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Sample records for health aging study

  1. [Wellbeing, health and autonomy in old age: the Basal IDA Study (Interdisciplinary Aging Study)].

    PubMed

    Perrig-Chiello, P; Perrig, W J; Stähelin, H B; Krebs-Roubicek, E; Ehrsam, R

    1996-01-01

    Current research on successful aging reflects a multicriteria approach, although a consensus on the interrelationship between different factors has not yet been achieved. The longitudinal-sequential study presented here aims at identifying psychological, biological and sociobiographical predictors of well-being, health and autonomy in old age and their interdependency. The concern of this study is thus a multidisciplinary approach including psychology, psychiatry, geriatrics and sports sciences. The ongoing study is described and first findings are reported. Four hundred and forty-two people, aged 65 to 94, were tested twice (1993 and 1995). Since this project is a pursuit of a medical longitudinal study (Basler-Studie), bio-medical parameters from former status measurements (1960, 1965, 1971, 1985, 1990) are available and taken into account for comparison with the newly collected data from 1993 and 1995. The tests included both a medical examination and cognitive and personality measurements. The medical test battery included: clinical and anthropometrical data, bio-chemical data as well as the medical history, health behaviour, complaints and subjective health. The psychological assessment included psychological well-being, health-related control beliefs, causal attribution, religiosity, etc. For memory assessment a computerized test was used which allows to test 1) perceptual error-scanning, 2) naming speed, and memory resources in terms of 3) capacity, 4) explicit and 5) implicit components. It therefore integrates direct (free recall, recognition) and indirect memory tests (perceptual identification: clarification), that were used previously in different experimental and quasi-experimental studies to investigate memory performance over the life-span. Furthermore, the following three experimental interventions are performed: memory and reattribution training, physical training and psychoanalytical group therapy. First descriptive results are presented

  2. Aging & Health.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    By 2050 an estimated 83.7 million Americans will be ages sixty-five and older, up from 40.3 million in 2010. The shock wave of aging Americans will have profound implications for older people, their families, health care providers, and the economy. Researchers, policy makers, health care leaders, and others are designing responses to the challenges these actuarial shifts will create. For example, delivering health care at home could help keep more older Americans out of costly emergency departments and nursing homes. But such steps require more health care providers, a broader distribution of providers than currently exists, and better use of the resources we have. PMID:27605632

  3. Progression of aging in Mexico: the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS) 2012

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Rebeca; Michaels-Obregón, Alejandra; Palloni, Alberto; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel; González-González, César; López-Ortega, Mariana; Téllez-Rojo, Martha María; Mendoza-Alvarado, Laura Rosario

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the third wave of the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS), completed in 2012, and present preliminary results. Materials and methods Descriptive analyses by gender and age group of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, health conditions and health behaviors, as well as social support and life satisfaction measures are presented. In addition, external validations are presented by comparing MHAS 2012 indicators with other national data sources. Results For the panel of older adults in the sample, the rate of health care insurance coverage increased greatly between 2001 and 2012, a significantly higher change in rural compared to urban areas. The results for 2012 are consistent with the previous two waves for the main indicators of health and physical disability prevalence, risk factors, and behaviors. Conclusions The MHAS offers a unique opportunity to study aging in Mexico, as well as to complete cross-national comparisons. The cumulative number of deaths in the cohort should support the study of mortality and its association with health outcomes and behaviors over the life cycle. In addition, the sub-samples of objective markers will enable methodological research on self-reports and associations of biomarkers in old age with similar health outcomes and behaviors. PMID:26172238

  4. Data Resource Profile: The World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE)

    PubMed Central

    Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath; Naidoo, Nirmala; Biritwum, Richard; Fan, Wu; Lopez Ridaura, Ruy; Maximova, Tamara; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Williams, Sharon; Snodgrass, J Josh; Minicuci, Nadia; D'Este, Catherine; Peltzer, Karl; Boerma, J Ties; Yawson, A.; Mensah, G.; Yong, J.; Guo, Y.; Zheng, Y.; Parasuraman, P.; Lhungdim, H.; Sekher, TV.; Rosa, R.; Belov, VB.; Lushkina, NP; Peltzer, K.; Makiwane, M.; Zuma, K.; Ramlagan, S.; Davids, A.; Mbelle, N.; Matseke, G.; Schneider, M.; Tabane, C.; Tollman, S.; Kahn, K.; Ng, N.; Juvekar, S.; Sankoh, O.; Debpuur, CY.; Nguyen, TK Chuc; Gomez-Olive, FX.; Hakimi, M.; Hirve, S.; Abdullah, S.; Hodgson, A.; Kyobutungi, C.; Egondi, T.; Mayombana, C.; Minh, HV.; Mwanyangala, MA.; Razzaque, A.; Wilopo, S.; Streatfield, PK.; Byass, P.; Wall, S.; Scholten, F.; Mugisha, J.; Seeley, J.; Kinyanda, E.; Nyirenda, M.; Mutevedzi, P.; Newell, M-L.

    2012-01-01

    Population ageing is rapidly becoming a global issue and will have a major impact on health policies and programmes. The World Health Organization’s Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) aims to address the gap in reliable data and scientific knowledge on ageing and health in low- and middle-income countries. SAGE is a longitudinal study with nationally representative samples of persons aged 50+ years in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa, with a smaller sample of adults aged 18–49 years in each country for comparisons. Instruments are compatible with other large high-income country longitudinal ageing studies. Wave 1 was conducted during 2007–2010 and included a total of 34 124 respondents aged 50+ and 8340 aged 18–49. In four countries, a subsample consisting of 8160 respondents participated in Wave 1 and the 2002/04 World Health Survey (referred to as SAGE Wave 0). Wave 2 data collection will start in 2012/13, following up all Wave 1 respondents. Wave 3 is planned for 2014/15. SAGE is committed to the public release of study instruments, protocols and meta- and micro-data: access is provided upon completion of a Users Agreement available through WHO’s SAGE website (www.who.int/healthinfo/systems/sage) and WHO’s archive using the National Data Archive application (http://apps.who.int/healthinfo/systems/surveydata). PMID:23283715

  5. Oral Health and Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Oral Health and Aging Oral Health and Aging Summer 2016 Table of Contents Jerrold H. Epstein, ... they may need. Read More "Oral Health and Aging" Articles Oral Health and Aging / 4 Myths About ...

  6. The experiences of women of reproductive age regarding health-promoting behaviours: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Health promotion is critical for community and family health. Health-promoting behaviours provide solutions for maintaining and promoting health. Although several studies have addressed the frequency and different types of health-promoting behaviours in women, little information is available about their experiences. This study aimed to explore the experiences of women of reproductive age regarding health-promoting behaviours. Methods In the present study, which was conducted in Tehran, Iran, 15 females, who were selected purposefully, participated in individual in-depth, semi-structured interviews. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using conventional content analysis. Results Nine main categories were derived from the analysis, including establishing an appropriate eating pattern, establishing a balanced rest/activity pattern, spirituality, stress management, personal sensitivity and responsibility, establishing an appropriate pattern of social interactions, practicing safe and healthy recreations, feeling improvement in physical-functional health, and feeling improvement in emotional and psychological health. The first 7 categories represent the nature and types of real health-promoting behaviours in women of reproductive age, whereas the last 2 constitute feeling and understanding of the implementation of these behaviours. Conclusion The study findings show that the women experience improvement in physical-functional, emotional, and psychological health by implementing health-promoting behaviours. It is therefore necessary to introduce strategies in the context of the community culture for improving different aspects of health-promoting behaviours in women of reproductive age to maintain and improve their overall health. PMID:22846587

  7. Older adults' perceptions of ageing and their health and functioning: a systematic review of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Warmoth, Krystal; Tarrant, Mark; Abraham, Charles; Lang, Iain A

    2016-07-01

    Many older people perceive ageing negatively, describing it in terms of poor or declining health and functioning. These perceptions may be related to older adults' health. The aim of this review was to synthesise existing research on the relationship between older adults' perceptions of ageing and their health and functioning. A systematic search was conducted of five electronic databases (ASSIA, CINAHL, IBSS, MEDLINE and PsycINFO). Citations within identified reports were also searched. Observational studies were included if they included perceptions of ageing and health-related measures involving participants aged 60 years and older. Study selection, data extraction and quality appraisal were conducted using predefined criteria. Twenty-eight reports met the criteria for inclusion. Older adults' perceptions of ageing were assessed with a variety of measures. Perceptions were related to health and functioning across seven health domains: memory and cognitive performance, physical and physiological performance, medical conditions and outcomes, disability, care-seeking, self-rated health, quality of life and death. How ageing is perceived by older adults is related to their health and functioning in multiple domains. However, higher quality and longitudinal studies are needed to further investigate this relationship. PMID:26527056

  8. Gestational Age at Birth and ‘Body-Mind’ Health at 5 Years of Age: A Population Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Segurado, Ricardo; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.; Kelleher, Cecily C.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified the effects of prematurity on the neonate’s physical health, however few studies have explored the effects of prematurity on both the physical and mental health of the child as they develop. Secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of infants (n = 18 818, born 2000–2002 in the United Kingdom) was performed. Effects of gestational age at birth on health outcomes at 5 years were measured using parental rating of their children’s general health and severity of behavior problems. The association between parent’s general health ratings and behavior problem ratings was low: 86% of those reporting serious behavior problems (5% of the sample, n = 764) rated their child as being in excellent, very good, or good health. Still, a gradient of increasing risk of poorer outcome with decreasing gestational age was observed for a composite health measure (poor/fair health and/or serious behavior problems), suggesting an association with prematurity for this composite assessment of health status. The greatest contribution to the childhood composite health measure at 5 years was for children born at 32–36 weeks gestation: population attributable fractions for having poor outcomes was 3.4% (Bonferroni-adjusted 95% confidence interval 1.1%–6.2%), compared to 1% (0.2–2.3) for birth at less than 32 weeks. Results suggest that preterm children, by school entry, are not only at high risk of physical health problems, but also of behavioral health problems. The recognition of, and response to comprehensive health and well-being outcomes related to prematurity are important in order to correctly plan and deliver adequate paediatric health services and policies. PMID:26975048

  9. Gestational Age at Birth and 'Body-Mind' Health at 5 Years of Age: A Population Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Frances M; Segurado, Ricardo; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Kelleher, Cecily C; Tremblay, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified the effects of prematurity on the neonate's physical health, however few studies have explored the effects of prematurity on both the physical and mental health of the child as they develop. Secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of infants (n = 18 818, born 2000-2002 in the United Kingdom) was performed. Effects of gestational age at birth on health outcomes at 5 years were measured using parental rating of their children's general health and severity of behavior problems. The association between parent's general health ratings and behavior problem ratings was low: 86% of those reporting serious behavior problems (5% of the sample, n = 764) rated their child as being in excellent, very good, or good health. Still, a gradient of increasing risk of poorer outcome with decreasing gestational age was observed for a composite health measure (poor/fair health and/or serious behavior problems), suggesting an association with prematurity for this composite assessment of health status. The greatest contribution to the childhood composite health measure at 5 years was for children born at 32-36 weeks gestation: population attributable fractions for having poor outcomes was 3.4% (Bonferroni-adjusted 95% confidence interval 1.1%-6.2%), compared to 1% (0.2-2.3) for birth at less than 32 weeks. Results suggest that preterm children, by school entry, are not only at high risk of physical health problems, but also of behavioral health problems. The recognition of, and response to comprehensive health and well-being outcomes related to prematurity are important in order to correctly plan and deliver adequate paediatric health services and policies. PMID:26975048

  10. Planning for End-of-Life Care: Findings from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Douglas D.; Tuokko, Holly; Stajduhar, Kelli I.; Lindsay, Joan; Buehler, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    Steps involved in formalizing end-of-life care preferences and factors related to these steps are unclear in the literature. Using data from the third wave of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA-3), we examined the relations between demographic and health predictors, on the one hand, and three outcomes, on the other (whether participants…

  11. Aging: Health Education's Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Bill C.

    The elderly have recently become a target of national concern. There are currently more than 22 million people 65 years of age or older in the United States, and this number is continually increasing. Health education must respond to the need for better understanding of the aging process and the aged by including information and materials designed…

  12. Predictors and Sequelae of Fractures in the Elderly: The Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostbye, Truls; Walton, Ruth E.; Steenhuis, Runa; Hodsman, Anthony B.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the incidence, type, risk factors, and sequelae of fractures experienced by community-dwelling elderly Canadians. Data are from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA), a longitudinal cohort study, collected in three waves: baseline (1991), wave 2 (1996), and wave 3 (2001). In CSHA-2 (1996),…

  13. Optimism and depression as predictors of physical and mental health functioning: the Normative Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Achat, H; Kawachi, I; Spiro, A; DeMolles, D A; Sparrow, D

    2000-01-01

    Dispositional optimism has been linked in previous studies to better health outcomes. We sought to examine the independent associations of dispositional optimism and depressive symptoms with physical and mental functioning in a cohort of healthy middle-aged and older men. The study was conducted among 659 subjects in the Veterans Administration (VA) Normative Aging Study. Dispositional optimism and depressive symptomatology were measured in 1991 and 1990, respectively, by the Life Orientation Test and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies--Depression Scale (CES-D). The dependent variables, functioning and well-being, were measured in 1992 by the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). In multivariate regression models, optimism was associated with higher levels of general health perceptions, vitality, and mental health, and lower levels of bodily pain, but not to physical functioning, social functioning, or role limitations due to physical or emotional problems. Depressive symptomatology was associated with reduced levels of functioning across all SF-36 domains. The findings for optimism and depression were statistically significant after mutual adjustment in multivariate regression models. Optimism and depression are independent predictors of functional status among aging men. PMID:10962705

  14. Sex Differences in Biological Markers of Health in the Study of Stress, Aging and Health in Russia

    PubMed Central

    Oksuzyan, Anna; Shkolnikova, Maria; Vaupel, James W.; Christensen, Kaare; Shkolnikov, Vladimir M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The apparent contradiction that women live longer but have worse health than men, the so called male-female health-survival paradox, is very pronounced in Russia. The present study investigates whether men in Moscow are healthier than women at the level of biomarkers, and whether the associations between biomarkers and subjective health have sex-specific patterns. Materials Previously collected data in the study of Stress, Aging, and Health in Russia (SAHR, n = 1800) were used to examine sex differences in biomarkers and their associations with physical functioning and self-rated health. Results The present study found mixed directions and magnitudes for sex differences in biomarkers. Women were significantly disadvantaged with regard to obesity and waist circumference, whereas men had a tendency toward higher prevalence of electrocardiographic abnormalities. No sex differences were indicated in the prevalence of immunological biomarkers, and mixed patterns were found for lipid profiles. Many biomarkers were associated with physical functioning and general health. Obesity and waist circumference were related to lower physical functioning among females only, while major Q-wave abnormalities with high probabilities of myocardial infarction and atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter were associated with physical functioning and self-rated health among males only. Conclusion No clear patterns of sex differences in prevalence of high-risk levels of biomarkers suggest that the male-female health-survival paradox is weaker at the level of health biomarkers. We found some evidence that certain biomarkers reflecting pathophysiological changes in the organism that do not possess acute health risks, but over many years may lead to physical disability, are associated with physical functioning and self-rated health in women, whereas others reflecting more serious life-threatening pathophysiological changes are associated with physical functioning and self-rated health

  15. Major electrocardiographic abnormalities in persons aged 65 years and older (the Cardiovascular Health Study). Cardiovascular Health Study Collaborative Research Group.

    PubMed

    Furberg, C D; Manolio, T A; Psaty, B M; Bild, D E; Borhani, N O; Newman, A; Tabatznik, B; Rautaharju, P M

    1992-05-15

    Electrocardiographic abnormalities are often found in older patients, but their prevalence in free-living elderly populations is not well-defined. In addition, the clinical significance of many of these abnormalities is uncertain. The prevalence of major electrocardiographic abnormalities was determined in 5,150 adults aged greater than or equal to 65 years from the Cardiovascular Health Study--a study of risk factors for stroke and coronary heart disease in the elderly. Ventricular conduction defects, major Q/QS waves, left ventricular hypertrophy, isolated major ST-T-wave abnormalities, atrial fibrillation and first-degree atrioventricular block were collectively categorized as major electrocardiographic abnormalities. Prevalence of any major electrocardiographic abnormality was 29% in the entire cohort, 19% among 2,413 participants who reported no history of coronary artery disease or systemic hypertension, and 37% among 2,737 participants with a history of coronary artery disease or hypertension. Prevalence of major electrocardiographic abnormalities was higher in men than in women regardless of history, and tended to increase with age. Major Q/QS waves were found in 5.2%, and more than half were in those who did not report a previous myocardial infarction. Major electrocardiographic abnormalities are common in elderly men and women irrespective of the history of heart disease. PMID:1585868

  16. Cumulative Lead Exposure and Age at Menopause in the Nurses’ Health Study Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Eum, Ki-Do; Nie, Linda H.; Hu, Howard; Korrick, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Early menopause has been associated with many adverse health outcomes, including increased risk of cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Lead has been found to be adversely associated with female reproductive function, but whether exposures experienced by the general population are associated with altered age at menopause has not been explored. Objective: Our goal was to assess the association between cumulative lead exposure and age at natural menopause. Methods: Self-reported menopausal status and bone lead concentration measured with K-shell X-ray fluorescence—a biomarker of cumulative lead exposure—were obtained from 434 women participants in the Nurses’ Health Study. Results: The mean (± SD) age at natural menopause was 50.8 ± 3.6 years. Higher tibia lead level was associated with younger age at menopause. In adjusted analyses, the average age of menopause for women in the highest tertile of tibia lead was 1.21 years younger (95% CI: –2.08, –0.35) than for women in the lowest tertile (p-trend = 0.006). Although the number of cases was small (n = 23), the odds ratio for early menopause (< 45 years of age) was 5.30 (95% CI: 1.42, 19.78) for women in the highest tertile of tibia lead compared with those in the lowest tertile (p-trend = 0.006). There was no association between patella or blood lead and age at menopause. Conclusions: Our results support an association between low-level cumulative lead exposure and an earlier age at menopause. These data suggest that low-level lead exposure may contribute to menopause-related health outcomes in older women through effects on age at menopause. Citation: Eum KD, Weisskopf MG, Nie LH, Hu H, Korrick SA. 2014. Cumulative lead exposure and age at menopause in the Nurses’ Health Study Cohort. Environ Health Perspect 122:229–234; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206399 PMID:24398113

  17. Increased Health Service Utilization Costs in the Year Prior to Institutionalization: Findings from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Naslund, John A.; Sauter, Agnes H.; Gutman, Gloria; Beattie, B. Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to characterize patterns of formal health service utilization costs during older adults’ transition from community to institutional care. Methods Participants were 127 adults (age ≥ 65) from the British Columbia sample (N = 2,057) of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging who transitioned from community to institutional care between 1991 and 2001. Health service utilization costs were measured using Cost-Per-Day-At-Risk at five time points: > 12 months, 6–12 months, and ≤ 6 months preinstitutionalization, and ≤ 6 months and 6–12 months postinstitutionalization. Cost-Per-Day-At-Risk was measured for Continuing Care, Medical Services Plan, and PharmaCare costs by calculating total health service use over time, divided by the number of days the participant was alive. Results Significant differences in Cost-Per-Day-At-Risk were observed for Continuing Care, Medical Services Plan, and PharmaCare costs over time. All health service utilization costs increased significantly during the 6–12 months and ≤ 6 months prior to institutionalization. Postinstitutionalization Continuing Care costs continued to increase at ≤ 6 months before decreasing at 6–12 months, while decreases occurred for Medical Services Plan and PharmaCare costs relative to preinstitutionalization costs. Conclusions The increases in costs observed during the year prior to institutionalization, characterized by a flurry of health service utilization, provide evidence of distinct cost patterns over the transition period. PMID:24883162

  18. Aging and Health Literacy

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kay H.

    2014-01-01

    A recent study comparing older adults’ health literacy skills with their satisfaction with health care providers’ communication efforts did not find a correlation between the two measures. However, the results were interesting, including the fact that almost 40 percent of participants experienced moderate to severe difficulties in understanding everyday health information as presented in a food label (Newest Vital Sign assessment). This has implications for senior patient engagement in health care, particularly at a time when so many health transactions such as scheduling and records requests, not to mention general health information, are moving to online only format. Librarians should be aware of the issues surrounding health literacy in older adults and work with providers to address those deficits in health care navigation in this population. PMID:24634614

  19. Racial Differences in Self-Rated Health at Similar Levels of Physical Functioning: An Examination of Health Pessimism in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Richard; Rooks, Ronica N.; Albert, Steven M.; Thorpe, Roland J.; Brenes, Gretchen A.; Harris, Tamara B.; Koster, Annemarie; Satterfield, Suzanne; Ayonayon, Hilsa N.; Newman, Anne B.

    2009-01-01

    Background The health pessimism hypothesis suggests that Black elders are more pessimistic about health than Whites and therefore tend to report lower self-rated health (SRH) at comparable health status. The current analysis examined the factors associated with SRH and tested the health pessimism hypothesis among older adults at similar levels of physical functioning. Methods The study example included 2,729 Health, Aging, and Body Composition study participants aged 70–79 years. We used hierarchical logistic regression to examine the association between race and SRH while adjusting for demographic, physical health, and psychosocial factors. The analyses were repeated for participants at similar levels of objective functioning to test the health pessimism hypothesis. Results The association between race and SRH remained independent of physical and psychosocial health variables, with Whites being 3.7 times more likely than Black elders to report favorable SRH. This association was significant at each level of physical functioning and greater at the higher (odds ratio [OR] = 5.5) versus lower (OR = 2.2) levels of functioning. Conclusions The results suggest greater health pessimism among Black elders and expand previous work by including objective functioning in multidimensional models to deconstruct race variations in the SRH of older adults. PMID:19176485

  20. The Effects of Housing on Health and Health Risks in an Aging Population: A Qualitative Study in Rural Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Somrongthong, Ratana; Dullyaperadis, Saovalux; Wulff, Anne Louise; Ward, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Over the last decade, Thailand has experienced an aging population, especially in rural areas. Research finds a strong, positive relationship between good quality housing and health, and this paper assesses the impact and living experience of housing of older people in rural Thailand. Methods. This was a mixed-method study, using data from observations of the physical adequacy of housing, semistructured interviews with key informants, and archival information from health records for 13 households in rural Thailand. Results. There were four main themes, each of which led to health risks for the older people: “lighting and unsafe wires,” “house design and composition,” “maintenance of the house,” and “health care equipment.” The housing was not appropriately designed to accommodate health care equipment or to fully support individual daily activities of older people. Numerous accidents occurred as a direct result of inadequate housing and the majority of houses had insufficient and unsafe lighting, floor surfaces and furniture that created health risks, and toilets or beds that were at an unsuitable height for older people. Conclusion. This paper provides an improved and an important understanding of the housing situation among older people living in rural areas in Thailand. PMID:25101268

  1. Cohort profile: the lidA Cohort Study-a German Cohort Study on Work, Age, Health and Work Participation.

    PubMed

    Hasselhorn, Hans Martin; Peter, Richard; Rauch, Angela; Schröder, Helmut; Swart, Enno; Bender, Stefan; du Prel, Jean-Baptist; Ebener, Melanie; March, Stefanie; Trappmann, Mark; Steinwede, Jacob; Müller, Bernd Hans

    2014-12-01

    The lidA Cohort Study (German Cohort Study on Work, Age, Health and Work Participation) was set up to investigate and follow the effects of work and work context on the physical and psychological health of the ageing workforce in Germany and subsequently on work participation. Cohort participants are initially employed people subject to social security contributions and born in either 1959 (n = 2909) or 1965 (n = 3676). They were personally interviewed in their homes in 2011 and will be visited every 3 years. Data collection comprises socio-demographic data, work and private exposures, work ability, work and work participation attitudes, health, health-related behaviour, personality and attitudinal indicators. Employment biographies are assessed using register data. Subjective health reports and physical strength measures are complemented by health insurance claims data, where permission was given. A conceptual framework has been developed for the lidA Cohort Study within which three confirmatory sub-models assess the interdependencies of work and health considering age, gender and socioeconomic status. The first set of the data will be available to the scientific community by 2015. Access will be given by the Research Data Centre of the German Federal Employment Agency at the Institute for Employment Research (http://fdz.iab.de/en.aspx). PMID:24618186

  2. "Aging males" symptoms and general health of adult males: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Yuen, John W; Ng, Chi-Fai; Chiu, Peter Ka Fung; Teoh, Jeremy Yuen Chun; Yee, C H

    2016-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the prevalence and severity of health-related complaints perceived by adult males of Hong Kong by using the Hong Kong Traditional Chinese versions of the Aging males' symptoms (AMS) scale and the 5-dimensional and 3-level European Quality of life (EQ-5D-3L) questionnaire. A total of 825 adult males aged 40 years or above were surveyed, and observed that 80% of the population was living with little-to-mild levels of aging symptoms with mean total scores ranged between 26.02 ± 7.91 and 32.99 ± 7.91 in different age groups. Such symptoms were correlated with age, especially for the somato-vegetative and sexual symptoms. The most severe AMS symptoms were observed in the oldest age group at 70 years or above, with 76%, 34% and 70% living with moderate-to-severe levels of somato-vegetative, psychological and sexual symptoms, respectively. The result was highly correlated with the EQ-5D-3L questionnaire. Secondly, the Hong Kong Aging males' symptoms (AMS) scale was shown to have good reliability with test-retest coefficient at 0.79 (ranged 0.66-0.87) and Cronbach's alpha coefficient at 0.88 (ranged 0.70-0.84). In summary, the population of Hong Kong male adults was commonly living with little-to-mild levels of aging symptoms, whereas their severity was correlated with age. PMID:27068128

  3. Normative and standardized data for cognitive measures in the Mexican Health and Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Mejía-Arango, Silvia; Wong, Rebeca; Michaels-Obregón, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the cognitive instrument used in the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS) in Mexican individuals aged 60 and over and to provide normative values for the Cross Cultural Cognitive Examination test and its modified versions (CCCE). Materials and methods The CCCE was administered to 5 120 subjects as part of a population-based sample free of neurologic and psychiatric disease from the MHAS 2012 survey. Normative data were generated by age and education for each test in the cognitive instrument as well as for the total cognition score. Pearson correlations and analysis of variance were used to examine the relationship of scores to demographic variables. Results Results present standardized normed scores for eight cognitive domains: orientation, attention, verbal learning memory, verbal recall memory, visuospatial abilities, visual memory, executive function, and numeracy in three education groups within three age groups. Conclusion These highlight the need for population-based norms for the CCCE, which has been used in population-based studies. Demographic factors such as age and education must be considered when interpreting the cognitive measures. PMID:26172239

  4. Aging Without Driving: Evidence from the Health and Retirement Study, 1993 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Moon; Mezuk, Briana

    2013-01-01

    This study characterized older adults who do not drive (former and never drivers) and examined how this group of elders has changed over the past 15 years. Sample included community-living adults aged 70–85 who do not drive from the 1993 Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old Study (N = 1,979) and 2008 Health and Retirement Study (N = 1,119). Chi-square and t-tests were used to assess differences between never and former drivers and between cohorts. Logistic regression was used to examine the predictors of having never driven. The driving status among older adults has improved over the past 15 years as the proportion of never drivers declined from 11% to 2%. However, non-driving has become more concentrated among ethnic minority women, and the gaps in education and net worth between former and never drivers widened over the 15 years. PMID:24860237

  5. Cognitive Decline and Oral Health in Middle-aged Adults in the ARIC Study

    PubMed Central

    Naorungroj, S.; Slade, G.D.; Beck, J.D.; Mosley, T.H.; Gottesman, R.F.; Alonso, A.; Heiss, G.

    2013-01-01

    Even before dementia becomes apparent, cognitive decline may contribute to deterioration in oral health. This cohort study of middle-aged adults evaluated associations of six-year change in cognitive function with oral health behaviors and conditions in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Cognitive function was measured at study visits in 1990-1992 and 1996-1998 with three tests: (a) Delayed Word Recall (DWR), (b) Digit Symbol Substitution (DSS), and (c) Word Fluency (WF). Cognitive decline scores were computed as ‘studentized’ residuals of 1996-1998 scores regressed against 1990-1992 scores. In 1996-1998, 10,050 participants answered dental screening questions, and 5,878 of 8,782 dentate participants received a comprehensive oral examination. Multiple regression models used cognitive change to predict oral health behaviors and conditions with adjustment for covariates. In the fully adjusted models, greater decline in all three measures of cognitive function was associated with increased odds of complete tooth loss. Greater decline in DSS and WF scores was associated with infrequent toothbrushing. Decline in WF scores was also associated with higher plaque levels. In these middle-aged adults, six-year cognitive decline was modestly associated with less frequent toothbrushing, plaque deposit, and greater odds of edentulism, but not with other oral behaviors or diseases. PMID:23872988

  6. Cognitive decline and oral health in middle-aged adults in the ARIC study.

    PubMed

    Naorungroj, S; Slade, G D; Beck, J D; Mosley, T H; Gottesman, R F; Alonso, A; Heiss, G

    2013-09-01

    Even before dementia becomes apparent, cognitive decline may contribute to deterioration in oral health. This cohort study of middle-aged adults evaluated associations of six-year change in cognitive function with oral health behaviors and conditions in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Cognitive function was measured at study visits in 1990-1992 and 1996-1998 with three tests: (a) Delayed Word Recall (DWR), (b) Digit Symbol Substitution (DSS), and (c) Word Fluency (WF). Cognitive decline scores were computed as 'studentized' residuals of 1996-1998 scores regressed against 1990-1992 scores. In 1996-1998, 10,050 participants answered dental screening questions, and 5,878 of 8,782 dentate participants received a comprehensive oral examination. Multiple regression models used cognitive change to predict oral health behaviors and conditions with adjustment for covariates. In the fully adjusted models, greater decline in all three measures of cognitive function was associated with increased odds of complete tooth loss. Greater decline in DSS and WF scores was associated with infrequent toothbrushing. Decline in WF scores was also associated with higher plaque levels. In these middle-aged adults, six-year cognitive decline was modestly associated with less frequent toothbrushing, plaque deposit, and greater odds of edentulism, but not with other oral behaviors or diseases. PMID:23872988

  7. Allostatic Load and Frailty in the Women’s Health and Aging Studies

    PubMed Central

    Szanton, S. L.; Allen, J. K.; Seplaki, C. L.; Bandeen-Roche, K.; Fried, L. P.

    2009-01-01

    Background Frailty involves decrements in many physiologic systems, is prevalent in older ages, and is characterized by increased vulnerability to disability and mortality. It is yet unclear how this geriatric syndrome relates to a preclinical cumulative marker of multisystem dysregulation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether allostatic load (AL) was associated with the geriatric syndrome of frailty in older community-dwelling women. Methods We examined the cross-sectional relationship between AL and a validated measure of frailty in the baseline examination of two complementary population-based cohort studies, the Women’s Health and Aging studies (WHAS) I and II. This sample of 728 women had an age range of 70–79. We used ordinal logistic regression to estimate the relationship between AL and frailty controlling for covariates. Results About 10% of women were frail and 46% were prefrail. AL ranged from 0 to 8 with 91% of participants scoring between 0 and 4. Regression models showed that a unit increase in the AL score was associated with increasing levels of frailty (OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.04–1.28) controlling for race, age, education, smoking status, and comorbidities. Conclusion This study suggests that frailty is associated with AL. The observed relationship provides some support for the hypothesis that accumulation of physiological dysregulation may be related to the loss of reserve characterized by frailty. PMID:18829589

  8. Ageing and Health Status in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Results of the European POMONA II Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haveman, Meindert; Perry, Jonathan; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Walsh, Patricia Noonan; Kerr, Mike; Lantman-De Valk, Henny Van Schrojenstein; Van Hove, Geert; Berger, Dasa Moravec; Azema, Bernard; Buono, Serafino; Cara, Alexandra Carmen; Germanavicius, Arunas; Linehan, Christine; Maatta, Tuomo; Tossebro, Jan; Weber, Germain

    2011-01-01

    Background: POMONA II was a European Commission public health-funded project. The research questions in this article focus on age-specific differences relating to environmental and lifestyle factors, and the 17 medical conditions measured by the POMONA Checklist of Health Indicators (P15). Method: The P15 was completed in a cross-sectional design…

  9. Plasma vitamin D levels and cognitive function in aging women: the Nurses’ Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Bartali, Benedetta; Devore, Elizabeth; Grodstein, Francine; Kang, Jae H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Vitamin D may play a role in preserving cognitive function. However, there is a paucity of prospective studies on the relationship between vitamin D and cognition with aging. The aim of this study was to examine the association between plasma levels of vitamin D and subsequent cognitive function. Methods This is a prospective study including 1,185 women aged 60–70 years from the Nurses’ Health Study, who had plasma 25-hydroxy-vitamin D levels measured in 1989–1990 and completed an initial Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status approximately 9 years later. Subsequently, three follow-up cognitive assessments were conducted at 1.5–2.0 years intervals. We used multivariable-adjusted linear regression to model initial cognitive function, and mixed linear regression to model change in cognitive function over time. Results Lower vitamin D levels were associated with significantly worse cognitive function 9 years later. For example, the mean global composite score averaging all the cognitive tests was 0.20 lower (95% Confidence Interval (CI):−0.33,−0.08; p-trend=0.009) in women in the lowest quintile (median=14.1 ng/mL) compared with women in the highest quintile of vitamin D (median=38.4 ng/mL). The observed differences were equivalent to the effect estimates we found for women who were approximately 4–6 years apart in age. However, vitamin D levels were not significantly associated with subsequent cognitive decline during 6 years of follow-up. Conclusions Higher levels of plasma vitamin D in women aged 60–70 years were associated with better cognitive function about a decade later but were not associated with cognitive decline during 6 years of follow-up. PMID:24676321

  10. Age and Gender Differences in the Well-Being of Midlife and Aging Parents with Children with Mental Health or Developmental Problems: Report of a National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Jung-Hwa; Hong, Jinkuk; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the Study of Midlife in the United States (MIDUS), this article examines: (1) the effect of having children with developmental or mental health problems on parents mental and physical health, (2) the extent to which this effect varies by parental age and gender, and (3) the effects of disability-related factors on the well-being of…

  11. Psychological wellbeing, health and ageing

    PubMed Central

    Steptoe, Andrew; Deaton, Angus; Stone, Arthur A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Psychological wellbeing and health are closely linked at older ages. Three aspects of psychological wellbeing can be distinguished: evaluative wellbeing (or life satisfaction), hedonic wellbeing (feelings of happiness, sadness, etc), and eudemonic wellbeing (sense of purpose and meaning in life). We review recent advances in this field, and present new analyses concerning the pattern of wellbeing across ages and the association between wellbeing and survival at older ages. The Gallup World Poll, an ongoing survey in more than 160 countries, shows a U-shaped relationship between evaluative wellbeing and age in rich, English speaking countries, with the lowest levels of wellbeing around ages 45-54. But this pattern is not universal: for example, respondents from the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe show a large progressive decline in wellbeing with age; Latin America also shows falling wellbeing with age, while wellbeing in sub-Saharan Africa shows little change with age. The relationship between physical health and subjective wellbeing is bidirectional. Older people suffering from illnesses such as coronary heart disease, arthritis and chronic lung disease show both raised levels of depressed mood and impaired hedonic and eudemonic wellbeing. Wellbeing may also have a protective role in health maintenance. In an illustrative analyses from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), we find that eudemonic wellbeing is associated with longer survival; 29.3% of people in the lowest wellbeing quartile died over the average follow-up period of 8.5 years compared with 9.3% of those in the highest quartile. Associations were independent of age, gender, demographic factors, and baseline mental and physical health. We conclude that the wellbeing of the elderly is an important objective for both economic and health policy. Current psychological and economic theories do not adequately account for the variations in pattern of wellbeing with age across

  12. Subjective wellbeing, health, and ageing.

    PubMed

    Steptoe, Andrew; Deaton, Angus; Stone, Arthur A

    2015-02-14

    Subjective wellbeing and health are closely linked to age. Three aspects of subjective wellbeing can be distinguished-evaluative wellbeing (or life satisfaction), hedonic wellbeing (feelings of happiness, sadness, anger, stress, and pain), and eudemonic wellbeing (sense of purpose and meaning in life). We review recent advances in the specialty of psychological wellbeing, and present new analyses about the pattern of wellbeing across ages and the association between wellbeing and survival at older ages. The Gallup World Poll, a continuing survey in more than 160 countries, shows a U-shaped relation between evaluative wellbeing and age in high-income, English speaking countries, with the lowest levels of wellbeing in ages 45-54 years. But this pattern is not universal. For example, respondents from the former Soviet Union and eastern Europe show a large progressive reduction in wellbeing with age, respondents from Latin America also shows decreased wellbeing with age, whereas wellbeing in sub-Saharan Africa shows little change with age. The relation between physical health and subjective wellbeing is bidirectional. Older people with illnesses such as coronary heart disease, arthritis, and chronic lung disease show both increased levels of depressed mood and impaired hedonic and eudemonic wellbeing. Wellbeing might also have a protective role in health maintenance. In an analysis of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, we identify that eudemonic wellbeing is associated with increased survival; 29·3% of people in the lowest wellbeing quartile died during the average follow-up period of 8·5 years compared with 9·3% of those in the highest quartile. Associations were independent of age, sex, demographic factors, and baseline mental and physical health. We conclude that the wellbeing of elderly people is an important objective for both economic and health policy. Present psychological and economic theories do not adequately account for the variations in patterns

  13. Social inequalities in self-rated health by age: Cross-sectional study of 22 457 middle-aged men and women

    PubMed Central

    McFadden, Emily; Luben, Robert; Bingham, Sheila; Wareham, Nicholas; Kinmonth, Ann-Louise; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2008-01-01

    Background We investigate the association between occupational social class and self-rated health (SRH) at different ages in men and women. Methods Cross sectional population study of 22 457 men and women aged 39–79 years living in the general community in Norfolk, United Kingdom, recruited using general practice age-sex registers in 1993–1997. The relationship between self-rated health and social class was examined using logistic regression, with a poor or moderate rating as the outcome. Results The prevalence of poor or moderate (lower) self-rated health increased with increasing age in both men and women. There was a strong social class gradient: in manual classes, men and women under 50 years of age had a prevalence of lower self-rated health similar to that seen in men and women in non-manual social classes over 70 years old. Even after adjustment for age, educational status, and lifestyle factors (body mass index (BMI), smoking, physical activity and alcohol consumption) there was still strong evidence of a social gradient in self-rated health, with unskilled men and women approximately twice as likely to report lower self-rated health as professionals (ORmen = 2.44 (95%CI 1.69, 3.50); ORwomen = 1.97 (95%CI 1.45, 2.68). Conclusion There was a strong gradient of decreased SRH with age in both men and women. We found a strong cross-sectional association between SRH and social class, which was independent of education and major health related behaviors. The social class differential in SRH was similar with age. Prospective studies to confirm this association should explore social and emotional as well as physical pathways to inequalities in self reported health. PMID:18611263

  14. Depressive symptoms and longitudinal changes in cognition: Women's Health Initiative Study of Cognitive Aging

    PubMed Central

    Goveas, Joseph S.; Espeland, Mark A.; Hogan, Patricia E.; Tindle, Hilary A.; Shih, Regina A.; Kotchen, Jane M.; Robinson, Jennifer G.; Barnes, Deborah E.; Resnick, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated Depressive symptoms (DS) are associated with incident mild cognitive impairment and probable dementia in postmenopausal women. We examined the association of elevated DS with domain-specific cognitive changes, and the moderating role of cardiovascular risk factor (CVRF) severity and cardiovascular disease (CVD). 2221 elderly women who participated in the Women's Health Initiative Study of Cognitive Aging were separated into those with (N = 204) and without (N = 2017) elevated DS. DS and multi-domain cognitive outcomes were measured annually for an average follow-up of 5.04 years. Women with elevated DS showed baseline multi-domain cognitive deficits, but longitudinal declines in global cognition only. Persistent DS was related to greater global cognition, and verbal knowledge and fluency, and memory declines. Significant DS-CVD interactions were observed cross-sectionally (but not longitudinally) for figural memory and fine motor speed. Future studies should investigate the role of nonvascular mechanisms linking DS and cognitive decline. PMID:24584465

  15. Health information literacy in everyday life: a study of Finns aged 65-79 years.

    PubMed

    Eriksson-Backa, Kristina; Ek, Stefan; Niemelä, Raimo; Huotari, Maija-Leena

    2012-06-01

    This article examines the health information literacy of elderly Finns. The results are based on a survey conducted in January 2011. The questionnaire was distributed to 1000 persons that were randomly drawn from the Finnish Population Register. The respondents were aged 65-79 years (mean age 70 years) and lived in the Turku region in Finland. A total of 281 questionnaires (28%) were returned. χ(2) analyses were used to find possible relationships between demographic factors, as well as interest, seeking activity, current self-rated health and different dimensions of health information literacy, including needs, seeking and use of health-related information. Significant relationships were found between education level, interest in health information, seeking activity, self-rated current health and dimensions of health information literacy. Some categories of elderly people are more vulnerable regarding obtaining and use of health information: those with lower levels of education, those with poor health, and those who are not interested in and active at seeking information. For people who are found in any of these categories, it is important that available health-related information is understandable and can be accessed without too much effort-something that information providers should take into account. PMID:22733677

  16. Mediterranean diet and cognitive function in older age: results from the Women’s Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Samieri, Cécilia; Grodstein, Francine; Rosner, Bernard A.; Kang, Jae H.; Cook, Nancy R.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Buring, Julie E.; Willett, Walter C.; Okereke, Olivia I.

    2013-01-01

    Background Adherence to a Mediterranean diet may help prevent cognitive decline in older age, but studies are limited. We examined the association of adherence to the Mediterranean diet with cognitive function and decline. Methods We included 6,174 participants, aged 65+ years, from the cognitive sub-study of the Women’s Health Study. Women provided dietary information in 1998 and completed a cognitive battery 5 years later, followed by two assessments at 2-year intervals. The primary outcomes were composite scores of global cognition and verbal memory. The alternate Mediterranean diet adherence 9-point-score was constructed based on intakes of: vegetables, fruits, legumes, whole grains, nuts, fish, red and processed meats, moderate alcohol, and the ratio of monounsaturated-to-saturated fats. Results After multivariable adjustment, the alternate Mediterranean diet score was not associated with trajectories of repeated cognitive scores (P-trend across quintiles=0.26 and 0.40 for global cognition and verbal memory, respectively), nor with overall global cognition and verbal memory at older ages, assessed by averaging the three cognitive measures (P-trend=0.63 and 0.44, respectively). Among alternate Mediterranean diet components, higher monounsaturated-to-saturated fats ratio was associated with more favorable cognitive trajectories (P-trend=0.03 and 0.05 for global cognition and verbal memory, respectively). Greater whole grain intake was not associated with cognitive trajectories, but was related to better average global cognition (P-trend=0.02). Conclusions In this large study of older women, we observed no association of the Mediterranean diet with cognitive decline. Relations between individual Mediterranean diet components, particularly whole grains, and cognitive function merit further study. PMID:23676264

  17. Home and health in people ageing with Parkinson’s disease: study protocol for a prospective longitudinal cohort survey study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background With an increased life expectancy for the general population as well as for those ageing with chronic diseases, there are major challenges to the affected individuals and their families, but also to health care and societal planning. Most important, an increasing proportion of older people remain living in their ordinary homes despite health decline and disability. However, little is known about the home and health situation of people ageing with Parkinson’s disease (PD), and older people are often excluded from PD-research. Methods/design The overall aim of the present project is to generate knowledge on home and health dynamics in people with PD, with an explicit attention to PD-specific symptomatology. We will concentrate on aspects of home and health captured by state-of-the-art methodology from gerontology as well as PD-research, health science and rehabilitation. This study protocol describes a longitudinal cohort survey study that includes a baseline data collection and a 3-year follow-up. Both data collection waves include self-administered questionnaires, structured interviews, clinical assessments and observations during home visits effectuated by research staff with project-specific training. In order to arrive at a follow-up sample of N=160, 250 participants identified by PD specialist nurses are being recruited from three hospitals in southern Sweden. With no lower or upper age limit, only those diagnosed with PD since at least one year were included. The exclusion criteria were: difficulties in understanding or speaking Swedish and/or cognitive difficulties/other reasons making the individual unable to give informed consent or to take part in the majority of the data collection. The data collection targets environmental factors such as assistive devices, social support, physical environmental barriers, accessibility problems and perceived aspects of home. A broad variety of instruments tap PD-specific problems (e.g. freezing of gait, fear

  18. Food Insecurity and Health: Data from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    McGinnis, Kathleen A.; Goulet, Joseph; Bryant, Kendall; Gibert, Cynthia; Leaf, David A.; Mattocks, Kristin; Fiellin, Lynn E.; Vogenthaler, Nicholas; Justice, Amy C.; Fiellin, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Food insecurity may be a modifiable and independent risk factor for worse control of medical conditions, but it has not been explored among veterans. We determined the prevalence of, and factors independently associated with, food insecurity among veterans in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS). Methods Using data from VACS from 2002–2008, we determined the prevalence of food insecurity among veterans who have accessed health care in the Veterans Health Administration (VA) as defined by “concern about having enough food for you or your family in the past month.” We used multivariable logistic regression to determine factors independently associated with food insecurity and tests of trend to measure the association between food insecurity and control of hypertension, diabetes, HIV, and depression. Results Of the 6,709 veterans enrolled in VACS, 1,624 (24%) reported being food insecure. Food insecurity was independently associated with being African American, earning <$25,000/year, recent homelessness, marijuana use, and depression. Being food insecure was also associated with worse control of hypertension, diabetes, HIV, and depression (p<0.001). Conclusion Food insecurity is prevalent and associated with worse control of medical conditions among veterans who have accessed care in the VA. PMID:25931630

  19. Subclinical hyperthyroidism and dementia: the Sao Paulo Ageing & Health Study (SPAH)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Several epidemiologic studies have shown a possible association between thyroid function and cognitive decline. Our aim was to evaluate the association of subclinical hyperthyroidism and dementia in a population sample of older people Methods A cross-sectional study - São Paulo Ageing & Health Study (SPAH) - in a population sample of low-income elderly people ≥ 65 years-old to evaluate presence of subclinical thyroid disease as a risk factor for dementia. Thyroid function was assessed using thyrotropic hormone and free-thyroxine as well as routine use of thyroid hormones or antithyroid medications. Cases of dementia were assessed using a harmonized one-phase dementia diagnostic procedure by the "10/66 Dementia Research Group" including Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Logistic regression models were used to test a possible association between subclinical hyperthyroidism and dementia. Results and discussion Prevalence of dementia and of subclinical hyperthyroidism were respectively of 4.4% and 3.0%. After age adjustment, we found an association of subclinical hyperthyroidism and any type of dementia and vascular dementia (Odds Ratio, 4.1, 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI] 1.3-13.1, and 5.3 95% CI, 1.1-26.4; respectively). Analyzing data by gender, we found an association of subclinical hyperthyroidism with dementia and Alzheimer's disease only for men (OR, 8.0; 95% CI, 1.5-43.4; OR, 12.4; 95% CI, 1.2-128.4; respectively). No women with subclinical hypothyroidism presented Alzheimer's disease in the sample. Conclusion The results suggest a consistent association among people with subclinical hyperthyroidism and dementia. PMID:20515500

  20. Physical Activity as a Preventative Factor for Frailty: The Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study

    PubMed Central

    Giuliani, Carol; Morey, Miriam C.; Pieper, Carl F.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Mercer, Vicki; Cohen, Harvey J.; Visser, Marjolein; Brach, Jennifer S.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Goodpaster, Bret H.; Rubin, Susan; Satterfield, Suzanne; Newman, Anne B.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.

    2009-01-01

    Background It is unclear if physical activity (PA) can prevent or reverse frailty. We examined different doses and types of PA and their association with the onset and severity of frailty. Methods Health, Aging and Body Composition (Health ABC) study participants (N = 2,964) were followed for 5 years, with frailty defined as a gait speed of less than 0.60 m/s and/or inability to rise from a chair without using one's arms. Individuals with one impairment were considered moderately frail and those with both severely frail. We examined PA doses of volume and intensity, activity types (eg, lifestyle vs exercise activities), and their associations with incident frailty and transition to severe frailty in those who became frail. Results Adjusted models indicated that sedentary individuals had significantly increased odds of developing frailty compared with the exercise active group (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.45; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04–2.01), whereas the lifestyle active did not. Number of diagnoses was the strongest predictor of incident frailty. In those who became frail during follow-up (n = 410), there was evidence that the sedentary (adjusted OR = 2.80; 95% CI: 0.98–8.02) and lifestyle active (adjusted OR = 2.81; 95% CI: 1.22–6.43) groups were more likely to have worsening frailty over time. Conclusions Despite the strong relationship seen between comorbid conditions and onset of frailty, this observational study suggests that participation in self-selected exercise activities is independently associated with delaying the onset and the progression of frailty. Regular exercise should be further examined as a potential factor in frailty prevention for older adults. PMID:19164276

  1. [The Health, Well-Being, and Aging ("SABE") survey: methodology applied and profile of the study population].

    PubMed

    Albala, Cecilia; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia; León Díaz, Esther María; Ham-Chande, Roberto; Hennis, Anselm J; Palloni, Alberto; Peláez, Martha; Pratts, Omar

    2005-01-01

    This document outlines the methodology of the Salud, Bienestar y Envejecimiento (Health, Well-Being, and Aging) survey (known as the "SABE survey"), and it also summarizes the challenges that the rapid aging of the population in Latin America and the Caribbean imposes on society in general and especially on health services. The populations of the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean are aging at a rate that has not been seen in the developed world. The evaluation of health problems and disability among older adults in those countries indicates that those persons are aging with more functional limitations and worse health than is true for their counterparts in developed nations. In addition, family networks in Latin America and the Caribbean are changing rapidly and have less capacity to make up for the lack of protections provided by social institutions. The multicenter SABE study was developed with the objective of evaluating the state of health of older adults in seven cities of Latin America and the Caribbean: Bridgetown, Barbados; Buenos Aires, Argentina; Havana, Cuba; Mexico City, Mexico; Montevideo, Uruguay; Santiago, Chile; and São Paulo, Brazil. The SABE survey has established the starting point for systematic research on aging in urban areas of Latin America and the Caribbean. Comparative studies of these characteristics and with this comparative nature should be extended to other countries, areas, and regions of the world in order to expand the knowledge available on older adults. PMID:16053641

  2. Determinants of Health-Related Quality of Life in School-Aged Children: A General Population Study in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Houben-van Herten, Marieke; Bai, Guannan; Hafkamp, Esther; Landgraf, Jeanne M.; Raat, Hein

    2015-01-01

    Background Health related quality of life is the functional effect of a medical condition and/or its therapy upon a patient, and as such is particularly suitable for describing the general health of children. The objective of this study was to identify and confirm potential determinants of health-related quality of life in children aged 4-11 years in the general population in the Netherlands. Understanding such determinants may provide insights into more targeted public health policy. Methods As part of a population based cross sectional study, the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) Parental Form 28 was used to measure health-related quality of life in school-aged children in a general population sample. Parents of 10,651 children aged 4-11 years were interviewed from January 2001 to December 2009. Results Multivariate and regression analyses demonstrated a declined CHQ Physical Summary score for children who had >1 conditions, disorders or acute health complaints and who were greater consumers of healthcare; children with a non-western immigrant background; and children whose parents did not work. Lower CHQ Psychosocial Summary score was reported for children who had >1 conditions, disorders or acute health complaints, boys, children of single parents and obese children. Conclusion The best predictors of health-related quality of life are variables that describe use of health care and the number of disorders and health complaints. Nonetheless, a number of demographic, socio-economic and family/environmental determinants contribute to a child’s health-related quality of life as well. PMID:25933361

  3. Healthy Aging -- Sexual Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... than ever after menopause. But for other women, physical changes, illness, disabilities, and some medicines make sex painful, ... in Later Life - This brochure describes the normal physical changes in men and women that come with age. ...

  4. Is Social Capital a Determinant of Oral Health among Older Adults? Findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Rouxel, Patrick; Tsakos, Georgios; Demakakos, Panayotes; Zaninotto, Paola; Chandola, Tarani; Watt, Richard Geddie

    2015-01-01

    There are a number of studies linking social capital to oral health among older adults, although the evidence base mainly relies on cross-sectional study designs. The possibility of reverse causality is seldom discussed, even though oral health problems could potentially lead to lower social participation. Furthermore, few studies clearly distinguish between the effects of different dimensions of social capital on oral health. The objective of the study was to examine the longitudinal associations between individual social capital and oral health among older adults. We analyzed longitudinal data from the 3rd and 5th waves of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). Structural social capital was operationalized using measures of social participation, and volunteering. Number of close ties and perceived emotional support comprised the functional dimension of social capital. Oral health measures were having no natural teeth (edentate vs. dentate), self-rated oral health and oral health-related quality of life. Time-lag and autoregressive models were used to explore the longitudinal associations between social capital and oral health. We imputed all missing data, using multivariate imputation by chained equations. We found evidence of bi-directional longitudinal associations between self-rated oral health, volunteering and functional social capital. Functional social capital was a strong predictor of change in oral health-related quality of life – the adjusted odds ratio of reporting poor oral health-related quality of life was 1.75 (1.33–2.30) for older adults with low vs. high social support. However in the reverse direction, poor oral health-related quality of life was not associated with changes in social capital. This suggests that oral health may not be a determinant of social capital. In conclusion, social capital may be a determinant of subjective oral health among older adults rather than edentulousness, despite many cross-sectional studies on the

  5. The Social Determinants of Health in Association with Women’s Health Status of Reproductive Age: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    BAHEIRAEI, Azam; BAKOUEI, Fatemeh; MOHAMMADI, Eesa; MONTAZERI, Ali; HOSSENI, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Prioritizing women’s health helps achievement of the 4th and 5th goals of Millennium Development Program. This study aimed to investigate association between social determinants of health and women’s health of reproductive age. Methods This population-based cross-sectional study, using multi-stage sampling procedure was conducted on 770, 15 to 49-year-old women residing in any one of the 22 municipality zones across Tehran, Iran. Eligible women were interviewed at home with SF-36 (Short Form Health Survey) and socio-demographic questionnaires. Social determinants of health contains; ethnicity, education, job, income, and crowding index. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Multiple Linear Regression using SPSS-16. The threshold of P.V was considered 0.05. Results Overall, 770 women with mean age 33.9±9.3 years were interviewed. Majority of them were married (72.27%), housewives (62.2%), of Persian ethnicity (64.3%), and educated to high school level (43.8%). Age with dimensions of health except role emotional, mental health, and social functioning had significant association with B from -0.65 to -0.16.educational level with dimensions of health except role emotional andsocial functioning had significant association with B from 3.61 to 6.43 (P<0.05). Income with dimensions of health except role physical had significant association with B from -9.97 to -4.42. Conclusion Reflection of unfavorable economic conditions and low education level on negative women’ health experiences are alarming. Interaction between social determinants of health and health status must be considered in policymaking, and there is a need for policies that would enhance health of women in the low education and income brackets. PMID:26060783

  6. Perceived reciprocity in social exchange and health functioning in early old age: prospective findings from the GAZEL study

    PubMed Central

    Wahrendorf, Morten; Ribet, Celine; Zins, Marie; Goldberg, Marcel; Siegrist, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To assess prospectively the effects of perceived non-reciprocity of exchange in three different types of social engagement on health functioning in early old age. Methods In the frame of the prospective French Gazel cohort study, data on reciprocity in three types of role-related social engagement (principal regular activity in everyday life, marital role relationship, trusting relationships in civic life) were collected in 8679 men and 2742 women (mean age: 60.4 years) in 2005. Two years later, health functioning was assessed, using the SF-36 mental and physical component scores, as well as self perceived health. Multivariate regressions were calculated, controlling for important confounders including baseline self-perceived health. Results Consistent effects of perceived non-reciprocity in all three types of social exchange on mental and physical health functioning were observed. After adjustment for relevant confounders including baseline self-perceived, health effect were attenuated, but largely remained significant. Conclusions Findings underline the importance of the quality of social exchange (reciprocity vs. non-reciprocity) for health functioning in early old age. PMID:20455118

  7. Lifecourse study of bone health at age 49–51 years: the Newcastle thousand families cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, M.; Birrell, F.; Francis, R.; Rawlings, D.; Tuck, S.; Parker, L.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To quantify the direct and indirect effects of fetal (position in family, weight, and social class at birth), childhood (breast feeding, growth, infections, and social class in childhood, age at menarche), and adult life (social class, alcohol consumption, smoking, diet, reproductive history, exercise, hormone replacement therapy use), and adult size (height, weight) on bone health at age 49–51 years, as measured by bone mineral density, total scanned bone area of the hip and lumbar spine, and femoral neck shaft angle. Design: Follow up study of the Newcastle thousand families birth cohort established in 1947. Participants: 171 men and 218 women who attended for dual energy x ray absorptiometry scanning. Main results: Fetal life explained around 6% of variation in adult bone mineral density for men, but accounted for less than 1% for women. Adult lifestyle, including effects mediated through adult weight accounted for over 10% of variation in density for men and around 6% for women. Almost half of variation in bone area for men was explained by early life. However, most of this was mediated through achieved adult height and weight. In women, less than 5% of variation in bone area was accounted for by early life, after adjusting for adult size. Most of the variation in each of the indicators for both sexes was contributed either directly or indirectly by adult lifestyle and achieved adult height and weight. Conclusions: The effect of fetal life on bone health in adulthood seems to be mediated through achieved adult height. PMID:15911643

  8. Cancer and frailty in older adults: a nested case-control study of the Mexican Health and Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Zepeda, Mario Ulises; Cárdenas-Cárdenas, Eduardo; Cesari, Matteo; Navarrete-Reyes, Ana Patricia; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Understanding how the convergence between chronic and complex diseases—such as cancer—and emerging conditions of older adults—such as frailty—takes place would help in halting the path that leads to disability in this age group. The objective of this manuscript is to describe the association between a past medical history of cancer and frailty in Mexican older adults. Methods This is a nested in cohort case-control study of the Mexican Health and Aging Study. Frailty was categorized by developing a 55-item frailty index that was also used to define cases in two ways: incident frailty (incident >0.25 frailty index score) and worsening frailty (negative residuals from a regression between 2001 and 2012 frailty index scores). Exposition was defined as self-report of cancer between 2001 and 2012. Older adults with a cancer history were further divided into recently diagnosed (<10 years) and remotely diagnosed (>10 years from the initial diagnosis). Odds ratios were estimated by fitting a logistic regression adjusted for confounding variables. Results Out of a total of 8022 older adults with a mean age of 70.6 years, the prevalence of a past medical history of cancer was 3.6 % (n = 288). Among these participants, 45.1 % had been diagnosed with cancer more than 10 years previously. A higher risk of incident frailty compared to controls [odds ratio (OR) 1.53 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.04–2.26, p = 0.03); adjusted model OR 1.74 (95 % CI 1.15–2.61, p = 0.008)] was found in the group with a recent cancer diagnosis. Also, an inverse association between a remote cancer diagnosis and worsening frailty was found [OR = 0.56 (95 % CI 0.39–0.8), p = 0.002; adjusted model OR 0.61 (95 % CI 0.38–0.99, p = 0.046)]. Conclusions Cancer is associated with a higher frailty index, with a potential relevant role of the time that has elapsed since the cancer diagnosis. Implications for cancer survivors Cancer survivors may be more likely to develop frailty or

  9. Health screening - women - ages 18 to 39

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - women - ages 18 to 39; Physical exam - women - ages 18 to 39; Yearly exam - ... 39; Checkup - women - ages 18 to 39; Women's health - ages 18 to 39; Preventive care - women - ages ...

  10. Health screening - men - ages 40 to 64

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - men - ages 40 to 64; Physical exam - men - ages 40 to 64; Yearly exam - ... 64; Checkup - men - ages 40 to 64; Men's health - ages 40 to 64; Preventive care - men - ages ...

  11. Health screening - women - over age 65

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - women - over age 65; Physical exam - women - over age 65; Yearly exam - women - over age 65; Checkup - women - over age 65; Women's health - over age 65; Preventive care exam - women - over ...

  12. Health screening - men age 65 and older

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - men - over age 65; Physical exam - men - over age 65; Yearly exam - men - over age 65; Checkup - men - over age 65; Men's health - over age 65; Preventive care exam - men - over ...

  13. Health screening - women - ages 40 to 64

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - women - ages 40 to 64; Physical exam - women - ages 40 to 64; Yearly exam - ... 64; Checkup - women - ages 40 to 64; Women's health - ages 40 to 64; Preventive care - women - ages ...

  14. Measuring the performance of electronic health records: a case study in residential aged care in Australia.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ping; Qian, Siyu; Yu, Hui; Lei, Jianbo

    2013-01-01

    Measuring the performance of electronic health records (EHR) is an important, yet un-resolved challenge. Various measurements have addressed different aspects of EHR success, yet a holistic, comprehensive measurement tool needs to be developed to capture the potential EHR success variables completely. A self-administered questionnaire survey instrument was developed based on the theoretical framework of the DeLone and McLean Information Systems Success Model. It measures nigh variables of EHR success: system quality, information quality, service quality, training, self efficacy, intention to use, use, user satisfaction and net benefits. The instrument was used to measure the performance of aged care EHR systems in three aged care organizations. The results suggest that the instrument was reliable. PMID:23920809

  15. Perceived Age Discrimination and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Anastasia S. Vogt

    2007-01-01

    Although perceived discrimination (especially due to race-ethnicity) decreases mental health, the influence of perceived discrimination due to other reasons on mental health needs to be explored. This study examines the relationship between perceived age discrimination and mental health and determines whether psychosocial resources explain or…

  16. Body Mass Index at Age 20 and Subsequent Childbearing: The Adventist Health Study-2

    PubMed Central

    Knutsen, Synnøve F.; Oda, Keiji; Fraser, Gary E.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Some epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory studies suggest that underweight and obesity impact fertility. Methods This is cross-sectional study of 33,159 North American Adventist women, who were nulliparous at age 20 years and who, as a group, have a healthy lifestyle. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess how body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) at age 20 was related to never becoming pregnant, never giving birth to a living child, or not giving birth to a second or third child. Results A total of 4954 (15%) of the women reported never becoming pregnant (nulligravidity) and 7461 (23%) women remained nulliparous. Underweight (BMI<18.5 kg/m2) at age 20 was associated with approximately 13% increased risk of nulligravidity or nulliparity. Women with BMI≥32.5 kg/m2 when aged 20 had 2.5 (95% CI: 2.0, 3.1) times increased odds of nulliparity compared to women with BMI 20–24.9 kg/m2. Increased risk was found for all groups of overweight women (BMI≥25 kg/m2). However, if the women gave birth to one live child after age 20, BMI≥32.5 kg/m2 at age 20 had less impact (OR 1.6 [95% CI: 1.2, 2.2]) on the likelihood of not delivering a second child. In women who delivered two living children, obesity at age 20 had no bearing on the odds of having a third child. Conclusions Obesity and, to a lesser extent, underweight at age 20 increases the nulliparity rate. The results underscore the importance of a healthy weight in young women. PMID:23611121

  17. Space age health care delivery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    Space age health care delivery is being delivered to both NASA astronauts and employees with primary emphasis on preventive medicine. The program relies heavily on comprehensive health physical exams, health education, screening programs and physical fitness programs. Medical data from the program is stored in a computer bank so epidemiological significance can be established and better procedures can be obtained. Besides health care delivery to the NASA population, NASA is working with HEW on a telemedicine project STARPAHC, applying space technology to provide health care delivery to remotely located populations.

  18. LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF AGING (LSOA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Longitudinal Study of Aging (LSOA) is a collaborative effort of the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) and the National Institute on Aging (NIA). The Supplement on Aging (SOA), conducted in conjunction with the 1984 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), served as...

  19. Self-rated health and associated factors among older South Africans: evidence from the study on global ageing and adult health

    PubMed Central

    Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Peltzer, Karl; Chirinda, Witness; Kose, Zamakayise; Hoosain, Ebrahim; Ramlagan, Shandir; Tabane, Cily; Davids, Adlai

    2013-01-01

    Background Population ageing has become significant in South African society, increasing the need to improve understandings of health and well-being among the aged. Objective To describe the self-reported ratings of overall health and functioning, and to identify factors associated with self-rated health among older South Africans. Design A national population-based cross-sectional survey, with a sample of 3,840 individuals aged 50 years and older, was completed in South Africa in 2008. Self-reported ratings of overall health and functioning were measured using a single self-reported health state covering nine health domains (used to generate the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) composite health state score). Disability was measured using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHODAS-II) activities of daily living (ADLs), instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), perceptions of well-being, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life index/metric (WHOQoL). Results Overall, more than three quarters (76.8%) of adults rated their health as moderate or good. On balance, men reported very good or good health more often than women (p<0.001). Older people (aged 70 years and above) reported significantly poorer health status than those aged 50–59 (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00–2.30). Indians and Blacks were significantly more likely to report poorer health status at (AOR=4.01; 95% CI 1.27–12.70) and (AOR=0.42; 95% CI 0.18–0.98; 30 p <0.045), respectively, compared to Whites. Respondents with primary education (AOR=1.83; 95% CI 1.19–2.80) and less than primary education (AOR=1.94; 95% CI 1.37–2.76) were more likely to report poorer health compared to those with secondary education. In terms of wealth status, those in low wealth quintile (AOR=2.02; 95% CI 1.14–3.57) and medium wealth quintile (AOR=1.47; 95% CI 1.01–2.13) were more likely to report poorer health status than

  20. Health screening - men - ages 18 to 39

    MedlinePlus

    ... maintenance visit - men - ages 18 to 39; Physical exam - men - ages 18 to 39; Yearly exam - men - ages 18 to 39; Checkup - men - ages ... Men's health - ages 18 to 39; Preventive care exam - men - ages 18 to 39

  1. Alcohol Consumption at Midlife and Successful Ageing in Women: A Prospective Cohort Analysis in the Nurses' Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qi; Townsend, Mary K.; Okereke, Olivia I.; Rimm, Eric B.; Hu, Frank B.; Stampfer, Meir J.; Grodstein, Francine

    2011-01-01

    Background Observational studies have documented inverse associations between moderate alcohol consumption and risk of premature death. It is largely unknown whether moderate alcohol intake is also associated with overall health and well-being among populations who have survived to older age. In this study, we prospectively examined alcohol use assessed at midlife in relation to successful ageing in a cohort of US women. Methods and Findings Alcohol consumption at midlife was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Subsequently, successful ageing was defined in 13,894 Nurses' Health Study participants who survived to age 70 or older, and whose health status was continuously updated. “Successful ageing” was considered as being free of 11 major chronic diseases and having no major cognitive impairment, physical impairment, or mental health limitations. Analyses were restricted to the 98.1% of participants who were not heavier drinkers (>45 g/d) at midlife. Of all eligible study participants, 1,491 (10.7%) achieved successful ageing. After multivariable adjustment of potential confounders, light-to-moderate alcohol consumption at midlife was associated with modestly increased odds of successful ageing. The odds ratios (95% confidence interval) were 1.0 (referent) for nondrinkers, 1.11 (0.96–1.29) for ≤5.0 g/d, 1.19 (1.01–1.40) for 5.1–15.0 g/d, 1.28 (1.03–1.58) for 15.1–30.0 g/d, and 1.24 (0.87–1.76) for 30.1–45.0 g/d. Meanwhile, independent of total alcohol intake, participants who drank alcohol at regular patterns throughout the week, rather than on a single occasion, had somewhat better odds of successful ageing; for example, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) were 1.29 (1.01–1.64) and 1.47 (1.14–1.90) for those drinking 3–4 days and 5–7 days per week in comparison with nondrinkers, respectively, whereas the odds ratio was 1.10 (0.94–1.30) for those drinking only 1–2 days per week. Conclusions These data

  2. Using an eHealth Intervention to Stimulate Health Behavior for the Prevention of Cognitive Decline in Dutch Adults: A Study Protocol for the Brain Aging Monitor

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Internet-delivered intervention programs are an effective way of changing health behavior in an aging population. The same population has an increasing number of people with cognitive decline or cognitive impairments. Modifiable lifestyle risk factors such as physical activity, nutrition, smoking, alcohol consumption, sleep, and stress all influence the probability of developing neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. Objective This study aims to answer two questions: (1) Is the use of a self-motivated, complex eHealth intervention effective in changing multiple health behaviors related to cognitive aging in Dutch adults in the work force, especially those aged 40 and over? and (2) Does this health behavior change result in healthier cognitive aging patterns and contribute to preventing or delaying future onset of neurodegenerative syndromes? Methods The Brain Aging Monitor study uses a quasi-experimental 2-year pre-posttest design. The Brain Aging Monitor is an online, self-motivated lifestyle intervention program. Recruitment is done both in medium to large organizations and in the Dutch general population over the age of 40. The main outcome measure is the relationship between lifestyle change and cognitive aging. The program uses different strategies and modalities such as Web content, email, online newsletters, and online games to aid its users in behavior change. To build self-regulatory skills, the Brain Aging Monitor offers its users goal-setting activities, skill-building activities, and self-monitoring. Results Study results are expected to be published in early 2016. Conclusions This study will add to the body of evidence on the effectiveness of eHealth intervention programs with the combined use of state-of-the-art applied games and established behavior change techniques. This will lead to new insights on how to use behavior change techniques and theory in multidimensional lifestyle eHealth research, and how these techniques

  3. Impaired Design Fluency Is a Marker of Pathological Cognitive Aging; Results from the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Yeon Kyung; Kim, Tae Hui; Han, Ji Won; Lee, Seok Bum; Park, Joon Hyuk; Lee, Jung Jae; Youn, Jong Chul; Jhoo, Jin Hyung; Lee, Dong Young

    2012-01-01

    Objective We investigated neuropsychological markers that can be used to discriminate pathological cognitive aging from normal cognitive aging. Methods We administered frontal lobe function tests including the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), digit span test, lexical fluency test, fixed condition design fluency test, and Trail Making Test B (TMT-B) to 92 individuals with pathological cognitive aging (PCA) and 222 individuals with normal cognitive aging (NCA). We examined the main effects of participants' diagnoses (PCA, NCA) and age (65-69 years old, 70-74 years old and 75 years old or over) on their test performance using multivariate analysis of variance. Results The main effects of both the diagnosis (F=2.860, p=0.002) and the age group (F=2.484, p<0.001) were significant. The PCA group showed lower performance on the backward digit span test (F=14.306, p<0.001), fixed condition design fluency test (F=8.347, p=0.004) and also exhibited perseverative errors in the WCST (F=4.19, p=0.042) compared with the NCA group. The main effect of the diagnosis on the backward digit span test and the fixed condition design fluency test remained significant after Bonferroni correction. The main effect of age remained significant in the TMT-B (F=8.737, p<0.001) after Bonferroni correction. Other test scores were not influenced by diagnosis or age. Conclusion The design fluency task may be a good neuropsychological marker to assess pathological cognitive aging. PMID:22396686

  4. Health screening - men - ages 18 to 39

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - men - ages 18 to 39; Physical exam - men - ages 18 to 39; Yearly exam - ... 39; Checkup - men - ages 18 to 39; Men's health - ages 18 to 39; Preventive care exam - men - ...

  5. The contribution of osteoarthritis to disability: preliminary data from the Women's Health and Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Hochberg, M C; Kasper, J; Williamson, J; Skinner, A; Fried, L P

    1995-02-01

    Our objective was to examine the relationship of a self-reported physician diagnosis of arthritis with disability in elderly community dwelling women. Data from a representative sample of 1541 women aged 65 and above were analyzed to determine the prevalence and associations of a self-reported physician diagnosis of arthritis with other chronic conditions and difficulty performing physical activities. A history of physician diagnosed arthritis was reported by 902 (58.5%) women. Women with arthritis were significantly more likely to report fair or poor perceived health, as well as a physician diagnosis of angina, myocardial infarction, hypertension, diabetes, stroke, lung disease, and hearing and vision problems. After adjustment for age, race, education, marital status, and comorbid/geriatric conditions, arthritis was significantly associated with difficulty in the following 13 activities: raising arms, lifting < or = 10 pounds, walking 2-3 blocks, bathing or showering, climbing 10 steps, grasping, getting in or out of a bed or chair, dressing, using the toilet, preparing meals, doing personal shopping, heavy and light housework. We conclude that physician diagnosed arthritis is a common problem among elderly community dwelling women and is associated with difficulties in physical activity. PMID:7752125

  6. Lutein intake at the age of 1 year and cardiometabolic health at the age of 6 years: the Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Leermakers, Elisabeth T M; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Franco, Oscar H

    2015-09-28

    Lutein is a carotenoid with strong antioxidant properties. Previous studies in adults suggest a beneficial role of lutein on cardiometabolic health. However, it is unknown whether this relation also exists in children; therefore, we aimed to assess the relation between lutein intake at 13 months of age and cardiometabolic outcomes at the age of 6 years. We included 2044 Dutch children participating in a population-based prospective cohort study. Diet was measured at 13 months of age with an FFQ. Lutein intake was standardised for energy and β-carotene intake. Blood pressure, anthropometrics, serum lipids and insulin were measured at the age of 6 years. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed to measure total and regional fat and lean mass. A continuous cardiometabolic risk factor score was created, including the components body fat percentage, blood pressure, insulin, HDL-cholesterol and TAG. Age- and sex-specific standard deviation scores were created for all outcomes. Multivariable linear regression was performed, including socio-demographic and lifestyle variables. Median (energy-standardised) lutein intake was 1317 mcg/d (95% range 87, 6069 mcg/d). There were no consistent associations between lutein intake at 13 months and anthropometrics and body composition measures at 6 years of age. In addition, lutein intake was not associated with a continuous cardiometabolic risk factor score, nor was it associated with any of the individual components of the cardiometabolic risk factor score. Results from this large population-based prospective cohort study do not support the hypothesis that lutein intake early in life has a beneficial role for later cardiometabolic health. PMID:26286042

  7. A Gradient in Education Due to Health? Evidence from the Study of Health Behavior in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saab, Hana; Klinger, Don A.

    2011-01-01

    Research exploring the relationship between education and health suggests that people with higher levels of schooling report better health. To emphasize health as a determinant of educational achievement, this article establishes a gradient in education by health among Canadian students. Using data from the 2006 Health Behaviour in School-aged…

  8. Prevalence of Frailty and Aging-Related Health Conditions in Older Koreans in Rural Communities: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Aging Study of Pyeongchang Rural Area.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hee-Won; Jang, Il-Young; Lee, Young Soo; Lee, Chang Ki; Cho, Eun-Il; Kang, Woo Young; Chae, Jeoung Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Frailty has been previously studied in Western countries and the urban Korean population; however, the burden of frailty and geriatric conditions in the aging populations of rural Korean communities had not yet been determined. Thus, we established a population-based prospective study of adults aged ≥ 65 years residing in rural communities of Korea between October 2014 and December 2014. All participants underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment that encompassed the assessment of cognitive and physical function, depression, nutrition, and body composition using bioimpedance analysis. We determined the prevalence of frailty based on the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and Korean version of FRAIL (K-FRAIL) criteria, as well as geriatric conditions. We recruited 382 adults (98% of eligible adults; mean age: 74 years; 56% women). Generally, sociodemographic characteristics were similar to those of the general rural Korean population. Common geriatric conditions included instrumental activity of daily living disability (39%), malnutrition risk (38%), cognitive dysfunction (33%), multimorbidity (32%), and sarcopenia (28%), while dismobility (8%), incontinence (8%), and polypharmacy (3%) were less common conditions. While more individuals were classified as frail according to the K-FRAIL criteria (27%) than the CHS criteria (17%), the CHS criteria were more strongly associated with prevalent geriatric conditions. Older Koreans living in rural communities have a significant burden of frailty and geriatric conditions that increase the risk of functional decline, poor quality of life, and mortality. The current study provides a basis to guide public health professionals and policy-makers in prioritizing certain areas of care and designing effective public health interventions to promote healthy aging of this vulnerable population. PMID:26952571

  9. Prevalence of Frailty and Aging-Related Health Conditions in Older Koreans in Rural Communities: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Aging Study of Pyeongchang Rural Area

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Frailty has been previously studied in Western countries and the urban Korean population; however, the burden of frailty and geriatric conditions in the aging populations of rural Korean communities had not yet been determined. Thus, we established a population-based prospective study of adults aged ≥ 65 years residing in rural communities of Korea between October 2014 and December 2014. All participants underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment that encompassed the assessment of cognitive and physical function, depression, nutrition, and body composition using bioimpedance analysis. We determined the prevalence of frailty based on the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and Korean version of FRAIL (K-FRAIL) criteria, as well as geriatric conditions. We recruited 382 adults (98% of eligible adults; mean age: 74 years; 56% women). Generally, sociodemographic characteristics were similar to those of the general rural Korean population. Common geriatric conditions included instrumental activity of daily living disability (39%), malnutrition risk (38%), cognitive dysfunction (33%), multimorbidity (32%), and sarcopenia (28%), while dismobility (8%), incontinence (8%), and polypharmacy (3%) were less common conditions. While more individuals were classified as frail according to the K-FRAIL criteria (27%) than the CHS criteria (17%), the CHS criteria were more strongly associated with prevalent geriatric conditions. Older Koreans living in rural communities have a significant burden of frailty and geriatric conditions that increase the risk of functional decline, poor quality of life, and mortality. The current study provides a basis to guide public health professionals and policy-makers in prioritizing certain areas of care and designing effective public health interventions to promote healthy aging of this vulnerable population. PMID:26952571

  10. Contribution of the Nurses’ Health Study to the Epidemiology of Cataract, Age-Related Macular Degeneration, and Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Juan; Cho, Eunyoung; Ogata, Soshiro; Jacques, Paul; Taylor, Allen; Chiu, Chung-Jung; Wiggs, Janey L.; Seddon, Johanna M.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Schaumberg, Debra A.; Pasquale, Louis R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To review the contribution of the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) to understanding the genetic and lifestyle factors that influence the risk of cataract, age-related macular degeneration, and glaucoma. Methods. We performed a narrative review of the publications of the NHS between 1976 and 2016. Results. The NHS has helped to elucidate the roles of genetics, lifestyle factors (e.g., cigarette smoking associated with cataract extraction and age-related macular degeneration), medical conditions (e.g., diabetes associated with cataract extraction and glaucoma), and dietary factors (e.g., greater carotenoid intake and lower glycemic diet associated with lower risk of age-related macular degeneration) in the etiology of degree and progression of lens opacities, cataract extraction, age-related macular degeneration, primary open-angle glaucoma, and exfoliation glaucoma. Conclusions. The findings from the NHS, combined with those of other studies, have provided compelling evidence to support public health recommendations for helping to prevent age-related eye diseases: abstinence from cigarette smoking, maintenance of healthy weight and diabetes prevention, and a healthy diet rich in fruits and vegetables. PMID:27459452

  11. Assessment of Cognition Using Surveys and Neuropsychological Assessment: The Health and Retirement Study and the Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Ki; Langa, Kenneth M.; Weir, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. This study examines the similarity of cognitive assessments using 1 interview in a large population study, the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), and a subsample in which a detailed neuropsychiatric assessment has been performed (Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study [ADAMS]). Methods. Respondents are diagnosed in ADAMS as demented, cognitively impaired without dementia (CIND), or as having normal cognitive function. Multinomial logistic analysis is used to predict diagnosis using a variety of cognitive and noncognitive measures from the HRS and additional measures and information from ADAMS. Results. The cognitive tests in HRS predict the ADAMS diagnosis in 74% of the sample able to complete the HRS survey on their own. Proxy respondents answer for a large proportion of HRS respondents who are diagnosed as demented in ADAMS. Classification of proxy respondents with some cognitive impairment can be predicted in 86% of the sample. Adding a small number of additional tests from ADAMS can increase each of these percentages to 84% and 93%, respectively. Discussion. Cognitive assessment appropriate for diagnosis of dementia and CIND in large population surveys could be improved with more targeted information from informants and additional cognitive tests targeting other areas of brain function. PMID:21743047

  12. Burden of poor oral health in older age: findings from a population-based study of older British men

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, S E; Whincup, P H; Watt, R G; Tsakos, G; Papacosta, A O; Lennon, L T; Wannamethee, S G

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Evidence of the extent of poor oral health in the older UK adult population is limited. We describe the prevalence of oral health conditions, using objective clinical and subjective measures, in a population-based study of older men. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting and participants A representative sample of men aged 71–92 years in 2010–2012 from the British Regional Heart Study, initially recruited in 1978–1980 from general practices across Britain. Physical examination among 1660 men included the number of teeth, and periodontal disease in index teeth in each sextant (loss of attachment, periodontal pocket, gingival bleeding). Postal questionnaires (completed by 2147 men including all participants who were clinically examined) included self-rated oral health, oral impacts on daily life and current perception of dry mouth experience. Results Among 1660 men clinically examined, 338 (20%) were edentulous and a further 728 (43%) had <21 teeth. For periodontal disease, 233 (19%) had loss of attachment (>5.5 mm) affecting 1–20% of sites while 303 (24%) had >20% sites affected. The prevalence of gingival bleeding was 16%. Among 2147 men who returned postal questionnaires, 35% reported fair/poor oral health; 11% reported difficulty eating due to oral health problems. 31% reported 1–2 symptoms of dry mouth and 20% reported 3–5 symptoms of dry mouth. The prevalence of edentulism, loss of attachment, or fair/poor self-rated oral health was greater in those from manual social class. Conclusions These findings highlight the high burden of poor oral health in older British men. This was reflected in both the objective clinical and subjective measures of oral health conditions. The determinants of these oral health problems in older populations merit further research to reduce the burden and consequences of poor oral health in older people. PMID:26715480

  13. Mediators of the relationship between socioeconomic status and allostatic load in the Chicago Health, Aging, and Social Relations Study (CHASRS)

    PubMed Central

    Hawkley, Louise C.; Lavelle, Leah A.; Berntson, Gary G.; Cacioppo, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Low socioeconomic status (SES) has been associated with higher levels of allostatic load (AL). Posited mechanisms for this association include stress, personality, psychosocial variables, coping, social networks, and health behaviors. This study examines whether these variables explain the SES-AL relationship in a population-based sample of 208 51–69 year-old White, Black, and Hispanic adults in the Chicago Health, Aging, and Social Relations Study. AL was based on nine markers of physiological dysregulation. SES was inversely associated with a composite measure of AL; hostility and poor sleep quality helped to explain the association between AL and SES. Factor analyses revealed four AL components corresponding to the bodily systems of interest. SES was significantly associated with two AL components, suggesting that the effects of SES on physiological dysregulation are specific to certain systems in a middle to early-old age population. PMID:21342206

  14. Health-related quality of life in adults with epilepsy: the effect of age, age at onset and duration of epilepsy in a multicentre Italian study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The potential effect of age-related factors on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients with epilepsy has rarely been analyzed in the literature. Methods We examined this association in a selected population of 815 adults with epilepsy recruited in the context of a multicentre study for the evaluation of Epi-QoL, one of the first Italian epilepsy-specific measures of HRQOL for adults with epilepsy. The Epi-QoL is a 46-item self-administered questionnaire focusing on six domains, which was successfully tested for reproducibility and validity. Ordinary least-squares regression models were used to assess the relationships between age-related factors (patient's age, age at seizure onset, and duration of epilepsy) and overall Epi-QoL score, controlling for the effect of potential confounders. We fitted simple regression models including each age-related factor alone to assess the independent role of each factor on the overall Epi-QoL score. We also fitted multiple regression models including pairs of age-related factors solely, as well as one or two age-related factors together with the same set of confounders. Results Simple regression models showed that age and duration of epilepsy were significant negative predictors of the overall Epi-QoL score: the higher was each age-related factor, the lower was the overall Epi-QoL score; age at onset alone was a nonsignificant predictor of the overall Epi-QoL score. Multiple regression models including two age-related factors solely showed that duration of epilepsy was still a significant negative predictor of the overall Epi-QoL score in both pairwise models, whereas age was a significant negative predictor only in the model including age at onset. Age at onset emerged as a significant positive predictor of the overall Epi-QoL score only in the model including age: the higher was age at onset, the higher was the overall Epi-QoL score. Adjusted regression models including either one or two age

  15. A population-based study of health-promoting behaviors and their predictors in Iranian women of reproductive age.

    PubMed

    Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Baheiraei, Azam; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Mohammadi, Easa; Charandabi, Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2015-09-01

    Health-promoting behaviors have been recognized as major factors for maintenance and improvement of health. The objective of this study was to determine the status of health-promoting behaviors and their predicting factors in Iranian women of reproductive age. This was a population-based cross-sectional study in which 1359 Iranian women of reproductive age were selected by proportional random multistage cluster sampling in Tehran. Questionnaires including sociodemographic characteristics, Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II (HPLP-II) and Personal Resource Questionnaire 85-Part 2 (PRQ85-Part 2) were completed by interview. The association between the dependent variables (HPLP-II and subscales) and the independent variables (social support and sociodemographic characteristics) was analyzed using the multivariable linear regression model. Among the six dimensions of health-promoting behaviors, women scored highest in interpersonal relations (3.08 ± 0.51) and lowest in physical activity (2.04 ± 0.64). The Pearson test indicated perceived social support to be significantly correlated with HPLP-II (r = 0.53; p < 0.001) and all its subscales (r = 0.12-0.60; p < 0.001). Multivariable regression analysis indicated social support to be a predictor of HPLP-II and all its subscales, except for physical activity. Social support and sociodemographic characteristics accounted for 29.8% of the variance in the HPLP-II score and 6.9-39.3 in the six subscales. The findings of the present study confirm the importance of social support and modifiable variables (sociodemographic) in the occurrence of health-promoting behaviors in women and accredit the theoretical relationships among the concepts of the health-promotion model. PMID:24395956

  16. Associations between age-related nuclear cataract and lutein and zeaxanthin in the diet and serum in the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study (CAREDS), an ancillary study of the Women’s Health Initiative

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between lutein and zeaxanthin in the diet and serum and prevalence of age-related nuclear cataract in older women. Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study participants aged 50 y+, at 3 sites, who reported high (above the 78th percentile...

  17. Frailty among Mexican community-dwelling elderly: a story told 11 years later. The Mexican Health and Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar-Navarro, Sara G; Amieva, Hélène; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel; Avila-Funes, José Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the characteristics and prognosis of subjects classified as frail in a large sample of Mexican community-dwelling elderly. Materials and methods An eleven-year longitudinal study of 5 644 old adults participating in the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS). Frailty was defined loss, weakness, exhaustion, slow walking speed and low physical activity. The main outcomes were incident disability and death. Multiple covariates were used to test the prognostic value of frailty. Results Thirty-seven percent of participants (n = 2 102) met the frailty criteria. Frail participants were significantly older, female, less disease, lower income, and poorer self-reported health status, in comparison with their non-frail counterparts. Frailty was a predictor both for disability activities of daily living and for mortality. Conclusion After a follow-up of more than ten years, the phenotype of frailty was a predictor for adverse health-related outcomes, including ADL disability and death. PMID:26172236

  18. Is regular drinking in later life an indicator of good health? Evidence from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Holdsworth, Clare; Mendonça, Marina; Pikhart, Hynek; Frisher, Martin; de Oliveira, Cesar; Shelton, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Background Older people who drink have been shown to have better health than those who do not. This might suggest that moderate drinking is beneficial for health, or, as considered here, that older people modify their drinking as their health deteriorates. The relationship between how often older adults drink and their health is considered for two heath states: self-rated health (SRH) and depressive symptoms. Methods Data were analysed from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), a prospective cohort study of older adults, using multilevel ordered logit analysis. The analysis involved 4741 participants present at wave 0, (1998/1999 and 2001), wave 4 (2008/2009) and wave 5 (2010/2011). The outcome measure was frequency of drinking in last year recorded at all three time points. Results Older adults with fair/poor SRH at the onset of the study drank less frequently compared with adults with good SRH (p<0.05). Drinking frequency declined over time for all health statuses, though respondents with both continual fair/poor SRH and declining SRH experienced a sharper reduction in the frequency of their drinking over time compared with older adults who remained in good SRH or whose health improved. The findings were similar for depression, though the association between depressive symptoms and drinking frequency at the baseline was not significant after adjusting for confounding variables. Conclusions The frequency of older adults’ drinking responds to changes in health status and drinking frequency in later life may be an indicator, rather than a cause, of health status. PMID:26797821

  19. Ageing, musculoskeletal health and work

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Keith; Goodson, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Changing demographics mean that many patients with soft tissue rheumatism, osteoarthritis, inflammatory arthritis, large joint prostheses, and age-related co-morbidities are seeking to work beyond the traditional retirement age. In this chapter we review the evidence on musculoskeletal health and work at older ages. We conclude that musculoskeletal problems are common in older workers and have a substantial impact on their work capacity. Factors that influence their job retention are described, together with approaches that may extend working life. Many gaps in evidence were found, notably on the health risks and benefits of continued work in affected patients and on which interventions work best. The roles of physicians and managers are also considered. PMID:26612237

  20. Ageing, musculoskeletal health and work.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Keith T; Goodson, Nicola

    2015-06-01

    Changing demographics mean that many patients with soft tissue rheumatism, osteoarthritis, inflammatory arthritis, large joint prostheses and age-related co-morbidities are seeking to work beyond the traditional retirement age. In this chapter, we review the evidence on musculoskeletal health and work at older ages. We conclude that musculoskeletal problems are common in older workers and have a substantial impact on their work capacity. Factors that influence their job retention are described, together with approaches that may extend working life. Many gaps in evidence were found, notably on the health risks and benefits of continued work in affected patients and on which interventions work best. The roles of physicians and managers are also considered. PMID:26612237

  1. Socioeconomic status and self-reported health among middle-aged Japanese men: results from a nationwide longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Koji; Higuchi, Yoshiyuki; Smith, Derek R

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine potential associations between socioeconomic factors and self-rated health among a national sample of Japanese men aged 50–59 years between 2005 and 2010, including the 2008 global financial crisis. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Randomly selected 2515 census areas from a total of 1.8 million census areas in Japan. Participants This study utilised data from a national, longitudinal survey conducted by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Starting in 2005, 16 738 Japanese men aged 50–59 years were recruited and sent a questionnaire each year. We analysed data for the 6-year period (2005–2010) from participants who had worked for over 20 years in the same industry (n=9727). Main outcome measures We focused on worsening self-rated health status by occupation, education and employment contract. Results Working in the manufacturing industry was associated with worsening self-rated health scores when compared to those working in management (HR=1.19; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.37). A relationship between education level and worsening self-rated health was also identified as follows: junior high school (HR=1.49; 95% CI 1.31 to 1.69), high school (HR=1.29; 95% CI 1.17 to 1.42), and vocational college (HR=1.25; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.46), when compared with those holding university-level qualifications. Precarious employment (HR=1.17; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.37) was also associated with worsening self-rated health status in the current study. Conclusions This study suggests that working in manufacturing for more than 20 years and having lower education levels may have a significant impact on the self-rated health of middle-aged Japanese men. This may reflect a progressive decline in Japanese working conditions following the global financial crisis and/or the impact of lower socioeconomic status. PMID:26109119

  2. A prospective study of cognitive health in the elderly (Oregon Brain Aging Study): effects of family history and apolipoprotein E genotype.

    PubMed Central

    Payami, H; Grimslid, H; Oken, B; Camicioli, R; Sexton, G; Dame, A; Howieson, D; Kaye, J

    1997-01-01

    The oldest old are the fastest-growing segment of our population and have the highest prevalence of dementia. Little is known about the genetics of cognitive health in the very old. The aim of this study was to determine whether the genetic risk factors for Alzheimer disease (AD)--namely, apolipoprotein E (APOE) epsilon4 allele and a family history of dementia-continue to be important factors in the cognitive health of the very old. Case-control studies suggest that the effect of genetic factors diminishes at age >75 years. The present prospective study provided evidence to the contrary. We studied 114 Caucasian subjects who were physically healthy and cognitively intact at age 75 years and who were followed, for an average of 4 years, with neurological, psychometric, and neuroimaging examinations. Excellent health at entry did not protect against cognitive decline. Incidence of cognitive decline rose sharply with age. epsilon4 and a family history of dementia (independent of epsilon4) were associated with an earlier age at onset of dementia. Subjects who had epsilon4 or a family history of dementia had a ninefold-higher age-specific risk for dementia than did those who had neither epsilon4 nor a family history of dementia. These observations suggest that the rate of cognitive decline increases with age and that APOE and other familial/genetic factors influence the onset age throughout life. PMID:9106542

  3. Maternal health and lifestyle and caries experience in preschool children. A longitudinal study from pregnancy to age 5 yr

    PubMed Central

    Wigen, Tove I; Wang, Nina J

    2011-01-01

    In this study, associations were explored between maternal health and lifestyle during pregnancy and in early childhood and preschool children’s caries experience. The study is based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health and on data from the Public Dental Services. A total of 1348 children were followed from pregnancy to age 5 yr. A clinical dental examination was performed at age 5 yr. Questionnaires were completed by the mothers during pregnancy and the first 18 months of life, and as part of the dental examination. Results from the multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that having an obese mother (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.3–4.1), with a diet containing more fat (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1 – 2.5) or sugar (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1–2.3) than recommended, with low education (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1–2.3) or having one or both parents of non-western origin (OR 5.4, 95% CI 2.8–10.6) were statistically significant risk indicators for caries experience at age 5 yr. In conclusion, maternal weight and intake of sugar and fat in pregnancy were associated with caries experience in preschool children. These characteristics may enable early referral to the dental services and preventive care to be delivered. PMID:22112032

  4. Adolescent Health Implications of New Age Technology.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Cara; Bailin, Alexandra; Milanaik, Ruth; Adesman, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    This article examines the health implications of new age technology use among adolescents. As Internet prevalence has increased, researchers have found evidence of potential negative health consequences on adolescents. Internet addiction has become a serious issue. Pornography is now easily accessible to youth and studies have related pornography with several negative health effects. Cyberbullying has become a large problem as new age technologies have created a new and easy outlet for adolescents to bully one another. These technologies are related to increased morbidity and mortality, such as suicides due to cyberbullying and motor vehicle deaths due to texting while driving. PMID:26613696

  5. Neighborhood physical disorder, social cohesion, and insomnia: results from participants over age 50 in the Health and Retirement Study.

    PubMed

    Chen-Edinboro, Lenis P; Kaufmann, Christopher N; Augustinavicius, Jura L; Mojtabai, Ramin; Parisi, Jeanine M; Wennberg, Alexandra M V; Smith, Michael T; Spira, Adam P

    2014-09-15

    ABSTRACT Background: We determined the association between neighborhood socio-environmental factors and insomnia symptoms in a nationally representative sample of US adults aged >50 years. Methods: Data were analyzed from two waves (2006 and 2010) of the Health and Retirement Study using 7,231 community-dwelling participants (3,054 men and 4,177 women) in the United States. Primary predictors were neighborhood physical disorder (e.g. vandalism/graffiti, feeling safe alone after dark, and cleanliness) and social cohesion (e.g. friendliness of people, availability of help when needed, etc.); outcomes were insomnia symptoms (trouble falling asleep, night awakenings, waking too early, and feeling unrested). Results: After adjustment for age, income, race, education, sex, chronic diseases, body mass index, depressive symptoms, smoking, and alcohol consumption, each one-unit increase in neighborhood physical disorder was associated with a greater odds of trouble falling asleep (odds ratio (OR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-1.14), waking too early (OR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.00-1.10), and, in adults aged ≥69 years (adjusting for all variables above except age), feeling unrested in the morning (OR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.02-1.22 in 2006). Each one-unit increase in lower social cohesion was associated with a greater odds of trouble falling asleep (OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.01-1.11) and feeling unrested (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04-1.15). Conclusions: Neighborhood-level factors of physical disorder and social cohesion are associated with insomnia symptoms in middle-aged and older adults. Neighborhood-level factors may affect sleep, and consequently health, in our aging population. PMID:25222023

  6. Neighborhood Physical Disorder, Social Cohesion and Insomnia: Results from Participants Over Age 50 in the Health and Retirement Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen-Edinboro, Lenis P.; Kaufmann, Christopher N.; Augustinavicius, Jura L.; Mojtabai, Ramin; Parisi, Jeanine M.; Wennberg, Alexandra M. V.; Smith, Michael T.; Spira, Adam P.

    2014-01-01

    Background We determined the association between neighborhood socio-environmental factors and insomnia symptoms in a nationally representative sample of US adults aged >50 years. Methods Data were analyzed from two waves (2006 and 2010) of the Health and Retirement Study using 7,231 community-dwelling participants (3,054 men and 4,177 women) in the United States. Primary predictors were neighborhood physical disorder (e.g., vandalism/graffiti, feeling safe alone after dark, cleanliness) and social cohesion (e.g., friendliness of people, availability of help when needed); outcomes were insomnia symptoms (trouble falling asleep, night awakenings, waking too early, feeling unrested). Results After adjustment for age, income, race, education, sex, chronic diseases, body mass index, depressive symptoms, smoking, and alcohol consumption, each one-unit increase in neighborhood physical disorder was associated with a greater odds of trouble falling asleep (odds ratio (OR)=1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04–1.14), waking too early (OR=1.05, 95% CI 1.00–1.10), and, in adults aged ≥69 (adjusting for all variables above except age), feeling unrested in the morning (OR=1.11, 95% CI 1.02–1.22 in 2006). Each one-unit increase in lower social cohesion was associated with a greater odds of trouble falling asleep (OR=1.06, 95% CI 1.01–1.11) and feeling unrested (OR=1.09, 95% CI 1.04–1.15). Conclusions Neighborhood-level factors of physical disorder and social cohesion are associated with insomnia symptoms in middle-aged and older adults. Neighborhood-level factors may affect sleep, and consequently health, in our aging population. PMID:25222023

  7. The effect of ageing on health inequalities.

    PubMed

    Matthews, David

    The final article in this five-part series on the relationship between sociology and nursing practice discusses age-related health inequalities. Age has a direct influence on individuals' health and wellbeing. From a sociological viewpoint, individuals' health status in old age is a reflection of experiences throughout their lifetime, which means that health inequalities accumulate. PMID:26665634

  8. Correlates of Self-Reported Sleep Duration in Middle-Aged and Elderly Koreans: from the Health Examinees Study

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hyung-Suk; Yang, Jae Jeong; Song, Minkyo; Lee, Hwi-Won; Han, Sohee; Lee, Sang-Ah; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Lee, Jong-koo; Kang, Daehee

    2015-01-01

    Though various factors related to fluctuations in sleep duration have been identified, information remains limited regarding the correlates of short and long sleep duration among the Korean population. Thus, we investigated characteristics that could be associated with short and/or long sleep duration among middle-aged and elderly Koreans. A total of 84,094 subjects (27,717 men and 56,377 women) who participated in the Health Examinees Study were analyzed by using multinomial logistic regression models. To evaluate whether sociodemographic factors, lifestyle factors, psychological conditions, anthropometry results, and health conditions were associated with short and/or long sleep duration, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated with sleep duration of 6–7 hours as the reference group, accounting for putative covariates. Regardless of sexual differences, we found that adverse behaviors and lifestyle factors including low educational attainment, unemployment, being unmarried, current smoking status, lack of exercise, having irregular meals, poor psychosocial well-being, frequent stress events, and poor self-rated health were significantly associated with abnormal sleep duration. Similarly, diabetes mellitus and depression showed positive associations with abnormal sleep duration in both men and women. Our findings suggest that low sociodemographic characteristics, adverse lifestyle factors, poor psychological conditions, and certain disease morbidities could be associated with abnormal sleep duration in middle-aged and elderly Koreans. PMID:25933418

  9. Changes in cardiovascular health score and atherosclerosis progression in middle-aged and older persons in China: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jingsheng; Bao, Minghui; Liu, Yan; Shi, Jihong; Huang, Zhe; Xing, Aijun; Wang, Yang; An, Shasha; Cai, Jun; Wu, Shouling; Yang, Xinchun

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The American Heart Association (AHA) proposed a definition of 4 cardiovascular health behaviours and 3 health factors. On the basis of the 7 metrics, the cardiovascular health score (CHS) was used to estimate individual-level changes in cardiovascular health status. The aim of this study was to investigate whether changes in CHS (⊿CHS) at different time-points are associated with atherosclerosis progression in middle-aged and older persons. Design Prospective cohort study in China. Settings We defined 8 groups (≤−4, −3, −2, −1, 0, 1, 2 and ≥3) according to ⊿CHS. The impact of ⊿CHS on the change of brachial–ankle pulse wave velocity (⊿baPWV) and atherosclerosis progression was analysed. Participants A total of 3951 individuals met the inclusion criteria (≥40 years old; no history of stroke, transient ischaemic attack or myocardial infarction) and had complete information. Results ⊿baPWV decreased gradually (126.46±355.91, 78.4±343.81, 69.6±316.27, 49.59±287.57, 57.07±261.17, 40.45±264.27, 37.45±283.26 and 21.66±264.17 cm/s, respectively) with increasing ⊿CHS (p for trend<0.05). Multivariate linear regression analysis suggested a negative relationship between these 2 variables, which persisted after adjustment for other risk factors. Each increase in CHS was associated with a reduced baPWV for 15.22 cm/s (B value −15.22, p<0.001). Conclusions ⊿CHS were negatively related to ⊿baPWV, which proved to be an independent predictor of the progression of atherosclerosis in middle-aged and older persons. Trial registration number Kailuan study (ChiCTR-TNC-11001489). PMID:26310397

  10. Cognitive and physical health of the older populations of England, the United States, and Ireland: international comparability of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing.

    PubMed

    Savva, George M; Maty, Siobhan C; Setti, Annalisa; Feeney, Joanne

    2013-05-01

    This article discusses the contribution that international comparisons of the health and well-being of older people make. The comparability of the "HRS family" of studies that have been modeled on the U.S. Health and Retirement Study (HRS) is discussed. The Irish Longitudinal Study of Ageing (TILDA) is introduced, and the comparability of TILDA data with respect to the HRS family and other studies is described, along with what TILDA will add to international aging research. Data from the 2010 waves of TILDA, HRS and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing are used to compare the physical and cognitive health of older Irish adults with that of the U.S. and English populations. The study shows that the physical and cognitive health of older people in Ireland is closer to that of their English counterparts than of those in the United States and that similar health inequalities exist in all three countries. PMID:23662721

  11. RISK FACTORS FOR SLOW GAIT SPEED: A NESTED CASE-CONTROL SECONDARY ANALYSIS OF THE MEXICAN HEALTH AND AGING STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Zepeda, M.U.; González-Chavero, J.G.; Salinas-Martinez, R.; Gutiérrez-Robledo, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical performance tests play a major role in the geriatric assessment. In particular, gait speed has shown to be useful for predicting adverse outcomes. However, risk factors for slow gait speed (slowness) are not clearly described. Objectives To determine risk factors associated with slowness in Mexican older adults. Design A two-step process was adopted for exploring the antecedent risk factors of slow gait speed. First, the cut-off values for gait speed were determined in a representative sample of Mexican older adults. Then, antecedent risk factors of slow gait speed (defined using the identified cut-points) were explored in a nested, cohort case-control study. Setting, participants One representative sample of a cross-sectional survey for the first step and the Mexican Health and Aging Study (a cohort characterized by a 10-year follow-up). Measurements A 4-meter usual gait speed test was conducted. Lowest gender and height-stratified groups were considered as defining slow gait speed. Sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities, psychological and health-care related variables were explored to find those associated with the subsequent development of slow gait speed. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models were performed. Results In the final model, age, diabetes, hypertension, and history of fractures were associated with the development of slow gait speed. Conclusions Early identification of subjects at risk of developing slow gait speed may halt the path to disability due to the robust association of this physical performance test with functional decline. PMID:26889463

  12. Clinical Study of the Effects of Age on the Physical Health of Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Sally-Ann

    1998-01-01

    Physical disorders and pharmacotherapy for 134 people with mental retardation (ages 65 years and older) living in the United Kingdom were compared to 73 younger adults with mental retardation. Results showed the older group had higher rates of urinary incontinence, immobility, hearing impairments, arthritis, hypertension, and cerebrovascular…

  13. Aging, Nutritional Status and Health

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, Wilma; Hankey, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The older population is increasing worldwide and in many countries older people will outnumber younger people in the near future. This projected growth in the older population has the potential to place significant burdens on healthcare and support services. Meeting the diet and nutrition needs of older people is therefore crucial for the maintenance of health, functional independence and quality of life. While many older adults remain healthy and eat well those in poorer health may experience difficulties in meeting their nutritional needs. Malnutrition, encompassing both under and over nutrition increases health risks in the older population. More recently the increase in obesity, and in turn the incidence of chronic disease in older adults, now justifies weight management interventions in obese older adults. This growing population group is becoming increasingly diverse in their nutritional requirements. Micro-nutrient status may fluctuate and shortfalls in vitamin D, iron and a number of other nutrients are relatively common and can impact on well-being and quality of life. Aging presents a number of challenges for the maintenance of good nutritional health in older adults. PMID:27417787

  14. AGS Foundation for Health in Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... read more Join our e-newsletter! Health in Aging Blog read more Read posts about issues concerning older adults © 2016 Health in Aging. All rights reserved. Feedback • Site Map • Privacy Policy • ...

  15. State of Aging and Health in America

    MedlinePlus

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button The State of Aging and Health in America (SAHA) Recommend on Facebook ... this data for action. Â The State of Aging and Health in America 2013 The 2013 report ...

  16. Base Excision Repair, Aging and Health Span

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guogang; Herzig, Maryanne; Rotrekl, Vladimir; Walter, Christi A.

    2008-01-01

    DNA damage and mutagenesis are suggested to contribute to aging through their ability to mediate cellular dysfunction. The base excision repair (BER) pathway ameliorates a large number of DNA lesions that arise spontaneously. Many of these lesions are reported to increase with age. Oxidized guanine, repaired largely via base excision repair, is particularly well studied and shown to increase with age. Spontaneous mutant frequencies also increase with age which suggests that mutagenesis may contribute to aging. It is widely accepted that genetic instability contributes to age-related occurrences of cancer and potentially other age-related pathologies. BER activity decreases with age in multiple tissues. The specific BER protein that appears to limit activity varies among tissues. DNA polymerase-β is reduced in brain from aged mice and rats while AP endonuclease is reduced in spermatogenic cells obtained from old mice. The differences in proteins that appear to limit BER activity among tissues may represent true tissue-specific differences in activity or may be due to differences in techniques, environmental conditions or other unidentified differences among the experimental approaches. Much remains to be addressed concerning the potential role of BER in aging and age-related health span. PMID:18423806

  17. A Clinico-Etiological Study of Dermatoses in Pediatric Age Group in Tertiary Health Care Center in South Gujarat Region

    PubMed Central

    Jawade, Sugat A; Chugh, Vishal S; Gohil, Sneha K; Mistry, Amit S; Umrigar, Dipak D

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dermatologic conditions have different presentation and management in pediatric age group from that in adult; this to be studied separately for statistical and population based analysis. Objective: To study the pattern of various dermatoses in infants and children in tertiary health care center in South Gujarat region. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study; various dermatoses were studied in pediatric patients up to 14 years of age attending the Dermatology OPD of New Civil Hospital, Surat, Gujarat over a period of 12 months from June 2009 to June 2010. All patients were divided into four different study groups: <1 month (neonates), 1 month to 1 year, >1 to 6 years and 7 to 14 years. Results: There were 596 boys and 425 girls in total 1021 study populations. Majority of the skin conditions in neonates were erythema toxicum neonatorum (12.97%), scabies (9.92%), mongolian spot (9.16%), and seborrheic dermatitis (7.63%). In > 1 month to 14 years age group of children among infectious disorder, children were found to be affected most by scabies (24.49%), impetigo (5.96%), pyoderma (5.62%), molluscum contagiosum (5.39%), tinea capitis (4.49%), leprosy (2.02%), and viral warts (1.35%) while among non-infectious disorders, they were affected by atopic dermatitis (4.27%), pityriasis alba (4.16%), seborrheic dermatitis (3.60%), pityriasis rosea (3.15%), others (3.01%), phrynoderma (2.70%), lichen planus (2.58%), contact dermatitis (1.57%) and ichthyosis (1.45%). Conclusion: There is a need to emphasize on training the management of common pediatric dermatoses to dermatologists, general practitioners and pediatricians for early treatment. PMID:26677296

  18. Assessing Mobility Difficulties for Cross-National Comparisons: Results from the WHO Study on AGEing and Adult Health

    PubMed Central

    Capistrant, Benjamin D.; Glymour, M. Maria; Berkman, Lisa F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the correspondence between self-reported and measured indicators of mobility disability among older adults across six low and middle income countries [LMICs]. Design Cross-sectional analysis of Study of Ageing and Adult Health [SAGE] Setting Household surveys in China, India, Russia, South Africa, Ghana, and Mexico Participants Community-dwelling SAGE respondents aged 65+ (total n= 12,215) Measurements Objective mobility was assessed by a 4-meter timed walk at normal pace conducted in the respondent’s home; we defined slow walking speed per the Fried frailty criteria (lowest quintile of walking speed, adjusted for age and height). Self-reported mobility difficulty was assessed with a question about ability to walk 1 kilometer (km); we dichotomized this response into any/no self-reported difficulty walking 1 km (reference: no difficulty). We estimated the age (5-year groups) and gender-specific probability of self-reporting difficulty walking 1 km among those with a measured slow walk with logistic regression. Results Across the countries, between 42% and 76% of people aged 65+ reported any difficulty walking 1 km. Average walking speed was slowest in Russia (0.61 m/s) and fastest in China (0.88 m/s). The probabilities of reporting any difficulty walking 1km among women aged 65–69, for example, with a slow walk varied: China=0.35; India=0.90; Russia=0.68; South Africa=0.81; Ghana=0.91; Mexico=0.73; test of country differences p-value<0.001. There was significant variation at older ages, albeit smaller in magnitude. Patterns were similar for men. Conclusion Although correspondence between an objective and self-reported measure of mobility was generally high, correspondence differed significantly across LMICs. International comparisons of self-reported disability measures for clinical, prevention and policy guidelines in LMICs should consider that self-reported data may not correspond to objective measures uniformly across countries. PMID

  19. Sexual Health and Well-being Among Older Men and Women in England: Findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    PubMed

    Lee, David M; Nazroo, James; O'Connor, Daryl B; Blake, Margaret; Pendleton, Neil

    2016-01-01

    We describe levels of sexual activity, problems with sexual functioning, and concerns about sexual health among older adults in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), and associations with age, health, and partnership factors. Specifically, a total of 6,201 core ELSA participants (56 % women) aged 50 to >90 completed a comprehensive Sexual Relationships and Activities questionnaire (SRA-Q) included in ELSA Wave 6 (2012/13). The prevalence of reporting any sexual activity in the last year declined with age, with women less likely than men at all ages to report being sexually active. Poorer health was associated with lower levels of sexual activity and a higher prevalence of problems with sexual functioning, particularly among men. Difficulties most frequently reported by sexually active women related to becoming sexually aroused (32 %) and achieving orgasm (27 %), while for men it was erectile function (39 %). Sexual health concerns most commonly reported by women related to their level of sexual desire (11 %) and frequency of sexual activities (8 %). Among men it was level of sexual desire (15 %) and erectile difficulties (14 %). While the likelihood of reporting sexual health concerns tended to decrease with age in women, the opposite was seen in men. Poor sexual functioning and disagreements with a partner about initiating and/or feeling obligated to have sex were associated with greater concerns about and dissatisfaction with overall sex life. Levels of sexual activity decline with increasing age, although a sizable minority of men and women remain sexually active until the eighth and ninth decades of life. Problems with sexual functioning were relatively common, but overall levels of sexual health concerns were much lower. Sexually active men reported higher levels of concern with their sexual health and sexual dissatisfaction than women at all ages. Older peoples' sexual health should be managed, not just in the context of their age, gender

  20. Age Related Changes in Preventive Health Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Elaine A.; And Others

    Health behavior may be influenced by age, beliefs, and symptomatology. To examine age-related health beliefs and behaviors with respect to six diseases (the common cold, colon-rectal cancer, lung cancer, heart attack, high blood pressure, and senility), 396 adults (196 males, 200 females) divided into three age groups completed a questionnaire…

  1. Pain in Community-Dwelling Older Adults with Dementia: Results from the National Health and Aging Trends Study

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Lauren J.; Covinsky, Kenneth E.; Yaffe, Kristine; Stephens, Caroline E.; Miao, Yinghui; Boscardin, W. John; Smith, Alex K.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To report prevalence, correlates, and medication management of pain in community-dwelling older adults with dementia. DESIGN Cross-sectional. SETTING In-person interviews with self- or proxy respondents living in private residences or non-nursing home residential care settings. PARTICIPANTS Nationally representative sample of community-dwelling Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 and older enrolled in the National Health and Aging Trends Study 2011 wave. MEASUREMENTS Dementia status was determined using a modified previously validated algorithm. Participants were asked whether they had had bothersome and activity-limiting pain over the past month. A multivariable Poisson regression model was used to determine the relationship between bothersome pain and sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS Of the 7,609 participants with complete data on cognitive function, 802 had dementia (67.2% aged ≥80, 65.0% female, 67.9% white, 49.7% proxy response, 32.0% lived alone, 18.8% lived in residential care); 670 (63.5%) participants with dementia experienced bothersome pain, and 347 (43.3%) had pain that limited activities. These rates were significantly higher than in a propensity score–matched cohort without dementia (54.5% bothersome pain, P < .001, 27.2% pain that limited activity, P < .001). Proxies reported slightly higher rates of pain than self-respondents, but differences were statistically significant only for activity-limiting pain (46.6% proxy vs 40.1% self, P = .03). Correlates of bothersome pain included arthritis, heart and lung disease, less than high school education, activity of daily living disability, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and low energy. Of those reporting pain, 30.3% stated that they rarely or never took any medications for pain. CONCLUSION Community-living older adults with dementia are at high risk of having pain. Creative interventions and programs are needed to manage pain adequately in this vulnerable population. PMID

  2. Diabetes, Depressive Symptoms, and Inflammation in Older Adults: Results from the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Todd A.; de Groot, Mary; Harris, Tamara; Schwartz, Frank; Strotmeyer, Elsa S.; Johnson, Karen C.; Kanaya, Alka

    2013-01-01

    Objective Up-regulated levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP) are common to both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and elevated depressive symptoms, yet little attention has been given to the biological mechanisms associated with these co-morbidities. This study examined the association between inflammation and both T2DM and elevated depressive symptoms. Methods Baseline data were analyzed from 3,009 adults, aged 70–79, participating in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study. Diabetes was assessed per self-report, medication use, fasting glucose and/or glucose tolerance tests. Elevated depressive symptoms were categorized using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (cut-score≥20). Log-transformed IL-6, TNF-α, and CRP were analyzed using ANCOVA. Results Participants with T2DM and elevated depressive symptoms (T2DM+DEP n=14) demonstrated significantly (p<.05) higher IL-6 compared to (T2DM Only n=628), (DEP Only n=49), and (No T2DM or DEP n=2,067) groups following covariate adjustment. Similarly, participants with T2DM+DEP (n=14) had significantly (p<.05) higher CRP, after covariate adjustment, compared to DEP Only (n=50) and No T2DM or DEP groups (n=2,153). No association was observed for TNF-α. Conclusions These findings provide evidence that inflammation is associated with T2DM and elevated depressive symptoms. Participants with T2DM+DEP demonstrated the highest IL-6 levels compared to all other groups. Greater CRP levels were also observed in T2DM, but not elevated depressive symptoms, which may suggest that differential associations between T2DM and depressive symptoms exist for various inflammatory markers. Further investigation into these associations could aid in understanding the biological pathways underlying both T2DM and depressive symptoms. PMID:24182629

  3. Hyperglycemia Is Associated with Impaired Muscle Quality in Older Men with Diabetes: The Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Ji Won; Ha, Yong-Chan; Kim, Kyoung Min; Moon, Jae Hoon; Choi, Sung Hee; Lim, Soo; Park, Young Joo; Lim, Jae Young; Kim, Ki Woong; Park, Kyong Soo

    2016-01-01

    Background The study aimed to investigate the influence of hyperglycemia on muscle quality in older men with type 2 diabetes. Methods This was a subsidiary study of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Health and Aging. Among 326 older men consenting to tests of body composition and muscle strength, 269 men were ultimately analyzed after the exclusion because of stroke (n=30) and uncertainty about the diagnosis of diabetes (n=27). Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography. Muscle strength for knee extension was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. Muscle quality was assessed from the ratio of leg strength to the entire corresponding leg muscle mass. Results The muscle mass, strength, and quality in patients with type 2 diabetes did not differ significantly from controls. However, when patients with diabetes were subdivided according to their glycemic control status, patients with a glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level of ≥8.5% showed significantly decreased leg muscle quality by multivariate analysis (odds ratio, 4.510; P=0.045) after adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking amount, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and duration of diabetes. Physical performance status was also impaired in subjects with an HbA1c of ≥8.5%. Conclusion Poor glycemic control in these older patients with diabetes was associated with significant risk of decreased muscle quality and performance status. Glycemic control with an HbA1c of <8.5% might be needed to reduce the risk of adverse skeletal and functional outcomes in this population. PMID:27126884

  4. Diet Quality of Urban Older Adults Aged 60-99: The Cardiovascular Health of Seniors and Built Environment Study

    PubMed Central

    Deierlein, Andrea L.; Morland, Kimberly B.; Scanlin, Kathleen; Wong, Sally; Spark, Arlene

    2013-01-01

    There are few studies that evaluate dietary intakes and predictors of diet quality in older adults. The objectives of this study were to describe nutrient intakes and examine associations between demographic, economic, behavioral, social environment, and health status factors and diet quality. Cross-sectional data was from Black, White, and Hispanic adults ages 60-99 years, living independently in New York City and participating in the Cardiovascular Health of Seniors and the Built Environment Study, 2009-2011 (n=1306). Multivariable log-linear regression estimated associations between selected factors and good diet quality, defined as a Healthy Eating Index score based on the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (HEI-2005)>80. Dietary intakes were similar for men and women; intakes of energy, fiber, and the majority of micronutrients were below recommendations, while intakes of fats, added sugar, and sodium were within the upper range or exceeded recommendations. Hispanic ethnicity (Relative Risk, RR=1.37; 95% Confidence Interval, CI, 1.07-1.75), caloric intake <~1500 calories/day (RR=1.93; 95%CI, 1.37-2.71), adherence to a special diet (RR=1.23; 95%CI: 1.02-1.50), purchasing food at supermarkets at least once/week (RR=1.34; 95%CI, 1.04-1.74), and being married/living with a partner (RR=1.37; 95%CI, 1.10-1.71) were positively associated with HEI-2005>80. Consuming at least restaurant one meal/day was negatively associated with HEI-2005>80 (RR=0.69; 95%CI, 0.50-0.94). These findings identify specific groups of older adults, such as Blacks or those who live alone, who may benefit from dietary interventions, as well as specific modifiable behaviors among older adults, such as eating restaurant meals or shopping at supermarkets, which may be targeted through interventions. PMID:24262516

  5. Student Expectations About Mental Health and Aging.

    PubMed

    Silver, Michelle Pannor; Warrick, Natalie Irene; Cyr, Alaina

    2016-01-01

    Drawing from stereotype embodiment theory this study contributes to existing literature by examining whether and how expectations regarding mental health and aging changed for students enrolled in an undergraduate gerontology course at a Canadian research university (N = 51). At the beginning and end of the course, data from an open-ended word association exercise and the Expectations Regarding Aging (ERA-12) survey was collected and later analyzed. Investigators used content analysis and quantization to examine the word association data and statistical tests to analyze the mental health subscale (ERA-MHS). Findings were integrated and presented in a convergence code matrix. Results show that overall participants had more favorable expectations over time; in particular, ERA-MHS scores indicated less favorable expectations at Time 1 (M = 48.86) than at Time 2 (M = 65.36) significant at p < .01, while terms like "successful aging" increased and terms like "depressed" decreased. Findings have implications for geriatric mental health competencies of students in the health professions. PMID:25621721

  6. Mitochondrial genomic variation associated with higher mitochondrial copy number: the Cache County Study on Memory Health and Aging

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The mitochondria are essential organelles and are the location of cellular respiration, which is responsible for the majority of ATP production. Each cell contains multiple mitochondria, and each mitochondrion contains multiple copies of its own circular genome. The ratio of mitochondrial genomes to nuclear genomes is referred to as mitochondrial copy number. Decreases in mitochondrial copy number are known to occur in many tissues as people age, and in certain diseases. The regulation of mitochondrial copy number by nuclear genes has been studied extensively. While mitochondrial variation has been associated with longevity and some of the diseases known to have reduced mitochondrial copy number, the role that the mitochondrial genome itself has in regulating mitochondrial copy number remains poorly understood. Results We analyzed the complete mitochondrial genomes from 1007 individuals randomly selected from the Cache County Study on Memory Health and Aging utilizing the inferred evolutionary history of the mitochondrial haplotypes present in our dataset to identify sequence variation and mitochondrial haplotypes associated with changes in mitochondrial copy number. Three variants belonging to mitochondrial haplogroups U5A1 and T2 were significantly associated with higher mitochondrial copy number in our dataset. Conclusions We identified three variants associated with higher mitochondrial copy number and suggest several hypotheses for how these variants influence mitochondrial copy number by interacting with known regulators of mitochondrial copy number. Our results are the first to report sequence variation in the mitochondrial genome that causes changes in mitochondrial copy number. The identification of these variants that increase mtDNA copy number has important implications in understanding the pathological processes that underlie these phenotypes. PMID:25077862

  7. Metabolic Syndrome Derived from Principal Component Analysis and Incident Cardiovascular Events: The Multi Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC).

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Subhashish; Jacobs, David R; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Sibley, Christopher T; Jorgensen, Neal W; Rotter, Jerome I; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Liu, Yongmei; Andrews, Jeanette S; Kritchevsky, Stephen; Goodpaster, Bret; Kanaya, Alka; Newman, Anne B; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Herrington, David M

    2012-01-01

    Background. The NCEP metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a combination of dichotomized interrelated risk factors from predominantly Caucasian populations. We propose a continuous MetS score based on principal component analysis (PCA) of the same risk factors in a multiethnic cohort and compare prediction of incident CVD events with NCEP MetS definition. Additionally, we replicated these analyses in the Health, Aging, and Body composition (Health ABC) study cohort. Methods and Results. We performed PCA of the MetS elements (waist circumference, HDL, TG, fasting blood glucose, SBP, and DBP) in 2610 Caucasian Americans, 801 Chinese Americans, 1875 African Americans, and 1494 Hispanic Americans in the multiethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort. We selected the first principal component as a continuous MetS score (MetS-PC). Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association between MetS-PC and 5.5 years of CVD events (n = 377) adjusting for age, gender, race, smoking and LDL-C, overall and by ethnicity. To facilitate comparison of MetS-PC with the binary NCEP definition, a MetS-PC cut point was chosen to yield the same 37% prevalence of MetS as the NCEP definition (37%) in the MESA cohort. Hazard ratio (HR) for CVD events were estimated using the NCEP and Mets-PC-derived binary definitions. In Cox proportional models, the HR (95% CI) for CVD events for 1-SD (standard deviation) of MetS-PC was 1.71 (1.54-1.90) (P < 0.0001) overall after adjusting for potential confounders, and for each ethnicity, HRs were: Caucasian, 1.64 (1.39-1.94), Chinese, 1.39 (1.06-1.83), African, 1.67 (1.37-2.02), and Hispanic, 2.10 (1.66-2.65). Finally, when binary definitions were compared, HR for CVD events was 2.34 (1.91-2.87) for MetS-PC versus 1.79 (1.46-2.20) for NCEP MetS. In the Health ABC cohort, in a fully adjusted model, MetS-PC per 1-SD (Health ABC) remained associated with CVD events (HR = 1.21, 95%CI 1.12-1.32) overall, and for each ethnicity, Caucasian (HR = 1

  8. Self-care telephone talks as a health-promotion intervention in urban home-living persons 75+ years of age: a randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Sundsli, Kari; Söderhamn, Ulrika; Espnes, Geir Arild; Söderhamn, Olle

    2014-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a telephone-based self-care intervention among urban living individuals 75+ years of age by comparing self-reported perceived health, mental health, sense of coherence, self-care ability, and self-care agency before and after the intervention. Materials and methods In a randomized controlled study, 15 persons answered a questionnaire about perceived health, mental health, sense of coherence, self-care ability, and self-care agency. In a sex- and age-matched control group (n=15), the same questions were answered. Data were collected before and after intervention. An open-ended question about experiences of the intervention was included in the last questionnaire. The intervention consisted of a first meeting with health professionals and additional five self-care telephone calls. The control group did not receive any intervention or attention except for the questionnaires. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the study group. To compare the intervention group and control group on nominal and ordinal levels, the McNemar test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, respectively, were chosen. Results Thirty individuals (14 females and 16 males) participated in the study, ranging in age between 75 and 93 years. A significant difference was obtained in the intervention group regarding mental health. Mental health improved significantly in the intervention group (P=0.037). In the control group, mental health, sense of coherence, self-care ability, and self-care agency showed worse outcome results after the intervention (19 weeks). Conclusion Self-care telephone talks improved mental health significantly in our sample, and mental health focus could be understood as a possible condition for health promotion to take place. Structured self-care telephone talks have proved to be successful and a relevant method to use in practice. PMID:24421638

  9. An Educational Program Based on the Successful Aging Approach on Health-Promoting Behaviors in the Elderly: A Clinical Trial Study

    PubMed Central

    Estebsari, Fatemeh; Taghdisi, Mohammad Hossein; Rahimi Foroushani, Abbas; Eftekhar Ardebili, Hasan; Shojaeizadeh, Davoud

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many criteria of successful aging are directly connected with Health-Promoting Behaviors. Objectives: The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of an educational program based on the successful aging approach on health promoting behaviors in the elderly. Patients and Methods: This clinical trial study was conducted on 464 Iranian elderly people over 60 years who were admitted at Health Houses for 12 months. Participants were selected through a two-stage cluster sampling and were placed in the control and intervention groups (232 participants in each group). The data collection tools included: a demographic checklist, Palmore Facts on Aging Quiz and the second version of Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile. The intervention was designed based on adult strategy education in five 45-minute sessions. The data obtained 3 months after the intervention were compared with the data obtained before the intervention. The data were analyzed using the descriptive and analytical tests such as paired T-test with SPSS version 20, at the statistical significant level 0.05. Results: The mean age of the participants in this study was 65.9 ± 3.6 (range 60-73). Results showed a statistically significant difference between the intervention and control group after the intervention in the mean scores of awareness of aging facts and score of health promoting behaviors. Conclusions: Focusing on successful aging and adopting HPBs can prevent and decrease aging problems which in turn decreases the financial burden and related costs. This is especially important for the policy and decision makers of the health systems. PMID:24910805

  10. Associations between Dietary Fiber Intake in Infancy and Cardiometabolic Health at School Age: The Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    van Gijssel, Rafaëlle M A; Braun, Kim V E; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Franco, Oscar H; Voortman, Trudy

    2016-01-01

    Dietary fiber (DF) intake may be beneficial for cardiometabolic health. However, whether this already occurs in early childhood is unclear. We investigated associations between DF intake in infancy and cardiometabolic health in childhood among 2032 children participating in a population-based cohort in The Netherlands. Information on DF intake at a median age of 12.9 months was collected using a food-frequency questionnaire. DF was adjusted for energy intake using the residual method. At age 6 years, body fat percentage, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, insulin, triglycerides, and blood pressure were assessed and expressed in age- and sex-specific standard deviation scores (SDS). These five factors were combined into a cardiometabolic risk factor score. In models adjusted for several parental and child covariates, a higher DF intake was associated with a lower cardiometabolic risk factor score. When we examined individual cardiometabolic factors, we observed that a 1 g/day higher energy-adjusted DF intake was associated with 0.026 SDS higher HDL-cholesterol (95% CI 0.009, 0.042), and 0.020 SDS lower triglycerides (95% CI -0.037, -0.003), but not with body fat, insulin, or blood pressure. Results were similar for DF with and without adjustment for energy intake. Our findings suggest that higher DF intake in infancy may be associated with better cardiometabolic health in later childhood. PMID:27589791

  11. A 10-Year Follow-Up of Urinary and Fecal Incontinence among the Oldest Old in the Community: The Canadian Study of Health and Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostbye,Truls; Seim, Arnfinn; Krause, Katrina M.; Feightner, John; Hachinski, Vladimir; Sykes, Elizabeth; Hunskaar, Steinar

    2004-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is common in the elderly. The epidemiology of fecal and double (urinary and fecal) incontinence is less known. The Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA) is a national study of elderly living in the community at baseline (n = 8,949) and interviewed in 1991-1992, 1996, and 2001. Using data from the CSHA, we report the…

  12. Age at First Birth, Health, and Mortality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirowsky, John

    2005-01-01

    The biodevelopmental view sees the readiness and soundness of the organism at the time of first birth as its prime link to health and survival years and decades later. It suggests an optimum age at first birth shortly after puberty. The biosocial view emphasizes social correlates and consequences of age at first birth that may influence health and…

  13. Adulthood Predictors of Health Promoting Behavior in Later Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holahan, Carole K.; Suzuki, Rie

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated adulthood predictors of health-promoting behavior in later aging. The participants were 162 members of the Terman Study of the Gifted (Terman et al., 1925), who responded in 1999 at an average age of 86 to a mailout questionnaire which included questions concerning their positive health behavior. Adulthood variables were…

  14. The Relationship Between Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels and Nuclear Cataract in the Carotenoid Age-Related Eye Study (CAREDS), an Ancillary Study of the Women's Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Prethy; Millen, Amy E.; Meyers, Kristin J.; Liu, Zhe; Voland, Rickie; Sondel, Sheri; Tinker, Lesley; Wallace, Robert B.; Blodi, Barbara A.; Binkley, Neil; Sarto, Gloria; Robinson, Jennifer; LeBlanc, Erin; Mares, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels and nuclear cataract among participants of the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study (CAREDS), an ancillary study of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study (OS). Methods. Nuclear cataract was assessed from slit lamp photographs (2001–2004) taken 6 years after collecting serum analyzed for 25(OH)D levels at WHI baseline (1994–1998) in 1278 CAREDS participants age 50 to 79 years. Multivariate (age, iris color, smoking, pulse pressure) odds ratios (ORs) for nuclear cataract (nuclear opacities > level 4 or cataract extraction) by quintiles of serum 25(OH)D were estimated using logistic regression. Results. No significant association was observed between serum 25(OH)D and nuclear cataract among women of all ages (age-adjusted OR [95% confidence interval (CI)] 0.97 [0.65–1.45]). However, there was a significant age interaction (P for interaction = 0.04). There were no significant associations in the women 70 years or older. In women younger than 70 years, we observed an inverse association between serum 25(OH)D and nuclear cataract (multivariate adjusted ORs [95% CI] 0.54 [0.29–0.99] and 0.66 [0.36–1.20] for quintiles 4 and 5 vs. 1, respectively; P = 0.03). Further adjustment for 25(OH)D determinants (body mass index, vitamin D intake, and UVB exposure) attenuated this association. Conclusions. Serum 25(OH)D levels were unrelated to nuclear opacities in this study sample. However, exploratory analyses suggest a protective association in women younger than 70 years. Further investigations of the relationship between vitamin D and nuclear lens opacities are warranted. PMID:26132781

  15. Fireset materials aging study

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H.M.; Arnold, C.; Bailey, M.E.

    1982-07-01

    A thermally-accelerated aging study of 10 selected organic materials used in a fireset has been conducted. The study included both quantitative and qualitative gas analyses as well as the measurement of physical properties before and after accelerated aging. The test plan involved single material aging, as well as pairs and larger groups to look for synergistic interactions. The material types tested were epoxies, polyurethanes, polysulfides, silicones, phenolics, polyolefins, and diallyl phthalates. Only two of the materials tested showed evidence of degradation as a result of aging.

  16. Gestational Age, Infant Birth Weight, and Subsequent Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Mothers: Nurses' Health Study II

    MedlinePlus

    ... Birth Weight, and Subsequent Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Mothers: Nurses’ Health Study II Navigate This ... as 10 pounds or more at term. Gestational diabetes In the NHSII 1989 baseline questionnaire and subsequent ...

  17. The choice of self-rated health measures matter when predicting mortality: evidence from 10 years follow-up of the Australian longitudinal study of ageing

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Self-rated health (SRH) measures with different wording and reference points are often used as equivalent health indicators in public health surveys estimating health outcomes such as healthy life expectancies and mortality for older adults. Whilst the robust relationship between SRH and mortality is well established, it is not known how comparable different SRH items are in their relationship to mortality over time. We used a dynamic evaluation model to investigate the sensitivity of time-varying SRH measures with different reference points to predict mortality in older adults over time. Methods We used seven waves of data from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing (1992 to 2004; N = 1733, 52.6% males). Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between three time-varying SRH measures (global, age-comparative and self-comparative reference point) with mortality in older adults (65+ years). Results After accounting for other mortality risk factors, poor global SRH ratings increased mortality risk by 2.83 times compared to excellent ratings. In contrast, the mortality relationship with age-comparative and self-comparative SRH was moderated by age, revealing that these comparative SRH measures did not independently predict mortality for adults over 75 years of age in adjusted models. Conclusions We found that a global measure of SRH not referenced to age or self is the best predictor of mortality, and is the most reliable measure of self-perceived health for longitudinal research and population health estimates of healthy life expectancy in older adults. Findings emphasize that the SRH measures are not equivalent measures of health status. PMID:20403203

  18. The PRO-AGE study: an international randomised controlled study of health risk appraisal for older persons based in general practice

    PubMed Central

    Stuck, Andreas E; Kharicha, Kalpa; Dapp, Ulrike; Anders, Jennifer; von Renteln-Kruse, Wolfgang; Meier-Baumgartner, Hans Peter; Iliffe, Steve; Harari, Danielle; Bachmann, Martin D; Egger, Matthias; Gillmann, Gerhard; Beck, John C; Swift, Cameron G

    2007-01-01

    Background This paper describes the study protocol, the recruitment, and base-line data for evaluating the success of randomisation of the PRO-AGE (PRevention in Older people – Assessment in GEneralists' practices) project. Methods/Design A group of general practitioners (GPs) in London (U.K.), Hamburg (Germany) and Solothurn (Switzerland) were trained in risk identification, health promotion, and prevention in older people. Their non-disabled older patients were invited to participate in a randomised controlled study. Participants allocated to the intervention group were offered the Health Risk Appraisal for Older Persons (HRA-O) instrument with a site-specific method for reinforcement (London: physician reminders in electronic medical record; Hamburg: one group session or two preventive home visits; Solothurn: six-monthly preventive home visits over a two-year period). Participants allocated to the control group received usual care. At each site, an additional group of GPs did not receive the training, and their eligible patients were invited to participate in a concurrent comparison group. Primary outcomes are self-reported health behaviour and preventative care use at one-year follow-up. In Solothurn, an additional follow-up was conducted at two years. The number of older persons agreeing to participate (% of eligible persons) in the randomised controlled study was 2503 (66.0%) in London, 2580 (53.6%) in Hamburg, and 2284 (67.5%) in Solothurn. Base-line findings confirm that randomisation of participants was successful, with comparable characteristics between intervention and control groups. The number of persons (% of eligible) enrolled in the concurrent comparison group was 636 (48.8%) in London, 746 (35.7%) in Hamburg, and 1171 (63.0%) in Solothurn. Discussion PRO-AGE is the first large-scale randomised controlled trial of health risk appraisal for older people in Europe. Its results will inform about the effects of implementing HRA-O with different

  19. Chronic inflammation and risk of colorectal and other obesity-related cancers: The health, aging and body composition study.

    PubMed

    Izano, Monika; Wei, Esther K; Tai, Caroline; Swede, Helen; Gregorich, Steven; Harris, Tamara B; Klepin, Heidi; Satterfield, Suzanne; Murphy, Rachel; Newman, Anne B; Rubin, Susan M; Braithwaite, Dejana

    2016-03-01

    Evidence of the association between chronic inflammation and the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) and other obesity-related cancers (OBRC) remains inconsistent, possibly due to a paucity of studies examining repeated measures of inflammation. In the Health ABC prospective study of 2,490 adults aged 70-79 years at baseline, we assessed whether circulating levels of three markers of systemic inflammation, IL-6, CRP and TNF-α, were associated with the risk of CRC and OBRC, a cluster including cancers of pancreas, prostate, breast and endometrium. Inflammatory markers were measured in stored fasting blood samples. While only baseline measures of TNF-α were available, IL-6 and CRP were additionally measured at Years 2, 4, 6 and 8. Multivariable Cox models were fit to determine whether tertiles and log-transformed baseline, updated and averaged measures of CRP and IL-6 and baseline measures of TNF-α were associated with the risk of incident cancer(s). During a median follow-up of 11.9 years, we observed 55 and 172 cases of CRC and OBRC, respectively. The hazard of CRC in the highest tertile of updated CRP was more than double that in the lowest tertile (HR = 2.29; 95% CI: 1.08-4.86). No significant associations were seen between colorectal cancer and IL-6 or TNF-α. Additionally, no significant associations were found between obesity-related cancers and the three inflammatory markers overall, but we observed a suggestion of effect modification by BMI and NSAID use. In summary, in this population, higher CRP levels were associated with increased risk of CRC, but not of OBRC. The findings provide new evidence that chronically elevated levels of CRP, as reflected by repeated measures of this marker, may play a role in colorectal carcinogenesis in older adults. PMID:26413860

  20. Does victim age differentiate between perpetrators of sexual child abuse? A study of mental health, psychosocial circumstances, and crimes.

    PubMed

    Carlstedt, Anita; Nilsson, Thomas; Hofvander, Björn; Brimse, Agneta; Innala, Sune; Anckarsäter, Henrik

    2009-12-01

    To test the theory that sexual offenders who abuse very young children (0-5 years) have more severe mental health and psychosocial problems than those who victimize older children, authors compared psychiatric diagnoses, social circumstances, and crime-related data in all sexual offenders against minors referred to forensic psychiatric investigation in Sweden during a 5-year period. Thirty-one men had committed index crimes involving victims between the ages of 0 and 5 years (Group 1), 90 had 6-to 11-year-old victims (Group 2), and 41 had 12- to 15-year-old victims (Group 3). All three offender groups were characterized by severe mental health problems, in many cases fulfilling American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) criteria for both Axis I and Axis II diagnoses, but these problems did not differ between groups. Neither did social situation or sexual orientation. Offenders with 0- to 5-year-old victims significantly more often abused both boys and girls. Frequencies of retrospectively diagnosed childhood-onset behavior disorders were high in all three offender groups. The authors' data did not support previous findings of increasingly severe mental health problems with decreasing victim age. PMID:19901238

  1. Factors associated with early menarche: results from the French Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Puberty is a transition period making physiological development a challenge adolescents have to face. Early pubertal development could be associated with higher risks of poor health. Our objective was to examine risk behaviours, physical and psychological determinants associated with early menarche (<11 years). Methods Early menarche was assessed in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children French cross-sectional survey. Data were collected in 2006 by anonymous self-reported standardized questionnaire from a nationally representative sample of 1072 15 years old girls in school classrooms. Family environment, school experience, physical and psychological factors, risk behaviours (substance use and sexual initiation) were recorded. Logistic regression models were applied (analysing for crude and adjusted relationships between early menarche and risk behaviours controlled for family context). Results Median age at menarche was 13.0 years; 57 girls (5.3%) were early-matured. Controlled for familial environment, early menarche was associated with having had more than two life-drunkenness episodes (adjusted OR = 2.5 [1.3-4.6]), early sexual initiation (adjusted OR = 2.8 [1.3-6.0]) and overweight (adjusted OR = 7.3 [3.6-14.9]). Conclusion Early-maturing girls may affiliate with older adolescents, hence engage in risk behaviours linked to their appearance rather than their maturity level. Factors associated with early menarche highlight the need to focus attention on early-matured girls to prevent further health problems linked to risk behaviours. PMID:20353570

  2. Ethnicity, Aging and Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelfand, Donald E.

    1979-01-01

    What is the relationship between ethnicity and the mental health problems of the elderly in American society? This paper offers some suggestions and reviews some data that might encourage further efforts in this area. (Author)

  3. Parylene C Aging Studies.

    SciTech Connect

    Achyuthan, Komandoor; Sawyer, Patricia Sue.; Mata, Guillermo Adrian; White II, Gregory Von; Bernstein, Robert

    2014-09-01

    Parylene C is used in a device because of its conformable deposition and other advantages. Techniques to study Parylene C aging were developed, and "lessons learned" that could be utilized for future studies are the result of this initial study. Differential Scanning Calorimetry yielded temperature ranges for Parylene C aging as well as post-deposition treatment. Post-deposition techniques are suggested to improve Parylene C performance. Sample preparation was critical to aging regimen. Short-term (%7E40 days) aging experiments with free standing and ceramic-supported Parylene C films highlighted "lessons learned" which stressed further investigations in order to refine sample preparation (film thickness, single sided uniform coating, machine versus laser cutting, annealing time, temperature) and testing issues ("necking") for robust accelerated aging of Parylene C.

  4. Evaluation of new and established age-related macular degeneration susceptibility genes in the Women's Health Initiative Sight Exam (WHI-SE) Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To assess whether established and newly reported genetic variants, independent of known lifestyle factors, are associated with the risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) among women participating in the Women's Health Initiative Sight Exam (WHI-SE) Genetic Ancillary Study. This is a multice...

  5. Psychiatric Illness in Relation to Frailty in Community-Dwelling Elderly People without Dementia: A Report from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrew, Melissa K.; Rockwood, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether frailty, defined as the accumulation of multiple, interacting illnesses, impairments and disabilities, is associated with psychiatric illness in older adults. Five-thousand-six-hundred-and-seventy-six community dwellers without dementia were identified within the Canadian Study of Health and Aging, and self-reported…

  6. The effects of gender and age on health related behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Deeks, Amanda; Lombard, Catherine; Michelmore, Janet; Teede, Helena

    2009-01-01

    Background Lifestyle-related diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and some cancers represent the greatest global health threat. Greater insight into health needs and beliefs, using broad community samples, is vital to reduce the burden of chronic disease. This study aimed to investigate gender, age, screening practices, health beliefs, and perceived future health needs for healthy ageing. Methods Random probability sampling using self-completion surveys in 1456 adults residing in Australia. Results Screening behaviors were associated with gender and age. Men and women >51 years were more likely (27%) to have screening health checks than those <50 years (2%). Factors nominated to influence health were lifestyle (92%), relationships (82%), and environment (80%). Women were more likely to nominate preparedness to have an annual health check, willingness to seek advice from their medical practitioner and to attend education sessions. Numerous health fears were associated with ageing, however participants were more likely to have a financial (72%) rather than a health plan (42%). More women and participants >51 years wanted information regarding illness prevention than men or those aged <30 years. Conclusion Age and gender are associated with health related behaviors. Optimal health is perceived as a priority, yet often this perception is not translated into preventative action. These findings will inform future research and policy makers as we strive towards a healthier ageing society and the prevention of chronic disease. PMID:19563685

  7. Autonomy, health and ageing: transnational perspectives.

    PubMed

    Heathcote, G

    2000-02-01

    A comparative study was undertaken in Italy and the UK to explore elderly people's perceptions of old age and ageing, and to establish a ranking of factors which were seen to contribute to the maintenance or loss of autonomy. The results were collated with the expressed views of practitioners and others working with elderly people in a range of settings in eight different European Union Member States. These data informed the compilation of an educational programme, presented as a handbook for use by and with elderly people, the focus of which was life-skills development as a prerequisite for health education. Life-skills were defined in terms of the development of a positive self-image, a social 'ease' and a feeling of 'belongingness' in the context of old age. Assumptions underlying the framing of the educational programme were a transnationally accepted relationship between autonomy, empowerment, self-image and health, and the centrality of life-skills development as catalytic in this process. The paper, however, flags substantial conceptual and methodological issues which arose in moving towards transnationally, shared understandings within the project team at each of the three stages of the project, and offers some evaluative observations on the strengths, concerns and achievements offered by transnational research and collaborative activity. PMID:10788198

  8. HEALTH OF CHILDREN OF SCHOOL AGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LESSER, ARTHUR

    A HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE STUDY OF SCHOOL HEALTH PROGRAMS, THIS REPORT PRESENTS STATISTICS ON (1) THE NATION'S CHILD POPULATION, (2) CHILDREN IN LOW-INCOME FAMILIES, (3) ILLNESSES OF CHILDHOOD, (4) SCHOOL HEALTH SERVICES, AND (5) TRENDS IN THE PROVISION OF HEALTH CARE FOR CHILDREN. THE REPORT EMPHASIZES THE GAPS IN CHILD HEALTH SUPERVISION…

  9. Association between dietary fats and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study (CAREDS), an ancillary study of the Women’s Health Initiative123

    PubMed Central

    Parekh, Niyati; Voland, Rickie P.; Moeller, Suzen M.; Blodi, Barbara A.; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Chappell, Richard J.; Wallace, Robert B.; Mares, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Evaluating relationships of amount and type of dietary fat to intermediate AMD. Design Women, ages 50–79, from the Women’s Health Initiative-Observational Study, with high and low lutein intakes, were recruited into the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study (CAREDS). Fat intake in 1994–1998 was estimated using food frequency questionnaires. AMD was assessed in 2001–2004 from stereoscopic fundus photographs. Results Intakes of omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fats (ω-6 and ω-3 PUFA), which were highly correlated (r=0.8), were associated with higher prevalence of intermediate AMD. Significant age-interactions were noted for associations with total fat, monounsaturated and saturated fat (p= 0.01–0.02). In women <75 years (n=1,325), diets high in total fat (% energy) were associated with increased prevalence of AMD (OR (95% CI) for quintile five vs. one = 1.73 (1.02–2.7; p-trend=0.10); the association was reversed in older women. Monounsaturated fat (MUFA) intakes in quintiles three through five vs. one were associated with lower prevalence of AMD in the whole population. Conclusions Overall associations of dietary fat to AMD differed by type of fat and, often, by age in this cohort. These findings contribute insights about sources of inconsistencies of fat to AMD in epidemiological studies. PMID:19901214

  10. Ageing, dementia and oral health.

    PubMed

    Foltyn, P

    2015-03-01

    Neurocognitive decline and delirium, frailty, incontinence, falls, hearing and vision impairment, medication compliance and pharmacokinetics, skin breakdown, impaired sleep and rest are regarded as geriatric giants by gerontologists, geriatricians and nursing home staff. As these are all interrelated in the elderly, failure to act on one can impact on the others. However, the implications of poor oral health have for too long been ignored and deserve equal status. Mouth pain can be devastating for the elderly, compound psychosocial problems, frustrate carers and nursing home staff and disrupt family dynamics. As appearance, function and comfort suffer, so may a person's self-esteem and confidence. The contributing factors for poor oral health such as rapid dental decay, acute and chronic periodontal infections and compromised systemic health on a background of a dry mouth, coupled with xerostomia-inducing medications, reduced fine motor function, declining cognition and motivation will not only lead to an increase in both morbidity and mortality but also impact on quality of life. PMID:25762045

  11. Extending Employment beyond the Pensionable Age: A Cohort Study of the Influence of Chronic Diseases, Health Risk Factors, and Working Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Virtanen, Marianna; Oksanen, Tuula; Batty, G. David; Ala-Mursula, Leena; Salo, Paula; Elovainio, Marko; Pentti, Jaana; Lybäck, Katinka; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimäki, Mika

    2014-01-01

    Background In response to the economic consequences of ageing of the population, governments are seeking ways with which people might work into older age. We examined the association of working conditions and health with extended employment (defined as >6 months beyond the pensionable age) in a cohort of older, non-disabled employees who have reached old-age retirement. Methods A total of 4,677 Finnish employees who reached their old-age pensionable date between 2005 and 2011 (mean age 59.8 years in 2005, 73% women) had their survey responses before pensionable age linked to national health and pension registers, resulting in a prospective cohort study. Results In all, 832 participants (17.8%) extended their employment by more than 6 months beyond the pensionable date. After multivariable adjustment, the following factors were associated with extended employment: absence of diagnosed mental disorder (OR 1.25, 95% confidence interval = 1.01–1.54) and psychological distress (OR 1.68; 1.35–2.08) and of the work characteristics, high work time control (OR 2.31; 1.88–2.84). The projected probability of extended employment was 21.3% (19.5–23.1) among those free of psychiatric morbidity and with high work time control, while the corresponding probability was only 9.2% (7.4–11.4) among those with both psychiatric morbidity and poor work time control. The contribution of chronic somatic diseases was modest. Conclusions In the present study, good mental health in combination with the opportunity to control work time seem to be key factors in extended employment into older age. In addition, high work time control might promote work life participation irrespective of employees' somatic disease status. PMID:24586372

  12. Dietary Sodium Content, Mortality, and Risk for Cardiovascular Events in Older Adults: The Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study

    PubMed Central

    Kalogeropoulos, Andreas P.; Georgiopoulou, Vasiliki V.; Murphy, Rachel A.; Newman, Anne B.; Bauer, Douglas C.; Harris, Tamara B.; Yang, Zhou; Applegate, William B.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    Importance Additional information is needed on the role of dietary sodium on health outcomes in older adults. Objective To examine the association between dietary sodium intake and mortality, incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), and incident heart failure (HF) in older adults. Design, Setting, and Participants We analyzed 10-year follow-up data from 2,642 older adults (age 71-80) participating in a community-based, prospective cohort study (inception 1997-98). Exposure Dietary sodium intake at baseline was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). We examined sodium intake both as a continuous and as a categorical variable (<1500mg/d [N=291; 11.0%]; 1500–2300mg/d [N=779; 29.5%]; and >2300mg/d [N=1572; 59.5%]. Main Outcomes Adjudicated death, incident CVD, and incident HF over 10-years of follow-up. Analysis of incident CVD was restricted to those without prevalent CVD (N=1981) at baseline. Results Average age of participants was 73.6±2.9 years; 51.2% were women; 61.7% white; and 38.3% black. After 10 years, 881 participants had died, 572 developed CVD and 398 developed HF. In adjusted Cox proportional hazards models, sodium intake was not associated with mortality (HR per 1g, 1.03; 95%CI 0.98–1.09; P=0.27). Ten-year mortality was nonsignificantly lower in the 1500–2300-mg group (30.7%) compared to the <1500-mg (33.8%) and >2300-mg (35.2%) groups; P=0.074. Sodium intake >2300mg/d was associated with nonsignificantly higher mortality in adjusted models (HR vs. 1500–2300 mg/d, 1.15; 95%CI 0.99–1.35; P=0.072). Indexing sodium intake for caloric intake and body mass index did not materially affect the results. Adjusted HR for mortality was 1.20 (95%CI 0.93–1.54; P=0.16) per mg/kcal sodium and 1.11 (95%CI 0.96–1.28; P=0.17) per 100mg/kg/m2 sodium. In adjusted models accounting for the competing risk of death, sodium intake was not associated with risk for CVD (HR per 1g, 1.03; 95%CI 0.95–1.11; P=0.47) or HF (HR per 1g, 1.00; 95%CI 0.92–1

  13. [Accessible health information: a question of age?].

    PubMed

    Loos, E F

    2012-04-01

    Aging and digitalisation are important trends which have their impact on information accessibility. Accessible information about products and services is of crucial importance to ensure that all citizens can participate fully as active members of society. Senior citizens who have difficulties using new media run the risk of exclusion in today's information society. Not all senior citizens, however, encounter problems with new media. Not by a long shot. There is much to be said for 'aged heterogeneity', the concept that individual differences increase as people age. In two explorative qualitative case studies related to accessible health information--an important issue for senior citizens--that were conducted in the Netherlands, variables such as gender, education level and frequency of internet use were therefore included in the research design. In this paper, the most important results of these case studies will be discussed. Attention will be also paid to complementary theories (socialisation, life stages) which could explain differences in information search behaviour when using old or new media. PMID:22642049

  14. A comparison of health expectancies over two decades in England: results of the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study I and II

    PubMed Central

    Jagger, Carol; Matthews, Fiona E; Wohland, Pia; Fouweather, Tony; Stephan, Blossom C M; Robinson, Louise; Arthur, Antony; Brayne, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Whether rises in life expectancy are increases in good-quality years is of profound importance worldwide, with population ageing. We investigate how various health expectancies have changed in England between 1991 and 2011, with identical study design and methods in each decade. Methods Baseline data from the Cognitive Function and Ageing Studies in populations aged 65 years or older in three geographically defined centres in England (Cambridgeshire, Newcastle, and Nottingham) provided prevalence estimates for three health measures: self-perceived health (defined as excellent–good, fair, or poor); cognitive impairment (defined as moderate–severe, mild, or none, as assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination score); and disability in activities of daily living (defined as none, mild, or moderate–severe). Health expectancies for the three regions combined were calculated by the Sullivan method, which applies the age-specific and sex-specific prevalence of the health measure to a standard life table for the same period. Findings Between 1991 and 2011, gains in life expectancy at age 65 years (4·5 years for men and 3·6 years for women) were accompanied by equivalent gains in years free of any cognitive impairment (4·2 years [95% CI 4·2–4·3] for men and 4·4 years [4·3–4·5] for women) and decreased years with mild or moderate–severe cognitive impairment. Gains were also identified in years in excellent or good self-perceived health (3·8 years [95% CI 3·5–4·1] for men and 3·1 years [2·7–3·4] for women). Gains in disability-free years were much smaller than those in excellent–good self-perceived health or those free from cognitive impairment, especially for women (0·5 years [0·2–0·9] compared with 2·6 years [2·3–2·9] for men), mostly because of increased mild disability. Interpretation During the past two decades in England, we report an absolute compression (ie, reduction) of cognitive impairment, a relative

  15. Aging male bodies, health and the reproduction of age relations.

    PubMed

    Pietilä, Ilkka; Ojala, Hanna; King, Neal; Calasanti, Toni

    2013-08-01

    This article explores the ways in which a group of male factory workers uses bodies as bases for hierarchical categorization of men by age in their talk of mundane aspects of their lives. Analysis of interviews about health (4 focus groups and 5 personal interviews) with Finnish working-class men under 40 years old shows that they portray age groups to which they do not belong as careless, even irresponsible toward health and its maintenance. As they categorize youth and old people by age, they leave themselves unmarked by it, providing no vocabulary to describe their own group. Despite their tendency to distance themselves particularly from old people, they also distinguish among older men by familiarity, providing relatively nuanced accounts of their fathers' aging. We discuss the marking of age groups in terms of social inequality and talk of fathers in terms of intergenerational relations. Even family ties among men of diverse ages involve ageism, which familiarity serves both to mitigate and to make less visible. This article documents the maintenance of age inequality in everyday, mundane behavior. PMID:23849422

  16. Mental symptoms, psychotropic drug use and alcohol consumption in immigrated middle-aged women. The Women's Health in Lund Area (WHILA) Study.

    PubMed

    Rundberg, Jenny; Lidfeldt, Jonas; Nerbrand, Christina; Samsioe, Göran; Romelsjö, Anders; Ojehagen, Agneta

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to analyse mental symptoms, psychotropic drug use and alcohol consumption, in immigrant women born in Finland, the other Nordic countries, Eastern Europe, Western Europe and countries outside Europe, compared with Swedish-born women, and furthermore, to study if age at immigration may have an influence. All women (n=10,766) aged 50-59 years and living in the Lund area of southern Sweden received a postal invitation to a health survey named the Women's Health in Lund Area; 64.2% (n=6917) participated. The participants answered a questionnaire including prevalence of mental symptoms during the past 3 months, regular use of psychotropic drugs, alcohol consumption during an average week, country of birth and age at immigration. Severe mental symptoms were more common among most immigrant groups compared with native Swedes, but the association to country of birth was not significant after adjustment for possible confounders. Regular use of hypnotics was more common among Nordic immigrants only (odds ration, OR = 4.4). East European and non-European immigrants less often were alcohol consumers (OR = 1.6 and OR = 3.8). Heavy drinking was more common among non-Nordic immigrants who immigrated at a younger age than at an older age. Furthermore, it was found that although East European and non-European immigrants had a higher educational level, they were less often gainfully employed compared with native Swedes. In middle-aged women, country of birth as well as age at immigration are important factors to consider in relation to alcohol consumption, but these factors may be of less importance considering mental health. PMID:17162456

  17. Successful aging, dietary habits and health status of elderly individuals: a k-dimensional approach within the multi-national MEDIS study.

    PubMed

    Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Haro, Josep Maria; Mariolis, Anargiros; Piscopo, Suzanne; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Tsakountakis, Nikos; Zeimbekis, Akis; Tyrovola, Dimitra; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Gotsis, Efthimios; Metallinos, George; Tur, Josep-Antoni; Matalas, Antonia-Leda; Lionis, Christos; Polychronopoulos, Evangelos; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes

    2014-12-01

    The definition and determinants of successful aging is still controversial. Although dietary habits have long been associated with aging, eating habits and behaviors have rarely been included in various proposed indices of successful aging. The aim of this work was to evaluate determinants of successful aging together with assessment of dietary habits in relation to healthcare facility use among elders living in the Mediterranean basin. During 2005-2011, 2663 elderly (aged 65-100 years) individuals from 21 Mediterranean islands and rural Mani region (Peloponnesus) were voluntarily enrolled in the study. A successful aging index ranging from a score of 0 to a score of 10 was constructed using 10 attributes, i.e., education, financial status, physical activity, body mass index, depression, participation in social activities with friends and family, number of yearly excursions, number of cardiovascular disease risk factors and adherence to the Mediterranean diet. The applied factor analysis on the components of the index extracted three main components for successful aging: psychosocial-economic, bioclinical and lifestyle; confirming the multiple dimensions of aging. After adjusting for confounders, a 1/10-unit increase in the successful aging index was associated with 0.8 less annual visits to healthcare centers (95% CI -1.3 to-0.2). Stratified analysis by gender revealed heterogeneity of factors predicting successful aging. These findings suggest that successful aging is a multidimensional and complex concept that exhibits gender heterogeneity. Annual use of health care services by the elders was found to be related to level of successful aging. PMID:25240688

  18. Depressive Symptoms and SES among the Mid-Aged and Elderly in China: Evidence from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study National Baseline

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Xiaoyan; Sun, Xiaoting; Zhang, Peng; Zhao, Yaohui

    2015-01-01

    We examine the prevalence of depressive symptoms among the mid-aged and elderly in China and examine relationships between depression and current SES factors such as gender, age, education and income (per capita expenditures). In addition, we explore associations of depressive symptoms with measures of early childhood health, recent family deaths and current chronic health conditions. We use data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) national baseline, fielded in 2011/12, which contains the ten question version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D) for 17,343 respondents aged 45 and older. We fill a major gap by using the CHARLS data to explore the general patterns of depression and risk factors among the Chinese elderly nationwide, which has never been possible before. We find that depressive symptoms are significantly associated with own education and per capita expenditure, and the associations are robust to the inclusion of highly disaggregated community fixed effects and to the addition of several other risk factors. Factors such as good general health during childhood are negatively associated with later depression. There exist strong gender differences, with females having higher depression scores. Being a recent widow or widower is associated with more depressive symptoms, as is having a series of chronic health problems, notably having moderate or severe pain, disability or problems with measures of physical functioning. Adding the chronic health problems to the specification greatly reduces the SES associations with depressive symptoms, suggesting that part of the pathways behind these associations are through these chronic health factors. PMID:25261616

  19. Assessing the Validity of Self-Rated Health with the Short Physical Performance Battery: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the International Mobility in Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Belanger, Emmanuelle; Zunzunegui, Maria–Victoria; Phillips, Susan; Ylli, Alban; Guralnik, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to explore the validity of self-rated health across different populations of older adults, when compared to the Short Physical Performance Battery. Design Cross-sectional analysis of the International Mobility in Aging Study. Setting Five locations: Saint-Hyacinthe and Kingston (Canada), Tirana (Albania), Manizales (Colombia), and Natal (Brazil). Participants Older adults between 65 and 74 years old (n = 1,995). Methods The Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) was used to measure physical performance. Self-rated health was assessed with one single five-point question. Linear trends between SPPB scores and self-rated health were tested separately for men and women at each of the five international study sites. Poor physical performance (independent variable) (SPPB less than 8) was used in logistic regression models of self-rated health (dependent variable), adjusting for potential covariates. All analyses were stratified by gender and site of origin. Results A significant linear association was found between the mean scores of the Short Physical Performance Battery and ordinal categories of self-rated health across research sites and gender groups. After extensive control for objective physical and mental health indicators and socio-demographic variables, these graded associations became non-significant in some research sites. Conclusion These findings further confirm the validity of SRH as a measure of overall health status in older adults. PMID:27089219

  20. Psychosocial functioning and self-rated health in Japanese school-aged children: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Masayuki; Sekiya, Mari; Okuda, Yumi; Kunitsugu, Ichiro; Yoshitake, Norikazu; Hobara, Tatsuya

    2013-06-01

    Emotional and behavioral disorders in children are school-health concerns; however, Japanese screening tools for such disorders are not yet available. We examined the association between psychosocial functioning as measured by the Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC) and self-rated health within school settings. A cross-sectional study was conducted for 2513 fifth and eighth graders from all of the primary and secondary schools in Shunan City, Japan. The Japanese PSC had high internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.90) and a factor structure similar to that of the English PSC. When the cut-off values were set to ≥ 28 and ≥ 17, 4-9% and 20-39% of our respondents, respectively, reported high PSC scores. A multiple ordinal logistic regression analysis showed that the odds ratio of a positive PSC score (≥ 28) for poorer self-rated health among ratings of "very good," "good," "fair," and "poor" was 3.5 (95% confidence interval = 2.6-4.8). There was a clear association between psychosocial dysfunction identified by a PSC score ≥ 28 and poor self-rated health. We offer directions for further research on appropriate PSC cut-off values with Japanese samples. PMID:23107460

  1. Personality, Self-Rated Health and Subjective Age in a Life-Span Sample: The Moderating Role of Chronological Age

    PubMed Central

    Stephan, Yannick; Demulier, Virginie; Terracciano, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The present study tested whether chronological age moderates the association between subjective age and self-rated health and personality in a community-dwelling lifespan sample (N=1,016; age-range: 18–91). Self-rated health, extraversion, and openness to experience were associated with a younger subjective age at older ages. Conscientious individuals felt more mature early in life. Conscientiousness, neuroticism, and agreeableness were not related to subjective age at older ages. These findings suggest that with aging self-rated health and personality traits are increasingly important for subjective age. PMID:22582885

  2. Brief report: Changes in parent-adolescent joint activities between 2002 and 2014 in the Czech Republic, Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study.

    PubMed

    Vokacova, Jana; Badura, Petr; Pavelka, Jan; Kalman, Michal; Hanus, Radek

    2016-08-01

    Joint family activities (JFA) are linked to healthy adolescent development. The aim of the present study is to report time trends in JFA between 2002 and 2014. The sample concerned 16 396 adolescents aged 11, 13, and 15 years (48.4% boys) from the 2002, 2006, 2010, and 2014 surveys of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study in the Czech Republic. The overall changes in JFA were evaluated using logistic regression. Compared with 2002, there was a slight increase in four out of the six selected JFA in 2014. In particular, the likelihood of engaging in joint active activities (sports and walks) increased in the 2002-2014 period. Conversely, nowadays adolescents watch TV with their parents less frequently. Moreover, families today do not eat together as often as in 2002, which might have negative consequences for healthy adolescent development. Adolescents aged 11 get involved in JFA more than their older counterparts. PMID:27244479

  3. Age at menarche, total mortality and mortality from ischaemic heart disease and stroke: the Adventist Health Study, 1976–88

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, B K; Oda, K; Knutsen, S F; Fraser, G E

    2009-01-01

    Background Little is known about the relationship between age at menarche and total mortality and mortality from ischaemic heart disease and stroke. Methods A cohort study of 19 462 Californian Seventh-Day Adventist women followed-up from 1976 to 1988. A total of 3313 deaths occurred during follow-up, of which 809 were due to ischaemic heart disease and 378 due to stroke. Results An early menarche was associated with increased total mortality (P-value for linear trend <0.001), ischaemic heart disease (P-value for linear trend = 0.01) and stroke (P-value for linear trend = 0.02) mortality. There were, however, also some indications of an increased ischaemic heart disease mortality in women aged 16–18 at menarche (5% of the women). When assessed as a linear relationship, a 1-year delay in menarche was associated with 4.5% (95% CI 2.3–6.7) lower total mortality. The association was stronger for ischaemic heart disease [6.0% (95% CI 1.2–10.6)] and stroke [8.6% (95% CI 1.6–15.1)] mortality. Conclusions The results suggest that there is a linear, inverse relationship between age at menarche and total mortality as well as with ischaemic heart disease and stroke mortality. PMID:19188208

  4. Lifestyle Activities and Memory: Variety May Be the Spice of Life. The Women’s Health and Aging Study II

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Michelle C.; Parisi, Jeanine M.; Xia, Jin; Xue, Qian-Li; Rebok, George W.; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Fried, Linda P.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether participation in a variety of lifestyle activities was comparable to frequent participation in cognitively challenging activities in mitigating impairments in cognitive abilities susceptible to aging in healthy, community-dwelling older women. Frequencies of participation in various lifestyle activities on the Lifestyle Activities Questionnaire (LAQ) were divided according to high (e.g., reading), moderate (e.g., discussing politics), and low (e.g., watching television) cognitive demand. We also considered the utility of participation in a variety of lifestyle activities regardless of cognitive challenge. Immediate and delayed verbal recall, psychomotor speed, and executive function were each measured at baseline and at five successive exams, spanning a 9.5-year interval. Greater variety of participation in activities, regardless of cognitive challenge, was associated with an 8 to 11% reduction in the risk of impairment in verbal memory and global cognitive outcomes. Participation in a variety of lifestyle activities was more predictive than frequency or level of cognitive challenge for significant reductions in risk of incident impairment on measures sensitive to cognitive aging and risk for dementia. Our findings offer new perspectives in promoting a diverse repertoire of activities to mitigate age-related cognitive declines. PMID:22172155

  5. HEALTH AND RETIREMENT STUDY (HRS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    HRS is a national panel study based on biennial interviews. The study provides a portrait of an aging America's physical and mental health, insurance coverage, financial status, family support systems, labor market status, and retirement planning.

  6. Synergistic effect of interaction between perceived health and social activity on depressive symptoms in the middle-aged and elderly: a population-based longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Sung-Youn; Han, Kyu-Tae; Lee, Seo Yoon; Kim, Chan Ok; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the synergistic effect of interaction between perceived health and social activity on depressive symptoms. Methods We investigated whether the interaction between perceived health and social activity has a synergistic effect on depressive symptoms in the middle-aged and elderly using data from 6590 respondents aged 45 and older in the Korean Longitudinal Study on Aging (KLoSA), 2006–2012. A generalised linear mixed-effects model was used to investigate the association in a longitudinal data form. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression 10 Scale (CES-D10). Perceived health and level of social activity were categorical variables with three values. Participation in six social activities was assessed. Results Interactions between perceived health status and social activity were statistically significant for almost all social activity/perceived health combinations. Addition of the interaction term significantly decreased CES-D10 scores, confirming the synergistic effect of the interaction between perceived health status and social activity (‘normal×moderate’, β=−0.1826; ‘poor×moderate’, β=−0.5739; ‘poor×active’, β=−0.8935). In addition, we performed stratified analyses by region: urban or rural. In urban respondents, the additional effect of the interaction term decreased CES-D10 scores and all social activity/perceived health combinations were statistically significant (‘normal×moderate’, β=−0.2578; ‘normal×active’, β=−0.3945; ‘poor×moderate’, β=−0.5739; ‘poor×active’, β=−0.8935). In rural respondents, only one social activity/perceived health combination was statistically significant, and the additional effect of the interaction term showed no consistent trend on CES-D10 scores. Conclusions The interaction between perceived health and social activity has a synergistic effect on depressive symptoms; the additional effect of the interaction

  7. How did the recession of 2007-2009 affect the wealth and retirement of the near retirement age population in the Health and Retirement Study?

    PubMed

    Gustman, Alan L; Steinmeier, Thomas L; Tabatabai, Nahid

    2012-01-01

    This article uses household wealth and labor market data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) to investigate how the recent "Great Recession" has affected the wealth and retirement of those approaching retirement age as the recession began, a potentially vulnerable population. The retirement wealth of people aged 53-58 in 2006 declined by a relatively modest 2.8 percent by 2010. Relative losses were greatest among those with the highest wealth when the recession began. Most of the loss in wealth is due to a declining net value of housing, but several factors may provide this cohort with time to recover its housing losses. Although unemployment rose during the Great Recession, that increase was not mirrored by flows out of full-time work or partial retirement. To date, the retirement behavior of the Early Boomer cohort does not differ much from that of older cohorts at comparable ages. PMID:23397745

  8. An Aging Game Simulation Activity for Allied Health Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglass, Carolinda; Henry, Beverly W.; Kostiwa, Irene M.

    2008-01-01

    The Aging Game, a simulation activity, has been used successfully with medical students in the development of empathetic attitudes toward older adults. To date, the Aging Game has not been used extensively with allied health students. It has been viewed as too costly, time-consuming and labor-intensive. The purpose of this study was to examine the…

  9. Mental health problems of aging and the aged*

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Martin

    1959-01-01

    The rapid increase in admission rates to mental hospitals in many countries in recent decades threatens to create serious problems. These may be to some extent remediable in that social factors are important in deciding the chances of admission to hospital, as well as the frequency of suicide, which reaches a peak among the aged in most countries. All communities possess valuable assets in the form of existing links between the aged and their families which may be lost by indiscriminate community planning. Although some psychological decline is inevitable during senescence, it is becoming clear that much that once passed for the ineluctable effects of mental and physical aging is due to disease that may be ameliorated or cured. The relationship between mental and physical health is particularly close in old age, and the effective treatment of the aged person with a psychiatric disorder demands the full resources of general medicine as well as psychiatry. For successful rehabilitation a full community service for the aged and proper integration of the work of the family doctor with that of preventive and hospital services are essential. The possibilities of prevention can be enhanced by fostering physical well-being and healthy adjustment during earlier stages of life, as well as by ascertaining, and remedying as far as possible, the mental and physical disorders of the aged in the early stages of their development. There is great scope for biological, medical and sociological research to define reasons for the wide variations in mental and physical well-being in old age. PMID:14439413

  10. Menopause Hastens Aging, Studies Suggest

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_160079.html Menopause Hastens Aging, Studies Suggest Researchers found it boosted cellular aging by ... it, can speed aging in women, two new studies suggest. "For decades, scientists have disagreed over whether ...

  11. Differences in Access to and Preferences for Using Patient Portals and Other eHealth Technologies Based on Race, Ethnicity, and Age: A Database and Survey Study of Seniors in a Large Health Plan

    PubMed Central

    Hornbrook, Mark C

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients are being encouraged to go online to obtain health information and interact with their health care systems. However, a 2014 survey found that less than 60% of American adults aged 65 and older use the Internet, with much lower usage among black and Latino seniors compared with non-Hispanic white seniors, and among older versus younger seniors. Objective Our aims were to (1) identify race/ethnic and age cohort disparities among seniors in use of the health plan’s patient portal, (2) determine whether race/ethnic and age cohort disparities exist in access to digital devices and preferences for using email- and Web-based modalities to interact with the health care system, (3) assess whether observed disparities in preferences and patient portal use are due simply to barriers to access and inability to use the Internet, and (4) learn whether older adults not currently using the health plan’s patient portal or website have a potential interest in doing so in the future and what kind of support might be best suited to help them. Methods We conducted two studies of seniors aged 65-79 years. First, we used administrative data about patient portal account status and utilization in 2013 for a large cohort of English-speaking non-Hispanic white (n=183,565), black (n=16,898), Latino (n=12,409), Filipino (n=11,896), and Chinese (n=6314) members of the Kaiser Permanente Northern California health plan. Second, we used data from a mailed survey conducted in 2013-2014 with a stratified random sample of this population (final sample: 849 non-Hispanic white, 567 black, 653 Latino, 219 Filipino, and 314 Chinese). These data were used to examine race/ethnic and age disparities in patient portal use and readiness and preferences for using digital communication for health-related purposes. Results Adults aged 70-74 and 75-79 were significantly less likely than 65-69 year olds to be registered to use the patient portal, and among those registered, to have used the

  12. The Effect of Intimate Partner Violence on Mental Health Status among Women of Reproductive Ages: A Population-Based Study in a Middle Anatolian City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nur, Naim

    2012-01-01

    Violence against women has been recognized as both a major public health problem and a human rights violation worldwide. Research has documented the association between physical/sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) and mental health, measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) among women in reproductive age. This study…

  13. Paternal age and mental health of offspring.

    PubMed

    Malaspina, Dolores; Gilman, Caitlin; Kranz, Thorsten Manfred

    2015-06-01

    The influence of paternal age on the risk for sporadic forms of Mendelian disorders is well known, but a burgeoning recent literature demonstrates, in addition, a paternal age effect for complex neuropsychiatric conditions, including schizophrenia, autism, bipolar disorder, and even for learning potential, expressed as intelligence. Mental illness is costly to patients, their family, and the public health system, accounting for the largest portion of disability costs in our economy. The delayed onset of neuropsychiatric conditions and lack of physical manifestations at birth are common frequencies in the population that have obscured the recognition that a portion of the risks for mental conditions is associated with paternal age. Identification of these risk pathways may be leveraged for knowledge about mental function and for future screening tests. However, only a small minority of at-risk offspring are likely to have such a psychiatric or learning disorder attributable to paternal age, including the children of older fathers. PMID:25956369

  14. Sexual health and relationships after age 60.

    PubMed

    Minkin, Mary Jane

    2016-01-01

    A commonly used phrase describing aging is "60 is the new 40". Although in many aspects of life this may be correct, in discussing sexual health, challenges to maintaining excellent sexual health become more common around age 60. Biological aging challenges physical sexual activity and responsiveness. We commence by briefly surveying the extensive coverage of 'normal' physiological aging. We primarily focus on issues that arise in distinct disease and or pathophysiological states, including gynecological and breast cancer, as well as those associated with partners of men who are either prostate cancer survivors or who have taken therapy for erectile dysfunction (ED). Regrettably, there is a very modest literature on sexual health and associated possible interventions in older patients in these cohorts. We discuss a variety of interventions and approaches, including those that we have developed and applied in a clinic at our host university, which have generally produced successful outcomes. The extended focus to sexual relationship dynamics in partners of men with either prostate cancer or ED in particular is virtually unexplored, yet is especially timely given the large numbers of women who encounter this situation. Finally, we briefly discuss cross-cultural distinctions in older couples' expectations, which exhibit remarkable variation. PMID:26547237

  15. Mental health problems and resilience in international adoptees: Results from a population-based study of Norwegian adolescents aged 16-19 years.

    PubMed

    Askeland, Kristin Gärtner; Hysing, Mari; Aarø, Leif Edvard; Tell, Grethe S; Sivertsen, Børge

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate mental health and resilience in adolescents who have been internationally adopted and their non-adopted peers and examine the potential interaction between adoption status and resilience on mental health problems. Data from the population based youth@hordaland-survey, conducted in Hordaland County, Norway, in 2012 was used. In all, 10 257 adolescents aged 16-19 years provided self-reported data on several mental health instruments. Of these, 45 adolescents were identified as internationally adopted. Adoptees reported more symptoms of depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and perfectionism than non-adopted adolescents, but there were no differences regarding resilience. Adolescents with higher resilience scores reported fewer symptoms of mental health problems, however, no interaction effects were found for adoption status and total resilience score on measures of mental health problems. Our findings indicate that knowledge of resilience factors can form the basis for preventive interventions. PMID:26210652

  16. Breakfast Consumption and Its Associations with Health-Related Behaviors among School-Aged Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study in Zhejiang Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Zhong, Jie-Ming; Wang, Hao; Zhao, Ming; Gong, Wei-Wei; Pan, Jin; Fei, Fang-Rong; Wu, Hai-Bin; Yu, Min

    2016-01-01

    Evidence indicates that breakfast consumption is associated with a cluster of health-related behaviors, yet studies in mainland China are scarce. This study is conducted to describe the frequency of breakfast consumption among Chinese adolescents and examine its associations with other dietary, physical activity, sedentary, sleep, cigarette-smoking, and alcohol-drinking behaviors. Breakfast consumption and other health-related behaviors data was collected via a self-administered questionnaire in a cross-sectional study in Zhejiang Province, China. A total of 19,542 school-aged adolescents were recruited in this survey. The associations between breakfast consumption and other health-related behaviors were examined using logistic regression models. A significantly higher prevalence of daily breakfast consumption was found among students who were younger (p for trend <0.001), from urban schools (p < 0.001), and academic high schools (p < 0.001). More frequent vegetable and milk consumption, greater physical activity, and longer sleep duration were positively associated with daily breakfast consumption, while soft drinks and fast food consumption, computer use, cigarette-smoking and alcohol-drinking behaviors were inversely associated. The prevalence of irregular breakfast consumption was relatively high among Chinese adolescents in Zhejiang Province. Daily breakfast consumption was associated with a constellation of health-related behaviors. PMID:27472357

  17. Breakfast Consumption and Its Associations with Health-Related Behaviors among School-Aged Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study in Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Zhong, Jie-Ming; Wang, Hao; Zhao, Ming; Gong, Wei-Wei; Pan, Jin; Fei, Fang-Rong; Wu, Hai-Bin; Yu, Min

    2016-01-01

    Evidence indicates that breakfast consumption is associated with a cluster of health-related behaviors, yet studies in mainland China are scarce. This study is conducted to describe the frequency of breakfast consumption among Chinese adolescents and examine its associations with other dietary, physical activity, sedentary, sleep, cigarette-smoking, and alcohol-drinking behaviors. Breakfast consumption and other health-related behaviors data was collected via a self-administered questionnaire in a cross-sectional study in Zhejiang Province, China. A total of 19,542 school-aged adolescents were recruited in this survey. The associations between breakfast consumption and other health-related behaviors were examined using logistic regression models. A significantly higher prevalence of daily breakfast consumption was found among students who were younger (p for trend <0.001), from urban schools (p < 0.001), and academic high schools (p < 0.001). More frequent vegetable and milk consumption, greater physical activity, and longer sleep duration were positively associated with daily breakfast consumption, while soft drinks and fast food consumption, computer use, cigarette-smoking and alcohol-drinking behaviors were inversely associated. The prevalence of irregular breakfast consumption was relatively high among Chinese adolescents in Zhejiang Province. Daily breakfast consumption was associated with a constellation of health-related behaviors. PMID:27472357

  18. Age-related preferences and age weighting health benefits.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, A

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with the relevance of age in the paradigm of quality adjusted life years (QALYs). The first section outlines two rationales for incorporating age weights into QALYs. One of them is based on efficiency concerns; and the other on equity concerns. Both of these are theoretical constructs. The main purpose of this paper is to examine the extent of published empirical support for such age weighting. The second section is a brief survey of nine empirical studies that elicited age-related preferences from the general public. Six of these quantified the strength of the preferences, and these are discussed in more detail in the third section. The analysis distinguishes three kinds of age-related preference: productivity ageism, utilitarian ageism and egalitarian ageism. The relationship between them and their relevance to the two different rationales for age weighting are then explored. It is concluded that, although there is strong prima facie evidence of public support for both types of age weighting, the empirical evidence to support any particular set of weights is at present weak. PMID:10048783

  19. Association of age with health-related quality of life in a cohort of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: the Georgians Organized Against Lupus study

    PubMed Central

    Plantinga, Laura; Lim, S Sam; Bowling, C Barrett; Drenkard, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine whether older age was associated with lower health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and whether differential disease-related damage and activity explained these associations. Methods We used cross-sectional data on 684 patients with SLE aged ≥20 years from the Georgians Organized Against Lupus cohort to estimate the associations between age (categorised as 20–39, 40–59 and ≥60 years) and HRQOL (Short Form-12 norm-based domain and physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) scores), using multivariable linear regression. We then examined the effect of disease-related damage and activity on these associations. Results The mean age of the cohort was 48.2±13.1 years (range, 20–88 years), with 28.0%, 52.9% and 19.1% of participants being aged 20–39, 40–59 and ≥60 years, respectively; 79.0% were African-American and 93.7% were female. The mean PCS score was 39.3 (41.8, 38.7 and 37.4 among those aged 20–39, 40–59 and ≥60 years, respectively), while the mean MCS score was 44.3 (44.2, 43.8 and 46.1, respectively). In general, lower physical but not mental HRQOL scores were associated with older age. With adjustment, older ages (40–59 and ≥60, respectively, vs 20–39) remained associated (β (95% CI)) with lower PCS (−2.53 (−4.58 to −0.67) and −3.57 (−6.19 to −0.96)) but not MCS (0.47 (−1.46 to 2.41) and 1.20 (−1.52 to 3.92)) scores. Associations of age with HRQOL domain and summary scores were not substantially changed by further adjustment for disease-related damage and/or activity. Conclusions Nearly one in five participants in this large, predominantly African-American cohort of patients with SLE was at least 60 years old. The associations of older age with lower physical, but not mental, HRQOL were independent of accumulated SLE damage and current SLE activity. The results suggest that studies of important geriatric

  20. Think Fast, Feel Fine, Live Long: A 29-Year Study of Cognition, Health, and Survival in Middle-Aged and Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Aichele, Stephen; Rabbitt, Patrick; Ghisletta, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    In a 29-year study of 6,203 individuals ranging in age from 41 to 96 years at initial assessment, we evaluated the relative and combined influence of 65 mortality risk factors, which included sociodemographic variables, lifestyle attributes, medical indices, and multiple cognitive abilities. Reductions in mortality risk were most associated with higher self-rated health, female gender, fewer years as a smoker, and smaller decrements in processing speed with age. Thus, two psychological variables-subjective health status and processing speed-were among the top predictors of survival. We suggest that these psychological attributes, unlike risk factors that are more narrowly defined, reflect (and are influenced by) a broad range of health-related behaviors and characteristics. Information about these attributes can be obtained with relatively little effort or cost and-given the tractability of these measures in different cultural contexts-may prove expedient for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of conditions related to increased mortality risk in diverse human populations. PMID:26917212

  1. [Social representations on aging by primary care health workers].

    PubMed

    Mendes, Cristina Katya Torres Teixeira; Alves, Maria do Socorro Costa Feitosa; Silva, Antonia Oliveira; Paredes, Maria Adelaide Silva; Rodrigues, Tatyanni Peixoto

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to get to know the social representations on aging developed by primary care health workers. This is an exploratory study involving 204 primary health care workers, in the city of João Pessoa, in the state of Paraíba. For data collection we used a semi-structured interview. The data obtained from 204 interviews was analyzed with the help of the Alceste software version 2010. The results indicated five classes or categories: vision of aging,psychosocial dimensions, a time of doubts, aging as a process, and aging versus disease, with positive content: joy, care, children, retirement, caregiver rights, maturity and wisdom, as well as negative factors: impairments, decadence, neglect, fragility, limitation, wrinkles, dependency and disease. It was observed that these meanings associated with aging express the need for total and humanized elderly care. PMID:23405821

  2. Perceived health in the Portuguese population aged ≥ 35

    PubMed Central

    de Figueiredo, João Paulo; Cardoso, Salvador Massano

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the exploratory relationship between determinants of health, life satisfaction, locus of control, attitudes and behaviors and health related quality of life in an adult population. METHODS Observational study (analytical and cross-sectional) with a quantitative methodological basis. The sample was composed oy 1,214 inhabitants aged ≥ 35 in 31 civil parishes in the County of Coimbra, Portugal, 2011-2012. An anonymous and voluntary health survey was conducted, which collected the following information: demographic, clinical record, health and lifestyle behaviors; health related quality of life (Medical Outcomes Study, Short Form-36); health locus of control; survey of health attitudes and behavior, and quality of life index. Pearson’s Linear Correlation, t-Student, Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney; One-way ANOVA; Brown-Forsythe’s F; Kruskal-Wallis; Multiple Comparisons: Tukey (HSD), Games-Howell and Conover were used in the statistical analysis. RESULTS Health related quality of life was shown to be lower in females, in older age groups, in obese/overweight individuals, widows, unassisted, those living alone, living in rural/suburban areas, those who did not work and with a medium-low socioeconomic level. Respondents with poor/very poor self-perceived health (p < 0.0001), with chronic disease (p < 0.0001), who consumed < 3 meals per day (p ≤ 0.01), who were sedentary, who slept ≤ 6 h/day and had smoked for several years revealed the worst health results. Health related quality of life was positively related with a bigger internal locus, with better health attitudes and behaviors (physical exercise, health and nutritional care, length of dependence) and with different areas of life satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS Better health related quality of life was associated with certain social, psychological, family and health characteristics, a satisfactory lifestyle, better socioeconomic conditions and a good internal locus of control over health attitudes and

  3. Racial/Ethnic Differences in the Prevalence of Depressive Symptoms Among Middle-Aged Women: The Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN)

    PubMed Central

    Bromberger, Joyce T.; Harlow, Sioban; Avis, Nancy; Kravitz, Howard M.; Cordal, Adriana

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. We examined racial/ethnic differences in significant depressive symptoms among middle-aged women before and after adjustment for socioeconomic, health-related, and psychosocial characteristics. Methods. Racial/ethnic differences in unadjusted and adjusted prevalence of significant depressive symptoms (score ≥ 16 on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression [CES-D] Scale) were assessed with univariate and multiple logistic regressions. Results. Twenty-four percent of the sample had a CES-D score of 16 or higher. Unadjusted prevalence varied by race/ethnicity (P < .0001). After adjustment for covariates, racial/ethnic differences overall were no longer significant. Conclusions. Hispanic and African American women had the highest odds, and Chinese and Japanese women had the lowest odds, for a CES-D score of 16 or higher. This variation is in part because of health-related and psychosocial factors that are linked to socioeconomic status. PMID:15284047

  4. Association between shift work history and performance on the trail making test in middle-aged and elderly humans: the EpiHealth study.

    PubMed

    Titova, Olga E; Lindberg, Eva; Elmståhl, Sölve; Lind, Lars; Schiöth, Helgi B; Benedict, Christian

    2016-09-01

    Shift work has been proposed to promote cognitive disturbances in humans; however, conflicting evidence is also present. By using data from 7143 middle-aged and elderly humans (45-75 years) who participated in the Swedish EpiHealth cohort study, the present analysis sought to investigate whether self-reported shift work history would be associated with performance on the trail making test (TMT). The TMT has been proposed to be a useful neuropsychological tool to evaluate humans' executive cognitive function, which is known to decrease with age. After adjustment for potential confounders (e.g., age, education, and sleep duration), it was observed that current and recent former shift workers (worked shifts during the past 5 years) performed worse on the TMT than nonshift workers. In contrast, performance on the TMT did not differ between past shift workers (off from shift work for more than 5 years) and nonshift workers. Collectively, our results indicate that shift work history is linked to poorer performance on the TMT in a cohort of middle-aged and elderly humans. PMID:27459922

  5. Increase in Red Blood Cell-Nitric Oxide Synthase Dependent Nitric Oxide Production during Red Blood Cell Aging in Health and Disease: A Study on Age Dependent Changes of Rheologic and Enzymatic Properties in Red Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bizjak, Daniel Alexander; Brinkmann, Christian; Bloch, Wilhelm; Grau, Marijke

    2015-01-01

    Aim To investigate RBC-NOS dependent NO signaling during in vivo RBC aging in health and disease. Method RBC from fifteen healthy volunteers (HC) and four patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) were separated in seven subpopulations by Percoll density gradient centrifugation. Results The proportion of old RBC was significantly higher in DM compared to HC. In both groups, in vivo aging was marked by changes in RBC shape and decreased cell volume. RBC nitrite, as marker for NO, was higher in DM and increased in both HC and DM during aging. RBC deformability was lower in DM and significantly decreased in old compared to young RBC in both HC and DM. RBC-NOS Serine1177 phosphorylation, indicating enzyme activation, increased during aging in both HC and DM. Arginase I activity remained unchanged during aging in HC. In DM, arginase I activity was significantly higher in young RBC compared to HC but decreased during aging. In HC, concentration of L-arginine, the substrate of RBC-NOS and arginase I, significantly dropped from young to old RBC. In DM, L-arginine concentration was significantly higher in young RBC compared to HC and significantly decreased during aging. In blood from healthy subjects, RBC-NOS activation was additionally inhibited by N5-(1-iminoethyl)-L-Ornithine dihydrochloride which decreased RBC nitrite, and impaired RBC deformability of all but the oldest RBC subpopulation. Conclusion This study first-time showed highest RBC-NOS activation and NO production in old RBC, possibly to counteract the negative impact of cell shrinkage on RBC deformability. This was even more pronounced in DM. It is further suggested that highly produced NO only insufficiently affects cell function of old RBC maybe because of isolated RBC-NOS in old RBC thus decreasing NO bioavailability. Thus, increasing NO availability may improve RBC function and may extend cell life span in old RBC. PMID:25902315

  6. Oxidative Damage, Platelet Activation, and Inflammation to Predict Mobility Disability and Mortality in Older Persons: Results From the Health Aging and Body Composition Study

    PubMed Central

    Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Nicklas, Barbara; Kanaya, Alka M.; Patrignani, Paola; Tacconelli, Stefania; Tranah, Gregory J.; Tognoni, Gianni; Harris, Tamara B.; Incalzi, Raffaele Antonelli; Newman, Anne B.; Pahor, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Background. Inflammation, oxidative damage, and platelet activation are hypothesized biological mechanisms driving the disablement process. The aim of the present study is to assess whether biomarkers representing these mechanisms predicted major adverse health-related events in older persons. Methods. Data are from 2,234 community-dwelling nondisabled older persons enrolled in the Health Aging and Body Composition study. Biomarkers of lipid peroxidation (ie, urinary levels of 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α), platelet activation (ie, urinary levels of 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2), and inflammation (serum concentrations of interleukin-6) were considered as independent variables of interest and tested in Cox proportional hazard models as predictors of (severe) mobility disability and overall mortality. Results. The sample’s (women 48.0%, whites 64.3%) mean age was 74.6 (SD 2.9) years. During the follow-up (median 11.4 years), 792 (35.5%), 269 (12.0%), and 942 (42.2%) events of mobility disability, severe mobility disability, and mortality occurred, respectively. Only interleukin-6 showed significant independent associations with the onset of all the study outcomes. Higher levels of urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α and 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 independently predicted increased risk of death (hazard ratio 1.10, 95% confidence interval 1.03–1.19 and hazard ratio 1.14, 95% confidence interval 1.06–1.23, respectively). No significant interactions of gender, race, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and antiplatelet drugs were detected on the studied relationships. Conclusions. The inflammatory marker interleukin-6 is confirmed to be a robust predictor for the onset of negative health-related events. Participants with higher urinary levels of 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α and 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 presented a higher mortality risk. PMID:22389462

  7. Intelligence in youth and health at age 50

    PubMed Central

    Wraw, Christina; Deary, Ian J.; Gale, Catharine R.; Der, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Background The link between intelligence in youth and all-cause mortality in later-life is well established. To better understand this relationship, the current study examines the links between pre-morbid intelligence and a number of specific health outcomes at age 50 using the NLSY-1979 cohort. Methods Participants were the 5793 participants in the NLSY-79 who responded to questions about health outcomes at age 50. Sixteen health outcomes were examined: two were summary measures (physical health and functional limitation), 9 were diagnosed illness conditions, 4 were self-reported conditions, and one was a measure of general health status. Linear and logistic regressions were used, as appropriate, to examine the relationship between intelligence in youth and the health outcomes. Age, sex and both childhood and adult SES, and its sub-components – income, education, & occupational prestige – are all adjusted for separately. Results & conclusion Higher pre-morbid intelligence is linked with better physical health at age 50, and a lower risk for a number of chronic health conditions. For example, a 1 SD higher score in IQ was significantly associated with increased odds of having good, very good, or excellent health, with an odds ratio of 1.70 (C.I. 1.55–1.86). Thirteen of the illness outcomes were significantly and negatively associated with IQ in youth; the odds ratios ranged from 0.85 for diabetes/high blood sugar to 0.65 for stroke, per one standard deviation higher score in IQ. Adjustment for childhood SES led to little attenuation but adult SES partially mediated the relationship for a number of conditions. Mediation by adult SES was not consistently explained by any one of its components—income, education, and occupation status. The current findings contribute to our understanding of lower intelligence as a risk factor for poor health and how this may contribute to health inequalities. PMID:26766880

  8. Does the School Performance Variable Used in the International Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) Study Reflect Students' School Grades?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felder-Puig, Rosemarie; Griebler, Robert; Samdal, Oddrun; King, Matthew A.; Freeman, John; Duer, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Background: Given the pressure that educators and policy makers are under to achieve academic standards for students, understanding the relationship of academic success to various aspects of health is important. The international Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) questionnaire, being used in 41 countries with different school and…

  9. Physical and physiological effectiveness of an overall health care program for middle-aged Japanese women with mild obesity: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Amano, Sho; Tsubone, Hirokazu; Hanafusa, Masakazu; Yamasaki, Takeshi; Nishizaka, Saiko; Yanagisawa, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to verify the effectiveness of an overall health care program (OHCP) for middle-aged Japanese women through assessing physical and physiological changes. The OHCP consisted of diet modification with natural alternative foods, walking and stretching exercises, and body massage and cupping treatments. Sixty-seven participants were assigned to one of three groups during a 3-year study period (2011–2013). The OHCP was performed for 3 months in each year. After the OHCP, most participants had significant decreases in the blood levels of triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transferase, and cholinesterase; body weight; body fat percentage; and body-mass index. The oxidative stress markers varied among the study years; however, a significant decrease in blood reactive oxygen-derived metabolites and a significant increase in the relative antioxidative potential were observed in 2013. In 2013, participants who were randomly selected for autonomic nervous activity measurements immediately before and after body massage and cupping treatments showed a significant predominance in parasympathetic nervous activity after the treatments. These results indicate that the OHCP in the present study is an effective and prompt method as a complementary treatment to improve the pre-obese or mild obese status without any noticeable physiological stress in most middle-aged women. However, because of the limitations of this study, the findings of this study need to be confirmed. PMID:26151017

  10. Physical and physiological effectiveness of an overall health care program for middle-aged Japanese women with mild obesity: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Amano, Sho; Tsubone, Hirokazu; Hanafusa, Masakazu; Yamasaki, Takeshi; Nishizaka, Saiko; Yanagisawa, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to verify the effectiveness of an overall health care program (OHCP) for middle-aged Japanese women through assessing physical and physiological changes. The OHCP consisted of diet modification with natural alternative foods, walking and stretching exercises, and body massage and cupping treatments. Sixty-seven participants were assigned to one of three groups during a 3-year study period (2011-2013). The OHCP was performed for 3 months in each year. After the OHCP, most participants had significant decreases in the blood levels of triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transferase, and cholinesterase; body weight; body fat percentage; and body-mass index. The oxidative stress markers varied among the study years; however, a significant decrease in blood reactive oxygen-derived metabolites and a significant increase in the relative antioxidative potential were observed in 2013. In 2013, participants who were randomly selected for autonomic nervous activity measurements immediately before and after body massage and cupping treatments showed a significant predominance in parasympathetic nervous activity after the treatments. These results indicate that the OHCP in the present study is an effective and prompt method as a complementary treatment to improve the pre-obese or mild obese status without any noticeable physiological stress in most middle-aged women. However, because of the limitations of this study, the findings of this study need to be confirmed. PMID:26151017

  11. [Development of the Saxon Health Target "Active aging - aging in health, autonomy, and participation"].

    PubMed

    Brockow, T; Schulze, J; Fürst, F; Sawatzki, R; Wegge, J; Kliegel, M; Zwingenberger, W; Thönges, B; Eberhard, C; Resch, K-L

    2009-07-01

    In Saxony, the consequences of demographic aging are observable already today. To manage the implications on the health sector, the Saxon Health Targets Steering Committee decided in March 2008 to develop a health target "Active Aging - Aging in Health, Autonomy, and Participation". Target development was based on a 7-level approach (fields of action, main goals, target areas, targets, strategies, intervention measures, indicators for evaluation). A quantitative content analysis was used to reveal 10 potential relevant fields of action, three of which were selected for target development. Targets were developed by 53 stakeholders in multiprofessional working groups. Criteria-based analyses were performed to assure appropriate scientific evidence and feasibility of targets and intervention measures. Over a period of 9 months, 24 targets were defined referring to the main goals "needs-based health care structures", "multiprofessional qualification", "self-rated health" and "intergenerational solidarity". Thirteen targets were developed into recommendations for specific intervention measures. Most of the proposed interventions aim to modify health-related structures or psychosocial determinants of health in the elderly. The best recommendations for intervention measures shall be implemented in cooperation with interested decision-makers. PMID:19565198

  12. Mobility Device Use Among Older Adults and Incidence of Falls and Worry About Falling: Findings From the 2011–2012 National Health and Aging Trends Study

    PubMed Central

    Gell, Nancy M.; Wallace, Robert B.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Mroz, Tracy M.; Patel, Kushang V.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To examine mobility device use prevalence among community-dwelling older adults in the U.S. and to investigate the incidence of falls and worry about falling by the type and number of mobility devices used. DESIGN Analysis of cross-sectional and longitudinal data from the 2011–2012 National Health and Aging Trends Study SETTING In-person interviews in the homes of study participants PARTICIPANTS Nationally representative sample of Medicare beneficiaries(N=7609). MEASUREMENTS Participants were asked about mobility device use (e.g., canes, walkers, wheelchairs and scooters) in the last month, one-year fall history and worry about falling. RESULTS Twenty-four percent of adults age ≥65 reported mobility device use in 2011 and 9.3% reported using multiple devices within the last month. Mobility device use increased with advancing age and was associated with non-White race/ethnicity, female sex, lower education level, greater multi-morbidity, and obesity (all P-values < 0.001). Adjusting for demographic, health characteristics, and physical function, the incidence of falls and recurrent falls were not associated with the use of multiple devices or any one particular type of mobility device. Activity-limiting worry about falling was significantly higher in cane-only users, compared with non-users. CONCLUSION The percentage of older adults reporting mobility device use is higher compared to results from previous national surveys and multiple device use is common among those who use any device. Mobility device use is not associated with increased incidence of falls compared to non-device users. Cane-only users may compensate for worry about falling by limiting activity. PMID:25953070

  13. Do Out-of-Pocket Health Expenditures Rise with Age Among Older Americans?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Susan T.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Relationships are examined between age and out-of-pocket costs for different health goods and services among the older population. Design and Methods: Age patterns in health service use and out-of-pocket costs are examined by use of the 1990 Elderly Health Supplement to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (N = 1,031, age 66+). Multivariate…

  14. Rejuvenating health systems for aging communities.

    PubMed

    Paccaud, Fred

    2002-08-01

    Nowadays, about the half of Swiss women die after their 84th birthday. This unprecedented proportion of the population reaching an old age, or even a very old age (25% of women die after 89 years, and 5% after 95 years) is a novel aspect of human demographics, and represents the very last stage of the epidemiological transition, a term coined to describe the transformation of the prevailing health burden in the population, shifting from infectious and communicable pathologies to chronic and degenerative diseases. In developed countries, this epidemiological transition has been well documented during the last century; worldwide, a similar transition is taking place, with some countries still at mid or early stages of transition. A striking aspect of the current transition is its speed. In India, the mean duration of life since 1947 has increased from 32 to 62 years. As a result, India, like many other developing countries, is facing a double burden of disease, i.e., an upsurge of degenerative diseases while the burden from the old agenda (i.e., malaria, tuberculosis) still reaches devastating proportions in the population. This double burden is certainly a crucial problem in developing countries, and probably is the most important health challenge for the coming century. A similar accelerated pace of change is observed with the decline of mortality at old age. Worldwide, the current estimate of centenarians is 100000, i.e., ten time more centenarians than the number estimated in 1960. The downward trend in mortality, which is steeper with increasing age, is now the leading factor to Increase the life expectancy in developed countries. In the United Kingdom, life expectancy increased by 2.5 years between 1971 and 1991; this is equivalent to the increase observed between 1851 and 1961. This accelerated increase will influence public health in two different ways. The first will be the absolute increase in the number of older persons, with a corresponding increase in

  15. Health-and disease-related biomarkers in aging research.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Hilaire J; Voss, Joachim G

    2009-04-01

    This article focuses on a synthesis of knowledge about healthy aging research in human beings and then synthesized nurse-led research in gerontology and geriatrics that use biomarkers. Healthy aging research has attracted considerable attention in the biomedical and basic sciences within the context of four major areas: (a) genetic variations as an expression of successful or unsuccessful aging; (b) caloric restriction as an intervention to slow the progression of aging; (c) immunological aging; (d) neurobiology of the aging brain. A systematic review of the literature was performed to identify nurse-led geriatric-related biomarker research. Nurse researchers who have chosen to integrate biomarkers as part of their research studies have been working in six focal areas, which are reviewed: health promotion within risk populations, cancer, vascular disease, Alzheimer's disease, caregiving, and complementary therapies. The article provides a discussion of contributions to date, identifying existing gaps and future research opportunities. PMID:20077975

  16. Risk factors and socioeconomic condition effects on periodontal and dental health: A pilot study among adults over fifty years of age

    PubMed Central

    Bertoldi, Carlo; Lalla, Michele; Pradelli, John Mauricio; Cortellini, Pierpaolo; Lucchi, Andrea; Zaffe, Davide

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Observational studies on the association among systemic/general and oral cavity indices, tooth loss, periodontal conditions, and socioeconomic inequalities are to be still performed in the population of Southern Europe. This study aims to determine the extent of this relationship among Italian healthy adults 50 years of age and above. Materials and Methods: Socioeconomic and lifestyle characteristics, cardiovascular indicators, and systemic indices were examined by contrasting the dental indices among adult people of Northern Italy. Data were processed through correlation analysis, and multivariate analysis was carried out using seemingly unrelated regressions. Results: A total of 118 adults 50 years of age and above, after anamnesis, underwent systemic and dental examination. Their socioeconomic status was found to be inversely associated only with smoking and dental parameters. Unexpected outcomes between lifestyle and risk factors were detected. The statistical analysis showed an uneven correlation among dental indices and between those indices and the socioeconomic status, such as, a periodontal condition, apparently free from influences, unusually became worse as the socioeconomic status enhanced. Conclusions: The study outcomes indicate a relationship between tooth loss and conservative endodontic therapy, but they result in alternative choices. Nevertheless, the socioeconomic status has an inverse relationship with tooth loss and conservative endodontic therapy, but a direct relation with worsening of the periodontal condition. This pilot study highlights a need for the public health administration to adopt a socioeconomic assessment not only based on the household income, but also to accordingly improve its therapeutic course. PMID:24926214

  17. Household and neighborhood conditions partially account for associations between education and physical capacity in the National Health and Aging Trends Study

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Laura J.; Glass, Thomas A.; Thorpe, Roland J.; Szanton, Sarah L.; Roth, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic resources, such as education, prevent disability but are not readily modifiable. We tested the hypothesis that household and neighborhood conditions, which may be modifiable, partially account for associations between education and physical capacity in a population-based sample of older adults. The National Health and Aging Trends Study measured education (age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, household size, BMI, self-reported health, and number of medical conditions in 6874 community-dwelling participants. Education was directly associated with SPPB scores (β=0.055, p<0.05) and peak flow (β=0.095, p<0.05), but not grip strength. Also, indirect effects were found for household disorder with SPPB scores (β=0.013, p<0.05), grip strength (β=0.007, p<0.05), and peak flow (β=0.010, p<0.05). Indirect effects were also found for street disorder with SPPB scores (β=0.012, p<0.05). Indirect effects of household and neighborhood conditions accounted for approximately 35%, 27% and 14% of the total association between education and SPPB scores, grip strength level, and peak expiratory flow level, respectively. Household disorder and street disorder partially accounted for educational disparities in physical capacity. However, educational disparities in SPPB scores and peak expiratory flow persisted after accounting for household and neighborhood conditions and chronic conditions, suggesting additional pathways. Interventions and policies aiming to support aging in place

  18. Household and neighborhood conditions partially account for associations between education and physical capacity in the National Health and Aging Trends Study.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Laura J; Glass, Thomas A; Thorpe, Roland J; Szanton, Sarah L; Roth, David L

    2015-03-01

    Socioeconomic resources, such as education, prevent disability but are not readily modifiable. We tested the hypothesis that household and neighborhood conditions, which may be modifiable, partially account for associations between education and physical capacity in a population-based sample of older adults. The National Health and Aging Trends Study measured education (age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, household size, BMI, self-reported health, and number of medical conditions in 6874 community-dwelling participants. Education was directly associated with SPPB scores (β = 0.055, p < 0.05) and peak flow (β = 0.095, p < 0.05), but not grip strength. Also, indirect effects were found for household disorder with SPPB scores (β = 0.013, p < 0.05), grip strength (β = 0.007, p < 0.05), and peak flow (β = 0.010, p < 0.05). Indirect effects were also found for street disorder with SPPB scores (β = 0.012, p < 0.05). Indirect effects of household and neighborhood conditions accounted for approximately 35%, 27% and 14% of the total association between education and SPPB scores, grip strength level, and peak expiratory flow level, respectively. Household disorder and street disorder partially accounted for educational disparities in physical capacity. However, educational disparities in SPPB scores and peak expiratory flow persisted after accounting for household and neighborhood conditions and chronic conditions, suggesting additional pathways. Interventions and policies aiming to

  19. Application of the hypothesis of Developmental Origin of Health and Diseases (DOHaD) in epidemiological studies of women at reproductive age and pregnant women in Poland.

    PubMed

    Wojtyła, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological population studies indicate that the nutrition of women at reproductive age and during pregnancy exerts an eff ect not only on the term of delivery, development of the foetus and birth weight, but also on the susceptibility of off spring to civilization diseases in adulthood, according to the hypothesis of Developmental Origin of Heath and Diseases (DOHaD). The author analyses the results of epidemiological studies conducted in 2011 in a randomly selected representative population of 6,000 Polish adolescents aged 14-24 (of the total of adolescents, a population of females was selected for analysis), and the results of foetal period health monitoring of mother and child (PRAMS) which has been conducted in Poland since 2009 in the population of mothers and their newborn babies staying after delivery in all hospitals in Poland. Analysis of these two population studies indicates that a high percentage of Polish women at reproductive age are dieting. At the same time, confirmation of the fact of becoming pregnant occurs between weeks 5-8 after conception. This shows that until that time, the foetuses of women on the Apple weight loss diet develop conditions of nutritional deficits which, according to the DOHaD hypothesis, may result in epigenetic changes which increase the susceptibility of off spring in adulthood to civilization diseases: cardiovascular disorders, type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome. This hypothesis is confirmed by the high percentages of newborns in Poland born with low birth weight or prematurely born, as well as the fact that the percentage of anemia in pregnant Polish women is twice as high as in other developed countries. Simultaneously, a large number of babies are born with excessive birth weight (macrosomia). The author considers that in the countries of East-Central Europe the phenomenon observed is characteristic at present of the developing countries of the Third World, called the 'double burden of malnutrition'. This

  20. Using and Interpreting Mental Health Measures in the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Carolyn; Hedberg, E. C.; Kozloski, Michael; Dale, William

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) included five unique mental health measures in Waves 1 and 2 that researchers can use to measure the overall emotional health of participants: depressive symptoms, happiness–unhappiness, anxiety symptoms, perceived stress, and felt loneliness. For each, we detail the rationale for its development and explain how to score, analyze, and interpret results. Method. NSHAP developed its measures by modifying traditional short-form scales to improve response efficiency and reduce respondent burden. Scoring protocols and interpretations were developed for each measure. U.S. population estimates for older adults born between 1920 and 1947 were generated using age-eligible samples from Waves 1 and 2. Results. NSHAP’s protocols yielded U.S. prevalence rates similar to other nationally representative studies of older adults and comparable between waves. Higher estimates of anxiety symptoms and perceived stress in Wave 2 compared with Wave 1 were explained by age, administration mode, and time period. Analytic strategies for longitudinal analyses are provided. In Wave 2, mental health generally was worse at older ages, with women having more symptoms at younger ages than men. Women had fewer anxiety symptoms at the oldest ages. Discussion. NSHAP’s mental health measures were successfully integrated into the project’s survey and showed acceptable external reliability as well as moderately stable individual characteristics across the 5 years between Waves 1 and 2. Depressive symptoms and unhappiness may form a mental health cluster in the elderly, distinct from anxiety symptoms, perceived stress, and felt loneliness. Gender differences in age-specific patterns of mental health were evident using the exact age of participants rather than the traditional decade groupings. Administration mode and time period (between 2005–2006 and 2010–2011) were determined to be potential confounds that need to be

  1. White blood cell counts in persons aged 65 years or more from the Cardiovascular Health Study. Correlations with baseline clinical and demographic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Bovill, E G; Bild, D E; Heiss, G; Kuller, L H; Lee, M H; Rock, R; Wahl, P W

    1996-06-01

    A higher white blood cell (WBC) count has been shown to be a risk factor for myocardial infarction and stroke in middle-aged populations. This study evaluated the relation between baseline WBC count and other risk factors, as well as subclinical and prevalent disease, in the Cardiovascular Health Study, an epidemiologic study of coronary heart disease and stroke in 5,201 persons aged 65 years or older. Baseline data were collected over a 12-month period in 1989-1990. WBC counts were statistically significantly higher in people with prevalent and subclinical atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease than in those who were free of disease. WBC counts correlated (p < 0.01) positively with coagulation factors, measures of glucose metabolism, creatinine, smoking, and triglycerides. In contrast, WBC counts correlated negatively with high density lipoprotein cholesterol, forced expiratory volume, forced vital capacity, and height. The correlations between WBC counts and risk factors were similar in both the entire cohort and the subgroup of persons who had never smoked. The authors conclude that WBC counts in the elderly are associated with prevalent and subclinical atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, as well as its risk factors. PMID:8633599

  2. Associations of Television Viewing With Eating Behaviors in the 2009 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study

    PubMed Central

    Lipsky, Leah M.; Iannotti, Ronald J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine associations of television viewing with eating behaviors in a representative sample of US adolescents. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Public and private schools in the United States during the 2009–2010 school year. Participants A total of 12 642 students in grades 5 to 10 (mean [SD] age, 13.4[0.09] years; 86.5% participation). Main Exposures Television viewing (hours per day) and snacking while watching television (days per week). Main Outcome Measures Eating (≥1 instance per day) fruit, vegetables, sweets, and sugary soft drinks; eating at a fast food restaurant (≥1 d/wk); and skipping breakfast (≥1 d/wk). Results Television viewing was inversely related to intake of fruit (adjusted odds ratio, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.88–0.96) and vegetables (0.95; 0.91–1.00) and positively related to intake of candy (1.18; 1.14–1.23) and fast food (1.14; 1.09–1.19) and skipping breakfast (1.06; 1.02–1.10) after adjustment for socioeconomic factors, computer use, and physical activity. Television snacking was related to increased intake of fruit (adjusted odds ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02–1.10), candy (1.20; 1.16–1.24), soda (1.15; 1.11–1.18), and fast food (1.09; 1.06–1.13), independent of television viewing. The relationships of television viewing with fruit and vegetable intake and with skipping breakfast were essentially unchanged after adjustment for television snacking; the relationships with intake of candy, soda, and fast food were moderately attenuated. Age and race/ethnicity modified relationships of television viewing with soda and fast food intake and with skipping breakfast. Conclusion Television viewing was associated with a cluster of unhealthy eating behaviors in US adolescents after adjustment for socioeconomic and behavioral covariates. PMID:22566548

  3. Health, Lifestyle, and Gender Influences on Aging Well: An Australian Longitudinal Analysis to Guide Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Kendig, Hal; Browning, Colette J.; Thomas, Shane A.; Wells, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    A primary societal goal for aging is enabling older people to continue to live well as long as possible. The evidence base around aging well (“healthy,” “active,” and “successful” aging) has been constructed mainly from academic and professional conceptualizations of mortality, morbidity, functioning, and psychological well-being with some attention to lay views. Our study aims to inform action on health promotion to achieve aging well as conceptualized by qualitative research identifying what older Australians themselves value most: continuing to live as long as possible in the community with independence in daily living, and good self-rated health and psychological well-being. Multivariate survival analyses from the Melbourne longitudinal studies on healthy aging program found that important threats to aging well for the total sample over a 12-year period were chronological age, multi-morbidity, low perceived social support, low nutritional score, and being under-weight. For men, threats to aging well were low strain, perceived inadequacy of social activity, and being a current smoker. For women, urinary incontinence, low physical activity and being under-weight were threats to aging well. The findings indicate that healthy lifestyles can assist aging well, and suggest the value of taking gender into account in health promotion strategies. PMID:25072042

  4. Earlier age at menarche is associated with higher diabetes risk and cardiometabolic disease risk factors in Brazilian adults: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Early menarche has been linked to higher risk of type 2 diabetes in Western and Asian societies, yet whether age at menarche is associated with diabetes in Latin America, where puberty and diabetes may have different life courses, is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that earlier menarche is associated with higher diabetes risk in Brazilian adults. Methods We used data from 8,075 women aged 35-74 years in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) who had complete information on age at menarche, diabetes status, and covariates. Diabetes was defined based on self-reported physician diagnosis, medication use, and laboratory variables (fasting glucose, 2-hour glucose, and glycated hemoglobin). Poisson regression was used to generate risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Menarche onset < 11 years [vs. 13-14 years (referent)] was associated with higher risk of diabetes (RR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.14-1.57) after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, maternal education, maternal and paternal diabetes, and birth weight. This persisted after further control for BMI at age 20 years and relative leg length. Additionally, among those not taking diabetes medications, earlier menarche [<11 years vs. 13-14 years (referent)] was associated with higher % glycated hemoglobin (p < 0.001), alanine aminotransferase (p < 0.001), triglycerides (p < 0.001), C-reactive protein (p = 0.003), waist circumference (p < 0.001), and BMI measured at baseline exam (p < 0.001). Conclusion These findings support the hypothesis that earlier menarche is associated with greater risk for adult diabetes and cardiometabolic disease in the Brazilian context. PMID:24438044

  5. The Icelandic Child Mental Health Study. An epidemiological study of Icelandic children 2-18 years of age using the child behaviour checklist as a screening instrument.

    PubMed

    Hannesdóttir, H; Einarsdóttir, S

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the applicability of a standardised procedure for assessing Icelandic children's behaviour/emotional problems and competencies, and to identify differences related to demographic variables. This study focuses upon the method of using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) by Achenbach to estimate the reported prevalence of parents and adolescents of emotional and behaviour problems in children from 2-16 years of age and self-reported prevalence of adolescents from 11-18 years, selected at random from the general population, both in urban and rural areas. The information was obtained by mailing checklists with a letter to parents of children 2-10 years of age. The checklists for adolescents 11-18 years of age were distributed by teachers in school. Those adolescents who were not in school received the checklists by mail at their homes. The Child Behavior Checklists used for analyses were completed by 109 parents of 2-3 year old children; 943 parents of 4-16 year old children, and 545 non-referred adolescents from the general population. The rate of response was lowest for the youngest age group 47%, but increased to 62% with increasing age of the child. The response rate among the adolescents answering the Youth Self Report was 64%. Comparisons with the Child Behavior Checklists from this study are presented with Dutch, American, French, Canadian, German and Chilean samples and show striking similarities in four of these countries on the behaviour/emotional problems reported. PMID:8608389

  6. Structural health management for aging aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikegami, Roy; Haugse, Eric D.

    2001-06-01

    An effective structural health management (SHM) system can be a useful tool for making aircraft fleet management decisions ranging from individual aircraft maintenance scheduling and usage restrictions to fleet rotation strategies. This paper discusses the end-user requirements for the elements and architecture of an effective SHM system for application to both military and commercial aging aircraft fleets. The elements discussed include the sensor systems for monitoring and characterizing the health of the structure, data processing methods for interpreting sensor data and converting it into useable information, and automated methods for erroneous data detection, data archiving and information dissemination. Current and past SHM technology development/maturation efforts in these areas at the Boeing Company will be described. An evolutionary technology development strategy is developed in which the technologies needed will be matured, integrated into a vehicle health management system, and benefits established without requiring extensive changes to the end-user's existing operation and maintenance infrastructure. Issues regarding the end-user customer acceptance of SHM systems are discussed and summarized.

  7. Ethnicity, aging, and oral health outcomes: a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Andersen, R M; Davidson, P L

    1997-05-01

    An expanded version of Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Utilization is used as the theoretical and analytical framework for the International Collaborative Study of Oral Health Outcomes (ICS-II). The conceptual framework for understanding determinants of oral health is based on a "systems" perspective. The framework posits that characteristics of the external environment, the dental care delivery system, and the personal characteristics of the population influence oral health behaviors. The expanded behavioral model conceptualizes health behaviors (oral hygiene practices and dental services utilization) as intermediate dependent variables, which in turn influence oral health outcomes (evaluated, perceived, patient satisfaction). The framework is presented with an increased focus on the effects of race-ethnicity and age cohort, the major exogenous variables used in this study for systematic assessment of the differences in the multitude of factors influencing oral health. The framework can be applied by policy analysis and health services managers to help describe, predict, and explain population-based health behaviors and health outcomes. PMID:9549985

  8. Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Inhibitor and Statin Medication Use and Incident Mobility Limitation in Community Older Adults. The Health, Aging and Body Composition Study

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Shelly L.; Boudreau, Robert M.; Newman, Anne B.; Studenski, Stephanie A.; Shorr, Ronald I; Bauer, Douglas C.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Hanlon, Joseph T

    2012-01-01

    Objective Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and statin medications have been proposed as potential agents to prevent or delay physical disability; yet limited research has evaluated whether such use in older community dwelling adults is associated with a lower risk of incident mobility limitation. Design Longitudinal cohort study Setting Health, Aging and Body Composition (Health ABC) Participants 3055 participants who were well functioning at baseline (e.g., no mobility limitations). Measurements Summated standardized daily doses (low, medium and high) and duration of ACE inhibitor and statin use was computed. Mobility limitation (two consecutive self-reports of having any difficulty walking 1/4 mile or climbing 10 steps without resting) was assessed every 6 months after baseline. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard analyses were conducted adjusting for demographics, health status, and health behaviors. Results At baseline, ACE inhibitors and statins were used by 15.2% and 12.9%, respectively and both increased to over 25% by year 6. Over 6.5 years of follow-up, 49.8% had developed mobility limitation. In separate multivariable models, neither ACE inhibitor (multivariate hazard ratio [HR] 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.82–1.09) nor statin use (multivariate HR 1.02; 95% CI 0.87–1.17) was associated with a lower risk for mobility limitation. Similar findings were seen in analyses examining dose- and duration-response relationships and sensitivity analyses restricted to those with hypertension. Conclusions These findings indicate that ACE inhibitors and statins widely prescribed to treat hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, respectively do not lower risk of mobility limitation, an important life quality indicator. PMID:22092102

  9. The Canadian longitudinal study on aging (CLSA).

    PubMed

    Raina, Parminder S; Wolfson, Christina; Kirkland, Susan A; Griffith, Lauren E; Oremus, Mark; Patterson, Christopher; Tuokko, Holly; Penning, Margaret; Balion, Cynthia M; Hogan, David; Wister, Andrew; Payette, Hélène; Shannon, Harry; Brazil, Kevin

    2009-09-01

    ABSTRACTCanadians are living longer, and older persons are making up a larger share of the population (14% in 2006, projected to rise to 20% by 2021). The Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA) is a national longitudinal study of adult development and aging that will recruit 50,000 Canadians aged 45 to 85 years of age and follow them for at least 20 years. All participants will provide a common set of information concerning many aspects of health and aging, and 30,000 will undergo an additional in-depth examination coupled with the donation of biological specimens (blood and urine). The CLSA will become a rich data source for the study of the complex interrelationship among the biological, physical, psychosocial, and societal factors that affect healthy aging. PMID:19860977

  10. Dietary, lifestyle, and health correlates of overweight and obesity in adults 19 to 39 years of age: The Bogalusa Heart Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diet and lifestyle factors of young adults and their relationship to health risk factors are understudied. Data from the Bogalusa Heart Study population (n = 1214; 19-39 years; 74.1% white; 60.8% female) were used to study associations of lifestyle, health risk factors, and reported health problems ...

  11. Age and Socioeconomic Gradients of Health of Indian Adults: An Assessment of Self-Reported and Biological Measures of Health.

    PubMed

    Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Uttamacharya; Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes overall socioeconomic gradients and the age patterns of socioeconomic gradients of health of Indian adults for multiple health indicators encompassing the multiple aspects of health. Cross-sectional data on 11,230 Indians aged 18 years and older from the WHO-SAGE India Wave 1, 2007 were analyzed. Multivariate logit models were estimated to examine effects of socioeconomic status (education and household wealth) and age on four health domains: self-rated health, self-reported functioning, chronic diseases, and biological health measures. Results show that socioeconomic status (SES) was negatively associated with prevalence of each health measure but with considerable heterogeneity across age groups. Results for hypertension and COPD were inconclusive. SES effects are significant while adjusting for background characteristics and health risk factors. The age patterns of SES gradient of health depict divergence with age, however, no conclusive age pattern emerged for biological markers. Overall, results in this paper dispelled the conclusion of negative SES-health association found in some previous Indian studies and reinforced the hypothesis of positive association of SES with health for Indian adults. Higher prevalence of negative health outcomes and SES disparities of health outcomes among older age-groups highlight need for inclusive and focused health care interventions for older adults across socioeconomic spectrum. PMID:26895999

  12. Health of Aging Parents and Childless Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendig, Hal; Dykstra, Pearl A.; van Gaalen, Ruben I.; Melkas, Tuula

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews and presents research findings on the relationships between parenthood and health over the life span. Existing research shows lacunae. The links between reproductive behavior and longevity generally focus on family size rather than contrasting parents and nonparents. Studies of marital status differentials in survival…

  13. Emotional support from parents early in life, aging, and health.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Benjamin A; Krause, Neal; Chatters, Linda M; Connell, Cathleen M; Ingersoll-Dayton, Berit

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the relationship between receiving emotional support from parents early in life and an individual's health in adulthood. Analysis of data from a nationally representative sample of adults ages 25-74 years suggests that a lack of parental support during childhood is associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms and chronic conditions in adulthood. These associations between early parental support and adult health persist with increasing age throughout adulthood. Personal control, self-esteem, and social relationships during adulthood account for a large portion of these long-term associations. These findings underscore the importance of adopting a life course perspective in studying the social determinants of health among adults. PMID:15065927

  14. Prevalence and Impact of Pain among Older Adults in the United States: Findings from the 2011 National Health and Aging Trends Study

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kushang V.; Guralnik, Jack M.; Dansie, Elizabeth J.; Turk, Dennis C.

    2013-01-01

    The study sought to determine the prevalence and impact of pain in a nationally representative sample of older adults in the United States (US). Data from the 2011 National Health and Aging Trends Study were analyzed. In-person interviews were conducted in 7,601 adults ages ≥65 years. The response rate was 71.0% and all analyses were weighted to account for the sampling design. The overall prevalence of bothersome pain in the last month was 52.9%, afflicting 18.7 million older adults in the US. Pain did not vary across age groups (P=0.21) and this pattern remained unchanged when accounting for cognitive performance, dementia, proxy-responses, and residential care living status. Pain prevalence was higher in women and in older adults with obesity, musculoskeletal conditions, and depressive symptoms (P<0.001). The majority (74.9%) of older adults with pain endorsed multiple sites of pain. Several measures of physical capacity, including grip strength and lower extremity physical performance, were associated with pain and multisite pain. For example, self-reported inability to walk 3 blocks was 72% higher in participants with than without pain [adjusted Prevalence Ratio=1.72 (95% Confidence Interval: 1.56–1.90)]. Participants with 1, 2, 3, and >4 sites of pain had gait speeds that were 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, and 0.08 meters per second slower, respectively, than older adults without pain, adjusting for disease burden and other confounders (P<0.001). In summary, bothersome pain in the last month was reported by half of the older adult population of the US in 2011 and was strongly associated with decreased physical function. PMID:24287107

  15. Fish consumption and other characteristics of reproductive-aged Michigan anglers--a potential population for studying the effects of consumption of Great Lakes fish on reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Courval, J M; DeHoog, J V; Holzman, C B; Tay, E M; Fischer, L; Humphrey, H E; Paneth, N S; Sweeney, A M

    1996-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in the benefits and risks of eating Great Lakes fish, particularly with regard to reproductive health. We report the results of a survey conducted from 1993-1995 among Michigan anglers. The survey was designed to identify a reproductive-aged cohort of persons who consume high or low levels of Great Lakes fish in order to study the impact of polyhalogenated biphenyl (PHB) compounds and other toxins on human reproduction outcomes. Using fishing license data obtained from the Michigan Department of Natural Resources, we identified anglers of early reproductive age (18-34 years) in ten Michigan counties. The screening survey ascertained demographic, behavioral, fish consumption, and reproductive history information on anglers and their partners. Over 4,000 angler households were contacted. One thousand nine hundred fifty questionnaires were returned from 1,168 households. The median age of respondents was 30 years; 58% were male and 64% reported being married. Slightly more than one-half the respondents had attended or graduated from college, and less than 10% had not completed high school. In the past year, most respondents (46%) reported having eaten sport-caught fish 1-12 times, while 20% reported having eaten no sport-caught fish; 20% had consumed 13-24 meals. More sport-caught fish was consumed in the spring and summer than in the fall and winter, and males reported eating more fish than females. About 43% of our respondents reported that they intend to have one or more children in the next five years. Of these respondents, 287 couples had no identified impairments to reproduction and therefore would be eligible to participate in the future reproductive study. PMID:8843552

  16. Epidemiology and Heritability of Major Depressive Disorder, Stratified by Age of Onset, Sex, and Illness Course in Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS)

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Pippa; McKechanie, Andrew G.; Blackwood, Douglas H. R.; Smith, Blair H.; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Morris, Andrew D.; Matthews, Keith; Campbell, Archie; Linksted, Pamela; Haley, Chris S.; Deary, Ian J.; Porteous, David J.; McIntosh, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    The heritability of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) has been estimated at 37% based largely on twin studies that rely on contested assumptions. More recently, the heritability of MDD has been estimated on large populations from registries such as the Swedish, Finnish, and Chinese cohorts. Family-based designs utilise a number of different relationships and provide an alternative means of estimating heritability. Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS) is a large (n = 20,198), family-based population study designed to identify the genetic determinants of common diseases, including Major Depressive Disorder. Two thousand seven hundred and six individuals were SCID diagnosed with MDD, 13.5% of the cohort, from which we inferred a population prevalence of 12.2% (95% credible interval: 11.4% to 13.1%). Increased risk of MDD was associated with being female, unemployed due to a disability, current smokers, former drinkers, and living in areas of greater social deprivation. The heritability of MDD in GS:SFHS was between 28% and 44%, estimated from a pedigree model. The genetic correlation of MDD between sexes, age of onset, and illness course were examined and showed strong genetic correlations. The genetic correlation between males and females with MDD was 0.75 (0.43 to 0.99); between earlier (≤ age 40) and later (> age 40) onset was 0.85 (0.66 to 0.98); and between single and recurrent episodic illness course was 0.87 (0.72 to 0.98). We found that the heritability of recurrent MDD illness course was significantly greater than the heritability of single MDD illness course. The study confirms a moderate genetic contribution to depression, with a small contribution of the common family environment (variance proportion = 0.07, CI: 0.01 to 0.15), and supports the relationship of MDD with previously identified risk factors. This study did not find robust support for genetic differences in MDD due to sex, age of onset, or illness course. However, we found

  17. Social Determinants, Race, and Brain Health Outcomes: Findings from the Chicago Health and Aging Project.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Neelum T; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Evans, Denis A

    2015-01-01

    The broad spectrum of economic and cultural diversity in the U.S. population correlates with and affects the study of behavioral aspects of health. The purpose of this article is to provide a selective overview of research findings from the Chicago Health and Aging Project (CHAP), which covers a socio-demographically diverse population in Chicago, with a focus on role-related psychosocial factors and observed racial/ethnic differences in aging outcomes. CHAP is a longitudinal, epidemiological study of common chronic conditions of aging with an emphasis on medical, psychosocial, and environmental risk factors for the decline in cognitive function across the older adult lifespan. We briefly summarize the study design and methods used in the CHAP study and characterize the study population and describe the psychosocial data, noting black-white associations as they relate to three common brain health outcomes: cognitive function and Alzheimer's Disease, stroke, and subclinical vascular disease as noted on neuroimaging. PMID:26239039

  18. Preventive health behaviours among parents of infants aged four months.

    PubMed

    Redman, S; Booth, P; Smyth, H; Paul, C

    1992-06-01

    Six preventive health behaviours have been frequently identified as having the potential to reduce mortality and morbidity during infancy: breast-feeding until the age of six months; no solid food until after four months of age; immunisation against whooping cough, diphtheria, poliomyelitis and tetanus; the use of a baby capsule to restrain the infant when travelling in a motor vehicle; regular attendance at a health care provider for preventive health checks; and no maternal smoking. This study surveyed 191 primiparous women four months after the birth of their babies to explore the proportion of parents who perform the recommended preventive health behaviours and the association among the behaviours. Thirty-nine per cent of the women reported that they were no longer breast-feeding by the time their infant was four months old; 35 per cent had introduced solids before 16 weeks of age; 35 per cent did not always use a baby capsule when travelling with their baby in their car, 25 per cent did not regularly attend the early childhood health centres and 22 per cent smoked. Forty-eight per cent of the sample were performing four or fewer of the six preventive health behaviours and 21 per cent were performing three or fewer. The relationship between performing each preventive health behaviour and a range of demographic variables was investigated. A logistic regression indicated that performing three or fewer of the health behaviours was associated with lower levels of education, having public health insurance and being born in a country other than Australia. PMID:1391160

  19. Health benefits of dancing activity among Korean middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Jeong; Lee, Chul Won

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the health benefits of line dancing activity in Korean middle-aged women. This study explored how Korean middle-aged women perceive health benefits through lived experiences of line dancing in their leisure time. Three themes emerged related to health benefits: (1) psychological benefit, (2) physical benefit, and (3) social benefit. This finding suggested that serious leisure experience aids health enhancements in the lives of Korean middle-aged women. This study also discusses the research implication that continuous participation in leisure activity is necessary for health improvement in Korean middle-aged women. PMID:27389818

  20. Health benefits of dancing activity among Korean middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jeong; Lee, Chul Won

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the health benefits of line dancing activity in Korean middle-aged women. This study explored how Korean middle-aged women perceive health benefits through lived experiences of line dancing in their leisure time. Three themes emerged related to health benefits: (1) psychological benefit, (2) physical benefit, and (3) social benefit. This finding suggested that serious leisure experience aids health enhancements in the lives of Korean middle-aged women. This study also discusses the research implication that continuous participation in leisure activity is necessary for health improvement in Korean middle-aged women. PMID:27389818

  1. Heat waves, aging, and human cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Kenney, W Larry; Craighead, Daniel H; Alexander, Lacy M

    2014-10-01

    This brief review is based on a President's Lecture presented at the Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine in 2013. The purpose of this review was to assess the effects of climate change and consequent increases in environmental heat stress on the aging cardiovascular system. The earth's average global temperature is slowly but consistently increasing, and along with mean temperature changes come increases in heat wave frequency and severity. Extreme passive thermal stress resulting from prolonged elevations in ambient temperature and prolonged physical activity in hot environments creates a high demand on the left ventricle to pump blood to the skin to dissipate heat. Even healthy aging is accompanied by altered cardiovascular function, which limits the extent to which older individuals can maintain stroke volume, increase cardiac output, and increase skin blood flow when exposed to environmental extremes. In the elderly, the increased cardiovascular demand during heat waves is often fatal because of increased strain on an already compromised left ventricle. Not surprisingly, excess deaths during heat waves 1) occur predominantly in older individuals and 2) are overwhelmingly cardiovascular in origin. Increasing frequency and severity of heat waves coupled with a rapidly growing at-risk population dramatically increase the extent of future untoward health outcomes. PMID:24598696

  2. Change in health-related quality of life over the menopausal transition in a multiethnic cohort of middle-aged women: Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN)

    PubMed Central

    Avis, Nancy E.; Colvin, Alicia; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Hess, Rachel; Matthews, Karen A.; Ory, Marcia; Schocken, Miriam

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine change in health-related quality of life (HRQL) during the menopausal transition, controlling for chronological aging, symptoms, and other covariates. Design A prospective, longitudinal study of women aged 42–52 at baseline recruited at seven US sites (N=3302) in the multiethnic Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Cohort eligible women had an intact uterus, at least one ovary, were not currently using exogenous hormones, were either pre- or early perimenopausal, and self-identified as one of the study’s designated racial/ethnic groups. Data from the baseline interview and six annual follow-up visits are reported. HRQL was assessed with five subscales from the SF-36 with reduced functioning defined as being in the lowest 25% on a subscale. Covariates included symptoms, medical conditions, sociodemographics variables, physical activity, and psychological factors. Results Adjusting for baseline age, chronological aging, and relevant covariates, the odds of reduced role physical functioning were significantly greater at late perimenopause (odds ratio [OR] = 1.46; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08, 1.99) and postmenopause (OR = 1.49; 95% CI = 1.09, 2.04) compared to premenopause. Menopausal status was unrelated to bodily pain, vitality, role emotional or social functioning. Hormone therapy users were more likely to report reduced functioning. Other variables significantly related to HRQL across all domains included vasomotor symptoms, urine leakage, poor sleep, arthritis, depressed mood, perceived stress, and stressful life events. Conclusions The menopausal transition showed little impact on HRQL when adjusted for symptoms, medical conditions, and stress. PMID:19436224

  3. Psychosocial Health and Life-Events--Dynamical Development in the Short Term. A Follow-Up Study of Children at Four and Six Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkhout, Louise; Hoekman, Joop; Goorhuis-Brouwer, Sieneke M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, (1) the psychosocial health in relation to (2) life-events was assessed among 156 children attending 20 schools by parents and teachers with the Child Behavior Checklist and the Caregiver-Teacher Report Form at the ages of four and six. Life-events were reported by parents. (1) According to the report, 93-96% children had no…

  4. [Investigating work, age, health and work participation in the ageing work force in Germany].

    PubMed

    Ebener, M; Hasselhorn, H M

    2015-04-01

    Working life in Germany is changing. The work force is ageing and the number of people available to the labour market will - from now on - shrink considerably. Prospectively, people will have to work longer; but still today, most people leave employment long before reaching official retirement age. What are the reasons for this? In this report, a conceptual framework and the German lidA Cohort Study are presented. The "lidA conceptual framework on work, age, health and work participation" visualises determinants of employment (11 "domains") in higher working age, e. g., "work", "health", "social status" and "life style". The framework reveals 4 key characteristics of withdrawal from work: leaving working life is the result of an interplay of different domains (complexity); (early) retirement is a process with in part early determinants in the life course (processual character); retirement has a strong individual component (individuality); retirement is embedded in a strong structural frame (structure). On the basis of this framework, the "lidA Cohort Study on work, age, health and work participation" (www.lida-studie.de) investigates long-term effects of work on health and work participation in the ageing work force in Germany. It is the only large study in Germany operationalising the concept of employability in a broad interdisciplinary approach. Employees subject to social security and born in 1959 or in 1965 will be interviewed (CAPI) every 3 years (N[wave 1]=6 585, N[wave 2]=4 244) and their data will be linked (where consented) with social security data covering employment history and with health insurance data. The study design ("Schaie's most efficient design") allows for a tri-factor model that isolates the impact of age, cohort and time. In 2014, the second wave was completed. In the coming years lidA will analyse the association of work, health and work participation, and identify age as well as generation differences. lidA will investigate the

  5. Income gradients in oral health according to child age.

    PubMed

    Bernabé, Eduardo; Sabbah, Wael; Delgado-Angulo, Elsa K; Murasko, Jason E; Gansky, Stuart A

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to confirm whether the well-known income disparities in oral health seen over the life course are indeed absent in 9- to 11-yr-old children, and to explore the role of access to dental care in explaining the age-profile of the income gradient in child oral health. We used data from the 2007 United States National Survey of Children's Health. Income gradients in parental reports of children's decayed teeth or cavities, toothache, broken teeth, bleeding gums, and fair/poor condition of teeth were assessed in stratified analyses according to age of child (1-5, 6-8, 9-11, 12-14, and 15-17 yr), using survey logistic regression to control for family-, parental-, and child-level covariates. Health insurance status and use of preventive dental care were the indicators for children's access to dental care. The adjusted ORs for the effect of family income on having decayed teeth or cavities, toothache, and fair/poor condition of teeth were not significant in 9- to 11-yr-old children. Different age-patterns were found for broken teeth and bleeding gums. The attenuation of the income gradients in having decayed teeth or cavities, toothache, and fair/poor condition of teeth, previously seen in 9- to 11-yr-old children, was also seen in 15- to 17-, 12- to 14-, and 6- to 8-yr-old children, respectively, after controlling for children's access to dental care. This study supports the attenuation of income inequalities in oral health in 9- to 11-yr-old children. Access to dental care could attenuate income gradients in oral health in other age groups. PMID:26031837

  6. Low 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations Predict Incident Depression in Well-Functioning Older Adults: The Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study

    PubMed Central

    Sink, Kaycee M.; Tooze, Janet A.; Atkinson, Hal H.; Cauley, Jane A.; Yaffe, Kristine; Tylavsky, Frances A.; Rubin, Susan M.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Houston, Denise K.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Cross-sectional studies suggest that low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) may be a risk factor for depression; however, there are few prospective studies. We examined the association between 25(OH)D and depressive symptoms in community-dwelling persons aged 70–79 years in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study (n = 2598). Methods. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) at baseline and 2-, 3- and 4-year follow-up. Serum 25(OH)D was measured at 1-year follow-up and categorized as <20, 20–<30, and ≥30 ng/mL. Mixed models were used to examine change in CES-D scores according to 25(OH)D categories. The association between 25(OH)D categories and incident depression (CES-D short score ≥10 or antidepressant medication use) were assessed using Cox proportional hazards models. Analyses were adjusted for socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics, season, and chronic conditions. Results. Thirty-three percent of participants had 25(OH)D <20ng/mL. Serum 25(OH)D was not associated with CES-D scores at baseline (p = .51); however, CES-D scores increased over time and were significantly associated with 25(OH)D at 2-year (p = .003) and 4-year follow-up (p < .001). Among 2,156 participants free of depression at the 1-year follow-up, the cumulative incidence of depression was 26.9%. Participants with 25(OH)D <20ng/mL were at greater risk of developing depression (HR [95% CI]: 1.65 [1.23–2.22]) over 4 years of follow-up compared with those with 25(OH)D ≥30ng/mL. Conclusion. Low 25(OH)D was independently associated with a greater increase in depressive symptom scores and incident depression in community-dwelling older adults. PMID:25326643

  7. Temporal Trends in Overweight and Obesity, Physical Activity and Screen Time among Czech Adolescents from 2002 to 2014: A National Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Study

    PubMed Central

    Sigmund, Erik; Sigmundová, Dagmar; Badura, Petr; Kalman, Michal; Hamrik, Zdenek; Pavelka, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This study examines trends in overweight and obesity, physical activity (PA) and screen time (ST) among Czech adolescents over a recent 12-year study period. Nationally representative samples consisted of 19,940 adolescents (9760 boys and 10,180 girls) aged 10.5–16.5 years from the Czech Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) questionnaire-based surveys conducted in 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014. Trends in the prevalence of overweight/obesity, meeting the recommendations for moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) (≥60 min per day of MVPA) and excessive ST (>2 h per day) were estimated using logistic regression. Significant increases (p < 0.001) in the prevalence of overweight/obesity between the years 2002 and 2014 were evident for both adolescent boys (18.3%2002–24.8%2014) and girls (8.3%2002–11.9%2014). Compared to 2002, in 2014 significant decreases (p < 0.001) in meeting MVPA recommendations were observed among boys (32.2%2002–25.6%2014) and girls (23.2%2002–19.2%2014). Moreover, in boys we observed significant increases (p < 0.001) in excessive ST on weekdays (75.1%2002–88.8%2014), as well as on weekends (78.3%2002–91.9%2014) between the years 2002 and 2014. Increases in overweight/obesity with concomitant decreases in PA provide evidence in support of the current and upcoming efforts of government and commercial organizations in implementing interventions aimed at reducing excessive body weight among Czech adolescents. PMID:26393638

  8. A longitudinal study of the impact of chronic psychological stress on health-related quality of life and clinical biomarkers: protocol for the Australian Healthy Aging of Women Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite advancements in our understanding of the importance of stress reduction in achieving good health, we still only have limited insight into the impact of stress on cellular function. Recent studies have suggested that exposure to prolonged psychological stress may alter an individual’s physiological responses, and contribute to morbidity and mortality. This paper presents an overview of the study protocol we are using to examine the impact of life stressors on lifestyle factors, health-related quality of life and novel and established biomarkers of stress in midlife and older Australian women. The primary aim of this study is to explore the links between chronic psychological stress on both subjective and objective health markers in midlife and older Australian women. The study examines the extent to which exposure frightening, upsetting or stressful events such as natural disasters, illness or death of a relative, miscarriage and relationship conflict is correlated with a variety of objective and subjective health markers. Methods/Design This study is embedded within the longitudinal Healthy Aging of Women’s study which has collected data from midlife and older Australian women at 5 yearly intervals since 2001, and uses the Allostastic model of women’s health by Groër and colleagues in 2010. The current study expands the focus of the HOW study and will assess the impact of life stressors on quality of life and clinical biomarkers in midlife and older Australian women to explain the impact of chronic psychological stress in women. Discussion The proposed study hypothesizes that women are at increased risk of exposure to multiple or repeated stressors, some being unique to women, and the frequency and chronicity of stressors increases women’s risk of adverse health outcomes. This study aims to further our understanding of the relationships between stressful life experiences, perceived quality of life, stress biomarkers, chronic illness, and

  9. Health Screening and Random Recruitment for Cognitive Aging Research

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Kathy J.; Moye, Jennifer; Armson, Rossana Rae; Kern, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    A survey of 197 cognitive aging studies revealed infrequent use of structured health assessments and random recruitment. In this study, a health screening questionnaire developed to identify subjects with medical problems that might impair cognition was administered to 315 adults aged 60 and older who were recruited by random digit dialing. On the basis of self-reported medical problems, 35% of the subjects were excluded. Those excluded were older (p < .001) and tended to be male but did not differ in education from those who passed the screening. Subjects who passed the screening and decided to participate in a neuropsychological research project were younger (p < .001), better educated (p < .001), and more likely to be male (p < .001) than nonparticipants. These findings suggest that careful assessment, selection, and description of subjects is needed to aid interpretation of cognitive aging research. Further attention to health status is needed to aid interpretation of cognitive aging research. Although random recruitment of the elderly is feasible, obtaining representative samples may require stratification on demographic variables. PMID:1610509

  10. [COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT OF HEALTH IN BABIES OF EARLY PRESCHOOL AGE].

    PubMed

    Denisov, A P; Semenova, N V; Kun, O A; Denisova, O A

    2015-01-01

    Health of the children's population is one of the most important components of safety of the country. The incidence level in children of early age reflects an interaction of economic, ecological, social and hygienic and medico-organizational factors in society. The issue of the paper is the comprehensive assessment of health of children of the first three years of life upon indices of the morbidity rate, physical development, interrelation of given indices with the structure of the family and their social status. Indices of the physical development of boys in the all age groups exceeded the corresponding indices in girls (p < 0.05). There was also statistically significant and augmentation of indices of body weights of children along with the age (p < 0.05). The highest morbidity rate in children was established in the first year of life, the minimal one--in the third year. In the all age groups diseases of respiratory organs prevailed, at this their proportion in the total amount of diseases in the third year of life considerably exceeded the same in first and second years of life. The highest incidences of children took place in the families formed by juvenile and lonely women. Diseases of digestive organs in the second and third years of life in children from juvenile and lonely mothers were considerably enlarged on frequency (by 1,4-1,7 times), infectious and parasitic diseases (by 1,1-1,7 times) in comparison with children from full families. In the all studied types offamilies and age groups the state of health of children was worse, than in full families. There was substantiated the development of the multilevel system for the prophylaxis of losses of health in children at early preschool age. PMID:26856178

  11. Parental separation and behaviours that influence the health of infants aged 7–11 months: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Kacenelenbogen, Nadine; Dramaix-Wilmet, Michèle; Schetgen, M; Roland, M

    2014-01-01

    Objective Analyse the parental behaviours that are recognised as influencing the health of very young children based on family structure (parents separated or not). Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Free preventive medicine consultations in the French Community of Belgium. Participants Examination of 79 701 infants aged 7–11 months as part of a free preventive medicine consultation. The data came from an assessment conducted 7–11 months after birth during which information was collected, namely about the parents’ use of tobacco, the infant’s type of nutrition and adherence to vaccination schedules. Main outcome measures Parental behaviours: smoking, nutrition and compliance with vaccination schedule. Results The percentage of infants whose parents were separated was 6.6%. After adjusting for the cultural and socioeconomic environment as well as for other potential confounders, in the event of separation as compared with non-separated parents, the adjusted ORs (95% CI) were as follows: 1.5 (1.3 to 1.7) for the infant’s exposure to tobacco; 1.3 (1.2 to 1.4) for total lack of exclusive breast feeding; 1.3 (1.1 to 1.4) and 1.2 (1.1 to 1.2) for breast feeding for a duration of less than 3 and 6 months, respectively; 1.2 (1.1 to 1.4) for non-compliance with the vaccination schedule against rotavirus. The duration of exclusive breast feeding was shorter when parents were separated (p<0.001; median 10 vs 13 weeks). Conclusions This study reinforces the possibility that parental separation is independently associated with certain parental at-risk behaviours regarding the children's health. This observation should be verified because this could result in major consequences for the work of family doctors, in particular in terms of parent information and targeted prevention. PMID:25052169

  12. Alcohol Consumption at Any Level Increases Risk of Injury Caused by Others: Data from the Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health

    PubMed Central

    Clausen, Thomas; Martinez, Priscilla; Towers, Andy; Greenfield, Thomas; Kowal, Paul

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Alcohol use is a well-known risk factor for injury. However, information is needed about alcohol drinking patterns and the risk of injury among older adults in low- and middle-income countries as this population grows. We aimed to examine the influence of drinking patterns on the burden of injury and investigate factors associated with different types of injury in older populations in six emerging economies. METHODS Data from more than 37,000 adults aged 50 years and older were included from the Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE) Wave 1 conducted in six emerging economies, namely, China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia, and South Africa. We investigated past-year reported injuries from falls, traffic accidents, and being hit or stabbed. Alcohol drinking patterns were measured as lifetime abstinence, ever but not past- week use, and gender-specific past-week low-risk and high-risk use. We stratified by gender and used logistic regression models to observe the association between alcohol drinking pattern and risk of injury by controlling for other factors. RESULTS During the year prior to interview, 627 (2.2%) subjects reported bodily injury resulting from a car accident, 1,156 (4.2%) from a fall, and 339 (0.9%) from being hit or stabbed during the past year. For women, only being a high-risk drinker increased the risk of being hit or stabbed, whereas for men, all levels of drinking were associated with an increased risk of being hit or stabbed. We observed a higher risk of being hit or stabbed from past-week high-risk drinking among women (odds ratio [OR] = 6.09, P < 0.01) than among men (OR = 3.57, P < 0.01). We observed no association between alcohol drinking pattern and injury due to car accidents for either women or men. CONCLUSIONS The risk of experiencing injury due to violence increased with level of alcohol exposure of the victim. The increase in alcohol use in emerging economies calls for further study into the consequences of alcohol

  13. Using patients’ experiences of adverse events to improve health service delivery and practice: protocol of a data linkage study of Australian adults age 45 and above

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Merrilyn; Smith-Merry, Jennifer; Harrison, Reema; Manias, Elizabeth; Iedema, Rick; Kelly, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Evidence of patients’ experiences is fundamental to creating effective health policy and service responses, yet is missing from our knowledge of adverse events. This protocol describes explorative research redressing this significant deficit; investigating the experiences of a large cohort of recently hospitalised patients aged 45 years and above in hospitals in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Methods and analysis The 45 and Up Study is a cohort of 265 000 adults aged 45 years and above in NSW. Patients who were hospitalised between 1 January and 30 June 2014 will be identified from this cohort using data linkage and a random sample of 20 000 invited to participate. A cross-sectional survey (including qualitative and quantitative components) will capture patients’ experiences in hospital and specifically of adverse events. Approximately 25% of respondents are likely to report experiencing an adverse event. Quantitative components will capture the nature and type of events as well as common features of patients’ experiences. Qualitative data provide contextual knowledge of their condition and care and the impact of the event on individuals. Respondents who do not report an adverse event will report their experience in hospital and be the control group. Statistical and thematic analysis will be used to present a patient perspective of their experiences in hospital; the characteristics of patients experiencing an adverse event; experiences of information sharing after an event (open disclosure) and the other avenues of redress pursued. Interviews with key policymakers and a document analysis will be used to create a map of the current practice. Ethics and dissemination Dissemination via a one-day workshop, peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations will enable effective clinical responses and service provision and policy responses to adverse events to be developed. PMID:25311039

  14. Gestational Age Assessment in the Ghana Randomized Air Pollution and Health Study (GRAPHS): Ultrasound Capacity Building, Fetal Biometry Protocol Development, and Ongoing Quality Control

    PubMed Central

    Boamah, Ellen A; Asante, KP; Ae-Ngibise, KA; Kinney, Patrick L; Jack, Darby W; Manu, Grace; Azindow, Irene T; Owusu-Agyei, Seth

    2014-01-01

    Background Four million premature deaths occur yearly as a result of smoke from cooking fires. The Ghana Randomized Air Pollution and Health Study (GRAPHS) is underway in the Kintampo North municipality and South district of rural Ghana to evaluate the impact of improved cook stoves introduced during pregnancy on birth weight and childhood pneumonia. These hypotheses are being tested in a cluster-randomized intervention trial among 1415 maternal-infant pairs within 35 communities assigned to a control arm (traditional cooking) or one of two intervention arms (cooking with an improved biomass stove; cooking with liquefied petroleum gas stoves). Objective The trial is designed to ensure delivery of the stove intervention prior to the period of maximal fetal growth. To answer questions about the impact of household air pollution on pregnancy outcome, accurate gestational age assessment is critical. This manuscript describes in detail the development of the gestational dating protocol, intensive ultrasound training involved, ultrasound capacity building, and ultrasound quality control program. Methods Ultrasound training occurred in several phases over the course of 2 years. Training included a basic obstetric ultrasound course offered to all midwives performing antenatal care at the two study hospitals, followed by a more intense period of hands-on training focused on fetal biometry for a select group of providers demonstrating aptitude in the basic course. A standard operating procedure was developed describing how to obtain all fetal biometric measurements. Consensus was obtained on how biometric images are used in the trial to establish gestational age and estimate the delivery date. An ongoing ultrasound quality control program including the use of an image scorecard was also designed. Results Publication of trial results is anticipated in late 2016. Conclusions Use of ultrasound should be strongly considered in field-based trials involving pregnant women to

  15. Successful Aging Among LGBT Older Adults: Physical and Mental Health-Related Quality of Life by Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Jun; Shiu, Chengshi; Goldsen, Jayn; Emlet, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people are a health disparate population as identified in Healthy People 2020. Yet, there has been limited attention to how LGBT older adults maintain successful aging despite the adversity they face. Utilizing a Resilience Framework, this study investigates the relationship between physical and mental health-related quality of life (QOL) and covariates by age group. Design and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of LGBT adults aged 50 and older (N = 2,560) was conducted by Caring and Aging with Pride: The National Health, Aging, and Sexuality Study via collaborations with 11 sites across the U.S. Linear regression analyses tested specified relationships and moderating effects of age groups (aged 50–64; 65–79; 80 and older). Results: Physical and mental health QOL were negatively associated with discrimination and chronic conditions and positively with social support, social network size, physical and leisure activities, substance nonuse, employment, income, and being male when controlling for age and other covariates. Mental health QOL was also positively associated with positive sense of sexual identity and negatively with sexual identity disclosure. Important differences by age group emerged and for the old–old age group the influence of discrimination was particularly salient. Implications: This is the first study to examine physical and mental health QOL, as an indicator of successful aging, among LGBT older adults. An understanding of the configuration of resources and risks by age group is important for the development of aging and health initiatives tailored for this growing population. PMID:25213483

  16. Low serum carotenoids and development of severe walking disability among older women living in the community: the Women’s Health and Aging Study I

    PubMed Central

    Semba, Richard D.; Varadhan, Ravi; Bartali, Benedetta; Ferrucci, Luigi; Ricks, Michelle O.; Blaum, Caroline; Fried, Linda P.

    2009-01-01

    Objective to determine whether low serum carotenoid levels, an indicator of low intake of fruits and vegetables, are associated with the progression of disability in older women. Design longitudinal analysis in a population-based cohort. Setting moderately–severely disabled women, ≥65 years, living in the community in Baltimore, Maryland (the Women’s Health and Aging Study I). Participants 554 women without severe walking disability (inability to walk or walking speed <0.4 m/s) at baseline. Main outcome measure incidence of severe walking disability assessed every 6 months over 3 years. Results 155 women (27.9%) developed severe walking disability during follow-up. Rates of development of severe walking disability per 100 person-years among women in the lowest and in the three upper quartiles of total carotenoids were, respectively, 13.8 versus 10.9 (P = 0.0017). Adjusting for confounders, women in the lowest quartile of total carotenoids were more likely to develop severe walking disability (hazards ratio 1.57, 95% confidence interval 1.24–2.00, P = 0.0002) compared with women in the three upper quartiles. Conclusion low serum carotenoid levels, an indicator of low intake of fruits and vegetables, are independent predictors of the progression towards severe walking disability among older women living in the community. PMID:17114201

  17. A Frailty Instrument for primary care for those aged 75 years or more: findings from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, a longitudinal population-based cohort study (SHARE-FI75+)

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Ortuno, Roman; Soraghan, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Objective To create and validate a frailty assessment tool for community-dwelling adults aged ≥75 years. Design Longitudinal, population-based study. Setting The Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Participants 4001 women and 3057 men aged ≥75 years from the second wave of SHARE. 3325 women and 2587 men had complete information for the frailty indicators: fatigue, low appetite, weakness, observed gait (walking without help, walking with help, chairbound/bedbound, unobserved) and low physical activity. Main outcome measures The internal validity of the frailty indicators was tested with latent class analysis, by modelling an underlying variable with three ordered categories. The predictive validity of the frailty classification was tested against 2-year mortality and 4-year disability. The mortality prediction of SHARE-FI75+ was compared with that of previously operationalised frailty scales in SHARE (SHARE-FI, 70-item index, phenotype, FRAIL). Results In both genders, all frailty indicators significantly aggregated into a three-category ordinal latent variable. After adjusting for baseline age, comorbidity and basic activities of daily living (BADL) disability, the frail had an OR for 2-year mortality of 2.2 (95% CI 1.2 to 3.8) in women and 4.2 (2.6 to 6.8) in men. The mortality prediction of SHARE-FI75+ was similar to that of the other SHARE frailty scales. By wave 4, 49% of frail women (78 of 159) had at least one more limitation with BADL (compared with 18% of non-frail, 125 of 684; p<0.001); in men, these proportions were 39% (26 of 66) and 18% (110 of 621), respectively (p<0.001). A calculator is supplied for point-of-care use, which automatically replicates the frailty classification for any given measurements. Conclusions SHARE-FI75+ could help frailty case finding in primary care and provide a focus for personalised community interventions. Further validation in trials and clinical programmes is needed. PMID:25537787

  18. Design Evolution Study - Aging Options

    SciTech Connect

    P. McDaniel

    2002-04-05

    The purpose of this study is to identify options and issues for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel received for disposal at the Yucca Mountain Mined Geologic Repository. Some early shipments of commercial spent nuclear fuel to the repository may be received with high-heat-output (younger) fuel assemblies that will need to be managed to meet thermal goals for emplacement. The capability to age as much as 40,000 metric tons of heavy metal of commercial spent nuclear he1 would provide more flexibility in the design to manage this younger fuel and to decouple waste receipt and waste emplacement. The following potential aging location options are evaluated: (1) Surface aging at four locations near the North Portal; (2) Subsurface aging in the permanent emplacement drifts; and (3) Subsurface aging in a new subsurface area. The following aging container options are evaluated: (1) Complete Waste Package; (2) Stainless Steel inner liner of the waste package; (3) Dual Purpose Canisters; (4) Multi-Purpose Canisters; and (5) New disposable canister for uncanistered commercial spent nuclear fuel. Each option is compared to a ''Base Case,'' which is the expected normal waste packaging process without aging. A Value Engineering approach is used to score each option against nine technical criteria and rank the options. Open issues with each of the options and suggested future actions are also presented. Costs for aging containers and aging locations are evaluated separately. Capital costs are developed for direct costs and distributable field costs. To the extent practical, unit costs are presented. Indirect costs, operating costs, and total system life cycle costs will be evaluated outside of this study. Three recommendations for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel--subsurface, surface, and combined surface and subsurface are presented for further review in the overall design re-evaluation effort. Options that were evaluated but not recommended are: subsurface aging in a new

  19. Cultivating Social Work Leadership in Health Promotion and Aging: Strategies for Active Aging Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Victor W.; Altpeter, Mary

    2005-01-01

    The rapid growth of the population of older adults and their concomitant physical status and health needs have captured the attention, collaboration, and funding support of an array of leaders in the fields of aging and health care. To help fill the void of literature available to social workers interested in health promotion and aging, the…

  20. Health in Household Context: Living Arrangements and Health in Late Middle Age*

    PubMed Central

    HUGHES, MARY ELIZABETH; WAITE, LINDA J.

    2005-01-01

    People living in some arrangements show better health than persons in other living arrangements. Recent prospective studies document higher mortality among persons living in particular types of households. We extend this research by examining the influence of household structure on health using longitudinal data. We theorize that individuals experience role-based household relations as sets of resources and demands. In certain household structures, individuals are more likely to perceive that the demands made on them outweigh the resources available to them. This perceived imbalance poses a risk to individual health. We test our expectations by analyzing the relationship between living arrangements and health using data from waves 1 and 2 of the Health and Retirement Study. We focus on persons ages 51–61 and explore gender differences. We find prospective links between household structure and self-rated health, mobility limitation, and depressive symptoms. Married couples living alone or with children only are the most advantaged; single women living with children appear disadvantaged on all health outcomes. Men and women in other household types are disadvantaged on some health outcomes. Our results suggest that the social context formed by the household may be important to the social etiology of health. In addition, they qualify the well-known link between marital status and health: The effect of marital status on health depends on household context. PMID:11949193

  1. Usefulness of Left Ventricular Mass and Geometry for Determining 10-Year Prediction of Cardiovascular Disease in Adults Aged >65 Years (from the Cardiovascular Health Study).

    PubMed

    Desai, Chintan S; Bartz, Traci M; Gottdiener, John S; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Gardin, Julius M

    2016-09-01

    Left ventricular (LV) mass and geometry are associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We sought to determine whether LV mass and geometry contribute to risk prediction for CVD in adults aged ≥65 years of the Cardiovascular Health Study. We indexed LV mass to body size, denoted as LV mass index (echo-LVMI), and we defined LV geometry as normal, concentric remodeling, and eccentric or concentric LV hypertrophy. We added echo-LVMI and LV geometry to separate 10-year risk prediction models containing traditional risk factors and determined the net reclassification improvement (NRI) for incident coronary heart disease (CHD), CVD (CHD, heart failure [HF], and stroke), and HF alone. Over 10 years of follow-up in 2,577 participants (64% women, 15% black, mean age 72 years) for CHD and CVD, the adjusted hazards ratios for a 1-SD higher echo-LVMI were 1.25 (95% CI 1.14 to 1.37), 1.24 (1.15 to 1.33), and 1.51 (1.40 to 1.62), respectively. Addition of echo-LVMI to the standard model for CHD resulted in an event NRI of -0.011 (95% CI -0.037 to 0.028) and nonevent NRI of 0.034 (95% CI 0.008 to 0.076). Addition of echo-LVMI and LV geometry to the standard model for CVD resulted in an event NRI of 0.013 (95% CI -0.0335 to 0.0311) and a nonevent NRI of 0.043 (95% CI 0.011 to 0.09). The nonevent NRI was also significant with addition of echo-LVMI for HF risk prediction (0.10, 95% CI 0.057 to 0.16). In conclusion, in adults aged ≥65 years, echo-LVMI improved risk prediction for CHD, CVD, and HF, driven primarily by improved reclassification of nonevents. PMID:27457431

  2. Health and aging of urban American Indians.

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, B J

    1992-01-01

    Although half of the American Indian population resides off the reservation, mostly in the western states, research on the health of urban American Indians remains sparse. American Indians living in urban areas are not eligible for the federally mandated health care provided by the Indian Health Service and receive health care services in a variety of settings. This population is at high risk for many health problems, especially cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Social, cultural, and economic barriers that impede access to health care for this group, particularly for elders living in an urban setting, could be reduced if physicians improved their understanding of and communication with American Indian patients. PMID:1413770

  3. Health screening - women - ages 40 to 64

    MedlinePlus

    ... for diabetes. COLON CANCER SCREENING If you are under age 50, you should be screened if you have ... bone density test (DEXA scan). If you are under age 65 and have risk factors for osteoporosis , you ...

  4. School Connectedness in the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children Study: The Role of Student, School, and School Neighborhood Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Douglas R.; Iachan, Ronaldo; Overpeck, Mary; Ross, James G.; Gross, Lori A.

    2006-01-01

    School connectedness includes liking school and positive relations with teachers and peers. School connectedness is associated with a variety of positive health outcomes. The goal of this study was to identify characteristics of students, schools, and school neighborhoods that are related to school connectedness. In the Health Behavior in…

  5. Alcohol Use Patterns and Trajectories of Health-Related Quality of Life in Middle-Aged and Older Adults: A 14- Year Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Mark S.; Huguet, Nathalie; Feeny, David; McFarland, Bentson H.; Caetano, Raul; Bernier, Julie; Giesbrecht, Norman; Oliver, Lisa; Ross, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A 14-year multiwave panel design was used to examine relationships between longitudinal alcohol-consumption patterns, especially persistent moderate use, and change in health-related quality of life among middle-aged and older adults. Method: A nationally representative sample of 5,404 community-dwelling Canadians ages 50 and older at baseline (1994/1995) was obtained from the longitudinal National Population Health Survey. Alcohol-consumption patterns were developed based on the quantity and frequency of use in the 12 months before the interview. Health-related quality of life was assessed with the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3). Latent growth curve modeling was used to estimate the change in HUI3 for each alcohol pattern after adjusting for covariates measured at baseline. Results: Most participants showed stable alcohol-consumption patterns over 6 years. Persistent nonusers, persistent former users, those decreasing their consumption levels, and those with unstable patterns (i.e., U shaped and inverted U shaped) had lower HUI3 scores at baseline compared with persistent moderate drinkers. A more rapid decline in HUI3 scores than that observed for persistent moderate users was seen only in those with decreasing consumption (p < .001). In a subgroup identified as consistently healthy before follow-up, longitudinal drinking patterns were associated with initial HUI3 scores but not rates of change. Conclusions: Persistent moderate drinkers had higher initial levels of health-related quality of life than persistent nonusers, persistent former users, decreasing users, U-shaped users, and inverted U-shaped users. However, rates of decline over time were similar for all groups except those decreasing their consumption, who had a greater decline in their level of health-related quality of life than persistent moderate users. PMID:22630796

  6. Vitamin D deficiency in Malaysian adolescents aged 13 years: findings from the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team study (MyHeARTs)

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Majid, Hazreen Abdul; Sim, Pei Ying; Su, Tin Tin; Dahlui, Maznah; Abu Bakar, Mohd Fadzrel; Dzaki, Najat; Norbaya, Saidatul; Murray, Liam; Cantwell, Marie M; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (<37.5 nmol/L) among young adolescents in Malaysia and its association with demographic characteristics, anthropometric measures and physical activity. Design This is a cross-sectional study among Form 1 (year 7) students from 15 schools selected using a stratified random sampling design. Information regarding sociodemographic characteristics, clinical data and environmental factors was collected and blood samples were taken for total vitamin D. Descriptive and multivariable logistic regression was performed on the data. Setting National secondary schools in Peninsular Malaysia. Participants 1361 students (mean age 12.9±0.3 years) (61.4% girls) completed the consent forms and participated in this study. Students with a chronic health condition and/or who could not understand the questionnaires due to lack of literacy were excluded. Main outcome measures Vitamin D status was determined through measurement of sera 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). Body mass index (BMI) was classified according to International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria. Self-reported physical activity levels were assessed using the validated Malay version of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C). Results Deficiency in vitamin D was seen in 78.9% of the participants. The deficiency was significantly higher in girls (92.6%, p<0.001), Indian adolescents (88.6%, p<0.001) and urban-living adolescents (88.8%, p<0.001). Females (OR=8.98; 95% CI 6.48 to 12.45), adolescents with wider waist circumference (OR=2.64; 95% CI 1.65 to 4.25) and in urban areas had higher risks (OR=3.57; 95% CI 2.54 to 5.02) of being vitamin D deficient. Conclusions The study shows a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among young adolescents. Main risk factors are gender, ethnicity, place of residence and obesity. PMID:27540095

  7. Health Promoting Behaviors of Older Americans versus Young and Middle Aged Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Craig; Arnold, William

    2004-01-01

    Health promoting behaviors have become increasingly important as Americans attempt to retain their youth and health. This study collected self-reported data from 559 participants in the Southwest United States using the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II to compare the health promoting behaviors of older adults (60-92 years), middle-aged adults…

  8. Health Promoting Behaviors of Older Americans Versus Young and Middle Aged Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Craig M.; Arnold, William

    2004-01-01

    Health promoting behaviors have become increasingly important as Americans attempt to retain their youth and health. This study collected self-reported data from 559 participants in the Southwest United States using the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II to compare the health promoting behaviors of older adults (60-92 years), middle-aged adults…

  9. Social epidemiology of excess weight and central adiposity in older Indians: analysis of Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE)

    PubMed Central

    Samal, Sudipta; Panigrahi, Pinaki; Dutta, Ambarish

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity, represented by extra body weight and abdominal circumference, among older Indians; and to characterise the social pattern of obesity and measure the magnitude of hypertension attributable to it. Setting A nationally representative sample of older Indians was selected from 6 Indian states, including Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Assam, Maharashtra and Karnataka, as a part of the multicountry Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE). Participants Indians aged 50 years or more (n=7273) were included in the first wave of the SAGE (2010), which we used in our study. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome measures included excess weight (EW), defined by body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m2, and central adiposity (CA), defined by waist circumference >90 cm for men and >80 cm for women. The secondary outcome included hypertension, defined by systolic blood pressure >139 or diastolic blood pressure >79 mm Hg, or by those receiving antihypertensive medications. Results 14% of older Indians possessed EW, whereas 35% possessed CA; 50.9% of the wealthier third and 27.7% of the poorer two-thirds have CA; the proportions being 69.1% and 46.2%, respectively, in older women. Mostly wealth (adjusted OR for CA: 4.36 (3.23 to 5.95) and EW: 4.39 (3.49 to 5.53)), but also urban residence, privileged caste, higher education, white-collared occupation and female gender, were important determinants. One of 17 older Indians overall and 1 of 18 in the poorer 70% suffered from CA-driven hypertension, independent of BMI. Conclusions The problem of CA and its allied diseases is already substantial and expected to rise across all socioeconomic strata of older Indians, though currently, CA affects the privileged more than the underprivileged, in later life. Population-based promotion of appropriate lifestyles, with special emphasis on women, is required to counteract prosperity

  10. Does a hospital admission in old age denote the beginning of life with a compromised health-related quality of life? A longitudinal study of men and women aged 65 years and above participating in the Stockholm Public Health Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Karampampa, Korinna; Frumento, Paolo; Ahlbom, Anders; Modig, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to analyse how hospitalisation after the age of 60 affected individuals' health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The main hypothesis was that a hospital admission in old age can be seen as a proxy of ill health and possibly as a health divider, separating life into a healthy and an unhealthy part. The extent to which this is true depends on which disease individuals face and how functional ability and HRQoL are affected. Settings This was a longitudinal study, based on an older cohort of individuals who participated in the Stockholm Public Health Cohort (SPHC) survey in 2006; the survey took place in Stockholm, Sweden. Information regarding hospitalisations and deaths, which is available through Swedish administrative registers, was linked to the survey from the National Patient Register and Cause of Death Register. Participants 2101 individuals, 65+ years old at inclusion, with no previous hospitalisations at baseline (2006), were followed for 4 years until 2010 (end of follow-up). Primary and secondary outcome measures HRQoL was assessed through a utility index derived from the EuroQol 5D questionnaire, at baseline and at 2010. The change in HRQoL after admission(s) to the hospital was estimated as the difference between the 2010 and 2006 levels using linear regression, also considering several covariates. Results A single hospitalisation did not reduce individuals' HRQoL, either for men or women. On the other hand, multiple any-cause hospitalisations reduced HRQoL between 3.2% and 6.5%. When looking into hospitalisations for specific causes, such as hip fractures, a decrease in HRQoL was observed as well; however, conclusions regarding this were impeded by the small sample size. Conclusions Hospital admissions in old age may indicate a shift from a healthy life to a life of compromised health when considering their frequency and cause over a period of time. PMID:27401358

  11. The AgeWell study of behavior change to promote health and wellbeing in later life: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lifestyle factors playing a role in the development of late-life disability may be modifiable. There is a need for robust evidence about the potential for prevention of disability through behavior change interventions. Methods/design This feasibility study involves the development, implementation and initial testing of a behavior change intervention in a naturalistic setting. A small-scale randomized controlled trial (RCT) will investigate the implementation of a goal-setting intervention aimed at promoting behavior change in the domains of physical and cognitive activity in the context of a community resource center for over-50s. Healthy older participants attending the center (n = 75) will be randomized to one of three conditions: control (an interview involving a general discussion about the center); goal-setting (an interview involving identification of up to five personal goals in the domains of physical activity, cognitive activity, diet and health, and social engagement); or goal-setting with mentoring (the goal-setting interview followed by bi-monthly telephone mentoring). All participants will be reassessed after 12 months. Primary outcomes are levels of physical and cognitive activity. Secondary outcomes address psychosocial (self-efficacy, mood, quality of life), cognitive (memory and executive function), and physical fitness (functional and metabolic) domains. Cost-effectiveness will also be examined. Discussion This study will provide information about the feasibility of a community-based lifestyle intervention model for over-50s and of the implementation of a goal-setting intervention for behavior change, together with initial evidence about the short-term effects of goal-setting on behavior. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN30080637 (http://www.controlled-trials.com) PMID:22827885

  12. The influence of subjective aging on health and longevity: a meta-analysis of longitudinal data.

    PubMed

    Westerhof, Gerben J; Miche, Martina; Brothers, Allyson F; Barrett, Anne E; Diehl, Manfred; Montepare, Joann M; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Wurm, Susanne

    2014-12-01

    Evidence is accumulating on the effects of subjective aging-that is, how individuals perceive their own aging process-on health and survival in later life. The goal of this article is to synthesize findings of existing longitudinal studies through a meta-analysis. A systematic search in PsycInfo, Web of Science, Scopus, and Pubmed resulted in 19 longitudinal studies reporting effects of subjective aging on health, health behaviors, and longevity. The authors combine the outcomes reported in these studies using a random effects meta-analysis, assuming that there would be differences in effect sizes across studies. The meta-analysis resulted in an overall significant effect of subjective aging (likelihood ratio = 1.429; 95% confidence interval = 1.273-1.604; p < .001). The analyses revealed heterogeneity, with stronger effects for studies with a shorter period of follow-up, for studies of health versus survival, for studies with younger participants (average age of the studies varies between 57 and 85 years with a median of 63 years), and for studies in welfare systems where state provisions of welfare are minimal. However, effects did not vary either across different operationalizations of subjective aging or by study quality. Subjective aging has a small significant effect on health, health behaviors, and survival. Further theoretical conceptualizations and empirical studies are needed to determine how subjective aging contributes to health and survival. PMID:25365689

  13. Health expenditures by age group, 1977 and 1987

    PubMed Central

    Waldo, Daniel R.; Sonnefeld, Sally T.; McKusick, David R.; Arnett, Ross H.

    1989-01-01

    In recent years, concern has increased over the rapid growth of health care spending, especially spending on behalf of the aged. In 1987, those 65 years or over comprised 12 percent of the population but consumed 36 percent of total personal health care. This article is an examination of the current and future composition of the population and effects on health care spending. National health accounts aggregates for 1977 and 1987 are split into three age groups, and the consumption patterns of each group are discussed. The variations in spending within the aged cohort are also examined. PMID:10313274

  14. A future without health? Health dimension in global scenario studies.

    PubMed Central

    Martens, Pim; Huynen, Maud

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the health dimension and sociocultural, economic, and ecological determinants of health in existing global scenario studies. Not even half of the 31 scenarios reviewed gave a good description of future health developments and the different scenario studies did not handle health in a consistent way. Most of the global driving forces of health are addressed adequately in the selected scenarios, however, and it therefore would have been possible to describe the future developments in health as an outcome of these multiple driving forces. To provide examples on how future health can be incorporated in existing scenarios, we linked the sociocultural, economic, and environmental developments described in three sets of scenarios (special report on emission scenarios (SRES), global environmental outlook-3 (GEO3), and world water scenarios (WWS)) to three potential, but imaginary, health futures ("age of emerging infectious diseases", "age of medical technology", and "age of sustained health"). This paper provides useful insights into how to deal with future health in scenarios and shows that a comprehensive picture of future health evolves when all important driving forces and pressures are taken into account. PMID:14997242

  15. Uruguay eHealth initiative: preliminary studies regarding an integrated approach to evaluate vascular age and preclinical atherosclerosis (CUiiDARTE project).

    PubMed

    Armentano, Ricardo L; Bia, Daniel; Zócalo, Yanina; Torrado, Juan; Farro, Ignacio; Farro, Federico; Florio, Lucía; Olascoaga, Alicia; Alallon, Walter; Negreira, Carlos; Lluberas, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    In this work we present an initiative to develop a national (Uruguayan) program to evaluate vascular age and to detect pre-clinical atherosclerosis using: gold-standard technologies; complimentary and integrative approaches to asses arterial functional and structural indexes; data bases systems to process, analyze and determine normal and reference values and to identify the most sensitive markers of vascular changes for different ages. We evaluated, in a Uruguayan population complementary structural and functional vascular parameters that associate aging-related changes and are considered markers of sub-clinical atherosclerosis. Traditional CV risk factors were assessed. The subjects (n=281) were submitted to non-invasive vascular studies to evaluate: 1) Common carotid artery (CCA) intima-media thickness and diameter waveforms, 2) CCA stiffness, 3) aortic stiffness (pulse wave velocity) and 4) peripheral and central pressure pulse wave derived parameters. Age groups: 21-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60, and 61-70 years-old. Age-related profiles were obtained for the different vascular parameters, and their utility to assess vascular changes in young, middle-aged and old subjects was evaluated. The work has the strength of being the first that uses, in Latin-America an integrative approach to characterize vascular aging-related changes. PMID:22254442

  16. Older chinese' attitudes toward aging and the relationship to mental health: an international comparison.

    PubMed

    Lai, Daniel W L

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the predictive effects of attitude toward aging on mental health of aging Chinese. Data were obtained from community surveys utilizing mixed sampling methods of 4,240 elderly Chinese 55 years or older in China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Canada, and the United States. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used, with sociodemographic variables entered first, followed by the health variables, and then attitude toward aging. The effect of attitude toward aging on mental health was stronger than most other predictive factors. Social workers should focus on creating social/community environments that build a positive attitude toward aging. PMID:19360529

  17. DETROIT CHILDREN'S HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Detroit Children's Health Study will consist of health questionnaires for 15,000 children enrolled in the fourth- and fifth-grades of selected elementary schools, and measurements of lung function and exhaled breath in a subset of 3,500 of these children. Participation in bo...

  18. Prospective study of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension– and Mediterranean-style dietary patterns and age-related cognitive change: the Cache County Study on Memory, Health and Aging123

    PubMed Central

    Munger, Ronald G; Cutler, Adele; Quach, Anna; Bowles, Austin; Corcoran, Christopher; Tschanz, JoAnn T; Norton, Maria C; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Healthy dietary patterns may protect against age-related cognitive decline, but results of studies have been inconsistent. Objective: We examined associations between Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)– and Mediterranean-style dietary patterns and age-related cognitive change in a prospective, population-based study. Design: Participants included 3831 men and women ≥65 y of age who were residents of Cache County, UT, in 1995. Cognitive function was assessed by using the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS) ≤4 times over 11 y. Diet-adherence scores were computed by summing across the energy-adjusted rank-order of individual food and nutrient components and categorizing participants into quintiles of the distribution of the diet accordance score. Mixed-effects repeated-measures models were used to examine 3MS scores over time across increasing quintiles of dietary accordance scores and individual food components that comprised each score. Results: The range of rank-order DASH and Mediterranean diet scores was 1661–25,596 and 2407–26,947, respectively. Higher DASH and Mediterranean diet scores were associated with higher average 3MS scores. People in quintile 5 of DASH averaged 0.97 points higher than those in quintile 1 (P = 0.001). The corresponding difference for Mediterranean quintiles was 0.94 (P = 0.001). These differences were consistent over 11 y. Higher intakes of whole grains and nuts and legumes were also associated with higher average 3MS scores [mean quintile 5 compared with 1 differences: 1.19 (P < 0.001), 1.22 (P < 0.001), respectively]. Conclusions: Higher levels of accordance with both the DASH and Mediterranean dietary patterns were associated with consistently higher levels of cognitive function in elderly men and women over an 11-y period. Whole grains and nuts and legumes were positively associated with higher cognitive functions and may be core neuroprotective foods common to various healthy plant

  19. Investigation of the self-reported health and health-related behaviours of Victorian mothers of school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Bourke-Taylor, Helen; Lalor, Aislinn; Farnworth, Louise; Pallant, Julie F; Knightbridge, Elizabeth; McLelland, Gayle

    2015-01-01

    Lifestyle may influence many health-related issues currently facing Australian women. The extent to which women with school-aged children attend to their own health is unknown and the associations between health behaviours and health status requires investigation. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of health behaviours (alcohol consumption, health-promoting activities) and their impact on self-reported health (weight, sleep quality, mental health) among mothers of school-aged children in Victoria. Mail-out survey design (n=263) including the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) and Health Promoting Activities Scale was used to explore issues. The results indicated that substantial numbers of mothers reported moderate to extreme DASS scores: depression (n=45, 17%); anxiety (n=41, 15.6%); stress (n=57, 21.7%). The majority participated in physical activity less often than daily. High rates of daily alcohol use (20%) and poor sleep quality were reported. Nearly one-half (n=114, 46%) of the sample were overweight or obese and also reported poorer mental health than other women in the sample (P<0.001). Significant associations were detected between maternal weight, mental health and participation in health-promoting activities. The findings indicate that there is a need for increased health education and services for women with school-aged children. Direct services and population-based health promotion strategies may be required to address healthy lifestyle issues and educate mothers about the possible health legacy of poor health behaviours. PMID:24134959

  20. Learning Wellness: How Ageing Australians Experience Health Information Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Christine; Partridge, Helen; Bruce, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Given identified synergies between information use and health status greater understanding is needed about how people use information to learn about their health. This paper presents the findings of preliminary research into health information literacy. Analysis of data from semi-structured interviews revealed six different ways ageing Australians…

  1. Study of Attitudes of the Elderly Toward Aging & the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Signori, E. I.; Kozak, J.

    This study provides a closer perspective and appreciation of what elderly people think and feel about aging and the aged. Contained herein is a summary of the recorded written responses of 200 consecutive statements received from male and female persons 65 years old and over, in response to several broad questions regarding aging and the aged. The…

  2. Accelerated Aging Experiments for Capacitor Health Monitoring and Prognostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Chetan S.; Celaya, Jose Ramon; Biswas, Gautam; Goebel, Kai

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses experimental setups for health monitoring and prognostics of electrolytic capacitors under nominal operation and accelerated aging conditions. Electrolytic capacitors have higher failure rates than other components in electronic systems like power drives, power converters etc. Our current work focuses on developing first-principles-based degradation models for electrolytic capacitors under varying electrical and thermal stress conditions. Prognostics and health management for electronic systems aims to predict the onset of faults, study causes for system degradation, and accurately compute remaining useful life. Accelerated life test methods are often used in prognostics research as a way to model multiple causes and assess the effects of the degradation process through time. It also allows for the identification and study of different failure mechanisms and their relationships under different operating conditions. Experiments are designed for aging of the capacitors such that the degradation pattern induced by the aging can be monitored and analyzed. Experimental setups and data collection methods are presented to demonstrate this approach.

  3. Health professionals’ and service users’ perspectives of shared care for monitoring wet age-related macular degeneration: a qualitative study alongside the ECHoES trial

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, D; Reeves, B C; Taylor, J; Chakravarthy, U; O'Reilly, D; Hogg, R E; Mills, N

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore the views of eye health professionals and service users on shared community and hospital care for wet or neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). Method Using maximum variation sampling, 5 focus groups and 10 interviews were conducted with 23 service users and 24 eye health professionals from across the UK (consisting of 8 optometrists, 6 ophthalmologists, 6 commissioners, 2 public health representatives and 2 clinical eye care advisors to local Clinical Commissioning Groups). Data were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically using constant comparative techniques derived from grounded theory methodology. Results The needs and preferences of those with nAMD appear to be at odds with the current service being provided. There was enthusiasm among health professionals and service users about the possibility of shared care for nAMD as it was felt to have the potential to relieve hospital eye service burden and represent a more patient-centred option, but there were a number of perceived barriers to implementation. Some service users and ophthalmologists voiced concerns about optometrist competency and the potential for delays with referrals to secondary care if stable nAMD became active again. The health professionals were divided as to whether shared care was financially more efficient than the current model of care. Specialist training for optometrists, under the supervision of ophthalmologists, was deemed to be the most effective method of training and was perceived to have the potential to improve the communication and trust that shared care would require. Conclusions While shared care is perceived to represent a promising model of nAMD care, voiced concerns suggest that there would need to be greater collaboration between ophthalmology and optometry, in terms of interprofessional trust and communication. Trial registration number ISRCTN07479761. PMID:25900465

  4. Aging and Functional Health Literacy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wardle, Jane; Wolf, Michael S.; von Wagner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To review the evidence on the association between age and limited health literacy, overall and by health literacy test, and to investigate the mediating role of cognitive function. Method: The Embase, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO databases were searched. Eligible studies were conducted in any country or language, included participants aged ≥50 years, presented a measure of association between age and health literacy, and were published through September 2013. Results: Seventy analyses in 60 studies were included in the systematic review; 29 of these were included in the meta-analysis. Older age was strongly associated with limited health literacy in analyses that measured health literacy as reading comprehension, reasoning, and numeracy skills (random-effects odds ratio [OR] = 4.20; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.13–5.64). By contrast, older age was weakly associated with limited health literacy in studies that measured health literacy as medical vocabulary (random-effects OR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.03–1.37). Evidence on the mediating role of cognitive function was limited. Discussion: Health literacy tests that utilize a range of fluid cognitive abilities and mirror everyday health tasks frequently observe skill limitations among older adults. Vocabulary-based health literacy skills appear more stable with age. Researchers should select measurement tests wisely when assessing health literacy of older adults. PMID:25504637

  5. Effect of Service Barriers on Health Status of Aging South Asian Immigrants in Calgary, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Daniel W. L.; Surood, Shireen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between service barriers and health status of aging South Asian immigrants. Data were obtained through a structured telephone survey with a random sample of 220 South Asians 55 years of age and older. The effect of the different types of service barriers on the physical and mental health of participants was…

  6. Social, Health, and Age Differences Associated with Depressive Disorders in Women with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plach, Sandra K.; Napholz, Linda; Kelber, Sheryl T.

    2005-01-01

    Depression in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may be related to social role experiences, physical health, and age. The purpose of this study was to examine the social and health factors contributing to depression in two age groups of women with RA. One-hundred and thirty-eight midlife and late-life women with a diagnosis of RA participated in…

  7. Evaluation of New and Established Age-Related Macular Degeneration Susceptibility Genes in the Women’s Health Initiative Sight Exam (WHI-SE) Study

    PubMed Central

    PETER, INGA; HUGGINS, GORDON S.; ORDOVAS, JOSE M.; HAAN, MARY; SEDDON, JOHANNA M.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE To assess whether established and newly reported genetic variants, independent of known lifestyle factors, are associated with the risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) among women participating in the Women’s Health Initiative Sight Exam (WHI-SE) Genetic Ancillary Study. DESIGN Multicenter case-control study. METHODS One hundred and forty-six women with intermediate and late stages of AMD and 1269 subjects without AMD underwent ocular examinations and fundus photography to determine stage of AMD. Fourteen polymorphisms at or near 11 genes, including previously confirmed genes CFH, ARMS2/HTRA1, C2, C3, and CFI; recently reported AMD genes in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) pathway LIPC, ABCA1, CETP, and LPL; TIMP3/SYN3, a known ocular gene recently linked with AMD; and APOE, were assessed using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS After adjustment for demographic, behavioral, and other genetic factors, a protective effect was detected among TT carriers compared with non-carriers for the HDL pathway gene, LIPC rs493258, for intermediate and late AMD (OR [95% confidence interval]: 0.3 [0.2–-0.7], P = .003). Variants in CFH rs1410996, ARMS2/HTRA1 A69S, and C3 R102G were significantly associated with an increased risk of AMD. Individuals with the homozygous CFI rs10033900 TT genotype had a 2.9 [1.2–7.2]-fold increased risk, and those with the CFH Y402H GG genotype had a 2.2 [1.0–4.8]-fold higher risk of developing AMD compared with non-carriers. APOE4 carriers may have a reduced risk of intermediate/late AMD (OR = 0.5 [0.3–0.9], P = .015. Suggestive associations were seen between AMD and the HDL pathway genes CETP and LPL. CONCLUSION In this unique national cohort of women, we found associations with established AMD-related genetic factors and the recently reported LIPC gene in the HDL pathway. These findings may help develop novel therapeutic targets to treat or delay the onset of the disease. PMID:21906714

  8. Time preference and its relationship with age, health, and survival probability

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Li-Wei; Szrek, Helena; Pereira, Nuno Sousa; Pauly, Mark V.

    2009-01-01

    Although theories from economics and evolutionary biology predict that one's age, health, and survival probability should be associated with one's subjective discount rate (SDR), few studies have empirically tested for these links. Our study analyzes in detail how the SDR is related to age, health, and survival probability, by surveying a sample of individuals in townships around Durban, South Africa. In contrast to previous studies, we find that age is not significantly related to the SDR, but both physical health and survival expectations have a U-shaped relationship with the SDR. Individuals in very poor health have high discount rates, and those in very good health also have high discount rates. Similarly, those with expected survival probability on the extremes have high discount rates. Therefore, health and survival probability, and not age, seem to be predictors of one's SDR in an area of the world with high morbidity and mortality. PMID:20376300

  9. Gut Bifidobacteria Populations in Human Health and Aging.

    PubMed

    Arboleya, Silvia; Watkins, Claire; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota has increasingly been shown to have a vital role in various aspects of human health. Indeed, several studies have linked alterations in the gut microbiota with the development of different diseases. Among the vast gut bacterial community, Bifidobacterium is a genus which dominates the intestine of healthy breast-fed infants whereas in adulthood the levels are lower but relatively stable. The presence of different species of bifidobacteria changes with age, from childhood to old age. Bifidobacterium longum, B. breve, and B. bifidum are generally dominant in infants, whereas B. catenulatum, B. adolescentis and, as well as B. longum are more prevalent in adults. Increasingly, evidence is accumulating which shows beneficial effects of supplementation with bifidobacteria for the improvement of human health conditions ranging from protection against infection to different extra- and intra-intestinal positive effects. Moreover, bifidobacteria have been associated with the production of a number of potentially health promoting metabolites including short chain fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid and bacteriocins. The aim of this mini-review is to describe the bifidobacteria compositional changes associated with different stages in life, highlighting their beneficial role, as well as their presence or absence in many disease states. PMID:27594848

  10. Gut Bifidobacteria Populations in Human Health and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Arboleya, Silvia; Watkins, Claire; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R. Paul

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota has increasingly been shown to have a vital role in various aspects of human health. Indeed, several studies have linked alterations in the gut microbiota with the development of different diseases. Among the vast gut bacterial community, Bifidobacterium is a genus which dominates the intestine of healthy breast-fed infants whereas in adulthood the levels are lower but relatively stable. The presence of different species of bifidobacteria changes with age, from childhood to old age. Bifidobacterium longum, B. breve, and B. bifidum are generally dominant in infants, whereas B. catenulatum, B. adolescentis and, as well as B. longum are more prevalent in adults. Increasingly, evidence is accumulating which shows beneficial effects of supplementation with bifidobacteria for the improvement of human health conditions ranging from protection against infection to different extra- and intra-intestinal positive effects. Moreover, bifidobacteria have been associated with the production of a number of potentially health promoting metabolites including short chain fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid and bacteriocins. The aim of this mini-review is to describe the bifidobacteria compositional changes associated with different stages in life, highlighting their beneficial role, as well as their presence or absence in many disease states. PMID:27594848