M.R.; Fenwick, Peter S.; Chana, Kirandeep K.; Donnelly, Louise E.; Biswal, Shyam; Ito, Kazuhiro; Barnes, Peter J.

    2011-03-11

    Research highlights: {yields} Nrf2 anti-oxidant function is impaired when HDAC activity is inhibited. {yields} HDAC inhibition decreases Nrf2 protein stability. {yields} HDAC2 is involved in reduced Nrf2 stability and both correlate in COPD samples. {yields} HDAC inhibition increases Nrf2 acetylation. -- Abstract: Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays a crucial role in cellular defence against oxidative stress by inducing the expression of multiple anti-oxidant genes. However, where high levels of oxidative stress are observed, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), Nrf2 activity is reduced, although the molecular mechanism for this defect is uncertain. Here, we show that down-regulation of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 2 causes Nrf2 instability, resulting in reduced anti-oxidant gene expression and increase sensitivity to oxidative stress. Although Nrf2 protein was clearly stabilized after hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) stimulation in a bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS2B), Nrf2 stability was decreased and Nrf2 acetylation increased in the presence of an HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA). TSA also reduced Nrf2-regulated heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in these cells, and this was confirmed in acute cigarette-smoke exposed mice in vivo. HDAC2 knock-down by RNA interference resulted in reduced H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced Nrf2 protein stability and activity in BEAS2B cells, whereas HDAC1 knockdown had no effect. Furthermore, monocyte-derived macrophages obtained from healthy volunteers (non-smokers and smokers) and COPD patients showed a significant correlation between HDAC2 expression and Nrf2 expression (r = 0.92, p < 0.0001). Thus, reduced HDAC2 activity in COPD may account for increased Nrf2 acetylation, reduced Nrf2 stability and impaired anti oxidant defences.

  1. Coordinated changes of histone modifications and HDAC mobilization regulate the induction of MHC class II genes by Trichostatin A

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    The deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A (TSA) induces the transcription of the Major Histocompatibility Class II (MHC II) DRA gene in a way independent of the master coactivator CIITA. To analyze the molecular mechanisms by which this epigenetic regulator stimulates MHC II expression, we used chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays to monitor the alterations in histone modifications that correlate with DRA transcription after TSA treatment. We found that a dramatic increase in promoter linked histone acetylation is followed by an increase in Histone H3 lysine 4 methylation and a decrease of lysine 9 methylation. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiments showed that TSA increases the mobility of HDAC while decreasing the mobility of the class II enhanceosome factor RFX5. These data, in combination with ChIP experiments, indicate that the TSA-mediated induction of DRA transcription involves HDAC relocation and enhanceosome stabilization. In order to gain a genome-wide view of the genes responding to inhibition of deacetylases, we compared the transcriptome of B cells before and after TSA treatment using Affymetrix microarrays. This analysis showed that in addition to the DRA gene, the entire MHC II family and the adjacent histone cluster that are located in chromosome 6p21-22 locus are strongly induced by TSA. A complex pattern of gene reprogramming by TSA involves immune recognition, antiviral, apoptotic and inflammatory pathways and extends the rationale for using Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors (HDACi) to modulate the immune response. PMID:16452299

  2. Tropolones As Lead-Like Natural Products: The Development of Potent and Selective Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Natural products have long been recognized as a rich source of potent therapeutics but further development is often limited by high structural complexity and high molecular weight. In contrast, at the core of the thujaplicins is a lead-like tropolone scaffold characterized by relatively low molecular weight, ample sites for diversification, and metal-binding functionality poised for targeting a range of metalloenzyme drug targets. Here, we describe the development of this underutilized scaffold for the discovery of tropolone derivatives that function as isozyme-selective inhibitors of the validated anticancer drug target, histone deacetylase (HDAC). Several monosubstituted tropolones display remarkable levels of selectivity for HDAC2 and potently inhibit the growth of T-cell lymphocyte cell lines. The tropolones represent a new chemotype of isozyme-selective HDAC inhibitors. PMID:24900743

  3. Histone deacetylase inhibition suppresses myogenin-dependent atrogene activation in spinal muscular atrophy mice

    PubMed Central

    Bricceno, Katherine V.; Sampognaro, Paul J.; Van Meerbeke, James P.; Sumner, Charlotte J.; Fischbeck, Kenneth H.; Burnett, Barrington G.

    2012-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disease caused by mutations in the survival of motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene and deficient expression of the ubiquitously expressed SMN protein. Pathologically, SMA is characterized by motor neuron loss and severe muscle atrophy. During muscle atrophy, the E3 ligase atrogenes, atrogin-1 and muscle ring finger 1 (MuRF1), mediate muscle protein breakdown through the ubiquitin proteasome system. Atrogene expression can be induced by various upstream regulators. During acute denervation, they are activated by myogenin, which is in turn regulated by histone deacetylases 4 and 5. Here we show that atrogenes are induced in SMA model mice and in SMA patient muscle in association with increased myogenin and histone deacetylase-4 (HDAC4) expression. This activation during both acute denervation and SMA disease progression is suppressed by treatment with a histone deacetylase inhibitor; however, this treatment has no effect when atrogene induction occurs independently of myogenin. These results indicate that myogenin-dependent atrogene induction is amenable to pharmacological intervention with histone deacetylase inhibitors and help to explain the beneficial effects of these agents on SMA and other denervating diseases. PMID:22798624

  4. Histone deacetylase inhibitors induce apoptosis in both Type I and Type II endometrial cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shujuan; Dowdy, Sean C.; Meng, Xue W.; Wang, Zhaoyu; Jones, Monica B.; Podratz, Karl C.; Jiang, Shi-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Objective To characterize the molecular pathways involved in apoptosis following administration of histone deacetylase inhibitors to Type I and II endometrial cancer cells. Methods Ark2, Ishikawa, and AN3 cell lines representing both Type I and II endometrial cancers were treated with various concentrations of oxamflatin and HDAC inhibitor-1. Cell apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry, nuclear staining, Western blotting, and mitochondrial membrane potential assays. Results Compared to controls, there was a 95% reduction in the growth of Ark2 cells following administration of histone deacetylase inhibitors and this response was dose-dependent. These agents also caused profound morphologic changes and loss of mitochondrial membrane potentials consistent with the induction of apoptosis. Cleavage of PARP, caspase-9, and caspase-8 was detected, confirming the activation of apoptotic cascades in endometrial carcinoma cells. This effect was present in both serous and endometrioid cell types. Conclusion Our results suggest that oxamflatin and HDAC inhibitor-1 have potent cytotoxicity in endometrial cancer cells by inducing cell apoptosis. Histone deacetylase inhibitors are promising agents for the treatment of both Type I and II endometrial carcinoma. PMID:17303224

  5. Therapeutic Effect of Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, Sodium Butyrate, on Allergic Rhinitis In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Wen, Liting; Wang, Ye; Chen, Fuquan

    2016-04-01

    Despite the well-documented therapeutic effects of histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) on various diseases, including arthritis and asthma, the therapeutic effect of HDACi on allergic rhinitis remains unmentioned in the literature. This study investigated the therapeutic effect of sodium butyrate (SoB), a form of HDACi, on mice with allergic rhinitis. The results showed that the expression levels of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1), histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3), and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) were significantly upregulated in mice with allergic rhinitis, whereas H3 acetylation at lysine 9 (H3AcK9) was decreased. The intranasal application of SoB inhibited the expression levels of TSLP levels and upregulated the expression of H3AcK9 in a mouse model of allergic rhinitis. Furthermore, SoB treatment significantly decreased the increased levels of ovalbumin-specific IgE and improved clinical symptoms and nasal mucosa epithelial morphology in the mouse model of allergic rhinitis. In addition, we further demonstrated that SoB treatment significantly increased the serum levels of IL-2 and IFN-γ and decreased the serum levels of IL-4 and IL-10, correcting the Th1/Th2 imbalance in the mouse model of allergic rhinitis. Taken together, our study suggests that SoB has the potential to treat allergic rhinitis. PMID:26859163

  6. Evaluation of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) as therapeutic leads for human African trypanosomiasis (HAT).

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Angela K; Guiguemde, W Armand; Guy, R Kiplin

    2015-08-15

    Two of the histone deacetylases, TbDAC1 and TbDAC3, have been reported to be essential genes in trypanosomes. Therefore, we tested the activity of a panel of human histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) for their ability to block proliferation of Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Among the HDACi's, the hydroxamic acid derivatives panobinostat and belinostat exhibited potency that appeared to make them viable candidates for development due to their reported pharmacokinetic characteristics. However, cellular pharmacodynamic analysis demonstrated that these drugs were unable to kill cultured parasites at exposures seen in patients at their tolerated doses and additionally failed to show any synergistic effects in combination with pentamidine, suramin, melarsoprol, or nifurtimox. Analysis of the potency of the entire HDACi panel revealed no correlations between potency against any human HDAC isoform and inhibition of T. brucei proliferation, suggesting that the trypanosome histone deacetylases possess a unique specificity. These studies confirmed that HDAC inhibitors have potential as leads against human African trypanosomiasis but that none of the current clinical candidates can be directly repurposed. Therefore, development of HDACi's with appropriate specificity and potency may be a viable route to a new class of anti-trypanosomal drugs. PMID:25637120

  7. Functional analysis of histone deacetylase and its role in stress response, drug resistance and solid-state cultivation in Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Kawauchi, Moriyuki; Iwashita, Kazuhiro

    2014-08-01

    In the eukaryotic cell, histone deacetylases (HDACs) play key roles in the regulation of fundamental cellular process such as development regulation, stress response, secondary metabolism and genome integrity. Here, we provide a comprehensive phenotypic analysis using HDAC disruptants in Aspergillus oryzae. Our study revealed that four HDACs, hdaA/Aohda1, hdaB/Aorpd3, hdaD/Aohos2 and hst4/AohstD were involved in stress response, cell wall synthesis and chromatin integrity in A. oryzae. Osmotic stress sensitivity of HDAC disruptants differed between plate cultures and liquid cultures, suggesting that HDACs adapt to the difference environmental conditions. Using a common A. oryzae fermentation medium, rice-koji, we also characterized HDACs related to growth and enzyme production to investigate which HDACs will be required for adaptation to environmental conditions and stress resistances. Because HDACs are widely conserved, our study has broad applications and may inform work with filamentous fungi and other eukaryote. PMID:24613105

  8. The Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Trichostatin A Promotes Totipotency in the Male Gametophyte[W

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Soriano, Mercedes; Cordewener, Jan; Muio, Jose M.; Riksen, Tjitske; Fukuoka, Hiroyuki; Angenent, Gerco C.; Boutilier, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The haploid male gametophyte, the pollen grain, is a terminally differentiated structure whose function ends at fertilization. Plant breeding and propagation widely use haploid embryo production from in vitrocultured male gametophytes, but this technique remains poorly understood at the mechanistic level. Here, we show that histone deacetylases (HDACs) regulate the switch to haploid embryogenesis. Blocking HDAC activity with trichostatin A (TSA) in cultured male gametophytes of Brassica napus leads to a large increase in the proportion of cells that switch from pollen to embryogenic growth. Embryogenic growth is enhanced by, but not dependent on, the high-temperature stress that is normally used to induce haploid embryogenesis in B. napus. The male gametophyte of Arabidopsis thaliana, which is recalcitrant to haploid embryo development in culture, also forms embryogenic cell clusters after TSA treatment. Genetic analysis suggests that the HDAC protein HDA17 plays a role in this process. TSA treatment of male gametophytes is associated with the hyperacetylation of histones H3 and H4. We propose that the totipotency of the male gametophyte is kept in check by an HDAC-dependent mechanism and that the stress treatments used to induce haploid embryo development in culture impinge on this HDAC-dependent pathway. PMID:24464291

  9. The histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin a promotes totipotency in the male gametophyte.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Soriano, Mercedes; Cordewener, Jan; Muio, Jose M; Riksen, Tjitske; Fukuoka, Hiroyuki; Angenent, Gerco C; Boutilier, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The haploid male gametophyte, the pollen grain, is a terminally differentiated structure whose function ends at fertilization. Plant breeding and propagation widely use haploid embryo production from in vitro-cultured male gametophytes, but this technique remains poorly understood at the mechanistic level. Here, we show that histone deacetylases (HDACs) regulate the switch to haploid embryogenesis. Blocking HDAC activity with trichostatin A (TSA) in cultured male gametophytes of Brassica napus leads to a large increase in the proportion of cells that switch from pollen to embryogenic growth. Embryogenic growth is enhanced by, but not dependent on, the high-temperature stress that is normally used to induce haploid embryogenesis in B. napus. The male gametophyte of Arabidopsis thaliana, which is recalcitrant to haploid embryo development in culture, also forms embryogenic cell clusters after TSA treatment. Genetic analysis suggests that the HDAC protein HDA17 plays a role in this process. TSA treatment of male gametophytes is associated with the hyperacetylation of histones H3 and H4. We propose that the totipotency of the male gametophyte is kept in check by an HDAC-dependent mechanism and that the stress treatments used to induce haploid embryo development in culture impinge on this HDAC-dependent pathway. PMID:24464291

  10. A novel histone deacetylase 1 and 2 isoform-specific inhibitor alleviates experimental Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Choong, Chi-Jing; Sasaki, Tsutomu; Hayakawa, Hideki; Yasuda, Toru; Baba, Kousuke; Hirata, Yoshiyuki; Uesato, Shinichi; Mochizuki, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    With increased histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity and histone hypoacetylation being implicated in neurodegeneration, HDAC inhibitors have been reported to have considerable therapeutic potential. Yet, existing inhibitors lack specificity and may show substantial adverse effect. In this study, we identified a novel HDAC1/2 isoform-specific inhibitor, K560, with protective effects against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+))- and/or 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced neuronal death in both invitro and invivo Parkinson's disease model. K560 attenuated cell death induced by MPP(+) in differentiated SH-SY5Y cells through the sustained expression of an antiapoptotic protein, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP). Inhibition of XIAP expression by locked nucleic acid antisense oligonucleotides abolished the protective effect of K560. Inactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades, reduced p53 phosphorylation, and down-regulation of p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis on K560 treatment were also observed. Furthermore, pre- and post-oral administration of K560 to mice prevented MPTP-induced loss of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra, suggesting that selective inhibition of HDAC1 and HDAC2 by K560 may pave the way to new strategies for Parkinson's disease treatment. PMID:26545632

  11. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Modify Pancreatic Cell Fate Determination and Amplify Endocrine Progenitors?

    PubMed Central

    Haumaitre, Ccile; Lenoir, Olivia; Scharfmann, Raphal

    2008-01-01

    During pancreas development, transcription factors play critical roles in exocrine and endocrine differentiation. Transcriptional regulation in eukaryotes occurs within chromatin and is influenced by posttranslational histone modifications (e.g., acetylation) involving histone deacetylases (HDACs). Here, we show that HDAC expression and activity are developmentally regulated in the embryonic rat pancreas. We discovered that pancreatic treatment with different HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) modified the timing and determination of pancreatic cell fate. HDACi modified the exocrine lineage via abolition and enhancement of acinar and ductal differentiation, respectively. Importantly, HDACi treatment promoted the NGN3 proendocrine lineage, leading to an increased pool of endocrine progenitors and modified endocrine subtype lineage choices. Interestingly, treatments with trichostatin A and sodium butyrate, two inhibitors of both class I and class II HDACs, enhanced the pool of ? cells. These results highlight the roles of HDACs at key points in exocrine and endocrine differentiation. They show the powerful use of HDACi to switch pancreatic cell determination and amplify specific cellular subtypes, with potential applications in cell replacement therapies in diabetes. PMID:18710955

  12. A novel histone deacetylase inhibitor Chidamide induces apoptosis of human colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Lin; Chen, Baoan; Qin, Shukui; Li, Suyi; He, Xiangming; Qiu, Shaomin; Zhao, Wei; Zhao, Hong

    2010-02-05

    Many studies have demonstrated that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors induce various tumor cells to undergo apoptosis, and such inhibitors have been used in different clinical trials against different human cancers. In this study, we designed and synthesized a novel HDAC inhibitor, Chidamide. We showed that Chidamide was able to increase the acetylation levels of histone H3 and to inhibit the PI3K/Akt and MAPK/Ras signaling pathways, which resulted in arresting colon cancer cells at the G1 phase of the cell cycle and promoting apoptosis. As a result, the proliferation of colon cancer cells was suppressed in vitro. Our data support the potential application of Chidamide as an anticancer agent in treating colon cancer. Future studies are needed to demonstrate its in vivo efficacy.

  13. Polyaminohydroxamic Acids and Polyaminobenzamides as Isoform Selective Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors§

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Sheeba; Senanayake, Thulani; Murray-Stewart, Tracey; Doering, Kim; Fraser, Alison; Casero, Robert A.; Woster, Patrick M.

    2013-01-01

    A series of polyaminohydroxamic acids (PAHAs) and polyaminobenzamides (PABAs) were synthesized and evaluated as isoform-selective histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. These analogues contain a polyamine chain to increase affinity for chromatin and facilitate cellular import. Seven PAHAs inhibited HDAC >50% (1 µM), and two PABAs inhibited HDAC >50% (5 µM). Compound 17 increased acetylated α-tubulin in HCT116 colon tumor cells 253-fold but only modestly increased p21waf1 and acetylated histones 3 and 4, suggesting that 17 selectively inhibits HDAC 6. PABA 22 alone minimally increased p21waf1 and acetylated histones 3 and 4 but caused dose-dependent increases in p21waf1 in combination with 0.1 µM 5-azadeoxycytidine. Finally, 22 appeared to be a substrate for the polyamine transport system. None of these compounds were cytotoxic at 100 µM. PAHAs and PABAs exhibit strikingly different cellular effects from SAHA and have the potential for use in combination antitumor therapies with reduced toxicity. PMID:18348516

  14. Involvement of rice histone deacetylase HDA705 in seed germination and in response to ABA and abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinhui; Li, Mingzhi; Gu, Dachuan; Liu, Xuncheng; Zhang, Jianxia; Wu, Kunlin; Zhang, Xinhua; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Duan, Jun

    2016-02-01

    Histone acetylation and deacetylation play crucial roles in the modification of chromatin structure and regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes. Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) assist to maintain the balance of chromatin acetylation status. Previous studies showed that plant HDACs are key regulators involved in response to development and stresses. In this study, we examined the expression pattern and function of HDA705, a member of the RPD3/HDA1-type HDAC in rice. Overexpression of HDA705 in rice decreased ABA and salt stress resistance during seed germination. Delayed seed germination of HDA705 overexpression lines was associated with down-regulated expression of GA biosynthetic genes and up-regulation of ABA biosynthetic genes. Moreover, overexpression of HDA705 in rice enhanced osmotic stress resistance during the seedling stage. Our findings demonstrate that HDA705 may play a role in regulating seed germination and the response to abiotic stresses in rice. PMID:26772883

  15. Histone deacetylase 1 and 2 are essential for normal T-cell development and genomic stability in mice.

    PubMed

    Dovey, Oliver M; Foster, Charles T; Conte, Nathalie; Edwards, Sally A; Edwards, Jennifer M; Singh, Rajinder; Vassiliou, George; Bradley, Allan; Cowley, Shaun M

    2013-02-21

    Histone deacetylase 1 and 2 (HDAC1/2) regulate chromatin structure as the catalytic core of the Sin3A, NuRD and CoREST co-repressor complexes. To better understand the key pathways regulated by HDAC1/2 in the adaptive immune system and inform their exploitation as drug targets, we have generated mice with a T-cell specific deletion. Loss of either HDAC1 or HDAC2 alone has little effect, while dual inactivation results in a 5-fold reduction in thymocyte cellularity, accompanied by developmental arrest at the double-negative to double-positive transition. Transcriptome analysis revealed 892 misregulated genes in Hdac1/2 knock-out thymocytes, including down-regulation of LAT, Themis and Itk, key components of the T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling pathway. Down-regulation of these genes suggests a model in which HDAC1/2 deficiency results in defective propagation of TCR signaling, thus blocking development. Furthermore, mice with reduced HDAC1/2 activity (Hdac1 deleted and a single Hdac2 allele) develop a lethal pathology by 3-months of age, caused by neoplastic transformation of immature T cells in the thymus. Tumor cells become aneuploid, express increased levels of c-Myc and show elevated levels of the DNA damage marker, ?H2AX. These data demonstrate a crucial role for HDAC1/2 in T-cell development and the maintenance of genomic stability. PMID:23287868

  16. HISTONE DEACETYLASE 9 represses seedling traits in Arabidopsis thaliana dry seeds.

    PubMed

    van Zanten, Martijn; Zll, Christian; Wang, Zhi; Philipp, Christina; Carles, Annaick; Li, Yong; Kornet, Noortje G; Liu, Yongxiu; Soppe, Wim J J

    2014-11-01

    Plant life is characterized by major phase changes. We studied the role of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity in the transition from seed to seedling in Arabidopsis. Pharmacological inhibition of HDAC stimulated germination of freshly harvested seeds. Subsequent analysis revealed that histone deacetylase 9 (hda9) mutant alleles displayed reduced seed dormancy and faster germination than wild-type plants. Transcriptome meta-analysis comparisons between the hda9 dry seed transcriptome and published datasets demonstrated that transcripts of genes that are induced during imbibition in wild-type prematurely accumulated in hda9-1 dry seeds. This included several genes associated with photosynthesis and photoautotrophic growth such as RuBisCO and RuBisCO activase (RCA). Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated enhanced histone acetylation levels at their loci in young hda9-1 seedlings. Our observations suggest that HDA9 negatively influences germination and is involved in the suppression of seedling traits in dry seeds, probably by transcriptional repression via histone deacetylation. Accordingly, HDA9 transcript is abundant in dry seeds and becomes reduced during imbibition in wild-type seeds. The proposed function of HDA9 is opposite to that of its homologous genes HDA6 and HDA19, which have been reported to repress embryonic properties in germinated seedlings. PMID:25146719

  17. Erythropoietin and carbamylated erythropoietin promote histone deacetylase 5 phosphorylation and nuclear export in rat hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Jo, Hye-Ryeong; Kim, Yong-Seok; Son, Hyeon

    2016-01-29

    Erythropoietin (EPO) produces neurotrophic effects in animal model of neurodegeneration. However, clinical use of EPO is limited due to thrombotic risk. Carbamylated EPO (cEPO), devoid of thrombotic risk, has been proposed as a novel neuroprotective and neurotrophic agent although the molecular mechanisms of cEPO remain incomplete. Here, we show a previously unidentified role of histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) in the actions of EPO and cEPO. EPO and cEPO regulate the HDAC5 phosphorylation at two critical sites, Ser259 and Ser498 through a protein kinase D (PKD) dependent pathway. In addition, EPO and cEPO rapidly stimulates nuclear export of HDAC5 in rat hippocampal neurons which expressing HDAC5-GFP. Consequently, EPO and cEPO enhanced the myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) target gene expression. Taken together, our results reveal that EPO and cEPO mediate MEF2 target gene expression via the regulation of HDAC5 phosphorylation at Ser259/498, and suggest that HDAC5 could be a potential mechanism contributing to the therapeutic actions of EPO and cEPO. PMID:26777998

  18. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Trichostatin A Ameliorated Endotoxin-Induced Neuroinflammation and Cognitive Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Hsing, Chung-Hsi; Hung, Shih-Kai; Chen, Yeong-Chang; Wei, Tsui-Shan; Sun, Ding-Ping; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Yeh, Ching-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Excessive production of cytokines by microglia may cause cognitive dysfunction and long-lasting behavioral changes. Activating the peripheral innate immune system stimulates cytokine secretion in the central nervous system, which modulates cognitive function. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) modulate cytokine synthesis and release. Trichostatin A (TSA), an HDAC inhibitor, is documented to be anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective. We investigated whether TSA reduces lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced neuroinflammation and cognitive dysfunction. ICR mice were first intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with vehicle or TSA (0.3?mg/kg). One hour later, they were injected (i.p.) with saline or Escherichia coli LPS (1?mg/kg). We analyzed the food and water intake, body weight loss, and sucrose preference of the injected mice and then determined the microglia activation and inflammatory cytokine expression in the brains of LPS-treated mice and LPS-treated BV-2 microglial cells. In the TSA-pretreated mice, microglial activation was lower, anhedonia did not occur, and LPS-induced cognitive dysfunction (anorexia, weight loss, and social withdrawal) was attenuated. Moreover, mRNA expression of HDAC2, HDAC5, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), TNF-?, MCP-1, and IL-1? in the brain of LPS-challenged mice and in the LPS-treated BV-2 microglial cells was lower. TSA diminished LPS-induced inflammatory responses in the mouse brain and modulated the cytokine-associated changes in cognitive function, which might be specifically related to reducing HDAC2 and HDAC5 expression. PMID:26273133

  19. Interference of the Histone Deacetylase Inhibits Pollen Germination and Pollen Tube Growth in Picea wilsonii Mast

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Junhui; Li, Xiaojuan

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) is a crucial component in the regulation of gene expression in various cellular processes in animal and plant cells. HDAC has been reported to play a role in embryogenesis. However, the effect of HDAC on androgamete development remains unclear, especially in gymnosperms. In this study, we used the HDAC inhibitors trichostatin A (TSA) and sodium butyrate (NaB) to examine the role of HDAC in Picea wilsonii pollen germination and pollen tube elongation. Measurements of the tip-focused Ca2+ gradient revealed that TSA and NaB influenced this gradient. Immunofluorescence showed that actin filaments were disrupted into disorganized fragments. As a result, the vesicle trafficking was disturbed, as determined by FM4-64 labeling. Moreover, the distribution of pectins and callose in cell walls was significantly altered in response to TSA and NaB. Our results suggest that HDAC affects pollen germination and polarized pollen tube growth in Picea wilsonii by affecting the intracellular Ca2+ concentration gradient, actin organization patterns, vesicle trafficking, as well as the deposition and configuration of cell wall components. PMID:26710276

  20. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Trichostatin A Ameliorated Endotoxin-Induced Neuroinflammation and Cognitive Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hsing, Chung-Hsi; Hung, Shih-Kai; Chen, Yeong-Chang; Wei, Tsui-Shan; Sun, Ding-Ping; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Yeh, Ching-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Excessive production of cytokines by microglia may cause cognitive dysfunction and long-lasting behavioral changes. Activating the peripheral innate immune system stimulates cytokine secretion in the central nervous system, which modulates cognitive function. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) modulate cytokine synthesis and release. Trichostatin A (TSA), an HDAC inhibitor, is documented to be anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective. We investigated whether TSA reduces lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced neuroinflammation and cognitive dysfunction. ICR mice were first intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with vehicle or TSA (0.3?mg/kg). One hour later, they were injected (i.p.) with saline or Escherichia coli LPS (1?mg/kg). We analyzed the food and water intake, body weight loss, and sucrose preference of the injected mice and then determined the microglia activation and inflammatory cytokine expression in the brains of LPS-treated mice and LPS-treated BV-2 microglial cells. In the TSA-pretreated mice, microglial activation was lower, anhedonia did not occur, and LPS-induced cognitive dysfunction (anorexia, weight loss, and social withdrawal) was attenuated. Moreover, mRNA expression of HDAC2, HDAC5, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), TNF-?, MCP-1, and IL-1? in the brain of LPS-challenged mice and in the LPS-treated BV-2 microglial cells was lower. TSA diminished LPS-induced inflammatory responses in the mouse brain and modulated the cytokine-associated changes in cognitive function, which might be specifically related to reducing HDAC2 and HDAC5 expression. PMID:26273133

  1. Histone deacetylase inhibition reduces hypothyroidism-induced neurodevelopmental defects in rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Praveen; Mohan, Vishwa; Sinha, Rohit Anthony; Chagtoo, Megha; Godbole, Madan M

    2015-11-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) through its receptor (TRα/β) influences spatio-temporal regulation of its target gene repertoire during brain development. Though hypothyroidism in WT rodent models of perinatal hypothyroidism severely impairs neurodevelopment, its effect on TRα/β knockout mice is less severe. An explanation to this paradox is attributed to a possible repressive action of unliganded TRs during development. Since unliganded TRs suppress gene expression through the recruitment of histone deacetylase (HDACs) via co-repressor complexes, we tested whether pharmacological inhibition of HDACs may prevent the effects of hypothyroidism on brain development. Using valproate, an HDAC inhibitor, we show that HDAC inhibition significantly blocks the deleterious effects of hypothyroidism on rat cerebellum, evident by recovery of TH target genes like Bdnf, Pcp2 and Mbp as well as improved dendritic structure of cerebellar Purkinje neurons. Together with this, HDAC inhibition also rescues hypothyroidism-induced motor and cognitive defects. This study therefore provides an insight into the role of HDACs in TH insufficiency during neurodevelopment and their inhibition as a possible therapeutics for treatment. PMID:26427529

  2. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Antagonize Distinct Pathways to Suppress Tumorigenesis of Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Vleeshouwer-Neumann, Terra; Phelps, Michael; Bammler, Theo K.; MacDonald, James W.; Jenkins, Isaac; Chen, Eleanor Y.

    2015-01-01

    Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS) is the most common soft tissue cancer in children. The prognosis of patients with relapsed or metastatic disease remains poor. ERMS genomes show few recurrent mutations, suggesting that other molecular mechanisms such as epigenetic regulation might play a major role in driving ERMS tumor biology. In this study, we have demonstrated the diverse roles of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in the pathogenesis of ERMS by characterizing effects of HDAC inhibitors, trichostatin A (TSA) and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA; also known as vorinostat) in vitro and in vivo. TSA and SAHA suppress ERMS tumor growth and progression by inducing myogenic differentiation as well as reducing the self-renewal and migratory capacity of ERMS cells. Differential expression profiling and pathway analysis revealed downregulation of key oncogenic pathways upon HDAC inhibitor treatment. By gain-of-function, loss-of-function, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) studies, we show that Notch1- and EphrinB1-mediated pathways are regulated by HDACs to inhibit differentiation and enhance migratory capacity of ERMS cells, respectively. Our study demonstrates that aberrant HDAC activity plays a major role in ERMS pathogenesis. Druggable targets in the molecular pathways affected by HDAC inhibitors represent novel therapeutic options for ERMS patients. PMID:26636678

  3. Histone deacetylase inhibitors as radiosensitisers: effects on DNA damage signalling and repair

    PubMed Central

    Groselj, B; Sharma, N L; Hamdy, F C; Kerr, M; Kiltie, A E

    2013-01-01

    Many cancers display increased expression of histone deacetylases (HDACs) and therefore transcriptionally inactive chromatin, resulting in the downregulation of genes including tumour suppressor and DNA repair genes. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are a heterogeneous group of epigenetic therapeutics, showing promising anticancer effects in both pre-clinical and clinical settings, in particular the effect of radiosensitisation when administered in combination with radiotherapy. Radiotherapy remains one of the most common forms of cancer treatment, leading to cell death through the induction of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Cells have developed mechanisms to repair such DSB through two major pathways: non-homologous end-joining and homologous recombination. Here, we explore the current evidence for the use of HDACi in combination with irradiation, focusing on the effects of HDACi on DNA damage signalling and repair in vitro. In addition, we summarise the clinical evidence for using HDACi with radiotherapy, a growing area of interest with great potential clinical utility. PMID:23361058

  4. Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress and Histone Deacetylase-2 Activity in Exacerbations of COPD

    PubMed Central

    Footitt, Joseph; Mallia, Patrick; Durham, Andrew L.; Ho, W. Eugene; Trujillo-Torralbo, Maria-Belen; Telcian, Aurica G.; Del Rosario, Ajerico; Chang, Cheng; Peh, Hong-Yong; Kebadze, Tatiana; Aniscenko, Julia; Stanciu, Luminita; Essilfie-Quaye, Sarah; Ito, Kazuhiro; Barnes, Peter J.; Elkin, Sarah L.; Kon, Onn M.; Wong, W. S. Fred; Adcock, Ian M.; Johnston, Sebastian L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Respiratory virus infections are commonly associated with COPD exacerbations, but little is known about the mechanisms linking virus infection to exacerbations. Pathogenic mechanisms in stable COPD include oxidative and nitrosative stress and reduced activity of histone deacetylase-2 (HDAC2), but their roles in COPD exacerbations is unknown. We investigated oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS) and HDAC2 in COPD exacerbations using experimental rhinovirus infection. Methods Nine subjects with COPD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage II), 10 smokers, and 11 nonsmokers were successfully infected with rhinovirus. Markers of O&NS-associated cellular damage, and inflammatory mediators and proteases were measured in sputum, and HDAC2 activity was measured in sputum and bronchoalveolar macrophages. In an in vitro model, monocyte-derived THP-1 cells were infected with rhinovirus and nitrosylation and activity of HDAC2 was measured. Results Rhinovirus infection induced significant increases in airways inflammation and markers of O&NS in subjects with COPD. O&NS markers correlated with virus load and inflammatory markers. Macrophage HDAC2 activity was reduced during exacerbation and correlated inversely with virus load, inflammatory markers, and nitrosative stress. Sputum macrophage HDAC2 activity pre-infection was inversely associated with sputum virus load and inflammatory markers during exacerbation. Rhinovirus infection of monocytes induced nitrosylation of HDAC2 and reduced HDAC2 activity; inhibition of O&NS inhibited rhinovirus-induced inflammatory cytokines. Conclusions O&NS, airways inflammation, and impaired HDAC2 may be important mechanisms of virus-induced COPD exacerbations. Therapies targeting these mechanisms offer potential new treatments for COPD exacerbations. PMID:25790167

  5. Structures of metal-substituted human histone deacetylase 8 provide mechanistic inferences on biological function .

    PubMed

    Dowling, Daniel P; Gattis, Samuel G; Fierke, Carol A; Christianson, David W

    2010-06-22

    The metal-dependent histone deacetylases (HDACs) adopt an alpha/beta protein fold first identified in rat liver arginase. Despite insignificant overall amino acid sequence identity, these enzymes share a strictly conserved metal binding site with divergent metal specificity and stoichiometry. HDAC8, originally thought to be a Zn(2+)-metallohydrolase, exhibits increased activity with Co(2+) and Fe(2+) cofactors based on k(cat)/K(M) (Gantt, S. L., Gattis, S. G., and Fierke, C. A. (2006) Biochemistry 45, 6170-6178). Here, we report the first X-ray crystal structures of metallo-substituted HDAC8, Co(2+)-HDAC8, D101L Co(2+)-HDAC8, D101L Mn(2+)-HDAC8, and D101L Fe(2+)-HDAC8, each complexed with the inhibitor M344. Metal content of protein samples in solution is confirmed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. For the crystalline enzymes, peaks in Bijvoet difference Fourier maps calculated from X-ray diffraction data collected near the respective elemental absorption edges confirm metal substitution. Additional solution studies confirm incorporation of Cu(2+); Fe(3+) and Ni(2+) do not bind under conditions tested. The metal dependence of the substrate K(M) values and the K(i) values of hydroxamate inhibitors that chelate the active site metal are consistent with substrate-metal coordination in the precatalytic Michaelis complex that enhances catalysis. Additionally, although HDAC8 binds Zn(2+) nearly 10(6)-fold more tightly than Fe(2+), the affinities for both metal ions are comparable to the readily exchangeable metal concentrations estimated in living cells, suggesting that HDAC8 could bind either or both Fe(2+) or Zn(2+) in vivo. PMID:20545365

  6. The Effects of Class-Specific Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors on the Development of Limbs During Organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Paradis, France-Hlne; Hales, Barbara F

    2015-11-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play a major role in chromatin remodeling, gene regulation, and cellular signaling. While the role of each class of HDAC during normal development is unclear, several HDAC inhibitors are embryotoxic; the mechanisms leading to the teratogenicity of HDAC inhibitors are not known. Here, we investigated the effects of class-specific HDAC inhibitors on the development of organogenesis-stage murine limbs. Timed-pregnant COL2A1-ECFP, COL10A1-mCherry, and COL1A1-YFP CD1 reporter mice were euthanized on gestation day 12; embryonic forelimbs were excised and cultured invitro for 1, 3, and 6 days in the presence or absence of MS275 (a class I HDAC inhibitor), MC1568 (a class III HDAC inhibitor), Sirtinol (a class II HDAC inhibitor), or valproic acid, our positive control. Fluorescently tagged COL2A1, COL10A1, and COL1A1 served as markers of the differentiation of proliferative chondrocytes, hypertrophic chondrocytes, and osteoblasts, respectively. MS275 and valproic acid caused a reduction in expression of all three markers, suggesting effects on both chondrogenesis and osteogenesis. MC1568 had no effect on chondrocyte markers and mildly inhibited COL1A1 expression at 6 days. Sirtinol had no effect on COL2A1 expression or chondrocyte differentiation 1 day following exposure; however, it caused a drastic regression in limb cartilage and reduced the expression of all three differentiation markers to nearly undetectable levels at 6 days. MS275 and Sirtinol caused a 2.2- and 2.7-fold increase, respectively, in cleaved-caspase 3, a marker of apoptosis, suggesting embryotoxicity. These data demonstrate that inhibition of class I or III HDACs causes severe developmental toxicity and is highly teratogenic. PMID:26251326

  7. Structures of Metal-Substituted Human Histone Deacetylase 8 Provide Mechanistic Inferences on Biological Function,

    PubMed Central

    Dowling, Daniel P.; Gattis, Samuel G.; Fierke, Carol A.; Christianson, David W.

    2010-01-01

    The metal-dependent histone deacetylases (HDACs) adopt an ?/? protein fold first identified in rat liver arginase. Despite insignificant overall amino acid sequence identity, these enzymes share a strictly conserved metal-binding site with divergent metal specificity and stoichiometry. HDAC8, originally thought to be a Zn2+-metallohydrolase, exhibits increased activity with Co2+ and Fe2+ cofactors based on kcat/KM (Gantt, S. L., Gattis, S. G. & Fierke, C. A. (2006) Biochemistry 45, 61706178). Here, we report the first X-ray crystal structures of metallo-substituted HDAC8: Co2+-HDAC8, D101L Co2+-HDAC8, D101L Mn2+-HDAC8, and D101L Fe2+-HDAC8, each complexed with the inhibitor M344. Metal content of protein samples in solution is confirmed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. For the crystalline enzymes, peaks in Bijvoet difference Fourier maps calculated from X-ray diffraction data collected near the respective elemental absorption edges confirm metal substitution. Additional solution studies confirm incorporation of Cu2+; Fe3+ and Ni2+ do not bind under conditions tested. The metal dependence of the substrate KM values and the Ki values of hydroxamate inhibitors that chelate the active site metal are consistent with substrate-metal coordination in the precatalytic Michaelis complex that enhances catalysis. Additionally, although HDAC8 binds Zn2+ nearly 106-fold more tightly than Fe2+, the affinities for both metal ions are comparable to the readily exchangeable metal concentrations estimated in living cells, suggesting that HDAC8 could bind either or both Fe2+ or Zn2+ in vivo. PMID:20545365

  8. Active, phosphorylated fingolimod inhibits histone deacetylases and facilitates fear extinction memory

    PubMed Central

    Hait, Nitai C; Wise, Laura E; Allegood, Jeremy C; OBrien, Megan; Avni, Dorit; Reeves, Thomas M; Knapp, Pamela E; Lu, Junyan; Luo, Cheng; Miles, Michael F; Milstien, Sheldon; Lichtman, Aron H; Spiegel, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    FTY720 (fingolimod), an FDA-approved drug for treatment of multiple sclerosis, has beneficial effects in the CNS that are not yet well understood, independent of its effects on immune cell trafficking. We show that FTY720 enters the nucleus, where it is phosphorylated by sphingosine kinase 2 (SphK2), and that nuclear FTY720-P binds and inhibits class I histone deacetylases (HDACs), enhancing specific histone acetylations. FTY720 is also phosphorylated in mice and accumulates in the brain, including the hippocampus, inhibits HDACs and enhances histone acetylation and gene expression programs associated with memory and learning, and rescues memory deficits independently of its immunosuppressive actions. Sphk2?/? mice have lower levels of hippocampal sphingosine-1-phosphate, an endogenous HDAC inhibitor, and reduced histone acetylation, and display deficits in spatial memory and impaired contextual fear extinction. Thus, sphingosine-1-phosphate and SphK2 play specific roles in memory functions and FTY720 may be a useful adjuvant therapy to facilitate extinction of aversive memories. PMID:24859201

  9. Active, phosphorylated fingolimod inhibits histone deacetylases and facilitates fear extinction memory.

    PubMed

    Hait, Nitai C; Wise, Laura E; Allegood, Jeremy C; O'Brien, Megan; Avni, Dorit; Reeves, Thomas M; Knapp, Pamela E; Lu, Junyan; Luo, Cheng; Miles, Michael F; Milstien, Sheldon; Lichtman, Aron H; Spiegel, Sarah

    2014-07-01

    FTY720 (fingolimod), an FDA-approved drug for treatment of multiple sclerosis, has beneficial effects in the CNS that are not yet well understood, independent of its effects on immune cell trafficking. We show that FTY720 enters the nucleus, where it is phosphorylated by sphingosine kinase 2 (SphK2), and that nuclear FTY720-P binds and inhibits class I histone deacetylases (HDACs), enhancing specific histone acetylations. FTY720 is also phosphorylated in mice and accumulates in the brain, including the hippocampus, inhibits HDACs and enhances histone acetylation and gene expression programs associated with memory and learning, and rescues memory deficits independently of its immunosuppressive actions. Sphk2(-/-) mice have lower levels of hippocampal sphingosine-1-phosphate, an endogenous HDAC inhibitor, and reduced histone acetylation, and display deficits in spatial memory and impaired contextual fear extinction. Thus, sphingosine-1-phosphate and SphK2 play specific roles in memory functions and FTY720 may be a useful adjuvant therapy to facilitate extinction of aversive memories. PMID:24859201

  10. Pure curcumin increases the expression of SOCS1 and SOCS3 in myeloproliferative neoplasms through suppressing class I histone deacetylases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chi-qi; Yu, Kang; Yan, Qing-xian; Xing, Chong-yun; Chen, Yi; Yan, Zhuang; Shi, Yi-fen; Zhao, Ke-wen; Gao, Shen-meng

    2013-07-01

    Suppressors of cytokine signaling, SOCS1 and SOCS3, are important negative regulators of Janus kinase 2/signal transducers and activators of transcription signaling, which is constitutively activated in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) and leukemia. Curcumin has been shown to possess anticancer activity through different mechanisms. However, whether curcumin can regulate the expression of SOCS1 and SOCS3 is still unknown. Here, we found that curcumin elevated the expression of SOCS1 and SOCS3 via triggering acetylation of histone in the regions of SOCS1 and SOCS3 promoter in K562 and HEL cells. As a novel histone deacetylases (HDACs) inhibitor, curcumin inhibited HDAC enzyme activities and decreased the levels of HDAC1, 3 and 8 but not HDAC2. Knockdown of HDAC8 by small interfering RNA markedly elevated the expression of SOCS1 and SOCS3. Moreover, ectopic expression of HDAC8 decreased the levels of SOCS1 and SOCS3. Thus, HDAC8 plays an important role in the modulation of SOCS1 and SOCS3 by curcumin. Also, trichostatin A (TSA), an inhibitor of HDACs, increased the levels of SOCS1 and SOCS3. Furthermore, curcumin increased the transcript levels of SOCS1 and SOCS3 and significantly inhibited the clonogenic activity of hematopoietic progenitors from patients with MPNs. Finally, curcumin markedly inhibited HDAC activities and decreased HDAC8 levels in primary MPN cells. Taken together, our data uncover a regulatory mechanism of SOCS1 and SOCS3 through inhibition of HDAC activity (especially HDAC8) by curcumin. Thus, being a relative non-toxic agent, curcumin may offer a therapeutic advantage in the clinical treatment for MPNs. PMID:23430957

  11. Class II histone deacetylases are associated with VHL-independent regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha.

    PubMed

    Qian, David Z; Kachhap, Sushant K; Collis, Spencer J; Verheul, Henk M W; Carducci, Michael A; Atadja, Peter; Pili, Roberto

    2006-09-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha) plays a critical role in transcriptional gene activation involved in tumor angiogenesis. A novel class of agents, the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, has been shown to inhibit tumor angiogenesis and HIF-1 alpha protein expression. However, the molecular mechanism responsible for this inhibition remains to be elucidated. In the current study, we investigated the molecular link between HIF-1 alpha inhibition and HDAC inhibition. Treatment of the VHL-deficient human renal cell carcinoma cell line UMRC2 with the hydroxamic HDAC inhibitor LAQ824 resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of HIF-1 alpha protein via a VHL-independent mechanism and reduction of HIF-1 alpha transcriptional activity. HIF-1 alpha inhibition by LAQ824 was associated with HIF-1 alpha acetylation and polyubiquitination. HIF-1 alpha immunoprecipitates contained HDAC activity. Then, we tested different classes of HDAC inhibitors with diverse inhibitory activity of class I versus class II HDACs and assessed their capability of targeting HIF-1 alpha. Hydroxamic acid derivatives with known activity against both class I and class II HDACs were effective in inhibiting HIF-1 alpha at low nanomolar concentrations. In contrast, valproic acid and trapoxin were able to inhibit HIF-1 alpha only at concentrations that are effective against class II HDACs. Coimmunoprecipitation studies showed that class II HDAC4 and HDAC6 were associated with HIF-1 alpha protein. Inhibition by small interfering RNA of HDAC4 and HDAC6 reduced HIF-1 alpha protein expression and transcriptional activity. Taken together, these results suggest that class II HDACs are associated with HIF-1 alpha stability and provide a rationale for targeting HIF-1 alpha with HDAC inhibitors against class II isozymes. PMID:16951198

  12. Promoter specific sensitivity to inhibition of histone deacetylases: implications for hormonal gene control, cellular differentiation and cancer.

    PubMed

    Dressel, U; Renkawitz, R; Baniahmad, A

    2000-01-01

    Alterations in histone acetylation status appear to play a central role in the regulation of neoplasia, tumor suppression, cell cycle control, hormone responsiveness and senescence. These alterations of chromatin control gene transcription. The histone acetylation status is regulated by the equilibrium of histone acetyl-transferase activity (HAT) and the histone deacetylase activity (HDAC). Commonly, DNA-transfection assays are used to measure the effect of histone acetylation and deacetylation on gene transcription. Here we have analyzed the response of various viral long terminal repeats and vertebrate promoters to the specific histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA). We show that the activity of many, but not all, promoters is increased upon TSA treatment. Interestingly, the lysozyme promoter exhibited TSA resistance, while the activity of metallothionine, the human growth hormone, and the thymidine kinase promoters was increased. Furthermore, we found that all tested viral promoters are induced by TSA. Analysis of the transcriptional behaviour of the thyroid hormone receptor (TR), the cellular homologue of the v-erbA oncogene, revealed that TSA reduced the gene silencing function but had no influence on the hormone-induced gene activation function of the receptor. These results on gene specific effects, together with the HDAC structural data (1), may be a basis for the development of HDAC inhibitors as antitumor agents. PMID:10810390

  13. Crebinostat: A Novel Cognitive Enhancer that Inhibits Histone Deacetylase Activity and Modulates Chromatin-Mediated Neuroplasticity

    PubMed Central

    Fass, Daniel M.; Reis, Surya A.; Ghosh, Balaram; Hennig, Krista M.; Joseph, Nadine F.; Zhao, Wen-Ning; Nieland, Thomas J.F.; Guan, Ji-Song; Kuhnle, Chelsea E. Groves; Tang, Weiping; Barker, Douglas D.; Mazitschek, Ralph; Schreiber, Stuart L.; Tsai, Li-Huei; Haggarty, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Long-term memory formation is known to be critically dependent upon de novo gene expression in the brain. As a consequence, pharmacological enhancement of the transcriptional processes mediating long-term memory formation provides a potential therapeutic strategy for cognitive disorders involving aberrant neuroplasticity. Here we focus on the identification and characterization of small molecule inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDACs) as enhancers of CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein)-regulated transcription and modulators of chromatin-mediated neuroplasticity. Using a CREB reporter gene cell line, we screened a library of small molecules structurally related to known HDAC inhibitors leading to the identification of a probe we termed crebinostat that produced robust activation of CREB-mediated transcription. Further characterization of crebinostat revealed its potent inhibition of the deacetylase activity of recombinant class I HDACs 1, 2, 3, and class IIb HDAC6, with weaker inhibition of the class I HDAC8 and no significant inhibition of the class IIa HDACs 4, 5, 7, and 9. In cultured mouse primary neurons, crebinostat potently induced acetylation of both histone H3 and histone H4 as well as enhanced the expression of the CREB target gene Egr1 (early growth response 1). Using a hippocampus-dependent, contextual fear conditioning paradigm, mice systemically administered crebinostat for a ten day time period exhibited enhanced memory. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms of memory enhancement by HDAC inhibitors, whole genome transcriptome profiling of cultured mouse primary neurons treated with crebinostat, combined with bioinformatic analyses of CREB-target genes, was performed revealing a highly connected protein-protein interaction network reflecting modules of genes important to synaptic structure and plasticity. Consistent with these findings, crebinostat treatment increased the density of synapsin-1 punctae along dendrites in cultured neurons. Finally, crebinostat treatment of cultured mouse primary neurons was found to upregulate Bdnf (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) and Grn (granulin) and downregulate Mapt (tau) gene expressiongenes implicated in aging-related cognitive decline and cognitive disorders. Taken together, these results demonstrate that crebinostat provides a novel probe to modulate chromatin-mediated neuroplasticity and further suggests that pharmacological optimization of selective of HDAC inhibitors may provide an effective therapeutic approach for human cognitive disorders. PMID:22771460

  14. Antioxidant, lipoxygenase and histone deacetylase inhibitory activities of Acridocarbus orientalis from Al Ain and Oman.

    PubMed

    Ksiksi, Taoufik; Hamza, Alaaeldin A

    2012-01-01

    Acridocarpus orientalis (AO) is a traditional medicinal plant used for treatment of inflammatory diseases that may have potential in cancer treatment. In the present study, the aqueous ethanolic crude extract of Acridocarpus aerial parts obtained from Al Ain and Oman were evaluated for their antioxidant capability, polyphenolic content, anti-lipoxygenase and anti-histone deacetylase (HDAC) properties. The total antioxidant capacity was estimated by the FRAP, DPPH, ABTS and b-carotene bleaching assays. Acridocarpus-Al Ain exhibited the highest polyphenolic content (184.24 mg gallic acid/g) and the best antioxidant activity (1.1, 1.04, 1.14 mmol ascorbic acid equivalent/g in the FRAP, ABTS and DPPH assays, respectively). Additionally, the same extract showed significant anti-inflammatory properties via lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitory activity (IC(50) = 50.58 µg/mL). Acridocarpus-Al Ain also showed the strongest histone deacetylase (HDACs) inhibitory activity (IC(50) = 93.28 µg/mL). The results reported here suggest that there was a significant influence of location and the plant may be considered a good source of compounds with antioxidant, anti-LOX and HDAC properties for therapeutic, nutraceutical and functional food applications. PMID:23095895

  15. Histone deacetylase inhibitor-polymer conjugate nanoparticles for acid-responsive drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Denis, Iza; el Bahhaj, Fatima; Collette, Floraine; Delatouche, Régis; Gueugnon, Fabien; Pouliquen, Daniel; Pichavant, Loic; Héroguez, Valérie; Grégoire, Marc; Bertrand, Philippe; Blanquart, Christophe

    2015-05-01

    We report the synthesis of acid-responsive polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) consisting of a polymer-histone deacetylase inhibitor conjugate. An innovative aspect of this drug delivery particle lies in the NP conjugation of a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, CI-994 (Tacedinaline), introduced with a clickable acid-responsive prodrug during monomer synthesis, prior to polymerization. Another novelty lies in the selected norbornene (NB)-polyethylene oxide (PEO) macromonomer allowing standardization of the polymerization process by Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization (ROMP) and functionalization through azide-alkyne click chemistry. Herein we demonstrate that the synthesized polymer gave 300 nm core-shell spherical nanoparticles with low dispersity (0.04), high water dispersability thanks to the PEO shell and well controlled HDAC inhibitor prodrug loading. Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (BRET) assay in living cells and viability experiments demonstrated efficient cellular internalization without additional chemistry, drug release inside cells with restoration of the HDAC inhibition and induction of apoptosis. Such NPs should minimize drug release in vivo during blood circulation and trigger intracellular delivery after endocytosis, holding promises for improved efficacy of this class of epigenetic inhibitors. This standardized synthesis paves the way for multifunctional nanoparticles synthesis. PMID:25827403

  16. Liposomes loaded with histone deacetylase inhibitors for breast cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Urbinati, Giorgia; Marsaud, Vronique; Plassat, Vincent; Fattal, Elias; Lesieur, Sylviane; Renoir, Jack-Michel

    2010-09-15

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors (HDACi) of the class I trichostatin A (TSA), CG1521 (CG), and PXD101 (PXD) were incorporated at a high rate (approximately 1mM) in liposomes made of egg phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol/distearoylphosphoethanolamine-polyethylenglycol(2000) (64:30:6). Physicochemical parameters (size, zeta potential, loading, stability, release kinetics) of these HDACi-loaded pegylated liposomes were optimized and their cytotoxicity (MTT test) was measured in MCF-7, T47-D, MDA-MB-231 and SkBr3 breast cancer cell lines. In MCF-7 cells, TSA and PXD were efficient inducers of proteasome-mediated estradiol receptor alpha degradation and they both affected estradiol-induced transcription (TSA>PXD) contrary to CG. Moreover, TSA most efficiently altered breast cancer cell viability as compared to the free drug, CG-liposomes being the weakest, while unloaded liposomes had nearly no cytotoxicity. Pegylated liposomes loaded with TSA or PXD remained stable in size, charge and biological activity for one month when stored at 4 degrees C. All HDACi-loaded liposomes released slowly the encapsulated drug in vitro, CG-loaded liposomes showed the slowest release kinetic. These formulations could improve the efficacy of HDACi not only in breast cancers but also in other solid tumors because most of these drugs are poor water soluble and unstable in vivo, and their administration remains a challenge. PMID:20603204

  17. An active site tyrosine residue is essential for amidohydrolase but not for esterase activity of a class 2 histone deacetylase-like bacterial enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Moreth, Kristin; Riester, Daniel; Hildmann, Christian; Hempel, René; Wegener, Dennis; Schober, Andreas; Schwienhorst, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    HDACs (histone deacetylases) are considered to be among the most important enzymes that regulate gene expression in eukaryotic cells acting through deacetylation of ϵ-acetyl-lysine residues within the N-terminal tail of core histones. In addition, both eukaryotic HDACs as well as their bacterial counterparts were reported to also act on non-histone targets. However, we are still far from a comprehensive understanding of the biological activities of this ancient class of enzymes. In the present paper, we studied in more detail the esterase activity of HDACs, focussing on the HDAH (histone deacetylase-like amidohydrolase) from Bordetella/Alcaligenes strain FB188. This enzyme was classified as a class 2 HDAC based on sequence comparison as well as functional data. Using chromogenic and fluorogenic ester substrates we show that HDACs such as FB188 HDAH indeed have esterase activity that is comparable with those of known esterases. Similar results were obtained for human HDAC1, 3 and 8. Standard HDAC inhibitors were able to block both activities with similar IC50 values. Interestingly, HDAC inhibitors such as suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) also showed inhibitory activity against porcine liver esterase and Pseudomonas fluorescens lipase. The esterase and the amidohydrolase activity of FB188 HDAH both appear to have the same substrate specificity concerning the acyl moiety. Interestingly, a Y312F mutation in the active site of HDAH obstructed amidohydrolase activity but significantly improved esterase activity, indicating subtle differences in the mechanism of both catalytic activities. Our results suggest that, in principle, HDACs may have other biological roles besides acting as protein deacetylases. Furthermore, data on HDAC inhibitors affecting known esterases indicate that these molecules, which are currently among the most promising drug candidates in cancer therapy, may have a broader target profile requiring further exploration. PMID:17037985

  18. An Isochemogenic Set of Inhibitors To Define the Therapeutic Potential of Histone Deacetylases in β-Cell Protection.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Florence F; Lundh, Morten; Kaya, Taner; McCarren, Patrick; Zhang, Yan-Ling; Chattopadhyay, Shrikanta; Gale, Jennifer P; Galbo, Thomas; Fisher, Stewart L; Meier, Bennett C; Vetere, Amedeo; Richardson, Sarah; Morgan, Noel G; Christensen, Dan Ploug; Gilbert, Tamara J; Hooker, Jacob M; Leroy, Mélanie; Walpita, Deepika; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas; Wagner, Bridget K; Holson, Edward B

    2016-02-19

    Modulation of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity has been implicated as a potential therapeutic strategy for multiple diseases. However, it has been difficult to dissect the role of individual HDACs due to a lack of selective small-molecule inhibitors. Here, we report the synthesis of a series of highly potent and isoform-selective class I HDAC inhibitors, rationally designed by exploiting minimal structural changes to the clinically experienced HDAC inhibitor CI-994. We used this toolkit of isochemogenic or chemically matched inhibitors to probe the role of class I HDACs in β-cell pathobiology and demonstrate for the first time that selective inhibition of an individual HDAC isoform retains beneficial biological activity and mitigates mechanism-based toxicities. The highly selective HDAC3 inhibitor BRD3308 suppressed pancreatic β-cell apoptosis induced by inflammatory cytokines, as expected, or now glucolipotoxic stress, and increased functional insulin release. In addition, BRD3308 had no effect on human megakaryocyte differentiation, while inhibitors of HDAC1 and 2 were toxic. Our findings demonstrate that the selective inhibition of HDAC3 represents a potential path forward as a therapy to protect pancreatic β-cells from inflammatory cytokines and nutrient overload in diabetes. PMID:26640968

  19. Identification of Highly Selective and Potent Histone Deacetylase 3 Inhibitors Using Click Chemistry-Based Combinatorial Fragment Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Takayoshi; Kasuya, Yuki; Itoh, Yukihiro; Ota, Yosuke; Zhan, Peng; Asamitsu, Kaori; Nakagawa, Hidehiko; Okamoto, Takashi; Miyata, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    To find histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3)-selective inhibitors, a series of 504 candidates was assembled using click chemistry, by reacting nine alkynes bearing a zinc-binding group with 56 azide building blocks in the presence of Cu(I) catalyst. Screening of the 504-member triazole library against HDAC3 and other HDAC isozymes led to the identification of potent and selective HDAC3 inhibitors T247 and T326. These compounds showed potent HDAC3 inhibition with submicromolar IC50s, whereas they did not strongly inhibit other isozymes. Compounds T247 and T326 also induced a dose-dependent selective increase of NF-?B acetylation in human colon cancer HCT116 cells, indicating selective inhibition of HDAC3 in the cells. In addition, these HDAC3-selective inhibitors induced growth inhibition of cancer cells, and activated HIV gene expression in latent HIV-infected cells. These findings indicate that HDAC3-selective inhibitors are promising candidates for anticancer drugs and antiviral agents. This work also suggests the usefulness of the click chemistry approach to find isozyme-selective HDAC inhibitors. PMID:23874714

  20. Identification of Histone Deacetylase 2 as a Functional Gene for Skeletal Muscle Development in Chickens.

    PubMed

    Shahjahan, Md; Liu, Ranran; Zhao, Guiping; Wang, Fangjie; Zheng, Maiqing; Zhang, Jingjing; Song, Jiao; Wen, Jie

    2016-04-01

    A previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) exposed histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) as a possible candidate gene for breast muscle weight in chickens. The present research has examined the possible role of HDAC2 in skeletal muscle development in chickens. Gene expression was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in breast and thigh muscles during both embryonic (four ages) and post-hatch (five ages) development and in cultures of primary myoblasts during both proliferation and differentiation. The expression of HDAC2 increased significantly across embryonic days (ED) in breast (ED 14, 16, 18, and 21) and thigh (ED 14 and 18, and ED 14 and 21) muscles suggesting that it possibly plays a role in myoblast hyperplasia in both breast and thigh muscles. Transcript abundance of HDAC2 identified significantly higher in fast growing muscle than slow growing in chickens at d 90 of age. Expression of HDAC2 during myoblast proliferation in vitro declined between 24 h and 48 h when expression of the marker gene paired box 7 (PAX7) increased and cell numbers increased throughout 72 h of culture. During induced differentiation of myoblasts to myotubes, the abundance of HDAC2 and the marker gene myogenic differentiation 1 (MYOD1), both increased significantly. Taken together, it is suggested that HDAC2 is most likely involved in a suppressive fashion in myoblast proliferation and may play a positive role in myoblast differentiation. The present results confirm the suggestion that HDAC2 is a functional gene for pre-hatch and post-hatch (fast growing muscle) development of chicken skeletal muscle. PMID:26949948

  1. Identification of Histone Deacetylase 2 as a Functional Gene for Skeletal Muscle Development in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Shahjahan, Md.; Liu, Ranran; Zhao, Guiping; Wang, Fangjie; Zheng, Maiqing; Zhang, Jingjing; Song, Jiao; Wen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    A previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) exposed histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) as a possible candidate gene for breast muscle weight in chickens. The present research has examined the possible role of HDAC2 in skeletal muscle development in chickens. Gene expression was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in breast and thigh muscles during both embryonic (four ages) and post-hatch (five ages) development and in cultures of primary myoblasts during both proliferation and differentiation. The expression of HDAC2 increased significantly across embryonic days (ED) in breast (ED 14, 16, 18, and 21) and thigh (ED 14 and 18, and ED 14 and 21) muscles suggesting that it possibly plays a role in myoblast hyperplasia in both breast and thigh muscles. Transcript abundance of HDAC2 identified significantly higher in fast growing muscle than slow growing in chickens at d 90 of age. Expression of HDAC2 during myoblast proliferation in vitro declined between 24 h and 48 h when expression of the marker gene paired box 7 (PAX7) increased and cell numbers increased throughout 72 h of culture. During induced differentiation of myoblasts to myotubes, the abundance of HDAC2 and the marker gene myogenic differentiation 1 (MYOD1), both increased significantly. Taken together, it is suggested that HDAC2 is most likely involved in a suppressive fashion in myoblast proliferation and may play a positive role in myoblast differentiation. The present results confirm the suggestion that HDAC2 is a functional gene for pre-hatch and post-hatch (fast growing muscle) development of chicken skeletal muscle. PMID:26949948

  2. Histone deacetylases are critical regulators of the renin-angiotensin system during ureteric bud branching morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Song, Renfang; Van Buren, Thomas; Yosypiv, Ihor V

    2010-06-01

    Mutations in the genes encoding components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in mice or humans cause congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract. We hypothesized that absence of angiotensin (Ang) II in angiotensinogen (AGT)-deficient mice leads to defects in ureteric bud (UB) branching and that RAS genes are critically dependent on histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity. The number of UB tips was lower in AGT-/- compared with AGT+/+ embryonic (E) day E13.5 metanephroi (24+/-1.5 versus 36+/-3.7, p<0.05). Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated that pharmacological inhibition of HDAC activity with Scriptaid increases AGT, renin, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and AT1 receptor (AT1R) mRNA levels in E12.5 mouse metanephroi and early mesenchymal (MK3) cells. Furthermore, Scriptaid enhanced Ang II induced decrease in Sprouty (Spry) 1 gene expression in cultured UB cells. Treatment of intact E12.5 mouse metanephroi grown ex vivo with Ang II (10(-5) M, 24 h) increased HDAC-1 and decreased total acetylated histone H3 protein levels. These findings indicate that lack of endogenous Ang II in AGT-deficient mice inhibits UB branching. We conclude that intact RAS is critical in structural integrity of the renal collecting system and that UB morphogenetic program genes, such as AGT, renin, ACE, AT1R, or Spry1, are epigenetically controlled via HDACs. PMID:20496471

  3. A Novel Histone Deacetylase Complex in the Control of Transcription and Genome Stability

    PubMed Central

    Zilio, Nicola; Codlin, Sandra; Vashisht, Ajay A.; Bitton, Danny A.; Head, Steven R.; Wohlschlegel, James A.; Bähler, Jürg

    2014-01-01

    The acetylation state of histones, controlled by histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and deacetylases (HDACs), profoundly affects DNA transcription and repair by modulating chromatin accessibility to the cellular machinery. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe HDAC Clr6 (human HDAC1) binds to different sets of proteins that define functionally distinct complexes: I, I′, and II. Here, we determine the composition, architecture, and functions of a new Clr6 HDAC complex, I′′, delineated by the novel proteins Nts1, Mug165, and Png3. Deletion of nts1 causes increased sensitivity to genotoxins and deregulated expression of Tf2 elements, long noncoding RNA, and subtelomeric and stress-related genes. Similar, but more pervasive, phenotypes are observed upon Clr6 inactivation, supporting the designation of complex I′′ as a mediator of a key subset of Clr6 functions. We also reveal that with the exception of Tf2 elements, the genome-wide loading sites and loci regulated by Clr6 I″ do not correlate. Instead, Nts1 loads at genes that are expressed in midmeiosis, following oxidative stress, or are periodically expressed. Collective data suggest that Clr6 I′′ has (i) indirect effects on gene expression, conceivably by mediating higher-order chromatin organization of subtelomeres and Tf2 elements, and (ii) direct effects on the transcription of specific genes in response to certain cellular or environmental stimuli. PMID:25002536

  4. Histone deacetylase 4 increases progressive epithelial ovarian cancer cells via repression of p21 on fibrillar collagen matrices.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yu-Fei; Wei, Ai-Min; Kou, Qing; Zhu, Qiao-Ying; Zhang, Lei

    2016-02-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) 4 is an emerging target in cancer therapeutics, but little is known about the function of HDAC4 in gynecologic malignancies. Therefore we investigated the mechanism of HDAC4 promoting the proliferation of epithelial ovarian cancer cells (OV). In this study, we observed that the proliferation of cells with HDAC4 inhibitor Trichostatin A (TSA) treatment was markedly decreased, Further, we showed that epithelial ovarian cancer tissues with stage III/IV had higher HDAC4 expression, compared to that with stage I/II. We examined first that the HDAC4 expression was increased in response to fibrillar collagen matrices. In addition, we found that HDAC4 was retained in the nucleus by regulation of PP1α, which regulated HDAC4 cellular fraction via phosphorylation of HDAC4. In addition, we found that HDAC4 bound to Sp1 in epithelial ovarian cancer cells. Finally, ovarian cancer cell line OVCAR3 was evaluated via gain/loss-of-function of HDAC4 by either overexpression of HDCA4 or knock-down of HDAC4 with shRNA. We examined both protein and mRNA of p21 by western blotting and qPCR. We performed analysis of colony formation in matrigel and migration by ECIS. Our results suggest that the accumulation of HDAC4 induced by fibrillar collagen matrices in the nucleus via co-localization of PP1α, leads to repression of the mRNA/protein of p21 and in turn promotes the proliferation and migration of epithelial ovarian cancer cells. PMID:26572940

  5. HDAC3 as a molecular chaperone for shuttling phosphorylated TR2 to PML: a novel deacetylase activity-independent function of HDAC3.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Pawan; Ho, Ping-Chih; Ha, Sung Gil; Lin, Yi-Wei; Wei, Li-Na

    2009-01-01

    TR2 is an orphan nuclear receptor specifically expressed in early embryos (Wei and Hsu, 1994), and a transcription factor for transcriptional regulation of important genes in stem cells including the gate keeper Oct4 (Park et al. 2007). TR2 is known to function as an activator (Wei et al. 2000), or a repressor (Chinpaisal et al., 1998, Gupta et al. 2007). Due to the lack of specific ligands, mechanisms triggering its activator or repressor function have remained puzzling for decades. Recently, we found that all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) triggers the activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2), which phosphorylates TR2 and stimulates its partitioning to promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies, thereby converting the activator function of TR2 into repression (Gupta et al. 2008; Park et al. 2007). Recruitment of TR2 to PML is a crucial step in the conversion of TR2 from an activator to a repressor. However, it is unclear how phosphorylated TR2 is recruited to PML, an essential step in converting TR2 from an activator to a repressor. In the present study, we use both in vitro and in vivo systems to address the problem of recruiting TR2 to PML nuclear bodies. First, we identify histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) as an effector molecule. HDAC3 is known to interact with TR2 (Franco et al. 2001) and this interaction is enhanced by the atRA-stimulated phosphorylation of TR2 at Thr-210 (Gupta et al. 2008). Secondly, in this study, we also find that the carrier function of HDAC3 is independent of its deacetylase activity. Thirdly, we find another novel activity of atRA that stimulates nuclear enrichment of HDAC3 to form nuclear complex with PML, which is ERK2 independent. This is the first report identifying a deacetylase-independent function for HDAC3, which serves as a specific carrier molecule that targets a specifically phosphorylated protein to PML NBs. This is also the first study delineating how protein recruitment to PML nuclear bodies occurs, which can be stimulated by atRA in an ERK2-independent manner. These findings could provide new insights into the development of potential therapeutics and in understanding how orphan nuclear receptor activities can be regulated without ligands. PMID:19204783

  6. Histone deacetylase inhibitory effect of Brazilian propolis and its association with the antitumor effect in Neuro2a cells

    PubMed Central

    Ishiai, Shinobu; Tahara, Wataru; Yamamoto, Etsuko; Yamamoto, Rindai; Nagai, Kaoru

    2014-01-01

    Propolis is a resinous product produced by honey bees and is known to have antitumor functions. On the other hand, histone deacetylase (Hdac) inhibitors have recently attracted attention for their antitumor effects. In this study, we examined whether Brazilian green propolis has an Hdac inhibitory activity and its contribution on antitumor effects. By in vitro Hdac activity assay, Brazilian propolis extract (BPE) significantly inhibited the enzyme activity. Actually, BPE treatment increased the intracellular histone acetylation in Neuro2a cells. Regarding antitumor effect in Neuro2a cells, BPE treatment significantly decreased cell viability. An Hdac activator theophylline significantly attenuated the effect. Then, we analyzed whether the decreasing effect on cell number was caused by cell death or growth retardation. By live/dead cell staining, BPE treatment significantly increased the dead cell number. By cell cycle analysis, BPE treatment retarded cell cycle at the M-phase. Both of these cellular effects were suppressed by addition of theophylline. These data indicate that BPE induced both cell death and growth retardation via Hdac inhibitory activity. We demonstrated that Brazilian propolis bears regulatory functions on histone acetylation via Hdac inhibition, and the effect contributes antitumor functions. Our data suggest that intake of Brazilian propolis shows preventing effects against cancer. PMID:25473514

  7. Inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum proliferation in vitro by double-stranded RNA directed against malaria histone deacetylase.

    PubMed

    Sriwilaijaroen, N; Boonma, S; Attasart, P; Pothikasikorn, J; Panyim, S; Noonpakdee, W

    2009-04-01

    Acetylation and deacetylation of histones play important roles in transcription regulation, cell cycle progression and development events. The steady state status of histone acetylation is controlled by a dynamic equilibrium between competing histone acetylase and deacetylase (HDAC). We have used long PfHDAC-1 double-stranded (ds)RNA to interfere with its cognate mRNA expression and determined the effect on malaria parasite growth and development. Chloroquine- and pyrimethamine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum K1 strain was exposed to 1-25 microg of dsRNA/ml of culture for 48 h and growth was determined by [3H]-hypoxanthine incorporation and microscopic examination. Parasite culture treated with 10 microg/ml pfHDAC-1 dsRNA exhibited 47% growth inhibition when compared with either untreated control or culture treated with an unrelated dsRNA. PfHDAC-1 dsRNA specifically blocked maturation of trophozoite to schizont stages and decreased PfHDAC-1 transcript 44% in treated trophozoites. These results indicate the potential of HDAC-1 as a target for development of novel antimalarials. PMID:19338767

  8. Inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum proliferation in vitro by double-stranded RNA directed against malaria histone deacetylase

    SciTech Connect

    Sriwilaijaroen, N.; Boonma, S.; Attasart, P.; Pothikasikorn, J.; Panyim, S.; Noonpakdee, W.

    2009-04-03

    Acetylation and deacetylation of histones play important roles in transcription regulation, cell cycle progression and development events. The steady state status of histone acetylation is controlled by a dynamic equilibrium between competing histone acetylase and deacetylase (HDAC). We have used long PfHDAC-1 double-stranded (ds)RNA to interfere with its cognate mRNA expression and determined the effect on malaria parasite growth and development. Chloroquine- and pyrimethamine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum K1 strain was exposed to 1-25 {mu}g of dsRNA/ml of culture for 48 h and growth was determined by [{sup 3}H]-hypoxanthine incorporation and microscopic examination. Parasite culture treated with 10 {mu}g/ml pfHDAC-1 dsRNA exhibited 47% growth inhibition when compared with either untreated control or culture treated with an unrelated dsRNA. PfHDAC-1 dsRNA specifically blocked maturation of trophozoite to schizont stages and decreased PfHDAC-1 transcript 44% in treated trophozoites. These results indicate the potential of HDAC-1 as a target for development of novel antimalarials.

  9. Targeted cancer therapy: giving histone deacetylase inhibitors all they need to succeed

    PubMed Central

    Gryder, Berkley E; Sodji, Quaovi H; Oyelere, Adegboyega K

    2012-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) have now emerged as a powerful new class of small-molecule therapeutics acting through the regulation of the acetylation states of histone proteins (a form of epigenetic modulation) and other non-histone protein targets. Over 490 clinical trials have been initiated in the last 10 years, culminating in the approval of two structurally distinct HDACis – SAHA (vorinostat, Zolinza™) and FK228 (romidepsin, Istodax™). However, the current HDACis have serious limitations, including ineffectively low concentrations in solid tumors and cardiac toxicity, which is hindering their progress in the clinic. Herein, we review the primary paradigms being pursued to overcome these hindrances, including HDAC isoform selectivity, localized administration, and targeting cap groups to achieve selective tissue and cell type distribution. PMID:22416777

  10. Histone Deacetylase Complex1 Expression Level Titrates Plant Growth and Abscisic Acid Sensitivity in Arabidopsis[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Perrella, Giorgio; Lopez-Vernaza, Manuel A.; Carr, Craig; Sani, Emanuela; Gosselé, Veronique; Verduyn, Christoph; Kellermeier, Fabian; Hannah, Matthew A.; Amtmann, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Histone deacetylation regulates gene expression during plant stress responses and is therefore an interesting target for epigenetic manipulation of stress sensitivity in plants. Unfortunately, overexpression of the core enzymes (histone deacetylases [HDACs]) has either been ineffective or has caused pleiotropic morphological abnormalities. In yeast and mammals, HDACs operate within multiprotein complexes. Searching for putative components of plant HDAC complexes, we identified a gene with partial homology to a functionally uncharacterized member of the yeast complex, which we called Histone Deacetylation Complex1 (HDC1). HDC1 is encoded by a single-copy gene in the genomes of model plants and crops and therefore presents an attractive target for biotechnology. Here, we present a functional characterization of HDC1 in Arabidopsis thaliana. We show that HDC1 is a ubiquitously expressed nuclear protein that interacts with at least two deacetylases (HDA6 and HDA19), promotes histone deacetylation, and attenuates derepression of genes under water stress. The fast-growing HDC1-overexpressing plants outperformed wild-type plants not only on well-watered soil but also when water supply was reduced. Our findings identify HDC1 as a rate-limiting component of the histone deacetylation machinery and as an attractive tool for increasing germination rate and biomass production of plants. PMID:24058159

  11. Protein Aggregates Are Recruited to Aggresome by Histone Deacetylase 6 via Unanchored Ubiquitin C Termini

    SciTech Connect

    Ouyang, Hui; Ali, Yousuf O.; Ravichandran, Mani; Dong, Aiping; Qiu, Wei; MacKenzie, Farrell; Dhe-Paganon, Sirano; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.; Zhai, R. Grace

    2012-07-11

    The aggresome pathway is activated when proteasomal clearance of misfolded proteins is hindered. Misfolded polyubiquitinated protein aggregates are recruited and transported to the aggresome via the microtubule network by a protein complex consisting of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) and the dynein motor complex. The current model suggests that HDAC6 recognizes protein aggregates by binding directly to polyubiquitinated proteins. Here, we show that there are substantial amounts of unanchored ubiquitin in protein aggregates with solvent-accessible C termini. The ubiquitin-binding domain (ZnF-UBP) of HDAC6 binds exclusively to the unanchored C-terminal diglycine motif of ubiquitin instead of conjugated polyubiquitin. The unanchored ubiquitin C termini in the aggregates are generated in situ by aggregate-associated deubiquitinase ataxin-3. These results provide structural and mechanistic bases for the role of HDAC6 in aggresome formation and further suggest a novel ubiquitin-mediated signaling pathway, where the exposure of ubiquitin C termini within protein aggregates enables HDAC6 recognition and transport to the aggresome.

  12. Cardiac hypertrophy and histone deacetylasedependent transcriptional repression mediated by the atypical homeodomain protein Hop

    PubMed Central

    Kook, Hyun; Lepore, John J.; Gitler, Aaron D.; Lu, Min Min; Wing-Man Yung, Wendy; Mackay, Joel; Zhou, Rong; Ferrari, Victor; Gruber, Peter; Epstein, Jonathan A.

    2003-01-01

    Activation of multiple pathways is associated with cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Repression of antihypertrophic pathways has rarely been demonstrated to cause cardiac hypertrophy in vivo. Hop is an unusual homeodomain protein that is expressed by embryonic and postnatal cardiac myocytes. Unlike other homeodomain proteins, Hop does not bind DNA. Rather, it modulates cardiac growth and proliferation by inhibiting the transcriptional activity of serum response factor (SRF) in cardiomyocytes. Here we show that Hop can inhibit SRF-dependent transcriptional activation by recruiting histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity and can form a complex that includes HDAC2. Transgenic mice that overexpress Hop develop severe cardiac hypertrophy, cardiac fibrosis, and premature death. A mutant form of Hop, which does not recruit HDAC activity, does not induce hypertrophy. Treatment of Hop transgenic mice with trichostatin A, an HDAC inhibitor, prevents hypertrophy. In addition, trichostatin A also attenuates hypertrophy induced by infusion of isoproterenol. Thus, chromatin remodeling and repression of otherwise active transcriptional processes can result in hypertrophy and heart failure, and this process can be blocked with chemical HDAC inhibitors. PMID:12975471

  13. Impact of histone deacetylase 1 and metastasis-associated gene 1 expression in esophageal carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Tomoharu; Tajima, Hidehiro; Munemoto, Masayoshi; Shah, Furhawn A; Harmon, John W; Watanabe, Toshifumi; Shoji, Masatoshi; Okamoto, Koichi; Nakanuma, Shinichi; Sakai, Seisho; Kinoshita, Jun; Makino, Isamu; Nakamura, Keishi; Hayashi, Hironori; Oyama, Katsunobu; Inokuchi, Masafumi; Nakagawara, Hisatoshi; Takamura, Hiroyuki; Ninomiya, Itasu; Kitagawa, Hirohisa; Fushida, Sachio; Mukaisho, Kenichi; Fujimura, Takashi; Ohta, Tetsuo

    2014-08-01

    Animal models are important for the development of novel therapies for esophageal cancer. Histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1)/metastasis-associated gene (MTA1) complexes inhibit p53 acetylation and thus, inhibit p53-induced apoptosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate HDAC1 and MTA1 expression in esophageal carcinogenesis in rats. The rats underwent a total gastrectomy followed by esophagojejunostomy to induce chronic duodenal content reflux esophagitis. The rats were sacrificed sequentially at 20, 30, 40 and 50 weeks post-surgery and the esophagi were examined. Immunohistochemical analysis was conducted to assess the expression and localization of HDAC1 and MTA1. At 20 weeks post-surgery, squamous proliferative hyperplasia and Barrett's metaplasia (BM) were observed. While, adenocarcinoma-associated BM and squamous cell carcinoma were observed at 30-50 weeks post-surgery. The nuclear expression of HDAC1 and MTA1 was observed in all of the stages of squamous carcinogenesis and adenocarcinogenesis, although not in the normal esophageal epithelium. The expression of HDAC1 and MTA1 may be involved in duodenoesophageal reflux-induced neoplastic transformation of the esophageal mucosa into cancer cells with squamous and adeno differentiation. PMID:25009653

  14. Epigenetic Control of Macrophage Shape Transition towards an Atypical Elongated Phenotype by Histone Deacetylase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Cabanel, Mariana; Brand, Camila; Oliveira-Nunes, Maria Cecilia; Cabral-Piccin, Mariela Pires; Lopes, Marcela Freitas; Brito, Jose Marques; de Oliveira, Felipe Leite

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory chronic pathologies are complex processes characterized by an imbalance between the resolution of the inflammatory phase and the establishment of tissue repair. The main players in these inflammatory pathologies are bone marrow derived monocytes (BMDMs). However, how monocyte differentiation is modulated to give rise to specific macrophage subpopulations (M1 or M2) that may either maintain the chronic inflammatory process or lead to wound healing is still unclear. Considering that inhibitors of Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) have an anti-inflammatory activity, we asked whether this enzyme would play a role on monocyte differentiation into M1 or M2 phenotype and in the cell shape transition that follows. We then induced murine bone marrow progenitors into monocyte/macrophage differentiation pathway using media containing GM-CSF and the HDAC blocker, Trichostatin A (TSA). We found that the pharmacological inhibition of HDAC activity led to a shape transition from the typical macrophage pancake-like shape into an elongated morphology, which was correlated to a mixed M1/M2 profile of cytokine and chemokine secretion. Our results present, for the first time, that HDAC activity acts as a regulator of macrophage differentiation in the absence of lymphocyte stimuli. We propose that HDAC activity down regulates macrophage plasticity favoring the pro-inflammatory phenotype. PMID:26196676

  15. Tetraspanin CD9 modulates human lymphoma cellular proliferation via histone deacetylase activity.

    PubMed

    Herr, Michael J; Longhurst, Celia M; Baker, Benjamin; Homayouni, Ramin; Speich, Henry E; Kotha, Jayaprakash; Jennings, Lisa K

    2014-05-16

    Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) is a type of hematological malignancy that affects two percent of the overall population in the United States. Tetraspanin CD9 is a cell surface protein that has been thoroughly demonstrated to be a molecular facilitator of cellular phenotype. CD9 expression varies in two human lymphoma cell lines, Raji and BJAB. In this report, we investigated the functional relationship between CD9 and cell proliferation regulated by histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity in these two cell lines. Introduction of CD9 expression in Raji cells resulted in significantly increased cell proliferation and HDAC activity compared to Mock transfected Raji cells. The increase in CD9-Raji cell proliferation was significantly inhibited by HDAC inhibitor (HDACi) treatment. Pretreatment of BJAB cells with HDAC inhibitors resulted in a significant decrease in endogenous CD9 mRNA and cell surface expression. BJAB cells also displayed decreased cell proliferation after HDACi treatment. These results suggest a significant relationship between CD9 expression and cell proliferation in human lymphoma cells that may be modulated by HDAC activity. PMID:24747564

  16. Structural Basis of the Antiproliferative Activity of Largazole a Depsipeptide Inhibitor of the Histone Deacetylases

    SciTech Connect

    K Cole; D Dowling; M Boone; A Phillips; D Christianson

    2011-12-31

    Largazole is a macrocyclic depsipeptide originally isolated from the marine cyanobacterium Symploca sp., which is indigenous to the warm, blue-green waters of Key Largo, Florida (whence largazole derives its name). Largazole contains an unusual thiazoline-thiazole ring system that rigidifies its macrocyclic skeleton, and it also contains a lipophilic thioester side chain. Hydrolysis of the thioester in vivo yields largazole thiol, which exhibits remarkable antiproliferative effects and is believed to be the most potent inhibitor of the metal-dependent histone deacetylases (HDACs). Here, the 2.14 {angstrom}-resolution crystal structure of the HDAC8-largazole thiol complex is the first of an HDAC complexed with a macrocyclic inhibitor and reveals that ideal thiolate-zinc coordination geometry is the key chemical feature responsible for its exceptional affinity and biological activity. Notably, the core structure of largazole is conserved in romidepsin, a depsipeptide natural product formulated as the drug Istodax recently approved for cancer chemotherapy. Accordingly, the structure of the HDAC8-largazole thiol complex is the first to illustrate the mode of action of a new class of therapeutically important HDAC inhibitors.

  17. Histone deacetylase inhibition increases levels of choline kinase ? and phosphocholine facilitating noninvasive imaging in human cancers.

    PubMed

    Beloueche-Babari, Mounia; Arunan, Vaitha; Troy, Helen; te Poele, Robert H; te Fong, Anne-Christine Wong; Jackson, L Elizabeth; Payne, Geoffrey S; Griffiths, John R; Judson, Ian R; Workman, Paul; Leach, Martin O; Chung, Yuen-Li

    2012-02-15

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are currently approved for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma and are in mid-late stage trials for other cancers. The HDAC inhibitors LAQ824 and SAHA increase phosphocholine (PC) levels in human colon cancer cells and tumor xenografts as observed by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). In this study, we show that belinostat, an HDAC inhibitor with an alternative chemical scaffold, also caused a rise in cellular PC content that was detectable by (1)H and (31)P MRS in prostate and colon carcinoma cells. In addition, (1)H MRS showed an increase in branched chain amino acid and alanine concentrations. (13)C-choline labeling indicated that the rise in PC resulted from increased de novo synthesis and correlated with an induction of choline kinase ? expression. Furthermore, metabolic labeling experiments with (13)C-glucose showed that differential glucose routing favored alanine formation at the expense of lactate production. Additional analysis revealed increases in the choline/water and phosphomonoester (including PC)/total phosphate ratios in vivo. Together, our findings provide mechanistic insights into the impact of HDAC inhibition on cancer cell metabolism and highlight PC as a candidate noninvasive imaging biomarker for monitoring the action of HDAC inhibitors. PMID:22194463

  18. Hyperbranched polyester-based fluorescent probe for histone deacetylase via aggregation-induced emission.

    PubMed

    Yu, Changmin; Wu, Yinglong; Zeng, Fang; Li, Xizhen; Shi, Jianbin; Wu, Shuizhu

    2013-12-01

    Aberrant expression of histone deacetylases (HDACs) is related to various types of cancer and is associated with increased proliferation of tumor cells. Hence, the detection of HDAC activities is of great significance for medical sciences as well as biological diagnostics. Herein, we report a hyperbranched polyester-based one-step fluorescent assay for HDAC. This assay system consists of two water-soluble components: the hyperbranched polyester coupled with the acetylated lysine groups (H40-Lys(Ac)) and the negatively charged TPE derivative bearing two sulfonic acid groups (TPE-2SO3(-)). HDAC triggers the deacetylation of H40-Lys(Ac), thereby turning the electroneutral polymer into the positively charged one. Consequently, complexation occurs between the positively charged polymer and the negatively charged TPE-2SO3(-), thereby leading to the formation of nanoaggregates due to electrostatic interaction. Eventually, the fluorescence enhancement as a result of AIE effect is achieved. This assay system is operable in aqueous media with very low detection limit of 25 ng/mL. The system is capable of detecting HDAC in such biological fluid as serum, and this strategy may provide a new and effective approach for enzyme assay. PMID:24251690

  19. The tobacco smoke component acrolein induces glucocorticoid resistant gene expression via inhibition of histone deacetylase.

    PubMed

    Randall, Matthew J; Haenen, Guido R M M; Bouwman, Freek G; van der Vliet, Albert; Bast, Aalt

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the leading cause of cigarette smoke-related death worldwide. Acrolein, a crucial reactive electrophile found in cigarette smoke mimics many of the toxic effects of cigarette smoke-exposure in the lung. In macrophages, cigarette smoke is known to hinder histone deacetylases (HDACs), glucocorticoid-regulated enzymes that play an important role in the pathogenesis of glucocorticoid resistant inflammation, a common feature of COPD. Thus, we hypothesize that acrolein plays a role in COPD-associated glucocorticoid resistance. To examine the role of acrolein on glucocorticoid resistance, U937 monocytes, differentiated with PMA to macrophage-like cells were treated with acrolein for 0.5h followed by stimulation with hydrocortisone for 8h, or treated simultaneously with LPS and hydrocortisone for 8h without acrolein. GSH and nuclear HDAC activity were measured, or gene expression was analyzed by qPCR. Acrolein-mediated TNF? gene expression was not suppressed by hydrocortisone whereas LPS-induced TNF? expression was suppressed. Acrolein also significantly inhibited nuclear HDAC activity in macrophage-like cells. Incubation of recombinant HDAC2 with acrolein led to the formation of an HDAC2-acrolein adduct identified by mass spectrometry. Therefore, these results suggest that acrolein-induced inflammatory gene expression is resistant to suppression by the endogenous glucocorticoid, hydrocortisone. PMID:26481333

  20. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors in the Treatment of Muscular Dystrophies: Epigenetic Drugs for Genetic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Consalvi, Silvia; Saccone, Valentina; Giordani, Lorenzo; Minetti, Giulia; Mozzetta, Chiara; Puri, Pier Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    Histone deacetylases inhibitors (HDACi) include a growing number of drugs that share the ability to inhibit the enzymatic activity of some or all the HDACs. Experimental and preclinical evidence indicates that these epigenetic drugs not only can be effective in the treatment of malignancies, inflammatory diseases and degenerative disorders, but also in the treatment of genetic diseases, such as muscular dystrophies. The ability of HDACi to counter the progression of muscular dystrophies points to HDACs as a crucial link between specific genetic mutations and downstream determinants of disease progression. It also suggests the contribution of epigenetic events to the pathogenesis of muscular dystrophies. Here we describe the experimental evidence supporting the key role of HDACs in the control of the transcriptional networks underlying the potential of dystrophic muscles either to activate compensatory regeneration or to undergo fibroadipogenic degeneration. Studies performed in mouse models of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) indicate that dystrophin deficiency leads to deregulated HDAC activity, which perturbs downstream networks and can be restored directly, by HDAC blockade, or indirectly, by reexpression of dystrophin. This evidence supports the current view that HDACi are emerging candidate drugs for pharmacological interventions in muscular dystrophies, and reveals unexpected common beneficial outcomes of pharmacological treatment or gene therapy. PMID:21308150

  1. Exploring inhibitor release pathways in histone deacetylases using random acceleration molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Kalyaanamoorthy, Subha; Chen, Yi-Ping Phoebe

    2012-02-27

    Molecular channel exploration perseveres to be the prominent solution for eliciting structure and accessibility of active site and other internal spaces of macromolecules. The volume and silhouette characterization of these channels provides answers for the issues of substrate access and ligand swapping between the obscured active site and the exterior of the protein. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are metal-dependent enzymes that are involved in the cell growth, cell cycle regulation, and progression, and their deregulations have been linked with different types of cancers. Hence HDACs, especially the class I family, are widely recognized as the important cancer targets, and the characterizations of their structures and functions have been of special interest in cancer drug discovery. The class I HDACs are known to possess two different protein channels, an 11 and a 14 (named channels A and B1, respectively), of which the former is a ligand or substrate occupying tunnel that leads to the buried active site zinc ion and the latter is speculated to be involved in product release. In this work, we have carried out random acceleration molecular dynamics (RAMD) simulations coupled with the classical molecular dynamics to explore the release of the ligand, N-(2-aminophenyl) benzamide (LLX) from the active sites of the recently solved X-ray crystal structure of HDAC2 and the computationally modeled HDAC1 proteins. The RAMD simulations identified significant structural and dynamic features of the HDAC channels, especially the key 'gate-keeping' amino acid residues that control these channels and the ligand release events. Further, this study identified a novel and unique channel B2, a subchannel from channel B1, in the HDAC1 protein structure. The roles of water molecules in the LLX release from the HDAC1 and HDAC2 enzymes are also discussed. Such structural and dynamic properties of the HDAC protein channels that govern the ligand escape reactions will provide further mechanistic insights into the HDAC enzymes, which, in the long run, have a potential to bring new ideas for developing more promising HDAC inhibitors as well as extend our atomic level understandings on their mechanisms of action. PMID:22263580

  2. Differential Requirement of Histone Acetylase and Deacetylase Activities for IRF5-Mediated Proinflammatory Cytokine Expression

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Di; Sangster-Guity, Niquiche; Stone, Rivka; Korczeniewska, Justyna; Mancl, Margo E.; Fitzgerald-Bocarsly, Patricia; Barnes, Betsy J.

    2011-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates a new role for histone deacetylases (HDACs) in the activation of genes governing the host immune response. Virus, along with other pathogenic stimuli, triggers an antiviral defense mechanism through the induction of IFN, IFN-stimulated genes, and other proinflammatory cytokines. Many of these genes have been shown to be regulated by transcription factors of the IFN regulatory factor (IRF) family. Recent studies from IRF5 knockout mice have confirmed a critical role for IRF5 in virus-induced type I IFN expression and proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-12, and TNF-?; yet, little is known of the molecular mechanism of IRF5-mediated proinflammatory cytokine expression. In this study, we show that both HDACs and histone acetyltransferases (HATs) associate with IRF5, leading to alterations in its transactivation ability. Using the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A, we demonstrate that ISRE, IFNA, and IL6 promoters require HDAC activity for transactivation and transcription, whereas TNF? does not. Mapping the interaction of corepressor proteins (HDAC1, silencing mediator of retinoid and thyroid receptor/nuclear corepressor of retinoid receptor, and Sin3a) and HATs to IRF5 revealed distinct differences, including the dependence of IRF5 phosphorylation on HAT association resulting in IRF5 acetylation. Data presented in this study support a mechanism whereby virus triggers the dynamic conversion of an IRF5-mediated silencing complex to that of an activating complex on promoters of target genes. These data provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, of a tightly controlled transcriptional mechanism whereby IRF5 regulates proinflammatory cytokine expression in conjunction with HATs and HDACs. PMID:20935208

  3. Histone Deacetylase 1/mSin3A Disrupts Gamma Interferon-Induced CIITA Function and Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Enhanceosome Formation

    PubMed Central

    Zika, Eleni; Greer, Susanna F.; Zhu, Xin-Sheng; Ting, Jenny P.-Y.

    2003-01-01

    The class II transactivator (CIITA) is a master transcriptional regulator of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) promoters. CIITA does not bind DNA, but it interacts with the transcription factors RFX5, NF-Y, and CREB and associated chromatin-modifying enzymes to form an enhanceosome. This report examines the effects of histone deacetylases 1 and 2 (HDAC1/HDAC2) on MHC-II gene induction by gamma interferon (IFN-?) and CIITA. The results show that an inhibitor of HDACs, trichostatin A, enhances IFN-?-induced MHC-II expression, while HDAC1/HDAC2 inhibits IFN-?- and CIITA-induced MHC-II gene expression. mSin3A, a corepressor of HDAC1/HDAC2, is important for this inhibition, while NcoR, a corepressor of HDAC3, is not. The effect of this inhibition is directed at CIITA, since HDAC1/HDAC2 reduces transactivation by a GAL4-CIITA fusion protein. CIITA binds to overexpressed and endogenous HDAC1, suggesting that HDAC and CIITA may affect each other by direct or indirect association. Inhibition of HDAC activity dramatically increases the association of NF-YB and RFX5 with CIITA, the assembly of CIITA, NF-YB, and RFX5 enhanceosome, and the extent of H3 acetylation at the MHC-II promoter. These results suggest a model where HDAC1/HDAC2 affect the function of CIITA through a disruption of MHC-II enhanceosome and relevant coactivator-transcription factor association and provide evidence that CIITA may act as a molecular switch to modulate MHC-II transcription by coordinating the functions of both histone acetylases and HDACs. PMID:12697811

  4. Potential Prognostic Value of Histone Deacetylase 6 and Acetylated Heat-Shock Protein 90 in Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Younghee; Lee, Kyu Sang; Park, So Yeon; Kim, Jee Hyun; Kang, Eun Young; Kim, Sung Won; Eom, Keon Young; Kim, Jae Sung

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) is an enzyme that deacetylates heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90). Many studies have investigated the role of HDAC6 and HSP90 in tumorigenesis and in the prognosis of cancer patients. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of HDAC6 and acetylated HSP90 (acetyl-HSP90) in a cohort of breast cancer patients. Methods Immunohistochemical analysis of 314 surgical specimens obtained from patients with invasive breast cancer was carried out to assess standard pathologic factors and the expression of HDAC6 and acetyl-HSP90. Statistical analyses were performed to determine the association between HDAC6, acetyl-HSP90, and conventional clinicopathological factors, and the prognostic values of these factors were evaluated. Results HDAC6 expression did not show any correlation with other clinicopathological factors, but acetyl-HSP90 was significantly correlated with histologic grade (p=0.001) and the Ki-67 index (p=0.015). HDAC6 and acetyl-HSP90 expression were significantly associated with each other (p=0.047). Although HDAC6 was not prognostic for disease-free survival (DFS), some patients with high expression of HDAC6 experienced recurrence 5 years after diagnosis, while there was no recurrent disease after 5 years in those with low expression. Acetyl-HSP90 was significantly associated with the DFS of all patients (p=0.016) and with high HDAC6 expression (p=0.017), but not with low expression. Conclusion Expression of HDAC6 and acetyl-HSP90 are correlated. HDAC6 is proposed to be a possible predictive marker of late recurrence, and acetyl-HSP90 has prognostic value in predicting the DFS of breast cancer patients. PMID:26472975

  5. Histone Deacetylase 6 Regulates Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela-Fernndez, Agustn; lvarez, Susana; Gordon-Alonso, Mnica; Barrero, Marta; Ursa, ngeles; Cabrero, J. Romn; Fernndez, Gernimo; Naranjo-Surez, Salvador; Yez-Mo, Maria; Serrador, Juan M.; Muoz-Fernndez, M. ngeles; Snchez-Madrid, Francisco

    2005-01-01

    Efficient human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection depends on multiple interactions between the viral gp41/gp120 envelope (Env) proteins and cell surface receptors. However, cytoskeleton-associated proteins that modify membrane dynamics may also regulate the formation of the HIV-mediated fusion pore and hence viral infection. Because the effects of HDAC6-tubulin deacetylase on cortical ?-tubulin regulate cell migration and immune synapse organization, we explored the possible role of HDAC6 in HIV-1-envelope-mediated cell fusion and infection. The binding of the gp120 protein to CD4+-permissive cells increased the level of acetylated ?-tubulin in a CD4-dependent manner. Furthermore, overexpression of active HDAC6 inhibited the acetylation of ?-tubulin, and remarkably, prevented HIV-1 envelope-dependent cell fusion and infection without affecting the expression and codistribution of HIV-1 receptors. In contrast, knockdown of HDAC6 expression or inhibition of its tubulin deacetylase activity strongly enhanced HIV-1 infection and syncytia formation. These results demonstrate that HDAC6 plays a significant role in regulating HIV-1 infection and Env-mediated syncytia formation. PMID:16148047

  6. Plant Polyphenols and Oxidative Metabolites of the Herbal Alkenylbenzene Methyleugenol Suppress Histone Deacetylase Activity in Human Colon Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Groh, Isabel Anna Maria; Chen, Chen; Lske, Claudia; Cartus, Alexander Thomas; Esselen, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    Evidence has been provided that diet and environmental factors directly influence epigenetic mechanisms associated with cancer development in humans. The inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity and the disruption of the HDAC complex have been recognized as a potent strategy for cancer therapy and chemoprevention. In the present study, we investigated whether selected plant constituents affect HDAC activity or HDAC1 protein status in the human colon carcinoma cell line HT29. The polyphenols (?)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and genistein (GEN) as well as two oxidative methyleugenol (ME) metabolites were shown to inhibit HDAC activity in intact HT29 cells. Concomitantly, a significant decrease of the HDAC1 protein level was observed after incubation with EGCG and GEN, whereas the investigated ME metabolites did not affect HDAC1 protein status. In conclusion, dietary compounds were found to possess promising HDAC-inhibitory properties, contributing to epigenetic alterations in colon tumor cells, which should be taken into account in further risk/benefit assessments of polyphenols and alkenylbenzenes. PMID:23476753

  7. Exploration of Novel Inhibitors for Class I Histone Deacetylase Isoforms by QSAR Modeling and Molecular Dynamics Simulation Assays

    PubMed Central

    Noor, Zainab; Afzal, Noreen; Rashid, Sajid

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDAC) are metal-dependent enzymes and considered as important targets for cell functioning. Particularly, higher expression of class I HDACs is common in the onset of multiple malignancies which results in deregulation of many target genes involved in cell growth, differentiation and survival. Although substantial attempts have been made to control the irregular functioning of HDACs by employing various inhibitors with high sensitivity towards transformed cells, limited success has been achieved in epigenetic cancer therapy. Here in this study, we used ligand-based pharmacophore and 2-dimensional quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) modeling approaches for targeting class I HDAC isoforms. Pharmacophore models were generated by taking into account the known IC50 values and experimental energy scores with extensive validations. The QSAR model having an external R2 value of 0.93 was employed for virtual screening of compound libraries. 10 potential lead compounds (C1-C10) were short-listed having strong binding affinities for HDACs, out of which 2 compounds (C8 and C9) were able to interact with all members of class I HDACs. The potential binding modes of HDAC2 and HDAC8 to C8 were explored through molecular dynamics simulations. Overall, bioactivity and ligand efficiency (binding energy/non-hydrogen atoms) profiles suggested that proposed hits may be more effective inhibitors for cancer therapy. PMID:26431201

  8. MEF2 Is a Converging Hub for Histone Deacetylase 4 and Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/Akt-Induced Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Di Giorgio, Eros; Clocchiatti, Andrea; Piccinin, Sara; Sgorbissa, Andrea; Viviani, Giulia; Peruzzo, Paolo; Romeo, Salvatore; Rossi, Sabrina; Dei Tos, Angelo Paolo; Maestro, Roberta

    2013-01-01

    The MEF2-class IIa histone deacetylase (HDAC) axis operates in several differentiation pathways and in numerous adaptive responses. We show here that nuclear active HDAC4 and HDAC7 display transforming capability. HDAC4 oncogenic potential depends on the repression of a limited set of genes, most of which are MEF2 targets. Genes verified as targets of the MEF2-HDAC axis are also under the influence of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway that affects MEF2 protein stability. A signature of MEF2 target genes identified by this study is recurrently repressed in soft tissue sarcomas. Correlation studies depicted two distinct groups of soft tissue sarcomas: one in which MEF2 repression correlates with PTEN downregulation and a second group in which MEF2 repression correlates with HDAC4 levels. Finally, simultaneous pharmacological inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway and of MEF2-HDAC interaction shows additive effects on the transcription of MEF2 target genes and on sarcoma cells proliferation. Overall, our work pinpoints an important role of the MEF2-HDAC class IIa axis in tumorigenesis. PMID:24043307

  9. Selective inhibition of histone deacetylase 2 induces p53-dependent survivin downregulation through MDM2 proteasomal degradation

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Sung-Keum; Hwang, Chang-Sun; Choe, Tae-Boo; Hong, Seok-Il; Yi, Jae Youn; Hwang, Sang-Gu; Lee, Hyun-Gyu; Oh, Sang Taek; Lee, Yun-Han; Park, In-Chul

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we found that selective inhibition of histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) with small inhibitory RNA (siRNA) induced survivin downregulation in a p53-dependent manner. Interestingly, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) or knockdown of HDAC2 induced downregulation of Mdm2, a negative regulator of p53, at the protein level. SAHA and/or HDAC2 siRNA increased Mdm2 ubiquitination, and MG132, an inhibitor of proteosome function, prevented HDAC2 inhibition-induced degradation of Mdm2. Clinically, the mRNA levels of HDAC2 and survivin were prominently overexpressed in lung cancer patients compared to normal lung tissues. Silencing of HDAC2 enhanced the cell death caused by ionizing radiation in lung cancer cells. Collectively, our results indicate that selective inhibition of HDAC2 causes survivin downregulation through activation of p53, which is mediated by downregulation of Mdm2. They further suggest that HDAC2 may exert a dominant effect on lung cancer cell survival by sustaining Mdm2-survivin levels. PMID:25605253

  10. Image-Guided Synthesis Reveals Potent Blood-Brain Barrier Permeable Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that several histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, which are used to study/treat brain diseases, show low blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration. In addition to low HDAC potency and selectivity observed, poor brain penetrance may account for the high doses needed to achieve therapeutic efficacy. Here we report the development and evaluation of highly potent and blood-brain barrier permeable HDAC inhibitors for CNS applications based on an image-guided approach involving the parallel synthesis and radiolabeling of a series of compounds based on the benzamide HDAC inhibitor, MS-275 as a template. BBB penetration was optimized by rapid carbon-11 labeling and PET imaging in the baboon model and using the imaging derived data on BBB penetration from each compound to feed back into the design process. A total of 17 compounds were evaluated, revealing molecules with both high binding affinity and BBB permeability. A key element conferring BBB penetration in this benzamide series was a basic benzylic amine. These derivatives exhibited 1100 nM inhibitory activity against recombinant human HDAC1 and HDAC2. Three of the carbon-11 labeled aminomethyl benzamide derivatives showed high BBB penetration (?0.015%ID/cc) and regional binding heterogeneity in the brain (high in thalamus and cerebellum). Taken together this approach has afforded a strategy and a predictive model for developing highly potent and BBB permeable HDAC inhibitors for CNS applications and for the discovery of novel candidate molecules for small molecule probes and drugs. PMID:24780082

  11. Growth attenuation is associated with histone deacetylase 10-induced autophagy in the liver.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Galit; Shtaif, Biana; Phillip, Moshe; Gat-Yablonski, Galia

    2016-01-01

    Our previous data suggested that the histone deacetylase (HDAC) SIRT1 is involved in mediating the effect of nutrition on growth. The aim of the present research was to study the mechanism by which additional HDACs may be involved in nutrition-induced linear growth. The in vivo studies were performed in young male Sprague-Dawley rats that were either fed ad libitum (AL) or subjected to 10days of 40% food restriction (RES) and then refed (CU). For in vitro studies, Huh7 hepatoma cells were used. Food restriction led to significant reduction in liver weight, concomitant with increased autophagy (i.e., a decrease in the level of P62 and an increase in the expression level of Ambra1 and Atg16L2 genes in the RES group). At the same time, we found that the level of HDAC10 was significantly increased. Overexpression of HDAC10 in Huh7 hepatoma cells led to reduced cell viability and increased autophagy as shown by increased conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II. An increase in the level of HDAC10 was also obtained when mTOR was inhibited by Rapamycin. siRNA directed against HDAC10 abolished the effect of Rapamycin on cell viability and Ambra1 and Atg16L2 increased expression. These results suggest that increased levels of HDAC10 may mediate the effect of malnutrition on growth attenuation and autophagy. Deciphering the role of epigenetic regulation in the nutrition-growth connection may pave the way for the development of new forms of treatment for children with growth disorders. PMID:26462881

  12. Histone deacetylase 1 reduces NO production in endothelial cells via lysine deacetylation of NO synthase 3

    PubMed Central

    Hyndman, Kelly A.; Ho, Dao H.; Sega, Martiana F.

    2014-01-01

    The lysine acetylation state of nonhistone proteins may be regulated through histone deacetylases (HDACs). Evidence suggests that nitric oxide (NO) synthase 3 (NOS3; endothelial NOS) is posttranslationally lysine acetylated, leading to increased NO production in the endothelium. We tested the hypothesis that NOS3 is lysine acetylated and that upregulated HDAC1-mediated deacetylation leads to reduced NO production in endothelial cells. We determined that NOS3 is basally lysine acetylated in cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs). In BAECs, HDAC1 is expressed in the nucleus and cytosol and forms a novel protein-protein interaction with NOS3. Overexpression of HDAC1 in BAECs resulted in a significant reduction in NOS3 lysine acetylation (control = 1.0 ± 0.1 and HDAC1 = 0.59 ± 0.08 arbitrary units, P < 0.01) and significantly blunted basal nitrite production (control 287.7 ± 29.1 and HDAC1 172.4 ± 31.7 pmol·mg−1·h−1, P < 0.05) as well as attenuating endothelin-1-stimulated nitrite production (control = 481.8 ± 50.3 and HDAC1 243.1 ± 48.2 pmol·mg−1·h−1, P < 0.05). While HDAC1 knockdown with small-interfering RNA resulted in no change in NOS3 acetylation level, yet increased basal nitrite production (730.6 ± 99.1 pmol·mg−1·h−1) and further exaggerated increases in endothelin-1 stimulated nitrite production (1276.9 ± 288.2 pmol·mg−1·h−1) was observed. Moreover, overexpression or knockdown of HDAC1 resulted in no significant effect on NOS3 protein expression or NOS3 phosphorylation sites T497, S635, or S1179. Thus these data indicate that upregulated HDAC1 decreases NOS3 activity, most likely through direct lysine deacetylation of NOS3. We propose that HDAC1-mediated deacetylation of NOS3 may represent a novel target for endothelial dysfunction. PMID:25015965

  13. Histone deacetylase 1 reduces NO production in endothelial cells via lysine deacetylation of NO synthase 3.

    PubMed

    Hyndman, Kelly A; Ho, Dao H; Sega, Martiana F; Pollock, Jennifer S

    2014-09-01

    The lysine acetylation state of nonhistone proteins may be regulated through histone deacetylases (HDACs). Evidence suggests that nitric oxide (NO) synthase 3 (NOS3; endothelial NOS) is posttranslationally lysine acetylated, leading to increased NO production in the endothelium. We tested the hypothesis that NOS3 is lysine acetylated and that upregulated HDAC1-mediated deacetylation leads to reduced NO production in endothelial cells. We determined that NOS3 is basally lysine acetylated in cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs). In BAECs, HDAC1 is expressed in the nucleus and cytosol and forms a novel protein-protein interaction with NOS3. Overexpression of HDAC1 in BAECs resulted in a significant reduction in NOS3 lysine acetylation (control = 1.0 0.1 and HDAC1 = 0.59 0.08 arbitrary units, P < 0.01) and significantly blunted basal nitrite production (control 287.7 29.1 and HDAC1 172.4 31.7 pmolmg(-1)h(-1), P < 0.05) as well as attenuating endothelin-1-stimulated nitrite production (control = 481.8 50.3 and HDAC1 243.1 48.2 pmolmg(-1)h(-1), P < 0.05). While HDAC1 knockdown with small-interfering RNA resulted in no change in NOS3 acetylation level, yet increased basal nitrite production (730.6 99.1 pmolmg(-1)h(-1)) and further exaggerated increases in endothelin-1 stimulated nitrite production (1276.9 288.2 pmolmg(-1)h(-1)) was observed. Moreover, overexpression or knockdown of HDAC1 resulted in no significant effect on NOS3 protein expression or NOS3 phosphorylation sites T497, S635, or S1179. Thus these data indicate that upregulated HDAC1 decreases NOS3 activity, most likely through direct lysine deacetylation of NOS3. We propose that HDAC1-mediated deacetylation of NOS3 may represent a novel target for endothelial dysfunction. PMID:25015965

  14. Dietary Regulation of Histone Acetylases and Deacetylases for the Prevention of Metabolic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Tho X.; Lee, Jiyoung

    2012-01-01

    Age-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer involve epigenetic modifications, where accumulation of minute changes in the epigenome over time leads to disease manifestation. Epigenetic changes are influenced by life style and diets. This represents an avenue whereby dietary components could accelerate or prevent age-related diseases through their effects on epigenetic modifications. Histone acetylation is an epigenetic modification that is regulated through the opposing action of histone acetylases (HATs) and deacetylases (HDACs). These two families of enzymes play critical roles in metabolic processes and their dysregulation is associated with pathogenesis of several diseases. Dietary components, such as butyrate, sulforaphane, and curcumin, have been shown to affect HAT and HDAC activity, and their health benefits are attributed, at least in part, to epigenetic modifications. Given the decades that it takes to accumulate epigenetic changes, it is unlikely that pharmaceuticals could undo epigenetic changes without side effects. Therefore, long term consumption of dietary components that can alter the epigenome could be an attractive means of disease prevention. The goal of this review is to highlight the roles of diets and food components in epigenetic modifications through the regulation of HATs and HDACs for disease prevention. PMID:23363995

  15. Chromatin-bound bacterial effector ankyrin A recruits histone deacetylase 1 and modifies host gene expression.

    PubMed

    Rennoll-Bankert, Kristen E; Garcia-Garcia, Jose C; Sinclair, Sara H; Dumler, J Stephen

    2015-11-01

    Control of host epigenetics is becoming evident as a mechanism by which symbionts and pathogens survive. Anaplasma phagocytophilum, an obligate intracellular bacterium, down-regulates multiple host defence genes where histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) binds and histone 3 is deacetylated at their promoters, including the NADPH oxidase component, CYBB. How HDAC1 is targeted to defence gene promoters is unknown. Ankyrin A (AnkA), an A.?phagocytophilum type IV secretion system effector, enters the granulocyte nucleus, binds stretches of AT-rich DNA and alters transcription of antimicrobial defence genes, including down-regulation of CYBB. Here we found AnkA binds to a predicted matrix attachment region in the proximal CYBB promoter. Using the CYBB promoter as a model of cis-gene silencing, we interrogated the mechanism of AnkA-mediated CYBB repression. The N-terminus of AnkA was critical for nuclear localization, the central ANK repeats and C-terminus were important for DNA binding, and most promoter activity localized to the central ANK repeats. Furthermore, a direct interaction between AnkA and HDAC1 was detected at the CYBB promoter, and was critical for AnkA-mediated CYBB repression. This novel microbial manipulation of host chromatin and gene expression provides important evidence of the direct effects that prokaryotic nuclear effectors can exert over host transcription and function. PMID:25996657

  16. Inhibition of histone deacetylases facilitates extinction and attenuates reinstatement of nicotine self-administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Castino, Matthew R; Cornish, Jennifer L; Clemens, Kelly J

    2015-01-01

    Chromatin remodelling is integral to the formation of long-term memories. Recent evidence suggests that histone modification may play a role in the persistence of memories associated with drug use. The present series of experiments aimed to examine the effect of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition on the extinction and reinstatement of nicotine self-administration. Rats were trained to intravenously self-administer nicotine for 12 days on a fixed-ratio 1 schedule. In Experiment 1, responding was then extinguished through removal of nicotine and response-contingent cues. After each extinction session, the HDAC inhibitor, sodium butyrate (NaB), was administered immediately, or six hours after each session. In Experiment 2, response-contingent cues remained available across extinction to increase rates of responding during this phase, and NaB was administered immediately after the session. Finally, in Experiment 3, the effect of NaB treatment on extinction of responding for sucrose pellets was assessed. Across all experiments reinstatement to the cue and/or the reward itself was then tested. In the first experiment, treatment with NaB significantly attenuated nicotine and nicotine + cue reinstatement when administered immediately, but not six hours after each extinction session. When administered after cue-extinction (Expt. 2), NaB treatment specifically facilitated the rate of extinction across sessions, indicating that HDAC inhibition enhanced consolidation of the extinction memory. In contrast, there was no effect of NaB on the extinction and reinstatement of sucrose-seeking (Expt. 3), indicating that the observed effects are specific to a drug context. These results provide the first demonstration that HDAC inhibition facilitates the extinction of responding for an intravenously self-administered drug of abuse and further highlight the potential of HDAC inhibitors in the treatment of drug addiction. PMID:25880762

  17. Histone Deacetylase 3 Unconventional Splicing Mediates Endothelial-to-mesenchymal Transition through Transforming Growth Factor ?2*

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Lingfang; Wang, Gang; Ummarino, Dario; Margariti, Andriana; Xu, Qihe; Xiao, Qingzhong; Wang, Wen; Zhang, Zhongyi; Yin, Xiaoke; Mayr, Manuel; Cockerill, Gillian; Li, Julie Yi-shuan; Chien, Shu; Hu, Yanhua; Xu, Qingbo

    2013-01-01

    Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) plays a critical role in the maintenance of endothelial integrity and other physiological processes. In this study, we demonstrated that HDAC3 undergoes unconventional splicing during stem cell differentiation. Four different splicing variants have been identified, designated as HD3?, -?, -?, and -?, respectively. HD3? was confirmed in stem cell differentiation by specific antibody against the sequences from intron 12. Immunofluorescence staining indicated that the HD3? isoform co-localized with CD31-positive or ?-smooth muscle actin-positive cells at different developmental stages of mouse embryos. Overexpression of HD3? reprogrammed human aortic endothelial cells into mesenchymal cells featuring an endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) phenotype. HD3? directly interacts with HDAC3 and Akt1 and selectively activates transforming growth factor ?2 (TGF?2) secretion and cleavage. TGF?2 functioned as an autocrine and/or paracrine EndMT factor. The HD3?-induced EndMT was both PI3K/Akt- and TGF?2-dependent. This study provides the first evidence of the role of HDAC3 splicing in the maintenance of endothelial integrity. PMID:24045946

  18. Selective transcription and cellular proliferation induced by PDGF require histone deacetylase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Catania, Annunziata; Iavarone, Carlo; Carlomagno, Stella M.; Chiariello, Mario . E-mail: chiariel@unina.it

    2006-05-05

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are key regulatory enzymes involved in the control of gene expression and their inhibition by specific drugs has been widely correlated to cell cycle arrest, terminal differentiation, and apoptosis. Here, we investigated whether HDAC activity was required for PDGF-dependent signal transduction and cellular proliferation. Exposure of PDGF-stimulated NIH3T3 fibroblasts to the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) potently repressed the expression of a group of genes correlated to PDGF-dependent cellular growth and pro-survival activity. Moreover, we show that TSA interfered with STAT3-dependent transcriptional activity induced by PDGF. Still, neither phosphorylation nor nuclear translocation and DNA-binding in vitro and in vivo of STAT3 were affected by using TSA to interfere with PDGF stimulation. Finally, TSA treatment resulted in the suppression of PDGF-dependent cellular proliferation without affecting cellular survival of NIH3T3 cells. Our data indicate that inhibition of HDAC activity antagonizes the mitogenic effect of PDGF, suggesting that these drugs may specifically act on the expression of STAT-dependent, PDGF-responsive genes.

  19. Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid (SAHA)-Induced Dynamics of a Human Histone Deacetylase Protein Interaction Network*

    PubMed Central

    Sardiu, Mihaela E.; Smith, Karen T.; Groppe, Brad D.; Gilmore, Joshua M.; Saraf, Anita; Egidy, Rhonda; Peak, Allison; Seidel, Chris W.; Florens, Laurence; Workman, Jerry L.; Washburn, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are targets for cancer therapy. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) is an HDAC inhibitor approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. To obtain a better mechanistic understanding of the Sin3/HDAC complex in cancer, we extended its proteinprotein interaction network and identified a mutually exclusive pair within the complex. We then assessed the effects of SAHA on the disruption of the complex network through six homologous baits. SAHA perturbs multiple protein interactions and therefore compromises the composition of large parts of the Sin3/HDAC network. A comparison of the effect of SAHA treatment on gene expression in breast cancer cells to a knockdown of the ING2 subunit indicated that a portion of the anticancer effects of SAHA may be attributed to the disruption of ING2's association with the complex. Our dynamic protein interaction network resource provides novel insights into the molecular mechanism of SAHA action and demonstrates the potential for drugs to rewire networks. PMID:25073741

  20. Molecular design of histone deacetylase inhibitors by aromatic ring shifting in chlamydocin framework.

    PubMed

    Shivashimpi, Gururaj M; Amagai, Satoshi; Kato, Tamaki; Nishino, Norikazu; Maeda, Satoko; Nishino, Tomonori G; Yoshida, Minoru

    2007-12-15

    Chlamydocin, a cyclic tetrapeptide containing aminoisobutyric acid (Aib), l-phenylalanine (l-Phe), d-proline (d-Pro), and a unique amino acid l-2-amino-8-oxo-9,10-epoxydecanoic acid, inhibits the histone deacetylases (HDACs), a class of enzymes, which play important roles in regulation of gene expression. Sulfur containing amino acids can also inhibit potently, so zinc ligand, such as sulfhydryl group connected with a linker to the so-called capping group, corresponding to cyclic tetrapeptide framework in case of chlamydocin is supposed to interact with the surface of HDAC molecule. Various changes in amino acid residues in chlamydocin may afford specific inhibitors toward HDAC paralogs. To find out specific inhibitors, we focused on benzene ring of l-Phe in chlamydocin framework to shift to various parts of cyclic tetrapeptide. We prepared and introduced several aromatic amino acids into the cyclic tetrapeptides. By evaluating inhibitory activity of these macrocyclic peptides against HDACs, we could find potent inhibitors by shifting the aromatic ring to the Aib site. PMID:17881232

  1. The inhibitors of histone deacetylase suberoylanilide hydroxamate and trichostatin A release nitric oxide upon oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Samuni, Yuval; Flores-Santana, Wilmarie; Krishna, Murali C.; Mitchell, James B.; Wink, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, vorinostat, Zolinza) is the lead compound of a new class of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors used as anticancer drugs, which have been shown to affect multiple proteins associated with gene expression, cell proliferation and migration. Studies have also demonstrated the essential role of the hydroxamate moiety of SAHA in HDAC inhibition. The ability of SAHA and its structural analog Trichostatin A (TSA) in generating NO upon oxidation was tested directly by spin trapping of NO using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and also indirectly via the determination of nitrite using the Griess assay. H2O2/metmyoglobin was used to oxidize SAHA and TSA. These studies demonstrate for the first time, the release of NO from SAHA and its structural analog TSA. We tested the protective effects of SAHA, TSA and valproic acid (VPA) in mammalian Chinese hamster V79 cells exposed to a bolus H2O2 for 1 hour and monitoring the clonogenic cell survival. Both SAHA and TSA afforded significant cytoprotection when co-incubated with H2O2 whereas VPA was ineffective. These studies provide evidence for the release of NO by hydroxamate containing HDAC inhibitors and their antioxidant effects. Such roles may be an added advantage of this class of HDAC agents which are used for epigenetic therapies in cancer. PMID:19447172

  2. Contrasting Effects of Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors on Reward and Aversive Olfactory Memories in the Honey Bee

    PubMed Central

    Lockett, Gabrielle A; Wilkes, Fiona; Helliwell, Paul; Maleszka, Ryszard

    2014-01-01

    Much of what we have learnt from rodent models about the essential role of epigenetic processes in brain plasticity has made use of aversive learning, yet the role of histone acetylation in aversive memory in the honey bee, a popular invertebrate model for both memory and epigenetics, was previously unknown. We examined the effects of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition on both aversive and reward olfactory associative learning in a discrimination proboscis extension reflex (PER) assay. We report that treatment with the HDAC inhibitors APHA compound 8 (C8), phenylbutyrate (PB) or sodium butyrate (NaB) impaired discrimination memory due to impairment of aversive memory in a dose-dependent manner, while simultaneously having no effect on reward memory. Treatment with C8 1 h before training, 1 h after training or 1 h before testing, impaired aversive but not reward memory at test. C8 treatment 1 h before training also improved aversive but not reward learning during training. PB treatment only impaired aversive memory at test when administered 1 h after training, suggesting an effect on memory consolidation specifically. Specific impairment of aversive memory (but not reward memory) by HDAC inhibiting compounds was robust, reproducible, occurred following treatment with three drugs targeting the same mechanism, and is likely to be genuinely due to alterations to memory as sucrose sensitivity and locomotion were unaffected by HDAC inhibitor treatment. This pharmacological dissection of memory highlights the involvement of histone acetylation in aversive memory in the honey bee, and expands our knowledge of epigenetic control of neural plasticity in invertebrates. PMID:26462690

  3. Histone deacetylase inhibitors: a new class of immunosuppressors targeting a novel signal pathway essential for CD154 expression.

    PubMed

    Skov, Søren; Rieneck, Klaus; Bovin, Lone Frier; Skak, Kresten; Tomra, Søren; Michelsen, Birgitte K; Ødum, Niels

    2003-02-15

    Here we report that histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDAC-i) comprise a new class of immunosuppressive agents. HDAC-i inhibited CD4 T-cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, which was not caused by apoptosis or decreased viability. Although early intracellular signals such as tyrosine kinase activity and elevation of intracellular calcium concentration were not affected, the characteristic aggregation of T cells following activation was completely abrogated. This correlated with diminished activation-induced expression of the adhesion molecules. HDAC-i furthermore inhibited activation-induced CD25 and CD154 expression on CD4 cells, without affecting induction of CD69. HDAC-i inhibited CD154 expression by a mechanism distinctly different from cyclosporine-mediated inhibition. HDAC-i thus inhibited interleukin 2 (IL-2)-induced CD154 expression on effector T cells and constitutively expressed CD154 on various tumor cells, events that were not affected by cyclosporine. Additional studies showed that HDAC-i treatment inhibited c-Myc expression, which was further shown to be important for CD154 gene activation. These results demonstrate pronounced T-cell inhibitory activity of HDAC-i, which may form the basis of novel therapeutic interventions against autoimmune diseases and allograft rejection. PMID:12393479

  4. The Hos2 Histone Deacetylase Controls Ustilago maydis Virulence through Direct Regulation of Mating-Type Genes

    PubMed Central

    Elas-Villalobos, Alberto; Fernndez-lvarez, Alfonso; Moreno-Snchez, Ismael; Helmlinger, Dominique; Ibeas, Jos I.

    2015-01-01

    Morphological changes are critical for host colonisation in plant pathogenic fungi. These changes occur at specific stages of their pathogenic cycle in response to environmental signals and are mediated by transcription factors, which act as master regulators. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play crucial roles in regulating gene expression, for example by locally modulating the accessibility of chromatin to transcriptional regulators. It has been reported that HDACs play important roles in the virulence of plant fungi. However, the specific environment-sensing pathways that control fungal virulence via HDACs remain poorly characterised. Here we address this question using the maize pathogen Ustilago maydis. We find that the HDAC Hos2 is required for the dimorphic switch and pathogenic development in U. maydis. The deletion of hos2 abolishes the cAMP-dependent expression of mating type genes. Moreover, ChIP experiments detect Hos2 binding to the gene bodies of mating-type genes, which increases in proportion to their expression level following cAMP addition. These observations suggest that Hos2 acts as a downstream component of the cAMP-PKA pathway to control the expression of mating-type genes. Interestingly, we found that Clr3, another HDAC present in U. maydis, also contributes to the cAMP-dependent regulation of mating-type gene expression, demonstrating that Hos2 is not the only HDAC involved in this control system. Overall, our results provide new insights into the role of HDACs in fungal phytopathogenesis. PMID:26317403

  5. Development of histone deacetylase inhibitors as therapeutics for neurological disease

    PubMed Central

    Gottesfeld, Joel M; Pandolfo, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    Postsynthetic modifications of histone and other chromosomal proteins by reversible acetylation and/or methylation regulate many aspects of chromatin dynamics, such as transcription, replication and DNA repair. Aberrant modification states are associated with several neurological and neuromotor diseases. Thus, small molecules that inhibit or activate the enzymes responsible for these chromatin modifications have received considerable attention as potential human therapeutics. This paper summarizes the current state of development of histone deacetylase inhibitors in a variety of neurological diseases. PMID:20177429

  6. A conserved histone deacetylase with a role in the regulation of cytokinesis in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In Schizosaccharomyces pombe the SET domain protein, Set3p - together with its interacting partners, Snt1p, and Hif2p - form a complex that aids in preventing cell division failure upon mild cytokinetic stress. Intriguingly, the human orthologs of these proteins (MLL5, NCOR2, and TBL1X) are also important for the faithful completion of cytokinesis in tissue culture cells. Since MLL5, NCOR2, and TBL1X form a complex with the histone deacetylase, HDAC3, we sought to determine if an orthologous counterpart played a regulatory role in fission yeast cytokinesis. Results In this report we identify the hos2 gene as the fission yeast HDAC3 ortholog. We show that Hos2p physically interacts with Set3p, Snt1p, and Hif2p, and that hos2∆ mutants are indeed compromised in their ability to reliably complete cell division in the presence of mild cytokinetic stresses. Furthermore, we demonstrate that over-expression of hos2 causes severe morphological and cytokinetic defects. Lastly, through recombinase mediated cassette exchange, we show that expression of human HDAC3 complements the cytokinetic defects exhibited by hos2∆ cells. Conclusions These data support a model in which Hos2p functions as an essential component of the Set3p-Snt1p-Hif2p complex with respect to the regulation of cytokinesis. The ability of human HDAC3 to complement the cytokinesis defects associated with the deletion of the hos2 gene suggests that further analysis of this system could provide insight into the role of HDAC3 in both the regulation of cell division, as well as other biological processes influenced by HDAC3 deacetylation. PMID:22559741

  7. Global histone deacetylase enzymatic activity is an independent prognostic marker associated with a shorter overall survival in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients

    PubMed Central

    Van Damme, Michal; Crompot, Emerence; Meuleman, Nathalie; Mineur, Philippe; Dessars, Barbara; El Housni, Hakim; Bron, Dominique; Lagneaux, Laurence; Stamatopoulos, Basile

    2014-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDAC) play a crucial role in transcriptional regulation and are often deregulated in many cancers. However, global HDAC enzymatic activity has never been investigated in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL). We measured HDAC activity in protein extracts from CD19+ B-cells purified from 114 CLL patients with a median follow-up of 91 months (range: 11376). HDAC activity was equivalent in CLL and normal B-cells but higher in patients who died during the study than in living patients (152.1vs. 65.04 pmol; P = 0.0060). Furthermore, HDAC activity correlated with treatment-free survival (TFS; P = 0.0156) and overall survival (OS; P < 0.0001): patients with low HDAC activity (n = 75) had a median TFS and OS of 101 and >376 months, respectively, whereas patients with high HDAC activity (n = 39) had a median TFS and OS of 47 and 137 months, respectively. Multivariate analyses indicated that HDAC activity is an independent predictor of OS (hazard ratio = 7.68; P = 0.0017). Finally, HDAC activity increased after B-cell receptor stimulation using IgM, suggesting a role for microenvironment stimuli (n = 10; P = 0.0371). In conclusion, high HDAC activity in CLL B-cells is associated with shorter TFS and OS and is an independent marker of OS, refining the use of other prognostic factors. This work provides a biological base for the use of HDAC inhibitors in CLL treatment. PMID:25437053

  8. Global histone deacetylase enzymatic activity is an independent prognostic marker associated with a shorter overall survival in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients.

    PubMed

    Van Damme, Michal; Crompot, Emerence; Meuleman, Nathalie; Mineur, Philippe; Dessars, Barbara; El Housni, Hakim; Bron, Dominique; Lagneaux, Laurence; Stamatopoulos, Basile

    2014-10-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDAC) play a crucial role in transcriptional regulation and are often deregulated in many cancers. However, global HDAC enzymatic activity has never been investigated in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL). We measured HDAC activity in protein extracts from CD19+ B-cells purified from 114 CLL patients with a median follow-up of 91 months (range: 11-376). HDAC activity was equivalent in CLL and normal B-cells but higher in patients who died during the study than in living patients (152.1 vs. 65.04 pmol; P = 0.0060). Furthermore, HDAC activity correlated with treatment-free survival (TFS; P = 0.0156) and overall survival (OS; P < 0.0001): patients with low HDAC activity (n = 75) had a median TFS and OS of 101 and > 376 months, respectively, whereas patients with high HDAC activity (n = 39) had a median TFS and OS of 47 and 137 months, respectively. Multivariate analyses indicated that HDAC activity is an independent predictor of OS (hazard ratio = 7.68; P = 0.0017). Finally, HDAC activity increased after B-cell receptor stimulation using IgM, suggesting a role for microenvironment stimuli (n = 10; P = 0.0371). In conclusion, high HDAC activity in CLL B-cells is associated with shorter TFS and OS and is an independent marker of OS, refining the use of other prognostic factors. This work provides a biological base for the use of HDAC inhibitors in CLL treatment. PMID:25437053

  9. Histone deacetylases 1 and 2 regulate DNA replication and DNA repair: potential targets for genome stability-mechanism-based therapeutics for a subset of cancers

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskara, Srividya

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylases 1 and 2 (HDAC1,2) belong to the class I HDAC family, which are targeted by the FDA-approved small molecule HDAC inhibitors currently used in cancer therapy. HDAC1,2 are recruited to DNA break sites during DNA repair and to chromatin around forks during DNA replication. Cancer cells use DNA repair and DNA replication as survival mechanisms and to evade chemotherapy-induced cytotoxicity. Hence, it is vital to understand how HDAC1,2 function during the genome maintenance processes (DNA replication and DNA repair) in order to gain insights into the mode-of-action of HDAC inhibitors in cancer therapeutics. The first-in-class HDAC1,2-selective inhibitors and Hdac1,2 conditional knockout systems greatly facilitated dissecting the precise mechanisms by which HDAC1,2 control genome stability in normal and cancer cells. In this perspective, I summarize the findings on the mechanistic functions of class I HDACs, specifically, HDAC1,2 in genome maintenance, unanswered questions for future investigations and views on how this knowledge could be harnessed for better-targeted cancer therapeutics for a subset of cancers. PMID:25942572

  10. Epigenetic targeting of histone deacetylase: therapeutic potential in Parkinson's disease?

    PubMed

    Harrison, Ian F; Dexter, David T

    2013-10-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common movement disorder affecting more than 4million people worldwide. The primary motor symptoms of the disease are due to degeneration of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons. Dopamine replacement therapies have therefore revolutionised disease management by partially controlling these symptoms. However these drugs can produce debilitating side effects when used long term and do not protect degenerating neurons against death. Recent evidence has highlighted a pathological imbalance in PD between the acetylation and deacetylation of the histone proteins around which deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is coiled, in favour of excessive histone deacetylation. This mechanism of adding/removing acetyl groups to histone lysine residues is one of many epigenetic regulatory processes which control the expression of genes, many of which will be essential for neuronal survival. Hence, such epigenetic modifications may have a pathogenic role in PD. It has therefore been hypothesised that if this pathological imbalance can be corrected with the use of histone deacetylase inhibiting agents then neurodegeneration observed in PD can be ameliorated. This article will review the current literature with regard to epigenetic changes in PD and the use of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) in PD: examining the evidence of the neuroprotective effects of numerous HDACIs in cellular and animal models of Parkinsonian cell death. Ultimately answering the question: does epigenetic targeting of histone deacetylases hold therapeutic potential in PD? PMID:23711791

  11. [Histone deacetylases: a new class of efficient anti-tumor drugs].

    PubMed

    Mottet, Denis; Castronovo, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Circa twenty-five years ago, cancer research was dominated by the concept that the origin of cancer was genetic. Thousands of genetic alterations have indeed been identified involving more than hundred different genes in cancer development. Today, the model has evolved: it has been demonstrated that malignancies can be initiated not only through genetic alterations but also through epigenetic deregulations. By altering the expression of gene involved in cell regulation, epigenetic alterations, such as histone acetylation, play a key role in the initiation and progression of neoplasm. It has been shown that an imbalance between the acelylated and deacetylated status of chromatin is significantly involved in the acquisition of a malignant phenotype. Thus, the modulation of the histone acetylation level by histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors could lead to a genetic re-programmation in cancer cells that would favor apoptosis and prevent proliferation. The potential therapeutic value of several HDAC inhibitors for cancer patients has been evaluated in clinical assays with very promising outcome. Indeed, the first inhibitors available for patients has been recently approved for cancer patients tracing the way for a new class of promising anti-cancer therapy modalities. PMID:18789222

  12. Histone deacetylase inhibitors in castration-resistant prostate cancer: molecular mechanism of action and recent clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Dharam; Vashistha, Vishal; Isharwal, Sudhir; Sediqe, Soud A.; Lin, Ming-Fong

    2015-01-01

    Historically, androgen-deprivation therapy has been the cornerstone for treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. Unfortunately, nearly majority patients with prostate cancer transition to the refractory state of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Newer therapeutic agents are needed for treating these CRPC patients that are unresponsive to androgen deprivation and/or chemotherapy. The histone deacetylase (HDAC) family of enzymes limits the expression of genomic regions by improving binding between histones and the DNA backbone. Modulating the role of HDAC enzymes can alter the cell’s regulation of proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, thereby regulating potential neoplastic proliferation. As a result, histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are now being evaluated for CRPC or chemotherapy-resistant prostate cancer due to their effects on the expression of the androgen receptor gene. In this paper, we review the molecular mechanism and functional target molecules of different HDACi as applicable to CRPC as well as describe recent and current clinical trials involving HDACi in prostate cancer. To date, four HDAC classes comprising 18 isoenzymes have been identified. Recent clinical trials of vorinostat, romidepsin, and panobinostat have provided cautious optimism towards improved outcomes using these novel therapeutic agents for CPRC patients. Nevertheless, no phase III trial has been conducted to cement one of these drugs as an adjunct to androgen-deprivation therapy. Consequently, further investigation is necessary to delineate the benefits and drawbacks of these medications. PMID:26622323

  13. LSD1 Regulates Pluripotency of Embryonic Stem/Carcinoma Cells through Histone Deacetylase 1-Mediated Deacetylation of Histone H4 at Lysine 16

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Feng; Lan, Rongfeng; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhu, Linyu; Chen, Fangfang; Xu, Zhengshuang; Liu, Yuqing; Ye, Tao; Sun, Hong

    2014-01-01

    LSD1 is essential for the maintenance of pluripotency of embryonic stem (ES) or embryonic carcinoma/teratocarcinoma (EC) cells. We have previously developed novel LSD1 inhibitors that selectively inhibit ES/EC cells. However, the critical targets of LSD1 remain unclear. Here, we found that LSD1 interacts with histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) to regulate the proliferation of ES/EC cells through acetylation of histone H4 at lysine 16 (H4K16), which we show is a critical substrate of HDAC1. The LSD1 demethylase and HDAC1 deacetylase activities were both inactivated if one of them in the complex was chemically inhibited in ES/EC cells or in reconstituted protein complexes. Loss of HDAC1 phenocopied the selective growth-inhibitory effects and increased the levels of H3K4 methylation and H4K16 acetylation of LSD1 inactivation on ES/EC cells. Reduction of acetylated H4K16 by ablation of the acetyltransferase males absent on the first (MOF) is sufficient to rescue the growth inhibition induced by LSD1 inactivation. While LSD1 or HDAC1 inactivation caused the downregulation of Sox2 and Oct4 and induction of differentiation genes, such as FOXA2 or BMP2, depletion of MOF restored the levels of Sox2, Oct4, and FoxA2 in LSD1-deficient cells. Our studies reveal a novel mechanism by which LSD1 acts through the HDAC1- and MOF-mediated regulation of H4K16 acetylation to maintain the pluripotency of ES/EC cells. PMID:24190971

  14. Histone deacetylase inhibitor Scriptaid reactivates latent HIV-1 promoter by inducing histone modification in in vitro latency cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ying, Hao; Zhang, Yuhao; Lin, Shiguan; Han, Yefei; Zhu, Huan-Zhang

    2010-08-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) latency remains a major problem for the eradication of viruses in infected individuals undergoing highly active anti-retroviral therapy. By inhibiting HIV-1 gene expression and virus production, histone deacetylase (HDAC) may contribute to the quiescence of HIV-1 within resting CD4+ T cells. A novel HDAC inhibitor, Scriptaid, has been found to have robust activity and lower toxicity compared to trichostatin A (TSA). We therefore investigated Scriptaid for its capability to reverse HIV-1 latency by inducing HIV-1 activation in the Jurkat T cell line containing latent HIV proviruses. We found that Scriptaid can activate HIV-1 gene expression in these latent infected cells by 2-15-fold over background levels, as analyzed by flow cytometry. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays further revealed that the Scriptaid increased the acetylation level of histones H3 and H4 at the nucleosome 1 site of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat compared to mock treatment. In addition, Scriptaid can synergize with prostratin or tumor necrosis factor-alpha to activate the HIV-1 promoter, with relatively lower toxicity compared to TSA. These studies suggest the potential of Scriptaid in anti-latency therapies. PMID:20596607

  15. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Activate Tristetraprolin Expression through Induction of Early Growth Response Protein 1 (EGR1) in Colorectal Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sobolewski, Cyril; Sanduja, Sandhya; Blanco, Fernando F.; Hu, Liangyan; Dixon, Dan A.

    2015-01-01

    The RNA-binding protein tristetraprolin (TTP) promotes rapid decay of mRNAs bearing 3' UTR AU-rich elements (ARE). In many cancer types, loss of TTP expression is observed allowing for stabilization of ARE-mRNAs and their pathologic overexpression. Here we demonstrate that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors (Trichostatin A, SAHA and sodium butyrate) promote TTP expression in colorectal cancer cells (HCA-7, HCT-116, Moser and SW480 cells) and cervix carcinoma cells (HeLa). We found that HDAC inhibitors-induced TTP expression, promote the decay of COX-2 mRNA, and inhibit cancer cell proliferation. HDAC inhibitors were found to promote TTP transcription through activation of the transcription factor Early Growth Response protein 1 (EGR1). Altogether, our findings indicate that loss of TTP in tumors occurs through silencing of EGR1 and suggests a therapeutic approach to rescue TTP expression in colorectal cancer. PMID:26343742

  16. PS-341 and Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Synergistically Induce Apoptosis in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, JinKoo; Guan, Jean; Chang, Insoon; Chen, Xiaohong; Han, Demin; Wang, Cun-Yu

    2010-01-01

    Proteasome inhibitor PS-341 (also known as Bortezomib) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have emerged as novel therapeutic agents for a variety of malignancies. In this study, we examined whether PS-341 and the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) induced apoptosis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), a common and lethal malignancy. We found that, while TSA treatment alone did not induce apoptosis in HNSCC cells, it significantly enhanced PS-341-induced apoptosis in HNSCC cells in vitro. Consistently, TSA significantly improved PS-341-mediated inhibition of HNSCC tumor growth in nude mice. Mechanistically, we found that TSA increased PS-341-induced Noxa expression and caspase activation in HNSCC cells. The knock-down of Noxa significantly reduced apoptosis induced by co-treatment of PS-341 and TSA. Taken together, our results provide new insight into the mechanisms of synergistic antitumor activity of PS-341 and HDAC inhibitor regimen, offering a new therapeutic strategy for HNSCC patients. PMID:20571067

  17. Mitochondrial Apoptosis and FAK Signaling Disruption by a Novel Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, HTPB, in Antitumor and Antimetastatic Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Shieh, Jiunn-Min; Wei, Tzu-Tang; Tang, Yen-An; Huang, Sin-Ming; Wen, Wei-Ling; Chen, Mei-Yu; Cheng, Hung-Chi; Salunke, Santosh B.; Chen, Ching-Shih; Lin, Pinpin; Chen, Chien-Tien; Wang, Yi-Ching

    2012-01-01

    Background Compound targeting histone deacetylase (HDAC) represents a new era in molecular cancer therapeutics. However, effective HDAC inhibitors for the treatment of solid tumors remain to be developed. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we propose a novel HDAC inhibitor, N-Hydroxy-4-(4-phenylbutyryl-amino) benzamide (HTPB), as a potential chemotherapeutic drug for solid tumors. The HDAC inhibition of HTPB was confirmed using HDAC activity assay. The antiproliferative and anti-migratory mechanisms of HTPB were investigated by cell proliferation, flow cytometry, DNA ladder, caspase activity, Rho activity, F-actin polymerization, and gelatin-zymography for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Mice with tumor xenograft and experimental metastasis model were used to evaluate effects on tumor growth and metastasis. Our results indicated that HTPB was a pan-HDAC inhibitor in suppressing cell viability specifically of lung cancer cells but not of the normal lung cells. Upon HTPB treatment, cell cycle arrest was induced and subsequently led to mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. HTPB disrupted F-actin dynamics via downregulating RhoA activity. Moreover, HTPB inhibited activity of MMP2 and MMP9, reduced integrin-?1/focal adhesion complex formation and decreased pericellular poly-fibronectin assemblies. Finally, intraperitoneal injection or oral administration of HTPB efficiently inhibited A549 xenograft tumor growth in vivo without side effects. HTPB delayed lung metastasis of 4T1 mouse breast cancer cells. Acetylation of histone and non-histone proteins, induction of apoptotic-related proteins and de-phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase were confirmed in treated mice. Conclusions/Significance These results suggested that intrinsic apoptotic pathway may involve in anti-tumor growth effects of HTPB in lung cancer cells. HTPB significantly suppresses tumor metastasis partly through inhibition of integrin-?1/FAK/MMP/RhoA/F-actin pathways. We have provided convincing preclinical evidence that HTPB is a potent HDAC targeted inhibitor and is thus a promising candidate for lung cancer chemotherapy. PMID:22279574

  18. Potential use of histone deacetylase inhibitors in cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Strzelczyk, Joanna K.; Wiczkowski, Andrzej; Michalski, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetics is a branch of science that focuses on mechanisms related to control and modification of expression of genetic material without any changes to its sequences. Such mechanisms include post-translational modifications of histones. It is widely known that carcinogenesis is related to hypoacetylation of genes that influence apoptosis, the cell cycle, cell signaling, the immunologic response, angiogenesis and occurrence of metastasis. Currently conducted research focuses on several strategies related to epigenetic therapy. One such strategy is based on the use of histone deacetylase inhibitors. This paper presents mechanisms through which these compounds work and a summary of their characteristics. It also includes a review of clinical tests related to histone deacetylase inhibitors, as well as their relationship with other chemotherapeutic methods. A better understanding of the involved mechanisms will provide a rational basis to improve the therapeutic outcome of available antitumor agents. PMID:26843838

  19. Bicyclic-Capped Histone Deacetylase 6 Inhibitors with Improved Activity in a Model of Axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease.

    PubMed

    Shen, Sida; Benoy, Veronick; Bergman, Joel A; Kalin, Jay H; Frojuello, Mariana; Vistoli, Giulio; Haeck, Wanda; Van Den Bosch, Ludo; Kozikowski, Alan P

    2016-02-17

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is a disorder of the peripheral nervous system where progressive degeneration of motor and sensory nerves leads to motor problems and sensory loss and for which no pharmacological treatment is available. Recently, it has been shown in a model for the axonal form of CMT that histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) can serve as a target for the development of a pharmacological therapy. Therefore, we aimed at developing new selective and activity-specific HDAC6 inhibitors with improved biochemical properties. By utilizing a bicyclic cap as the structural scaffold from which to build upon, we developed several analogues that showed improved potency compared to tubastatin A while maintaining excellent selectivity compared to HDAC1. Further screening in N2a cells examining both the acetylation of ?-tubulin and histones narrowed down the library of compounds to three potent and selective HDAC6 inhibitors. In mutant HSPB1-expressing DRG neurons, serving as an in vitro model for CMT2, these inhibitors were able to restore the mitochondrial axonal transport deficits. Combining structure-based development of HDAC6 inhibitors, screening in N2a cells and in a neuronal model for CMT2F, and preliminary ADMET and pharmacokinetic profiles, resulted in the selection of compound 23d that possesses improved biochemical, functional, and druglike properties compared to tubastatin A. PMID:26599234

  20. Zn2+-chelating motif-tethered short-chain fatty acids as a novel class of histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qiang; Yang, Ya-Ting; Chen, Chang-Shi; Davis, Melanie; Byrd, John C; Etherton, Mark R; Umar, Asad; Chen, Ching-Shih

    2004-01-15

    Among various classes of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, short-chain fatty acids exhibit the least potency, with IC(50) in the millimolar range. We rationalized that this weak potency was, in part, attributable to their inability to access the zinc cation in the HDAC active-site pocket, which is pivotal to the deacetylation catalysis. We thus explored the structural optimization of valproate, butyrate, phenylacetate, and phenylbutyrate by coupling them with Zn(2+)-chelating motifs (hydroxamic acid and o-phenylenediamine) through aromatic omega-amino acid linkers. This strategy has led to a novel class of Zn(2+)-chelating, motif-tethered, short-chain fatty acids that exhibited varying degrees of HDAC inhibitory potency. One hydroxamate-tethered phenylbutyrate compound, N-hydroxy-4-(4-phenylbutyrylamino)benzamide (HTPB), displayed nanomolar potency in inhibiting HDAC activity. Exposure of several cancer cell lines to HTPB at the submicromolar level showed reduced cell proliferation accompanied by histone hyperacetylation and elevated p21(WAF/CIP1) expression, which are hallmark features associated with intracellular HDAC inhibition. PMID:14711316

  1. Novel thiol-based histone deacetylase inhibitors bearing 3-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxamide scaffold as surface recognition motif: Design, synthesis and SAR study.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jiachen; Niu, Qun; Liu, Jiang; Bao, Yu; Yang, Jinyu; Luan, Shenglin; Fan, Yinbo; Liu, Dan; Zhao, Linxiang

    2016-01-15

    A series of novel thiol-based histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors bearing 3-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxamide scaffold as surface recognition motif was designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their HDAC inhibition activity. Among them, 15j (IC50=0.08?M) was identified as a better inhibitor than Vorinostat (IC50=0.25?M) against total HDACs. In addition, Structure-activity relationships (SAR) analyses indicated that (i) compounds with different substituents on pyrazole N-1 position exhibited superior activities than those on pyrazole N-2 position, (ii) variation of functional groups on N-1'-alkyl chain terminus followed the trends of carboxyl group>hydroxyl group?alkyl group, and (iii) methylation on pyrazole C-4 position diminished the HDAC inhibition activity. The SAR will guide us to further refine compounds bearing 3-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxamide scaffold to achieve better HDAC inhibitors. PMID:26706171

  2. An ERG (ets-related gene)-associated histone methyltransferase interacts with histone deacetylases 1/2 and transcription co-repressors mSin3A/B.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liu; Mei, Qi; Zielinska-Kwiatkowska, Anna; Matsui, Yoshito; Blackburn, Michael L; Benedetti, Daniel; Krumm, Anton A; Taborsky, Gerald J; Chansky, Howard A

    2003-01-01

    Covalent modifications of histone tails play important roles in gene transcription and silencing. We recently identified an ERG ( ets -related gene)-associated protein with a SET (suppressor of variegation, enhancer of zest and trithorax) domain (ESET) that was found to have the activity of a histone H3-specific methyltransferase. In the present study, we investigated the interaction of ESET with other chromatin remodelling factors. We show that ESET histone methyltransferase associates with histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) and HDAC2, and that ESET also interacts with the transcription co-repressors mSin3A and mSin3B. Deletion analysis of ESET reveals that an N-terminal region containing a tudor domain is responsible for interaction with mSin3A/B and association with HDAC1/2, and that truncation of ESET enhances its binding to mSin3. When bound to a promoter, ESET represses the transcription of a downstream luciferase reporter gene. This repression by ESET is independent of its histone methyltransferase activity, but correlates with its binding to the mSin3 co-repressors. In addition, the repression can be partially reversed by treatment with the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A. Taken together, these data suggest that ESET histone methyltransferase can form a large, multi-protein complex(es) with mSin3A/B co-repressors and HDAC1/2 that participates in multiple pathways of transcriptional repression. PMID:12398767

  3. Structure of Prokaryotic Polyamine Deacetylase Reveals Evolutionary Functional Relationships with Eukaryotic Histone Deacetylases

    PubMed Central

    Lombardi, Patrick M.; Angell, Heather D.; Whittington, Douglas A.; Flynn, Erin F.; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Christianson, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Polyamines are a ubiquitous class of polycationic small molecules that can influence gene expression by binding to nucleic acids. Reversible polyamine acetylation regulates nucleic acid binding and is required for normal cell cycle progression and proliferation. Here, we report the structures of Mycoplana ramosa acetylpolyamine amidohydrolase (APAH) complexed with a transition state analogue and a hydroxamate inhibitor, and an inactive mutant complexed with two acetylpolyamine substrates. The structure of APAH is the first of a histone deacetylase-like oligomer and reveals that an 18-residue insert in the L2 loop promotes dimerization and the formation of an 18- long L-shaped active site tunnel at the dimer interface, accessible only to narrow and flexible substrates. The importance of dimerization for polyamine deacetylase function leads to the suggestion that a comparable dimeric or double-domain histone deacetylase could catalyze polyamine deacetylation reactions in eukaryotes. PMID:21268586

  4. Structure of Prokaryotic Polyamine Deacetylase Reveals Evolutionary Functional Relationships with Eukaryotic Histone Deacetylases

    SciTech Connect

    P Lombardi; H Angell; D Whittington; E Flynn; K Rajashankar; D Christianson

    2011-12-31

    Polyamines are a ubiquitous class of polycationic small molecules that can influence gene expression by binding to nucleic acids. Reversible polyamine acetylation regulates nucleic acid binding and is required for normal cell cycle progression and proliferation. Here, we report the structures of Mycoplana ramosa acetylpolyamine amidohydrolase (APAH) complexed with a transition state analogue and a hydroxamate inhibitor and an inactive mutant complexed with two acetylpolyamine substrates. The structure of APAH is the first of a histone deacetylase-like oligomer and reveals that an 18-residue insert in the L2 loop promotes dimerization and the formation of an 18 {angstrom} long 'L'-shaped active site tunnel at the dimer interface, accessible only to narrow and flexible substrates. The importance of dimerization for polyamine deacetylase function leads to the suggestion that a comparable dimeric or double-domain histone deacetylase could catalyze polyamine deacetylation reactions in eukaryotes.

  5. HDAC inhibitor increases histone H3 acetylation and reduces microglia inflammatory response following traumatic brain injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bin; West, Eric J.; Van, Ken C.; Gurkoff, Gene G.; Zhou, Jia; Zhang, Xiu-Mei; Kozikowski, Alan P.; Lyeth, Bruce G.

    2008-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) produces a rapid and robust inflammatory response in the brain characterized in part by activation of microglia. A novel histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, 4-dimethylamino-N-[5-(2-mercaptoacetylamino)pentyl]benzamide (DMA-PB), was administered (0, 0.25, 2.5, 25 mg/kg) systemically immediately after lateral fluid percussion TBI in rats. Hippocampal CA2/3 tissue was processed for acetyl-histone H3 immunolocalization, OX-42 immunolocalization (for microglia), and Fluoro-Jade B histofluorescence (for degenerating neurons) at 24 h after injury. Vehicle-treated TBI rats exhibited a significant reduction in acetyl-histone H3 immunostaining in the ipsilateral CA2/3 hippocampus compared to the sham TBI group (p<0.05). The reduction in acetyl-histone H3 immunostaining was attenuated by each of the DMA-PB dosage treatment groups. Vehicle-treated TBI rats exhibited a high density of phagocytic microglia in the ipsilateral CA2/3 hippocampus compared to sham TBI in which none were observed. All doses of DMA-PB significantly reduced the density of phagocytic microglia (p<0.05). There was a trend for DMA-PB to reduce the number of degenerating neurons in the ipsilateral CA2/3 hippocampus (p = 0.076). We conclude that the HDAC inhibitor DMA-PB is a potential novel therapeutic for inhibiting neuroinflammation associated with TBI. PMID:18582446

  6. Damaged DNA-binding protein down-regulates epigenetic mark H3K56Ac through histone deacetylase 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qianzheng; Battu, Aruna; Ray, Alo; Wani, Gulzar; Qian, Jiang; He, Jinshan; Wang, Qi-en; Wani, Altaf A

    2015-06-01

    Acetylated histone H3 lysine 56 (H3K56Ac) is one of the reversible histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) responsive to DNA damage. We previously described a biphasic decrease and increase of epigenetic mark H3K56Ac in response to ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced DNA damage. Here, we report a new function of UV damaged DNA-binding protein (DDB) in deacetylation of H3K56Ac through specific histone deacetylases (HDACs). We show that simultaneous depletion of HDAC1/2 compromises the deacetylation of H3K56Ac, while depletion of HDAC1 or HDAC2 alone has no effect on H3K56Ac. The H3K56Ac deacetylation does not require functional nucleotide excision repair (NER) factors XPA and XPC, but depends on the function of upstream factors DDB1 and DDB2. UVR enhances the association of DDB2 with HDAC1 and, enforced DDB2 expression leads to translocation of HDAC1 to UVR-damaged chromatin. HDAC1 and HDAC2 are recruited to UVR-induced DNA damage spots, which are visualized by anti-XPC immunofluorescence. Dual HDAC1/2 depletion decreases XPC ubiquitination, but does not affect the recruitment of DDB2 to DNA damage. By contrast, the local accumulation of ?H2AX at UVR-induced DNA damage spots was compromised upon HDAC1 as well as dual HDAC1/2 depletions. Additionally, UVR-induced ATM activation decreased in H12899 cells expressing H3K56Ac-mimicing H3K56Q. These results revealed a novel role of DDB in H3K56Ac deacetylation during early step of NER and the existence of active functional cross-talk between DDB-mediated damage recognition and H3K56Ac deacetylation. PMID:26255936

  7. Carbocysteine restores steroid sensitivity by targeting histone deacetylase 2 in a thiol/GSH-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Song, Yun; Lu, Hao-Zhong; Xu, Jian-Rong; Wang, Xiao-Lin; Zhou, Wei; Hou, Li-Na; Zhu, Liang; Yu, Zhi-Hua; Chen, Hong-Zhuan; Cui, Yong-Yao

    2015-01-01

    Steroid insensitivity is commonly observed in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Here, we report the effects and mechanisms of carbocysteine (S-CMC), a mucolytic agent, in cellular and animal models of oxidative stress-mediated steroid insensitivity. The following results were obtained: oxidative stress induced higher levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), which are insensitive to dexamethasone (DEX). The failure of DEX was improved by the addition of S-CMC by increasing histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) expression/activity. S-CMC also counteracted the oxidative stress-induced increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and decreases in glutathione (GSH) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Moreover, oxidative stress-induced events were decreased by the thiol-reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT), enhanced by the thiol-oxidizing agent diamide, and the ability of DEX was strengthened by DTT. In addition, the oxidative stress-induced decrease in HDAC2 activity was counteracted by S-CMC by increasing thiol/GSH levels, which exhibited a direct interaction with HDAC2. S-CMC treatment increased HDAC2 recruitment and suppressed H4 acetylation of the IL-8 promoter, and this effect was further ablated by addition of buthionine sulfoximine, a specific inhibitor of GSH synthesis. Our results indicate that S-CMC restored steroid sensitivity by increasing HDAC2 expression/activity in a thiol/GSH-dependent manner and suggest that S-CMC may be useful in a combination therapy with glucocorticoids for treatment of steroid-insensitive pulmonary diseases. PMID:25500537

  8. mTOR kinase inhibitors synergize with histone deacetylase inhibitors to kill B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Beagle, Brandon R; Nguyen, Duc M; Mallya, Sharmila; Tang, Sarah S; Lu, Mengrou; Zeng, Zhihong; Konopleva, Marina; Vo, Thanh-Trang; Fruman, David A

    2015-02-10

    High activity of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is associated with poor prognosis in pre-B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), suggesting that inhibiting mTOR might be clinically useful. However, emerging data indicate that mTOR inhibitors are most effective when combined with other target agents. One strategy is to combine with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, since B-ALL is often characterized by epigenetic changes that silence the expression of pro-apoptotic factors. Here we tested combinations of mTOR and pan-HDAC inhibitors on B-ALL cells, including both Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) and non-Ph cell lines. We found that mTOR kinase inhibitors (TOR-KIs) synergize with HDAC inhibitors to cause apoptosis in B-ALL cells and the effect is greater when compared to rapamycin plus HDAC inhibitors. The combination of TOR-KIs with the clinically approved HDAC inhibitor vorinostat increased apoptosis in primary pediatric B-ALL cells in vitro. Mechanistically, TOR-KI and HDAC inhibitor combinations increased expression of pro-death genes, including targets of the Forkhead Box O (FOXO) transcription factors, and increased sensitivity to apoptotic triggers at the mitochondria. These findings suggest that targeting epigenetic factors can unmask the cytotoxic potential of TOR-KIs towards B-ALL cells. PMID:25576920

  9. Discovery of 1-hydroxypyridine-2-thiones as selective histone deacetylase inhibitors and their potential application for treating leukemia.

    PubMed

    Muthyala, Ramaiah; Shin, Woo Shik; Xie, Jiashu; Sham, Yuk Yin

    2015-10-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) is a validated target for pursuing anticancer agents. However, obtaining a selective inhibitor against a given HDAC member remains a significant challenge. We report here the use of 1-hydroxypyridine-2-thione (1HPT) as a key pharmacophore for zinc-binding can result in highly selective HDAC inhibitors. 1HPT-6-carboxylic acid exhibits selective inhibition of HDAC6 with an IC50 of 150 nM that corresponds to a remarkable 0.9 ligand efficiency. Two analogs with simple amino acids shows nearly 600-fold selectivity among the eleven zinc-dependent HDACs. At low micromolar concentration these compounds inhibit the growth of HDAC8-overexpressing chronic myelogenous leukemia cells and specific form of acute myelogenous leukemia cells. Their potential mode of binding was examined by molecular docking and their stability was assessed in mouse and human plasma. Together the results suggest 1HPT analogs exhibit promising therapeutic potential for further development as anticancer agents to treat leukemia. PMID:26264503

  10. mTOR kinase inhibitors synergize with histone deacetylase inhibitors to kill B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Beagle, Brandon R.; Nguyen, Duc M.; Mallya, Sharmila; Tang, Sarah S.; Lu, Mengrou; Zeng, Zhihong; Konopleva, Marina; Vo, Thanh-Trang; Fruman, David A.

    2015-01-01

    High activity of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is associated with poor prognosis in pre-B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), suggesting that inhibiting mTOR might be clinically useful. However, emerging data indicate that mTOR inhibitors are most effective when combined with other target agents. One strategy is to combine with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, since B-ALL is often characterized by epigenetic changes that silence the expression of pro-apoptotic factors. Here we tested combinations of mTOR and pan-HDAC inhibitors on B-ALL cells, including both Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) and non-Ph cell lines. We found that mTOR kinase inhibitors (TOR-KIs) synergize with HDAC inhibitors to cause apoptosis in B-ALL cells and the effect is greater when compared to rapamycin plus HDAC inhibitors. The combination of TOR-KIs with the clinically approved HDAC inhibitor vorinostat increased apoptosis in primary pediatric B-ALL cells in vitro. Mechanistically, TOR-KI and HDAC inhibitor combinations increased expression of pro-death genes, including targets of the Forkhead Box O (FOXO) transcription factors, and increased sensitivity to apoptotic triggers at the mitochondria. These findings suggest that targeting epigenetic factors can unmask the cytotoxic potential of TOR-KIs towards B-ALL cells. PMID:25576920

  11. Inhibition of histone deacetylase activity attenuates renal fibroblast activation and interstitial fibrosis in obstructive nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Pang, Maoyin; Kothapally, Jagan; Mao, Haiping; Tolbert, Evelyn; Ponnusamy, Murugavel; Chin, Y Eugene; Zhuang, Shougang

    2009-10-01

    Activation of renal interstitial fibroblasts is critically involved in the development of tubulointerstitial fibrosis in chronic kidney diseases. In this study, we investigated the effect of trichostatin A (TSA), a specific histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, on the activation of renal interstitial fibroblasts in a rat renal interstitial fibroblast line (NRK-49F) and the development of renal fibrosis in a murine model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). alpha-Smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) and fibronectin, two hallmarks of fibroblast activation, were highly expressed in cultured NRK-49F cells, and their expression was inhibited in the presence of TSA. Similarly, administration of TSA suppressed the expression of alpha-SMA and fibronectin and attenuated the accumulation of renal interstitial fibroblasts in the kidney after the obstructive injury. Activation of renal interstitial fibroblasts was accompanied by phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), and TSA treatment also abolished these responses. Furthermore, inhibition of the STAT3 pathway with AG490 inhibited expression of alpha-SMA and fibronectin in NRK-49F cells. Finally, TSA treatment inhibited tubular cell apoptosis and caspase-3 activation in the obstructive kidney. Collectively, we suggest that pharmacological HDAC inhibition may induce antifibrotic activity by inactivation of renal interstitial fibroblasts and inhibition of renal tubular cell death. STAT3 may mediate those actions of HDACs. PMID:19640900

  12. Design, synthesis, and antitumor evaluation of histone deacetylase inhibitors with l-phenylglycine scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yingjie; Li, Xiaoguang; Hou, Jinning; Huang, Yongxue; Xu, Wenfang

    2015-01-01

    In our previous research, a novel series of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors with l-phenylglycine scaffold were designed and synthesized, among which amides D3 and D7 and ureido D18 were far superior to the positive control (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid [SAHA]) in HDAC inhibition, but were only comparable to SAHA in antiproliferation on tumor cell lines. Herein, further structural derivation of lead compounds D3, D7, and D18 was carried out to improve their cellular activities. Most of our newly synthesized compounds exhibited more potent HDAC inhibitory activities than the positive control SAHA, and several derivatives were even better than their parent compounds. However, compared with SAHA and our lead compounds, only secondary amine series compounds exhibited improved antiproliferative activities, likely due to their appropriate topological polar surface area values and cell permeabilities. In a human histiocytic lymphoma (U937) xenograft model, the most potent secondary amine 9d exhibited similar in vivo antitumor activity to that of SAHA. PMID:26504374

  13. Gene expression profiling in response to the histone deacetylase inhibitor BL1521 in neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ruijter, Annemieke J.M. de; Kemp, Stephan . E-mail: a.b.vankuilenburg@amc.uva.nl

    2005-10-01

    Neuroblastoma is a childhood tumor with a poor survival in advanced stage disease despite intensive chemotherapeutic regimes. The new histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor BL1521 has shown promising results in neuroblastoma. Inhibition of HDAC resulted in a decrease in proliferation and metabolic activity, induction of apoptosis and differentiation of neuroblastoma cells. In order to elucidate the mechanism mediating the effects of BL1521 on neuroblastoma cells, we investigated the gene expression profile of an MYCN single copy (SKNAS) and an MYCN amplified (IMR32) neuroblastoma cell line after treatment with BL1521 using the Affymetrix oligonucleotide array U133A. An altered expression of 255 genes was observed in both neuroblastoma cell lines. The majority of these genes were involved in gene expression, cellular metabolism, and cell signaling. We observed changes in the expression of vital genes belonging to the cell cycle (cyclin D1 and CDK4) and apoptosis (BNIP3, BID, and BCL2) pathway in response to BL1521. The expression of 37 genes was altered by both BL1521 and Trichostatin A, which could indicate a common gene set regulated by different HDAC inhibitors. BL1521 treatment changed the expression of a number of MYCN-associated genes. Several genes in the Wnt and the Delta/Notch pathways were changed in response to BL1521 treatment, suggesting that BL1521 is able to induce the differentiation of neuroblastoma cells into a more mature phenotype.

  14. Probing the elusive catalytic activity of vertebrate class IIa histone deacetylases.

    PubMed

    Jones, Philip; Altamura, Sergio; De Francesco, Raffaele; Gallinari, Paola; Lahm, Armin; Neddermann, Petra; Rowley, Michael; Serafini, Sergio; Steinkühler, Christian

    2008-03-15

    It has been widely debated whether class IIa HDACs have catalytic deacetylase activity, and whether this plays any part in controlling gene expression. Herein, it has been demonstrated that class IIa HDACs isolated from mammalian cells are contaminated with other deacetylases, but can be prepared cleanly in Escherichia coli. These bacteria preparations have weak but measurable deacetylase activity. The low efficiency can be restored either by: mutation of an active site histidine to tyrosine, or by the use of a non-acetylated lysine substrate, allowing the development of assays to identify class IIa HDAC inhibitors. PMID:18308563

  15. Histone Deacetylases Exert Class-Specific Roles in Conditioning the Brain and Heart Against Acute Ischemic Injury

    PubMed Central

    Aune, Sverre E.; Herr, Daniel J.; Kutz, Craig J.; Menick, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury comprises a significant portion of morbidity and mortality from heart and brain diseases worldwide. This enduring clinical problem has inspired myriad reports in the scientific literature of experimental interventions seeking to elucidate the pathology of IR injury. Elective cardiac surgery presents perhaps the most viable scenario for protecting the heart and brain from IR injury due to the opportunity to condition the organs prior to insult. The physiological parameters for the preconditioning of vital organs prior to insult through mechanical and pharmacological maneuvers have been heavily examined. These investigations have revealed new insights into how preconditioning alters cellular responses to IR injury. However, the promise of preconditioning remains unfulfilled at the clinical level, and research seeking to implicate cell signals essential to this protection continues. Recent discoveries in molecular biology have revealed that gene expression can be controlled through posttranslational modifications, without altering the chemical structure of the genetic code. In this scenario, gene expression is repressed by enzymes that cause chromatin compaction through catalytic removal of acetyl moieties from lysine residues on histones. These enzymes, called histone deacetylases (HDACs), can be inhibited pharmacologically, leading to the de-repression of protective genes. The discovery that HDACs can also alter the function of non-histone proteins through posttranslational deacetylation has expanded the potential impact of HDAC inhibitors for the treatment of human disease. HDAC inhibitors have been applied in a very small number of experimental models of IR. However, the scientific literature contains an increasing number of reports demonstrating that HDACs converge on preconditioning signals in the cell. This review will describe the influence of HDACs on major preconditioning signaling pathways in the heart and brain. PMID:26175715

  16. Redirection of Epithelial Immune Responses by Short-Chain Fatty Acids through Inhibition of Histone Deacetylases.

    PubMed

    Lin, May Young; de Zoete, Marcel R; van Putten, Jos P M; Strijbis, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are products of microbial fermentation that are important for intestinal epithelial health. Here, we describe that SCFAs have rapid and reversible effects on toll-like receptor (TLR) responses in epithelial cells. Incubation of HEK293 or HeLa epithelial cells with the SCFAs butyrate or propionate at physiological concentrations enhanced NF-κB activation induced by TLR5, TLR2/1, TLR4, and TLR9 agonists. NF-κB activation in response to tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) was also increased by SCFAs. Comparative transcript analysis of HT-29 colon epithelial cells revealed that SCFAs enhanced TLR5-induced transcription of TNFα but dampened or even abolished the TLR5-mediated induction of IL-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein 1. SCFAs are known inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDACs). Butyrate or propionate caused a rapid increase in histone acetylation in epithelial cells, similar to the small molecule HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA). TSA also mimicked the effects of SCFAs on TLR-NF-κB responses. This study shows that bacterial SCFAs rapidly alter the epigenetic state of host cells resulting in redirection of the innate immune response and selective reprograming of cytokine/chemokine expression. PMID:26579129

  17. Redirection of Epithelial Immune Responses by Short-Chain Fatty Acids through Inhibition of Histone Deacetylases

    PubMed Central

    Lin, May Young; de Zoete, Marcel R.; van Putten, Jos P. M.; Strijbis, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are products of microbial fermentation that are important for intestinal epithelial health. Here, we describe that SCFAs have rapid and reversible effects on toll-like receptor (TLR) responses in epithelial cells. Incubation of HEK293 or HeLa epithelial cells with the SCFAs butyrate or propionate at physiological concentrations enhanced NF-κB activation induced by TLR5, TLR2/1, TLR4, and TLR9 agonists. NF-κB activation in response to tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) was also increased by SCFAs. Comparative transcript analysis of HT-29 colon epithelial cells revealed that SCFAs enhanced TLR5-induced transcription of TNFα but dampened or even abolished the TLR5-mediated induction of IL-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein 1. SCFAs are known inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDACs). Butyrate or propionate caused a rapid increase in histone acetylation in epithelial cells, similar to the small molecule HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA). TSA also mimicked the effects of SCFAs on TLR–NF-κB responses. This study shows that bacterial SCFAs rapidly alter the epigenetic state of host cells resulting in redirection of the innate immune response and selective reprograming of cytokine/chemokine expression. PMID:26579129

  18. Understanding histone deacetylases in the cancer development and treatment: an epigenetic perspective of cancer chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mudassier; Hamid, Abid; Hussain, Aashiq; Majeed, Rabiya; Qurishi, Yasrib; Bhat, Javeed Ahmad; Najar, Rauf Ahmad; Qazi, Asif Khurshid; Zargar, Mohmmad Afzal; Singh, Shashank Kumar; Saxena, Ajit Kumar

    2012-10-01

    Cancer is a pathologic condition that involves genetic and epigenetic events culminating in neoplastic transformation. Alteration in epigenetic events that regulate the transcriptional activity of genes associated with various signaling pathways can influence multiple stages of tumorigenesis. In cancer cells, an imbalance often exists between histone acetyl transferase and histone deacetylase (HDAC) activities, and current research focuses actively on seeking competitive HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) for chemotherapeutic intervention. HDACi are proving useful for cancer prevention and therapy by virtue of their ability to reactivate the expression of epigenetically silenced genes, including those involved in differentiation, cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Furthermore, epidemiological studies suggest that different diets such as intake of cruciferous vegetables may lower the risk of different cancers, and there is growing interest in identifying the specific chemoprotective constituents and mechanistic insights of their action. Interestingly, it has been observed that cancer cells are more sensitive than nontransformed cells to apoptotic induction by some HDACi. Although the mechanistic basis for this sensitivity is unclear, yet HDACi have emerged as important epigenetic target for single and combinatorial chemotherapy. HDACi derived from diverse sources such as microbial, dietary, and synthetic increase acetylation level of cells and bring about anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects specific to cancer cells by way of their role in cell cycle regulation and expression of epigenetically silenced genes. PMID:22462686

  19. Understanding histone deacetylases in the cancer development and treatment: an epigenetic perspective of cancer chemotherapy.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Ahmad M; Hamid A; Hussain A; Majeed R; Qurishi Y; Bhat JA; Najar RA; Qazi AK; Zargar MA; Singh SK; Saxena AK

    2012-10-01

    Cancer is a pathologic condition that involves genetic and epigenetic events culminating in neoplastic transformation. Alteration in epigenetic events that regulate the transcriptional activity of genes associated with various signaling pathways can influence multiple stages of tumorigenesis. In cancer cells, an imbalance often exists between histone acetyl transferase and histone deacetylase (HDAC) activities, and current research focuses actively on seeking competitive HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) for chemotherapeutic intervention. HDACi are proving useful for cancer prevention and therapy by virtue of their ability to reactivate the expression of epigenetically silenced genes, including those involved in differentiation, cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Furthermore, epidemiological studies suggest that different diets such as intake of cruciferous vegetables may lower the risk of different cancers, and there is growing interest in identifying the specific chemoprotective constituents and mechanistic insights of their action. Interestingly, it has been observed that cancer cells are more sensitive than nontransformed cells to apoptotic induction by some HDACi. Although the mechanistic basis for this sensitivity is unclear, yet HDACi have emerged as important epigenetic target for single and combinatorial chemotherapy. HDACi derived from diverse sources such as microbial, dietary, and synthetic increase acetylation level of cells and bring about anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects specific to cancer cells by way of their role in cell cycle regulation and expression of epigenetically silenced genes.

  20. Gallic Acid Decreases Inflammatory Cytokine Secretion Through Histone Acetyltransferase/Histone Deacetylase Regulation in High Glucose-Induced Human Monocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wooje; Lee, Sang Yeol; Son, Young-Jin; Yun, Jung-Mi

    2015-07-01

    Hyperglycemia contributes to diabetes and several diabetes-related complications. Gallic acid is a polyhydroxy phenolic compound found in various natural products. In this study, we investigated the effects and mechanism of gallic acid on proinflammatory cytokine secretion in high glucose-induced human monocytes (THP-1 cells). THP-1 cells were cultured under normoglycemic or hyperglycemic conditions, in the absence or presence of gallic acid. Hyperglycemic conditions significantly induced histone acetylation, nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) activation, and proinflammatory cytokine release from THP-1 cells, whereas gallic acid suppressed NF-?B activity and cytokine release. It also significantly reduced CREB-binding protein/p300 (CBP/p300, a NF-?B coactivator) gene expression, acetylation levels, and CBP/p300 histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity. In addition, histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) expression was significantly induced. These results suggest that gallic acid inhibits hyperglycemic-induced cytokine production in monocytes through epigenetic changes involving NF-?B. Therefore, gallic acid may have potential for the treatment and prevention of diabetes and its complications. PMID:25807193

  1. LC3B-II deacetylation by histone deacetylase 6 is involved in serum-starvation-induced autophagic degradation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kun-Peng; Zhou, Dan; Ouyang, Dong-Yun; Xu, Li-Hui; Wang, Yao; Wang, Li-Xian; Pan, Hao; He, Xian-Hui

    2013-11-29

    Autophagy is a conserved mechanism for controlling the degradation of misfolded proteins and damaged organelles in eukaryotes and can be induced by nutrient withdrawal, including serum starvation. Although differential acetylation of autophagy-related proteins has been reported to be involved in autophagic flux, the regulation of acetylated microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) is incompletely understood. In this study, we found that the acetylation levels of phosphotidylethanolamine (PE)-conjugated LC3B (LC3B-II), which is a critical component of double-membrane autophagosome, were profoundly decreased in HeLa cells upon autophagy induction by serum starvation. Pretreatment with lysosomal inhibitor chloroquine did not attenuate such deacetylation. Under normal culture medium, we observed increased levels of acetylated LC3B-II in cells treated with tubacin, a specific inhibitor of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6). However, tubacin only partially suppressed serum-starvation-induced LC3B-II deacetylation, suggesting that HDAC6 is not the only deacetylase acting on LC3B-II during serum-starvation-induced autophagy. Interestingly, tubacin-induced increase in LC3B-II acetylation was associated with p62/SQSTM1 accumulation upon serum starvation. HDAC6 knockdown did not influence autophagosome formation but resulted in impaired degradation of p62/SQSTM1 during serum starvation. Collectively, our data indicated that LC3B-II deacetylation, which was partly mediated by HDAC6, is involved in autophagic degradation during serum starvation. PMID:24220335

  2. Chromium Cross-Links Histone Deacetylase 1-DNA Methyltransferase 1 Complexes to Chromatin, Inhibiting Histone-Remodeling Marks Critical for Transcriptional Activation▿

    PubMed Central

    Schnekenburger, Michael; Talaska, Glenn; Puga, Alvaro

    2007-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation of gene expression requires posttranslational modification of histone proteins, which, in concert with chromatin-remodeling factors, modulate chromatin structure. Exposure to environmental agents may interfere with specific histone modifications and derail normal patterns of gene expression. To test this hypothesis, we coexposed cells to binary mixtures of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), an environmental procarcinogen that activates Cyp1a1 transcriptional responses mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), and chromium, a carcinogenic heavy metal that represses B[a]P-inducible AHR-mediated gene expression. We show that chromium cross-links histone deacetylase 1-DNA methyltransferase 1 (HDAC1-DNMT1) complexes to Cyp1a1 promoter chromatin and inhibits histone marks induced by AHR-mediated gene transactivation, including phosphorylation of histone H3 Ser-10, trimethylation of H3 Lys-4, and various acetylation marks in histones H3 and H4. These changes inhibit RNA polymerase II recruitment without affecting the kinetics of AHR DNA binding. HDAC1 and DNMT1 inhibitors or depletion of HDAC1 or DNMT1 with siRNAs blocks chromium-induced transcriptional repression by decreasing the interaction of these proteins with the Cyp1a1 promoter and allowing histone acetylation to proceed. By inhibiting Cyp1a1 expression, chromium stimulates the formation of B[a]P DNA adducts. Epigenetic modification of gene expression patterns may be a key element of the developmental and carcinogenic outcomes of exposure to chromium and to other environmental agents. PMID:17682057

  3. Anti-breast cancer effects of histone deacetylase inhibitors and calpain inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Mataga, Megan A; Rosenthal, Shoshana; Heerboth, Sarah; Devalapalli, Amrita; Kokolus, Shannon; Evans, Leah R; Longacre, McKenna; Housman, Genevieve; Sarkar, Sibaji

    2012-07-01

    Development of new breast cancer therapies is needed, particularly as cells become refractory or develop increased drug resistance. In an effort to develop such treatments, class I and II histone deacetylases (HDACs), alone and in combination with other cytotoxic agents, are currently in clinical trial. Herein, we discuss the effects of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) when used in combination with calpeptin, an inhibitor of the regulatory protease, calpain. We present results of study in two breast cancer cells lines with distinct characteristics: MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7. When used in combination with calpeptin, two chemically distinct HDACi significantly inhibited growth and increased cell death by inducing cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. MCF-7 cells exhibited a greater proportion of arrest at the G(1) phase, whereas triple-negative MDA-MB-231 cells exhibited increased cell cycle arrest at the S phase. Methylation of the imprinted and silenced proapoptoic tumor suppressor gene aplasia Ras homolog member I (ARHI) was reduced in both cell lines after treatment with HDACi. However, it was only re-expressed on such treatment in MDA-MB-231 cells, suggesting that re-expression operates under differential mechanisms in these two cell lines. Collectively, these results showed that the combination of HDACi and calpeptin inhibited the growth of two distinctly different types of breast cancer cells and could have wide clinical applications, though the mechanisms of inhibition are possibly different. PMID:22753709

  4. Search for novel histone deacetylase inhibitors. Part II: design and synthesis of novel isoferulic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wen; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Tao; Dong, Jinyun; Gao, Hongping; Su, Ping; Shi, Yaling; Zhang, Jie

    2014-05-01

    Previously, we described the discovery of potent ferulic acid-based histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) with halogeno-acetanilide as novel surface recognition moiety (SRM). In order to improve the affinity and activity of these HDACIs, twenty seven isoferulic acid derivatives were described herein. The majority of title compounds displayed potent HDAC inhibitory activity. In particular, IF5 and IF6 exhibited significant enzymatic inhibitory activities, with IC50 values of 0.73 ± 0.08 and 0.57 ± 0.16 μM, respectively. Furthermore, these compounds showed moderate antiproliferative activity against human cancer cells. Especially, IF6 displayed promising profile as an antitumor candidate with IC50 value of 3.91 ± 0.97 μM against HeLa cells. The results indicated that these isoferulic acid derivatives could serve as promising lead compounds for further optimization. PMID:24702857

  5. Development of novel ferulic acid derivatives as potent histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Lu, Wen; Zhang, Tao; Dong, Jinyun; Gao, Hongping; Li, Pengfei; Wang, Sicen; Zhang, Jie

    2013-11-15

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) offer a promising strategy for cancer therapy. The discovery of potent ferulic acid-based HDACIs with hydroxamic acid or 2-aminobenzamide group as zinc binding group was reported. The halogeno-acetanilide was introduced as novel surface recognition moiety (SRM). The majority of title compounds displayed potent HDAC inhibitory activity. In particular, FA6 and FA16 exhibited significant enzymatic inhibitory activities, with IC50 values of 3.94 and 2.82 μM, respectively. Furthermore, these compounds showed moderate antiproliferative activity against a panel of human cancer cells. FA17 displayed promising profile as an antitumor candidate. The results indicated that these ferulic acid derivatives could serve as promising lead compounds for further optimization. PMID:24095016

  6. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel histone deacetylases inhibitors with nitric oxide releasing activity.

    PubMed

    Duan, Wenwen; Hou, Jinning; Chu, Xiaojing; Li, Xiaoqian; Zhang, Jian; Li, Jin; Xu, Wenfang; Zhang, Yingjie

    2015-08-01

    A novel series of histone deacetylases inhibitors (HDACIs) containing benzofuroxan pharmacophore as nitric oxide (NO) donor were designed based on the combination principle and 'multifunctional drugs' theory. As a novel study on embedding NO donor into the structure of HDACIs, all designed hybrid compounds, especially 19d and 24d, displayed remarkable HDACs inhibitory activity and outstanding antiproliferative activity on tumor cells. Besides, they could produce high levels of NO in HCT-116 cells; furthermore, their antiproliferative activity on HCT-116 cells could be diminished by pretreatment with hemoglobin, as the NO scavenger, in a dose-dependent manner. All in all, our designed compounds displayed great inhibitory activities and might offer a prospective avenue to discover novel anti-cancer drugs. PMID:26122774

  7. Developing a Novel Indolocarbazole as Histone Deacetylases Inhibitor against Leukemia Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenjing; Lv, Maomin; Zhao, Xiong; Zhang, Jingang

    2015-01-01

    A novel indolocarbazole (named as ZW2-1) possessing HDAC inhibition activity was synthesized and evaluated against human leukemia cell lines HL-60 and NB4. ZW2-1 performed anti-population growth effect which was in a concentration-dependent manner (212??M) by inducing both apoptosis and autophagy in cells. The compound also caused differentiation of HL-60 and NB4 cells as shown by increasing expression of CD11b, CD14, and CD38 at moderate concentration (4??M). At relatively high concentration (8??M), ZW2-1 significantly decreased intracellular histone deacetylase 1 level which was also observed. All the results indicated that ZW2-1 could be a novel antileukemia lead capable of simultaneously inducing apoptosis, autophagy, and differentiation. PMID:26649226

  8. Histone deacetylase inhibitors in the treatment of cancer: overview and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Giannini, Giuseppe; Cabri, Walter; Fattorusso, Caterina; Rodriquez, Manuela

    2012-07-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) are one of the last frontiers in pharmaceutical research. Several classes of HDACi have been identified. Although more than 20 HDACi are under preclinical and clinical investigation as single agents and in combination therapies against different cancers, just two of them were approved by the US FDA: Zolinza() and Istodax(), both licensed for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, the latter also of peripheral T-cell lymphoma. Since HDAC enzymes act by forming multiprotein complexes (clusters), containing cofactors, the main problem in designing new HDACi is that the inhibition activity evaluated on isolated enzyme isoforms does not match the in vivo outcomes. In the coming years, the research will be oriented toward a better understanding of the functioning of these protein complexes as well as the development of new screening assays, with the final goal to obtain new drug candidates for the treatment of cancer. PMID:22857533

  9. Conformationally locked calixarene-based histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Chini, Maria Giovanna; Terracciano, Stefania; Riccio, Raffaele; Bifulco, Giuseppe; Ciao, Roberta; Gaeta, Carmine; Troisi, Francesco; Neri, Placido

    2010-12-01

    Alkyl- and arylamidocalix[4]arene derivatives 1-11 have been designed and theoretically evaluated by docking studies as potential histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi). On the basis of the trimodal distribution of the calculated inhibition constants (K(i)), five alkyl- or arylamido derivatives (3, 7, 8, 9, and 11) were synthesized and tested. A qualitative accordance between the experimental results and the theoretical predictions was obtained, confirming that appropriately substituted arylamidocalix[4]arenes are active HDACi. PMID:21038870

  10. Histone deacetylase 3 represses p15{sup INK4b} and p21{sup WAF1/cip1} transcription by interacting with Sp1

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Weifeng; Tan Dapeng; Wang Xiuli; Han Songyan; Tan Jiang; Zhao Yanmei; Lu Jun . E-mail: ycsuo@nenu.edu.cn; Huang Baiqu

    2006-01-06

    Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) has been implicated to play roles in governing cell proliferation. Here we demonstrated that the overexpression of HDAC3 repressed transcription of p15{sup INK4b} and p21{sup WAF1/cip1} genes in 293T cells, and that the recruitment of HDAC3 to the promoter regions of these genes was critical to this repression. We also showed that HDAC3 repressed GAL4-Sp1 transcriptional activity, and that Sp1 was co-immunoprecipitated with FLAG-tagged HDAC3. We conclude that HDAC3 can repress p15{sup INK4b} and p21{sup WAF1/cip1} transcription by interacting with Sp1. Furthermore, knockdown of HDAC3 by RNAi up-regulated the transcriptional expression of p15{sup INK4b}, but not that of p21{sup WAF1/cip1}, implicating the different roles of HDAC3 in repression of p15{sup INK4b} and p21{sup WAF1/cip1} transcription. Data from this study indicate that the inhibition of p15{sup INK4b} and p21{sup WAF1/cip1} may be one of the mechanisms by which HDAC3 participates in cell cycle regulation and oncogenesis.

  11. Mechanisms of G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in myeloma cells induced by hybrid-compound histone deacetylase inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, Seiko; Division of Maxillofacial Surgery, Kyushu Dental University ; Okinaga, Toshinori; Ariyoshi, Wataru; Oral Biology Research Center, Kyushu Dental University ; Takahashi, Osamu; Iwanaga, Kenjiro; Nishino, Norikazu; Tominaga, Kazuhiro; Nishihara, Tatsuji; Oral Biology Research Center, Kyushu Dental University

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: •Novel histone deacetylase inhibitor Ky-2, remarkably inhibits myeloma cell growth. •Ky-2 demonstrates no cytotoxicity against normal lymphocytic cells. •Ky-2 induces cell cycle arrest through the cell cycle-associated proteins. •Ky-2 induces Bcl-2-inhibitable apoptosis through a caspase-dependent cascade. -- Abstract: Objectives: Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are new therapeutic agents, used to treat various types of malignant cancers. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Ky-2, a hybrid-compound HDAC inhibitor, on the growth of mouse myeloma cells. Materials and methods: Myeloma cells, HS-72, P3U1, and mouse normal cells were used in this study. Effect of HDAC inhibitors on cell viability was determined by WST-assay and trypan blue assay. Cell cycle was analyzed using flow cytometer. The expression of cell cycle regulatory and the apoptosis associated proteins were examined by Western blot analysis. Hoechst’s staining was used to detect apoptotic cells. Results: Our findings showed that Ky-2 decreased the levels of HDACs, while it enhanced acetylation of histone H3. Myeloma cell proliferation was inhibited by Ky-2 treatment. Interestingly, Ky-2 had no cytotoxic effects on mouse normal cells. Ky-2 treatment induced G1-phase cell cycle arrest and accumulation of a sub-G1 phase population, while Western blotting analysis revealed that expressions of the cell cycle-associated proteins were up-regulated. Also, Ky-2 enhanced the cleavage of caspase-9 and -3 in myeloma cells, followed by DNA fragmentation. In addition, Ky-2 was not found to induce apoptosis in bcl-2 overexpressing myeloma cells. Conclusion: These findings suggest that Ky-2 induces apoptosis via a caspase-dependent cascade and Bcl-2-inhibitable mechanism in myeloma cells.

  12. A Novel Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Exhibits Antitumor Activity via Apoptosis Induction, F-Actin Disruption and Gene Acetylation in Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yen-An; Wen, Wei-Ling; Chang, Jer-Wei; Wei, Tzi-Tang; Tan, Yi-Hung Carol; Salunke, Santosh; Chen, Chien-Tien; Chen, Ching-Shih; Wang, Yi-Ching

    2010-01-01

    Background Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide, yet the therapeutic strategy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is limitedly effective. In addition, validated histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors for the treatment of solid tumors remain to be developed. Here, we propose a novel HDAC inhibitor, OSU-HDAC-44, as a chemotherapeutic drug for NSCLC. Methodology/Principal Findings The cytotoxicity effect of OSU-HDAC-44 was examined in three human NSCLC cell lines including A549 (p53 wild-type), H1299 (p53 null), and CL1-1 (p53 mutant). The antiproliferatative mechanisms of OSU-HDAC-44 were investigated by flow cytometric cell cycle analysis, apoptosis assays and genome-wide chromatin-immunoprecipitation-on-chip (ChIP-on-chip) analysis. Mice with established A549 tumor xenograft were treated with OSU-HDAC-44 or vehicle control and were used to evaluate effects on tumor growth, cytokinesis inhibition and apoptosis. OSU-HDAC-44 was a pan-HDAC inhibitor and exhibits 34 times more effectiveness than suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) in suppressing cell viability in various NSCLC cell lines. Upon OSU-HDAC-44 treatment, cytokinesis was inhibited and subsequently led to mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. The cytokinesis inhibition resulted from OSU-HDAC-44-mediated degradation of mitosis and cytokinesis regulators Auroroa B and survivin. The deregulation of F-actin dynamics induced by OSU-HDAC-44 was associated with reduction in RhoA activity resulting from srGAP1 induction. ChIP-on-chip analysis revealed that OSU-HDAC-44 induced chromatin loosening and facilitated transcription of genes involved in crucial signaling pathways such as apoptosis, axon guidance and protein ubiquitination. Finally, OSU-HDAC-44 efficiently inhibited A549 xenograft tumor growth and induced acetylation of histone and non-histone proteins and apoptosis in vivo. Conclusions/Significance OSU-HDAC-44 significantly suppresses tumor growth via induction of cytokinesis defect and intrinsic apoptosis in preclinical models of NSCLC. Our data provide compelling evidence that OSU-HDAC-44 is a potent HDAC targeted inhibitor and can be tested for NSCLC chemotherapy. PMID:20856855

  13. The benzamide MS-275 is a potent, long-lasting brain region-selective inhibitor of histone deacetylases

    PubMed Central

    Simonini, M. V.; Camargo, L. M.; Dong, E.; Maloku, E.; Veldic, M.; Costa, E.; Guidotti, A.

    2006-01-01

    The association of the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor valproate (VPA) with atypical antipsychotics has become a frequent treatment strategy for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Because the VPA doses administered are elevated, one cannot assume that the benefits of the VPA plus antipsychotic treatment are exclusively related to the covalent modifications of nucleosomal histone tails. We compared the actions of N-(2-aminophenyl)-4-[N-(pyridin-3-yl-methoxycarbonyl)aminomethyl]benzamide derivative (MS-275), which is a potent HDAC inhibitor in vitro, with the actions of VPA for their ability to (i) increase the acetylated status of brain nucleosomal histone tail domains and (ii) to regulate brain histone-RELN and histone-GAD67 promoter interactions. MS-275 increases the content of acetylhistone 3 (Ac-H3) in the frontal cortex. Whereas this response peaks after a s.c. injection of 15 ?mol/kg, the increase in Ac-H3 content in the hippocampus becomes significant only after an injection of 60 ?mol/kg, suggesting that MS-275 is 30- to 100-fold more potent than VPA in increasing Ac-H3 in these brain regions. In contrast to VPA, MS-275, in doses up to 120 ?mol/kg, fails to increase Ac-H3 content in the striatum. Chromatin immunoprecipitation shows that MS-275 increases Ac-H3-RELN and Ac-H3-GAD67 promoter interaction in the frontal cortex. These results suggest that MS-275 is a potent brain region-selective HDAC inhibitor. It is likely that, in addition to MS-275, other benzamide derivatives, such as sulpiride, are brain-region selective inhibitors of HDACs. Hence, some benzamide derivatives may express a greater efficacy than VPA as an adjunctive to antipsychotics in the treatment of epigentically induced psychiatric disorders. PMID:16432198

  14. Histone deacetylase inhibitors promote the tumoricidal effect of HAMLET.

    PubMed

    Brest, Patrick; Gustafsson, Mattias; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Gustafsson, Lotta; Duringer, Caroline; Hamiche, Ali; Svanborg, Catharina

    2007-12-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) and HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) interact with histones, modify the structure of chromatin, and trigger tumor cell death. This study investigated how the combination of HDIs and HAMLET influences cell viability, histone acetylation, and DNA integrity. The pretreatment of tumor cells with HDIs was shown to enhance the lethal effect of HAMLET and the histone hyperacetylation response to HDIs increased even further after HAMLET treatment. HDIs and HAMLET were shown to target different histone domains as HAMLET bound tailless core histones, whereas HDIs modify the acetylation of the histone tail. DNA damage in response to HAMLET was increased by HDIs. The DNA repair response (p21WAFI expression) was induced by both agonists but abolished when the two agonists were combined. The results suggest that the synergy of HDIs and HAMLET is based on different but converging death pathways, both involving chromatin alterations. We speculate that HAMLET and HDIs might be combined to promote tumor cell death in vivo. PMID:18056459

  15. Dual targeting of retinoid X receptor and histone deacetylase with DW22 as a novel antitumor approach

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lihui; Chen, Guoliang; Chen, Kang; Ren, Yong; Li, Huahuan; Jiang, Xiaorui; Jia, Lina; Fu, Shiyuan; Li, Yi; Liu, Xinwei; Wang, Shuang; Yang, Jingyu; Wu, Chunfu

    2015-01-01

    Retinoid X receptor (RXR) and Histone deacetylase (HDAC) are considered important targets for cancer therapy due to their crucial roles in genetic or epigenetic regulations of cancer development and progression. Here, we evaluated the potential of dual targeting of RXR and HDAC using DW22 as a novel therapeutic approach to cancer treatment. We found that the co-expression of RXR-? and HDAC1 was frequently appeared in lung cancer and breast cancer tissues and cell lines. RXR was activated by DW22 in RXR? and HDAC1 overexpressed A549 and MDA-MB-435 cell lines. Meanwhile, DW22 inhibited the activity of HDAC by decreasing its expression in A549 and MDA-MB-435 cell lines, but not in RXR? and HDAC1 deficient cell lines. Moreover, DW22 suppressed cell growth, induced cell differentiation, prompted cell apoptosis and arrested cell cycle in A549, MDA-MB-435 or HL60 cell lines. Treatment human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) with DW22 suppressed migration, invasion and tube formation through decreasing VEGF expression. The up-regulation of Ac-H3 and p21, and down-regulation of VEGF caused by DW22 was markedly attenuated by silencing of HDAC1. Furthermore, knockdown of RXR? by siRNA completely blocked DW22-induced cell differentiation, but partially attenuated DW22-caused inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of cell apoptosis, and suppression of cell migration, invasion and tube formation. Moreover, intravenous administration of DW22 significantly retarded tumor growth of A549 and MDA-MB-435 xenograft mice models, and induced no substantial weight loss and gross toxicity. In addition, DW22 also reduced cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and induced cell apoptosis in vivo. Collectively, our data demonstrates that dual targeting of RXR and HDAC using DW22 possesses pleiotropic antitumor activities both in vitro and in vivo, providing a novel therapeutic approach for cancer treatment. PMID:25762635

  16. Sodium valproate ameliorates diabetes-induced fibrosis and renal damage by the inhibition of histone deacetylases in diabetic rat.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sabbir; Jena, Gopabandhu; Tikoo, Kulbhushan

    2015-04-01

    Recent reports emphasize the contribution of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in the pathogenesis of diabetic renal injury and fibrosis. Valproic acid (VPA) is a first-line drug used for the treatment of epilepsy and migraine as well as established as a HDAC inhibitor. The present study was aimed to evaluate the anti-fibrotic and renoprotective effects of VPA in diabetic nephropathy (DN). Diabetes was induced by single injection of STZ (50mg/kg), whereas VPA at the doses of 150 and 300mg/kg/day was administered for 8 consecutive weeks by oral route in Sprague Dawley rats. The renal injuries and fibrosis were assessed by histology, fibrosis specific staining and fibroblast activation by a transmission electron microscope, while expression of proteins of interest was evaluated by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. VPA treatment ameliorated the histological alterations as well as fibrosis, and decreased the expression of TGF-β1, CTGF, α-SMA, fibronectin, collagen I, COX-2, ICAM-1 and HDAC4/5/7. Further, VPA treatment significantly increased histone H3 acetylation and MMP-2 expression. The present study clearly established that VPA treatment ameliorates the renal injury and fibrosis in diabetic kidney by preventing the myofibroblast activation and fibrogenesis by HDAC inhibition and associated mechanisms, thereby improving the profibrotic and anti-fibrotic protein balance. PMID:25576297

  17. Augmentation of Cationic Antimicrobial Peptide Production with Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors as a Novel Epigenetic Therapy for Bacterial Infections

    PubMed Central

    Yedery, Roshan D.; Jerse, Ann E.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of antibiotic resistance seriously threatens our ability to treat many common and medically important bacterial infections. Novel therapeutics are needed that can be used alone or in conjunction with antibiotics. Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) are important effectors of the host innate defense that exhibit broad-spectrum activity against a wide range of microorganisms. CAMPs are carried within phagocytic granules and are constitutively or inducibly expressed by multiple cell types, including epithelial cells. The role of histone modification enzymes, specifically the histone deacetylases (HDAC), in down-regulating the transcription of CAMP-encoding genes is increasingly appreciated as is the capacity of HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) to block the action of HDACs to increase CAMP expression. The use of synthetic and natural HDACi molecules to increase CAMPs on mucosal surfaces, therefore, has potential therapeutic applications. Here, we review host and pathogen regulation of CAMP expression through the induction of HDACs and assess the therapeutic potential of natural and synthetic HDACi based on evidence from tissue culture systems, animal models, and clinical trials.

  18. Epigenetic Regulation of the Blimp-1 Gene (Prdm1) in B Cells Involves Bach2 and Histone Deacetylase 3.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiromu; Muto, Akihiko; Shima, Hiroki; Katoh, Yasutake; Sax, Nicolas; Tajima, Shinya; Brydun, Andrey; Ikura, Tsuyoshi; Yoshizawa, Naoko; Masai, Hisao; Hoshikawa, Yutaka; Noda, Tetsuo; Nio, Masaki; Ochiai, Kyoko; Igarashi, Kazuhiko

    2016-03-18

    B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (Blimp-1) encoded by Prdm1 is a master regulator of plasma cell differentiation. The transcription factor Bach2 represses Blimp-1 expression in B cells to stall terminal differentiation, by which it supports reactions such as class switch recombination of the antibody genes. We found that histones H3 and H4 around the Prdm1 intron 5 Maf recognition element were acetylated at higher levels in X63/0 plasma cells expressing Blimp-1 than in BAL17 mature B cells lacking its expression. Conversely, methylation of H3-K9 was lower in X63/0 cells than BAL17 cells. Purification of the Bach2 complex in BAL17 cells revealed its interaction with histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3), nuclear co-repressors NCoR1 and NCoR2, transducin β-like 1X-linked (Tbl1x), and RAP1-interacting factor homolog (Rif1). Chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed the binding of HDAC3 and Rif1 to the Prdm1 locus. Reduction of HDAC3 or NCoR1 expression by RNA interference in B cells resulted in an increased Prdm1 mRNA expression. Bach2 is suggested to cooperate with HDAC3-containing co-repressor complexes in B cells to regulate the stage-specific expression of Prdm1 by writing epigenetic modifications at the Prdm1 locus. PMID:26786103

  19. Histone deacetylase inhibition redistributes topoisomerase II? from heterochromatin to euchromatin

    PubMed Central

    Papageorgiou, Nikolaos; Padget, Kay; Watters, Gary P; Austin, Caroline A

    2011-01-01

    The genome is organized into large scale structures in the interphase nucleus. Pericentromeric heterochromatin represents one such compartment characterized by histones H3 and H4 tri-methylated at K9 and K20 respectively and with a correspondingly low level of histone acetylation. HP1 proteins are concentrated in pericentric heterochromatin and histone deacetylase inhibitors such as trichostatin A (TSA) promote hyperacetylation of heterochromatic nucleosomes and the dispersal of HP1 proteins. We observed that in mouse cells, which contain prominent heterochromatin, DNA topoisomerase II? (topoII?) is also concentrated in heterochromatic regions. Similarly, a detergent-resistant fraction of topoII? is associated with heterochromatin in human cell lines. Treatment with TSA displaced topoII? from the heterochromatin with similar kinetics to the displacement of HP1?. Topoisomerase II is the cellular target for a number of clinically important cytotoxic anti-cancer agents known collectively as topoisomerase poisons, and it has been previously reported that histone deacetylase inhibitors can sensitize cells to these drugs. While topoII? appears to be the major target for most topoisomerase poisons, histone deacetylase-mediated potentiation of these drugs is dependent on topoII?. We find that while prior treatment with TSA did not increase the quantity of etoposide-mediated topoII?-DNA covalent complexes, it did result in a shift in their distribution from a largely heterochromatin-associated to a pannuclear pattern. We suggest that this redistribution of topoII? converts this isoform of topoII to a effective relevant target for topoisomerase poisons. PMID:21647300

  20. Rapid changes in histone deacetylases and inflammatory gene expression in expert meditators

    PubMed Central

    Kaliman, Perla; lvarez-Lpez, Mara Jess; Cosn-Toms, Marta; Rosenkranz, Melissa A.; Lutz, Antoine; Davidson, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND A growing body of research shows that mindfulness meditation can alter neural, behavioral and biochemical processes. However, the mechanisms responsible for such clinically relevant effects remain elusive. METHODS Here we explored the impact of a day of intensive practice of mindfulness meditation in experienced subjects (n= 19) on the expression of circadian, chromatin modulatory and inflammatory genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). In parallel, we analyzed a control group of subjects with no meditation experience who engaged in leisure activities in the same environment (n= 21). PBMCs from all participants were obtained before (t1) and after (t2) the intervention (t2-t1= 8 hours) and gene expression was analyzed using custom pathway focused quantitative-real time PCR assays. Both groups were also presented with the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). RESULTS Core clock gene expression at baseline (t1) was similar between groups and their rhythmicity was not influenced in meditators by the intensive day of practice. Similarly, we found that all the epigenetic regulatory enzymes and inflammatory genes analyzed exhibited similar basal expression levels in the two groups. In contrast, after the brief intervention we detected reduced expression of histone deacetylase genes (HDAC2, 3 and 9), alterations in global modification of histones (H4ac; H3K4me3) and decreased expression of pro-inflammatory genes (RIPK2 and COX2) in meditators compared with controls. We found that the expression of RIPK2 and HDAC2 genes was associated with a faster cortisol recovery to the TSST in both groups. CONCLUSIONS The regulation of HDACs and inflammatory pathways may represent some of the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic potential of mindfulness-based interventions. Our findings set the foundation for future studies to further assess meditation strategies for the treatment of chronic inflammatory conditions. PMID:24485481

  1. Inhibition of Histone Deacetylase Activity in Human Endometrial Stromal Cells Promotes Extracellular Matrix Remodelling and Limits Embryo Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Stuart P.; Quionero, Alicia; Martnez, Sebastin; Pellicer, Antonio; Simn, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Invasion of the trophoblast into the maternal decidua is regulated by both the trophoectoderm and the endometrial stroma, and entails the action of tissue remodeling enzymes. Trophoblast invasion requires the action of metalloproteinases (MMPs) to degrade extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and in turn, decidual cells express tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs). The balance between these promoting and restraining factors is a key event for the successful outcome of pregnancy. Gene expression is post-transcriptionally regulated by histone deacetylases (HDACs) that unpacks condensed chromatin activating gene expression. In this study we analyze the effect of histone acetylation on the expression of tissue remodeling enzymes and activity of human endometrial stromal cells (hESCs) related to trophoblast invasion control. Treatment of hESCs with the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) increased the expression of TIMP-1 and TIMP-3 while decreased MMP-2, MMP-9 and uPA and have an inhibitory effect on trophoblast invasion. Moreover, histone acetylation is detected at the promoters of TIMP-1 and TIMP-3 genes in TSA-treated. In addition, in an in vitro decidualized hESCs model, the increase of TIMP-1 and TIMP-3 expression is associated with histone acetylation at the promoters of these genes. Our results demonstrate that histone acetylation disrupt the balance of ECM modulators provoking a restrain of trophoblast invasion. These findings are important as an epigenetic mechanism that can be used to control trophoblast invasion. PMID:22291969

  2. Transcription factor NF-kappaB differentially regulates death receptor 5 expression involving histone deacetylase 1.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Shashirekha; Graham, Bonnie A; Brown, Jennifer G; Hu, Xiaojie; Vegh-Yarema, Nicolette; Harding, Gary; Paul, James T; Gibson, Spencer B

    2005-07-01

    The transcription factor nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) regulates the expression of both anti-apoptotic and proapoptotic genes. Death receptor 5 (DR5, TRAIL-R2) is a proapoptotic protein considered to be a potential target for cancer therapy, and its expression is mediated by NF-kappaB. The mechanism of NF-kappaB-induced DR5 expression is, however, unknown. Herein, we determined that etoposide-induced DR5 expression requires the first intronic region of the DR5 gene. Mutation of a putative NF-kappaB binding site in this intron eliminates DR5 promoter activity, as do mutations in the p53 binding site in this region. Reduction in p53 expression also blocks p65 binding to the intronic region of the DR5 gene, indicating cooperation between p53 and p65 in DR5 expression. In contrast, the anti-apoptotic stimulus, epidermal growth factor (EGF), fails to increase DR5 expression but effectively activates NF-kappaB and induces p65 binding to the DR5 gene. EGF, however, induces the association of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) with the DR5 gene, whereas etoposide treatment fails to induce this association. Indeed, HDAC inhibitors activate NF-kappaB and p53 and upregulate DR5 expression. Blockage of DR5 activation decreased HDAC inhibitor-induced apoptosis, and a combination of HDAC inhibitors and TRAIL increased apoptosis. This provides a mechanism for regulating NF-kappaB-mediated DR5 expression and could explain the differential roles NF-kappaB plays in regulating apoptosis. PMID:15964798

  3. Inhibition of histone deacetylases targets the transcription regulator Id2 to attenuate cystic epithelial cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lucy X; Li, Xinjian; Magenheimer, Brenda; Calvet, James P; Li, Xiaogang

    2012-01-01

    The pan-histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, trichostatin A, was found to reduce cyst progression and slow the decline of kidney function in Pkd2 knockout mice, model of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Here we determine whether HDAC inhibition acts by regulating cell proliferation to prevent cyst formation, or by other mechanisms. The loss of Pkd1 caused an upregulation of the inhibitor of differentiation 2 (Id2), a transcription regulator, triggering an Id2-mediated downregulation of p21 in mutant mouse embryonic kidney cells in vitro. Using mouse embryonic kidney cells, mutant for Pkd1, we found that trichostatin A decreased Id2, which resulted in upregulation of p21. Further, phosphorylated retinoblastoma (Rb), usually regulated by Cdk2/Cdk4 activity, was also reduced in these cells. Since these latter enzymes are under the control of p21, these studies suggest that the proliferation of cyst epithelial cells that is reduced by trichostatin A might result from p21 upregulation, or alternatively through the Rb-E2F pathway. Additional studies showed that Id2 directly bound to Rb, releasing the transcription activator E2F from transcriptionally inactive Rb-E2F complexes. HDAC inhibition was able to reverse this process by downregulation of Id2. Furthermore, treatment of pregnant Pkd1 mice with trichostatin A prevented cyst formation in the developing embryonic kidneys, showing that this inhibition is effective in vivo during early cyst formation. Thus, HDAC inhibition targets Id2-mediated pathways to downregulate cystic epithelial cell proliferation and hence cystogenesis. PMID:21900881

  4. Effect of the immunosuppressant histone deacetylase inhibitor FR276457 in a canine renal transplant model.

    PubMed

    Kinugasa, Fumitaka; Nagatomi, Itsuo; Nakanishi, Tomonori; Noto, Takahisa; Mori, Hiroaki; Matsuoka, Hideaki; Sudo, Yuji; Mutoh, Seitaro

    2009-09-01

    The histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor FR276457, a hydroxamic derivative, was identified during chemical library screening and was found to exhibit potent inhibitory effects on the activity of mammalian HDACs. It has been shown that FR276457 exhibited marked immunosuppressive effects in a rat heterotopic cardiac transplant model. To predict clinical efficacy of FR276457, we investigated the inhibitory effect of the proliferation of Jurkat cells in vitro and immunosuppressive effect of orally administered FR276457 on allograft rejection as a monotherapy or in combination with tacrolimus (0.04 mg/kg) injected intramuscularly (i.m.) in a canine renal transplant model. Animal survival, the plasma creatinine level, and histopathology were evaluated. FR276457 inhibited the proliferation of Jurkat cells probably by targeting activity of NF-kappaB. FR276457 prolonged the median survival time (MST) of transplanted grafts from 11.5 days (untreated group) to 29.0 days (FR276457-treated group). FR276457 administered 1 mg/kg twice a day in combination with tacrolimus prevented allograft rejection. In addition, a dose of 1.5 mg/kg twice a day or 5.0 mg/kg once a day prolonged the MST from 18 days (control group) to >73 or >90 days, respectively. Histopathological analysis showed that FR276457 suppressed the score for mononuclear cell infiltration and vasculitis. In conclusion, the HDAC inhibitor FR276457 inhibited the proliferation of T cell line established from human in vitro. And more, FR276457 clinically prolonged allograft survival when administered as a monotherapy, and had additive or synergistic effects when combined with tacrolimus with the canine renal transplant model. These results showed HDAC inhibitor is a promising biological target for treatment in transplant field. PMID:19409992

  5. Analysis of the genomic response of human prostate cancer cells to histone deacetylase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Kortenhorst, Madeleine SQ; Wissing, Michel D; Rodriguez, Ronald; Kachhap, Sushant K; Jans, Judith JM; Van der Groep, Petra; Verheul, Henk MW; Gupta, Anuj; Aiyetan, Paul O; van der Wall, Elsken; Carducci, Michael A; Van Diest, Paul J; Marchionni, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have emerged as important targets for cancer treatment. HDAC-inhibitors (HDACis) are well tolerated in patients and have been approved for the treatment of patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). To improve the clinical benefit of HDACis in solid tumors, combination strategies with HDACis could be employed. In this study, we applied Analysis of Functional Annotation (AFA) to provide a comprehensive list of genes and pathways affected upon HDACi-treatment in prostate cancer cells. This approach provides an unbiased and objective approach to high throughput data mining. By performing AFA on gene expression data from prostate cancer cell lines DU-145 (an HDACi-sensitive cell line) and PC3 (a relatively HDACi-resistant cell line) treated with HDACis valproic acid or vorinostat, we identified biological processes that are affected by HDACis and are therefore potential treatment targets for combination therapy. Our analysis revealed that HDAC-inhibition resulted among others in upregulation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes and deregulation of the mitotic spindle checkpoint by downregulation of genes involved in mitosis. These findings were confirmed by AFA on publicly available data sets from HDACi-treated prostate cancer cells. In total, we analyzed 375 microarrays with HDACi treated and non-treated (control) prostate cancer cells. All results from this extensive analysis are provided as an online research source (available at the journal’s website and at http://luigimarchionni.org/HDACIs.html). By publishing this data, we aim to enhance our understanding of the cellular changes after HDAC-inhibition, and to identify novel potential combination strategies with HDACis for the treatment of prostate cancer patients. PMID:23880963

  6. NF-kappaB inhibits transcription of the H(+)-K(+)-ATPase alpha(2)-subunit gene: role of histone deacetylases.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenzheng; Kone, Bruce C

    2002-11-01

    The H(+)-K(+)-ATPase alpha(2) (HKalpha(2)) gene plays a central role in potassium homeostasis, yet little is known about its transcriptional control. We recently demonstrated that the proximal promoter confers basal transcriptional activity in mouse inner medullary collecting duct 3 cells. We sought to determine whether the kappaB DNA binding element at -104 to -94 influences basal HKalpha(2) gene transcription in these cells. Recombinant NF-kappaB p50 footprinted the region -116/-94 in vitro. Gel shift and supershift analysis revealed NF-kappaB p50- and p65-containing DNA-protein complexes in nuclear extracts of mouse inner medullary collecting duct 3 cells. A promoter-luciferase construct with a mutated -104/-94 NF-kappaB element exhibited higher activity than the wild-type promoter in transfection assays. Overexpression of NF-kappaB p50, p65, or their combination trans-repressed the HKalpha(2) promoter. The histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor trichostatin A partially reversed NF-kappaB-mediated trans-repression of the HKalpha(2) promoter. HDAC6 overexpression inhibited HKalpha(2) promoter activity, and HDAC6 coimmunoprecipitated with NF-kappaB p50 and p65. These results suggest that HDAC6, recruited to the DNA protein complex, acts with NF-kappaB to suppress HKalpha(2) transcription and identify NF-kappaB p50 and p65 as novel binding partners for HDAC6. PMID:12372765

  7. Role of histone deacetylase 9 in regulating adipogenic differentiation and high fat diet-induced metabolic disease.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Tapan K; Basford, Joshua E; Yiew, Kan Hui; Stepp, David W; Hui, David Y; Weintraub, Neal L

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue serves as both a storage site for excess calories and as an endocrine organ, secreting hormones such as adiponectin that promote metabolic homeostasis. In obesity, adipose tissue expands primarily by hypertrophy (enlargement of existing adipocytes) rather than hyperplasia (generation of new adipocytes via adipogenic differentiation of preadipocytes). Progressive adipocyte hypertrophy leads to inflammation, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and ectopic lipid deposition, the hallmark characteristics of metabolic disease. We demonstrate that during chronic high fat feeding in mice, adipogenic differentiation is impaired due to the actions of histone deacetylase 9 (HDAC9), a member of the class II family of HDACs. Mechanistically, upregulated HDAC9 expression blocks the adipogenic differentiation program during chronic high fat feeding, leading to accumulation of improperly differentiated adipocytes with diminished expression of adiponectin. These adipocytes are inefficient at storing lipid, resulting in ectopic lipid deposition in the liver. HDAC9 gene deletion prevents the detrimental effects of chronic high fat feeding on adipogenic differentiation, increases adiponectin expression, and enhances energy expenditure by promoting beige adipogenesis, thus leading to reduced body mass and improved metabolic homeostasis. HDAC9 is therefore emerging as a critical regulator of adipose tissue health and a novel therapeutic target for obesity-related disease. PMID:26317058

  8. Histone deacetylase inhibitors are potent inducers of gene expression in latent EBV and sensitize lymphoma cells to nucleoside antiviral agents.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sajal K; Perrine, Susan P; Williams, Robert M; Faller, Douglas V

    2012-01-26

    Induction of EBV lytic-phase gene expression, combined with exposure to an antiherpes viral drug, represents a promising targeted therapeutic approach to EBV-associated lymphomas. Short-chain fatty acids or certain chemotherapeutics have been used to induce EBV lytic-phase gene expression in cultured cells and mouse models, but these studies generally have not translated into clinical application. The recent success of a clinical trial with the pan-histone deacetylase (pan-HDAC) inhibitor arginine butyrate and the antiherpes viral drug ganciclovir in the treatment of EBV lymphomas prompted us to investigate the potential of several HDAC inhibitors, including some new, highly potent compounds, to sensitize EBV(+) human lymphoma cells to antiviral agents in vitro. Our study included short-chain fatty acids (sodium butyrate and valproic acid); hydroxamic acids (oxamflatin, Scriptaid, suberoyl anilide hydroxamic acid, panobinostat [LBH589], and belinostat [PXD101]); the benzamide MS275; the cyclic tetrapeptide apicidin; and the recently discovered HDAC inhibitor largazole. With the exception of suberoyl anilide hydroxamic acid and PXD101, all of the other HDAC inhibitors effectively sensitized EBV(+) lymphoma cells to ganciclovir. LBH589, MS275, and largazole were effective at nanomolar concentrations and were 10(4) to 10(5) times more potent than butyrate. The effectiveness and potency of these HDAC inhibitors make them potentially applicable as sensitizers to antivirals for the treatment of EBV-associated lymphomas. PMID:22160379

  9. Inhibition of Histone Deacetylases Permits Lipopolysaccharide-Mediated Secretion of Bioactive IL-1? via a Caspase-1-Independent Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Stammler, Dominik; Eigenbrod, Tatjana; Menz, Sarah; Frick, Julia S; Sweet, Matthew J; Shakespear, Melanie R; Jantsch, Jonathan; Siegert, Isabel; Wlfle, Sabine; Langer, Julian D; Oehme, Ina; Schaefer, Liliana; Fischer, Andre; Knievel, Judith; Heeg, Klaus; Dalpke, Alexander H; Bode, Konrad A

    2015-12-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors (HDACi) are clinically approved anticancer drugs that have important immune-modulatory properties. We report the surprising finding that HDACi promote LPS-induced IL-1? processing and secretion in human and murine dendritic cells and murine macrophages. HDACi/LPS-induced IL-1? maturation and secretion kinetics differed completely from those observed upon inflammasome activation. Moreover, this pathway of IL-1? secretion was dependent on caspase-8 but was independent of the inflammasome components NACHT, LRR, and PYD domains-containing protein 3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a carboxyl-terminal caspase-recruitment domain, and caspase-1. Genetic studies excluded HDAC6 and HDAC10 as relevant HDAC targets in this pathway, whereas pharmacological inhibitor studies implicated the involvement of HDAC11. Treatment of mice with HDACi in a dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis model resulted in a strong increase in intestinal IL-1?, confirming that this pathway is also operative in vivo. Thus, in addition to the conventional inflammasome-dependent IL-1? cleavage pathway, dendritic cells and macrophages are capable of generating, secreting, and processing bioactive IL-1? by a novel, caspase-8-dependent mechanism. Given the widespread interest in the therapeutic targeting of IL-1?, as well as the use of HDACi for anti-inflammatory applications, these findings have substantial clinical implications. PMID:26519528

  10. Highly active combination of BRD4 antagonist and histone deacetylase inhibitor against human acute myelogenous leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Fiskus, Warren; Sharma, Sunil; Qi, Jun; Valenta, John A; Schaub, Leasha J; Shah, Bhavin; Peth, Karissa; Portier, Bryce P; Rodriguez, Melissa; Devaraj, Santhana G T; Zhan, Ming; Sheng, Jianting; Iyer, Swaminathan P; Bradner, James E; Bhalla, Kapil N

    2014-05-01

    The bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) protein family members, including BRD4, bind to acetylated lysines on histones and regulate the expression of important oncogenes, for example, c-MYC and BCL2. Here, we demonstrate the sensitizing effects of the histone hyperacetylation-inducing pan-histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor panobinostat on human acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) blast progenitor cells (BPC) to the BET protein antagonist JQ1. Treatment with JQ1, but not its inactive enantiomer (R-JQ1), was highly lethal against AML BPCs expressing mutant NPM1c+ with or without coexpression of FLT3-ITD or AML expressing mixed lineage leukemia fusion oncoprotein. JQ1 treatment reduced binding of BRD4 and RNA polymerase II to the DNA of c-MYC and BCL2 and reduced their levels in the AML cells. Cotreatment with JQ1 and the HDAC inhibitor panobinostat synergistically induced apoptosis of the AML BPCs, but not of normal CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitor cells. This was associated with greater attenuation of c-MYC and BCL2, while increasing p21, BIM, and cleaved PARP levels in the AML BPCs. Cotreatment with JQ1 and panobinostat significantly improved the survival of the NOD/SCID mice engrafted with OCI-AML3 or MOLM13 cells (P < 0.01). These findings highlight cotreatment with a BRD4 antagonist and an HDAC inhibitor as a potentially efficacious therapy of AML. PMID:24435446

  11. A phase II study of the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat combined with tamoxifen for the treatment of patients with hormone therapy-resistant breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Munster, P N; Thurn, K T; Thomas, S; Raha, P; Lacevic, M; Miller, A; Melisko, M; Ismail-Khan, R; Rugo, H; Moasser, M; Minton, S E

    2011-01-01

    Background: Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are crucial components of the oestrogen receptor (ER) transcriptional complex. Preclinically, HDAC inhibitors can reverse tamoxifen/aromatase inhibitor resistance in hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. This concept was examined in a phase II combination trial with correlative end points. Methods: Patients with ER-positive metastatic breast cancer progressing on endocrine therapy were treated with 400 mg of vorinostat daily for 3 of 4 weeks and 20 mg tamoxifen daily, continuously. Histone acetylation and HDAC2 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were also evaluated. Results: In all, 43 patients (median age 56 years (31–71)) were treated, 25 (58%) received prior adjuvant tamoxifen, 29 (67%) failed one prior chemotherapy regimen, 42 (98%) progressed after one, and 23 (54%) after two aromatase inhibitors. The objective response rate by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours criteria was 19% and the clinical benefit rate (response or stable disease >24 weeks) was 40%. The median response duration was 10.3 months (confidence interval: 8.1–12.4). Histone hyperacetylation and higher baseline HDAC2 levels correlated with response. Conclusion: The combination of vorinostat and tamoxifen is well tolerated and exhibits encouraging activity in reversing hormone resistance. Correlative studies suggest that HDAC2 expression is a predictive marker and histone hyperacetylation is a useful pharmacodynamic marker for the efficacy of this combination. PMID:21559012

  12. Histone deacetylase 5 is not a p53 target gene, but its overexpression inhibits tumor cell growth and induces apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuanhui; Tan, Mingjia; Gosink, Mark; Wang, Kevin K W; Sun, Yi

    2002-05-15

    p53 tumor suppressor is activated by phosphorylation and acetylation on DNA damage. One of unknown p53 early transcripts was identified to be histone deacetylase-5 (HDAC5). We tested a hypothesis that HDAC5 is a p53 down-stream target gene that on induction by p53 inactivates p53 by removal of acetyl group in p53 molecule, thus functioning as an auto-regulatory negative feedback loop in analogue to p53-murine double minute 2 interaction. Six p53 binding consensus sites were identified in the promoter of HDAC5. p53 binds to one of the sites weakly. However, luciferase constructs driven by the HDAC5 promoter containing three to six potential binding sites were not activated by p53, nor was the expression of HDAC5 mRNA induced by p53-activating agents. Furthermore, HDAC5 does not bind to p53 nor reduces etoposide-induced p53 acetylation. Thus, HDAC5 is not a p53 target gene and may act in a p53-independent manner. We next studied the effect of HDAC5 on tumor cell growth and apoptosis. Transfection of HDAC5 inhibited growth of multiple tumor cell lines including U2OS osteogenic sarcoma cells, SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, and MCF breast carcinoma cells. The growth suppression seen in HDAC5-overexpressing cells appears to be attributable partly to a reduced growth rate as revealed by cell growth assay using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and mainly to spontaneous apoptosis as shown by DNA fragmentation ELISA and morphological appearance. Mechanistically, repression of three cell proliferation genes in mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and induction of seven apoptosis-related genes were identified by microarray profiling in HDAC5-overexpressed cells. Among induced genes, four (TNFR1, TNFSF7, caspase-8, and DAPK1) were associated with the tumor necrosis factor ligand-receptor death pathway. Induction of TNFR1, TNFSF7, and caspase-8 were confirmed by Northern and Western analyses. Thus, activation of tumor necrosis factor death receptor pathway appears to be associated with HDAC5-induced spontaneous apoptosis. PMID:12019172

  13. Effect of histone deacetylase inhibitors trichostatin A and valproic acid on hair cell regeneration in zebrafish lateral line neuromasts

    PubMed Central

    He, Yingzi; Cai, Chengfu; Tang, Dongmei; Sun, Shan; Li, Huawei

    2014-01-01

    In humans, auditory hair cells are not replaced when injured. Thus, cochlear hair cell loss causes progressive and permanent hearing loss. Conversely, non-mammalian vertebrates are capable of regenerating lost sensory hair cells. The zebrafish lateral line has numerous qualities that make it well-suited for studying hair cell development and regeneration. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity has been shown to have an important role in regenerative processes in vertebrates, but its function in hair cell regeneration in vivo is not fully understood. Here, we have examined the role of HDAC activity in hair cell regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line. We eliminated lateral line hair cells of 5-day post-fertilization larvae using neomycin and then treated the larvae with HDAC inhibitors. To assess hair cell regeneration, we used 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation in zebrafish larvae to label mitotic cells after hair cell loss. We found that pharmacological inhibition of HDACs using trichostatin A (TSA) or valproic acid (VPA) increased histone acetylation in the regenerated neuromasts following neomycin-induced damage. We also showed that treatment with TSA or VPA decreased the number of supporting cells and regenerated hair cells in response to hair cell damage. Additionally, BrdU immunostaining and western blot analysis showed that TSA or VPA treatment caused a significant decrease in the percentage of S-phase cells and induced p21Cip1 and p27Kip1 expression, both of which are likely to explain the decrease in the amount of newly regenerated hair cells in treated embryos. Finally, we showed that HDAC inhibitors induced no observable cell death in neuromasts as measured by cleaved caspase-3 immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Taken together, our results demonstrate that HDAC activity has an important role in the regeneration of hair cells in the lateral line. PMID:25431550

  14. Why Hydroxamates May Not Be the Best Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors—What Some May Have Forgotten or Would Rather Forget?

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Sida

    2016-01-01

    Hydroxamate-based histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) have been approved as therapeutic agents by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in oncology applications. While the potential utility of such HDACIs in other areas of medicinal chemistry is tremendous, there are significant concerns that “pan-HDAC inhibitors” may be too broadly acting and/or toxic for clinical use beyond oncology. In addition to the isozyme selectivity challenge, the potential mutagenicity of hydroxamate-containing HDAC inhibitors represents a major hindrance in their application to other therapeutic areas. Herein we report on the mutagenicity of known hydroxamates, discuss the mechanisms responsible for their genotoxicity, and review some of the current alternatives to hydroxamates. We conclude that the hydroxamate group, while providing high-potency HDACIs, is not necessarily the best zinc-binding group for HDACI drug discovery. PMID:26603496

  15. Phosphoproteomic analysis reveals an intrinsic pathway for histone deacetylase 7 regulation that controls cytotoxic T lymphocyte function

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Maria N.; Goebel, Jurgen; Feijoo-Carnero, Carmen; Morrice, Nick; Cantrell, Doreen A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study reports an unbiased analysis of cytotoxic T cell serine-threonine phosphoproteome using high resolution mass spectrometry. Approximately 2,000 phosphorylations were identified in CTLs of which approximately 450 were controlled by TCR signaling. A significantly overrepresented group of molecules identified were transcription activators, co-repressors and chromatin regulators. A focus on chromatin regulators revealed that CTLs have high expression of histone deacetylase HDAC7 but continually phosphorylate and export this transcriptional repressor from the nucleus. HDAC7 dephosphorylation results in its nuclear accumulation and suppressed expression of genes encoding key cytokines, cytokine receptors and adhesion molecules that determine CTL function. The screening of CTL phosphoproteome thus reveals intrinsic pathways of serine-threonine phosphorylation that target chromatin regulators and determine the CTL functional program. PMID:21399638

  16. Histone deacetylase inhibition modulates indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase–dependent DC functions and regulates experimental graft-versus-host disease in mice

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Pavan; Sun, Yaping; Toubai, Tomomi; Duran-Struuck, Raimon; Clouthier, Shawn G.; Weisiger, Elizabeth; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Tawara, Isao; Krijanovski, Oleg; Gatza, Erin; Liu, Chen; Malter, Chelsea; Mascagni, Paolo; Dinarello, Charles A.; Ferrara, James L.M.

    2008-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are antitumor agents that also have antiinflammatory properties. However, the mechanisms of their immunomodulatory functions are not known. We investigated the mechanisms of action of 2 HDAC inhibitors, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and ITF 2357, on mouse DC responses. Pretreatment of DCs with HDAC inhibitors significantly reduced TLR-induced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, suppressed the expression of CD40 and CD80, and reduced the in vitro and in vivo allostimulatory responses induced by the DCs. In addition, injection of DCs treated ex vivo with HDAC inhibitors reduced experimental graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in a murine allogeneic BM transplantation model. Exposure of DCs to HDAC inhibitors increased expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), a suppressor of DC function. Blockade of IDO in WT DCs with siRNA and with DCs from IDO-deficient animals caused substantial reversal of HDAC inhibition–induced in vitro suppression of DC-stimulated responses. Direct injection of HDAC inhibitors early after allogeneic BM transplantation to chimeric animals whose BM-derived cells lacked IDO failed to protect from GVHD, demonstrating an in vivo functional role for IDO. Together, these data show that HDAC inhibitors regulate multiple DC functions through the induction of IDO and suggest that they may represent a novel class of agents to treat immune-mediated diseases. PMID:18568076

  17. CAMKII-conditional deletion of histone deacetylase 2 potentiates acute methamphetamine-induced expression of immediate early genes in the mouse nucleus accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Oscar V.; McCoy, Michael T.;