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1

The American College Health Association National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA), Spring 2003 Reference Group Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessing and understanding the health needs and capacities of college students is paramount to creating healthy campus communities. The American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA) is a survey instrument developed by the American College Health Association (ACHA) in 1998 to assist institutions of higher…

Journal of American College Health, 2005

2005-01-01

2

Copyright 2008 All Rights Reserved. The ACHA-NCHA supports the health of the campus community  

E-print Network

practices and illnesses. Identify students' perceptions about peer behavior. Assess the impact of health Spring 2008 American College Health Association National College Health Assessment ACHA-NCHA #12;Table Students 4 B. Preventive Health 5 C. Academic Impacts 6 D. Violence 6 E. Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug

Gleeson, Joseph G.

3

"Mens Sana": The Growth of Mental Health in the American College Health Association  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1910, the first college mental health service sought to help college students with personality development and building a healthy mind. In 1920, the meeting that founded the American College Health Association (ACHA) identified "mental hygiene" as important, although a separate Mental Health Section was not established in ACHA until 1957.…

Kraft, David P.

2009-01-01

4

Copyright 2011 All Rights Reserved. The ACHA-NCHA II supports the health of the campus  

E-print Network

Prevention 4 C. Academic Impacts 5 D. Violence, Abusive Relationships and Personal Safety 5 E. Alcohol initiated the original ACHA-NCHA in 2000 and the instrument was used nation wide through the spring 2008 and differences between the instruments can be obtained at the ACHA-NCHA website, www

Ullrich, Paul

5

Evaluating California Campus Tobacco Policies Using the American College Health Association Guidelines and the Institutional Grammar Tool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To measure comprehensiveness of California campus tobacco policies. Participants: Sixteen campuses representing different regions, institution types, and policies. Research occurred June-August 2013. Methods: Comprehensiveness was scored using American College Health Association's (ACHA) "Position Statement on Tobacco."…

Roditis, Maria L.; Wang, Donna; Glantz, Stanton A.; Fallin, Amanda

2015-01-01

6

A Comprehensive Critique of the American College Health Association's National College Health Assessment Survey Instrument  

E-print Network

health behavior: withdrawal as a contraceptive method among the U.S. college population. This study is an exploration utilizing quantitative methodology to examine the validity and reliability of the data produced by the ACHA NCHA II...

Rahn, Rhonda

2014-07-17

7

Developments on the cereal grains Digitaria exilis (acha) and Digitaria iburua (iburu).  

PubMed

Research and development on these indigenous African cereal grains, acha (Digitaria exilis Stapf) and iburu (D. iburua Stapf), is experiencing renewed interest not just in Africa but the rest of the world. It is believed that acha and iburu may have nutraceutical properties, as it is used in some areas for managing diabetes. Value addition and exploitation of fonio (acha and iburu) in the development of health or speciality foods like acha-bread, biscuit, cookies, sour dough, traditional drinks, nonfermented steamed and granulated dumpling products are gaining interest. These grains may also contribute in addressing some very relevant challenges in today's food formulation-both from functionality and health perspectives. The constraint of low yield is receiving attention in cereal breeding programmes which may give rise to a new generation of 'healthy' cereal grains in future. Further research on acha and iburu whole grains will hopefully lead to increase understanding of the health effects of grain components and to increase the intake of health-protective grain components. Moreover, with strong consumer demand for these grains due to their potential nutritional and health benefits, and because they help to satisfy the demand for a more varied cereal diet, efforts should be made to tackle the obstacles militating against production, improved quality, competitiveness and value-addition. PMID:23572743

Jideani, I A; Jideani, V A

2011-06-01

8

Health-Related Barriers to Learning among Graduate Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report the perceived impact of various health concerns on the academic performance of health sciences graduate students. Design/methodology/approach: The American College Health Association's National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA), a 58-item anonymous survey, was distributed to all graduate health

Kernan, William; Bogart, Jane; Wheat, Mary E.

2011-01-01

9

Sexual and Reproductive Health Behaviors of California Community College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To explore the sexual and reproductive health behaviors of students from 13 community college campuses in California. Participants: Heterosexual college students, ages 18 to 24, who have had sexual intercourse (N = 4,487). Methods: The American College Health Association's National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA) survey was…

Trieu, Sang Leng; Bratton, Sally; Marshak, Helen Hopp

2011-01-01

10

Community College Student Mental Health: A Comparative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores community college student mental health by comparing the responses of California community college and traditional university students on the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II (ACHA-NCHA II). Using MANOVA, we compared community college and traditional university students, examining…

Katz, Daniel Seth; Davison, Karen

2014-01-01

11

Rural Health Association  

E-print Network

Montana Rural Health Association Phone: 406-994-6004 Fax: 406-994-5653 E-mail: MRHA 170520 Bozeman, Montana 59717-0520 Montana Rural Health Association Membershipdesignation.Membershipisrenewedonan annualbasis.PleasemakecheckspayabletoMontanaRuralHealth

Maxwell, Bruce D.

12

Developments on the cereal grains Digitaria exilis (acha) and Digitaria iburua (iburu)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research and development on these indigenous African cereal grains, acha (Digitaria exilis Stapf) and iburu (D. iburua Stapf), is experiencing renewed interest not just in Africa but the rest of the world. It is believed that acha and iburu\\u000a may have nutraceutical properties, as it is used in some areas for managing diabetes. Value addition and exploitation of fonio\\u000a (acha

I. A. Jideani; V. A. Jideani

2011-01-01

13

Associate Dean of Student Health &  

E-print Network

Associate Dean of Student Health & Wellness Cluster (Annie Ciaraldi) Director Counseling) Exec. Director Health Services (Nancy Quattrocchi) Director Parents Program (Karen Humphrey Johnson Services (Lauren Rojas) Director Campus Recreation (Peter Murray) Director Veterans Services (Janine Wert

Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

14

National Rural Health Association  

MedlinePLUS

... 2013 OIG CAH Report Health Reform and You Health Care Reform Timeline Appropriations Tracker Appropriations Tracker Medicaid News Government Affairs News State-By-State Data Policy Documents and Statements Official Policy ... Rural Health Policy Institute 2010 Policy Institute Recap 2009 Policy ...

15

A survey of college health services: how widely are protocols used in the college health setting?  

PubMed

We developed a survey to assess the prevalence and use of protocols in college health services, using the college health nurse as the primary focus. Three thousand and twenty copies of the survey were mailed to individual and institutional members of the American College Health Association (ACHA), and 812 surveys were returned, yielding a return rate of 25%. The data, which came from all 50 states, Canada, and Guam, were then compiled and analyzed using computer software dBase III. The generalizability of the results are somewhat limited because some surveys were returned with unanswered questions and because duplicate surveys were received from some facilities. PMID:7963086

Farrell, R G; Ellis, P

1994-09-01

16

Health Conditions Associated with Psoriasis  

MedlinePLUS

... Cycle Team NPF DIY Medical Professionals Donate Donate Psoriasis About Psoriasis Symptoms and Diagnosis Types of Psoriasis ... Online YouTube Twitter Facebook Health Conditions Associated with Psoriasis Individuals with psoriasis are at an elevated risk ...

17

The National Mental Health Association  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As it approaches its 100th anniversary in 2009, the National Mental Health Association (NMHA) remains the countryâ??s oldest and largest nonprofit organization that deals with all aspects of mental health and mental illness. First-time users of their site will find that their homepage contains copious amounts of material related to their advocacy efforts, along with materials that deal with helping a loved one who may be suffering the effects of mental illness. The â??Need Info?â?ť area is a good place to start for these types of materials, as it provides access to information on treatment resources, support groups, and fact sheets. Visitors can also elect to sign up for one (or several) of their helpful email updates, which include work on related legislation, and mental health news coverage.

2006-01-01

18

Mosaicing with Parallax using Time Warping Alex Rav-Acha Yael Shor  

E-print Network

Mosaicing with Parallax using Time Warping ÂŁ Alex Rav-Acha Yael ShorĂť Shmuel Peleg School methods. We propose to use the x-y-t space-time volume as a tool for depth invariant mosaicing. When mosaic, while a x-t slice is an EPI plane. Time warping, which is a resampling of the t axis, is used

Peleg, Shmuel

19

Exploitation of Acha (Digitaria exiliis) and Iburu (Digitaria iburua) flours: chemical characterization and their use for sourdough fermentation.  

PubMed

This study aimed at characterizing the chemical and microbiological composition of Acha (Digitaria exiliis) and Iburu (Digitaria iburua) flours and at exploiting their potential for sourdough fermentation. Both the flours had a gross composition similar to other cereals. As shown by two-dimensional electrophoresis analysis, Acha flour had a higher number of prolamins with respect to Iburu flour. The opposite was found for the number of glutelin spots. The concentration of total free amino acids of Iburu flour was higher than that of Acha flour (1348±34 vs. 100±20 mg/kg). Pediococcus pentosaceus was the dominant species in both the flours. Several isolates were used to ferment Acha or Iburu flours. After 8h fermentation at 30°C, pH ranged from 3.41 to 3.83 and from 4.20 to 4.66 for Acha and Iburu sourdoughs, respectively. The highest values of TTA and concentration of lactic acid were found in almost all Iburu sourdoughs. The synthesis of acetoin and ?-amino butyric acid (GABA) was only found in Iburu sourdoughs. Data from the kinetics of acidification, synthesis of lactic and acetic acids, acetoin, and liberation of total free amino acids were elaborated by Principal Component Analysis. Sourdoughs from Acha and Iburu flour were clearly differentiated. PMID:20832683

Coda, Rossana; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Edema, Mojisola O; Nionelli, Luana; Gobbetti, Marco

2010-12-01

20

PUBLIC HEALTH Chair, Associate Professor TARA WATSON  

E-print Network

1 PUBLIC HEALTH Chair, Associate Professor TARA WATSON Advisory Committee: Professors: DARROW, D, HONDERICH, J. PEDRONI. Public health seeks to understand, and also to protect and improve, health. At its heart, the study of public health focuses on questions about relationships between science

Aalberts, Daniel P.

21

Nutritive value of baobab milk (gubdi) and mixtures of baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) and hungry rice, acha (Digitaria exilis) flours.  

PubMed

The baobab milk and fermented baobab/acha flour mixtures were analyzed chemically for their proximate, ascorbate, mineral and antinutrient composition. The dry pulp scraped from baobab fruits was kneaded, made into solution, extracted through cheese-cloth and stored frozen until analyzed. The acha and baobab grains were cleaned, fermented for 24 to 120 hours, dried and hammermilled into fine flours. The unfermented flours served as controls. The standard assay methods of AOAC were selected for use for the analysis of the nutrients and the antinutrients. The mixtures were composed of 70% acha and 30% baobab flours (70:30 protein basis). The baobab milk contained more protein (1.5%) and minerals (Fe, 17.8 mg; Ca 134.2 mg) than those of human milk (protein, 1.3%, Fe, 0.2 mg, Ca 30 mg) and cow milk (Fe, 0.1 mg; Ca 1.20 mg) and most leading national commercial infant formulas e.g. cerelac (Fe, 10.0 mg). The composite flours contained more nutrients than the baobab or the acha flour alone. The BF96 had greater advantage over other BF flours as a supplement to acha. The mixtures are within the reach of lower income group and can be incorporated into their diets. PMID:7855083

Obizoba, I C; Anyika, J U

1994-09-01

22

History of the American College Health Association  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following Dr Edward Hitchcock's lead at Amherst College in 1861, soon other institutions of higher education established physical education departments that evolved into independent college health programs. As the field of college health expanded, leaders from numerous campuses began meeting to share information and discuss formation of a national organization. As a result, the American Student Health Association was founded

Rachel Mack

2011-01-01

23

Spatio-Temporal Video Warping (sketches 0999) Alex Rav-Acha Yael Pritch Dani Lischinski Shmuel Peleg  

E-print Network

sequence, a 3D space-time volume is constructed. Certain warping effects require this volume to be alignedSpatio-Temporal Video Warping (sketches 0999) Alex Rav-Acha Yael Pritch Dani Lischinski Shmuel Peleg The Hebrew University of Jerusalem 1 Introduction While spatial image warping is extensively used

Peleg, Shmuel

24

Evolving Time Fronts: Spatio-Temporal Video Warping Alex Rav-Acha Yael Pritch Dani Lischinski Shmuel Peleg  

E-print Network

Evolving Time Fronts: Spatio-Temporal Video Warping Alex Rav-Acha Yael Pritch Dani Lischinski of this swimming competition? Spatio-temporal warping enables time to flow differently at different locations framework for spatio- temporal warping of video. The proposed framework is simple yet general, allowing

Peleg, Shmuel

25

Prevention of health care-associated infections.  

PubMed

Health care-associated infections cause approximately 75,000 deaths annually, in addition to increasing morbidity and costs. Over the past decade, a downward trend in health care-associated infections has occurred nationwide. Basic prevention measures include administrative support, educating health care personnel, and hand hygiene and isolation precautions. Prevention of central line- or catheter-associated infections begins with avoidance of unnecessary insertion, adherence to aseptic technique when inserting, and device removal when no longer necessary. Specific recommendations for preventing central line-associated bloodstream infections include use of chlorhexidine for skin preparation, as a component of dressings, and for daily bathing of patients in intensive care units. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections are the most common device-related health care-associated infection. Maintaining a closed drainage system below the patient reduces the risk of infection. To prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia, which is associated with high mortality, mechanically ventilated patients should be placed in the semirecumbent position and receive antiseptic oral care. Prevention of surgical site infections includes hair removal using clippers, glucose control, and preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis. Reducing transmission of Clostridium difficile and multidrug-resistant organisms in the hospital setting begins with hand hygiene and contact precautions. Institutional efforts to reduce unnecessary antibiotic prescribing are also strongly recommended. Reducing rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection can be achieved through active surveillance cultures and decolonization therapy with mupirocin. PMID:25251230

Hsu, Vincent

2014-09-15

26

78 FR 56711 - Health Insurance Exchanges; Application by the Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care To Be a Recognized Accrediting...Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care (AAAHC) to be a recognized accrediting...Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care's (AAAHC) request for...

2013-09-13

27

Advocacy: the role of health professional associations.  

PubMed

The FIGO Leadership in Obstetrics and Gynecology for Impact and Change (LOGIC) Initiative in Maternal and Newborn Health was developed on the premise that organizational capacity strengthening in eight low- and middle-income countries would result in improved ability of member associations to take a leadership role in engaging a range of stakeholders in the health sector to discuss evidence and facilitate policy change and clinical practice in maternal and newborn health. Definitions of relevant terms, principles, and a framework for an advocacy plan are presented. The term advocacy is typically not well understood by health professionals, nor generally thought to be part of their role as a clinician, researcher, or educator. "Influence" based on expertise is often more consonant with a clinician's reality, especially where advocacy is perceived as a more political process that may present a barrier in some countries. The organizational capacity development of the FIGO member associations was integral to their ability to exert influence based on evidence, both internally in their associations and with other stakeholders, including the Ministry of Health. Examples of advocacy from each of the eight LOGIC countries are provided, noting that evaluation of impact can be challenging. PMID:25174787

Shaw, Dorothy

2014-10-01

28

Effect of Acha (Digitaria exilis) Grain Flour on the PhysicoChemical and Sensory Properties of Bread  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different levels of acha (Digitaria exilis) grain flour (0–100%) were mixed with wheat flour (golden penny) and other ingredients (1.0 g salt, 2.5 g fat, 1.5 g yeast, 12.0 g sugar, and 56.0 g water, per 100 g of flour) fermented, molded, pan-proved and baked to produce bread. The baked products were evaluated for loaf volume, moisture content, and sensory qualities (taste, odor, color, texture, outward

J. A. Ayo; I. Nkama

2004-01-01

29

Effect of varying degrees of succinylation on the functional and morphological properties of starch from acha (Digitaria exilis Kippis Stapf).  

PubMed

Scientific data on the effect of varying degrees of succinylation on starch from Acha, an underutilized source is scanty. Bridging this gap is the focus of this study. Acha starch was extracted, succinylated (succinic anhydride (SA) (3-14g/100g starch) and the degree of substitution determined. Proximate composition and functional characteristics of both native and succinylated starches were evaluated according to standard methods. Starch spectra and morphology were also studied. Succinylation increased (5.63-11.68%) with increasing concentration of SA. Amylose peaked at 36.42% and thereafter decreased to 28.84%. Swelling power and solubility increased in multiple folds especially at temperatures (70-90°C) at all levels of substitution (0.1-0.20). Pasting viscosities (165.9-307.5RVU) decreased and did not follow the order of substitution. Morphology (polygonal) and granular sizes (6-12?m) among the succinylated and native starches were not significantly different (P<0.05). Succinylated Acha starches hold great promise as a good and cheaper replacement for gums in Food Applications. PMID:25660884

Arueya, Gibson Lucky; Oyewale, Towoba Monsurat

2015-06-15

30

Space Radiation and its Associated Health Consequences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During space travel, astronauts are exposed to energetic particles of a complex composition and energy distribution. For the same amount of absorbed dose, these particles can be much more effective than X- or gamma rays in the induction of biological effects, including cell inactivation, genetic mutations, cataracts, and cancer induction. Several of the biological consequences of space radiation exposure have already been observed in astronauts. This presentation will introduce the space radiation environment and discuss its associated health risks. Accurate assessment of the radiation risks and development of respective countermeasures are essential for the success of future exploration missions to the Moon and Mars.

Wu, Honglu

2007-01-01

31

Association Between Sexual Health and Delivery Mode  

PubMed Central

Introduction Female sexual function changes considerably during pregnancy and the postpartum period. In addition, women's physical and mental health, endocrine secretion, and internal and external genitalia vary during these times. However, there are limited studies on the relationship between delivery and sexual function. Aim The present study aimed to demonstrate the association between sexual function and delivery mode. Methods Mothers who delivered a single baby at term were recruited for the study, and 435 mothers were analyzed. Main Outcome Measures The Female Sexual Function Questionnaire (SFQ28) scores and mothers' backgrounds were assessed at 6 months after delivery. Results The delivery mode affected the SFQ28 partner domain. Episiotomy affected the arousal (sensation) domain. Multiple regression analysis revealed that maternal age and cesarean section were significantly associated with several SHQ28 domains. Conclusion This study suggests that routine episiotomies at delivery should be avoided to improve postpartum maternal sexual function. Maternal age and cesarean section were found to affect postpartum sexual health. PMID:25548646

Song, Mihyon; Ishii, Hiroshi; Toda, Masahiro; Tomimatsu, Takuji; Katsuyama, Hironobu; Nakamura, Takafumi; Nakai, Yuichiro; Shimoya, Koichiro

2014-01-01

32

Emergency Planning Guidelines for Campus Health Services: An All-Hazards Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, written collaboratively by members of ACHA's Emerging Public Health Threats and Emergency Response Coalition and Campus Safety and Violence Coalition, is designed to assist members of the college health community in planning for emergencies using an all-hazards approach. Its perspective is both macro and micro, beginning with a…

Journal of American College Health, 2011

2011-01-01

33

American Urological Association: UrologyHealth.org  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established in 1902, the American Urological Association (AUA) works to "promote the highest standards of urological clinical care through education, research and in the formulation of health care policy." In line with the educational component of its mission, AUA developed this website as an information resource for patients. The website offers sections for both Adult and Pediatric Conditions. These sections provide information about a range of conditions and/or diseases under the broad categories of Bladder, Adrenal & Kidney Diseases, Cancers, Inflammations & Infections, Stones, and more. The site also provides a search engine, printer-friendly formats, an online directory service for locating urologists, and a quite extensive glossary of urology-related terms.

34

History of the American College Health Association  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following Dr. Edward Hitchcock's lead at Amherst College in 1861, soon other institutions of higher education established physical education departments that evolved into independent college health programs. As the field of college health expanded, leaders from numerous campuses began meeting to share information and discuss formation of a…

Mack, Rachel

2011-01-01

35

Association between political ideology and health in Europe  

PubMed Central

Studies have largely examined the association between political ideology and health at the aggregate/ecological level. Using individual-level data from 29 European countries, we investigated whether self-reports of political ideology and health are associated. In adjusted models, we found an inverse association between political ideology and self-rated poor health; for a unit increase in the political ideology scale (towards right) the odds ratio (OR) for reporting poor health decreased (OR 0.95, 95% confidence interval 0.94–0.96). Although political ideology per se is unlikely to have a causal link to health, it could be a marker for health-promoting latent attitudes, values and beliefs. PMID:19535606

Huijts, Tim; Perkins, Jessica M.

2009-01-01

36

Copyright 2013, National Environmental Health Association (www.neha.org) Environmental Health  

E-print Network

Copyright 2013, National Environmental Health Association (www.neha.org) JOURNAL OF Environmental Health Dedicated to the advancement of the environmental health professional Volume 75, No. 7 March 2013. They determined the ability of bacteria to transfer from menus to finger tips and from fingertips to clean menus

37

Health Effects Associated with Water Fluoridation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion is presented concerning fluoridation of water supplies. Correlation between fluoride in drinking water and improved dental health is reviewed. Relationship is expressed between fluoridation and reduced tooth decay. Use of fluoride in treating skeletal disorders is discussed. Author advocates fluoridating water supplies. (SA)

Richmond, Virginia L.

1979-01-01

38

Using public relations to promote health: a framing analysis of public relations strategies among health associations.  

PubMed

This study explored health organizations' public relations efforts to frame health issues through their press releases. Content analysis of 316 press releases from three health organizations-the American Heart Association, the American Cancer Society, and the American Diabetes Association-revealed that they used the medical research frame most frequently and emphasized societal responsibility for health issues. There were differences, however, among the organizations regarding the main frames and health issues: the American Diabetes Association was more likely to focus on the issues related to social support and education, while the American Heart Association and the American Cancer Society were more likely to address medical research and scientific news. To demonstrate their initiatives for public health, all the organizations employed the social support/educational frame most frequently. Researchers and medical doctors frequently were quoted as trusted sources in the releases. PMID:20390976

Park, Hyojung; Reber, Bryan H

2010-01-01

39

American Health Information Management Association Code of Ethics  

E-print Network

1 American Health Information Management Association Code of Ethics Preamble The ethical should be disclosed. Ethical obligations are central to the professional's responsibility, regardless and the inherent ethical responsibilities for AHIMA members and credentialed HIM professionals include providing

Zhou, Yaoqi

40

SASKATCHEWAN HEALTH-CARE AUXILIARIES ASSOCIATION Bursary Application  

E-print Network

SASKATCHEWAN HEALTH-CARE AUXILIARIES ASSOCIATION Bursary Application This bursary is awarded to a student entering the second year of a Registered Nursing Education Program in Saskatchewan. It is awarded

Peak, Derek

41

Polity and health care expenditures: the association among 159 nations.  

PubMed

This paper hypothesized that democratic nations, as characterized by Polity IV Project regime scores, spend more on health care than autocratic nations and that the association reported here is independent of other demographic, health system or economic characteristics of nations. WHO Global Observatory data on 159 nations with roughly 98% of the world's population were examined. Regime scores had significant, direct and independent associations with each of four measures of health care expenditure. For every unit increment in a nation's regime score toward a more democratic authority structure of governance, we estimated significant (p<0.05) increments in the percent of GDP expended on health care (+0.14%), percent of general government expenditures targeted to health care (+0.25%), total per capita expenditures on health (+34.4Int$) and per capita general government expenditures (+22.4Int$), while controlling for a population's age distribution, life expectancy, health care workforce and system effectiveness and gross national income. Moreover, these relationships were found to persist across socio-economic development levels. The finding that practices of health care expenditure and authority structures of government co-vary is instructive about the politics of health and the challenges of advancing global health objectives. PMID:23856538

Gregorio, Leah E; Gregorio, David I

2013-03-01

42

Bias Associated with Mining Electronic Health Records  

PubMed Central

Large?scale electronic health record research introduces biases compared to traditional manually curated retrospective research. We used data from a community?acquired pneumonia study for which we had a gold standard to illustrate such biases. The challenges include data inaccuracy, incompleteness, and complexity, and they can produce in distorted results. We found that a naďve approach approximated the gold standard, but errors on a minority of cases shifted mortality substantially. Manual review revealed errors in both selecting and characterizing the cohort, and narrowing the cohort improved the result. Nevertheless, a significantly narrowed cohort might contain its own biases that would be difficult to estimate. PMID:21647858

Hripcsak, George; Knirsch, Charles; Zhou, Li; Wilcox, Adam; Melton, Genevieve B

2011-01-01

43

78 FR 77470 - Health Insurance Exchanges; Approval of an Application by the Accreditation Association for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care (AAAHC) To Be a Recognized Accrediting...Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care (AAAHC) for recognition as an...Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care (AAAHC) to be a recognized...

2013-12-23

44

Crop Health Improvement with Groundnut Associated Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Groundnut-associated bacterial strains have been studied for their ability to improve growth and yield. Different parts of\\u000a plants such as rhizosphere, phyllosphere, and spermosphere are rich in beneficial microbes. The beneficial bacteria range\\u000a from nodule-forming Bradyrhizobium and Rhizobium to free-living plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) such as Pseudomonas, Bacillus, and Serratia. This chapter focuses on the different PGPR strains isolated from

Swarnalee Dutta; Manjeet Kaur; Appa Rao Podile

45

Chaos as a Social Determinant of Child Health: Reciprocal Associations?  

PubMed Central

This study informs the social determinants of child health by exploring an understudied aspect of children’s social contexts: chaos. Chaos has been conceptualized as crowded, noisy, disorganized, unpredictable settings for child development (Evans et al., 2010). We measure chaos at two levels of children’s ecological environment - the microsystem (household) and the mesosystem (work-family-child care nexus) – and at two points in early childhood (ages 3 and 5). Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N=3288), a study of predominantly low-income women and their partners in large US cities, we develop structural equation models that assess how maternal-rated child health (also assessed at ages 3 and 5) is associated with latent constructs of chaos, and whether there are important reciprocal effects. Autoregressive crosslagged path analysis suggest that increasing chaos (at both the household and maternal work levels) is associated with worse child health, controlling for key confounders like household economic status, family structure, and maternal health status. Child health has little effect on chaos, providing further support for the hypothesis that chaos is an important social determinant of child health in this sample of relatively disadvantaged children. This suggests child health may be improved by supporting families in ways that reduce chaos in their home and work/family environments, and that as researchers move beyond SES, race, and family structure to explore other sources of health inequalities, chaos and its proximate determinants may be a promising avenue for future research. PMID:23541250

Schmeer, Kammi K.; Taylor, Miles

2013-01-01

46

Chaos as a social determinant of child health: Reciprocal associations?  

PubMed

This study informs the social determinants of child health by exploring an understudied aspect of children's social contexts: chaos. Chaos has been conceptualized as crowded, noisy, disorganized, unpredictable settings for child development (Evans, Eckenrode, & Marcynyszyn, 2010). We measure chaos at two levels of children's ecological environment - the microsystem (household) and the mesosystem (work-family-child care nexus) - and at two points in early childhood (ages 3 and 5). Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 3288), a study of predominantly low-income women and their partners in large US cities, we develop structural equation models that assess how maternal-rated child health (also assessed at ages 3 and 5) is associated with latent constructs of chaos, and whether there are important reciprocal effects. Autoregressive cross-lagged path analysis suggest that increasing chaos (at both the household and maternal work levels) is associated with worse child health, controlling for key confounders like household economic status, family structure, and maternal health status. Child health has little effect on chaos, providing further support for the hypothesis that chaos is an important social determinant of child health in this sample of relatively disadvantaged children. This suggests child health may be improved by supporting families in ways that reduce chaos in their home and work/family environments, and that as researchers move beyond SES, race, and family structure to explore other sources of health inequalities, chaos and its proximate determinants may be a promising avenue for future research. PMID:23541250

Kamp Dush, Claire M; Schmeer, Kammi K; Taylor, Miles

2013-10-01

47

Can managed health care help manage health care-associated infections?  

PubMed Central

Managed-care organizations have a unique opportunity, still largely unrealized, to collaborate with health-care providers and epidemiologists to prevent health care-associated infections. Several attributes make these organizations logical collaborators for infection control programs: they have responsibility for defined populations of enrollees and for their overall health, including preventive care; they possess unique data resources about their members and their care; and they are able to make systemwide changes in care. Health care-associated infections merit the attention and effort of managed-care organizations because these infections are common, incur substantial illness and costs, and can be effectively prevented by using methods that are unevenly applied in different health-care settings. Both national and local discussions will be required to enable the most effective and efficient collaborations between managed care organizations and health-care epidemiologists. It will be important to articulate clear goals and standards that can be readily understood and widely adopted. PMID:11294740

Platt, R.; Caldwell, B.

2001-01-01

48

Methylobacterium and Its Role in Health Care-Associated Infection  

PubMed Central

Methylobacterium species are a cause of health care-associated infection, including infections in immunocompromised hosts. The ability of Methylobacterium species to form biofilms and to develop resistance to high temperatures, drying, and disinfecting agents may explain the colonization of Methylobacterium in the hospital environment in, e.g., endoscopes. Due to its slow growth, it can be easily missed during microbiological surveillance of endoscope reprocessing. The purpose of this minireview is to present an overview of documented infections and cross-contaminations with Methylobacterium related to endoscopic procedures and to illustrate the health care-associated relevance of this slow-growing bacterium. PMID:24430456

Degener, John E.; van der Mei, Henny C.

2014-01-01

49

Nurse staffing, burnout, and health care–associated infection  

PubMed Central

Background Each year, nearly 7 million hospitalized patients acquire infections while being treated for other conditions. Nurse staffing has been implicated in the spread of infection within hospitals, yet little evidence is available to explain this association. Methods We linked nurse survey data to the Pennsylvania Health Care Cost Containment Council report on hospital infections and the American Hospital Association Annual Survey. We examined urinary tract and surgical site infection, the most prevalent infections reported and those likely to be acquired on any unit within a hospital. Linear regression was used to estimate the effect of nurse and hospital characteristics on health care–associated infections. Results There was a significant association between patient-to-nurse ratio and urinary tract infection (0.86; P = .02) and surgical site infection (0.93; P = .04). In a multivariate model controlling for patient severity and nurse and hospital characteristics, only nurse burnout remained significantly associated with urinary tract infection (0.82; P = .03) and surgical site infection (1.56; P < .01) infection. Hospitals in which burnout was reduced by 30% had a total of 6,239 fewer infections, for an annual cost saving of up to $68 million. Conclusions We provide a plausible explanation for the association between nurse staffing and health care–associated infections. Reducing burnout in registered nurses is a promising strategy to help control infections in acute care facilities. PMID:22854376

Cimiotti, Jeannie P.; Aiken, Linda H.; Sloane, Douglas M.; Wu, Evan S.

2012-01-01

50

EPA/OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT'S NATIONAL HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS LABORATORY'S ASSOCIATE DIRECTOR FOR HEALTH INTERNET SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

This Internet site provides information about the Office of Research and Development's National Health and Environmental Effects Laboratory's Associate Director for Health (ADH) Internet site. The ADH is responsible for providing leadership for the health effects research program...

51

Position Statement on Tobacco on College and University Campuses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American College Health Association (ACHA) acknowledges and supports the findings of the Surgeon General that tobacco use in any form, active and/or passive, is a significant health hazard. ACHA further recognizes that environmental tobacco smoke has been classified as a Class-A carcinogen and that there is no safe level of exposure to…

Journal of American College Health, 2009

2009-01-01

52

The Impact of Uncertainty Associated with a Child’s Chronic Health Condition on Parents’ Health  

PubMed Central

We investigated whether uncertainty about the impact of children’s chronic health conditions on their daily lives leads to changes in mothers’ and fathers’ mental and physical health. Three waves of data were collected over three years from parents of 228 children with chronic health conditions. Parents reported their level of uncertainty about how the child’s health condition affected the child’s daily life, as well as measures of their own mental and physical health at each wave of data collection. Results of structural equation models indicate that, among mothers, more illness-related uncertainty was associated with a subsequent increase in psychological symptoms relative to other mothers in the study. Psychological symptoms, in turn, were associated with a subsequent increase in physical symptoms among mothers. Uncertainty did not affect fathers’ health. Illness-related uncertainty may be a risk factor for psychological and physical symptoms in mothers of children with chronic health conditions. As such, interventions that address uncertainty related to the child’s chronic health condition may improve psychological and physical well-being of mothers of children with chronic health conditions. PMID:20490375

Holm, Kristen E.; CO, Denver; Patterson, Joän M.; Rueter, Martha A.; Wamboldt, Frederick

2010-01-01

53

77 FR 70783 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Approval of the Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care (AAAHC) Application for Continuing...Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care (AAAHC) for continued recognition...determined by CMS. The Ambulatory Health Care's (AAAHC) current term of...

2012-11-27

54

Health effects associated with energy conservation measures in commercial buildings  

SciTech Connect

Indoor air quality can be impacted by hundreds of different chemicals. More than 900 different organic compounds alone have been identified in indoor air. Health effects that could arise from exposure to individual pollutants or mixtures of pollutants cover the full range of acute and chronic effects, including largely reversible responses, such as rashes and irritations, to the irreversible toxic and carcinogenic effects. These indoor contaminants are emitted from a large variety of materials and substances that are widespread components of everyday life. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with indoor air contaminants for the Bonneville Power Administration to aid the agency in the preparation of environmental documents. Results are reported in two volumes. Volume 1 summarizes the results of the search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with a selected list of indoor air contaminants. In addition, the report discusses potential health effects of polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorofluorocarbons. All references to the literature reviewed are found in this document Volume 2. Volume 2 provides detailed information from the literature reviewed, summarizes potential health effects, reports health hazard ratings, and discusses quantitative estimates of carcinogenic risk in humans and animals. Contaminants discussed in this report are those that; have been measured in the indoor air of a public building; have been measured (significant concentrations) in test situations simulating indoor air quality (as presented in the referenced literature); and have a significant hazard rating. 38 refs., 7 figs., 23 tabs.

Stenner, R.D.; Baechler, M.C.

1990-09-01

55

Distal and Proximal Factors of Health Behaviors and Their Associations with Health in Children and Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of the present paper was to analyze factors affecting distal and proximal health behavior within a biopsychosocial model for examining their interactions and associations with respect to health. Methods: Path analysis was based on the nationwide, cross-sectional German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (2003 to 2006). The data was collected from 4,529 participants with an average age of 9.45 years (SD = 4.01). Socio-demographic data, psychosocial factors and health behavior were assessed via questionnaire. Participants also underwent physical fitness tests and a medical examination. Results: Over the five levels of the model analyzed with socioeconomic status, immigration background, and rural-urban differences on the first level; physical activity of relatives and peers, intrinsic motivation, and quality of life on the second level; eating patterns, sedentary behavior, and physical activity on the third level; physical fitness and objective health on the fourth level; and health complaints and subjective health on the fifth level; direct, moderation, and mediation effects could be shown. Conclusions: Several distal and proximal factors are needed to take account of the multivariate complexity of health: e.g., immigration background affected health behaviors only indirectly and the effect of physical activity on objective health was mediated by physical fitness. PMID:23863614

Lämmle, Lena; Woll, Alexander; Mensink, Gert B. M.; Bös, Klaus

2013-01-01

56

UNDERSTANDING THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN MATERNAL EDUCATION AND USE OF HEALTH SERVICES IN GHANA: EXPLORING THE ROLE OF HEALTH KNOWLEDGE  

PubMed Central

Summary This paper examines the role of health knowledge in the association between mothers’ education and use of maternal and child health services in Ghana. The study uses data from a nationally representative sample of female respondents to the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. Ordered probit regression models evaluate whether women’s health knowledge helps to explain use of three specific maternal and child health services: antenatal care, giving birth with the supervision of a trained professional and complete child vaccination. The analyses reveal that mothers’ years of formal education are strongly associated with health knowledge; health knowledge helps explain the association between maternal education and use of health services; and, net of a set of stringent demographic and socioeconomic controls, mothers’ health knowledge is a key factor associated with use of health services. PMID:22377424

GREENAWAY, EMILY SMITH; LEON, JUAN; BAKER, DAVID P.

2013-01-01

57

National rural health mission--opportunity for Indian Public Health Association.  

PubMed

Indian Public Health Association (IPHA) welcomes the release of National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) documents. It suggests that manpower requirements of the Community Health Centre (CHC) should be rationally determined on the basis of work and patient load of the CHC. Importance should be given on availability of simple & life saving equipment, female staff when male staff is not available. Safe drinking water, an adequate sanitation and excreta disposal facility through Panchayet Raj Institution (PRI) or privatization was proposed. Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA) has been accepted more streamlining based on the community was suggested. Capacity building or training should be CHC based for grass-root level functionaries with incentive to Medical officer (MO). IPHA proposes to extend support in capacity building, development of manual for ASHA & other categories of health professional as well as Program Implementation Plan (PIP). PMID:16468283

Ray, Sandip Kumar

2005-01-01

58

Ideal Weight and Weight Satisfaction: Association With Health Practices  

PubMed Central

Evidence suggests that individuals have become more tolerant of higher body weights over time. To investigate this issue further, the authors examined cross-sectional associations among ideal weight, examination year, and obesity as well as the association of ideal weight and body weight satisfaction with health practices among 15,221 men and 4,126 women in the United States. Participants in 1987 reported higher ideal weights than participants in 2001, an effect particularly pronounced from 1987 to 2001 for younger and obese men (85.5 kg to 94.9 kg) and women (62.2 kg to 70.5 kg). For a given body mass index, higher ideal body weights were associated with greater weight satisfaction but lower intentions to lose weight. Body weight satisfaction was subsequently associated with greater walking/jogging, better diet, and lower lifetime weight loss but with less intention to change physical activity and diet or lose weight (P?associated with weight satisfaction (P < 0.01) and was associated with less walking/jogging, poorer diet, and greater lifetime weight loss but with greater intention to change physical activity and diet or lose weight. Although the health implications of these findings are somewhat unclear, increased weight satisfaction, in conjunction with increases in societal overweight/obesity, may result in decreased motivation to lose weight and/or adopt healthier lifestyle behaviors. PMID:19546153

Ardern, Chris I.; Church, Timothy S.; Hebert, James R.; Sui, Xuemei; Blair, Steven N.

2009-01-01

59

Health Beliefs Associated with Cervical Cancer Screening Among Vietnamese Americans  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Vietnamese American women represent one of the ethnic subgroups at great risk for cervical cancer in the United States. The underutilization of cervical cancer screening and the vulnerability of Vietnamese American women to cervical cancer may be compounded by their health beliefs. Objective The objective of this study was to explore the associations between factors of the Health Belief Model (HBM) and cervical cancer screening among Vietnamese American women. Methods Vietnamese American women (n=1,450) were enrolled into the randomized controlled trial (RCT) study who were recruited from 30 Vietnamese community-based organizations located in Pennsylvania and New Jersey. Participants completed baseline assessments of demographic and acculturation variables, health care access factors, and constructs of the HBM, as well as health behaviors in either English or Vietnamese. Results The rate of those who had ever undergone cervical cancer screening was 53% (769/1450) among the participants. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, the significant associated factors from HBM included: believing themselves at risk and more likely than average women to get cervical cancer; believing that cervical cancer changes life; believing a Pap test is important for staying healthy, not understanding what is done during a Pap test, being scared to know having cervical cancer; taking a Pap test is embarrassing; not being available by doctors at convenient times; having too much time for a test; believing no need for a Pap test when feeling well; and being confident in getting a test. Conclusion Understanding how health beliefs may be associated with cervical cancer screening among underserved Vietnamese American women is essential for identifying the subgroup of women who are most at risk for cervical cancer and would benefit from intervention programs to increase screening rates. PMID:23428284

Gao, Wanzhen; Fang, Carolyn Y.; Tan, Yin; Feng, Ziding; Ge, Shaokui; Nguyen, Joseph An

2013-01-01

60

The urban built environment and associations with women's psychosocial health.  

PubMed

The determinants that underlie a healthy or unhealthy pregnancy are complex and not well understood. We assess the relationship between the built environment and maternal psychosocial status using directly observed residential neighborhood characteristics (housing damage, property disorder, tenure status, vacancy, security measures, violent crime, and nuisances) and a wide range of psychosocial attributes (interpersonal support evaluation list, self-efficacy, John Henryism active coping, negative partner support, Perceived Stress Scale, perceived racism, Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression) on a pregnant cohort of women living in the urban core of Durham, NC, USA. We found some associations between built environment characteristic and psychosocial health varied by exposure categorization approach, while others (residence in environments with more rental property is associated with higher reported active coping and negative partner support) were consistent across exposure categorizations. This study outlines specific neighborhood characteristics that are modifiable risk markers and therefore important targets for increased research and public health intervention. PMID:22907713

Messer, Lynne C; Maxson, Pamela; Miranda, Marie Lynn

2013-10-01

61

Water quality associated public health risk in Bo, Sierra Leone.  

PubMed

Human health depends on reliable access to safe drinking water, but in many developing countries only a limited number of wells and boreholes are available. Many of these water resources are contaminated with biological or chemical pollutants. The goal of this study was to examine water access and quality in urban Bo, Sierra Leone. A health census and community mapping project in one neighborhood in Bo identified the 36 water sources used by the community. A water sample was taken from each water source and tested for a variety of microbiological and physicochemical substances. Only 38.9% of the water sources met World Health Organization (WHO) microbial safety requirements based on fecal coliform levels. Physiochemical analysis indicated that the majority (91.7%) of the water sources met the requirements set by the WHO. In combination, 25% of these water resources met safe drinking water criteria. No variables associated with wells were statistically significant predictors of contamination. This study indicated that fecal contamination is the greatest health risk associated with drinking water. There is a need to raise hygiene awareness and implement inexpensive methods to reduce fecal contamination and improve drinking water safety in Bo, Sierra Leone. PMID:22350346

Jimmy, David H; Sundufu, Abu J; Malanoski, Anthony P; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Ansumana, Rashid; Leski, Tomasz A; Bangura, Umaru; Bockarie, Alfred S; Tejan, Edries; Lin, Baochuan; Stenger, David A

2013-01-01

62

Negotiation Advantages of Professional Associations in Health Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

In several instances, third-party payers negotiate prices of health care services with providers. We show that a third-party payer may prefer to deal with a professional association than with the sub-set constituted by the more efficient providers, and then apply the same price to all providers. The reason for this is the increase in the bargaining position of providers. The

Pedro Pita Barros; Xavier Martinez-Giralt

2003-01-01

63

Negotiation Advantages of Professional Associations in Health Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

In several instances, third-party payers negotiate prices of health care services with providers. We show that a third-party payer may prefer to deal with a professional association than with the sub-set constituted by the more efficient providers, and then apply the same price to all providers. The reason for it is the increase in the bargaining position of providers. The

Xavier Martinez-Giralt; Pedro Pita Barros

2000-01-01

64

Negotiation Advantages of Professional Associations in Health Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

In several instances, third-party payers negotiate prices of health care services with providers. We show that a third-party payer may prefer to deal with a professional association than with the sub-set constituted by the more efficient providers, and then apply the same price to all providers. The reason for this is the increase in the bargaining position of providers. The

Pedro Pita Barros; Xavier Martinez-Giralt

2005-01-01

65

Characteristics associated with Regional Health Information Organization viability  

PubMed Central

Objective Regional Health Information Organizations (RHIOs) will likely play a key role in our nation's effort to catalyze health information exchange. Yet we know little about why some efforts succeed while others fail. We sought to identify factors associated with RHIO viability. Design Using data from a national survey of RHIOs that we conducted in mid-2008, we examined factors associated with becoming operational and factors associated with financial viability. We used multivariate logistic regression models to identify unique predictors. Measurements We classified RHIOs actively facilitating data exchange as operational and measured financial viability as the percent of operating costs covered by revenue from participants in data exchange (0–24%, 25–74%, 75–100%). Predictors included breadth of participants, breadth of data exchanged, whether the RHIO focused on a specific population, whether RHIO participants had a history of collaborating, and sources of revenue during the planning phase. Results Exchanging a narrow set of data and involving a broad group of stakeholders were independently associated with a higher likelihood of being operational. Involving hospitals and ambulatory physicians, and securing early funding from participants were associated with a higher likelihood of financial viability, while early grant funding seemed to diminish the likelihood. Conclusion Finding ways to help RHIOs become operational and self-sustaining will bolster the current approach to nationwide health information exchange. Our work suggests that convening a broad coalition of stakeholders to focus on a narrow set of data is an important step in helping RHIOs become operational. Convincing stakeholders to financially commit early in the process may help RHIOs become self-sustaining. PMID:20064803

Adler-Milstein, Julia; Landefeld, John; Jha, Ashish K

2010-01-01

66

Health care-associated hepatitis C virus infection  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a blood-borne pathogen that has a worldwide distribution and infects millions of people. Care-associated HCV infections represented a huge part of hepatitis C burden in the past via contaminated blood and unsafe injections and continue to be a serious problem of public health. The present review proposes a panorama of health care-associated HCV infections via the three mode of contamination that have been identified: (1) infected patient to non-infected patient; (2) infected patient to non-infected health care worker (HCW); and (3) infected HCW to non infected patient. For each condition, the circumstances of contamination are described together with the means to prevent them. As a whole, the more important risk is represented by unsafe practices regarding injections, notably with the improper use of multidose vials used for multiple patients. The questions of occupational exposures and infected HCWs are also discussed. In terms of prevention and surveillance, the main arm for combating care-associated HCV infections is the implementation of standard precautions in all the fields of cares, with training programs and audits to verify their good application. HCWs must be sensitized to the risk of blood-borne pathogens, notably by the use of safety devices for injections and good hygiene practices in the operating theatre and in all the invasive procedures. The providers performing exposed-prone procedures must monitor their HCV serology regularly in order to detect early any primary infection and to treat it without delay. With the need to stay vigilant because HCV infection is often a hidden risk, it can be hoped that the number of people infected by HCV via health care will decrease very significantly in the next years. PMID:25516637

Pozzetto, Bruno; Memmi, Meriam; Garraud, Olivier; Roblin, Xavier; Berthelot, Philippe

2014-01-01

67

78 FR 54652 - Sole Source Cooperative Agreement Award to the Association for State and Territorial Health...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Sole Source Cooperative...Association for State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO) AGENCY: Office of...and Response (ASPR), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)....

2013-09-05

68

Air pollution in stone crushing industry, and associated health effects.  

PubMed

Stone crushers are small scale industries in the unorganised sector. They provide basic material for road and building construction. They are highly labour intensive. The various unit operations involved in stone crushing viz., size reduction, size classification and transfer operations have the potential to emit process and fugitive dust. A detailed air pollution survey was conducted at Pammal, 26 km to the southwest of Chennai. High volume and respirable particulate samplers were deployed at seventeen locations to monitor SPM and PM10 levels in ambient air. The particle size analysis indicates high percentage of finer particles and silica content posing serious health problems to the people exposed for longer duration. Personal samplers were employed to quantify the total dust and respirable particulate fraction in the work environment, which was found significantly high, when compared to the occupational safety and health standards. Fine inhalable particulate matter (PM2.5) which has more associated human health problems was found high in the work place of stone crushers. Health survey viz., Pulmonary function test, blood sample test, general clinical evaluation was conducted to assess the extent of the damage caused to the workers. This study indicates that most of the people are having respiratory problems. The measurements show that good house keeping practice is essential for effective control of dust, in addition to National Productive Council's (NPC) measures. PMID:12395522

Sivacoumar, R; Jayabalou, R; Subrahmanyam, Y V; Jothikumar, N; Swarnalatha, S

2001-10-01

69

Cross-sectional schooling-health associations misrepresented causal schooling effects on adult health and health-related behaviors: Evidence from the Chinese Adults Twins Survey.  

PubMed

Adult health outcomes and health behaviors are often associated with schooling. However, such associations do not necessarily imply that schooling has causal effects on health with the signs or magnitudes found in the cross-sectional associations. Schooling may be proxying for unobserved factors related to genetics and family background that directly affect both health and schooling. Recently several studies have used within-monozygotic (MZ) twins methods to control for unobserved factors shared by identical twins. Within-MZ estimates for developed countries are generally smaller than suggested by cross-sectional associations, consistent with positive correlations between unobserved factors that determine schooling and those that determine health. This study contributes new estimates of cross-sectional associations and within-MZ causal effects using the Chinese Adults Twins Survey, the first study of its type for developing countries. The cross-sectional estimates suggest that schooling is significantly associated with adult health-related behaviors (smoking, drinking, exercising) but not with own or spouse health outcomes (general health, mental health, overweight, chronic diseases). However, within-MZ-twins estimators change the estimates for approximately half of these health indicators, in one case declining in absolute magnitudes and becoming insignificant and in the other cases increasing in absolute magnitudes. Within-MZ estimates indicate significant pro-health effects for at least one of the indicators for own health (better mental health), own health-related behaviors (less smoking) and spouse health (less overweight). PMID:25464872

Behrman, Jere R; Xiong, Yanyan; Zhang, Junsen

2014-11-01

70

Health Care–Associated Infection After Red Blood Cell Transfusion  

PubMed Central

IMPORTANCE The association between red blood cell (RBC) transfusion strategies and health care–associated infection is not fully understood. OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether RBC transfusion thresholds are associated with the risk of infection and whether risk is independent of leukocyte reduction. DATA SOURCES MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science Core Collection, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Sytematic Reviews, ClinicalTrials.gov, International Clinical Trials Registry, and the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number register were searched through January 22, 2014. STUDY SELECTION Randomized clinical trials with restrictive vs liberal RBC transfusion strategies. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS Twenty randomized trials with 8598 patients met eligibility criteria, of which 17 trials (n = 7456 patients) contained sufficient information for meta-analyses. DerSimonian and Laird random-effects models were used to report pooled risk ratios. Absolute risks of infection were calculated using the profile likelihood random-effects method. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Incidence of health care–associated infection such as pneumonia, mediastinitis, wound infection, and sepsis. RESULTS The pooled risk of all serious infections was 10.6% (95% CI, 5.6%-15.9%) in the restrictive group and 12.7% (95% CI, 7.0%-18.7%) in the liberal group. The risk ratio (RR) for the association between transfusion strategies and infection (serious infections and selected infections, combined) was 0.92 (95% CI, 0.82-1.04) with little heterogeneity (I2 = 6.3%; ?2 = .0041). The RR for the association between transfusion strategies and serious infection was 0.84 (95% CI, 0.73-0.96; I2 = 0%, ?2 <.0001). The number needed to treat (NNT) with restrictive strategies to prevent serious infection was 48 (95% CI, 36-71). The risk of infection remained reduced with a restrictive strategy, even with leukocyte reduction (RR, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.69-0.99]). For trials with a restrictive hemoglobin threshold of <7.0 g/dL, the RR was 0.86 (95% CI, 0.72-1.02). With stratification by patient type, the RR for serious infection was 0.72 (95% CI, 0.53-0.97) in patients undergoing orthopedic surgery and 0.51 (95% CI, 0.28-0.95) in patients presenting with sepsis. There were no significant differences in the incidence of infection by RBC threshold for patients with cardiac disease, the critically ill, those with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding, or for infants with low birth weight. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Among hospitalized patients, a restrictive RBC transfusion strategy compared with a liberal transfusion strategy was not associated with a reduced risk of health care–associated infection overall, although it was associated with a reduced risk of serious infection. Implementing restrictive strategies may have the potential to lower the incidence of serious health care–associated infection. PMID:24691607

Rohde, Jeffrey M.; Dimcheff, Derek E.; Blumberg, Neil; Saint, Sanjay; Langa, Kenneth M.; Kuhn, Latoya; Hickner, Andrew; Rogers, Mary A. M.

2014-01-01

71

Leadership skills are associated with health behaviours among Canadian children.  

PubMed

Life skills development is a core area for action in the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. The role of life skills in influencing health behaviours among children has received little attention in research. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship between self-leadership, as a model of life skills, and diet quality, physical activity, sleep duration and body weight. A provincially representative sample of 2328 grade 5 students (aged 10-11 years) was surveyed in Alberta, Canada. Self-leadership skills were assessed based on student responses indicating frequency of performing various leadership traits. Diet quality was based on responses to the Harvard Youth/Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaire and physical activity on responses to the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children. Sleep duration was assessed based on parent survey responses, and body mass index determined based on measured height and weight. Random effects regression models with children nested within schools were used to determine the associations. Higher self-leadership was associated with better diet quality (P < 0.01) and more physical activity (P < 0.01). Although not statistically significant, higher self-leadership was suggestive of healthier body weight status (OR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.66, 1.27). No association of self-leadership with sleep duration was found. The incorporation of leadership skill development may enhance the effectiveness of school-based health promotion programs. This study reinforces the importance of leadership skill promotion in the promotion of healthy eating and active living, which may help curb the obesity epidemic in the short term, and prevention of chronic diseases and mounting healthcare costs in the long term. PMID:25348102

Ferland, Adam; Chu, Yen Li; Gleddie, Doug; Storey, Kate; Veugelers, Paul

2015-03-01

72

Interoperability of electronic health records and personal health records: key interoperability issues associated with information exchange.  

PubMed

As patients receive medical care, their clinical history may be tracked and recorded by multiple electronic systems developed by independent vendors. Medical providers might use electronic health record (EHR) software tailored to the needs of trained medical personnel, whereas patients may interact with personal health records (PHR). The purpose of this essay is to identify the key interoperability issues associated with the information exchange between these two types of systems and offer an approach for enhancing interoperability. This article is part of a series of unpublished essays titled A Community View on How Personal Health Records Can Improve Patient Care and Outcomes in Many Healthcare Settings, a collaborative project of Northern Illinois Physicians For Connectivity and the Coalition for Quality and Patient Safety of Chicagoland. For further information on how you can obtain copies of the complete work, contact the principle Dr. Stasia Kahn at Stash5@sbcglobal.net. PMID:19663162

Pringle, Simone; Lippitt, Alex

2009-01-01

73

The impact of ventilator-associated pneumonia on the Canadian health care systemB  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. It is associated with increased health care costs and duration of mechanical ventilation. Using published data and information from public health care providers, we sought to determine the impact of VAP on the Canadian health care system. Methods: Ventilator-associated pneumonia incidence, attributable mortality, and intensive

John G. Muscedere; Claudio M. Martin; Daren K. Heyland

74

[Complaints associated with locomotor system and other health problems of female health professionals.].  

PubMed

In a group of 393 nurses, laboratory assistants and rehabilitation workers, mean age 37.5 years, employed in the health services for an average period of 17.7 years the authors assessed, using an anonymous questionnaire, complaints regarding the locomotor apparatus and other health problems. Although the majority of respondents liked their jobs, 74% of the subjects suffered from vertebrogenic pain, painful feet (45 %), and headache (46 %). One third of the examined subjects reported insomnia and vertigo. Overweight was minimal in the investigated group. Physical activity was very restricted (only 14% of the women were regularly engaged in sports); an important factor was inadequate rest in 34 % of the women. As to weaknesses, the high rate of smokers was striking (33 %) and the popularity of sweets (30%) which apparently is associated with the stress of the medical profession. Social problems in interpersonal relations at the work place were mentioned by 28 % of the respondents. The percentage of subjects with impaired eyesight (22 %) was highly significant. From the investigation ensues that more attention should be paid to the control of risks in health professions, to regeneration of strength and prophylaxis of locomotor disorders by exercise. A major task is also to improve interpersonal relations and social problems of women in the health services. Key words: vertebrogenic complaints, articular complaints, stress among health professionals, prevention. PMID:20444388

Müller, I; Chlubnová, B

1994-01-01

75

Reducing Cancer Health Disparities in the US-associated Pacific  

PubMed Central

Purpose To assess cancer prevention and control capacity in the US-associated Pacific Islands (USAPI, including American Samoa, Northern Mariana Islands, Micronesia, Guam, Marshall Islands, and Palau) and to support indigenous leadership in reducing cancer health disparities. Methods Jurisdiction-specific needs assessments were conducted to assess cancer prevention and control capacity and challenges, The Cancer Council of the Pacific islands (CCPI), an indigenous health leadership team from public health and medicine, was supported to review assessment findings, develop priorities, and build capacity to address recommendations. Results Capacity varied across jurisdictions, but generally there is limited ability to measure cancer burden and a lack of programs, equipment, and trained personnel to detect and treat cancer. Most cancers are diagnosed in late stages when survival is compromised and care is most costly. Jurisdictions also are challenged by geographic, social, and political constraints and multiple in-country demands for funding. Based on findings, strategies were developed by the CCPI to guide efforts, including fund seeking, to expand cancer prevention and control capacity in regionally appropriate ways. Conclusions Concerted planning, training, and funding efforts are needed to overcome challenges and upgrade capacity in cancer education, prevention, detection, and treatment in the USAPI. Indigenous leadership and local capacity building are essential to this process. PMID:17149100

Tsark, JoAnn U.; Braun, Kathryn L.

2010-01-01

76

Health effects associated with energy conservation measures in commercial buildings  

SciTech Connect

Indoor air quality can conceivably be impacted by hundreds of different chemicals. More than 900 different organic compounds alone have been identified in indoor air. The health effects that could potentially arise from exposure to individual pollutants or mixtures of pollutants cover the full range of acute and chronic effects, including largely reversible responses, such as rashes and irritations, as well as irreversible toxic and carcinogenic effects. These indoor contaminants are emitted from a large variety of materials and substances that are widespread components of everyday life. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with indoor air contaminants for the Bonneville Power Administration to aid the agency in the preparation of environmental documents. The results of this search are reported in two volumes. Volume 1 is a summary of the results of the literature search; Volume 2 is the complete results of the literature search and contains all references to the material reviewed. 16 tabs.

Stenner, R.D.; Baechler, M.C.

1990-09-01

77

Health indicators associated with poor sleep quality among university students.  

PubMed

Objective To associate the sleep quality of Brazilian undergraduate students with health indicators. Method A cross-sectional study was developed with a random sample of 662 undergraduate students from Fortaleza, Brazil. The demographic data, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and health data indicators (smoking, alcoholism, sedentary lifestyle, nutritional condition and serum cholesterol) were collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Blood was collected at a clinical laboratory. In order to estimate the size of the associations, a Poisson Regression was used. Results For students who are daily smokers, the occurrence of poor sleep was higher than in non-smokers (p<0.001). Prevalence rate values were nevertheless close to 1. Conclusion The likelihood of poor sleep is almost the same in smokers and in alcoholics.?Objetivo Associar a qualidade do sono de universitários brasileiros com indicadores de saúde. Método Estudo transversal desenvolvido com uma amostra aleatória de 662 estudantes universitários de Fortaleza-Brasil. Foram coletados dados sociodemográficos, indicadores de saúde (tabagismo, alcoolismo, sedentarismo, estado nutricional e níveis séricos de colesterol) e o Índice de Qualidade do Sono de Pittsburgh através de um questionário autoadministrado. As amostras sanguíneas foram analisadas em um laboratório clínico e para estimar a magnitude das associaçőes foi adotada a Regressăo de Poisson. Resultados Nos universitários que fumam diariamente a ocorręncia de má qualidade do sono foi superior em relaçăo aos năo fumantes (p<0,001). Contudo, a razăo de prevalęncia foi de aproximadamente 1. Conclusăo As chances de apresentar má qualidade do sono foram praticamente idęnticas entre tabagistas e etilistas. PMID:25626509

Araújo, Márcio Flávio Moura de; Freitas, Roberto Wagner Júnior Freire de; Lima, Adman Câmara Soares; Pereira, Dayse Christina Rodrigues; Zanetti, Maria Lúcia; Damasceno, Marta Maria Coelho

2014-12-01

78

Associations between the Five-Factor Model of Personality and Health Behaviors among College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: In fall 2006, the authors examined associations between the five-factor model of personality and several key health behaviors. Methods: College students (N = 583) completed the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment and the International Personality Item Pool Big Five short-form questionnaire. Results:…

Raynor, Douglas A.; Levine, Heidi

2009-01-01

79

The association between periodontitis and systemic health: an overview.  

PubMed

A putative association between periodontitis and several systemic conditions is reflected in the literature. However, the nature of the relationship is not fully understood and at times may be confusing. It is reported that active periodontitis may contribute towards the development of a high systemic disease burden and that oral heath maintenance, following effective periodontal treatment, will improve the quality of life of the patient and reduce the morbidity of these systemic conditions. Evidence has been presented of direct relationships between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease, with pre-term low-birth-weight infants and with diabetes mellitus, amongst others. Whether these relationships are causal or not, still needs to be established by further investigation. In the endeavour to make sense of this rapidly advancing area of research, a series of papers is planned for publication during the year 2012. These evidence-based, condensed reviews will hopefully provide clarity on the associations and/or possible causal relationships of periodonttis with specific systemic conditions. The present paper introduces and reviews the concept of the inter-relationships between periodontal and systemic health. The importance of a multidisciplinary approach with co-operation between dental and medical professionals, whether general practitioners or specialists, in the management of patients with these diseases is highlighted. PMID:23951755

Shangase, S L; Mohangi, G U; Hassam-Essa, S; Wood, N H

2013-02-01

80

Health effects associated with cyanobacteria exposure among beach attendees in Puerto Rico  

EPA Science Inventory

Cyanobacteria and their toxins are associated with adverse human health effects, although among marine waters, the pyrrhophyta, including dinoflagellates are more recognized as health hazards. We recruited beach attendees during summer 2009, at Boquerón Beach, Puerto Rico...

81

Human health risk associated with brominated flame-retardants (BFRs).  

PubMed

The purposes of this review are to assess the human exposure and human and experimental evidence for adverse effects of brominated flame-retardants (BFRs) with specific focus on intake from seafood. The leakage of BFRs from consumer products leads to exposure of humans from fetal life to adulthood. Fish and fish products contain the highest levels of BFRs and dominate the dietary intake of frequent fish eaters in Europe, while meat, followed by seafood and dairy products accounted for the highest US dietary intake. House dust is also reported as an important source of exposure for children as well as adults. The levels of BFRs in the general North American populations are higher than those in Europe and Japan and the highest levels are detected in infants and toddlers. The daily intake via breast milk exceeds the RfD in 10% of US infants. BFRs including PBDEs, HBCDs and TBBP-A have induced endocrine-, reproductive- and behavior effects in laboratory animals. Furthermore, recent human epidemiological data demonstrated association between exposure to BFRs and similar adverse effects as observed in animal studies. Fish including farmed fish and crude fish oil for human consumption may contain substantial levels of BFRs and infants and toddlers consuming these products on a daily basis may exceed the tolerable daily intake suggesting that fish and fish oil alone represent a risk to human health. This intake comes in addition to exposure from other sources (breast milk, other food, house dust). Because potential harmful concentrations of BFRs and other toxicants occur in fish and fish products, research on a wider range of products is warranted, to assess health hazard related to the contamination of fish and fish products for human consumption. PMID:25454234

Lyche, Jan L; Rosseland, Carola; Berge, Gunnar; Polder, Anuschka

2015-01-01

82

Self-reported segregation experience throughout the life course and its association with adequate health literacy.  

PubMed

Residential segregation has been shown to be associated with health outcomes and health care utilization. We examined the association between racial composition of five physical environments throughout the life course and adequate health literacy among 836 community health center patients in Suffolk County, NY. Respondents who attended a mostly White junior high school or currently lived in a mostly White neighborhood were more likely to have adequate health literacy compared to those educated or living in predominantly minority or diverse environments. This association was independent of the respondent's race, ethnicity, age, education, and country of birth. PMID:22658579

Goodman, Melody S; Gaskin, Darrell J; Si, Xuemei; Stafford, Jewel D; Lachance, Christina; Kaphingst, Kimberly A

2012-09-01

83

Associations between Intelligence in Adolescence and Indicators of Health and Health Behaviors in Midlife in a Cohort of Swedish Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to investigate associations between intelligence and indicators of health status and health behaviors at age 43 in a cohort of Swedish women (n = 682). Intelligence was measured by standard IQ tests given at ages 10, 13, and 15. At the age of 43, 479 of the women were sampled for a medical examination in which 369…

Modig, Karin; Bergman, Lars R.

2012-01-01

84

The Associations between Health Literacy, Reasons for Seeking Health Information, and Information Sources Utilized by Taiwanese Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To determine the associations between health literacy, the reasons for seeking health information, and the information sources utilized by Taiwanese adults. Method: A cross-sectional survey of 752 adults residing in rural and urban areas of Taiwan was conducted via questionnaires. Chi-squared tests and logistic regression were used for…

Wei, Mi-Hsiu

2014-01-01

85

SEPTEMBER 2009 ACHA Guidelines  

E-print Network

-NCHA) conducted in fall 2008, 83% of college students described themselves as non-smokers (never smoked or have to reduce cigarette smoking by college students to below 10.5% and smokeless tobacco use to below 1 and to positively influence America's college students to help them remain or become * Compliance with the elements

Russell, Lynn

86

American Association for Health Education (AAHE) 2011 Membership Survey: Summary of Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American Association for Health Education (AAHE), a national health education organization with the mission of advancing the profession of health education, launched the 2011 AAHE membership survey between October 13, 2011 and November 1, 2011, under the leadership of the AAHE Board of Directors and AAHE Staff. The primary objective of the…

Chaney, Elizabeth H.; Chavarria, Enmanuel; Stellefson, Michael L.; Birch, David A.; Spear, Caile

2012-01-01

87

Psychol Med . Author manuscript The association of cognitive performance with mental health and physical  

E-print Network

performance has been associated with mental and physical health, but it is unknown whether the strength whether cognitive performance predicted mental and physical health from midlife to early old age. Methods and 2006. The age range included over the follow-up was from 40 to 75 years. Mental health and physical

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

88

Position: Associate Director, Center for Global Women's Health Technologies, Duke University  

E-print Network

Position: Associate Director, Center for Global Women's Health Technologies, Duke University Start date: Fall 2014 Location: Duke University, Durham, NC The Center for Global Women's Health Technologies of Global Women's Health Technologies, which is a joint center between the Pratt School of Engineering

Ramanujam, Nimmi

89

Association between mental health and fall injury in Canadian immigrants and non-immigrants.  

PubMed

The study was to determine the association between mental health and the incidence of injury among Canadian immigrants and non-immigrants. We used data from 15,405 individuals aged 12 years or more, who were living in British Columbia, Canada, and participated in the 2007-2008 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS). We calculated a 12-month cumulative incidence of fall injury based on self-reporting. Logistic regression model was used to examine the association of the 12-month cumulative incidence of fall injury with immigration status and mental health before and after adjustment for covariates. The results show that self-reported mood and anxiety disorders were significantly associated with an increased incidence of fall injury. The adjusted odds ratios were 1.81 (95% CI: 1.37, 2.38) for mood disorder and 1.55 (95% CI: 1.12, 2.13) for anxiety disorder. Immigrant status was a significant effect modifier for the association between mental health and fall injury, with stronger associations in immigrants than in non-immigrants especially in elderly people. People with poor self perceived health were more likely to have a fall injury. Both mental health and general health were related to fall injury. There was a stronger association between mental health and fall injury in immigrants compared with non-immigrants in the elderly. More attention should be paid to mental health in immigrants associated with fall injury. PMID:23810953

Chen, Yue; Mo, Frank; Yi, Qilong; Morrison, Howard; Mao, Yang

2013-10-01

90

ANNOUNCEMENT OF POSITION: Effective August 2015 Assistant/Associate Professor Position in Health Education and Promotion  

E-print Network

ANNOUNCEMENT OF POSITION: Effective August 2015 Assistant/Associate Professor Position in Health and Promotion at East Carolina University seeks candidates for the position of Assistant or Associate Professor of Health Education and Promotion. This is a tenure-track position, with the academic rank to be determined

91

Associations among Socioeconomic Status, Perceived Neighborhood Control, Perceived Individual Control, and Self-Reported Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research has suggested that perceived control and a person's perceptions of their neighborhood environment may mediate the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and health. This cross-sectional study assessed whether perceptions of informal social control mediated the association between SES and self-reported health, and if these…

Moore, Spencer; Daniel, Mark; Bockenholt, Ulf; Gauvin, Lise; Richard, Lucie; Stewart, Steven; Dube, Laurette

2010-01-01

92

Is socioeconomic status associated with utilization of health care services in a single-payer universal health care system?  

PubMed

ObjectivesTo assess an association of Socio-economic status with utilization of health care services between years 2002 and 2008 in Israel.MethodsWe retrospectively analyzed the utilization of health care services in a cohort of 100,000 members, 21 years and older, of a Clalit Health Services. The research compared utilization according to the neighborhood SES status; and clinicżs location as another SES proxy. Data included: Charlson Score morbidity factor, utilization of health care services (visits to primary physicians and specialists, purchase of pharmaceuticals, number of hospitalization days, visits to ED, utilization of laboratory tests and imaging). The analysis was performed using Generalized Linear Model (GLM) technique.ResultsPeople with lower SES visited more the ED and primary physicians and were hospitalized for longer periods. People with higher SES visited more specialists, bought more prescription drugs and used more medical imaging. The associations between SES and most of the services we analyzed did not change between 2002 and 2008. However, the gap between lower and higher SES levels in ED visits and the use of prescription drugs slightly increased over time, while the gap in visits to specialists decreased.ConclusionsThe research shows that even in a universal health care system SES is associated with utilization of health care services. In order to improve equity in utilization of services the Israeli public health should reduce economic barriers and in parallel invest in making information accessible to improve żnavigation skillsż for all. PMID:25431139

Filc, Dani; Davidovich, Nadav; Novack, Lena; Balicer, Ran D

2014-11-28

93

Association between perceived unmet health care needs and risk of adverse health outcomes among patients with chronic medical conditions  

PubMed Central

Background Adults with chronic medical conditions are more likely to report unmet health care needs. Whether unmet health care needs are associated with an increased risk of adverse health outcomes is unclear. Methods Adults with at least one self-reported chronic condition (arthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, hypertension, mood disorder, stroke) from the 2001 and 2003 cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey were linked to national hospitalization data. Participants were followed from the date of their survey until March 31, 2005, for the primary outcomes of all-cause and cause-specific admission to hospital. Secondary outcomes included length of stay, 30-day and 1-year all-cause readmission to hospital, and in-hospital death. Negative binomial regression models were used to estimate the association between unmet health care needs, admission to hospital, and length of stay, with adjustment for socio-demographic variables, health behaviours, and health status. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between unmet needs, readmission, and in-hospital death. Further analyses were conducted by type of unmet need. Results Of the 51 932 adults with self-reported chronic disease, 15.5% reported an unmet health care need. Participants with unmet health care needs had a risk of all-cause admission to hospital similar to that of patients with no unmet needs (adjusted rate ratio [RR] 1.04, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.94–1.15). When stratified by type of need, participants who reported issues of limited resource availability had a slightly higher risk of hospital admission (RR 1.18, 95% CI 1.09–1.28). There was no association between unmet needs and length of stay, readmission, or in-hospital death. Interpretation Overall, unmet health care needs were not associated with an increased risk of admission to hospital among those with chronic conditions. However, certain types of unmet needs may be associated with higher or lower risk. Whether unmet needs are associated with other measures of resource use remains to be determined. PMID:23687534

Ronksley, Paul E; Sanmartin, Claudia; Quan, Hude; Ravani, Pietro; Tonelli, Marcello; Manns, Braden; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R

2013-01-01

94

Factors associated with poor mental health status among homeless women with and without dependent children.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of mental health problems among a representative sample of homeless women with and without dependent children and determine if the effects of risk factors for mental health are modified by the presence of dependent children. Homeless women (n = 522) were recruited in 2004-2005 from shelters and meal programs in Toronto, Canada. Linear and logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with mental health status. Poor mental health was associated with low perceived access to social support, physical/sexual assault in the past 12 months, presence of a chronic health condition, and presence of a drug use problem in the past month. Efforts to improve mental health in this population will need to address the associated problems of victimization, substance abuse, and lack of social supports. PMID:23423484

Chambers, Catharine; Chiu, Shirley; Scott, Allison N; Tolomiczenko, George; Redelmeier, Donald A; Levinson, Wendy; Hwang, Stephen W

2014-07-01

95

Problem gambling risk factors and associated behaviours and health status: results from the 2002\\/03 New Zealand Health Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims To investigate the extent of current problem gambling in New Zealand, and the risk factors, addictive behaviours, and self-rated health status associated with problem gambling. Methods Analysis of the gambling questions from the 2002\\/03 New Zealand Health Survey, which interviewed 12,529 people aged 15 years and over, and included increased sampling of Mori, Pacific, and Asian people. Results Approximately

Kylie Mason; Richard Arnold

2007-01-01

96

THE CRITICAL CARE WORK ENVIRONMENT AND NURSE-REPORTED HEALTH CARE–ASSOCIATED INFECTIONS  

PubMed Central

Background Critically ill patients are susceptible to health care–associated infections because of their illnesses and the need for intravenous access and invasive monitoring. The critical care work environment may influence the likelihood of infection in these patients. Objective To determine whether or not the critical care nurse work environment is predictive of nurse-reported health care–associated infections. Methods A retrospective, cross-sectional design was used with linked nurse and hospital survey data. Nurses assessed the critical care work environment and provided the frequencies of ventilator-associated pneumonias, urinary tract infections, and infections associated with central catheters. Logistic regression models were used to determine if critical care work environments were predictive of nurse-reported frequent health care–associated infections, with controls for nurse and hospital characteristics. Results The final sample consisted of 3217 critical care nurses in 320 hospitals. Compared with nurses working in poor work environments, nurses working in better work environments were 36% to 41% less likely to report that health care–associated infections occurred frequently. Conclusion Health care–associated infections are less likely in favorable critical care work environments. These findings, based on the largest sample of critical care nurses to date, substantiate efforts to focus on the quality of the work environment as a way to minimize the frequency of health care–associated infections. PMID:24186818

Kelly, Deena; Kutney-Lee, Ann; Lake, Eileen T.; Aiken, Linda H.

2014-01-01

97

78 FR 54651 - Sole Source Cooperative Agreement Award to the National Association of County and City Health...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Sole Source Cooperative...National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO) AGENCY: Office of...and Response (ASPR), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)....

2013-09-05

98

Endogenous Estradiol Is Not Associated with Poor Physical Health in Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Survivors  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Among postmenopausal breast cancer survivors, poor physical health has been associated with higher risks of breast cancer events. Obesity and physical inactivity are known risk factors for poor physical health, while circulating estrogen is an additional potential risk factor. We tested the hypothesis that the relationship between poor physical health and worse breast cancer outcomes is mediated by higher estrogen concentrations associated with body size and physical inactivity. Methods We used data from 1030 postmenopausal breast cancer survivors to examine the association between serum estradiol levels, body mass index (BMI), physical activity, and RAND-36-item Health Survey (SF-36) physical health. Results In univariate analysis, poor physical health was associated with higher estradiol levels, in addition to obesity and low physical activity. Higher estradiol levels were significantly associated with higher odds of poor physical health (odds ratio, OR, 1.20 [95% confidence interval 1.03–1.39]) in a multivariable model adjusting for age, cancer stage and treatment, alcohol use, and physical activity. However, the relationship between estradiol levels and poor physical health was no longer significant (OR 1.06 [0.91–1.24]) after adding BMI in the model. In multivariate analysis, only poor physical health resulted in higher risks of recurrence (hazard ratio 1.33 [95% CI 1.08–1.64]). Conclusions These findings indicate that estradiol is related to poor physical health, but is not an independent risk factor from body size or inactivity. While obesity and physical activity in survivorship are potential targets for improving physical health, other biological processes that impact physical health, e.g. inflammation, remain to be identified. PMID:24111813

Su, H. Irene; Sue, Laura Y.; Flatt, Shirley W.; Natarajan, Loki; Patterson, Ruth E.

2013-01-01

99

The Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care, Inc.  

E-print Network

/treatment Pap smears Contraception Urinary tract infections Pregnancy testing & counseling Staffed by: GYN for Learning" #12;CPO - Areas of Focus Sexual Assault Depression/Suicide Alcohol and Other Substances Health Online Education - Alcoholedu.com Outreach to High Risk Populations Substance Education Course Depression

100

Podiatric medicine and public health. Concepts and perspectives. Special Commission of the Podiatric Health Section of the American Public Health Association.  

PubMed

Podiatric physicians play an important role in the field of public health. In 1975, the Podiatric Health Section of the American Public Health Association (APHA) formulated an official statement of the roles and responsibilities of podiatrists in the public health field. Entitled Functions and Educational Qualifications of Podiatrists in Public Health, the document was published in the September 1975 issue of the American Journal of Public Health. For more than 2 decades, it remained the primary document defining and delineating the activities of the specialist in podiatric public health. Recently, it was recognized that in this time of rapid change in health-care delivery, a revision of this important statement was needed. A mini-grant from the APHA in 1996-1997 supported the formation of a special commission to update the formal position of the APHA and its Podiatric Health Section with respect to podiatric public health and to provide direction for the future. This article is a shortened version of the report issued by the special commission of the APHA. PMID:9680773

Helfand, A E

1998-07-01

101

SUMMARY REVIEW OF THE HEALTH EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH COPPER: HEALTH ISSUE ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The Health Assessment Summary Document is a brief review of the scientific knowledge on copper. The emphasis of the document is on inhalation exposure from atmospheric copper and the environmental, ecological and health effects from the species of copper expected to be present in...

102

Heavy Internet use and its associations with health risk and health-promoting behaviours among Thai university students.  

PubMed

The Internet provides significant benefits for learning about the world, but excessive Internet use can lead to negative outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between heavy Internet use and health-promoting behaviour, health risk behaviour and health outcomes among university students. The sample included 860 undergraduate university students chosen at random from Mae Fah Luang University in Thailand. Of the participants, 27.3% were male and and 72.7% were female in the age range of 18-25 years (M age=20.1 years, SD=1.3). Overall, students spent on average 5.3 h (SD=2.6) per day on the internet, and 35.3% engaged in heavy internet use (6 or more hours per day). In multivariate logistic regression adjusting for sociodemographics, lack of dental check-ups, three health risk behaviours (sedentary lifestyle, illicit drug use and gambling) and three health outcomes [being underweight, overweight or obese and having screened positive for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)] were found to be associated with heavy Internet use. The results from this study may support the importance of developing early protective and preventive actions against problematic Internet use to promote university student health. PMID:24762639

Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; Apidechkul, Tawatchai

2014-01-01

103

Association of individual activities of daily living with self-rated health in older people  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: to evaluate the associations of 18 activities of daily living with self-rated health in older people. Design and setting: cross-sectional study of a representative sample of 781 people aged 65 or over (response rate: 89.9%). Methods: self-rated health was assessed by the question: ''Overall, how would you rate your current health status—very good, good, fair, poor or very poor?''

EMILIANA VALDERRAMA GAMA; J AVIER DAMIAN; J ESUS PEREZ DEL MOLINO; M ATILDE ROMERO LOPEZ

104

Association of individual activities of daily living with self-rated health in older people  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Objective: to evaluate the associations of 18 activities of daily living with self-rated health in older people. Design and setting: cross-sectional study of a representative sample,of 781 people aged 65 or over (response rate: 89.9%). Methods: self-rated health was assessed by the question: ‘‘Overall, how would you rate your current health status—very good, good, fair, poor or very poor?’’

Emiliana Valderrama Gama; J Avier Damian; M Atilde Romero Lo Pez; Mercedes Lo Pez Pe Rez; F Rancisco J. Gavira Iglesias

105

Predisposing, Enabling, and Need Factors Associated with High Service Use in a Public Mental Health System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) To investigate the individual- and system-level characteristics associated with\\u000a high utilization of acute mental health services according to a widely-used theory of service use—Andersen’s Behavioral Model\\u000a of Health Service Use —in individuals enrolled in a large, public-funded mental health system; and (2) To document service\\u000a utilization by high use consumers prior to

Laurie A. Lindamer; Lin Liu; David H. Sommerfeld; David P. Folsom; William Hawthorne; Piedad Garcia; Gregory A. Aarons; Dilip V. Jeste

106

The American Mental Health Counselors Association: Reflection on 30 Historic Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American Mental Health Counselors Association (AMHCA) celebrated its 30th anniversary in May 2006. This article provides a synopsis of AMHCA's illustrious history, from its urgent beginnings in 1976 to its current status as the premier organization attending to the needs and representing the interests of mental health counselors in the United…

Colangelo, James J.

2009-01-01

107

Associations between Physical Activity and Health-Related Factors in a National Sample of College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine associations between meeting the current moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) recommendation and health-related factors in a national sample of college students. Participants: Participants (N = 67,861) completed the National College Health Assessment II during the Fall 2008/Spring 2009 academic year. Methods:…

Dinger, Mary K.; Brittain, Danielle R.; Hutchinson, Susan R.

2014-01-01

108

Individual, Interpersonal, and Institutional Level Factors Associated with the Mental Health of College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study investigates the individual, interpersonal, and institutional level factors that are associated with overall mental health among college students. Participants: Data are from an online cross-sectional survey of 2,203 students currently enrolled at a large public university. Methods: Mental health was ascertained using a…

Byrd, DeAnnah R.; McKinney, Kristen J.

2012-01-01

109

Cumulative Adverse Financial Circumstances: Associations with Patient Health Status and Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines associations between cumulative adverse financial circumstances and patient health in a sample of 1,506 urban emergency department (ED) patients. Study participants completed a previously validated Social Health Survey between May and October 2009. Five categories of economic deprivation were studied: food insecurity, housing…

Bisgaier, Joanna; Rhodes, Karin V.

2011-01-01

110

General Practitioners' Understanding Pertaining to Reliability, Interactive and Usability Components Associated with Health Websites  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was undertaken to determine the level of understanding of Gold Coast general practitioners (GPs) pertaining to such criteria as reliability, interactive and usability components associated with health websites. These are important considerations due to the increased levels of computer and World Wide Web (WWW)/Internet use and health

Usher, Wayne

2009-01-01

111

Nutritional and Health Consequences Are Associated with Food Insecurity among U.S. Elderly Persons1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the consequences associated with food insecurity for the nutritional and health status of the elderly in the United States. The data analyzed were from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988 -1994) and the Nutrition Survey of the Elderly in New York State (1994). Multiple logistic and linear regression analyses

Jung Sun Lee; Edward A. Frongillo

112

Patterns of health-related quality of life and patterns associated with health risks among Rhode Island adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has become an important consideration in assessing the impact of chronic disease on individuals as well as in populations. HRQOL is often assessed using multiple indicators. The authors sought to determine if multiple indicators of HRQOL could be used to characterize patterns of HRQOL in a population, and if so, to examine the association

Yongwen Jiang; Jana Earl Hesser

2008-01-01

113

Weight Stigma Mediates the Association Between BMI and Self-Reported Health.  

PubMed

Objective: Weight stigma is pervasive in the United States. We tested the hypothesis that stigma may be a mechanism through which obesity negatively affects self-reported health. Two studies examined whether perceived weight-based discrimination and concerns over weight stigma mediated the association between BMI and self-reported psychological health (Study 1) and physical health (Study 2). Method: In 2 online studies, adult community members completed measures of stigma-relevant mediators (perceived weight discrimination, weight stigma concerns) and provided their height and weight. In Study 1 (N = 171) participants also completed measures of psychological health (depression, self-esteem, quality of life), whereas participants in Study 2 (N = 194) also completed a measure of self-reported physical health. Process modeling was used to simultaneously test for mediation through perceived discrimination and stigma concerns independently as well as for serial mediation through both variables. Results: Across both studies, we hypothesized and found support for serial mediation such that BMI was indirectly related to poorer self-reported health through its effect on perceived discrimination and concerns about stigma. Additionally, concerns about stigma mediated the association between BMI and health independent of perceived discrimination. Conclusions: Weight stigma is an important mediator of the association between BMI and self-reported health. Furthermore, results indicate that concerns about facing stigma in the future mediate the link between perceived past experiences of discrimination and psychological and physical health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25133837

Hunger, Jeffrey M; Major, Brenda

2014-08-18

114

Tobacco: Its historical, cultural, oral, and periodontal health association  

PubMed Central

This article provides information on the origin of tobacco and its subsequent spread throughout the world. In the era of the migration of communities, tobacco use gradually gained access and subsequently migrated along with the migrants, establishing in different locations. Probably at that time people were unaware of the health hazards and were using tobacco in treating certain ailments. Much has been known and written about tobacco in the context of oral and general health hazards but little has been explored and is known to many about where from and how this plant, which is now used in various forms, and speading widely. In what form, where, and how it had been served in religious rituals and considered for treatment or remedy of certain ailments in those days could not certainly be known. In the 21st century, people are considering hazardous tobacco as beneficial for their teeth, good for concentration of mind, and something which keeps them engaged. Even many professionals, though knowing the deleterious effects, are still using tobacco and gutkha in one or the other form. This article has been designed to revive the awareness for health hazards of tobacco and similar products. A pilot project questionnaire survey comprising this subject involving the educated mass has already been started and will be produced after analysis of data in part II of this paper. PMID:24478974

Mishra, Shanu; Mishra, M. B.

2013-01-01

115

Association of Health and Food Expenditures Inequality With Health Outcomes: A Case Study on Iranian Rural Households  

PubMed Central

Background: Inequality in households’ and individuals' consumption expenditures is one of the most important aspects of health status difference among households and individuals. Objectives: We investigated the impact of some macro-economic factors specially inequality factors on the Iranian rural health status since 1986 through 2012. Patients and Methods: We conducted a longitudinal ecological and analytical study. The average sample size was 14602 households whom Iranian Statistics Center selected by a multi-stages clustering sampling approach. All required data has been collected from Iranian Statistics Centre and Deputy for Curial Affaires of Iranian Ministry of Health. We calculated the Gini coefficients for the rural food and health expenditures, then conducted a transloge autoregressive order one (AR1) to investigate the association between the Iranian rural households' key mortality rates and the food and health expenditure Gini coefficients, time trend, GDP per capita (PPP), and GDP per capita Gini coefficients. Results: The mean of Gini coefficients were 0.137 and 0.21 for the rural food expenditures inequality based on current and constant price, respectively. In addition, the mean of Gini coefficients were 0.26 and 0.31 for the rural health expenditures inequality based on current and constant price, respectively. The time trend, transloged form of Gini coefficients for health expenditures and GDP per capita Gini coefficients presented a significant negative correlation with transloged form of neonatal mortality rate. With regard to the transloged form of under five mortality we observed a significant negative correlation with time trend and transloged form of Gini coefficients for health expenditure and GDP per capita. Finally, there was a significant negative correlation between transloged forms of maternal mortality rate. Conclusions: Iranian policy makers should consider the rural health and food expenditures inequality and try to adopt more effective policies and plans to decrease it. In addition, they should improve the macro-economic factors to improve the rural households' health status. PMID:24829771

Naghdi, Seyran; Ghiasvand, Hesam; Shaarbafchi Zadeh, Nasrin; Azami, Saeidreza; Moradi, Tayebeh

2014-01-01

116

[Assessment of an association of nutrition and a special contingent's health].  

PubMed

This paper considers the association of nutrition habits with the development of various noninfectious diseases, including chronic diseases. Stress that is followed by arrest and juridical processes, in combination with other factors attended by criminal sanctions as imprisonment also negatively affect the health status of a special contingent of the penitentiary system. Our studies have ascertained the association between the qualitative and quantitative composition of food and the health status of convicts. PMID:19097433

Grabar', V F

2008-01-01

117

American Association for Health Education (AAHE) 2011 Membership Survey: Summary of Findings  

PubMed Central

The American Association for Health Education (AAHE), a national health education organization with the mission of advancing the profession of health education, launched the 2011 AAHE membership survey between October 13, 2011 and November 1, 2011, under the leadership of the AAHE Board of Directors and AAHE Staff. The primary objective of the survey was to provide insight into the perspectives of AAHE members on several important issues facing the organization including: AAHE exiting its parent organization, the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD), and the proposed “modified” merger with the Society for Public Health Education (SOPHE), another national health education organization. A total of 240 AAHE members completed the survey. A majority of respondents were university faculty members in health education, and results provide keen insight into AAHE members’ perspectives on the AAHE-SOPHE modified merger. PMID:24133673

Chaney, Beth H.; Chavarria, Enmanuel; Stellefson, Michael L.; Birch, David; Spear, Caile

2013-01-01

118

Edentulism and other variables associated with self-reported health status in Mexican adults  

PubMed Central

Background To determine if edentulism, controlling for other known factors, is associated with subjective self-report health status (SRH) in Mexican adults. Material/Methods We examined the SRH of 13 966 individuals 35 years and older, using data from the National Survey of Performance Assessment, a cross-sectional study that is part of the technical collaboration between the Ministry of Health of Mexico and the World Health Organization, which used the survey instrument and sampling strategies developed by WHO for the World Health Survey. Sociodemographic, socioeconomic, medical, and behavioral variables were collected using questionnaires. Self-reported health was our dependent variable. Data on edentulism were available from 20 of the 32 Mexican states. A polynomial logistic regression model adjusted for complex sampling was generated. Results In the SRH, 58.2% reported their health status as very good/good, 33.8% said they had a moderate health status, and 8.0% reported that their health was bad/very bad. The association between edentulism and SRH was modified by age and was significant only for bad/very bad SRH. Higher odds of reporting moderate health or poor/very poor health were found in women, people with lower socio-economic status and with physical disabilities, those who were not physically active, or those who were underweight or obese, those who had any chronic disease, and those who used alcohol. Conclusions The association of edentulism with a self-report of a poor health status (poor/very poor) was higher in young people than in adults. The results suggest socioeconomic inequalities in SRH. Inequality was further confirmed among people who had a general health condition or a disability. PMID:24852266

Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Pontigo-Loyola, América Patricia; Pérez-Campos, Eduardo; Hernández-Cruz, Pedro; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Martha; Maupomé, Gerardo

2014-01-01

119

Self-Rated Health Status and Subjective Health Complaints Associated with Health-Promoting Lifestyles among Urban Chinese Women: A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aimed to investigate whether self-rated health status (SRH) and subjective health complaints (SHC) of urban Chinese women are associated with their health-promoting lifestyles (HPL). Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study on 8142 eligible Chinese participants between 2012 and 2013. Demographic and SHC data were collected. Each subject completed the SRH questionnaire and the Chinese version of the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II (HPLP-II). Correlation and binary regression analyses were performed to examine the associations of SRH and SHC with HPL. Results Both SRH and HPL of urban Chinese women were moderate. The most common complaints were fatigue (1972, 24.2%), eye discomfort (1571, 19.3%), and insomnia (1542, 18.9%). Teachers, highly educated subjects and elderly women had lower SRH scores, while college students and married women had better HPL. All items of HPLP-II were positively correlated with SRH (r = 0.127-0.533, P = 0.000) and negatively correlated with SHC to a significant extent (odds ratio [OR] = 1.40-11.37). Conclusions Aspects of HPL, particularly stress management and spiritual growth, are associated with higher SRH and lower SHC ratings among urban Chinese women. Physical activity and health responsibility are additionally related to reduced fatigue and nervousness. We believe that these findings will be instrumental in encouraging researchers and urban women to adopt better health-promoting lifestyles with different priorities in their daily lives. PMID:25671578

Cheng, Jingru; Wang, Tian; Li, Fei; Xiao, Ya; Bi, Jianlu; Chen, Jieyu; Sun, Xiaomin; Wu, Liuguo; Wu, Shengwei; Liu, Yanyan; Luo, Ren; Zhao, Xiaoshan

2015-01-01

120

Potential Health Effects Associated with Dermal Exposure to Occupational Chemicals  

PubMed Central

There are a large number of workers in the United States, spanning a variety of occupational industries and sectors, who are potentially exposed to chemicals that can be absorbed through the skin. Occupational skin exposures can result in numerous diseases that can adversely affect an individual’s health and capacity to perform at work. In general, there are three types of chemical–skin interactions of concern: direct skin effects, immune-mediated skin effects, and systemic effects. While hundreds of chemicals (metals, epoxy and acrylic resins, rubber additives, and chemical intermediates) present in virtually every industry have been identified to cause direct and immune-mediated effects such as contact dermatitis or urticaria, less is known about the number and types of chemicals contributing to systemic effects. In an attempt to raise awareness, skin notation assignments communicate the potential for dermal absorption; however, there is a need for standardization among agencies to communicate an accurate description of occupational hazards. Studies have suggested that exposure to complex mixtures, excessive hand washing, use of hand sanitizers, high frequency of wet work, and environmental or other factors may enhance penetration and stimulate other biological responses altering the outcomes of dermal chemical exposure. Understanding the hazards of dermal exposure is essential for the proper implementation of protective measures to ensure worker safety and health. PMID:25574139

Anderson, Stacey E; Meade, B Jean

2014-01-01

121

Symptoms and Health Complaints and Their Association with Perceived Stressors among Students at Nine Libyan Universities  

PubMed Central

University students are exposed to many stressors. We assessed the associations between two stressors (educational related and general overall), socio-demographic characteristics (five variables), health behaviours/lifestyle factors (six variables), as well as religiosity and quality of life as independent variables, with self-reported symptoms/health complaints as dependent variables (eight health complaints). A sample of 2100 undergraduate students from nine institutions (six universities, three colleges) located in seven cities in Libya completed a general health questionnaire. The most prevalent symptoms were headaches, depressive mood, difficulties to concentrate and sleep disorder/insomnia that have been reported by 50%–60% of the students. The majority of students (62%) reported having had three or more symptoms sometimes or very often in the last 12 months. There was a positive association between perceived stressors and health symptoms, which remained significant after adjustment for gender and many other relevant factors for headache (OR 1.52; 95% CI 1.15–2.02), depressive mood (OR 2.20; 95% CI 1.64–2.94) and sleep disorder/ insomnia (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.19–2.03). Other factors independently associated with most health symptoms were female gender and poor self-perceived health. Stress management programmes and a reduction of educational related stressors might help to prevent stress-related symptoms and health complaints in this student population. PMID:25429678

El Ansari, Walid; Khalil, Khalid; Stock, Christiane

2014-01-01

122

Poorer mental health is associated with cognitive deficits in old age.  

PubMed

Few studies have examined the association between within-person (WP) reaction time (RT) variability and mental health (depression, anxiety, and social dysphoria) in old age. Therefore, we investigated mental health (using the General Health Questionnaire) and cognitive function (mean RT or WP variability) in 257 healthy, community-dwelling adults aged 50-90 years (M = 63.60). The cognitive domains assessed were psychomotor performance, executive function, visual search, and recognition. Structural equation models revealed that for WP variability, but not mean RT, poorer mental health was associated with visual search and immediate recognition deficits in older persons and that these relationships were partially mediated by executive function. The dissociation between mean RT and WP variability provides evidence that the latter measure may be particularly sensitive to the subtle effects of mental health on cognitive function in old age. PMID:24605782

Bauermeister, Sarah; Bunce, David

2015-01-01

123

Forest cover associated with improved child health and nutrition: evidence from the Malawi Demographic and Health Survey and satellite data.  

PubMed

Healthy forests provide human communities with a host of important ecosystem services, including the provision of food, clean water, fuel, and natural medicines. Yet globally, about 13 million hectares of forests are lost every year, with the biggest losses in Africa and South America. As biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation due to deforestation continue at unprecedented rates, with concomitant loss of ecosystem services, impacts on human health remain poorly understood. Here, we use data from the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey, linked with satellite remote sensing data on forest cover, to explore and better understand this relationship. Our analysis finds that forest cover is associated with improved health and nutrition outcomes among children in Malawi. Children living in areas with net forest cover loss between 2000 and 2010 were 19% less likely to have a diverse diet and 29% less likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods than children living in areas with no net change in forest cover. Conversely, children living in communities with higher percentages of forest cover were more likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods and less likely to experience diarrhea. Net gain in forest cover over the 10-year period was associated with a 34% decrease in the odds of children experiencing diarrhea (P?=?.002). Given that our analysis relied on observational data and that there were potential unknown factors for which we could not account, these preliminary findings demonstrate only associations, not causal relationships, between forest cover and child health and nutrition outcomes. However, the findings raise concerns about the potential short- and long-term impacts of ongoing deforestation and ecosystem degradation on community health in Malawi, and they suggest that preventing forest loss and maintaining the ecosystem services of forests are important factors in improving human health and nutrition outcomes. PMID:25276536

Johnson, Kiersten B; Jacob, Anila; Brown, Molly E

2013-08-01

124

Forest Cover Associated with Improved Child Health and Nutrition: Evidence from the Malawi Demographic and Health Survey and Satellite Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Healthy forests provide human communities with a host of important ecosystem services, including the provision of food, clean water, fuel, and natural medicines. Yet globally, about 13 million hectares of forests are lost every year, with the biggest losses in Africa and South America. As biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation due to deforestation continue at unprecedented rates, with concomitant loss of ecosystem services, impacts on human health remain poorly understood. Here, we use data from the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey, linked with satellite remote sensing data on forest cover, to explore and better understand this relationship. Our analysis finds that forest cover is associated with improved health and nutrition outcomes among children in Malawi. Children living in areas with net forest cover loss between 2000 and 2010 were 19% less likely to have a diverse diet and 29% less likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods than children living in areas with no net change in forest cover. Conversely, children living in communities with higher percentages of forest cover were more likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods and less likely to experience diarrhea. Net gain in forest cover over the 10-year period was associated with a 34% decrease in the odds of children experiencing diarrhea (P5.002). Given that our analysis relied on observational data and that there were potential unknown factors for which we could not account, these preliminary findings demonstrate only associations, not causal relationships, between forest cover and child health and nutrition outcomes. However, the findings raise concerns about the potential short- and long-term impacts of ongoing deforestation and ecosystem degradation on community health in Malawi, and they suggest that preventing forest loss and maintaining the ecosystems services of forests are important factors in improving human health and nutrition outcomes.

Johnson, Kiersten B.; Jacob, Anila; Brown, Molly Elizabeth

2013-01-01

125

Cumulative adverse financial circumstances: associations with patient health status and behaviors.  

PubMed

This article examines associations between cumulative adverse financial circumstances and patient health in a sample of 1,506 urban emergency department (ED) patients. Study participants completed a previously validated Social Health Survey between May and October 2009. Five categories of economic deprivation were studied: food insecurity, housing concerns, employment concerns, cost-related medication nonadherence, and cost barriers to accessing physician care. Logistic regression that adjusted for the effects of demographics (age, gender, race, education) tested the association between the cumulative number of adverse financial circumstances (range: 0 to 5) and patients' health status (self-rated health, stress level, depressed mood) and health behaviors (smoking and substance abuse). Approximately 48 percent of respondents reported one or more financial concern, and 31 percent reported two or more financial concerns. A significant graded relationship was found between the number of adverse financial circumstances and patients' poor/fair self-rated health, depressed mood, high stress, smoking, and illicit drug use. Findings suggest that in today's acute health safety net, patients' concerns related to financial insecurity are very relevant to patient health.This underscores the imperative for hospital-based social workers to design models of routine social health risk screening and system interventions that address patient financial well-being in the ED. PMID:21661302

Bisgaier, Joanna; Rhodes, Karin V

2011-05-01

126

Acute Health Effects Associated with Nonoccupational Pesticide Exposure in Rural El Salvador  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the health effects of nonoccupational pesticide exposure in agricultural communities of poor countries. Therefore, this study investigated acute symptoms associated with nonoccupational exposure to organophosphate insecticides (OPs) in rural El Salvador, a region known for intensive pesticide use. In the five communities studied, 2-week prevalences of several acute symptoms were associated with living with a farmer

Lenore S. Azaroff; Lucas M. Neas

1999-01-01

127

Association of physical activity with future mental health in older, mid-life and younger women  

PubMed Central

Background: Mental ill-health, particularly depression and anxiety, is a leading and increasing cause of disability worldwide, especially for women. Methods: We examined the prospective association between physical activity and symptoms of mental ill-health in younger, mid-life and older working women. Participants were 26 913 women from the ongoing cohort Finnish Public Sector Study with complete data at two phases, excluding those who screened positive for mental ill-health at baseline. Mental health was assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Self-reported physical activity was expressed in metabolic equivalent task (MET) hours per week. Logistic regression models were used to analyse associations between physical activity levels and subsequent mental health. Results: There was an inverse dose–response relationship between physical activity and future symptoms of mental ill-health. This association is consistent with a protective effect of physical activity and remained after adjustments for socio-demographic, work-related and lifestyle factors, health and body mass index. Furthermore, those mid-life and older women who reported increased physical activity by more than 2 MET hours per week demonstrated a reduced risk of later mental ill-health in comparison with those who did not increase physical activity. This protective effect of increased physical activity did not hold for younger women. Conclusions: This study adds to the evidence for the protective effect of physical activity for later mental health in women. It also suggests that increasing physical activity levels may be beneficial in terms of mental health among mid-life and older women. The alleviation of menopausal symptoms may partly explain age effects but further research is required. PMID:24532567

Kouvonen, Anne; Pentti, Jaana; Oksanen, Tuula; Virtanen, Marianna; Salo, Paula; Väänänen, Ari; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi

2014-01-01

128

Health hazards associated with windsurfing on polluted water  

SciTech Connect

We documented the risks associated with windsurfing on sewage polluted water. Seventy-nine windsurfers and 41 controls were studied over a nine-day period for occurrence of symptoms of gastroenteritis, otitis, conjunctivitis, and skin infection. Relative risks were 2.9 for occurrence of one or more of these symptoms and 5.5 for symptoms of gastroenteritis. Relative risk increased with the reported number of falls into the water.

Dewailly, E.; Poirier, C.; Meyer, F.M.

1986-06-01

129

Travel and health: illness associated with winter package holidays  

PubMed Central

A survey of 263 people who had winter package holidays abroad revealed that 21 per cent of the travellers had been ill. Forty-eight per cent of those who had been unwell reported an alimentary upset and 26 per cent reported respiratory symptoms. Illness was recorded most frequently by travellers to countries in the Mediterranean region. More readily available advice or information would be useful in reducing the amount of illness associated with package holidays. PMID:6644668

Cossar, Jonathan H.; Dewar, Robert D.; Reid, Daniel; Grist, Norman R.

1983-01-01

130

Historical Research: A Thematic Analysis of Convention and Conference Themes for Selected Professional Health Education Associations from 1975 to 2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many professional organizations and associations hold conventions and conferences on an annual basis. Health Education professional associations take part in this process. Using a historical research perspective, this article delineates conference themes for four prominent professional Health Education associations: the American Association for…

Black, Jill M.; Ubbes, Valerie A.

2009-01-01

131

Healthcare-associated infections: challenges to public health in Brazil  

PubMed Central

This study presents a critical evaluation of the scientific literature related to this subject, aiming to assess the policies and administrative issues regarding the prevention and magnitude of healthcare-associated infections and discuss the challenges for their prevention in Brazil. The topics discussed included historical and administrative issues, challenges imposed by the characteristics of the healthcare system and the territorial dimension, laboratorial support limitations, costs, institutional culture, professional qualification, and patient engagement. It is urgent to hold a nationwide discussion among government representatives, institutions, and healthcare workers and users to overcome these challenges.

Padoveze, Maria Clara; Fortaleza, Carlos Magno Castelo Branco

2014-01-01

132

Copyright 2012, National Environmental Health Association (www.neha.org) Environmental Health  

E-print Network

decade. The authors of our feature, "Tattooing Reg ulations in U.S. States, 2011," set out to discover whether the practice of tattooing is regulated effectively enough through state laws in order to protect the public's health. They conducted a study that examined current tattooing regulations in all 50 states

133

Associations Between Abnormal Rod-Mediated Dark Adaptation and Health and Functioning in Older Adults With Normal Macular Health  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Delayed rod-mediated dark adaptation (DA) is characteristic of early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and also can be observed in some older adults in normal macular health. We examine cross-sectional associations between rod-mediated DA and risk factors for AMD in older adults in normal macular health. Methods. The sample consisted of adults aged ?60 years old in normal macular health per grading of fundus photos using an established disease classification system. Rod-mediated DA was measured psychophysically following a photobleach using a computer-automated dark adaptometer with targets centered at 5° on the inferior vertical meridian. The speed of DA was characterized by the rod-intercept value, with abnormal DA defined as rod-intercept ? 12.3 minutes. We assessed several health and functional characteristics that the literature has suggested increase AMD risk (e.g., smoking, alcohol use, inflammatory markers, apolipoproteins, low luminance visual acuity, chronic medical conditions, body mass, family history). Results. Among 381 participants (mean age, 68.5 years; SD, 5.5), 78% had normal and 22% had abnormal DA, with the prevalence of abnormal DA increasing with age. After age-adjustment, abnormal DA was associated with increased odds of elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), heavy use of or abstention from alcohol, high blood pressure, and drop in visual acuity under mesopic conditions. Conclusions. Despite having normal macular health according to accepted definitions of AMD presence, approximately one-quarter of older adults recruited from primary eye care clinics had abnormal DA, which was associated with known risk factors for AMD, including elevated CRP. PMID:24854857

Owsley, Cynthia; Huisingh, Carrie; Jackson, Gregory R.; Curcio, Christine A.; Szalai, Alexander J.; Dashti, Nassrin; Clark, Mark; Rookard, Kia; McCrory, Mark A.; Wright, Tyler T.; Callahan, Michael A.; Kline, Lanning B.; Witherspoon, C. Douglas; McGwin, Gerald

2014-01-01

134

Eliminating LGBTIQQ Health Disparities: The Associated Roles of Electronic Health Records and Institutional Culture.  

PubMed

For all humans, sexual orientation and gender identity are essential elements of identity, informing how we plan and live our lives. The historic invisibility of sexual minorities in medicine has meant that these important aspects of their identities as patients have been ignored, with the result that these patients have been denied respect, culturally competent services, and proper treatment. Likely due to historic rejection and mistreatment, there is evidence of reluctance on the part of LGBT patients to disclose their sexual orientation (SO) or gender identity (GI) to their health care providers. There is some perception of risk in sharing SO and GI for many patients who have had bad prior experiences. Despite these risks, we argue that we can improve the quality of care provided this population only by encouraging them to self-identify and then using that information to improve quality of care. One strategy both to prompt patient self-identification and to store and use SO and GI data to improve care centers on the use of electronic health records. However, gathering SO and GI data in the EHR requires a workforce that knows both how to obtain and how to use that information. To develop these competencies, educational programs for health professionals must prepare students and educators to elicit and to use sexual orientation and gender identity information to improve care while simultaneously ensuring the safety of patients, trainees, and staff and faculty members as SO and GI become openly discussed and integral parts of ongoing medical discussion and care. As determination of SO and GI demographics becomes more common in health research, we will more fully understand the health risks for all the LGBTIQQ populations. PMID:25231788

Callahan, Edward J; Hazarian, Shea; Yarborough, Mark; Sánchez, John Paul

2014-09-01

135

Neurocognitive Impairment is Associated with Lower Health Literacy Among Persons Living with HIV Infection.  

PubMed

This study sought to determine the effects of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) on health literacy, which encompasses the ability to access, understand, appraise, and apply health-related information. Participants included 56 HIV seropositive individuals, 24 of whom met Frascati criteria for HAND, and 24 seronegative subjects who were comparable on age, education, ethnicity, and oral word reading. Each participant was administered a brief battery of well-validated measures of health literacy, including the Expanded Numeracy Scale (ENS), Newest Vital Sign (NVS), Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM), and Brief Health Literacy Screen (BHLS). Results revealed significant omnibus differences on the ENS and NVS, which were driven by poorer performance in the HAND group. There were no significant differences on the REALM or the BHLS by HAND status. Among individuals with HAND, lower scores on the NVS were associated with greater severity of neurocognitive dysfunction (e.g., working memory and verbal fluency) and self-reported dependence in activities of daily living. These preliminary findings suggest that HAND hinders both fundamental (i.e., basic knowledge, such as numeracy) and critical (i.e., comprehension and application of healthcare information) health literacy capacities, and therefore may be an important factor in the prevalence of health illiteracy. Health literacy-focused intervention may play an important role in the treatment and health trajectories among persons living with HIV infection. PMID:25008384

Morgan, Erin E; Iudicello, Jennifer E; Cattie, Jordan E; Blackstone, Kaitlin; Grant, Igor; Woods, Steven Paul

2014-07-10

136

The Association between Childhood Abuse and Labor Force Outcomes in Young Adults: Results from the Ontario Child Health Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the associations between childhood physical and sexual abuse and labor force outcomes in young adults and the possible mediating effects of educational attainment, current mental health, and physical health. Data from the Ontario Child Health Study (N = 1,893), a province-wide longitudinal study were analyzed. Controlling for childhood and demographic variables, severe childhood physical abuse was significantly associated

Masako Tanaka; Ellen Jamieson; Katholiki Georgiades; Eric K. Duku; Michael H. Boyle; Harriet L. MacMillan

2011-01-01

137

Socioeconomic and demographic factors modify the association between informal caregiving and health in the Sandwich Generation  

PubMed Central

Background Nearly 50 million Americans provide informal care to an older relative or friend. Many are members of the “sandwich generation”, providing care for elderly parents and children simultaneously. Although evidence suggests that the negative health consequences of caregiving are more severe for sandwiched caregivers, little is known about how these associations vary by sociodemographic factors. Methods We abstracted data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to determine how the association between caregiving and health varies by sociodemographic factors, using ordinal logistic regression with interaction terms and stratification by number of children, income, and race/ethnicity. Results The association between informal caregiving and health varied by membership in the “sandwich generation,” income, and race/ethnicity. This association was significant among subjects with one (OR =?1.13, 95% CI [1.04, 1.24]) and two or more children (OR =?1.17, 95% CI =?1.09, 1.26]), but not in those without children (OR =?1.01, 95% CI [0.97, 1.05]). Associations were strongest in those earning $50,000-$75,000 annually, but these income-dependent associations varied by race/ethnicity. In Whites with two or more children, the strongest associations between caregiving and health occurred in lower income individuals. These trends were not observed for Whites without children. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the added burden of caregiving for both children and elderly relatives may be impacted by income and race/ethnicity. These differences should be considered when developing culturally appropriate interventions to improve caregiver health and maintain this vital component of the US health care system. PMID:24735495

2014-01-01

138

Does Place of Education Matter? Contextualizing the Education and Health Status Association Among Asian Americans  

PubMed Central

The educational gradient in health is one of the most robust associations in social science research. Results of the current study indicate that, like the pattern observed among other racial and ethnic minority groups, the well-established educational gradient in health is attenuated among Asian Americans. We also show that the gradient association between educational attainment and self-rated health among Asian Americans depends on whether they receive the bulk of their education in the United States or abroad. Compared to the schooling received in the United States, being educated in a foreign country does not result in the same health payoffs for increasing educational attainment. Analysis of an extensive set of mediators indicates that a foreign education restricts economic opportunities, limits positive social interaction, and inhibits English language proficiency. We discuss the implications for Asian Americans, a group composed largely of immigrants who received their education outside the United States. PMID:19835099

WALTON, EMILY; TAKEUCHI, DAVID T.; HERTING, JERALD R.; ALEGRÍA, MARGARITA

2009-01-01

139

Dean of the College of Public Health is Stephen W. Wyatt. William G. Pfeifle is Associate Dean for Academic  

E-print Network

Dean of the College of Public Health is Stephen W. Wyatt. William G. Pfeifle is Associate Dean for Institutional Advancement and Student Affairs. The College of Public Health A defining characteristic of the area of public health is its focus on population groups rather than individuals. Public health

MacAdam, Keith

140

Dean of the College of Public Health is Stephen W. Wyatt. Linda J. Alexander is Associate Dean for Academic  

E-print Network

Dean of the College of Public Health is Stephen W. Wyatt. Linda J. Alexander is Associate Dean is Director of Student Affairs. The College of Public Health A defining characteristic of the area of public health is its focus on population groups rather than individuals. Public health professionals

MacAdam, Keith

141

Public Health Professionals and Students Encouraged to Submit Abstracts for the 2014 Wildlife Disease Association (WDA) Conference  

E-print Network

Public Health Professionals and Students Encouraged to Submit Abstracts for the 2014 Wildlife and posters from professionals and students from within the field of public health and epidemiology. Health Association of State Public Health Veterinarians and will feature unique opportunities for inter

Sheridan, Jennifer

142

TITLE: Business Associate Addendum The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) limits the use and disclosure  

E-print Network

that relates to the patient's past, present or future physical or mental health or condition, related healthTITLE: Business Associate Addendum POLICY: The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) limits the use and disclosure of Protected Health Information (PHI). It is the policy

Columbia University

143

American Health Information Management Association. Position statement. Issue: managing health information in facility mergers and acquisitions.  

PubMed

Healthcare facility mergers and acquisitions are becoming more common as the industry consolidates. Many critical issues must be considered in mergers and acquisitions, including the management of patient health information. In addition to operational issues, licensure, regulatory, and accreditation requirements must be addressed. To ensure availability of health information to all legitimate users, patient records should be consolidated or linked in the master patient index. A record retention policy should be developed and implemented to meet user needs and assure compliance with legal, regulatory, and accreditation requirements. If health information from closed facilities will be stored for a period of time, its integrity and confidentiality must be preserved, and it must be readily accessible for patient care. The compatibility and functionality of existing information systems should be assessed, and a plan should be formulated for integration of the systems to the extent possible. Such integration may be essential for the organization to successfully meet the demands of integrated delivery systems. Existing databases should be maintained in an accessible form to meet anticipated future needs. PMID:10133022

1994-04-01

144

Concurrent and prospective associations between physical activity, walking and mental health in older women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundLeisure-time physical activity (LTPA) shows promise for reducing the risk of poor mental health in later life, although gender- and age-specific research is required to clarify this association. This study examined the concurrent and prospective relationships between both LTPA and walking with mental health in older women.MethodsCommunity-dwelling women aged 73–78 years completed mailed surveys in 1999, 2002 and 2005 for

Kristiann C Heesch; Nicola W Burton; Wendy J Brown

2010-01-01

145

Individual, Interpersonal, and Institutional Level Factors Associated With the Mental Health of College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study investigates the individual, interpersonal, and institutional level factors that are associated with overall mental health among college students. Participants: Data are from an online cross-sectional survey of 2,203 students currently enrolled at a large public university. Methods: Mental health was ascertained using a subcomponent of the RAND Medical Outcomes Study functioning and well-being measures developed by the

DeAnnah R. Byrd; Kristen J. McKinney

2012-01-01

146

Health Perceptions and Demographic Characteristics Associated With Underassessment of Body Weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:To describe the relationship between BMI and perceived weight status and to determine how underassessment of weight status is associated with demographic characteristics, self-reported general health, and perceived health risk in relation to one's body weight.Methods and Procedures:In the 2004 Styles surveys, 3,888 US adult participants described their current weight status (underweight, about right, slightly overweight, very overweight), which we

Cria O. Gregory; Heidi M. Blanck; Cathleen Gillespie; L. Michele Maynard; Mary K. Serdula

2008-01-01

147

Does gender moderate associations among impulsivity and health-risk behaviors?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study explores the relations among gender, impulsivity and three health-risk behaviors relevant to young adults (tobacco use, alcohol problems and gambling problems) in a sample of 197 college-age individuals. We sought to determine whether impulsivity is associated with health-risk behaviors in the same ways for men and women. For tobacco use and gambling problems, men were at higher

Scott F. Stoltenberg; Bryan D. Batien; Denis G. Birgenheir

2008-01-01

148

Health-related factors associated with mode of travel to work.  

PubMed

Active commuting (AC) to the workplace is a potential strategy for incorporating physical activity into daily life and is associated with health benefits. This study examined the association between health-related factors and mode of travel to the workplace. Methods. A volunteer convenience sample of employed adults completed an online survey regarding demographics, health-related factors, and the number of times/week walking, biking, driving, and using public transit to work (dichotomized as no walk/bike/drive/PT and walk/bike/drive/PT 1 + x/week). Logistic regression was used to predict the likelihood of each mode of transport and meeting PA recommendations from AC according to demographics and health-related factors. Results. The sample (n = 1175) was aged 43.5 ± 11.4 years and was primarily White (92.7%) and female (67.9%). Respondents reported walking (7.3%), biking (14.4%), taking public transit (20.3%), and driving (78.3%) to work at least one time/week. Among those reporting AC, 9.6% met PA recommendations from AC alone. Mode of travel to work was associated with several demographic and health-related factors, including age, number of chronic diseases, weight status, and AC beliefs. Discussion. Mode of transportation to the workplace and health-related factors such as disease or weight status should be considered in future interventions targeting AC. PMID:23533450

Bopp, Melissa; Kaczynski, Andrew T; Campbell, Matthew E

2013-01-01

149

Who Uses CAM? A Narrative Review of Demographic Characteristics and Health Factors Associated with CAM Use  

PubMed Central

Complementary and Alternative Medicines (CAM) are used by an extensive number of patients in the UK and elsewhere. In order to understand this pattern of behavior, it is helpful to examine the characteristics of people who use CAM. This narrative review collates and evaluates the evidence concerning the demographic characteristics and health status factors associated with CAM use in community-based non-clinical populations. A systematic literature search of computerized databases was conducted, and published research papers which present evidence concerning associations between CAM use and demographic and health characteristics are discussed and evaluated. The evidence suggests that people who use CAM tend to be female, of middle age and have more education. In terms of their health, CAM users tend to have more than one medical condition, but might not be more likely than non-users to have specific conditions such as cancer or to rate their own general health as poor. The multivariate studies that have been conducted suggest that both demographic and health characteristics contribute independently to CAM use. In conclusion, demographic characteristics and factors related to an individual's health status are associated with CAM use. Future research is needed to address methodological limitations in existing studies. PMID:18955327

Lewith, G. T.

2010-01-01

150

Brief Report: Predictors of Heavy Internet Use and Associations with Health-Promoting and Health Risk Behaviors among Hong Kong University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine the correlates of heavy Internet use and determine the associations of heavy Internet use with various health risk behaviors and health-promoting behaviors among Chinese adolescents, an anonymous, self-administered health behavior questionnaire was completed by 2427 matriculants into a Hong Kong university (mean age = 18.9 y) and…

Kim, Jean H.; Lau, C. H.; Cheuk, Ka-Kin; Kan, Pauline; Hui, Heidi L. C.; Griffiths, Sian M.

2010-01-01

151

Associations of self-reported oral health with physical and mental health in a nationally representative sample of HIV persons receiving medical care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The impact of oral health on HIV patients has not been sufficiently documented. Objective: To estimate the associations between measures of oral and generic health-related quality of life in persons receiving medical care for HIV. Design: This is a longitudinal study of interview data collected in a probability sample of adults with HIV receiving health care in the US.

I. D. Coulter; K. C. Heslin; M. Marcus; R. D. Hays; J. Freed; C. Der-Martirosian; N. Guzmán-Becerra; W. E. Cunningham; R. M. Andersen; M. F. Shapiro

2002-01-01

152

The Ten Tasks of the Mental Health Provider: Recommendations for Revision of the World Professional Association for Transgender Health's Standards of Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article outlines recommendations for the World Professional Association for Transgender Health's (WPATH) Standards of Care (SOC) regarding the roles, responsibilities, and tasks of the mental health provider in assessing eligibility and readiness for medical and surgical treatment of gender nonconforming, transgender, and transsexual clients. It reflects a reconceptualization of the role of the mental health provider as a gender

Arlene Istar Lev

2009-01-01

153

Barriers to care and service satisfaction following homicide loss: associations with mental health outcomes.  

PubMed

Homicide survivors are at increased risk for mental health problems, including depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and complicated grief. Therefore, improving access to community and mental health resources is critical for this population. The atuhors sought to examine barriers to accessing services and service satisfaction among 47 homicide survivors. Over half of the sample met criteria for a mental disorder, with depression being the most prevalent problem. Frequently endorsed barriers to care included financial barriers, inadequate information, and health-related problems. However, participants who engaged in services were generally satisfied with those services. Only depression was uniquely associated with worse overall service satisfaction. PMID:24766188

Williams, Joah L; Rheingold, Alyssa A

2015-01-01

154

Variations in Asian Americans: How Neighborhood Concordance Is Associated With Health Care Access and Utilization.  

PubMed

We examined associations of different levels of same-ethnicity neighborhood concordance with health care access and utilization among all Asian American, Chinese, Filipino, and Vietnamese adults (aged 18-64 years) using the 2005, 2007, and 2009 California Health Interview Survey and the 2010 US Census. Although associations varied by subgroup, Asian Americans in highly concordant neighborhoods were more likely to lack a usual source of care but did not lack doctor visits or experience delays in medical care and prescriptions. PMID:25393190

Chang, Eva; Chan, Kitty S

2015-01-01

155

The Bureau of Health Education's Elementary School Health Curriculum Project, Berkeley Model, and the American Lung Association - Bureau of Health Education's Primary Grades Health Curriculum Project, Seattle Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document describes two models for an early school health curriculum project. These two projects were initiated with the aim of increasing effective cooperation of public health personnel work with public schools in teaching health maintenance and prevention of disease. The Berkeley Project worked with students of grade three through grade…

Center for Disease Control (DHEW/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

156

Association of Oral Health Indicators with Quality-of-Life Related to Oral Health among Iranian Adolescent  

PubMed Central

Background: There has been an increase in the development and use of oral health-related quality-of-life (OHRQoL) measures in the past two decades. This study aimed to assess the association between OHRQoL and clinical oral health measures, among mid-level school children in Southeast of Iran. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a random cluster sample of 11-13 year-old student population. Consented participants interviewed for OHRQoL measurements using Persian version of child-oral impacts on daily performances (OIDP). Oral examination was done by a trained dentist using WHO oral health assessment form, version 2011. Data were analyzed by SPSS software version 20 using Mann–Whitney and correlation tests. Results: A total of 400 school children participated. The overall mean of decayed missing filled teeth (DMFT) was 1.76 ± 2.4. A total of 82% of the school children presented the impact of oral problems in at least one of the eight daily performances. As DMFT increased, the OIDP score tended to increase or quality-of-life of children tended to be worse (r = 0.397, P < 0.001). Conclusions: The results showed a positive relation between some oral health status and quality-of-life score.

Bakhtiar, Maryam; Mohammadi, Tayebeh Malek; Hajizamani, Abolghasem; Vossoughi, Mehrdad

2014-01-01

157

Factors Associated With Adoption of Health Information Technology: A Conceptual Model Based on a Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (HITECH) allocated $19.2 billion to incentivize adoption of the electronic health record (EHR). Since 2009, Meaningful Use Criteria have dominated information technology (IT) strategy. Health care organizations have struggled to meet expectations and avoid penalties to reimbursements from the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). Organizational theories attempt to explain factors that influence organizational change, and many theories address changes in organizational strategy. However, due to the complexities of the health care industry, existing organizational theories fall short of demonstrating association with significant health care IT implementations. There is no organizational theory for health care that identifies, groups, and analyzes both internal and external factors of influence for large health care IT implementations like adoption of the EHR. Objective The purpose of this systematic review is to identify a full-spectrum of both internal organizational and external environmental factors associated with the adoption of health information technology (HIT), specifically the EHR. The result is a conceptual model that is commensurate with the complexity of with the health care sector. Methods We performed a systematic literature search in PubMed (restricted to English), EBSCO Host, and Google Scholar for both empirical studies and theory-based writing from 1993-2013 that demonstrated association between influential factors and three modes of HIT: EHR, electronic medical record (EMR), and computerized provider order entry (CPOE). We also looked at published books on organizational theories. We made notes and noted trends on adoption factors. These factors were grouped as adoption factors associated with various versions of EHR adoption. Results The resulting conceptual model summarizes the diversity of independent variables (IVs) and dependent variables (DVs) used in articles, editorials, books, as well as quantitative and qualitative studies (n=83). As of 2009, only 16.30% (815/4999) of nonfederal, acute-care hospitals had adopted a fully interoperable EHR. From the 83 articles reviewed in this study, 16/83 (19%) identified internal organizational factors and 9/83 (11%) identified external environmental factors associated with adoption of the EHR, EMR, or CPOE. The conceptual model for EHR adoption associates each variable with the work that identified it. Conclusions Commonalities exist in the literature for internal organizational and external environmental factors associated with the adoption of the EHR and/or CPOE. The conceptual model for EHR adoption associates internal and external factors, specific to the health care industry, associated with adoption of the EHR. It becomes apparent that these factors have some level of association, but the association is not consistently calculated individually or in combination. To better understand effective adoption strategies, empirical studies should be performed from this conceptual model to quantify the positive or negative effect of each factor. PMID:25599673

DeShazo, Jonathan; Kim, Forest; Fulton, Lawrence

2014-01-01

158

Association between environmental contaminants and health outcomes in indigenous populations of the Circumpolar North  

PubMed Central

Background Since the 1990s, research has been carried out to monitor environmental contaminants and their effects on human health in the Arctic. Although evidence shows that Arctic indigenous peoples are exposed to higher levels of contaminants and do worse on several dimensions of health compared with other populations, the contribution of such exposures on adverse outcomes is unclear. Objective The purpose of this review is to provide a synopsis of the published epidemiological literature that has examined association between environmental contaminants and health outcomes in Arctic indigenous populations. Design A literature search was conducted in OVID Medline (1946-January 2014) using search terms that combined concepts of contaminant and indigenous populations in the Arctic. No language or date restrictions were applied. The reference lists of review articles were hand-searched. Results Of 559 citations, 60 studies were relevant. The studies fell under the following categories: paediatric (n=18), reproductive health (n=18), obstetrics and gynaecology (n=9), cardiology (n=7), bone health (n=2), oncology (n=2), endocrinology (n=2) and other (n=2). All studies, except one from Arctic Finland, were either from Nunavik or Greenland. Most studies assessed polychlorinated biphenyls (n=43) and organochlorine pesticides (n=29). Fewer studies examined heavy metals, perfluorinated compounds, or polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Details of study results for each health category are provided. Conclusions It is difficult to make conclusive statements about the effects of environmental contaminants on health due to mixed results, small number of studies and studies being restricted to a small number of regions. Meta-analytical synthesis of the evidence should be considered for priority contaminants and health outcomes. The following research gaps should be addressed in future studies: association of contaminants and health in other Arctic regions (i.e. Inuvialuit Settlement Region, Nunavut, Nunatsiavut, Alaska, European North and Russian North); assessment of contaminants on chronic diseases; inclusion of clinical endpoints in assessments; and assessment of the emerging contaminants of perfluorinated compounds and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. PMID:25491153

Singh, Kavita; Bjerregaard, Peter; Man Chan, Hing

2014-01-01

159

Associations between working memory, health literacy, and recall of the signs of stroke among older adults.  

PubMed

Stroke remains a major cause of mortality and disability among older adults. Although early treatment after stroke is known to reduce both mortality and disability, the first step in seeking early treatment is dependent on the rapid recognition of the signs of stroke. Recall of the signs of stroke may be dependent on factors that exist before the stroke itself. Although it is known that both working memory and health literacy decline with advancing age, these factors have not been thoroughly examined with respect to recall of the signs of stroke. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to investigate associations between working memory, health literacy, and recall of the signs of stroke among older adults. Community dwelling older adults (?65 years of age) were recruited from two senior centers. Fifty-six participants meeting inclusion criteria provided demographic and health information and were asked to read a public service brochure listing the five warning signs of stroke. Working memory was then assessed using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale 3rd Edition Working Memory Index. Health literacy was assessed by the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Participants' recall of the five warning signs of stroke was evaluated. The mean age was 80.4 years. The mean number of the signs of stroke recalled was 2.9 ± 1.33. Working memory and health literacy were positively correlated with recall of the signs of stroke (r = .38, p < 0.01; r = .44, p < 0.01). In a simultaneous regression, only health literacy remained a significant predictor of recall. There was no statistically significant interaction between working memory and health literacy. Findings from this study indicate that working memory and health literacy were associated with successful recall of the warning signs of stroke in older adults. Further studies are needed to determine if programs that include cognitive and literacy assessments could identify older adults who need additional support to learn and recall the signs of stroke. PMID:22955236

Ganzer, Christine A; Insel, Kathleen C; Ritter, Leslie S

2012-10-01

160

Submitted to the Journal of the American Water Resources Association Potential Human Health Effects Associated with Pathogens in Urban Wet Weather Flows  

E-print Network

1 Submitted to the Journal of the American Water Resources Association Potential Human Health and indicator organisms found in urban receiving waters are a common cause of concern. Though some question describing the potential human health effects associated with pathogens and commo n indicator organisms found

Pitt, Robert E.

161

Association between Elder Abuse and Metabolic Syndromes: Findings from the Chicago Health and Aging Project.  

PubMed

Background: Elder abuse and metabolic syndromes are both important public health issues and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to examine the associations between elder abuse and risk for metabolic syndromes. Methods: The Chicago Health and Aging Project (CHAP) cohort is a population-based study (n = 4,586). We identified 676 participants with some form of elder abuse reported to a social services agency. The primary independent variable was elder abuse reported to a social services agency. Outcomes were metabolic syndrome as categorized by World Health Organization (WHO), American Heart Association (AHA) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between elder abuse and different definitions of metabolic syndromes. Results: In the bivariate analyses, elder abuse victims were more likely than those without elder abuse to have metabolic syndromes [22.4 vs. 10.7% (WHO), 50.7 vs. 40.0% (AHA) and 47.7 vs. 33.5% (IDF)]. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, elder abuse was associated with an increased risk for metabolic syndromes according to WHO [OR, 3.95 (2.86-5.47)], AHA [OR, 2.03 (1.56-2.64)] and IDF [OR, 2.55 (1.97-3.29)] criteria. Interaction term analyses indicate that the association between elder abuse and metabolic syndromes may be moderated by sociodemographic characteristics but not by health-related or psychosocial factors. Conclusion: Elder abuse is associated with an increased risk for metabolic syndromes. Research is needed to examine the association between elder abuse and cardiovascular disease. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25471532

Dong, XinQi; Simon, Melissa

2014-11-29

162

Effect of telephone health coaching (Birmingham OwnHealth) on hospital use and associated costs: cohort study with matched controls  

PubMed Central

Objectives To test the effect of a telephone health coaching service (Birmingham OwnHealth) on hospital use and associated costs. Design Analysis of person level administrative data. Difference-in-difference analysis was done relative to matched controls. Setting Community based intervention operating in a large English city with industry. Participants 2698 patients recruited from local general practices before 2009 with heart failure, coronary heart disease, diabetes, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; and a history of inpatient or outpatient hospital use. These individuals were matched on a 1:1 basis to control patients from similar areas of England with respect to demographics, diagnoses of health conditions, previous hospital use, and a predictive risk score. Intervention Telephone health coaching involved a personalised care plan and a series of outbound calls usually scheduled monthly. Median length of time enrolled on the service was 25.5 months. Control participants received usual healthcare in their areas, which did not include telephone health coaching. Main outcome measures Number of emergency hospital admissions per head over 12 months after enrolment. Secondary metrics calculated over 12 months were: hospital bed days, elective hospital admissions, outpatient attendances, and secondary care costs. Results In relation to diagnoses of health conditions and other baseline variables, matched controls and intervention patients were similar before the date of enrolment. After this point, emergency admissions increased more quickly among intervention participants than matched controls (difference 0.05 admissions per head, 95% confidence interval 0.00 to 0.09, P=0.046). Outpatient attendances also increased more quickly in the intervention group (difference 0.37 attendances per head, 0.16 to 0.58, P<0.001), as did secondary care costs (difference Ł175 per head, Ł22 to Ł328, P=0.025). Checks showed that we were unlikely to have missed reductions in emergency admissions because of unobserved differences between intervention and matched control groups. Conclusions The Birmingham OwnHealth telephone health coaching intervention did not lead to the expected reductions in hospital admissions or secondary care costs over 12 months, and could have led to increases. PMID:23920348

2013-01-01

163

Further examination of the cross-country association between income inequality and population health.  

PubMed

Several scholars have put forward the view that the estimates by Rodgers [(1979). Income and inequality as determinants of mortality: An international cross-section analysis. Population Studies, 33 (2), 343-351], Flegg [(1982). Inequality of income, illiteracy and medical care as determinants of infant mortality in underdeveloped countries. Population Studies, 36 (3), 441-458] and Waldmann [(1992). Income distribution and infant mortality. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 107 (4), 1283-1302] showing a negative cross-country association between income inequality and population health, cannot be replicated from recent data. In view of the importance of this matter, the present study further examines the issue from the most recent, and probably more accurate, data for the largest cross-country sample used in this line of research. The main conclusion is that the negative cross-country association between income inequality and good health, reported by Rodgers, Flegg, and Waldmann, is replicated very well. The different findings indicated by some scholars may have been due to their samples or the models being unusual. Therefore, the recent skepticism about the existence of such a negative association needs to be reconsidered. Several additional points are also noted. First, income inequality shows significance even after an index of ethnic heterogeneity is included. Second, ethnic heterogeneity itself has a negative association with population health. Third, income inequality retains significance in the presence of a measure of social capital. Fourth, however, the association between the measure of social capital and population health appears weak. Fifth, a simple analysis does not support the view that the positive association between income inequality and infant mortality in less developed countries (LDCs) may just be a reflection of the role of poverty. Finally, there is some support for the proposition that while income may be relatively more important for health in LDCs, the role of income inequality may be stronger in developed economies. PMID:16051408

Ram, Rati

2006-02-01

164

Complaints of Sleep Disturbances Are Associated with Cardiovascular Disease: Results from the Gutenberg Health Study  

PubMed Central

Background Despite their high prevalence, sleep disorders often remain unrecognized and untreated because of barriers to assessment and management. The aims of the present study were to examine associations of complaints of sleep disturbances with cardiovascular disease, related risk factors, and inflammation in the community and to determine the contribution of sleep disturbances to self-perceived physical health. Method The sample consists of n?=?10.000 participants, aged 35 to 74 years of a population based community sample in Germany. Cross-sectional associations of complaints of sleep disturbances with cardiovascular risk factors and disease, biomarkers of inflammation, depression, anxiety, and physical health status were analyzed. Results 19% of our sample endorsed clinically significant sleep disturbances. In the unadjusted analyses severity of sleep disturbances increased with female sex, low socioeconomic status, living without a partnership, cardiovascular disease, depression, anxiety, poor physical health, increased levels of C-reactive protein and fibrinogen. After multivariate adjustment robust associations with coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction and dyslipidemia remained. Complaints of sleep disturbances were strong and independent contributors to self-perceived poor physical health beyond depression, anxiety and medical disease burden. Conclusions Given the high prevalence of complaints of sleep disturbances and their strong impact on health status, increased efforts should be undertaken for their identification and treatment. PMID:25093413

Michal, Matthias; Wiltink, Jörg; Kirschner, Yvonne; Schneider, Astrid; Wild, Philipp S.; Münzel, Thomas; Blettner, Maria; Schulz, Andreas; Lackner, Karl; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Blankenberg, Stefan; Tschan, Regine; Tuin, Inka; Beutel, Manfred E.

2014-01-01

165

A Genome-wide association study of self-rated health  

PubMed Central

Self-rated health questions have been proven to be a highly reliable and valid measure of overall health as measured by other indicators in many population groups. It also has been shown to be a very good predictor of mortality, chronic or severe diseases, and the need for services, and is positively correlated with clinical assessments. Genetic factors have been estimated to account for 25 – 64% of the variance in the liability of self-rated health. The aim of the present study was to identify Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) underlying the heritability of self-rated health by conducting a genome-wide association analysis in a large sample of 6,706 Australian individuals aged 18–92. No genome wide significant SNPs associated with self-rated health could be identified, indicating that self-rated health may be influenced by a large number of SNPs with very small effect size. A very large sample will be needed to identify these SNPs. PMID:20707712

Mosing, Miriam A.; Verweij, Karin J.H.; Medland, Sarah E.; Painter, Jodie; Gordon, Scott D.; Heath, Andrew C.; Madden, Pamela A.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Martin, Nicholas G.

2011-01-01

166

Fish Health Studies Associated with the Kingston Fly Ash Spill, Spring 2009 - Fall 2010  

SciTech Connect

On December 22, 2008, over 4 million cubic meters of fly ash slurry was released into the Emory River when a dike surrounding a solid waste containment area at the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant ruptured. One component of TVA's response to the spill is a biological monitoring program to assess short- and long-term ecological responses to the ash and associated chemicals, including studies on fish health and contaminant bioaccumulation. These studies were initiated in early Spring 2009 for the purposes of: (1) documenting the levels of fly ash-associated metals in various tissues of representative sentinel fish species in the area of the fly ash spill, (2) determining if exposure to fly ash-associated metals causes short, intermediate, or long-term health effects on these sentinel fish species, (3) assessing if there are causal relationships between exposure to metals and health effects on fish, (4) evaluating, along with information from other ecological and physicochemical studies, the nature and route of contaminant transfer though food chains into higher level consumers, (5) providing important information for the Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) for the Kingston fly ash project, and (6) serving as an important technology information transfer or model study focused on how to best evaluate the environmental effects of fly ash (and related environmental stressors), not only at the Kingston site, but also at sites on other aquatic systems where coal-fired generating stations are located. This report presents the results of the first two years of the fish health study. To date, fish health and bioaccumulation studies have been conducted from Spring 2009 though Fall 2011 and includes 6 seasonal studies: Spring 2009, Fall 2009, Spring 2010, Fall 2010, Spring 2011, and Fall 2011. Both the Spring and Fall studies have focused on 3-4 sentinel fish species that represent different feeding habits, behaviors, and home ranges. In addition to fish health and bioaccumulation, the Spring investigations also included reproductive integrity studies on the same fish used for bioaccumulation and fish health. In this report, results of the fish health studies from Spring 2009 through Fall 2010 are presented while an associated report will present the fish reproductive studies conducted during Spring 2009 and Spring 2010. A report on fish bioaccumulation was submitted to TVA in June 2011. The fish health study conducted in conjunction with the bioaccumulation and reproductive study is critical for assessing and evaluating possible causal relationships between contaminant exposure (bioaccumulation) and the response of fish to exposure as reflected by the various measurements of fish health.

Adams, Marshall [ORNL; Fortner, Allison M [ORNL

2012-05-01

167

Associations between Mental Health, Substance Use, and Sexual Abuse Experiences among Latinas.  

PubMed

This study examined self-reported sexually abusive experiences in childhood and adulthood as correlates of current drug use, alcohol abuse, and depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants were 204 Latina women 18-34 years old. Results indicated significant relationships between history of sexual abuse (regardless of age of occurrence), depression symptoms, PTSD symptoms, alcohol abuse, and drug use. When examined separately, childhood sexual abuse was associated with symptoms of depression, PTSD, and substance use but not alcohol abuse behaviors. Experiencing sexual abuse in adulthood was associated with symptoms of depression, alcohol abuse behaviors, and substance use but not PTSD symptoms. Structural equation modeling showed that substance use partially mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and mental health outcomes. These findings suggest mental health and substance use services should incorporate treatment for trauma, which may be the root of comorbid mental health and substance use issues. PMID:25635897

Ulibarri, Monica D; Ulloa, Emilio C; Salazar, Marissa

2015-01-01

168

Milk intelligence: Mining milk for bioactive substances associated with human health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Milk has evolved as a complete food for the mammalian nourishment of its young. However, research is unveiling an ever-accumulating range of bioactivities associated with milk substituents, emphasizing a role in programming human health. One good example is the increased complexity of carbohydrates in colostrum that may have a controlling influence on the selection of gut microbiota in infants at

S. Mills; R. P. Ross; C. Hill; G. F. Fitzgerald; C. Stanton

2011-01-01

169

CARDIOVASCULAR AND OTHER HEALTH EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH ARSENIC EXPOSURE IN INNER MONGOLIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Arsenic exposure is associated with cardiovascular and other health effects. The study objectives were to investigate the mode of action and to assess dose-response relationships of arsenic on cardiovascular, diabetic and carcinogenic effects in Ba Men, Inner Mongolia. Ba Men res...

170

Association between BDNF-rs6265 and obesity in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study is to examine a functional variant (rs6265) in the BDNF gene interacting with dietary intake modulate obesity traits in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study population. BDNF rs6265 was genotyped in 1147 Puerto Ricans (aged 45-75 years), and examined for association with o...

171

Irregular Breakfast Eating and Associated Health Behaviors: A Pilot Study among College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine prevalence of eating breakfast and associated health compromising behaviors. This study utilized a cross-sectional survey methodology. A purposive cluster sampling technique was utilized to collect data from a representative sample of college students in a Midwestern university in the U.S. A total of 1,257…

Thiagarajah, Krisha; Torabi, Mohammad R.

2009-01-01

172

Mental Health Problems in Adults with Down Syndrome and Their Association with Life Circumstances  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focused on current life circumstances, previous life events, and engagement with productive and enjoyable activities. It examined the association of these variables with mental health problems and mood in a cohort of young adults with Down syndrome. Participants were 49 adults with Down syndrome (age range 20-31 years) and their…

Mallardo, Mariarosa; Cuskelly, Monica; White, Paul; Jobling, Anne

2014-01-01

173

Psychosocial, Environmental and Behavioral Factors Associated with Bone Health in Middle-School Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to identify the psychosocial, environmental and behavioral factors associated with calcium intake, physical activity and bone health in a cohort of adolescent girls. Baseline data (N = 718 girls, mean age: 11.6 plus or minus 0.4 years) from the Incorporating More Physical Activity and Calcium in Teens (IMPACT) study…

Sharma, Shreela V.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Kelder, Steven H.; Day, R. Sue; Hergenroeder, Albert

2009-01-01

174

Handgrip Strength, Positive Affect, and Perceived Health Are Prospectively Associated with Fewer Functional Limitations among Centenarians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed the association between perceived health, fatigue, positive and negative affect, handgrip strength, objectively measured physical activity, body mass index, and self-reported functional limitations, assessed 6 months later, among 11 centenarians (age = 102 plus or minus 1). Activities of daily living, assessed 6 months prior to…

Franke, Warren D.; Margrett, Jennifer A.; Heinz, Melinda; Martin, Peter

2012-01-01

175

The Association of Health-Related Fitness with Indicators of Academic Performance in Texas Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the associations between indicators of health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and body mass index) and academic performance (Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills). Partial correlations were generally stronger for cardiovascular fitness than body mass index and consistently stronger in the middle school…

Welk, Gregory J.; Jackson, Allen W.; Morrow, James R., Jr.; Haskell, William H.; Meredith, Marilu D.; Cooper, Kenneth H.

2010-01-01

176

Associations between Dopamine and Serotonin Genes and Job Satisfaction: Preliminary Evidence from the Add Health Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous behavioral genetic studies have found that job satisfaction is partially heritable. We went a step further to examine particular genetic markers that may be associated with job satisfaction. Using an oversample from the National Adolescent Longitudinal Study (Add Health Study), we found 2 genetic markers, dopamine receptor gene DRD4 VNTR…

Song, Zhaoli; Li, Wendong; Arvey, Richard D.

2011-01-01

177

Assessment of environmental impacts and public health risks associated with fossil fuel energy technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years plans to develop alternative fossil fuel energy technologies have also generated concern regarding the likely extent of the multi-media environmental and health impacts associated with the operation of these facilities. In an effort to help characterize the nature and the magnitude of these projected impacts, this paper discusses various quantitative approaches that can be used to study

H. Ozkaynak; M. Connor; R. Ghelardi; G. Sanford; M. Smith; J. Spengler; G. Thurston; E. Tony

1983-01-01

178

Dietary & health predictors associated with overweight & obesity in young adults: the Bogalusa Heart Study  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We examined independent associations between diet and lifestyle behaviors; differences in markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); and self-reported health problems among normal weight (NW); overweight (OW), and obese (OB) young adults. Cross-sectional data on pa...

179

ARE ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES TO CHLOROPHENOXY HERBICIDES ASSOCIATED WITH AN INCREASE IN ADVERSE HUMAN HEALTH EFFECTS?  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: Associations between adverse health effects and environmental exposures are difficult to study because exposures may be widespread, low-dose in nature, and common throughout the study population. Individual risk-factor epidemiology may not be able to initially ident...

180

Chronic arsenic exposure is associated with many human health conditions, including  

E-print Network

water. Arsenic contamination has had a profound impact at both the individual and community levelsChronic arsenic exposure is associated with many human health conditions, including skin lesions Community Hospital Trust 2005). Although > 20 countries have been affected by As contamination of drinking

van Geen, Alexander

181

Association of adolescent risk behaviors with mental health symptoms in high school students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To examine the hypothesis that self-reported symptoms of depression and stress may be associated with other risk behaviors.Methods: A secondary data analysis of the 1992 Massachusetts Adolescent Health Survey involving a representative sample of 2224 ninth and twelfth grade students was performed. The dichotomous dependent variable was positive if the adolescent reported feeling depressed or stressed for 10 or

Traci L Brooks; Sion Kim Harris; Jeannie S Thrall; Elizabeth R Woods

2002-01-01

182

Case study. Group Health Association: can Humana resuscitate the moribund HMO?  

PubMed

HMO pioneer Group Health Association of Washington, DC, was hemorrhaging members and dollars when Humana bought it in 1994. Its turnaround strategies run the gamut from outsourcing and devising administrative efficiencies to creating a new physician group and network to replace a feisty, unionized medical staff. PMID:10142820

Scott, K

1995-05-01

183

The association between exposure to a rear-end collision and future health complaints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different symptoms, together with neck pain, have been attributed to persons with persistent complaints after a previous motor vehicle crash (MVC) and are sometimes referred to as the “late whiplash syndrome.” A cohort study was conducted to determine whether exposure to a rear-end collision, with or without whiplash injury, is associated with future health complaints. The results regarding future neck

Anita Berglund; Lars Alfredsson; Irene Jensen; J. David Cassidy; Ĺke Nygren

2001-01-01

184

Invited commentary: Interpreting associations between high birth weight and later health problems.  

PubMed

High birth weight (>4.0 kg) has been associated with a wide range of health problems later in life. The interpretation of these statistical associations may be difficult, however. These difficulties are closely linked to methodological challenges in this research, such as filtering out confounding from family factors, disentangling associations with prenatal processes from associations with postnatal processes, and uncovering what birth weight actually represents. The well-conducted study by Kristensen et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2014;180(9):876-884), presented in this issue of the Journal, offers an interesting example of how one can filter out confounding from family factors. In an elegant series of analyses, the authors show how an apparent inverse association between birth weight and later intelligence among those in the highest range of the birth weight scale became a positive association when proper adjustment for family factors was made. Sibling comparisons were important here. PMID:25281692

Eriksen, Willy

2014-11-01

185

Tech-Prep/Associate Degree Program Guide: Tech Prep Associate Degree Program, Business Administration Associate Degree Program, Office Administration Associate Degree Program, Allied Health Associate Degree Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Tech-Prep Associate Degree Program (TPAD) at the Community College of Rhode Island (CCRI) in Warwick, is a high school/community college partnership providing high school students with an alternative program of study focused on goal setting, basic academic skills development, and the skills needed to pursue a career in a technical, business or…

Marmaras, Judy; Neri, Pat

186

Mining association rules between abnormal health examination results and outpatient medical records.  

PubMed

Currently, interpretation of health examination reports relies primarily on the physician's own experience. If health screening data could be integrated with outpatient medical records to uncover correlations between disease and abnormal test results, the physician could benefit from having additional reference resources for medical examination report interpretation and clinic diagnosis. This study used the medical database of a regional hospital in Taiwan to illustrate how association rules can be found between abnormal health examination results and outpatient illnesses. The rules can help to build up a disease-prevention knowledge database that assists healthcare providers in follow-up treatment and prevention. Furthermore, this study proposes a new algorithm, the data cutting and sorting method, or DCSM, in place of the traditional Apriori algorithm. DCSM significantly improves the mining performance of Apriori by reducing the time to scan health examination and outpatient medical records, both of which are databases of immense sizes. PMID:23736654

Chao Huang, Yi

2013-01-01

187

Associations between physical activity and mental health among bariatric surgical candidates  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aimed to examine associations between physical activity (PA) and mental health among adults undergoing bariatric surgery. Methods Cross sectional analysis was conducted on pre-operative data of 850 adults with ? class 2 obesity. PA was measured with a step activity monitor; mean daily steps, active minutes, and high-cadence minutes (proxy for moderate-vigorous intensity PA) were determined. Mental health functioning, depressive symptoms and treatment for depression or anxiety were measured with the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form, Beck Depression Inventory, and a study-specific questionnaire, respectively. Logistic regression analyses tested associations between PA and mental health indicators, controlling for potential confounders. Receiver operative characteristic analysis determined PA thresholds that best differentiated odds of each mental health indicator. Results Each PA parameter was significantly (P<.05) associated with a decreased odds of depressive symptoms and/or treatment for depression or anxiety, but not with impaired mental health functioning. After controlling for sociodemographics and physical health, only associations with treatment for depression and anxiety remained statistically significant. PA thresholds that best differentiated those who had vs. had not recently received treatment for depression or anxiety were <191 active minutes/day, <4750 steps/day, and <8 high-cadence minutes/day. Utilizing high-cadence minutes, compared to active minutes or steps, yielded the highest classification accuracy. Conclusion Adults undergoing bariatric surgery who meet relatively low thresholds of PA (e.g., ? 8 high-cadence minutes/day, representative of approximately one hour/week of moderate-vigorous intensity PA) are less likely to have recently received treatment for depression or anxiety compared to less active counterparts. PMID:23332532

King, Wendy C.; Kalarchian, Melissa A.; Steffen, Kristine J.; Wolfe, Bruce M.; Elder, Katherine A.; Mitchell, James E.

2013-01-01

188

Economic Barriers To Improvement Of Human Health Associated With Wastewater Irrigation In The Mezquital Valley, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To improve public health, the United Nations' Johannesburg Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002 set Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of reducing by half the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and sanitation by 2015. The Mezquital Valley of Mexico is one of the places suffering serious human health problems such as ascariasis due to agricultural irrigation with untreated wastewater discharged by Mexico City. Despite the existence of serious health problems, wastewater treatment has not been installed due to economic barriers: the agricultural benefit of nutrients in the wastewater and cost of building and operating wastewater treatment plants. To develop solutions to this problem, the human health damage and the benefits of nutrient input were evaluated. The health impact caused by untreated wastewater reuse in the Mezquital Valley was estimated to be about 14 DALYs (disability-adjusted life year) per 100,000, which was 2.8 times higher than the DALYs lost by ascariasis in Mexico in 2002 estimated by WHO. The economic damage of the health impact was evaluated at 77,000 /year using willingness-to-pay (WTP) for reducing DALYs. The value of nutrient inputs (nitrogen and phosphorus) due to reuse of untreated wastewater was evaluated at 33 million /year using fertilizer prices. Therefore, attempts to decrease public health problems associated with reuse in the Mezquital Valley need to address losses of economic benefits associated with nutrients in sewage. In 2007, the Mexican Government announced plans to install wastewater treatment plants in this area. Although nutrient inputs in irrigated water is expected to decrease by 33% due to the wastewater treatment, farmers in the Mezquital Valley would still benefit from improved public health in the community and increases of crop values due to the ability to grow raw-eaten vegetables.

Yamagata, H.; Sedlak, D. L.

2008-12-01

189

The Oral History Program: III. Personal views of health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association.  

PubMed Central

The Medical Library Association Oral History Program uses accepted oral history techniques to collect and preserve interviews with members. The original taped interviews and transcripts are kept in the Medical Library Association archives and made available for research purposes; edited copies of the interviews are distributed through the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, and members are encouraged to borrow and read the histories. Summaries of forty-three interviews provide personal views on health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association. PMID:9803287

McKenzie, D; Pifalo, V

1998-01-01

190

Problem drinking's associations with social structure and mental health care: race/ethnicity differences.  

PubMed

This research used a nationally representative sample of 12,756 respondents self-identified as White, Black, Hispanic, or Asian to examine problem drinking in relationship to social structure and mental healthcare factors. Associations between problem drinking and particular factors varied by racial/ethnic group. Results also indicated that Whites' problem-drinking rates were higher than those of Hispanics, Blacks, and Asians. Americans sometimes use alcohol to manage stress stemming from social disadvantage and inadequate material resources. Across racial/ethnic groups, drinking level was associated with the type and degree of such disadvantage. Additionally, the presence of a mental health problem was associated with problem drinking. PMID:25052882

Lo, Celia C; Cheng, Tyrone C; Howell, Rebecca J

2014-01-01

191

ASSOCIATION OF PERSONAL AND WORKPLACE CHARACTERISTICS WITH REPORTED HEALTH SYMPTOMS OF 6771 GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES IN WASHINGTON, DC  

EPA Science Inventory

An indoor air quality questionnaire was completed by 6771 employees of two government agencies. egression analyses on 12 clusters of health symptoms indicated that both personal and workplace characteristics were associated with symptoms. he variables associated with the largest ...

192

Strengthening the organizational capacity of health professional associations: the FIGO LOGIC Toolkit.  

PubMed

Health professional associations, including national associations of obstetrics and gynecology, can have a leading role in influencing and developing health policy and practice. However, in low- and middle-resource countries, the organizational capacity to facilitate this role is often insufficient. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics LOGIC (Leadership in Obstetrics and Gynaecology for Impact and Change) Initiative has been developing the capacity of national associations in Africa and Asia. Through this work, an electronic resource of materials (http://figo-toolkit.org/) has been brought together to support organizational capacity development, addressing domains such as culture, strategic planning, human resources, project and financial management, performance, external relations, membership services, and the development and revision of clinical guidelines. PMID:23820029

Andrews, Helena; Perron, Liette; Vander Plaetse, Bart; Taylor, David J

2013-09-01

193

Association between Race, Place, and Preventive Health Screenings among Men: Findings from the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study  

PubMed Central

African American men consistently report poorer health and have lower participation rates in preventive screening tests than white men. This finding is generally attributed to race differences in access to care which may be a consequence of the different healthcare markets in which African American and white men typically live. This proposition is tested by assessing race differences in use of preventive screenings among African American and white men residing within the same healthcare marketplace. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between race and physical, dental, eye and foot examinations, blood pressure and cholesterol checks, and colon and prostate cancer screenings in men in the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities in Southwest Baltimore Study. After adjusting for covariates, African American men had greater odds of having had a physical, dental, and eye examination; having had their blood pressure and cholesterol checked; and having been screened for colon and prostate cancer than white men. No race differences in having a foot examination were observed. Contrary to most findings, African American men had a higher participation rate in preventive screenings than white men. This underscores the importance of accounting for social context in public health campaigns targeting preventive screenings in men. PMID:23184335

Thorpe, Roland J.; Bowie, Janice V.; Wilson-Frederick, Shondelle M.; Coa, Kisha I.; LaVeist, Thomas A.

2013-01-01

194

I35W Collapse, Rebuild, and Structural Health MONITORING—CHALLENGES Associated with Structural Health Monitoring of Bridge Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During evening rush hour traffic on August 1, 2007, the major interstate highway bridge carrying I35W over the Mississippi River in Minneapolis catastrophically failed, tragically taking the lives of thirteen people and injuring many more. The steel truss bridge, constructed in 1967, was undergoing deck reconstruction during the collapse, and was estimated to carry more than 140,000 vehicles daily. This tragedy generated great interest in employment of structural health monitoring systems. The I35W St. Anthony Falls Bridge, a post-tensioned concrete box bridge constructed to replace the collapsed steel truss bridge, contains over 500 instruments to monitor the structural behavior. Numerical models of the bridge are being developed and calibrated to the collected data obtained from truck load tests and thermal effects. The data obtained over the first few years of monitoring are being correlated with the calibrated models and used to develop the baseline bridge behavior. This information is being used to develop a system to monitor and interpret the long-term behavior of the bridge. This paper describes the instrumentation, preliminary results from the data and model calibration, the plan for developing long-term monitoring capabilities, and the challenges associated with structural health monitoring of bridge systems. In addition, opportunities and directions for future research required to fully realize the objectives of structural health monitoring are described.

French, C. E.; Hedegaard, B.; Shield, C. K.; Stolarski, H.

2011-06-01

195

A Qualitative Comparative Analysis of factors associated with trends in narrowing health inequalities in England.  

PubMed

This study explores why progress with tackling health inequalities has varied among a group of local authority areas in England that were set targets to narrow important health outcomes compared to national averages. It focuses on premature deaths from cancers and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and whether the local authority gap for these outcomes narrowed. Survey and secondary data were used to create dichotomised conditions describing each area. For cancers, ten conditions were found to be associated with whether or not narrowing occurred: presence/absence of a working culture of individual commitment and champions; spending on cancer programmes; aspirational or comfortable/complacent organisational cultures; deprivation; crime; assessments of strategic partnership working, commissioning and the public health workforce; frequency of progress reviews; and performance rating of the local Primary Care Trust (PCT). For CVD, six conditions were associated with whether or not narrowing occurred: a PCT budget closer or further away from target; assessments of primary care services, smoking cessation services and local leadership; presence/absence of a few major programmes; and population turnover. The method of Qualitative Comparative Analysis was used to find configurations of these conditions with either the narrowing or not narrowing outcomes. Narrowing cancer gaps were associated with three configurations in which individual commitment and champions was a necessary condition, and not narrowing was associated with a group of conditions that had in common a high level of bureaucratic-type work. Narrowing CVD gaps were associated with three configurations in which a high assessment of either primary care or smoking cessation services was a necessary condition, and not narrowing was associated with two configurations that both included an absence of major programmes. The article considers substantive and theoretical arguments for these configurations being causal and as pointing to ways of improving progress with tackling health inequalities. PMID:21640455

Blackman, Tim; Wistow, Jonathan; Byrne, David

2011-06-01

196

Association of health beliefs and colonoscopy use among survivors of colorectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Objectives Clinical practice guidelines recommend ongoing testing (surveillance) for colorectal cancer survivors because they remain at risk for both local recurrences and second primary tumors. However, survivors often do not receive colorectal cancer surveillance. We used the Health Belief Model (HBM) to identify health beliefs that predict intentions to obtain routine colonoscopies among colorectal cancer survivors. Methods We completed telephone interviews with 277 colorectal cancer survivors who were diagnosed four years earlier, between 2003 and 2005, in North Carolina. The interview measured health beliefs, past preventive behaviors, and intentions to have a routine colonoscopy in the next five years. Results In bivariate analyses, most HBM constructs were associated with intentions. In multivariable analyses, greater perceived likelihood of colorectal cancer (OR=2.00, 95% CI=1.16–3.44) was associated with greater intention to have a colonoscopy. Survivors who already had a colonoscopy since diagnosis also had greater intentions of having a colonoscopy in the future (OR=9.47, 95% CI=2.08–43.16). Conclusions Perceived likelihood of colorectal cancer is an important target for further study and intervention to increase colorectal cancer surveillance among survivors. Other health beliefs were unrelated to intentions, suggesting that the health beliefs of colorectal cancer survivors and asymptomatic adults may differ due to the experience of cancer. PMID:19760152

Salz, Talya; Brewer, Noel T.; Sandler, Robert S.; Weiner, Bryan J.; Martin, Christopher F.; Weinberger, Morris

2009-01-01

197

Predisposing, enabling, and need factors associated with high service use in a public mental health system.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) To investigate the individual- and system-level characteristics associated with high utilization of acute mental health services according to a widely-used theory of service use-Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Service Use -in individuals enrolled in a large, public-funded mental health system; and (2) To document service utilization by high use consumers prior to a transformation of the service delivery system. We analyzed data from 10,128 individuals receiving care in a large public mental health system from fiscal years 2000-2004. Subjects with information in the database for the index year (fiscal year 2000-2001) and all of the following 3 years were included in this study. Using logistic regression, we identified predisposing, enabling, and need characteristics associated with being categorized as a single-year high use consumer (HU: >3 acute care episodes in a single year) or multiple-year HU (>3 acute care episodes in more than 1 year). Thirteen percent of the sample met the criteria for being a single-year HU and an additional 8% met the definition for multiple-year HU. Although some predisposing factors were significantly associated with an increased likelihood of being classified as a HU (younger age and female gender) relative to non-HUs, the characteristics with the strongest associations with the HU definition, when controlling for all other factors, were enabling and need factors. Homelessness was associated with 115% increase in the odds of ever being classified as a HU compared to those living independently or with family and others. Having insurance was associated with increased odds of being classified as a HU by about 19% relative to non-HUs. Attending four or more outpatient visits was an enabling factor that decreased the chances of being defined as a HU. Need factors, such as having a diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or other psychotic disorder or having a substance use disorder increased the likelihood of being categorized as a HU. Characteristics with the strongest association with heavy use of a public mental health system were enabling and need factors. Therefore, optimal use of public mental services may be achieved by developing and implementing interventions that address the issues of homelessness, insurance coverage, and substance use. This may be best achieved by the integration of mental health, intensive case management, and supportive housing, as well as other social services. PMID:21533848

Lindamer, Laurie A; Liu, Lin; Sommerfeld, David H; Folsom, David P; Hawthorne, William; Garcia, Piedad; Aarons, Gregory A; Jeste, Dilip V

2012-05-01

198

The Association of Health and Employment in Mature Women: A Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Despite a reduction in income inequalities between men and women, there is still a large gap between income and retirement savings of Australian men and women. This is especially true for women who have health or disability problems. Mature age women are closest to retirement and, therefore, have less chance than younger women to build up enough retirement savings and may need to continue working to fund their older age. Continued workforce participation may be particularly difficult for women who are less healthy. Understanding which health problems lead to a decrease in workforce participation among mature age women is crucial. Therefore, this longitudinal study sought to identify which health problems are associated with employment among midage women over time. Methods Data were analyzed from the midage cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH), which involved 14,200 midage women (aged 45–50 years in 1996). The women have been surveyed four additional times, in 1998, 2001, 2004, and 2007. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to conduct nested multivariate longitudinal analyses. Results The percentages of women who were employed in the years 2001, 2004, and 2007 were 77%, 72%, and 68%, respectively. Results were adjusted for sociodemographic variables. Being employed decreased as physical and mental health deteriorated and with self-reported conditions: diabetes, high blood pressure, depression, anxiety, and other psychiatric conditions. Back pain, arthritis, cancer, obesity, and being a current smoker are associated with employment but not when quality of life is added to the model. Conclusions There were significant associations between health and employment. Understanding these relationships could inform policies and guidelines for preventing declines in employment in mature age women. PMID:22060315

Byles, Julie

2012-01-01

199

Association between perceived chewing ability and oral health-related quality of life in partially dentate patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: One of the most immediate and important functional consequences of many oral disorders is a reduction in chewing ability. The ability to chew is not only an important dimension of oral health, but is increasingly recognized as being associated with general health status. Whether perceived chewing ability and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) are correlated to a similar

Mika Inukai; Mike T John; Yoshimasa Igarashi; Kazuyoshi Baba

2010-01-01

200

Food Avoidance and Food Modification Practices of Older Rural Adults: Association with Oral Health Status and Implications for Service Provision  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Dietary variation is important for health maintenance and disease prevention among older adults. However, oral health deficits impair ability to bite and chew foods. This study examines the association between oral health and foods avoided or modified in a multiethnic rural population of older adults. It considers implications for…

Quandt, Sara A.; Chen, Haiying; Bell, Ronny A.; Savoca, Margaret R.; Anderson, Andrea M.; Leng, Xiaoyan; Kohrman, Teresa; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Arcury, Thomas A.

2010-01-01

201

Is the health and wellbeing of university students associated with their academic performance? Cross sectional findings from the United Kingdom.  

PubMed

This study explored the associations between health awareness, health behaviour, subjective health status, and satisfaction of students with their educational experience as independent variables and three outcomes of educational achievement as dependent variables. We undertook two simultaneous cross-sectional surveys among students from one University in the UK during 2008-2009. The first survey was a general health survey; the second survey measured students' satisfaction with different aspects of their learning and teaching experience. Students' registration numbers linked the responses of both questionnaires together, and subsequently linked the questionnaires to the university database to import the grades that students actually achieved in their studies. Generally, on average, students (N = 380) exhibited medium to high satisfaction with their educational experiences. In the multivariate regression analyses, students' satisfaction with their educational experiences was not associated with any of the three indicators of educational achievement (actual module mark; perceived own performance; importance of achieving good grades). The associations of educational satisfaction, health, health behaviours, heath complaints and financial parameters with the three outcomes of educational achievement did not differ between male and female students. Each of the health, health behaviours, health complaints and financial parameters were selectively associated with only some but not all three indicators of student educational achievement. We conclude that the findings support a conceptual framework suggesting reciprocal relationships between health, health behaviour and educational achievement. Comprehensive health promotion programmes may have the potential to influence relevant predictors of educational achievement in university students. PMID:20616988

El Ansari, Walid; Stock, Christiane

2010-02-01

202

Epigenetic Change (GATA-4 Gene Methylation) Is Associated With Health Status in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.  

PubMed

Gene methylation is an epigenetic change that involves a heritable modification of chromatin structure that alters gene expression without a change in DNA sequence. It has previously been shown that methylation of the GATA-4 gene promoter region in sputum DNA is associated with low lung function and increased odds of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) among smokers. Given these findings, we hypothesized that GATA-4 gene methylation in sputum DNA would be associated with low health status, as measured by the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), in subjects with COPD. Self-reported SGRQ, spirometry, and induced sputum samples were obtained from 168 COPD subjects from the Lovelace Smokers Cohort. GATA-4 gene methylation was evaluated in sputum DNA using nested methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Using general linear model with Poisson regression, we found that GATA-4 gene methylation was significantly associated with overall lower SGRQ health status (parameter estimate = .296, p < .001). This finding remained significant even after controlling for age, lung function, and other covariates. In an additional analysis using logistic regression and comparing extreme tertiles of overall SGRQ score, we confirmed that GATA-4 gene methylation was associated with a 3-fold increase in risk of poor health status (OR 2.95 and p = .028). The unexplored links between epigenetic changes and psychosocial factors such as health status are critical gaps in the literature. This study is the first to suggest that airway GATA-4 gene methylation status may independently predict health status in individuals with COPD. PMID:24973415

Meek, Paula M; Sood, Akshay; Petersen, Hans; Belinsky, Steven A; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes

2015-03-01

203

Association between Obesity and Cardiometabolic Health Risk in Asian-Canadian Sub-Groups  

PubMed Central

Objectives To quantify and compare the association between the World Health Organizations’ Asian-specific trigger points for public health action [‘increased risk’: body mass index (BMI) ?23 kg/m2, and; ‘high risk’: BMI ?27.5 kg/m2] with self-reported cardiovascular-related conditions in Asian-Canadian sub-groups. Methods Six cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey (2001–2009) were pooled to examine BMI and health in Asian sub-groups (South Asians, Chinese, Filipino, Southeast Asians, Arabs, West Asians, Japanese and Korean; N?=?18 794 participants, ages 18–64 y). Multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for demographic, lifestyle characteristics and acculturation measures, was used to estimate the odds of cardiovascular-related health (high blood pressure, heart disease, diabetes, ‘at least one cardiometabolic condition’) outcomes across all eight Asian sub-groups. Results Compared to South Asians (OR?=?1.00), Filipinos had higher odds of having ‘at least one cardiometabolic condition’ (OR?=?1.29, 95% CI: 1.04–1.62), whereas Chinese (0.63, 0.474–0.9) and Arab-Canadians had lower odds (0.38, 0.28–0.51). In ethnic-specific analyses (with ‘acceptable’ risk weight as the referent), ‘increased’ and ‘high’ risk weight categories were the most highly associated with ‘at least one cardiometabolic condition’ in Chinese (‘increased’: 3.6, 2.34–5.63; ‘high’: 8.9, 3.6–22.01). Compared to normal weight South Asians, being in the ‘high’ risk weight category in all but the Southeast Asian, Arab, and Japanese ethnic groups was associated with approximately 3-times the likelihood of having ‘at least one cardiometabolic condition’. Conclusion Differences in the association between obesity and cardiometabolic health risks were seen among Asian sub-groups in Canada. The use of WHO’s lowered Asian-specific BMI cut-offs identified obesity-related risks in South Asian, Filipino and Chinese sub-groups that would have been masked by traditional BMI categories. These findings have implications for public health messaging, especially for ethnic groups at higher odds of obesity-related health risks. PMID:25222283

Nie, Jason X.; Ardern, Chris I.

2014-01-01

204

The Moderating Role of Centrality on Associations between Ethnic Identity Affirmation and Ethnic Minority College Students' Mental Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Prior literature has shown that ethnic affirmation, one aspect of ethnic identity, is positively associated with mental health. However, the associations between ethnic affirmation and mental health may vary depending how much importance individuals place on their ethnic group membership (ie, centrality). Methods: Using path analysis,…

Brittian, Aerika S.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Lee, Richard M.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Kim, Su Yeong; Weisskirch, Robert S.; Castillo, Linda G.; Whitbourne, Susan Krauss; Hurley, Eric A.; Huynh, Que-Lam; Brown, Elissa J.; Caraway, S. Jean

2013-01-01

205

75 FR 52355 - A Review of Information Published Since 1995 on Coal Mine Dust Exposures and Associated Health...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Information Published Since 1995 on Coal Mine Dust Exposures and Associated Health Outcomes...Information Published Since 1995 on Coal Mine Dust Exposures and Associated Health Outcomes...document updates and supports the coal mine dust Recommended Exposure Limit (REL) of...

2010-08-25

206

The prevalence of depression and associated factors in Ethiopia: findings from the National Health Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Integrating mental health into primarily health care and studying risk for mental health particularly depression needs assessment of different factors including those that impede diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders. But so far the numbers of literature for local context to analyze risk factors for depression and its treatment are scare. The objective of this study was to assess risk factors and health service attendance for depression among adults, in Ethiopia. Methods For this analysis, data from the Ethiopian National health survey was used. The Ethiopian national health survey studied 4,925 adults aged 18 years and older to obtain among other things, data on depression episodes, socio-demographic, chronic diseases, life style factors and treatment receiving for depression episodes in the past twelve months using questionnaire from world health organization (WHO). Prevalence of Depression in respondents based on ICD-10 criteria was estimated and logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for depression and treatment receiving. Results The prevalence of depressive episode was 9.1% (95% CI: 8.39-9.90). In a Univariate analysis, residence, age, marital status, educational status, number of diagnosed chronic non communicable diseases (heart diseases, diabetic mellitus and arthritis) and alcohol drinking status were associated with depression. After full adjustment for possible confounding, odds ratios for depression were significantly higher only for older age, divorced and widowed, number of diagnosed chronic non communicable diseases and alcohol drinking status. The proportion of attending health service among those with depression episodes was 22.9%. After full control for all socio-demographic variables the only predictor variable was educational status, being in grade 5–8 had a higher odds (OR=2.6, 95% CI: 1.23-5.43) and 9–12 grade (OR=1.8 95% CI: 1.45-6.12) of attending service for depressive episodes. Conclusions Age, marital status, number of diagnosed chronic non communicable diseases and alcohol consumption were the most important risk factors for depressive episodes. Generally there was lower use of health service for depressive episodes and low educational status was found to be barriers for service use. There is a need to formulate policy for mental health and training of primary health care workers in mental health to early identify and treat cases with depression episodes, so as to decrease prevalence of depression episodes and to improve accessibility of service use. PMID:23098320

2012-01-01

207

Association between food intake and oral health in elderly: SEPAHAN systematic review no. 8  

PubMed Central

Dental status may influence food intake. The aim of this review was to summarize the earlier investigations on the association between food intake and dental status. We searched the electronic databases of PubMed and the Cochrane library for articles published until 30 February, 2012. To reach the related published articles, Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms of ‘oral health,’ ‘masticatory performance,’ ‘dental status,’ and ‘eating’ or ‘food intake’ were used. We included all research articles in the English language that (1) had used the random sampling method, and (2) had investigated the association between dental status and nutrient intake in elderly, non-denture wearer individuals, with no systemic illness. The findings of the seven original research articles had a great variation. Four of them supported a strong association between dietary intake and dental status and three of them found that there was no association between these variables. Most investigations found a significant relationship between the oral health status and nutrient intake; however, longitudinal studies were required for a better understanding of the diet-oral health relations. PMID:23372590

Kazemi, Shantia; Savabi, Ghazal; Khazaei, Saber; Savabi, Omid; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Adibi, Peyman

2011-01-01

208

Association between food intake and oral health in elderly: SEPAHAN systematic review no. 8.  

PubMed

Dental status may influence food intake. The aim of this review was to summarize the earlier investigations on the association between food intake and dental status. We searched the electronic databases of PubMed and the Cochrane library for articles published until 30 February, 2012. To reach the related published articles, Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms of 'oral health,' 'masticatory performance,' 'dental status,' and 'eating' or 'food intake' were used. We included all research articles in the English language that (1) had used the random sampling method, and (2) had investigated the association between dental status and nutrient intake in elderly, non-denture wearer individuals, with no systemic illness. The findings of the seven original research articles had a great variation. Four of them supported a strong association between dietary intake and dental status and three of them found that there was no association between these variables. Most investigations found a significant relationship between the oral health status and nutrient intake; however, longitudinal studies were required for a better understanding of the diet-oral health relations. PMID:23372590

Kazemi, Shantia; Savabi, Ghazal; Khazaei, Saber; Savabi, Omid; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Adibi, Peyman

2011-12-01

209

Eating Behaviors, Mental Health, and Food Intake are Associated with Obesity in Older Congregate Meal Participants  

PubMed Central

The relationship between eating behaviors, food intake, and mental health and the occurrence of obesity in older adults has rarely been investigated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to establish the associative links of these factors with two measures of obesity: class I obesity as indicated by body mass index (OB-BMI; BMI ? 30kg/m2) and class I obesity as indicated by waist circumference (OB-WC; WC ? 43 inches for men and ? 42 inches for women). Older adults participating in the Older American’s Act (OAA) congregate meal program (N = 113, mean age = 74 years, 74% female, 45% African American) were assessed. Eating behaviors (cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, and emotional eating), food groups group choices (sweets, salty snacks, and fruits), and mental health indices (depression, anxiety, and stress) were recorded by questionnaire and related to measured occurrence of OB-BMI and OB-WC. In a series of multivariate logistical regression models, we found cognitive restraint to be consistently and robustly associated with both measures of obesity. In the fully adjusted model, cognitive restraint, consumption of sweets, anxiety, and lack of depression were associated with OB-WC. In summary, we found an association of obesity with abnormal eating behaviors, certain food group intakes, and mental health symptoms in this population. These findings may guide the development of future weight management interventions in a congregate meal setting. PMID:25424510

Porter Starr, Kathryn N.; Fischer, Joan G.; Johnson, Mary Ann

2015-01-01

210

Association between market concentration of hospitals and patient health gain following hip replacement surgery  

PubMed Central

Objectives To assess the association between market concentration of hospitals (as a proxy for competition) and patient-reported health gains after elective primary hip replacement surgery. Methods Patient Reported Outcome Measures data linked to NHS Hospital Episode Statistics in England in 2011/12 were used to analyse the association between market concentration of hospitals measured by the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) and health gains for 337 hospitals. Results The association between market concentration and patient gain in health status measured by the change in Oxford Hip Score (OHS) after primary hip replacement surgery was not statistically significant at the 5% level both for the average patient and for those with more than average severity of hip disease (OHS worse than average). For 12,583 (49.1%) patients with an OHS before hip replacement surgery better than the mean, a one standard deviation increase in the HHI, equivalent to a reduction of about one hospital in the local market, was associated with a 0.104 decrease in patients’ self-reported improvement in OHS after surgery, but this was not statistically significant at the 5% level. Conclusions Hospital market concentration (as a proxy for competition) appears to have no significant influence (at the 5% level) on the outcome of elective primary hip replacement. The generalizability of this finding needs to be investigated. PMID:25213207

Pistollato, Michele; Charlesworth, Anita; Devlin, Nancy; Propper, Carol; Sussex, Jon

2015-01-01

211

Associations of Depressive Symptoms With Health Behaviors, Stress, and Self-assessed Health Status in Hawai'i: A Population Study.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine how depressive symptoms are associated with health behaviors, stress, and self-assessed health status in the population of Hawai'i. METHODS: Randomized phone calls were made using computer assistant telephone interviews. A regression analysis with depressive symptoms as the outcome and sociodemographic variables, health behaviors, stress, and health status as predictors was conducted in 1483 adults. RESULTS: Depressive symptoms were associated with stress (? = .32), alcohol consumption (? = .19), health status (? = -.10), fast food consumption (? = .06), avoidance of fat (? = -.06), and fruit and vegetable consumption (? = .06). Moreover, depressive symptoms were linked to being female (? = .06), being single (? = -.06), and being Caucasian compared with being Native Hawaiian (? = -.06) or Japanese (? = -.08). The overall explained variance was 22%. CONCLUSION: Depressive symptoms correlate with health risk behaviors and might be considered as a risk for chronic diseases. PMID:22743856

Pomp, Sarah; Keller, Stefan; Maddock, Jay E

2012-06-28

212

Ventilator-associated pneumonia risk decreased by use of oral moisture gel in oral health care.  

PubMed

Although oral health care has a preventive effect against ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), the most effective method of oral health care in this respect remains to be established. The objective of this single-center, randomized, controlled trial was to investigate the relationship between VAP and various methods of oral health care. All patients included in the study (n=142) were on mechanical ventilation with oral intubation at the intensive care unit of the Tokyo Dental College Ichikawa General Hospital. They were divided into two groups, one receiving standard oral health care (Standard group), and the other receiving oral health care using an oral moisture gel instead of water (Gel group). After removal of the intubation tube, biofilm on cuff of the tube was stained with a disclosing agent to determine the contamination level. Factors investigated included sex, age, number of remaining teeth, intubation time, fever ?38.5°C, VAP, cuff contamination level, and time required for one oral health care session. No VAP occurred in either group during the study period. The level of cuff contamination was significantly lower in the Gel group than the Standard group, and the time required for one session of oral health care was shorter (p<0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed use of the oral moisture gel as a factor affecting cuff contamination level. Use of an oral moisture gel decreased invasion of the pharynx by bacteria and contaminants together with biofilm formation on the intubation tube cuff. These results suggest that oral health care using an oral moisture gel is effective in preventing cuff contamination. PMID:24965954

Takeyasu, Yoshihiro; Yamane, Gen-Yuki; Tonogi, Morio; Watanabe, Yutaka; Nishikubo, Shuichi; Serita, Ryohei; Imura, Kumiko

2014-01-01

213

Preschool children's health and its association with parental education and individual living conditions in East and West Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Social inequalities in health exist globally and are a major public health concern. This study focus on a systematic investigation into the associations between health indicators, living conditions and parental educational level as indicator of the social status of 6-year-old children living in West and East Germany in the decade after re-unification. Explanations of observed associations between parental education

Xianming du Prel; Ursula Krämer; Heidrun Behrendt; Johannes Ring; Hanna Oppermann; Tamara Schikowski; Ulrich Ranft

2006-01-01

214

Association between Lung Function and Mental Health Problems among Adults in the United States: Findings from the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the association between lung function and mental health problems among adults in the United States. Data were drawn from the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1971? 1975), with available information on a representative sample of US adults aged 25-74 years. Lung function was assessed by spirometry, and provisional diagnoses of

Renee D. Goodwin; Shirley Chuang; Nicole Simuro; Mark Davies; Daniel S. Pine

215

MENTAL HEALTH, HEALTH, AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE SERVICE NEEDS FOR THE NATIVE AMERICAN REHABILITATION ASSOCIATION NORTHWEST (NARA NW) IN THE PORTLAND, OREGON METROPOLITAN AREA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consistent with results of previous needs assessments for urban American Indian and Alaska Native populations, a needs assessment in the Portland, Oregon metropolitan area for the Native American Rehabilitation Association Northwest revealed high levels of co-occurring conditions for American Indian and Alaska Native clients, often combining chronic health problems, substance abuse histories, and mental health diagnoses. Focus group results suggest

Thomas L. Crofoot; Naomi Harris; Mary Anne Plumb; Keri Slingerland Smith; Gloria Brooks; Lisa Hungry; Artice Geary; Irene Holland

216

The Development of an Associate Degree in Rural Health Promotion: Philosophy, Administration, Evaluation, Products. A Final Report on the Paraprofessional Rurally Oriented Family Home Health Training Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A project was undertaken at Baptist College in Charleston, South Carolina to develop a two-year associate degree program to train paraprofessional home health personnel to promote family health in rural areas. After receiving the contract, the college recruited a project director to serve in its Natural Sciences Division. The project director…

Myer, Donna Foster

217

Religious Attitude Associated with General Health and Smoking in Iranian Students  

PubMed Central

Background: Given the university students’ model role in the society and the importance of period of university education in selecting behavioral methods and lifestyles in the future have made it necessary to study the smoking pattern and its associated factors and complications among students. The aim of this study was to compare religious attitude and mental health between smoking and non-smoking students. Methods: In this research, religious attitude and mental health was studied in 1065 smoking and non-smoking students of Kerman University of Medical Sciences. In this study, three questionnaires were used (Demographic Questionnaire, General Health Questionnaire and Religious Attitude Scale Questionnaire) which were completed by the students voluntarily. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistic methods, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), t-test, Pearson correlation, and regression coefficient. Findings: The mean age of smokers was 20 years and most of the smokers were male (78.9%), single (86.5%) and in BS or BA degree (52.5%). Most of them smoked a cigarette or more in the past month. The average age of start of smoking was 18 years. There was no significant difference between religious attitude and mental health in smoking students in terms of gender but in non-smoking students there was a significant difference in this regard. Smoking students had lower mental health status and religious attitude in comparison with non-smoking students. Between religious attitude and general health in smoking and non-smoking students was also a direct association. Conclusion: Due to psychological and physiological consequences of cigarette smoking, promoting smoking prevention by religious missionaries and university professors, and helping the students to quit smoking by counselors, psychologists and psychiatrics are necessary. PMID:24494094

Divsalar, Kouros; Nejadnaderi, Samira; Nakhaee, Nowzar; Rouhani, Saed

2010-01-01

218

Psychosocial factors associated with youth involvement in community activities promoting heart health.  

PubMed

This study examined factors that influence youth participation in heart disease prevention activities among 2,609 ninth graders in six inner-city public high schools. Constructs derived from social cognitive, empowerment, and community development theories informed the conceptual framework employed. Study participants were diverse with respect to gender, ethnicity, parent education, acculturation, and academic achievement. Perceived incentive value, self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, sense of community, and perceived policy control were all significantly associated with participation in community activities promoting heart health. In multivariate analyses, perceived incentive value, defined as the extent to which participants valued a heart-healthy environment, was most strongly associated with community participation, accounting for 11.9% of the total variance. These findings have implications for designing school curricula and after-school and community programs targeting adolescents' involvement in health advocacy activities. PMID:9690106

Altman, D G; Feighery, E; Robinson, T N; Haydel, K F; Strausberg, L; Lorig, K; Killen, J D

1998-08-01

219

Hospital Staffing and Health Care–Associated Infections: A Systematic Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

In the past 10 years, many researchers have examined relationships between hospital staffing and patients’ risk of health care–associated infection (HAI). To gain understanding of this evidence base, a systematic review was conducted, and 42 articles were audited. The most common infection studied was bloodstream infection (n=18; 43%). The majority of researchers examined nurse staffing (n=38; 90%); of these, only 7 (18%) did not find a statistically significant association between nurse staffing variable(s) and HAI rates. Use of nonpermanent staff was associated with increased rates of HAI in 4 studies (P < .05). Three studies addressed infection control professional staffing with mixed results. Physician staffing was not found to be associated with patients’ HAI risk (n=2). The methods employed and operational definitions used for both staffing and HAI varied; despite this variability, trends were apparent. Research characterizing effective staffing for infection control departments is needed. PMID:18767987

Stone, Patricia W.; Pogorzelska, Monika; Kunches, Laureen; Hirschhorn, Lisa R.

2009-01-01

220

Association of ventilation with health and other responses in commercial and institutional buildings  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents a summary of a review [1] of current literature on the associations of ventilation rates in non-residential and non-industrial buildings (primarily offices) with health and other human outcomes. Twenty studies, with close to 30,000 subjects, investigated the association of ventilation rates with human responses. (Twenty one studies investigating the association of carbon dioxide with human responses, although included in the previous review, are not summarized here.) Almost all studies including ventilation rates below 10 Ls{sup -1} per person found these ventilation rates to be associated in all building types with statistically significant worsening in one or more health or perceived air quality outcomes. Some studies comparing only ventilation rates above 10 Ls{sup -1} per person determined that increases in ventilation rate above 10 Ls{sup -1} per person, up to approximately 20 Ls{sup -1} per person, were associated with further significant decreases in the prevalence of SBS symptoms or with further significant improvements in perceived air quality. The studies reported relative risks of 1.5-2 for respiratory illnesses and 1.1-6 for sick building syndrome symptoms for low compared to high ventilation rates.

Seppanen, Olli; Fisk, William J.; Mendell, Mark J.

2000-08-01

221

Association between Physical and Cognitive Function in Healthy Elderly: The Health, Aging and Body Composition Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance measures of physical function (gait speed, chair stands, standing balance) and cognitive function [Teng-modified Mini-Mental Status Exam (3MS) and digit symbol substitution test (DSST)] were assessed at baseline in 3,075 participants in the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study. Each physical function measure was examined for the strength and magnitude of association with cognitive function. All physical function measures

Caterina Rosano; Eleanor M. Simonsick; Tamara B. Harris; Steven B. Kritchevsky; Jennifer Brach; Marjolein Visser; Kristine Yaffe; Anne B. Newman

2005-01-01

222

Intimate Partner Violence During Pregnancy: Incidence and Associated Health Behaviors in a Rural Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The goal of this investigation was to examine the prevalence of different types of intimate partner violence (IPV) during\\u000a pregnancy, as well as the association between both physical and psychological IPV and negative health behaviors, including\\u000a smoking, other substance use, inadequate prenatal care utilization, and nutrition, in a rural sample. Methods: 104 southern Appalachian women, primarily Caucasian and lower

Beth A. Bailey; Ruth Ann Daugherty

2007-01-01

223

Factors Associated with Attributions About Child Health Conditions and Social Distance Preference  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to better understand factors that account for the emergence and persistence of negative attitudes towards mental\\u000a health problems, attributions about and stigma towards children’s mental and physical illnesses were examined using National\\u000a Stigma Study—Children data. Parent blame attributions were most strongly associated with attention deficit disorder, environmental\\u000a causes with depression, and biology with asthma. Parent blame was more

Abraham MukoloCraig; Craig Anne Heflinger

2011-01-01

224

Association between obesity and health-related quality of life in patients with coronary artery disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Objective:In patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), obesity is paradoxically associated with better survival (the ‘obesity paradox’). Our objective was to determine whether this counterintuitive relationship extends to health-related quality of life (HRQOL) outcomes.Design:Cross-sectional observational study.Subjects:All adults undergoing coronary angiography residing in Alberta, Canada between January 2003 and March 2006 in the Alberta Provincial Project for Outcome Assessment

A Oreopoulos; R Padwal; F A McAlister; J Ezekowitz; A M Sharma; K Kalantar-Zadeh; G C Fonarow; C M Norris

2010-01-01

225

Associations of udder-health indicators with cow factors and with intramammary infection in dairy cows.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate if and how cow factors and intramammary infection (IMI) are associated with 4 different udder-health indicators in dairy cows as a first step in investigating whether the diagnostic performance of these indicators can be improved. The investigated indicators were somatic cell count (SCC), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), N-acetyl-?-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase), and alkaline phosphatase (AP) measured in milk. In this cross-sectional study, approximately 1,000 cows from 25 dairy herds were sampled for bacteriology (quarter milk samples) during 3 consecutive days: the day before test milking, at the day of test milking, and at the day after test milking. The whole-udder test milking sample was analyzed for milk composition, SCC, LDH, NAGase, and AP. Cow data (parity, breed, milk yield, percentage of milk fat and protein, milk urea concentration, and days in milk from the sampled test milking) were collected from the Swedish milk-recording scheme. Of the sampled cows 485 were considered IMI negative and were used in multivariable mixed-effect linear regression models to investigate associations between cow factors and the udder-health indicators. A second modeling including all cows, both IMI negative and IMI positive (256 cows), was also performed. The results showed that all udder-health indicators were affected by cow factors but that different cow factors were associated with different indicators. Intramammary-infection status was significantly associated with all udder-health indicators except AP. Parity and milk urea concentration were the only cow factors associated with all indicators in all models. The significant cow factors explained 23% of the variation in SCC and >30% of the variation in LDH, NAGase, and AP in IMI-negative cows, showing that LDH, NAGase, and AP are more affected than SCC by cow factors. The IMI status explained 23% of the variation in SCC in the model with all cows but only 7% of the variation in LDH and 2% of the variation in NAGase, indicating that SCC has the best potential as a diagnostic tool in finding cows with IMI. However, further studies are needed to investigate whether the diagnostic properties of these udder-health indicators will improve with adjustment according to their associations with different cow factors when used as a diagnostic tool for finding cows with IMI. PMID:24997662

Nyman, A-K; Persson Waller, K; Bennedsgaard, T W; Larsen, T; Emanuelson, U

2014-09-01

226

Children exposed to the arrest of a family member: Associations with mental health  

PubMed Central

The arrest of a parent or other family member can be detrimental to children’s health. To study the impact of exposure to the arrest of a family member on children’s mental health and how said association may change across developmental periods, we examined baseline data for children (birth through 11 years) entering family-based systems of care (SOC). Children exposed to the arrest of a family member had experienced significantly more 5.38 (SD = 2.59) different types of potentially traumatic events (PTE) than children not exposed to arrest 2.84 (SD = 2.56). Multiple regression model results showed that arrest exposure was significantly associated with greater behavioral and emotional challenges after controlling for children’s age, gender, race/ethnicity, household income, caregiver’s education, parenting factors, and other PTE exposure. Further analyses revealed differences in internalizing and externalizing behaviors associated with arrest exposure across developmental levels. This study highlights some of the mental health challenges for children exposed to the arrest of a family member, while adding to our knowledge of how such an event affects children across different developmental periods. More trauma-informed, developmentally appropriate systems need to be in place at all levels to assist children and families experiencing arrest. PMID:24829537

Snyder, Frank J.; Kaufman, Joy S.; Finley, Meghan K.; Griffin, Amy; Anderson, Janet; Marshall, Tim; Radway, Susan; Stack, Virginia; Crusto, Cindy A.

2013-01-01

227

Induced Abortion and Associated Factors in Health Facilities of Guraghe Zone, Southern Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Unsafe abortion is one of the major medical and public health problems in developing countries including Ethiopia. However, there is a lack of up-to-date and reliable information on induced abortion distribution and its determinant factors in the country. This study was intended to assess induced abortion and associated factors in health facilities of Guraghe zone, Southern Ethiopia. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted in eight health facilities in Guraghe zone. Client exit interview was conducted on 400 patients using a structured questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with induced abortion. Out of 400 women, 75.5% responded that the current pregnancy that ended in abortion is unwanted. However, only 12.3% of the respondents have admitted interference to the current pregnancy. Having more than four pregnancies (AOR?=?4.28, CI: (1.24–14.71)), age of 30–34 years (AOR?=?0.15, CI: (0.04–0.55)), primary education (AOR?=?0.26, CI: (0.13–0.88)), and wanted pregnancy (AOR?=?0.44, CI: (0.14–0.65)) were found to have association with induced abortion. The study revealed high level of induced abortion which is underpinned by high magnitude of unwanted pregnancy. There is requirement for widespread expansion of increased access to high quality family planning service and post-abortion care. PMID:24800079

Hambisa, Mitiku Teshome; Semahegn, Agumasie

2014-01-01

228

[How does the German Association against Rheumatism and Arthritis convey health literacy?].  

PubMed

The German Association against Rheumatism and Arthritis considers the improvement of health literacy as one of their most important tasks. In local groups people with arthritis have the chance to exchange experiences and to benefit from consultation. Individual experiences are merged into a collective knowledge. Numerous printed media as well as information and exchange via the internet help to improve health literacy. Self-management courses and patient education courses are specific instruments to improve the competences of people with arthritis to manage their own condition. Through exercise programs, which are offered locally, the Association strives to improve self-efficacy regarding exercise. A survey of the members showed that the activities of the patient association are well accepted and valued. The empowered patient has more and more become a partner in the micro-level communication with their doctor. On the macro-level, patient representatives play an important role in the committees of the German self-administration of health insurance and physician organizations. PMID:25260819

Gromnica-Ihle, E; Faubel, U; Cattelaens, K

2014-10-01

229

Induced abortion and associated factors in health facilities of Guraghe zone, southern Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Unsafe abortion is one of the major medical and public health problems in developing countries including Ethiopia. However, there is a lack of up-to-date and reliable information on induced abortion distribution and its determinant factors in the country. This study was intended to assess induced abortion and associated factors in health facilities of Guraghe zone, Southern Ethiopia. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted in eight health facilities in Guraghe zone. Client exit interview was conducted on 400 patients using a structured questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with induced abortion. Out of 400 women, 75.5% responded that the current pregnancy that ended in abortion is unwanted. However, only 12.3% of the respondents have admitted interference to the current pregnancy. Having more than four pregnancies (AOR = 4.28, CI: (1.24-14.71)), age of 30-34 years (AOR = 0.15, CI: (0.04-0.55)), primary education (AOR = 0.26, CI: (0.13-0.88)), and wanted pregnancy (AOR = 0.44, CI: (0.14-0.65)) were found to have association with induced abortion. The study revealed high level of induced abortion which is underpinned by high magnitude of unwanted pregnancy. There is requirement for widespread expansion of increased access to high quality family planning service and post-abortion care. PMID:24800079

Tesfaye, Gezahegn; Hambisa, Mitiku Teshome; Semahegn, Agumasie

2014-01-01

230

Is Neighborhood Access to Health Care Provision Associated with Individual-Level Utilization and Satisfaction?  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore whether travel time access to the nearest general practitioner (GP) surgery (which is equivalent to U.S. primary care physician [PCP] office) and pharmacy predicts individual-level health service utilization and satisfaction. Data Sources GP and pharmacy addresses were obtained from the New Zealand Ministry of Health in 2003 and merged with a geographic boundaries data set. Travel times derived from these data were appended to the 2002/03 New Zealand Health Survey (N = 12,529). Study Design Multilevel logistic regression was used to model the relationship between travel time access and five health service outcomes: GP consultation, blood pressure test, cholesterol test, visit to pharmacy, and satisfaction with latest GP consultation. Data Collection/Extraction Travel times between each census meshblock centroid and the nearest GP and pharmacy were calculated using Geographical Information System. Principal Findings When travel times were long, blood pressure tests were less likely in urban areas (odds ratio [OR] 0.75 [0.59–0.97]), GP consultations were less likely in rural centers (OR 0.42 [0.22–0.78]) and pharmacy visits were less likely in highly rural areas (OR 0.36 [0.13–0.99]). There was some evidence of lower utilization in rural areas. Conclusions Locational access to GP surgeries and pharmacies appears to sometimes be associated with health service use but not satisfaction. PMID:18671752

Hiscock, Rosemary; Pearce, Jamie; Blakely, Tony; Witten, Karen

2008-01-01

231

Oral health of elite athletes and association with performance: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background We aimed to systematically review the epidemiology of oral disease and trauma in the elite athlete population and to investigate the impact of oral health on sporting performance. Methods Authors searched Ovid MEDLINE (1950 to October 2013), Ovid EMBASE (1980 to October 2013), EBSCO SPORTDiscus (up to October 2013) and OpenGrey (http://www.opengrey.eu). No date or language restrictions were applied. Papers were included if they evaluated the oral health of professional athletes. The methodological quality of papers was evaluated using a modification of the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Results The literature search led to 9858 potentially relevant citations. Following a set of predefined exclusion criteria, 34 studies remained. Twenty-six studies reported on dental trauma, which ranged in prevalence from 14% to 47% varying by sport and country. Sixteen studies considered the oral health of athletes and reported high prevalence of oral diseases: dental caries 15–75%, dental erosion 36–85%, periodontal disease 15%. In four studies, a range between 5% and 18% of athletes reported negative impact of oral health or trauma on performance. The methodological quality of included studies was generally low. Conclusions Within the limits of the review, oral health of athletes is poor. We hypothesise that poor oral health associates with self-reported performance; however, this needs to be tested. Further studies on representative samples of athletes are needed to assess the size of the problem of poor oral health as well as to investigate the possible impact on performance using objective measures of performance. PMID:25388551

Ashley, P; Di Iorio, A; Cole, E; Tanday, A; Needleman, I

2015-01-01

232

Adherence to the 2006 American Heart Association Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations for cardiovascular disease risk reduction is associated with bone health in older Puerto Ricans  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and osteoporosis are 2 major public health problems that share common pathophysiological mechanisms. It is possible that strategies to reduce CVD risk may also benefit bone health. We tested the hypothesis that adherence to the 2006 American Heart Association Diet and Li...

233

It Gets Better: Resolution of Internalized Homophobia over Time and Associations with Positive Health Outcomes among MSM  

PubMed Central

Health disparities research among gay and bisexual men has focused primarily on risk and deficits. However, a focus on resiliencies within this population may greatly benefit health promotion. We describe a pattern of resilience (internalized homophobia (IHP) resolution) over the life-course and its associations with current health outcomes. 1,541 gay and bisexual men from the Multi-Center AIDS Cohort study, an ongoing prospective study of the natural and treated histories of HIV, completed a survey about life-course events thought to be related to health. The majority of men resolved IHP over time independent of demographics. Men who resolved IHP had significantly higher odds of positive health outcomes compared to those who did not. These results provide evidence of resilience among participants that is associated with positive health outcomes. Understanding resiliencies and incorporating them into interventions may help to promote health and well-being among gay and bisexual men. PMID:23283578

Herrick, Amy L.; Stall, Ron; Chmiel, Joan S.; Guadamuz, Thomas E.; Penniman, Typhanye; Shoptaw, Steven; Ostrow, David; Plankey, Michael w.

2013-01-01

234

Assessment of the Association of Health with the Liberalisation of Trade in Services under the World Trade Organisation  

PubMed Central

Background The liberalisation of trade in services which began in 1995 under the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) has generated arguments for and against its potential health effects. Our goal was to explore the relationship between the liberalisation of services under the GATS and three health indicators - life expectancy (LE), under-5 mortality (U5M) and maternal mortality (MM) - since the WTO was established. Methods and Findings This was a cross-sectional ecological study that explored the association in 2010 and 1995 between liberalisation and health (LE, U5M and MM), and between liberalisation and progress in health in the period 1995–2010, considering variables related to economic and social policies such as per capita income (GDP pc), public expenditure on health (PEH), and income inequality (Gini index). The units of observation and analysis were WTO member countries with data available for 2010 (n?=?116), 1995 (n?=?114) and 1995–2010 (n?=?114). We conducted bivariate and multivariate linear regression analyses adjusted for GDP pc, Gini and PEH. Increased global liberalisation in services under the WTO was associated with better health in 2010 (U5M: ?0.358 p<0.001; MM: ?0.338 p?=?0.001; LE: 0.247 p?=?0.008) and in 1995, after adjusting for economic and social policy variables. For the period 1995–2010, progress in health was associated with income equality, PEH and per capita income. No association was found with global liberalisation in services. Conclusions The favourable association in 2010 between health and liberalisation in services under the WTO seems to reflect a pre-WTO association observed in the 1995 data. However, this liberalisation did not appear as a factor associated with progress in health during 1995–2010. Income equality, health expenditure and per capita income were more powerful determinants of the health of populations. PMID:25078783

Umańa-Peńa, Román; Franco-Giraldo, Álvaro; Díaz, Carlos Álvarez-Dardet; Ruíz-Cantero, María Teresa; Gil-González, Diana; Hernández-Aguado, Ildefonso

2014-01-01

235

Are doctors and nurses associated with coverage of essential health services in developing countries? A cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background There is broad policy consensus that a shortage of doctors and nurses is a key constraint to increasing utilization of essential health services important for achieving the health Millennium Development Goals. However there is limited research on the quantitative links between health workers and service coverage rates. We examined the relationship between doctor and nurse concentrations and utilization rates of five essential health services in developing countries. Methods We performed cross-national analyses of low- and middle-income countries by means of ordinary least squares regression with coverage rates of antenatal care, attended delivery, caesarean section, measles immunization, tuberculosis case diagnosis and care for acute respiratory infection as outcomes. Doctor, nurse and aggregate health worker (sum of doctors and nurses) concentrations were the main explanatory variables. Results Nurses were associated with utilization of skilled birth attendants (P = 0.02) and doctors were associated with measles immunization rates (P = 0.01) in separate adjusted analyses. Aggregate health workers were associated with the utilization of skilled birth attendants (P < 0.01) and measles immunization (P < 0.01). Doctors, nurses and aggregate health workers were not associated with the remaining four services. Conclusion A range of health system and population-level factors aside from health workers influences coverage of health services in developing countries. However, it is also plausible that health workers who are neither doctors nor nurses, such as clinical officers and community health workers, may be providing a substantial proportion of health services. The human resources for health research agenda should be expanded beyond doctors and nurses. PMID:19335911

Kruk, Margaret E; Prescott, Marta R; de Pinho, Helen; Galea, Sandro

2009-01-01

236

Navajo Environmental Health Review by the National Environmental Health Association (Window Rock, Arizona, May 24-27, 1976).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Indian Health Committee met with key staff of the Indian Health Service (IHS) Area Office to review the environmental health services provided on the Navajo Reservation and make recommendations for improvement or expansion of current programs, if needed. Recommendations were made regarding environmental health and institutional personnel,…

Navajo Health Authority, Window Rock, AZ.

237

Associations of Perceived Neighborhood Environment on Health Status Outcomes in Persons with Arthritis  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the association between four aspects of the perceived neighborhood environment (aesthetics, walkability, safety, and social cohesion) and health status outcomes in a cohort of North Carolinians with self-report arthritis, after adjustment for individual and neighborhood SES covariates. Methods 696 participants self-reported one or more types of arthritis or rheumatic condition in a telephone survey. Outcomes measured were physical and mental functioning (MOS SF-12v2 PCS and MCS); functional disability (HAQ); depressive symptomatology (CES-D scored <16; ?16). Multivariate regression and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted using STATA v11. Results Results from separate adjusted models indicate that measures of associations for perceived neighborhood characteristics are statistically significant (p?0.001 to p=0.017) for each health status outcome (except walkability and MCS) after adjusting for covariates. Final adjusted models included all four perceived neighborhood characteristics simultaneously. A one point increase in perceiving worse neighborhood aesthetics predicted lower mental health (B= ?1.81, p=0.034). Individuals had increased odds of depressive symptoms if they perceived lower neighborhood safety (OR: 1.36; CI: 1.04, 1.78, p=0.023) and if they perceived lower neighborhood social cohesion (OR 1.42; CI: 1.03, 1.96, p=0.030). Conclusions Study findings indicate that an individual’s perception of neighborhood environment characteristics, especially aesthetics, safety and social cohesion, is predictive of health outcomes among adults with self-report arthritis, even after adjusting for key variables. Future studies interested in examining the role that community characteristics play on disability and mental health in individuals with arthritis might consider further examination of perceived neighborhood. PMID:20521309

Martin, Kathryn Remmes; Shreffler, Jack; Schoster, Britta; Callahan, Leigh F.

2010-01-01

238

The Association of Health-Promoting Lifestyle With Quality of Life Among the Iranian Elderly  

PubMed Central

Background: As individuals live a longer life, health-promoting lifestyle (HPL) becomes even more essential, particularly with regard to maintaining functional independence and improving quality of life (QoL). Objectives: This study aimed to determine the association between QoL and HPL in the Iranian elderly living in Shiraz. Materials and Methods: This analytical cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 at retirement centers of Shiraz City, Iran. The sample included 500 elderly who aged > 60 years. Proportional stratified random sampling was used to select the elderly from retirement centers. QoL was assessed by the Farsi version of Short Form Health Survey questionnaire (SF-36) and HPL was measured by health-promoting lifestyle profile (HPLP II). Data were analyzed using independent-samples t test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson’s correlation, and stepwise multiple regression using SPSS 21. Results: There were significant differences in QoL in terms of sex, age, education, and marital status. There were significant differences in HPL in terms of gender, age and education (P < 0.05) There was a statistically significant association between QoL and HPL in the elderly (r = 0.42, P < 0.05). Based on HPLP II constructs, the significant predicting factors of QoL in the elderly consisted of spiritual growth, stress management, and physical activity (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Health providers should improve the QoL in the elderly by facilitating HPL through health-promoting interventions, which will maintain and increase physical activity, stress management, and spiritual growth. PMID:25593729

Rakhshani, Tayebeh; Shojaiezadeh, Davood; Lankarani, Kamran Bagheri; Rakhshani, Fatemeh; Kaveh, Mohammad Hossain; Zare, Najaf

2014-01-01

239

Meta-Analyses of the Associations of Respiratory Health Effectswith Dampness and Mold in Homes  

SciTech Connect

The Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academy of Sciences recently completed a critical review of the scientific literature pertaining to the association of indoor dampness and mold contamination with adverse health effects. In this paper, we report the results of quantitative meta-analysis of the studies reviewed in the IOM report. We developed point estimates and confidence intervals (CIs) to summarize the association of several respiratory and asthma-related health outcomes with the presence of dampness and mold in homes. The odds ratios and confidence intervals from the original studies were transformed to the log scale and random effect models were applied to the log odds ratios and their variance. Models were constructed both accounting for the correlation between multiple results within the studies analyzed and ignoring such potential correlation. Central estimates of ORs for the health outcomes ranged from 1.32 to 2.10, with most central estimates between 1.3 and 1.8. Confidence intervals (95%) excluded unity except in two of 28 instances, and in most cases the lower bound of the CI exceeded 1.2. In general, the two meta-analysis methods produced similar estimates for ORs and CIs. Based on the results of the meta-analyses, building dampness and mold are associated with approximately 30% to 80% increases in a variety of respiratory and asthma-related health outcomes. The results of these meta-analyses reinforce the IOM's recommendation that actions be taken to prevent and reduce building dampness problems.

Fisk, William J.; Lei-Gomez, Quanhong; Mendell, Mark J.

2006-01-01

240

The association between health information exchange and measures of patient satisfaction  

PubMed Central

Objective Health information exchange (HIE) is the interorganizational sharing of patient information and is one of many health information technology initiatives expected to transform the U.S. healthcare system. Two outcomes expected to be improved by HIE are patient-provider communication and patient satisfaction . This analysis examined the relationship between the level of HIE engagement and these two factors in a sample of U.S. hospitals. Methods Independent variables came from existing secondary sources and the dependent measures were from the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems. The analysis included 3,278 hospitals. Using ordinary least squares regression, implemented HIE was positively associated with the percentage of patients reporting nurses communicated well and higher satisfaction. Due to the potential for selection bias, results were further explored using a propensity score analysis. Results Hospitals that had adopted HIE, but not yet implemented saw no benefits. Hospitals’ level of HIE was not associated with the percentage of patients reporting doctors communicated well. According to propensity score corrected estimates, implemented HIE was associated with the percentage of patients who reported nurses always communicated well and who would definitely recommend the hospital. Conclusion Few studies have examined the impact of HIE at the organizational level. This examination provides some evidence that hospitals engaging in HIE are associated with higher patient satisfaction. PMID:23616887

Vest, J.R.; Miller, T.R.

2011-01-01

241

Associations between Vascular Health Indices and Serum Total, Free and Bioavailable 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Objective The role of vitamin D in cardiovascular health remains debated as results have been inconsistent. Previous studies have not considered the bioavailability of 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D]. Objectives of our study were to investigate the association between serum concentrations of total, free and bioavailable 25(OH)D and independent predictors of cardiovascular risk such as flow mediated dilatation (FMD) and augmentation index (AIx). Design This cross-sectional study included 47 post-menarchal, adolescent females [31 African American (AA) and 16 European American (EA)]. Methods AIx was standardized to a heart rate of 75 beats/min (AIx75). Free and bioavailable 25(OH)D concentrations were calculated from standard formulas. Results and Conclusions Mean age of the participants was 15.8±1.4 years and mean body mass index was 23.1±4.0 kg/m2. Serum total 25(OH)D was not associated with FMD, but was positively associated with AIx75 in the adjusted model (rho?=?0.4, P?=?0.03). AIx75 was positively associated with bioavailable 25(OH)D (rho?=?0.4, P?=?0.004) and free 25(OH)D (rho?=?0.4, P?=?0.009) and the associations persisted after adjusting for covariates. In race-specific analyses, total, free and bioavailable 25(OH)D were strongly positively associated with AIx75 in AA (rho?=?0.5, 0.4, 0.4, respectively), which persisted even after adjusting for covariates. Whereas in EA there was an inverse association between total 25(OH)D and AIx75 in EA (rho?=??0.6), which attenuated after adjusting for covariates. Conclusion Circulating total, free and bioavailable 25(OH)D were associated with arterial stiffness in adolescent girls, and these associations were race dependent. Notwithstanding, the implications of associations between vascular function indices and 25(OH)D remains unclear. PMID:25479358

Ashraf, Ambika P.; Alvarez, Jessica A.; Dudenbostel, Tanja; Calhoun, David; Griffin, Russell; Wang, Xudong; Hanks, Lynae J.; Gower, Barbara A.

2014-01-01

242

Associations Between Health Care Factors and Self-Reported Health Status Among Individuals with Diabetes: Results from a Community Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify the influence of select health care variables on self-reported physical and mental health status of individuals\\u000a with diabetes. Data from the 2006 Brazos Valley Health Status Assessment (BVHSA) were analyzed. Aspects of health care were\\u000a defined through exploratory factor analysis. Structural equation modeling was used to create relationships between health\\u000a care aspects, personal characteristics of the participants, and

Justin B. DickersonMatthew; Matthew L. Smith; SangNam Ahn; Marcia G. Ory

2011-01-01

243

Association between religiousness and blood donation among Brazilian postgraduate students from health-related areas  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to examine the association between religiousness and blood donation among postgraduate students. Methods The Portuguese-language version of the Duke University Religion Index was administered to a sample of 226 Brazilian students with ages ranging from 22 to 55 years. All study participants had completed undergraduate courses in health-related areas. Results In the present study, 23.5% of the students were regular donors. Organizational religiousness was found to be associated with attitudes related to blood donation. This study also shows evidence that regular blood donors have a higher intrinsic religiousness than subjects who donate only once and do not return. Conclusion This study shows that the attitudes concerning blood donation may have some association with religiosity. PMID:25031057

Zangiacomi Martinez, Edson; dos Santos Almeida, Rodrigo Guimarăes; Garcia Braz, Ana Carolina; Duarte de Carvalho, Antonio Carlos

2014-01-01

244

The association between academic engagement and achievement in health sciences students  

PubMed Central

Background Educational institutions play an important role in encouraging student engagement, being necessary to know how engaged are students at university and if this factor is involved in student success point and followed. To explore the association between academic engagement and achievement. Methods Cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of 304 students of Health Sciences. They were asked to fill out an on-line questionnaire. Academic achievements were calculated using three types of measurement. Results Positive correlations were found in all cases. Grade point average was the academic rate most strongly associated with engagement dimensions and this association is different for male and female students. The independent variables could explain between 18.9 and 23.9% of the variance (p?

2013-01-01

245

Associations of work and health-related characteristics with intention to continue working after the age of 65 years.  

PubMed

This study examines the association of work and health-related characteristics with the intention to continue working after the age of 65 years. Data were from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2 (NEMESIS-2), a nationally representative population survey, including 1854 employees aged 45-64 years; 29.0% reported the intention to continue working after 65 years. Lower education, more adverse psychosocial working conditions and any physical disorder were negatively associated with this intention. Mental disorders were not associated. These findings highlight the importance of favourable working conditions and good physical health in relation to employees' intention to continue working after 65 years. PMID:25395396

Ten Have, Margreet; van Dorsselaer, Saskia; de Graaf, Ron

2015-02-01

246

Associations between objectively assessed and self-reported sedentary time with mental health in adults: an analysis of data from the Health Survey for England  

PubMed Central

Objective There is increasing interest in the association between sedentary behaviour and mental health, although most studies have relied solely on self-reported measures, thus making results prone to various biases. The aim was to compare associations between objectively assessed and self-reported sedentary time with mental health in adults. Setting Community dwelling population sample drawn from the 2008 Health Survey for England. Participants 11?658 (self-report analysis) and 1947 (objective data) men and women. Primary outcome The 12-item General Health Questionnaire was administered to assess psychological distress. Sedentary and physical activity (exposure) was objectively measured using accelerometers (Actigraph GT1M) worn around the waist during waking hours for seven consecutive days. Results The highest tertile of objective sedentary time was associated with higher risk of psychological distress (multivariate adjusted OR=1.74, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.83), as was the highest tertile of self-reported total sitting time (OR=1.34, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.56). Self-reported, but not objective, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was associated with lower risk of psychological distress. Only objective light-intensity activity was associated with lower risk of psychological distress. Conclusions Sedentary time is associated with adverse mental health. PMID:24650807

Hamer, Mark; Coombs, Ngaire; Stamatakis, Emmanuel

2014-01-01

247

[Factors associated with difficulty of access of the elderly with disabilities to the health services].  

PubMed

This study seeks to analyze which are the variables associated with the difficulty of elderly people with disabilities gaining access to the health services. This is an observational study of an analytical cross-sectional nature, with a sample of 244 elderly people with disabilities. Data relating to socio-economic profile, the nature of the disability, and the conditions of access to health services were gathered. Version 11.0 of the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software was used for descriptive, statistical and analytical assessment of the data. The protection variables for difficulties in being treated in the health services were: the lack of drains, culverts, trash, bags of refuse, or irregular floor surfaces; the absence of ramps on sidewalks and pavements; the availability of transport; ease in scheduling appointments; and the length of the waiting period to be attended. The number of factors listed shows that the architectonic barriers and the current situation of healthcare need to be adequate in order to ensure full access and use by the elderly with disabilities to the health services. PMID:23175306

Amaral, Fabienne Louise Juvęncio dos Santos; Motta, Márcia Heloyse Alves; da Silva, Laíla Pereira Gomes; Alves, Simone Bezerra

2012-11-01

248

Associations between overweight, obesity, health measures and need for recovery in office employees: a cross-sectional analysis  

PubMed Central

Background With both a high need for recovery (NFR) and overweight and obesity being a potential burden for organizations (e.g. productivity loss and sickness absence), the aim of this paper was to examine the associations between overweight and obesity and several other health measures and NFR in office workers. Methods Baseline data of 412 office employees participating in a randomised controlled trial aimed at improving NFR in office workers were used. Associations between self-reported BMI categories (normal body weight, overweight, obesity) and several other health measures (general health, mental health, sleep quality, stress and vitality) with NFR were examined. Unadjusted and adjusted linear regression analyses were performed and adjusted for age, education and job demands. In addition, we adjusted for general health in the association between overweight and obesity and NFR. Results A significant positive association was observed between stress and NFR (B?=?18.04, 95%CI:14.53-21.56). General health, mental health, sleep quality and vitality were negatively associated with NFR (p?association between obesity and NFR (B?=?8.77, 95%CI:0.01-17.56), but not between overweight and NFR. Conclusions The findings suggest that self-reported stress is, and obesity may be, associated with a higher NFR. Additionally, the results imply that health measures that indicate a better health are associated with a lower NFR. Trial registration The trial is registered at the Dutch Trial Register (NTR) under trial registration number: NTR2553. PMID:24359267

2013-01-01

249

Associations between Variability of Risk Factors and Health Outcomes in Longitudinal Studies  

PubMed Central

Many statistical methods have been developed that treat within-subject correlation that accompanies the clustering of subjects in longitudinal data settings as a nuisance parameter, with the focus of analytic interest being on mean outcome or profiles over time. However, there is evidence that in certain settings (Elliott 2007; Harlow et al. 2000; Sammel et al. 2001 Kikuya et al. 2008) underlying variability in subject measures may also be important in predicting future health outcomes of interest. Here we develop a method for combining information from mean profiles and residual variance to assess associations with categorical outcomes in a joint modeling framework. We consider an application to relating word recall measures obtained over time to dementia onset from the Health and Retirement Survey. PMID:22815213

Elliott, Michael R.; Sammel, Mary D.; Faul, Jessica

2012-01-01

250

Low Back Pain Prevalence and Associated Factors in Iranian Population: Findings from the National Health Survey  

PubMed Central

Background. There are very few studies that had a sample size sufficient to explore the association between factors related to low back pain in a representative sample of the Iranian population. Objective. To examine the relationship between sociodemographic factors, smoking, obesity, and low back pain in Iranian people. Methods. We used Iranian adults respondents (n = 25307) from the National Health Survey. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by using logistic regression. Results. The prevalence of low back pain was found in 29.3% of the studied sample. High age, female sex, being married, obesity, low-economic index, being smoker, in a rural residence, and low educational attainment, all increased the odds of low back pain. Conclusions. Our findings add to the evidence on the importance of obesity in relation to low back pain. These results can be used as a basis to reinforce health programs to prevent obesity. PMID:23024861

Biglarian, Akbar; Seifi, Behjat; Bakhshi, Enayatollah; Mohammad, Kazem; Rahgozar, Mehdi; Karimlou, Masoud; Serahati, Sara

2012-01-01

251

The association between road traffic noise exposure, annoyance and health-related quality of life (HRQOL).  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between road traffic noise exposure, annoyance caused by different noise sources and validated health indicators in a cohort of 1375 adults from the region of Basel, Switzerland. Road traffic noise exposure for each study participant was determined using modelling, and annoyance from various noise sources was inquired by means of a four-point Likert scale. Regression parameters from multivariable regression models for the von Zerssen score of somatic symptoms (point symptom score increase per annoyance category) showed strongest associations with annoyance from industry noise (2.36, 95% CI: 1.54, 3.17), neighbour noise (1.62, 95% CI: 1.17, 2.06) and road traffic noise (1.53, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.96). Increase in modelled noise exposure by 10 dB(A) resulted in a von Zerssen symptom score increase of 0.47 (95% CI: -0.01, 0.95) units. Subsequent structural equation modelling revealed that the association between physical noise exposure and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is strongly mediated by annoyance and sleep disturbance. This study elucidates the complex interplay of different factors for the association between physical noise exposure and HRQOL. PMID:25489999

Héritier, Harris; Vienneau, Danielle; Frei, Patrizia; Eze, Ikenna C; Brink, Mark; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Röösli, Martin

2014-12-01

252

The Association between Road Traffic Noise Exposure, Annoyance and Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL)  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between road traffic noise exposure, annoyance caused by different noise sources and validated health indicators in a cohort of 1375 adults from the region of Basel, Switzerland. Road traffic noise exposure for each study participant was determined using modelling, and annoyance from various noise sources was inquired by means of a four-point Likert scale. Regression parameters from multivariable regression models for the von Zerssen score of somatic symptoms (point symptom score increase per annoyance category) showed strongest associations with annoyance from industry noise (2.36, 95% CI: 1.54, 3.17), neighbour noise (1.62, 95% CI: 1.17, 2.06) and road traffic noise (1.53, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.96). Increase in modelled noise exposure by 10 dB(A) resulted in a von Zerssen symptom score increase of 0.47 (95% CI: ?0.01, 0.95) units. Subsequent structural equation modelling revealed that the association between physical noise exposure and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is strongly mediated by annoyance and sleep disturbance. This study elucidates the complex interplay of different factors for the association between physical noise exposure and HRQOL. PMID:25489999

Héritier, Harris; Vienneau, Danielle; Frei, Patrizia; Eze, Ikenna C.; Brink, Mark; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Röösli, Martin

2014-01-01

253

Health care costs associated with traumatic brain injury and psychiatric illness in adults.  

PubMed

A cohort design was used to determine the contribution of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and psychiatric illness to health care costs for adolescents and adults in the 3 years following mild or moderate-to-severe TBI compared to a matched cohort without TBI, controlling for confounders. In all, 3756 subjects 15 years or older from a large health maintenance organization database were examined. We identified subjects who sustained a TBI in 1993 (n=939) and selected three control subjects per TBI-exposed subject (n=2817), matched for age, sex, and enrollment at the time of injury. Unadjusted mean costs in 2009-adjusted dollars were compared using Kruskal-Wallis tests and Mann-Whitney U tests, and adjusted mean costs were compared using gamma regression analyses. Average costs were 76% higher in the 3 years after injury for the mild TBI group, and 5.75 times greater for the moderate-to-severe TBI group compared to controls. The presence of psychiatric illness was associated with more than doubling of total costs for both inpatient and outpatient non-mental health care. Gamma regression analyses confirmed significantly higher costs in patients with TBI or psychiatric illness. A significant interaction between moderate-to-severe TBI and psychiatric illness indicated a 3.39 times greater cost among patients with both exposures compared with those exposed to moderate-to-severe TBI without psychiatric illness. TBI and psychiatric illness were each associated with significant increases in health care costs; those with the combination of moderate-to-severe TBI and psychiatric illness had much higher costs than any other group. PMID:22142264

Rockhill, Carol Mary; Jaffe, Kenneth; Zhou, Chuan; Fan, Ming-Yu; Katon, Wayne; Fann, Jesse R

2012-04-10

254

Association between Sleep and Breast Cancer Incidence among Postmenopausal Women in the Women's Health Initiative  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To determine whether the duration of sleep, sleep quality, insomnia, or sleep disturbance was associated with incident breast cancer in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Women enrolled in one of the Clinical Trial (CT) arms or the Observational Study (OS) from the WHI conducted in the United States. Participants: This study included 110,011 women age 50 to 79 years with no history of cancer. Measurements and Results: Typical sleep duration, sleep quality, and other self-reported sleep measures over the past 4 weeks were assessed during the screening visits for both the CT and OS participants. The presence of insomnia and level of sleep disturbance was calculated from an index of the WHI Insomnia Rating Scale. The outcome for this study was primary, invasive breast cancer. A total of 5,149 incident cases of breast cancer were identified in this study. No statistically significant associations were found between sleep duration, sleep quality, insomnia, or level of sleep disturbance with the risk of breast cancer after multivariable adjustment. A positive trend was observed for increasing sleeping duration with the risk of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer, but the association estimates for each sleep duration category were weak and nonsignificant. Conclusions: This study does not provide strong support for an association between self-reported sleep duration, sleep quality, insomnia, or sleep disturbance with the risk of breast cancer. Citation: Vogtmann E; Levitan EB; Hale L; Shikany JM; Shah NA; Endeshaw Y; Lewis CE; Manson JE; Chlebowski RT. Association between sleep and breast cancer incidence among postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative. SLEEP 2013;36(10):1437-1444. PMID:24082303

Vogtmann, Emily; Levitan, Emily B.; Hale, Lauren; Shikany, James M.; Shah, Neomi A.; Endeshaw, Yohannes; Lewis, Cora E.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Chlebowski, Rowan T.

2013-01-01

255

Pesticides associated with wheeze among commercial pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study.  

PubMed

Pesticides are potential risk factors for respiratory disease among farmers, but farmers are also exposed to other respiratory toxicants. To explore the association of pesticides with wheeze in a population without other farming exposures, the authors analyzed data from 2,255 Iowa commercial pesticide applicators enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study. Controlling for age, smoking status, asthma and atopy history, and body mass index, the authors calculated odds ratios for the relationship between wheeze and 36 individual pesticides participants had used during the year before enrollment (1993-1997). Eight of 16 herbicides were associated with wheeze in single-agent models; however, the risk was almost exclusively associated with the herbicide chlorimuron-ethyl (odds ratio (OR) = 1.62, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.25, 2.10). Inclusion of chlorimuron-ethyl in models for the other herbicides virtually eliminated the associations. The odds ratios for four organophosphate insecticides (terbufos, fonofos, chlorpyrifos, and phorate) were elevated when these chemicals were modeled individually and remained elevated, though attenuated somewhat, when chlorimuron-ethyl was included. The association for dichlorvos, another organophosphate insecticide, was not attenuated by chlorimuron-ethyl (OR = 2.48, 95% CI: 1.08, 5.66). Dose-response trends were observed for chlorimuron-ethyl, chlorpyrifos, and phorate; the strongest odds ratio was for applying chlorpyrifos on more than 40 days per year (OR = 2.40, 95% CI: 1.24, 4.65). These results add to the emerging literature linking organophosphate insecticides and respiratory health and suggest a role for chlorimuron-ethyl. PMID:16611668

Hoppin, Jane A; Umbach, David M; London, Stephanie J; Lynch, Charles F; Alavanja, Michael C R; Sandler, Dale P

2006-06-15

256

The Association of Income with Health Behavior Change and Disease Monitoring among Patients with Chronic Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Management of chronic diseases requires patients to adhere to recommended health behavior change and complete tests for monitoring. While studies have shown an association between low income and lack of adherence, the reasons why people with low income may be less likely to adhere are unclear. We sought to determine the association between household income and receipt of health behavior change advice, adherence to advice, receipt of recommended monitoring tests, and self-reported reasons for non-adherence/non-receipt. Methods We conducted a population-weighted survey, with 1849 respondents with cardiovascular-related chronic diseases (heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, stroke) from Western Canada (n?=?1849). We used log-binomial regression to examine the association between household income and the outcome variables of interest: receipt of advice for and adherence to health behavior change (sodium reduction, dietary improvement, increased physical activity, smoking cessation, weight loss), reasons for non-adherence, receipt of recommended monitoring tests (cholesterol, blood glucose, blood pressure), and reasons for non-receipt of tests. Results Behavior change advice was received equally by both low and high income respondents. Low income respondents were more likely than those with high income to not adhere to recommendations regarding smoking cessation (adjusted prevalence rate ratio (PRR): 1.55, 95%CI: 1.09–2.20), and more likely to not receive measurements of blood cholesterol (PRR: 1.72, 95%CI 1.24–2.40) or glucose (PRR: 1.80, 95%CI: 1.26–2.58). Those with low income were less likely to state that non-adherence/non-receipt was due to personal choice, and more likely to state that it was due to an extrinsic factor, such as cost or lack of accessibility. Conclusions There are important income-related differences in the patterns of health behavior change and disease monitoring, as well as reasons for non-adherence or non-receipt. Among those with low income, adherence to health behavior change and monitoring may be improved by addressing modifiable barriers such as cost and access. PMID:24722618

Campbell, David JT.; Ronksley, Paul E.; Manns, Braden J.; Tonelli, Marcello; Sanmartin, Claudia; Weaver, Robert G.; Hennessy, Deirdre; King-Shier, Kathryn; Campbell, Tavis; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R.

2014-01-01

257

FINE PARTICLES ARE MORE STRONGLY ASSOCIATED THAN COARSE PARTICLES WITH ACUTE REPIRATORY HEALTH EFFECTS IN SCHOOL CHILDREN  

EPA Science Inventory

Numerous studies have reported associations between airborne particles and a range of respiratory outcomes from symptoms to mortality. Current attention has been focused on the characteristics of these particles responsible for the adverse health effects. We have reanalyzed three...

258

The relationship between microbial DNA concentrations and swimming associated health effects at a tropical environment bathing beach  

EPA Science Inventory

The relationship between microbial DNA concentrations and swimming associated health effects at a tropical environment bathing beach. Timothy 1. Wade, presenter. Co-authors: Alfred P. Dufour, Kristen Brenner, Rich Haugland, Larry Wymer, Elizabeth Sams Fecal indicator bacteria (F...

259

Associations Between Patterns of Emerging Sexual Behavior and Young Adult Reproductive Health  

PubMed Central

CONTEXT Identifying young adult outcomes associated with adolescent sexual behavior, including patterns of first oral, vaginal and anal sex, is critical to promoting healthy sexual development. METHODS Associations between patterns of emerging sexual behavior, defined using latent class analysis, and young adult sexual and reproductive health were examined among 9,441 respondents to Waves 1 (1994–1995), 3 (2001–2002) and 4 (2008) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Logistic regression analyses examined associations between class membership and young adult outcomes, and tested for interactions by race and ethnicity. RESULTS Compared with respondents who initiated vaginal sex first and reported other sexual behaviors within two years, those who initiated oral and vaginal sex during the same year had similar odds of having had an STD diagnosis ever or in the last year, of having had concurrent sexual partnerships in the last year and of having exchanged sex for money. However, respondents who postponed sexual activity had reduced odds of each outcome (odds ratios, 0.2–0.4); those who initiated vaginal sex and reported only one type of sexual behavior had reduced odds of reporting STD diagnoses and concurrent partnerships (0.4–0.6). Respondents who reported early initiation of sexual activity combined with anal sex experience during adolescence had elevated odds of having had concurrent partnerships (1.6). The data suggest racial and ethnic disparities even when patterns of emerging sexual behavior were the same. CONCLUSIONS Patterns of early sexual behavior considered high-risk may not predict poor sexual and reproductive health in young adulthood. PMID:23231329

Haydon, Abigail A.; Herring, Amy H.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

2012-01-01

260

Associations of Child Insomnia, Sleep Movement, and Their Persistence With Mental Health Symptoms in Childhood and Adolescence  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To examine the patterns of insomnia and sleep-related movement from ages 4.5 to 9 years, their concurrent associations with mental health symptoms in childhood, and the longitudinal associations of sleep-problem persistence with mental health symptoms at ages 9 and 18 years. Design: A 14-year prospective follow-up study. Assessments included maternal report on the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire at ages 4.5 and 9, and child mental health symptoms via maternal report at age 4.5, multi-informant (child, teacher, mother) report at age 9, and adolescent report at age 18. Setting: Community. Participants: A total of 396 children (51% female). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Sleep problems were more common at age 4.5 than 9; symptoms of insomnia and abnormal sleep movement both had persistence rates of 9–10%. At age 4.5, insomnia was associated with hostile-aggressive and hyperactive-distractible behavior, but there were no significant associations for sleep movement. At age 9, both insomnia and sleep movement were associated with symptoms of depression, externalizing, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Insomnia persistence was associated with symptoms of depression, externalizing, and ADHD at age 9 and anxiety and externalizing at age 18; sleep- movement persistence was associated with externalizing and ADHD at age 9, and ADHD at age 18. The age 18 persistence effects for insomnia and anxiety and for sleep movement and ADHD were significant when controlling for earlier mental health. Conclusions: Childhood insomnia and sleep movement are common and associated with mental health symptoms. Their persistence from middle to late childhood predicts associations with specific types of mental health symptoms at age 18. Citation: Armstrong JM, Ruttle PL, Klein MH, Essex MJ, Benca RM. Associations of child insomnia, sleep movement, and their persistence with mental health symptoms in childhood and adolescence. SLEEP 2014;37(5):901-909. PMID:24790268

Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Ruttle, Paula L.; Klein, Marjorie H.; Essex, Marilyn J.; Benca, Ruth M.

2014-01-01

261

Association of work-related stress with mental health problems in a special police force unit  

PubMed Central

Objectives Law and order enforcement tasks may expose special force police officers to significant psychosocial risk factors. The aim of this work is to investigate the relationship between job stress and the presence of mental health symptoms while controlling sociodemographical, occupational and personality variables in special force police officers. Method At different time points, 292 of 294 members of the ‘VI Reparto Mobile’, a special police force engaged exclusively in the enforcement of law and order, responded to our invitation to complete questionnaires for the assessment of personality traits, work-related stress (using the Demand–Control–Support (DCS) and the Effort–Reward–Imbalance (ERI) models) and mental health problems such as depression, anxiety and burnout. Results Regression analyses showed that lower levels of support and reward and higher levels of effort and overcommitment were associated with higher levels of mental health symptoms. Psychological screening revealed 21 (7.3%) likely cases of mild depression (Beck Depression Inventory, BDI?10). Officers who had experienced a discrepancy between work effort and rewards showed a marked increase in the risk of depression (OR 7.89, 95% CI 2.32 to 26.82) when compared with their counterparts who did not perceive themselves to be in a condition of distress. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that work-related stress may play a role in the development of mental health problems in police officers. The prevalence of mental health symptoms in the cohort investigated here was low, but not negligible in the case of depression. Since special forces police officers have to perform sensitive tasks for which a healthy psychological functioning is needed, the results of this study suggest that steps should be taken to prevent distress and improve the mental well-being of these workers. PMID:23872288

Garbarino, Sergio; Cuomo, Giovanni; Chiorri, Carlo; Magnavita, Nicola

2013-01-01

262

Dairy food intake is positively associated with cardiovascular health: findings from Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg study.  

PubMed

Conflicting findings have been reported about dairy food consumption and risk for cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, few studies have examined dairy food intake in relation to cardiovascular health and the incorporation of lifestyle factors such as diet and physical activity. This study examined whether dairy food consumption was associated with cardiovascular health, recently defined by the American Heart Association. Data were analyzed from 1352 participants from the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg survey. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to measure intakes of milk, yogurt, cheese, dairy desserts, ice cream, and butter. Seven cardiovascular health metrics were assessed: smoking, body mass index, physical activity, diet, total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose. A total cardiovascular health score (CHS) was determined by summing the total number of health metrics at ideal levels. It was hypothesized that greater dairy food consumption (both low fat and whole fat) would be associated with better global cardiovascular health, as indicated by a higher CHS. Total dairy food intake was positively associated with the CHS. Higher intakes of whole fat milk, yogurt, and cheese were associated with better cardiovascular health. Even when controlling for demographic and dietary variables, those who consumed at least 5 servings per week of these dairy products had a significantly higher CHS than those who consumed these products less frequently. Higher total whole fat dairy food intake was also associated with other positive health behaviors, including being a nonsmoker, consuming the suggested dietary intakes of recommended foods, and having a normal body mass index. Increased dairy food consumption was associated with better cardiovascular health. PMID:25476191

Crichton, Georgina E; Alkerwi, Ala'a

2014-12-01

263

Health problems presented in general practice by survivors before and after a fireworks disaster: associations with mental health care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To study the health problems presented to general practitioners by disaster survivors who received specialized ambulatory mental health care. Design: (Longitudinal) case-control study based on general practitioners' electronic medical records. Setting: General practice and a mental health institution (MHI) in Enschede, the Netherlands. Subject: A total of 728 adult disaster survivors who were registered in 30 study practices and

Dirk-Jan den Ouden; Anja J. E. Dirkzwager; C. J. IJzermans

2005-01-01

264

Rhinitis Associated with Pesticide Exposure among Commercial Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Rhinitis is common, but the risk factors are not well described. To investigate the association between current rhinitis and pesticide use, we used data from 2,245 Iowa commercial pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study. Methods Using logistic regression models adjusted for age, education, and growing up on a farm, we evaluated the association between current rhinitis and 34 pesticides used in the past year. Results Seventy-four percent of commercial pesticide applicators reported at least one episode of rhinitis in the past year (current rhinitis). Five pesticides used in the past year were significantly positively associated with current rhinitis: the herbicides 2,4-D, glyphosate and petroleum oil, the insecticide diazinon and the fungicide benomyl. The association for 2,4-D and glyphosate was limited to individuals who used both in the past year (Odds Ratio = 1.42, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.14, 1.77). Both petroleum oil and diazinon showed consistent evidence of an association with rhinitis, based on both current use and exposure-response models. We saw no evidence of confounding by common agricultural rhinitis triggers such as handling grain or hay. Conclusions Exposure to pesticides may increase the risk of rhinitis. PMID:19289390

Slager, Rebecca E.; Poole, Jill A.; LeVan, Tricia D.; Sandler, Dale P.; Alavanja, Michael C. R.; Hoppin, Jane A.

2010-01-01

265

An Analysis of the External Environmental and Internal Organizational Factors Associated with Adoption of the Electronic Health Record  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite a Presidential Order in 2004 that launched national incentives for the use of health information technology, specifically the Electronic Health Record (EHR), adoption of the EHR has been slow. This study attempts to quantify factors associated with adoption of the EHR and Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) by combining multiple…

Kruse, Clemens Scott

2013-01-01

266

Udder health in beef cows and its association with calf growth  

PubMed Central

Background Studies outside the Nordic countries have indicated that subclinical mastitis (measured by milk somatic cell count or the California Mastitis Test), intramammary infections (IMI), or blind quarters in beef cows may have negative effects on beef calf growth. Knowledge on prevalence of such udder health problems in Swedish beef cows is scarce. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to investigate subclinical mastitis, IMI and udder conformation in a number of beef cow herds. Production of ?-lactamase in staphylococci was also investigated. Associations between certain cow factors and subclinical mastitis and IMI, and associations between cow and calf factors and 200 day calf weaning weight were also studied. The herds were visited once within a month after calving and once at weaning. Udder examination and quarter milk sampling, for somatic cell count and bacteriology, were performed in 8 to 12 cows per herd and occasion. Results Approximately 50%, 40% and 10% of the cows had subclinical mastitis, IMI, and at least one blind quarter, respectively, but the prevalence varied markedly between herds. Intramammary infections (mainly due to staphylococci) were identified in 13-16% of the milk samples. Less than 5% of the staphylococcal isolates produced ?-lactamase. Approximately 11% of the cows sampled twice had the same IMI (mostly Staphylococcus aureus) at both samplings. Cow factors of importance for subclinical mastitis and/or IMI were teat and udder shape, breed, parity, presence of blind quarters, and cow hygiene. No significant associations were found between udder health parameters studied and calf weaning weights. Conclusions Subclinical mastitis and IMI, but not blind quarters, were common in beef cows, but the prevalence varied markedly between herds. Most IMI were caused by staphylococci and more than 95% of those were sensitive to penicillin. Cows with large funnel-shaped teats or pendulous udder after calving, and cows with blind quarters were at risk of having subclinical mastitis and/or IMI. Poor hygiene was also a risk factor for udder health problems. No significant associations were found between udder health and calf weaning weight. More studies on risk factors are warranted to improve advisory services on awareness and prevention of mastitis in beef cows. PMID:24479386

2014-01-01

267

Mental health, health, and substance abuse service needs for the Native American Rehabilitation Association Northwest (NARA NW) in the Portland, Oregon metropolitan area.  

PubMed

Consistent with results of previous needs assessments for urban American Indian and Alaska Native populations, a needs assessment in the Portland,Oregon metropolitan area for the Native American Rehabilitation Association Northwest revealed high levels of co-occurring conditions for American Indian and Alaska Native clients, often combining chronic health problems, substance abuse histories, and mental health diagnoses. Focus group results suggest the need for crisis care as well as specific needs of children and families, veterans, elders, and adults. PMID:18286444

Crofoot, Thomas L; Harris, Naomi; Plumb, Mary Anne; Smith, Keri Slingerland; Gault, Jaime; Brooks, Gloria; Hungry, Lisa; Geary, Artice; Holland, Irene

2008-01-01

268

Is military sexual trauma associated with trading sex among women veterans seeking outpatient mental health care?  

PubMed

A robust association between sexual trauma and trading sex has been documented in civilian samples but has not been examined in veterans. Women veterans experience high rates of sexual victimization across the lifespan, including during military service (military sexual trauma [MST]). Associations between MST and trading sex were examined in 200 women enrolled in a crosssectional study of HIV risks and seroprevalence among women receiving outpatient mental health care at a Veterans Affairs (VA) medical center. Each woman completed an assessment interview composed of validated measures that queried childhood sexual trauma; substance use; and risk behaviors, including trading sex for money, drugs, shelter, food, or other things. History of MST was derived from mandated VA screening results and chart notes. Overall, 19.7% reported a history of trading sex. Those who reported trading sex had a higher rate of MST than those who did not report trading sex (87.2% vs. 62.9%, respectively). A multivariable logistic regression model examined the relationship between trading sex and MST, controlling a priori for substance abuse and childhood sexual trauma (both associated with trading sex in civilian samples) and education, which was associated with trading sex in our sample. In this adjusted model, MST was associated with trading sex: odds ratio = 3.26, p = .025, 95% confidence interval = [1.16, 9.18]. To our knowledge, this is the 1st report of an association between MST and trading sex. Results extend previously observed associations between sexual trauma and trading sex in civilian cohorts and underscore the pernicious influence of sexual victimization across the lifespan. PMID:21534097

Strauss, Jennifer L; Marx, Christine E; Weitlauf, Julie C; Stechuchak, Karen M; Straits-Troster, Kristy; Worjoloh, Ayaba W; Sherrod, Christina B; Olsen, Maren K; Butterfield, Marian I; Calhoun, Patrick S

2011-01-01

269

Disgust Sensitivity Is Not Associated with Health in a Rural Bangladeshi Sample  

PubMed Central

Disgust can be considered a psychological arm of the immune system that acts to prevent exposure to infectious agents. High disgust sensitivity is associated with greater behavioral avoidance of disease vectors and thus may reduce infection risk. A cross-sectional survey in rural Bangladesh provided no strong support for this hypothesis. In many species, the expression of pathogen- and predator-avoidance mechanisms is contingent on early life exposure to predators and pathogens. Using childhood health data collected in the 1990s, we examined if adults with more infectious diseases in childhood showed greater adult disgust sensitivity: no support for this association was found. Explanations for these null finding and possible directions for future research are discussed. PMID:24977418

de Barra, Mícheál; Islam, M. Sirajul; Curtis, Val

2014-01-01

270

Trace metals in soil and vegetables and associated health risk assessment.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to assess the contamination level of trace metals in soil and vegetables and health risk to the urban population in Bangladesh. The range of Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Cd, and Pb in agricultural soils was 158-1160, 104-443, 157-519, 41-93, 3.9-13, and 84-574 mg/kg, respectively. Sequential extraction tests revealed that the studied metals were predominantly associated with the residual fraction, followed by the organically bound phase. Concerning Cu, Ni, Cd, and Pb in vegetables, more than 50 % samples exceeded the FAO/WHO recommended permissible limits. Considering the transfer of metals from soil to vegetables, Cu and Cd exhibited higher transfer factor (TF) values than the other metals. Target hazard quotient (THQ) for individual metal was below 1, suggesting that people would not experience significant health hazards if they ingest a single metal from vegetables. However, total metal THQ signifies the potential non-carcinogenic health hazard to the highly exposed consumers. The carcinogenic risk (TR) of As (1.9?×?10(-4)) and Pb (2.3?×?10(-5)) through consumption of vegetables were higher than the USEPA threshold level (10(-6)), indicating potential cancer risks. PMID:25204898

Islam, Md Saiful; Ahmed, Md Kawser; Habibullah-Al-Mamun, Md; Masunaga, Shigeki

2014-12-01

271

United Nations Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5: augmenting the role of health professional associations.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to assess changes in the organizational capacity of health professional associations (HPAs) before and after a structured capacity building intervention, which included strategic investment of resources at institutional and technical levels. Self-assessments of organizational capacity were conducted by seven HPAs from low-resource countries involved in the FIGO Leadership in Obstetrics and Gynecology for Impact and Change (LOGIC) Initiative in Maternal and Newborn Health. The self-assessment tool comprised a questionnaire focusing on five core organizational dimensions, completed through a participatory and externally facilitated process. Differences were assessed using the two-sided sign test. All seven HPAs made improvements, with gains in an overall index (P=0.017) and in the specific dimensions of culture (P=0.016), operational capacity (P=0.016), performance (P=0.03), and functions (P=0.016). Increased capacity contributed to the ability of each HPA to enhance their credibility and assume leadership in national efforts to improve maternal and newborn health. PMID:25257568

Perron, Liette; Vander Plaetse, Bart; Taylor, David

2014-10-01

272

Association between work-related health problems and job insecurity in permanent and temporary employees  

PubMed Central

Objectives This research was conducted with an aim of determining the correlation between job insecurity and an employee’s work-related health problems among permanent and temporary workers. Methods Using the data from the First Korean Working Conditions Survey conducted in 2006, a total of 7,071 workers, excluding employers and the self-employed, were analyzed. Work-related health problems were categorized as backache, headache, abdominal pain, muscular pain, stress, fatigue, insomnia, anxiety or depression. Each problem was then analyzed for its relationship to job insecurity through logistic regression analysis. Results Among the 7,071 workers, 5,294 (74.9%) were permanent workers and 1,777 (25.1%) were temporary workers. For the permanent workers, presence of high or moderate job insecurity appeared more closely linked to backache, headache, abdominal pain, muscular pain, stress, fatigue, insomnia, anxiety, and depression compared to absence of job insecurity. However, for the temporary workers, only depression appeared to be associated with the presence of high job insecurity. Conclusion The study showed that the presence of job insecurity is correlated with work-related health problems. The deleterious effects of job insecurity appeared to be stronger in permanent than temporary workers. Additional research should investigate ways to effectively reduce job insecurity. PMID:24472497

2013-01-01

273

Occupational exposure to solid chemical agents in biomass-fired power plants and associated health effects.  

PubMed

Occupational exposure to aluminium, arsenic, lead, cadmium, and manganese can increase the risk of numerous neurophysiological changes in workers, and may lead to conditions resembling Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. However, although the health hazard aspect of these agents has been examined, biomass-fired power plant workers' exposure to them remains a neglected issue. The purpose of this study was to measure maintenance and ash removal workers' multiple exposures to inhalable dust, metals, and crystalline silica during their work tasks in biomass-fired power plants. Maintenance and ash removal workers were exposed to high inhalable dust concentrations inside biomass-fired boilers. The median air inhalable dust concentration in workers' breathing zones were 33 mg m(-3) and 120 mg m(-3) in ash removal and maintenance tasks, respectively. The median concentration of manganese (0.31 mg m(-3)) exceeded the occupational exposure limit in worker's breathing zone samples in maintenance tasks. The most evident exposure-associated health risk from multiple exposures to metals was that of cancer, followed by central nervous system disorders, lower respiratory tract irritation, and finally upper respiratory tract irritation. To avoid the above mentioned health effects, powered air respirators with ABEK+P3 cartridges and carbon monoxide gas detectors are recommended as the minimum requirement for these work tasks. A compressed air breathing apparatus is the best form of protection for the most demanding work phases inside boilers in biomass-fired power plants. PMID:24289933

Jumpponen, M; Rönkkömäki, H; Pasanen, P; Laitinen, J

2014-06-01

274

Second Conference of the African Health Economics and Policy Association: towards universal healthcare coverage in Africa.  

PubMed

This report discusses the key messages coming out of the papers presented at the second African Health Economics and Policy Association conference, with a particular focus on innovative and recent research results of interest to a wider audience. It also covers the scientific structure and organization of the conference, including the various sessions and key note speeches. The 3-day conference discussed the definition and scope as well as the key issues concerned, the challenges involved, and the role of leadership and country ownership in achieving universal health coverage in low-income countries. A special effort was also made to link the research outputs of the conference to policy-making in the region, through the participation of high-level decision-makers from countries as well as the production of policy briefs targeting policy-makers and based on the conference outputs and relevant research. Sub-themes of the conference included user fee removal and exemptions, covering those outside the formal sector, improved domestic funding of healthcare, purchasing of services and policy processes. The conference was attended by approximately 230 participants drawn from over 30 African countries as well as abroad, mostly from academia, research institutions, Ministries of Health and other relevant Government agencies, as well as donor and technical partners. PMID:21671694

Atim, Chris

2011-06-01

275

Factors Associated With Health-Related Quality of Life of Student Pharmacists  

PubMed Central

Objective. To assess the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of student pharmacists and explore factors related to HRQoL outcomes of student pharmacists in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program at a public university. Methods. A survey instrument was administered to all student pharmacists in a PharmD program at a public university to evaluate differences and factors related to the HRQoL outcomes of first-year (P1), second-year (P2), third-year (P3), and fourth-year (P4) student pharmacists in the college. The survey instrument included attitudes and academic-related self-perception, a 12-item short form health survey, and personal information components. Results. There were 304 students (68.6%) who completed the survey instrument. The average health state classification measure and mental health component scale (MCS-12) scores were significantly higher for P4 students when compared with the P1through P3 students. There was no difference observed in the physical component scale (PCS-12) scores among each of the 4 class years. Significant negative impact on HRQoL outcomes was observed in students with higher levels of confusion about how they should study (scale lack of regulation) and concern about not being negatively perceived by others (self-defeating ego orientation), while school satisfaction increased HRQoL outcomes (SF-6D, p<0.001; MCS-12, p=0.013). A greater desire to be judged capable (self-enhancing ego-orientation) and career satisfaction were positively associated with the PCS-12 scores (p<0.05). Conclusion. Factors associated with the HRQoL of student pharmacists were confusion regarding how to study, ego orientation, satisfaction with the chosen college of pharmacy, and career satisfaction. First-year through third-year student pharmacists had lower HRQoL as compared with P4 students and the US general population. Support programs may be helpful for students to maintain or improve their mental and overall health. PMID:24558275

Gubbins, Paul O.; Ragland, Denise; Flowers, Schwanda K.; Stowe, Cindy D.

2014-01-01

276

Feedlot health and performance effects associated with the timing of respiratory disease treatment.  

PubMed

Generalized linear mixed models were developed using retrospective feedlot data collected on individually treated cattle (n = 31,131) to determine whether cattle performance and health outcomes in feedlot cattle were associated with timing of treatment for bovine respiratory disease (BRD) during the feeding phase. Cattle that died at any point during the feeding phase were removed from the analysis. Information on individual animal performance (ADG, HCW, quality grade, yield grade) and health outcomes (treatments) were incorporated into an economic model that generated a standardized net return estimate for each animal. Prices were standardized to minimize variation between economic outcomes due to market conditions allowing direct comparisons of health and performance effects between animals. While controlling for sex, risk code, and arrival BW class, potential associations between net returns and the timing of BRD identification were investigated using 2 categorical variables created to measure time: 1) weeks on feed at initial BRD treatment, and 2) weeks from BRD treatment to slaughter. The first model using net return as the outcome identified an interaction between weeks on feed at initial BRD treatment and animal arrival BW. Cattle with arrival BW between 227 and 272 kg (5WT) and 273 and 318 kg (6WT) displayed decreased net returns (P < 0.05) if treated during wk 1 as compared with subsequent weeks in the first month of the feeding phase. The cattle with BW between 319 and 363 kg (7WT) and 364 and 408 kg (8WT) exhibited decreased net returns (P < 0.05) if treated during the later weeks of the feeding phase compared with earlier in the feeding phase. The number of times cattle were treated contributed to variation in net returns for the 5WT and 6WT cattle. For the 7WT and 8WT cattle, HCW was the main factor contributing to decreased net returns when cattle were treated late in the feeding phase. The second model identified an interaction between weeks from BRD treatment to slaughter and arrival BW. The 181 to 226 kg of BW, 5WT, 6WT, 7WT, and 8WT cattle all exhibited decreased net returns (P < 0.05) when cattle were on feed fewer weeks from BRD treatment to slaughter. Cattle with more weeks on feed between BRD treatment and slaughter had greater HCW, decreased ADG, and more total treatments compared with cattle treated closer to slaughter. This research indicates that timing of initial BRD treatment is associated with performance and health outcomes. PMID:18765846

Babcock, A H; White, B J; Dritz, S S; Thomson, D U; Renter, D G

2009-01-01

277

The relationship between hand hygiene and health care-associated infection: it’s complicated  

PubMed Central

The reasoning that improved hand hygiene compliance contributes to the prevention of health care-associated infections is widely accepted. It is also accepted that high hand hygiene alone cannot impact formidable risk factors, such as older age, immunosuppression, admission to the intensive care unit, longer length of stay, and indwelling devices. When hand hygiene interventions are concurrently undertaken with other routine or special preventive strategies, there is a potential for these concurrent strategies to confound the effect of the hand hygiene program. The result may be an overestimation of the hand hygiene intervention unless the design of the intervention or analysis controls the effect of the potential confounders. Other epidemiologic principles that may also impact the result of a hand hygiene program include failure to consider measurement error of the content of the hand hygiene program and the measurement error of compliance. Some epidemiological errors in hand hygiene programs aimed at reducing health care-associated infections are inherent and not easily controlled. Nevertheless, the inadvertent omission by authors to report these common epidemiological errors, including concurrent infection prevention strategies, suggests to readers that the effect of hand hygiene is greater than the sum of all infection prevention strategies. Worse still, this omission does not assist evidence-based practice.

McLaws, Mary-Louise

2015-01-01

278

Health risks associated with ingesting venison from a uranium enrichment facility with multiple operable units  

SciTech Connect

Ingestion of game, including venison, may be a significant exposure pathway in human health risk assessments at hazardous waste sites. The difficulty associated with modeling contaminant tissue concentrations in a wide-ranging herbivorous mammal is compounded when the home range of the mammal extends over multiple operable units (OUs) of varying size and media contaminant concentration. Using biotransfer factors extracted from the literature and species-specific parameter information (e.g., home range size, diet, forage and water ingestion rates) the authors estimate contaminant concentrations in venison based on soil and surface water contaminant concentrations and determine the contribution of individual OUs to modeled venison tissue concentrations. Estimated tissue concentrations are calculated through the use of site foraging factors (SFFS) that adjust exposure contributions from individual OUs to account for the size of the OU in relation to the animals home range. The authors then use the venison tissue concentrations to estimate human health risk associated with ingesting venison under both a current and future exposure scenario.

Duncan, J.; Welsh, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Center for Risk Management

1995-12-31

279

Associations between different types of physical activity and teachers’ perceived mental, physical, and work-related health  

PubMed Central

Background The teaching profession is characterized by high levels of stress and physical complaints, which might be improved through regular participation in physical activity (PA). However, the effect of PA on mental and physical health is not always consistent and depends on the type of PA performed. The aim of this study was to examine the mental, physical, and work-related health of Flemish secondary school teachers and identify the impact on those health variables by demographic and teaching-related factors and various types of PA. Methods This study included an online survey conducted across a representative sample of secondary school teachers (n?=?1066, average age 40 years; 68 percent female). Level of PA and sitting time were estimated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and perceived mental health and physical health were estimated using the Short Form 36. Work-related factors such as job satisfaction, occupational stress, and absenteeism were also collected. T-tests, ANOVAs, and linear regression analyses were performed. Results Flemish secondary school teachers have poorer perceived mental and physical health than a general healthy population. This difference is particularly evident among female teachers, who reported lower perceived health, more occupational stress, and more absent days compared to their male colleagues. Higher participation in leisure-time PA was associated with a more positive perceived health. In contrast, higher levels of occupational PA and sitting time had a negative impact on perceived health. Total amount of PA, total amount of moderate-to-vigorous PA, transportation-related PA, and PA at home were not associated to teachers’ perceived health. Conclusion Because secondary school teachers’ levels of perceived health are low, they are an important target group for interventions aiming to improve health. Only leisure-time PA was associated with more positive perceived health. This finding may indicate that teachers performing more exercise during leisure time, or in a more autonomous way, may be more resistant to physical and mental health problems. Future research should verify whether promoting leisure-time PA among teachers has the potential to improve their mental and physical health, and counteract the negative associations between teachers’ health and their occupational PA. PMID:24885620

2014-01-01

280

Patterns and associates of cognitive function, psychosocial wellbeing and health in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive function, psychosocial wellbeing and health are important domains of function. Consistencies and inconsistencies in patterns of wellbeing across these domains may be informative about wellbeing in old age and the ways it is manifested amongst individuals. In this study we investigated whether there were groups of individuals with different profiles of scores across these domains. We also aimed to identify characteristics of any evident groups by comparing them on variables that were not used in identifying the groups. Methods The sample was the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936, which included 1091 participants born in 1936. They are a community-dwelling, narrow-age-range sample of 70-year-olds. Most had taken part in the Scottish Mental Survey 1947 at an average age of 11, making available a measure of childhood intelligence. We used latent class analysis (LCA) to explore possible profiles using 9 variables indicating cognitive functioning, psychosocial wellbeing and health status. Demographic, personality, and lifestyle variables – none of which were used in the LCA – were used to characterize the resulting profile groups. Results We accepted a 3-group solution, which we labeled High Wellbeing (65.3%), Low Cognition (20.3%), and Low Bio-Psychosocial (14.5%). Notably, the High Wellbeing group had significantly higher childhood IQ, lower Neuroticism scores, and a lower percentage of current smokers than the other 2 groups. Conclusion The majority of individuals were functioning generally well; however, there was evidence of the presence of groups with different profiles, which may be explained in part in terms of cognitive ability differences. Results suggested that higher life-long intelligence, personality traits associated with less mental distress, and basic health practices such as avoiding smoking are important associates of wellbeing in old age. PMID:24754844

2014-01-01

281

Factors Associated with Hemorrhoids in Korean Adults: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Although hemorrhoids are one of the most common anal diseases among Koreans, risk factors for hemorrhoids have not been well identified. Methods We analyzed the data from the 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) between 2007 and 2009. Study subjects were 17,228 participants of KNHANES who were aged 19 years or older. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate associations between hemorrhoids and probable risk factors. Results Overall prevalence of hemorrhoids among study subjects was 14.4%, being more prevalent among women (15.7%) than among men (13.0%). Obesity and abdominal obesity were associated with a higher risk of hemorrhoids with odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence intervals, 95% CI) of 1.13 (1.01 to 1.26) and 1.16 (1.04 to 1.30), respectively. Both self-reported depression (OR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.62 to 2.08) and physician diagnosed depression (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.35 to 2.17) were associated with significantly higher risk of hemorrhoids. No regular walking (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.23) and experience of pregnancy (OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.17 to 2.25) for women were also associated with higher risk of hemorrhoids. However, educational level, alcohol consumption, physical activities, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, fiber, fat intake, and energy intake were not associated with a risk of hemorrhoids. Low quality of life assessed with EuroQol-5 Dimension and EuroQol-Visual Analogue Scale was significantly associated with hemorrhoids. Conclusion This nationwide cross-sectional study of Korean adults suggests that obesity, abdominal obesity, depression, and past pregnancy may be risk factors for hemorrhoids and hemorrhoids affect quality of life negatively. PMID:25309703

Lee, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Hyo-Eun; Kang, Ji-Hun

2014-01-01

282

Is perceived patient involvement in mental health care associated with satisfaction and empowerment?  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Patients increasingly assume active roles in their mental health care. While there is a growing interest in patient involvement and patient-reported outcomes, there is insufficient research on the outcomes of patient involvement. OBJECTIVE: The research questions in this study are as follows: 'To what extent is perceived patient involvement associated with satisfaction and empowerment?'; 'What is the nature of the relationship between satisfaction and empowerment?'; and 'To what extent are background variables associated with satisfaction and empowerment?'. We assumed that a higher degree of patient involvement is associated with higher satisfaction and empowerment scores and that satisfaction and empowerment are positively associated. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Data were gathered using surveys of 111 patients of 36 multidisciplinary care networks for persons with serious and persistent mental illness. MAIN VARIABLES STUDIED AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Demographic characteristics, patient involvement and satisfaction were measured using a new questionnaire. Empowerment was assessed using the Dutch Empowerment Scale. Descriptive, univariate (Pearson's r and independent-samples t-tests), multivariate (hierarchical forced entry regression) and mixed-model analyses were conducted. RESULTS: The hypotheses of positive associations between patient involvement, satisfaction and empowerment are confirmed. The demographics are not significantly related to satisfaction or empowerment, except for gender. Men reported higher empowerment scores than did women. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Making patient involvement a reality is more than just an ethical imperative. It provides an opportunity to enhance patient-reported outcomes such as satisfaction and empowerment. Future research should focus on the nature of the association between satisfaction and empowerment. PMID:23425015

Tambuyzer, Else; Van Audenhove, Chantal

2013-02-21

283

Factors associated with public awareness of the Crown Health Program in the Al-Jouf Region  

PubMed Central

Objectives: A community-based intervention, the Crown Health Project (CHP), was developed by the Ministry of Health. It was implemented on a small-scale in Al-Jouf Region in Northern Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to assess its feasibility and effectiveness so that it can be scaled up. This study primarily aimed at investigating factors associated with the awareness of CHP in order to improve subsequent campaigns for the program in Al-Jouf and other regions. A secondary aim was to assess possible changes of public awareness during intensification of the awareness campaign between October 2011 and May 2012. Methods: A pre- and post-questionnaire cross-sectional approach was undertaken, and the intervention was an awareness campaign. Variables collected included demographic characteristics (e.g., age, gender, education, occupation, urban/rural residence) and CHP awareness (its existence, sources of knowledge about CHP, its goals and objectives, its target diseases, location of activities, participation in such activities). Logistic regression was used to analyze the awareness of the program according to participant characteristics, with a time of the survey as a variable. Results: Awareness of the program was found to be 11 times higher among postsurvey respondents than presurvey respondents. Respondents of the second survey were better at correctly identifying “health education” as the main goal of the CHP (odds ratio [OR], 4.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.1–5.5), “noncommunicable diseases” as the main diseases targeted (OR, 4.8; 95% CI, 3.6–6.4) and “attention to health” as the purpose (OR, 6.0; 95% CI, 4.0–8.9). Conclusion: The different activities of the CHP were successful in dramatically increasing awareness of the CHP program in Al-Jouf. PMID:25657609

Memish, Ziad A.; Saeedi, Mohammad Y.; Al Madani, Ahmed J.; Junod, Bernard; Jamo, Abdelgadier; Abid, Omer; Alanazi, Faisal M.; Alrewally, Fayez G.; Mandil, Ahmed M. A.

2015-01-01

284

Adoption factors associated with electronic health record among long-term care facilities: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Objectives The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act created incentives for adopting electronic health records (EHRs) for some healthcare organisations, but long-term care (LTC) facilities are excluded from those incentives. There are realisable benefits of EHR adoption in LTC facilities; however, there is limited research about this topic. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to identify EHR adoption factors for LTC facilities that are ineligible for the HITECH Act incentives. Setting We conducted systematic searches of Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) Complete via Ebson B. Stephens Company (EBSCO Host), Google Scholar and the university library search engine to collect data about EHR adoption factors in LTC facilities since 2009. Participants Search results were filtered by date range, full text, English language and academic journals (n=22). Interventions Multiple members of the research team read each article to confirm applicability and study conclusions. Primary and secondary outcome measures Researchers identified common themes across the literature: specifically facilitators and barriers to adoption of the EHR in LTC. Results Results identify facilitators and barriers associated with EHR adoption in LTC facilities. The most common facilitators include access to information and error reduction. The most prevalent barriers include initial costs, user perceptions and implementation problems. Conclusions Similarities span the system selection phases and implementation process; of those, cost was the most common mentioned. These commonalities should help leaders in LTC facilities align strategic decisions to EHR adoption. This review may be useful for decision-makers attempting successful EHR adoption, policymakers trying to increase adoption rates without expanding incentives and vendors that produce EHRs. PMID:25631311

Kruse, Clemens Scott; Mileski, Michael; Alaytsev, Vyachelslav; Carol, Elizabeth; Williams, Ariana

2015-01-01

285

All-cause and disease-related health care costs associated with recurrent venous thromboembolism.  

PubMed

It was the objective of this study to quantify the risk of complications and the incremental health care costs associated with recurrent VTE events. Health care insurance claims from the Ingenix IMPACT database from 01/2004-09/2008 were analysed. Subjects aged ?18 years on the date of first recurrent VTE diagnosis with ?12 months of baseline observation prior to the index recurrent VTE were matched 1:1 with no-recurrent VTE patients based on propensity scores. The risk of developing post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) and other disease-related diagnoses (thrombocytopenia, superficial venous thrombosis, venous ulcer, pulmonary hypertension, stasis dermatitis, and venous insufficiency) was compared between the recurrent and no-recurrent VTE groups for up to one year. All-cause and disease-related costs per patient per year (PPPY) were calculated. The recurrent VTE and no-recurrent VTE cohorts (8,001 subjects in each group) were matched with respect to age, gender, and comorbidities. The risk ratios (RRs) indicated that the risk of developing post-event complications was significantly higher for the recurrent VTE group compared to the no-recurrent VTE group (RR [95% CI]: PTS: 2.7 [2.4 - 2.9], p-value <0.01). Patients with recurrent VTE had significantly higher average PPPY all-cause costs compared to no-recurrent VTE patients ($86,744 versus $37,525, cost difference: $49,219 [€33,617]; 95% CI= 46,253-51,989). Corresponding disease-related health care costs PPPY were also significantly higher for the recurrent VTE group ($11,120 vs $1,262, cost difference: $9,858 [€6,733]; 95% CI= $9,081-$10,476). In conclusion, in this large matched-cohort study, recurrent VTE patients had significantly higher risk of complications and health care costs compared to no-recurrent VTE patients. PMID:24085327

Lefebvre, Patrick; Laliberté, François; Nutescu, Edith A; Duh, Mei Sheng; LaMori, Joyce; Bookhart, Brahim K; Olson, William H; Dea, Katherine; Hossou, Yvonnick; Schein, Jeff; Kaatz, Scott

2013-12-01

286

Is Violent Radicalisation Associated with Poverty, Migration, Poor Self-Reported Health and Common Mental Disorders?  

PubMed Central

Background Doctors, lawyers and criminal justice agencies need methods to assess vulnerability to violent radicalization. In synergy, public health interventions aim to prevent the emergence of risk behaviours as well as prevent and treat new illness events. This paper describes a new method of assessing vulnerability to violent radicalization, and then investigates the role of previously reported causes, including poor self-reported health, anxiety and depression, adverse life events, poverty, and migration and socio-political factors. The aim is to identify foci for preventive intervention. Methods A cross-sectional survey of a representative population sample of men and women aged 18–45, of Muslim heritage and recruited by quota sampling by age, gender, working status, in two English cities. The main outcomes include self-reported health, symptoms of anxiety and depression (common mental disorders), and vulnerability to violent radicalization assessed by sympathies for violent protest and terrorist acts. Results 2.4% of people showed some sympathy for violent protest and terrorist acts. Sympathy was more likely to be articulated by the under 20s, those in full time education rather than employment, those born in the UK, those speaking English at home, and high earners (>Ł75,000 a year). People with poor self-reported health were less likely to show sympathies for violent protest and terrorism. Anxiety and depressive symptoms, adverse life events and socio-political attitudes showed no associations. Conclusions Sympathies for violent protest and terrorism were uncommon among men and women, aged 18–45, of Muslim heritage living in two English cities. Youth, wealth, and being in education rather than employment were risk factors. PMID:24599058

Bhui, Kamaldeep; Warfa, Nasir; Jones, Edgar

2014-01-01

287

Dampness in buildings and health. Nordic interdisciplinary review of the scientific evidence on associations between exposure to "dampness" in buildings and health effects (NORDDAMP).  

PubMed

Several epidemiological investigations concerning indoor environments have indicated that "dampness" in buildings is associated to health effects such as respiratory symptoms, asthma and allergy. The aim of the present interdisciplinary review is to evaluate this association as shown in the epidemiological literature. A literature search identified 590 peer-reviewed articles of which 61 have been the foundation for this review. The review shows that "dampness" in buildings appears to increase the risk for health effects in the airways, such as cough, wheeze and asthma. Relative risks are in the range of OR 1.4-2.2. There also seems to be an association between "dampness" and other symptoms such as tiredness, headache and airways infections. It is concluded that the evidence for a causal association between "dampness" and health effects is strong. However, the mechanisms are unknown. Several definitions of dampness have been used in the studies, but all seems to be associated with health problems. Sensitisation to mites may be one but obviously not the only mechanism. Even if the mechanisms are unknown, there is sufficient evidence to take preventive measures against dampness in buildings. PMID:11394014

Bornehag, C G; Blomquist, G; Gyntelberg, F; Järvholm, B; Malmberg, P; Nordvall, L; Nielsen, A; Pershagen, G; Sundell, J

2001-06-01

288

Invited review: Body condition score and its association with dairy cow productivity, health, and welfare.  

PubMed

The body condition score (BCS) of a dairy cow is an assessment of the proportion of body fat that it possesses, and it is recognized by animal scientists and producers as being an important factor in dairy cattle management. The scale used to measure BCS differs between countries, but low values always reflect emaciation and high values equate to obesity. The intercalving profile of BCS is a mirror image of the milk lactation profile. Cows lose condition for 50 to 100 d postcalving, because of homeorhetic changes that occur in the somatotropic axis and the sensitivity of peripheral tissues to insulin, and the upregulation of lipolytic pathways in adipose tissue. Management and feeding have little effect on early postcalving BCS loss (wk 1 to 4 postcalving) until the natural period of insulin resistance has passed and the somatotropic axis has recoupled. There is evidence, however, that management and diet can influence the timing of recoupling of the somatotropic axis and the sensitivity of peripheral tissues to insulin, and gene expression differences in adipose tissue 30 d in milk confirm an effect of energy intake on lipogenic enzymes. The BCS in which a cow calves, nadir BCS, and the amount of BCS she loses postcalving are associated with milk production, reproduction, and health. Body condition score may also be a valid indicator of animal welfare, but further research is required to determine the effect of BCS and BCS change on how a cow "feels." Although the actual strength of the association may vary, there is relative consistency in the associations among calving and nadir BCS, and BCS change on milk production, postpartum anestrous, the likelihood of a successful pregnancy and days open, the risk of uterine infection, and the risk of metabolic disorders. For many production and health variables, the association with BCS is nonlinear, with an optimum calving BCS of 3.0 to 3.25 (5-point scale); lower calving BCS is associated with reduced production and reproduction, whereas calving BCS >/=3.5 (5-point scale) is associated with a reduction in early lactation dry matter intake and milk production and an increased risk of metabolic disorders. Ongoing research into the automation of body condition scoring suggests that it is a likely candidate to be incorporated into decision support systems in the near future to aid producers in making operational and tactical decisions. PMID:19923585

Roche, J R; Friggens, N C; Kay, J K; Fisher, M W; Stafford, K J; Berry, D P

2009-12-01

289

Associations of health related behaviour, social relationships, and health status with persistent physical activity and inactivity: a study of Finnish adolescent twins  

PubMed Central

Objective: To examine the association between leisure time physical activity over a three year period and health related behaviour, social relationships, and health status in late adolescence as part of a nationwide longitudinal study. Methods: Five birth cohorts of adolescent twins aged 16 at baseline (n = 5028; 2311 boys and 2717 girls) participated in the study. Questionnaires on leisure time physical activity, other health related behaviour, social relationships, and health status were sent to the twins on their 16th and 17th birthdays and six months after their 18th birthday. The combined response rate to the three questionnaires was 75.8% for boys and 81.7% for girls. Those who answered in all three questionnaires that their frequency of physical activity was 4–5 times a week or more were defined as persistent exercisers, and those who exercised at most twice a month in all three were defined as persistently inactive. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify baseline variables associated with outcome measures. Results: Overall, 20.4% of boys and 13.0% of girls were persistent exercisers and 6.5% of boys and 5.3% of girls were persistently inactive. In both sexes, smoking, irregular breakfast eating, attending vocational school, and poor self perceived current health were significantly associated with persistent inactivity. Conclusions: Persistent physical inactivity in adolescents is associated with a less healthy lifestyle, worse educational progression, and poor self perceived health. Tailoring methods to promote physical activity may prove useful for influencing other health habits. Such programmes are indicated for vocational schools in particular. PMID:12351335

Aarnio, M; Winter, T; Kujala, U; Kaprio, J

2002-01-01

290

Impediments to Academic Performance of Bisexual College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To investigate health-related impediments to academic success for bisexual college students. Participants: Respondents to the Fall 2011 American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II (ACHA-NCHA II) survey who self-identified as bisexual, heterosexual, gay, or lesbian. Methods: Secondary analyses of the…

Klein, Nicole Aydt; Dudley, Michael G.

2014-01-01

291

The positive association between number of children and obesity in Iranian women and men: Results from the National Health Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To date, few studies have assessed the association between the number of children and obesity in couples. We aimed to investigate this association in men and women aged 20–75 years. METHODS: Data from the National Health Survey were considered in this investigation. It included 2728 women and men (1364 couples) aged 20–75 years. Height and weight were actually measured

Enayatollah Bakhshi; Mohammad Reza Eshraghian; Kazem Mohammad; Abbas Rahimi Foroushani; Hojat Zeraati; Akbar Fotouhi; Fraidon Siassi; Behjat Seifi

2008-01-01

292

The Association of Resilience with Mental and Physical Health among Older American Indians: The Native Elder Care Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the association of resilience with measures of mental and physical health in a sample of older American Indians (AIs). A validated scale measuring resilience was administered to 185 noninstitutionalized AIs aged greater than or equal to 55 years. Unadjusted analyses revealed that higher levels of resilience were associated with lower…

Schure, Marc B.; Odden, Michelle; Goins, R. Turner

2013-01-01

293

Aortic Stiffness Is Associated With Visceral Adiposity in Older Adults Enrolled in the Study of Health, Aging, and Body Composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The central arteries stiffen with age, causing hemodynamic alterations that have been associated with cardiovascular events. Changes in body fat with age may be related to aortic stiffening. The association between vascular stiffness and body fat was evaluated in 2488 older adults (mean age, 74 years; 52% female; 40% black) enrolled in the Study of Health, Aging, and Body Composition

Kim Sutton-Tyrrell; Anne Newman; Eleanor M. Simonsick; Richard Havlik; Marco Pahor

294

Associations between early exposure to intimate partner violence, parental depression and subsequent mental health outcomes  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the association between parent reports of intimate partner violence (IPV) and depressive symptoms within the first 3 years of a child’s life with subsequent mental health conditions and psychotropic drug treatment. Design Prospective cohort study linking parental IPV and depression with subsequent billing and pharmacy data. Setting 4 pediatric clinics between November 2004 and June 2012 Patients/Participants 2,422 children Main Exposure Any report of IPV and/or parental depressive symptoms from birth to 3 years of age. Main Outcome Measures ICD-9 mental health diagnoses and any psychotropic drug treatment between 3 and 6 years of age. Results 2.4% of caregivers (n=58) reported both IPV and depressive symptoms before their children were 3 years of age, 3% (n=69) of caregivers reported IPV only, 29% (n=704) reported depressive symptoms only, and 65.7% (n=1,591) reported neither exposure. Children of parents reporting both IPV and depressive symptoms were more likely to have a diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (AOR 4.0; 95% CI: 1.5–10.9), even after adjusting for child gender, race/ethnicity, and insurance type. Children whose parents reported depressive symptoms were more likely to have been prescribed psychotropic medication (AOR 1.9; 95% CI: 1.0–3.4). Conclusions Exposure to both IPV and depression before 3 years is associated with preschool-onset ADHD; and early exposure to parental depression is associated with being prescribed psychotropic medication. PMID:23381234

Bauer, Nerissa S.; Gilbert, Amy L.; Carroll, Aaron E.; Downs, Stephen M.

2014-01-01

295

What Have "Omics" Taught Us about the Health Risks Associated with Exposure to Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation  

SciTech Connect

There is a plethora of data available on the DNA damages associated with exposures to ionizing radiation and the subsequent cellular responses. Indeed, much of radiation research has focused on these initial insults and induced responses, particularly DNA repair, cell signaling pathways, cell cycle checkpoint control, mutation induction, chromosomal rearrangements, transformation and apoptosis etc. While many of these endpoints correlate with exposure dose, few, if any, provide substantive information on human health risk(s) associated with radiation exposure. Here the contribution of recent advances in high throughput ‘omics technologies are evaluated to examine what they have taught us about health risk(s) to humans associated with exposure to ionizing radiation.

Morgan, William F.; Sowa, Marianne B.

2011-04-27

296

Virus transfer proportions between gloved fingertips, soft berries, and lettuce, and associated health risks.  

PubMed

Multiple outbreaks of human norovirus (hNoV) have been associated with fresh produce, such as soft berries and lettuce. Even though food handlers are considered an important source for the introduction of hNoV into food chains, their contribution to public health risks associated with hNoV remains unknown. To assess to which extent food handlers contribute to the introduction and spread of hNoV in fresh produce chains quantitative virus transfer data are needed. We estimated transfer proportions of hNoV GI.4, GII.4, murine norovirus (MNV-1), a culturable surrogate of hNoV, and human adenovirus (hAdV-2), a human pathogen proposed as an indicator for human faecal pollution, between gloved fingertips and raspberries, strawberries, and lettuce, by quantitative RT-PCR and cell culture if applicable. Virus transfer proportions were corrected for virus-matrix specific recoveries, and variability and uncertainty of the parameters were estimated. Virus transfer from gloves to soft berries was generally lower as compared to lettuce, with mean transfer proportions ranging between 0.1 to 2.3% and 9 to 10% for infectious MNV-1 and hAdV-2, respectively. Transfer from produce to glove was mostly greater than transfer from glove to produce, adding to the likelihood of virus transfer due to cross contamination from contaminated produce via food handlers. HNoV GI.4 and hNoV GII.4 showed no significant difference between their mean transfer proportions. Using the estimated transfer proportions, we studied the impact of low and high transfer proportions on the public health risk, based on a scenario in which a food handler picked raspberries with contaminated fingertips. Given the made assumptions, we could show that for a pathogen as infectious as hNoV, low transfer proportions may pose a greater public health risk than high transfer proportions, due to a greater viral spread. We demonstrated the potential of food handlers in spreading hNoV in food chains, showing that prevention of virus contamination on food handlers' hands is crucial for food safety. Nevertheless, complete prevention of virus contamination on fresh produce cannot be achieved in reality, and reliable and effective intervention measures are consequently required. We estimated that, especially for low transfer proportions, a robust one log10-unit reduction of infectious hNoV on contaminated produce, and on food handlers' hands, could lower the public health risk substantially. Using the obtained data in quantitative risk assessment will aid in elucidating the contribution of food handlers in hNoV transmission. PMID:24029026

Verhaelen, Katharina; Bouwknegt, Martijn; Carratalŕ, Anna; Lodder-Verschoor, Froukje; Diez-Valcarce, Marta; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; Rutjes, Saskia A

2013-09-16

297

Occupational Safety and Health Symposia (37th American Medical Association Congress on Occupational Health. St. Louis, Missouri, 1977).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The papers compiled here were presented at the fourth symposium in a series designed to provide a continuing introduction to current aspects of occupational safety and health. The papers represent eight topics: (1) special health programs, (2) degenerative disease and injury of the back, (3) job stress and work performance, (4) role of industry in…

Douglass, Bruce E.; And Others

298

The association of health literacy with cervical cancer prevention knowledge and health behaviors in a multiethnic cohort of women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Our purpose was to describe the relationship between health literacy, ethnicity, and cervical cancer screening practices and to evaluate physician recognition of low literacy. Study Design: We studied a prospective cohort of English-speaking patients ?18 years (n = 529) in ambulatory women's clinics. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate demographics, health practices and beliefs, and knowledge regarding

Stacy T. Lindau; Cecilia Tomori; Tom Lyons; Lizbet Langseth; Charles L. Bennett; Patricia Garcia

2002-01-01

299

Long-term Mortality Associated with Oophorectomy versus Ovarian Conservation in the Nurses’ Health Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To report long-term mortality following oophorectomy or ovarian conservation at the time of hysterectomy in subgroups of women based on age at the time of surgery, use of estrogen therapy, presence of risk-factors for CHD and length of follow-up. Methods A prospective cohort study of 30,117 Nurses’ Health Study participants having a hysterectomy for benign disease Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios [HR] for death from CHD, stroke, breast cancer, epithelial ovarian cancer, lung cancer, colorectal cancer, total cancer and all-causes were determined, comparing bilateral oophorectomy (n=16,914) with ovarian conservation (n=13,203). Results Over 28 years of follow-up, 16.8% of women with hysterectomy and bilateral oophorectomy died from all causes compared with 13.3% of women who had ovarian conservation (HR=1.13;95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06–1.21). Oophorectomy was associated with a lower risk of death from ovarian cancer (4v44) and prior to age 47.5 years a lower risk of death from breast cancer. However at no age was oophorectomy associated with a lower risk of other cause-specific or all-cause mortality. For women younger than 50 at the time of hysterectomy, bilateral oophorectomy was associated with significantly increased mortality in women who had never-used estrogen therapy, but not in past and current users: all-cause mortality (HR=1.41;95% CI, 1.04–1.92;Pinteraction=0.03); lung cancer mortality (HR=1.44;95% CI, 0.17–1.21;Pinteraction=0.02); and CHD mortality (HR=2.35;95% CI, 1.22–4.27;Pinteraction=0.02). Conclusions For women younger than 50 at the time of hysterectomy, bilateral oophorectomy was associated with significantly increased mortality in women who had never-used estrogen therapy. At no age was oophorectomy associated with increased overall survival. PMID:23635669

Parker, William H.; Feskanich, Diane; Broder, Michael S.; Chang, Eunice; Shoupe, Donna; Farquhar, Cynthia M.; Berek, Jonathan S.; Manson, JoAnn E.

2014-01-01

300

Do we develop public health leaders?- association between public health competencies and emotional intelligence: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Professional development of public health leaders requires a form of instruction which is competency-based to help them develop the abilities to address complex and evolving demands of health care systems. Concurrently, emotional intelligence (EI) is a key to organisational success. Our aim was twofold: i) to assess the relationship between the level of self-assessed public health and EI competencies among Master of European Public Health (MEPH) students and graduates at Maastricht University, and; ii) to determine the relationship between different groups of public health competencies and specific EI skills. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted including all recent MEPH graduates and students from 2009–2012, out of 67 eligible candidates N?=?51 were contacted and N?=?33 responded (11 males and 22 females; overall response: 64.7%).Two validated tools were employed: i) public health competencies self-assessment questionnaire, and; ii) Assessing Emotions Scale. Results Females scored higher than males in all seven domains of the self-assessed key public health competencies (NS) and emotional intelligence competences (P?=?0.022). Overall, the mean value of public health competencies was the lowest in students with “staff” preferences and the highest among students with mixed job preferences (P?health competencies and the overall emotional intelligence competencies (r?=?0.61, P?health specific competencies and EI attributes. It can contribute to the improvement of the educational content of PH curricula by rising awareness through self-assessment and supporting the identification of further educational needs related to leadership. PMID:24742091

2014-01-01

301

Rhinitis Associated with Pesticide Use Among Private Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study  

PubMed Central

Farmers commonly experience rhinitis but the risk factors are not well-characterized. The aim of this study was to analyze cross-sectional data on rhinitis in the past year and pesticide use from 21,958 Iowa and North Carolina farmers in the Agricultural Health Study, enrolled 1993–7, to evaluate pesticide predictors of rhinitis. Polytomous and logistic regression models were used to assess association between pesticide use and rhinitis while controlling for demographics and farm-related exposures. Sixty-seven % of farmers reported current rhinitis and 39% reported three or more rhinitis episodes. The herbicides glyphosate [Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.09, 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) = 1.05–1.13] and petroleum oil (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.05–1.19) were associated with current rhinitis and increased rhinitis episodes. Of the insecticides, 4 organophosphates (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dichlorvos, and malathion), carbaryl and use of permethrin on animals were predictors of current rhinitis. Diazinon was significant in the overall polytomous model and was associated with an elevated OR of 13+ rhinitis episodes (13+ episodes OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.09–1.38). The fungicide captan was also a significant predictor of rhinitis. Use of petroleum oil, malathion, permethrin and the herbicide metolachlor were significant in exposure-response polytomous models. Specific pesticides may contribute to rhinitis in farmers; agricultural activities did not explain these findings. PMID:20818537

Slager, Rebecca E.; Simpson, Sean L.; LeVan, Tricia D.; Poole, Jill A.; Sandler, Dale P.; Hoppin, Jane A.

2010-01-01

302

Health effects associated with sulfuryl fluoride and methyl bromide exposure among structural fumigation workers.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the health effects associated with occupational exposure to methyl bromide and sulfuryl fluoride among structural fumigation workers. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 123 structural fumigation workers and 120 referents in south Florida was conducted. Nerve conduction, vibration, neurobehavioral, visual, olfactory, and renal function testing was included. RESULTS: The median lifetime duration of methyl bromide and sulfuryl fluoride exposure among workers was 1.20 years and 2.85 years, respectively. Sulfuryl fluoride exposure over the year preceding examination was associated with significantly reduced performance on the Pattern Memory Test and on olfactory testing. In addition, fumigation workers had significantly reduced performance on the Santa Ana Dexterity Test of the dominant hand and a nonsignificantly higher prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome than did the referents. CONCLUSIONS: Occupational sulfuryl fluoride exposures may be associated with subclinical effects on the central nervous system, including effects on olfactory and some cognitive functions. However, no widespread pattern of cognitive deficits was observed. The peripheral nerve effects were likely caused by ergonomic stresses experienced by the fumigation workers. PMID:9842373

Calvert, G M; Mueller, C A; Fajen, J M; Chrislip, D W; Russo, J; Briggle, T; Fleming, L E; Suruda, A J; Steenland, K

1998-01-01

303

Political influence associates with cortisol and health among egalitarian forager-farmers  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives: Low social status increases risk of disease due, in part, to the psychosocial stress that accompanies feeling subordinate or poor. Previous studies report that chronic stress and chronically elevated cortisol can impair cardiovascular and immune function. We test whether lower status is more benign in small-scale, relatively egalitarian societies, where leaders lack coercive authority and there is minimal material wealth to contest. Methodology: Among Tsimane’ forager-horticulturalists of lowland Bolivia, we compare informal political influence among men with urinary cortisol, immune activation (innate and acquired), and morbidity as assessed during routine medical exams. Results: After controlling for potential confounds, we find that politically influential men have lower cortisol, and that this association is partly attributable to access to social support. Cortisol is positively associated with men’s income, which may reflect chronic psychosocial stress from market involvement. Greater influence is also associated with lower probability of respiratory infection, which is a frequent source of morbidity among Tsimane’. Among men who lost influence over a 4-year period, cortisol and probability of respiratory infection were higher the greater the decline in influence. Conclusions and implications: Deleterious effects of low status on health are not merely ‘diseases of civilization’ but may result from how (even subtle) status differences structure human behavior. PMID:25214482

von Rueden, Christopher R.; Trumble, Benjamin C.; Emery Thompson, Melissa; Stieglitz, Jonathan; Hooper, Paul L.; Blackwell, Aaron D.; Kaplan, Hillard S.; Gurven, Michael

2014-01-01

304

Variation of health-care resource utilization according to GERD-associated complications.  

PubMed

Complications associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) can include esophageal stricture, Barrett's esophagus, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and extraesophageal symptoms. The impact of GERD-associated complications on health-care utilization deserves further evaluation. We identified commercial enrollees 18-75 years old with claims for GERD (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification Codes: 530.81 or 530.11) and subsequent usage of proton pump inhibitors from 01/01/05 to 06/30/09. The initial GERD diagnosis date was designated as the index date, and patients were studied for 6 months preindex and postindex. Eligible patients were subsequently stratified based on medical claims for GERD-associated complications as follows: stage A (GERD diagnosis, no other symptoms), stage B (GERD + extraesophageal symptoms), stage C (GERD + Barrett's esophagus), stage D (GERD + esophageal stricture), and stage E (GERD + iron-deficiency anemia or acute upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage). Patient characteristics, health-care utilization, and costs were compared between stage A and each stage with complicated GERD (B-D). Of the 174,597 patients who were eligible for analysis, 74% were classified as stage A, 20% stage B, 1% stage C, 2% stage D, and 3% stage E. Relative to stage A, patients in stages C, D, and E were significantly more likely to visit a gastroenterologist (13% vs. 68%, 71%, and 38%, respectively) and had higher rates of esophageal ulcers (0.3% vs. 8%, 5%, and 3%, respectively) and Nissen fundoplication (0.05% vs. 0.6%, 0.3%, and 0.2%, respectively). Six-month GERD-related costs ranged from $615/patient (stage A) to $1714/patient (stage D); all-cause costs ranged from $4195/patient (stage A) to $11,340/patient (stage E). Compared with stage A, all other cohorts had significantly higher all-cause and GERD-related costs (P < 0.0001 for all comparisons). While patients with more severe GERD represented a relatively small portion of the GERD cohort, they demonstrated significantly greater health-care costs and overall utilization than patients with uncomplicated GERD. PMID:22292744

Gerson, L B; McLaughlin, T; Balu, S; Jackson, J; Lunacsek, O

2012-01-01

305

Association of Ventilation Rates and CO2 Concentrations with Health andOther Responses in Commercial and Institutional Buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews current literature on the associations of ventilation rates and carbon dioxide concentrations in non-residential and non-industrial buildings (primarily offices) with health and other human outcomes. Twenty studies, with close to 30,000 subjects, investigated the association of ventilation rates with human responses, and 21 studies, with over 30,000 subjects, investigated the association of carbon dioxide concentration with these

O. A. Seppänen; W. J. Fisk; M. J. Mendell

1999-01-01

306

Intimate Partner Violence and Its Association With Physical and Mental Health Symptoms Among Older Women in Germany.  

PubMed

Intimate partner violence is a commonly acknowledged health care issue. While numerous studies established the health implications of physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence among women of reproductive age, the evidence is scarce for older women and for other forms of intimate partner violence. This study, therefore, investigates the prevalence of intimate partner violence in its different forms and its association with physical and mental health symptoms of older women, using women of reproductive age as a reference group. This study is a cross-sectional study, utilizing data from a national representative survey of 10,264 German women aged 16 to 86 years. Rates of physical and sexual intimate partner violence in the last year decreased from 8% to 3% and 1% among women aged 16 to 49 years, 50 to 65 years, and 66 to 86 years, respectively. The prevalence of emotional and economic abuse and controlling behavior by partners remained nearly the same. All forms of intimate partner violence had significant associations with women's health symptoms, such as gastrointestinal, psychosomatic and psychological symptoms, and pelvic problems. Controlling behavior was most consistently associated with most health symptoms. Health and care professionals who screen women for intimate partner violence should, therefore, consider incorporating questions about controlling behavior as well, because this form of violence is not only frequent but also has multiple health outcomes among women across all ages. PMID:25392386

Stöckl, Heidi; Penhale, Bridget

2014-11-11

307

PUBLIC HEALTH AND ECOLOGICAL INTERCONNECTIVITY: A CONDITIONAL PROBABILITY APPROACH ASSOCIATING DEGRADATION OF STREAMS AND INFANT MORTALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Effective public health policy should not be based solely on clinical, individualbased information, but requires a broad characterization of human health conditions across large geographic areas. For the most part, the necessary monitoring of human health to ...

308

Is Financial Hardship Associated with Reduced Health in Disability? The Case of Spinal Cord Injury in Switzerland  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate socioeconomic inequalities in a comprehensive set of health indicators among persons with spinal cord injury in a wealthy country, Switzerland. Methods Observational cross-sectional data from 1549 participants of the Swiss Spinal Cord Injury Cohort Study (SwiSCI), aged over 16 years, and living in Switzerland were analyzed. Socioeconomic circumstances were operationalized by years of formal education, net equivalent household income and financial hardship. Health indicators including secondary conditions, comorbidities, pain, mental health, participation and quality of life were used as outcomes. Associations between socioeconomic circumstances and health indicators were evaluated using ordinal regressions. Results Financial hardship was consistently associated with more secondary conditions (OR 3.37, 95% CI 2.18–5.21), comorbidities (OR 2.88, 95% CI 1.83–4.53) and pain (OR 3.32, 95% CI 2.21–4.99), whereas mental health (OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.15–0.36), participation (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.21–0.43) and quality of life (OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.15–0.33) were reduced. Persons with higher education reported better mental health (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.00–1.07) and higher quality of life (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02–1.09); other health indicators were not associated with education. Household income was not related to any of the studied health indicators when models were controlled for financial hardship. Conclusions Suffering from financial hardship goes along with significant reductions in physical health, functioning and quality of life, even in a wealthy country with comprehensive social and health policies. PMID:24587239

Fekete, Christine; Siegrist, Johannes; Reinhardt, Jan D.; Brinkhof, Martin W. G.

2014-01-01

309

Association of Perception of Front-of-Pack Labels with Dietary, Lifestyle and Health Characteristics  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify patterns of perception of front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition labels and determine dietary, lifestyle and health profiles related to such patterns. Design Cross-sectional. Participants/Setting 28,952 French adults participating in the web-based Nutrinet-Santé cohort. Outcome measures Perception was measured using indicators of understanding and acceptability for three simple FOP labels (“green tick”, the logo of the French Nutrition and Health Program and “simple traffic lights” (STL)), and two detailed FOP formats (“multiple traffic lights” (MTL) and “color range” logo (CR)), placed on ready-to-eat soup packages. Dietary intake data were collected using three web-based 24 h records. Statistical analyses Associations of perception patterns with individual characteristics, including diet, lifestyle and health status, were examined using analysis of covariance and logistic regression, adjusted for socio-demographic and economic factors. Results No clear trend emerged concerning differences in dietary intake between perception groups. Low physical activity and obesity were more frequent in the ‘favorable to STL’ group (respectively, 20.7% and 10.7%). The ‘favorable to MTL’ group included the highest percentage of individuals who declared type 2 diabetes (2.2%). Persons with hypertension were proportionally more numerous in the ‘favorable to MTL’ and the ‘favorable to CR logo’ groups (respectively, 9.5% and 9.3%). Conclusions After adjustment for socio-demographic and economic factors, no FOP label stood out as being more suitable than another for reaching populations with poor diet. However, both STL and MTL may be most appropriate for increasing awareness of healthy eating among groups at higher risk of nutrition-related chronic diseases. PMID:24621617

Méjean, Caroline; Macouillard, Pauline; Péneau, Sandrine; Lassale, Camille; Hercberg, Serge; Castetbon, Katia

2014-01-01

310

Is involvement in school bullying associated with general health and psychosocial adjustment outcomes in adulthood?  

PubMed

The aim was to examine prospectively associations between bullying involvement at 14-15 years of age and self-reported general health and psychosocial adjustment in young adulthood, at 26-27 years of age. A large representative sample (N=2,464) was recruited and assessed in two counties in Mid-Norway in 1998 (T1) and 1999/2000 (T2) when the respondents had a mean age of 13.7 and 14.9, respectively, leading to classification as being bullied, bully-victim, being aggressive toward others or non-involved. Information about general health and psychosocial adjustment was gathered at a follow-up in 2012 (T4) (N=1,266) with a respondent mean age of 27.2. Logistic regression and ANOVA analyses showed that groups involved in bullying of any type in adolescence had increased risk for lower education as young adults compared to those non-involved. The group aggressive toward others also had a higher risk of being unemployed and receiving any kind of social help. Compared with the non-involved, those being bullied and bully-victims had increased risk of poor general health and high levels of pain. Bully-victims and those aggressive toward others during adolescence subsequently had increased risk of tobacco use and lower job functioning than non-involved. Further, those being bullied and aggressive toward others had increased risk of illegal drug use. Relations to live-in spouse/partner were poorer among those being bullied. Involvement in bullying, either as victim or perpetrator, has significant social costs even 12 years after the bullying experience. Accordingly, it will be important to provide early intervention for those involved in bullying in adolescence. PMID:24972719

Sigurdson, J F; Wallander, J; Sund, A M

2014-10-01

311

Associations between children’s video game playing and psychosocial health: information from both parent and child reports.  

PubMed

Video games are a highly heterogeneous form of entertainment. As recent reviews highlight, this heterogeneity makes likely that video games have both positive and negative consequences for child development. This study investigated the associations between gaming frequency and psychosocial health among children younger than 12 years of age, an understudied cohort in this field. Both parents and children reported children's gaming frequency, with parents also reporting on children's psychosocial health. Given that children may be too young to report the time they spend playing video games accurately, children's reports were scaffolded by a developmentally appropriate measure. We further investigated the potential bias of having parents report both their children's gaming frequency and their children's psychosocial health (i.e., a single source bias). Parental reports of children's gaming frequency were higher than their children's reports. However, a direct test of the potential single source bias rendered null results. Notably, however, while parental reports showed negative associations between gaming and psychosocial health, children's reports showed no associations. Specifically, based on parent reports, children's gaming was associated with more conduct and peer problems, and less prosocial behavior. As children's reports produced no associations between gaming and psychosocial health, parental reports in this study may belie an erroneous set of conclusions. We therefore caution against relying on just one reporter when assessing children's gaming frequency. PMID:25272237

Lobel, Adam; Granic, Isabela; Stone, Lisanne L; Engels, Rutger C M E

2014-10-01

312

Skin microbiota: Microbial community structure and its potential association with health and disease  

PubMed Central

Skin, the largest human organ, is a complex and dynamic ecosystem inhabited by a multitude of microorganisms. Host demographics and genetics, human behavior, local and regional environmental characteristics, and transmission events may all potentially drive human skin microbiota variability, resulting in an alteration of microbial community structure. This alteration may have important consequences regarding health and disease outcomes among individuals. More specifically, certain diversity patterns of human microbiota may be predictive or diagnostic of disease. The purpose of this review is to briefly describe the skin microbiota, outline the potential determining factors driving its variability, posit the likelihood of an association between the resulting microbial community structure on the skin with disease outcomes among individuals, and finally, to present some challenges and implications for studying the skin microbiota. PMID:21463709

Rosenthal, Mariana; Goldberg, Deborah; Aiello, Allison; Larson, Elaine; Foxman, Betsy

2011-01-01

313

Association of Health Sciences Reasoning Test Scores With Academic and Experiential Performance  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To assess the association of scores on the Health Sciences Reasoning Test (HSRT) with academic and experiential performance in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum. Methods. The HSRT was administered to 329 first-year (P1) PharmD students. Performance on the HSRT and its subscales was compared with academic performance in 29 courses throughout the curriculum and with performance in advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). Results. Significant positive correlations were found between course grades in 8 courses and HSRT overall scores. All significant correlations were accounted for by pharmaceutical care laboratory courses, therapeutics courses, and a law and ethics course. Conclusion. There was a lack of moderate to strong correlation between HSRT scores and academic and experiential performance. The usefulness of the HSRT as a tool for predicting student success may be limited. PMID:24850935

McLaughlin, Jacqueline E.

2014-01-01

314

Health risk assessment of mercury and arsenic associated with consumption of fish from the Persian Gulf.  

PubMed

Concentrations of mercury and arsenic in fish from the Persian Gulf were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Concentrations of the metals in muscle samples were 0.049-0.402 ?g g(-1) for mercury and 0.168-0.479 ?g g(-1) for arsenic, with means of 0.133 and 0.312 ?g g(-1), respectively. The maximum daily consumption rate (grams per day) and meal consumption limit (meals per month) was calculated to estimate health risks associated with fish consumption. According to the results, the maximum allowable consumption rate varies between 8-56 and 15-96 g/day base on mercury and arsenic content, respectively. The results of this study indicate that the concentration of mercury and arsenic is well below the maximum permissible levels for mercury (0.5 ?g g(-1)) and arsenic (6 ?g g(-1)) according to international standards. PMID:24072527

Raissy, Mehdi; Ansari, Mahsa

2014-02-01

315

Metal accumulation and health effects in raccoons (Procyon lotor) associated with coal fly ash exposure.  

PubMed

Approximately 5.4 million cubic yards of coal fly ash and water spilled into the Emory River embayment of Watts Bar Reservoir in east Tennessee on Dec 22, 2008. Raccoons were collected in 2009 and 2010 from the spill site (10/y) and unexposed areas (5/y) to determine whether metals and metalloids were accumulating in raccoons and if any negative health effects resulted from exposure to the spilled coal fly ash. Tissues were analyzed from each animal to determine the concentrations of 26 metals/metalloids. Complete blood cell counts (CBC), plasma biochemistry panels, and histopathology of select tissues also were performed. Results were analyzed by year and exposure status. Although significant differences were present in some tissues for some metals/metalloids, only arsenic in hair, iron in muscle, nickel in hair, selenium in hair and muscle, strontium in hair, and vanadium in hair and liver were increased in spill site animals (one or both years) compared with unexposed animals. No clinically important differences were observed between groups regarding CBC or plasma biochemistry analyses. Lesions were observed on histopathology in some tissues, but there was no difference in the prevalence of lesions between spill site and unexposed animals. There does not seem to be any important accumulation of metals/metalloids or negative health effects in raccoons associated with exposure to coal fly ash compared with unexposed animals. PMID:23292273

Souza, Marcy J; Ramsay, Edward C; Donnell, Robert L

2013-05-01

316

Role of a medical students' association in improving the curriculum at a faculty of health sciences.  

PubMed

The Joyce and Irving Goldman School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences at the Ben Gurion University of the Negev encourages students to take part in the development and evaluation of the teaching experience. These special relations between the school and the students contribute not only to changes in the curriculum but also to increased involvement of faculty and students in the community. This article reviews the special relationship between the Faculty of Health Sciences and its medical students through the Medical Students Association (ASRN). During the last decade, BGU medical students have initiated innovative programmes some of which have recently become integrated into the curriculum. These include: prevention of sexual violence among youth, decreasing white-coat fear in small children ('Teddy Bear hospital') and participation in home-hospice activities. By encouraging students to become equal partners in faculty development and rejecting the traditional paternalistic mode of teacher-student relationships, the faculty has created an improved learning experience, and increased student motivation and levels of communication between the teachers and the future clinicians. PMID:12623458

Toker, Asaf; Urkin, Jacob; Bloch, Yuval

2002-11-01

317

California Hospitals’ Response to State and Federal Policies Related to Health Care–Associated Infections  

PubMed Central

In October 2008, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) denied payment for ten selected health care–associated infections (HAI). In January 2009, California enacted mandatory reporting of infection prevention processes and HAI rates. This longitudinal mixed-methods study examined the impact of federal and state policy changes on California hospitals. Data on structures, processes, and outcomes of care were collected pre- and post-policy changes. In-depth interviews with hospital personnel were performed after policy implementation. More than 200 hospitals participated with 25 personnel interviewed. We found significant increases in adoption of and adherence to evidence-based practices and decreased HAI rates (p < .05). Infection preventionists (IP) spent more time on surveillance and in their offices and less time on education and in other locations (p < .05). Qualitative data confirmed mandatory reporting had intended and unintended consequences and highlighted the importance of technology and organizational climate in preventing infections and the changing IPs’ role. This is especially relevant because the California Department of Public Health has since mandated hospitals to report data on 29 different for surgical site infections and a lawsuit has been filed to delay the implementation of these requirements. PMID:22042613

Stone, Patricia W.; Pogorzelska, Monika; Graham, Denise; Jia, Haomiao; Uchida, Mayuko; Larson, Elaine L.

2011-01-01

318

Tree Nuts Are Inversely Associated with Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: The Adventist Health Study-2  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the relationships of nut consumption, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and obesity in the Adventist Health Study-2, a relatively healthy population with a wide range of nut intake. Research Design and Methods Cross-sectional analysis was conducted on clinical, dietary, anthropometric, and demographic data of 803 adults. MetS was defined according to the American Heart Association and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute diagnostic criteria. We assessed intake of total nuts, tree nuts and peanuts, and also classified subjects into low tree nut/low peanut (LT/LP), low tree/high peanut (LT/HP), high tree nut/high peanut (HT/HP), and high tree/low peanut (HT/LP) consumers. Odds ratios were estimated using multivariable logistic regression. Results 32% of subjects had MetS. Compared to LT/LP consumers, obesity was lower in LT/HP (OR?=?0.89; 95% CI?=?0.53, 1.48), HT/HP (OR?=?0.63; 95% CI?=?0.40, 0.99) and HT/LP (OR?=?0.54; 95% CI?=?0.34, 0.88) consumers, p for trend?=?0.006. For MetS, odds ratios (95% CI) were 0.77 (0.47, 1.28), 0.65 (0.42, 1.00) and 0.68 (0.43, 1.07), respectively (p for trend?=?0.056). Frequency of nut intake (once/week) had significant inverse associations with MetS (3% less for tree nuts and 2% less for total nuts) and obesity (7% less for tree nuts and 3% less for total nuts). Conclusions Tree nuts appear to have strong inverse association with obesity, and favorable though weaker association with MetS independent of demographic, lifestyle and dietary factors. PMID:24416351

Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Haddad, Ella; Oda, Keiji; Fraser, Gary E.; Sabaté, Joan

2014-01-01

319

Common stressful life events and difficulties are associated with mental health symptoms and substance use in young adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background Stressful life events are associated with mood disorders in adults in clinical settings. Less described in the literature is the association between common life stressors and a wide range of psychopathology in young adolescents. This study uses a large non-clinical sample of young adolescents to describe the associations among worry or stress about common life events/difficulties, mental health and substance use. Methods Data on lifetime stress or worry about common life events/difficulties (i.e., romantic breakups, family disruption, interpersonal difficulties, and personal stress (health, weight, school work)), symptoms of depression, conduct disorder symptoms, and substance use were collected from 1025 grade 7 students (mean age 12.9 years; 45% male). The association between each source of stress and each mental health and substance use indicator was modeled in separate logistic regression analyses. Results The proportion of adolescents reporting worry or stress ranged from 7% for new family to 53% for schoolwork. Romantic breakup stress was statistically significantly associated with all the mental health and substance use indicators except illicit drug use. Family disruption was statistically significantly associated with depression symptoms, marijuana use, and cigarette use. Interpersonal difficulties stress was statistically significantly associated with depression symptoms. All sources of personal stress were statistically significantly related to depression symptoms. In addition, health-related stress was inversely related to binge drinking. Conclusion Young adolescents may benefit from learning positive coping skills to manage worry or stress about common stressors and in particular, worry or stress related to romantic breakups. Appropriate management of mental health symptoms and substance use related to common stressful life events and difficulties may help reduce emerging psychopathology. PMID:22900789

2012-01-01

320

Associate Degree Nursing: Model Prerequisites Validation Study. California Community College Associate Degree Programs by The Center for Student Success, A Health Care Initiative Sponsored Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

California faces a severe nursing shortage, with the number of registered nurses far below what is required to avert a potential state health care crisis. The Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) Project is a joint project involving scholars, educational researchers, and analysts from the Center for Student Success (CSS) housed at City College of San…

Phillips, Brad C.; Spurling, Steven; Armstrong, William A.

321

Priorities for mental health research in Europe: A survey among national stakeholders' associations within the ROAMER project  

PubMed Central

Within the ROAMER project, funded by the European Commission, a survey was conducted with national associations/organizations of psychiatrists, other mental health professionals, users and/or carers, and psychiatric trainees in the 27 countries of the European Union, aiming to explore their views about priorities for mental health research in Europe. One hundred and eight associations/organizations returned the questionnaire. The five most frequently selected research priorities were early detection and management of mental disorders, quality of mental health services, prevention of mental disorders, rehabilitation and social inclusion, and new medications for mental disorders. All these areas, except the last one, were among the top ten research priorities according to all categories of stakeholders, along with stigma and discrimination. These results seem to support the recent argument that some rebalancing in favor of psychosocial and health service studies may be needed in psychiatric research. PMID:23737426

Fiorillo, Andrea; Luciano, Mario; Del Vecchio, Valeria; Sampogna, Gaia; Obradors-Tarragó, Carla; Maj, Mario

2013-01-01

322

Associations between birth health, maternal employment, and child care arrangement among a community sample of mothers with young children.  

PubMed

Although a large body of literature exists on how different types of child care arrangements affect a child's subsequent health and sociocognitive development, little is known about the relationship between birth health and subsequent decisions regarding type of nonparental child care as well as how this relationship might be influenced by maternal employment. This study used data from the Los Angeles Families and Neighborhoods Survey (L.A.FANS). Mothers of 864 children (ages 0-5) provided information regarding birth weight, maternal evaluation of a child's birth health, child's current health, maternal employment, type of child care arrangement chosen, and a variety of socioeconomic variables. Child care options included parental care, relative care, nonrelative care, and daycare center. Multivariate analyses found that birth weight and subjective rating of birth health had similar effects on child care arrangement. After controlling for a child's age and current health condition, multinomial logit analyses found that mothers with children with poorer birth health are more likely to use nonrelative and daycare centers than parental care when compared to mothers with children with better birth health. The magnitude of these relationships diminished when adjusting for maternal employment. Working mothers were significantly more likely to use nonparental child care than nonemployed mothers. Results suggest that a child's health early in life is significantly but indirectly related to subsequent decisions regarding child care arrangements, and this association is influenced by maternal employment. Development of social policy aimed at improving child care service should take maternal and family backgrounds into consideration. PMID:24188296

Chiao, Chi; Chyu, Laura; Ksobiech, Kate

2014-01-01

323

Associations between religiosity, mental health, and subjective well-being among Arabic samples from Egypt and Kuwait  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two samples of Egyptian (n?=?577) and Kuwaiti (n?=?674) college students recruited to (a) explore the sex-and country differences in religiosity, mental health, and subjective well-being, (b) estimate the associations between and factors from the last-mentioned variables, and (c) explore the predictors of religiosity. The participants completed the Arabic Scale of Mental Health, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and five self-rating scales

Ahmed M. Abdel-Khalek

2011-01-01

324

Do welfare regimes influence the association between disability and self-perceived health? A multilevel analysis of 57 countries.  

PubMed

Disability is usually associated with poorer self-rated health. However, as many people with disabilities do not consider themselves unhealthy, the association may not be as straightforward as it appears. This study examines whether the relationship between disability and self-rated health is dependent on a country's welfare regime. Welfare regimes can play a significant role in securing the needs of disabled people and lessening their social exclusion. However, welfare regimes also label disabled people accordingly, before they become entitled to specific provisions and services. Being given a low status label and being dependent on welfare provisions might trigger a negative self-evaluation of health. Using data from 57 countries of the World Health Survey of 2002-2004, the multilevel regression analyses show that people with a disability tend to rate their health worse than people without any disability. Moreover, the strength of this negative association varies significantly across countries and is affected by a country's welfare regime. The association is the strongest in the various Welfare State regimes (mostly European countries) and the weakest in Informal-Security regimes (Latin-American and Asian countries) and in Insecurity regimes (African countries). Disabled people living in Welfare States regimes tend to rate their health worse than people in other regimes. These findings confirm that welfare regimes play a role in shaping the health perception of disabled people and that processes of labeling may result in unintended and negative consequences of welfare programs. Research on the nexus between disability and self-rated health that neglects this macro-social context of welfare regimes may lead to undifferentiated and even incorrect conclusions. PMID:25016461

Foubert, Josephine; Levecque, Katia; Van Rossem, Ronan; Romagnoli, Alessia

2014-09-01

325

Uncertainties in estimating health risks associated with exposure to ionising radiation.  

PubMed

The information for the present discussion on the uncertainties associated with estimation of radiation risks and probability of disease causation was assembled for the recently published NCRP Report No. 171 on this topic. This memorandum provides a timely overview of the topic, given that quantitative uncertainty analysis is the state of the art in health risk assessment and given its potential importance to developments in radiation protection. Over the past decade the increasing volume of epidemiology data and the supporting radiobiology findings have aided in the reduction of uncertainty in the risk estimates derived. However, it is equally apparent that there remain significant uncertainties related to dose assessment, low dose and low dose-rate extrapolation approaches (e.g. the selection of an appropriate dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor), the biological effectiveness where considerations of the health effects of high-LET and lower-energy low-LET radiations are required and the transfer of risks from a population for which health effects data are available to one for which such data are not available. The impact of radiation on human health has focused in recent years on cancer, although there has been a decided increase in the data for noncancer effects together with more reliable estimates of the risk following radiation exposure, even at relatively low doses (notably for cataracts and cardiovascular disease). New approaches for the estimation of hereditary risk have been developed with the use of human data whenever feasible, although the current estimates of heritable radiation effects still are based on mouse data because of an absence of effects in human studies. Uncertainties associated with estimation of these different types of health effects are discussed in a qualitative and semi-quantitative manner as appropriate. The way forward would seem to require additional epidemiological studies, especially studies of low dose and low dose-rate occupational and perhaps environmental exposures and for exposures to x rays and high-LET radiations used in medicine. The development of models for more reliably combining the epidemiology data with experimental laboratory animal and cellular data can enhance the overall risk assessment approach by providing biologically refined data to strengthen the estimation of effects at low doses as opposed to the sole use of mathematical models of epidemiological data that are primarily driven by medium/high doses. NASA's approach to radiation protection for astronauts, although a unique occupational group, indicates the possible applicability of estimates of risk and their uncertainty in a broader context for developing recommendations on: (1) dose limits for occupational exposure and exposure of members of the public; (2) criteria to limit exposures of workers and members of the public to radon and its short-lived decay products; and (3) the dosimetric quantity (effective dose) used in radiation protection. PMID:23803503

Preston, R Julian; Boice, John D; Brill, A Bertrand; Chakraborty, Ranajit; Conolly, Rory; Hoffman, F Owen; Hornung, Richard W; Kocher, David C; Land, Charles E; Shore, Roy E; Woloschak, Gayle E

2013-09-01

326

Child and family psychiatric and psychological factors associated with child physical health problems: results from the Boricua youth study.  

PubMed

To examine associations among Puerto Rican children's physical health problems and children's internalizing disorders, parental psychopathology and acculturative stress, and family factors. A population-based probability sample of 2491 Puerto Rican children, aged between 5 and 13 years, and caregivers from the South Bronx and the U.S. Commonwealth of Puerto Rico participated in this study. The parent version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-IV was used to assess children's internalizing disorders. Children's anxiety disorders, parental psychopathology, and acculturative stress were associated with childhood asthma, abdominal pain, and headaches. Children's depressive disorders, maternal acceptance, and family functioning were associated with abdominal pain and headaches. Parents of children living in Puerto Rico were more likely to report physical health problems in their children than in the Bronx. Children's internalizing disorders, parental psychopathology, and acculturative stress may be important areas to target among Puerto Rican children with physical health problems. PMID:20386256

Feldman, Jonathan M; Ortega, Alexander N; Koinis-Mitchell, Daphne; Kuo, Alice A; Canino, Glorisa

2010-04-01

327

Association between the use of biomass fuels on respiratory health of workers in food catering enterprises in Nairobi Kenya  

PubMed Central

Introduction Indoor air pollution from biomass fuel use has been found to be responsible for more than 1.6 million annual deaths and 2.7% of the global burden of disease. This makes it the second biggest environmental contributor to ill health, behind unsafe water and sanitation. Methods The main objective of this study was to investigate if there was any association between use of bio-fuels in food catering enterprises and respiratory health of the workers. A cross-sectional design was employed, and data collected using Qualitative and quantitative techniques. Results The study found significantly higher prevalence of respiratory health outcomes among respondents in enterprises using biomass fuels compared to those using processed fuels. Biomass fuels are thus a major public health threat to workers in this sub-sector, and urgent intervention is required. Conclusion The study recommends a switch from biomass fuels to processed fuels to protect the health of the workers. PMID:23898361

Keraka, Margaret; Ochieng, Carolyne; Engelbrecht, Jacobus; Hongoro, Charles

2013-01-01

328

MRNA and miRNA expression patterns associated to pathways linked to metal mixture health effects.  

PubMed

Metals are a threat to human health by increasing disease risk. Experimental data have linked altered miRNA expression with exposure to some metals. MiRNAs comprise a large family of non-coding single-stranded molecules that primarily function to negatively regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. Although several human populations are exposed to low concentrations of As, Cd and Pb as a mixture, most toxicology research focuses on the individual effects that these metals exert. Thus, this study aims to evaluate global miRNA and mRNA expression changes induced by a metal mixture containing NaAsO2, CdCl2, Pb(C2H3O2)2·3H2O and to predict possible metal-associated disease development under these conditions. Our results show that this metal mixture results in a miRNA expression profile that may be responsible for the mRNA expression changes observed under experimental conditions in which coding proteins are involved in cellular processes, including cell death, growth and proliferation related to the metal-associated inflammatory response and cancer. PMID:24080485

Martínez-Pacheco, M; Hidalgo-Miranda, A; Romero-Córdoba, S; Valverde, M; Rojas, E

2014-01-10

329

Associations between farmer participation in veterinary herd health management programs and farm performance.  

PubMed

In the past few decades, farms have increased in size and the focus of management has changed from curative to preventive. To help farmers cope with these changes, veterinarians offer veterinary herd health management (VHHM) programs, whose major objective is to support the farmer in reaching his farm performance goals. The association between farm performance and participation in VHHM, however, remains unknown. The aim of this paper was to compare farm performance parameters between participants and nonparticipants in VHHM and to differentiate within participation to evaluate the possible added value of VHHM on the farm. Five thousand farmers received a questionnaire about the level of VHHM on their farm. Farm performance parameters of these 5,000 farms were provided. For all respondents (n=1,013), farm performance was compared between participants and nonparticipants and within level of participation, using linear mixed and linear regression models. Farmers who participated in VHHM produced 336 kg of milk/cow per year more and their average milk somatic cell count (SCC) was 8,340 cells/mL lower than farmers who did not participate in VHHM. Participating herds, however, had an older age at first calving (+12d), a lower 56-d nonreturn rate percentage (-3.34%), and a higher number of inseminations per cow (+0.09 inseminations). They also had more cows culled per year (+1.05%), and a lower age at culling (-70 d). Participants in the most-extended form of VHHM (level 3) had a lower SCC (-19,800 cells/mL), fewer cows with high SCC (-1.70%), fewer cows with new high SCC (-0.47%), a shorter calving interval (-6.01 d), and fewer inseminations per heifer (-0.07 inseminations) than participants in the least-extended form of VHHM (level 1). Level 3 participants, however, also had more cows culled per year (+1.74%) and a lower age at culling (-103 d). Discussing specific topics with the veterinarian (milk production, fertility, and udder health) had only marginal effects on improving the farm performance parameters related to those topics. Given the relevance of fertility on the farm and the focus on longevity by society, it is important to determine underlying reasons for the negative associations of these topics with participation in VHHM. A longitudinal study could provide answers to this. For now, veterinarians should be aware of the associations. The increased milk production and milk quality could help the marketing of VHHM to farmers. PMID:24472128

Derks, M; van Werven, T; Hogeveen, H; Kremer, W D J

2014-03-01

330

Sleep Disturbances in Adults with Eczema Are Associated with Impaired Overall Health: A US Population-Based Study.  

PubMed

Sleep disturbances are associated with poor health outcomes in adults. However, little is known about the sleep disturbances that occur in adult eczema. We studied the association between adult eczema and sleep disturbance and their impact on overall health and health care utilization. We used the 2012 National Health Interview Survey, a cross-sectional questionnaire of 34,613 adults. Eczema was associated with higher odds of fatigue (odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 2.97 (2.65-3.34)), regular daytime sleepiness (2.66 (2.34-3.01)), and regular insomnia (2.36 (2.11-2.64)), even after controlling for sleep duration, history of allergic disease, sociodemographics, and body mass index. There were significant interactions between eczema and fatigue, sleepiness, and insomnia as predictors of poorer overall health status, number of sick days, and doctor visits, such that eczema and each of the sleep symptoms were associated with higher odds of poorer outcomes than either eczema or sleep symptoms alone. Latent class analysis was used and identified five classes of fatigue, sleep disturbances, and allergic disorders. Two classes had high probabilities of eczema: one with high probabilities of asthma, hay fever, food allergy, and multiple sleep symptoms and the other with intermediate probability of insomnia alone. Future studies are warranted to better characterize sleep loss in eczema and develop strategies for treatment and prevention. PMID:25078665

Silverberg, Jonathan I; Garg, Nitin K; Paller, Amy S; Fishbein, Anna B; Zee, Phyllis C

2015-01-01

331

Association between district-level perceived safety and self-rated health: a multilevel study in Seoul, South Korea  

PubMed Central

Objectives Several studies have reported the relationship between residents’ perceived neighbourhood safety and their health outcomes. However, those studies suffered from unreliability of neighbourhood safety measure and potential residual confounding related to crime rates. In this study, using multilevel analysis to account for the hierarchical structure of the data, we examined associations between district-level perceived safety and self-rated health after adjusting for potential confounders including the district-level crime rate. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting We used the first wave of Seoul Welfare Panel Study, which has 7761 individuals from 3665 households in 25 administrative districts in Seoul, South Korea. District-level perceived safety was obtained by aggregating responses from the residents that are representative samples for each administrative district in Seoul. To examine an association between district-level safety and residents’ self-rated health, we used mixed effect logistic regression. Results Our results showed that higher district-level perceived safety, an aggregated measure of district residents’ responses towards neighbourhood safety, was significantly associated with poor self-rated health after controlling for sex, age, education level, job status, marital status and household income (OR=0.87, 95% CI 0.78 to 0.97). Furthermore, this association was still robust when we additionally adjusted for the district-level crime rate (OR=0.86, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.95). Conclusions Our study highlights the importance of improving neighbourhood perceived safety to enhance residents’ health. PMID:25079921

Kim, Seung-Sup; Choi, Jaesung; Park, Kisoo; Chung, Yeonseung; Park, Sangjo; Heo, Jongho

2014-01-01

332

Molecular mapping to species level of the tonsillar crypt microbiota associated with health and recurrent tonsillitis.  

PubMed

The human palatine tonsils, which belong to the central antigen handling sites of the mucosal immune system, are frequently affected by acute and recurrent infections. This study compared the microbiota of the tonsillar crypts in children and adults affected by recurrent tonsillitis with that of healthy adults and children with tonsillar hyperplasia. An in-depth 16S rRNA gene based pyrosequencing approach combined with a novel strategy that included phylogenetic analysis and detection of species-specific sequence signatures enabled identification of the major part of the microbiota to species level. A complex microbiota consisting of between 42 and 110 taxa was demonstrated in both children and adults. This included a core microbiome of 12 abundant genera found in all samples regardless of age and health status. Yet, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria species, and Streptococcus pneumoniae were almost exclusively detected in children. In contrast, Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae was present in all samples. Obligate anaerobes like Porphyromonas, Prevotella, and Fusobacterium were abundantly present in children, but the species diversity of Porphyromonas and Prevotella was larger in adults and included species that are considered putative pathogens in periodontal diseases, i.e. Porphyromonas gingivalis, Porphyromonas endodontalis, and Tannerella forsythia. Unifrac analysis showed that recurrent tonsillitis is associated with a shift in the microbiota of the tonsillar crypts. Fusobacterium necrophorum, Streptococcus intermedius and Prevotella melaninogenica/histicola were associated with recurrent tonsillitis in adults, whereas species traditionally associated with acute tonsillitis like pyogenic streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus were scarce. The findings suggest that recurrent tonsillitis is a polymicrobial infection in which interactions within consortia of taxa play an etiologic role. The study contributes to the human microbiome data, to the understanding of the etiology of infections affecting the tonsils, and forms a basis for further insight into the consequences of the intense microbe-host interactions that take place in the tonsils. PMID:23437130

Jensen, Anders; Fagö-Olsen, Helena; Sřrensen, Christian Hjort; Kilian, Mogens

2013-01-01

333

Molecular Mapping to Species Level of the Tonsillar Crypt Microbiota Associated with Health and Recurrent Tonsillitis  

PubMed Central

The human palatine tonsils, which belong to the central antigen handling sites of the mucosal immune system, are frequently affected by acute and recurrent infections. This study compared the microbiota of the tonsillar crypts in children and adults affected by recurrent tonsillitis with that of healthy adults and children with tonsillar hyperplasia. An in-depth 16S rRNA gene based pyrosequencing approach combined with a novel strategy that included phylogenetic analysis and detection of species-specific sequence signatures enabled identification of the major part of the microbiota to species level. A complex microbiota consisting of between 42 and 110 taxa was demonstrated in both children and adults. This included a core microbiome of 12 abundant genera found in all samples regardless of age and health status. Yet, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria species, and Streptococcus pneumoniae were almost exclusively detected in children. In contrast, Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae was present in all samples. Obligate anaerobes like Porphyromonas, Prevotella, and Fusobacterium were abundantly present in children, but the species diversity of Porphyromonas and Prevotella was larger in adults and included species that are considered putative pathogens in periodontal diseases, i.e. Porphyromonas gingivalis, Porphyromonas endodontalis, and Tannerella forsythia. Unifrac analysis showed that recurrent tonsillitis is associated with a shift in the microbiota of the tonsillar crypts. Fusobacterium necrophorum, Streptococcus intermedius and Prevotella melaninogenica/histicola were associated with recurrent tonsillitis in adults, whereas species traditionally associated with acute tonsillitis like pyogenic streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus were scarce. The findings suggest that recurrent tonsillitis is a polymicrobial infection in which interactions within consortia of taxa play an etiologic role. The study contributes to the human microbiome data, to the understanding of the etiology of infections affecting the tonsils, and forms a basis for further insight into the consequences of the intense microbe-host interactions that take place in the tonsils. PMID:23437130

Jensen, Anders; Fagö-Olsen, Helena; Sřrensen, Christian Hjort; Kilian, Mogens

2013-01-01

334

Association Between Health-Related Quality of Life and Being an Immigrant Among Adolescents, and the Role of Socioeconomic and Health-Related Difficulties  

PubMed Central

To develop satisfactorily, adolescents require good health-related quality of life (QOL, including physical health, psychological health, social relationships and living environment). However, for poorly understood reasons, it is often lacking, especially among immigrants with lower family and socioeconomic resources. This study assessed health-related QOL of European and non-European immigrant adolescents and the contributions of socioeconomic difficulties, unhealthy behaviors, and violence. It included 1,559 middle-school adolescents from north-eastern France (mean age 13.5, SD 1.3; 1,451 French adolescents, 54 European immigrants and 54 non-European immigrants), who completed a self-administered questionnaire including sex, age, socioeconomic characteristics (family structure, parents’ education, occupation, and income), unhealthy behaviors (uses of tobacco/alcohol/cannabis/hard drugs, obesity, and involvement in violence), having sustained violence, sexual abuse, and the four QOL domains measured with the World Health Organization’s WHOQOL-BREF (poor: score < 25th percentile). Data were analyzed using logistic regression models. Poor physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and living environment affected more European immigrants (26% to 35%) and non-European immigrants (43% to 54%) than French adolescents (21% to 26%). European immigrants had a higher risk of poor physical health and living environment (gender-age-adjusted odds ratio 2.00 and 1.88, respectively) while non-European immigrants had a higher risk for all poor physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and living environment (3.41, 2.07, 3.25, and 3.79, respectively). Between 20% and 58% of these risks were explained by socioeconomic difficulties, parts of which overlapped with unhealthy behaviors and violence. The associations between the two sets of covariates greatly differed among French adolescents and immigrants. Poor QOL was more common among European and non-European immigrants due to socioeconomic difficulties and associated unhealthy behaviors and violence. The different risk patterns observed between French adolescents and immigrants may help prevention. PMID:24487457

Baumann, Michčle; Chau, Kénora; Kabuth, Bernard; Chau, Nearkasen

2014-01-01

335

Quality of Life and its Association with Cardiovascular Risk Factors in a Community Health Care Program Population  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To evaluate quality of life in a population that attended a specific community event on health care education, and to investigate the association of their quality of life with the presence of cardiovascular risk factors INTRODUCTION Interest in health-related quality of life is growing worldwide as a consequence of increasing rates of chronic disease. However, little is known about the association between quality of life and cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS This study included 332 individuals. Demographics, blood pressure, body mass index, and casual glycemia were evaluated. The brief version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire on quality of life was given to them. The medians of the scores obtained for the physical, psychological, emotional, and environmental domains were used as cutoffs to define “higher” and “lower” scores. A multinomial logistic regression model was used to define the parameters associated with lower scores. RESULTS Diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and obesity were associated with lower scores in the physical domain. Dyslipidemia was also associeted with lower scores in the psychological domain. Male gender and regular physical activity had protective effects on quality of life. Aging was inversely associated with decreased quality of life in the environmental domain. CONCLUSION The presence of cardiovascular risk factors is related to a decreased quality of life. Conversely, male gender and regular physical activity had protective effects on quality of life. These findings suggest that exercising should be further promoted by health-related public programs, with a special focus on women. PMID:19061001

Martinelli, Luiz Mário Baptista; Mizutani, Bruno Moreira; Mutti, Anibal; Dčlia, Maria Paula Barbieri; Coltro, Rodrigo Soler; Matsubara, Beatriz Bojikian

2008-01-01

336

Association between smoking cessation and short-term health-care use: results from an international prospective cohort study (ATTEMPT)  

PubMed Central

Background and aims Previous studies have found that smoking cessation is associated with a short-term increase in health-care use. This may be because ‘sicker’ smokers are more likely to stop smoking. The current study assessed the association between smoking cessation and health-care use, adjusting for pre-cessation physical and mental health conditions. Design/setting Data came from the ATTEMPT cohort, a multi-national prospective survey of smokers in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, France and Spain, that lasted 18 months (with follow-ups every 3 months). Participants A total of 3645 smokers completed the baseline questionnaire. All participants smoked at least five cigarettes per day, intended to quit smoking within the next 3 months and were between 35 and 65 years of age. Measurements Participants were asked questions about their socio-demographic and smoking characteristics, as well previous smoking-related morbidities. Participants were also asked to report their health-care use in the previous 3 months i.e. emergency room (ER) visits, hospitalization, whether hospitalization required surgery, and health-care appointments. Findings A total of 8252, 4779 and 1954 baseline episodes of smoking were available for 3, 6 and 12 months, respectively. Of these, 2.8% (n = 230), 0.9% (n = 40) and 0.7% (n = 14) were followed by 3, 6 and 12 months of abstinence. No significant differences were found among 3, 6 or 12 months of abstinence and ER visits, hospitalization and whether hospitalization required surgery or health-care visits. However, 6-month smoking cessation episodes were associated with higher odds of reporting an appointment with a dietician. Conclusion Smoking cessation does not appear to be associated with a substantial short-term increase or decrease in health-care use after adjusting for pre-cessation morbidities. PMID:23795578

Beard, Emma; Shahab, Lion; Curry, Susan J; West, Robert

2013-01-01

337

Schooling has smaller or insignificant effects on adult health in the US than suggested by cross-sectional associations: New estimates using relatively large samples of identical twins.  

PubMed

Numerous theoretical reasons have been posited about why more schooling might improve health. Adult health outcomes and behaviors generally are significantly associated with schooling. However, such associations do not necessarily imply that schooling has causal effects on health outcomes and behaviors. Causal estimates based on schooling variation from policies and from within-MZ (monozygotic) twins have reached mixed conclusions. This study contributed new estimates of cross-sectional associations and within-MZ causal effects using three relatively large US twins samples. The estimates suggested that schooling was significantly associated with numerous health outcomes and behaviors. However, with within-MZ twins control for unobserved factors, schooling was no longer associated with most indicators of better health (with the exception of self-reported health), while it continued to be associated with outcomes such as fertility and spousal schooling. Similar patterns were observed for spousal schooling. PMID:25110343

Amin, Vikesh; Behrman, Jere R; Kohler, Hans-Peter

2015-02-01

338

Zinc status and its association with the health of adolescents: a review of studies in India  

PubMed Central

Background Zinc is important in adolescence because of its role in growth and sexual maturation. Adolescents from developing countries such as India may be at high risk of zinc deficiency because of unwholesome food habits and poor bioavailability of zinc from plant-based diets. Objective (1) to study zinc status and its association with profile of other micronutrients, (2) to construct a simple tool in the form of Adolescent Micronutrient Quality Index (AMQI) to assess quality of diets of the girls and (3) to examine the effect of zinc supplement on health of adolescent girls. Methods Girls (10–16 years) from two secondary schools of Pune, Maharashtra state, in Western India were enrolled in a cross-sectional study (n = 630). Data were collected on dietary intake, cognitive performance, taste acuity, haemoglobin, erythrocyte zinc and plasma levels of zinc, vitamin C, ?-carotene and retinol. AMQI was developed using age–sex-specific Indian dietary guidelines and healthy foods and habits described in the recent US dietary guidelines. Zinc-rich recipes were developed considering habitual diets of the girls and vegetarian sources of zinc. An intervention trial (n = 180) was conducted to assess the effect of zinc-rich dietary supplements and ayurvedic zinc (Jasad) supplementation. Results Prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies was high in these girls. Poor cognitive performance was seen in half of the girls, and salt taste perception was affected in 45%. AMQI was correlated with nutrient intakes and blood micronutrient levels (p < 0.01), indicating the potential of AMQI to measure micronutrient quality of diets of adolescent girls. Results of the intervention trial indicated that supplementation of zinc-rich recipes vis-a-vis ayurvedic Jasad zinc has the potential to improve plasma zinc status, cognitive performance and taste acuity in adolescent girls. Conclusions Review of the studies on Indian adolescent girls demonstrates the necessity of adopting zinc and micronutrient-rich diets for positive health building in adolescents. PMID:22511891

Kawade, Rama

2012-01-01

339

Trauma, mental health, and intergenerational associations in Kosovar Families 11 years after the war  

PubMed Central

Background While there is a considerable amount of literature addressing consequences of trauma in veterans and holocaust survivors, war and postwar civilian populations, particularly children, are still understudied. Evidence regarding intergenerational effects of trauma in families is inconsistent. Objective To shed light on intergenerational aspects of trauma-related mental health problems among families 11 years after the Kosovo war. Method In a cross-sectional study, a paired sample of 51 randomly selected triplets (school-aged child, mother, father, N=153) of Kosovar families was investigated with regard to trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress (UCLA Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale), anxiety (Spence Children's Anxiety Scale, Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25), and depressive symptoms (Depressionsinventar für Kinder und Jugendliche [DIKJ; depression inventory for children and adolescents], Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25). Results Considerable trauma exposure and high prevalence rates of clinically relevant posttraumatic stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms were found in both parents and children. While strong correlations were found between children's depressive symptoms and paternal posttraumatic stress, anxiety and depressive symptoms, maternal symptoms did not correlate with their children's. In multiple regression analyses, only posttraumatic stress symptoms of fathers were significantly related with children's depressive symptoms. Conclusion Eleven years after the Kosovo war, the presence of posttraumatic stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in civilian adults and their children is still substantial. As symptoms of parents and children are associated, mental health problems of close ones should be actively screened and accounted for in comprehensive treatment plans, using a systemic approach. Future research should include longitudinal studies conducting multivariate analyses with larger sample sizes in order to investigate indicators, causal and resilience factors. PMID:23956820

Schick, Matthis; Morina, Naser; Klaghofer, Richard; Schnyder, Ulrich; Müller, Julia

2013-01-01

340

Association of Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse with Intimate Partner Violence, Poor General Health and Depressive Symptoms among Pregnant Women  

PubMed Central

Objective We examined associations of childhood physical and sexual abuse with risk of intimate partner violence (IPV). We also evaluated the extent to which childhood abuse was associated with self-reported general health status and symptoms of antepartum depression in a cohort of pregnant Peruvian women. Methods In-person interviews were conducted to collect information regarding history of childhood abuse and IPV from 1,521 women during early pregnancy. Antepartum depressive symptomatology was evaluated using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Multivariable logistic regression procedures were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Results Any childhood abuse was associated with 2.2-fold increased odds of lifetime IPV (95%CI: 1.72–2.83). Compared with women who reported no childhood abuse, those who reported both, childhood physical and sexual abuse had a 7.14-fold lifetime risk of physical and sexual IPV (95%CI: 4.15–12.26). The odds of experiencing physical and sexual abuse by an intimate partner in the past year was 3.33-fold higher among women with a history of childhood physical and sexual abuse as compared to women who were not abused as children (95%CI 1.60–6.89). Childhood abuse was associated with higher odds of self-reported poor health status during early pregnancy (aOR = 1.32, 95%CI: 1.04–1.68) and with symptoms of antepartum depression (aOR = 2.07, 95%CI: 1.58–2.71). Conclusion These data indicate that childhood sexual and physical abuse is associated with IPV, poor general health and depressive symptoms in early pregnancy. The high prevalence of childhood trauma and its enduring effects of on women’s health warrant concerted global health efforts in preventing violence. PMID:25635902

Barrios, Yasmin V.; Gelaye, Bizu; Zhong, Qiuyue; Nicolaidis, Christina; Rondon, Marta B.; Garcia, Pedro J.; Sanchez, Pedro A. Mascaro; Sanchez, Sixto E.; Williams, Michelle A.

2015-01-01

341

Mental Health, Quality of Life, and Health Functioning in Women Veterans: Differential Outcomes Associated with Military and Civilian Sexual Assault  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined psychiatric, physical, and quality-of-life functioning in a sample of 270 women veterans receiving outpatient treatment at a Veterans Affairs medical center. Participants were interviewed regarding their civilian (CSA) and military sexual assault (MSA) histories, and data regarding quality of life and health outcomes…

Suris, Alina; Lind, Lisa; Kashner, T. Michael; Borman, Patricia D.

2007-01-01

342

Health Care–Associated Native Valve Endocarditis in Patients with no History of Injection Drug Use: Current Importance of Non-Nosocomial Acquisition  

PubMed Central

Background The clinical profile and outcome of nosocomial and non-nosocomial health care–associated native valve endocarditis are not well defined. Objective To describe the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of nosocomial and non-nosocomial health care–associated native valve endocarditis. Design Prospective observational study. Setting 61 hospitals in 28 countries. Patients Patients with definite native valve endocarditis and no history of injection drug use who were enrolled in the International Collaboration on Endocarditis–Prospective Cohort Study from June 2000 to August 2005. Measurements Characteristics of nosocomial and non-nosocomial health care–associated native valve endocarditis cases were described and compared with those cases acquired in the community. Results Health care–associated native valve endocarditis was present in 557 (34%) of 1622 patients with native valve endocarditis and no history of injection drug use (nosocomial native valve endocarditis 303 patients [54%]; non-nosocomial health care–associated native valve endocarditis 254 patients [46%]). Staphylococcus aureus was the most common cause of health care-associated native valve endocarditis (nosocomial native valve endocarditis, 47%; non-nosocomial health care–associated native valve endocarditis, 42%; p=0.3), with a notable proportion of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (nosocomial native valve endocarditis, 57%; non-nosocomial health care–associated native valve endocarditis, 41%; p=0.014). Patients with health care–associated native valve endocarditis had lower rates of cardiac surgery (41% health care–associated native valve endocarditis vs 51% community-acquired native valve endocarditis, p<0.001) and higher in-hospital mortality rates than patients with community-acquired native valve endocarditis (25% health care–associated native valve endocarditis vs. 13% community-acquired native valve endocarditis vs., p<0.001). Multivariable analysis confirmed a higher mortality associated with health care–associated native valve endocarditis (incidence risk ratio=1.20 (CI 95%, 1.03–1.61). Limitations This study involves tertiary hospitals with cardiac surgery programs. The results may not be generalized to patient populations receiving care in other types of facility. Conclusions More than one-third of all cases of native valve endocarditis in non-drug users involve contact with health care. S. aureus is the leading cause of health care–associated native valve endocarditis. Non-nosocomial health care–associated native valve endocarditis is common, especially in the US. Patients with health care-associated and community-acquired native valve endocarditis differ in their presentation, microbiology, and outcome. By contrast, patients with nosocomial and non-nosocomial healthcare-associated endocarditis are similar. PMID:19414837

Benito, Natividad; Miró, José M.; de Lazzari, Elisa; Cabell, Christopher H; del Río, Ana; Altclas, Javier; Commerford, Patrick; Delahaye, Francois; Dragulescu, Stefan; Giamarellou, Helen; Habib, Gilbert; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Kumar, A. Sampath; Nacinovich, Francisco M.; Suter, Fredy; Tribouilloy, Christophe; Venugopal, K; Moreno, Asuncion; Fowler, Vance G.

2013-01-01

343

Associated Factors and Health Impact of Sarcopenia in Older Chinese Men and Women: A Cross-Sectional Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Sarcopenia is increasingly being recognized as a feature of frailty in old age and is associated with unfavorable health outcomes in Western populations. Little is known about sarcopenia among Asian elderly populations. Objectives: The study was undertaken to study the association between sarcopenia and common chronic illnesses, lifestyle factors, psychosocial well-being and physical performance. Methods: 4,000 community-dwelling Chinese elderly

Jenny S. W. Lee; Tung-Wai Auyeung; Timothy Kwok; Edith M. C. Lau; Ping-Chung Leung; Jean Woo

2007-01-01

344

Compendium of measures to prevent disease associated with animals in public settings, 2011: National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians, Inc.  

PubMed

Certain venues encourage or permit the public to be in contact with animals, resulting in millions of human-animal interactions each year. These settings include county or state fairs, petting zoos, animal swap meets, pet stores, feed stores, zoologic institutions, circuses, carnivals, educational farms, livestock-birthing exhibits, educational exhibits at schools and child-care facilities, and wildlife photo opportunities. Although human-animal contact has many benefits, human health problems are associated with these settings, including infectious diseases, exposure to rabies, and injuries. Infectious disease outbreaks have been caused by Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella species, Cryptosporidium species, Coxiella burnetii, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, ringworm, and other pathogens. Such outbreaks have substantial medical, public health, legal, and economic effects. This report provides recommendations for public health officials, veterinarians, animal venue staff members, animal exhibitors, visitors to animal venues, physicians, and others concerned with minimizing risks associated with animals in public settings. The recommendation to wash hands is the most important for reducing the risk for disease transmission associated with animals in public settings. Other important recommendations are that venues prohibit food in animal areas and include transition areas between animal areas and nonanimal areas, visitors receive information about disease risk and prevention procedures, and animals be properly cared for and managed. These updated 2011 guidelines provide new information on the risks associated with amphibians and with animals in day camp settings, as well as the protective role of zoonotic disease education. PMID:21546893

2011-05-01

345

The association of marital relationship and perceived social support with mental health of women in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Marital circumstances have been indicated to be a salient risk factor for disproportionately high prevalence of depression and anxiety among Pakistani women. Although social support is a known buffer of psychological distress, there is no clear evidence as to how different aspects of marital relations interact and associate with depression and anxiety in the lives of Pakistani married women and the role of social supports in the context of their marriage. Methods Two hundred seventy seven married women were recruited from Rawalpindi district of Pakistan using a door knocking approach to psychometrically evaluate five scales for use in the Pakistani context. A confirmatory factor analysis approach was used to investigate the underlying factor structure of Couple satisfaction Index (CSI-4), Locke-Wallace Marital Adjustment Test (LWMAT), Relationship Dynamic Scale (RDS), Multidimensional Scale for Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The interplay of the constructs underlying the three aspects of marital relations, and the role of social support on the mental health of married Pakistani women were examined using the Structural Equation Model. Results The factor structures of MSPSS, CSI-4, LWMAT, RDS and HADS were similar to the findings reported in the developed and developing countries. Perceived higher social support reduces the likelihood of depression and anxiety by enhancing positive relationship as reflected by a low score on the relationship dynamics scale which decreases CMD symptoms. Moreover, perceived higher social support is positively associated with marital adjustment directly and indirectly through relationship dynamics which is associated with the reduced risk of depression through the increased level of reported marital satisfaction. Nuclear family structure, low level of education and higher socio-economic status were significantly associated with increased risk of mental illness among married women. Conclusion Findings of this study support the importance of considering elements of marital relationship: satisfaction, adjustment and negative interactions which can be prioritized to increase the efficiency of marital interventions. It also highlights the role of social support in the context of marital relationships among Pakistani women. Furthermore, the study presents the etiological models of depression and anxiety with reference to the above. PMID:25226599

2013-01-01

346

Worker Safety and Health Issues Associated with the DOE Environmental Cleanup Program: Insights From the DOE Laboratory Directors' Environmental and Occupational/Public health Standards Steering Group  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Laboratory Directors' Environmental and Occupational/Public Health Standards Steering Group (or ''SSG'') was formed in 1990. It was felt then that ''risk'' could be an organizing principle for environmental cleanup and that risk-based cleanup standards could rationalize clean up work. The environmental remediation process puts workers engaged in cleanup activities at risk from hazardous materials and from the more usual hazards associated with construction activities. In a real sense, the site remediation process involves the transfer of a hypothetical risk to the environment and the public from isolated contamination into real risks to the workers engaged in the remediation activities. Late in its existence the SSG, primarily motivated by its LANL representative, Dr. Harry Ettinger, actively investigated issues associated with worker health and safety during environmental remediation activities. This paper summarizes the insights noted by the SSG. Most continue to be pertinent today.

M.C. Edelson; Samuel C. Morris; Joan M. Daisey

2001-03-01

347

Clarification of the factor structure of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire among Japanese adolescents and associated sleep status.  

PubMed

If the factors affecting the mental health status of adolescents and their association with sleep status could be clarified, this information would be helpful for formulating lifestyle and healthcare guidance for the promotion of healthy growth and the prevention of mental problems in these individuals. The purpose of this study was to clarify (1) the factor structure of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), and (2) the associations between the factors extracted from this questionnaire and lifestyle, in particular sleep status, by using a representative sample population of Japanese adolescents. One hundred three thousand sixty hundred fifty self-administered questionnaires were collected from students enrolled in junior high and high schools in Japan. Of these questionnaires, 99,668 were analyzed. Sleep duration, subjective sleep assessment, bedtime, and insomnia symptoms of these students over the past month were studied to investigate sleep status. The factor analyses yielded two factors: depression/anxiety and loss of positive emotion. Sleep duration of less than 7h was found to be associated with both depression/anxiety and loss of positive emotion, whereas sleep duration of 8h or more was associated only with loss of positive emotion. Subjective sleep assessment and insomnia symptoms were associated with both depression/anxiety and loss of positive emotion. It was demonstrated that two underlying factors of mental health status were associated with differences in sleep status. In order to improve the mental health status of adolescents, it is important to provide guidance about sleep and lifestyle habits according to the mental health status of the individual. PMID:21145596

Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Minowa, Masumi; Kanda, Hideyuki; Suzuki, Kenji; Wada, Kiyoshi; Hayashi, Kenji; Tanihata, Takeo; Ohida, Takashi

2011-06-30

348

Facial fluctuating asymmetry is not associated with childhood ill-health in a large British cohort study  

PubMed Central

The idea that symmetry in facial traits is associated with attractiveness because it reliably indicates good physiological health, particularly to potential sexual partners, has generated an extensive literature on the evolution of human mate choice. However, large-scale tests of this hypothesis using direct or longitudinal assessments of physiological health are lacking. Here, we investigate relationships between facial fluctuating asymmetry (FA) and detailed individual health histories in a sample (n = 4732) derived from a large longitudinal study (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children) in South West England. Facial FA was assessed using geometric morphometric analysis of facial landmark configurations derived from three-dimensional facial scans taken at 15 years of age. Facial FA was not associated with longitudinal measures of childhood health. However, there was a very small negative association between facial FA and IQ that remained significant after correcting for a positive allometric relationship between FA and face size. Overall, this study does not support the idea that facial symmetry acts as a reliable cue to physiological health. Consequently, if preferences for facial symmetry do represent an evolved adaptation, then they probably function not to provide marginal fitness benefits by choosing between relatively healthy individuals on the basis of small differences in FA, but rather evolved to motivate avoidance of markers of substantial developmental disturbance and significant pathology. PMID:25122232

Pound, Nicholas; Lawson, David W.; Toma, Arshed M.; Richmond, Stephen; Zhurov, Alexei I.; Penton-Voak, Ian S.

2014-01-01

349

PLANNING FOR PEDIATRIC ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM SPONSORED BY THE AMBULATORY PEDIATRIC ASSOCIATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The Pediatric Environmental Health Fellowship program is a three year fellowship which will emphasize teaching, research and mastery of scientific and grant writing skills, the development of advocacy skills, and the the ability to review pediatric environmental health literature...

350

COMMUNITY HEALTH ASSOCIATED WITH ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER IN MILLARD COUNTY, UTAH  

EPA Science Inventory

This study evaluates the health effects of arsenic in drinking water at levels approximately four times the maximum allowed by the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations. Physical examinations of 250 people included evaluating dermatological and neurological health, ...

351

Associations between Depression and Diabetes in the Community: Do Symptom Dimensions Matter? Results from the Gutenberg Health Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives While a bidirectional relationship between diabetes and depression has been established, there is little knowledge if the associations are due to somatic-affective or cognitive-affective dimensions of depression. Research Design and Methods In a population-based, representative survey of 15.010 participants we therefore studied the associations of the two dimensions of depression with diabetes and health care utilization among depressed and diabetic participants. Depression was assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire PHQ-9. Results We found a linear and consistent association between the intensity of depression and the presence of diabetes increasing from 6.9% in no or minimal depression to 7.6% in mild, 9% in moderate and 10.5% in severe depression. There was a strong positive association between somatic-affective symptoms but not with cognitive-affective symptoms and diabetes. Depression and diabetes were both independently related to somatic health care utilisation. Conclusions Diabetes and depression are associated, and the association is primarily driven by the somatic-affective component of depression. The main limitation of our study pertains to the cross-sectional data acquisition. Further longitudinal work on the relationship of obesity and diabetes should differentiate the somatic and the cognitive symptoms of depression. PMID:25127227

Wiltink, Jörg; Michal, Matthias; Wild, Philipp S.; Schneider, Astrid; König, Jochem; Blettner, Maria; Münzel, Thomas; Schulz, Andreas; Weber, Matthias; Fottner, Christian; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Lackner, Karl; Beutel, Manfred E.

2014-01-01

352

Cross-Sector Research Associated with Nutrition: Comparison of Private and Public Schools on Health Indicators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Healthy People 2010 is the initiative that defines the U.S. health agenda and guides policy. The initiative provides direction for individuals to change personal behaviors and for organizations and communities to support good health through health promotion policies. The objective of this research was to compare public and private schools on…

Munoz, Marco A.

353

survivors before and after a fireworks disaster: Associations with mental health care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To study the health problems presented to general practitioners by disaster survivors who received specialized ambulatory mental health care. Design. (Longitudinal) case-control study based on general practitioners' electronic medical records. Setting. General practice and a mental health institution (MHI) in Enschede, the Netherlands. Subjects. A total of 728 adult disaster survivors who were registered in 30 study practices and

DIRK-JAN DEN OUDEN; ANJA J. E. DIRKZWAGER; C. JORIS YZERMANS

354

Development of a Two-Year Associate Arts Degree in Environmental Health Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The field of Environmental Health Technology (EHT) encompasses both the equipment and the trained expertise required to utilize land, water, energy, and minerals in the service of human health and welfare. EHT technicians work in disease control, licensing bureaus, hospitals, nursing homes, hazardous waste agencies, and other health agencies. In…

Campbell, Charles R.

355

Health and meaningfulness of time use for unemployed individuals: associations with involvement in education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unemployed people often experience poor health and frequently report unsatisfying leisure experiences. Previous literature has identified the importance of meaningful activities (such as education) in supporting the overall health of unemployed individuals. This exploratory study investigated the difference in health and access to elements of meaningful time use between two groups of unemployed 18? to 25?year?olds: those who were involved

Justin Newton Scanlan; Anita C. Bundy; Lynda R. Matthews

2011-01-01

356

An Association between College Students' Health Promotion Practices and Perceived Stress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was undertaken to gain a better understanding of health promotion practices among college students and the relationship of stress and the practice of various health behaviors. Method: In Fall 2008, 319 students from a mid-size university participated in a cross-sectional survey utilizing the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Health

Li, Ying; Lindsey, Billie J.

2013-01-01

357

Health and nutrition economics: diet costs are associated with diet quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The WHO asserts that the global food price crisis threatens public health and jeopardizes the health of the most disadvantaged groups such as women, children, the elderly and low-income families. Economic factors play a crucial role and could affect personal nutrition status and health. Economic decision factors such as food price and income do influence people's food choices. Moreover, food

Yuan-Ting Lo MPH; Yu-Hung Chang; Meei-Shyuan Lee; Mark L Wahlqvist

358

Assessment of the health hazards associated with wastewater reuse: transmission of geohelminthic infections (Marrakech, Morocco).  

PubMed

To address the problem of water scarcity, wastewater has long been used for agricultural purposes in Marrakech (Morocco) and its benefits have long been recognized. However, the benefits of urban wastewater reuse may be limited by its potential health hazards associated essentially to the danger of transmission of pathogenic organisms to human beings. The current study aimed to evaluate the risks associated with raw wastewater reuse for agricultural purposes, and the incidence of geohelminthic infections among the children of the wastewater spreading area of Marrakech as compared to a control group. Faecal samples from 610 individuals were examined for Ascaris spp. ova and Trichuris spp. ova (323 children for the exposed group and 287 for the control group). The study duration was two months and a half, and was carried out in the summer period. A questionnaire-interview with children and parents was used to collect data on possible demographic, hygiene and behavioural-contact factors such as gender, age, family size, source of water supply, parental occupation. The investigations resulted in the detection of Ascaris spp. ova in 43 samples indicating a point-prevalence of 13.3% in the exposed group versus 1.7% for the control group. Trichuris spp. ova was detected in 43 faecal samples indicating a point-prevalence of 13.3% in the exposed group, and 3.8% in the control group. The Chi-square test showed that the differences observed between the exposed and control group are statistically significant (p < 0.01). Males are more infected with ascariasis and trichuriasis than females and children of 2-8 years of age are heavily infected as compared to 9 - 14-year-old children. Based upon the findings of this study, it is concluded that wastewater reuse for agricultural purposes presents an increased risk of infection in the exposed group. PMID:16026024

Amahmid, O; Bouhoum, K

2005-04-01

359

American Medical Association: Diagnosis and Management of Foodborne Illnesses: A Primer for Physicians and Other Health Care Professionals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

According to the American Medical Association, an estimated 76 million people get sick from food borne illnesses annually. It is no wonder than, that this free food borne illnesses primer has been so popular among physicians and other health care professionals. The primer was developed collaboratively by the American Medical Association and four other national organizations, and "is intended to provide health care professionals with current and accurate information for the diagnosis, treatment and reporting of foodborne illnesses." The 17,500 copies from the first printing are gone, but the entire primer is available in downloadable sections. The Primer includes Foodborne Illnesses Tables and Patient Scenarios regarding: Bacterial Agents, Viral Agents, Hepatitis A Infection, Antibiotic-resistant Salmonellosis, Norovirus Infection, and more. Health care professionals may also select to be put on a waiting list for the second printing of the primer. Be sure to check back for the forthcoming downloadable, interactive personal digital assistant version as well.

360

Spasticity and Its Association with Functioning and Health-Related Quality of Life 18 Months after Stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There is no consensus concerning the presence of spasticity or the relationship between spasticity and functioning and spasticity and health-related quality of life (HRQL) in the stable phase after stroke. Objective: The aim of the present study was to describe, 18 months after stroke, the frequency of spasticity and its association with functioning and HRQL. Methods: In a cohort

Anna-Karin Welmer; Magnus von Arbin; Lotta Widén Holmqvist; Disa K. Sommerfeld

2006-01-01

361

Is Accuracy of Weight Perception Associated with Health Risk Behaviors in a Diverse Sample of Obese Adolescents?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current evidence is equivocal as to whether adolescent's perception of weight status is linked to both healthy and risky behaviors. This study examined the association between accurate and inaccurate perception of weight and self-reported health and risk behaviors among a diverse sample of obese, urban adolescents. Data were analyzed from 1,180…

Lenhart, Clare M.; Daly, Brian P.; Eichen, Dawn M.

2011-01-01

362

Exposure to 911 among Youth and Their Mothers in New York City: Enduring Associations with Mental Health and Sociopolitical Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The enduring impact of exposure to the 911 terrorist attacks on mental health and sociopolitical attitudes was examined in a sample of 427 adolescents (M = 16.20 years) and their mothers residing in New York City. Direct exposure to the terrorist attack was associated with youth depression symptoms and with mothers' posttraumatic stress disorder…

Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Aber, J. Lawrence; Ware, Angelica; Kotler, Jennifer A.

2010-01-01

363

The association between subjective social status and mental health among Asian immigrants: Investigating the influence of age at immigration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines how age at immigration influences the association between adult subjective social status and mental health outcomes. The age when people immigrate shapes the capacity and efficiency at which they learn and use a new language, the opportunities to meet and socialize with a wide range of people, and respond to healthy or stressful environments. We hypothesize that

Janxin Leu; Irene H. Yen; Stuart A. Gansky; Emily Walton; Nancy E. Adler; David T. Takeuchi

2008-01-01

364

A systematic review of patient and health system characteristics associated with late referral in chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To identify patient and health system characteristics associated with late referral of patients with chronic kidney disease to nephrologists. METHODS: MEDLINE, CENTRAL, and CINAHL were searched using the appropriate MESH terms in March 2007. Two reviewers individually and in duplicate reviewed the abstracts of 256 articles and selected 18 observational studies for inclusion. The reasons for late referral were

Sankar D Navaneethan; Sarah Aloudat; Sonal Singh

2008-01-01

365

Multiple Sexual Victimizations among Adolescent Boys and Girls: Prevalence and Associations with Eating Behaviors and Psychological Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of sexual abuse, including multiple victimizations, among adolescents and to examine associations among history of sexual abuse, disordered eating behaviors and psychological health. The sample included 81,247 students (40,946 girls and 40,301 boys) in 9th and 12th grades in Minnesota public…

Ackard, Diann M.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

2003-01-01

366

Gay--Straight Alliances Are Associated with Student Health: A Multischool Comparison of LGBTQ and Heterosexual Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few studies have examined school-based factors associated with variability in the victimization and health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) youth. Among 15,965 students in 45 Wisconsin schools, we identified differences based on Gay-Straight Alliance (GSA) presence. Youth in schools with GSAs reported less truancy,…

Poteat, V. Paul; Sinclair, Katerina O.; DiGiovanni, Craig D.; Koenig, Brian W.; Russell, Stephen T.

2013-01-01

367

Clarification of the factor structure of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire among Japanese adolescents and associated sleep status  

Microsoft Academic Search

If the factors affecting the mental health status of adolescents and their association with sleep status could be clarified, this information would be helpful for formulating lifestyle and healthcare guidance for the promotion of healthy growth and the prevention of mental problems in these individuals. The purpose of this study was to clarify (1) the factor structure of the 12-item

Hiroyuki Suzuki; Yoshitaka Kaneita; Yoneatsu Osaki; Masumi Minowa; Hideyuki Kanda; Kenji Suzuki; Kiyoshi Wada; Kenji Hayashi; Takeo Tanihata; Takashi Ohida

2011-01-01

368

Association between Self-Reported Health and Physical and/or Sexual Abuse Experienced before Age 18  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The present study evaluated the association between women's health and physical and sexual abuse suffered before age 18. Methods: A total of 3,568 randomly sampled insured women ages 18-64 completed a telephone interview to assess history of physical only, sexual only, or both physical and sexual abuse before age 18 (Behavioral Risk…

Bonomi, Amy E.; Cannon, Elizabeth A.; Anderson, Melissa L.; Rivara, Frederick P.; Thompson, Robert S.

2008-01-01

369

Project health and safety plan for the Gunite and Associated Tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) policy is to provide a safe and healthful workplace for all employees and subcontractors. The accomplishment of this policy requires that operations at the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) in the North and South Tank Farms (NTF and STF) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory are guided by

Abston

1997-01-01

370

Food, Nutrition and Health Tips from the American Dietetic Association Healthy Eating on the Run: A Month of Tips  

E-print Network

. Enjoy fresh fruit as your dessert. 18. Eat your lower-calorie food first. Soup or salad is a good choiceEat Right Food, Nutrition and Health Tips from the American Dietetic Association Healthy Eating and good-tasting foods to fit a busy lifestyle. Whether it's carry-out, food court, office cafeteria or sit

Oklahoma, University of

371

Nonmarital Romantic Relationships and Mental Health in Early Adulthood: Does the Association Differ for Women and Men?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although social scientists have long assumed that intimate social relationships are more closely associated with women's than men's mental health, recent research indicates that there are no gender differences in the advantages of marriage and disadvantages of unmarried statuses when males' and females' distinct expressions of emotional distress…

Simon, Robin W.; Barrett, Anne E.

2010-01-01

372

Obesity has become a major worldwide health prob-lem, not least because it is strongly associated with  

E-print Network

Obesity has become a major worldwide health prob- lem, not least because it is strongly associated evidence indicates that obesity is causally linked to a chronic low-grade inflammatory state1,2 , which con- tributes to the development of obesity-linked disor- ders, in particular to metabolic dysfunction

Cai, Long

373

Amicus Curiae Brief for the United States Supreme Court on Mental Health Issues Associated with "Physician-Assisted Suicide"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After providing background material related to the Supreme Court cases on "physician-assisted suicide" (Washington v. Glucksberg, 1997, and Vacco v. Quill, 1997), this article presents the amicus curiae brief that was submitted to the United States Supreme Court by 2 national mental health organizations, a state psychological association, and an…

Werth, James L., Jr.; Gordon, Judith R.

2002-01-01

374

Food, Nutrition and Health Tips from the American Dietetic Association Pack more nutrition into your day with a  

E-print Network

Eat Right Food, Nutrition and Health Tips from the American Dietetic Association Pack more favorite salad combination? ©2010 ADA. Reproduction of this tip sheet is permitted for educational purposes. Reproduction for sales purposes is not authorized. This tip sheet is provided by: Authored by American Dietetic

Oklahoma, University of

375

Deployment Risk Factors and Postdeployment Health Profiles Associated With Traumatic Brain Injury in Heavy Drinking Veterans  

PubMed Central

Along with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is considered one of the “signature wounds” of combat operations in Iraq (Operation Iraqi Freedom [OIF]) and Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom [OEF]), but the role of mTBI in the clinical profiles of Veterans with other comorbid forms of postdeployment psychopathology is poorly understood. The current study explored the deployment risk and postdeployment health profiles of heavy drinking OIF and OEF Veterans as a function of mTBI. Sixty-nine heavy-drinking OIF/OEF Veterans were recruited through a Veterans’ Affairs Medical Center and completed questionnaires and structured interviews assessing war-zone experiences, postdeployment drinking patterns, and PTSD symptoms. Veterans with positive mTBI screens and confirmed mTBI diagnoses endorsed higher rates of combat experiences, including direct and indirect killing, and met criteria for PTSD at a higher rate than Veterans without a history of mTBI. Both PTSD and combat experiences independently predicted screening positive for mTBI, whereas only combat experiences predicted receiving a confirmed mTBI diagnosis. mTBI was not associated with any dimension of alcohol use. These results support a growing body of literature linking mTBI with PTSD. PMID:22808885

Williams, Joah L.; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E.; Murphy, James G.; Crouse, Ellen M.

2014-01-01

376

Using Association Rule Mining for Phenotype Extraction from Electronic Health Records  

PubMed Central

The increasing adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) due to Meaningful Use is providing unprecedented opportunities to enable secondary use of EHR data. Significant emphasis is being given to the development of algorithms and methods for phenotype extraction from EHRs to facilitate population-based studies for clinical and translational research. While preliminary work has shown demonstrable progress, it is becoming increasingly clear that developing, implementing and testing phenotyping algorithms is a time- and resource-intensive process. To this end, in this manuscript we propose an efficient machine learning technique—distributional associational rule mining (ARM)—for semi-automatic modeling of phenotyping algorithms. ARM provides a highly efficient and robust framework for discovering the most predictive set of phenotype definition criteria and rules from large datasets, and compared to other machine learning techniques, such as logistic regression and support vector machines, our preliminary results indicate not only significantly improved performance, but also generation of rule patterns that are amenable to human interpretation . PMID:24303254

Li, Dingcheng; Simon, Gyorgy; Chute, Christopher G.; Pathak, Jyotishman

377

Perceived Social Support and Its Association With Obesity-Specific Health-Related Quality of Life  

PubMed Central

Objective To (1) describe type and source of social support perceived by obese youth and examine associations with sociodemographic/anthropometric characteristics, and (2) examine relationships between social support and obesity-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Methods Seventy-four obese youth and their primary caregivers participated. Youth completed the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale and an obesity-specific HRQOL measure, Sizing Me Up. Results Close friends and parents provided the most social support and were rated most important, except for teacher informational support. Classmates and schools provided the least social support. Body mass index z-score was correlated with teacher support frequency (r=?.26, p < .05) and minority youth reported more parent support (t(72)=?2.21, p < .05). Compared with other support providers, classmate support significantly predicted most HRQOL scales (p<.001). Conclusions Close friends, parents, and teachers are significant sources of support to youth with obesity; however, classmates play a unique role in the HRQOL of obese youth. PMID:21263350

Herzer, Michele; Zeller, Meg H.; Rausch, Joseph R.; Modi, Avani C.

2012-01-01

378

Deployment risk factors and postdeployment health profiles associated with traumatic brain injury in heavy drinking veterans.  

PubMed

Along with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is considered one of the "signature wounds" of combat operations in Iraq (Operation Iraqi Freedom [OIF]) and Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom [OEF]), but the role of mTBI in the clinical profiles of Veterans with other comorbid forms of post-deployment psychopathology is poorly understood. The current study explored the deployment risk and postdeployment health profiles of heavy drinking OIF and OEF Veterans as a function of mTBI. Sixty-nine heavy-drinking OIF/OEF Veterans were recruited through a Veterans' Affairs Medical Center and completed questionnaires and structured interviews assessing war-zone experiences, postdeployment drinking patterns, and PTSD symptoms. Veterans with positive mTBI screens and confirmed mTBI diagnoses endorsed higher rates of combat experiences, including direct and indirect killing, and met criteria for PTSD at a higher rate than Veterans without a history of mTBI. Both PTSD and combat experiences independently predicted screening positive for mTBI, whereas only combat experiences predicted receiving a confirmed mTBI diagnosis. mTBI was not associated with any dimension of alcohol use. These results support a growing body of literature linking mTBI with PTSD. PMID:22808885

Williams, Joah L; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E; Murphy, James G; Crouse, Ellen M

2012-07-01

379

Occurrence of disinfection by-products in tap water distribution systems and their associated health risk.  

PubMed

The concentrations of trihalomethanes (THMs), including chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform, and haloacetic acids (HAAs; monochloroacetic acid, monobromoacetic acid, dibromoacetic acid, dichloroacetic acid, and trichloroacetic acid) were measured in tap waters passing through water distribution systems of six water treatment plants in Seoul, Korea, and their associated health risks from exposure to THMs through ingestion, dermal contact, and inhalation were estimated using a probabilistic approach. The concentration ranges for total THMs and HAA5 were 3.9-53.5 and

Lee, Jin; Kim, Eun-Sook; Roh, Bang-Sik; Eom, Seog-Won; Zoh, Kyung-Duk

2013-09-01

380

Perceived impact of the Medicare policy to adjust payment for health care-associated infections  

PubMed Central

Background In 2008, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) ceased additional payment for hospitalizations resulting in complications deemed preventable, including several health care-associated infections. We sought to understand the impact of the CMS payment policy on infection prevention efforts. Methods A national survey of infection preventionists from a random sample of US hospitals was conducted in December 2010. Results Eighty-one percent reported increased attention to HAIs targeted by the CMS policy, whereas one-third reported spending less time on nontargeted HAIs. Only 15% reported increased funding for infection control as a result of the CMS policy, whereas most reported stable (77%) funding. Respondents reported faster removal of urinary (71%) and central venous (50%) catheters as a result of the CMS policy, whereas routine urine and blood cultures on admission occurred infrequently (27% and 13%, respectively). Resource shifting (ie, less time spent on nontargeted HAIs) occurred more commonly in large hospitals (odds ratio, 2.3; 95% confidence interval: 1.0–5.1; P = .038) but less often in hospitals where front-line staff were receptive to changes in clinical processes (odds ratio, 0.5; 95% confidence interval: 0.3–0.8; P = .005). Conclusion Infection preventionists reported greater hospital attention to preventing targeted HAIs as a result of the CMS nonpayment policy. Whether the increased focus and greater engagement in HAI prevention practices has led to better patient outcomes is unclear. PMID:22541855

Lee, Grace M.; Hartmann, Christine W.; Graham, Denise; Kassler, William; Linn, Maya Dutta; Krein, Sarah; Saint, Sanjay; Goldmann, Donald A.; Fridkin, Scott; Horan, Teresa; Jernigan, John; Jha, Ashish

2014-01-01

381

Socio-economic factors associated with maternal health-seeking behaviours among women from poor households in rural Egypt.  

PubMed

IntroductionSocio-economic inequalities in basic maternal health interventions exist in Egypt, yet little is known about health-seeking of poor households. This paper assesses levels of maternal health-seeking behaviours in women living in poor households in rural Upper Egypt, and compares these to national averages. Secondly, we construct innovative measures of socio-economic resourcefulness among the rural poor in order to examine the association between the resulting variables and the four dimensions of maternal health-seeking behaviour.MethodsWe analysed a cross-sectional survey conducted in Assiut and Sohag governorates in 2010ż2011 of 2,242 women in households below the poverty line in 65 poorest villages in Egypt. The associations between four latent socio-economic constructs (socio-cultural resourcefulness, economic resourcefulness, dwelling quality and womanżs status) and receipt of any antenatal care (ANC), regular ANC (four or more visits), facility delivery and private sector delivery for womenżs most recent pregnancy in five years preceding survey were assessed using multivariate logistic regression.ResultsIn the sample, 58.5% of women reported using any ANC and 51.1% facility delivery, lower than national coverage (74.2% and 72.4%, respectively). The proportion of ANC users receiving regular ANC was lower (67%) than nationally (91%). Among women delivering in facilities, 18% of women in the poor Upper Egypt sample used private providers (63% nationally). In multivariate analysis, higher economic resourcefulness was associated with higher odds of receiving ANC but with lower odds of facility delivery. Socio-cultural resourcefulness was positively associated with receiving any ANC, regular ANC and facility delivery, whereas it was not associated with private delivery care. Dwelling quality was positively associated with private delivery facility use. Womanżs status was not independently associated with any of the four behaviours.ConclusionsCoverage of basic maternal health interventions and utilisation of private providers are lower among rural poor women in Upper Egypt than nationally. Variables capturing socio-cultural resourcefulness and economic resourcefulness were useful predictors of ANC and facility delivery. Further understanding of issues surrounding availability, affordability and quality of maternal health services among the poor is crucial to eliminating inequalities in maternal health coverage in Egypt. PMID:25424200

Benova, Lenka; Campbell, Oona; Sholkamy, Hania; Ploubidis, George B

2014-11-25

382

Associations between sleep habits and mental health status and suicidality in a longitudinal survey of monozygotic twin adolescents.  

PubMed

Several epidemiological studies have indicated that there is a relationship between sleep habits, such as sleep duration, bedtime and bedtime regularity, and mental health status, including depression and anxiety in adolescents. However, it is still to be clarified whether the relationship is direct cause-and-effect or mediated by the influence of genetic and other traits, i.e. quasi-correlation. To examine this issue, we conducted a twin study using a total of 314 data for monozygotic twins from a longitudinal survey of sleep habits and mental health status conducted in a unified junior and senior high school (grades 7-12), located in Tokyo, Japan. Three-level hierarchical linear model analysis showed that both bedtime and sleep duration had significant associations with the Japanese version of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) score, suicidal thoughts and the experience of self-harm behaviours when genetic factors and shared environmental factors, which were completely shared between co-twins, were controlled for. These associations were statistically significant even after controlling for bedtime regularity, which was also associated significantly with the GHQ-12 score. These suggest that the associations between sleep habits and mental health status were still statistically significant after controlling for the influence of genetic and shared environmental factors of twins, and that there may be a direct cause-and-effect in the relationship in adolescents. Thus, late bedtime and short sleep duration could predict subsequent development of depression and anxiety, including suicidal or self-injury risk. This suggests that poor mental health status in adolescents might be improved by health education and intervention concerning sleep and lifestyle habits. PMID:24456111

Matamura, Misato; Tochigi, Mamoru; Usami, Satoshi; Yonehara, Hiromi; Fukushima, Masako; Nishida, Atsushi; Togo, Fumiharu; Sasaki, Tsukasa

2014-06-01

383

Factors associated with non-utilisation of health service for childbirth in Timor-Leste: evidence from the 2009-2010 Demographic and Health Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Timor-Leste is a young developing country in Asia. Most of its infrastructure was destroyed after a long armed conflict for independence. Despite recent expansion of health facilities and investment in healthcare, maternal mortality remains high with most mothers still giving birth at home. This study investigated factors affecting the non-utilisation of health service for childbirth in the aftermath of the independence conflict. Methods The Timor-Leste Demographic and Health Survey 2009-2010 was the latest two-stage national survey, which used validated questionnaires to obtain information from 26 clusters derived from 13 districts of the country. Factors influencing non-utilisation of health facility for childbirth were investigated using univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses, accounting for the cluster sampling and sample weight of the survey. Results Of the total 5986 participants included in the study, 4472 (74.8%) did not deliver their last child at a health facility. Lack of education for the mother (adjusted odds ratio (OR): 2.04; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.56 to 2.66) and her partner (OR: 1.45; 95% CI 1.14 to 1.84), low household wealth status (OR: 5.20; 95% CI 3.93 to 6.90), and rural residence (OR: 2.83; 95% CI 2.22 to 3.66), were associated with increased likelihood of non-utilisation of health facility for childbirth. Working mothers (OR: 1.55; 95% CI 1.32 to 1.81), who had high parity (OR: 1.78; 95% CI 1.36 to 2.32) and did not attend antenatal care service (OR: 4.68; 95% CI 2.65 to 8.28) were also vulnerable for not delivering at a health facility. Conversely, the prevalence of non-utilisation of health facility for childbirth reduced with increasing number of service components received during antenatal care visits (OR: 0.72; 95% CI 0.64 to 0.80). Conclusions Only a quarter of Timorese women delivered at a health facility. In order to reduce maternal mortality, future interventions should target disadvantaged mothers from poor families, those residing in rural areas, have higher parity but no education, and who seldom attend antenatal care service, by improving their utilisation of health facility for childbirth. PMID:24885424

2014-01-01

384

Project health and safety plan for the Gunite and Associated Tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) policy is to provide a safe and healthful workplace for all employees and subcontractors. The accomplishment of this policy requires that operations at the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) in the North and South Tank Farms (NTF and STF) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory are guided by an overall plan and consistent proactive approach to health and safety (H and S) issues. The policy and procedures in this plan apply to all GAAT operations in the NTF and STF. The provisions of this plan are to be carried out whenever activities identifies s part of the GAAT are initiated that could be a threat to human health or the environment. This plan implements a policy and establishes criteria for the development of procedures for day-to-day operations to prevent or minimize any adverse impact to the environment and personnel safety and health and to meet standards that define acceptable management of hazardous and radioactive materials and wastes. The plan is written to utilize past experience and best management practices in order to minimize hazards to human health or the environment from events such as fires, explosions, falls, mechanical hazards, or any unplanned release of hazardous or radioactive materials to the air. This plan explains additional task-specific health and safety requirements such as the Site Safety and health Addendum and Activity Hazard Analysis, which should be used in concert with this plan and existing established procedures.

Abston, J.P.

1997-04-01

385

Costs and Clinical Quality Among Medicare Beneficiaries: Associations with Health Center Penetration of Low-Income Residents  

PubMed Central

Objective Determine the association between access to primary care by the underserved and Medicare spending and clinical quality across hospital referral regions (HRRs). Data Sources Data on elderly fee-for-service beneficiaries across 306 HRRs came from CMS’ Geographic Variation in Medicare Spending and Utilization database (2010). We merged data on number of health center patients (HRSA’s Uniform Data System) and number of low-income residents (American Community Survey). Study Design We estimated access to primary care in each HRR by “health center penetration” (health center patients as a proportion of low-income residents). We calculated total Medicare spending (adjusted for population size, local input prices, and health risk). We assessed clinical quality by preventable hospital admissions, hospital readmissions, and emergency department visits. We sorted HRRs by health center penetration rate and compared spending and quality measures between the high- and low-penetration deciles. We also employed linear regressions to estimate spending and quality measures as a function of health center penetration. Principal Findings The high-penetration decile had 9.7% lower Medicare spending ($926 per capita, p=0.01) than the low-penetration decile, and no different clinical quality outcomes. Conclusions Compared with elderly fee-for-service beneficiaries residing in areas with low-penetration of health center patients among low-income residents, those residing in high-penetration areas may accrue Medicare cost savings. Limited evidence suggests that these savings do not compromise clinical quality. PMID:25243096

Sharma, Ravi; Lebrun-Harris, Lydie A.; Ngo-Metzger, Quyen

2014-01-01

386

Material, psychosocial and sociodemographic determinants are associated with positive mental health in Europe: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate the association between psychosocial, sociodemographic and material determinants of positive mental health in Europe. Design Cross-sectional analysis of survey data. Setting 34 European countries. Participants Representative Europe-wide sample consisting of 21?066 men and 22?569 women aged 18?years and over, from 34 European countries participating in the third wave of the European Quality of Life Survey (2011–2012). Outcome Positive mental health as measured by the WHO-5—Mental Well-being Index, while the lowest 25% centile indicated poor positive mental health. Results The prevalence of poor positive mental health was 30% in women and 24% in men. Material, as well as psychosocial, and sociodemographic factors were independently associated with poor positive mental health in a Europe-wide sample from 34 European countries. When studying all factors together, the highest OR for poor positive mental health was reported for social exclusion (men: OR=1.73, 95% CI 1.59 to 1.90; women: OR=1.69, 95% CI 1.57 to 1.81) among the psychosocial factors. Among the material factors, material deprivation had the highest impact (men: OR=1.96, 95% CI 1.78 to 2.15; women: OR=1.93, 95% CI 1.79 to 2.08). Conclusions This study gives the first overview on determinants of positive mental health at a European level and could be used as the basis for preventive policies in the field of positive mental health in Europe. PMID:24871540

Dreger, Stefanie; Buck, Christoph; Bolte, Gabriele

2014-01-01

387

Association of eHealth literacy with cancer information seeking and prior experience with cancer screening.  

PubMed

Cancer is a critical disease with a high mortality rate in the US. Although useful information exists on the Internet, many people experience difficulty finding information about cancer prevention because they have limited eHealth literacy. This study aimed to identify relationships between the level of eHealth literacy and cancer information seeking experience or prior experience with cancer screening tests. A total of 108 adults participated in this study through questionnaires. Data covering demographics, eHealth literacy, cancer information seeking experience, educational needs for cancer information searching, and previous cancer screening tests were obtained. Study findings show that the level of eHealth literacy influences cancer information seeking. Individuals with low eHealth literacy are likely to be less confident about finding cancer information. In addition, people who have a low level of eHealth literacy need more education about seeking information than do those with a higher level of eHealth literacy. However, there is no significant relationship between eHealth literacy and cancer screening tests. More people today are using the Internet for access to information to maintain good health. It is therefore critical to educate those with low eHealth literacy so they can better self-manage their health. PMID:25105588

Park, Hyejin; Moon, Mikyung; Baeg, Jung Hoon

2014-09-01

388

Associations of Short-Term Particle and Noise Exposures with Markers of Cardiovascular and Respiratory Health among Highway Maintenance Workers  

PubMed Central

Background: Highway maintenance workers are constantly and simultaneously exposed to traffic-related particle and noise emissions, both of which have been linked to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in population-based epidemiology studies. Objectives: We aimed to investigate short-term health effects related to particle and noise exposure. Methods: We monitored 18 maintenance workers, during as many as five 24-hr periods from a total of 50 observation days. We measured their exposure to fine particulate matter (diameter ? 2.5 ?m; PM2.5), ultrafine particles, and noise, and the cardiopulmonary health end points: blood pressure, proinflammatory and prothrombotic markers in the blood, lung function, and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) measured approximately 15 hr after work. Heart rate variability was assessed during a sleep period approximately 10 hr after work. Results: PM2.5 exposure was significantly associated with C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A, and was negatively associated with tumor necrosis factor ?. None of the particle metrics were significantly associated with von Willebrand factor or tissue factor expression. PM2.5 and work noise were associated with markers of increased heart rate variability, and with increased high-frequency and low-frequency power. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure on the following morning were significantly associated with noise exposure after work, and nonsignificantly associated with PM2.5. We observed no significant associations between any of the exposures and lung function or FeNO. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that exposure to particles and noise during highway maintenance work might pose a cardiovascular health risk. Actions to reduce these exposures could lead to better health for this population of workers. Citation: Meier R, Cascio WE, Ghio AJ, Wild P, Danuser B, Riediker M. 2014. Associations of short-term particle and noise exposures with markers of cardiovascular and respiratory health among highway maintenance workers. Environ Health Perspect 122:726–732;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307100 PMID:24647077

Meier, Reto; Cascio, Wayne E.; Ghio, Andrew J.; Wild, Pascal; Danuser, Brigitta

2014-01-01

389

Factors associated with health-related quality of life among Indian women in mining and agriculture  

PubMed Central

Background Women facing social and economic disadvantage in stressed communities of developing countries are at greater risk due to health problems. This paper investigates the relationships between structural, health and psychosocial predictors among women in mining and agricultural communities. This paper is a report of a study of the predictors of the health-related quality of life among Indian women in mining and agricultural communities. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional research design was used. The instruments used are SF-36 Health Survey and Coping Strategy Checklist. ANOVA, MANOVA and GLM were used in the analysis. The study was conducted between January-September 2008 with randomly selected women in a mining (145) and an agricultural community (133) in India. Results Women in the agricultural community had significantly increased Physical Health, Mental Health and SF36 scores compared with those in the mining community. Years of stay, education and employment were significant predictors among women in the agricultural community. 39% (33%) and 40% (26%) of the variance in Physical and Mental health respectively among women in agricultural and mining communities are predicted by the structural, health and psychosocial variables. Conclusion Perceived health status should be recognised as an important assessment of Physical and Mental Health among women in rural stressed communities. Cognitive, emotional and behavioural coping strategies are significant predictors of health related quality of life. Implications. Nurses should use the SF-36 as a diagnostic tool for assessing health related quality of life among women and discuss coping strategies, so that these can target women’s adaptive behaviour. This should be an essential part of the nursing process for facilitating adaptive process for improved health related quality of life. PMID:23336256

2013-01-01

390

Physical health symptoms reported by trafficked women receiving post-trafficking support in Moldova: prevalence, severity and associated factors  

PubMed Central

Background Many trafficked people suffer high levels of physical, sexual and psychological abuse. Yet, there has been limited research on the physical health problems associated with human trafficking or how the health needs of women in post-trafficking support settings vary according to socio-demographic or trafficking characteristics. Methods We analysed the prevalence and severity of 15 health symptoms reported by 120 trafficked women who had returned to Moldova between December 2007 and December 2008 and were registered with the International Organisation for Migration Assistance and Protection Programme. Women had returned to Moldova an average of 5.9 months prior to interview (range 2-12 months). Results Headaches (61.7%), stomach pain (60.9%), memory problems (44.2%), back pain (42.5%), loss of appetite (35%), and tooth pain (35%) were amongst the most commonly reported symptoms amongst both women trafficked for sexual exploitation and women trafficked for labour exploitation. The prevalence of headache and memory problems was strongly associated with duration of exploitation. Conclusions Trafficked women who register for post-trafficking support services after returning to their country of origin are likely to have long-term physical and dental health needs and should be provided with access to comprehensive medical services. Health problems among women who register for post-trafficking support services after returning to their country of origin are not limited to women trafficked for sexual exploitation but are also experienced by victims of labour exploitation. PMID:22834807

2012-01-01

391

The Association of Postpartum Maternal Mental Health With Breastfeeding Status of Mothers: A Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Maternal health status might have an important effect on breastfeeding, growth, and general health of the infants. Objectives: This study was conducted to assess the association between maternal mental health and breastfeeding status of mothers in Kashan province. Patients and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 458 mothers in two groups of unsuccessful breastfeeding (case) and successful breastfeeding (control) attending Kashan province health clinics. In this study, the GHQ questionnaire and clinical interview were employed to collect data. The data were statistically analyzed using Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests. Results: It was found that mothers of the case group had a greater susceptibility to depression than those of the control group, that is, breastfeeding status was directly associated with susceptibility to depression (P = 0.001, OR = 5.48). Furthermore, there was a significant association between basic characteristics such as maternal occupational status (P = 0.04) or their educations (P = 0.006) with breastfeeding. Besides, clinical interview revealed that mixed depression and anxiety disorder was the most prevalent type of psychological disorder in the case group. Conclusions: Screening depression during pregnancy and postpartum period appeared to be necessary and it should be incorporated into prenatal and postnatal care due to its influence on mothers’ successful breastfeeding. PMID:24829776

Assarian, Fatemeh; Moravveji, Alireza; Ghaffarian, Hamideh; Eslamian, Reihaneh; Atoof, Fatemeh

2014-01-01

392

Associations Among Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and Health Indicators in American Indian and Alaska Native Adults  

PubMed Central

Purpose Little is known about obesity-related health issues among American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) populations. Approach A large cohort of AIAN people was assembled to evaluate factors associated with health. Setting The study was conducted in Alaska and on the Navajo Nation. Participants A total of 11,293 AIAN people were included. Methods We present data for body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and waist circumference (cm) to evaluate obesity-related health factors. Results Overall, 32.4% of the population were overweight (BMI 25–29.9 kg/m2), 47.1% were obese (BMI ? 30 kg/m2), and 21.4% were very obese (BMI, ? 35 kg/m2). A waist circumference greater than 102 cm for men and greater than 88 cm for women was observed for 41.7% of men and 78.3% of women. Obese people were more likely to perceive their health as fair/poor than nonobese participants (prevalence ratio [PR]), 1.91; 95% CI, 1.71–2.14). Participants younger than 30 years were three times more likely to perceive their health as being fair or poor when their BMI results were 35 or greater compared with those whose BMI results were less than 25 kg/m2. A larger BMI was associated with having multiple medical conditions, fewer hours of vigorous activity, and more hours of television watching. Conclusions Given the high rates of obesity in AIAN populations and the association of obesity with other health conditions, it is important to reduce obesity among AIAN people. PMID:20232606

Slattery, Martha L.; Ferucci, Elizabeth D.; Murtaugh, Maureen A.; Edwards, Sandra; Ma, Khe-Ni; Etzel, Ruth A.; Tom-Orme, Lillian; Lanier, Anne P.

2010-01-01

393

Ideal cardiovascular health in young adult populations from the United States, Finland, and Australia and its association with cIMT: The International Childhood Cardiovascular Cohort Consortium  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The goals for cardiovascular disease prevention were set by the American Heart Association in 2010 for the concept of cardiovascular health. Ideal cardiovascular health is defined by senen cardiovascular health metrics: blood pressure, glucose, cholesterol, body mass index, and physical activity on ...

394

How Bullying Involvement Is Associated with the Distribution of Parental Background and with Subjective Health Complaints among Swedish Boys and Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to analyze how bullying involvement is associated with the distribution of parental background and with subjective health complaints (SHC) among Swedish boys and girls. Data were collected from the World Health Organization, Health Behavior in School-aged Children (WHO/HBSC) survey, measurement years 1997/1998, 2001/2002 and…

Carlerby, Heidi; Viitasara, Eija; Knutsson, Anders; Gadin, Katja Gillander

2013-01-01

395

Disaster and associated changes in physical and mental health in older residents  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Long-term health consequences of disasters have not been studied extensively, one reason amongst others is that no pre-disaster observation is available. This study focuses on an aeroplane crash on an Amsterdam suburb. The ongoing Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam has one pre-disaster and several post-disaster observations, making it possible to study changes in health, taking pre-disaster health characteristics into account.

Dorly J. H. Deeg; Anja C. Huizink; Hannie C. Comijs; Tjabe Smid

2005-01-01

396

Staff-developed infection prevention program decreases health care-associated infection rates in pediatric critical care.  

PubMed

The health care team identified the causes of health care-associated infections (HAI) and developed interventions in a pediatric intensive care unit in Gaza. A quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design was used. All 26 full-time staff members in the pediatric intensive care unit participated. The HAI rate decreased significantly from the first to the second year following the implementation of the intervention (208 vs 120.55, odds ratio: 3.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.87-5.11; P < .001). PMID:25084470

Aljeesh, Yousef I; Alkariri, Naeem; Abusalem, Said; Myers, John A; Alaloul, Fawwaz

2015-01-01

397

Household exposure to secondhand smoke is associated with decreased physical and mental health of mothers in the USA.  

PubMed

Secondhand smoke is one of the most common toxic environmental exposures to children, and maternal health problems also have substantial negative effects on children. We are unaware of any studies examining the association of living with smokers and maternal health. To investigate whether non-smoking mothers who live with smokers have worse physical and mental health than non-smoking mothers who live in homes without smokers. Nationally representative data from the 2000-2004 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey were used. The health of non-smoking mothers with children <18 years (n = 18,810) was assessed, comparing those living with one or more smokers (n = 3,344) to those living in households with no adult smokers (n = 14,836). Associations between maternal health, household smoking, and maternal age, race/ethnicity, and marital, educational, poverty and employment status were examined in bivariable and multivariable analyses using SUDAAN software to adjust for the complex sampling design. Scores on the Medical Outcomes Short Form-12 (SF-12) Physical Component Scale (PCS) and Mental Component Scale (MCS) were used to assess maternal health. About 79.2% of mothers in the USA are non-smokers and 17.4% of them live with ?1 adult smokers: 14.2% with 1 and 3.2% with ?2 smokers. Among non-smoking mothers, the mean MCS score is 50.5 and mean PCS is 52.9. The presence of an adult smoker and increasing number of smokers in the home are both negatively associated with MCS and PCS scores in bivariable analyses (P < 0.001 for each). Non-smoking mothers with at least one smoker in the household had an 11% (95% CI = 0.80-0.99) lower odds of scoring at or above the mean MCS score and a 19% (95% CI = 0.73-0.90) lower odds of scoring at or above the mean PCS score compared to non-smoking mothers with no smokers in the household. There is an evidence of a dose response relationship with increasing number of smokers in the household for PCS (P < 0.001). These findings demonstrate a previously unrecognized child health risk: living with smokers is independently associated with worse physical and mental health among non-smoking mothers. PMID:20012677

Sobotova, L; Liu, Y-H; Burakoff, A; Sevcikova, L; Weitzman, M

2011-01-01

398

An Assessment of Health Related Quality of Life in a Male Prison Population in Greece Associations with Health Related Characteristics and Characteristics of Detention  

PubMed Central

Background. Prisoners constitute a group with increased health and social care needs. Although implementing policies that aim at improving outcomes within this population should be a priority area, studies that attempt to assess health outcomes and health related quality of life (HRQoL) in this population are limited. Aim. To assess HRQoL in a prison population in Greece and to explore the relationship between HRQoL and a set of individual sociodemographic and health related characteristics and characteristics of detention. Methods. A cross-sectional study involving 100 male prisoners was conducted in the prison of Corinth in Greece. HRQoL was assessed through the use of the SF-36 and the EQ-5D. Results. The mean physical and mental summary scores of the SF-36 were 55.33 and 46.82, respectively. The EQ-VAS mean score was 76.41%, while the EQ-5D index was 0.72. Multivariate analysis identified a statistical relationship between HRQoL and the conditions of detention, controlling for the effect of sociodemographic characteristics, morbidity, and mental problems. The use of narcotics in particular is significantly associated with lower HRQoL. Conclusions. Implementation of policies that aim at preventing the use of narcotics within the prison environment is expected to contribute to improved HRQoL in this population. PMID:25093161

Togas, Constantinos

2014-01-01

399

Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Associated with Animals and Its Relevance to Human Health  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus aureus is a typical human pathogen. Some animal S. aureus lineages have derived from human strains following profound genetic adaptation determining a change in host specificity. Due to the close relationship of animals with the environmental microbiome and resistome, animal staphylococcal strains also represent a source of resistance determinants. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) emerged 50?years ago as a nosocomial pathogen but in the last decade it has also become a frequent cause of infections in the community. The recent finding that MRSA frequently colonizes animals, especially livestock, has been a reason for concern, as it has revealed an expanded reservoir of MRSA. While MRSA strains recovered from companion animals are generally similar to human nosocomial MRSA, MRSA strains recovered from food animals appear to be specific animal-adapted clones. Since 2005, MRSA belonging to ST398 was recognized as a colonizer of pigs and human subjects professionally exposed to pig farming. The “pig” MRSA was also found to colonize other species of farmed animals, including horses, cattle, and poultry and was therefore designated livestock-associated (LA)-MRSA. LA-MRSA ST398 can cause infections in humans in contact with animals, and can infect hospitalized people, although at the moment this occurrence is relatively rare. Other animal-adapted MRSA clones have been detected in livestock, such as ST1 and ST9. Recently, ST130 MRSA isolated from bovine mastitis has been found to carry a novel mecA gene that eludes detection by conventional PCR tests. Similar ST130 strains have been isolated from human infections in UK, Denmark, and Germany at low frequency. It is plausible that the increased attention to animal MRSA will reveal other strains with peculiar characteristics that can pose a risk to human health. PMID:22509176

Pantosti, Annalisa

2012-01-01

400

Bone Remodeling Associated Salivary Biomarker MIP-1? Distinguishes Periodontal Disease from Health  

PubMed Central

Background and objective The field of salivary diagnostics lacks an accepted and validated biomarker of alveolar bone remodeling. To address this we examined levels of salivary biomolecules specifically associated with biological aspects of bone remodeling in subjects with chronic periodontitis in a case-control study. Methods Levels of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1?, osteoprotegerin (OPG), C-telopeptide pyridinoline cross-links of type I collagen (ICTP), and ?-C-terminal type I collagen telopeptide (?-CTX) in unstimulated whole saliva of 80 subjects (40 subjects with moderate to severe chronic periodontitis and 40 gender- and age-matched healthy control subjects) were measured using enzyme immunosorbent assays. Saliva was collected before clinical examination that included probing depth (PD), clinical attachment loss (CAL), and bleeding on probing (BOP). Results The mean level of MIP-1? in periodontitis subjects was 18-fold higher than in healthy subjects (p < 0.0001). Clinical periodontal indices significantly correlated with MIP-1? levels (p < 0.0001). MIP-1?, of the biomolecules examined, demonstrated the highest ability to discriminate between periodontal disease and health as determined by area under the curve (AUC = 0.94) and classification and regression tree analysis (sensitivity 94%, specificity 92.7%). OPG levels were elevated 1.6-fold (P = 0.055), whereas ICTP and ?-CTX levels were below the level of detection in the majority of subjects. Conclusion These findings suggest that the chemokine MIP-1? may aid in identifying periodontitis. Future longitudinal studies are warranted to determine whether this biomarker can help to ascertain progression of bone loss in subjects with periodontal disease. PMID:22126530

Al-Sabbagh, Mohanad; Alladah, Amjad; Lin, Yushun; Kryscio, Richard J.; Thomas, Mark V.; Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; Miller, Craig S.

2011-01-01

401

Hospital readiness for health information exchange: development of metrics associated with successful collaboration for quality improvement  

PubMed Central

Objective The development of readiness metrics for organizational participation in health information exchange is critical for monitoring progress toward, and achievement of, successful inter-organizational collaboration. In preparation for the development of a tool to measure readiness for data-sharing, we tested whether organizational capacities known to be related to readiness were associated with successful participation in an American data-sharing collaborative for quality improvement. Design Cross-sectional design, using an on-line survey of hospitals in a large, mature data-sharing collaborative organized for benchmarking and improvement in nursing care quality. Measurements Factor analysis was used to identify salient constructs, and identified factors were analyzed with respect to “successful” participation. “Success” was defined as the incorporation of comparative performance data into the hospital dashboard. Results The most important factor in predicting success included survey items measuring the strength of organizational leadership in fostering a culture of quality improvement (QI Leadership): 1) presence of a supportive hospital executive; 2) the extent to which a hospital values data; 3) the presence of leaders’ vision for how the collaborative advances the hospital’s strategic goals; 4) hospital use of the collaborative data to track quality outcomes; and 5) staff recognition of a strong mandate for collaborative participation (? = 0.84, correlation with Success 0.68 [P < 0.0001]). Conclusion The data emphasize the importance of hospital QI Leadership in collaboratives that aim to share data for QI or safety purposes. Such metrics should prove useful in the planning and development of this complex form of inter-organizational collaboration. PMID:21330191

Korst, Lisa M.; Aydin, Carolyn E.; Signer, Jordana M. K.; Fink, Arlene

2011-01-01

402

The associations between diet quality, body mass index (BMI) and health and activity limitation index (HALEX) in the Geisinger Rural Aging Study (GRAS)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Objectives To determine the associations between diet quality, body mass index (BMI), and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) as assessed by the health and activity limitation index (HALex) in older adults. Design Multivariate linear regression models were used to analyze associations between Di...

403

Gender differences in health-related quality of life associated with abdominal obesity in a Korean population  

PubMed Central

Objectives Overall obesity, as measured by body mass index (BMI), has been associated with a low level of health-related quality of life (HRQOL), but little is known about abdominal obesity. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine whether abdominal obesity, as measured by waist circumference (WC), would be significantly associated with HRQOL independent of overall obesity, and if so, whether the association would differ by gender among the Korean population. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting South Korea. Participants Using data from the 2007–2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a total of 13?754 men and women aged 19–65?years were selected, and information about height (cm), weight (kg), WC (cm) and the EuroQOL-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) scores for HRQOL were taken. Results Not only an overall obesity (as categorised into obese, overweight or non-overweight groups based on BMI) but also an abdominal obesity (defined by WC ?90?cm for men and ?85?cm for women) was significantly associated with lower EQ-5D scores, after adjusting for age, gender, socioeconomic variables and a number of comorbidities. Even after adjusting BMI effect, the association between abdominal obesity and lower EQ-5D scores remained significant for women, but not for men. Conclusions Among the Korean population aged 19–65?years, abdominal obesity was associated with impaired HRQOL, independently of overall obesity. Furthermore, this association differed by gender, being significant only for women. Therefore, primary healthcare professionals should pay attention to gender differences in the impact of obesity on HRQOL when evaluating population-based health programmes. PMID:24464522

Choo, Jina; Jeon, Seonhui; Lee, Juneyoung

2014-01-01