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1

The American College Health Association National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA), Spring 2003 Reference Group Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessing and understanding the health needs and capacities of college students is paramount to creating healthy campus communities. The American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA) is a survey instrument developed by the American College Health Association (ACHA) in 1998 to assist institutions of higher…

Journal of American College Health, 2005

2005-01-01

2

ACHA Campus Violence White Paper  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1999, the American College Health Association (ACHA) adopted a position statement for the Association that addresses acts of violence, bias, and other violations of human rights that have been occurring all too often within or adjacent to college communities. The purpose of this ACHA White Paper is to confront this serious college health issue…

Carr, Joetta L.; Ward, Robert L.

2006-01-01

3

Copyright 2011 All Rights Reserved. The ACHA-NCHA II supports the health of the campus  

E-print Network

profile of health trends within the campus community. American College Health Association National College of Contents I. Introduction 2 II. Findings A. General Health of College Students 3 B. Disease and Injury, Tobacco, and Other Drug Use 6 F. Sexual Behavior 10 G. Nutrition and Exercise 12 H. Mental Health 13 I

Ullrich, Paul

4

Copyright 2008 All Rights Reserved. The ACHA-NCHA supports the health of the campus community  

E-print Network

Students 4 B. Preventive Health 5 C. Academic Impacts 6 D. Violence 6 E. Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Use 7 F. Sexual Behavior 10 G. Nutrition and Exercise 12 H. Depression 13 IV. Demographics and Student included, including "don't know" or "0" unless otherwise noted. Measure progress and effectiveness

Gleeson, Joseph G.

5

A National Survey of College Health Education\\/Health Promotion Evaluation Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A national survey of college and university health education\\/health promotion evaluation activities was sent to American College Health Association (ACHA) member institutions and members of the ACHA Health Education Section. One hundred and fifty-eight (158) colleges and universities responded to the survey, indicating the kind of evaluation (e.g., program monitoring, outcome studies) conducted within specific content areas (e.g., nutrition, stress).

Doryn Davis Chervin; Beverlie Conant Sloane

1985-01-01

6

Community College Student Mental Health: A Comparative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores community college student mental health by comparing the responses of California community college and traditional university students on the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II (ACHA-NCHA II). Using MANOVA, we compared community college and traditional university students, examining…

Katz, Daniel Seth; Davison, Karen

2014-01-01

7

Sexual and Reproductive Health Behaviors of California Community College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To explore the sexual and reproductive health behaviors of students from 13 community college campuses in California. Participants: Heterosexual college students, ages 18 to 24, who have had sexual intercourse (N = 4,487). Methods: The American College Health Association's National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA) survey was…

Trieu, Sang Leng; Bratton, Sally; Marshak, Helen Hopp

2011-01-01

8

Rural Health Association  

E-print Network

Montana Rural Health Association Phone: 406-994-6004 Fax: 406-994-5653 E-mail: MRHA 170520 Bozeman, Montana 59717-0520 Montana Rural Health Association Membershipdesignation.Membershipisrenewedonan annualbasis.PleasemakecheckspayabletoMontanaRuralHealth

Maxwell, Bruce D.

9

Nutritive value of baobab milk (gubdi) and mixtures of baobab ( Adansonia digitata L.) and hungry rice, acha ( Digitaria exilis ) flours  

Microsoft Academic Search

The baobab milk and fermented baobab\\/acha flour mixtures were analyzed chemically for their proximate, ascorbate, mineral and antinutrient composition. The dry pulp scraped from baobab fruits was kneaded, made into solution, extracted through cheese-cloth and stored frozen until analyzed. The acha and baobab grains were cleaned, fermented for 24 to 120 hours, dried and hammermilled into fine flours. The unfermented

I. C. Obizoba; J. U. Anyika

1994-01-01

10

Appl. Comput. Harmon. Anal. 15 (2003) 1832 www.elsevier.com/locate/acha  

E-print Network

Appl. Comput. Harmon. Anal. 15 (2003) 18­32 www.elsevier.com/locate/acha Analysis of quasi-uniform subdivision Adi Levin a and David Levin b, a Cadent Ltd., 17 HaTa'assiya st., Or Yehuda 60408, Israel b School February 2003; accepted 7 May 2003 Communicated by Charles K. Chui Abstract We study the smoothness

Levin, David

11

National Rural Health Association  

MedlinePLUS

... and Multicultural Health Conference Philadelphia, PA April 14-17 38th Annual Rural Health Conference Philadelphia, PA July ... 15 SRHA Leadership Conference Minneapolis, MN July 15-17 11th Rural Quality and Clinical Conference Minneapolis, MN ...

12

The Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care, Inc.  

E-print Network

Stress Management Workshop Cancer Awareness (Breast, Testicular, Skin) Sleep Management (ACHA data Consultation Group Counseling Adult Children of Alcoholics Rape Survivor Group Early Recovery Group Mindfulness

13

American College Health Association  

MedlinePLUS

... on: Accreditation and Standards Administration Affordable Care Act Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs/ Substance Use Assessments/Evaluations ... Health Professionals For Affiliate and Institutional Program Planners Peer Review Assistance Program About the Service Process and Fees ...

14

Dental Health Associates P.A. Patient care remains the priority of Dental Health Associates after  

E-print Network

#12;Dental Health Associates P.A. Patient care remains the priority of Dental Health Associates founded the practice now known as Dental Health Associates in the 1940s. Tech- nology and the ins changed from a blue-collar demo- graphic to a more diverse family-oriented clientele. Dental Health

Lin, Xiaodong

15

Health Conditions Associated with Psoriasis  

MedlinePLUS

... Info For Media NPF Staff Board of Directors Corporate Partners Volunteers Health Care Providers Researchers Our Sites ... Psoriasis Foundation does not endorse or accept any responsibility for the content of external websites. The National ...

16

Prevention of health care-associated infections.  

PubMed

Health care-associated infections cause approximately 75,000 deaths annually, in addition to increasing morbidity and costs. Over the past decade, a downward trend in health care-associated infections has occurred nationwide. Basic prevention measures include administrative support, educating health care personnel, and hand hygiene and isolation precautions. Prevention of central line- or catheter-associated infections begins with avoidance of unnecessary insertion, adherence to aseptic technique when inserting, and device removal when no longer necessary. Specific recommendations for preventing central line-associated bloodstream infections include use of chlorhexidine for skin preparation, as a component of dressings, and for daily bathing of patients in intensive care units. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections are the most common device-related health care-associated infection. Maintaining a closed drainage system below the patient reduces the risk of infection. To prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia, which is associated with high mortality, mechanically ventilated patients should be placed in the semirecumbent position and receive antiseptic oral care. Prevention of surgical site infections includes hair removal using clippers, glucose control, and preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis. Reducing transmission of Clostridium difficile and multidrug-resistant organisms in the hospital setting begins with hand hygiene and contact precautions. Institutional efforts to reduce unnecessary antibiotic prescribing are also strongly recommended. Reducing rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection can be achieved through active surveillance cultures and decolonization therapy with mupirocin. PMID:25251230

Hsu, Vincent

2014-09-15

17

Advocacy: The role of health professional associations.  

PubMed

The FIGO Leadership in Obstetrics and Gynecology for Impact and Change (LOGIC) Initiative in Maternal and Newborn Health was developed on the premise that organizational capacity strengthening in eight low- and middle-income countries would result in improved ability of member associations to take a leadership role in engaging a range of stakeholders in the health sector to discuss evidence and facilitate policy change and clinical practice in maternal and newborn health. Definitions of relevant terms, principles, and a framework for an advocacy plan are presented. The term advocacy is typically not well understood by health professionals, nor generally thought to be part of their role as a clinician, researcher, or educator. "Influence" based on expertise is often more consonant with a clinician's reality, especially where advocacy is perceived as a more political process that may present a barrier in some countries. The organizational capacity development of the FIGO member associations was integral to their ability to exert influence based on evidence, both internally in their associations and with other stakeholders, including the Ministry of Health. Examples of advocacy from each of the eight LOGIC countries are provided, noting that evaluation of impact can be challenging. PMID:25174787

Shaw, Dorothy

2014-10-01

18

78 FR 56711 - Health Insurance Exchanges; Application by the Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care To Be a Recognized Accrediting...Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care (AAAHC) to be a recognized accrediting...Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care's (AAAHC) request for...

2013-09-13

19

Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care  

MedlinePLUS

... HIPAA compliance Federal and State Regulations/Legislative Resources Health Care Resources Press Releases Contact Us Find a Health Care Organization Accreditation Programs General information Application for survey ...

20

Copyright 2014, National Environmental Health Association (www.neha.org). Environmental Health  

E-print Network

: An Environmental Justice PerspectiveCopyright 2014, National Environmental Health Association (www.neha.org). JOURNAL OF Environmental Health Dedicated to the advancement of the environmental health professional Volume 77, No. 1 July

21

Copyright 2012, National Environmental Health Association (www.neha.org) Environmental Health  

E-print Network

........................................................................................................14 Evaluating the Communication of Environmental Permitting Decisions in Diverse CommunitiesCopyright 2012, National Environmental Health Association (www.neha.org) JOURNAL OF Environmental Health Dedicated to the advancement of the environmental health professional Volume 75, No. 1 July

22

Directions to: University Health Associates Physician Office Center  

E-print Network

Directions to: · University Health Associates Physician Office Center · West Virginia University Patteson Drive (WV 705). At the third light, turn right into the WVU Health Sciences Center. Overhead signs

Mohaghegh, Shahab

23

Emergency Planning Guidelines for Campus Health Services: An All-Hazards Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, written collaboratively by members of ACHA's Emerging Public Health Threats and Emergency Response Coalition and Campus Safety and Violence Coalition, is designed to assist members of the college health community in planning for emergencies using an all-hazards approach. Its perspective is both macro and micro, beginning with a…

Journal of American College Health, 2011

2011-01-01

24

Associations between Indigenous Australian oral health literacy and self-reported oral health outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To determine oral health literacy (REALD-30) and oral health literacy-related outcome associations, and to calculate if oral health literacy-related outcomes are risk indicators for poor self-reported oral health among rural-dwelling Indigenous Australians. METHODS: 468 participants (aged 17-72 years, 63% female) completed a self-report questionnaire. REALD-30 and oral health literacy-related outcome associations were determined through bivariate analysis. Multivariate modelling was

Eleanor J Parker; Lisa M Jamieson

2010-01-01

25

SEPTEMBER 2009 ACHA Guidelines  

E-print Network

or have not used in the last 30 days); and 97% described themselves as non-users of smokeless tobacco to reduce cigarette smoking by college students to below 10.5% and smokeless tobacco use to below 1 tobacco (spit and spitless, smokeless, chew, snuff). b. Tobacco use is prohibited on all college

Russell, Lynn

26

Functions of Loneliness, Social Support, Health Behaviors, and Stress in Association With Poor Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior research has established clear links between social support, loneliness, and various health outcomes. This study was designed to test several theoretically derived explanations for such associations. A survey of 265 adults ages 19–85 years was conducted with measures of social support, loneliness, stress, health behaviors, and general health. Results showed that loneliness was more strongly associated with number of

Chris Segrin; Stacey A. Passalacqua

2010-01-01

27

Low health literacy is associated with HIV test acceptance  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has proposed increasing the proportion of people who learn their HIV serostatus.\\u000a The health care setting represents a logical site to accomplish this goal. However, little is known about factors that determine\\u000a acceptability of HIV testing in health care settings, particularly patients’ health literacy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between patients’ health

Maribel Barragán; Giselle Hicks; Mark V. Williams; Carlos Franco-Paredes; Wayne Duffus; Carlos del Rio

2005-01-01

28

Association between political ideology and health in Europe  

PubMed Central

Studies have largely examined the association between political ideology and health at the aggregate/ecological level. Using individual-level data from 29 European countries, we investigated whether self-reports of political ideology and health are associated. In adjusted models, we found an inverse association between political ideology and self-rated poor health; for a unit increase in the political ideology scale (towards right) the odds ratio (OR) for reporting poor health decreased (OR 0.95, 95% confidence interval 0.94–0.96). Although political ideology per se is unlikely to have a causal link to health, it could be a marker for health-promoting latent attitudes, values and beliefs. PMID:19535606

Huijts, Tim; Perkins, Jessica M.

2009-01-01

29

Health Effects Associated with Water Fluoridation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion is presented concerning fluoridation of water supplies. Correlation between fluoride in drinking water and improved dental health is reviewed. Relationship is expressed between fluoridation and reduced tooth decay. Use of fluoride in treating skeletal disorders is discussed. Author advocates fluoridating water supplies. (SA)

Richmond, Virginia L.

1979-01-01

30

Job Title Therapist Employer/ Agency Raney, Raney & Associates Behavioral Health  

E-print Network

Job Title Therapist Employer/ Agency Raney, Raney & Associates Behavioral Health Job Description Program Services: Community Mental Health Summary of Duties: Therapist to provide cognitive Behavioral are to provide therapy in individual, family and/or group setting. The ideal candidate will have experience

Azevedo, Ricardo

31

Crop Health Improvement with Groundnut Associated Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Groundnut-associated bacterial strains have been studied for their ability to improve growth and yield. Different parts of\\u000a plants such as rhizosphere, phyllosphere, and spermosphere are rich in beneficial microbes. The beneficial bacteria range\\u000a from nodule-forming Bradyrhizobium and Rhizobium to free-living plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) such as Pseudomonas, Bacillus, and Serratia. This chapter focuses on the different PGPR strains isolated from

Swarnalee Dutta; Manjeet Kaur; Appa Rao Podile

32

Grape phytochemicals and associated health benefits.  

PubMed

The phytochemicals present in fruits and vegetables may play an important role in deceasing chronic disease risk. Grapes, one of the most popular and widely cultivated and consumed fruits in the world, are rich in phytochemicals. Epidemiological evidence has linked the consumption of grapes with reduced risk of chronic diseases, including certain types of cancer and cardiovascular disease. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that grapes have strong antioxidant activity, inhibiting cancer cell proliferation and suppressing platelet aggregation, while also lowering cholesterol. Grapes contain a variety of phytochemicals, like phenolic acids, stilbenes, anthocyanins, and proanthocyanidins, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of grapes, however, varies greatly among different varieties. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of grapes and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The aim of this paper is to critically review the most recent literature regarding the concentrations, biological activities, and mechanisms of grape phytochemicals. PMID:24007424

Yang, Jun; Xiao, Yang-Yu

2013-01-01

33

Skill Set or Mind Set? Associations between Health Literacy, Patient Activation and Health  

PubMed Central

Objective There is ongoing debate on whether health literacy represents a skill-based construct for health self-management, or if it also more broadly captures personal ‘activation’ or motivation to manage health. This research examines 1) the association between patient activation and health literacy as they are most commonly measured and 2) the independent and combined associations of patient activation and health literacy skills with physical and mental health. Methods A secondary analysis of baseline cross-sectional data from the LitCog cohort of older adults was used. Participants (n?=?697) were recruited from multiple US-based health centers. During structured face-to-face interviews, participants completed the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA), the Patient Activation Measure (PAM), the SF-36 physical health summary subscale, and Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information Service (PROMIS) short form subscales for depression and anxiety. Results The relationship between health literacy and patient activation was weak, but significant (r?=?0.11, p<0.01). In models adjusted for participant characteristics, lower health literacy was associated with worse physical health (??=?0.13, p<0.001) and depression (??=??0.16, p<0.001). Lower patient activation was associated with worse physical health (??=?0.19, p<0.001), depression (??=??0.27, p<0.001) and anxiety (?-0.24, p<0.001). Conclusions The most common measures of health literacy and patient activation are weakly correlated with each other, but also independently correlated with health outcomes. This suggests health literacy represents a distinct skill-based construct, supporting the Institute of Medicine’s definition. Deficits in either construct could be useful targets for behavioral intervention. PMID:24023942

Smith, Samuel G.; Curtis, Laura M.; Wardle, Jane; von Wagner, Christian; Wolf, Michael S.

2013-01-01

34

Sociodemographic and Health Related Factors Associated with Poor Mental Health in Midlife Australian Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine associations between poor mental health and sociodemographic, psychosocial and health related variables in midlife Australian women.Method: The random population-based sample comprised 13,961 Australian women aged 45–50 years who participated in the baseline postal survey for the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, conducted in 1996. The outcome measure, poor mental health status, was measured by the Mental

Sue Outram; Gita D. Mishra; Margot J. Schofield

2004-01-01

35

Associations Between Older Adults' Spoken Interactive Health Literacy and Selected Health Care and Health Communication Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent trends in the conceptualization of health literacy lead toward expansive notions of health literacy as social practice, rather than as a narrower cognitive capacity to understand health-related texts and materials. These expansive and complex constructions of health literacy demand tools for assessing individuals’ propensities to actively seek information in their interactions with health care professionals and other health information

Donald L. Rubin; John Parmer; Vicki Freimuth; Terry Kaley; Mumbi Okundaye

2011-01-01

36

Consumer Health Information: the Role of Breast Cancer Associations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Providing information for patients is currently a growth need for health professionals, medical journals, and consumer associations. Despite several patients or consumers associations being active in Italy, scarce evidence is available on the volume and type of activities carried out. A national survey was carried out to investigate the volume and the nature of phone requests for information addressed

Paola Mosconi

2002-01-01

37

Is Personality Associated with Health Care Use by Older Adults?  

PubMed Central

Context The patterns of health care utilization in the United States pose well-established challenges for public policy. Although economic and sociological research has resulted in considerable knowledge about what influences the use of health services, the psychological literature in this area is underdeveloped. Importantly, it is not known whether personality traits are associated with older adults’ use of acute and long-term care services. Methods Data were collected from 1,074 community-dwelling seniors participating in a Medicare demonstration. First they completed a self-report questionnaire measuring the “Big Five” personality traits: Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. During the next two years, the participants maintained daily journals of their use of health care services. We used regression models based on the Andersen behavioral model of health care utilization to test for associations. Findings Our hypothesis that higher Neuroticism would be associated with greater health care use was confirmed for three services—probability of any emergency department (ED) use, likelihood of any custodial nursing home use, and more skilled nursing facility (SNF) days for SNF users—but was disconfirmed for hospital days for those hospitalized. Higher Openness to Experience was associated with a greater likelihood of custodial home care use, and higher Agreeableness and lower Conscientiousness with a higher probability of custodial nursing home use. For users, lower Openness was associated with more ED visits and SNF days, and lower Conscientiousness with more ED visits. For many traits with significant associations, the predicted use was 16 to 30 percent greater for people high (low) versus low (high) in specific traits. Conclusions Personality traits are associated with Medicare beneficiaries’ use of many expensive health care services, findings that have implications for health services research and policy. Accordingly, person-centered interventions, population-based translational effectiveness programs, and other personalized approaches that leverage the profound advances in personality psychology in recent decades should be considered. PMID:24028697

Friedman, Bruce; Veazie, Peter J; Chapman, Benjamin P; Manning, Willard G; Duberstein, Paul R

2013-01-01

38

Social control of health behavior: associations with conscientiousness and neuroticism.  

PubMed

Despite considerable research demonstrating associations of conscientiousness and neuroticism with health-related behavior, our understanding of how and why these traits are related to lifestyle is limited. This study examined the social regulation of health behavior in a probability sample of 509 household residents who completed a Random Digit Dial (RDD) telephone survey. Results suggest that the social regulation of health behavior experienced by highly conscientious individuals has more to do with their own internalized notions of responsibility and obligation to others than to specific actions by others aimed at influencing their health habits. In contrast, individuals with higher neuroticism experience more overt attempts by others to influence their health habits but have more negative affective and behavioral responses to these social influence attempts. Findings suggest that elucidating the distinct social influence processes that operate for conscientiousness and neuroticism may further understanding of how these traits are related to health behaviors and status. PMID:16902235

Tucker, Joan S; Elliott, Marc N; Klein, David J

2006-09-01

39

78 FR 77470 - Health Insurance Exchanges; Approval of an Application by the Accreditation Association for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care (AAAHC) To Be a Recognized Accrediting...Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care (AAAHC) for recognition as an...Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care (AAAHC) to be a recognized...

2013-12-23

40

Adult Congenital Heart Association  

MedlinePLUS

... we've shared from Chicago! Click For More Heart to Heart Ambassadors ACHA connects patient and family members with ... your own personal ACHA fundraiser. Learn More Congenital Heart Walks We walk to honor and remember the ...

41

Chaos as a Social Determinant of Child Health: Reciprocal Associations?  

PubMed Central

This study informs the social determinants of child health by exploring an understudied aspect of children’s social contexts: chaos. Chaos has been conceptualized as crowded, noisy, disorganized, unpredictable settings for child development (Evans et al., 2010). We measure chaos at two levels of children’s ecological environment - the microsystem (household) and the mesosystem (work-family-child care nexus) – and at two points in early childhood (ages 3 and 5). Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N=3288), a study of predominantly low-income women and their partners in large US cities, we develop structural equation models that assess how maternal-rated child health (also assessed at ages 3 and 5) is associated with latent constructs of chaos, and whether there are important reciprocal effects. Autoregressive crosslagged path analysis suggest that increasing chaos (at both the household and maternal work levels) is associated with worse child health, controlling for key confounders like household economic status, family structure, and maternal health status. Child health has little effect on chaos, providing further support for the hypothesis that chaos is an important social determinant of child health in this sample of relatively disadvantaged children. This suggests child health may be improved by supporting families in ways that reduce chaos in their home and work/family environments, and that as researchers move beyond SES, race, and family structure to explore other sources of health inequalities, chaos and its proximate determinants may be a promising avenue for future research. PMID:23541250

Schmeer, Kammi K.; Taylor, Miles

2013-01-01

42

Altruistic social interest behaviors are associated with better mental health  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated whether altruistic social interest behaviors such as engaging in helping others were associated with better physical and mental health in a stratified random sample of 2016 members of the Presbyterian Church throughout the United States.\\u000aMETHODS: Mailed questionnaires evaluated giving and receiving help, prayer activities, positive and negative religious coping, and self-reported physical and mental health.

Carolyn E. Schwartz; Janice Bell Meisenhelder; Yunsheng Ma; George W. Reed

2003-01-01

43

The association between mental health, physical function, and hemodialysis mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between mental health, physical function, and hemodialysis mortality.BackgroundMortality rates for individuals on chronic hemodialysis remain very high; therefore, strategies are needed to identify individuals at greatest risk for mortality so preventive strategies can be implemented. One such approach is to stratify individuals by self-reported mental health and physical function. Examining these parameters at baseline, and over time, may

Eric L Knight; Norma Ofsthun; Ming Teng; J Michael Lazarus; Gary C Curhan

2003-01-01

44

Health Care Utilization and Costs Associated with Childhood Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Physical and sexual childhood abuse is associated with poor health across the lifespan. However, the association between these\\u000a types of abuse and actual health care use and costs over the long run has not been documented.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  To examine long-term health care utilization and costs associated with physical, sexual, or both physical and sexual childhood\\u000a abuse.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design  Retrospective cohort.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Participants  Three thousand three

Amy E. Bonomi; Melissa L. Anderson; Frederick P. Rivara; Elizabeth A. Cannon; Paul A. Fishman; David Carrell; Robert J. Reid; Robert S. Thompson

2008-01-01

45

SUMMARY REVIEW OF HEALTH EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH NAPHTHALENE: HEALTH ISSUE ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Naphthalene is released into ambient air via industrial gaseous and particulate emissions, tobacco use, and through consumer use. The data base concerning exposure of humans via inhalation and associated health effects is virtually nonexistent. Overexposure often results in acute...

46

Endovascular Embolization of Distal Anterior Choroidal Artery Aneurysms Associated with Moyamoya Disease  

PubMed Central

Summary We evaluated the feasibility of endovascular embolization for the management of distal anterior choroidal artery (AChA) aneurysms associated with moyamoya disease and performed a literature review to summarize their clinical features and treatment. We describe two cases of moyamoya disease-associated distal AChA aneurysms treated by endovascular embolization. In both cases, a good outcome was observed. We performed a MEDLINE (1980-2010) search which identified 13 similar cases. Our analysis of the clinical data from these 15 cases led us to conclude that (i) endovascular embolization is an effective and feasible treatment for distal AChA aneurysms associated with moyamoya disease; (ii) aneurysm location and the preservation of the parent artery are two major prognostic factors for moyamoya disease-associated distal AChA aneurysms subjected to craniotomy or endovascular therapy; (iii) the parent artery should be preserved when the aneurysm is located in the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle, but sacrificed when it is located in the trigone of the lateral ventricle. PMID:21162774

Yang, S.; Yu, J.-L.; Wang, H.-L.; Wang, B.; Luo, Q.

2010-01-01

47

Roadmap: Environmental Health and Safety Occupational Health and Industrial Hygiene Associate of Applied Science  

E-print Network

Roadmap: Environmental Health and Safety ­ Occupational Health and Industrial Hygiene ­ Associate-Apr-13/LNHD This roadmap is a recommended semester-by-semester plan of study for this major. However, courses and milestones designated as critical (in boldface and shaded areas) must be completed

Khan, Javed I.

48

Methylobacterium and Its Role in Health Care-Associated Infection  

PubMed Central

Methylobacterium species are a cause of health care-associated infection, including infections in immunocompromised hosts. The ability of Methylobacterium species to form biofilms and to develop resistance to high temperatures, drying, and disinfecting agents may explain the colonization of Methylobacterium in the hospital environment in, e.g., endoscopes. Due to its slow growth, it can be easily missed during microbiological surveillance of endoscope reprocessing. The purpose of this minireview is to present an overview of documented infections and cross-contaminations with Methylobacterium related to endoscopic procedures and to illustrate the health care-associated relevance of this slow-growing bacterium. PMID:24430456

Degener, John E.; van der Mei, Henny C.

2014-01-01

49

Factors associated with parent capability on child's oral health care.  

PubMed

We investigated parental attitudes and behavior affecting their ability to care for their children's oral health among Thais who reside in or near Bangkok and to develop a Thai version of a factor analysis questionnaire in order to assess the risk of developing early childhood caries. There were 241 participants, 48.1% were aged 20-to-30 years, 86.3% were married and 48% had two children. Thirty-seven percent of subjects had a monthly income between 10,001 and 30,000 Baht. There were significant associations (p < 0.05) between parental education levels, monthly incomes and attitudes and behaviors. There were significant associations (p < 0.05) between parental education levels, careers and causes of stress that affected care of their child's oral health. Factors that affected their ability to care for their child's oral health were from most to least was lack of time, lack of knowledge about brushing, stress from work, not raising their child by themselves, economics problems and being a single parent. Parental attitudes and behavior in regard to their child's oral health were associated with their education levels and monthly income. Factors that affected their ability to care for their child's oral health were their education levels and their careers. These factors should be considered when giving oral hygiene education to improve their parenting capabilities. PMID:23082577

Mitrakul, Kemthong; Laovoravit, Vorawee; Vanichanuwat, Vittawat; Charatchaiwanna, Attakorn; Charatchaiwanna, Attakrit; Bunpradit, Weerapol; Arunakul, Malee

2012-01-01

50

Health promotion behaviors in adolescents: prevalence and association with mental health status in a statewide sample.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to estimate the proportion of adolescents meeting Healthy People 2020 health behavior recommendations for the prevention of chronic disease and to determine the association between mental health status (depression and/or conduct problems) and the likelihood of meeting these recommendations. The data used for this study are from the 2010 Washington State Healthy Youth Survey. Descriptive statistics and linear regression were utilized to estimate the proportion of adolescents meeting recommendations and associations between youth mental health status indicators and health-promoting behaviors. A small minority (5.8 %) of youth met all six recommendations in domains of tobacco abstinence, substance use abstinence, daily physical activity, breakfast consumption, weight below obese levels, and adequate sleep, though most (84.3 %) met at least three. At the aggregate level, the proportion of Washington State youth who met Healthy People 2020 guidelines exceeded targets, with the exception of substance use abstinence. A minority of youth reported guideline levels of daily physical activity (23.3 %) and sleep (39.8 %). Mental health status was strongly associated with the number of health-promoting behaviors adolescents endorsed. Interventions to increase the adoption of sleep hygiene and exercise habits should be added to an integrative positive youth development framework within school-, community-, and primary care-based adolescent health initiatives. Attention to adolescent mental health and shared risk factors may be critical for reducing barriers to healthy behavior. PMID:24114409

Adrian, Molly; Charlesworth-Attie, Sarah; Vander Stoep, Ann; McCauley, Elizabeth; Becker, Linda

2014-04-01

51

Health effects associated with energy conservation measures in commercial buildings  

SciTech Connect

Indoor air quality can be impacted by hundreds of different chemicals. More than 900 different organic compounds alone have been identified in indoor air. Health effects that could arise from exposure to individual pollutants or mixtures of pollutants cover the full range of acute and chronic effects, including largely reversible responses, such as rashes and irritations, to the irreversible toxic and carcinogenic effects. These indoor contaminants are emitted from a large variety of materials and substances that are widespread components of everyday life. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with indoor air contaminants for the Bonneville Power Administration to aid the agency in the preparation of environmental documents. Results are reported in two volumes. Volume 1 summarizes the results of the search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with a selected list of indoor air contaminants. In addition, the report discusses potential health effects of polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorofluorocarbons. All references to the literature reviewed are found in this document Volume 2. Volume 2 provides detailed information from the literature reviewed, summarizes potential health effects, reports health hazard ratings, and discusses quantitative estimates of carcinogenic risk in humans and animals. Contaminants discussed in this report are those that; have been measured in the indoor air of a public building; have been measured (significant concentrations) in test situations simulating indoor air quality (as presented in the referenced literature); and have a significant hazard rating. 38 refs., 7 figs., 23 tabs.

Stenner, R.D.; Baechler, M.C.

1990-09-01

52

Tracing technology in the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries  

PubMed Central

From the beginning of the association, technology and the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries (AAHSL) have been intertwined. Technology was the focus of one of the first committees. Innovative applications of technology have been employed in the operations of the association. Early applications of mini-computers were used in preparing the Annual Statistics. The association's use of network communications was among the first in the country and later applications of the Web have enhanced association services. For its members, technology has transformed libraries. The association's support of the early development of Integrated Advanced Information Management Systems (IAIMS) and of its recent reconceptualization has contributed to the intellectual foundation for this revolution. PMID:12883580

Guard, J. Roger; Peay, Wayne J.

2003-01-01

53

Health Effects Associated with Wastewater Treatment and Disposal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of the potential health effects associated with: (1) wastewater treatment plants; (2) land application of municipal wastewater; and (3) use of renovated water. This review covers the publications of 1976-77. A list of 96 references is also presented. (HM)

Kowal, N. E.; Pahren, H. R.

1978-01-01

54

Health effects associated with exposure to radioactively contaminated gold rings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to assess the health risks associated with exposure to radioactively contaminated gold rings. A group of 135 exposed individuals, who were identified through a statewide jewelry screening program, were studied to determine the frequency of carcinoma and other skin problems on the ring finger. Severity of skin problems increased with increasing length of wear. Forty-one of

M. S. Baptiste; R. Rothenberg; P. C. Nasca; D. T. Janerich; C. D. Stutzman; K. Rimawi; W. OBrien; J. Matuszek

1984-01-01

55

Is Food Insufficiency Associated with Health Status and Health Care Utilization Among Adults with Diabetes?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES Preliminary studies have shown that among adults with diabetes, food insufficiency has adverse health consequences, including hypoglycemic episodes and increased need for health care services. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of food insufficiency and to describe the association of food insufficiency with health status and health care utilization in a national sample of adults with diabetes. METHODS We analyzed data from adults with diabetes (n = 1,503) interviewed in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to examine the relationship of food insufficiency to self-reported health status and health care utilization. RESULTS Six percent of adults with diabetes reported food insufficiency, representing more than 568,600 persons nationally (95% confidence interval, 368,400 to 768,800). Food insufficiency was more common among those with incomes below the federal poverty level (17% vs 4%, P?.001). Adults with diabetes who were food insufficient were more likely to report fair or poor health status than those who were not (63% vs 43%; odds ratio, 2.2; P =.05). In a multivariate analysis, fair or poor health status was independently associated with poverty, nonwhite race, low educational achievement, and number of chronic diseases, but not with food insufficiency. Diabetic adults who were food insufficient reported more physician encounters, either in clinic or by phone, than those who were food secure (12 vs 7, P <.05). In a multivariate linear regression, food insufficiency remained independently associated with increased physician utilization among adults with diabetes. There was no association between food insufficiency and hospitalization in bivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS Food insufficiency is relatively common among low-income adults with diabetes and was associated with higher physician utilization. PMID:11422638

Nelson, Karin; Cunningham, William; Andersen, Ron; Harrison, Gail; Gelberg, Lillian

2001-01-01

56

Jessica Muilenburg wins American Public Health Association's 2012 Early Career Award  

E-print Network

Jessica Muilenburg wins American Public Health Association's 2012 Early Career Award Jessica Early Career Award by the American Public Health Association's Public Health Education and Health an associate professor in UGA's College of Public Health. By examining the intersection of an important public

Arnold, Jonathan

57

EPA/OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT'S NATIONAL HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS LABORATORY'S ASSOCIATE DIRECTOR FOR HEALTH INTERNET SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

This Internet site provides information about the Office of Research and Development's National Health and Environmental Effects Laboratory's Associate Director for Health (ADH) Internet site. The ADH is responsible for providing leadership for the health effects research program...

58

77 FR 70783 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Approval of the Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care (AAAHC) Application for Continuing...Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care (AAAHC) for continued recognition...determined by CMS. The Ambulatory Health Care's (AAAHC) current term of...

2012-11-27

59

Ideal weight and weight satisfaction: association with health practices.  

PubMed

Evidence suggests that individuals have become more tolerant of higher body weights over time. To investigate this issue further, the authors examined cross-sectional associations among ideal weight, examination year, and obesity as well as the association of ideal weight and body weight satisfaction with health practices among 15,221 men and 4,126 women in the United States. Participants in 1987 reported higher ideal weights than participants in 2001, an effect particularly pronounced from 1987 to 2001 for younger and obese men (85.5 kg to 94.9 kg) and women (62.2 kg to 70.5 kg). For a given body mass index, higher ideal body weights were associated with greater weight satisfaction but lower intentions to lose weight. Body weight satisfaction was subsequently associated with greater walking/jogging, better diet, and lower lifetime weight loss but with less intention to change physical activity and diet or lose weight (P < 0.01). Conversely, body mass index was negatively associated with weight satisfaction (P < 0.01) and was associated with less walking/jogging, poorer diet, and greater lifetime weight loss but with greater intention to change physical activity and diet or lose weight. Although the health implications of these findings are somewhat unclear, increased weight satisfaction, in conjunction with increases in societal overweight/obesity, may result in decreased motivation to lose weight and/or adopt healthier lifestyle behaviors. PMID:19546153

Kuk, Jennifer L; Ardern, Chris I; Church, Timothy S; Hebert, James R; Sui, Xuemei; Blair, Steven N

2009-08-15

60

Health issues associated with the smuggling and trafficking of migrants.  

PubMed

Approximately 4 million persons annually may be smuggled illegally across international borders. In 1997 it was estimated that 700,000 women or children were smuggled across international borders, of whom 175,000 were estimated to come from the former Soviet bloc; approximately 45,000-50,000 smuggled women and children arrived in the United States in that year. This article develops a framework to consider the impact of human trafficking on health within the context of migrant health and the destination population's health. Health risks are assumed by the individual being smuggled during the pre-journey, migratory, and arrival phases. In addition, the recipient country's population may also incur additional health burdens related to illegal arrivals from higher disease prevalence areas of the world. Some of this disease risk potential may be from transmissible agents, but there is increasing concern, and some evidence, that noncontagious diseases may be a significant problem associated with human trafficking. The global consideration of human smuggling and the individual and social impact on health are the focus of this paper. PMID:16228734

Gushulak, B D; MacPherson, D W

2000-04-01

61

An examination of sociocultural factors associated with health and health care seeking among latina immigrants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the sociocultural factors associated with health maintenance and health care seeking among Latina immigrants. Data were collected from eight focus groups with 54 Latina immigrants between the ages of 19 and 62 (M=29.39.34). The PEN-3 model provided the framework for the study. Most of the participants came from Mexico; 46% had not

Isabel C. Garcés; Isabel C. Scarinci; Lynda Harrison

2006-01-01

62

Bodyweight Changes Are Associated with Reduced Health Related Quality of Life: The Hordaland Health Study  

PubMed Central

There is lack of studies investigating the association between bodyweight changes and health related quality of life (HRQL). The aim was to study the effect of relative changes in bodyweight over time on HRQL. In the Hordaland Health Study, 9276 men and 10433 women aged 40–47 years were included. Weight and height were measured and information on bodyweight changes during the last 5 years, physical activity and smoking was obtained from self–administered questionnaires including the Medical Outcomes Study MOS short form-12 including a Physical health Composite Score (PCS) and a Mental health Composite Score (MCS). Increasing bodyweight changes were associated with marked reduced scores in PCS and MCS also after adjustment for body mass index (BMI), physical activity and smoking. Men and women with a variation in weight with more than 15% during the last 5 years reported a mean score of MCS that was 0.48 standard deviation (SD) (3.9/8.1) and 0.35 SD (3.1/8.9) lower than those reporting a variation in weight less than 5%. No major differences were found between those who at date of examination were at the lower and higher end of the reported weight interval. There were no significant differences in the associations between men and women. Our findings confirm that increasing bodyweight changes are associated with reduced physical and mental health beyond what is related to BMI itself. PMID:25303082

Hervik Thorbj?rnsen, Gunhild; Riise, Trond; ?yen, Jannike

2014-01-01

63

Characteristics Associated with Hospital Health IT Vendor Switching and Dropping  

PubMed Central

While a growing body of research has investigated the diffusion of health IT among providers, no empirical research has yet focused on health IT vendor switching by hospitals. Vendor switching is one indicator of a competitive commercial vendor market, and competition among vendors can spur innovations which contribute to better products over time. This study examines the interaction of hospitals with commercial vendors in the recent past to serve as a baseline for future investigations into how the federal health IT incentive program influences changes in the vendor market and vendor-provider relationships. We find that there has been considerable switching between vendors by hospitals, including some hospitals switching away from automated systems all together. Furthermore, our descriptive cross-sectional analysis reveals various hospital characteristics which are associated with vendor switching and dropping, including lower constraints on hospitals’ financial resources, nonprofit ownership, and having some form of integrated arrangement with physicians. PMID:22195131

Lammers, Eric J.; Zheng, Kai

2011-01-01

64

Uncertainties associated with assessing the public health risk from Legionella.  

PubMed

Legionella is an opportunistic pathogen of public health concern. Current regulatory and management guidelines for the control of this organism are informed by risk assessments. However, there are many unanswered questions and uncertainties regarding Legionella epidemiology, strain infectivity, infectious dose, and detection methods. This review follows the EnHealth Risk Assessment Framework, to examine the current information available regarding Legionella risk and discuss the uncertainties and assumptions. This review can be used as a tool for understanding the uncertainties associated with Legionella risk assessment. It also serves to highlight the areas of Legionella research that require future focus. Improvement of these uncertainties will provide information to enhance risk management practices for Legionella, potentially improving public health protection and reducing the economic costs by streamlining current management practices. PMID:25309526

Whiley, Harriet; Keegan, Alexandra; Fallowfield, Howard; Ross, Kirstin

2014-01-01

65

Uncertainties associated with assessing the public health risk from Legionella  

PubMed Central

Legionella is an opportunistic pathogen of public health concern. Current regulatory and management guidelines for the control of this organism are informed by risk assessments. However, there are many unanswered questions and uncertainties regarding Legionella epidemiology, strain infectivity, infectious dose, and detection methods. This review follows the EnHealth Risk Assessment Framework, to examine the current information available regarding Legionella risk and discuss the uncertainties and assumptions. This review can be used as a tool for understanding the uncertainties associated with Legionella risk assessment. It also serves to highlight the areas of Legionella research that require future focus. Improvement of these uncertainties will provide information to enhance risk management practices for Legionella, potentially improving public health protection and reducing the economic costs by streamlining current management practices. PMID:25309526

Whiley, Harriet; Keegan, Alexandra; Fallowfield, Howard; Ross, Kirstin

2014-01-01

66

Health risks associated with animal waste from intensive livestock units.  

PubMed

Potential health risks associated with animal waste arise as a consequence of direct microbial problems particularly salmonellosis, indirect microbial problems arising from drug resistance etc., toxic residues from therapeutic or prophylactic agents, or from poisonous gases generated in liquid waste. The biggest of these hazards arises from direct microbial problems but fortunately experience in the UK suggests that these problems can be controlled reasonably well if sensible action is taken both at the planning and operative stages. PMID:386865

Stevens, A J

1978-01-01

67

UNDERSTANDING THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN MATERNAL EDUCATION AND USE OF HEALTH SERVICES IN GHANA: EXPLORING THE ROLE OF HEALTH KNOWLEDGE  

PubMed Central

Summary This paper examines the role of health knowledge in the association between mothers’ education and use of maternal and child health services in Ghana. The study uses data from a nationally representative sample of female respondents to the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. Ordered probit regression models evaluate whether women’s health knowledge helps to explain use of three specific maternal and child health services: antenatal care, giving birth with the supervision of a trained professional and complete child vaccination. The analyses reveal that mothers’ years of formal education are strongly associated with health knowledge; health knowledge helps explain the association between maternal education and use of health services; and, net of a set of stringent demographic and socioeconomic controls, mothers’ health knowledge is a key factor associated with use of health services. PMID:22377424

GREENAWAY, EMILY SMITH; LEON, JUAN; BAKER, DAVID P.

2013-01-01

68

Time to get healthy: Associations of time perspective with perceived health status and health behaviors.  

PubMed

The present study examined the associations of time perspective (TP) with health behaviors including smoking, exercise, and body mass index (BMI), and perceptions of health status after controlling for sociodemographic factors. Participants (N?=?413) completed a web-based questionnaire that included a short version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, and reported their weight, height, smoking, and exercise frequency. Future TP was associated with more physical exercise, whereas past-negative and present-fatalistic dimensions were associated with higher BMI. Smoking was not associated with any of the TP dimensions. Additionally, all of the dimensions of TP were found to be associated with conceptually relevant perceptions of health status. Research on TP predominantly focuses on the future and the present orientation, but the findings of the present study suggest that all dimensions of TP should be used in health-related research. Also, issues regarding the role of the present-hedonistic dimension are discussed and directions for future research are proposed. PMID:24784153

Griva, Fay; Tseferidi, Sofia-Ioanna; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios

2015-01-01

69

Position Statement on Tobacco on College and University Campuses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American College Health Association (ACHA) acknowledges and supports the findings of the Surgeon General that tobacco use in any form, active and/or passive, is a significant health hazard. ACHA further recognizes that environmental tobacco smoke has been classified as a Class-A carcinogen and that there is no safe level of exposure to…

Journal of American College Health, 2012

2012-01-01

70

Copyright 2012, National Environmental Health Association (www.neha.org) Environmental Health  

E-print Network

Copyright 2012, National Environmental Health Association (www.neha.org) JOURNAL OF Environmental..........................5 ADVANCEMENT OF THE SCIENCE Altitude and Environmental Climate Effects on Bronchiolitis Severity OF THE PRACTITIONER Demystifying the Future: Workerless Businesses--an Explosive New Trend Dancing With the Inner

71

78 FR 54652 - Sole Source Cooperative Agreement Award to the Association for State and Territorial Health...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Sole Source Cooperative...Association for State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO) AGENCY: Office of...and Response (ASPR), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)....

2013-09-05

72

The Association for Environmental Health and Sciences (AEHS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"The Association for Environmental Health and Sciences (AEHS) was created to facilitate communication and foster cooperation among professionals concerned with the challenge of soil protection and cleanup." The website features past and present surveys of States' Soil and Groundwater Cleanup Standards. Researchers can find out about upcoming conferences including the Annual West Coast Conference on Soil, Sediment, and Water. The site offers downloads of archived publications as well as links to relevant prominent journals. Interested visitors can locate membership materials at the web site as well.

73

Reducing Cancer Health Disparities in the US-associated Pacific  

PubMed Central

Purpose To assess cancer prevention and control capacity in the US-associated Pacific Islands (USAPI, including American Samoa, Northern Mariana Islands, Micronesia, Guam, Marshall Islands, and Palau) and to support indigenous leadership in reducing cancer health disparities. Methods Jurisdiction-specific needs assessments were conducted to assess cancer prevention and control capacity and challenges, The Cancer Council of the Pacific islands (CCPI), an indigenous health leadership team from public health and medicine, was supported to review assessment findings, develop priorities, and build capacity to address recommendations. Results Capacity varied across jurisdictions, but generally there is limited ability to measure cancer burden and a lack of programs, equipment, and trained personnel to detect and treat cancer. Most cancers are diagnosed in late stages when survival is compromised and care is most costly. Jurisdictions also are challenged by geographic, social, and political constraints and multiple in-country demands for funding. Based on findings, strategies were developed by the CCPI to guide efforts, including fund seeking, to expand cancer prevention and control capacity in regionally appropriate ways. Conclusions Concerted planning, training, and funding efforts are needed to overcome challenges and upgrade capacity in cancer education, prevention, detection, and treatment in the USAPI. Indigenous leadership and local capacity building are essential to this process. PMID:17149100

Tsark, JoAnn U.; Braun, Kathryn L.

2010-01-01

74

The association of child mental health conditions and parent mental health status among U.S. Children, 2007.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to examine the association of child mental health conditions and parent mental health status. This study used data from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health on 80,982 children ages 2-17. The presence of a child mental health condition was defined as a parent-reported diagnosis of at least one of seven child mental health conditions. Parent mental health was assessed via a 5-point scale. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of child mental health conditions and parent mental health status, while examining socioeconomic, parent, family, and community factors as potential effect modifiers and confounders of the association. 11.1% of children had a mental health condition (95% CI = 10.5-11.6). The prevalence of child mental health conditions increased as parent mental health status worsened. Race/ethnicity was the only significant effect modifier of the child-parent mental health association. After adjustment for confounders, the stratum-specific adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) of child mental health conditions related to a one-level decline in parent mental health were: 1.44 (1.35-1.55) for non-Hispanic whites, 1.24 (1.06-1.46) for non-Hispanic blacks, 1.04 (0.81-1.32) for Hispanics from non-immigrant families, 1.21 (0.96-1.93) for Hispanics from immigrant families, and 1.43 (1.21-1.70) for non-Hispanic other race children. The effect of parent mental health status on child mental health conditions was significant only among non-Hispanic children. Parent-focused interventions to prevent or improve child mental health conditions may be best targeted to the sub-populations for whom parent and child mental health are most strongly associated. PMID:21948199

Bennett, Amanda C; Brewer, Katherine C; Rankin, Kristin M

2012-08-01

75

Factors associated with health care access and outcome.  

PubMed

This study aims to (1) assess ethnic differences in health care access and health outcome between Asian Americans and whites and between Asian American subgroups, (2) examine effects of cultural factors, and (3) investigate moderating effects of health risk behaviors between cultural characteristics and health care access and outcome. Data were derived from the 2007 California Health Interview Survey. Asian Americans (n = 4,462) and whites (n = 4,470) were included. There were significant ethnic differences in health care access and health perception between Asian Americans and Whites and across Asian American subgroups. Health risk behaviors moderated relationships between cultural factors and health care access and outcome. Findings reveal that ethnicity affects an individual's health care access and health perception, and their health behaviors are an important factor that may improve or worsen outcomes. This study may increase our knowledge base of research and interventions to enhance ethnic minority populations' health care accessibility and perceptions. PMID:22780701

Paek, Min-So; Lim, Jung-Won

2012-01-01

76

Characteristics associated with self-rated health: The CARDIA Study  

E-print Network

rated  health  category)   Age  (years)   Fast  food    health   category   N   0  poor  SRH   1  good  SRH   Total   Fast  food  health  problem  (self)   Chronic  burden  –  on  going  financial  strain   Age   Fast  food  

Nayak, Shilpa

2012-01-01

77

Breaking Away: Advocacy, Education, and the Relationship Between Maternal and Child Health Professionals and the American Public Health Association  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its founding in 1921, the mission of the Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Section of the American Public Health Association (APHA) has been to develop innovative and creative approaches to addressing the health needs of mothers, children, and families. However, the growth and structure of APHA have impeded the capacity of MCH Section members to accomplish this mission. An

Lewis H. Margolis; Mark Coin

1999-01-01

78

Health effects associated with energy conservation measures in commercial buildings  

SciTech Connect

Indoor air quality can conceivably be impacted by hundreds of different chemicals. More than 900 different organic compounds alone have been identified in indoor air. The health effects that could potentially arise from exposure to individual pollutants or mixtures of pollutants cover the full range of acute and chronic effects, including largely reversible responses, such as rashes and irritations, as well as irreversible toxic and carcinogenic effects. These indoor contaminants are emitted from a large variety of materials and substances that are widespread components of everyday life. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with indoor air contaminants for the Bonneville Power Administration to aid the agency in the preparation of environmental documents. The results of this search are reported in two volumes. Volume 1 is a summary of the results of the literature search; Volume 2 is the complete results of the literature search and contains all references to the material reviewed. 16 tabs.

Stenner, R.D.; Baechler, M.C.

1990-09-01

79

The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries' legislative activities and the Joint Medical Library Association/Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries Legislative Task Force  

PubMed Central

The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries' (AAHSL's) involvement in national legislative activities and other advocacy initiatives has evolved and matured over the last twenty-five years. Some activities conducted by the Medical Library Association's (MLA's) Legislative Committee from 1976 to 1984 are highlighted to show the evolution of MLA's and AAHSL's interests in collaborating on national legislative issues, which resulted in an agreement to form a joint legislative task force. The history, work, challenges, and accomplishments of the Joint MLA/AAHSL Legislative Task Force, formed in 1985, are discussed. PMID:12883581

Zenan, Joan S.

2003-01-01

80

Factors Associated with American Indian Teens' Self-Rated Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Factors related to American Indian (AI) high school students' self-rated health were examined. Self rated health was measured as a single-item with a four-point response option ranging from poor to excellent health. Of the 574 participants, 19% reported "fair" or "poor" health, a percentage more than twice that for U.S. high school students in…

Parker, Tassy

2004-01-01

81

Recognizing and addressing the stigma associated with mental health nursing: a critical perspective.  

PubMed

Negative and stigmatizing beliefs regarding mental health nursing discredit the valuable contributions of mental health nurses, but more importantly, these beliefs discredit the needs of people who access mental health care. The stigma associated with mental health nursing, however, has received little attention in the literature. In this article, the author explores the stigma associated with mental health nursing from a critical lens. Recommendations are proposed to address the stigma associated with mental health nursing and mental illness, concurrently, within nursing education. PMID:19874095

Gouthro, Trina Johnena

2009-11-01

82

Does Place of Education Matter? Contextualizing the Education and Health Status Association Among Asian Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The educational gradient in health is one of the most robust associations in social science research. Results of the current study indicate that, like the pattern observed among other racial and ethnic minority groups, the well-established educational gradient in health is attenuated among Asian Americans. We also show that the gradient association between educational attainment and self-rated health among Asian

Emily Walton; David T. Takeuchi; Jerald R. Herting; Margarita Alegría

2009-01-01

83

Factors associated with health information-seeking in low-income pregnant women.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of health literacy, self-efficacy, and fetal health locus of control to health information-seeking in low-income pregnant women and the contribution from each factor alone or in combination to the variance in health information-seeking. This was a cross-sectional study of 143 English-speaking pregnant women who were recruited from a prenatal clinic and were 18 years of age or older in 2007-2008. Health literacy, self-efficacy, fetal health locus of control, and health information-seeking were measured using the Short Form of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults, the Health Information Competence Scale, the Fetal Health Locus of Control Scale, and the Pregnancy Health Information-Seeking Scale. Health literacy was not significantly correlated with health information-seeking. Self-efficacy (r = .33) and internal fetal health locus of control (r = .27) demonstrated significant correlations with health information-seeking, and together they accounted for 15% of the variance in health information-seeking. After controlling for covariates, self-efficacy (p = .0006) and internal fetal health locus of control (p = .03) remained significantly associated with health information-seeking. In conclusion, pregnant women's characteristics, such as self-efficacy and internal fetal health locus of control belief, are associated with their health information-seeking during pregnancy. PMID:20853218

Shieh, Carol; Broome, Marion E; Stump, Timothy E

2010-07-01

84

Health resource utilization and cost associated with myeloproliferative neoplasms in a large United States health plan.  

PubMed

Abstract Myelofibrosis (MF), polycythemia vera (PV) and essential thrombocythemia (ET) may lead to bone marrow fibrosis. Because the disease course of ET and PV are long and the disease course of MF may be fatal, healthcare resource utilization (HRU) associated costs of these neoplasms are especially important to understand. We used a large US health insurance claim database to describe the costs of these diseases. Compared to age-gender matched comparisons without myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), all aspects of HRU that we examined, including inpatient, outpatient and emergency room visits and pharmacy, as well as overall healthcare expenditures, were significantly higher in patients with MF, PV and ET (e.g. MF total costs = $54 168 vs. $10 203; PV = $14 903 vs. $7913; ET = $29 553 vs. $8026) than in matched comparisons. In order to reduce the burden of illness associated with these diseases, continued efforts in the development of more efficacious treatments for these disorders are needed. PMID:24450579

Mehta, Jyotsna; Wang, Hongwei; Fryzek, Jon P; Iqbal, Sheikh Usman; Mesa, Ruben

2014-10-01

85

Is walking to school associated with improved metabolic health?  

PubMed Central

Background Active commuting to/from school is an important source of physical activity that has been declining over the past years. Although it is an affordable and simple way of increasing physical activity levels it is still unclear whether it has enough potential to improve health. Therefore, the aim of this cross sectional study was to examine the relationship between active commuting to/from school and metabolic risk factors in 10 to 12 year old children. Methods Participants were 229 adolescents, selected through consecutive sampling, (121 girls) with mean age of 11.65 (±0.73) years old from Porto, Portugal. Means of transport to/from school was accessed by asking: ”How do you usually travel to school?” and “How do you usually travel from school?”. Active commuting was considered if children reported at least one of the trips (to or from school) by active means. Total physical activity was obtained with Actigraph accelerometer for 7 consecutive days. Lipid profile measurements were conducted with Cholestech LDX® analyser. Waist circumference and blood pressure were measured by standard methods. The criteria for metabolic syndrome defined by International Diabetes Federation for children and adolescents were used. Results Adjusted binary logistic regression analysis suggested that walkers have higher odds to have a better waist circumference (OR?=?2.64, 95% CI?=?1.63-6.01) and better high density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR?=?2.14, 95% CI?=?1.01-4.52) profiles than non-active commuters, independent of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. No associations were found for other metabolic risk factors. Conclusions Exertions to increase and maintain walking to school may be particularly relevant as it is likely to have a positive impact on children’s health and eventually decrease metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:23360463

2013-01-01

86

PTSD symptom clusters associated with physical health and health care utilization in rural primary care patients exposed to natural disaster.  

PubMed

This study investigated the influence of exposure to a tornado disaster and disaster-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology on physical health complaints and primary health care utilization among rural medical patients. One-hundred five patients completed self-report measures assessing disaster exposure, PTSD symptoms, and self-reported physical health complaints. Objective rates of health care utilization were gathered by a review of medical records. Tornado disaster exposure and generalized psychological distress were associated with physical health complaints one year following the disaster. After controlling for age, gender, and levels of predisaster health care utilization, PTSD Cluster C (avoidance) symptoms were associated with increased rates of postdisaster health care utilization. Implications of these findings for interventions within the medical system are discussed. PMID:18302175

Polusny, Melissa A; Ries, Barry J; Schultz, Jessica R; Calhoun, Patrick; Clemensen, Lisa; Johnsen, Ingrid R

2008-02-01

87

Self-rated Health among Pregnant Women: Associations with Objective Health Indicators, Psychological Functioning, and Serum Inflammatory Markers  

PubMed Central

Background Biobehavioral correlates of self-rated health in pregnancy are largely unknown. Purpose The goals of this study were to examine, in pregnant women, associations of self-rated health with 1) demographics, objective health status, health behaviors and psychological factors and 2) serum inflammatory markers. Methods In the 2nd trimester of pregnancy, 101 women provided a blood sample, completed measures of psychosocial stress, health status, and health behaviors, and received a comprehensive periodontal examination. Results The following independently predicted poorer self-rated health: 1) greater psychological stress, 2) greater objective health diagnoses, 3) higher body mass index, and 4) past smoking (versus never smoking). Poorer self-rated health was associated with higher serum interleukin-1? (p = .02) and marginally higher macrophage migration inhibitory factor (p = .06). These relationships were not fully accounted for by behavioral/psychological factors. Conclusions This study provides novel data regarding factors influencing subjective ratings of health and the association of self-rated health with serum inflammatory markers in pregnant women. PMID:23765366

Christian, Lisa M.; Iams, Jay; Porter, Kyle; Leblebicioglu, Binnaz

2013-01-01

88

Genome-wide association study of body height in African Americans: the Women's Health Initiative  

E-print Network

Genome-wide association study of body height in African Americans: the Women's Health Initiative of height in 8149 African- American (AA) women from the Women's Health Initiative. Genetic variants with P

Tang, Hua

89

Health effects associated with cyanobacteria exposure among beach attendees in Puerto Rico  

EPA Science Inventory

Cyanobacteria and their toxins are associated with adverse human health effects, although among marine waters, the pyrrhophyta, including dinoflagellates are more recognized as health hazards. We recruited beach attendees during summer 2009, at Boquerón Beach, Puerto Rico...

90

Health Effects Associated With Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The World Health Organization has identified ambient air pollution as a high public health priority, based on estimates of air pollution related death and disability-adjusted life years derived in its Global Burden of Disease initiative. The NERAM Colloquium Series on Health and Air Quality was initiated to strengthen the linkage between scientists, policymakers, and other stakeholders by reviewing the current

Jonathan Samet; Daniel Krewski

2007-01-01

91

Michele Barry, MD, FACP Senior Associate Dean of Global Health  

E-print Network

in Internal Medicine #12;A. Definition ­ What Is It? B.Why Now? C.Why Here at Stanford? D.The Many Faces of Global Health at Stanford #12;"Of all the forms of inequality, injustice in health care is the most Health Mutuality Combines medicine, social sciences, anthropology, law, engineering, "transdisciplinary

Kay, Mark A.

92

College students' social anxiety associated with stress and mental health  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To explore the mediator effects of social anxiety on college students' life stress and mental health. METHODS: 1430 college students were tested by revised Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List (ASLEO), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12) and social anxiety scale chose from Self Consciousness Scale. RESUTL AND ANALYSIS: The college students' stressors were related to social anxiety and mental health.

Shi Kan; Jiang Nan; Chen Xuefeng; Wang Zhen; Gao Jing; Hu Weipeng

2010-01-01

93

Personality is associated with perceived health and functional status in older primary care patients.  

PubMed

Using data collected on 265 primary care medical patients 60 years of age and older, the authors examined the personality bases of subjective health (perceived health, functional status) after controlling for observer-rated depression and medical burden. Four hypotheses were tested: High Neuroticism is associated with poorer perceived health, low Extraversion is associated with poorer perceived health, low Openness to Experience is associated with worse functional status, and age moderates the relationships between personality and subjective health. Findings supported the notion that personality is associated with subjective health; moreover, this effect appeared to grow more pronounced with increasing age. This study underscores the conceptual and heuristic value of examining moderators of the links between personality variables and health. PMID:12641310

Duberstein, Paul R; Sörensen, Silvia; Lyness, Jeffrey M; King, Deborah A; Conwell, Yeates; Seidlitz, Larry; Caine, Eric D

2003-03-01

94

Associations between Intelligence in Adolescence and Indicators of Health and Health Behaviors in Midlife in a Cohort of Swedish Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to investigate associations between intelligence and indicators of health status and health behaviors at age 43 in a cohort of Swedish women (n = 682). Intelligence was measured by standard IQ tests given at ages 10, 13, and 15. At the age of 43, 479 of the women were sampled for a medical examination in which 369…

Modig, Karin; Bergman, Lars R.

2012-01-01

95

[Self-rated oral health and associated factors among adults in rural settlements, Pernambuco State, Brazil].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence of negative self-rated oral health and associated factors among adults in rural settlements. The probabilistic sample consisted of 557 adults 20 to 59 years of age in rural settlements in Pernambuco State, Brazil. The dependent variable was self-rated oral health, with the following independent variables: demographic characteristics, predisposition and availability of resources, oral health-related behavior, objective oral health conditions, and subjective oral health conditions. Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated using a Poisson regression model. Prevalence of negative self-rated oral health was 70.5%. Negative self-rated oral health was associated with younger age, lower schooling, female gender, and black or brown skin color. Predictors of negative self-rated oral health included skin color, self-defined need for dental care, and the impact of oral health problems on quality of life. PMID:24714950

Moura, Cristiano; Gusmão, Estela Santos; Santillo, Patrícia Morgana Hordonho; Soares, Renata de Souza Coelho; Cimões, Renata

2014-03-01

96

Associate Professor or Professor -Health Promotion The Faculty of Health Sciences and the Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry at Western University are  

E-print Network

and policy within the Canadian and Global Health Care Systems. The program is interdisciplinary with support, health governance, community health development and promoting public health policy, legislationAssociate Professor or Professor - Health Promotion The Faculty of Health Sciences and the Schulich

Sinnamon, Gordon J.

97

Copyright 2012, National Environmental Health Association (www.neha.org) Environmental Health  

E-print Network

..................................................................................................................28 Potential Health Hazards for Students Exposed to Formaldehyde in the Gross Anatomy Laboratory

98

Understanding the non-stationary associations between distrust of the health care system, health conditions, and self-rated health in the elderly: A geographically weighted regression approach  

PubMed Central

The goals of this study are to explore whether health condition is an antecedent extraneous factor for the relationship between health care system distrust and self-rated health among the elderly, and to investigate if the associations among these variables are place-specific. We used logistic geographically weighted regression to analyze data on an elderly sample residents in the Philadelphia metropolitan area. We found that the health conditions of the elderly account for the association between high distrust and poor/fair self-rated health and that the distrust/self-rated health relationship varied spatially. This finding suggests that a place-centered perspective can inform distrust/self-rated health research. PMID:22321903

Yang, Tse-Chuan; Matthews, Stephen A.

2012-01-01

99

Modifying effect of the County Level Health Indices on Cardiopulmonary Effects Associated with Wildfire Exposure  

EPA Science Inventory

Background and Aims: Socioeconomic status (SES) is a known risk factor for cardiopulmonary health and some studies suggest SES may be an effect modifier for health effects associated with exposure to air pollution. We investigated the synergistic impact of health disparities on ...

100

Prevalence and Demographic and Clinical Associations of Health Literacy in Patients on Maintenance Hemodialysis  

PubMed Central

Summary Background and objectives Although limited health literacy is estimated to affect over 90 million Americans and is recognized as an important public health concern, there have been few studies examining this issue in patients with chronic kidney disease. We sought to characterize the prevalence of and associations of demographic and clinical characteristics with limited health literacy in patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis. Design, setting, participants, & measurements As part of a prospective clinical trial of symptom management strategies in 288 patients treated with chronic hemodialysis, we assessed health literacy using the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM). We defined limited health literacy as a REALM score ?60 and evaluated independent associations of demographic and baseline clinical characteristics with limited health literacy using multivariable logistic regression. Results Of the 260 patients who completed the REALM, 41 demonstrated limited health literacy. African-American race, lower educational level, and veteran status were independently associated with limited health literacy. There was no association of limited health literacy with age, gender, serologic values, dialysis adequacy, overall symptom burden, quality of life, or depression. Conclusions Limited health literacy is common among patients receiving chronic hemodialysis. African-American race and socioeconomic factors are strong independent predictors of limited health literacy. These findings can help inform the design and implementation of interventions to improve health literacy in the hemodialysis population. PMID:21551025

Mor, Maria K.; Shields, Anne Marie; Sevick, Mary Ann; Palevsky, Paul M.; Fine, Michael J.; Arnold, Robert M.; Weisbord, Steven D.

2011-01-01

101

Assistant or Associate Professor Department of Pharmaceutical Care and Health Systems  

E-print Network

in the future as an integral part of the broader health care system. Preference will be given to candidates Healthcare Change (CLHC). The University's Academic Health Center (AHC) and affiliated institutions provideAssistant or Associate Professor Department of Pharmaceutical Care and Health Systems College

Thomas, David D.

102

Psychol Med . Author manuscript The association of cognitive performance with mental health and physical  

E-print Network

performance has been associated with mental and physical health, but it is unknown whether the strength whether cognitive performance predicted mental and physical health from midlife to early old age. Methods and 2006. The age range included over the follow-up was from 40 to 75 years. Mental health and physical

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

103

Association between Psychopathology and Physical Health Problems among Youth in Residential Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth in residential treatment settings often present with a complex combination of mental and physical health problems. Despite an emerging literature documenting significant associations between mental health and physical health, the relationship between these two areas of functioning has not been systematically examined in youth presenting to…

Nelson, Timothy D.; Smith, Tori R.; Duppong Hurley, Kristin; Epstein, Michael H.; Thompson, Ronald W.; Tonniges, Thomas F.

2013-01-01

104

Validation of a brief, reliable scale to measure knowledge about the health risks associated with obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Obesity represents a serious threat to health through its association with conditions such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease and certain types of cancer. Knowledge regarding risk to health is an important determinant of behaviour and is the focus of many health education strategies. To the authors’ knowledge, there is no valid and reliable measure of knowledge regarding

J A Swift; C Glazebrook; I Macdonald

2006-01-01

105

Position: Associate Director, Center for Global Women's Health Technologies, Duke University  

E-print Network

Position: Associate Director, Center for Global Women's Health Technologies, Duke University Start date: Fall 2014 Location: Duke University, Durham, NC The Center for Global Women's Health Technologies of Global Women's Health Technologies, which is a joint center between the Pratt School of Engineering

Ramanujam, Nimmi

106

Association Between Availability and Quality of Health Services in Schools and Reproductive Health Outcomes Among Students: A Multilevel Observational Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We determined the association between availability and quality of school health services and reproductive health outcomes among sexually active students. Methods. We used a 2-stage random sampling cluster design to collect nationally representative data from 9107 students from 96 New Zealand high schools. Students self-reported whether they were sexually active, how often they used condoms or contraception, and their involvement in pregnancy. School administrators completed questionnaires on their school-based health services, including doctor and nursing hours per week, team-based services, and health screening. We conducted analyses using multilevel models controlling for individual variables, with schools treated as random effects. Results. There was an inverse association between hours of nursing and doctor time and pregnancy involvement among sexually active students, with fewer pregnancies among students in schools with more than 10 hours of nursing and doctor time per 100 students. There was no association between doctor visits, team-based services, health screening, and reproductive health outcomes. Conclusions. School health services are associated with fewer pregnancies among students, but only when the availability of doctor and nursing time exceeds 10 hours per 100 students per week. PMID:22897539

Robinson, Elizabeth; Lawler, Catriona; Bagshaw, Sue; Farrant, Bridget; Bell, Fionna; Dawson, Dianne; Nicholson, Diana; Hart, Mo; Fleming, Theresa; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Clark, Terryann; Kekus, Maria; Utter, Jennifer

2012-01-01

107

Association between housing quality and individual health characteristics on sleep quality among Latino farmworkers.  

PubMed

Although poor sleep quality and associated sleep disorders are associated with increased risk of job injury and multiple mental and physical health problems, scant research has examined sleep quality among Latino farmworkers. Interviews were conducted with 371 male Latino farmworkers working in North Carolina during the 2010 agricultural season. Data on housing quality and sleep quality were collected. Access to air conditioning was significantly and positively associated with good sleep quality. This association remained when other housing characteristics and individual health indicators were controlled. Good sleep quality was associated with low levels of pain, depression, and anxiety. Poor sleep quality among Latino farmworkers was associated with poorer indicators of health. One important indicator of housing quality, air conditioning, was associated with better sleep quality. Further research is required to delineate how to improve the adequacy of farmworker housing to improve sleep quality and other health indicators. PMID:23161266

Sandberg, Joanne C; Talton, Jennifer W; Quandt, Sara A; Chen, Haiying; Weir, Maria; Doumani, Walkiria R; Chatterjee, Arjun B; Arcury, Thomas A

2014-04-01

108

Associations among Socioeconomic Status, Perceived Neighborhood Control, Perceived Individual Control, and Self-Reported Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research has suggested that perceived control and a person's perceptions of their neighborhood environment may mediate the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and health. This cross-sectional study assessed whether perceptions of informal social control mediated the association between SES and self-reported health, and if these…

Moore, Spencer; Daniel, Mark; Bockenholt, Ulf; Gauvin, Lise; Richard, Lucie; Stewart, Steven; Dube, Laurette

2010-01-01

109

Factors associated with differences in perceived health among German long-term unemployed  

PubMed Central

Background Unemployment is associated with reduced physical and psychological well-being. Perceived health is an important factor influencing health outcomes as well as successful returns to work. This study aims to determine the extent to which perceived health correlates with mental health, various health risk characteristics and socio-demographic characteristics in a setting-selected sample of long-term unemployed persons. Methods Using SF-12, 365 long-term unemployed persons were assessed for self-perceived health and various socio-demographic and health characteristics. Perceived health data of the sample was compared to the German SF-12 reference population. Bivariate analyses and multiple linear regression models were applied to identify those variables significantly associated with perceived health. Results The study population reported poorer perceived health compared with the general population. Analyses showed that perceived mental health was significantly worse in women, among persons with heightened depression and anxiety scores, and in participants reporting reduced levels of physical activity. Perceived physical health was significantly lower among older persons, participants with a higher BMI, and participants with heightened depression and anxiety scores. Both mental and physical health were worse among the unemployed assigned to an employment center as compared to those engaged in the secondary labor market. In total, 36% of the variance in the SF-12 mental score and 20% of the variance in the SF-12 physical score were explained by the factors included in the final multiple linear regression models. Conclusions Perceived health among a select group of long-term unemployed is reduced to a clinically relevant extent compared to the general population. The preliminary findings underline an association between mental health and perceived health. Negative self-perceptions of health were also associated with the labor market setting and some of the socio-demographic and health behavior variables. Further research is needed to determine risk factors leading to reduced perceived health in the unemployed. The strong association between mental health and perceived health suggests interventions targeting mental health are urgently needed to positively influence perceived health, a key determinant of individuals’ chances to successfully return to work. PMID:22738028

2012-01-01

110

Adequate sleep among adolescents is positively associated with health status and health-related behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Amount of sleep is an important indicator of health and well-being in children and adolescents. Adequate sleep (AS: adequate sleep is defined as 6–8 hours per night regularly) is a critical factor in adolescent health and health-related behaviors. The present study was based on a health promotion project previously conducted on adolescents in Tao-Yuan County, Taiwan. The aim was

Mei-Yen Chen; Edward K Wang; Yi-Jong Jeng

2006-01-01

111

THE ASSOCIATION AMONG GENDER, COMPUTER USE AND ONLINE HEALTH SEARCHING, AND MENTAL HEALTH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research investigating the impacts of computer and Internet use is increasing; however, few sociologists explore how this use may impact on mental health outcomes. The authors use data from the 2004 General Social Survey to examine the relationship among gender, computer and Internet use for health purposes and mental health. Their findings are mixed in that computer and Internet use

Patricia Drentea; Melinda Goldner; Shelia Cotten; Timothy Hale

2008-01-01

112

Self-Reported Health Status in Primary Health Care: The Influence of Immigration and Other Associated Factors  

PubMed Central

Objective The aims of this study are to compare self-reported health status between Spanish-born and Latin American-born Spanish residents, adjusted by length of residence in the host country; and additionally, to analyse sociodemographic and psychosocial variables associated with a better health status. Design This is a cross-sectional population based study of Latin American-born (n?=?691) and Spanish-born (n?=?903) in 15 urban primary health care centres in Madrid (Spain), carried out between 2007 and 2009. The participants provided information, through an interview, about self-reported health status, socioeconomic characteristics, psychosocial factors and migration conditions. Descriptive and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results The Spanish-born participants reported a better health status than the Latin America-born participants (79.8% versus 69.3%, p<0.001). Different patterns of self-reported health status were observed depending on the length of residence in the host country. The proportion of immigrants with a better health status is greater in those who have been in Spain for less than five years compared to those who have stayed longer. Better health status is significantly associated with being men, under 34 years old, being Spanish-born, having a monthly incomes of over 1000 euros, and having considerable social support and low stress. Conclusions Better self-reported health status is associated with being Spanish-born, men, under 34 years old, having an uppermiddle-socioeconomic status, adequate social support, and low stress. Additionally, length of residence in the host country is seen as a related factor in the self-reported health status of immigrants. PMID:22675564

Salinero-Fort, Miguel A.; Jimenez-Garcia, Rodrigo; del Otero-Sanz, Laura; de Burgos-Lunar, Carmen; Chico-Moraleja, Rosa M.; Martin-Madrazo, Carmen; Gomez-Campelo, Paloma

2012-01-01

113

A genetic perspective on the association between exercise and mental health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regular exercise is associated with better mental health. This association is widely assumed to reflect causal effects of exercise. In this paper we propose that two additional mechanisms contribute to the association between exercise and mental health in the population-at-large: genetic pleiotropy and gene- by-exercise interaction. Both mechanisms assume heritability of exercise behavior and a partial overlap between the genes

Geus de E. J. C; M. H. M. de Moor

2008-01-01

114

A genetic perspective on the association between exercise and mental health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regular exercise is associated with better mental health. This association is widely assumed to reflect causal effects of exercise. In this paper we propose that two additional mechanisms contribute to the association between exercise and mental health in the population-at-large: genetic pleiotropy and gene-by-exercise interaction. Both mechanisms assume heritability of exercise behavior and a partial overlap between the genes influencing

E. J. C. de Geus; M. H. M. de Moor

2008-01-01

115

Health status and socio-economic factors associated with health facility utilization in rural and urban areas in Zambia  

PubMed Central

Abstracts Background With regards to equity, the objective for health care systems is “equal access for equal needs”. We examined associations of predisposing, enabling and need factors with health facility utilization in areas with high HIV prevalence and few people being aware of their HIV status. Methods The data is from a population-based survey among adults aged 15years or older conducted in 2003. The current study is based on a subset of this data of adults 15–49 years with a valid HIV test result. A modified Health behaviour model guided our analytical approach. We report unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals from logistic regression analyses. Results Totals of 1042 males and 1547 females in urban areas, and 822 males and 1055 females in rural areas were included in the study. Overall, 53.1% of urban and 56.8% of rural respondents utilized health facilities past 12 months. In urban areas, significantly more females than males utilized health facilities (OR=1.4 (95% CI [1.1, 1.6]). Higher educational attainment (10+ years of schooling) was associated with utilization of health facilities in both urban (OR=1.7, 95% CI [1.3, 2.1]) and rural (OR=1.4, 95% CI [1.0, 2.0]) areas compared to respondents who attained up to 7 years of schooling. Respondents who self-rated their health status as very poor/ poor/fair were twice more likely to utilize health facilities compared to those who rated their health as good/excellent. Respondents who reported illnesses were about three times more likely to utilize health facilities compared to those who did not report the illnesses. In urban areas, respondents who had mental distress were 1.7 times more likely to utilize health facilities compare to those who had no mental distress. Compared to respondents who were HIV negative, respondents who were HIV positive were 1.3 times more likely to utilize health facilities. Conclusion The health care needs were the factors most strongly associated with health care seeking. After accounting for need differentials, health care seeking differed modestly by urban and rural residence, was somewhat skewed towards women, and increased substantially with socioeconomic position. PMID:23145945

2012-01-01

116

The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries' collaboration with the Association of American Medical Colleges, Medical Library Association, and other organizations  

PubMed Central

The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries has made collaboration with other organizations a fundamental success strategy throughout its twenty-five year history. From the beginning its relationships with Association of American Medical Colleges and with the Medical Library Association have shaped its mission and influenced its success at promoting academic health sciences libraries' roles in their institutions. This article describes and evaluates those relationships. It also describes evolving relationships with other organizations including the National Library of Medicine and the Association of Research Libraries. PMID:12883582

Jenkins, Carol G.; Bader, Shelley A.

2003-01-01

117

Wealth Index association with gender issues and the reproductive health of Egyptian women.  

PubMed

This study investigated the association of the Wealth Index of married women in Egypt with a number of gender and reproductive health issues found in the 2005 Egypt Demographic Health Survey. The data from a subsample of 5249 currently married women from a total of 19,474 was examined using logistic regression analysis. The women's lowest wealth quintile predicted the intention to continue female genital cutting for their daughters, exposure to physical and sexual marital violence, not being empowered in household decisions, having a higher number of children, having an unintended last child, mothers' maltreatment of their children, the perception of a lack of health-care providers or drugs as an obstacle to receiving care, and not being covered by health insurance. The association of poverty with the aforementioned adverse health outcomes are discussed. Physicians should understand the effect of poverty on health and endeavour to influence policy-makers to reduce the poverty burden on health. PMID:19298306

Afifi, Mustafa

2009-03-01

118

From midlife to early old age: Health trajectories associated with retirement  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies report contradictory findings regarding health effects of retirement. This study examines longitudinally the associations of retirement with mental health and physical functioning. Methods The participants were 7584 civil servants from the Whitehall II cohort study aged 39-64 years at baseline and 54-76 years at the last follow-up. Self-reported mental health and physical functioning were assessed using the Short Form Medical Outcomes Survey questionnaire (SF-36), and the scales were scored as T-scores (Mean [SD] =50 [10]). Retirement status and health were assessed with six repeated measurements over a 15-year period. Results The associations between retirement and health were dependent on age at retirement, reason for retirement, and length of time spent in retirement. Compared with continued employment, statutory retirement at age 60 and early voluntary retirement, respectively, were associated with 2.2 (95% confidence interval = 1.7 to 2.8) and 2.2 (1.7 to 2.7) points higher mental health and with 1.0 (0.6 to 1.5) and 1.1 (0.8 to 1.4) points higher physical functioning. Retirement due to ill health was associated with poorer mental health (-0.7 points [-1.62 to 0.2]) and physical functioning (-4.5 points [-5.1 to -3.9]). Within-subject analyses suggested a causal interpretation for statutory and voluntary retirement, but health selection for retirement due to ill health. Conclusions Longitudinal analyses of repeat data suggest that health status improves after statutory and voluntarily retirement, although the improvement appears to attenuate over time. By contrast, the association between retirement due to ill health and subsequent poor health seems to reflect selection rather than causation. PMID:20220519

Jokela, Markus; Ferrie, Jane E.; Gimeno, David; Chandola, Tarani; Shipley, Martin J.; Head, Jenny; Vahtera, Jussi; Westerlund, Hugo; Marmot, Michael G.; Kivimaki, Mika

2011-01-01

119

Work, health, and welfare: the association between working conditions, welfare states, and self-reported general health in Europe.  

PubMed

This article is the first to examine the association between self-reported general health and a wide range of working conditions at the European level and by type of welfare state regime. Data for 21,705 men and women ages 16 to 60 from 27 European countries were obtained from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey. The influence of individual-level sociodemographic, physical, and psychosocial working conditions and of the organization of work were assessed in multilevel logistic regression analyses, with additional stratification by welfare state regime type (Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian, Eastern European, Scandinavian, and Southern). At the European level, we found that "not good" general health was more likely to be reported by workers more exposed to hazardous working conditions. Most notably, tiring working positions, job strain, and temporary job contracts were strongly associated with a higher likelihood of reporting "not good" health. Analysis by welfare state regime found that only tiring or painful working conditions were consistently associated with worse self-reported health in all regimes. There was no evidence that the Scandinavian welfare regime protected against the adverse health effects of poor working conditions. The article concludes by examining the implications for comparative occupational health research. PMID:24684087

Bambra, Clare; Lunau, Thorsten; Van der Wel, Kjetil A; Eikemo, Terje A; Dragano, Nico

2014-01-01

120

Does the Association with Psychosomatic Health Problems Differ between Cyberbullying and Traditional Bullying?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The association between mental health problems and traditional bullying is well known, whereas the strength of the association in cyberbullying is less known. This study aimed to compare the association between mutually exclusive groups of bullying involvement and psychosomatic problems as measured by the PsychoSomatic Problems scale. The sample…

Beckman, Linda; Hagquist, Curt; Hellstrom, Lisa

2012-01-01

121

THE CRITICAL CARE WORK ENVIRONMENT AND NURSE-REPORTED HEALTH CARE-ASSOCIATED INFECTIONS  

PubMed Central

Background Critically ill patients are susceptible to health care–associated infections because of their illnesses and the need for intravenous access and invasive monitoring. The critical care work environment may influence the likelihood of infection in these patients. Objective To determine whether or not the critical care nurse work environment is predictive of nurse-reported health care–associated infections. Methods A retrospective, cross-sectional design was used with linked nurse and hospital survey data. Nurses assessed the critical care work environment and provided the frequencies of ventilator-associated pneumonias, urinary tract infections, and infections associated with central catheters. Logistic regression models were used to determine if critical care work environments were predictive of nurse-reported frequent health care–associated infections, with controls for nurse and hospital characteristics. Results The final sample consisted of 3217 critical care nurses in 320 hospitals. Compared with nurses working in poor work environments, nurses working in better work environments were 36% to 41% less likely to report that health care–associated infections occurred frequently. Conclusion Health care–associated infections are less likely in favorable critical care work environments. These findings, based on the largest sample of critical care nurses to date, substantiate efforts to focus on the quality of the work environment as a way to minimize the frequency of health care–associated infections. PMID:24186818

Kelly, Deena; Kutney-Lee, Ann; Lake, Eileen T.; Aiken, Linda H.

2014-01-01

122

Associations between health literacy and beliefs about medicines in an irish obstetric population.  

PubMed

The authors wanted to determine the prevalence of limited health literacy, and the relation between health literacy and beliefs about medicines, in an obstetric population. A survey was administered in Cork University Maternity Hospital, Cork, Ireland. The Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine and the general section of the Beliefs About Medicines Questionnaire were used. Of 404 women, 15.3% (n = 62) displayed limited health literacy. Age and health literacy were significantly associated with one another, as were health literacy and level at which participants completed formal education. In the general harm domain, level of education and health literacy were associated with stronger beliefs: M = 11.85, SD = 2.81 vs. M = 9.75, SD = 2.11; F(3) = 13.69, p < .001. In the general overuse domain, those with limited literacy scored higher compared with those with adequate health literacy: M = 12.48, SD = 2.73 versus M = 11.51, SD = 2.63 (p = .01). These associations remained despite controlling for age (and education) in multivariable analyses. More than 1 in 7 had limited health literacy; these women may benefit from educational initiatives. Limited health literacy is associated with a more negative perception of medicines in this cohort. PMID:25315587

Duggan, Lydia; McCarthy, Suzanne; Curtis, Laura M; Wolf, Michael S; Noone, Caroline; Higgins, John R; O'Shea, Susan; Sahm, Laura J

2014-10-01

123

State High-Risk Pools: An Update on the Minnesota Comprehensive Health Association  

PubMed Central

State health insurance high-risk pools are a key component of the US health care system's safety net, because they provide health insurance to the “uninsurable.” In 2007, 34 states had individual high-risk pools, which covered more than 200 000 people at a total cost of $1.8 billion. We examine the experience of the largest and oldest pool in the nation, the Minnesota Comprehensive Health Association, to document key issues facing state high-risk pools in enrollment and financing. We also considered the role and future of high-risk pools in light of national health care finance reform. PMID:21228286

Spencer, Donna; Burke, Courtney E.

2011-01-01

124

Tobacco: Its historical, cultural, oral, and periodontal health association  

PubMed Central

This article provides information on the origin of tobacco and its subsequent spread throughout the world. In the era of the migration of communities, tobacco use gradually gained access and subsequently migrated along with the migrants, establishing in different locations. Probably at that time people were unaware of the health hazards and were using tobacco in treating certain ailments. Much has been known and written about tobacco in the context of oral and general health hazards but little has been explored and is known to many about where from and how this plant, which is now used in various forms, and speading widely. In what form, where, and how it had been served in religious rituals and considered for treatment or remedy of certain ailments in those days could not certainly be known. In the 21st century, people are considering hazardous tobacco as beneficial for their teeth, good for concentration of mind, and something which keeps them engaged. Even many professionals, though knowing the deleterious effects, are still using tobacco and gutkha in one or the other form. This article has been designed to revive the awareness for health hazards of tobacco and similar products. A pilot project questionnaire survey comprising this subject involving the educated mass has already been started and will be produced after analysis of data in part II of this paper. PMID:24478974

Mishra, Shanu; Mishra, M. B.

2013-01-01

125

Association of body mass index and health status in firefighters.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the usefulness of body mass index (BMI) as a preventive screening tool for general health and duty fitness status among firefighters. Two major BMI categorization methods were used: (1) "standard" [low (< 27), medium (> or = 27 < 30), high (> 30)]; and (2) WHO [(normal (< 25), overweight (> or = 25 < 30), obese (> or = 30 < 39), morbidly obese (> or = 39)]. Using the "standard" categorization, nearly 60% of individuals had medium or high BMI's; using the World Health Organization categorization, 80.7% of individuals were found to be overweight, obese, or morbidly obese. Statistically significant, inverse correlation between BMI and each of the following parameters was noted: systolic and diastolic blood pressure, VO2max, METS, and total cholesterol. Inconsistent or statistically insignificant correlation was found between BMI and HDL, Chol/HDL ratio, triglycerides, FVC% predicted, and FEV1 second% predicted. Findings were similar to previous studies of such correlates. BMI continues to prove useful as a screening tool and may be useful in identifying individual firefighters for health and fitness intervention measures. PMID:12391773

Clark, Sharon; Rene, Antonio; Theurer, Wesley M; Marshall, Muriel

2002-10-01

126

The Association of Sleep Duration, Mental Health, and Health Risk Behaviors among U.S. Afghanistan/Iraq Era Veterans  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Short and long sleep duration have been linked with higher rates of comorbid medical and mental health issues, as well as increased mortality. The current study examined the association between sleep duration, mental health problems, and health risk behaviors in a large sample of U.S. Afghanistan/Iraq era veterans. Design: NA. Setting: Mid-Atlantic VA Medical Center(s). Patients/Participants: The sample (N = 1,640) included 20% women (n = 333) and had an average age of 37 years (SD = 10.0). Interventions: NA. Measurements and Results: Results from logistic regression analyses that included age, minority status, gender, military rank, number of deployments, combat exposure, and health risk behaviors as covariates indicated that very short sleep duration (? 5 h of sleep) and long sleep duration (? 9 h) were each associated with increased odds of current post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and smoking; while poor sleep quality was associated with PTSD, panic disorder (PD), MDD, suicidal ideation (SI), and risky drinking. Conclusions: Sleep duration may be an important marker for psychiatric and health risk behavior problems, and our results suggest that clinical assessment of sleep disturbance in this veteran group is warranted to assess for both short and long sleep. Citation: Swinkels CM; Ulmer CS; Beckam JC; Buse N; the VA Mid-Atlantic MIRECC Registry Workgroup; Calhoun PS. The association of sleep duration, mental health, and health risk behaviors among U.S. Afghanistan/Iraq era veterans. SLEEP 2013;36(7):1019-1025. PMID:23814338

Swinkels, Cindy M.; Ulmer, Christi S.; Beckham, Jean C.; Buse, Natalie; Calhoun, Patrick S.

2013-01-01

127

Association between educational level and health related quality of life in Spanish adults  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To analyse differences in health by educational level in Spanish adults by comparing the health dimensions of the SF-36 Heath Survey. DESIGN: Data were taken from the National Survey on Drug Use carried out in February 1996. The information was collected by home personal interview. In addition to measuring the use of legal and illegal drugs and their associated health risks, the health status of the Spanish population was analysed using the Spanish version of the SF- 36 Health Survey. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Absolute and standardised differences between mean score on each dimension of the SF-36 Health Survey in each educational group with respect to the group with the highest educational level. RESULTS: Perceived health status declines with decreasing educational level, except in women with second level education who have a higher mean rating than women with third level education on various health dimensions. The absolute differences in perceived health between the different categories of educational level and the reference category become larger with increasing age. The greatest differences by educational level in both men and women were found in mental health and general health among persons 25 to 44 years of age, and in physical function and general health among those 45 to 64 years. In persons aged 65 or older, the greatest differences are seen in physical function and vitality in men, and in bodily pain and emotional role in women. CONCLUSIONS: The influence of educational level on the different dimensions of perceived health may vary by sex.   PMID:10396467

Regidor, E.; Barrio, G.; de la Fuente, L.; Domingo, A.; Rodriguez, C.; Alonso, J.

1999-01-01

128

Influence of air quality model resolution on uncertainty associated with health impacts  

E-print Network

We use regional air quality modeling to evaluate the impact of model resolution on uncertainty associated with the human health benefits resulting from proposed air quality regulations. Using a regional photochemical model ...

Thompson, Tammy M.

129

Certified Health Education Specialists' Participation in Professional Associations: Implications for Marketing and Membership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of health education professional associations exist to advance the profession through research, practice, and professional development. Benefits of individual membership may include continuing education, networking, leadership, professional recognition, advocacy, professional mobility, access to research findings, advances in the…

Thackeray, Rosemary; Neiger, Brad L.; Roe, Kathleen M.

2005-01-01

130

The association of food insecurity to health and dietary outcomes in U.S. children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food insecurity, a condition associated with decreased nutrient intake and poor health, may eventually lead to negative health outcomes in children, including iron deficiency, iron deficiency anemia, and a low bone mass accumulation. The purpose of this study was to formally investigate the relationship of food insecurity to iron and calcium related health outcomes in U.S. children, 3-19y (n=11,247) and

Heather Eicher-Miller

2009-01-01

131

Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: association with personal characteristics and self reported health conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVETo examine the association between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and demographic, lifestyle, occupational characteristics and self reported health conditions.DESIGNCross sectional study, using data from multiphasic health checkups between 1979 and 1985.SETTINGLarge health plan in Northern California, USA.PARTICIPANTS16 524 men aged 15–89 years and 26 197 women aged 15–105 years who never smoked.RESULTSSixty eight per cent of men

C Iribarren; G D Friedman; A L Klatsky; M D Eisner

2001-01-01

132

Association of Sedentary Behavior Time with Ideal Cardiovascular Health: The ORISCAV-LUX Study  

PubMed Central

Background Recently attention has been drawn to the health impacts of time spent engaging in sedentary behaviors. No studies have examined sedentary behaviors in relation to the newly defined construct of ideal cardiovascular health, which incorporates three health factors (blood pressure, total cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose) and four behaviors (physical activity, smoking, body mass index, diet). The purpose of this study was to examine associations between sedentary behaviors, including sitting time, and time spent viewing television and in front of a computer, with cardiovascular health, in a representative sample of adults from Luxembourg. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of 1262 participants in the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg study was conducted, who underwent objective cardiovascular health assessments and completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. A Cardiovascular Health Score was calculated based on the number of health factors and behaviors at ideal levels. Sitting time on a weekday, television time, and computer time (both on a workday and a day off), were related to the Cardiovascular Health Score. Results Higher weekday sitting time was significantly associated with a poorer Cardiovascular Health Score (p?=?0.002 for linear trend), after full adjustment for age, gender, education, income and occupation. Television time was inversely associated with the Cardiovascular Health Score, on both a workday and a day off (p?=?0.002 for both). A similar inverse relationship was observed between the Cardiovascular Health Score and computer time, only on a day off (p?=?0.04). Conclusion Higher time spent sitting, viewing television, and using a computer during a day off may be unfavorably associated with ideal cardiovascular health. PMID:24925084

Crichton, Georgina E.; Alkerwi, Ala'a

2014-01-01

133

The Association Between Parental Health Beliefs and Immunization Status Among Children Followed by Private Pediatricians  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the association between parental health beliefs and the immunization status of their children, parents of children seen in two private pediatric practices completed a questionnaire on attitudes about immunizations. Five components of health beliefs were surveyed: perceived benefits of immunizations, susceptibility to diseases prevented by immunizations, severity of those diseases, parental feelings of self-efficacy in promoting their child's

James A. Taylor; Davonna Cufley

1996-01-01

134

Health Outcomes in Adolescence: Associations with Family, Friends and School Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: To examine the associations between connectedness to family and friends, and school engagement, and selected health compromising and health promoting behaviours in a sample of New Zealand adolescents. Methods: A web-based survey was designed and administered to a random sample of 652 Year 11 students aged 16 years from all Dunedin (NZ) high…

Carter, Melissa; McGee, Rob; Taylor, Barry; Williams, Sheila

2007-01-01

135

Enrollment in Physical Education Is Associated with Health-Related Behavior among High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Physical education (PE) plays a critical role in the healthy development of youth; however, the influence of PE classes in helping to provide students with health-related behavior patterns is not clear. This study aims to analyze whether participation in PE classes is associated with health-related behavior among high school students.…

Tassitano, Rafael M.; Barros, Mauro V. G.; Tenorio, Maria C. M.; Bezerra, Jorge; Florindo, Alex A.; Reis, Rodrigo S.

2010-01-01

136

Reexamining the Evidence of an Ecological Association between Income Inequality and Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several recent studies have reported a robust association between income inequality and aggregate health outcomes across countries and across U.S. states. However, most of these studies examine only a single cross-section of data and employ few (or even no) control variables. We examine the relation between income inequality and aggregate health outcomes across thirty countries over a four decade span

Jennifer M. Mellor; Jeffrey Milyo

2001-01-01

137

The Effect of Maternal Depressive Symptomatology on Maternal Behaviors Associated With Child Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

National prevalence rates for depression among women are twofold compared with those of men, with women of childbearing age at greatest risk. Maternal depression not only negatively affects the health of the mother but may also influence the health and development of her offspring. This study examined the relationship between maternal depression and its influence on certain maternal behaviors associated

Jenn Leiferman

2002-01-01

138

Individual, Interpersonal, and Institutional Level Factors Associated with the Mental Health of College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study investigates the individual, interpersonal, and institutional level factors that are associated with overall mental health among college students. Participants: Data are from an online cross-sectional survey of 2,203 students currently enrolled at a large public university. Methods: Mental health was ascertained using a…

Byrd, DeAnnah R.; McKinney, Kristen J.

2012-01-01

139

Association of Sexual Abstinence in Adolescence with Mental Health in Adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined whether adolescent sexual abstinence predicts better adult mental health. A total of 1,917 adolescents, recruited from middle schools at age 13, were surveyed at ages 13, 18, 23, and 29. In bivariate analyses, adolescent sexual abstinence was associated with better mental health at age 29 for females, but not for males; three adolescent factors, educational prospects, family bonding,

Laura M. Bogart; Rebecca L. Collins; Phyllis L. Ellickson; David J. Klein

2007-01-01

140

Cumulative Adverse Financial Circumstances: Associations with Patient Health Status and Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines associations between cumulative adverse financial circumstances and patient health in a sample of 1,506 urban emergency department (ED) patients. Study participants completed a previously validated Social Health Survey between May and October 2009. Five categories of economic deprivation were studied: food insecurity, housing…

Bisgaier, Joanna; Rhodes, Karin V.

2011-01-01

141

Roadmap: Environmental Health and Safety -Environmental Safety and Security -Associate of Applied Science  

E-print Network

10001 Environmental Technology I or PH 10001 Introduction to Public Health 1 3 EVHS 10004 Toxicology 3Roadmap: Environmental Health and Safety - Environmental Safety and Security - Associate of Applied CHEM 10050 Fundamentals of Chemistry 3 KBS GEOL 21062 Environmental Earth Science 3 KBS Concentration

Khan, Javed I.

142

Roadmap: Environmental Health and Safety -Environmental Technology -Associate of Applied Science  

E-print Network

Roadmap: Environmental Health and Safety - Environmental Technology - Associate of Applied Science [17 Credits] COMT 11000 Introduction to Computer Systems 3 EVHS 10001 Environmental Technology I or PH 10001 Introduction to Public Health 1 3 EVHS 10004 Toxicology 3 EVHS 10010 Industrial Hygiene I 4 US

Khan, Javed I.

143

Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Patterns Are Associated With Selected Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE. Little is known about how physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior, and various adolescent health risk behaviors are associated. The objective of this study was to examine relationships between PA and sedentary behavior patterns and an array of risk behaviors, including leading causes of adolescent morbidity\\/mortality. METHODS. Nationally representative self-reported data were collected (National Lon- gitudinal Study of Adolescent Health;

Melissa C. Nelson; Penny Gordon-Larsen

2009-01-01

144

General Practitioners' Understanding Pertaining to Reliability, Interactive and Usability Components Associated with Health Websites  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was undertaken to determine the level of understanding of Gold Coast general practitioners (GPs) pertaining to such criteria as reliability, interactive and usability components associated with health websites. These are important considerations due to the increased levels of computer and World Wide Web (WWW)/Internet use and health

Usher, Wayne

2009-01-01

145

On exposure and response relationships for health effects associated with exposure to vehicular traffic  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work examines various metrics and models that have been used to estimate long-term health effects of exposure to vehicular traffic. Such health impacts may include effects of air pollution due to emissions of combustion products and from vehicle or roadway wear, of noise, stress, or from socioeconomic effects associated with preferred residential locations. Both categorical and continuous exposure metrics

Frederick W Lipfert; Ronald E Wyzga

2008-01-01

146

Health and socio-economic hazards associated with khat consumption.  

PubMed

The consumption of the stimulant leaf Khat (Catha edulis Forsk) is widespread in several countries of East Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. The leaf comes from a small evergreen shrub that can grow to the size of a tree. Young buds and tender leaves are chewed to attain a state of euphoria and stimulation. Khat leaves contain cathinones, an active brain stimulant that is similar in structure and pharmacological activity to amphetamines. Like amphetamines, Khat ingestion in low doses results in decreased appetite, euphoria, increased intellectual efficiency, and hyperalertness.High doses and chronic use of Khat can cause more serious adverse neurological, psychiatric, cardiovascular, dental, gastrointestinal and genitourinary effects. Besides damaging health, Khat has adverse socio-economic consequences effects on many other aspects of life including the loss of thousands of acres of arable land and billions of hours of work.The purpose of this review is to describe briefly the adverse consequences of habitual chewing of Khat on health, and help educate the general public. The study is based on literature review that includes internet search and journals. PMID:23012161

Ageely, Hussein M A

2008-01-01

147

HEALTH AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC HAZARDS ASSOCIATED WITH KHAT CONSUMPTION  

PubMed Central

The consumption of the stimulant leaf Khat (Catha edulis Forsk) is widespread in several countries of East Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. The leaf comes from a small evergreen shrub that can grow to the size of a tree. Young buds and tender leaves are chewed to attain a state of euphoria and stimulation. Khat leaves contain cathinones, an active brain stimulant that is similar in structure and pharmacological activity to amphetamines. Like amphetamines, Khat ingestion in low doses results in decreased appetite, euphoria, increased intellectual efficiency, and hyperalertness. High doses and chronic use of Khat can cause more serious adverse neurological, psychiatric, cardiovascular, dental, gastrointestinal and genitourinary effects. Besides damaging health, Khat has adverse socio-economic consequences effects on many other aspects of life including the loss of thousands of acres of arable land and billions of hours of work. The purpose of this review is to describe briefly the adverse consequences of habitual chewing of Khat on health, and help educate the general public. The study is based on literature review that includes internet search and journals. PMID:23012161

Ageely, Hussein M. A.

2008-01-01

148

Association of social determinants of health with self-rated health among Australian gay and bisexual men living with HIV.  

PubMed

Despite a vast improvement in the survival of people living with HIV (PLHIV) since the introduction of combination antiretroviral treatment (cART), little change in the self-rated health of PLHIV has been observed since the introduction of cART in Australia. Difficulties with attaining employment or achieving financial security have been noted as some of the key challenges still facing PLHIV in the post-cART era. As a result, we investigated the independent association of a number of key social determinants of health with self-rated health among HIV-positive gay and bisexual men in Australia. Data from two recent national, cross-sectional surveys of PLHIV (the HIV Futures 5 and 6 surveys) were used. Logistic regression was used to assess the independent association of ethnicity, region of residence, education level, employment status, after-tax income, experience of HIV-related discrimination, level of social support, relationship status and recent sexual activity with reporting good-excellent self-rated health, after adjusting for clinical factors and other social determinants of health. Multiple imputation was used to estimate missing data for variables with >5% missing data. Of the 1713 HIV-positive gay/bisexual men who responded to the HIV Futures 5 and 6 surveys, information on self-rated health was available for 99.3%. Close to three-quarters of these respondents (72.1%) reported their self-rated health as good or excellent; the remainder (27.9%) reported their self-rated health as poor or fair. In multivariable analysis involving 89.3% of respondents, being employed, reporting recent sexual activity, a greater number of sources of social support and a higher weekly after-tax income were found to be independently associated with reporting good-excellent self-rated health. Despite the inability of this study to detect causal associations, addressing barriers to employment and sexual activity, and mechanisms to increase social support, is likely to have positive health effects for PLHIV in Australia. PMID:23651416

Koelmeyer, Rachel; English, Dallas R; Smith, Anthony; Grierson, Jeffrey

2014-01-01

149

Association between parity and dentition status among Japanese women: Japan public health center-based oral health study  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies have shown that parity is associated with oral health problems such as tooth loss and dental caries. In Japan, however, no studies have examined the association. The purpose of this study was to determine whether parity is related to dentition status, including the number of teeth present, dental caries and filled teeth, and the posterior occlusion, in a Japanese population by comparing women with men. Methods A total of 1,211 subjects, who participated both in the Japan Public Health Center-Based (JPHC) Study Cohort I in 1990 and the dental survey in 2005, were used for the study. Information on parity or number of children was collected from a self-completed questionnaire administered in 1990 for the JPHC Study Cohort I, and health behaviors and clinical dentition status were obtained from the dental survey in 2005. The association between parity or number of children and dentition status was analyzed, by both unadjusted-for and adjusted-for socio-demographic and health behavioral factors, using a generalized linear regression model. Results Parity is significantly related to the number of teeth present and n-FTUs (Functional Tooth Units of natural teeth), regardless of socio-demographic and health behavioral factors, in female subjects. The values of these variables had a significantly decreasing trend with the rise of parity: numbers of teeth present (p for trend = 0.046) and n-FTUs (p for trend = 0.026). No relationships between the number of children and dentition status were found in male subjects. Conclusion Higher-parity women are more likely to lose teeth, especially posterior occluding relations. These results suggest that measures to narrow the discrepancy by parity should be taken for promoting women’s oral health. Delivery of appropriate information and messages to pregnant women as well as enlightenment of oral health professionals about dental management of pregnant women may be an effective strategy. PMID:24144183

2013-01-01

150

Copyright 2012, National Environmental Health Association (www.neha.org) Environmental Health  

E-print Network

­2007................................................................................................................8 Outbreak of Cryptosporidiosis Associated With a Man-Made Chlorinated Lake--Tarrant County, Texas, 2008

151

Associate editors' foreword: entrepreneurship in health education and health promotion: five cardinal rules.  

PubMed

A career in health education or health promotion (HE/HP) can be developed in many ways. In past editions of this department, career development has been discussed in relation to distance (Balonna, 2001), consulting (Bookbinder, 2001), certifications (Hayden, 2005), graduate school (Cottrell & Hayden, 2007), and many other topics. This article looks at a less traditional means of career development-entrepreneurship. Health education is a field ripe with opportunities for consulting and for selling health-related products and services. Entrepreneurship can not only create financial rewards but can also provide high visibility and networking contacts that can advance one's career. This article combines both theory and practical applications to assist readers in developing entrepreneurial activities. The authors are experienced in entrepreneurial development and use that expertise to provide relevant examples and develop a framework using "five cardinal rules" for establishing an entrepreneurial enterprise in HE/HP. PMID:19574585

Cottrell, Randall R; Cooper, Hanna

2009-07-01

152

Working at sea and psychosocial health problems Report of an International Maritime Health Association Workshop.  

PubMed

Many of the recognised risk factors for psychosocial health problems impact on seafarers because of the nature and organisation of their work. The consequences are serious because of the safety critical nature of many of the tasks at sea and because of the level of health required to continue working remote from care. There is relatively little relevant research on the scale of psychosocial health problems in seafarers and so the justification for taking preventative action is not secure. The workshop was convened to develop a consensus on how psychosocial risks at sea can best be characterised, their consequences in terms of health, well being and performance and the steps which can be taken to provide better information on risks and on the validity of various forms of intervention. A number of interim measures have been proposed in advance of more definitive research results. PMID:17292007

Carter, Tim

2005-05-01

153

The Association of Symptoms with Health Outcomes in Chronically Ill Adults  

PubMed Central

Persons with chronic disease experience multiple symptoms. Understanding the association between these symptoms and health outcomes would facilitate a targeted approach to symptom assessment and treatment. Our objectives were to determine the association of a range of symptoms with quality of life, self-rated health, and functional status among chronically ill adults and to assess methods for evaluating the independent associations of symptoms that may be inter-related. We consecutively enrolled 226 cognitively intact, community-dwelling adults, age 60 years or older with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart failure or cancer. Seven symptoms (physical discomfort, pain, fatigue, problems with appetite, feelings of depression, anxiety, shortness of breath) assessed using the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale were examined for their association with self-rated quality of life, self-rated health, and functional status. Principal component analysis and logistic regression revealed similar results. The latter demonstrated that physical discomfort was associated with lower self-rated health (Adjusted odds ratio 1.9; 95% confidence interval 1.2-2.9), and functional disability (Adjusted odds ratio 1.8; 95% confidence interval 1.2-2.7). Feelings of depression were associated with poorer quality of life (Adjusted odds ratio 1.7; 95% confidence interval 1.1-2.6), and shortness of breath was associated with lower self-rated health (Adjusted odds ratio 1.5; 95% confidence interval 1.1-2.0). The association between a range of symptoms and quality of life, self-rated health, and functional status differed across outcomes, but only three symptoms—physical discomfort, feelings of depression and shortness of breath—maintained their associations when multiple symptoms were examined concurrently. These findings suggest that interventions targeting these symptoms could improve several health-related outcomes. PMID:17196907

Walke, Lisa M.; Byers, Amy L.; Gallo, William T.; Endrass, Jérôme; Fried, Terri R.

2007-01-01

154

The Associations of Patient Demographic Characteristics and Health Information Recall: The Mediating Role of Health Literacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the mediating role of health literacy in the relationships between participant demographic characteristics and health information recall. Baseline data from two studies that focused on hypertensive adults (N = 1190; M = 62.28 years, SD = 11.98; 35.5% female; 45.9% African-American) were analyzed. The final model, which adjusted for recruitment site, indicated that financial status, race, and education

Brian J. Ayotte; Jason C. Allaire; Hayden Bosworth

2009-01-01

155

Factors Associated with Changes in Knowledge and Attitude towards Public Health Concepts among Chiropractic College Students Enrolled in a Community Health Class  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This survey was conducted to identify factors that may be associated with changes in knowledge and attitudes towards basic health promotion and public health concepts among chiropractic students enrolled in a course in community health. Methods: Anonymous surveys were conducted of students before and after a second-year chiropractic college course in community health. Results were analyzed using percentages and

Kevin A. Rose; Samir Ayad

2008-01-01

156

Clinical mycobacteriology. Activities and recommendations by the association of state and territorial public health laboratory directors.  

PubMed

By using the assessment, policy development, and assurance model to describe the functions of public health, the Association of State and Territorial Public Health Laboratory Directors (ASTPHLD) is shown to be responding to the laboratory aspects of tuberculosis detection, prevention, and control. The many activities described illustrate the value of public-private partnerships in addressing population-based, public health threats. The network of state and territorial public health laboratories, through voluntary involvement in ASTPHLD, provides an important resource to the scientific, educational, and policy-making community. PMID:8866189

Warren, N G; Cordts, J R

1996-09-01

157

Association between adolescents' self-perceived oral health and self-reported experiences of abuse.  

PubMed

This study investigated the association between self-perceived oral health and self-reported exposure to different types of child abuse. It was hypothesized that self-perceived oral health is compromised in exposed adolescents. All Grade-9 compulsory school and second-year high-school pupils in Södermanland County, Sweden (n = 7,262) were invited to take part in a population-based survey; 5,940 adolescents responded. Survey items on health and social wellbeing included self-perceived oral health and exposure to abuse. The results showed that poor self-perceived oral health was associated with self-reported experience of physical abuse, intimate partner violence, forced sex, and bullying (adjusted OR = 2.3-14.7). The likelihood of reporting poor oral health increased from an adjusted OR of 2.1 for a single incident of abuse to an adjusted OR of 23.3 for multiple abuses. In conclusion, poor self-perceived oral health and previous exposure to child physical abuse, intimate partner violence, bullying, and forced sex is associated. It is important that dental professionals recognize adolescents with poor subjective oral health and take into consideration child abuse as a possible cause in order to prevent these adolescents from further victimization. These results further strengthen that dental professionals are an important resource in child protection. PMID:24206076

Kvist, Therese; Annerbäck, Eva-Maria; Sahlqvist, Lotta; Flodmark, Olof; Dahllöf, Göran

2013-12-01

158

Poorer mental health is associated with cognitive deficits in old age.  

PubMed

Few studies have examined the association between within-person (WP) reaction time (RT) variability and mental health (depression, anxiety, and social dysphoria) in old age. Therefore, we investigated mental health (using the General Health Questionnaire) and cognitive function (mean RT or WP variability) in 257 healthy, community-dwelling adults aged 50-90 years (M = 63.60). The cognitive domains assessed were psychomotor performance, executive function, visual search, and recognition. Structural equation models revealed that for WP variability, but not mean RT, poorer mental health was associated with visual search and immediate recognition deficits in older persons and that these relationships were partially mediated by executive function. The dissociation between mean RT and WP variability provides evidence that the latter measure may be particularly sensitive to the subtle effects of mental health on cognitive function in old age. PMID:24605782

Bauermeister, Sarah; Bunce, David

2015-01-01

159

Conscripts' attitudes towards health and eating. Changes during the military service and associations with eating.  

PubMed

The study explores young men's (n=290) attitudes towards food and eating before and during military service and their associations with eating of sweet and fatty foods. Before service eating of sweet foods was associated negatively with health interest and positively with craving for sweet foods and using food as a reward, and eating of fatty foods negatively with health interest. At six months of service, craving, using food as a reward and pleasure increased, whereas health interest remained stable. At six months, eating of sweet foods was negatively associated with health interest and positively with craving. Mentally and physically hard conditions and easy access to indulgence items, affect the food related attitudes and food consumption among conscripts. PMID:21920395

Jallinoja, Piia; Tuorila, Hely; Ojajärvi, Anni; Bingham, Clarissa; Uutela, Antti; Absetz, Pilvikki

2011-12-01

160

Forest cover associated with improved child health and nutrition: evidence from the Malawi Demographic and Health Survey and satellite data.  

PubMed

Healthy forests provide human communities with a host of important ecosystem services, including the provision of food, clean water, fuel, and natural medicines. Yet globally, about 13 million hectares of forests are lost every year, with the biggest losses in Africa and South America. As biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation due to deforestation continue at unprecedented rates, with concomitant loss of ecosystem services, impacts on human health remain poorly understood. Here, we use data from the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey, linked with satellite remote sensing data on forest cover, to explore and better understand this relationship. Our analysis finds that forest cover is associated with improved health and nutrition outcomes among children in Malawi. Children living in areas with net forest cover loss between 2000 and 2010 were 19% less likely to have a diverse diet and 29% less likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods than children living in areas with no net change in forest cover. Conversely, children living in communities with higher percentages of forest cover were more likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods and less likely to experience diarrhea. Net gain in forest cover over the 10-year period was associated with a 34% decrease in the odds of children experiencing diarrhea (P?=?.002). Given that our analysis relied on observational data and that there were potential unknown factors for which we could not account, these preliminary findings demonstrate only associations, not causal relationships, between forest cover and child health and nutrition outcomes. However, the findings raise concerns about the potential short- and long-term impacts of ongoing deforestation and ecosystem degradation on community health in Malawi, and they suggest that preventing forest loss and maintaining the ecosystem services of forests are important factors in improving human health and nutrition outcomes. PMID:25276536

Johnson, Kiersten B; Jacob, Anila; Brown, Molly E

2013-08-01

161

Forest Cover Associated with Improved Child Health and Nutrition: Evidence from the Malawi Demographic and Health Survey and Satellite Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Healthy forests provide human communities with a host of important ecosystem services, including the provision of food, clean water, fuel, and natural medicines. Yet globally, about 13 million hectares of forests are lost every year, with the biggest losses in Africa and South America. As biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation due to deforestation continue at unprecedented rates, with concomitant loss of ecosystem services, impacts on human health remain poorly understood. Here, we use data from the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey, linked with satellite remote sensing data on forest cover, to explore and better understand this relationship. Our analysis finds that forest cover is associated with improved health and nutrition outcomes among children in Malawi. Children living in areas with net forest cover loss between 2000 and 2010 were 19% less likely to have a diverse diet and 29% less likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods than children living in areas with no net change in forest cover. Conversely, children living in communities with higher percentages of forest cover were more likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods and less likely to experience diarrhea. Net gain in forest cover over the 10-year period was associated with a 34% decrease in the odds of children experiencing diarrhea (P5.002). Given that our analysis relied on observational data and that there were potential unknown factors for which we could not account, these preliminary findings demonstrate only associations, not causal relationships, between forest cover and child health and nutrition outcomes. However, the findings raise concerns about the potential short- and long-term impacts of ongoing deforestation and ecosystem degradation on community health in Malawi, and they suggest that preventing forest loss and maintaining the ecosystems services of forests are important factors in improving human health and nutrition outcomes.

Johnson, Kiersten B.; Jacob, Anila; Brown, Molly Elizabeth

2013-01-01

162

Forest cover associated with improved child health and nutrition: evidence from the Malawi Demographic and Health Survey and satellite data  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Healthy forests provide human communities with a host of important ecosystem services, including the provision of food, clean water, fuel, and natural medicines. Yet globally, about 13 million hectares of forests are lost every year, with the biggest losses in Africa and South America. As biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation due to deforestation continue at unprecedented rates, with concomitant loss of ecosystem services, impacts on human health remain poorly understood. Here, we use data from the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey, linked with satellite remote sensing data on forest cover, to explore and better understand this relationship. Our analysis finds that forest cover is associated with improved health and nutrition outcomes among children in Malawi. Children living in areas with net forest cover loss between 2000 and 2010 were 19% less likely to have a diverse diet and 29% less likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods than children living in areas with no net change in forest cover. Conversely, children living in communities with higher percentages of forest cover were more likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods and less likely to experience diarrhea. Net gain in forest cover over the 10-year period was associated with a 34% decrease in the odds of children experiencing diarrhea (P?=?.002). Given that our analysis relied on observational data and that there were potential unknown factors for which we could not account, these preliminary findings demonstrate only associations, not causal relationships, between forest cover and child health and nutrition outcomes. However, the findings raise concerns about the potential short- and long-term impacts of ongoing deforestation and ecosystem degradation on community health in Malawi, and they suggest that preventing forest loss and maintaining the ecosystem services of forests are important factors in improving human health and nutrition outcomes.

Johnson, Kiersten B; Jacob, Anila; Brown, Molly E

2013-01-01

163

Associations between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Health-Related Quality of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is limited data examining the association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and health related quality of life (HRQOL) in healthy young adults. We examined the association between CRF and the HRQOL Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS) scores in apparently healthy males in the United States Navy. METHODS: A total of 709 males (18–49 yr) performed

Robert A Sloan; Susumu S Sawada; Corby K Martin; Timothy Church; Steven N Blair

2009-01-01

164

Environmental impact and health risks associated with greywater irrigation: a case study  

E-print Network

Environmental impact and health risks associated with greywater irrigation: a case study Abstract There is an increasing trend to use greywater for irrigation in households. This is partly due to the notion risks associated with the use of greywater for irrigation on a small private farm. Over a three

Gross, Amit

165

Combinations of social participation and trust, and association with health status-an Australian perspective.  

PubMed

A limited number of studies have examined the 'miniaturization of community' model which is based on belief that 'new' individualistic, and narrower forms of social participation, do not promote generalized trust in others. Little is known about miniaturization of community and self-reported health, physical health and psychological health in Australia. Data from a 2009 computer-assisted-telephone-interview survey was used to investigate generalized trust, social participation and health-related quality of life in a regional Australian population (n = 1273; mean age 51.2 years). Logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the associations between generalized trust, social participation and poor self-reported health (global self-rated, psychological and physical), and included four social participation/trust categories. A majority (67%) reported high generalized trust of others, 54% were categorized as high social participators. Miniaturization of community was a risk factor for poor self-rated psychological health across genders, and a risk factor for poor self-rated health for males. For women, low social participation (irrespective of trust level) was associated with poor self-reported health. Given current and previous findings, there is a need for further research in a range of contexts which explores the underlying concept of miniaturization of community, that is, the changes in social participation and social networks which may negatively impact community health. PMID:23445939

Williams, Susan L; Ronan, Kevin

2014-12-01

166

Association of physical activity with future mental health in older, mid-life and younger women  

PubMed Central

Background: Mental ill-health, particularly depression and anxiety, is a leading and increasing cause of disability worldwide, especially for women. Methods: We examined the prospective association between physical activity and symptoms of mental ill-health in younger, mid-life and older working women. Participants were 26 913 women from the ongoing cohort Finnish Public Sector Study with complete data at two phases, excluding those who screened positive for mental ill-health at baseline. Mental health was assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Self-reported physical activity was expressed in metabolic equivalent task (MET) hours per week. Logistic regression models were used to analyse associations between physical activity levels and subsequent mental health. Results: There was an inverse dose–response relationship between physical activity and future symptoms of mental ill-health. This association is consistent with a protective effect of physical activity and remained after adjustments for socio-demographic, work-related and lifestyle factors, health and body mass index. Furthermore, those mid-life and older women who reported increased physical activity by more than 2 MET hours per week demonstrated a reduced risk of later mental ill-health in comparison with those who did not increase physical activity. This protective effect of increased physical activity did not hold for younger women. Conclusions: This study adds to the evidence for the protective effect of physical activity for later mental health in women. It also suggests that increasing physical activity levels may be beneficial in terms of mental health among mid-life and older women. The alleviation of menopausal symptoms may partly explain age effects but further research is required. PMID:24532567

Kouvonen, Anne; Pentti, Jaana; Oksanen, Tuula; Virtanen, Marianna; Salo, Paula; Vaananen, Ari; Kivimaki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi

2014-01-01

167

Describing Local Boards of Health: Insights from the 2008 National Association of Local Boards of Health Survey  

PubMed Central

Objectives We examined findings from the 2008 National Association of Local Boards of Health Survey to provide information about this understudied entity to the public health community. Methods The survey instrument consisted of 196 items covering five parts: (1) demographics; (2) composition and organizational structure; (3) roles, responsibilities, and authorities; (4) telecommunications infrastructure; and (5) concerns and needs. The survey was sent to chairs of local boards of health (LBHs) in 2008 (n=3,276). After six months of follow-ups and reminders, and a month of data cleaning and screening, the final sample consisted of 870 respondents, for a return rate of 27%. Results LBHs tend to represent smaller communities and are primarily appointed. Governing and policy-making boards are more prevalent than advisory boards. Most boards do not have official websites or e-mail addresses of board members available to the public; however, most report the capability to receive training via webcasts. Boards express concerns and needs in a variety of areas, particularly public health law, strategic planning, and accreditation. Conclusion Little is known about the more than 3,000 LBHs across the United States that are often charged with making and enforcing public health law. This article is a first step toward providing the public health community with information about LBHs based on survey data. PMID:21553670

Patton, Dana; Moon, Charles E.; Jones, Jeff

2011-01-01

168

Copyright 2013, National Environmental Health Association (www.neha.org) Environmental Health  

E-print Network

Meningoencephalitis in Florida: A Case Report and Epidemiological Review of Florida Cases present a literature review to determine whether LFS leads to negative human health ef fects. In the reviewed studies the authors found that annoyance plays a large role in people's perception of wind

169

Eliminating LGBTIQQ Health Disparities: The Associated Roles of Electronic Health Records and Institutional Culture.  

PubMed

For all humans, sexual orientation and gender identity are essential elements of identity, informing how we plan and live our lives. The historic invisibility of sexual minorities in medicine has meant that these important aspects of their identities as patients have been ignored, with the result that these patients have been denied respect, culturally competent services, and proper treatment. Likely due to historic rejection and mistreatment, there is evidence of reluctance on the part of LGBT patients to disclose their sexual orientation (SO) or gender identity (GI) to their health care providers. There is some perception of risk in sharing SO and GI for many patients who have had bad prior experiences. Despite these risks, we argue that we can improve the quality of care provided this population only by encouraging them to self-identify and then using that information to improve quality of care. One strategy both to prompt patient self-identification and to store and use SO and GI data to improve care centers on the use of electronic health records. However, gathering SO and GI data in the EHR requires a workforce that knows both how to obtain and how to use that information. To develop these competencies, educational programs for health professionals must prepare students and educators to elicit and to use sexual orientation and gender identity information to improve care while simultaneously ensuring the safety of patients, trainees, and staff and faculty members as SO and GI become openly discussed and integral parts of ongoing medical discussion and care. As determination of SO and GI demographics becomes more common in health research, we will more fully understand the health risks for all the LGBTIQQ populations. PMID:25231788

Callahan, Edward J; Hazarian, Shea; Yarborough, Mark; Sánchez, John Paul

2014-09-01

170

Association between job characteristics and health behaviors in Japanese rural workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Associations between job characteristics defined by the Karasek’s job demand-control model and health behaviors were investigated\\u000a in a cross-sectional analysis of 6,759 Japanese rural workers. High psychological demands were associated with heavy smoking,\\u000a exaggerated prevalence of alcohol drinking, and high work-related physical activity. Low job control was associated with lower\\u000a consumption of vegetables, a smaller quantity number of cigarettes smoked,

Akizumi Tsutsumi; Kazunori Kayaba; Manabu Yoshimura; Machi Sawada; Shizukiyo Ishikawa; Kenichiro Sakai; Tadao Gotoh; Naoki Nago

2003-01-01

171

The Association Between Health Literacy and Cancer-Related Attitudes, Behaviors, and Knowledge  

PubMed Central

Using a multidimensional assessment of health literacy (the Cancer Message Literacy Test-Listening, the Cancer Message Literacy Test-Reading, and the Lipkus Numeracy Scale), the authors assessed a stratified random sample of 1013 insured adults (40–70 years of age). The authors explored whether low health literacy across all 3 domains (n = 111) was associated with sets of variables likely to affect engagement in cancer prevention and screening activities: (a) attitudes and behaviors relating to health care encounters and providers, (b) attitudes toward cancer and health, (c) knowledge of cancer screening tests, and (d) attitudes toward health related media and actual media use. Adults with low health literacy were more likely to report avoiding doctor's visits, to have more fatalistic attitudes toward cancer, to be less accurate in identifying the purpose of cancer screening tests, and more likely to avoid information about diseases they did not have. Compared with other participants, those with lower health literacy were more likely to say that they would seek information about cancer prevention or screening from a health care professional and less likely to turn to the Internet first for such information. Those with lower health literacy reported reading on fewer days and using the computer on fewer days than did other participants. The authors assessed the association of low health literacy with colorectal cancer screening in an age-appropriate subgroup for which colorectal cancer screening is recommended. In these insured subjects receiving care in integrated health care delivery systems, those with low health literacy were less likely to be up to date on screening for colorectal cancer, but the difference was not statistically significant. PMID:24093358

Morris, Nancy S.; Field, Terry S.; Wagner, Joann L.; Cutrona, Sarah L.; Roblin, Douglas W.; Gaglio, Bridget; Williams, Andrew E.; Han, Paul J. K.; Costanza, Mary E.; Mazor, Kathleen M.

2013-01-01

172

Eating disorders and associated mental health comorbidities in female veterans.  

PubMed

Eating disorders (EDs) remain understudied among veterans, possibly due to the perception that primarily male population does not suffer from EDs. However, previous research suggests that male and female veterans do experience EDs. The high rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and obesity observed among veterans may make this group vulnerable to disordered eating. Retrospective chart review was used to obtain data from 492 female veterans who were presented to a women's primary care center at a large, urban VA medical center between 2007 and 2009. A total of 2.8% of this sample had been diagnosed with an ED. In bivariate analyses, presence of PTSD and depression were significantly associated with having an ED diagnosis. However, when these two disorders were included in a multivariate model controlling for age, only depression diagnosis and lower age were significantly related to ED status. In sum, the rate of EDs in this sample is comparable to prevalence estimates of EDs in the general population. Current findings underscore the importance of assessing for EDs among VA patients and the need for further research among veterans. PMID:25015710

Mitchell, Karen S; Rasmusson, Ann; Bartlett, Brooke; Gerber, Megan R

2014-11-30

173

Neighbours on notice: national and imperialist interests in the American Public Health Association, 1872-1921.  

PubMed

Since its founding in 1872, the American Public Health Association (APHA) has devoted its energies to influencing the US's federal, state, and local governments to support public health. But within a few years of its establishment, the APHA expanded its interests beyond US borders; Canada joined the organization in 1884, and Mexico and Cuba became members in 1892 and 1902, respectively. The organization acknowledged a name change to reflect its new membership--the American, Canadian, Mexican and Cuban Public Health Association. However, official control of the organization remained in US hands. This article explores the APHA's national and imperialist interests and the involvement of Canadian, Cuban, and Mexican public health professionals in the association. We seek to understand the economic, political, and medical factors that motivated the APHA to go beyond US borders and induced Canada, Mexico, and Cuba to join the organization. We examine the scope and limits of the APHA's success in obtaining first-hand information concerning epidemic and endemic diseases in each of its member countries and in imposing measures to prevent the spread of disease from one nation to another. We also discuss the impact of the APHA in urging the four countries to pass sanitary codes and establish active national departments of health. Finally, we analyze the role of Canadian, Mexican, and Cuban public health efforts in shaping the APHA and helping the organization understand the importance of reciprocity in international public health. PMID:18831149

Carrillo, Ana María; Birn, Anne-Emanuelle

2008-01-01

174

Job loss and unmet health care needs in the economic recession: different associations by family income.  

PubMed

Objectives. We examined heterogeneous associations between job loss and unmet health care needs by family income level in the recent economic recession. Methods. We conducted logistic regression analyses with the sample from the 2008 Survey of Income and Program Participation (n?=?12?658). Dependent variables were 2 dichotomous measures of unmet health care needs in medical and dental services. The primary independent variables were a dummy indicator of job loss during a 2-year period and the family income-to-needs ratio. We used an interaction term between job loss and the family income-to-needs ratio to test the proposed research question. Results. Job loss was significantly associated with the increased risk of unmet health care needs. The proportion with unmet needs was highest for the lowest-income unemployed, but the association between job loss and health hardship was stronger for the middle- and higher-income unemployed. Conclusions. The unemployed experience health hardship differently by income level. A comprehensive coordination of applications for unemployment and health insurance should be considered to protect the unemployed from health hardship. PMID:25211745

Huang, Jin; Birkenmaier, Julie; Kim, Youngmi

2014-11-01

175

Are neighborhood health associations causal? A 10-year prospective cohort study with repeated measurements.  

PubMed

People who live in disadvantaged neighborhoods tend to have poor physical and mental health, but this might be due to selective residential mobility rather than causal neighborhood effects. As a test of social causation, I examined whether persons were less healthy when they were living in disadvantaged neighborhoods than at other times when they were living in more advantaged neighborhoods. Data were taken from the 10-year Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) prospective cohort study, which had annual follow-up waves between 2001 and 2010 (n = 112,503 person-observations from 20,012 persons). Neighborhood disadvantage was associated with poorer self-rated health, mental health, and physical functioning, higher probability of smoking, and less frequent physical activity. However, these associations were almost completely due to between-person differences; the associations were not replicated in within-person analyses that compared the same persons living in different neighborhoods over time. Results were similar when using neighborhood remoteness as the exposure and when focusing only on long-term residence. In contrast, poor health predicted selective residential mobility to less advantaged neighborhoods, which provided evidence of social selection. These findings provide little support for social causation in neighborhood health associations and suggest that correlations between neighborhoods and health may develop via selective residential mobility. PMID:25260937

Jokela, Markus

2014-10-15

176

Illness perceptions in patients receiving rheumatology rehabilitation: association with health and outcomes at 12 months  

PubMed Central

Background Illness perceptions have been found to change over time and following health care. Hence, addressing illness perceptions alongside existing health care interventions may be important for the sustainment of health gains following rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to measure the illness perceptions of patients receiving inpatient rheumatology rehabilitation and assess the association with aspects of health and outcomes at baseline, discharge and 12 months. Methods Patients with a rehabilitation stay of one week or more at three institutions in Norway in 2009 were invited to participate in the study. At baseline, discharge and 12 months, patients completed The Rheumatic Disease Illness Perception Questionnaire (RD-IPQ) which includes aspects of illness perceptions important to patients with rheumatic diseases. Stepwise regression analysis was used to assess associations between RD-IPQ scores and different aspects of health at baseline and follow-up after controlling for other aspects of health and sociodemographic variables. Results For the 134 patients included in the study, baseline RD-IPQ scores had a mean of 58.2 (SD 14.9) on a 0–100 scale, where 100 is the worst possible. Scores showed improvement after the rehabilitation stay which were maintained at 12 months. RD-IPQ scores were positively associated with health and outcomes. At baseline RD-IPQ scores were statistically significant in explaining variation in pain, physical function and SF-36 mental health scores. Baseline RD-IPQ scores were significant in explaining fatigue, pain, SF-36 role limitations and social function scores following rehabilitation and at 12 months. Conclusion Illness perceptions as measured by the RD-IPQ were associated with health and outcomes as measured by rheumatology-specific and generic instruments. The consideration of illness perceptions as a component of rehabilitation may be important in achieving desired outcomes. PMID:23324450

2013-01-01

177

The association between parent's health and the educational attainment of their children  

PubMed Central

In this paper we compare the educational attainment of adults who had relatively unhealthy parents when they were adolescents to those whose parents were relatively healthy during this time of their lives. We use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n=13,556) to show that U.S. adolescents whose parents described their health as “fair” or “poor” at Wave 1 of the study were more likely to drop out of high school compared to those whose parents reported better levels of health. We do not observe any association between parental health and the likelihood of attending college among those who graduated from high school, however we do show that completing college (among college attendees) is more likely among those whose parents reported better health when they were adolescents. This association persists despite a wide range of statistical controls including socioeconomic status of the household, the physical and mental health status of the respondent, the grade point average of the respondent, the health behaviors of parents, as well as parental time investment. These findings add an important intergenerational component to research on the relationship between socioeconomic status and health. PMID:22682661

Boardman, Jason D.; Alexander, Kari B.; Miech, Richard; MacMillan, Ross; Shanahan, Michael

2012-01-01

178

Health effects of daily airborne particle dose in children: direct association between personal dose and respiratory health effects.  

PubMed

Air pollution is a widespread health problem associated with respiratory symptoms. Continuous exposure monitoring was performed to estimate alveolar and tracheobronchial dose, measured as deposited surface area, for 103 children and to evaluate the long-term effects of exposure to airborne particles through spirometry, skin prick tests and measurement of exhaled nitric oxide (eNO). The mean daily alveolar deposited surface area dose received by children was 1.35 × 10(3) mm(2). The lowest and highest particle number concentrations were found during sleeping and eating time. A significant negative association was found between changes in pulmonary function tests and individual dose estimates. Significant differences were found for asthmatics, children with allergic rhinitis and sensitive to allergens compared to healthy subjects for eNO. Variation is a child's activity over time appeared to have a strong impact on respiratory outcomes, which indicates that personal monitoring is vital for assessing the expected health effects of exposure to particles. PMID:23792384

Buonanno, Giorgio; Marks, Guy B; Morawska, Lidia

2013-09-01

179

Socioeconomic and demographic factors modify the association between informal caregiving and health in the Sandwich Generation  

PubMed Central

Background Nearly 50 million Americans provide informal care to an older relative or friend. Many are members of the “sandwich generation”, providing care for elderly parents and children simultaneously. Although evidence suggests that the negative health consequences of caregiving are more severe for sandwiched caregivers, little is known about how these associations vary by sociodemographic factors. Methods We abstracted data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to determine how the association between caregiving and health varies by sociodemographic factors, using ordinal logistic regression with interaction terms and stratification by number of children, income, and race/ethnicity. Results The association between informal caregiving and health varied by membership in the “sandwich generation,” income, and race/ethnicity. This association was significant among subjects with one (OR =?1.13, 95% CI [1.04, 1.24]) and two or more children (OR =?1.17, 95% CI =?1.09, 1.26]), but not in those without children (OR =?1.01, 95% CI [0.97, 1.05]). Associations were strongest in those earning $50,000-$75,000 annually, but these income-dependent associations varied by race/ethnicity. In Whites with two or more children, the strongest associations between caregiving and health occurred in lower income individuals. These trends were not observed for Whites without children. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the added burden of caregiving for both children and elderly relatives may be impacted by income and race/ethnicity. These differences should be considered when developing culturally appropriate interventions to improve caregiver health and maintain this vital component of the US health care system. PMID:24735495

2014-01-01

180

Does Place of Education Matter? Contextualizing the Education and Health Status Association Among Asian Americans  

PubMed Central

The educational gradient in health is one of the most robust associations in social science research. Results of the current study indicate that, like the pattern observed among other racial and ethnic minority groups, the well-established educational gradient in health is attenuated among Asian Americans. We also show that the gradient association between educational attainment and self-rated health among Asian Americans depends on whether they receive the bulk of their education in the United States or abroad. Compared to the schooling received in the United States, being educated in a foreign country does not result in the same health payoffs for increasing educational attainment. Analysis of an extensive set of mediators indicates that a foreign education restricts economic opportunities, limits positive social interaction, and inhibits English language proficiency. We discuss the implications for Asian Americans, a group composed largely of immigrants who received their education outside the United States. PMID:19835099

WALTON, EMILY; TAKEUCHI, DAVID T.; HERTING, JERALD R.; ALEGRIA, MARGARITA

2009-01-01

181

The association between residential area characteristics and mental health outcomes among men and women in Belgium  

PubMed Central

Aim Recently, interest has grown in the association between contextual factors and health outcomes. This study questions whether mental health complaints vary according to the socio-economic characteristics of the residential area where people live. The gender-specific patterns are studied. Methods Complaints of depression and generalized anxiety were measured by means of the relevant subscales of the Symptoms Checklist 90-Revised. Multilevel models were estimated with PASW statistics 18, based on a unique dataset, constructed by merging data from the Belgian Health Interview Surveys from 2001 and 2004 with data from 264 municipalities derived from Statistics Belgium and the General Socio-Economic Survey. Main findings The results of this exploratory study indicate that the local unemployment rate is associated with complaints of depression among women. Conclusion This study suggests that policy should approach the male and female population differently when implementing mental health prevention campaigns. PMID:22958473

2011-01-01

182

[Gender differences in measures of mental health associated with a marital relationship].  

PubMed

This study examined gender differences for two measures of mental health as related to the quality of the marital relationship. Middle-aged respondents (221 female; 210 male) rated their marital satisfaction, affection, and communication. They also rated their psychological well-being and depression. The correlations between marital quality and mental health indicated that for males marital quality was more strongly associated with psychological well-being than with depression. Females showed no such difference, or their marital quality was associated with depression. This implies that for females, depression was a more sensitive measure of their mental health related to their husband-wife relationship. On the other hand, for males subjective well-being which was correlated with self-esteem was a more sensitive measure of their mental health. PMID:24669502

Ito, Yuko; Sagara, Junko

2014-02-01

183

Factors Associated with Self-Reported Health: A Twin Study of Older African American Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined risk factors associated with self-reported health (SRH) in a genetically informative sample of older African American female twins. An interview was conducted with a national sample of 180 African American female twin pairs. Questions included: SRH, demographics, health behaviors, chronic diseases, and functional status. SRH was dichotomized into negative (fair\\/poor) and positive (good\\/very good\\/excellent). Logistic regression for

Sylvia E. Furner; Katrine Wallace; Lester Arguelles; Toni Miles; Jack Goldberg

2010-01-01

184

Type D personality is associated with maladaptive health-related behaviours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type D personality (the combination of negative affect and social inhibition) is associated with poor prognosis in cardiac patients. The current study aims to investigate the relationship between Type D and health-related behaviours. In a cross-sectional study, 200 healthy participants completed measures of Type D personality, and health-related behaviours. The results showed that Type D individuals engaged in more unhealthy

Julie Gilmour; Lynn Williams

2012-01-01

185

Individual, Interpersonal, and Institutional Level Factors Associated With the Mental Health of College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study investigates the individual, interpersonal, and institutional level factors that are associated with overall mental health among college students. Participants: Data are from an online cross-sectional survey of 2,203 students currently enrolled at a large public university. Methods: Mental health was ascertained using a subcomponent of the RAND Medical Outcomes Study functioning and well-being measures developed by the

DeAnnah R. Byrd; Kristen J. McKinney

2012-01-01

186

Concurrent and prospective associations between physical activity, walking and mental health in older women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundLeisure-time physical activity (LTPA) shows promise for reducing the risk of poor mental health in later life, although gender- and age-specific research is required to clarify this association. This study examined the concurrent and prospective relationships between both LTPA and walking with mental health in older women.MethodsCommunity-dwelling women aged 73–78 years completed mailed surveys in 1999, 2002 and 2005 for

Kristiann C Heesch; Nicola W Burton; Wendy J Brown

2010-01-01

187

Does gender moderate associations among impulsivity and health-risk behaviors?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study explores the relations among gender, impulsivity and three health-risk behaviors relevant to young adults (tobacco use, alcohol problems and gambling problems) in a sample of 197 college-age individuals. We sought to determine whether impulsivity is associated with health-risk behaviors in the same ways for men and women. For tobacco use and gambling problems, men were at higher

Scott F. Stoltenberg; Bryan D. Batien; Denis G. Birgenheir

2008-01-01

188

Association of Returning to Work With Better Health in Working-Aged Adults: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We systematically reviewed the literature on the impact of returning to work on health among working-aged adults. Methods. We searched 6 electronic databases in 2005. We selected longitudinal studies that documented a transition from unemployment to employment and included a comparison group. Two reviewers independently appraised the retrieved literature for potential relevance and methodological quality. Results. Eighteen studies met our inclusion criteria, including 1 randomized controlled trial. Fifteen studies revealed a beneficial effect of returning to work on health, either demonstrating a significant improvement in health after reemployment or a significant decline in health attributed to continued unemployment. We also found evidence for health selection, suggesting that poor health interferes with people’s ability to go back to work. Some evidence suggested that earlier reemployment may be associated with better health. Conclusions. Beneficial health effects of returning to work have been documented in a variety of populations, times, and settings. Return-to-work programs may improve not only financial situations but also health. PMID:22390520

Chambers, Lori; Wilson, Mike; Mustard, Cameron; Rourke, Sean B.; Bayoumi, Ahmed; Raboud, Janet; Lavis, John

2012-01-01

189

The Association between Childhood Abuse and Labor Force Outcomes in Young Adults: Results from the Ontario Child Health Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the associations between childhood physical and sexual abuse and labor force outcomes in young adults and the possible mediating effects of educational attainment, current mental health, and physical health. Data from the Ontario Child Health Study (N = 1,893), a province-wide longitudinal study were analyzed. Controlling for childhood and demographic variables, severe childhood physical abuse was significantly associated

Masako Tanaka; Ellen Jamieson; Katholiki Georgiades; Eric K. Duku; Michael H. Boyle; Harriet L. MacMillan

2011-01-01

190

Health Care Burden and Cost Associated with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Based on Official Canadian Data  

PubMed Central

Background Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is a group of disorders caused by prenatal alcohol exposure. From this group, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is the only disorder coded in the International Classification of Diseases, version 10 (ICD-10). This coding was used to gain an understanding on the health care utilization and the mortality rate for individuals diagnosed with FAS, as well as to estimate the associated health care costs in Canada for the most recent available fiscal year (2008–2009). Methods Health care utilization data associated with a diagnosis of FAS were directly obtained from the Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI). Mortality data associated with a diagnosis of FAS were obtained from Statistics Canada. Results The total direct health care cost of acute care, psychiatric care, day surgery, and emergency department services associated with FAS in Canada in 2008–2009, based on the official CIHI data, was about $6.7 million. The vast majority of the most responsible diagnoses, which account for the majority of a patient’s length of stay in hospital, fall within the ICD-10 category Mental and Behavioural Disorders (F00–F99). It was evident that the burden and cost of acute care hospitalizations due to FAS is increasing ?1.6 times greater in 2008–2009, compared to 2002–2003. The mortality data due to FAS, obtained from Statistics Canada (2000–2008), may be underreported, and are likely invalid. Discussion The official data on the utilization of health care services by individuals diagnosed with FAS are likely to be underreported and therefore, the reported cost figures are most likely underestimated. The quantification of the health care costs associated with FAS is crucial for policy developers and decision makers alike, of the impact of prenatal alcohol exposure, with the ultimate goal of initiating preventive interventions to address FASD. PMID:22900084

Popova, Svetlana; Lange, Shannon; Burd, Larry; Rehm, Jurgen

2012-01-01

191

Child and Family Psychiatric and Psychological Factors Associated With Child Physical Health Problems  

PubMed Central

To examine associations among Puerto Rican children's physical health problems and children's internalizing disorders, parental psychopathology and acculturative stress, and family factors. A population-based probability sample of 2491 Puerto Rican children, aged between 5 and 13 years, and caregivers from the South Bronx and the U.S. Commonwealth of Puerto Rico participated in this study. The parent version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-IV was used to assess children's internalizing disorders. Children's anxiety disorders, parental psychopathology, and acculturative stress were associated with childhood asthma, abdominal pain, and headaches. Children's depressive disorders, maternal acceptance, and family functioning were associated with abdominal pain and headaches. Parents of children living in Puerto Rico were more likely to report physical health problems in their children than in the Bronx. Children's internalizing disorders, parental psychopathology, and acculturative stress may be important areas to target among Puerto Rican children with physical health problems. PMID:20386256

Feldman, Jonathan M.; Ortega, Alexander N.; Koinis-Mitchell, Daphne; Kuo, Alice A.; Canino, Glorisa

2010-01-01

192

Association between health worker motivation and healthcare quality efforts in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Ghana is one of the sub-Saharan African countries making significant progress towards universal access to quality healthcare. However, it remains a challenge to attain the 2015 targets for the health related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) partly due to health sector human resource challenges including low staff motivation. Purpose This paper addresses indicators of health worker motivation and assesses associations with quality care and patient safety in Ghana. The aim is to identify interventions at the health worker level that contribute to quality improvement in healthcare facilities. Methods The study is a baseline survey of health workers (n = 324) in 64 primary healthcare facilities in two regions in Ghana. Data collection involved quality care assessment using the SafeCare Essentials tool, the National Health Insurance Authority (NHIA) accreditation data and structured staff interviews on workplace motivating factors. The Spearman correlation test was conducted to test the hypothesis that the level of health worker motivation is associated with level of effort by primary healthcare facilities to improve quality care and patient safety. Results The quality care situation in health facilities was generally low, as determined by the SafeCare Essentials tool and NHIA data. The majority of facilities assessed did not have documented evidence of processes for continuous quality improvement and patient safety. Overall, staff motivation appeared low although workers in private facilities perceived better working conditions than workers in public facilities (P <0.05). Significant positive associations were found between staff satisfaction levels with working conditions and the clinic’s effort towards quality improvement and patient safety (P <0.05). Conclusion As part of efforts towards attainment of the health related MDGs in Ghana, more comprehensive staff motivation interventions should be integrated into quality improvement strategies especially in government-owned healthcare facilities where working conditions are perceived to be the worst. PMID:23945073

2013-01-01

193

Health-Related Factors Associated with Mode of Travel to Work  

PubMed Central

Active commuting (AC) to the workplace is a potential strategy for incorporating physical activity into daily life and is associated with health benefits. This study examined the association between health-related factors and mode of travel to the workplace. Methods. A volunteer convenience sample of employed adults completed an online survey regarding demographics, health-related factors, and the number of times/week walking, biking, driving, and using public transit to work (dichotomized as no walk/bike/drive/PT and walk/bike/drive/PT 1 + x/week). Logistic regression was used to predict the likelihood of each mode of transport and meeting PA recommendations from AC according to demographics and health-related factors. Results. The sample (n = 1175) was aged 43.5 ± 11.4 years and was primarily White (92.7%) and female (67.9%). Respondents reported walking (7.3%), biking (14.4%), taking public transit (20.3%), and driving (78.3%) to work at least one time/week. Among those reporting AC, 9.6% met PA recommendations from AC alone. Mode of travel to work was associated with several demographic and health-related factors, including age, number of chronic diseases, weight status, and AC beliefs. Discussion. Mode of transportation to the workplace and health-related factors such as disease or weight status should be considered in future interventions targeting AC. PMID:23533450

Bopp, Melissa; Kaczynski, Andrew T.; Campbell, Matthew E.

2013-01-01

194

The factors associated with the belief that vegetarian diets provide health benefits.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to examine the factors associated with the belief that vegetarian diets provide health benefits. A random population mail survey about food choice was conducted among a sample of 1000 South Australians. An additional (non-random) survey of 106 vegetarians and semi-vegetarians was also conducted, giving a total of 707 participants from both samples. The main predictors of the belief that vegetarian diets provide health benefits for all respondents were found to be the belief that meat is neither healthy nor necessary and frequent searching for information on healthy eating. However, there were differences between vegetarians, non-vegetarians and semi-vegetarians. In particular, health issues were relatively more important for semi-vegetarians and vegetarians, while knowledge and convenience issues were most important for non-vegetarians. The results have important implications for public health. Many South Australians perceive that health benefits are associated with eating a vegetarian diet, which may also apply to plant-based diets in general. However, if non-vegetarians are to obtain some of the health benefits associated with the consumption of a plant-based diet, they require information on the preparation of quick and easy plant- based meals. PMID:14505993

Lea, Emma; Worsley, Anthony

2003-01-01

195

Who Uses CAM? A Narrative Review of Demographic Characteristics and Health Factors Associated with CAM Use  

PubMed Central

Complementary and Alternative Medicines (CAM) are used by an extensive number of patients in the UK and elsewhere. In order to understand this pattern of behavior, it is helpful to examine the characteristics of people who use CAM. This narrative review collates and evaluates the evidence concerning the demographic characteristics and health status factors associated with CAM use in community-based non-clinical populations. A systematic literature search of computerized databases was conducted, and published research papers which present evidence concerning associations between CAM use and demographic and health characteristics are discussed and evaluated. The evidence suggests that people who use CAM tend to be female, of middle age and have more education. In terms of their health, CAM users tend to have more than one medical condition, but might not be more likely than non-users to have specific conditions such as cancer or to rate their own general health as poor. The multivariate studies that have been conducted suggest that both demographic and health characteristics contribute independently to CAM use. In conclusion, demographic characteristics and factors related to an individual's health status are associated with CAM use. Future research is needed to address methodological limitations in existing studies. PMID:18955327

Lewith, G. T.

2010-01-01

196

The associations between noise sensitivity, reported physical and mental health, perceived environmental quality, and noise annoyance.  

PubMed

One hundred and ninety residents around Frankfurt Airport (46% female; 17-80 years) were interviewed concerning noise annoyance due to transportation noise (aircraft, road traffic), perceived mental and physical health, perceived environmental quality, and noise sensitivity. The aim of the analyses was to test whether noise sensitivity reflects partly general environmental sensitivity and is associated with an elevated susceptibility for the perception of mental and physical health. In this study, the reported physical and mental health variables were not associated with noise exposure but with noise annoyance, and were interpreted to reflect nonspecific codeterminants of annoyance rather than noise effects. Noise sensitivity was found to influence total noise annoyance and aircraft noise annoyance but to a lesser degree annoyance due to road traffic noise. Noise sensitivity was associated with reported physical health, but not with reported mental health. Noise-sensitive persons reported poorer environmental quality in their residential area than less sensitive persons in particular with regard to air traffic (including the facets noise, pollution, and contaminations) and quietness. Other aspects of the perceived quality of the environment were scarcely associated with noise sensitivity. This indicates that noise sensitivity is more specific and a reliable predictor of responses to noise from the dominant source (in this case air traffic) rather than a predictor of the individual perception of the environmental quality in general. PMID:20160386

Schreckenberg, Dirk; Griefahn, Barbara; Meis, Markus

2010-01-01

197

Public Health Professionals and Students Encouraged to Submit Abstracts for the 2014 Wildlife Disease Association (WDA) Conference  

E-print Network

Public Health Professionals and Students Encouraged to Submit Abstracts for the 2014 Wildlife and posters from professionals and students from within the field of public health and epidemiology. Health Association of State Public Health Veterinarians and will feature unique opportunities for inter

Sheridan, Jennifer

198

Association between diet, social resources and oral health related quality of life in edentulous patients.  

PubMed

To assess whether there was an association between diet, oral health related quality of life and social resources in a population of older edentulous adults, and, to assess the impact of provision of new complete replacement dentures. This study was carried out at Cork University Dental Hospital in Ireland. In this prospective clinical study, 35 edentulous adults who requested new complete dentures completed pre-treatment questionnaires which included validated oral health status, social resources and nutritional assessment questionnaires. New dentures were provided and the impact of treatment on oral health related quality of life, diet and ability to chew food was assessed. Satisfaction with dentures and oral health related quality of life improved following provision of new dentures. However, food choice remained similar to pre-treatment choice, and subjects were rated as medium risk for poor nutritional status on the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) score. Oral health related quality of life and diet were not correlated. Three quarters of the sample felt they had no nutritional problems. However, approximately 70% reported that they had changed their food choices because of dental problems and that financial cost was a barrier to dental treatment. Food selection among the group studied was not ideal, and not improved by the provision of new dentures. There was no association between diet and oral health related quality of life. Further research is needed to improve our understanding of the relationship between oral health and diet. PMID:16102073

Allen, P F

2005-09-01

199

The association of mental health conditions with employment, interpersonal, and subjective functioning after intimate partner violence.  

PubMed

This study explored the associations of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and depressive symptoms with employment, social support, and subjective functioning in 100 women who were seeking mental health assistance after intimate partner violence. Depressive disorders showed significant associations with low levels of social support, diminished self-esteem, reduced quality of life, and elevated negative social problem-solving orientation. PTSD severity was significantly associated with low self-esteem and elevated negative problem orientation, while severity of GAD was only associated with negative problem orientation. Results are discussed in light of current service models for women who have experienced intimate partner violence. PMID:25288594

Beck, J Gayle; Clapp, Joshua D; Jacobs-Lentz, Jason; McNiff, Judiann; Avery, Megan; Olsen, Shira A

2014-11-01

200

Diabetes and bone health: the relationship between diabetes and osteoporosis-associated fractures.  

PubMed

It is well established that osteoporosis and diabetes are prevalent diseases with significant associated morbidity and mortality. The relationship between diabetes and bone disease is less well defined but recent data seem to suggest that diabetes and the complications associated with it can be detrimental to bone health. Furthermore, it appears that thiazolidinediones, medications used in the treatment of diabetes, can also cause bone loss and increase the risk of fracture. This article will review the relationship between diabetes and bone health. PMID:21432981

Kurra, Salila; Siris, Ethel

2011-07-01

201

Lower cumulative stress is associated with better health for physically active adults in the community.  

PubMed

Both cumulative adversity, an individual's lifetime exposure to stressors, and insufficient exercise are associated with poor health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether exercise buffers the association of cumulative adverse life events (CALE) with health in a community-wide sample of healthy adults (ages 18-50 years; women: n?=?219, 29.5?±?9.2 years; men: n?=?176, 29.4?±?8.7 years, mean?±?standard deviation). Participants underwent the Cumulative Adversity Interview, which divides life events into three subsets: major life events (MLE), recent life events (RLE) and traumatic experiences (TLE). These individuals also completed the Cornell Medical Index and a short assessment for moderate or greater intensity exercise behavior, modified from the Nurses' Health Study. Results indicated that higher CALE was associated with greater total health problems (r?=?0.431, p?health problems (p value <0.05). Conversely, at high levels of MLE, the benefits of exercise appear to be absent. Three-way interactions were observed between sex, exercise and stress. Increased levels of exercise were related to better physical health in men, at all levels of CALE. Only women who reported both low levels of CALE and high levels of exercise had more favorable physical health outcomes. A similar pattern of results emerged for RLE. Together, these data suggest that increased exercise is related to better health, but these effects may vary by cumulative stress exposure and sex. PMID:24392966

Stults-Kolehmainen, Matthew A; Tuit, Keri; Sinha, Rajita

2014-03-01

202

The Ten Tasks of the Mental Health Provider: Recommendations for Revision of the World Professional Association for Transgender Health's Standards of Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article outlines recommendations for the World Professional Association for Transgender Health's (WPATH) Standards of Care (SOC) regarding the roles, responsibilities, and tasks of the mental health provider in assessing eligibility and readiness for medical and surgical treatment of gender nonconforming, transgender, and transsexual clients. It reflects a reconceptualization of the role of the mental health provider as a gender

Arlene Istar Lev

2009-01-01

203

APPENDIX 6 -WADHAM COLLEGE HEALTH AND SAFETY GENERAL POLICY STATEMENT At Wadham College we recognise our duties under health and safety legislation and associated  

E-print Network

APPENDIX 6 - WADHAM COLLEGE HEALTH AND SAFETY GENERAL POLICY STATEMENT At Wadham College we recognise our duties under health and safety legislation and associated regulations. Our intention precautions, to ensure the safety, health and welfare of anyone likely to be affected by the operation of our

Wallace, Mark

204

Examining diet- and exercise-related communication in romantic relationships: associations with health behaviors.  

PubMed

This study examined the association between diet- and exercise-related social influence and support among romantic partners, as well as whether these variables were associated with their health behaviors. An Actor-Partner Mediator Model was used to examine these associations at the couple level (n = 192). Results indicated that individuals who felt their partners used more positive influence strategies also reported feeling more supported by their partners. Further, men who reported feeling more supported by their partners also engaged in healthier diet and exercise behaviors. Overall, the results suggested that people's perceptions of positive communication (i.e., influence and support) from their partners were generally more likely to be associated with their enactment of healthier behaviors. Implications for intrapersonal as well as interpersonal effects of influence, support, and health behaviors are discussed. PMID:24295060

Burke, Tricia J; Segrin, Chris

2014-01-01

205

Gender differences in factors associated with perceived need and use of korean adolescents mental health services.  

PubMed

This study investigated the socio-demographic characteristics and emotional and behavioral factors associated with the perceived need and actual use of adolescent mental health services according to genders in Korea. We assessed 1,857 middle school students aged 14-16 years. We administered a self-reported questionnaire including questions on their socio-demographic data, Korean Youth Self Report, and self perceived need and actual use of mental health services. Overall, 11.6 % of the adolescents demonstrated a self perceived need for mental health services regarding their emotional or behavioral problems, while 2.1 % had sought mental health services. There were discrepancies between the perceived need and actual use. Most adolescents (81.6 %) used mental health services without self-perceived need, and only 3.3 % of adolescents with self-perceived need utilized mental health services. The perceived need of mental health services is positively influenced by the adolescent's anxious/depressed problems in both genders. The use of them is negatively influenced by the withdrawn problem in adolescent boys, while positively influenced by the aggressive behavior in adolescent girls. To increase the actual use of mental health services more attention needs to be focused on their internalizing problems, such as anxious/depressed and withdrawn problems, in addition to externalizing problems in both genders. PMID:24526458

Kim, Nam Hee; Lim, Ki Young; Chung, Young Ki; Noh, Jae Sung; Shin, Yun Mi

2014-12-01

206

Association of Multiple Behavioral Risk Factors with Adolescents' Willingness to Engage in eHealth Promotion  

PubMed Central

Objective?This study examines adolescents’ willingness to use the internet and other forms of technology for health promotion purposes (i.e., “eHealth promotion” willingness) and determines if a relationship exists between adolescents’ behavioral risks and their eHealth promotion willingness.?Methods?A total of 332 adolescents provided data at a routine medical check-up, including assessments of technology access, eHealth promotion willingness, and multiple behavioral risk factors for child- and adult-onset disease (body mass index, physical activity, smoking, sun protection, depression).?Results?The level of access to technology among the sample was high, with moderate willingness to engage in eHealth promotion. After adjusting for adolescents’ access to technology, the presence of multiple behavioral risk factors was positively associated with willingness to use technology for health promotion purposes (? =.12, p =.03).?Conclusions?Adolescents with both single and multiple behavioral risk factors are in need of health promotion to prevent the onset of disease later in life. eHealth appears to be an acceptable and promising intervention approach with this population. PMID:18723566

Abraham, Anisha A.; Graham, Amanda L.; Wilson, Lara D.; Walker, Leslie R.

2009-01-01

207

Self-Rated Mental Health Among Asian American Adults: Association With Psychiatric Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the association between self-rated mental health (SRMH) and diagnoses of psychiatric disorders among Asian American adults. Data were drawn from the National Latino and Asian American Survey (NLAAS, 2002–2003). Bivariate correlations and logistic regression analyses were conducted to compare the association in three subgroups of Asian Americans (i.e., Chinese, Filipinos, and Vietnamese). Results from logistic regression

Giyeon Kim; David A. Chiriboga; Ami Bryant; Chao-Hui Huang; Martha Crowther; Grace X. Ma

2012-01-01

208

The Association Between Penis Size and Sexual Health Among Men Who Have Sex with Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larger penis size has been equated with a symbol of power, stamina, masculinity, and social status. Yet, there has been little\\u000a research among men who have sex with men assessing the association between penis size and social-sexual health. Survey data\\u000a from a diverse sample of 1,065 men who have sex with men were used to explore the association between perceived

Christian Grov; Jeffrey T. Parsons; David S. Bimbi

2010-01-01

209

The Bureau of Health Education's Elementary School Health Curriculum Project, Berkeley Model, and the American Lung Association - Bureau of Health Education's Primary Grades Health Curriculum Project, Seattle Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document describes two models for an early school health curriculum project. These two projects were initiated with the aim of increasing effective cooperation of public health personnel work with public schools in teaching health maintenance and prevention of disease. The Berkeley Project worked with students of grade three through grade…

Center for Disease Control (DHEW/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

210

Associations between Parent-Adolescent Attachment Relationship Quality, Negative Life Events and Mental Health  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of this study was to examine the association of negative life events and parent-adolescent attachment relationship quality with mental health problems and to explore an interaction between the parent-adolescent attachment relationship and one or multiple negative life events on the mental health of adolescents. Methods A two-year longitudinal study was conducted among first-year secondary school students (N?=?3181). The occurrence of life events and the quality of parent-adolescent attachment were assessed at baseline and mental health status at two-year follow-up by means of self-report questionnaires. Binary logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess associations between life events, parent-adolescent attachment and mental health problems. Relative Excess Risk due to Interaction techniques were used to determine the interaction effects on the additive scale. Results Life events were related to mental health status, as was parent-adolescent attachment. The combined effect of an unfavourable parent-adolescent attachment with life events on mental health was larger than the sum of the two individual effects. Among adolescents with one life event or multiple life events, an unfavourable parent-adolescent attachment increased the risk of mental health problems at follow-up compared to the group without life events. Conclusion Results supported an interaction effect between parent-adolescent attachment and negative life events on mental health. Especially adolescents with one or multiple life events and an unfavourable parent-adolescent attachment seems to be a vulnerable group for mental health problems. Implications for further research are discussed. PMID:24312244

Bannink, Rienke; Broeren, Suzanne; van de Looij - Jansen, Petra M.; Raat, Hein

2013-01-01

211

Submitted to the Journal of the American Water Resources Association Potential Human Health Effects Associated with Pathogens in Urban Wet Weather Flows  

E-print Network

1 Submitted to the Journal of the American Water Resources Association Potential Human Health and indicator organisms found in urban receiving waters are a common cause of concern. Though some question describing the potential human health effects associated with pathogens and commo n indicator organisms found

Pitt, Robert E.

212

Complaints of Sleep Disturbances Are Associated with Cardiovascular Disease: Results from the Gutenberg Health Study  

PubMed Central

Background Despite their high prevalence, sleep disorders often remain unrecognized and untreated because of barriers to assessment and management. The aims of the present study were to examine associations of complaints of sleep disturbances with cardiovascular disease, related risk factors, and inflammation in the community and to determine the contribution of sleep disturbances to self-perceived physical health. Method The sample consists of n?=?10.000 participants, aged 35 to 74 years of a population based community sample in Germany. Cross-sectional associations of complaints of sleep disturbances with cardiovascular risk factors and disease, biomarkers of inflammation, depression, anxiety, and physical health status were analyzed. Results 19% of our sample endorsed clinically significant sleep disturbances. In the unadjusted analyses severity of sleep disturbances increased with female sex, low socioeconomic status, living without a partnership, cardiovascular disease, depression, anxiety, poor physical health, increased levels of C-reactive protein and fibrinogen. After multivariate adjustment robust associations with coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction and dyslipidemia remained. Complaints of sleep disturbances were strong and independent contributors to self-perceived poor physical health beyond depression, anxiety and medical disease burden. Conclusions Given the high prevalence of complaints of sleep disturbances and their strong impact on health status, increased efforts should be undertaken for their identification and treatment. PMID:25093413

Michal, Matthias; Wiltink, Jorg; Kirschner, Yvonne; Schneider, Astrid; Wild, Philipp S.; Munzel, Thomas; Blettner, Maria; Schulz, Andreas; Lackner, Karl; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Blankenberg, Stefan; Tschan, Regine; Tuin, Inka; Beutel, Manfred E.

2014-01-01

213

Effect of telephone health coaching (Birmingham OwnHealth) on hospital use and associated costs: cohort study with matched controls  

PubMed Central

Objectives To test the effect of a telephone health coaching service (Birmingham OwnHealth) on hospital use and associated costs. Design Analysis of person level administrative data. Difference-in-difference analysis was done relative to matched controls. Setting Community based intervention operating in a large English city with industry. Participants 2698 patients recruited from local general practices before 2009 with heart failure, coronary heart disease, diabetes, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; and a history of inpatient or outpatient hospital use. These individuals were matched on a 1:1 basis to control patients from similar areas of England with respect to demographics, diagnoses of health conditions, previous hospital use, and a predictive risk score. Intervention Telephone health coaching involved a personalised care plan and a series of outbound calls usually scheduled monthly. Median length of time enrolled on the service was 25.5 months. Control participants received usual healthcare in their areas, which did not include telephone health coaching. Main outcome measures Number of emergency hospital admissions per head over 12 months after enrolment. Secondary metrics calculated over 12 months were: hospital bed days, elective hospital admissions, outpatient attendances, and secondary care costs. Results In relation to diagnoses of health conditions and other baseline variables, matched controls and intervention patients were similar before the date of enrolment. After this point, emergency admissions increased more quickly among intervention participants than matched controls (difference 0.05 admissions per head, 95% confidence interval 0.00 to 0.09, P=0.046). Outpatient attendances also increased more quickly in the intervention group (difference 0.37 attendances per head, 0.16 to 0.58, P<0.001), as did secondary care costs (difference £175 per head, £22 to £328, P=0.025). Checks showed that we were unlikely to have missed reductions in emergency admissions because of unobserved differences between intervention and matched control groups. Conclusions The Birmingham OwnHealth telephone health coaching intervention did not lead to the expected reductions in hospital admissions or secondary care costs over 12 months, and could have led to increases. PMID:23920348

2013-01-01

214

Fish Health Studies Associated with the Kingston Fly Ash Spill, Spring 2009 - Fall 2010  

SciTech Connect

On December 22, 2008, over 4 million cubic meters of fly ash slurry was released into the Emory River when a dike surrounding a solid waste containment area at the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant ruptured. One component of TVA's response to the spill is a biological monitoring program to assess short- and long-term ecological responses to the ash and associated chemicals, including studies on fish health and contaminant bioaccumulation. These studies were initiated in early Spring 2009 for the purposes of: (1) documenting the levels of fly ash-associated metals in various tissues of representative sentinel fish species in the area of the fly ash spill, (2) determining if exposure to fly ash-associated metals causes short, intermediate, or long-term health effects on these sentinel fish species, (3) assessing if there are causal relationships between exposure to metals and health effects on fish, (4) evaluating, along with information from other ecological and physicochemical studies, the nature and route of contaminant transfer though food chains into higher level consumers, (5) providing important information for the Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) for the Kingston fly ash project, and (6) serving as an important technology information transfer or model study focused on how to best evaluate the environmental effects of fly ash (and related environmental stressors), not only at the Kingston site, but also at sites on other aquatic systems where coal-fired generating stations are located. This report presents the results of the first two years of the fish health study. To date, fish health and bioaccumulation studies have been conducted from Spring 2009 though Fall 2011 and includes 6 seasonal studies: Spring 2009, Fall 2009, Spring 2010, Fall 2010, Spring 2011, and Fall 2011. Both the Spring and Fall studies have focused on 3-4 sentinel fish species that represent different feeding habits, behaviors, and home ranges. In addition to fish health and bioaccumulation, the Spring investigations also included reproductive integrity studies on the same fish used for bioaccumulation and fish health. In this report, results of the fish health studies from Spring 2009 through Fall 2010 are presented while an associated report will present the fish reproductive studies conducted during Spring 2009 and Spring 2010. A report on fish bioaccumulation was submitted to TVA in June 2011. The fish health study conducted in conjunction with the bioaccumulation and reproductive study is critical for assessing and evaluating possible causal relationships between contaminant exposure (bioaccumulation) and the response of fish to exposure as reflected by the various measurements of fish health.

Adams, Marshall [ORNL; Fortner, Allison M [ORNL

2012-05-01

215

Invited commentary: interpreting associations between high birth weight and later health problems.  

PubMed

High birth weight (>4.0 kg) has been associated with a wide range of health problems later in life. The interpretation of these statistical associations may be difficult, however. These difficulties are closely linked to methodological challenges in this research, such as filtering out confounding from family factors, disentangling associations with prenatal processes from associations with postnatal processes, and uncovering what birth weight actually represents. The well-conducted study by Kristensen et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2014;180(9):876-884), presented in this issue of the Journal, offers an interesting example of how one can filter out confounding from family factors. In an elegant series of analyses, the authors show how an apparent inverse association between birth weight and later intelligence among those in the highest range of the birth weight scale became a positive association when proper adjustment for family factors was made. Sibling comparisons were important here. PMID:25281692

Eriksen, Willy

2014-11-01

216

CARDIOVASCULAR AND OTHER HEALTH EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH ARSENIC EXPOSURE IN INNER MONGOLIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Arsenic exposure is associated with cardiovascular and other health effects. The study objectives were to investigate the mode of action and to assess dose-response relationships of arsenic on cardiovascular, diabetic and carcinogenic effects in Ba Men, Inner Mongolia. Ba Men res...

217

Irregular Breakfast Eating and Associated Health Behaviors: A Pilot Study among College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine prevalence of eating breakfast and associated health compromising behaviors. This study utilized a cross-sectional survey methodology. A purposive cluster sampling technique was utilized to collect data from a representative sample of college students in a Midwestern university in the U.S. A total of 1,257…

Thiagarajah, Krisha; Torabi, Mohammad R.

2009-01-01

218

Roadmap: Environmental Health and Safety Environmental Technology Associate of Applied Science  

E-print Network

Roadmap: Environmental Health and Safety ­ Environmental Technology ­ Associate of Applied Science This roadmap is a recommended semester-by-semester plan of study for this major. However, courses and milestones designated as critical (in boldface and shaded areas) must be completed in the semester listed

Khan, Javed I.

219

Roadmap: Environmental Health and Safety Environmental Safety and Security Associate of Applied Science  

E-print Network

Roadmap: Environmental Health and Safety ­ Environmental Safety and Security ­ Associate of Applied/LNHD This roadmap is a recommended semester-by-semester plan of study for this major. However, courses and milestones designated as critical (in boldface and shaded areas) must be completed in the semester listed

Khan, Javed I.

220

Chronic arsenic exposure is associated with many human health conditions, including  

E-print Network

Chronic arsenic exposure is associated with many human health conditions, including skin lesions in Bangladesh (Bangladesh Arsenic Mitigation Water Supply Project 2006; Josephson 2002). Among the country water. Arsenic contamination has had a profound impact at both the individual and community levels

van Geen, Alexander

221

Mental Health Problems in Adults with Down Syndrome and Their Association with Life Circumstances  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focused on current life circumstances, previous life events, and engagement with productive and enjoyable activities. It examined the association of these variables with mental health problems and mood in a cohort of young adults with Down syndrome. Participants were 49 adults with Down syndrome (age range 20-31 years) and their…

Mallardo, Mariarosa; Cuskelly, Monica; White, Paul; Jobling, Anne

2014-01-01

222

Associations Between Caregiving and Health Outcomes Among Parents of Children with Mental Illness: An Attachment Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the associations between attachment, caregiving, and health outcomes (perceptions of somatic and depressive symptoms) in a sample of 194 parents who have a child with mental illness. Securely attached parents reported using more comforting behavior and tactile communication with their children with mental illness. Parents with a fearful attachment reported using more overinvolved and egocentric caregiving, as

Lisa Farinelli; Laura K. Guerrero

2011-01-01

223

Associations of calcium and aluminum with the growth and health of sugar maple trees in Vermont  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared tree growth and crown condition with soil and foliar elemental composition in 14 sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) stands in VT, USA, to evaluate if deficiencies or imbalances in cation nutrition were associated with growth and health reductions in native stands. The Till Source Model (TSM) was used to select study sites potentially high or low in calcium

Paul G. Schaberg; James W. Tilley; Gary J. Hawley; Donald H. DeHayes; Scott W. Bailey

2006-01-01

224

Association between Smoking and Health Outcomes in Postmenopausal Women Living with Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Background. In multiple sclerosis (MS), symptom management and improved health-related quality of life (HrQOL) may be modified by smoking. Objective. To evaluate the extent to which smoking is associated with worsened health outcomes and HrQOL for postmenopausal women with MS. Methods. We identified 251 Women's Health Initiative Observational Study participants with a self-reported MS diagnosis. Using a linear model, we estimated changes from baseline to 3 years for activities of daily living, total metabolic equivalent tasks (MET) hours per week, mental and physical component scales (MCS, PCS) of the SF-36, and menopausal symptoms adjusting for years since menopause and other confounders. Results. Nine percent were current and 50% past smokers. Age at smoking initiation was associated with significant changes in MCS during menopause. PCS scores were unchanged. While women who had ever smoked experienced an increase in physical activity during menopause, the physical activity levels of women who never smoked declined. Residual confounding may explain this finding. Smoking was not associated with change in menopausal symptoms during the 3-year follow-up. Conclusion. Smoking was not associated with health outcomes among post-menopausal women with MS. PMID:24860668

Eaton, Charles; Tindle, Hilary; Lapane, Kate L.

2014-01-01

225

Psychosocial, Environmental and Behavioral Factors Associated with Bone Health in Middle-School Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to identify the psychosocial, environmental and behavioral factors associated with calcium intake, physical activity and bone health in a cohort of adolescent girls. Baseline data (N = 718 girls, mean age: 11.6 plus or minus 0.4 years) from the Incorporating More Physical Activity and Calcium in Teens (IMPACT) study…

Sharma, Shreela V.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Kelder, Steven H.; Day, R. Sue; Hergenroeder, Albert

2009-01-01

226

Roadmap: Environmental Health and Safety Environmental Safety and Security Associate of Applied Science  

E-print Network

Roadmap: Environmental Health and Safety ­ Environmental Safety and Security ­ Associate of Applied Semester One: [17 Credit Hours] COMT 11000 Introduction to Computer Systems 3 EVHS 10001 Environmental Technology I 3 EVHS 10004 Toxicology 3 EVHS 10010 Industrial Hygiene I 4 US 10097 Destination Kent State

Sheridan, Scott

227

Roadmap: Environmental Health and Safety Environmental Technology Associate of Applied Science  

E-print Network

Roadmap: Environmental Health and Safety � Environmental Technology � Associate of Applied Science Credit Hours] COMT 11000 Introduction to Computer Systems 3 EVHS 10001 Environmental Technology I 3 EVHS 10004 Toxicology 3 EVHS 10010 Industrial Hygiene I 4 US 10097 Destination Kent State: First Year

Sheridan, Scott

228

Mental Health Associate Program T-056: A Program Review, Spring 1991.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At Lenoir Community College (LCC) in Kinston, North Carolina, 20% of established programs and 33% of the non-academic support services are reviewed each year in an annual cycle, with all programs reviewed within a 5-year period. To evaluate the Mental Health Associate (MHA) Program at LCC, assessment surveys were sent to 44 graduates from the…

Lenoir Community Coll., Kinston, NC.

229

Sociodemographic and health behaviour factors associated with obesity in adult populations in Estonia, Finland and Lithuania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The aim of this study was to analyse the pattern of sociodemographic variations in the prevalence of obesity in Estonia, Finland and Lithuania. In addition, the association between obesity and selected health behaviours was examined. Methods: Cross-sectional surveys were conducted among representative national samples of adult populations in 1994, 1996 and 1998. The number of participants aged 20-64 was

JURATE KLUMBIENE; JANINA PETKEVICIENE; VILLE HELASOJA; RITVA PRÄTTÄLÄ; ANU KASMEL

2004-01-01

230

ARE ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES TO CHLOROPHENOXY HERBICIDES ASSOCIATED WITH AN INCREASE IN ADVERSE HUMAN HEALTH EFFECTS?  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: Associations between adverse health effects and environmental exposures are difficult to study because exposures may be widespread, low-dose in nature, and common throughout the study population. Individual risk-factor epidemiology may not be able to initially ident...

231

Case study. Group Health Association: can Humana resuscitate the moribund HMO?  

PubMed

HMO pioneer Group Health Association of Washington, DC, was hemorrhaging members and dollars when Humana bought it in 1994. Its turnaround strategies run the gamut from outsourcing and devising administrative efficiencies to creating a new physician group and network to replace a feisty, unionized medical staff. PMID:10142820

Scott, K

1995-05-01

232

Associations between Dopamine and Serotonin Genes and Job Satisfaction: Preliminary Evidence from the Add Health Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous behavioral genetic studies have found that job satisfaction is partially heritable. We went a step further to examine particular genetic markers that may be associated with job satisfaction. Using an oversample from the National Adolescent Longitudinal Study (Add Health Study), we found 2 genetic markers, dopamine receptor gene DRD4 VNTR…

Song, Zhaoli; Li, Wendong; Arvey, Richard D.

2011-01-01

233

The Association of Low Back Pain with Obesity in One of the Primary Health Care Centers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The present study was designed to assess the association between low back pain and obesity in patients attending one of the primary health care centers. Methods: A case control study of patients attending Marka Medical Center (Amman Jordan) was conducted over 7 months (Jan-Jul 1998). All patients with low back pain were included as cases and an equal number

Mohammed Halalsheh; Mohammed Tarawneh; Ziad Mahadine

234

Intimate Partner Violence and Functional Health Status: Associations with Severity, Danger, and Self-Advocacy Behaviors  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To assess physical and mental functional health status as associated with the severity of intimate partner violence (IPV) and perceived danger. Methods Prospective cross-sectional survey of all patients aged 18–55 in an urban emergency department during a convenience sample of shifts. Instruments included the George Washington Universal Violence Prevention Screening protocol, administered by computer during the initial visit, the Short-Form 12 Health Survey (SF-12), the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2), and the Revised Danger Assessment (DA), administered by interview at 1 week follow-up. Results In total, 548 (20%) participants screened disclosed IPV victimization. Of those, 216 (40%) completed the follow-up assessment 1 week later. This cohort was 91% African American, 70% single, and 63% female, with a mean age of 35 (SD 10.41). Both physical and mental health functioning scores were lower than normative levels (50) compared with national averages: Physical Component Summary (PCS) scale 43.64 (SD 10.86) and Mental Component Summary (MCS) scale 37.46 (SD 12.29). As physical assault, psychological aggression, and reported injury increased on the CTS2, mental health functioning diminished (p?associated with diminished physical health functioning (p?health functioning decreased (p?associated with lower mental (but not physical) health functioning as well. Females experienced worsening mental health functioning as both physical assault and psychological aggression increased, whereas male victims experienced worsening mental health functioning only as psychological aggression increased. Conclusions These findings suggest that IPV takes a greater mental than physical toll (for both sexes) and that as IPV severity increases, mental health functioning diminishes and self-advocacy behaviors increase. Additionally, as perceived danger increases, both physical and mental health status worsens. This has important implications for clinicians to assess and consider IPV victims' perceptions of their situations relative to danger, not just the levels of abuse they are experiencing. PMID:19445614

Straus, Helen; McNutt, Louise Anne; Rhodes, Karin V.; Conner, Kenneth R.; Kemball, Robin S.; Kaslow, Nadine J.; Houry, Debra

2009-01-01

235

Associations between physical activity and mental health among bariatric surgical candidates  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aimed to examine associations between physical activity (PA) and mental health among adults undergoing bariatric surgery. Methods Cross sectional analysis was conducted on pre-operative data of 850 adults with ? class 2 obesity. PA was measured with a step activity monitor; mean daily steps, active minutes, and high-cadence minutes (proxy for moderate-vigorous intensity PA) were determined. Mental health functioning, depressive symptoms and treatment for depression or anxiety were measured with the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form, Beck Depression Inventory, and a study-specific questionnaire, respectively. Logistic regression analyses tested associations between PA and mental health indicators, controlling for potential confounders. Receiver operative characteristic analysis determined PA thresholds that best differentiated odds of each mental health indicator. Results Each PA parameter was significantly (P<.05) associated with a decreased odds of depressive symptoms and/or treatment for depression or anxiety, but not with impaired mental health functioning. After controlling for sociodemographics and physical health, only associations with treatment for depression and anxiety remained statistically significant. PA thresholds that best differentiated those who had vs. had not recently received treatment for depression or anxiety were <191 active minutes/day, <4750 steps/day, and <8 high-cadence minutes/day. Utilizing high-cadence minutes, compared to active minutes or steps, yielded the highest classification accuracy. Conclusion Adults undergoing bariatric surgery who meet relatively low thresholds of PA (e.g., ? 8 high-cadence minutes/day, representative of approximately one hour/week of moderate-vigorous intensity PA) are less likely to have recently received treatment for depression or anxiety compared to less active counterparts. PMID:23332532

King, Wendy C.; Kalarchian, Melissa A.; Steffen, Kristine J.; Wolfe, Bruce M.; Elder, Katherine A.; Mitchell, James E.

2013-01-01

236

Public health implications of the Bhopal disaster report to the Program Development Board, American Public Health Association  

SciTech Connect

The accidental release of methyl isocyanate (MIC) gas from a Union Carbide pesticide plant in Bhopal, India, in December 1984 now ranks as the worst industrial catastrophe in history. There is still no reliable estimate of the total number dead and injured. An estimated 100,000 to 200,000 people were exposed to a toxic plume of MIC that extended as far as 8 kilometers from the factory and covered and area of 40 square kilometers. The Program Development Board of the American Public Health Association (APHA) is charged with identifying those areas in which deficiencies in scientific knowledge exist in matters important to public health. In the present instance, merely defining the problem has been a formidable task, much less identifying the knowledge required to solve it. The first question is whether there is a need for APHA to concern itself with a subject that is already drawing considerable attention. APHA has recently issued position papers on some important issues that touch on the Bhopal tragedy and it would be wise to review these positions to see if they need any amendment in light of the Bhopal accident. The disaster in Bhopal has focused international public attention on occupational and environmental health, while at the same time the spectre of enormous financial liability has drawn serious attention on the part of industry to issues of health and safety. With the prevention of injury and disease as our central concern, the Bhopal Working Group undertook to identify the variety of public health problems raised by the Bhopal disaster.

Levenstein, C.; Ozonoff, D.; Boden, L.; Eisen, E.; Freudenberg, N.; Greaves, I.; Kleefield, S.; Kotelchuck, D.; Kriebel, D.; Laird, F.; Lewis, S.

1987-02-01

237

Economic Barriers To Improvement Of Human Health Associated With Wastewater Irrigation In The Mezquital Valley, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To improve public health, the United Nations' Johannesburg Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002 set Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of reducing by half the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and sanitation by 2015. The Mezquital Valley of Mexico is one of the places suffering serious human health problems such as ascariasis due to agricultural irrigation with untreated wastewater discharged by Mexico City. Despite the existence of serious health problems, wastewater treatment has not been installed due to economic barriers: the agricultural benefit of nutrients in the wastewater and cost of building and operating wastewater treatment plants. To develop solutions to this problem, the human health damage and the benefits of nutrient input were evaluated. The health impact caused by untreated wastewater reuse in the Mezquital Valley was estimated to be about 14 DALYs (disability-adjusted life year) per 100,000, which was 2.8 times higher than the DALYs lost by ascariasis in Mexico in 2002 estimated by WHO. The economic damage of the health impact was evaluated at 77,000 /year using willingness-to-pay (WTP) for reducing DALYs. The value of nutrient inputs (nitrogen and phosphorus) due to reuse of untreated wastewater was evaluated at 33 million /year using fertilizer prices. Therefore, attempts to decrease public health problems associated with reuse in the Mezquital Valley need to address losses of economic benefits associated with nutrients in sewage. In 2007, the Mexican Government announced plans to install wastewater treatment plants in this area. Although nutrient inputs in irrigated water is expected to decrease by 33% due to the wastewater treatment, farmers in the Mezquital Valley would still benefit from improved public health in the community and increases of crop values due to the ability to grow raw-eaten vegetables.

Yamagata, H.; Sedlak, D. L.

2008-12-01

238

The Oral History Program: III. Personal views of health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association.  

PubMed Central

The Medical Library Association Oral History Program uses accepted oral history techniques to collect and preserve interviews with members. The original taped interviews and transcripts are kept in the Medical Library Association archives and made available for research purposes; edited copies of the interviews are distributed through the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, and members are encouraged to borrow and read the histories. Summaries of forty-three interviews provide personal views on health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association. PMID:9803287

McKenzie, D; Pifalo, V

1998-01-01

239

The Oral History Program: II. Personal views of health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association.  

PubMed Central

The Medical Library Association Oral History Program uses accepted oral history techniques to collect and preserve interviews with members. The original taped interviews and transcripts are kept in the Medical Library Association archives and made available for research purposes; edited copies of the interviews are distributed through the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, and members are encouraged to borrow and read the histories. Summaries of forty-three interviews provide personal views on health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association. PMID:9681172

McKenzie, D; Pifalo, V

1998-01-01

240

The Oral History Program: I. Personal views of health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association.  

PubMed Central

The Medical Library Association Oral History Program uses accepted oral history techniques to collect and preserve interviews with members. The original taped interviews and transcripts are kept in the Medical Library Association archives and made available for research purposes; edited copies of the interviews are distributed through the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, and members are encouraged to borrow and read the histories. Summaries of forty-three interviews provide personal views on health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association. PMID:9578936

McKenzie, D; Pifalo, V

1998-01-01

241

Association Between Ideal Cardiovascular Health and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness: A Twin Study  

PubMed Central

Background The American Heart Association (AHA) recently developed the Cardiovascular Health Index (CVHI), a health metric consisting of 7 modifiable risk factors. The relationship of the CVHI with preclinical markers, such as carotid intima?media thickness (CIMT) has not been assessed. Methods We examined 490 male monozygotic and dizygotic twins without overt cardiovascular disease. CIMT was measured using B?mode ultrasonography. Each of the 7 CVHI components (blood pressure, fasting glucose, total cholesterol, body mass index, physical activity, healthy diet, and smoking) was given a point score of 0, 1, or 2 to represent poor, intermediate, or ideal health, respectively. A CVHI summation score was computed (range 0 to 14) and categorized as inadequate (0 to 4), average (5 to 9), or optimum (10 to 14) cardiovascular health. Mixed?model regression was used to examine the association of the CVHI with CIMT. Results The mean age of the twins was 55.4 years, and 61% were monozygotic. The mean CIMT was 0.75 (±0.11) mm and the mean CVHI score was 7.7 (±2.1). There was an inverse correlation between CVHI and CIMT (Spearman r=?0.22, P<0.01). For every 5?unit increase in overall CVHI score (indicating better cardiovascular health category), CIMT decreased by 0.045 mm (P<0.001) after adjusting for demographic variables and other confounders. Within monozygotic twin pairs, a 5?unit increment in CVHI score was associated with a 0.05 mm lower CIMT (P<0.001). Conclusions The CVHI is independently associated with CIMT and the association is not confounded by shared genetic and other familial factors. PMID:24385450

Kulshreshtha, Ambar; Goyal, Abhinav; Veledar, Emir; McClellan, William; Judd, Suzanne; Eufinger, Silvia C.; Bremner, J. Douglas; Goldberg, Jack; Vaccarino, Viola

2014-01-01

242

Instrumentalism, civil association and the ethics of health care: understanding the "politics of faith".  

PubMed

This paper offers critical reflection on the contemporary tendency to approach health care in instrumentalist terms. Instrumentalism is means-ends rationality. In contemporary society, the instrumentalist attitude is exemplified by the relationship between individual consumer and a provider of goods and services. The problematic nature of this attitude is illustrated by Michael Oakeshott's conceptions of enterprise association and civil association. Enterprise association is instrumental; civil association is association in terms of an ethically delineated realm of practices. The latter offers a richer ethical conception of the relation between person and society than instrumentalism does. Oakeshott's conception is further illustrated by reflection on the connection between morality and religion that he explores in an early essay concerning "religious sensibility". Religious sensibility turns on the acknowledgement of the vulnerability of the self to the vicissitudes of life. This vulnerability cannot be bargained over instrumentally without imperilling the self. Religious sensibility is thus a valuable resource for criticising instrumentalist attitudes. It allows for the cultivation of ethical self-understanding that is essential to comprehending the conditions in virtue of which genuine civil life is possible. These conditions need to be taken into account in health care. Health care is not simply about substantive wants. It also necessarily concerns the universal and constant condition of being prey to illness that is the common lot of all citizens. PMID:23612784

Sedgwick, Peter R

2013-09-01

243

Impacts of climate change on the population health associated with pluvial disaster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many metropolises located in lowlands suffer pluvial inundation disaster more than pluvial flood disaster. During the post-inundation period, some water-borne illnesses would be induced from the polluted area. For improving mitigation strategies, population health risk assessment is an important tool of post-inundation disaster management, especially in the countries suffering tropical cyclones and monsoon with high frequency. Locating in the hot zone of typhoon tracks in the Western Pacific, Taiwan suffers three to five typhoons annually. Furthermore, the trend of 24 global circulation models (GCMs) shows that climate change would enhance rainfall in Taiwan. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impacts of climate change on the population health associated with pluvial disaster. This study applies the concept that risk is composed by hazard and vulnerability to assess the risk of the population health associated with pluvial disaster. Stochastic simulation of bi-variate Gamma distribution is developed to downscale the GCMs' monthly data to extreme rainfall event scale in time domain. According to A1B scenario in short-term period of climate change, two-dimensional overland-flow coupled with drainage systems simulation is performed based on a design extreme rainfall event to calculate the impacts of climate change on pluvial hazard to population health, including flood depth, velocity and the duration of flood recession. The environmental vulnerability for population health is carried out according to the factors of resident and environment. The risk matrix is applied to show the risk by composing the inundation hazards and vulnerabilities associated with population health. The Taipei City, the Capital of Taiwan, is selected as the case study because the highest density of population in Taiwan causes high exposure to the risk of water-borne illnesses. Through assessing the impacts of climate change on the population health associated with pluvial disaster of the Taipei City, the analytical results of pluvial-induced health risk can provide useful information for setting mitigation strategies of post-inundation disaster management. Keywords: climate change, population health, pluvial disaster.

Pan, Tsung-Yi; Chang, Tsang-Jung; Cheng, Ke-Sheng; Lai, Jihn-Sung; Chang, Hsiang-Kuan; Wu, Yii-Chen; Ho, Hao-Wei

2013-04-01

244

Risk Factors and Health Profiles of Recent Migrant Women Who Experienced Violence Associated with Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Violence associated with pregnancy is a major public health concern, but little is known about it in recent migrant women. This study looked at (1) risk factors for violence associated with pregnancy among newly arrived migrant women in Canada and (2) if those who experienced violence associated with pregnancy had a different health profile or use of healthcare services for themselves or their infants during pregnancy and up to 4 months postpartum compared to other childbearing migrant women. Methods Pregnant migrant women in Canada <5 years were recruited in 12 hospitals in 3 large cities between 2006 and 2009 and followed to 4 months postpartum. Data were collected on maternal background, migration history, violence associated with pregnancy, maternal and infant physical and mental health, and services used. Results Of a total of 774 pregnant migrant women, 59 (7.6%) women reported violence associated with pregnancy. Migrant women who experienced violence, compared to those who did not, were at increased risk of violence if they lived without a partner, were asylum seekers, migrated <2 years ago, or had less than high school education. Women who reported violence were less likely to have up-to-date vaccinations, take folic acid before pregnancy, more likely to commence prenatal care after 3 months gestation and to not use contraceptives after birth. They were also more likely to have a history of miscarriage and report more postpartum pain and increased bleeding. They were also more likely to have inadequate social support and report more depression, anxiety, somatization, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on standardized tests. No differences were found in the health status of the infants of women who experienced violence compared to those who did not. Conclusions Clinicians should sensitively ask recent migrant women (asylum seekers, refugees, and nonrefugee immigrants) about violence associated with pregnancy and appropriately assess, treat, and refer them. PMID:22900928

Gagnon, Anita J.; Merry, Lisa A.; Dennis, Cindy-Lee

2012-01-01

245

ASSOCIATION OF PERSONAL AND WORKPLACE CHARACTERISTICS WITH REPORTED HEALTH SYMPTOMS OF 6771 GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES IN WASHINGTON, DC  

EPA Science Inventory

An indoor air quality questionnaire was completed by 6771 employees of two government agencies. egression analyses on 12 clusters of health symptoms indicated that both personal and workplace characteristics were associated with symptoms. he variables associated with the largest ...

246

I35W Collapse, Rebuild, and Structural Health MONITORING—CHALLENGES Associated with Structural Health Monitoring of Bridge Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During evening rush hour traffic on August 1, 2007, the major interstate highway bridge carrying I35W over the Mississippi River in Minneapolis catastrophically failed, tragically taking the lives of thirteen people and injuring many more. The steel truss bridge, constructed in 1967, was undergoing deck reconstruction during the collapse, and was estimated to carry more than 140,000 vehicles daily. This tragedy generated great interest in employment of structural health monitoring systems. The I35W St. Anthony Falls Bridge, a post-tensioned concrete box bridge constructed to replace the collapsed steel truss bridge, contains over 500 instruments to monitor the structural behavior. Numerical models of the bridge are being developed and calibrated to the collected data obtained from truck load tests and thermal effects. The data obtained over the first few years of monitoring are being correlated with the calibrated models and used to develop the baseline bridge behavior. This information is being used to develop a system to monitor and interpret the long-term behavior of the bridge. This paper describes the instrumentation, preliminary results from the data and model calibration, the plan for developing long-term monitoring capabilities, and the challenges associated with structural health monitoring of bridge systems. In addition, opportunities and directions for future research required to fully realize the objectives of structural health monitoring are described.

French, C. E.; Hedegaard, B.; Shield, C. K.; Stolarski, H.

2011-06-01

247

I35W collapse, rebuild, and structural health monitoring - challenges associated with structural health monitoring of bridge systems  

SciTech Connect

During evening rush hour traffic on August 1, 2007, the major interstate highway bridge carrying I35W over the Mississippi River in Minneapolis catastrophically failed, tragically taking the lives of thirteen people and injuring many more. The steel truss bridge, constructed in 1967, was undergoing deck reconstruction during the collapse, and was estimated to carry more than 140,000 vehicles daily. This tragedy generated great interest in employment of structural health monitoring systems. The I35W St. Anthony Falls Bridge, a post-tensioned concrete box bridge constructed to replace the collapsed steel truss bridge, contains over 500 instruments to monitor the structural behavior. Numerical models of the bridge are being developed and calibrated to the collected data obtained from truck load tests and thermal effects. The data obtained over the first few years of monitoring are being correlated with the calibrated models and used to develop the baseline bridge behavior. This information is being used to develop a system to monitor and interpret the long-term behavior of the bridge. This paper describes the instrumentation, preliminary results from the data and model calibration, the plan for developing long-term monitoring capabilities, and the challenges associated with structural health monitoring of bridge systems. In addition, opportunities and directions for future research required to fully realize the objectives of structural health monitoring are described.

French, C. E.; Hedegaard, B.; Shield, C. K.; Stolarski, H. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

2011-06-23

248

Health state utilities associated with adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder  

PubMed Central

Objectives With growing awareness of the importance of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment, cost-effectiveness analyses, including utilities, are needed to compare the value of treatment options. Although utilities have been reported for childhood ADHD, little is known about utilities representing adult ADHD. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to estimate utilities associated with adult ADHD. Methods Health-state descriptions of adult ADHD were drafted based on literature review, interviews with four clinicians, and clinical trial data. Health states were revised based on a pilot study with 26 participants. Final health states were rated in time trade-off interviews with general population respondents in London and Edinburgh, UK. Results A total of 158 participants completed interviews (mean age =47.0 years; 49.4% female; Edinburgh =80 participants). Mean (standard deviation [SD]) utilities were 0.82 (0.17), 0.68 (0.28), and 0.67 (0.28) for health states describing treatment responders (health state A), nonresponders (health state B), and untreated patients (health state C), respectively. Most participants rated health state A as preferable to B (n=92; 58.2%) and C (n=97; 61.4%). The majority rated B and C as equal (n=125; 79.1%). Paired Student’s t-tests found that A had a significantly greater mean utility than B (t=10.0; P<0.0001) and C (t=10.2; P<0.0001). Conclusion The current study provides utilities that may be used in cost–utility models of treatment for adult ADHD. Results reflected clear differences between health states representing treatment responders and nonresponders/untreated patients. Current utilities were comparable to those previously reported for childhood ADHD. PMID:25114511

Matza, Louis S; Devine, Mary K; Haynes, Virginia Sutton; Davies, Evan W; Kostelec, Jacqueline M; Televantou, Foula; Jordan, Jessica B

2014-01-01

249

Linear and non-linear associations of gonorrhea diagnosis rates with social determinants of health.  

PubMed

Identifying how social determinants of health (SDH) influence the burden of disease in communities and populations is critically important to determine how to target public health interventions and move toward health equity. A holistic approach to disease prevention involves understanding the combined effects of individual, social, health system, and environmental determinants on geographic area-based disease burden. Using 2006-2008 gonorrhea surveillance data from the National Notifiable Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance and SDH variables from the American Community Survey, we calculated the diagnosis rate for each geographic area and analyzed the associations between those rates and the SDH and demographic variables. The estimated product moment correlation (PMC) between gonorrhea rate and SDH variables ranged from 0.11 to 0.83. Proportions of the population that were black, of minority race/ethnicity, and unmarried, were each strongly correlated with gonorrhea diagnosis rates. The population density, female proportion, and proportion below the poverty level were moderately correlated with gonorrhea diagnosis rate. To better understand relationships among SDH, demographic variables, and gonorrhea diagnosis rates, more geographic area-based estimates of additional variables are required. With the availability of more SDH variables and methods that distinguish linear from non-linear associations, geographic area-based analysis of disease incidence and SDH can add value to public health prevention and control programs. PMID:23202676

Moonesinghe, Ramal; Fleming, Eleanor; Truman, Benedict I; Dean, Hazel D

2012-09-01

250

Insomnia Associated with Valerian and Melatonin Usage in the 2002 National Health Interview Survey  

PubMed Central

Study Objective: Many people use dietary supplements or herbal products to help them sleep. We analyzed the associations between melatonin use and insomnia and between valerian use and insomnia in a representative sample of the United States population. Design and Participants: The data reported upon here were collected in the 2002 Alternative Health/Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Supplement to the National Health Interview Survey. This was a survey of 31,044 personal interviews that constituted an age-representative and socioeconomically representative sample of the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States. Results: Of the survey sample, 5.9% used valerian and 5.2% used melatonin. Of those using valerian, 29.9% endorsed insomnia as 1 reason for CAM use, and, of melatonin users, 27.5% endorsed insomnia as 1 reason for CAM use. Relatively greater use occurred in individuals under age 60 years. The decision to use such substances was made in consultation with a health care provider less than half of the time. Conclusions: Large segments of the United States population used valerian or melatonin for insomnia within the year preceding the survey, and usage typically fell outside the purview of the health care system. Citation: Bliwise DL; Ansari FP. Insomnia associated with valerian and melatonin usage in the 2002 National Health Interview Survey. SLEEP 2007;30(7):881-884. PMID:17682659

Bliwise, Donald L.; Ansari, Farzaneh Pour

2007-01-01

251

Student learning outcomes associated with video vs. paper cases in a public health dentistry course.  

PubMed

Educational technologies such as video cases can improve health professions student learning outcomes, but few studies in dentistry have evaluated video-based technologies. The goal of this study was to compare outcomes associated with video and paper cases used in an introductory public health dentistry course. This was a retrospective cohort study with a historical control group. Based on dual coding theory, the authors tested the hypotheses that dental students who received a video case (n=37) would report better affective, cognitive, and overall learning outcomes than students who received a paper case (n=75). One-way ANOVA was used to test the hypotheses across ten cognitive, two affective, and one general assessment measures (?=0.05). Students in the video group reported a significantly higher overall mean effectiveness score than students in the paper group (4.2 and 3.3, respectively; p<0.001). Video cases were also associated with significantly higher mean scores across the remaining twelve measures and were effective in helping students achieve cognitive (e.g., facilitating good discussions, identifying public health problems, realizing how health disparities might impact their future role as dentists) and affective (e.g., empathizing with vulnerable individuals, appreciating how health disparities impact real people) goals. Compared to paper cases, video cases significantly improved cognitive, affective, and overall learning outcomes for dental students. PMID:24385521

Chi, Donald L; Pickrell, Jacqueline E; Riedy, Christine A

2014-01-01

252

The Association of Health and Employment in Mature Women: A Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Despite a reduction in income inequalities between men and women, there is still a large gap between income and retirement savings of Australian men and women. This is especially true for women who have health or disability problems. Mature age women are closest to retirement and, therefore, have less chance than younger women to build up enough retirement savings and may need to continue working to fund their older age. Continued workforce participation may be particularly difficult for women who are less healthy. Understanding which health problems lead to a decrease in workforce participation among mature age women is crucial. Therefore, this longitudinal study sought to identify which health problems are associated with employment among midage women over time. Methods Data were analyzed from the midage cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH), which involved 14,200 midage women (aged 45–50 years in 1996). The women have been surveyed four additional times, in 1998, 2001, 2004, and 2007. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to conduct nested multivariate longitudinal analyses. Results The percentages of women who were employed in the years 2001, 2004, and 2007 were 77%, 72%, and 68%, respectively. Results were adjusted for sociodemographic variables. Being employed decreased as physical and mental health deteriorated and with self-reported conditions: diabetes, high blood pressure, depression, anxiety, and other psychiatric conditions. Back pain, arthritis, cancer, obesity, and being a current smoker are associated with employment but not when quality of life is added to the model. Conclusions There were significant associations between health and employment. Understanding these relationships could inform policies and guidelines for preventing declines in employment in mature age women. PMID:22060315

Byles, Julie

2012-01-01

253

Impact of vehicular traffic emissions on particulate-bound PAHs: Levels and associated health risks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Considering vehicular transport as one of the most health-relevant emission sources of urban air, and with aim to further understand its negative impact on human health, the objective of this work was to study its influence on levels of particulate-bound PAHs and to evaluate associated health risks. The 16 PAHs considered by USEPA as priority pollutants, and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene associated with fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM2.5-10) particles were determined. The samples were collected at one urban site, as well as at a reference place for comparison. The results showed that the air of the urban site was more seriously polluted than at the reference one, with total concentrations of 17 PAHs being 2240% and 640% higher for PM2.5 and PM2.5-10, respectively; vehicular traffic was the major emission source at the urban site. PAHs were predominantly associated with PM2.5 (83% to 94% of ?PAHs at urban and reference site, respectively) with 5 rings PAHs being the most abundant groups of compounds at both sites. The risks associated with exposure to particulate PAHs were evaluated using the TEF approach. The estimated value of lifetime lung cancer risks exceeded the health-based guideline levels, thus demonstrating that exposure to PM2.5-bound PAHs at levels found at urban site might cause potential health risks. Furthermore, the results showed that evaluation of benzo[a]pyrene (regarded as a marker of the genotoxic and carcinogenic PAHs) alone would probably underestimate the carcinogenic potential of the studied PAH mixtures.

Slezakova, Klara; Castro, Dionísia; Delerue–Matos, Cristina; Alvim–Ferraz, Maria da Conceição; Morais, Simone; Pereira, Maria do Carmo

2013-06-01

254

Health-related quality of life in young cocaine users and associated factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim  To analyse drug consumption patterns and demographic and medical factors associated with health-related quality of life (HRQL)\\u000a in a nonclinical sample of regular cocaine consumers.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Face-to-face interviews with 687 young regular cocaine users (aged 18–30 years) in three Spanish cities: Barcelona, Madrid\\u000a and Seville. HRQL was measured using the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP), and degree of dependence through the Severity of

O. M. Lozano; A. Domingo-Salvany; M. Martinez-Alonso; M. T. Brugal; J. Alonso; L. de la Fuente

2008-01-01

255

Factors associated with job satisfaction among commune health workers: implications for human resource policies  

PubMed Central

Background Job satisfaction among health workers is an important indicator in assessing the performance and efficiency of health services. Objective This study measured job satisfaction and determined associated factors among health workers in 38 commune health stations in an urban district and a rural district of Hanoi, Vietnam. A total of 252 health workers (36 medical doctors and 216 nurses and technicians; 74% female) were interviewed. A job satisfaction measure was developed using factor analysis, from which four dimensions emerged, namely ‘benefits and prospects,’ ‘facility and equipment,’ ‘performance,’ and ‘professionals.’ Results The results demonstrate that respondents were least satisfied with the following categories: salary and incentives (24.0%), benefit packages (25.1%), equipment (35.7%), and environment (41.8%). The average satisfaction score was moderate across four domains; it was the highest for ‘performance’ (66.6/100) and lowest for ‘facility and equipment’ (50.4/100). Tobit-censored regression models, constructed using stepwise selection, determined significant predictors of job satisfaction including age, areas of work and expertise, professional education, urban versus rural setting, and sufficient number of staff. Conclusion The findings highlight the need to implement health policies that focus on incentives, working conditions, workloads, and personnel management at grassroots level. PMID:23374700

Tran, Bach Xuan; Minh, Hoang Van; Hinh, Nguyen Duc

2013-01-01

256

The Perceived Importance of Physical Activity: Associations with Psychosocial and Health-Related Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to assess the extent to which participation in a 12-month exercise program changed the degree of importance that older adults attached to physical activity. Additionally, associations among changes in physical activity importance and health-related and psychosocial outcomes were examined. Methods Community-dwelling older adults (N = 179) were recruited to participate in a 12-month exercise trial examining the association between changes in physical activity and fitness with changes in brain structure and psychological health. Participants were randomly assigned to a walking condition or a flexibility, toning, and balance condition. Physical, psychological, and cognitive assessments were taken at months 0, 6, and 12. Results Involvement in a 12-month exercise program increased the importance that participants placed on physical activity; this positive change was similar across exercise condition and sex. Changes in importance, however, were only associated with changes in physical health status and outcome expectations for exercise midway through the intervention. There were no significant associations at the end of the program. Conclusions Regular participation in physical activity can positively influence the perceived importance of the behavior itself. Yet, the implications of such changes on physical activity-related outcomes remain equivocal and warrant further investigation PMID:22820124

Wójcicki, Thomas R.; Szabo, Amanda N.; White, Siobhan M.; Mailey, Emily L.; Kramer, Arthur F.; McAuley, Edward

2013-01-01

257

Evaluation of potential health effects associated with serum polychlorinated biphenyl levels  

SciTech Connect

In late 1983, we conducted a cross-sectional epidemiologic study to evaluate persons at risk of exposure to three chemical waste sites by comparing clinical disease end points and clinical chemistry parameters with serum polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) levels. A total of 106 individuals participated in the study. The only statistically significant finding in regard to self-reported, physician-diagnosed health problems was a dose-response relationship between serum PCB levels and the occurrence of high blood pressure; however, this association failed to achieve statistical significance when we controlled for possible confounding effects of both age and smoking. Serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels were also higher in the group with elevated serum PCBs; additionally, there were isolated statistically significant correlations of serum aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT) with serum lipid fraction-adjusted PCB level and serum albumin and total bilirubin with serum PCB level. Although the ranges of serum levels reported herein from exposures to PCBs in the general environment are lower than those that have been associated with acute symptoms or illness in other studies, whether these levels are associated with long-term health risks is not known. Associations of such chronic, low-dose exposures with observable health effects as suggested by this study must be evaluated further before any final conclusions can be drawn.

Stehr-Green, P.A.; Welty, E.; Steele, G.; Steinberg, K.

1986-12-01

258

Disordered eating behaviors in young adult Mexican American women: prevalence and associations with health risks.  

PubMed

Recent research has shown that disordered eating behaviors are as prevalent in heterogenous samples of Latinas living in the U.S. as in non-Hispanic white women, yet less is known about the prevalence in women of Mexican origin. The primary purpose of this study is to report the prevalence and associations among DE behaviors and health risk of alcohol, tobacco use and obesity in a sample of N = 472 young adult college enrolled Mexican American (MA) women living in the United States. This report focuses on baseline data from a 12-month repeated measures longitudinal study. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) was used to capture the prevalence of disordered eating and health risk behaviors in the context of everyday activities. Disordered eating behaviors including purging, binge eating, fasting and exercise were reported by approximately 15% of the sample. Food/calorie restricting, was the most prevalent behavior reported by 48% of the sample and along with binge eating was a positive predictor of BMI. Fasting was the only disordered eating behavior associated with tobacco use. These findings suggest that subclinical levels of DE behaviors are prevalent in a community sample of women of Mexican origin and are associated with health risks of tobacco use and higher BMI. Early identification of DE behaviors and community-based interventions targeting MA women may help reduce disparities associated with overweight and obesity in this population. PMID:24183140

Stein, Karen Farchaus; Chen, Ding-Geng Din; Corte, Colleen; Keller, Colleen; Trabold, Nicole

2013-12-01

259

Food Avoidance and Food Modification Practices of Older Rural Adults: Association with Oral Health Status and Implications for Service Provision  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Dietary variation is important for health maintenance and disease prevention among older adults. However, oral health deficits impair ability to bite and chew foods. This study examines the association between oral health and foods avoided or modified in a multiethnic rural population of older adults. It considers implications for…

Quandt, Sara A.; Chen, Haiying; Bell, Ronny A.; Savoca, Margaret R.; Anderson, Andrea M.; Leng, Xiaoyan; Kohrman, Teresa; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Arcury, Thomas A.

2010-01-01

260

Does the evidence about health risks associated with nitrate ingestion warrant an increase of the nitrate standard for drinking water?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several authors have suggested that it is safe to raise the health standard for nitrate in drinking water, and save money on measures associated with nitrate pollution of drinking water resources. The major argument has been that the epidemiologic evidence for acute and chronic health effects related to drinking water nitrate at concentrations near the health standard is inconclusive. With

Hans JM van Grinsven; Mary H Ward; Nigel Benjamin; Theo M de Kok

2006-01-01

261

Forced Sexual Intercourse and Associated Health-Risk Behaviors Among Female College Students in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzed data from the 1995 National College Health Risk Behavior Survey (NCHRBS) to assess the prevalence of lifetime rape among female college students and to examine the association between rape and health-risk behaviors. The NCHRBS used a mail questionnaire to assess health-risk behaviors among a nationally representative sample of undergraduate students. Twenty percent of female students reported ever

Nancy D. Brener; Pamela M. McMahon; Charles W. Warren; Kathy A. Douglas

1999-01-01

262

Dean of the College of Public Health is Stephen W. Wyatt. William G. Pfeifle is Associate Dean for Academic  

E-print Network

Dean of the College of Public Health is Stephen W. Wyatt. William G. Pfeifle is Associate Dean for Institutional Advancement and Student Affairs. The College of Public Health A defining characteristic ser- vices management, and occupational/ environ- mental health. In addition, three credit hours

MacAdam, Keith

263

Association between perceived chewing ability and oral health-related quality of life in partially dentate patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: One of the most immediate and important functional consequences of many oral disorders is a reduction in chewing ability. The ability to chew is not only an important dimension of oral health, but is increasingly recognized as being associated with general health status. Whether perceived chewing ability and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) are correlated to a similar

Mika Inukai; Mike T John; Yoshimasa Igarashi; Kazuyoshi Baba

2010-01-01

264

78 FR 54651 - Sole Source Cooperative Agreement Award to the National Association of County and City Health...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO) is the...representing all local and tribal health officials from across the country...affiliate, and the U.S. Conference of Mayors. NACCHO advocates on the behalf of county and city health departments by providing...

2013-09-05

265

Factors Associated With Health Service Utilization in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia: A Population-Based Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Understanding patterns of health service utilization can improve health care and increase use of health services. We examined patterns of health service utilization among residents of Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Methods A total of 500 adults were surveyed using paper-based questionnaires. The ?2 test and multiple logistic regression were used to identify associations between factors. Results 44.1% of respondents had visited a physician during the previous 12 months. After controlling for determinants, the significant predictors of utilization of health service were attention to health examinations (OR = 3.6, CI: 1.93–6.76), being married (OR = 2.7, CI: 1.50–4.72), being satisfied with the overall cleanliness of the hospital (OR = 2.4, CI: 1.12–5.19), being a nonsmoker (OR = 2.2, CI: 1.21–3.98), having periodic physical examinations (OR = 2.2, CI: 1.25–3.71), not being a hospital patient during the previous 3 years (OR = 2.1, CI: 1.22–3.73), having proper documentation (OR = 1.9, CI: 1.10–3.43), having medical insurance (OR = 1.9, CI: 1.96–3.28), not wanting to receive information on food and nutrition (OR = 0.6, CI: 0.36–0.96), having more than 5 household members (OR = 0.5, CI: 0.50–0.85), low income (OR = 0.5, CI: 0.30–0.85), lack of concern for food and nutrition (OR = 0.5, CI: 0.28–0.84), self-medication during the past 12 months (OR = 0.4, CI: 0.24–0.69), and desire for treatment abroad (OR = 0.4, CI: 0.20–0.60). Conclusions A number of health-related behaviors and sociodemographic factors were important predictors of health service utilization. PMID:23831715

Gan-Yadam, Amarsanaa; Shinohara, Ryoji; Sugisawa, Yuka; Tanaka, Emiko; Watanabe, Taeko; Hirano, Maki; Tomisaki, Etsuko; Morita, Kentaro; Onda, Yoko; Tokutake, Kentaro; Mochizuki, Yukiko; Matsumoto, Misako; Sugita, Chihiro; Anme, Tokie

2013-01-01

266

Factors associated with early menarche: results from the French Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Puberty is a transition period making physiological development a challenge adolescents have to face. Early pubertal development could be associated with higher risks of poor health. Our objective was to examine risk behaviours, physical and psychological determinants associated with early menarche (<11 years). METHODS: Early menarche was assessed in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children French cross-sectional survey. Data

Adrien Gaudineau; Virginie Ehlinger; Christophe Vayssiere; Beatrice Jouret; Catherine Arnaud; Emmanuelle Godeau

2010-01-01

267

Associations between scores of psychosomatic health symptoms and health-related quality of life in children and adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background The aims of the present study are to investigate whether there are differences in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) between girls and boys in two different age groups, to study how much of children’s variance in HRQoL can be explained by common psychosomatic health symptoms, and to examine whether the same set of psychosomatic symptoms can explain differences in HRQoL, both between girls and boys and between older and younger school children. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted of 253 children, 99 of ages 11–12 years (n=51 girls, n=48 boys) and 154 of ages 15–16 years (n=82 girls, n=72 boys), in Swedish schools. The KIDSCREEN-52 instrument, which covers 10 dimensions of HRQoL and additional questions about psychosomatic health symptoms, were used. Analyses of variance were conducted to investigate differences between the genders and age groups, and in interaction effects on the KIDSCREEN-52 dimensions. Regression analyses were used to investigate the impacts of psychosomatic symptoms on gender and age group differences in HRQoL. Results Boys rated themselves higher than girls on the KIDSCREEN dimensions: physical and psychological well-being, moods and emotions, self-perception, and autonomy. Main effects of age group were found for physical well-being, psychological well-being, moods and emotions, self-perception, autonomy, and school environment, where younger children rated their HRQoL more highly than those aged 15–16 years. Girls rated their moods and emotions dramatically lower than boys in the older age group, but the ratings of emotional status were more similar between genders at younger ages. Psychosomatic symptoms explained between 27% and 50% of the variance in the children’s HRQoL. Sleeping difficulties were a common problem for both girls and boys. Depression and concentration difficulties were particularly associated with HRQoL among girls whereas stomach aches were associated with HRQoL among boys. Conclusions Girls and adolescents experience poorer HRQoL than boys and younger children, but having psychosomatic symptoms seem to explain a substantial part of the variation. Strategies to promote health among school children, in particular to alleviate sleep problems among all children, depression and concentration difficulties among girls, and stomach aches among boys, are of great importance. PMID:24148880

2013-01-01

268

Associations between health effects and particulate matter and black carbon in subjects with respiratory disease.  

PubMed

We measured fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FE(NO)), spirometry, blood pressure, oxygen saturation of the blood (SaO2), and pulse rate in 16 older subjects with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Seattle, Washington. Data were collected daily for 12 days. We simultaneously collected PM10 and PM2.5 (particulate matter < or = 10 microm or < or = 2.5 microm, respectively) filter samples at a central outdoor site, as well as outside and inside the subjects' homes. Personal PM10 filter samples were also collected. All filters were analyzed for mass and light absorbance. We analyzed within-subject associations between health outcomes and air pollution metrics using a linear mixed-effects model with random intercept, controlling for age, ambient relative humidity, and ambient temperature. For the 7 subjects with asthma, a 10 microg/m3 increase in 24-hr average outdoor PM10 and PM2.5 was associated with a 5.9 [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.9-8.9] and 4.2 ppb (95% CI, 1.3-7.1) increase in FE(NO), respectively. A 1 microg/m3 increase in outdoor, indoor, and personal black carbon (BC) was associated with increases in FE(NO) of 2.3 ppb (95% CI, 1.1-3.6), 4.0 ppb (95% CI, 2.0-5.9), and 1.2 ppb (95% CI, 0.2-2.2), respectively. No significant association was found between PM or BC measures and changes in spirometry, blood pressure, pulse rate, or SaO2 in these subjects. Results from this study indicate that FE(NO) may be a more sensitive marker of PM exposure than traditional health outcomes and that particle-associated BC is useful for examining associations between primary combustion constituents of PM and health outcomes. PMID:16330357

Jansen, Karen L; Larson, Timothy V; Koenig, Jane Q; Mar, Therese F; Fields, Carrie; Stewart, Jim; Lippmann, Morton

2005-12-01

269

Associations between Health Effects and Particulate Matter and Black Carbon in Subjects with Respiratory Disease  

PubMed Central

We measured fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), spirometry, blood pressure, oxygen saturation of the blood (SaO2), and pulse rate in 16 older subjects with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Seattle, Washington. Data were collected daily for 12 days. We simultaneously collected PM10 and PM2.5 (particulate matter ?10 ?m or ?2.5 ?m, respectively) filter samples at a central outdoor site, as well as outside and inside the subjects’ homes. Personal PM10 filter samples were also collected. All filters were analyzed for mass and light absorbance. We analyzed within-subject associations between health outcomes and air pollution metrics using a linear mixed-effects model with random intercept, controlling for age, ambient relative humidity, and ambient temperature. For the 7 subjects with asthma, a 10 ?g/m3 increase in 24-hr average outdoor PM10 and PM2.5 was associated with a 5.9 [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.9–8.9] and 4.2 ppb (95% CI, 1.3–7.1) increase in FENO, respectively. A 1 ?g/m3 increase in outdoor, indoor, and personal black carbon (BC) was associated with increases in FENO of 2.3 ppb (95% CI, 1.1–3.6), 4.0 ppb (95% CI, 2.0–5.9), and 1.2 ppb (95% CI, 0.2–2.2), respectively. No significant association was found between PM or BC measures and changes in spirometry, blood pressure, pulse rate, or SaO2 in these subjects. Results from this study indicate that FENO may be a more sensitive marker of PM exposure than traditional health outcomes and that particle-associated BC is useful for examining associations between primary combustion constituents of PM and health outcomes. PMID:16330357

Jansen, Karen L.; Larson, Timothy V.; Koenig, Jane Q.; Mar, Therese F.; Fields, Carrie; Stewart, Jim; Lippmann, Morton

2005-01-01

270

Associations between adult attachment style and health risk behaviors in an adult female primary care population  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the relationship between adult attachment style and health risk behaviors among adult women in a primary care setting. Methods In this analysis of a population of women enrolled in a large health maintenance organization (N=701), we examined the relationship between anxious and avoidant dimensions of adult attachment style and a variety of sexual, substance-related, and other health risk behaviors. After conducting descriptive statistics of the entire population, we determined the relationships between the two attachment dimensions and health behaviors using multiple regression analyses in which we controlled for demographic and socioeconomic factors. Results After adjustment for covariates, the anxious dimension of attachment style was significantly associated with increased odds of self-report of having sex without knowing a partner’s history, having multiple (?2) male partners in the past year, and history of having a sexually transmitted infection (ORs [95% CIs]=1.11 [1.03, 1.20], 1.23 [1.04, 1.45]; and 1.17 [1.05, 1.30], respectively). The avoidant attachment dimension was associated with increased odds of being a smoker and not reporting regular seatbelt use (ORs [95% CIs]=1.15 [1.01, 1.30] and 1.16 [1.01, 1.33], respectively). Conclusions Both anxious and avoidant dimensions of attachment were associated with health risk behaviors in this study. This framework may be a useful tool to allow primary care clinicians to guide screening and intervention efforts. PMID:22469278

Ahrens, Kym R.; Ciechanowski, Paul; Katon, Wayne

2013-01-01

271

Engaging health care workers to prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infection and avert patient harm.  

PubMed

Preventing catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) remains a significant challenge for US hospitals. The "On the CUSP: Stop CAUTI" initiative represents the single largest national effort (involving >950 hospitals) to mitigate urinary catheter risk. The program brings together key organizations to assist state hospital associations and hospitals by providing education and coaching support, addressing both the technical aspects of preventing CAUTI and CAUTI-specific socio-adaptive challenges. At the local level, engaging health care workers, from physicians and nurses to other ancillary services, is critical. This includes (1) making the importance of addressing CAUTI stakeholder specific, (2) ensuring support from leaders of essential disciplines, (3) underscoring the importance of the collaborative nature of CAUTI prevention, and (4) identifying champions within the organization to lead and be accountable for the work. Sustainability is ensured by integrating the process into the health care worker's daily routine activities. PMID:25239714

Fakih, Mohamad G; Krein, Sarah L; Edson, Barbara; Watson, Sam R; Battles, James B; Saint, Sanjay

2014-10-01

272

Psychosocial Factors Associated With Routine Health Examination Scheduling and Receipt Among African American Men  

PubMed Central

Introduction African American men often fail to obtain routine health examinations, which increases the probability of disease detection, yet little is known about psychosocial factors that motivate scheduling and receipt among this group. Methods We used the Andersen model and theory of reasoned action as frameworks to evaluate the relative contribution of psychosocial factors to self-reported routine health examination scheduling and receipt in a cross-sectional sample of African American men (N = 386) recruited from barbershops (65.3%) and academic institutions/events (34.7%) in Michigan, Georgia, and North Carolina between 2003-2004 and 2007-2009. Participants completed measures assessing demographic factors, physical/mental health status, traditional male role norms, health-promoting male subjective norms, health value, and medical mistrust. Pearson's ?2, analysis of variance, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to investigate associations between these study factors and routine health examination scheduling and receipt in the past year. Results After final adjustment, the odds of scheduling a routine health examination were increased for men with a usual source of care (OR, 5.48; 95% CI, 3.06-9.78) and more health-promoting male subjective norms exposure (OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.02-2.04). Higher medical mistrust (OR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.09-0.76) and traditional male role norms (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.52-0.98) reduced the odds of routine health examination receipt. The odds of routine health examination receipt were increased among men who were older (OR=1.05; 95% CI, 1.01-1.10), had a usual source of care (OR, 2.91; 95% CI, 1.54-5.51) and reported more male subjective norms exposure (OR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.02-2.22). Conclusions Improving African American men's uptake of routine health examinations will require addressing medical mistrust, mitigating traditional masculine concerns about disclosing vulnerability, and leveraging male social networks. PMID:20437735

Hammond, Wizdom Powell; Matthews, Derrick; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

2010-01-01

273

The Association between Proximity to Animal Feeding Operations and Community Health: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background A systematic review was conducted for the association between animal feeding operations (AFOs) and the health of individuals living near AFOs. Methodology/Principal Findings The review was restricted to studies reporting respiratory, gastrointestinal and mental health outcomes in individuals living near AFOs in North America, European Union, United Kingdom, and Scandinavia. From June to September 2008 searches were conducted in PUBMED, CAB, Web-of-Science, and Agricola with no restrictions. Hand searching of narrative reviews was also used. Two reviewers independently evaluated the role of chance, confounding, information, selection and analytic bias on the study outcome. Nine relevant studies were identified. The studies were heterogeneous with respect to outcomes and exposures assessed. Few studies reported an association between surrogate clinical outcomes and AFO proximity. A negative association was reported when odor was the measure of exposure to AFOs and self-reported disease, the measure of outcome. There was evidence of an association between self-reported disease and proximity to AFO in individuals annoyed by AFO odor. Conclusions/Significance There was inconsistent evidence of a weak association between self-reported disease in people with allergies or familial history of allergies. No consistent dose response relationship between exposure and disease was observable. PMID:20224825

O'Connor, Annette M.; Auvermann, Brent; Bickett-Weddle, Danelle; Kirkhorn, Steve; Sargeant, Jan M.; Ramirez, Alejandro; Von Essen, Susanna G.

2010-01-01

274

Association of ventilation with health and other responses in commercial and institutional buildings  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents a summary of a review [1] of current literature on the associations of ventilation rates in non-residential and non-industrial buildings (primarily offices) with health and other human outcomes. Twenty studies, with close to 30,000 subjects, investigated the association of ventilation rates with human responses. (Twenty one studies investigating the association of carbon dioxide with human responses, although included in the previous review, are not summarized here.) Almost all studies including ventilation rates below 10 Ls{sup -1} per person found these ventilation rates to be associated in all building types with statistically significant worsening in one or more health or perceived air quality outcomes. Some studies comparing only ventilation rates above 10 Ls{sup -1} per person determined that increases in ventilation rate above 10 Ls{sup -1} per person, up to approximately 20 Ls{sup -1} per person, were associated with further significant decreases in the prevalence of SBS symptoms or with further significant improvements in perceived air quality. The studies reported relative risks of 1.5-2 for respiratory illnesses and 1.1-6 for sick building syndrome symptoms for low compared to high ventilation rates.

Seppanen, Olli; Fisk, William J.; Mendell, Mark J.

2000-08-01

275

Association of the oral health impact profile with malnutrition risk in Spanish elders.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine any relationship between oral health-related quality of life (OHR-QoL) and malnutrition risk in the elderly using the oral health impact profile (OHIP). We studied 250 institutionalized elderly people, 162 females and 88 males, with and without teeth. Data were gathered on: general health; oral health; malnutrition risk, measured with the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA); and OHR-QoL, evaluated with the OHIP. A multivariate binary logistic regression model was constructed with malnutrition presence/risk as dependent variable. Mean age was 82.7 ± 8.2 years. Malnutrition or malnutrition risk was shown by 36.8% of the sample. OHIP was associated with malnutrition/risk after adjustment for age, sex, functional status, and mild dementia diagnosis. Malnutrition/risk was 3.43-fold more likely in participants with OHIP-reported "problems" than in those with none. The conclusion of the study was that OHIP-measured OHR-QoL is associated with malnutrition risk. PMID:23763956

Gil-Montoya, J A; Ponce, G; Sánchez Lara, I; Barrios, R; Llodra, J C; Bravo, M

2013-01-01

276

Violent Offenses Associated with Co-Occurring Substance Use and Mental Health Problems: Evidence from CJDATS†  

PubMed Central

The present study examines the relationship between substance use, mental health problems, and violence in a sample of offenders released from prison and referred to substance abuse treatment programs. Data from 34 sites (n = 1,349) in a federally funded cooperative, the Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies (CJDATS), were analyzed. Among parolees referred to substance abuse treatment, self-reports for the six-month period before the arrest resulting in their incarceration revealed frequent problems with both substance use and mental health. For most offenders with substance use problems, the quantity of alcohol consumed and the frequency of drug use were associated with a greater probability of self-reported violence. Mental health problems were not indicative of increases in violent behavior, with the exception of antisocial personality problems, which were associated with violence. The paper emphasizes the importance of providing substance abuse treatment in relation to violent behavior among offenders with mental health problems being discharged to the community. PMID:19156677

Sacks, Stanley; Cleland, Charles M.; Melnick, Gerald; Flynn, Patrick M.; Knight, Kevin; Friedmann, Peter D.; Prendergast, Michael L.; Coen, Carrie

2009-01-01

277

Antipsychotic treatment adherence and associated mental health care use among individuals with bipolar disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Up to 48% of patients with bipolar disorder are either nonadherent or partially adherent to antipsychotic drug treatment. Medication adherence may differ by bipolar disorder subtype.Objective: This study evaluated the association between antipsychotic treatment adherence and mental health care use among individuals with bipolar disorder with predominantly manic\\/mixed symptoms or predominantly depressive symptoms.Methods: Individuals with bipolar or manic disorder

Frank D. Gianfrancesco; Martha Sajatovic; Krithika Rajagopalan; Ruey-Hua Wang

2008-01-01

278

Health Is Associated With Antiparasite Behavior and Fear of Disease-Relevant Animals in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolutionary arms races between humans and parasites resulted in a set of behavioral adaptations that serve as parasite-avoidance mechanisms. We investigated associations among reported health of the respondent, antiparasite behavior, and sensitivity to disgust and fear of disease-relevant and irrelevant animals. Ninety-seven participants (15–19 years old) rated their fear and disgust at 25 colorful pictures of disease-relevant and disease-irrelevant invertebrates.

Pavol Prokop; Jana Fan?ovi?ová; Peter Fedor

2010-01-01

279

Physiological Changes Associated with Downsizing of Personnel and Reorganisation in the Health Care Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The objective of this study was to assess potential physiological changes associated with downsizing\\/reorganisation in the health care sector. The personnel reductions (1995–1997) in the studied regional hospital corresponded to one fifth of the personnel. Methods: In a longitudinal study, female personnel had blood sampled twice (8 a.m. and 4 p.m.) during a working day in 1997 (in connection

Anna Hertting; Töres Theorell

2002-01-01

280

Associations between environmental exposure and blood pressure among participants in the Oslo Health Study (HUBRO)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  It is well known that environmental conditions are related to the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases and events. However, the mechanisms behind these relations are?not well understood. One mechanism could be elevation of blood pressure. In this study we assessed associations between blood pressure and environmental conditions among citizens in Oslo, Norway.Materials and methods  We used the Oslo Health Study (HUBRO),

Christian Madsen; Per Nafstad

2006-01-01

281

Factors associated with the academic success of first year Health Science students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The academic success of students is a priority for all universities. This study identifies factors associated with first year\\u000a academic success (performance and retention) that can be used to improve the quality of the student learning experience. A\\u000a retrospective cohort study was conducted with a census of all 381 full time students enrolled in the Bachelor of Health Science\\u000a at

Christina Mills; Jane Heyworth; Lorna Rosenwax; Sandra Carr; Michael Rosenberg

2009-01-01

282

The association between alcohol consumption and mortality: the Swedish women’s lifestyle and health study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although light to moderate alcohol intake may reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, the effect on total mortality\\u000a requires further study, particularly among young and middle-aged women. We studied the association between alcohol consumption\\u000a and mortality from all causes, from cancer, and from CVD in the Swedish Women’s Lifestyle and Health Study, a cohort of 47,921\\u000a female residents of Sweden aged

Gundula BehrensMichael; Michael F. Leitzmann; Sven Sandin; Marie Löf; Iris M. Heid; Hans-Olov Adami; Elisabete Weiderpass

2011-01-01

283

A retrospective study of health care-associated pneumonia patients at Aichi Medical University hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health care-associated pneumonia (HCAP) was defined in the American Thoracic Society\\/Infectious Disease Society of America\\u000a guidelines on hospital-acquired pneumonia in 2005. However, little is known about the occurrence of HCAP in Japan. A retrospective\\u000a review of background characteristics, pathological conditions, causative organisms, initial treatments, and risk factors for\\u000a HCAP was conducted to determine the relationship of HCAP to community-acquired pneumonia

Yuka Yamagishi; Hiroshige Mikamo

284

Monetary value of the environmental and health externalities associated with production of ethanol from biomass feedstocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research is aimed at monetizing the life cycle environmental and health externalities associated with production of ethanol from corn, corn stover, switchgrass, and forest residue. The results of this study reveal current average external costs for the production of 1l of ethanol ranged from $0.07 for forest residue to $0.57 for ethanol production from corn. Among the various feedstocks,

Jamil M. Kusiima; Susan E. Powers

2010-01-01

285

Associations of udder-health indicators with cow factors and with intramammary infection in dairy cows.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate if and how cow factors and intramammary infection (IMI) are associated with 4 different udder-health indicators in dairy cows as a first step in investigating whether the diagnostic performance of these indicators can be improved. The investigated indicators were somatic cell count (SCC), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), N-acetyl-?-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase), and alkaline phosphatase (AP) measured in milk. In this cross-sectional study, approximately 1,000 cows from 25 dairy herds were sampled for bacteriology (quarter milk samples) during 3 consecutive days: the day before test milking, at the day of test milking, and at the day after test milking. The whole-udder test milking sample was analyzed for milk composition, SCC, LDH, NAGase, and AP. Cow data (parity, breed, milk yield, percentage of milk fat and protein, milk urea concentration, and days in milk from the sampled test milking) were collected from the Swedish milk-recording scheme. Of the sampled cows 485 were considered IMI negative and were used in multivariable mixed-effect linear regression models to investigate associations between cow factors and the udder-health indicators. A second modeling including all cows, both IMI negative and IMI positive (256 cows), was also performed. The results showed that all udder-health indicators were affected by cow factors but that different cow factors were associated with different indicators. Intramammary-infection status was significantly associated with all udder-health indicators except AP. Parity and milk urea concentration were the only cow factors associated with all indicators in all models. The significant cow factors explained 23% of the variation in SCC and >30% of the variation in LDH, NAGase, and AP in IMI-negative cows, showing that LDH, NAGase, and AP are more affected than SCC by cow factors. The IMI status explained 23% of the variation in SCC in the model with all cows but only 7% of the variation in LDH and 2% of the variation in NAGase, indicating that SCC has the best potential as a diagnostic tool in finding cows with IMI. However, further studies are needed to investigate whether the diagnostic properties of these udder-health indicators will improve with adjustment according to their associations with different cow factors when used as a diagnostic tool for finding cows with IMI. PMID:24997662

Nyman, A-K; Persson Waller, K; Bennedsgaard, T W; Larsen, T; Emanuelson, U

2014-09-01

286

Gender-specific responses to social determinants associated with self-perceived health in Taiwan: A multilevel approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are well-documented gender differences in health. However, few studies have considered that the associations of personal and household characteristics with perceived health may vary between men and women because of their different socialized gender roles. This study investigates gender differences in health and addresses gender-specific responses to individual- and household-level determinants of health. We analyze the data of the

Duan-Rung Chen; Ly-Yun Chang; Meng-Li Yang

2008-01-01

287

Betrayal trauma among homeless adults: associations with revictimization, psychological well-being, and health.  

PubMed

Betrayal trauma theory postulates that traumas perpetrated by a caregiver or close other are more detrimental to mental health functioning than are traumatic experiences in which the victim is not affiliated closely with the perpetrator. This study is the first to examine the concept of betrayal among a sample of individuals with a history of homelessness. A total of 95 homeless or formerly homeless adults completed the Brief Betrayal Trauma Survey, the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale the Perceived Stress Scale, and a demographics questionnaire assessing participants' histories of homelessness, health, and relationships with their families. Regression analyses were conducted to explore the associations between high betrayal (HB) and low betrayal (LB) trauma exposure, relationship with family, and physical and mental health symptoms. Exposure to HB traumas in childhood and poor family relationships predicted earlier age at first episode of homelessness, and participants who had been exposed to a greater number of traumas during childhood were more likely to be revictimized during adulthood. Trauma exposure as an adult and earlier age of first homeless episode predicted symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, while trauma exposure alone predicted symptoms of depression and perceived stress. Number of medical diagnoses was associated with trauma exposure and becoming homeless at an older age. These findings emphasize that even among the most marginalized and multiply victimized individuals in our society, traumas that are characterized by a higher degree of betrayal are associated with more adverse outcomes. PMID:24257592

Mackelprang, Jessica L; Klest, Bridget; Najmabadi, Shadae J; Valley-Gray, Sarah; Gonzalez, Efrain A; Cash, Ralph E Gene

2014-04-01

288

Induced Abortion and Associated Factors in Health Facilities of Guraghe Zone, Southern Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Unsafe abortion is one of the major medical and public health problems in developing countries including Ethiopia. However, there is a lack of up-to-date and reliable information on induced abortion distribution and its determinant factors in the country. This study was intended to assess induced abortion and associated factors in health facilities of Guraghe zone, Southern Ethiopia. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted in eight health facilities in Guraghe zone. Client exit interview was conducted on 400 patients using a structured questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with induced abortion. Out of 400 women, 75.5% responded that the current pregnancy that ended in abortion is unwanted. However, only 12.3% of the respondents have admitted interference to the current pregnancy. Having more than four pregnancies (AOR?=?4.28, CI: (1.24–14.71)), age of 30–34 years (AOR?=?0.15, CI: (0.04–0.55)), primary education (AOR?=?0.26, CI: (0.13–0.88)), and wanted pregnancy (AOR?=?0.44, CI: (0.14–0.65)) were found to have association with induced abortion. The study revealed high level of induced abortion which is underpinned by high magnitude of unwanted pregnancy. There is requirement for widespread expansion of increased access to high quality family planning service and post-abortion care. PMID:24800079

Hambisa, Mitiku Teshome; Semahegn, Agumasie

2014-01-01

289

[How does the German Association against Rheumatism and Arthritis convey health literacy?].  

PubMed

The German Association against Rheumatism and Arthritis considers the improvement of health literacy as one of their most important tasks. In local groups people with arthritis have the chance to exchange experiences and to benefit from consultation. Individual experiences are merged into a collective knowledge. Numerous printed media as well as information and exchange via the internet help to improve health literacy. Self-management courses and patient education courses are specific instruments to improve the competences of people with arthritis to manage their own condition. Through exercise programs, which are offered locally, the Association strives to improve self-efficacy regarding exercise. A survey of the members showed that the activities of the patient association are well accepted and valued. The empowered patient has more and more become a partner in the micro-level communication with their doctor. On the macro-level, patient representatives play an important role in the committees of the German self-administration of health insurance and physician organizations. PMID:25260819

Gromnica-Ihle, E; Faubel, U; Cattelaens, K

2014-10-01

290

Orofacial esthetics and dental anxiety: Associations with oral and psychological health.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective. Severe dental anxiety (DA) is associated with both oral health and psychosocial consequences in what has been described as a vicious circle of DA. The aim of this study was to investigate self-rated orofacial esthetics in patients with DA and its relationship to psychological and oral health. Materials and methods. A consecutive sample of 152 adult patients who were referred or self-referred to a specialized dental anxiety clinic filled out the Orofacial Esthetic Scale (OES) as well as measurements on DA, self-rated oral health and general anxiety and depression. Clinical measures of dental status were also obtained. Results. Compared with the general population, patients with DA had lower ratings of satisfaction on all aspects of their orofacial esthetics, which included the teeth, gingiva, mouth and face, as well as a global orofacial assessment. Furthermore, the perception of the orofacial appearance was related both to dental status and self-rated oral health, as well as to general anxiety and depression. The level of dissatisfaction with the orofacial appearance was similar for both genders, but women reported more regular dental care and better dental status. Conclusions. The results of this study clearly show less satisfaction with dental and facial appearance in patients with DA, and that the self-rating of orofacial esthetics is related to both oral and psychological health. The OES can be used to assess orofacial esthetics in patients with DA. PMID:24673395

Carlsson, Viktor; Hakeberg, Magnus; Blomkvist, Klas; Wide Boman, Ulla

2014-11-01

291

Health literacy, numeracy, and other characteristics associated with hospitalized patients' preferences for involvement in decision making.  

PubMed

Little research has examined the association of health literacy and numeracy with patients' preferred involvement in the problem-solving and decision-making process in the hospital. Using a sample of 1,249 patients hospitalized with cardiovascular disease from the Vanderbilt Inpatient Cohort Study (VICS), we assessed patients' preferred level of involvement using responses to two scenarios of differing symptom severity from the Problem-Solving Decision-Making Scale. Using multivariable modeling, we determined the relationship of health literacy, subjective numeracy, and other patient characteristics with preferences for involvement in decisions, and how this differed by scenario. The authors found that patients with higher levels of health literacy desired more participation in the problem-solving and decision-making process, as did patients with higher subjective numeracy skills, greater educational attainment, female gender, less perceived social support, or greater health care system distrust (p < .05 for each predictor in multivariable models). Patients also preferred to participate more in the decision-making process when the hypothetical symptom they were experiencing was less severe (i.e., they deferred more to their physician when the hypothetical symptom was more severe). These findings underscore the role that patient characteristics, especially health literacy and numeracy, play in decisional preferences among hospitalized patients. PMID:25315582

Goggins, Kathryn M; Wallston, Kenneth A; Nwosu, Samuel; Schildcrout, Jonathan S; Castel, Liana; Kripalani, Sunil; For The Vanderbilt Inpatient Cohort Study Vics

2014-10-01

292

Associations of Environmental Factors With Elderly Health and Mortality in China  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined the effects of community socioeconomic conditions, air pollution, and the physical environment on elderly health and survival in China. Methods. We analyzed data from a nationally representative sample of 15 973 elderly residents of 866 counties and cities with multilevel logistic regression models in which individuals were nested within each county or city. Results. After control for individual-level factors, communities' gross domestic product per capita, adult labor force participation rate, and illiteracy rate were significantly associated with physical, mental, and overall health and mortality among the elderly in China. We also found that air pollution increased the odds of disability in activities of daily living (ADLs), cognitive impairment, and health deficits; more rainfall was protective, reducing the odds of ADL disability and cognitive impairment; low seasonal temperatures increased the odds of ADL disability and mortality; high seasonal temperatures increased the odds of cognitive impairment and deficits; and living in hilly areas decreased the odds of ADL disability and health deficits. Conclusions. Efforts to reduce pollution and improve socioeconomic conditions could significantly improve elderly health and survival. PMID:20019314

Gu, Danan; Purser, Jama; Hoenig, Helen; Christakis, Nicholas

2010-01-01

293

Health and nutrition economics: diet costs are associated with diet quality.  

PubMed

The WHO asserts that the global food price crisis threatens public health and jeopardizes the health of the most disadvantaged groups such as women, children, the elderly and low-income families. Economic factors play a crucial role and could affect personal nutrition status and health. Economic decision factors such as food price and income do influence people's food choices. Moreover, food costs are a barrier for low income-families to healthier food choices. Several studies indicate that diet costs are associated with dietary quality and also food safety. Food prices have surged over the past couple of years (2007-9) and raised serious concerns about food security around the world. Rising food prices are having severe impacts on population health and nutritional status. Therefore, people who change their diet pattern for economic reasons may develop a range of nutritionally-related disorders and diseases, from so-called over-nutrition to or with under-nutrition even within the one household. This is likely to increase with growing food insecurity. Presently, economics is not integrated with mainstream nutrition science or practice, other than in "home economics", but it can enable greater understanding of how socioeconomic status may interplay with human nutritional status and health and how these situations might be resolved. Collaborative, cross-disciplinary nutritional economics research should play a greater role in the prevention and management of food crises. PMID:19965354

Lo, Yuan-Ting; Chang, Yu-Hung; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Wahlqvist, Mark L

2009-01-01

294

Health care service utilization and associated factors among heroin users in northern Taiwan.  

PubMed

Due to the needs of medical care, the probability of using health care service from heroin users is high. This cross-sectional study investigated the frequency and correlates of health service utilization among heroin users. From June to September 2006, 124 heroin users (110 males and 14 females, mean age: 34.2 ± 8.3 years) who entered two psychiatric hospitals (N = 83) and a detention center (N = 41) in northern Taiwan received a face-to-face interview. Therefore, socio-demographic characteristics, patterns of drug use, psychiatric comorbidities, blood-borne infectious diseases and health service utilization were recorded. The behaviors of health service utilization were classified into the frequency of out-patient department visit and hospitalization, as well as the purchase of over-the-counter drugs. During 12 months prior to interview, 79.8% of the participants attended health care service at least once. The rate of having any event in out-patients service visit, hospitalization, and over-the-counter drugs were 66.1%, 29.8% and 25.8% respectively. The frequency of health service utilization was associated with numerous factors. Among these factors, patients who were recruited from hospital and having a mood disorder were conjoint predictors of out-patient department visit, hospitalization and purchase of over-the-counter drugs. According to the results of this study, social education and routine screening for mood disorders can help heroin users to obtain adequate health care service. The findings of this study are useful references for targeting the heroin users for whom a successful intervention represents the greatest cost benefit. PMID:23896066

Chen, Yi-Chih; Chen, Chih-Ken; Lin, Shih-Ku; Chiang, Shu-Chuan; Su, Lien-Wen; Wang, Liang-Jen

2013-11-01

295

The Association between Mental Health and Acute Infectious Illness among a National Sample of 18- To 24-Year-Old College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Poor mental health is associated with physical illness, but this association is poorly characterized among college students. Objective and Participants: Using American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment data, the authors characterized poor mental health (depression, anxiety, negative affect) and examined the relationship…

Adams, Troy B.; Wharton, Christopher M.; Quilter, Lyndsay; Hirsch, Tiffany

2008-01-01

296

Factors Associated With Overweight and Obesity Among Mexican Americans and Central Americans: Results From the 2001 California Health Interview Survey ORIGINAL RESEARCH  

Microsoft Academic Search

1019 Central Americans, 39.2% were overweight and 22.2% were obese. Among Mexican American men, age and marital status were associated with overweight and obesity; and education, acculturation, health insurance status, health status, and use of vitamins were associated with obesity only. Among Mexican American women, age, education, number of children, health status, and health behavior were associated with overweight and

Janice V. Bowie; Hee-Soon Juon; Juhee Cho; Elisa M. Rodriguez

297

Association of Health Literacy with Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use: A Cross-Sectional Study in Adult Primary Care Patients  

PubMed Central

Background In the United States, it is estimated that 40% of adults utilize complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies. Recently, national surveys report that over 90 million adults have inadequate health literacy. To date, no study has assessed health literacy and its effect on CAM use. The primary objective of this study was to assess the relationship between health literacy and CAM use independent of educational attainment. Second objective was to evaluate the differential effect of health literacy on CAM use by race. Methods 351 patients were recruited from an outpatient primary care clinic. Validated surveys assessed CAM use (I-CAM-Q), health literacy (REALM-R), and demographic information. We compared demographics by health literacy (adequate vs. inadequate) and overall and individual CAM categories by health literacy using chi square statistics. We found a race by health literacy interaction and ran sequential logistic regression models stratified by race to test the association between health literacy and overall CAM use (Model 1), Model 1 + education (Model 2), and Model 2 + other demographic characteristics (Model 3). We reported the adjusted effect of health literacy on CAM use for both whites and African Americans separately. Results 75% of the participants had adequate literacy and 80% used CAM. CAM use differed by CAM category. Among whites, adequate health literacy was significantly associated with increased CAM use in both unadjusted (Model 1, OR 7.68; p = 0.001) and models adjusted for education (Model 2, OR 7.70; p = 0.002) and other sociodemographics (Model 3, OR 9.42; p = 0.01). Among African Americans, adequate health literacy was not associated with CAM use in any of the models. Conclusions We found a race by literacy interaction suggesting that the relationship between health literacy and CAM use differed significantly by race. Adequate health literacy among whites is associated with increased CAM use, but not associated with CAM use in African Americans. PMID:22208873

2011-01-01

298

Health Education. Project of Joint Committee on Health Problems in Education of the National Education Association and the American Medical Association.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As chapter one states, this resource book trys to explore some new ways of thinking about health education, its needs, and its opportunities. Chapter two attempts to define health and discusses how education affects one's behavior and attitudes towards health. Chapter three deals with various health problems in the United States today and possible…

Russell, Robert D.

299

Meta-Analyses of the Associations of Respiratory Health Effectswith Dampness and Mold in Homes  

SciTech Connect

The Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academy of Sciences recently completed a critical review of the scientific literature pertaining to the association of indoor dampness and mold contamination with adverse health effects. In this paper, we report the results of quantitative meta-analysis of the studies reviewed in the IOM report. We developed point estimates and confidence intervals (CIs) to summarize the association of several respiratory and asthma-related health outcomes with the presence of dampness and mold in homes. The odds ratios and confidence intervals from the original studies were transformed to the log scale and random effect models were applied to the log odds ratios and their variance. Models were constructed both accounting for the correlation between multiple results within the studies analyzed and ignoring such potential correlation. Central estimates of ORs for the health outcomes ranged from 1.32 to 2.10, with most central estimates between 1.3 and 1.8. Confidence intervals (95%) excluded unity except in two of 28 instances, and in most cases the lower bound of the CI exceeded 1.2. In general, the two meta-analysis methods produced similar estimates for ORs and CIs. Based on the results of the meta-analyses, building dampness and mold are associated with approximately 30% to 80% increases in a variety of respiratory and asthma-related health outcomes. The results of these meta-analyses reinforce the IOM's recommendation that actions be taken to prevent and reduce building dampness problems.

Fisk, William J.; Lei-Gomez, Quanhong; Mendell, Mark J.

2006-01-01

300

Does an immigrant health paradox exist among Asian Americans? Associations of nativity and occupational class with self-rated health and mental disorders.  

PubMed

A robust socioeconomic gradient in health is well-documented, with higher socioeconomic status (SES) associated with better health across the SES spectrum. However, recent studies of U.S. racial/ethnic minorities and immigrants show complex SES-health patterns (e.g., flat gradients), with individuals of low SES having similar or better health than their richer, U.S.-born and more acculturated counterparts, a so-called "epidemiological paradox" or "immigrant health paradox". To examine whether this exists among Asian Americans, we investigate how nativity and occupational class (white-collar, blue-collar, service, unemployed) are associated with subjective health (self-rated physical health, self-rated mental health) and 12-month DSM-IV mental disorders (any mental disorder, anxiety, depression). We analyzed data from 1530 Asian respondents to the 2002-2003 National Latino and Asian American Study in the labor force using hierarchical multivariate logistic regression models controlling for confounders, subjective social status (SSS), material and psychosocial factors theorized to explain health inequalities. Compared to U.S.-born Asians, immigrants had worse socioeconomic profiles, and controlling for age and gender, increased odds for reporting fair/poor mental health and decreased odds for any DSM-IV mental disorder and anxiety. No strong occupational class-health gradients were found. The foreign-born health-protective effect persisted after controlling for SSS but became nonsignificant after controlling for material and psychosocial factors. Speaking fair/poor English was strongly associated with all outcomes. Material and psychosocial factors were associated with some outcomes--perceived financial need with subjective health, uninsurance with self-rated mental health and depression, social support, discrimination and acculturative stress with all or most DSM-IV outcomes. Our findings caution against using terms like "immigrant health paradox" which oversimplify complex patterns and mask negative outcomes among underserved sub-groups (e.g., speaking fair/poor English, experiencing acculturative stress). We discuss implications for better measurement of SES and health given the absence of a gradient and seemingly contradictory finding of nativity-related differences in self-rated health and DSM-IV mental disorders. PMID:22503561

John, Dolly A; de Castro, A B; Martin, Diane P; Duran, Bonnie; Takeuchi, David T

2012-12-01

301

The client-caseworker relationship and its association with outcomes among mental health court participants.  

PubMed

A portion of people with mental illnesses who are arrested are diverted to mental health courts (MHC) where they work with teams of treatment and court staff rather than serving time in custody. This study investigated the association between the relationship with caseworkers and outcomes. MHC participants were recruited to participate in structured interviews on their perceptions of the bond and conflict with their MHC caseworkers. Regression models tested associations between relationships with caseworkers and program retention, service use, and number of days spent in jail. Perceived conflict with caseworkers was higher among participants who were terminated or missing from the MHC. Participants who perceived less conflict with caseworkers utilized more services and spent fewer days in jail. The perceived bond was significantly associated with service use. Caseworkers with clients who are in the criminal justice system should be mindful as conflict arises and implement strategies to effectively manage conflict. PMID:24557529

Canada, Kelli E; Epperson, Matthew W

2014-11-01

302

Neurologic Symptoms Associated With Cattle Farming in the Agricultural Health Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Infection with Campylobacter jejuni, a bacterium carried by poultry and livestock, is the most frequently identified antecedent to the autoimmune neurologic condition Guillain-Barré Syndrome. We used Agricultural Health Study data to assess whether cattle farming was associated with prevalence of neurologic symptoms. Methods Prevalence of self-reported symptoms in cattle farmers (n = 8878) was compared with farmers who did not work with animals (n = 7462), using multivariate regression. Results Prevalence of numbness and weakness were increased for beef and dairy farmers compared with the reference group (P < 0.0001). Of cattle farmers, 48% did not report raising other animal species, and prevalence of numbness and weakness were also increased in this subgroup compared with the reference group (P < 0.02). Conclusions Occupational exposure to cattle was associated with increased prevalence of self-reported symptoms associated with peripheral neuropathy. PMID:22975665

Vegosen, Leora; Davis, Meghan F.; Silbergeld, Ellen; Breysse, Patrick N.; Agnew, Jacqueline; Gray, Gregory; Freeman, Laura Beane; Kamel, Freya

2013-01-01

303

Association between oral health status and retrovirus test results in cats.  

PubMed

Objective-To determine associations between oral health status and seropositivity for FIV or FeLV in cats. Design-Cross-sectional survey. Animals-5,179 cats. Procedures-Veterinarians at veterinary clinics and animal shelters completed online training on oral conditions in cats and then scored oral health status of cats with no known history of vaccination against FIV. Age, sex, and results of an ELISA for retroviruses were recorded. Results were analyzed by means of standard logistic regression with binary outcome. Results-Of 5,179 cats, 237 (4.6%) and 186 (3.6%) were seropositive for FIV and FeLV, respectively, and of these, 12 (0.2%) were seropositive for FIV and FeLV. Of all 5,179 cats, 1,073 (20.7%) had gingivitis, 576 (11.1%) had periodontitis, 203 (3.9%) had stomatitis, and 252 (4.9%) had other oral conditions (overall oral disease prevalence, 2,104/5,179 [40.6%]). Across all age categories, inflammatory oral disease was associated with a significantly higher risk of a positive test result for FIV, compared with the seropositivity risk associated with other oral diseases or no oral disease. Stomatitis was most highly associated with risk of FIV seropositivity. Cats with any oral inflammatory disease were more likely than orally healthy cats to have a positive test result for FeLV. Increasing age was associated with a higher prevalence of oral disease in retrovirus-seronegative cats. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Inflammatory oral disease was associated with an increased risk of seropositivity for retroviruses in naturally infected cats. Therefore, retroviral status of cats with oral inflammatory disease should be determined and appropriate management initiated. PMID:25285933

Kornya, Mathew R; Little, Susan E; Scherk, Margie A; Sears, William C; Bienzle, Dorothee

2014-10-15

304

Is there an Association between Oral Health Status and School Performance? A Preliminary Study  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The present cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the impact of poor oral health status on school performance of 600 primary and nursery school children of Bengaluru city, India. The data were collected using the methods and standards recommended by the WHO for oral health surveys. Oral health status was assessed using the df-t index (number of decayed and filled teeth). Academic performance was assessed based on the marks obtained. The children were divided into three groups: Excellent, average, below average (as given by the school teachers). Comparison between categorical variables was performed using one-way ANOVA using the SPSS software package (version 12.0). The mean df-t of the excellent group was 1.56 ± 2.5, for average group it was 2.05 ± 2.8 and for the below average group it was 4.47 ± 2.7. The below average group showed high caries index compared to other groups. The relation between school performance and mean df-t was found to be statistically significant (p < 0.001). The findings of this study demonstrate the impact that poor oral health has, on lowering school performance in children. It can be safely concluded that improvement of children's oral health may be a vehicle to improve their educational experience. How to cite this article: Garg N, Anandakrishna L, Chandra P. Is there an Association between Oral Health Status and School Performance? A Preliminary Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012; 5(2):132-135.

Anandakrishna, Latha; Chandra, Prakash

2012-01-01

305

Translating Health Care-Associated Urinary Tract Infection Prevention Research into Practice via the Bladder Bundle  

PubMed Central

Article-at-a-Glance Background: Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), a frequent health care–associated infection (HAI), is a costly and common condition resulting in patient discomfort, activity restriction, and hospital discharge delays. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) no longer reimburses hospitals for the extra cost of caring for patients who develop CAUTI. The Michigan Health and Hospital Association (MHA) Keystone Center for Patient Safety & Quality has initiated a statewide initiative, MHA Keystone HAI, to help ameliorate the burden of disease associated with indwelling catheterization. In addition, a long-term research project is being conducted to evaluate the current initiative and to identify practical strategies to ensure the effective use of proven infection prevention and patient safety practices. Overview of the Bladder Bundle Initiative in Michigan: The bladder bundle as conceived by MHA Keystone HAI focuses on preventing CAUTI by optimizing the use of urinary catheters with a specific emphasis on continual assessment and catheter removal as soon as possible, especially for patients without a clear indication. Collaboration Between Researchers and State wide Patient Safety Organizations: A synergistic collaboration between patient safety researchers and a statewide patient safety organization is aimed at identifying effective strategies to move evidence from peer-reviewed literature to the bedside. Practical strategies that facilitate implementation of the bundle will be developed and tested using mixed quantitative and qualitative methods. Discussion: Simply disseminating scientific evidence is often ineffective in changing clinical practice. Therefore, learning how to implement these findings is critically important to promoting high-quality care and a safe health care environment. PMID:19769204

Saint, Sanjay; Olmsted, Russell N.; Fakih, Mohamad G.; Kowalski, Christine P.; Watson, Sam R.; Sales, Anne E.; Krein, Sarah L.

2009-01-01

306

The association between dental health and procedures and developing shunt infections in pediatric patients.  

PubMed

Object Cerebrospinal fluid-diverting shunts are often complicated by bacterial infections. Dental procedures are known to cause transient bacteremia that could potentially spread hematogenously to these implanted devices. No literature currently exists to inform practitioners as to the need for prophylactic antibiotics for patients who possess these implants. The authors performed a retrospective study to assess whether dental procedures and poor oral health were associated with a higher likelihood of developing CSF-diverting shunt infections. Methods Neurosurgical and pediatric dental records from January 2007 to December 2012 were reviewed for shunt surgeries and dental encounters. Indications for shunt surgery and infection rates were recorded. Dental records were reviewed for several markers of overall dental health, such as a DMFT (decayed, missing, and filled teeth) score and a gingival health/oral hygiene score. The association between these scores and the incidence of shunt infections were studied. Moreover, the relationship between the incidence of shunt infections and the timing and invasiveness of preceding dental encounters were analyzed. Results A total of 100 pediatric patients were included in our study, for a total of 204 shunt surgeries. Twenty-one shunt infections were noted during the 6-year study period. Five of these shunts infections occurred within 3 months of a dental procedure. The odds ratio (OR) of developing a shunt infection within 3 months of a dental procedure was 0.98 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.27-3.01), and was not statistically significant. The OR of developing a shunt infection after a high-risk dental procedure compared with a low-risk dental procedure was 1.32 (95% CI 0.02-16.29), and was not statistically significant. There was no significant association between measures of dental health, such as DMFT and gingival health score, and the likelihood of developing a shunt infection. The ORs for these 2 scores were 0.51 (95% CI 0.04-4.96) and 1.58 (95% CI 0.03-20.06), respectively. The study was limited by sample size. Conclusions Dental health status and the number and type of dental procedures performed do not appear to confer a higher risk of developing a CSF-diverting shunt infection in this pediatric population. PMID:25216290

Moazzam, Alan A; Nehrer, Ernest; Da Silva, Stephanie L; Polido, José C; Arakelyan, Anush; Habibian, Mina; Krieger, Mark D

2014-11-01

307

Do self-assessed oral health and treatment need associate with clinical findings? Results from the Finnish Nationwide Health 2000 Survey.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective. To associate self-assessed oral health and treatment need with clinically determined findings. Materials and methods. As part of the Finnish nationwide comprehensive Health 2000 Survey, the present cross-sectional study included dentate participants aged 30-64 years who self-assessed their oral health and treatment need in an interview and who underwent a clinical oral health examination (n = 4385). Self-assessed oral health and treatment need were used as subjective indicators. Clinically determined dental and periodontal status described objective dental and periodontal health and treatment need. The evaluation of relationships between subjective and objective findings was based on two-by-two tables and multivariate analyses. Results. The better the self-assessed oral health, the better the objective dental and periodontal health. Those reporting need for treatment more often had the objective need in terms of dental or periodontal treatment, also when controlling for background factors. Of the subjective indicators, good self-assessed oral health best reflected the absence of clinically determined dental or periodontal treatment need. Those who reported a need for treatment were mainly adults with an objective dental and periodontal treatment need. Conclusions. Self-assessed good oral health is a fairly good estimate for the absence of clinically determined dental and periodontal treatment need. As implication for practice, self-assessed data could be used for screening purposes for oral health service planning and for priority allocation in large adult populations. PMID:24922090

Tseveenjav, Battsetseg; Suominen, Anna L; Varsio, Sinikka; Knuuttila, Matti; Vehkalahti, Miira M

2014-11-01

308

Adolescent peer aggression and its association with mental health and substance use in an Australian cohort.  

PubMed

Prospective longitudinal birth cohort data was used to examine the association between peer aggression at 14 years and mental health and substance use at 17 years. A sample of 1590 participants from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) study were divided into mutually exclusive categories (victims, perpetrators, victim-perpetrators and uninvolved). Involvement in any type of peer aggression as a victim (10.1%), perpetrator (21.4%), or a victim-perpetrator (8.7%) was reported by 40.2% of participants. After adjusting for confounding factors, those who were a victim of peer aggression had increased odds of later depression and internalising symptoms whilst perpetrators of peer aggression were found to be at increased risk of depression and harmful alcohol use. Victim-perpetrators of peer aggression were more likely to have externalising behaviours at 17 years. These results show an independent temporal relationship between peer aggression and later mental health and substance use problems in adolescence. PMID:24331300

Moore, Sophie E; Norman, Rosana E; Sly, Peter D; Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Zubrick, Stephen R; Scott, James

2014-01-01

309

Longitudinal associations between oral health impacts and quality of life among a national cohort of Thai adults  

PubMed Central

Background There is limited evidence on the association between oral health and general health in middle-income countries. This study analysed data from 60,569 adult students enrolled at Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University and residing throughout Thailand who reported oral health impacts at the 2005 baseline and 2009 health status based on Short Form (SF-8) survey. Findings In 2005, 16.4% had difficulty chewing and/or swallowing, 13.4% reported difficulty speaking and/or discomfort with social interaction, and 10.8% of the cohort reported having pain associated with teeth or dentures. Cohort members reporting one or more oral health impacts in 2005 had lower SF-8 mean scores in 2009. In particular, monotonic dose–response gradients in 2005–2009 associations based on multivariate linear regression were found between an increase in number of oral impacts (0, 1, 2, 3) and a decline in SF-8 Physical Component Summary scores (adjusted means of 50.5, 49.2, 48.6, 47.9) as well as SF-8 Mental Component Summary scores (adjusted means of 43.2, 40.9, 40.3, 38.6) in younger cohort members. Similar dose response gradients were found in older cohort members. Conclusions We found strong association between oral health impacts and adverse health and quality of life among Thai adults. This finding confirms that oral health is one of the key determinants of population health. PMID:24139328

2013-01-01

310

Systematic review of epidemiological studies on health effects associated with management of solid waste  

PubMed Central

Background Management of solid waste (mainly landfills and incineration) releases a number of toxic substances, most in small quantities and at extremely low levels. Because of the wide range of pollutants, the different pathways of exposure, long-term low-level exposure, and the potential for synergism among the pollutants, concerns remain about potential health effects but there are many uncertainties involved in the assessment. Our aim was to systematically review the available epidemiological literature on the health effects in the vicinity of landfills and incinerators and among workers at waste processing plants to derive usable excess risk estimates for health impact assessment. Methods We examined the published, peer-reviewed literature addressing health effects of waste management between 1983 and 2008. For each paper, we examined the study design and assessed potential biases in the effect estimates. We evaluated the overall evidence and graded the associated uncertainties. Results In most cases the overall evidence was inadequate to establish a relationship between a specific waste process and health effects; the evidence from occupational studies was not sufficient to make an overall assessment. For community studies, at least for some processes, there was limited evidence of a causal relationship and a few studies were selected for a quantitative evaluation. In particular, for populations living within two kilometres of landfills there was limited evidence of congenital anomalies and low birth weight with excess risk of 2 percent and 6 percent, respectively. The excess risk tended to be higher when sites dealing with toxic wastes were considered. For populations living within three kilometres of old incinerators, there was limited evidence of an increased risk of cancer, with an estimated excess risk of 3.5 percent. The confidence in the evaluation and in the estimated excess risk tended to be higher for specific cancer forms such as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and soft tissue sarcoma than for other cancers. Conclusions The studies we have reviewed suffer from many limitations due to poor exposure assessment, ecological level of analysis, and lack of information on relevant confounders. With a moderate level confidence, however, we have derived some effect estimates that could be used for health impact assessment of old landfill and incineration plants. The uncertainties surrounding these numbers should be considered carefully when health effects are estimated. It is clear that future research into the health risks of waste management needs to overcome current limitations. PMID:20030820

2009-01-01

311

Factors associated with job satisfaction among Chinese community health workers: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background With the medical reform, the function of community health centres emerged to be more important recently in China. However, the health service capabilities were tremendously different between metropolitan cities and small cities. This study aims to clarify the level of job satisfaction of Chinese community health workers between a metropolitan (Shenyang) and a small city (Benxi) in Liaoning province and explore its associated factors. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted from December 2009 to February 2010. A multi-stage sample was used and a total of 2,100 Chinese community health workers from the two cities completed self-administered questionnaire pertaining to job satisfaction indicated by Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ), demographic characteristic and working situations, stress and job burnout. The effective response rate was 80.7%. Hierarchical regression analysis was performed to explore the related factors. All data analyses for the two cities were performed separately. Results The averages of overall job satisfaction score of Chinese community health workers were 67.17 in Shenyang and 69.95 in Benxi. Intrinsic job satisfaction and extrinsic job satisfaction among Chinese community health workers were significantly different between Shenyang and Benxi (p < 0.05). In Shenyang, hierarchical regression analysis showed that the fourth model explained 36%, 32% of the variance of intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfactions, respectively. In Benxi, the fourth model explained 48%, 52% of the variance of intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfactions, respectively. Three significant predictors of intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfactions for the two cities were the two dimensions (social support and decision latitude) of stress and cynicism of burnout. Conclusion From this study, the job satisfaction among Chinese community health workers in the two cities enjoyed a moderate level of job satisfactions, which represented they are not fully satisfied with their jobs. Community health workers in Shenyang had lower job satisfaction as compared to those in Benxi. This study strengthened the evidence that stress and burnout were important predictors of intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfactions. PMID:22111511

2011-01-01

312

Association Rules and Data Mining in Hospital Infection Control and Public Health Surveillance  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objectives: The authors consider the problem of identifying new, unexpected, and interesting patterns in hospital infection control and public health surveillance data and present a new data analysis process and system based on association rules to address this problem. Design: The authors first illustrate the need for automated pattern discovery and data mining in hospital infection control and public health surveillance. Next, they define association rules, explain how those rules can be used in surveillance, and present a novel process and system—the Data Mining Surveillance System (DMSS)—that utilize association rules to identify new and interesting patterns in surveillance data. Results: Experimental results were obtained using DMSS to analyze Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection control data collected over one year (1996) at University of Alabama at Birmingham Hospital. Experiments using one-, three-, and six-month time partitions yielded 34, 57, and 28 statistically significant events, respectively. Although not all statistically significant events are clinically significant, a subset of events generated in each analysis indicated potentially significant shifts in the occurrence of infection or antimicrobial resistance patterns of P. aeruginosa. Conclusion: The new process and system are efficient and effective in identifying new, unexpected, and interesting patterns in surveillance data. The clinical relevance and utility of this process await the results of prospective studies currently in progress. PMID:9670134

Brossette, Stephen E.; Sprague, Alan P.; Hardin, J. Michael; Waites, Ken B.; Jones, Warren T.; Moser, Stephen A.

1998-01-01

313

Association between high voltage overhead transmission lines and mental health: a cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

We examined the association between residential proximity to 60 Hz high voltage (22-500 kV) overhead transmission lines (HVOTLs) and mental health (MH). The subjects were 223 mothers with a mean age of 37 years. The distance from the subject's residence to the closest HVOTL was measured on a map. MH status was assessed by the SF-36 Health Survey, which was scored on a 0-100 point scale, and an individual with a score of 52 points or less was defined as having poor MH. Logistic regression models were used to examine the association between the distance from the subjects' residence to the closest HVOTL and MH status. The prevalence of poor MH was 15%. Among the 223 subjects, 10 lived within 100 m of a HVOTL. The adjusted odds ratios (OR) for poor MH among those who lived 101-300 m or within 100 m from HVOTL were 1.29 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.35-10.13) and 1.87 (95% CI: 0.35-10.13), respectively, against the reference category (300+ m). MH status was not significantly associated with the distance between the subject's residence and the closest HVOTL. PMID:16607646

Yamazaki, Shin; Sokejima, Shigeru; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Eboshida, Akira; Kabuto, Michinori; Yamaguchi, Naohito; Akiba, Suminori; Fukuhara, Shunichi; Nitta, Hiroshi

2006-09-01

314

Association between Sleep and Breast Cancer Incidence among Postmenopausal Women in the Women's Health Initiative  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To determine whether the duration of sleep, sleep quality, insomnia, or sleep disturbance was associated with incident breast cancer in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Women enrolled in one of the Clinical Trial (CT) arms or the Observational Study (OS) from the WHI conducted in the United States. Participants: This study included 110,011 women age 50 to 79 years with no history of cancer. Measurements and Results: Typical sleep duration, sleep quality, and other self-reported sleep measures over the past 4 weeks were assessed during the screening visits for both the CT and OS participants. The presence of insomnia and level of sleep disturbance was calculated from an index of the WHI Insomnia Rating Scale. The outcome for this study was primary, invasive breast cancer. A total of 5,149 incident cases of breast cancer were identified in this study. No statistically significant associations were found between sleep duration, sleep quality, insomnia, or level of sleep disturbance with the risk of breast cancer after multivariable adjustment. A positive trend was observed for increasing sleeping duration with the risk of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer, but the association estimates for each sleep duration category were weak and nonsignificant. Conclusions: This study does not provide strong support for an association between self-reported sleep duration, sleep quality, insomnia, or sleep disturbance with the risk of breast cancer. Citation: Vogtmann E; Levitan EB; Hale L; Shikany JM; Shah NA; Endeshaw Y; Lewis CE; Manson JE; Chlebowski RT. Association between sleep and breast cancer incidence among postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative. SLEEP 2013;36(10):1437-1444. PMID:24082303

Vogtmann, Emily; Levitan, Emily B.; Hale, Lauren; Shikany, James M.; Shah, Neomi A.; Endeshaw, Yohannes; Lewis, Cora E.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Chlebowski, Rowan T.

2013-01-01

315

Associations of Pentraxin 3 with Cardiovascular Disease and All Cause Death: The Cardiovascular Health Study  

PubMed Central

Objective We examined associations of pentraxin 3 (PTX3), a vascular inflammation marker, with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all cause death. Methods and Results 1,583 Cardiovascular Health Study participants free of prevalent CVD were included. Non-exclusive case groups were angina (n=476), myocardial infarction (MI; n=237), stroke (n=310), CVD death (n=282) and all cause death (n=772). 535 participants had no events. PTX3 levels were higher in those with subclinical CVD (1.90 ± 1.89 ng/ml) than those without (1.71 ± 1.88 ng/ml; p=0.001). Using Cox regression adjusted for age, sex and ethnicity, a standard deviation increase in PTX3 (1.89 ng/ml) was associated with CVD death (hazard ratio 1.11; 95% confidence interval 1.02–1.21) and all cause death (1.08; 1.02–1.15). PTX3 was not associated with angina (1.09; 0.98–1.20), MI (0.96; 0.81–1.12) or stroke (1.06; 0.95–1.18). Adding C-reactive protein (CRP) or CVD risk factors to the models had no significant effects on associations. Conclusions In these older adults, PTX3 was associated with CVD and all cause death independent of CRP and CVD risk factors. PTX3 likely reflects different aspects of inflammation than CRP and may provide insight into vascular health in aging and chronic diseases of aging that lead to death. PMID:19164811

Jenny, Nancy Swords; Arnold, Alice M.; Kuller, Lewis H.; Tracy, Russell P.; Psaty, Bruce M.

2009-01-01

316

Quality of life valuations of HPV-associated cancer health states by the general population  

PubMed Central

Objectives To obtain health-related quality of life valuations (ie, utilities) for human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancer health states of vulval, vaginal, penile, anal and oropharyngeal cancers for use in modelling cost-effectiveness of prophylactic HPV vaccination. Methods Written case descriptions of each HPV-associated cancer describing the ‘average’ patient surviving after the initial cancer diagnosis and treatment were developed in consultation with oncology clinicians. A general overview, standard gamble questionnaire for each health state and a quiz was conducted in 120 participants recruited from the general population. Results In the included population sample (n=99), the average age was 43?years (range = 18–70?years) with 54% men, 44% never married/43% married, 76% education beyond year 12 and 39% employed full-time. The utility values for the five health states were 0.57 (95% CI 0.52 to 0.62) for anal cancer, 0.58 (0.53 to 0.63) for oropharyngeal cancer, 0.59 (0.54 to 0.64) for vaginal cancer, 0.65 (0.60 to 0.70) for vulval cancer and 0.79 (0.74 to 0.84) for penile cancer. Participants demonstrated a very good understanding of the symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of these cancers with a mean score of 9 (SD=1.1) on a 10-item quiz. Conclusions This study provides utility estimates for the specific HPV-related cancers of vulval, vaginal, penile, anal and oropharyngeal cancers valued by a general population sample using standard gamble. The results demonstrate considerable quality of life impact associated with surviving these cancers that will be important to incorporate into modelling cost-effectiveness of prophylactic HPV vaccination in different populations. PMID:22645393

Farmer, K Chip; Lynch, William J; Rees, Guy L; Wain, Gerard; Adams, Jane

2012-01-01

317

Uncertainties Associated with Quantifying Climate Change Impacts on Human Health: A Case Study for Diarrhea  

PubMed Central

Background Climate change is expected to have large impacts on health at low latitudes where droughts and malnutrition, diarrhea, and malaria are projected to increase. Objectives The main objective of this study was to indicate a method to assess a range of plausible health impacts of climate change while handling uncertainties in a unambiguous manner. We illustrate this method by quantifying the impacts of projected regional warming on diarrhea in this century. Methods We combined a range of linear regression coefficients to compute projections of future climate change-induced increases in diarrhea using the results from five empirical studies and a 19-member climate model ensemble for which future greenhouse gas emissions were prescribed. Six geographical regions were analyzed. Results The model ensemble projected temperature increases of up to 4°C over land in the tropics and subtropics by the end of this century. The associated mean projected increases of relative risk of diarrhea in the six study regions were 8–11% (with SDs of 3–5%) by 2010–2039 and 22–29% (SDs of 9–12%) by 2070–2099. Conclusions Even our most conservative estimates indicate substantial impacts from climate change on the incidence of diarrhea. Nevertheless, our main conclusion is that large uncertainties are associated with future projections of diarrhea and climate change. We believe that these uncertainties can be attributed primarily to the sparsity of empirical climate–health data. Our results therefore highlight the need for empirical data in the cross section between climate and human health. PMID:20929684

Kolstad, Erik W.; Johansson, Kjell Arne

2011-01-01

318

Associations of self-rated health and socioeconomic status with information seeking and avoiding behavior among post- treatment cancer patients.  

PubMed

This study investigated how self-rated health and socioeconomic status are associated with behaviour of cancer survivors regarding desire for information. For this association, we compared survivors who did not seek information about cancer with those who did. We examined how sociodemographic, socioeconomic, cancer- related, and health information factors are associated with self-rated health (SRH) by health information seeking/ avoiding behavior in a survey of 502 post-treatment cancer patients. In the information seeking group, all four factors exhibited significant relationships with SRH. SRH values were significantly high for women (p<0.05), non-Hispanic White (p<0.05), and educated (p<0.01) participants, and for those who had high self-efficacy to use health information by themselves (p<0.01). Furthermore, in the information avoiding group, not only were there no significant relationships between socioeconomic status (SES) and SRH, but there were negative associations between their attitude/capacity and the SRH. In terms of communication equity, the promotion of information seeking behavior can be an effective way to reduce health disparities that are caused by social inequalities. Information avoiding behavior, however, does not exhibit a negative contribution toward the relationship between SRH and SES. Information seeking behavior was positively associated with SRH, but avoiding behavior was not negatively associated. We thus need to eliminate communication inequalities using health intervention to support information seeking behavior, while simultaneously providing support for avoiders. PMID:24716962

Jung, Minsoo

2014-01-01

319

The Association of Income with Health Behavior Change and Disease Monitoring among Patients with Chronic Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Management of chronic diseases requires patients to adhere to recommended health behavior change and complete tests for monitoring. While studies have shown an association between low income and lack of adherence, the reasons why people with low income may be less likely to adhere are unclear. We sought to determine the association between household income and receipt of health behavior change advice, adherence to advice, receipt of recommended monitoring tests, and self-reported reasons for non-adherence/non-receipt. Methods We conducted a population-weighted survey, with 1849 respondents with cardiovascular-related chronic diseases (heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, stroke) from Western Canada (n?=?1849). We used log-binomial regression to examine the association between household income and the outcome variables of interest: receipt of advice for and adherence to health behavior change (sodium reduction, dietary improvement, increased physical activity, smoking cessation, weight loss), reasons for non-adherence, receipt of recommended monitoring tests (cholesterol, blood glucose, blood pressure), and reasons for non-receipt of tests. Results Behavior change advice was received equally by both low and high income respondents. Low income respondents were more likely than those with high income to not adhere to recommendations regarding smoking cessation (adjusted prevalence rate ratio (PRR): 1.55, 95%CI: 1.09–2.20), and more likely to not receive measurements of blood cholesterol (PRR: 1.72, 95%CI 1.24–2.40) or glucose (PRR: 1.80, 95%CI: 1.26–2.58). Those with low income were less likely to state that non-adherence/non-receipt was due to personal choice, and more likely to state that it was due to an extrinsic factor, such as cost or lack of accessibility. Conclusions There are important income-related differences in the patterns of health behavior change and disease monitoring, as well as reasons for non-adherence or non-receipt. Among those with low income, adherence to health behavior change and monitoring may be improved by addressing modifiable barriers such as cost and access. PMID:24722618

Campbell, David JT.; Ronksley, Paul E.; Manns, Braden J.; Tonelli, Marcello; Sanmartin, Claudia; Weaver, Robert G.; Hennessy, Deirdre; King-Shier, Kathryn; Campbell, Tavis; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R.

2014-01-01

320

Associations Between Patterns of Emerging Sexual Behavior and Young Adult Reproductive Health  

PubMed Central

CONTEXT Identifying young adult outcomes associated with adolescent sexual behavior, including patterns of first oral, vaginal and anal sex, is critical to promoting healthy sexual development. METHODS Associations between patterns of emerging sexual behavior, defined using latent class analysis, and young adult sexual and reproductive health were examined among 9,441 respondents to Waves 1 (1994–1995), 3 (2001–2002) and 4 (2008) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Logistic regression analyses examined associations between class membership and young adult outcomes, and tested for interactions by race and ethnicity. RESULTS Compared with respondents who initiated vaginal sex first and reported other sexual behaviors within two years, those who initiated oral and vaginal sex during the same year had similar odds of having had an STD diagnosis ever or in the last year, of having had concurrent sexual partnerships in the last year and of having exchanged sex for money. However, respondents who postponed sexual activity had reduced odds of each outcome (odds ratios, 0.2–0.4); those who initiated vaginal sex and reported only one type of sexual behavior had reduced odds of reporting STD diagnoses and concurrent partnerships (0.4–0.6). Respondents who reported early initiation of sexual activity combined with anal sex experience during adolescence had elevated odds of having had concurrent partnerships (1.6). The data suggest racial and ethnic disparities even when patterns of emerging sexual behavior were the same. CONCLUSIONS Patterns of early sexual behavior considered high-risk may not predict poor sexual and reproductive health in young adulthood. PMID:23231329

Haydon, Abigail A.; Herring, Amy H.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

2012-01-01

321

Health and safety problems associated with long working hours: a review of the current position.  

PubMed Central

The European Community Directive on Working Time, which should have been implemented in member states of the European Community by November 1996, contains several requirements related to working hours, including the right of employees to refuse to work more than 48 hours a week. The United Kingdom government attempted to oppose the Directive, arguing that there is no convincing evidence that hours of work should be limited on health and safety grounds. Much of the research in this area has focused on the problems of shiftworking and previous reviews have therefore tended to emphasise this aspect of working hours. However, there is much less information about the effects of overtime work, which is a central element of the terms of the Directive. This paper reviews the current evidence relating to the potential effects on health and performance of extensions to the normal working day. Several gaps in the literature are identified. Research to date has been restricted to a limited range of health outcomes--namely, mental health and cardiovascular disorders. Other potential effects which are normally associated with stress--for example, gastrointestinal disorders, musculoskeletal disorders, and problems associated with depression of the immune system, have received little attention. Also, there have been few systematic investigations of performance effects, and little consideration of the implications for occupational exposure limits of extensions to the working day. Existing data relate largely to situations where working hours exceed 50 a week and there is a lack of information on hours below this level, which is of direct relevance to the European Community proposal. Finally, it is clear from investigations relating to shiftwork that a range of modifying factors are likely to influence the level and nature of health and performance outcomes. These include the attitudes and motivation of the people concerned, the job requirements, and other aspects of the organisational and cultural climate. It is concluded that there is currently sufficient evidence to raise concerns about the risks to health and safety of long working hours. However, much more work is required to define the level and nature of those risks. PMID:9245942

Spurgeon, A; Harrington, J M; Cooper, C L

1997-01-01

322

Udder health in beef cows and its association with calf growth  

PubMed Central

Background Studies outside the Nordic countries have indicated that subclinical mastitis (measured by milk somatic cell count or the California Mastitis Test), intramammary infections (IMI), or blind quarters in beef cows may have negative effects on beef calf growth. Knowledge on prevalence of such udder health problems in Swedish beef cows is scarce. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to investigate subclinical mastitis, IMI and udder conformation in a number of beef cow herds. Production of ?-lactamase in staphylococci was also investigated. Associations between certain cow factors and subclinical mastitis and IMI, and associations between cow and calf factors and 200 day calf weaning weight were also studied. The herds were visited once within a month after calving and once at weaning. Udder examination and quarter milk sampling, for somatic cell count and bacteriology, were performed in 8 to 12 cows per herd and occasion. Results Approximately 50%, 40% and 10% of the cows had subclinical mastitis, IMI, and at least one blind quarter, respectively, but the prevalence varied markedly between herds. Intramammary infections (mainly due to staphylococci) were identified in 13-16% of the milk samples. Less than 5% of the staphylococcal isolates produced ?-lactamase. Approximately 11% of the cows sampled twice had the same IMI (mostly Staphylococcus aureus) at both samplings. Cow factors of importance for subclinical mastitis and/or IMI were teat and udder shape, breed, parity, presence of blind quarters, and cow hygiene. No significant associations were found between udder health parameters studied and calf weaning weights. Conclusions Subclinical mastitis and IMI, but not blind quarters, were common in beef cows, but the prevalence varied markedly between herds. Most IMI were caused by staphylococci and more than 95% of those were sensitive to penicillin. Cows with large funnel-shaped teats or pendulous udder after calving, and cows with blind quarters were at risk of having subclinical mastitis and/or IMI. Poor hygiene was also a risk factor for udder health problems. No significant associations were found between udder health and calf weaning weight. More studies on risk factors are warranted to improve advisory services on awareness and prevention of mastitis in beef cows. PMID:24479386

2014-01-01

323

Australian Medical Students' Association Global Health Essay Competition - Global climate change, geo-engineering and human health.  

PubMed

Rio+20's proposed Sustainable Development Goals have the potential to redefine the course of international action on climate change. They recognise that environmental health is inextricably linked with human health, and that environmental sustainability is of paramount importance in safeguarding global health. Competition entrants were asked to discuss ways of making global health a central component of international sustainable development initiatives and environmental policy, using one or two concrete examples PMID:24099214

Boyages, Costa S

2013-10-01

324

Internet Use Among Older Adults: Association With Health Needs, Psychological Capital, and Social Capital  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have identified socioeconomic status and health status as predictors of older adults’ computer and Internet use, but researchers have not examined the relationships between older adults’ health needs and psychological capital (emotional well-being and self-efficacy) and social capital (social integration/ties and support networks) to different types of Internet use. Objective This study examined (1) whether older adults’ health conditions and psychological and social capital differentiate Internet users from nonusers, and (2) whether the Internet users differed in their types of Internet use on the basis of their health conditions and psychological and social capital. Methods Data for this study came from the National Health and Aging Trends Study, which is based on a nationally representative sample of US Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years and older. The sample for this study were those who resided in the community in their own or others’ homes (N=6680). Binary logistic regression analysis was used to compare health needs, psychological capital, and social capital among (1) any type of Internet users and nonusers, (2) Internet users who engaged in health-related tasks and Internet users who did not, (3) Internet users who engaged in shopping/banking tasks and Internet users who did not, and (4) Internet users only used the Internet for email/texting and all other Internet users. Results Depressive and anxiety symptoms, measures of psychological capital, were negatively associated with Internet use among older adults (odds ratio [OR] 0.83, 95% CI 0.70-0.98, P=.03 and OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.65-0.97, P=.03, respectively), whereas most measures of social capital were positively associated with Internet use. Having more chronic medical conditions and engaging in formal volunteering increased the odds of Internet use for health-related tasks by 1.15 (95% CI 1.08-1.23, P<.001) and 1.28 (95% CI 1.05-1.57, P=.02), respectively, but anxiety symptoms decreased the odds (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.55-0.99, P=.05). Religious service attendance was negatively associated with Internet use for shopping/banking activities (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.62-0.91, P=.01). Anxiety symptoms increased the odds of using the Internet only for emails/texting (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.12-2.75, P=.02), but formal volunteering decreased the odds (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.43-0.92, P=.02). Other correlates of Internet use solely for emails/texting were older age (80-84 years and ?85 years), a black or “other” racial/ethnic background, a high school education or less than high school, and lower income. Conclusions The findings point to the importance of social capital in facilitating older adults’ learning and adoption of Internet technology. Older adults who used the Internet for email/texting purposes only were the most socially and economically disadvantaged group of Internet users. Computer/Internet training for older adults and computer/Internet use for various purposes need to consider the significant role their social capital can play. PMID:23681083

2013-01-01

325

The Association of Acculturation and Health Literacy, Numeracy and Health-Related Skills in Spanish-speaking Caregivers of Young Children  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the relationship among acculturation, literacy, and health skills in Latino caregivers of young children. Latino caregivers of children <30 months seeking primary care at four medical centers were administered measures of acculturation (SASH), functional health literacy (STOFHLA), numeracy (WRAT-3) and health-related skills (PHLAT Spanish). Child anthropomorphics and immunization status were ascertained by chart review. Caregivers (N = 184) with a median age of 27 years (IQR: 23–32) participated; 89.1 % were mothers, and 97.1 % had low acculturation. Lower SASH scores were significantly correlated (P < 0.01) with lower STOFHLA (? = 0.21), WRAT-3 (? = 0.25), and PHLAT Spanish scores (? = 0.34). SASH scores predicted PHLAT Spanish scores in a multivariable linear regression model that adjusted for the age of child, the age and gender of the caregiver, number of children in the family, the type of health insurance of the caregiver, and study site (adjusted ?: 0.84, 95 % CI 0.26–1.42, P = 0.005). This association was attenuated by the addition of literacy (adjusted ?: 0.66, 95 % CI 0.11–1.21, P = 0.02) or numeracy (adjusted ?: 0.50, 95 % CI ?0.04–1.04, P = 0.07) into the model. There was no significant association between acculturation and up-to-date child immunizations or a weight status of overweight/obese. Lower acculturation was associated with worse health literacy and diminished ability to perform child health-related skills. Literacy and numeracy skills attenuated the association between acculturation and child health skills. These associations may help to explain some child health disparities in Latino communities. PMID:22481307

White, Richard O.; Perrin, Eliana M.; Yin, H. Shonna; Sanders, Lee M.; Gayle, Eryka A.; Rothman, Russell L.

2012-01-01

326

Associations of Child Insomnia, Sleep Movement, and Their Persistence With Mental Health Symptoms in Childhood and Adolescence  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To examine the patterns of insomnia and sleep-related movement from ages 4.5 to 9 years, their concurrent associations with mental health symptoms in childhood, and the longitudinal associations of sleep-problem persistence with mental health symptoms at ages 9 and 18 years. Design: A 14-year prospective follow-up study. Assessments included maternal report on the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire at ages 4.5 and 9, and child mental health symptoms via maternal report at age 4.5, multi-informant (child, teacher, mother) report at age 9, and adolescent report at age 18. Setting: Community. Participants: A total of 396 children (51% female). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Sleep problems were more common at age 4.5 than 9; symptoms of insomnia and abnormal sleep movement both had persistence rates of 9–10%. At age 4.5, insomnia was associated with hostile-aggressive and hyperactive-distractible behavior, but there were no significant associations for sleep movement. At age 9, both insomnia and sleep movement were associated with symptoms of depression, externalizing, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Insomnia persistence was associated with symptoms of depression, externalizing, and ADHD at age 9 and anxiety and externalizing at age 18; sleep- movement persistence was associated with externalizing and ADHD at age 9, and ADHD at age 18. The age 18 persistence effects for insomnia and anxiety and for sleep movement and ADHD were significant when controlling for earlier mental health. Conclusions: Childhood insomnia and sleep movement are common and associated with mental health symptoms. Their persistence from middle to late childhood predicts associations with specific types of mental health symptoms at age 18. Citation: Armstrong JM, Ruttle PL, Klein MH, Essex MJ, Benca RM. Associations of child insomnia, sleep movement, and their persistence with mental health symptoms in childhood and adolescence. SLEEP 2014;37(5):901-909. PMID:24790268

Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Ruttle, Paula L.; Klein, Marjorie H.; Essex, Marilyn J.; Benca, Ruth M.

2014-01-01

327

The relationship between microbial DNA concentrations and swimming associated health effects at a tropical environment bathing beach  

EPA Science Inventory

The relationship between microbial DNA concentrations and swimming associated health effects at a tropical environment bathing beach. Timothy 1. Wade, presenter. Co-authors: Alfred P. Dufour, Kristen Brenner, Rich Haugland, Larry Wymer, Elizabeth Sams Fecal indicator bacteria (F...

328

FINE PARTICLES ARE MORE STRONGLY ASSOCIATED THAN COARSE PARTICLES WITH ACUTE REPIRATORY HEALTH EFFECTS IN SCHOOL CHILDREN  

EPA Science Inventory

Numerous studies have reported associations between airborne particles and a range of respiratory outcomes from symptoms to mortality. Current attention has been focused on the characteristics of these particles responsible for the adverse health effects. We have reanalyzed three...

329

Panel discussion review: Session two - Interpretation of Observed Associations between Multiple Ambient Air Pollutants and Health Effects in Epidemiologic Analysis  

EPA Science Inventory

Air pollution epidemiologic research has often utilized ambient air concentrations measured from centrally located monitors as a surrogate measure of exposure to these pollutants. Associations between these ambient concentrations and health outcomes such as lung function, hospita...

330

Longitudinal Associations between Teasing and Health-related Quality of Life among Treatment-seeking Overweight Youth  

E-print Network

Overweight and obese children and adolescents frequently experience teasing. This investigation examined the longitudinal associations between teasing and pediatric health-related quality of life. Structural equation modeling was used to examine...

Jensen, Chad David

2011-08-31

331

Is the Association of Subjective SES and Self-Rated Health Confounded by Negative Mood? An Experimental Approach  

PubMed Central

Objective Lower subjective socioeconomic status (SSS) consistently shows associations with poorer health with the strongest relationships emerging with global self-rated health. Though often interpreted as reflecting the impact of low SSS on health, the association could also arise from confounding SSS with negative affect. In this research we sought to determine if negative affect confounds, or alternatively, is on the causal pathway linking SSS to self-rated health. Methods 300 adult participants—recruited from throughout the United States—were randomized to experience sadness, shame, or a neutral mood induction wherein they wrote about and visualized a particularly emotionally evocative event. Participants subsequently completed measures of SSS, self-rated health, depression, and negative mood. Results Consistent with predictions, neither SSS scores nor the association of SSS with self-rated health, depression, and chronic negative affect differed by mood induction condition, controlling for demographic factors that covary with SSS (e.g., age, gender, education, income). Moreover, chronic negative affect partially explained the relationship between SSS and self-rated health, independent of manipulated mood. Conclusions These findings support the utility of the measurement of SSS, and provide evidence suggesting that chronic negative affect is a likely mediator of the SSS association with global health rather than a confounder. PMID:22329426

Kraus, Michael W.; Adler, Nancy; David Chen, Teh-Way

2012-01-01

332

An Association of Independent Blue Cross and Blue Shield Plans This health plan meets Minimum Creditable Coverage Standards for  

E-print Network

if admitted or for observation stay) Well-child care visits Nothing Routine adult physical exams, including Mental health and substance abuse treatment $20 per visit Office visits $20 per visit ChiropractorAn Association of Independent Blue Cross and Blue Shield Plans This health plan meets Minimum

Aalberts, Daniel P.

333

A Longitudinal Investigation of Associations between Boys' Pubertal Timing and Adult Behavioral Health and Well-Being  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To extend research linking pubertal timing and adolescent health outcomes, this study examines boys' pubertal timing and subsequent interpersonal success and health behaviors in mid adulthood. Past research has shown that boys' pubertal timing is associated with both positive and negative developmental outcomes in the short term, and so it is…

Taga, Keiko A.; Markey, Charlotte N.; Friedman, Howard S.

2006-01-01

334

Is change bad? Personality change is associated with poorer psychological health and greater metabolic syndrome in midlife  

PubMed Central

Objective Personality change is emerging as an important predictor of health and well-being. Extending previous research, we examined whether two types of personality change, directional and absolute, are associated with both subjective and objective indicators of health. Method Utilizing the longitudinal Midlife in the United States Survey (MIDUS) data, we examined whether both types of change over 10 years were associated with psychological well-being, self-reported global health, and the presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) components and diagnosis. Results Socially undesirable personality change (e.g., becoming less conscientious and more neurotic) and absolute personality change were independently associated with worse perceived health and well-being at Time 2. Notably, absolute personality change, regardless of the direction, was also associated with having a greater number of MetS components and a greater probability of diagnosis at Time 2. Conclusions In sum, too much personality change may be bad for one’s health: socially undesirable and absolute personality change were both associated with worse psychological health and worse metabolic profiles over 10 years. These findings suggest that personality change may contribute to psychological and physical health, and provide initial insight into potential intermediate links between personality change and distal outcomes such as mortality. PMID:22924900

Human, Lauren J.; Biesanz, Jeremy C.; Miller, Gregory E.; Chen, Edith; Lachman, Margie E.; Seeman, Teresa E.

2013-01-01

335

Trace metals in soil and vegetables and associated health risk assessment.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to assess the contamination level of trace metals in soil and vegetables and health risk to the urban population in Bangladesh. The range of Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Cd, and Pb in agricultural soils was 158-1160, 104-443, 157-519, 41-93, 3.9-13, and 84-574 mg/kg, respectively. Sequential extraction tests revealed that the studied metals were predominantly associated with the residual fraction, followed by the organically bound phase. Concerning Cu, Ni, Cd, and Pb in vegetables, more than 50 % samples exceeded the FAO/WHO recommended permissible limits. Considering the transfer of metals from soil to vegetables, Cu and Cd exhibited higher transfer factor (TF) values than the other metals. Target hazard quotient (THQ) for individual metal was below 1, suggesting that people would not experience significant health hazards if they ingest a single metal from vegetables. However, total metal THQ signifies the potential non-carcinogenic health hazard to the highly exposed consumers. The carcinogenic risk (TR) of As (1.9?×?10(-4)) and Pb (2.3?×?10(-5)) through consumption of vegetables were higher than the USEPA threshold level (10(-6)), indicating potential cancer risks. PMID:25204898

Islam, Md Saiful; Ahmed, Md Kawser; Habibullah-Al-Mamun, Md; Masunaga, Shigeki

2014-12-01

336

Psychosocial Factors of Different Health Behaviour Patterns in Adolescents: Association with Overweight and Weight Control Behaviours  

PubMed Central

Physical activity, nutrition, and sedentary behaviour combine to influence the risk of overweight among adolescents. This paper aims to identify psychosocial factors of different health behaviour patterns in adolescents and its association with overweight and weight control behaviours. The 3069 adolescents of both genders (average of 14.8 years old) from the 2010 Portuguese survey of Health Behaviour School-Aged Children (HBSC) answered the 2010 HBSC self-reported questionnaire. It used the cluster k-means (nonhierarchy method), qui-square, one-way ANOVA, and logistic regression. Three clusters with different behavioural patterns (physical activity, sedentary, and eating) composed the results obtained. The sedentary group (34%) had lower self-regulation, body satisfaction, health and wellness, family and classmates relationships, communication with the father than the other two groups. The active gamers (25%) had a smaller BMI but used more unhealthy weight control strategies than the other two groups. The healthy group (41%) was more motivated and more satisfied with school but was not different than the active gamers in most psychosocial variables. Differences were found between clusters for weight control behaviours and psychosocial variables. Different strategies for different patterns were necessary in order to promote obesity prevention and, simultaneously, target healthy lifestyle and wellbeing in adolescents. PMID:22811890

Veloso, Susana M.; Matos, Margarida G.; Carvalho, Marina; Diniz, Jose A.

2012-01-01

337

Health implications associated with exposure to farmed and wild sea turtles  

PubMed Central

Exposure to sea turtles may be increasing with expanding tourism, although reports of problems arising from interaction with free-living animals appear of negligible human health and safety concern. Exposure both to wild-caught and captive-housed sea turtles, including consumption of turtle products, raises several health concerns for the public, including: microbiological (bacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi), macrobiological (macroparasites), and organic and inorganic toxic contaminants (biotoxins, organochlorines and heavy metals). We conducted a review of sea turtle associated human disease and its causative agents as well as a case study of the commercial sea turtle facility known as the Cayman Turtle Farm (which receives approximately 240,000 visitors annually) including the use of water sampling and laboratory microbial analysis which identified Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aeromonas spp., Vibrio spp. and Salmonella spp. Our assessment is that pathogens and toxic contaminants may be loosely categorized to represent the following levels of potential risk: viruses and fungi = very low; protozoan parasites = very low to low; metazoan parasites, bacteria and environmental toxic contaminants = low or moderate to high; and biotoxin contaminant = moderate to very high. Farmed turtles and their consumable products may constitute a significant reservoir of potential human pathogen and toxin contamination. Greater awareness among health-care professionals regarding both potential pathogens and toxic contaminants from sea turtles, as well as key signs and symptoms of sea turtle-related human disease, is important for the prevention and control of salient disease. PMID:23413410

Warwick, Clifford; Arena, Phillip C; Steedman, Catrina

2013-01-01

338

Association between work-related health problems and job insecurity in permanent and temporary employees  

PubMed Central

Objectives This research was conducted with an aim of determining the correlation between job insecurity and an employee’s work-related health problems among permanent and temporary workers. Methods Using the data from the First Korean Working Conditions Survey conducted in 2006, a total of 7,071 workers, excluding employers and the self-employed, were analyzed. Work-related health problems were categorized as backache, headache, abdominal pain, muscular pain, stress, fatigue, insomnia, anxiety or depression. Each problem was then analyzed for its relationship to job insecurity through logistic regression analysis. Results Among the 7,071 workers, 5,294 (74.9%) were permanent workers and 1,777 (25.1%) were temporary workers. For the permanent workers, presence of high or moderate job insecurity appeared more closely linked to backache, headache, abdominal pain, muscular pain, stress, fatigue, insomnia, anxiety, and depression compared to absence of job insecurity. However, for the temporary workers, only depression appeared to be associated with the presence of high job insecurity. Conclusion The study showed that the presence of job insecurity is correlated with work-related health problems. The deleterious effects of job insecurity appeared to be stronger in permanent than temporary workers. Additional research should investigate ways to effectively reduce job insecurity. PMID:24472497

2013-01-01

339

The health care of children and youths with disabilities. Council on Scientific Affairs, American Medical Association.  

PubMed

Nearly 2 million adolescents between ages 10 and 18 years have a chronic condition associated with limited activity. Reflecting the interaction between functional ability and socioeconomic influences, an adolescent living in poverty and those with parents with less than a ninth-grade education are almost twice as likely to be disabled as other adolescents. Most children with disabilities have a regular source of health care. These young people and their families, however, may face major financial problems and are often in need of protection from excessive out-of-pocket expenses. This issue becomes more prominent during late adolescence as youths leave the home setting, become financially independent, marry, or transfer from a pediatric to an adult health care system. Treating children and youths with disabilities necessitates cooperation among physicians, schools, community agencies, and families. Although not necessarily a problem for family physicians, an additional challenge for pediatricians is helping adolescents make the transition from the pediatric to the adult health care system. As the survival rate of children with disabilities increases, pediatricians are faced more frequently with having to prepare their adolescent patients and their families for transfer to adult care providers. PMID:8252154

1993-03-01

340

United Nations Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5: Augmenting the role of health professional associations.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to assess changes in the organizational capacity of health professional associations (HPAs) before and after a structured capacity building intervention, which included strategic investment of resources at institutional and technical levels. Self-assessments of organizational capacity were conducted by seven HPAs from low-resource countries involved in the FIGO Leadership in Obstetrics and Gynecology for Impact and Change (LOGIC) Initiative in Maternal and Newborn Health. The self-assessment tool comprised a questionnaire focusing on five core organizational dimensions, completed through a participatory and externally facilitated process. Differences were assessed using the two-sided sign test. All seven HPAs made improvements, with gains in an overall index (P=0.017) and in the specific dimensions of culture (P=0.016), operational capacity (P=0.016), performance (P=0.03), and functions (P=0.016). Increased capacity contributed to the ability of each HPA to enhance their credibility and assume leadership in national efforts to improve maternal and newborn health. PMID:25257568

Perron, Liette; Vander Plaetse, Bart; Taylor, David

2014-10-01

341

Composition of European chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) and association with health effects: fresh and processed products.  

PubMed

Chestnut fruits are highly regarded and widely consumed throughout Europe, America and Asia. Various commercial forms are available, e.g. fresh and industrially processed. There have been various reviews on the composition of chestnut fruits but there has not been a comprehensive review of the different health benefits that this fruit can provide. This review is focused on the composition and associated health effects of European fresh chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) fruits and their home-processed and industrial products, e.g. boiled, roasted, frozen, and 'marron glacées'. We also expand the knowledge of chestnut uses by presenting data for other chestnut materials that have potential applications as new foods, as sources of antioxidants, and as sources of other useful bioactives. There is considerable literature data on nutrients in fresh chestnut fruits but less information on bioactive non-nutrients such as phenolics. Chestnuts are mostly consumed as processed forms, and the different types of processing clearly affect the nutrient and non-nutrient composition of the fruits. The benefits that this fruit can provide for human and animal health are numerous, but it is clear that improvements can be made for both production and quality of chestnut products, e.g. genetic selection and optimizing industrial processing. PMID:20564434

De Vasconcelos, Maria C B M; Bennett, Richard N; Rosa, Eduardo A S; Ferreira-Cardoso, Jorge V

2010-08-15

342

Association of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Severity with Exercise Capacity and Health-related Quality of Life  

PubMed Central

Background: Current research is inconclusive as to whether obstructive sleep apnea severity directly limits exercise capacity and lowers health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of obstructive sleep apnea severity with determinants of exercise capacity and HRQoL. Subjects and Methods: Subjects were evaluated by home somnography and classified as no obstructive sleep apnea (n = 43) or as having mild (n = 27), moderate or severe obstructive sleep apnea (n = 21). Exercise capacity was assessed by a ramping cycle ergometer test, and HRQoL was assessed with the SF-36 questionnaire. Results: Greater obstructive sleep apnea severity was associated with older age, higher body weight, higher body mass index, lower peak aerobic capacity, a higher percentage of peak aerobic capacity at a submaximal exercise intensity of 55 watts, and lower physical component summary score from the SF-36. None of these variables were statistically different among obstructive sleep apnea severity groups after controlling for age and body weight. Obstructive sleep apnea severity was not associated with any cardiorespiratory fitness or HRQoL parameter. Conclusions: Obstructive sleep apnea severity has no independent association with exercise capacity or HRQoL. PMID:23923110

Butner, Katrina L; Hargens, Trent A; Kaleth, Anthony S; Miller, Larry E; Zedalis, Donald; Herbert, William G

2013-01-01

343

Association of Perceived Stigma and Mood and Anxiety Disorders: Results from the World Mental Health Surveys  

PubMed Central

Introduction We assessed the prevalence of perceived stigma among persons with mental disorders and chronic physical conditions in an international study. Methods Perceived stigma (reporting health-related embarrassment and discrimination) was assessed to adults reporting significant disability. Mental disorders were assessed with CIDI 3.0. Chronic conditions were ascertained by self-report. 80,737 household-residing adults participated in 17 population surveys in 16 countries. Results Perceived stigma was present in 13.5% (22.1% in developing and 11.7% in developed countries). Suffering from a depressive or an anxiety disorder (vs. no mental disorder) was associated with about a two-fold increase in the likelihood of stigma, while comorbid depression and anxiety was even more strongly associated (OR= 4.0, 95%CI= 3.1, 5.4). Chronic physical conditions showed a lower association. Conclusion Perceived stigma is frequent and strongly associated with mental disorders worldwide. Efforts to alleviate stigma among individuals with comorbid depression and anxiety are needed. PMID:18754833

Alonso, Jordi; Buron, Andrea; Bruffaerts, Ronny; He, Yanling; Posada-Villa, Jose; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Angermeyer, Mattias C.; Levinson, Daphna; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Tachimori, Hisateru; Mneimneh, Zeina N.; Medina-Mora, Ma Elena; Ormel, Johan; Scott, Kate Margaret; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Gluzman, Semyon; Lee, Sing; Vilagut, Gemma; Kessler, Ronald C.; Von Korff, Michael

2010-01-01

344

Endogenous Testosterone Levels Are Associated With Assessments of Unfavourable Health Information  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether participants’ assessments of unfavourable health information are associated with individual differences in basal testosterone. Testosterone has previously been related to assessments of threat in social and other domains. Fifty-two undergraduate males were tested for a minor, fictitious medical condition (‘TAA deficiency’) in a paradigm that was developed to examine the thoughts and behaviours of individuals who have just received unfavourable medical news. In a variation on the classic paradigm, all participants were told that they had ‘TAA deficiency,’ after which they rated the seriousness and prevalence of that condition as well as 19 other actual conditions. Higher testosterone levels were significantly correlated with lower estimates of both the seriousness and prevalence of TAA deficiency as well as lower median seriousness and prevalence estimates of the 19 actual conditions. Findings are discussed in light of current research in the field of behavioural endocrinology. This study provides preliminary evidence that individual differences in assessments of threatening health information may be associated with neurobiological characteristics. PMID:22348295

Josephs, Robert A.; Liening, Scott H.

2012-01-01

345

Respiratory Health Effects Associated with Restoration Work in Post-Hurricane Katrina New Orleans  

PubMed Central

Background. This study examines prevalence of respiratory conditions in New Orleans-area restoration workers after Hurricane Katrina. Methods. Between 2007 and 2010, spirometry and respiratory health and occupational questionnaire were administered to 791 New Orleans-area adults who mostly worked in the building construction and maintenance trades or custodial services. The associations between restoration work hours and lung function and prevalence of respiratory symptoms were examined by multiple linear regression, ?2, or multiple logistic regression. Results. 74% of participants performed post-Katrina restoration work (median time: 620 hours). Symptoms reported include episodes of transient fever/cough (29%), sinus symptoms (48%), pneumonia (3.7%), and new onset asthma (4.5%). Prevalence rate ratios for post-Katrina sinus symptoms (PRR?=?1.3; CI: 1.1, 1.7) and fever and cough (PRR?=?1.7; CI: 1.3, 2.4) were significantly elevated overall for those who did restoration work and prevalence increased with restoration work hours. Prevalence rate ratios with restoration work were also elevated for new onset asthma (PRR?=?2.2; CI: 0.8, 6.2) and pneumonia (PRR?=?1.3; CI: 0.5, 3.2) but were not statistically significant. Overall, lung function was slightly depressed but was not significantly different between those with and without restoration work exposure. Conclusions. Post-Katrina restoration work is associated with moderate adverse effects on respiratory health, including sinusitis and toxic pneumonitis. PMID:23365586

Rando, Roy J.; Lefante, John J.; Freyder, Laurie M.; Jones, Robert N.

2012-01-01

346

Factors Associated with Hemorrhoids in Korean Adults: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Although hemorrhoids are one of the most common anal diseases among Koreans, risk factors for hemorrhoids have not been well identified. Methods We analyzed the data from the 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) between 2007 and 2009. Study subjects were 17,228 participants of KNHANES who were aged 19 years or older. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate associations between hemorrhoids and probable risk factors. Results Overall prevalence of hemorrhoids among study subjects was 14.4%, being more prevalent among women (15.7%) than among men (13.0%). Obesity and abdominal obesity were associated with a higher risk of hemorrhoids with odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence intervals, 95% CI) of 1.13 (1.01 to 1.26) and 1.16 (1.04 to 1.30), respectively. Both self-reported depression (OR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.62 to 2.08) and physician diagnosed depression (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.35 to 2.17) were associated with significantly higher risk of hemorrhoids. No regular walking (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.23) and experience of pregnancy (OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.17 to 2.25) for women were also associated with higher risk of hemorrhoids. However, educational level, alcohol consumption, physical activities, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, fiber, fat intake, and energy intake were not associated with a risk of hemorrhoids. Low quality of life assessed with EuroQol-5 Dimension and EuroQol-Visual Analogue Scale was significantly associated with hemorrhoids. Conclusion This nationwide cross-sectional study of Korean adults suggests that obesity, abdominal obesity, depression, and past pregnancy may be risk factors for hemorrhoids and hemorrhoids affect quality of life negatively. PMID:25309703

Lee, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Hyo-Eun; Kang, Ji-Hun

2014-01-01

347

Advancing the Framework: Use of Health Data--A Report of a Working Conference of the American Medical Informatics Association  

PubMed Central

The fields of health informatics and biomedical research increasingly depend on the availability of aggregated health data. Yet, despite over fifteen years of policy work on health data issues, the United States (U.S.) lacks coherent policy to guide users striving to navigate the ethical, political, technical, and economic challenges associated with health data use. In 2007, building on more than a decade of previous work, the American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA) convened a panel of experts to stimulate discussion about and action on a national framework for health data use. This initiative is being carried out in the context of rapidly accelerating advances in the fields of health informatics and biomedical research, many of which are dependent on the availability of aggregated health data. Use of these data poses complex challenges that must be addressed by public policy. This paper highlights the results of the meeting, presents data stewardship as a key building block in the national framework, and outlines stewardship principles for the management of health information. The authors also introduce a taxonomy developed to focus definitions and terminology in the evolving field of health data applications. Finally, they identify areas for further policy analysis and recommend that public and private sector organizations elevate consideration of a national framework on the uses of health data to a top priority. PMID:18755988

Bloomrosen, Meryl; Detmer, Don

2008-01-01

348

Health hazards associated with laundry detergent pods - United States, May-June 2012.  

PubMed

During May and early June 2012, the Carolinas Poison Center and the Poison Control Center at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia received four reports of children with vomiting, mental status changes, and respiratory distress after ingesting the contents of laundry detergent pods. Laundry detergent pods are single-load capsules that contain concentrated liquid detergent within a water-soluble membrane that dissolves when in contact with moisture. Laundry detergent pods were introduced in the U.S. market in 2010, and multiple manufacturers now sell laundry detergent packaged in pods (2-4). On May 17, 2012, CDC and the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) began tracking and characterizing reported exposures to laundry detergent from pods. During May 17-June 17, 2012, poison centers reported 1,008 laundry detergent exposures to the National Poison Data System (NPDS), of which 485 (48%) exposures involved laundry detergent pods. Age was recorded for 481 exposures, of which 454 (94%) exposures involved children aged ?5 years. Among children aged ?5 years, a significantly greater proportion of those exposed to laundry detergent from pods had gastrointestinal and respiratory adverse health effects and mental status changes compared with those with non-pod laundry detergent exposures. Parents and caregivers should keep laundry detergent pods, as well as other household cleaning products, out of reach and out of sight of children. Health-care providers should be aware that exposure to laundry detergent from pods might be associated with adverse health effects more often than exposure to non-pod laundry detergents. PMID:23076090

2012-10-19

349

Patterns and associates of cognitive function, psychosocial wellbeing and health in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive function, psychosocial wellbeing and health are important domains of function. Consistencies and inconsistencies in patterns of wellbeing across these domains may be informative about wellbeing in old age and the ways it is manifested amongst individuals. In this study we investigated whether there were groups of individuals with different profiles of scores across these domains. We also aimed to identify characteristics of any evident groups by comparing them on variables that were not used in identifying the groups. Methods The sample was the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936, which included 1091 participants born in 1936. They are a community-dwelling, narrow-age-range sample of 70-year-olds. Most had taken part in the Scottish Mental Survey 1947 at an average age of 11, making available a measure of childhood intelligence. We used latent class analysis (LCA) to explore possible profiles using 9 variables indicating cognitive functioning, psychosocial wellbeing and health status. Demographic, personality, and lifestyle variables – none of which were used in the LCA – were used to characterize the resulting profile groups. Results We accepted a 3-group solution, which we labeled High Wellbeing (65.3%), Low Cognition (20.3%), and Low Bio-Psychosocial (14.5%). Notably, the High Wellbeing group had significantly higher childhood IQ, lower Neuroticism scores, and a lower percentage of current smokers than the other 2 groups. Conclusion The majority of individuals were functioning generally well; however, there was evidence of the presence of groups with different profiles, which may be explained in part in terms of cognitive ability differences. Results suggested that higher life-long intelligence, personality traits associated with less mental distress, and basic health practices such as avoiding smoking are important associates of wellbeing in old age. PMID:24754844

2014-01-01

350

Adherence to the 2006 American Heart Association Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations for cardiovascular disease risk reduction is associated with bone health in older Puerto Ricans123  

PubMed Central

Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and osteoporosis are 2 major public health problems that share common pathophysiological mechanisms. It is possible that strategies to reduce CVD risk may also benefit bone health. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that adherence to the 2006 American Heart Association Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations (AHA-DLR) is associated with bone health. Design: We previously developed a unique diet and lifestyle score (American Heart Association Diet and Lifestyle Score; AHA-DLS) to assess adherence to the AHA-DLR. In a cross-sectional study of 933 Puerto Ricans aged 47–79 y, we modified the AHA-DLS to test associations with bone health. Bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral neck, trochanter, total hip, and lumbar spine (L2–L4) was measured by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results: For every 5-unit increase in the modified AHA-DLS, BMD at the femoral neck, trochanter, total hip, and lumbar spine (L2–L4) was associated with a 0.005–0.008-g/cm2 (P < 0.05) higher value. No component of the AHA-DLR alone was responsible for the observed positive associations. For every 5-unit increase in the modified AHA-DLS, the odds for osteoporosis or osteopenia at the trochanter, total hip, and lumbar spine (L2–L4) were lower by 14% (OR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.79, 0.92), 17% (OR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.92), and 9% (OR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.84, 0.99), respectively. Conclusions: Dietary guidelines for CVD risk reduction may also benefit bone health in this Hispanic cohort. Synchronizing dietary guidelines for these 2 common diseases may provide a simplified public health message. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01231958. PMID:24047918

Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Dawson-Hughes, Bess; Hannan, Marian T

2013-01-01

351

Association of oral health related quality of life with dental anxiety and depression along with general health among people of Bhopal district, Madhya Pradesh  

PubMed Central

Background: To associate oral health related quality of life with dental anxiety and depression along with general health among people of Bhopal district, Madhya Pradesh. Materials & Methods: A cross sectional questionnaires based survey was conducted among the subjects of Bhopal district, Madhya Pradesh. The survey was carried among 101 subjects aging from 20-40 years. Subjects under investigation were belonging to various occupations. They were assigned a questionnaire. Questionnaire consisted of four parts, first part consists of socio-demographic data along with dental visiting habits, second part has OHqOL-questionnaire, third part has general health (sf-12) and fourth part has hospital anxiety and depression questionnaire. Questionnaire was used for assessment of OHqOL. It consists of 16 questions which takes into account both effect and impact of oral health on quality of life. Dental anxiety and depression was measured by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Each question was provided with four options and numbering ranging from 0-3. For general health consideration sf-12 v2 was being used, which calculates two values PCS and MCS giving result in percentage. Results: A large proportion of respondent perceived oral health as having an enhanced effect on their quality of life in all three aspects that is general health, social and psychological. This is in stark contrast to other studies, where only physical aspects of oral health were more frequently considered to have the greatest overall impact of life quality compared with items relating to social, psychological and general health aspects. Conclusion: Gender variations were not apparent in the study. Both genders were likely to perceive oral health as it is impacting strongly on their quality of life. No significant gender variations are seen. But both have specific oral health needs and are most likely to utilize dental services which may be the key in understanding oral health behavior, including dental attendance patterns. How to cite this article: Shet RG, Jain G, Maroli S, Srivastava KJ, Kasina SP, Shwetha GS. Association of oral health related quality of life with dental anxiety and depression along with general health among people of Bhopal district, Madhya Pradesh. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(6):1-8 . PMID:24453438

Shet, RGK; Jain, Gaurvi; Maroli, Sohani; Srivastava, Kirti Jajoo; Kasina, Sitaram Prasad; Shwetha, GS

2013-01-01

352

Associations between early exposure to intimate partner violence, parental depression and subsequent mental health outcomes  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the association between parent reports of intimate partner violence (IPV) and depressive symptoms within the first 3 years of a child’s life with subsequent mental health conditions and psychotropic drug treatment. Design Prospective cohort study linking parental IPV and depression with subsequent billing and pharmacy data. Setting 4 pediatric clinics between November 2004 and June 2012 Patients/Participants 2,422 children Main Exposure Any report of IPV and/or parental depressive symptoms from birth to 3 years of age. Main Outcome Measures ICD-9 mental health diagnoses and any psychotropic drug treatment between 3 and 6 years of age. Results 2.4% of caregivers (n=58) reported both IPV and depressive symptoms before their children were 3 years of age, 3% (n=69) of caregivers reported IPV only, 29% (n=704) reported depressive symptoms only, and 65.7% (n=1,591) reported neither exposure. Children of parents reporting both IPV and depressive symptoms were more likely to have a diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (AOR 4.0; 95% CI: 1.5–10.9), even after adjusting for child gender, race/ethnicity, and insurance type. Children whose parents reported depressive symptoms were more likely to have been prescribed psychotropic medication (AOR 1.9; 95% CI: 1.0–3.4). Conclusions Exposure to both IPV and depression before 3 years is associated with preschool-onset ADHD; and early exposure to parental depression is associated with being prescribed psychotropic medication. PMID:23381234

Bauer, Nerissa S.; Gilbert, Amy L.; Carroll, Aaron E.; Downs, Stephen M.

2014-01-01

353

The magnitude of khat use and its association with health, nutrition and socio-economic status.  

PubMed

Although the literature on khat (Catha edulis Forsk) is fairly extensive, and several authors have stated the potential adverse effects of habitual use of khat on mental, physical and social well-being, very few population based studies exist to substantiate those statements in Ethiopia. A house-to-house survey of a representative sample of 1200 adults from a rural Ethiopian community was conducted from January to September of 1997 to determine the prevalence of khat use and its association with health, nutritional status, mental distress, substance use, family and social functioning and economic well-being. The current prevalence of khat chewing was found to be 31.7%. Muslims more than Christians, males more than females, those between the ages 15 and 34 years more than other age groups were habitual users. The following factors were found to be significantly associated with khat use: physical illness, (OR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.14-2.02); injuries (OR = 2.31, 95% CI = 1.42-3.79), undernutrition (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.24-2.48), mental distress (OR = 8.30, 95% CI = 5.20-13.31). Family functioning among current khat users was significantly higher than non users (OR = 1.56, 95%-CI = 1.04-2.28). Social functioning and economic well-being were not significantly associated with khat use. It is concluded that a fairly large proportion of the population consumes khat and that this is related to physical and mental ill-health, although family and social functioning, and economic well-being seem to be unrelated to khat use. PMID:11144876

Belew, M; Kebede, D; Kassaye, M; Enquoselassie, F

2000-01-01

354

Associations between sports participation, adiposity and obesity-related health behaviors in Australian adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between organized sports participation, weight status, physical activity, screen time, and important food habits in a large nationally representative sample of Australian adolescents. Methods Nationally representative cross-sectional study of 12,188 adolescents from 238 secondary schools aged between 12 and 17 years (14.47 ± 1.25 y, 53% male, 23% overweight/obese). Participation in organized sports, compliance with national physical activity, screen time, and fruit and vegetable consumption guidelines, and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and high-fat foods were self-reported. Weight status and adiposity (BMI, waist circumference) were measured. Results Organized sports participation was higher among males and those residing in rural/remote areas. Underweight adolescents reported the lowest levels of participation. Higher levels of participation were associated with an increased likelihood of complying with national physical activity (OR = 2.07 [1.67-2.58]), screen time (OR = 1.48 [1.19-1.84]), and fruit and vegetable consumption guidelines (OR = 1.32 [1.05-1.67]). There was no association between organized sport participation and weight status, adiposity, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages or high-fat foods. Conclusions Participation in organized sports was associated with a greater likelihood to engage in a cluster of health behaviors, including meeting physical activity guidelines, electronic screen time recommendations, and fruit and vegetable consumption guidelines. However, participation in organized sports was not associated with unhealthy dietary behaviors including the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and high-fat foods. There is no association between participation in organized sports and likelihood to be overweight or obese. The role of sports in promoting healthy weight and energy balance is unclear. PMID:24088327

2013-01-01

355

Association of Chronic Kidney Disease with the Spectrum of Ankle Brachial Index: The Cardiovascular Health Study  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. A high ankle brachial index (ABI) - a marker of lower extremity arterial stiffness – is associated with CVD events and mortality. The association between CKD and high ABI is unknown. Methods The Cardiovascular Health Study enrolled community-living persons > 65 years, and measured kidney function and ABI. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated using equations that incorporated either cystatin C or creatinine, and CKD was defined by estimated GFR < 60 ml/min/1.73m2. The ABI was categorized as low (< 0.90), low-normal (0.90 – 1.09), normal (1.10 – 1.40), and high (> 1.40 or incompressible). Multinomial logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations of CKD with the ABI categories. Results Among 4,513 participants, 23% had CKD, 13% had low ABI, and 3% had high ABI. In models adjusted for age, sex, race, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, BMI, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and CRP, cystatin C based CKD was associated with both low ABI (relative risk [RR] 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6 – 2.5; P value < 0.001) and high ABI (RR 1.6; 95% CI 1.0 – 2.3; P = 0.03). Results were similar when CKD was defined by creatinine. Conclusions CKD is associated with both the high and low extremes of ABI in community-living older persons. Future studies should evaluate whether arterial stiffness is an important mechanism leading to CVD in persons with CKD. PMID:19761940

Ix, Joachim H.; Katz, Ronit; De Boer, Ian H.; Kestenbaum, Brian R.; Allison, Matthew A.; Siscovick, David S.; Newman, Anne B.; Sarnak, Mark J.; Shlipak, Michael G.; Criqui, Michael H.

2009-01-01

356

Prevalence of subjective poor health symptoms associated with exposure to electromagnetic fields among university students.  

PubMed

The number of people complaining about different symptoms that may be associated with exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) has increased rapidly during past years. Students use both mobile phones and video display terminals frequently. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of mobile phone use and EMF health hazards. Basic demographic data and self-reported symptoms were sought using a questionnaire administered to all apparently healthy students at Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences (RUMS) and Vali-e-Asr University (VAU). Questions about some major confounding factors such as age, gender, amount of video display terminal work were also included. Exact Fischer Test was used for data analysis. Among self-reported symptoms, headache (53.5%), fatigue (35.6%), difficulties in concentration (32.5%), vertigo/dizziness (30.4%), attention disorders (28.8%), nervousness (28.1%), palpitation (14.7%), low back pain (14.3%), myalgia (12.4%), and tinnitus (9.9%) were the main self-reported symptoms. No significant differences in the prevalence of these symptoms were found between CRT users and those who did not use CRTs. A significant association was found between cordless phone use and difficulties in concentration (P < .05) or attention disorders (P < .05). However, after correction of the gender role, these differences were not significant. No association was found between mobile phone use and the above-mentioned symptoms. No significantly higher prevalence of self-reported symptoms was found in individuals who had used mobile phones, video display terminals or cordless phones more frequently than others. Mass-media's lack of interest in the possible hazards of exposure to EMF in developing countries can explain the difference observed between the results of this study and those of other researchers in some developed countries who have shown an association between EMF exposure and the prevalence of self-reported subjective symptoms. This finding can confirm the results obtained in provocative studies which indicated the role of psychological factors in electromagnetic hypersensitivity. More research is needed to clarify whether daily environmental EMF may cause health problems. PMID:17330851

Mortazavi, S M J; Ahmadi, J; Shariati, M

2007-05-01

357

Virus transfer proportions between gloved fingertips, soft berries, and lettuce, and associated health risks.  

PubMed

Multiple outbreaks of human norovirus (hNoV) have been associated with fresh produce, such as soft berries and lettuce. Even though food handlers are considered an important source for the introduction of hNoV into food chains, their contribution to public health risks associated with hNoV remains unknown. To assess to which extent food handlers contribute to the introduction and spread of hNoV in fresh produce chains quantitative virus transfer data are needed. We estimated transfer proportions of hNoV GI.4, GII.4, murine norovirus (MNV-1), a culturable surrogate of hNoV, and human adenovirus (hAdV-2), a human pathogen proposed as an indicator for human faecal pollution, between gloved fingertips and raspberries, strawberries, and lettuce, by quantitative RT-PCR and cell culture if applicable. Virus transfer proportions were corrected for virus-matrix specific recoveries, and variability and uncertainty of the parameters were estimated. Virus transfer from gloves to soft berries was generally lower as compared to lettuce, with mean transfer proportions ranging between 0.1 to 2.3% and 9 to 10% for infectious MNV-1 and hAdV-2, respectively. Transfer from produce to glove was mostly greater than transfer from glove to produce, adding to the likelihood of virus transfer due to cross contamination from contaminated produce via food handlers. HNoV GI.4 and hNoV GII.4 showed no significant difference between their mean transfer proportions. Using the estimated transfer proportions, we studied the impact of low and high transfer proportions on the public health risk, based on a scenario in which a food handler picked raspberries with contaminated fingertips. Given the made assumptions, we could show that for a pathogen as infectious as hNoV, low transfer proportions may pose a greater public health risk than high transfer proportions, due to a greater viral spread. We demonstrated the potential of food handlers in spreading hNoV in food chains, showing that prevention of virus contamination on food handlers' hands is crucial for food safety. Nevertheless, complete prevention of virus contamination on fresh produce cannot be achieved in reality, and reliable and effective intervention measures are consequently required. We estimated that, especially for low transfer proportions, a robust one log10-unit reduction of infectious hNoV on contaminated produce, and on food handlers' hands, could lower the public health risk substantially. Using the obtained data in quantitative risk assessment will aid in elucidating the contribution of food handlers in hNoV transmission. PMID:24029026

Verhaelen, Katharina; Bouwknegt, Martijn; Carratalà, Anna; Lodder-Verschoor, Froukje; Diez-Valcarce, Marta; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; Rutjes, Saskia A

2013-09-16

358

Factors associated with self-rated health status in university students: a cross-sectional study in three European countries  

PubMed Central

Background Self-rated health status (SRHS) is a reliable and valid measure for assessing the subjective and objective health of individuals. Previous studies have either focused predominantly on the elderly or investigated only a narrow range of factors potentially associated with SRHS. In examining student populations, these past studies were limited to single countries. The objectives of this study were to assess which candidate variables were independently associated with SRHS in university students, to compare these variables by country and by gender, and to investigate which of the variables was most important as a rating frame for SRHS. Methods The data is from the Cross-National Student Health Survey, conducted in 2005 in universities in Germany, Bulgaria, and Poland (n = 2103; mean age = 20.7 years). SRHS was assessed with a single question using a five-point scale ranging from "excellent" to "poor". The study also measured a wide range of variables including: physical and psychological health, studying, social contacts/social support, and socio-demographic status. Results Psychosomatic complaints (considered an aspect of physical health and, adjusted for psychological health) were the most important indicators in forming a rating frame for students' SRHS. There were few differences in the effects of variables associated with SRHS by gender (well-being: a measure of psychological health) and the variables associated with SRHS by country (well-being and self-efficacy). The remaining variables showed homogenous effects for both genders and for all three countries. Conclusion The results suggest that SRHS can be reasonably used to compare students' health across countries. SRHS is affected by different physical, psychological and psychosomatic aspects of health; however, its strongest association is with psychosomatic complaints. PMID:18564422

Mikolajczyk, Rafael T; Brzoska, Patrick; Maier, Claudia; Ottova, Veronika; Meier, Sabine; Dudziak, Urszula; Ilieva, Snezhana; El Ansari, Walid

2008-01-01

359

The association between telomere length, physical health, cognitive ageing, and mortality in non-demented older people  

Microsoft Academic Search

Telomeres are nucleo-protein complexes that protect the ends of chromosomes. The telomeric DNA component shortens each time a somatic cell replicates, eventually leading to cell senescence. Telomere length has been associated with morbidity and mortality rates from age-related diseases. We tested the hypotheses that mean peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length, at age 79 years, is associated with physical health at

Sarah E. Harris; Ian J. Deary; Alan MacIntyre; Kelly J. Lamb; Kamaraj Radhakrishnan; John M. Starr; Lawrence J. Whalley; Paul G. Shiels

2006-01-01

360

The Association of Resilience with Mental and Physical Health among Older American Indians: The Native Elder Care Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the association of resilience with measures of mental and physical health in a sample of older American Indians (AIs). A validated scale measuring resilience was administered to 185 noninstitutionalized AIs aged greater than or equal to 55 years. Unadjusted analyses revealed that higher levels of resilience were associated with lower…

Schure, Marc B.; Odden, Michelle; Goins, R. Turner

2013-01-01

361

Rhinitis Associated with Pesticide Use Among Private Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study  

PubMed Central

Farmers commonly experience rhinitis but the risk factors are not well-characterized. The aim of this study was to analyze cross-sectional data on rhinitis in the past year and pesticide use from 21,958 Iowa and North Carolina farmers in the Agricultural Health Study, enrolled 1993–7, to evaluate pesticide predictors of rhinitis. Polytomous and logistic regression models were used to assess association between pesticide use and rhinitis while controlling for demographics and farm-related exposures. Sixty-seven % of farmers reported current rhinitis and 39% reported three or more rhinitis episodes. The herbicides glyphosate [Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.09, 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) = 1.05–1.13] and petroleum oil (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.05–1.19) were associated with current rhinitis and increased rhinitis episodes. Of the insecticides, 4 organophosphates (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dichlorvos, and malathion), carbaryl and use of permethrin on animals were predictors of current rhinitis. Diazinon was significant in the overall polytomous model and was associated with an elevated OR of 13+ rhinitis episodes (13+ episodes OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.09–1.38). The fungicide captan was also a significant predictor of rhinitis. Use of petroleum oil, malathion, permethrin and the herbicide metolachlor were significant in exposure-response polytomous models. Specific pesticides may contribute to rhinitis in farmers; agricultural activities did not explain these findings. PMID:20818537

Slager, Rebecca E.; Simpson, Sean L.; LeVan, Tricia D.; Poole, Jill A.; Sandler, Dale P.; Hoppin, Jane A.

2010-01-01

362

Political influence associates with cortisol and health among egalitarian forager-farmers  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives: Low social status increases risk of disease due, in part, to the psychosocial stress that accompanies feeling subordinate or poor. Previous studies report that chronic stress and chronically elevated cortisol can impair cardiovascular and immune function. We test whether lower status is more benign in small-scale, relatively egalitarian societies, where leaders lack coercive authority and there is minimal material wealth to contest. Methodology: Among Tsimane’ forager-horticulturalists of lowland Bolivia, we compare informal political influence among men with urinary cortisol, immune activation (innate and acquired), and morbidity as assessed during routine medical exams. Results: After controlling for potential confounds, we find that politically influential men have lower cortisol, and that this association is partly attributable to access to social support. Cortisol is positively associated with men’s income, which may reflect chronic psychosocial stress from market involvement. Greater influence is also associated with lower probability of respiratory infection, which is a frequent source of morbidity among Tsimane’. Among men who lost influence over a 4-year period, cortisol and probability of respiratory infection were higher the greater the decline in influence. Conclusions and implications: Deleterious effects of low status on health are not merely ‘diseases of civilization’ but may result from how (even subtle) status differences structure human behavior. PMID:25214482

von Rueden, Christopher R.; Trumble, Benjamin C.; Emery Thompson, Melissa; Stieglitz, Jonathan; Hooper, Paul L.; Blackwell, Aaron D.; Kaplan, Hillard S.; Gurven, Michael

2014-01-01

363

American Association for Health Education Directory of Institutions Offering Undergraduate and Graduate Degree Programs in Health Education. 1997 Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This directory provides listings of institutions that offer undergraduate and graduate degree programs in health education. Programs are listed by state and use the following frame: name of institution, city, ZIP code, program code (type of program), head of health education program, title, address, telephone and fax number, e-mail number, and…

Journal of Health Education, 1997

1997-01-01

364

Occupational Safety and Health Symposia (37th American Medical Association Congress on Occupational Health. St. Louis, Missouri, 1977).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The papers compiled here were presented at the fourth symposium in a series designed to provide a continuing introduction to current aspects of occupational safety and health. The papers represent eight topics: (1) special health programs, (2) degenerative disease and injury of the back, (3) job stress and work performance, (4) role of industry in…

Douglass, Bruce E.; And Others

365

The association of health literacy with cervical cancer prevention knowledge and health behaviors in a multiethnic cohort of women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Our purpose was to describe the relationship between health literacy, ethnicity, and cervical cancer screening practices and to evaluate physician recognition of low literacy. Study Design: We studied a prospective cohort of English-speaking patients ?18 years (n = 529) in ambulatory women's clinics. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate demographics, health practices and beliefs, and knowledge regarding

Stacy T. Lindau; Cecilia Tomori; Tom Lyons; Lizbet Langseth; Charles L. Bennett; Patricia Garcia

2002-01-01

366

Copyright 2010 All Rights Reserved. University of California San Diego  

E-print Network

the campus community. American College Health Association National College Health Assessment II ACHA-NCHA II #12;Table of Contents I. Introduction 2 II. Findings A. General Health of College Students 3 B. Mental Health 13 I. Sleep 16 III. Demographics and Student Characteristics 17 Suggested citation

Krstic, Miroslav

367

Copyright 2013 All Rights Reserved. University at Buffalo  

E-print Network

. American College Health Association National College Health Assessment II ACHA-NCHA II #12;Table of Contents I. Introduction 2 II. Findings A. General Health of College Students 3 B. Disease and Injury, Tobacco, and Other Drug Use 6 F. Sexual Behavior 10 G. Nutrition and Exercise 12 H. Mental Health 13 I

Krovi, Venkat

368

Copyright 2010 All Rights Reserved. Florida State University  

E-print Network

. American College Health Association National College Health Assessment II ACHA-NCHA II #12;Table of Contents I. Introduction 2 II. Findings A. General Health of College Students 3 B. Disease and Injury, Tobacco, and Other Drug Use 6 F. Sexual Behavior 10 G. Nutrition and Exercise 12 H. Mental Health 13 I

Weston, Ken

369

What Have "Omics" Taught Us about the Health Risks Associated with Exposure to Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation  

SciTech Connect

There is a plethora of data available on the DNA damages associated with exposures to ionizing radiation and the subsequent cellular responses. Indeed, much of radiation research has focused on these initial insults and induced responses, particularly DNA repair, cell signaling pathways, cell cycle checkpoint control, mutation induction, chromosomal rearrangements, transformation and apoptosis etc. While many of these endpoints correlate with exposure dose, few, if any, provide substantive information on human health risk(s) associated with radiation exposure. Here the contribution of recent advances in high throughput ‘omics technologies are evaluated to examine what they have taught us about health risk(s) to humans associated with exposure to ionizing radiation.

Morgan, William F.; Sowa, Marianne B.

2011-04-27

370

Loneliness: Its Correlates and Association with Health Behaviours and Outcomes in Nine Countries of the Former Soviet Union  

PubMed Central

Background Research suggests that the prevalence of loneliness varies between countries and that feeling lonely may be associated with poorer health behaviours and outcomes. The aim of the current study was to examine the factors associated with loneliness, and the relationship between feeling lonely and health behaviours and outcomes in the countries of the former Soviet Union (FSU) – a region where loneliness has been little studied to date. Methods Using data from 18,000 respondents collected during a cross-sectional survey undertaken in nine FSU countries – Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine – in 2010/11, country-wise logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine: the factors associated with feeling lonely; the association between feeling lonely and alcohol consumption, hazardous drinking and smoking; and whether feeling lonely was linked to poorer health (i.e. poor self-rated health and psychological distress). Results The prevalence of loneliness varied widely among the countries. Being divorced/widowed and low social support were associated with loneliness in all of the countries, while other factors (e.g. living alone, low locus of control) were linked to loneliness in some of the countries. Feeling lonely was connected with hazardous drinking in Armenia, Kyrgyzstan and Russia but with smoking only in Kyrgyzstan. Loneliness was associated with psychological distress in all of the countries and poor self-rated health in every country except Kazakhstan and Moldova. Conclusions Loneliness is associated with worse health behaviours and poorer health in the countries of the FSU. More individual country-level research is now needed to formulate effective interventions to mitigate the negative effects of loneliness on population well-being in the FSU. PMID:23861843

Stickley, Andrew; Koyanagi, Ai; Roberts, Bayard; Richardson, Erica; Abbott, Pamela; Tumanov, Sergei; McKee, Martin

2013-01-01

371

Associations of neighborhood problems and neighborhood social cohesion with mental health and health behaviors: The MultiEthnic Study of Atherosclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Few studies have,investigated the specific features implicated,in neighborhood–health associations. We,examined associations between measures of neighborhood problems and neighborhood social cohesion with depression, smoking, drinking, and walking for exercise in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort. Neighborhoods were characterized according to participant self-report and aggregated,measures,based on other MESA participants. Individuals living in the least problematic neighborhoods were significantly less

Sandra Echeverr?a; Ana V. Diez-roux; Steven Shea; Luisa N. Borrell; Sharon Jackson

2008-01-01

372

Dietary patterns of adolescents in Germany - Associations with nutrient intake and other health related lifestyle characteristics  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to identify dietary patterns among a representative sample of German adolescents and their associations with energy and nutrient intake, socioeconomic and lifestyle characteristics, and overweight status. Methods In the analysis, data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents were used. The survey included a comprehensive dietary history interview conducted among 1272 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years. Dietary patterns were determined with principal component analysis (PCA) based on 48 food groups, for boys and girls separately. Results Three dietary patterns among boys and two among girls were identified. Among boys, high adherence to the 'western' pattern was associated with higher age, lower socioeconomic status (SES), and lower physical activity level (PA). High adherence to the 'healthy' pattern among boys, but not among girls, was associated with higher SES, and higher PA. Among boys, high adherence to the 'traditional' pattern was associated with higher age. Among girls, high adherence to the 'traditional and western' pattern was associated with lower age, lower SES and more hours watching TV per day. The nutrient density of several vitamins and minerals, particularly of B-vitamins and calcium, increased with increasing scores of the 'healthy' pattern among both sexes. Conversely, with increasing scores of the 'western' pattern among boys, most nutrient densities decreased, particularly of fibre, beta-carotene, vitamin D, biotin and calcium. Among girls with higher scores of the 'traditional and western' pattern, nutrient densities of vitamin A, C, E, K and folate decreased. Among boys, high adherence to the 'traditional' pattern was correlated with higher densities of vitamin B12 and vitamin D and lower densities of fibre, magnesium and iron. No significant associations between dietary patterns and overweight were found. Conclusions Higher scores for dietary patterns characterized by higher consumption of take away food, meat, confectionary and soft drinks ('western' and 'traditional and western') were found particularly among 16- to 17-years old boys and among adolescents with lower SES. These patterns were also associated with higher energy density, higher percent of energy from unsaturated fatty acids and lower percent of energy from carbohydrates as well as lower nutrient densities of several vitamins and minerals. Therefore, nutritional interventions should try to focus more on adolescents with lower SES and boys in general. PMID:22439777

2012-01-01

373

PUBLIC HEALTH AND ECOLOGICAL INTERCONNECTIVITY: A CONDITIONAL PROBABILITY APPROACH ASSOCIATING DEGRADATION OF STREAMS AND INFANT MORTALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Effective public health policy should not be based solely on clinical, individualbased information, but requires a broad characterization of human health conditions across large geographic areas. For the most part, the necessary monitoring of human health to ...

374

The association between accelerometer-measured patterns of sedentary time and health risk in children and youth: results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Self-reported screen time is associated with elevated health risk in children and youth; however, research examining the relationship between accelerometer-measured sedentary time and health risk has reported mixed findings. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between accelerometer-measured patterns of sedentary time and health risk in children and youth. Methods The results are based on 1,608 children and youth aged 6 to 19?years from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007–2009). Sedentary time was measured using the Actical accelerometer. Breaks in sedentary time and prolonged bouts of sedentary time lasting 20 to 120?minutes were derived for all days, weekend days and during the after-school period (i.e., after 3?pm on weekdays). Regression analyses were used to examine the association between patterns of sedentary time and body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure and non-HDL cholesterol. Results Boys accumulated more sedentary time on weekdays after 3?pm and had a higher number of breaks in sedentary time compared to girls. Overweight/obese boys (aged 6–19?years) accumulated more sedentary time after 3?pm on weekdays (282 vs. 259?min, p?associated with BMI and waist circumference in boys aged 11–14?years (p?associated with a 1.4?kg·m-2 higher BMI and a 3.4?cm higher waist circumference in 11–14?year old boys. No sedentary pattern variables differed between girls who were not overweight or obese and those who were overweight/obese and none of the sedentary pattern variables were associated with any health markers in girls. Conclusions The findings confirm results of other studies that reported accelerometer-measured sedentary time was not associated with health risk in children and youth. Even when the pattern and timing of sedentary time was examined relative to health markers, few associations emerged and were limited to boys aged 11–14?years. PMID:23497190

2013-01-01

375

Urban river restoration: implications on channel sedimentation patterns and associated ecosystem and human health  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban river restoration, which alters the physical and hydraulic conditions of rivers, creates rivers favourable to increased sedimentation through greater sediment availability and heterogeneous flow patterns. Sediments, particularly finer-grained, store contaminants including metals which can have detrimental impacts upon aquatic ecosystems and potentially human health. This research therefore looks at the effect of urban river restoration practices upon sedimentation patterns, the associated changes in sediment metal storage and the potential impact upon river function and use in terms of the aquatic ecosystem and human health. Research was undertaken at four sites on urban rivers in London. The spatial extent of different bed sediment types (unvegetated gravel, sand, finer and sediment around in-channel vegetation) in adjacent restored and unrestored stretches was mapped in July 2010. Additionally, sediments were sampled through the year and analysed for a range of metals and sediment characteristics. Two sites (Chinbrook Meadows and Sutcliffe Park) showed a clear difference in bed sediment type channel cover between the restored and unrestored stretches. The majority of the concrete-lined unrestored stretch at Chinbrook Meadows had no sediment deposition, whereas the restored stretch had over half of the channel occupied by finer sediment either on the open channel bed or accumulated around in-channel vegetation. At Sutcliffe Park, the dominant bed sediment type in the restored stretch was finer sediment on the open bed and accumulated around in-channel vegetation, whereas in the unrestored stretch the dominant bed sediment type was gravel. At both sites there were significant differences in metal concentrations and sediment characteristics between bed sediment types. Metal concentrations, organic matter and % <63µm were generally higher in the finer sediment whether on the open bed or around in-channel vegetation. Total loadings of all metals were greater in the restored as opposed to the unrestored stretch at both sites, and this difference persisted after standardisation to loading/m2 of channel to account for differing channel dimensions. Metal concentrations at the two sites were analysed using sediment quality guidelines to assess the potential impact upon both the aquatic ecosystem (Environment Agency draft freshwater quality guidelines, 2008) and human health (Dutch Intervention Values for human, plant and/or animal life, 2009). Greater exceedances occurred for the ecological rather than the human health guidelines. Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were of greatest concern in terms of ecological sediment quality at Sutcliffe Park and Pb and Zn at Chinbrook Meadows. At Sutcliffe Park a greater proportion of samples exceeded the Predicted Effects Level (PEL) in the restored as opposed to the unrestored stretch; conversely at Chinbrook Meadows a greater proportion of samples in the unrestored stretch as opposed to the restored stretch exceeded the PEL. In terms of human health, exceedances only occurred for Cu and Zn at Sutcliffe Park, with the greater proportion being in the restored stretch. The results from this research will have implications for the design, management and maintenance of restored urban rivers in terms of fine sediment accumulation assessment, its quality and the associated potential impact upon ecosystem and human health.

Gibbs, H.; Gurnell, A.; Heppell, K.; Spencer, K.

2012-04-01

376

Association of Ventilation Rates and CO2 Concentrations with Health andOther Responses in Commercial and Institutional Buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews current literature on the associations of ventilation rates and carbon dioxide concentrations in non-residential and non-industrial buildings (primarily offices) with health and other human outcomes. Twenty studies, with close to 30,000 subjects, investigated the association of ventilation rates with human responses, and 21 studies, with over 30,000 subjects, investigated the association of carbon dioxide concentration with these

O. A. Seppänen; W. J. Fisk; M. J. Mendell

1999-01-01

377

[Expanded indication of National Health Insurance for H. pylori associated gastritis].  

PubMed

Since National Health Insurance covered eradication therapy for H. pylori infected gastritis, all patients with H. pylori infection could be received eradication under insurance. Cure of H. pylori infection improves histological gastritis, also atrophic change, and intestinal metaplasia. Prevention of H. pylori associated diseases such as gastric cancer is expected. According to Insurance instruction, it is carried out in order of endoscopic diagnosis of chronic gastritis, diagnosis of H. pylori infection, and eradication treatment. Endoscopic examination prior to H. pylori diagnosis is necessary for screening of gastric cancer. Endoscopic finding of RAC (regular arrangement of collecting venules) in the angle of stomach suggests lack of infection with H. pylori, disappearance of RAC suspects H. pylori infection. PMID:24912302

Kato, Mototsugu

2014-05-01

378

Health and cost benefits associated with the use of metoprolol in heart attack patients.  

PubMed

Heart attack (myocardial infarction) is a highly prevalent entity worldwide. Widespread implementation of reperfusion strategies has dramatically reduced the mortality associated with infarction. Paradoxically, the mortality reduction has significantly increased the incidence of chronic heart failure (HF). Treatment of HF, once present, represents a huge socioeconomic burden on individuals and healthcare systems. The possibility of preventing rather than treating post-infarction HF would be of paramount importance. Given that infarct size is the main determinant of adverse post-infarction outcomes (including chronic HF), therapies able to reduce infarct size are needed. The single administration of intravenous metoprolol before reperfusion has been recently shown to reduce infarct size and reduce the cases of chronic HF in a proof-of-concept trial. If confirmed in larger trials, this low-cost therapy is expected to have a major health and socioeconomic impact. PMID:25231274

Fernández-Jiménez, Rodrigo; Ibanez, Borja

2014-11-01

379

Health Care-Associated Infective Endocarditis: a Growing Entity that Can Be Prevented.  

PubMed

Infective endocarditis (IE) continues to be a serious disease with a poor prognosis and high mortality. Neither incidence rates nor mortality have decreased in recent decades. Because of this, it is important to prevent IE in patients at risk. In the past, prevention of IE has focused on antimicrobial prophylaxis, mainly for dental procedures. However, recent major changes in epidemiology, the most significant being the growing frequency and high mortality rate of health care-associated valve endocarditis (HAIE), mean that preventive strategies against IE must also change. Since intravascular catheters are the most common source of bacteremia among patients with HAIE, significant efforts must be made to minimize the risk of catheter-related bloodstream infections. Measures for preventing the infection of prosthetic valves and cardiac implantable devices at the time of implantation also need to be implemented. PMID:25230606

Benito, Natividad; Pericas, Juan M; Gurguí, Mercè; Mestres, Carlos A; Marco, Francesc; Moreno, Asunción; Horcajada, Juan P; Miró, José M

2014-11-01

380

Office Home Care Workers' Occupational Health: Associations with Workplace Flexibility and Worker Insecurity  

PubMed Central

Office home care workers provide support to visiting staff, although their work tends to be invisible in many respects. This paper focuses on managers, supervisors, coor dinators, case managers and office administrative staff in home care. We examine the effects of workplace flexibility and worker insecurity on office home care workers' occupational health, particularly their self-reported stress and musculoskeletal disorders. Data come from our survey of 300 home care office staff in a mid-sized city in Ontario. Results show that workers' perceptions of insecurity are positively associated with musculoskeletal disorders but not workplace flexibility measures. We recommend that managers and other decision-makers in the home care field pay attention to the perceptions of workers' insecurity in initiating workplace flexibility measures. PMID:20436813

Zeytinoglu, Isik U.; Denton, Margaret; Davies, Sharon; Plenderleith, Jennifer Millen

2009-01-01

381

CHA amicus curiae brief on physician-assisted suicide. Catholic Health Association.  

PubMed

The Catholic Health Association of the United States submitted an amicus curiae brief to the U.S. Supreme Court last October in support of petitioners Dennis C. Vacco, attorney general of the state of New York (in the case Vacco v. Timothy E. Quill, MD, et at.), and the state of Washington (in State of Washington, et al. v. Harold Glucksberg, MD, et al.). The brief was filed as the Court agreed to hear arguments on the issue of whether terminally ill people have a constitutionally protected right to physician-assisted suicide. In January 1997 the petitioners went before the Court to argue appeals to federal appellate rulings that struck down New York and Washington laws making physician-assisted suicide a crime. The Court is expected to rule in late June. PMID:10184725

1997-01-01

382

Office home care workers' occupational health: associations with workplace flexibility and worker insecurity.  

PubMed

Office home care workers provide support to visiting staff, although their work tends to be invisible in many respects. This paper focuses on managers, supervisors, coor dinators, case managers and office administrative staff in home care. We examine the effects of workplace flexibility and worker insecurity on office home care workers' occupational health, particularly their self-reported stress and musculoskeletal disorders. Data come from our survey of 300 home care office staff in a mid-sized city in Ontario. Results show that workers' perceptions of insecurity are positively associated with musculoskeletal disorders but not workplace flexibility measures. We recommend that managers and other decision-makers in the home care field pay attention to the perceptions of workers' insecurity in initiating workplace flexibility measures. PMID:20436813

Zeytinoglu, Isik U; Denton, Margaret; Davies, Sharon; Plenderleith, Jennifer Millen

2009-05-01

383

The association of sleep difficulties with health-related quality of life among patients with fibromyalgia  

PubMed Central

Background Difficulty sleeping is common among patients with fibromyalgia (FM); however, its impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is not well understood. The aim of the current study was to assess the burden of sleep difficulty symptoms on HRQoL among patients with FM. Methods The current study included data from the 2009 National Health and Wellness Survey (N=75,000), which is a cross-sectional, Internet-based survey representative of the adult US population. The prevalence of sleep difficulty symptoms among patients with FM (n=2,196) were compared with matched controls (n=2,194), identified using propensity-score matching. Additionally, the relationship between the number of sleep difficulty symptoms (none, one, or two or more) and HRQoL (using the SF-12v2) was assessed using regression modeling, controlling for demographic and health history variables. Results Of the 2,196 patients with FM, 11.2% reported no sleep difficulty symptoms, 25.7% reported one sleep difficulty symptom, and 63.05% reported two or more sleep difficulty symptoms. The prevalence of sleep difficulty symptoms was significantly higher than matched controls. Patients with one and two sleep difficulty symptoms both reported significantly worse HRQoL summary and domain scores relative to those with no sleep difficulty symptoms (all p<.05). Further, the relationship between sleep difficulty symptoms and HRQoL was significantly different between those with FM than matched controls, suggesting a uniqueness of the burden of sleep difficulties within the FM population. Conclusions Among the FM population, sleep difficulty symptoms were independently associated with clinically-meaningful decrements in mental and physical HRQoL. These results suggest that greater emphasis in the treatment of sleep difficulty symptoms among the FM population may be warranted. PMID:23072292

2012-01-01

384

Dating violence and associated health risks among high school students with disabilities.  

PubMed

Children with disabilities are at a higher risk for various forms of violence including sexual violence, bullying, and physical violence compared to those without disabilities. However there are no studies documenting the prevalence of dating violence amongst a population-based sample of adolescents with disabilities. The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of dating violence victimization against high schools students with and without disabilities and to examine associations of dating violence with health risks by disability status among high school girls. Data from the 2009 Massachusetts Youth Health Survey were analyzed in 2011 using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Among high school students who had ever been on a date, girls (25.9 %, 95 % CI 19.9-31.5) and boys (9.1 %, 95 % CI 5.8-12.4) with disabilities were more likely than girls (8.8 %, 95 % CI 6.8-10.8) and boys (4.5 %, 95 % CI 3.1-5.8) without disabilities to report dating violence. Multivariate analyses indicated that high school girls with disabilities who experienced dating violence were more likely to report feeling sad or hopeless for 2 weeks or more in the past year, suicide ideation in the past 12 months, and drug use in the past 30 days compared to those with disabilities who did not report dating violence and those without disabilities who reported and did not report dating violence. High school students with disabilities are at a greater risk for dating violence victimization compared to those without disabilities and high school girls with disabilities who experience dating violence are at increased risk for experiencing poor mental health outcomes and substance abuse. PMID:22886316

Mitra, Monika; Mouradian, Vera E; McKenna, Maria

2013-08-01

385

Association of Perception of Front-of-Pack Labels with Dietary, Lifestyle and Health Characteristics  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify patterns of perception of front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition labels and determine dietary, lifestyle and health profiles related to such patterns. Design Cross-sectional. Participants/Setting 28,952 French adults participating in the web-based Nutrinet-Santé cohort. Outcome measures Perception was measured using indicators of understanding and acceptability for three simple FOP labels (“green tick”, the logo of the French Nutrition and Health Program and “simple traffic lights” (STL)), and two detailed FOP formats (“multiple traffic lights” (MTL) and “color range” logo (CR)), placed on ready-to-eat soup packages. Dietary intake data were collected using three web-based 24 h records. Statistical analyses Associations of perception patterns with individual characteristics, including diet, lifestyle and health status, were examined using analysis of covariance and logistic regression, adjusted for socio-demographic and economic factors. Results No clear trend emerged concerning differences in dietary intake between perception groups. Low physical activity and obesity were more frequent in the ‘favorable to STL’ group (respectively, 20.7% and 10.7%). The ‘favorable to MTL’ group included the highest percentage of individuals who declared type 2 diabetes (2.2%). Persons with hypertension were proportionally more numerous in the ‘favorable to MTL’ and the ‘favorable to CR logo’ groups (respectively, 9.5% and 9.3%). Conclusions After adjustment for socio-demographic and economic factors, no FOP label stood out as being more suitable than another for reaching populations with poor diet. However, both STL and MTL may be most appropriate for increasing awareness of healthy eating among groups at higher risk of nutrition-related chronic diseases. PMID:24621617

Mejean, Caroline; Macouillard, Pauline; Peneau, Sandrine; Lassale, Camille; Hercberg, Serge; Castetbon, Katia

2014-01-01

386

Associations between craniomandibular disorders, sociodemographic factors and self-perceived general and oral health in an adult population.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships between pain in the craniomandibular region and jaw dysfunction, respectively, to sociodemographic factors and self-perceived general and oral health in a middle-aged and elderly population in Västerbotten County, Sweden. Materials and methods. Six hundred individuals, 35-, 50-, 65- and 75 years old, from inland and 600 individuals from coastal areas were randomly selected in 2002. Of these, 987 individuals completed a questionnaire and 779 participated in a clinical examination. Thirty-five- and 50-year-olds together constituted a middle-aged group and the rest an elderly group. Results. Among the middle-aged, craniomandibular pain was associated with impaired general health status, signs of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) pain were associated with female gender and living alone, jaw dysfunction symptoms were associated with university degree and chewing with caution; and signs of TMD dysfunction were associated with female gender and living in the more densely populated coastal region. Among the elderly, craniomandibular pain was more common among those living in the inland region, craniomandibular pain and signs of TMD pain were associated with impaired general health status, jaw dysfunction symptoms were associated with higher education level and self-perceived impaired general health and oral health; and signs of TMD dysfunction were associated with female gender and living in the coastal region. Dental status was not associated with craniomandibular pain. Conclusions. Socioeconomic factors and impaired general state of health were related to signs and symptoms indicative of CMD. These factors may influence demand for treatment among the affected. PMID:25220523

Yekkalam, Negin; Wänman, Anders

2014-11-01

387

Pesticide residues in grain from Kazakhstan and potential health risks associated with exposure to detected pesticides.  

PubMed

This paper presents the first study of pesticide residue results in grain from Kazakhstan. A total of 80 samples: barley, oat, rye, and wheat were collected and tested in the accredited laboratory. Among 180 pesticides, 10 active substances were detected. Banned pesticides, such as DDTs, ?-HCH, aldrin and diazinon were found in cereal grain. Chlorpyrifos methyl and pirimiphos methyl were the most frequently detected residues. No residues were found in 77.5% of the samples, 13.75% contained pesticide residues at or below MRLs, and 8.75% above MRLs. The greatest percentage of samples with residues (29%) was noted for wheat, and the lowest for rye (20%). Obtained data were used to estimate potential health risks associated with exposure to these pesticides. The highest estimated daily intakes (EDIs) were as follows: 789% of the ADI for aldrin (wheat) and 49.8% of the ADI for pirimiphos methyl (wheat and rye). The acute risk from aldrin and tebuconazole in wheat was 315.9% and 98.7% ARfD, respectively. The results show that despite the highest EDIs of pesticide residues in cereals, the current situation could not be considered a serious public health problem. Nevertheless, an investigation into continuous monitoring of pesticide residues in grain is recommended. PMID:24316210

Lozowicka, B; Kaczynski, P; Paritova, Capital A Cyrillic ?; Kuzembekova, G B; Abzhalieva, A B; Sarsembayeva, N B; Alihan, K

2014-02-01

388

Metal accumulation and health effects in raccoons (Procyon lotor) associated with coal fly ash exposure.  

PubMed

Approximately 5.4 million cubic yards of coal fly ash and water spilled into the Emory River embayment of Watts Bar Reservoir in east Tennessee on Dec 22, 2008. Raccoons were collected in 2009 and 2010 from the spill site (10/y) and unexposed areas (5/y) to determine whether metals and metalloids were accumulating in raccoons and if any negative health effects resulted from exposure to the spilled coal fly ash. Tissues were analyzed from each animal to determine the concentrations of 26 metals/metalloids. Complete blood cell counts (CBC), plasma biochemistry panels, and histopathology of select tissues also were performed. Results were analyzed by year and exposure status. Although significant differences were present in some tissues for some metals/metalloids, only arsenic in hair, iron in muscle, nickel in hair, selenium in hair and muscle, strontium in hair, and vanadium in hair and liver were increased in spill site animals (one or both years) compared with unexposed animals. No clinically important differences were observed between groups regarding CBC or plasma biochemistry analyses. Lesions were observed on histopathology in some tissues, but there was no difference in the prevalence of lesions between spill site and unexposed animals. There does not seem to be any important accumulation of metals/metalloids or negative health effects in raccoons associated with exposure to coal fly ash compared with unexposed animals. PMID:23292273

Souza, Marcy J; Ramsay, Edward C; Donnell, Robert L

2013-05-01

389

Health conditions associated with aging and end of life of adults with Down syndrome  

PubMed Central

Expectations for the life course of individuals with Down syndrome (DS) have changed, with life expectancy estimates increasing from 12 in 1949 to nearly 60 years of age today (Bittles & Glasson, 2004; Penrose, 1949). Along with this longer life expectancy comes a larger population of adults with DS who display premature age-related changes in their health. There is thus a need to provide specialized health care to this aging population of adults with DS who are at high risk for some conditions and at lower risk for others. This review focuses on the rates and contributing factors to medical conditions that are common in adults with DS or that show changes with age. The review of medical conditions includes the increased risk for skin and hair changes, early onset menopause, visual and hearing impairments, adult onset seizure disorder, thyroid dysfunction, diabetes, obesity, sleep apnea and musculoskeletal problems. The different pattern of conditions associated with the mortality of adults with DS is also reviewed. PMID:21197120

Esbensen, Anna J.

2010-01-01

390

Environmental impact and health risks associated with greywater irrigation: a case study.  

PubMed

There is an increasing trend to use greywater for irrigation in households. This is partly due to the notion that greywater is of better quality than wastewater and therefore does not need extensive treatment beyond addressing public health issues. The aim of the study was to evaluate the environmental impact and health risks associated with the use of greywater for irrigation on a small private farm. Over a three-year period, each of three plots on a farm was irrigated with either freshwater, fertilized water, or greywater. Irrigation water and soil from the plots were analyzed for a wide range of chemical and microbial variables. Results suggest that greywater may be of similar quality to wastewater in several parameters such as BOD and faecal coliforms. For some other variables such as boron and surfactants, greywater may even be of worse quality than wastewater. Long-term irrigation of arid loess soil with greywater may result in accumulation of salts, surfactants and boron in the soil, causing changes in soil properties and toxicity to plants. Faecal coliforms did not survive in the soil. Treating greywater before using it for irrigation is recommended, even in places where this is not a requirement. PMID:16312963

Gross, A; Azulai, N; Oron, G; Ronen, Z; Arnold, M; Nejidat, A

2005-01-01

391

Speciated arsenic concentrations, exposure, and associated health risks for rice and bulgur.  

PubMed

Arsenic species were determined in rice and bulgur samples that were collected from 50 participants who also supplied exposure related information through a questionnaire survey. Speciation analysis was conducted using an HPLC-ICP-MS system. Ingestion exposure to arsenic and associated health risks were assessed by combining the concentration and questionnaire data both for individual participants and the subject population. Inorganic arsenic dominated both in rice and bulgur but concentrations were about an order of magnitude higher in rice (160±38 ng/g) than in bulgur. Because participants also consumed more rice than bulgur, exposures were significantly higher for rice resulting in carcinogenic risks above acceptable level for 53% and 93% of the participants when the in-effect and the proposed potencies were used, respectively, compared to 0% and 5% for bulgur. An inorganic arsenic standard for rice would be useful to lower the risks while public awareness about the relation between excessive rice consumption and health risks is built, and bulgur consumption is promoted. PMID:24296133

Sofuoglu, Sait C; Güzelkaya, Hilal; Akgül, Özlem; Kavcar, P?nar; Kurucaoval?, Filiz; Sofuoglu, Aysun

2014-02-01

392

Phthalates and other additives in plastics: human exposure and associated health outcomes  

PubMed Central

Concern exists over whether additives in plastics to which most people are exposed, such as phthalates, bisphenol A or polybrominated diphenyl ethers, may cause harm to human health by altering endocrine function or through other biological mechanisms. Human data are limited compared with the large body of experimental evidence documenting reproductive or developmental toxicity in relation to these compounds. Here, we discuss the current state of human evidence, as well as future research trends and needs. Because exposure assessment is often a major weakness in epidemiological studies, and in utero exposures to reproductive or developmental toxicants are important, we also provide original data on maternal exposure to phthalates during and after pregnancy (n = 242). Phthalate metabolite concentrations in urine showed weak correlations between pre- and post-natal samples, though the strength of the relationship increased when duration between the two samples decreased. Phthalate metabolite levels also tended to be higher in post-natal samples. In conclusion, there is a great need for more human studies of adverse health effects associated with plastic additives. Recent advances in the measurement of exposure biomarkers hold much promise in improving the epidemiological data, but their utility must be understood to facilitate appropriate study design. PMID:19528058

Meeker, John D.; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Swan, Shanna H.

2009-01-01

393

Association Between the Part D Coverage Gap and Adverse Health Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background Part D coverage gap entry is associated with a two-fold increased rate of drug discontinuation among beneficiaries now fully responsible for drug costs. Reduced adherence to drugs has been associated with adverse outcomes. We evaluated whether coverage gap entry is associated with risk of death or hospitalization for cardiovascular outcomes. Design Prospective cohort study. Beneficiaries entered the study upon reaching the coverage gap spending threshold and were observed until an event, reaching the threshold for catastrophic coverage, or year’s end. Exposed patients were responsible for drug costs in the gap; unexposed patients received financial assistance. We matched 9,436 exposed patients to 9,436 unexposed patients based on propensity score (PS) or high-dimensional propensity score (hdPS). Setting Medicare Part D drug insurance. Participants 303,978 Medicare beneficiaries aged 65+ in 2006 and 2007 with linked prescription and medical claims who enrolled in stand-alone Part D or retiree drug plans and reached the gap spending threshold. Measurements Rates of death and hospitalization for any of 5 cardiovascular outcomes, including acute coronary syndrome+revascularization (ACS), after reaching the coverage gap spending threshold were compared using Cox proportional hazards models. Results In PS-matched analyses, exposed beneficiaries had elevated but non-significant hazards of death (HR=1.25; 95% CI 0.98–1.59) and ACS (HR=1.16; 0.83–1.62) compared with unexposed patients. hdPS-matched analyses minimized residual confounding and confirmed results: death (HR=0.99; 0.78–1.24); ACS (HR=1.07; 0.81–1.41). Exposed beneficiaries were no more or less likely to experience other outcomes than were the unexposed. Conclusions During the short-term coverage gap period, having no financial assistance to pay for drugs was not associated with an increased risk of death or hospitalization for cardiovascular causes. However, long-term health consequences remain unclear. PMID:22788544

Polinski, Jennifer M.; Shrank, William H.; Glynn, Robert J.; Huskamp, Haiden A.; Roebuck, M. Christopher; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

2012-01-01

394

Tree Nuts Are Inversely Associated with Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: The Adventist Health Study-2  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the relationships of nut consumption, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and obesity in the Adventist Health Study-2, a relatively healthy population with a wide range of nut intake. Research Design and Methods Cross-sectional analysis was conducted on clinical, dietary, anthropometric, and demographic data of 803 adults. MetS was defined according to the American Heart Association and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute diagnostic criteria. We assessed intake of total nuts, tree nuts and peanuts, and also classified subjects into low tree nut/low peanut (LT/LP), low tree/high peanut (LT/HP), high tree nut/high peanut (HT/HP), and high tree/low peanut (HT/LP) consumers. Odds ratios were estimated using multivariable logistic regression. Results 32% of subjects had MetS. Compared to LT/LP consumers, obesity was lower in LT/HP (OR?=?0.89; 95% CI?=?0.53, 1.48), HT/HP (OR?=?0.63; 95% CI?=?0.40, 0.99) and HT/LP (OR?=?0.54; 95% CI?=?0.34, 0.88) consumers, p for trend?=?0.006. For MetS, odds ratios (95% CI) were 0.77 (0.47, 1.28), 0.65 (0.42, 1.00) and 0.68 (0.43, 1.07), respectively (p for trend?=?0.056). Frequency of nut intake (once/week) had significant inverse associations with MetS (3% less for tree nuts and 2% less for total nuts) and obesity (7% less for tree nuts and 3% less for total nuts). Conclusions Tree nuts appear to have strong inverse association with obesity, and favorable though weaker association with MetS independent of demographic, lifestyle and dietary factors. PMID:24416351

Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Haddad, Ella; Oda, Keiji; Fraser, Gary E.; Sabate, Joan

2014-01-01

395

Association between BDNF rs6265 and Obesity in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study  

PubMed Central

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been associated with regulation of body weight and appetite. The goal of this study was to examine the interactions of a functional variant (rs6265) in the BDNF gene with dietary intake for obesity traits in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study. BDNF rs6265 was genotyped in 1147 Puerto Rican adults and examined for association with obesity-related traits. Men (n = 242) with the GG genotype had higher BMI (P = 0.009), waist circumference (P = 0.002), hip (P = 0.002), and weight (P = 0.03) than GA or AA carriers (n = 94). They had twice the risk of being overweight (BMI ? 25) relative to GA or AA carriers (OR = 2.08, CI = 1.02–4.23, and P = 0.043). Interactions between rs6265 and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) intake were associated with BMI, hip, and weight, and n-3?:?n-6 PUFA ratio with waist circumference in men. In contrast, women (n = 595) with the GG genotype had significantly lower BMI (P = 0.009), hip (P = 0.029), and weight (P = 0.027) than GA or AA carriers (n = 216). Women with the GG genotype were 50% less likely to be overweight compared to GA or AA carriers (OR = 0.05, CI = 0.27–0.91, and P = 0.024). In summary, BDNF rs6265 is differentially associated with obesity risk by sex and interacts with PUFA intake influencing obesity traits in Boston Puerto Rican men. PMID:23326649

Ma, Xian-Yong; Qiu, Wei Qiao; Smith, Caren E.; Parnell, Laurence D.; Jiang, Zong-Yong; Ordovas, Jose M.; Tucker, Katherine L.; Lai, Chao-Qiang

2012-01-01

396

Association of Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Health Care Access with Pressure Ulcers after Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the associations of race and socioeconomic status (SES) with pressure ulcers (PU) after accounting for health care access (HCA) among persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Design Cross-sectional. Setting Large specialty hospital in the southeastern United States. Participant Persons with traumatic SCI who 1) had residual effects from their injury, 2) were 18 years or older at survey, and 3) were a year or more post-injury at survey (n=2,549). Intervention None. Main Outcome Measures Outcomes were measured by mail-in survey: having a current PU (yes vs. no), having a PU in the past year with or without reduced sitting time (no PU, no reduced sitting time, month or less, 5+ weeks), and having at least 1 PU surgery since SCI onset (yes vs. no). Results Of participants, 39.3% reported a PU in the past year, 19.9% had a current PU, and 21.9% reported having had surgery for a PU since their SCI onset. While race was preliminarily associated with each PU outcome, it became non-significant after controlling for SES and HCA. In each analysis, household income was significantly associated with PU outcomes after controlling for demographic and injury factors and remained significant after accounting for the HCA factors. Persons with lower income had higher odds of each PU outcome. HCA was not consistently related to PU outcomes. Conclusions Even after accounting for HCA, household income, a measure of SES, remained significantly associated with PU outcomes after SCI; however, race became non-significant. PMID:22494948

Saunders, Lee L.; Krause, James S.; Acuna, Joshua

2012-01-01

397

Geographical variation and factors associated with colorectal cancer mortality in a universal health care system  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the geographical variation and small geographical area level factors associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality. METHODS: Information regarding CRC mortality was obtained from the population-based Manitoba Cancer Registry, population counts were obtained from Manitoba’s universal health care plan Registry and characteristics of the area of residence were obtained from the 2001 Canadian census. Bayesian spatial Poisson mixed models were used to evaluate the geographical variation of CRC mortality and Poisson regression models for determining associations with CRC mortality. Time trends of CRC mortality according to income group were plotted using joinpoint regression. RESULTS: The southeast (mortality rate ratio [MRR] 1.31 [95% CI 1.12 to 1.54) and southcentral (MRR 1.62 [95% CI 1.35 to 1.92]) regions of Manitoba had higher CRC mortality rates than suburban Winnipeg (Manitoba’s capital city). Between 1985 and 1996, CRC mortality did not vary according to household income; however, between 1997 and 2009, individuals residing in the highest-income areas were less likely to die from CRC (MRR 0.77 [95% CI 0.65 to 0.89]). Divergence in CRC mortality among individuals residing in different income areas increased over time, with rising CRC mortality observed in the lowest income areas and declining CRC mortality observed in the higher income areas. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals residing in lower income neighbourhoods experienced rising CRC mortality despite residing in a jurisdiction with universal health care and should receive increased efforts to reduce CRC mortality. These findings should be of particular interest to the provincial CRC screening programs, which may be able to reduce the disparities in CRC mortality by reducing the disparities in CRC screening participation. PMID:24729992

Torabi, Mahmoud; Green, Christopher; Nugent, Zoann; Mahmud, Salaheddin M; Demers, Alain A; Griffith, Jane; Singh, Harminder

2014-01-01

398

Critical incident exposure in South African emergency services personnel: prevalence and associated mental health issues  

PubMed Central

Objectives To assess critical incident exposure among prehospital emergency services personnel in the developing world context of South Africa; and to assess associated mental health consequences. Methods We recruited a representative sample from emergency services in the Western Cape Province, South Africa, to participate in this cross sectional epidemiological study. Questionnaires covered critical incident exposure, general psychopathology, risky alcohol use, symptoms of post?traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and psychological and physical aggression between co?workers. Open ended questions addressed additional stressors. Results Critical incident exposure and rates of general psychopathology were higher than in studies in the developed world. Exposure to critical incidents was associated with general psychopathology, symptoms of PTSD, and with aggression between co?workers, but not with alcohol use. Ambulance, fire, and sea rescue services had lower general psychopathology scores than traffic police. The sea rescue service also scored lower than traffic police on PTSD and psychological aggression. The defence force had higher rates of exposure to physical assault, and in ambulance services, younger staff were more vulnerable to assault. Women had higher rates of general psychopathology and of exposure to psychological aggression. Other stressors identified included death notification, working conditions, and organisational problems. Conclusions Service organisations should be alert to the possibility that their personnel are experiencing work ?related mental health and behavioural problems, and should provide appropriate support. Attention should also be given to organisational issues that may add to the stress of incidents. Workplace programmes should support vulnerable groups, and address death notification and appropriate expression of anger. PMID:16498167

Ward, C L; Lombard, C J; Gwebushe, N

2006-01-01

399

Differential Associations Between Partner Violence and Physical Health Symptoms Among Caucasian and African American Help-Seeking Women  

PubMed Central

The relationship between partner violence and physical health symptoms is well-established. Although some researchers have theorized that the physical health effects of partner violence may be worse for ethnic minority women, there is little research addressing this topic. The current study examined whether African American women demonstrate a differential association in this relationship than Caucasian women. This study included 323 women (232 African American, 91 Caucasian) who participated in a larger investigation of the psychological and psychophysiological correlates of recent partner violence among women seeking help for the abuse. Race was examined as a moderator of the relationship between partner violence frequency and physical health symptoms. Although mean levels of partner violence frequency and physical health symptoms did not significantly differ between African American and Caucasian women, linear regression analyses demonstrated a significant positive relationship between partner violence frequency and physical health symptoms for African American women; whereas there was no association observed between these variables for Caucasian women. Post hoc analyses revealed that posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms partially mediated the association between partner violence frequency and physical health symptoms for the African American women. The current findings underscore the importance of considering race when studying the effect of partner violence on women’s health. PMID:23616911

Iverson, Katherine M.; Bauer, Margret R.; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Pineles, Suzanne L.; Harrington, Ellen F.; Resick, Patricia A.

2012-01-01

400

Associate Degree Nursing: Model Prerequisites Validation Study. California Community College Associate Degree Programs by The Center for Student Success, A Health Care Initiative Sponsored Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

California faces a severe nursing shortage, with the number of registered nurses far below what is required to avert a potential state health care crisis. The Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) Project is a joint project involving scholars, educational researchers, and analysts from the Center for Student Success (CSS) housed at City College of San…

Phillips, Brad C.; Spurling, Steven; Armstrong, William A.

401

Is Financial Hardship Associated with Reduced Health in Disability? The Case of Spinal Cord Injury in Switzerland  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate socioeconomic inequalities in a comprehensive set of health indicators among persons with spinal cord injury in a wealthy country, Switzerland. Methods Observational cross-sectional data from 1549 participants of the Swiss Spinal Cord Injury Cohort Study (SwiSCI), aged over 16 years, and living in Switzerland were analyzed. Socioeconomic circumstances were operationalized by years of formal education, net equivalent household income and financial hardship. Health indicators including secondary conditions, comorbidities, pain, mental health, participation and quality of life were used as outcomes. Associations between socioeconomic circumstances and health indicators were evaluated using ordinal regressions. Results Financial hardship was consistently associated with more secondary conditions (OR 3.37, 95% CI 2.18–5.21), comorbidities (OR 2.88, 95% CI 1.83–4.53) and pain (OR 3.32, 95% CI 2.21–4.99), whereas mental health (OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.15–0.36), participation (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.21–0.43) and quality of life (OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.15–0.33) were reduced. Persons with higher education reported better mental health (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.00–1.07) and higher quality of life (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02–1.09); other health indicators were not associated with education. Household income was not related to any of the studied health indicators when models were controlled for financial hardship. Conclusions Suffering from financial hardship goes along with significant reductions in physical health, functioning and quality of life, even in a wealthy country with comprehensive social and health policies. PMID:24587239

Fekete, Christine; Siegrist, Johannes; Reinhardt, Jan D.; Brinkhof, Martin W. G.

2014-01-01