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1

The American College Health Association National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA), Spring 2003 Reference Group Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Assessing and understanding the health needs and capacities of college students is paramount to creating healthy campus communities. The American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA) is a survey instrument developed by the American College Health Association (ACHA) in 1998 to assist institutions of higher…

Journal of American College Health, 2005

2005-01-01

2

The American College Health Association National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA), Spring 2003 Reference Group Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessing and understanding the health needs and capacities of college students is paramount to creating healthy campus communities. The American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA) is a survey instrument developed by the American College Health Association (ACHA) in 1998 to assist institutions of higher…

Journal of American College Health, 2005

2005-01-01

3

American College Health Association National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA) Spring 2005 Reference Group Data Report (Abridged).  

PubMed

Assessing and understanding the health needs and capacities of college students is paramount to creating healthy campus communities. The American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA) is a survey instrument developed by the ACHA in 1998 to assist institutions of higher education in achieving this goal. The ACHA-NCHA contains approximately 300 questions assessing student health status and health problems, risk and protective behaviors, access to health information, impediments to academic performance, and perceived norms across a variety of content areas (eg, injury prevention; personal safety and violence; alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use; sexual health; weight, nutrition, and exercise; mental health). Twice a year, the ACHA compiles aggregate data from participating institutions in a reference group report for data comparison. Results from the Spring 2005 Reference Group (N = 54,111) are presented in this article. PMID:16889310

4

American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA) Spring 2004 Reference Group data report (abridged).  

PubMed

Assessing and understanding the health needs and capacities of college students is paramount to creating healthy campus communities. The American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA) is a survey instrument developed by the ACHA in 1998 to assist institutions of higher education in achieving this goal. The ACHA-NCHA contains approximately 300 questions assessing student health status and health problems, risk and protective behaviors, access to health information, impediments to academic performance, and perceived norms across a variety of content areas, including injury prevention; personal safety and violence; alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use; sexual health; weight, nutrition, and exercise; and mental health. Twice a year, the ACHA compiles aggregate data from participating institutions in a reference group report for data comparison. Results from the Spring 2004 Reference Group (N = 47,202) are presented in this article. PMID:16450844

5

The American College Health Association National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA), Spring 2003 Reference Group report.  

PubMed

Assessing and understanding the health needs and capacities of college students is paramount to creating healthy campus communities. The American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA) is a survey instrument developed by the American College Health Association (ACHA) in 1998 to assist institutions of higher education in achieving this goal. The ACHA-NCHA contains approximately 300 questions assessing student health status and health problems, risk and protective behaviors, access to health information, impediments to academic performance, and perceived norms across a variety of content areas, including injury prevention; personal safety and violence; alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use; sexual health; weight, nutrition, and exercise; and mental health. Twice a year, ACHA compiles aggregate data from institutions using the ACHA-NCHA to provide a reference group for data comparison. A portion of the data from the Spring 2003 Reference Group is provided in this article for use by professionals, researchers, institutions, departments, and organizations invested in advancing the health of college students. PMID:15813230

6

American College Health Association National College Health Assessment Spring 2006 Reference Group Data Report (Abridged): The American College Health Association  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Assessing and understanding the health needs and capacities of college students is paramount to creating healthy campus communities. The American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA) is a survey developed by the ACHA in 1998 to assist institutions of higher education in achieving this goal. The…

Journal of American College Health, 2007

2007-01-01

7

American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment Spring 2007 Reference Group Data Report (Abridged)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Assessing and understanding the health needs and capacities of college students is paramount to creating healthy campus communities. The American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA) is a survey that ACHA developed in 1998 to assist institutions of higher education in achieving this goal. The…

Journal of American College Health, 2008

2008-01-01

8

American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment Spring 2008 Reference Group Data Report (Abridged): The American College Health Association  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Assessing and understanding the health needs and capacities of college students is paramount to creating healthy campus communities. The American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA) is a survey that ACHA developed in 1998 to assist institutions of higher education in achieving this goal. The…

Journal of American College Health, 2009

2009-01-01

9

A National Survey of College Health Education\\/Health Promotion Evaluation Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A national survey of college and university health education\\/health promotion evaluation activities was sent to American College Health Association (ACHA) member institutions and members of the ACHA Health Education Section. One hundred and fifty-eight (158) colleges and universities responded to the survey, indicating the kind of evaluation (e.g., program monitoring, outcome studies) conducted within specific content areas (e.g., nutrition, stress).

Doryn Davis Chervin; Beverlie Conant Sloane

1985-01-01

10

Anti-cholesterol antibodies (ACHA) in patients with different atherosclerotic vascular diseases and healthy individuals. Characterization of human ACHA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In animal experiments the protective role of anti-cholesterol antibodies (ACHA) in the development of atherosclerosis has been demonstrated. Despite the fact that ACHA are present in the serum of healthy humans, no data on the occurrence of these antibodies in human diseases are available. We determined serum concentrations of IgG type ACHA by an enzyme immunosorbent assay in 600 patients

Anna Horváth; George Füst; István Horváth; Gábor Vallus; Jenö Duba; Péter Harcos; Zoltán Prohászka; Éva Rajnavölgyi; L??via Jánoskuti; Margit Kovács; Albert Császár; László Romics; István Karádi

2001-01-01

11

High Level of Anticholesterol Antibodies (ACHA) in HIV Patients. Normalization of Serum ACHA Concentration after Introduction of HAART  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anticholesterol antibodies (ACHA) are natural antibodies against the 3?-OH group of cholesterol. Since lipid disorders are common in HIV infection and HAART may further enhance dislipidaemia, we determined by using an ELISA method serum ACHA concentrations in HIV patients and healthy HIV-seronegative controls.ACHA levels were almost 4 times higher in the sera of 46 patients than in 110 controls. No

Anna Horváth; Dénes Bánhegyi; Adrien BíRó; Eszter Ujhelyi; Amarilla Veres; Laura Horváth; Zoltán Prohászka; Attila Bácsi; Vera Tarján; László Romics; István Horváth; Ferenc D. Tóth; George Füst; István Karádi

2001-01-01

12

Health-Related Barriers to Learning among Graduate Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report the perceived impact of various health concerns on the academic performance of health sciences graduate students. Design/methodology/approach: The American College Health Association's National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA), a 58-item anonymous survey, was distributed to all graduate health

Kernan, William; Bogart, Jane; Wheat, Mary E.

2011-01-01

13

Health-Related Barriers to Learning among Graduate Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report the perceived impact of various health concerns on the academic performance of health sciences graduate students. Design/methodology/approach: The American College Health Association's National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA), a 58-item anonymous survey, was distributed to all graduate health

Kernan, William; Bogart, Jane; Wheat, Mary E.

2011-01-01

14

Sexual and Reproductive Health Behaviors of California Community College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To explore the sexual and reproductive health behaviors of students from 13 community college campuses in California. Participants: Heterosexual college students, ages 18 to 24, who have had sexual intercourse (N = 4,487). Methods: The American College Health Association's National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA) survey was…

Trieu, Sang Leng; Bratton, Sally; Marshak, Helen Hopp

2011-01-01

15

Sexual and Reproductive Health Behaviors of California Community College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To explore the sexual and reproductive health behaviors of students from 13 community college campuses in California. Participants: Heterosexual college students, ages 18 to 24, who have had sexual intercourse (N = 4,487). Methods: The American College Health Association's National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA) survey was…

Trieu, Sang Leng; Bratton, Sally; Marshak, Helen Hopp

2011-01-01

16

Effect of Irish potato starch, yeast and sprouted soybean flour on the quality of acha bread  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to report on a study to produce wheatless bread from acha\\/fonio (Digitaria exilis) flour with sprouted soybean flour (SSF) using Irish potato starch (IPS) as gluten replacer and determine the sensory qualities of the product. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Acha bread (AB) was baked from acha flour with varying quantities of yeast and IPS

Victoria Adaora Jideani; Rosemary Aina Salami; Israel Afam Jideani

2008-01-01

17

A Scope-of-Practice Survey Leading to the Development of Standards of Practices for Health Promotion in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To review and analyze the scope of practice of health promotion services and draft standards of quality indicators for higher education communities, the American College Health Association (ACHA) initiated a Task Force on Health Promotion in Higher Education in May 1996. Members of the task force developed a National Survey on Health Promotion and…

Zimmer, Christine G.; Hill, Martin H.; Sonnad, Subhash R.

2003-01-01

18

Developments on the cereal grains Digitaria exilis (acha) and Digitaria iburua (iburu)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research and development on these indigenous African cereal grains, acha (Digitaria exilis Stapf) and iburu (D. iburua Stapf), is experiencing renewed interest not just in Africa but the rest of the world. It is believed that acha and iburu\\u000a may have nutraceutical properties, as it is used in some areas for managing diabetes. Value addition and exploitation of fonio\\u000a (acha

I. A. Jideani; V. A. Jideani

2011-01-01

19

Where Do College Students Get Health Information? Believability and Use of Health Information Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to identify predictors of use of health information sources among U.S. college students. For this purpose, the Spring 2006 American College Health Association–National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA) database of 94,806 students at 117 colleges and universities was used. Univariate and multivariable analyses of survey data were conducted. The four most believable sources of health information as indicated

Amanda M. Vader; Scott T. Walters; Bahaman Roudsari; Norma Nguyen

2011-01-01

20

A scope-of-practice survey leading to the development of standards of practice for health promotion in higher education.  

PubMed

To review and analyze the scope of practice of health promotion services and draft standards of quality indicators for higher education communities, the American College Health Association (ACHA) initiated a Task Force on Health Promotion in Higher Education in May 1996. Members of the task force developed a National Survey on Health Promotion and Education in Institutions of Higher Education and mailed the survey to a stratified random sample of 600 ACHA member institutions, as well as to 97 key "best-practice health promotion leaders". The larger sample produced a 75.3% response rate, and 90.7% of the key informants returned usable surveys. The authors report selected findings from both groups that chronicle the state of health promotion practice in higher education at the close of the 20th century. The task force used the findings to establish a data-driven framework for the Year 2001 Standards of Practice for Health Promotion in Higher Education. PMID:14510027

Zimmer, Christine G; Hill, Martin H; Sonnad, Subhash R

2003-05-01

21

EVALUACION DE LOS CONTENIDOS DE NITRATOS EN LOS ALREDEDORES DE GENERAL ACHA, LA PAMPA, ARGENTINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The city of General Acha is located in the central region of La Pampa Province, where groundwater constitutes the only source of potable water supply. The most important economic activities are related to live stock and agricultural sector. The hydrogeology is characterized by the presence of a cord of dunes which act as a recharge area and it is bordered

María Alejandra Fernández; Eduardo E. Mariño

22

National Rural Health Association  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The antiquated image of the "old-time" family doctor traveling hundreds of miles to see patients widely dispersed across the rural landscape may remain in the minds of some persons, but the truth of the matter is that many persons in rural America have relatively little access to adequate health care. Advocating on the behalf of rural Americans (and their health) is the National Rural Health Association (NRHA). While some of the material on the site is available only to members, there is certainly enough publicly available information here to warrant several visits. On the site, visitors can read about rural health policy and read articles from the NRHA's own publication, The Journal of Rural Health. Of additional value is the NRHA issue papers and policy briefs section, which includes papers that cover topics such as the special needs of rural veterans and HIV/AIDS in rural America and its disproportionate impact on minority and multicultural populations.

23

American Public Health Association  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For the past 125 years, the American Public Health Association (APHA) has influenced the policy-making process at the local and national level in its efforts to prevent disease and promote health. Some of the organization's primary interests include issues such as environmental health, professional education in public health, and lobbying for a smoke-free society. The Association's main programmatic areas include its publication series, annual awards, educational services, and advocacy efforts across the United States. While some of the material here is limited to dues-paying members of the APHA, there is more than enough free material to warrant several visits. For example, all of the APHA's public press releases and news updates are available here, along with sample chapters from recent and forthcoming publications. One particularly pragmatic section is the Science & Programs area of the site, which includes several sites created by the APHA to address the importance of exercise for young people and another site that deals with deep vein thrombosis.

24

American College Health Association  

MedlinePLUS

... issue of JACH : Student Service Members/Veterans in Higher Education. Contact Adam Barry for more information. > 9.1. ... Health Information H1N1 Flu Health Care Reform Health Education/ Health ... Our Members Categories and Benefits Join or Renew Your Membership Annual Meeting 2013 ...

25

Effect of Acha (Digitaria exilis) Grain Flour on the PhysicoChemical and Sensory Properties of Bread  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different levels of acha (Digitaria exilis) grain flour (0–100%) were mixed with wheat flour (golden penny) and other ingredients (1.0 g salt, 2.5 g fat, 1.5 g yeast, 12.0 g sugar, and 56.0 g water, per 100 g of flour) fermented, molded, pan-proved and baked to produce bread. The baked products were evaluated for loaf volume, moisture content, and sensory qualities (taste, odor, color, texture, outward

J. A. Ayo; I. Nkama

2004-01-01

26

International Health Economics Association (iHEA)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Health Economics Association (iHEA) is devoted to increasing "communication among health economists." The web site provides information about the association and a searchable directory of health economists. Both eHEAL and HEAL, the electronic and print newsletter of iHEA can be found at the site. The newsletters provide listings of job openings, conferences, calls for papers and new research initiatives. Past issues of both newsletters are available at the site. Users can benefit from the exemplary collection of links to health economics sites.

1997-01-01

27

Health hazards associated with nanomaterials.  

PubMed

Nanotechnology is a major scientific and economic growth area and presents a variety of hazards for human health and environment. It is widely believed that engineered nanomaterials will be increasingly used in biomedical applications (as therapeutics and as diagnostic tools). However, before these novel materials can be safely applied in a clinical setting, their toxicity needs to be carefully assessed. Nanoscale materials often behave different from the materials with a larger structure, even when the basic material is same. Many mammals get exposed to these nanomaterials, which can reach almost every cell of the mammalian body, causing the cells to respond against nanoparticles (NPs) resulting in cytotoxicity and/or genotoxicity. The important key to understand the toxicity of nanomaterials is that their minute size, smaller than cellular organelles, allows them to penetrate the basic biological structures, disrupting their normal function. There is a wealth of evidence for the noxious and harmful effects of engineered NPs as well as other nanomaterials. The rapid commercialization of nanotechnology field requires thoughtful, attentive environmental, animal and human health safety research and should be an open discussion for broader societal impacts and urgent toxicological oversight action. While 'nanotoxicity' is a relatively new concept to science, this comprehensive review focuses on the nanomaterials exposure through the skin, respiratory tract, and gastrointestinal tract and their mechanism of toxicity and effect on various organs of the body. PMID:23012342

Pattan, Gurulingappa; Kaul, Gautam

2012-09-25

28

Where do college students get health information? Believability and use of health information sources.  

PubMed

This study aims to identify predictors of use of health information sources among U.S. college students. For this purpose, the Spring 2006 American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA) database of 94,806 students at 117 colleges and universities was used. Univariate and multivariable analyses of survey data were conducted. The four most believable sources of health information as indicated by survey respondents were health center medical staff, health educators, faculty or coursework, and parents. Health center medical staff, health educators, and faculty or coursework were underutilized in relation to their perceived believability, whereas parents were both used and believed at high frequencies. In general, older students, females, full time students, and Black and Hispanic students were more likely to use information from one of the four health sources. However, there was considerable subgroup variability, especially in the use of parents as a health information source. The authors conclude that information on use and believability of health information sources can help colleges to design more effective health information campaigns. PMID:21282492

Vader, Amanda M; Walters, Scott T; Roudsari, Bahaman; Nguyen, Norma

2011-01-31

29

Estimates of National Health Care Expenditures Associated With Disability  

Microsoft Academic Search

We estimated adult national health care expenditures associated with disability by type of care and payer. These estimates represent the “additional” health care expenditures associated with disability over and above any non-disability-related health care expenditures. Multivariate analyses were performed using the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, and supplemented with administrative data. Total national disability-associated health care expenditures (DAHE) were $397.9 billion

Wayne L. Anderson; Joshua M. Wiener; Eric A. Finkelstein; Brian S. Armour

2011-01-01

30

American Urological Association: UrologyHealth.org  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established in 1902, the American Urological Association (AUA) works to "promote the highest standards of urological clinical care through education, research and in the formulation of health care policy." In line with the educational component of its mission, AUA developed this website as an information resource for patients. The website offers sections for both Adult and Pediatric Conditions. These sections provide information about a range of conditions and/or diseases under the broad categories of Bladder, Adrenal & Kidney Diseases, Cancers, Inflammations & Infections, Stones, and more. The site also provides a search engine, printer-friendly formats, an online directory service for locating urologists, and a quite extensive glossary of urology-related terms.

31

Using Public Relations to Promote Health: A Framing Analysis of Public Relations Strategies Among Health Associations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored health organizations' public relations efforts to frame health issues through their press releases. Content analysis of 316 press releases from three health organizations—the American Heart Association, the American Cancer Society, and the American Diabetes Association—revealed that they used the medical research frame most frequently and emphasized societal responsibility for health issues. There were differences, however, among the

Bryan H. Reber

2010-01-01

32

Endovascular Embolization of Distal Anterior Choroidal Artery Aneurysms Associated with Moyamoya Disease  

PubMed Central

Summary We evaluated the feasibility of endovascular embolization for the management of distal anterior choroidal artery (AChA) aneurysms associated with moyamoya disease and performed a literature review to summarize their clinical features and treatment. We describe two cases of moyamoya disease-associated distal AChA aneurysms treated by endovascular embolization. In both cases, a good outcome was observed. We performed a MEDLINE (1980-2010) search which identified 13 similar cases. Our analysis of the clinical data from these 15 cases led us to conclude that (i) endovascular embolization is an effective and feasible treatment for distal AChA aneurysms associated with moyamoya disease; (ii) aneurysm location and the preservation of the parent artery are two major prognostic factors for moyamoya disease-associated distal AChA aneurysms subjected to craniotomy or endovascular therapy; (iii) the parent artery should be preserved when the aneurysm is located in the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle, but sacrificed when it is located in the trigone of the lateral ventricle.

Yang, S.; Yu, J.-L.; Wang, H.-L.; Wang, B.; Luo, Q.

2010-01-01

33

Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care  

MedlinePLUS

... is AAAHC? How do I know if a health care facility is AAAHC-accredited? Find answers For new ... do you stay current in a rapidly changing health care environment? Access resources aaahc The Leader in Ambulatory ...

34

Associations between health behaviours and health related fitness  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To examine relations between health behaviours and health related fitness. METHODS: Subjects were a convenience sample of 350 healthy adults (172 men, 178 women). Covariance analysis adjusted data for significant influences of age and socioeconomic status. Obesity was assessed by anthropometry and body density. Cardiovascular fitness was assessed and various metabolic measurements were made. Questionnaires on physical activity and

R J Shephard; C Bouchard

1996-01-01

35

Functions of Loneliness, Social Support, Health Behaviors, and Stress in Association With Poor Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior research has established clear links between social support, loneliness, and various health outcomes. This study was designed to test several theoretically derived explanations for such associations. A survey of 265 adults ages 19–85 years was conducted with measures of social support, loneliness, stress, health behaviors, and general health. Results showed that loneliness was more strongly associated with number of

Chris Segrin; Stacey A. Passalacqua

2010-01-01

36

Position Statement on Tobacco on College and University Campuses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The American College Health Association (ACHA) acknowledges and supports the findings of the Surgeon General that tobacco use in any form, active and/or passive, is a significant health hazard. ACHA further recognizes that environmental tobacco smoke has been classified as a Class-A carcinogen and that there is no safe level of exposure to…

Journal of American College Health, 2009

2009-01-01

37

Position Statement on Tobacco on College and University Campuses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The American College Health Association (ACHA) acknowledges and supports the findings of the Surgeon General that tobacco use in any form, active and/or passive, is a significant health hazard. ACHA further recognizes that environmental tobacco smoke has been classified as a Class-A carcinogen and that there is no safe level of exposure to…

Journal of American College Health, 2012

2012-01-01

38

Position Statement on Tobacco on College and University Campuses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American College Health Association (ACHA) acknowledges and supports the findings of the Surgeon General that tobacco use in any form, active and/or passive, is a significant health hazard. ACHA further recognizes that environmental tobacco smoke has been classified as a Class-A carcinogen and that there is no safe level of exposure to…

Journal of American College Health, 2009

2009-01-01

39

Factors Associated with Participation in a Senior Health Promotion Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Compared health status and lifestyle characteristics of participants in senior health promotion program with those of nonparticipants from same Health Maintenance Organization enrollee population. Nonparticipation was associated with lower income, less education, and lower involvement in community organizations. Although nonparticipants smoked…

Wagner, Edward H.; And Others

1991-01-01

40

American Association of Occupational Health Nurses  

MedlinePLUS

... highlights the critical roles nurses will play in health care reform and information resources you can use to learn more about the Marketplace. (September 25, 2013) AAOHN has signed a letter calling upon Dept. of Health & Human Services Secretary Sebelius to ensure that the ...

41

Health Insurance Moderates the Association Between Immigrant Length of Stay and Health Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies reported that immigrants’ health worsens with acculturation to US lifestyle; however, role of health insurance\\u000a has not been investigated. We used cross-sectional National Immigrant Survey (n = 6,381) to examine the potential moderating\\u000a effect of health insurance on the association between time in the US and self reported changes in health (comparing health\\u000a status before and after immigration) and current

Sunmin LeeAllison; Allison O’Neill; Julie Park; Lynn Scully; Edmond Shenassa

42

Association between political ideology and health in Europe  

PubMed Central

Studies have largely examined the association between political ideology and health at the aggregate/ecological level. Using individual-level data from 29 European countries, we investigated whether self-reports of political ideology and health are associated. In adjusted models, we found an inverse association between political ideology and self-rated poor health; for a unit increase in the political ideology scale (towards right) the odds ratio (OR) for reporting poor health decreased (OR 0.95, 95% confidence interval 0.94–0.96). Although political ideology per se is unlikely to have a causal link to health, it could be a marker for health-promoting latent attitudes, values and beliefs.

Huijts, Tim; Perkins, Jessica M.

2009-01-01

43

Health Effects Associated with Water Fluoridation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion is presented concerning fluoridation of water supplies. Correlation between fluoride in drinking water and improved dental health is reviewed. Relationship is expressed between fluoridation and reduced tooth decay. Use of fluoride in treating skeletal disorders is discussed. Author advocates fluoridating water supplies. (SA)

Richmond, Virginia L.

1979-01-01

44

Health Effects Associated with Water Fluoridation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discussion is presented concerning fluoridation of water supplies. Correlation between fluoride in drinking water and improved dental health is reviewed. Relationship is expressed between fluoridation and reduced tooth decay. Use of fluoride in treating skeletal disorders is discussed. Author advocates fluoridating water supplies. (SA)|

Richmond, Virginia L.

1979-01-01

45

Improving Children's Heart Health: A Report from the American Heart Association's Children's Heart Health Conference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents recommendations developed at the 1994 American Heart Association's Children's Heart Health Conference to promote cardiovascular health in children, particularly regarding public health, lifestyle, and behavior. The recommendations cover the areas of physical activity, nutrition, and tobacco, providing suggestions for…

Gidding, Samuel S.; And Others

1995-01-01

46

Using public relations to promote health: a framing analysis of public relations strategies among health associations.  

PubMed

This study explored health organizations' public relations efforts to frame health issues through their press releases. Content analysis of 316 press releases from three health organizations-the American Heart Association, the American Cancer Society, and the American Diabetes Association-revealed that they used the medical research frame most frequently and emphasized societal responsibility for health issues. There were differences, however, among the organizations regarding the main frames and health issues: the American Diabetes Association was more likely to focus on the issues related to social support and education, while the American Heart Association and the American Cancer Society were more likely to address medical research and scientific news. To demonstrate their initiatives for public health, all the organizations employed the social support/educational frame most frequently. Researchers and medical doctors frequently were quoted as trusted sources in the releases. PMID:20390976

Park, Hyojung; Reber, Bryan H

2010-01-01

47

Prevention and control of health care–associated waterborne infections in health care facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current article is a review of the public health risks attributable to waterborne pathogens in health care. The consequences of health care-associated infections (HAIs) are discussed. Not only are Legionella spp involved in HAIs, but also Pseudomonas aeruginosa, other gram-negative microorganisms, fungi, and amoeba-associated bacteria. This is particularly noteworthy among immunocompromised patients. New prevention strategies and control measures brought

M. Exner; A. Kramer; L. Lajoie; J. Gebel; S. Engelhart; P. Hartemann

2005-01-01

48

Is food insufficiency associated with health status and health care utilization among adults with diabetes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: Preliminary studies have shown that among adults with diabetes, food insufficiency has adverse health consequences, including\\u000a hypoglycemic episodes and increased need for health care services. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence\\u000a of food insufficiency and to describe the association of food insufficiency with health status and health care utilization\\u000a in a national sample of adults

Karin Nelson; William Cunningham; Ron Andersen; Gail Harrison; Lillian Gelberg

2001-01-01

49

Skill Set or Mind Set? Associations between Health Literacy, Patient Activation and Health  

PubMed Central

Objective There is ongoing debate on whether health literacy represents a skill-based construct for health self-management, or if it also more broadly captures personal ‘activation’ or motivation to manage health. This research examines 1) the association between patient activation and health literacy as they are most commonly measured and 2) the independent and combined associations of patient activation and health literacy skills with physical and mental health. Methods A secondary analysis of baseline cross-sectional data from the LitCog cohort of older adults was used. Participants (n?=?697) were recruited from multiple US-based health centers. During structured face-to-face interviews, participants completed the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA), the Patient Activation Measure (PAM), the SF-36 physical health summary subscale, and Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information Service (PROMIS) short form subscales for depression and anxiety. Results The relationship between health literacy and patient activation was weak, but significant (r?=?0.11, p<0.01). In models adjusted for participant characteristics, lower health literacy was associated with worse physical health (??=?0.13, p<0.001) and depression (??=??0.16, p<0.001). Lower patient activation was associated with worse physical health (??=?0.19, p<0.001), depression (??=??0.27, p<0.001) and anxiety (?-0.24, p<0.001). Conclusions The most common measures of health literacy and patient activation are weakly correlated with each other, but also independently correlated with health outcomes. This suggests health literacy represents a distinct skill-based construct, supporting the Institute of Medicine’s definition. Deficits in either construct could be useful targets for behavioral intervention.

Smith, Samuel G.; Curtis, Laura M.; Wardle, Jane; von Wagner, Christian; Wolf, Michael S.

2013-01-01

50

Associations between Number of Lifetime Partners and Other Health Behaviors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examined associations between health behaviors and lifetime sexual partners. Data from the 1995 National College Health Risk Behavior Survey indicated that having two or more lifetime partners related to infrequent seatbelt use, driving after drinking, fighting, considering suicide, and using certain substances. Significant sex interactions…

Ogletree, Roberta J.; Dinger, Mary K.; Vesely, Sara

2001-01-01

51

Associations Between Older Adults' Spoken Interactive Health Literacy and Selected Health Care and Health Communication Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent trends in the conceptualization of health literacy lead toward expansive notions of health literacy as social practice, rather than as a narrower cognitive capacity to understand health-related texts and materials. These expansive and complex constructions of health literacy demand tools for assessing individuals’ propensities to actively seek information in their interactions with health care professionals and other health information

Donald L. Rubin; John Parmer; Vicki Freimuth; Terry Kaley; Mumbi Okundaye

2011-01-01

52

Research paper: Characteristics associated with Regional Health Information Organization viability  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveRegional Health Information Organizations (RHIOs) will likely play a key role in our nation's effort to catalyze health information exchange. Yet we know little about why some efforts succeed while others fail. We sought to identify factors associated with RHIO viability.DesignUsing data from a national survey of RHIOs that we conducted in mid-2008, we examined factors associated with becoming operational

Julia Adler-Milstein; John Landefeld; Ashish K. Jha

2010-01-01

53

Polity and health care expenditures: the association among 159 nations.  

PubMed

This paper hypothesized that democratic nations, as characterized by Polity IV Project regime scores, spend more on health care than autocratic nations and that the association reported here is independent of other demographic, health system or economic characteristics of nations. WHO Global Observatory data on 159 nations with roughly 98% of the world's population were examined. Regime scores had significant, direct and independent associations with each of four measures of health care expenditure. For every unit increment in a nation's regime score toward a more democratic authority structure of governance, we estimated significant (p<0.05) increments in the percent of GDP expended on health care (+0.14%), percent of general government expenditures targeted to health care (+0.25%), total per capita expenditures on health (+34.4Int$) and per capita general government expenditures (+22.4Int$), while controlling for a population's age distribution, life expectancy, health care workforce and system effectiveness and gross national income. Moreover, these relationships were found to persist across socio-economic development levels. The finding that practices of health care expenditure and authority structures of government co-vary is instructive about the politics of health and the challenges of advancing global health objectives. PMID:23856538

Gregorio, Leah E; Gregorio, David I

2013-02-04

54

Crop Health Improvement with Groundnut Associated Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Groundnut-associated bacterial strains have been studied for their ability to improve growth and yield. Different parts of\\u000a plants such as rhizosphere, phyllosphere, and spermosphere are rich in beneficial microbes. The beneficial bacteria range\\u000a from nodule-forming Bradyrhizobium and Rhizobium to free-living plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) such as Pseudomonas, Bacillus, and Serratia. This chapter focuses on the different PGPR strains isolated from

Swarnalee Dutta; Manjeet Kaur; Appa Rao Podile

55

Tracing technology in the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries  

PubMed Central

From the beginning of the association, technology and the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries (AAHSL) have been intertwined. Technology was the focus of one of the first committees. Innovative applications of technology have been employed in the operations of the association. Early applications of mini-computers were used in preparing the Annual Statistics. The association's use of network communications was among the first in the country and later applications of the Web have enhanced association services. For its members, technology has transformed libraries. The association's support of the early development of Integrated Advanced Information Management Systems (IAIMS) and of its recent reconceptualization has contributed to the intellectual foundation for this revolution.

Guard, J. Roger; Peay, Wayne J.

2003-01-01

56

Environmental public health surveillance: possible estuary-associated syndrome.  

PubMed Central

Public health surveillance involves the collection, analysis, and dissemination of data for use in public health practice. A surveillance system includes the capacity to collect and analyze data as well as the ability to disseminate the data to public health agencies that can undertake effective prevention and control activities. An emerging issue in environmental public health surveillance involves human exposure to the toxins produced by microorganisms present in oceans and estuaries. One of these organisms is Pfiesteria piscicida Steidinger & Burkholder, a dinoflagellate found in estuaries along the Atlantic and gulf coasts of the United States. There have been reports of both human illness associated with occupational exposures to concentrated laboratory cultures of P. piscicida and massive fill kills associated with the presence of the organism in rivers and estuaries. These reports, and anecdotal reports from people who worked on rivers where the organism has been found, generated concern that environmental exposures to P. piscicida, similar organisms, or perhaps a toxin or toxins produced by the organism(s), could cause adverse human health effects. To begin to evaluate the public health burden associated with P. piscicida, investigators from the National Center for Environmental Health at Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and health agencies from states along the Atlantic coast collaborated to develop a passive surveillance system for collecting, classifying, and tracking public inquiries about the organism. Specifically, the group developed exposure and symptom criteria and developed data collection and reporting capabilities to capture the human health parameters collectively referred to as possible estuary-associated syndrome (PEAS). The surveillance system was implemented in six states (Delaware, Florida, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia) beginning in June 1998. From 1 June 1998 through 30 June 2001, the six state health agencies participating in the PEAS surveillance system received 3,859 calls: 3,768 callers requested information and 91 callers reported symptoms. Five individuals have been identified as meeting PEAS criteria.

Backer, L C; Niskar, A S; Rubin, C; Blindauer, K; Christianson, D; Naeher, L; Rogers, H S

2001-01-01

57

Health Care Utilization and Costs Associated with Childhood Abuse  

PubMed Central

Background Physical and sexual childhood abuse is associated with poor health across the lifespan. However, the association between these types of abuse and actual health care use and costs over the long run has not been documented. Objective To examine long-term health care utilization and costs associated with physical, sexual, or both physical and sexual childhood abuse. Design Retrospective cohort. Participants Three thousand three hundred thirty-three women (mean age, 47 years) randomly selected from the membership files of a large integrated health care delivery system. Measurements Automated annual health care utilization and costs were assembled over an average of 7.4 years for women with physical only, sexual only, or both physical and sexual childhood abuse (as reported in a telephone survey), and for women without these abuse histories (reference group). Results Significantly higher annual health care use and costs were observed for women with a child abuse history compared to women without comparable abuse histories. The most pronounced use and costs were observed for women with a history of both physical and sexual child abuse. Women with both abuse types had higher annual mental health (relative risk [RR]?=?2.07; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]?=?1.67–2.57); emergency department (RR?=?1.86; 95%CI?=?1.47–2.35); hospital outpatient (RR?=?1.35?=?95%CI?=?1.10–1.65); pharmacy (incident rate ratio [IRR]?=?1.57; 95%CI?=?1.33–1.86); primary care (IRR?=?1.41; 95%CI?=?1.28–1.56); and specialty care use (IRR?=?1.32; 95%CI?=?1.13–1.54). Total adjusted annual health care costs were 36% higher for women with both abuse types, 22% higher for women with physical abuse only, and 16% higher for women with sexual abuse only. Conclusions Child abuse is associated with long-term elevated health care use and costs, particularly for women who suffer both physical and sexual abuse.

Anderson, Melissa L.; Rivara, Frederick P.; Cannon, Elizabeth A.; Fishman, Paul A.; Carrell, David; Reid, Robert J.; Thompson, Robert S.

2008-01-01

58

Chaos as a social determinant of child health: Reciprocal associations?  

PubMed

This study informs the social determinants of child health by exploring an understudied aspect of children's social contexts: chaos. Chaos has been conceptualized as crowded, noisy, disorganized, unpredictable settings for child development (Evans, Eckenrode, & Marcynyszyn, 2010). We measure chaos at two levels of children's ecological environment - the microsystem (household) and the mesosystem (work-family-child care nexus) - and at two points in early childhood (ages 3 and 5). Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 3288), a study of predominantly low-income women and their partners in large US cities, we develop structural equation models that assess how maternal-rated child health (also assessed at ages 3 and 5) is associated with latent constructs of chaos, and whether there are important reciprocal effects. Autoregressive cross-lagged path analysis suggest that increasing chaos (at both the household and maternal work levels) is associated with worse child health, controlling for key confounders like household economic status, family structure, and maternal health status. Child health has little effect on chaos, providing further support for the hypothesis that chaos is an important social determinant of child health in this sample of relatively disadvantaged children. This suggests child health may be improved by supporting families in ways that reduce chaos in their home and work/family environments, and that as researchers move beyond SES, race, and family structure to explore other sources of health inequalities, chaos and its proximate determinants may be a promising avenue for future research. PMID:23541250

Kamp Dush, Claire M; Schmeer, Kammi K; Taylor, Miles

2013-03-14

59

Methamphetamine-associated psychosis: a new health challenge in Iran  

PubMed Central

The rapidly growing popularity of methamphetamine use in Iran has posed a new health challenge to the Iranian health sector. Methamphetamine-associated psychosis (MAP) has been frequently reported in Iran in recent years. Although methamphetamine use and MAP are considerable health problems in Iran but there is still a need to conduct epidemiological studies on the prevalence of MAP and its health-related problems. The present paper emphasizes that health policy makers should consider the immediate needs of drug users, their families and the community to be informed about the detrimental health effects associated with MAP. Although MAP could be managed by prescribing benzodiazepines and psychiatric medications but the most effective regime for stabilizing patients with MAP still needs to be studied in Iran. Constant collaborations among psychiatric services and outpatient psychotherapeutic services should be established to successfully manage MAP in Iran. Iranian clinicians especially emergency medicine specialists should be informed about the differences between the two forms of transient and recurrent MAP in order to implement appropriate pharmacological therapies to manage MAP. It is hoped that special training courses are designed and implemented by health policy makers to inform clinicians, health providers and especially emergency medicine specialists to effectively deal with MAP.

2013-01-01

60

Methamphetamine-associated psychosis: a new health challenge in Iran.  

PubMed

The rapidly growing popularity of methamphetamine use in Iran has posed a new health challenge to the Iranian health sector. Methamphetamine-associated psychosis (MAP) has been frequently reported in Iran in recent years. Although methamphetamine use and MAP are considerable health problems in Iran but there is still a need to conduct epidemiological studies on the prevalence of MAP and its health-related problems. The present paper emphasizes that health policy makers should consider the immediate needs of drug users, their families and the community to be informed about the detrimental health effects associated with MAP. Although MAP could be managed by prescribing benzodiazepines and psychiatric medications but the most effective regime for stabilizing patients with MAP still needs to be studied in Iran. Constant collaborations among psychiatric services and outpatient psychotherapeutic services should be established to successfully manage MAP in Iran. Iranian clinicians especially emergency medicine specialists should be informed about the differences between the two forms of transient and recurrent MAP in order to implement appropriate pharmacological therapies to manage MAP. It is hoped that special training courses are designed and implemented by health policy makers to inform clinicians, health providers and especially emergency medicine specialists to effectively deal with MAP. PMID:23577655

Alam Mehrjerdi, Zahra; Barr, Alasdair M; Noroozi, Alireza

2013-04-11

61

Examining the Association between Oral Health and Oral HPV Infection.  

PubMed

Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the cause of 40% to 80% of oropharyngeal cancers; yet, no published study has examined the role of oral health in oral HPV infection, either independently or in conjunction with other risk factors. This study examined the relation between oral health and oral HPV infection and the interactive effects of oral health, smoking, and oral sex on oral HPV infection. Our analyses comprised 3,439 participants ages 30 to 69 years for whom data on oral HPV and oral health were available from the nationally representative 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results showed that higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was associated with four measures of oral health, including self-rated oral health as poor-to-fair [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-1.95], indicated the possibility of gum disease (PR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.13-2.01), reported use of mouthwash to treat dental problems in the past week (PR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.07-1.52), and higher number of teeth lost (Ptrend = 0.035). In multivariable logistic regression models, oral HPV infection had a statistically significant association with self-rated overall oral health (OR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.15-2.09), independent of smoking and oral sex. In conclusion, poor oral health was an independent risk factor of oral HPV infection, irrespective of smoking and oral sex practices. Public health interventions may aim to promote oral hygiene and oral health as an additional measure to prevent HPV-related oral cancers. Cancer Prev Res; 6(9); 917-24. ©2013 AACR. PMID:23966202

Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M; Ross, Michael Wallis; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

2013-08-21

62

Factors Associated with Health Care Access for Mississippi Children with Special Health Care Needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: This purpose of the study was to examine the factors associated with access to routine care and to specialty care for Mississippi children with special health care needs (CSHCN). Methods: We analyzed data for Mississippi CSHCN from the 2001 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs. Using a modified version of Andersen and Aday’s Behavioral Model of

Debra J. Kane; Marianne E. Zotti; Deborah Rosenberg

2005-01-01

63

An examination of sociocultural factors associated with health and health care seeking among Latina immigrants.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the sociocultural factors associated with health maintenance and health care seeking among Latina immigrants. Data were collected from eight focus groups with 54 Latina immigrants between the ages of 19 and 62 (M=29.3+/-9.34). The PEN-3 model provided the framework for the study. Most of the participants came from Mexico; 46% had not completed high school; 85.2% had been in the United States for less than 7 years, and 73.6% reported not having health insurance coverage. Participants identified both positive and negative perceptions, enablers, and nurturers associated with health maintenance and health care seeking. Participants acknowledged the importance of physical, mental, and spiritual health and what they should do to be healthy. Despite such knowledge, they tended to engage in unhealthy behaviors due to a variety of nonstructural barriers such as lack of time, "tradition," and procrastination. They tended to use alternative/complementary medicine first, and then seek medical help if these practices are not effective. Many women believe that they do not have control over their own health attributing this lack of control to the "system." Participants also mentioned structural barriers to seeking health care such as lack of transportation, lack of proper documentation, lack of health insurance, language barriers, long waiting time at the clinics, and lack of knowledge on where to go for affordable care. Our study suggests that there are important structural and nonstructural barriers that hinder health maintenance and care seeking. The findings also lend support to the PEN-3 model, and suggest that positive perceptions, enablers, and nurturers associated with health maintenance and health care seeking, if properly reinforced, can counterbalance negative perceptions, enablers and nurturers in this population. PMID:16636902

Garcés, Isabel C; Scarinci, Isabel C; Harrison, Lynda

2006-10-01

64

Emerging health care-associated infections in the geriatric population.  

PubMed Central

The increasing number of persons >65 years of age form a special population at risk for nosocomial and other health care-associated infections. The vulnerability of this age group is related to impaired host defenses such as diminished cell-mediated immunity. Lifestyle considerations, e.g., travel and living arrangements, and residence in nursing homes, can further complicate the clinical picture. The magnitude and diversity of health care-associated infections in the aging population are generating new arenas for prevention and control efforts.

Strausbaugh, L. J.

2001-01-01

65

An association between socioeconomic, health and health behavioural indicators and fractures in young adult males  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The aim of this survey study with 7,083 male respondents was to examine the association between socioeconomic, health and\\u000a health behavioural risk indicators and fractures. In the multivariate regression model, fractures were associated strongest\\u000a with frequency of drunkenness, regular sports training, frequent use of health care services and obesity.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Introduction  Little is known about the risk factors for fractures in young

V. M. Mattila; V. Jormanainen; T. Sahi; H. Pihlajamäki

2007-01-01

66

Nurse staffing, burnout, and health care-associated infection  

PubMed Central

Background Each year, nearly 7 million hospitalized patients acquire infections while being treated for other conditions. Nurse staffing has been implicated in the spread of infection within hospitals, yet little evidence is available to explain this association. Methods We linked nurse survey data to the Pennsylvania Health Care Cost Containment Council report on hospital infections and the American Hospital Association Annual Survey. We examined urinary tract and surgical site infection, the most prevalent infections reported and those likely to be acquired on any unit within a hospital. Linear regression was used to estimate the effect of nurse and hospital characteristics on health care–associated infections. Results There was a significant association between patient-to-nurse ratio and urinary tract infection (0.86; P = .02) and surgical site infection (0.93; P = .04). In a multivariate model controlling for patient severity and nurse and hospital characteristics, only nurse burnout remained significantly associated with urinary tract infection (0.82; P = .03) and surgical site infection (1.56; P < .01) infection. Hospitals in which burnout was reduced by 30% had a total of 6,239 fewer infections, for an annual cost saving of up to $68 million. Conclusions We provide a plausible explanation for the association between nurse staffing and health care–associated infections. Reducing burnout in registered nurses is a promising strategy to help control infections in acute care facilities.

Cimiotti, Jeannie P.; Aiken, Linda H.; Sloane, Douglas M.; Wu, Evan S.

2012-01-01

67

Health effects associated with energy conservation measures in commercial buildings  

SciTech Connect

Indoor air quality can be impacted by hundreds of different chemicals. More than 900 different organic compounds alone have been identified in indoor air. Health effects that could arise from exposure to individual pollutants or mixtures of pollutants cover the full range of acute and chronic effects, including largely reversible responses, such as rashes and irritations, to the irreversible toxic and carcinogenic effects. These indoor contaminants are emitted from a large variety of materials and substances that are widespread components of everyday life. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with indoor air contaminants for the Bonneville Power Administration to aid the agency in the preparation of environmental documents. Results are reported in two volumes. Volume 1 summarizes the results of the search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with a selected list of indoor air contaminants. In addition, the report discusses potential health effects of polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorofluorocarbons. All references to the literature reviewed are found in this document Volume 2. Volume 2 provides detailed information from the literature reviewed, summarizes potential health effects, reports health hazard ratings, and discusses quantitative estimates of carcinogenic risk in humans and animals. Contaminants discussed in this report are those that; have been measured in the indoor air of a public building; have been measured (significant concentrations) in test situations simulating indoor air quality (as presented in the referenced literature); and have a significant hazard rating. 38 refs., 7 figs., 23 tabs.

Stenner, R.D.; Baechler, M.C.

1990-09-01

68

PERSISTENT ORAL HEALTH PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH COMORBIDITY AND IMPAIRED DIET  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chewing, swallowing and mouth pain (CSP) are identified as indictors of nutritional risk in older adults. Previous research has shown that oral health problems in community-living older rural adults were associated with increased hospitalization (AJCN 2001; 74:201-205). The purpose of this study was...

69

Association between dental health and acute myocardial infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Known risk factors for coronary heart disease do not explain all of the clinical and epidemiological features of the disease. To examine the role of chronic bacterial infections as risk factors for the disease the association between poor dental health and acute myocardial infarction was investigated in two separate case-control studies of a total of 100 patients with acute myocardial

K. J. Mattila; M. S. Nieminen; V. V. Valtonen; V. P. Rasi; Y. A. Kesäniemi; S. L. Syrjälä; P. S. Jungell; M. Isoluoma; K. Hietaniemi; M. J. Jokinen

1989-01-01

70

ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN FINE PARTICULATE MATTER SOURCES AND HEALTH EFFECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Associations are well established between particulate matter (PM) and increased human mortality and morbidity. The toxicity of PM may differ depending on the type of PM source, and health impacts may vary by location depending on the mix of PM sources impacting each location. The...

71

77 FR 70783 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Approval of the Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care (AAAHC) Application for Continuing...Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care (AAAHC) for continued recognition...determined by CMS. The Ambulatory Health Care's (AAAHC) current term of...

2012-11-27

72

The Association Between Life Chaos, Health Care Use, and Health Status Among HIV-Infected Persons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Whether having a stable and predictable lifestyle is associated with health care use and health status among HIV patients\\u000a is unknown.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  To develop and test the reliability and validity of a measure of life chaos for adults with HIV and examine its association\\u000a with health care use and health status.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design  Prospective cohort study.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Participants  Two hundred twenty HIV-infected persons recruited from

Mitchell D. Wong; Catherine A. Sarkisian; Cynthia Davis; Janni Kinsler; William E. Cunningham

2007-01-01

73

Adverse staff health outcomes associated with endoscope reprocessing.  

PubMed

There are occupational challenges associated with cleaning, disinfecting, storing, and transporting flexible endoscopes. Although the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set standards to protect the safety of health workers in the United States, the standards are not specific to endoscope reprocessing, and the general standards that are in place are not fully implemented. Furthermore, adverse staff outcomes may not be fully preventable. To assess the evidence for adverse outcomes in staff associated with endoscope reprocessing, a literature review was performed in the PubMed database for articles on this topic published between Jan. 1, 2007 and March 7, 2012. Eight studies were identified, mainly European, which reported numerous adverse outcomes to healthcare personnel associated with endoscope reprocessing including respiratory ailments and physical discomfort. More scientifically rigorous studies are required to comprehensively describe adverse health outcomes in personnel engaged in reprocessing, particularly in the United States, and examine whether increased automation of the reprocessing process leads to decreased adverse health outcomes for staff. PMID:23600361

Gutterman, Elane; Jorgensen, Lindsay; Mitchell, Amber; Fua, Sherry

74

Health Divide: Economic and Demographic Factors Associated with Self-Reported Health Among Older Malaysians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from the 2004 Survey of Economic and Financial Aspects of Aging in Malaysia were analyzed to determine factors associated\\u000a with self-reported health status among older Malaysians. Odds of self-reporting health as bad versus moderate or good were\\u000a higher for respondents who were in lower income quintiles, who perceived their financial situation as bad, who were older\\u000a and who were

Sharifah Azizah Haron; Deanna L. Sharpe; Jariah Masud; Mohamed Abdel-Ghany

2010-01-01

75

An examination of sociocultural factors associated with health and health care seeking among latina immigrants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the sociocultural factors associated with health maintenance and health care seeking among Latina immigrants. Data were collected from eight focus groups with 54 Latina immigrants between the ages of 19 and 62 (M=29.39.34). The PEN-3 model provided the framework for the study. Most of the participants came from Mexico; 46% had not

Isabel C. Garcés; Isabel C. Scarinci; Lynda Harrison

2006-01-01

76

National rural health mission--opportunity for Indian Public Health Association.  

PubMed

Indian Public Health Association (IPHA) welcomes the release of National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) documents. It suggests that manpower requirements of the Community Health Centre (CHC) should be rationally determined on the basis of work and patient load of the CHC. Importance should be given on availability of simple & life saving equipment, female staff when male staff is not available. Safe drinking water, an adequate sanitation and excreta disposal facility through Panchayet Raj Institution (PRI) or privatization was proposed. Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA) has been accepted more streamlining based on the community was suggested. Capacity building or training should be CHC based for grass-root level functionaries with incentive to Medical officer (MO). IPHA proposes to extend support in capacity building, development of manual for ASHA & other categories of health professional as well as Program Implementation Plan (PIP). PMID:16468283

Ray, Sandip Kumar

77

Health insurance coverage within sibships: prevalence of mixed coverage and associations with health care utilization.  

PubMed

An increasing proportion of children in the United States lives in families with complicated family structures and a mix of immigrant and US-born family members. Eligibility rules for health insurance coverage, however, were not designed with these families in mind. The result can be complicated insurance patterns among siblings within families, with some "sibships" only being partially-insured, and other sibships having both private and public coverage. We hypothesize that mixed coverage among siblings causes confusion and logistical difficulties for parents and may lead to less access to appropriate health care for their children. In this article, we use data from the 2009-2011 National Health Interview Survey (n = 51,418 children in 20,478 sibships) to present estimates of the prevalence of mixed health insurance coverage among siblings and describe the predictors of such coverage. We also use linked data from the 2001-2005 National Health Interview Survey and 2002-2007 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (n = 17,871) to show how mixed coverage is related to health care utilization. We find that although few sibships are characterized by different health insurance coverage types, mixed coverage among siblings is far more common among families with mixed nativity status, and blended families with step- and half-siblings. In terms of outcomes, children living in sibships with mixed coverage have significantly lower odds of having a usual source of health care. We also consider whether the association between mixed insurance coverage and health care outcomes differs across particular combinations of insurance coverage. We find that both publicly-insured children who have uninsured siblings and privately-insured children with publicly-insured siblings are less likely to have a usual source of care than similar children with uniformly-insured siblings. Because a usual source of care is associated with better health care outcomes, we argue that policymakers should consider ways to reduce mixed coverage among children and families. PMID:23746603

Percheski, Christine; Bzostek, Sharon

2013-05-02

78

Assess health effects associated with dichloromethane (methylene chloride). Final report  

SciTech Connect

On August 13-14, 1987 the Halogenated Organics Subcommittee of the Science Advisory Board's Environmental Health Committee met in Washington, D.C. to review two documents prepared by EPA's Office of Research and Development that assess health effects associated with dichloromethane (methylene chloride). The documents included: a June 1987 Draft Technical Analysis of New Methods and Data Regarding Dichloromethane: Pharmacokinetics, Mechanism of Action and Epidemiology, a July 1987 Draft Addendum to the Health Assessment Document for Dichloromethane: Pharmacokinetics, Mechanism of Action and Epidemiology. The Subcommittees concluded that the Addendum was one of the best documents it has received in terms of its clarity, coverage of the data and analysis of scientific issues. The document clearly demonstrates the potential utility of pharmacokinetics data in risk assessment.

Not Available

1988-03-09

79

Prevalence, Characteristics, and Associated Health and Health Care of Family Homelessness Among Fifth-Grade Students  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We describe the lifetime prevalence and associated health-related concerns of family homelessness among fifth-grade students. Methods. We used a population-based, cross-sectional survey of 5147 fifth-grade students in 3 US cities to analyze parent-reported measures of family homelessness, child health status, health care access and use, and emotional, developmental, and behavioral health and child-reported measures of health-related quality of life and exposure to violence. Results. Seven percent of parents reported that they and their child had experienced homelessness (i.e., staying in shelters, cars, or on the street). Black children and children in the poorest families had the highest prevalence of homelessness (11%). In adjusted analyses, most general health measures were similar for children who had and had not been homeless. Children who had ever experienced homelessness were more likely to have an emotional, behavioral, or developmental problem (odds ratio [OR] = 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1, 2.6; P = .01), to have received mental health care (OR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.6, 3.2; P < .001), and to have witnessed serious violence with a knife (OR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.1, 2.3; P = .007) than were children who were never homeless. Conclusions. Family homelessness affects a substantial minority of fifth-grade children and may have an impact on their emotional, developmental, and behavioral health.

Elliott, Marc N.; Kanouse, David E.; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Gilliland, M. Janice; Tortolero, Susan R.; Cuccaro, Paula; Schuster, Mark A.

2009-01-01

80

Association between oral health and gastric precancerous lesions  

PubMed Central

Although recent studies have suggested that tooth loss is positively related to the risk of gastric non-cardia cancer, the underlying oral health conditions potentially responsible for the association remain unknown. We investigated whether clinical and behavioral measures of oral health are associated with the risk of gastric precancerous lesions. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 131 patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Cases were defined as those with gastric precancerous lesions including intestinal metaplasia or chronic atrophic gastritis on the basis of standard biopsy review. A validated structured questionnaire was administered to obtain information on oral health behaviors. A comprehensive clinical oral health examination was performed on a subset of 91 patients to evaluate for periodontal disease and dental caries experience. A total of 41 (31%) cases of gastric precancerous lesions were identified. Compared with non-cases, cases were significantly more likely to not floss their teeth [odds ratio (OR) = 2.89, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09–7.64], adjusting for age, sex, race, body mass index, smoking status, educational attainment and Helicobacter pylori status in serum. Among participants who completed the oral examination, cases (n = 28) were more likely to have a higher percentage of sites with gingival bleeding than non-cases [OR = 2.63, 95% CI: 1.37–5.05 for a standard deviation increase in bleeding sites (equivalent to 19.7%)], independent of potential confounders. Our findings demonstrate that specific oral health conditions and behaviors such as gingival bleeding and tooth flossing are associated with gastric precancerous lesions.

Salazar, Christian R.; Francois, Fritz; Corby, Patricia; Hays, Rosemary; Leung, Celine; Bedi, Sukhleen; Segers, Stephanie; Queiroz, Erica; Sun, Jinghua; Wang, Beverly; Ho, Hao; Craig, Ronald; Cruz, Gustavo D.; Blaser, Martin J.; Perez-Perez, Guillermo; Hayes, Richard B.; Dasanayake, Ananda; Pei, Zhiheng; Chen, Yu

2012-01-01

81

Association between oral health and gastric precancerous lesions.  

PubMed

Although recent studies have suggested that tooth loss is positively related to the risk of gastric non-cardia cancer, the underlying oral health conditions potentially responsible for the association remain unknown. We investigated whether clinical and behavioral measures of oral health are associated with the risk of gastric precancerous lesions. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 131 patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Cases were defined as those with gastric precancerous lesions including intestinal metaplasia or chronic atrophic gastritis on the basis of standard biopsy review. A validated structured questionnaire was administered to obtain information on oral health behaviors. A comprehensive clinical oral health examination was performed on a subset of 91 patients to evaluate for periodontal disease and dental caries experience. A total of 41 (31%) cases of gastric precancerous lesions were identified. Compared with non-cases, cases were significantly more likely to not floss their teeth [odds ratio (OR) = 2.89, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09-7.64], adjusting for age, sex, race, body mass index, smoking status, educational attainment and Helicobacter pylori status in serum. Among participants who completed the oral examination, cases (n = 28) were more likely to have a higher percentage of sites with gingival bleeding than non-cases [OR = 2.63, 95% CI: 1.37-5.05 for a standard deviation increase in bleeding sites (equivalent to 19.7%)], independent of potential confounders. Our findings demonstrate that specific oral health conditions and behaviors such as gingival bleeding and tooth flossing are associated with gastric precancerous lesions. PMID:22139442

Salazar, Christian R; Francois, Fritz; Li, Yihong; Corby, Patricia; Hays, Rosemary; Leung, Celine; Bedi, Sukhleen; Segers, Stephanie; Queiroz, Erica; Sun, Jinghua; Wang, Beverly; Ho, Hao; Craig, Ronald; Cruz, Gustavo D; Blaser, Martin J; Perez-Perez, Guillermo; Hayes, Richard B; Dasanayake, Ananda; Pei, Zhiheng; Chen, Yu

2011-12-01

82

Are mental health and binge drinking associated in Dutch adolescents? Cross-sectional public health study  

PubMed Central

Background Depression and anxiety disorders have a high disease burden and as many as 15% of young people report mental health problems. Binge drinking, which is a particularly harmful way of consuming alcohol, is common among secondary school students. The aim of this study was to examine the association between binge drinking and self-reported mental health in boys and girls aged 12 to 18 years. Findings This cross-sectional analysis was performed on data collected by the Community Health Service (GGD) Brabant Zuidoost, the Netherlands, in 2007. In this Youth Survey, 10 090 randomly selected adolescents aged 12 tot 18 years were each sent a letter, a questionnaire, and a user name and log-in code for if they preferred to complete the Internet version of the questionnaire. Mental health was assessed using the Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5), a short 5-item questionnaire to detect feelings of depression and anxiety. Participants were asked about current alcohol consumption, their relationship with their parents, drug use, and sociodemographic data. Corrected for confounders, binge drinking and mental health problems were associated in the 12 to 15 year old girls (OR 2.43; 95% CI 1.86-3.17, p = 0.000) and boys (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.19-2.27, p = 0.003). The majority of the 16 to 18 year old adolescents had been binge drinking in the previous 4 weeks (69.6% boys and 56.8% girls). In this age group, boys with mental health problems were less likely to be classified as binge drinkers than were boys without mental health problems (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.45-0.87, p = 0.005). No such association between binge drinking and mental health was found in girls of this age. Conclusion Girls and boys aged 12-15 years were classified as binge drinkers significantly more often when they reported poor mental health. Because binge drinking damages the brain, especially at a young age, it is important that health professionals are alert to possible binge drinking when young adolescents report mental health problems and should ask their patients about their drinking behaviour. Likewise, if youngsters under 16 present with binge drinking, they should be asked whether they are anxious or depressed.

2011-01-01

83

The Urban Built Environment and Associations with Women's Psychosocial Health.  

PubMed

The determinants that underlie a healthy or unhealthy pregnancy are complex and not well understood. We assess the relationship between the built environment and maternal psychosocial status using directly observed residential neighborhood characteristics (housing damage, property disorder, tenure status, vacancy, security measures, violent crime, and nuisances) and a wide range of psychosocial attributes (interpersonal support evaluation list, self-efficacy, John Henryism active coping, negative partner support, Perceived Stress Scale, perceived racism, Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression) on a pregnant cohort of women living in the urban core of Durham, NC, USA. We found some associations between built environment characteristic and psychosocial health varied by exposure categorization approach, while others (residence in environments with more rental property is associated with higher reported active coping and negative partner support) were consistent across exposure categorizations. This study outlines specific neighborhood characteristics that are modifiable risk markers and therefore important targets for increased research and public health intervention. PMID:22907713

Messer, Lynne C; Maxson, Pamela; Miranda, Marie Lynn

2013-10-01

84

Environmental toxicology and health effects associated with hexachlorobenzene exposure.  

PubMed

The synthetic industrial chemical hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is a white crystalline solid compound. The substance is a bioaccumulative, persistent, and toxic pollutant. Historically HCB was commonly used as a pesticide and fungicide. Although HCB production and use has ceased in many countries, the compound is still generated inadvertently, as a byproduct and/or impurity in the manufacture of various chlorinated compounds, and released into the environment. Hexachlorobenzene is ubiquitous in air, water, soil, and biological matrices, as well as in major environmental compartments. Exposure to this substance is a public health concern because of its association with a wide range of adverse health effects. The International Agency for Research on Cancer and the United States Environmental Protection Agency classify HCB as a probable human carcinogen. Although globally the consumption of HCB-contaminated food is the principal source of environmental exposure, exposure can also occur through the inhalation of HCB-contaminated air, by dermal contact, or through in utero exposure and breast milk. In addition to cancer, the human health effects associated with HCB exposure involve systemic impairment (thyroid, liver, bone, skin), as well as damage to the kidneys and blood cells and the immune, endocrine, developmental, and nervous systems. In this review, we discuss the sources of HCB and the potential for human exposure, as well as systemic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic health effects. PMID:18078005

Reed, Lamar; Buchner, Virginia; Tchounwou, Paul B

85

Negotiation Advantages of Professional Associations in Health Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

In several instances, third-party payers negotiate prices of health care services with providers. We show that a third-party payer may prefer to deal with a professional association than with the sub-set constituted by the more efficient providers, and then apply the same price to all providers. The reason for this is the increase in the bargaining position of providers. The

Pedro Pita Barros; Xavier Martinez-Giralt

2005-01-01

86

Auditing health insurance reimbursement by constructing association rules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two months of reimbursement claim data of the admission patients from National Taiwan University Hospital have been used to be the training set (200 MB or so), a quick method has been used to find out the association rules among the illness, the examinations and treatments, the drugs, and the equipment. The filtered rules by setting the minimum support and the minimum confidence are used to screen out a month claimed data from the other hospital. Some unproper orders to the patients are able to checked out. In this paper, we will discuss the algorithm for generalizing association rule and the experiments of using the association rules to screen out the unproper orders in the health reimbursement claims.

Chiang, I.-Jen

2000-04-01

87

78 FR 54652 - Sole Source Cooperative Agreement Award to the Association for State and Territorial Health...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Sole Source Cooperative...Association for State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO) AGENCY: Office of...and Response (ASPR), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)....

2013-09-05

88

Factors associated with mental health service use in Latino and Asian immigrant elders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with the mental health service use of Latino and Asian immigrant elders. Adapting Andersen's behavioral health model of health service utilization, predisposing, enabling, and mental health need factors were considered as potential predictors for use of mental health services.Method: Data were drawn from a nationally representative dataset, the National

Giyeon Kim; Yuri Jang; David A. Chiriboga; Grace X. Ma; Lawrence Schonfeld

2010-01-01

89

Health effects associated with exposure to radioactively contaminated gold rings  

SciTech Connect

This study was designed to assess the health risks associated with exposure to radioactively contaminated gold rings. A group of 135 exposed individuals, who were identified through a statewide jewelry screening program, were studied to determine the frequency of carcinoma and other skin problems on the ring finger. Severity of skin problems increased with increasing length of wear. Forty-one of the exposures were associated with mild to severe skin problems. Nine of the individuals studied were diagnosed as having histologically confirmed squamous cell carcinomas at the site of exposure. The incidence of skin cancer on the ring finger was eleven times that expected for men and forty-five times that expected for women. These data indicate that physicians who have patients with skin lesions of the ring finger should be aware of the possibility of exposure to a radioactive gold ring.

Baptiste, M.S.; Rothenberg, R.; Nasca, P.C.; Janerich, D.T.; Stutzman, C.D.; Rimawi, K.; O'Brien, W.; Matuszek, J.

1984-06-01

90

Rural–urban comparison of contextual associations with self-reported mental health status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ample evidence documents the association between individual-level risk factors and mental health status; relatively less is known about associations between features of the context in which individuals live and their mental health. The objective of this study is to assess differences in associations between contextual characteristics of both rural and urban settings and mental health status measured by the mental

Lars E. Peterson; Alexander C. Tsai; Stephen Petterson; David G. Litaker

2009-01-01

91

Mistrust of Health Care Organizations Is Associated with Underutilization of Health Services  

PubMed Central

Purpose We report the validation of an instrument to measure mistrust of health care organizations and examine the relationship between mistrust and health care service underutilization. Methods We conducted a telephone survey of a random sample of households in Baltimore City, MD. We surveyed 401 persons and followed up with 327 persons (81.5 percent) 3 weeks after the baseline interview. We conducted tests of the validity and reliability of the Medical Mistrust Index (MMI) and then conducted multivariate modeling to examine the relationship between mistrust and five measures of underutilization of health services. Results Using principle components analysis, we reduced the 17-item MMI to 7 items with a single dimension. Test–retest reliability was moderately strong, ranging from Pearson correlation of 0.346–0.697. In multivariate modeling, the MMI was predictive of four of five measures of underutilization of health services: failure to take medical advice (b=1.56, p<.01), failure to keep a follow-up appointment (b=1.11, p=.01), postponing receiving needed care (b=0.939, p=.01), and failure to fill a prescription (b=1.48, p=.002). MMI was not significantly associated with failure to get needed medical care (b=0.815, p=.06). Conclusions The MMI is a robust predictor of underutilization of health services. Greater attention should be devoted to building greater trust among patients.

LaVeist, Thomas A; Isaac, Lydia A; Williams, Karen Patricia

2009-01-01

92

Reducing Cancer Health Disparities in the US-associated Pacific  

PubMed Central

Purpose To assess cancer prevention and control capacity in the US-associated Pacific Islands (USAPI, including American Samoa, Northern Mariana Islands, Micronesia, Guam, Marshall Islands, and Palau) and to support indigenous leadership in reducing cancer health disparities. Methods Jurisdiction-specific needs assessments were conducted to assess cancer prevention and control capacity and challenges, The Cancer Council of the Pacific islands (CCPI), an indigenous health leadership team from public health and medicine, was supported to review assessment findings, develop priorities, and build capacity to address recommendations. Results Capacity varied across jurisdictions, but generally there is limited ability to measure cancer burden and a lack of programs, equipment, and trained personnel to detect and treat cancer. Most cancers are diagnosed in late stages when survival is compromised and care is most costly. Jurisdictions also are challenged by geographic, social, and political constraints and multiple in-country demands for funding. Based on findings, strategies were developed by the CCPI to guide efforts, including fund seeking, to expand cancer prevention and control capacity in regionally appropriate ways. Conclusions Concerted planning, training, and funding efforts are needed to overcome challenges and upgrade capacity in cancer education, prevention, detection, and treatment in the USAPI. Indigenous leadership and local capacity building are essential to this process.

Tsark, JoAnn U.; Braun, Kathryn L.

2010-01-01

93

The Association of Changes in Local Health Department Resources With Changes in State-Level Health Outcomes  

PubMed Central

We explored the association between changes in local health department (LHD) resource levels with changes in health outcomes via a retrospective cohort study. We measured changes in expenditures and staffing reported by LHDs on the 1997 and 2005 National Association of County and City Health Officials surveys and assessed changes in state-level health outcomes with the America's Health Rankings reports for those years. We used pairwise correlation and multivariate regression to analyze the association of changes in LHD resources with changes in health outcomes. Increases in LHD expenditures were significantly associated with decreases in infectious disease morbidity at the state level (P = .037), and increases in staffing were significantly associated with decreases in cardiovascular disease mortality (P = .014), controlling for other factors.

Greene, Sandra B.; Mays, Glen P.; Ricketts, Thomas C.; Davis, Mary V.

2011-01-01

94

The association of changes in local health department resources with changes in state-level health outcomes.  

PubMed

We explored the association between changes in local health department (LHD) resource levels with changes in health outcomes via a retrospective cohort study. We measured changes in expenditures and staffing reported by LHDs on the 1997 and 2005 National Association of County and City Health Officials surveys and assessed changes in state-level health outcomes with the America's Health Rankings reports for those years. We used pairwise correlation and multivariate regression to analyze the association of changes in LHD resources with changes in health outcomes. Increases in LHD expenditures were significantly associated with decreases in infectious disease morbidity at the state level (P = .037), and increases in staffing were significantly associated with decreases in cardiovascular disease mortality (P = .014), controlling for other factors. PMID:20558799

Erwin, Paul Campbell; Greene, Sandra B; Mays, Glen P; Ricketts, Thomas C; Davis, Mary V

2010-06-17

95

Associations Between Maternal Mental Health and Child Emotional and Behavioral Problems: Does Prenatal Mental Health Matter?  

PubMed

This study examined associations between elevated symptoms of prenatal depression or anxiety and offspring emotional and behavioral problems during mid to late childhood taking into account the impact of later maternal mental health symptoms. The sample consisted of 2,891 women and their children (49 % male) from a prospective, community-based study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Women completed measures of depressive (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale) and anxious (Crown Crisp Experiential Index) symptoms at regular intervals beginning in pregnancy. Mothers and teachers assessed offspring emotional and behavioral problems using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire when children were 10-11 years old. Multivariable regression models were fit to address study hypotheses. Exposure to elevated symptoms of maternal depression during pregnancy was associated with increased total offspring emotional and behavioral problems, even after controlling for later maternal mental health problems and a range of sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics, according to mothers' but not teachers' reports. Similarly, children exposed to elevated symptoms of maternal anxiety during pregnancy were reported to have increased total emotional and behavioral problems by mothers but not by teachers. We found support for modest associations between elevated symptoms of maternal depression and anxiety during the prenatal period and certain domains of offspring emotional and behavioral problems in mid to late childhood above and beyond the impact of later maternal mental health problems. These findings highlight the need for additional clinical and research attention to the prenatal period and to both maternal depression and anxiety. PMID:23748337

Leis, Julie A; Heron, Jon; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Mendelson, Tamar

2013-06-10

96

Monitoring pesticide use and associated health hazards in Central America.  

PubMed

We established methods for monitoring pesticide use and associated health hazards in Central America. With import data from Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama for 2000-2004, we constructed quantitative indicators (kg active ingredient) for general pesticide use, associated health hazards, and compliance with international regulations. Central America imported 33 million kg active ingredient per year. Imports increased 33% during 2000-2004. Of 403 pesticides, 13 comprised 77% of the total pesticides imported. High volumes of hazardous pesticides are used; 22% highly/extremely acutely toxic, 33% moderately/severely irritant or sensitizing, and 30% had multiple chronic toxicities. Of the 41 pesticides included in the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), the Rotterdam Convention on Prior Informed Consent (PIC), the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, the Pesticide Action Network (PAN) Dirty Dozen, and the Central American Dirty Dozen, 16 (17% total volume) were imported, four being among the 13 most imported pesticides. Costa Rica is by far the biggest consumer. Pesticide import data are good indicators of use trends and an informative source to monitor hazards and, potentially, the effectiveness of interventions. PMID:21905395

Bravo, Viria; Rodríguez, Teresa; van Wendel de Joode, Berna; Canto, Nonato; Calderón, Gloria Ruth; Turcios, Miguel; Menéndez, Luis Armando; Mejía, Winston; Tatis, Anabel; Abrego, Federico Z; de la Cruz, Elba; Wesseling, Catharina

97

Calcium fructoborate helps control inflammation associated with diminished bone health.  

PubMed

Inflammation has been identified as a possible contributory factor to disruption of the normal bone remodeling process, a process essential to healthy bone mineral density. Several large population-based clinical studies have specifically shown that levels of C-reactive protein, an immune recognition protein that is a sensitive marker of inflammation, are inversely and independently associated with total bone mineral density. The evidence suggests that control of C-reactive protein levels may contribute to bone health by protecting against inflammation's disruption of the equilibrium between bone resorption and bone deposition. Calcium fructoborate, a patented complex of calcium, fructose, and boron found naturally in fresh and dried fruits, vegetables and herbs, and wine, is a sugar-borate ester. A growing body of peer-reviewed, published clinical research indicates that the calcium fructoborate significantly reduces serum levels of the C-reactive protein in humans, suggesting that this unique plant-mineral complex may contribute to bone health by controlling the inflammation associated with loss of bone mineral density. PMID:23982445

Scorei, Iulia Daria; Scorei, Romulus Ion

2013-08-28

98

65 FR 37138 - Association of State and Territorial Directors of Health Promotion and Public Health Education...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Territorial Directors of Health Promotion and Public Health Education...and Territorial Directors of Health Promotion and Public Health Education...is committed to achieving the health promotion and disease prevention...

2000-06-13

99

National Association of County and City Health Officials  

MedlinePLUS

... More » » Good Decision Making in Real Time: Practical Public Health Ethics for Local and State Health Officials in ... NACCHO Career Network Search this targeted resource for public health employers and job seekers. Get more information about ...

100

Associations of Family-Centered Care with Health Care Outcomes for Children with Special Health Care Needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to examine the association of family-centered care (FCC) with specific health care service\\u000a outcomes for children with special health care needs (CSHCN). The study is a secondary analysis of the 2005–2006 National\\u000a Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs. Receipt of FCC was determined by five questions regarding how well health\\u000a care providers

Dennis Z. Kuo; T. Mac Bird; J. Mick Tilford

101

Summary review of the health effects associated with phenol.  

PubMed

Phenol, a monohydroxy derivative of benzene, occurs naturally in animal waste and by decomposition of organic wastes. It is also produced by man, originally by fractional distillation of coal tar, but more recently by cumene hydroperoxidation and toluene oxidation. As a result of large production volume and natural sources, occupational and environmental exposure to phenol is likely. Phenol poisoning can occur by skin absorption, vapor inhalation, or ingestion, and, regardless of route of exposure, can result in detrimental health effects. Acute toxicity has been observed in man and experimental animals, resulting in muscle weakness, convulsions, and coma. In addition, studies have shown that although teratogenic effects have not been associated with exposure to phenol by either inhalation or oral route, high doses of phenol are fetotoxic. This paper addresses these studies and others in an attempt to determine if human health is at risk to those levels of phenol present in the environment and workplace. However, because data are limited, further research is necessary to analyze the mutagenic and carcinogenic potential of this chemical. PMID:3324392

Bruce, R M; Santodonato, J; Neal, M W

1987-12-01

102

Association between smoking cessation and sexual health in men  

PubMed Central

Objective To provide the first empirical investigation of the association between smoking cessation and indices of physiological and subjective sexual health in men. Subjects and methods Male smokers, irrespective of erectile dysfunction status, who were motivated to stop smoking (‘quitters’), were enrolled in an 8-week smoking cessation programme involving a nicotine transdermal patch treatment and adjunctive counselling. Participants were assessed at baseline (while smoking regularly), at mid-treatment (while using a high-dose nicotine transdermal patch), and at a 4-week post-cessation follow-up. Physiological (circumferential change via penile plethysmography) and subjective sexual arousal indices (continuous self-report), as well as self-reported sexual functioning were assessed at each visit. Results Intent-to-treat analyses indicated that, at follow-up, successful quitters (n = 20), compared with those who relapsed (n = 45), showed enhanced erectile tumescence responses, and faster onset to reach maximum subjective sexual arousal. Although successful quitters displayed across-session enhancements in sexual function, they did not show a differential improvement compared with unsuccessful quitters. Conclusion Smoking cessation significantly enhances both physiological and self-reported indices of sexual health in long-term male smokers, irrespective of baseline erectile impairment. It is hoped that these results may serve as a novel means to motivate men to stop smoking.

Harte, Christopher B.; Meston, Cindy M.

2011-01-01

103

Genome-wide association study of body height in African Americans: the Women's Health Initiative SNP Health Association Resource (SHARe)  

PubMed Central

Height is a complex trait under strong genetic influence. To date, numerous genetic loci have been associated with height in individuals of European ancestry. However, few large-scale discovery genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of height in minority populations have been conducted and thus information about population-specific height regulation is limited. We conducted a GWA analysis of height in 8149 African-American (AA) women from the Women's Health Initiative. Genetic variants with P< 5 × 10?5 (n = 169) were followed up in a replication data set (n = 20 809) and meta-analyzed in a total of 28 958 AAs and African-descent individuals. Twelve single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) representing 7 independent loci were significantly associated with height at P < 5 × 10?8. We identified novel SNPs in 17q23 (TMEM100/PCTP) and Xp22.3 (ARSE) reflecting population-specific regulation of height in AAs and replicated five loci previously reported in European-descent populations [4p15/LCORL, 11q13/SERPINH1, 12q14/HMGA2, 17q23/MAP3K3 (mitogen-activated protein kinase3) and 18q21/DYM]. In addition, we performed an admixture mapping analysis of height which is both complementary and supportive to the GWA analysis and suggests potential associations between ancestry and height on chromosomes 4 (4q21), 15 (15q26) and 17 (17q23). Our findings provide insight into the genetic architecture of height and support the investigation of non-European-descent populations for identifying genetic factors associated with complex traits. Specifically, we identify new loci that may reflect population-specific regulation of height and report several known height loci that are important in determining height in African-descent populations.

Carty, Cara L.; Johnson, Nicholas A.; Hutter, Carolyn M.; Reiner, Alexander P.; Peters, Ulrike; Tang, Hua; Kooperberg, Charles

2012-01-01

104

Factors Associated with American Indian Teens' Self-Rated Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Factors related to American Indian (AI) high school students' self-rated health were examined. Self rated health was measured as a single-item with a four-point response option ranging from poor to excellent health. Of the 574 participants, 19% reported "fair" or "poor" health, a percentage more than twice that for U.S. high school students in…

Parker, Tassy

2004-01-01

105

Factors Associated with Physician Discussion of Health Behaviors with Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Behaviors developed in adolescence influence health later in life. The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of health care provider's discussion of health behaviors with overweight and non-overweight adolescents and identify demographic and health behaviors related to exercise, hours of television viewing, and weight issues…

Choi, Won S.; Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Kaur, Harsohena; Nazir, Niaman; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

2006-01-01

106

Health Hazard Evaluation Report HETA 84-204-1600, Dental Health Associates, Paoli, Pennsylvania. [Nitrous oxide  

SciTech Connect

Area air and breathing-zone samples were analyzed for nitrous oxide at Dental Health Associates, Paoli, Pennsylvania on August 2, 1984. The evaluation was requested by a dental assistant because of general concern about the extent of nitrous oxide exposure, especially since the office was not equipped with a waste-anesthetic gas-scavenging system. The author recommends installing a waste anesthetic gas scavenging system with a dedicated exhaust. The nitrous oxide delivery and mixing system should be checked for leaks monthly and work practices for handling nitrous oxide should be improved.

Crandall, M.S.

1985-06-01

107

Does Place of Education Matter? Contextualizing the Education and Health Status Association Among Asian Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The educational gradient in health is one of the most robust associations in social science research. Results of the current study indicate that, like the pattern observed among other racial and ethnic minority groups, the well-established educational gradient in health is attenuated among Asian Americans. We also show that the gradient association between educational attainment and self-rated health among Asian

Emily Walton; David T. Takeuchi; Jerald R. Herting; Margarita Alegría

2009-01-01

108

Associations between the Five-Factor Model of Personality and Health Behaviors among College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: In fall 2006, the authors examined associations between the five-factor model of personality and several key health behaviors. Methods: College students (N = 583) completed the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment and the International Personality Item Pool Big Five short-form questionnaire. Results:…

Raynor, Douglas A.; Levine, Heidi

2009-01-01

109

A Test of Association Between Spatially Defined Exposure Patterns and Health Outcome Risk Contours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in the availability of geographically referenced health and environmental quality data of high spatial resolution have created new opportunities in environmental epidemiology. Novel statistical methods for linking health, exposure, and hazards are required to underpin the development of public health tracking. A test for the association between spatial contours of health risk and exposure is outlined. This test is

Jessica Read; Ian Matthews; Barry Nix

2007-01-01

110

Citizens Shaping Policy: The Canadian Mental Health Association's Framework for Support Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen plus years of work in mental health policy development from a community development perspective under the aegis of the Canadian Mental Health Association are described. The evolution of a model de-emphasizing formal mental health services and emphasizing partnerships between consumers, family members, the community at large, and mental health service providers is presented. Particular attention is paid to the

Ed Pomeroy; John Trainor; Bonnie Pape

2002-01-01

111

PTSD symptom clusters associated with physical health and health care utilization in rural primary care patients exposed to natural disaster.  

PubMed

This study investigated the influence of exposure to a tornado disaster and disaster-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology on physical health complaints and primary health care utilization among rural medical patients. One-hundred five patients completed self-report measures assessing disaster exposure, PTSD symptoms, and self-reported physical health complaints. Objective rates of health care utilization were gathered by a review of medical records. Tornado disaster exposure and generalized psychological distress were associated with physical health complaints one year following the disaster. After controlling for age, gender, and levels of predisaster health care utilization, PTSD Cluster C (avoidance) symptoms were associated with increased rates of postdisaster health care utilization. Implications of these findings for interventions within the medical system are discussed. PMID:18302175

Polusny, Melissa A; Ries, Barry J; Schultz, Jessica R; Calhoun, Patrick; Clemensen, Lisa; Johnsen, Ingrid R

2008-02-01

112

Health-care-associated infection in Africa: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To assess the epidemiology of endemic health-care-associated infection (HAI) in Africa. Methods Three databases (PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and the WHO regional medical database for Africa) were searched to identify studies published from 1995 to 2009 on the epidemiology of HAI in African countries. No language restriction was applied. Available abstract books of leading international infection control conferences were also searched from 2004 to 2009. Findings The eligibility criteria for inclusion in the review were met by 19 articles, only 2 of which met the criterion of high quality. Four relevant abstracts were retrieved from the international conference literature. The hospital-wide prevalence of HAI varied between 2.5% and 14.8%; in surgical wards, the cumulative incidence ranged from 5.7% to 45.8%. The largest number of studies focused on surgical site infection, whose cumulative incidence ranged from 2.5% to 30.9%. Data on causative pathogens were available from a few studies only and highlighted the importance of Gram-negative rods, particularly in surgical site infection and ventilator-associated pneumonia. Conclusion Limited information is available on the endemic burden of HAI in Africa, but our review reveals that its frequency is much higher than in developed countries. There is an urgent need to identify and implement feasible and sustainable approaches to strengthen HAI prevention, surveillance and control in Africa.

Bagheri Nejad, Sepideh; Allegranzi, Benedetta; Syed, Shamsuzzoha B; Ellis, Benjamin

2011-01-01

113

The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries' legislative activities and the Joint Medical Library Association/Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries Legislative Task Force  

PubMed Central

The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries' (AAHSL's) involvement in national legislative activities and other advocacy initiatives has evolved and matured over the last twenty-five years. Some activities conducted by the Medical Library Association's (MLA's) Legislative Committee from 1976 to 1984 are highlighted to show the evolution of MLA's and AAHSL's interests in collaborating on national legislative issues, which resulted in an agreement to form a joint legislative task force. The history, work, challenges, and accomplishments of the Joint MLA/AAHSL Legislative Task Force, formed in 1985, are discussed.

Zenan, Joan S.

2003-01-01

114

Development of Associate and Baccalaureate Degree Programs for Occupational Safety and Health.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Associate and baccalaureate degree programs in occupational safety and health were developed. Suggested courses and programs were devised from recommendations provided by occupational safety and health practitioners and junior and senior college level edu...

R. J. Vernon

1972-01-01

115

Induction and Use of Associate Degree Workers in the Mental Health System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Southern Regional Education Board conducted a project to assist community colleges of the South in the development of associate of arts level training programs for mental health technicians, and to assist mental health agencies in the development of j...

1973-01-01

116

Is walking to school associated with improved metabolic health?  

PubMed Central

Background Active commuting to/from school is an important source of physical activity that has been declining over the past years. Although it is an affordable and simple way of increasing physical activity levels it is still unclear whether it has enough potential to improve health. Therefore, the aim of this cross sectional study was to examine the relationship between active commuting to/from school and metabolic risk factors in 10 to 12 year old children. Methods Participants were 229 adolescents, selected through consecutive sampling, (121 girls) with mean age of 11.65 (±0.73) years old from Porto, Portugal. Means of transport to/from school was accessed by asking: ”How do you usually travel to school?” and “How do you usually travel from school?”. Active commuting was considered if children reported at least one of the trips (to or from school) by active means. Total physical activity was obtained with Actigraph accelerometer for 7 consecutive days. Lipid profile measurements were conducted with Cholestech LDX® analyser. Waist circumference and blood pressure were measured by standard methods. The criteria for metabolic syndrome defined by International Diabetes Federation for children and adolescents were used. Results Adjusted binary logistic regression analysis suggested that walkers have higher odds to have a better waist circumference (OR?=?2.64, 95% CI?=?1.63-6.01) and better high density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR?=?2.14, 95% CI?=?1.01-4.52) profiles than non-active commuters, independent of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. No associations were found for other metabolic risk factors. Conclusions Exertions to increase and maintain walking to school may be particularly relevant as it is likely to have a positive impact on children’s health and eventually decrease metabolic and cardiovascular diseases.

2013-01-01

117

Are variations in rates of attending cultural activities associated with population health in the United States?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Population studies conducted in Sweden have revealed an association between attendance at cultural activities and health. Using data from US residents, we examined whether the association could be observed in the US. METHODS: Participants in the current study included 1,244 individuals who participated in the 1998 General Social Survey. RESULTS: A significant association between cultural activities and self-reported health

Anna V Wilkinson; Andrew J Waters; Lars Olov Bygren; Alvin R Tarlov

2007-01-01

118

College students' social anxiety associated with stress and mental health  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To explore the mediator effects of social anxiety on college students' life stress and mental health. METHODS: 1430 college students were tested by revised Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List (ASLEO), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12) and social anxiety scale chose from Self Consciousness Scale. RESUTL AND ANALYSIS: The college students' stressors were related to social anxiety and mental health.

Shi Kan; Jiang Nan; Chen Xuefeng; Wang Zhen; Gao Jing; Hu Weipeng

2010-01-01

119

Self-reported segregation experience throughout the life course and its association with adequate health literacy  

PubMed Central

Residential segregation has been shown to be associated with health outcomes and health care utilization. We examined the association between racial composition of five physical environments throughout the life course and adequate health literacy among 836 community health center patients in Suffolk County, NY. Respondents who attended a mostly White junior high school or currently lived in a mostly White neighborhood were more likely to have adequate health literacy compared to those educated or living in predominantly minority or diverse environments. This association was independent of the respondent’s race, ethnicity, age, education, and country of birth.

Gaskin, Darrell J.; Si, Xuemei; Stafford, Jewel D.; Lachance, Christina; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.

2012-01-01

120

Association of health-related quality of life with health examination including organic functions and lifestyles in Japanese employees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the association of each item of a health examination including organic functions and lifestyles with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) by gender. Methods: A cross-sectional survey by a self-administered questionnaire using the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) was conducted for Japanese employees from October 1999 to September 2000. Participants in

Tomoaki Kimura; Yoichi Ogushi; Masahiro Takahashi; Yukari Munakata; Satomi Ishii

2004-01-01

121

National Association of School Nurses ISSUE BRIEF: School Health Nurse's Role in Education: Privacy Standards for Student Health Records  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article is a reprint of the National Association of School Nurses' "Issue Brief" on Privacy Standards for Student Health Records. It distinguishes between the Family Education Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) and the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HI-PAA), clarifies which of these laws governs the privacy of student…

Pohlman, Katherine; Schwab, Nadine

2003-01-01

122

The association between history of diabetic foot ulcer, perceived health and psychological distress: the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: While the adverse impact of a history of a foot ulcer on physical health among persons with diabetes is well known, little is known about the association between foot ulcer, perceived health and psychological distress. Results from various studies are difficult to compare as different study designs, samples and\\/or different questionnaires have been used. The aim of this study

Marjolein M Iversen; Kristian Midthjell; Grethe S Tell; Torbjørn Moum; Truls Østbye; Monica W Nortvedt; Sverre Uhlving; Berit R Hanestad

2009-01-01

123

Associations between Intelligence in Adolescence and Indicators of Health and Health Behaviors in Midlife in a Cohort of Swedish Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The objective of this study was to investigate associations between intelligence and indicators of health status and health behaviors at age 43 in a cohort of Swedish women (n = 682). Intelligence was measured by standard IQ tests given at ages 10, 13, and 15. At the age of 43, 479 of the women were sampled for a medical examination in which 369…

Modig, Karin; Bergman, Lars R.

2012-01-01

124

Understanding the non-stationary associations between distrust of the health care system, health conditions, and self-rated health in the elderly: A geographically weighted regression approach  

PubMed Central

The goals of this study are to explore whether health condition is an antecedent extraneous factor for the relationship between health care system distrust and self-rated health among the elderly, and to investigate if the associations among these variables are place-specific. We used logistic geographically weighted regression to analyze data on an elderly sample residents in the Philadelphia metropolitan area. We found that the health conditions of the elderly account for the association between high distrust and poor/fair self-rated health and that the distrust/self-rated health relationship varied spatially. This finding suggests that a place-centered perspective can inform distrust/self-rated health research.

Yang, Tse-Chuan; Matthews, Stephen A.

2012-01-01

125

Understanding the non-stationary associations between distrust of the health care system, health conditions, and self-rated health in the elderly: a geographically weighted regression approach.  

PubMed

The goals of this study are to explore whether health condition is an antecedent extraneous factor for the relationship between health care system distrust and self-rated health among the elderly, and to investigate if the associations among these variables are place-specific. We used logistic geographically weighted regression to analyze data on an elderly sample residents in the Philadelphia metropolitan area. We found that the health conditions of the elderly account for the association between high distrust and poor/fair self-rated health and that the distrust/self-rated health relationship varied spatially. This finding suggests that a place-centered perspective can inform distrust/self-rated health research. PMID:22321903

Yang, Tse-Chuan; Matthews, Stephen A

2012-01-28

126

Associations Among Health Behaviors and Time Perspective in Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Previous research suggests that time perspective relates to health behavior; however, researchers have frequently employed inconsistent operational definitions and have often used projective or unpublished measures. The Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory was created to provide a sound, objective measure of five distinct time perspective components. We examined the independent prediction of both risky and protective health behaviors from future, hedonistic, and fatalistic time perspective in 1,568 undergraduates using the ZTPI. Health behaviors included alcohol, drug, tobacco, and seat belt use, sex behaviors, and exercise. Future time perspective was related to increased protective and decreased risky health behaviors, whereas hedonism exhibited an opposite pattern though was a stronger predictor; fatalism was related only to health-destructive behaviors. Gender interactions reveal that hedonism is a stronger predictor of risky health behaviors for females.

Henson, James M.; Carey, Michael P.; Carey, Kate B.; Maisto, Stephen A.

2008-01-01

127

Health Hazard Evaluation Report No. HETA-81-344-1069, Frank Hulefeld and Associates, Cincinnati, Ohio.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On June 2, 1981, NIOSH received a Health Hazard Evaluation request from Frank Hulefeld and Associates, a commercial art studio, to evaluate chemical emissions associated with the use of a Minolta Electrographic 101 tabletop photocopier. Area air samples w...

S. Ahrenholz J. Handke

1982-01-01

128

The association between annually-repeated health screening and health behavior among company employees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although several studies have been undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of health screening in causing changes in health-related\\u000a behavior, there are few findings with respect to the efficacy of annually repeated health screening.\\u000a \\u000a Using cross-sectional data drawn from a population consisting of white-collar workers in Osaka, Japan, the relation between\\u000a the results of annually repeated health screening and individual health

Akihito Hagihara; Kimio Tarumi; Kanehisa Morimoto

1996-01-01

129

Factors associated with reproductive health care utilization among Ghanaian women  

PubMed Central

Background This study investigates factors determining the timing of antenatal care (ANC) visit and the type of delivery assistant present during delivery among a national representative sample of Ghanaian women. Method Data for the study was drawn from the women questionnaire (N=4,916) of the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey among 15–49-years-old women. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to explore factors determining the type of delivery assistance and timing of ANC visit for live births within five years prior to the survey. Results Majority of Ghanaian women attended ANC visit (96.5%) but many (42.7%) did so late (after the first trimester), while 36.5% had delivery without the assistance of a trained personnel (30.6%) or anyone (5.9%). Age (OR=1.5, CI=1.1-1.9, OR for 25-34-year-olds compared to 15-24-year-olds), religion (OR=1.8, CI=1.2-2.8, OR for Christians versus Traditional believers) wealth index (OR=2.6, CI=1.7-3.8, OR for the richest compared to the poorest) were independently associated with early ANC visit. Likewise, age, place of residence, education and partner’s education were associated with having a delivery assisted by a trained assistant. Also, Christians (OR=1.8, CI=1.1-3.0) and Moslems (OR=1.9, CI=1.1-3.3) were more likely to have trained delivery assistants compared to their counterparts who practised traditional belief. Furthermore, the richer a woman the more likely that she would have delivery assisted by a trained personnel (OR=8.2, CI= 4.2-16.0, OR for the richest in comparison to the poorest). Conclusions Despite the relatively high antenatal care utilisation among Ghanaian women, significant variations exist across the socio-demographic spectrum. Furthermore, a large number of women failed to meet the WHO recommendation to attend antenatal care within the first trimester of pregnancy. These findings have important implications for reducing maternal mortality ratio by three-quarters by the year 2015.

2012-01-01

130

Summary review of health effects associated with naphthalene: health issue assessment  

SciTech Connect

Naphthalene is released into ambient air via industrial gaseous and particulate emissions, tobacco use, and through consumer use. The data base concerning exposure of humans via inhalation and associated health effects is virtually nonexistent. Overexposure often results in acute hemolytic anemia and has been associated with cataract formation. There are no available dose-response data. In laboratory animals, two principal target tissues have been identified: non-ciliated bronchiolar epithelial (Clara) cells and eye tissue. The metabolite(s) responsible for Clara cell damage is unknown. There are no published studies involving inhalation exposure. Administration of naphthalene by routes other than inhalation has been shown to produce cataracts in rats, rabbits, and one mouse strain. Animal strains with pigmented eyes develop cataracts faster and more severely than albino strains. The likely causative agent is polyphenol oxydase, found only in pigmented eyes, that catalyzes the formation of 1,2-naphthoquione which binds to lens tissue. Negative results have been reported for gene mutations (Salmonella), unscheduled DNA synthesis in rat hepatocytes and microneuclei in mouse bone marrow. Limited teratology studies in rats and rabbits reported no gross abnormalities. In a single dose (300 mg/kg) study in mice, both maternal and fetal toxicity were reported.

Not Available

1987-11-01

131

The association between membership in the sandwich generation and health behaviors: A longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined the association between membership in the sandwich generation, defined as providing care to both children and parents or in-laws, and five health behaviors: checking the food label for health value when buying foods, using a seat belt, choosing foods based on health value, exercising regularly, and cigarette smoking. Participants (N = 4943) were from a longitudinal

Laurie Chassin; Jon T. Macy; Dong-Chul Seo; Clark C. Presson; Steven J. Sherman

2010-01-01

132

The Association between Membership in the Sandwich Generation and Health Behaviors: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The current study examined the association between membership in the sandwich generation, defined as providing care to both children and parents or in-laws, and five health behaviors: checking the food label for health value when buying foods, using a seat belt, choosing foods based on health value, exercising regularly, and cigarette smoking.…

Chassin, Laurie; Macy, Jon T.; Seo, Dong-Chul; Presson, Clark C.; Sherman, Steven J.

2010-01-01

133

Prevalence and Demographic and Clinical Associations of Health Literacy in Patients on Maintenance Hemodialysis  

PubMed Central

Summary Background and objectives Although limited health literacy is estimated to affect over 90 million Americans and is recognized as an important public health concern, there have been few studies examining this issue in patients with chronic kidney disease. We sought to characterize the prevalence of and associations of demographic and clinical characteristics with limited health literacy in patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis. Design, setting, participants, & measurements As part of a prospective clinical trial of symptom management strategies in 288 patients treated with chronic hemodialysis, we assessed health literacy using the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM). We defined limited health literacy as a REALM score ?60 and evaluated independent associations of demographic and baseline clinical characteristics with limited health literacy using multivariable logistic regression. Results Of the 260 patients who completed the REALM, 41 demonstrated limited health literacy. African-American race, lower educational level, and veteran status were independently associated with limited health literacy. There was no association of limited health literacy with age, gender, serologic values, dialysis adequacy, overall symptom burden, quality of life, or depression. Conclusions Limited health literacy is common among patients receiving chronic hemodialysis. African-American race and socioeconomic factors are strong independent predictors of limited health literacy. These findings can help inform the design and implementation of interventions to improve health literacy in the hemodialysis population.

Mor, Maria K.; Shields, Anne Marie; Sevick, Mary Ann; Palevsky, Paul M.; Fine, Michael J.; Arnold, Robert M.; Weisbord, Steven D.

2011-01-01

134

The Association between Membership in the Sandwich Generation and Health Behaviors: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined the association between membership in the sandwich generation, defined as providing care to both children and parents or in-laws, and five health behaviors: checking the food label for health value when buying foods, using a seat belt, choosing foods based on health value, exercising regularly, and cigarette smoking.…

Chassin, Laurie; Macy, Jon T.; Seo, Dong-Chul; Presson, Clark C.; Sherman, Steven J.

2010-01-01

135

American Association for Health Education (AAHE) 2011 Membership Survey: Summary of Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The American Association for Health Education (AAHE), a national health education organization with the mission of advancing the profession of health education, launched the 2011 AAHE membership survey between October 13, 2011 and November 1, 2011, under the leadership of the AAHE Board of Directors and AAHE Staff. The primary objective of the…

Chaney, Elizabeth H.; Chavarria, Enmanuel; Stellefson, Michael L.; Birch, David A.; Spear, Caile

2012-01-01

136

Modifying effect of the County Level Health Indices on Cardiopulmonary Effects Associated with Wildfire Exposure  

EPA Science Inventory

Background and Aims: Socioeconomic status (SES) is a known risk factor for cardiopulmonary health and some studies suggest SES may be an effect modifier for health effects associated with exposure to air pollution. We investigated the synergistic impact of health disparities on ...

137

Health effects associated with ozone and nitrogen dioxide exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the oxidants and nitrogenous compounds found in ambient air, O3 and NO2 are among those most thoroughy investigated. Large health data bases have been compiled in air quality criteria documents, which serve as the basis for review of primary (health) national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for each pollutant. When comparisons can be made, O3 is generally more toxic

David J. Mckee; Rosalina M. Rodriguez

1993-01-01

138

The association between body mass and health care expenditures  

Microsoft Academic Search

With several studies estimating the health care costs attributable to obesity-related medical conditions, the economic consequences of being overweight are beginning to come into focus. The present study complements this growing body of literature by directly estimating health care costs across a broad range of body mass index values. Data were obtained from the 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey (NMES)

Kim A. Heithoff; Brian J. Cuffel; Sean Kennedy; Jodi Peters

1997-01-01

139

Health Concerns Associated with Adolescent Growth and Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Just as infants and the elderly have special health care needs based on their stages in the life cycle, adolescents also have particular health needs. While some of those needs are simply a result of the bodily changes that define adolescence, others are true medical conditions which are most commonly found in this age group. Among achievements…

Stivers, Cathie

140

Denial and its association with mental health care use  

Microsoft Academic Search

In clinical practice, denial has long been thought to be a determinant of treatment initiation and retention; however, little empirical research has focused on denial as a mechanism. For example, denial has not been standardized or operationalized in epidemiological studies for mental health services research and, thus, the magnitude of the effects of denial on mental health care use are

Alexander N. Ortega; Margarita Alegría

2005-01-01

141

Health Concerns Associated with Adolescent Growth and Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Just as infants and the elderly have special health care needs based on their stages in the life cycle, adolescents also have particular health needs. While some of those needs are simply a result of the bodily changes that define adolescence, others are true medical conditions which are most commonly found in this age group. Among achievements…

Stivers, Cathie

142

Associations among Socioeconomic Status, Perceived Neighborhood Control, Perceived Individual Control, and Self-Reported Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recent research has suggested that perceived control and a person's perceptions of their neighborhood environment may mediate the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and health. This cross-sectional study assessed whether perceptions of informal social control mediated the association between SES and self-reported health, and if these…

Moore, Spencer; Daniel, Mark; Bockenholt, Ulf; Gauvin, Lise; Richard, Lucie; Stewart, Steven; Dube, Laurette

2010-01-01

143

Food Insecurity Is Associated with Adverse Health Outcomes among Human Infants and Toddlers1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Household Food Security Scale, developed with federal support for use in national surveys, is an effective research tool. This study uses these new measures to examine associations between food insecurity and health outcomes in young children. The purpose of this study was to determine whether household food insecurity is associated with adverse health outcomes in a sentinel population

John T. Cook; Deborah A. Frank; Carol Berkowitz; Maureen M. Black; Patrick H. Casey; Diana B. Cutts; Alan F. Meyers; Nieves Zaldivar; Anne Skalicky; Suzette Levenson; Tim Heeren; Mark Nord

144

Some Mobile Phone Associated Health Problems among Mobile Phone Workers at Zagazig City, Sharkia Governorate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although mobile telecommunications deliver enormous benefit to society, there are concerns whether its electric and magnetic field emissions are linked with cancer or other health hazards . Objectives: 1) determining some of the mobile phone(Mph) associated health problems. 2) identifying some of the risk factors associated with exposure to Mph. Subjects and methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted

Ahmed-Refat AG Refat; SafaaA El-Naggar; Naema S El-Laithy; Mona Aboel-Kheer

145

Health risk behaviors and associated risk and protective factors among Brazilian Adolescents in Santos, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe the prevalence of health risk behaviors and identify risk and protective factors that are associated with several health risk behaviors (cigarette smoking, drug use, onset of sexual intercourse before age 15, pregnancy, gun-carrying, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts) among adolescents in Brazil, as well as to explore gender differences.Methods: We estimated prevalence rates, evaluated bivariate associations, and

Marcia Anteghini; Helena Fonseca; Marjorie Ireland; Robert W Blum

2001-01-01

146

Associations Between the Five-Factor Model of Personality and Health Behaviors Among College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: In fall 2006, the authors examined associations between the five-factor model of personality and several key health behaviors. Methods: College students (N = 583) completed the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment and the International Personality Item Pool Big Five short-form questionnaire. Results: Highly conscientious individuals were more likely to wear seat belts, utilize alcohol-related harm reduction, exercise,

Douglas A. Raynor; Heidi Levine

2009-01-01

147

Challenges Associated with Privacy in Health Care Industry: Implementation of HIPAA and the Security Rules  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the challenges associated with privacy in health care in the electronic information age based on the\\u000a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and the Security Rules. We examine the storing and transmission\\u000a of sensitive patient data in the modern health care system and discuss current security practices that health care providers\\u000a institute to comply with HIPAA

Young B. Choi; Kathleen E. Capitan; Joshua S. Krause; Meredith M. Streeper

2006-01-01

148

How are individual-level social capital and poverty associated with health equity? A study from two Chinese cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A growing body of literature has demonstrated that higher social capital is associated with improved health conditions. However, some research indicated that the association between social capital and health was substantially attenuated after adjustment for material deprivation. Studies exploring the association between poverty, social capital and health still have some serious limitations. In China, health equity studies focusing on

Xiaojie Sun; Clas Rehnberg; Qingyue Meng

2009-01-01

149

Adequate sleep among adolescents is positively associated with health status and health-related behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Amount of sleep is an important indicator of health and well-being in children and adolescents. Adequate sleep (AS: adequate sleep is defined as 6–8 hours per night regularly) is a critical factor in adolescent health and health-related behaviors. The present study was based on a health promotion project previously conducted on adolescents in Tao-Yuan County, Taiwan. The aim was

Mei-Yen Chen; Edward K Wang; Yi-Jong Jeng

2006-01-01

150

Air pollutants and sources associated with health effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides four complementary perspectives on the understanding of the risk posed to health by particular sources\\u000a of air pollution. These perspectives are based on contributions to a plenary session \\

Alberto Ayala; Michael Brauer; Joe L. Mauderly; Jonathan M. Samet

151

Self-Reported Health Status in Primary Health Care: The Influence of Immigration and Other Associated Factors  

PubMed Central

Objective The aims of this study are to compare self-reported health status between Spanish-born and Latin American-born Spanish residents, adjusted by length of residence in the host country; and additionally, to analyse sociodemographic and psychosocial variables associated with a better health status. Design This is a cross-sectional population based study of Latin American-born (n?=?691) and Spanish-born (n?=?903) in 15 urban primary health care centres in Madrid (Spain), carried out between 2007 and 2009. The participants provided information, through an interview, about self-reported health status, socioeconomic characteristics, psychosocial factors and migration conditions. Descriptive and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results The Spanish-born participants reported a better health status than the Latin America-born participants (79.8% versus 69.3%, p<0.001). Different patterns of self-reported health status were observed depending on the length of residence in the host country. The proportion of immigrants with a better health status is greater in those who have been in Spain for less than five years compared to those who have stayed longer. Better health status is significantly associated with being men, under 34 years old, being Spanish-born, having a monthly incomes of over 1000 euros, and having considerable social support and low stress. Conclusions Better self-reported health status is associated with being Spanish-born, men, under 34 years old, having an uppermiddle-socioeconomic status, adequate social support, and low stress. Additionally, length of residence in the host country is seen as a related factor in the self-reported health status of immigrants.

Salinero-Fort, Miguel A.; Jimenez-Garcia, Rodrigo; del Otero-Sanz, Laura; de Burgos-Lunar, Carmen; Chico-Moraleja, Rosa M.; Martin-Madrazo, Carmen; Gomez-Campelo, Paloma

2012-01-01

152

Health status and socio-economic factors associated with health facility utilization in rural and urban areas in Zambia  

PubMed Central

Abstracts Background With regards to equity, the objective for health care systems is “equal access for equal needs”. We examined associations of predisposing, enabling and need factors with health facility utilization in areas with high HIV prevalence and few people being aware of their HIV status. Methods The data is from a population-based survey among adults aged 15years or older conducted in 2003. The current study is based on a subset of this data of adults 15–49 years with a valid HIV test result. A modified Health behaviour model guided our analytical approach. We report unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals from logistic regression analyses. Results Totals of 1042 males and 1547 females in urban areas, and 822 males and 1055 females in rural areas were included in the study. Overall, 53.1% of urban and 56.8% of rural respondents utilized health facilities past 12 months. In urban areas, significantly more females than males utilized health facilities (OR=1.4 (95% CI [1.1, 1.6]). Higher educational attainment (10+ years of schooling) was associated with utilization of health facilities in both urban (OR=1.7, 95% CI [1.3, 2.1]) and rural (OR=1.4, 95% CI [1.0, 2.0]) areas compared to respondents who attained up to 7 years of schooling. Respondents who self-rated their health status as very poor/ poor/fair were twice more likely to utilize health facilities compared to those who rated their health as good/excellent. Respondents who reported illnesses were about three times more likely to utilize health facilities compared to those who did not report the illnesses. In urban areas, respondents who had mental distress were 1.7 times more likely to utilize health facilities compare to those who had no mental distress. Compared to respondents who were HIV negative, respondents who were HIV positive were 1.3 times more likely to utilize health facilities. Conclusion The health care needs were the factors most strongly associated with health care seeking. After accounting for need differentials, health care seeking differed modestly by urban and rural residence, was somewhat skewed towards women, and increased substantially with socioeconomic position.

2012-01-01

153

Children's Health Status: Examining the Associations among Income Poverty, Material Hardship, and Parental Factors  

PubMed Central

Background We examined a model of multiple mediating pathways of income poverty, material hardship, parenting factors, and child health status to understand how material hardship and parental factors mediate the effects of poverty on child health. We hypothesized that: (a) poverty will be directly associated with material hardship, parental depression, and health status, and indirectly with parenting behaviors through its effects on parental depression and material hardship; (b) material hardship will be associated with parental depression, parenting behaviors, and health status; and (c) parental depression will be correlated with parenting behaviors, and that both parental depression and parenting behaviors will predict child health. Methods and Results We used data from the 2002 National Survey of American Families for a sample of 9,645 6-to-11 year-olds to examine a 4-step structural equation model. The baseline model included covariates and income poverty. In the hardship model, food insufficiency and medical need were added to the baseline model. The parental model included parental depression and parenting behavior and baseline model. In the full model, all the constructs were included. First, income poverty had a direct effect on health status, and an indirect effect through its association with material hardship, parental depressive affect, and parenting behaviors. Medical need and food insufficiency had negative effects on child health, and indirect effects on health through their association with parental depression and parenting behaviors. Finally, parental depression and parenting behaviors were associated with child health, and part of the effect of parental depression on health was explained by its association with parenting behaviors. Conclusions Poverty has an independent effect on health, however, its effects are partially explained by material hardship, parental depression and parental behaviors. To improve children's health would require a multi-pronged approach involving income transfers, health insurance coverage, food and nutrition assistance, and parenting interventions.

Ashiabi, Godwin S.; O'Neal, Keri K.

2007-01-01

154

The association between health anxiety and disgust reactions in a contamination-based behavioral approach task.  

PubMed

Existing evidence suggests that disgust is an important affective process related to health anxiety. The present study sought to determine the contribution of health anxiety symptoms in the prediction of disgust and behavioral avoidance in a large, nonclinical sample (N=156). Regression analyses showed that overall health anxiety symptoms predicted disgust on a behavioral approach task independent of gender, negative affect, and fear of contamination. Particularly, health anxiety-related reassurance seeking was found to be uniquely associated with disgust and behavioral avoidance after controlling for the aforementioned covariates. In addition, the interaction between health anxiety and contamination fear was tested, and remained significant when controlling for gender and negative affect. These results suggest that heightened contamination fear is associated with elevated disgust reactions such that high levels of health anxiety leads even those low in contamination fear to be disgusted during a behavioral task. These results are in line with previous research on the role of disgust in health anxiety. PMID:22607189

Goetz, Amy R; Lee, Han-Joo; Cougle, Jesse R

2012-05-21

155

Problem gambling risk factors and associated behaviours and health status: results from the 2002\\/03 New Zealand Health Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims To investigate the extent of current problem gambling in New Zealand, and the risk factors, addictive behaviours, and self-rated health status associated with problem gambling. Methods Analysis of the gambling questions from the 2002\\/03 New Zealand Health Survey, which interviewed 12,529 people aged 15 years and over, and included increased sampling of Mori, Pacific, and Asian people. Results Approximately

Kylie Mason; Richard Arnold

2007-01-01

156

Sociodemographic, Psychological and Health-Related Factors Associated with Poor Mental Health in Spanish Women and Men in Midlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The purpose of this work was to examine the sociodemographic, psychological, and health-related factors (considered jointly) associated with poor mental health in midlife and to analyze whether risk and protective factors differed in men and women.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a middle-class sample of 252 women and 189 men between 45 and 65 years of age from

María del Pilar Sánchez-López; Juan José López-García; Virginia Dresch; Javier Corbalán

2008-01-01

157

How significant is the 'significant other'? Associations between significant others' health behaviors and attitudes and young adults' health outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background Having a significant other has been shown to be protective against physical and psychological health conditions for adults. Less is known about the period of emerging young adulthood and associations between significant others’ weight and weight-related health behaviors (e.g. healthy dietary intake, the frequency of physical activity, weight status). This study examined the association between significant others’ health attitudes and behaviors regarding eating and physical activity and young adults’ weight status, dietary intake, and physical activity. Methods This study uses data from Project EAT-III, a population-based cohort study with emerging young adults from diverse ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds (n?=?1212). Logistic regression models examining cross-sectional associations, adjusted for sociodemographics and health behaviors five years earlier, were used to estimate predicted probabilities and calculate prevalence differences. Results Young adult women whose significant others had health promoting attitudes/behaviors were significantly less likely to be overweight/obese and were more likely to eat???5 fruits/vegetables per day and engage in???3.5 hours/week of physical activity, compared to women whose significant others did not have health promoting behaviors/attitudes. Young adult men whose significant other had health promoting behaviors/attitudes were more likely to engage in???3.5 hours/week of physical activity compared to men whose significant others did not have health promoting behaviors/attitudes. Conclusions Findings suggest the protective nature of the significant other with regard to weight-related health behaviors of young adults, particularly for young adult women. Obesity prevention efforts should consider the importance of including the significant other in intervention efforts with young adult women and potentially men.

2012-01-01

158

A novel educational programme to improve knowledge regarding health care-associated infection and hand hygiene.  

PubMed

Lack of hand hygiene by health-care workers is the most significant cause of health care-associated infection. This programme was designed to make health-care workers want to wash their hands, to change their knowledge regarding hand hygiene and health care-associated infection, and influence practice. Improvement between pre- and post-test scores was statistically significant. Compliance is a multifactorial problem that involves knowledge and behaviour. Educational awareness and frequent reminders are critical to maintain high rates of hand hygiene compliance. PMID:21605267

Fitzpatrick, Maureen; Everett-Thomas, Ruth; Nevo, Igal; Shekhter, Ilya; Rosen, Lisa F; Scheinman, Stephen R; Arheart, Kristopher L; Birnbach, David J

2011-06-01

159

Spousal Violence Against Women and Its Association With Women's Mental Health in Pakistan.  

PubMed

In Pakistan, the issue of spousal violence is under-researched and still not considered a public health problem. To assess the association of spousal violence with women's mental health, a hospital-based cross-sectional survey was conducted through a structured interview schedule with 373 randomly selected ever-married women of reproductive age in eight randomly selected hospitals in the cities of Lahore and Sialkot, Pakistan. After controlling for sociodemographic variables, women's experiences of past and current psychological, physical, and sexual violence remained significantly associated with women's poor mental health. The situation warrants urgent action to mitigate the violence-induced damages done to women's mental health. PMID:23790086

Zakar, Rubeena; Zakar, Muhammad Zakria; Mikolajczyk, Rafael; Kraemer, Alexander

2013-06-21

160

Factors accounting for the association between anxiety and depression, and eczema: the Hordaland health study (HUSK)  

PubMed Central

Background The association between anxiety and depression, and eczema is well known in the literature, but factors underlying this association remain unclear. Low levels of omega-3 fatty acids and female gender have been found to be associated with both depression and eczema. Somatization and health anxiety are known to be associated with anxiety and depression, further, somatization symptoms and health anxiety have also been found in several dermatological conditions. Accordingly, omega-3 fatty acid supplement, female gender, somatization and health anxiety are possible contributing factors in the association between anxiety and depression, and eczema. The aim of the study is to examine the relevance of proposed contributing factors for the association between anxiety and depression, and eczema, including, omega-3 fatty acid supplement, female gender, health anxiety and somatization. Methods Anxiety and depression was measured in the general population (n = 15715) employing the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Information on eczema, female gender, omega-3 fatty acid supplement, health anxiety and somatization was obtained by self-report. Results Somatization and health anxiety accounted for more than half of the association between anxiety/depression, and eczema, while the other factors examined were of minor relevance for the association of interest. Conclusions We found no support for female gender and omega-3 fatty acid supplement as contributing factors in the association between anxiety/depression, and eczema. Somatization and health anxiety accounted for about half of the association between anxiety/depression, and eczema, somatization contributed most. The association between anxiety/depression, and eczema was insignificant after adjustment for somatization and health anxiety. Biological mechanisms underlying the mediating effect of somatization are yet to be revealed.

2010-01-01

161

WHAT IS THE HEALTH RISK ASSOCIATED WITH AMENORRHEA?  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY ? Amenorrhea is one of the most common symptoms in the woman's health pathol- ogy. It can be caused by anatomical defects of the outflow tract (uterus, cervix, vagina), thus being in the gynecologist's domain, or can be observed in gonadal dysgenesis (Turner's syndrome), hypopitu- itarism (Sheehan's syndrome), prolactin-secreting pituitary tumors, Cushing's syndrome, hyperthy- roidism, stress, anorexia nervosa, polycystic

Milan Vrkljan

162

High?risk health behaviors associated with various dietary patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously identified dietary patterns among 1,475 male and 780 female normal healthy control subjects in a case?control study of cancer at various sites. In this paper we examine the presence, among persons exhibiting these dietary patterns, of individual health behaviors that may contribute to risks for cancer. Specifically we examine trimming of separable fat from meats, fats used

Elizabeth Randall; James R. Marshall; Saxon Graham; John Brasure

1991-01-01

163

Colorectal cancer-screening tests and associated health behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Studies have shown that screening reduces colorectal cancer mortality. We analyzed national survey data to determine rates of use of fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) and sigmoidoscopy, and to determine if these rates differ by demographic factors and other health behaviors.Methods: A total of 52,754 respondents aged ?50 years were questioned in the 1997 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

Jean A Shapiro; Laura. C Seeff; Marion. R Nadel

2001-01-01

164

State High-Risk Pools: An Update on the Minnesota Comprehensive Health Association  

PubMed Central

State health insurance high-risk pools are a key component of the US health care system's safety net, because they provide health insurance to the “uninsurable.” In 2007, 34 states had individual high-risk pools, which covered more than 200 000 people at a total cost of $1.8 billion. We examine the experience of the largest and oldest pool in the nation, the Minnesota Comprehensive Health Association, to document key issues facing state high-risk pools in enrollment and financing. We also considered the role and future of high-risk pools in light of national health care finance reform.

Spencer, Donna; Burke, Courtney E.

2011-01-01

165

Health status and associated factors among the community-dwelling elderly in China.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the health status and associated factors of the elderly Chinese population. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 849 elderly people aged 60 years and over living in a certain district of Nanjing, China. A health rating scale based on the characteristics of the elderly in China was used. The difference of self-rated health between different groups was tested using an ANOVA, and the associated factors were tested using an ordinal logistic regression. The results showed that the general health of the elderly Chinese people studied was not good. The scores of body function, self-care ability, and physical health decreased gradually with age. The scores of men were higher than those of women in terms of emotional personality. The factors associated with the health status of the elderly were education, living mode and marital status. The health status of the elderly Chinese and the associated factors highlighted in this study demonstrated that emotional and social support were more important than financial support for promoting the mental health of the elderly. These findings will provide a basis for the development of programmes promoting the health management and healthy ageing of the elderly in China. PMID:23102740

Chao, Jianqian; Li, Yunyun; Xu, Hui; Yu, Qing; Wang, Yimin; Liu, Pei

2012-10-25

166

The critical care work environment and nurse-reported health care-associated infections.  

PubMed

Background Critically ill patients are susceptible to health care-associated infections because of their illnesses and the need for intravenous access and invasive monitoring. The critical care work environment may influence the likelihood of infection in these patients. Objective To determine whether or not the critical care nurse work environment is predictive of nurse-reported health care-associated infections. Methods A retrospective, cross-sectional design was used with linked nurse and hospital survey data. Nurses assessed the critical care work environment and provided the frequencies of ventilator-associated pneumonias, urinary tract infections, and infections associated with central catheters. Logistic regression models were used to determine if critical care work environments were predictive of nurse-reported frequent health care-associated infections, with controls for nurse and hospital characteristics. Results The final sample consisted of 3217 critical care nurses in 320 hospitals. Compared with nurses working in poor work environments, nurses working in better work environments were 36% to 41% less likely to report that health care-associated infections occurred frequently. Conclusion Health care-associated infections are less likely in favorable critical care work environments. These findings, based on the largest sample of critical care nurses to date, substantiate efforts to focus on the quality of the work environment as a way to minimize the frequency of health care-associated infections. PMID:24186818

Kelly, Deena; Kutney-Lee, Ann; Lake, Eileen T; Aiken, Linda H

2013-11-01

167

78 FR 54651 - Sole Source Cooperative Agreement Award to the National Association of County and City Health...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Sole Source Cooperative...National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO) AGENCY: Office of...and Response (ASPR), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)....

2013-09-05

168

Does the association with psychosomatic health problems differ between cyberbullying and traditional bullying?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between mental health problems and traditional bullying is well known, whereas the strength of the association in cyberbullying is less known. This study aimed to compare the association between mutually exclusive groups of bullying involvement and psychosomatic problems as measured by the PsychoSomatic Problems scale. The sample comprised 3820 students (13–16 years old) in Sweden. The results indicate

Linda Beckman; Curt Hagquist; Lisa Hellström

2012-01-01

169

Does the Association with Psychosomatic Health Problems Differ between Cyberbullying and Traditional Bullying?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The association between mental health problems and traditional bullying is well known, whereas the strength of the association in cyberbullying is less known. This study aimed to compare the association between mutually exclusive groups of bullying involvement and psychosomatic problems as measured by the PsychoSomatic Problems scale. The sample…

Beckman, Linda; Hagquist, Curt; Hellstrom, Lisa

2012-01-01

170

Does the Association with Psychosomatic Health Problems Differ between Cyberbullying and Traditional Bullying?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The association between mental health problems and traditional bullying is well known, whereas the strength of the association in cyberbullying is less known. This study aimed to compare the association between mutually exclusive groups of bullying involvement and psychosomatic problems as measured by the PsychoSomatic Problems scale. The sample…

Beckman, Linda; Hagquist, Curt; Hellstrom, Lisa

2012-01-01

171

SUMMARY REVIEW OF THE HEALTH EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH PROPYLENE OXIDE: HEALTH ISSUE ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report provides a brief summary of the data available on the health effects of exposure to propylene oxide. Emphasis is placed on determining whether there is evidence to suggest that propylene oxide exerts effects on human health under conditions and at concentrations common...

172

International monitoring of adverse health effects associated with herbal medicines.  

PubMed

Herbal medicines are used in health care around the world and may increase in importance. There is much uncertainty, however, with regard to their composition, efficacy and safety. There is substantial evidence that herbal medicines can cause serious adverse reactions, but more data are needed as regard their nature, frequency and preventability. In this respect the Uppsala Monitoring Centre of the World Health Organization can play a crucial role. Better reporting of adverse reactions to herbal medicines is needed, in particular with regard to the precise identity and composition of these products. A consistent use by producers, regulators and reporters of the international Latin binomial nomenclature and the use of the new Herbal Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification are recommended. Copyright (c) 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:19025809

Farah, M H; Edwards, R; Lindquist, M; Leon, C; Shaw, D

2000-03-01

173

Self-rated health showed a graded association with frequently used biomarkers in a large population sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and ObjectivesSelf-rated health is a widely used measure of health status, but its biologic foundations are poorly understood. We investigated the association of frequently used biomarkers with self-rated health, and the role of these biomarkers in the association of self-rated health with mortality.

Marja Jylhä; Stefano Volpato; Jack M. Guralnik

2006-01-01

174

Styles of emotion regulation and their associations with perceived health in patients with rheumatoid arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis face the challenge of adjusting to adverse health consequences and accompanying emotions.\\u000a Styles of emotion regulation may affect health.Purpose: The objective is to examine associations between styles of emotion regulation and perceived health, consisting of psychological\\u000a well-being, social functioning, physical functioning, and disease activity.Methods: Principal component analysis was used to summarize styles of emotion regulation

Henriët van Middendorp; Rinie Geenen; Marjolijn J. Sorbi; Joop J. Hox; Ad J. J. M. Vingerhoets; Lorenz J. P. van Doornen; Johannes W. J. Bijlsma

2005-01-01

175

Health care-associated hepatitis B and C viruses: legal aspects.  

PubMed

The risk of hepatitis B and C transmission in health care settings has generated considerable attention within the legal system. This article begins with an overview of the relevant sources of law and then explores legal duties and liability arising from two major categories of risk: occupational risks to health care providers and health care-associated risks to patients and other third parties. PMID:20123444

Bobinski, Mary Anne

2010-02-01

176

Association of individual activities of daily living with self-rated health in older people  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Objective: to evaluate the associations of 18 activities of daily living with self-rated health in older people. Design and setting: cross-sectional study of a representative sample,of 781 people aged 65 or over (response rate: 89.9%). Methods: self-rated health was assessed by the question: ‘‘Overall, how would you rate your current health status—very good, good, fair, poor or very poor?’’

Emiliana Valderrama Gama; J Avier Damian; M Atilde Romero Lo Pez; Mercedes Lo Pez Pe Rez; F Rancisco J. Gavira Iglesias

177

Factors Associated with Mental Health Services Use among Disconnected African-American Young Adult Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research related to mental health service use among vulnerable young adults is limited. This study used an expanded version\\u000a of Andersen’s Behavioral Model of Health Services Use to evaluate factors associated with the use of different types of mental\\u000a health services among a sample of predominantly African-American 16–24 year olds (n?=?500) in an employment training program in Baltimore City. Results indicated

Pallab K. Maulik; Tamar Mendelson; S. Darius Tandon

2011-01-01

178

More missing teeth are associated with poorer general health in the rural Korean elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim was to investigate the association between missing teeth and general health conditions in elderly Korean people. This cross-sectional study was conducted as a part of a health-screening program supported by the National Health Insurance Corporation of Korea in a local region of Sungju-gun, Gyeongsangbuk-do from 2000 to 2006. The participants were 3611 in number (1494 males and 2117

Hee-Kyung Lee; Kyung-dong Lee; Anwar T. Merchant; Sung-Kook Lee; Keun-Bae Song; Sang Gyu Lee; Youn-Hee Choi

2010-01-01

179

Does social cohesion modify the association between area income deprivation and mental health? A multilevel analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Despite the increasing belief that the places where people live influence their health, there is surprisingly little consistent evidence for their associations with mental health. We investigated the joint effect of community and individual-level socio-economic deprivation and social cohesion on individual mental health status. METHODS: Multilevel analysis of population survey data on 10,653 adults aged 18-74 years nested within

David Fone; Frank Dunstan; Keith Lloyd; Gareth Williams; John Watkins; Stephen Palmer

2007-01-01

180

Associations between Health-Related Behaviors: A 7Year Follow-up of Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The study examines pairwise associations between smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, dietary behavior and body mass index using long-term follow-up data of Finnish adults.Methods. Respondents to large nationwide health behavior surveys conducted in 1989\\/1990 were recontacted in 1997. First, we examined whether each health behavior predicted other behaviors 7 years later. Second, we examined whether changes in each health

M. Laaksonen; R. Luoto; S. Helakorpi; A. Uutela

2002-01-01

181

Unpacking capacity to utilize research: A tale of the Burkina Faso public health association  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most important challenges in addressing global health is for institutions to monitor and use research in policy-making. In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), civil society organizations such as health professional associations can be key contributors to effective national health systems. However, there is little empirical data on their capacity to use research.This case study was used to

Nadia Hamel; Ted Schrecker

2011-01-01

182

The American Heart Association and Heart Health Education in the Young.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Several of the American Heart Association's education programs are described. The newest program is Heart Health Education in the Young, designed to stress the importance of early risk factor education. (JMF)|

Tevis, Betty

1979-01-01

183

Evaluation of Health Hazards Associated with Solid Waste/Sewage Sludge Mixtures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report summarizes and evaluates the health hazards associated with municipal solid waste/sewage sludge composting by the windrow composting process. The occurrence and survival of pathogens, parasites, and indicator bacteria at various stages during t...

W. L. Gaby

1975-01-01

184

Associations between Mood and Specific Health Composites during Navy Persian Gulf Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Researchers have studied the association between mood and health symptoms because of concern for military personnel performance in extreme conditions, such as the heat and humidity encountered in the Persian Gulf. Previous field studies, using shipboard N...

R. G. Burr S. I. Woodruff G. R. Banta

1990-01-01

185

Association of Sexual Abstinence in Adolescence with Mental Health in Adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined whether adolescent sexual abstinence predicts better adult mental health. A total of 1,917 adolescents, recruited from middle schools at age 13, were surveyed at ages 13, 18, 23, and 29. In bivariate analyses, adolescent sexual abstinence was associated with better mental health at age 29 for females, but not for males; three adolescent factors, educational prospects, family bonding,

Laura M. Bogart; Rebecca L. Collins; Phyllis L. Ellickson; David J. Klein

2007-01-01

186

Understanding the Association Between Socioeconomic Status and Physical Health: Do Negative Emotions Play a Role?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the authors evaluate the possible roles of negative emotions and cognitions in the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and physical health, focusing on the outcomes of cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality. After reviewing the limited direct evidence, the authors examine indirect evidence showing that (a) SES relates to the targeted health outcomes, (b) SES relates to negative

Linda C. Gallo; Karen A. Matthews

2003-01-01

187

Behavioral Health Outcomes Associated With Religious Faith and Media Exposure About Human Genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of scholars have speculated that religious people will be less likely than others to ascribe either fatalistic or deterministic powers to genes, opting instead to leave freedom as a choice for both God and humans. This research investigates the role of religious faith (RF) on behavioral health outcomes associated with informa- tion about genes and health, as well

Roxanne Parrott; Kami Silk; Janice Raup Krieger; Tina Harris; Celeste Condit

2004-01-01

188

Disorders associated with burnout and causal attributions of stress among health care professionals in psychiatry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study, carried out among health care professionals in psychiatry, evaluates burnout (Maslash Burnout Inventory) in relation to other associated disorders: lower levels of self-esteem in different areas (Self-Esteem Inventory); the frequency of stress felt (Nursing Stress Scale); a lesser feeling of general control (Lumpkin); a more negative perception of the general state of health (Diagnostic Interview Schedule); job dissatisfaction

D. Gilibert; L. Daloz

2008-01-01

189

The Association Between Parental Health Beliefs and Immunization Status Among Children Followed by Private Pediatricians  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the association between parental health beliefs and the immunization status of their children, parents of children seen in two private pediatric practices completed a questionnaire on attitudes about immunizations. Five components of health beliefs were surveyed: perceived benefits of immunizations, susceptibility to diseases prevented by immunizations, severity of those diseases, parental feelings of self-efficacy in promoting their child's

James A. Taylor; Davonna Cufley

1996-01-01

190

Methods of Economic Valuation of The Health Risks Associated with Nanomaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The worldwide market for nanomaterials is growing rapidly, but relatively little is still known about the potential risks associated with these materials. The potential health hazards associated with exposure to nanomaterials may lead in the future to increased health costs as well as increased economic costs to the companies involved, as has happened in the past in the case of asbestos. Therefore, it is important to make an initial estimate of the potential costs associated with these health hazards, and to prepare ahead with appropriate health insurance for individuals and financial insurance for companies. While several studies have examined the environmental and health hazards of different nanomaterials by performing life cycle impact assessments, so far these studies have concentrated on the cost of production, and did not estimate the economic impact of the health hazards. This paper discusses methods of evaluating the economic impact of potential health hazards on the public. The proposed method is based on using life cycle impact assessment studies of nanomaterials to estimate the DALYs (Disability Adjusted Life Years) associated with the increased probability of these health hazards. The economic valuation of DALY's can be carried out based on the income lost and the costs of medical treatment. The total expected increase in cost depends on the increase in the statistical probability of each disease.

Shalhevet, S.; Haruvy, N.

191

Associations Between Different Dimensions of Religious Involvement and Self-Rated Health in Diverse European Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Existing evidence on the relationship between religious involvement and health indicates that organizational religious involvement, such as attendance at services, is associated with better health. Findings concerning other dimensions of religious involvement, such as prayer, are inconsistent and analyses often neglect the potential influence of other correlated dimensions. Design: Using cross-sectional data from 22 diverse European countries in the

Amanda Nicholson; Richard Rose; Martin Bobak

2010-01-01

192

PM CONSTITUENT ROLES IN MASS ASSOCIATIONS WITH HEALTH EFFECTS IN PHILADELPHIA, PA  

EPA Science Inventory

An environmental and health database was constructed for Philadelphia, PA for the period 1992-1995 in order to assess the importance of PM components in mass associations with adverse health effects. PM data were collected by Harvard University for the U.S. EPA. Daily measureme...

193

Individual, Interpersonal, and Institutional Level Factors Associated with the Mental Health of College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study investigates the individual, interpersonal, and institutional level factors that are associated with overall mental health among college students. Participants: Data are from an online cross-sectional survey of 2,203 students currently enrolled at a large public university. Methods: Mental health was ascertained using a…

Byrd, DeAnnah R.; McKinney, Kristen J.

2012-01-01

194

A Guidebook for Mental Health/Human Service Programs at the Associate Degree Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aimed at program directors, college officials, faculty, advisory committee members and agency field instructors, the guidebook presents information on associate degree mental health/human service program development. Background information regarding the mental health technology movement over the last ten years and various professional and…

Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.

195

The American Mental Health Counselors Association: Reflection on 30 Historic Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American Mental Health Counselors Association (AMHCA) celebrated its 30th anniversary in May 2006. This article provides a synopsis of AMHCA's illustrious history, from its urgent beginnings in 1976 to its current status as the premier organization attending to the needs and representing the interests of mental health counselors in the United…

Colangelo, James J.

2009-01-01

196

Cumulative Adverse Financial Circumstances: Associations with Patient Health Status and Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines associations between cumulative adverse financial circumstances and patient health in a sample of 1,506 urban emergency department (ED) patients. Study participants completed a previously validated Social Health Survey between May and October 2009. Five categories of economic deprivation were studied: food insecurity, housing…

Bisgaier, Joanna; Rhodes, Karin V.

2011-01-01

197

Long-Term Health Risks and Benefits Associated with Spay \\/ Neuter in Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY An objective reading of the veterinary medical literature reveals a complex situation with respect to the long- term health risks and benefits associated with spay\\/neuter in dogs. The evidence shows that spay\\/neuter correlates with both positive AND adverse health effects in dogs. It also suggests how much we really do not yet understand about this subject. On balance, it

Laura J. Sanborn; Larry S. Katz

198

Associations of physical and mental health problems with chronic cough in a representative population cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although chronic cough is a common problem in clinical practice, data on the prevalence and characteristics of cough in the general population are scarce. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of chronic cough that is not associated with diagnosed respiratory conditions and examine the impact on health status and psychological health, in a representative adult population cohort METHODS:

Robert J Adams; Sarah L Appleton; David H Wilson; Anne W Taylor; Richard E Ruffin

2009-01-01

199

Preparing Newly Licensed Associate Degree Nurses to Work in Home Health Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes an innovative learning program, designed for associate degree nurse (ADN) graduates, developed at the visiting Nurse Service of New York (VNSNY) to expand its hiring pool of potential applicants to home health care nursing positions. The program, “Transitions to Home Health Care,” provides a strong emphasis on independent judgment, assessment skills, and collaboration with other professions and

Joan Chaya; Margaret Reilly; Denise Davin; Mari Moriarty; Valerie Nero-Reid; Peri Rosenfeld

2008-01-01

200

The association between mental health and cigarette smoking in active duty military members  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has shown an association between mental health status and cigarette smoking. This study examined four specific mental health predictors and the outcome variable any smoking, defined as smoking one or more cigarettes in the past 30 days. The population included active duty military members serving in the United States Army, Air Force, Navy and Marine Corps. The data

Erich W Schroeder

2009-01-01

201

Patient Management by Telephone by Child Health Associates and Pediatric House Officers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study, which is the first attempt to compare systematically the ability of different types of health professionals to effectively utilize the telephone in pediatrics, demonstrated shortcomings in the participants' education and indicated that curriculum changes were needed in the training of both medical and child health associate students…

Ott, John E.; And Others

1974-01-01

202

Enrollment in Physical Education Is Associated with Health-Related Behavior among High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Physical education (PE) plays a critical role in the healthy development of youth; however, the influence of PE classes in helping to provide students with health-related behavior patterns is not clear. This study aims to analyze whether participation in PE classes is associated with health-related behavior among high school students.…

Tassitano, Rafael M.; Barros, Mauro V. G.; Tenorio, Maria C. M.; Bezerra, Jorge; Florindo, Alex A.; Reis, Rodrigo S.

2010-01-01

203

Cumulative Adverse Financial Circumstances: Associations with Patient Health Status and Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article examines associations between cumulative adverse financial circumstances and patient health in a sample of 1,506 urban emergency department (ED) patients. Study participants completed a previously validated Social Health Survey between May and October 2009. Five categories of economic deprivation were studied: food insecurity,…

Bisgaier, Joanna; Rhodes, Karin V.

2011-01-01

204

Associations of functional ability with health-related behavior and body mass index among the elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of this study was to determine whether functional ability among the elderly associates with body mass index (BMI) and health-related behavior. The secondary aim was to examine whether health behavior and BMI can be seen as mechanisms explaining sociodemographic disparities in functional ability. Cross-sectional biennial surveys from 1985 to 2001 were used to study 11 793 Finnish

Tommi Sulander; Tuija Martelin; Ossi Rahkonen; Aulikki Nissinen; Antti Uutela

2005-01-01

205

Reexamining the Evidence of an Ecological Association between Income Inequality and Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several recent studies have reported a robust association between income inequality and aggregate health outcomes across countries and across U.S. states. However, most of these studies examine only a single cross-section of data and employ few (or even no) control variables. We examine the relation between income inequality and aggregate health outcomes across thirty countries over a four decade span

Jennifer M. Mellor; Jeffrey Milyo

2001-01-01

206

Health Care Use and Costs Associated With Use of a Health Club Membership Benefit in Older Adults with Diabetes  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—The purpose of this study was to determine whether elective use of a health plan–sponsored health club membership had an impact on health care use and costs among older adults with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Administrative claims for 2,031 older adults with diabetes enrolled in a Medicare Advantage plan were obtained for this retrospective cohort study. Participants (n = 618) in the plan-sponsored health club benefit (Silver Sneakers [SS]) and control subjects (n = 1,413) matched on SS enrollment index date were enrolled in the plan for at least 1 year before the index date. Two-year health care use and costs of SS participants and control subjects were estimated in regressions adjusting for baseline differences. RESULTS—SS participants were more likely to be male, had a lower chronic disease burden, used more preventive services, and had a lower prevalence of arthritis (P ? 05). SS participants had lower adjusted total health care costs than control subjects in the first year after enrollment (?$1,633 [95% CI ?$2,620 to ?$646], P = 0.001), and adjusted total costs in year 2 trended lower (?$1,230 [?$2,494 to $33], P = 0.06). Participants who made on average ?2 SS visits/week in year 1 had lower total costs in year 2 ($2,141 [?$3,877 to ?$405], P = 0.02) than participants who made <2 visits/week. CONCLUSIONS—Use of a health club benefit by older adults with diabetes was associated with slower growth in total health care costs over 2 years; greater use of the benefit was actually associated with declines in total costs.

Nguyen, Huong Q.; Maciejewski, Matthew L.; Gao, Sue; Lin, Elizabeth; Williams, Barbara; LoGerfo, James P.

2008-01-01

207

Association of residential mobility with child health: an analysis of the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health.  

PubMed

To describe the association of residential mobility with child health. We conducted descriptive, bivariate, and multivariable analyses of data from 63,131 children, 6-17 years, from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health. Logistic regression was used to explore the association of residential mobility with child health and measures of well-being. Analyses were carried out using SAS-callable SUDAAN to appropriately weight estimates and adjust for the complex sampling design. After adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, presence of a special health care need, family structure, parental education, poverty level, and health insurance status, children who moved ? 3 times were more likely to have poorer reported overall physical (AOR 1.21 [95 %CI: 1.01-1.46]) and oral health status (AOR 1.31 [95 % CI: 1.15-1.49]), and ? 1 moderate/severe chronic conditions (AOR 1.40 [95 % CI: 1.19-1.65]) than children who had no lifetime moves. When compared to children who had never moved, children who moved ? 3 times were more likely to be uninsured/have periods of no coverage (AOR 1.35; 95 % CI: 0.98-1.87) and lack a medical home (AOR 1.16, 95 % CI: 1.04-1.31). None of the outcomes were statistically significant for children who moved fewer than 3 times. Clinicians need to be aware that children who move frequently may lack stable medical homes and consistent coverage increasing their risk of poor health outcomes and aggravation of mild or underlying chronic conditions. Public health systems could provide the necessary link between parents and clinicians to ensure that continuous, coordinated care is established for children who move frequently. PMID:22527774

Busacker, Ashley; Kasehagen, Laurin

2012-04-01

208

Methods of Economic Valuation of The Health Risks Associated with Nanomaterials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The worldwide market for nanomaterials is growing rapidly, but relatively little is still known about the potential risks\\u000a associated with these materials. The potential health hazards associated with exposure to nanomaterials may lead in the future\\u000a to increased health costs as well as increased economic costs to the companies involved, as has happened in the past in the\\u000a case of

S. Shalhevet; N. Haruvy

2009-01-01

209

Working at sea and psychosocial health problems Report of an International Maritime Health Association Workshop.  

PubMed

Many of the recognised risk factors for psychosocial health problems impact on seafarers because of the nature and organisation of their work. The consequences are serious because of the safety critical nature of many of the tasks at sea and because of the level of health required to continue working remote from care. There is relatively little relevant research on the scale of psychosocial health problems in seafarers and so the justification for taking preventative action is not secure. The workshop was convened to develop a consensus on how psychosocial risks at sea can best be characterised, their consequences in terms of health, well being and performance and the steps which can be taken to provide better information on risks and on the validity of various forms of intervention. A number of interim measures have been proposed in advance of more definitive research results. PMID:17292007

Carter, Tim

2005-05-01

210

Associate editors' foreword: entrepreneurship in health education and health promotion: five cardinal rules.  

PubMed

A career in health education or health promotion (HE/HP) can be developed in many ways. In past editions of this department, career development has been discussed in relation to distance (Balonna, 2001), consulting (Bookbinder, 2001), certifications (Hayden, 2005), graduate school (Cottrell & Hayden, 2007), and many other topics. This article looks at a less traditional means of career development-entrepreneurship. Health education is a field ripe with opportunities for consulting and for selling health-related products and services. Entrepreneurship can not only create financial rewards but can also provide high visibility and networking contacts that can advance one's career. This article combines both theory and practical applications to assist readers in developing entrepreneurial activities. The authors are experienced in entrepreneurial development and use that expertise to provide relevant examples and develop a framework using "five cardinal rules" for establishing an entrepreneurial enterprise in HE/HP. PMID:19574585

Cottrell, Randall R; Cooper, Hanna

2009-07-01

211

Association between low functional health literacy and mortality in older adults: longitudinal cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the association between low functional health literacy (ability to read and understand basic health related information) and mortality in older adults. Design Population based longitudinal cohort study based on a stratified random sample of households. Setting England. Participants 7857 adults aged 52 or more who participated in the second wave (2004-5) of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing and survived more than 12 months after interview. Participants completed a brief four item test of functional health literacy, which assessed understanding of written instructions for taking an aspirin tablet. Main outcome measure Time to death, based on all cause mortality through October 2009. Results Health literacy was categorised as high (maximum score, 67.2%), medium (one error, 20.3%), or low (more than one error, 12.5%). During follow-up (mean 5.3 years) 621 deaths occurred: 321 (6.1%) in the high health literacy category, 143 (9.0%) in the medium category, and 157 (16.0%) in the low category. After adjusting for personal characteristics, socioeconomic position, baseline health, and health behaviours, the hazard ratio for all cause mortality for participants with low health literacy was 1.40 (95% confidence interval 1.15 to 1.72) and with medium health literacy was 1.15 (0.94 to 1.41) compared with participants with high health literacy. Further adjustment for cognitive ability reduced the hazard ratio for low health literacy to 1.26 (1.02 to 1.55). Conclusions A third of older adults in England have difficulties reading and understanding basic health related written information. Poorer understanding is associated with higher mortality. The limited health literacy capabilities within this population have implications for the design and delivery of health related services for older adults in England.

2012-01-01

212

HEALTH AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC HAZARDS ASSOCIATED WITH KHAT CONSUMPTION  

PubMed Central

The consumption of the stimulant leaf Khat (Catha edulis Forsk) is widespread in several countries of East Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. The leaf comes from a small evergreen shrub that can grow to the size of a tree. Young buds and tender leaves are chewed to attain a state of euphoria and stimulation. Khat leaves contain cathinones, an active brain stimulant that is similar in structure and pharmacological activity to amphetamines. Like amphetamines, Khat ingestion in low doses results in decreased appetite, euphoria, increased intellectual efficiency, and hyperalertness. High doses and chronic use of Khat can cause more serious adverse neurological, psychiatric, cardiovascular, dental, gastrointestinal and genitourinary effects. Besides damaging health, Khat has adverse socio-economic consequences effects on many other aspects of life including the loss of thousands of acres of arable land and billions of hours of work. The purpose of this review is to describe briefly the adverse consequences of habitual chewing of Khat on health, and help educate the general public. The study is based on literature review that includes internet search and journals.

Ageely, Hussein M. A.

2008-01-01

213

Cancer Survivors' Health Worries and Associations with Lifestyle Practices  

PubMed Central

This study examined among recently diagnosed breast and prostate cancer survivors (N = 678) associations between worry about a future diagnosis of heart disease or cancer and hypothetical and actual adherence to exercise and dietary guidelines. Greater worry about future illness was reported under the hypothetical scenario of non-adherence to guidelines relative to the scenario of adherence. Worry about potential heart disease was associated with actual adherence to guidelines, whereas worry about a potential cancer diagnosis was not. Findings suggest that the motivational properties of worry should be considered when developing interventions to reduce heart disease risk among cancer survivors.

Mosher, Catherine E.; Lipkus, Isaac M.; Sloane, Richard; Kraus, William E.; Snyder, Denise Clutter; Peterson, Bercedis; Jones, Lee W.; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

2013-01-01

214

Parent Perceptions of Neighborhood Stressors are Associated with General Health and Child Respiratory Health among Low-income, Urban Families  

PubMed Central

Background This cross-sectional study examines parents’ perceptions of their neighborhoods and general and respiratory health among low-income Chicago families. Asthma disproportionately affects non-white, urban, and low socioeconomic status (SES) populations, but Chicago’s burden, and the national epidemic, are not well-explained by known risk factors. Urban dwellers experience acute and chronic stressors that produce psychological distress and are hypothesized to impact health through biological and behavioral pathways. Identifying factors that covary with lower SES and minority-group status -- e.g. stress -- is important for understanding asthma’s social patterning. Methods We used survey data from 319 parents of children 5–13 years with asthma/respiratory problems and principal components analysis to create exposure variables representing parents’ perceptions of two aspects of neighborhoods: collective efficacy (“CE”) and physical/social order (“order”). Adjusted binomial regression models estimated risk differences (RD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for eight binary outcomes. Results Magnitude was generally as expected, i.e., RD for low versus high (most favorable) exposure groups (RDlow v. high) was larger than for the middle vs. high contrast (RDmid v. high). “Parent general health” was strongly associated with “CE” [RDlow v. high=20.8 (95% CI: 7.8, 33.9)] and “order” [RDmid v. high=11.4 (95% CI: 2.1, 20.7)] unlike “child general health” which had nearly null associations. Among respiratory outcomes, only “waking at night” was strongly associated with “CE” [RDlow v. high=16.7 (95% CI: 2.8, 30.6)] and “order” [RDlow v. high=22.2 (95% CI: 8.6, 35.8)]. “Exercise intolerance” [RDlow v. high=15.8 (95% CI: 2.1, 29.5)] and “controllability” [RDmid v. high=12.0 (95% CI: 1.8, 22.3)] were moderately associated with “order” but not with “CE,” while “school absences,” “rescue medication use,” and “unplanned visits” had nearly null associations with both exposures. Conclusions More negative perceptions tended to be associated with higher risk of undesirable outcomes, adding to evidence that the social environment contributes to health and supporting research on stress’ health impact among disadvantaged populations. Interventions must address not only traditional “environmental” factors but individuals’ reactions to stress and attempt to mitigate effects of stressors while structural solutions to health inequities are sought.

Quinn, Kelly; Kaufman, Jay S.; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Yeatts, Karin B.

2012-01-01

215

The Unusual Suspects: Air Pollution Components and Associated Health Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the thesis was to investigate which physical, chemical or oxidative characteristics of ambient PM have the most consistent associations with acute cardio-respiratory effects in human volunteers. During the first phase of the RAPTES project (“Risk of Airborne Particles: a Toxicological-Epidemiological hybrid Study”) eight sites in the Netherlands that differed in local PM emission sources were chosen for

M. M. Strak

2012-01-01

216

Potential health impacts associated with peat smoke: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Western Australia, peat is distributed throughout the Swan Coastal Plain, in the South West and North West regions of the State. Peat is typically associated with wetlands and its distribution has significantly reduced over the past 100 years. The major threats to the current distribution of peat are fire and land use changes. Peat is thought to be at

Andrea Hinwood; Clemencia Rodriguez

2005-01-01

217

Factors associated with the utilization of maternal health care services among adolescent women in Malawi.  

PubMed

The poor maternal health care service utilization among adolescent women remains an intimidating challenge in Malawi. This study examines the factors associated with the utilization of selected maternal health care services among married adolescent women (aged 15-19 years) using data from the Malawi Demographic and Health Survey, 2010. Maternal age, household economic status, and status of the child were found to be significant factors associated with at least four antenatal care visits; whereas personal barriers, birth order and interval, religion, and ethnic group explain the variation in the utilization of postnatal care within 42 days of delivery. PMID:23679661

Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Kumar, Chandan; Singh, Lucky

2013-01-01

218

Challenges associated with privacy in health care industry: implementation of HIPAA and the security rules.  

PubMed

This paper discusses the challenges associated with privacy in health care in the electronic information age based on the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and the Security Rules. We examine the storing and transmission of sensitive patient data in the modem health care system and discuss current security practices that health care providers institute to comply with HIPAA Security Rule regulations. Based on our research results, we address current outstanding issues that act as impediments to the successful implementation of security measures and conclude the discussion and offer possible avenues of future research. PMID:16548416

Choi, Young B; Capitan, Kathleen E; Krause, Joshua S; Streeper, Meredith M

2006-02-01

219

Neighborhood conditions are associated with maternal health behaviors and pregnancy outcomes.  

PubMed

Women residing in neighborhoods of low socioeconomic status are more likely to experience adverse reproductive outcomes; however, few studies explore which specific neighborhood features are associated with poor maternal health behaviors and pregnancy outcomes. Based upon our conceptual model, directly observed street-level data from four North Carolina US counties were used to create five neighborhood indices: physical incivilities (neighborhood degradation), social spaces (public space for socializing), walkability (walkable neighborhoods), borders (property boundaries), and arterial features (traffic safety). Singleton birth records (2001-2005) were obtained from the North Carolina State Center for Vital Statistics and maternal health behavior information (smoking, inadequate or excessive weight gain) and pregnancy outcomes (pregnancy-induced hypertension/pre-eclampsia, low birthweight, preterm birth) were abstracted. Race-stratified random effect models were used to estimate associations between neighborhood indices and women's reproductive behaviors and outcomes. In adjusted models, higher amounts of physical incivilities were positively associated with maternal smoking and inadequate weight gain, while walkability was associated with lower odds of these maternal health behaviors. Social spaces were also associated with inadequate weight gain during pregnancy. Among pregnancy outcomes, high levels of physical incivilities were consistently associated with all adverse pregnancy outcomes, and high levels of walkability were inversely associated with pregnancy-induced hypertension and preterm birth for Non-Hispanic white women only. None of the indices were associated with adverse birth outcomes for Non-Hispanic black women. In conclusion, certain neighborhood conditions were associated with maternal health behaviors and pregnancy outcomes. PMID:21920650

Vinikoor-Imler, L C; Messer, L C; Evenson, K R; Laraia, B A

2011-08-31

220

West Virginia Association of Community Health Centers v. Sullivan.  

PubMed

A class of West Virginia organizations receiving Title X assistance sought an injunction against the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) to stop him from implementing new regulations denying Title X benefits to any program "where abortion is a method of family planning." The plaintiffs asserted that the new rules were contrary to Congressional intent and that they were unconstitutional. After considering Title X's language, history, and the DHHS's own construction of the statute, the federal district court concluded that while the Secretary's application of Title X might prove so stringent as to violate Congressial intent, at this juncture the regulations did not violate that intent. However, because the regulations restricted the plaintiffs' First Amendment rights by impermissibly requiring plaintiffs to sacrifice speech encouraging abortion, the regulations were unconstitutional. PMID:11648394

1990-03-01

221

Determinants of self-rated health: Could health status explain the association between self-rated health and mortality?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate factors related to self-rated health and to mortality among 2490 community-living elderly. Respondents were followed for 7.3 years for all-cause mortality. To compare the relative impact of each variable, we employed logistic regression analysis for self-rated health and Cox hazard analysis for mortality. Cox analysis stratified by gender, follow-up periods, age group,

Chiyoe Murata; Takaaki Kondo; Koji Tamakoshi; Hiroshi Yatsuya; Hideaki Toyoshima

2006-01-01

222

Investigating the Associations among Overtime Work, Health Behaviors, and Health: A Longitudinal Study among Full-time Employees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  It has often been suggested that high levels of overtime lead to adverse health outcomes. One mechanism that may account for\\u000a this association is that working overtime leads to elevated levels of stress, which could affect worker’s behavioral decisions\\u000a or habits (such as smoking and lack of physical activity). In turn, this could lead to adverse health.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Purpose  The present study

Toon W. Taris; Jan Fekke Ybema; Debby G. J. Beckers; Marieke W. Verheijden; Sabine A. E. Geurts; Michiel A. J. Kompier

223

Gaps, conflicts, and consensus in the ethics statements of professional associations, medical groups, and health plans  

PubMed Central

Background: Patients today interact with physicians, physician groups, and health plans, each of which may follow distinct ethical guidelines. Method: We systematically compared physician codes of ethics with ethics policies at physician group practices and health plans, using the 1998–99 policies of 38 organisations—18 medical associations (associations), nine physician group practices (groups), and 12 health plans (plans)—selected using random and stratified purposive sampling. A clinician and a social scientist independently abstracted each document, using a 397-item health care ethics taxonomy; a reconciled abstraction form was used for analysis. This study focuses on ethics policies regarding professional obligation towards patients, resource allocation, and care for the vulnerable in society. Results: A majority in all three groups mention "fiduciary obligations" of one sort or another, but associations generally address physician/patient relations but not health plan obligations, while plans rarely endorse physicians' obligations of advocacy, beneficence, and non-maleficence. Except for occasional mentions of cost effectiveness or efficiency, ethical considerations in resource allocation rarely arise in the ethics policies of all three organisational types. Very few associations, groups, or plans specifically endorse obligations to vulnerable populations. Conclusions: With some important exceptions, we found that the ethics policies of associations, groups, and plans are narrowly focused and often ignore important ethical concerns for society, such as resource allocation and care for vulnerable populations. More collaborative work is needed to build integrated sets of ethical standards that address the aims and responsibilities of the major stakeholders in health care delivery.

Berkman, N; Wynia, M; Churchill, L

2004-01-01

224

The Nonlinear Association Between Internet Using Time for Non-Educational Purposes and Adolescent Health  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study was performed to consider the association between Internet using time for non-educational purposes and adolescent health, and to examine how health status differs between Internet users and non-users. Methods We analyzed 2009 data from the Korea Adolescent Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, conducted on a nationally representative sample of students in grades 7 to 12. A total of 75 066 adolescents were categorized into four groups according to their Internet using time excluding using for educational purposes: non-Internet users (NIUs), occasional Internet users (OIUs) (<1 h/d), moderate Internet users (MIUs) (?1 and <2 h/d), and heavy Internet users (HIUs) (?2 h/d). Health factors included eight health risk behavior indices, four mental health indices and six physical health indices. Results The distribution of Internet use was as follows: NIUs 17.4%, OIUs 68.1%, MIUs 12.7%, and HIUs 1.7%. In multivariate analysis, using OIUs as a reference, U- or J-shaped associations were observed for five health risk behavior indices (current smoking, current drinking, drug abuse, sexual intercourse, sedentary behavior on weekdays) and four mental health indices (stressed, depressed, suicidal ideation, attempted suicide) in both genders. After removing confounding effects, including age, region, school type, subjective school record, subjective economic status, presence of parents, living with family, and sedentary behavior, these associations were still observed. Conclusions Health professionals should consider both Internet non-users (for non-educational purposes) and heavy users to be high-risk groups in terms of health status. Also, more well-designed studies are needed to clarify what factors are working in these nonlinear associations.

2012-01-01

225

Acute Health Effects Associated with Nonoccupational Pesticide Exposure in Rural El Salvador  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the health effects of nonoccupational pesticide exposure in agricultural communities of poor countries. Therefore, this study investigated acute symptoms associated with nonoccupational exposure to organophosphate insecticides (OPs) in rural El Salvador, a region known for intensive pesticide use. In the five communities studied, 2-week prevalences of several acute symptoms were associated with living with a farmer

Lenore S. Azaroff; Lucas M. Neas

1999-01-01

226

Health care-associated infections in the neonatal intensive care unit: barriers to continued success.  

PubMed

Health care-associated infections often result in significant morbidity and mortality to affected patients and substantial financial cost to an overburdened health care system. Local, statewide, and national efforts have been conducted to eradicate central line-associated infections, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and urinary tract infections from inpatient and outpatient facilities. In the neonatal intensive care unit population, significant improvements have been made in many areas, but have been hindered in others by a lack of population-specific definitions, data, and guidelines for prevention and management. Therefore, more concerted efforts are needed in these areas for continued progress to occur. PMID:23177803

Bizzarro, Matthew J

2012-12-01

227

Historical Research: A Thematic Analysis of Convention and Conference Themes for Selected Professional Health Education Associations from 1975 to 2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many professional organizations and associations hold conventions and conferences on an annual basis. Health Education professional associations take part in this process. Using a historical research perspective, this article delineates conference themes for four prominent professional Health Education associations: the American Association for…

Black, Jill M.; Ubbes, Valerie A.

2009-01-01

228

Ethnobotanical knowledge is associated with indices of child health in the Bolivian Amazon.  

PubMed

Culture is a critical determinant of human behavior and health, and the intergenerational transmission of knowledge regarding the use of available plant resources has historically been an essential function of culture. Local ethnobotanical knowledge is important for health and nutrition, particularly in rural low-resource settings, but cultural and economic transitions associated with globalization threaten such knowledge. This prospective study investigates the association between parental ethnobotanical knowledge and child health among the Tsimane', a horticulturalist and foraging society in Amazonian Bolivia. Anthropometric data and capillary blood samples were collected from 330 Tsimane' 2- to 10-year-olds, and mothers and fathers were interviewed to assess ethnobotanical knowledge and skills. Comprehensive measures of parental schooling, acculturation, and economic activities were also collected. Dependent variables included three measures of child health: (i) C-reactive protein, assayed in whole-blood spots as an indicator of immunostimulation; (ii) skinfold thickness, to estimate subcutaneous fat stores necessary to fuel growth and immune function; and (iii) height-for-age, to assess growth stunting. Each child health measure was associated with maternal ethnobotanical knowledge, independent of a wide range of potentially confounding variables. Each standard deviation of maternal ethnobotanical knowledge increased the likelihood of good child health by a factor of >1.5. Like many populations around the world, the Tsimane' are increasingly facing the challenges and opportunities of globalization. These results underscore the importance of local cultural factors to child health and document a potential cost if ethnobotanical knowledge is lost. PMID:17389376

McDade, T W; Reyes-García, V; Blackinton, P; Tanner, S; Huanca, T; Leonard, W R

2007-03-26

229

Factors associated with Self-reported Physical and Mental Health after Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is an intensive treatment for hematologic malignancies that has the potential to cure disease or prolong life, but also to impair quality of life for survivors. Earlier studies have suggested a variety of factors to be associated with physical and mental health after HCT. In this study we evaluated demographic and clinical factors before and after transplant and selected psychosocial factors after transplant, to explore their association with self-reported physical and mental health. We studied a cohort of 662 survivors at a median of 6.6 years after HCT. Pre-HCT demographic and clinical factors accounted for only a small amount of the variance in physical and mental health post-transplant (3% and 1%, respectively). Adding post-HCT clinical variables to the pre-transplant factors accounted for 32% and 7% of physical and mental outcomes, respectively. When both clinical and psychosocial factors were considered, better physical health after HCT was associated with younger age, race other than white, higher current family income, currently working or being a student, less severe transplant experience (not having GVHD), fewer current comorbidities, higher Karnofsky status, less social constraint, less social support, and less trait anxiety. This multivariate model accounted for 36% of the variance in physical health with the psychosocial variables contributing very little. When both clinical and psychosocial factors were considered, better mental health after HCT was associated with more severe transplant experience, less social constraint, greater spiritual well-being, and less trait anxiety. This multivariate model accounted for 56% of the variance in mental health, with the psychosocial factors accounting for most of the variance. These data suggest that clinical factors are explanatory for much of the post-HCT physical health reported by HCT survivors but for very little of self-perceived mental health. These observations provide insights into identification of factors that would allow recognition of at-risk patients as well as factors amenable to intervention.

Wingard, John R.; Huang, I-Chan; Sobocinski, Kathleen A.; Andrykowski, Michael A.; Cella, David; Rizzo, J. Douglas; Brady, Marianne; Horowitz, Mary M.; Bishop, Michelle M.

2010-01-01

230

[The association of oral microbiota and general health].  

PubMed

Mouth is in direct contact with the outside world of the body and therefore abundant microflora sets there already in childhood. Even in a healthy mouth there is a plethora of bacteria, viruses and fungi. Oral microbial diseases usually arise from growth of opportunistic pathogens. Predisposing factors for oral infections are contact with pathogen carriers, impaired immune system, poor oral hygiene, and smoking. In chronic periodontitis tooth attachment is lost as a result of inflammation, and pockets formed between the tooth and gingiva. Chronic periodontitis is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases, pulmonary infections, and poor glycemic control of diabetes. This may be due to constant release of pathogenic bacteria and proinflammatory cytokines into the bloodstream. PMID:22822598

Uitto, Veli-Jukka; Nylund, Karita; Pussinen, Pirkko

2012-01-01

231

Health effects of daily airborne particle dose in children: direct association between personal dose and respiratory health effects.  

PubMed

Air pollution is a widespread health problem associated with respiratory symptoms. Continuous exposure monitoring was performed to estimate alveolar and tracheobronchial dose, measured as deposited surface area, for 103 children and to evaluate the long-term effects of exposure to airborne particles through spirometry, skin prick tests and measurement of exhaled nitric oxide (eNO). The mean daily alveolar deposited surface area dose received by children was 1.35 × 10(3) mm(2). The lowest and highest particle number concentrations were found during sleeping and eating time. A significant negative association was found between changes in pulmonary function tests and individual dose estimates. Significant differences were found for asthmatics, children with allergic rhinitis and sensitive to allergens compared to healthy subjects for eNO. Variation is a child's activity over time appeared to have a strong impact on respiratory outcomes, which indicates that personal monitoring is vital for assessing the expected health effects of exposure to particles. PMID:23792384

Buonanno, Giorgio; Marks, Guy B; Morawska, Lidia

2013-06-19

232

The Oral History Program: I. Personal views of health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association.  

PubMed Central

The Medical Library Association Oral History Program uses accepted oral history techniques to collect and preserve interviews with members. The original taped interviews and transcripts are kept in the Medical Library Association archives and made available for research purposes; edited copies of the interviews are distributed through the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, and members are encouraged to borrow and read the histories. Summaries of forty-three interviews provide personal views on health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association.

McKenzie, D; Pifalo, V

1998-01-01

233

Association between job characteristics and health behaviors in Japanese rural workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Associations between job characteristics defined by the Karasek’s job demand-control model and health behaviors were investigated\\u000a in a cross-sectional analysis of 6,759 Japanese rural workers. High psychological demands were associated with heavy smoking,\\u000a exaggerated prevalence of alcohol drinking, and high work-related physical activity. Low job control was associated with lower\\u000a consumption of vegetables, a smaller quantity number of cigarettes smoked,

Akizumi Tsutsumi; Kazunori Kayaba; Manabu Yoshimura; Machi Sawada; Shizukiyo Ishikawa; Kenichiro Sakai; Tadao Gotoh; Naoki Nago

2003-01-01

234

Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Is Significantly Associated with Bone Health Status in Men  

PubMed Central

Background and Aim: Recent studies revealed a novel association between thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and bone health status in healthy male populations. The present study aimed to validate this association and provide new information on the relationship between TSH levels and calcaneal speed of sound (SOS) in men. Methods: This cross-sectional study recruited 681 men with complete data of calcaneal SOS, body anthropometry, serum TSH, free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) levels. Results: All subjects had FT3 and FT4 levels within the in-house reference range and 13 subjects had lower than normal TSH levels. The results revealed that the SOS value of subjects was significantly associated with TSH after multiple adjustments (p<0.05). When subjects were divided into quintiles according to their TSH levels, the difference of SOS between men with low-normal TSH and high-normal TSH contributed significantly to the association between TSH and bone health status (p<0.05). The significance of the association persisted with the inclusion and exclusion of subclinical hyperthyroid subjects. Conclusions: There was a significant association between TSH levels and bone health status in men as assessed by quantitative ultrasound. This age-independent association between TSH and SOS might explain some of the individual variation of bone health status in men.

Chin, Kok-Yong; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman; Mohamed, Isa Naina; Aminuddin, Amilia; Johari, Mohamad Hanapi; Ngah, Wan Zurinah Wan

2013-01-01

235

Association between race, place, and preventive health screenings among men: findings from the exploring health disparities in integrated communities study.  

PubMed

African American men consistently report poorer health and have lower participation rates in preventive screening tests than White men. This finding is generally attributed to race differences in access to care, which may be a consequence of the different health care markets in which African American and White men typically live. This proposition is tested by assessing race differences in use of preventive screenings among African American and White men residing within the same health care marketplace. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between race and physical, dental, eye and foot examinations, blood pressure and cholesterol checks, and colon and prostate cancer screenings in men in the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities in Southwest Baltimore Study. After adjusting for covariates, African American men had greater odds of having had a physical, dental, and eye examination; having had their blood pressure and cholesterol checked; and having been screened for colon and prostate cancer than White men. No race differences in having a foot examination were observed. Contrary to most findings, African American men had a higher participation rate in preventive screenings than White men. This underscores the importance of accounting for social context in public health campaigns targeting preventive screenings in men. PMID:23184335

Thorpe, Roland J; Bowie, Janice V; Wilson-Frederick, Shondelle M; Coa, Kisha I; Laveist, Thomas A

2012-11-26

236

The association between residential area characteristics and mental health outcomes among men and women in Belgium  

PubMed Central

Aim Recently, interest has grown in the association between contextual factors and health outcomes. This study questions whether mental health complaints vary according to the socio-economic characteristics of the residential area where people live. The gender-specific patterns are studied. Methods Complaints of depression and generalized anxiety were measured by means of the relevant subscales of the Symptoms Checklist 90-Revised. Multilevel models were estimated with PASW statistics 18, based on a unique dataset, constructed by merging data from the Belgian Health Interview Surveys from 2001 and 2004 with data from 264 municipalities derived from Statistics Belgium and the General Socio-Economic Survey. Main findings The results of this exploratory study indicate that the local unemployment rate is associated with complaints of depression among women. Conclusion This study suggests that policy should approach the male and female population differently when implementing mental health prevention campaigns.

2011-01-01

237

The Association between Childhood Abuse and Labor Force Outcomes in Young Adults: Results from the Ontario Child Health Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the associations between childhood physical and sexual abuse and labor force outcomes in young adults and the possible mediating effects of educational attainment, current mental health, and physical health. Data from the Ontario Child Health Study (N = 1,893), a province-wide longitudinal study were analyzed. Controlling for childhood and demographic variables, severe childhood physical abuse was significantly associated

Masako Tanaka; Ellen Jamieson; Katholiki Georgiades; Eric K. Duku; Michael H. Boyle; Harriet L. MacMillan

2011-01-01

238

What are candidate biobehavioral mechanisms underlying the association between secondhand smoke exposure and mental health?  

PubMed Central

There is a consistent positive and significant association between secondhand smoke exposure and mental health outcomes in the literature. There are potential genetic and behavioral confounders (e.g., psychological stress, maternal depression, and family functioning) were discussed, as well as potential causal neurobiological pathways (e.g., dopamine system). Further neurobiological research to establish causal pathways is needed as well as the integration of positive observational findings into clinical and public health prevention practices.

Bandiera, Frank C.

2011-01-01

239

The Association between Proximity to Animal Feeding Operations and Community Health: A Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundA systematic review was conducted for the association between animal feeding operations (AFOs) and the health of individuals living near AFOs.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsThe review was restricted to studies reporting respiratory, gastrointestinal and mental health outcomes in individuals living near AFOs in North America, European Union, United Kingdom, and Scandinavia. From June to September 2008 searches were conducted in PUBMED, CAB, Web-of-Science,

Annette M. OConnor; Brent Auvermann; Danelle Bickett-Weddle; Steve Kirkhorn; Jan M. Sargeant; Alejandro Ramirez; Susanna G. Von Essen

2010-01-01

240

Association of common health symptoms with bullying in primary school children  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractObjectives: To estimate the prevalence of bullying in primary school children and to examine its association with common symptoms in childhood.Design: Semistructured health interview conducted by school nurses as part of a school medical.Setting: Newham, east London.Subjects: All children in year 4 of school during the academic year 1992-93.Main outcome measures: Reported bullying and common health symptoms.Results: 2962 children (93.1%

Katrina Williams; Mike Chambers; Stuart Logan; Derek Robinson

1996-01-01

241

Reduction of Health Care-Associated Infection Risk in Neonates by Successful Hand Hygiene Promotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES. Hand hygiene promotion interventions rarely result in sustained im- provement, and an assessment of their impact on individual infection risk has been lacking. We sought to measure the impact of hand hygiene promotion on health care worker compliance and health care-associated infection risk among neonates. METHODS. We conducted an intervention study with a 9-month follow-up among all of the

Carmem Lucia Pessoa-Silva; Stephane Hugonnet; Riccardo Pfister; Sylvie Touveneau; Sasi Dharan; Klara Posfay-Barbe; Didier Pittet

2010-01-01

242

Association between health worker motivation and healthcare quality efforts in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Ghana is one of the sub-Saharan African countries making significant progress towards universal access to quality healthcare. However, it remains a challenge to attain the 2015 targets for the health related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) partly due to health sector human resource challenges including low staff motivation. Purpose This paper addresses indicators of health worker motivation and assesses associations with quality care and patient safety in Ghana. The aim is to identify interventions at the health worker level that contribute to quality improvement in healthcare facilities. Methods The study is a baseline survey of health workers (n = 324) in 64 primary healthcare facilities in two regions in Ghana. Data collection involved quality care assessment using the SafeCare Essentials tool, the National Health Insurance Authority (NHIA) accreditation data and structured staff interviews on workplace motivating factors. The Spearman correlation test was conducted to test the hypothesis that the level of health worker motivation is associated with level of effort by primary healthcare facilities to improve quality care and patient safety. Results The quality care situation in health facilities was generally low, as determined by the SafeCare Essentials tool and NHIA data. The majority of facilities assessed did not have documented evidence of processes for continuous quality improvement and patient safety. Overall, staff motivation appeared low although workers in private facilities perceived better working conditions than workers in public facilities (P <0.05). Significant positive associations were found between staff satisfaction levels with working conditions and the clinic’s effort towards quality improvement and patient safety (P <0.05). Conclusion As part of efforts towards attainment of the health related MDGs in Ghana, more comprehensive staff motivation interventions should be integrated into quality improvement strategies especially in government-owned healthcare facilities where working conditions are perceived to be the worst.

2013-01-01

243

Health Care Burden and Cost Associated with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Based on Official Canadian Data  

PubMed Central

Background Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is a group of disorders caused by prenatal alcohol exposure. From this group, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is the only disorder coded in the International Classification of Diseases, version 10 (ICD-10). This coding was used to gain an understanding on the health care utilization and the mortality rate for individuals diagnosed with FAS, as well as to estimate the associated health care costs in Canada for the most recent available fiscal year (2008–2009). Methods Health care utilization data associated with a diagnosis of FAS were directly obtained from the Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI). Mortality data associated with a diagnosis of FAS were obtained from Statistics Canada. Results The total direct health care cost of acute care, psychiatric care, day surgery, and emergency department services associated with FAS in Canada in 2008–2009, based on the official CIHI data, was about $6.7 million. The vast majority of the most responsible diagnoses, which account for the majority of a patient’s length of stay in hospital, fall within the ICD-10 category Mental and Behavioural Disorders (F00–F99). It was evident that the burden and cost of acute care hospitalizations due to FAS is increasing ?1.6 times greater in 2008–2009, compared to 2002–2003. The mortality data due to FAS, obtained from Statistics Canada (2000–2008), may be underreported, and are likely invalid. Discussion The official data on the utilization of health care services by individuals diagnosed with FAS are likely to be underreported and therefore, the reported cost figures are most likely underestimated. The quantification of the health care costs associated with FAS is crucial for policy developers and decision makers alike, of the impact of prenatal alcohol exposure, with the ultimate goal of initiating preventive interventions to address FASD.

Popova, Svetlana; Lange, Shannon; Burd, Larry; Rehm, Jurgen

2012-01-01

244

The demographic viewpoint in the vital and health statistics monographs of The American Public Health Association.  

PubMed

The plan calls for monographs on 16 specific topics and a review volume. The specific topics include a monograph on fertility, another on marriage and divorce, and one on social and economic factors in mortality, all of which are of obvious demographic interest. The core of the development of the monographs dealing with the disease topics, and accidents, homicide, and suicide, is a tabulation program involving specific and age-adjusted death rates based upon the deaths in the United States for the three year period 1959-61 and the 1960 census of population. The program called for a set of standard tabulations common to each monograph and also a set of special tabulations tailored to meet the particular needs for each topic as specified by its authors. This wealth of demographic detail regarding mortality in the United States during 1959-61 fills only one aspect of its health picture. To fill out the health picture, use is being made of the great volume of morbidity data out of the National Health Interview and Examination Surveys and a wide variety of other specialized surveys. In all of these, the findings are invariably described in terms of the demographic characteristics of age and sex, and frequently in terms of such social-economic variables as education, income, work status, and occupational class.A large part of the content of the monograph on social and economic factors in mortality will come out of available results of the 1960 census-death certificate matching study at the University of Chicago. One important feature of this monograph, not contained in the Chicago study, is a regression and correlation analysis of total mortality in 202 Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas in relation to a large number of social, economic, and climatic factors. Among the features in the monograph on fertility are chapters on the medical and biological characteristics of births, fecundity and family planning, and an analysis of cohort fertility trends. The monograph on marriage and divorce will make use of the detailed tabulations from the 1960 census on marital status in relation to education, race, parentage, earnings and other classifications of individuals and of husband and wife in married couples. It will also contain a matching study of divorce records in certain states for a short period before the census of 1960 with the returns in the census. The project is supported by a grant from the United States Public Health Service (CH 00075; formerly RG 08262). Publication will be by the Harvard University Press. PMID:21318727

Spiegelman, M

1966-06-01

245

Child and Family Psychiatric and Psychological Factors Associated With Child Physical Health Problems  

PubMed Central

To examine associations among Puerto Rican children's physical health problems and children's internalizing disorders, parental psychopathology and acculturative stress, and family factors. A population-based probability sample of 2491 Puerto Rican children, aged between 5 and 13 years, and caregivers from the South Bronx and the U.S. Commonwealth of Puerto Rico participated in this study. The parent version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-IV was used to assess children's internalizing disorders. Children's anxiety disorders, parental psychopathology, and acculturative stress were associated with childhood asthma, abdominal pain, and headaches. Children's depressive disorders, maternal acceptance, and family functioning were associated with abdominal pain and headaches. Parents of children living in Puerto Rico were more likely to report physical health problems in their children than in the Bronx. Children's internalizing disorders, parental psychopathology, and acculturative stress may be important areas to target among Puerto Rican children with physical health problems.

Feldman, Jonathan M.; Ortega, Alexander N.; Koinis-Mitchell, Daphne; Kuo, Alice A.; Canino, Glorisa

2010-01-01

246

Health risks associated with residential exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation  

SciTech Connect

Extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation has received considerable attention recently as a possible threat to the health of persons living near high tension electric power lines, distribution substations, and even in close proximity to common household electric appliances. Results of epidemiological and laboratory research are examined to assess risks associated with magnetic fields generated by extremely low frequency electromagnetic sources. Health risks associated with such fields include a wide variety of ills ranging from disruption of normal circadian rhythms to childhood cancers. Risk assessment has been particularly difficult to determine in light of an ostensible lack of a dose-response relationship. Current media sensation fueled in part by an equivocal position adopted by the United States Environmental Protection Agency has contributed to the controversy. Recommendations for prudent avoidance of possible dangers are presented along with policy implications concerning health risks associated with magnetic fields.32 references.

Lamarine, R.J.; Narad, R.A. (Department of Health and Community Services, California State University, Chico (United States))

1992-10-01

247

Health-related factors associated with mode of travel to work.  

PubMed

Active commuting (AC) to the workplace is a potential strategy for incorporating physical activity into daily life and is associated with health benefits. This study examined the association between health-related factors and mode of travel to the workplace. Methods. A volunteer convenience sample of employed adults completed an online survey regarding demographics, health-related factors, and the number of times/week walking, biking, driving, and using public transit to work (dichotomized as no walk/bike/drive/PT and walk/bike/drive/PT 1 + x/week). Logistic regression was used to predict the likelihood of each mode of transport and meeting PA recommendations from AC according to demographics and health-related factors. Results. The sample (n = 1175) was aged 43.5 ± 11.4 years and was primarily White (92.7%) and female (67.9%). Respondents reported walking (7.3%), biking (14.4%), taking public transit (20.3%), and driving (78.3%) to work at least one time/week. Among those reporting AC, 9.6% met PA recommendations from AC alone. Mode of travel to work was associated with several demographic and health-related factors, including age, number of chronic diseases, weight status, and AC beliefs. Discussion. Mode of transportation to the workplace and health-related factors such as disease or weight status should be considered in future interventions targeting AC. PMID:23533450

Bopp, Melissa; Kaczynski, Andrew T; Campbell, Matthew E

2013-02-27

248

The successful development of a subacute care service associated with a large academic health system.  

PubMed

Ensuring the safe transition of patients from hospitals to skilled nursing facilities and from skilled nursing facilities back to the hospital or the community can present significant challenges. The University of Michigan Health System was able to overcome many of these challenges through the implementation of a health system associated Subacute Care Service that consists of the University of Michigan Health System geriatricians and nurse practitioners working in privately operated skilled nursing facilities in our primary market area. We describe the planning process surrounding the development of the Subacute Care Service and report on efforts to date. PMID:22748721

Joshi, Darius K; Bluhm, Rick A; Malani, Preeti N; Fetyko, Steve; Denton, Tony; Blaum, Caroline S

2012-07-01

249

Sociodemographic and Health-Related Risk Factors Associated with Tooth Loss Among Adults in Rhode Island  

PubMed Central

Introduction Oral health is an integral component of overall health and well-being. Very little Rhode Island state-level information exists on the determinants of tooth loss. The objective of this study was to systematically identify sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviors, health conditions and disabilities, and dental insurance coverage associated with tooth loss among noninstitutionalized adults in Rhode Island. Methods We analyzed Rhode Island’s 2008 and 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey data in 2011. The survey had 4 response categories for tooth loss: none, 1 to 5, 6 or more but not all, and all. We used multinomial logistic regression models to assess the relationship between 4 risk factor domains and tooth loss. Results An estimated 57.6% of Rhode Island adults had all their teeth, 28.9% had 1 to 5 missing teeth, 8.9% had 6 to 31 missing teeth, and 4.6% were edentulous. Respondents who had low income, low education, unhealthy behaviors (ie, were former or current smokers and did not engage in physical activity), chronic conditions (ie, diabetes and obesity) or disabilities, and no dental insurance coverage were more likely to have fewer teeth compared with their referent groups. However, the association of these variables with tooth loss was not uniform by age group. Conclusion Adults who report risky health behaviors or impaired health may be considered target subpopulations for prevention of tooth loss and promotion of good oral health.

Okoro, Catherine A.; Oh, Junhie; Fuller, Deborah L.

2013-01-01

250

Brief Report: Predictors of Heavy Internet Use and Associations with Health-Promoting and Health Risk Behaviors among Hong Kong University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To examine the correlates of heavy Internet use and determine the associations of heavy Internet use with various health risk behaviors and health-promoting behaviors among Chinese adolescents, an anonymous, self-administered health behavior questionnaire was completed by 2427 matriculants into a Hong Kong university (mean age = 18.9 y) and…

Kim, Jean H.; Lau, C. H.; Cheuk, Ka-Kin; Kan, Pauline; Hui, Heidi L. C.; Griffiths, Sian M.

2010-01-01

251

Factors Associated With Americans' Ratings of Health Care Quality: What Do They Tell Us About the Raters and the Health Care System?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumer satisfaction ratings of health care quality represent a commonly used measure of health care performance. Identifying factors associated with ratings will help us understand the relative influence of individuals' sociodemographic and health characteristics on satisfaction level, thus informing policy making and clinical practice. Existing research has yielded mixed results on key predictors of consumer ratings. Using nationally representative data,

Wen-Ying Sylvia Chou; Lin Chun Wang; Lila J. Finney Rutten; Richard P. Moser; Bradford W. Hesse

2010-01-01

252

Food Insecurity is Associated with Adverse Health Outcomes Among Human Infants and Toddlers  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT The U.S. Household Food Security Scale, developed with federal support for use in national surveys, is an effective research,tool. This study uses these new,measures,to examine,associations,between,food insecurity and health outcomes,in young,children. The purpose,of this study was,to determine,whether,household,food insecurity is associated,with adverse health outcomes,in a sentinel population ages,36 mo. We conducted,a multisite retrospective cohort study with cross-sectional surveys at urban medical

J. Cook; D. Frank; C. Berkowitz; M. Black; P. Casey; D. Cutts; A. Meyers; N. Zaldivar; A. Skalicky; S. Lenenson; T. Heeren; M. Nord

2004-01-01

253

Association between seeking oral health information online and knowledge in adults with spinal cord injury: A pilot study  

PubMed Central

Objective To characterize adults with spinal cord injury (SCI) who seek oral health information online, and investigate whether seeking oral health information online is associated with oral health knowledge and behaviors. Methods An online oral health survey was posted on the South Carolina Spinal Cord Injury Association website. Respondents were 192 adult residents of the US ages 19–83 years who identified themselves as having SCI occurring at least 1 year before the survey date. Results About 12% (n = 23) of the respondents searched oral health information online in the past 12 months. Significant associations between the proportion of respondents who searched for oral health information online and socio-demographic and the proportion of respondents who engaged in various oral health behaviors were not detected. However, multivariable logistic regression indicated that respondents who searched oral health information online in the past 12 months have 3.4 times the odds of possessing adequate oral health knowledge compared to respondents who did not search oral health information online (adjusted odds ratio = 3.41, 95% confidence interval = 1.35, 8.62, P = 0.01). Conclusions Given the significant association between seeking oral health information online and adequate oral health knowledge, this study suggests that online oral health information may be a potential avenue for dental health professionals to supplement oral health education in adults with SCI.

Yuen, Hon K.; Azuero, Andres; London, Steven

2011-01-01

254

Veterinary public health: Human health hazards associated with the administration of antimicrobials to slaughter animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risks for the consumer regarding the acquisition of resistant bacteria and\\/or resistance genes via the consumption of pork are discussed. In general, Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli that originate from animals do not easily transfer their resistance genes to the resident intestinal flora of humans. The prevalence of resistant E. coli in humans seems more associated with being a vegetarian

B. R. Berends; A. E. J. M. Van Den Bogaard; F. Van Knapen; J. M. A. Snijders

2001-01-01

255

Health outcomes associated with long-term regular cannabis and tobacco smoking.  

PubMed

This study aimed to identify patterns of health concerns associated with long-term use of cannabis and tobacco individually, as well as in combination. We recruited 350 adults aged 40 or over who smoked cannabis but not tobacco (cannabis-only group, n=59), smoked both cannabis and tobacco (cannabis/tobacco group, n=88), smoked tobacco but not cannabis (tobacco-only group, n=80), or used neither substance (control group, n=123). Participants completed a survey addressing substance use, diagnosed medical conditions, health concerns relating to smoking cannabis/tobacco, and general health (measured using the Physical Health Questionnaire and the Short Form 36). Several significant differences were found among the four groups. With regard to diagnosed medical conditions, the three smoking groups reported significantly higher rates of emphysema than did the control group (ps<.001). However, all members of the cannabis-only group diagnosed with emphysema were former regular tobacco smokers. Total general health scores, general health subscales, and items addressing smoking-related health concerns also revealed several significant group differences, and these tended to show worse outcomes for the two tobacco smoking groups. Findings suggest that using tobacco on its own and mixing it with cannabis may lead to worse physical health outcomes than using cannabis alone. PMID:23501136

Rooke, Sally E; Norberg, Melissa M; Copeland, Jan; Swift, Wendy

2013-01-28

256

Are oral health status and care associated with anxiety and depression? A study of Portuguese health science students.  

PubMed

The relationship between oral health and anxiety/depression were assessed in a cross-sectional study conducted in 388 Portuguese students from the Health Sciences (age: 21 +/- 3 years, 75% women). Oral health included prevalence of reported tooth pain/gum bleeding, dentist attendance, and dentifrice and dental floss use. Anxiety and depression were assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Subjects with anxiety or depression had a higher frequency of perceived gum bleeding and reported a higher dentist attendance than normal subjects. On multivariate analysis, anxiety was significantly and independently related to perceived toothache (OR = 2.90, 95% CI: 1.25-6.72) and dentist attendance (OR = 2.15, 95% CI: 1.18 - 3.91) whereas depression was associated with perceived gum bleeding (OR = 4.96, 95% CI: 1.68 - 14.59), and no differences were found regarding teeth brushing or dental flossing. The author concludes that anxiety and depression are related to perceived toothache and gum bleeding, but this association cannot be explained by decreased dental care. PMID:16570753

Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Milagre, Virginia

2006-01-01

257

Postoperative recovery and its association with health-related quality of life among day surgery patients  

PubMed Central

Background Day surgery holds advantages for both the patient and the health care organization. However, recovery beyond the first postoperative week and following different types of surgery has not been explored to any greater degree. The current aims were to prospectively describe postoperative recovery and health-related quality of life among different groups of day surgery patients and to explore the association between postoperative recovery and health-related quality of life 30 days after discharge. Methods A consecutive sample of 607 adult day surgery patients undergoing orthopaedic, gynaecological or general surgery was included. Postoperative recovery was assessed on days 1, 7 and 14 using the Swedish Post-discharge Surgery Recovery scale and the Quality of Recovery-23 scale. The EQ-5D was used to assess health-related quality of life preoperatively and 30 days following discharge. A repeated measure ANOVA was conducted to evaluate postoperative recovery from day 1 to day 14 and between different surgical groups. Hierarchical multiple linear regression models were used to explore the association between postoperative recovery and health-related quality of life. Results Postoperative recovery improved from day 1 to 14 in all surgical groups (p<0.001). The orthopaedic patients had lower postoperative recovery on day 14 compared to the general and the gynaecological patients (p<0.001). Health-related quality of life was lower among orthopaedic patients (p<0.001), even if significant improvements over time were seen in all groups. Recovery on day 7 was associated with health-related quality of life 30 days after the day surgery (p<0.05). Conclusion Particularly orthopaedic day surgical patients seem to favour a closer follow-up in order to support recovery and thereby also positively influence health-related quality of life.

2012-01-01

258

The Florida Department of Health and the Florida Association of County Health Department Business Administrators: a model of successful collaboration to sustain operational excellence.  

PubMed

The Florida Association of County Health Department Business Administrators, Inc., is an organization of public health business professionals working collaboratively with the state's department of health administrative offices in promoting best practices throughout local county health departments. This article discusses a number of joint initiatives, past and present, that are benefiting public health services in Florida. In addition, mentoring and training, contract management, cost allocation, and financial reporting, among others, are "hot button" topics of interest to all states in promoting improved administration of their public health programs. PMID:15552765

Napier, Michael J; Street, Phillip; Wright, Robin; Kouba, James Michael; Ciereck, Christina; Dillon, Matthew J; Dollar, Rosemary C; Parizek, William A; Stapp, Charles Philip; Dickinson, Ross

259

Associations between working memory, health literacy, and recall of the signs of stroke among older adults.  

PubMed

Stroke remains a major cause of mortality and disability among older adults. Although early treatment after stroke is known to reduce both mortality and disability, the first step in seeking early treatment is dependent on the rapid recognition of the signs of stroke. Recall of the signs of stroke may be dependent on factors that exist before the stroke itself. Although it is known that both working memory and health literacy decline with advancing age, these factors have not been thoroughly examined with respect to recall of the signs of stroke. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to investigate associations between working memory, health literacy, and recall of the signs of stroke among older adults. Community dwelling older adults (?65 years of age) were recruited from two senior centers. Fifty-six participants meeting inclusion criteria provided demographic and health information and were asked to read a public service brochure listing the five warning signs of stroke. Working memory was then assessed using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale 3rd Edition Working Memory Index. Health literacy was assessed by the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Participants' recall of the five warning signs of stroke was evaluated. The mean age was 80.4 years. The mean number of the signs of stroke recalled was 2.9 ± 1.33. Working memory and health literacy were positively correlated with recall of the signs of stroke (r = .38, p < 0.01; r = .44, p < 0.01). In a simultaneous regression, only health literacy remained a significant predictor of recall. There was no statistically significant interaction between working memory and health literacy. Findings from this study indicate that working memory and health literacy were associated with successful recall of the warning signs of stroke in older adults. Further studies are needed to determine if programs that include cognitive and literacy assessments could identify older adults who need additional support to learn and recall the signs of stroke. PMID:22955236

Ganzer, Christine A; Insel, Kathleen C; Ritter, Leslie S

2012-10-01

260

Factors associated with a patient-centered medical home among children with behavioral health conditions.  

PubMed

At some point in their lives, nearly one-half of all American children will have a behavioral health condition. Many will not receive the care they need from a fragmented health delivery system. The patient-centered medical home is a promising model to improve their care; however, little evidence exists. Our study aim was to examine the association between several behavioral health indicators and having a patient-centered medical home. 91,642 children's parents or guardians completed the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health. An indicator for patient-centered medical home was included in the dataset. Descriptive statistics, bivariate tests, and multivariate regression models were used in the analyses. Children in the sample were mostly Male (52 %), White (78 %), non-Hispanic (87 %), and did not have a special health care need (80 %). 6.2 % of the sample had at least one behavioral health condition. Conditions ranged from ADHD (6 %) to Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) (1 %). Frequency of having a patient-centered medical home also varied for children with a behavioral health condition (49 % of children with ADHD and 33 % of children with ASD). Frequency of having a patient-centered medical home decreased with multiple behavioral health conditions. Higher severity of depression, anxiety, and conduct disorder were associated with a decreased likelihood of a patient-centered medical home. Results from our study can be used to target patient-centered medical home interventions toward children with one or more behavioral health conditions and consider that children with depression, anxiety, and conduct disorder are more vulnerable to these disparities. PMID:23108741

Knapp, Caprice; Woodworth, Lindsey; Fernandez-Baca, Daniel; Baron-Lee, Jacqueline; Thompson, Lindsay; Hinojosa, Melanie

2013-11-01

261

The Association Between Mental Health and Acute Infectious Illness Among a National Sample of 18- to 24YearOld College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poor mental health is associated with physical illness, but this association is poorly characterized among college students. Objective and Participants: Using American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment data, the authors characterized poor mental health (depression, anxiety, negative affect) and examined the relationship between poor mental health and acute infectious illnesses (bronchitis, ear infection, sinusitis, strep throat) among 47,202 US

Troy B. Adams; Christopher M. Wharton; Lyndsay Quilter; Tiffany Hirsch

2008-01-01

262

Health Related Quality of Life in Children with Constipation-Associated Fecal Incontinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives With a disease-specific questionnaire, this study aimed to evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children with constipation in association with clinical characteristics. Study design Children with constipation-associated fecal incontinence (n = 114), 8 to 18% years, filled out the Defecation Disorder List at a Dutch tertian, hospital. Correlations and linear regression analysis between clinical characteristics and scores on

Marloes E. J. Bongers; Marieke van Dijk; Marc A. Benninga; Martha A. Grootenhuis

2009-01-01

263

Association Between Alcohol Consumption and Subclinical Carotid Atherosclerosis The Study of Health in Pomerania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—Epidemiologic studies have shown a J-shaped association between alcohol consumption and vascular diseases. However, only few studies have reported on the association between alcohol intake and subclinical atherosclerosis. The aim of the study was to investigate the relation between alcohol intake and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in participants of the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania. Methods—In 1230

Ulf Schminke; Jan Luedemann; Klaus Berger; Dietrich Alte; Rolf Mitusch; William G. Wood; Anke Jaschinski; Sven Barnow; Ulrich John; Christof Kessler

264

The association between weight history and physical performance in the Health, Aging and Body Composition study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Although the association between current obesity and physical disability is well known, the cumulative effect of obesity is unknown. Using data from the Health, Aging and Body Composition study, we examined the association between weight history in young and middle adulthood and weight status in late adulthood with physical performance in late adulthood.Design:Longitudinal cohort study.Subjects:White and black men and women

D K Houston; J Ding; B J Nicklas; T B Harris; J S Lee; M C Nevitt; S M Rubin; F A Tylavsky; S B Kritchevsky

2007-01-01

265

Health Care Costs Associated With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent disorder that has been associated with el- evated rates of medically unexplained physical symp- toms,significantfunctionalimpairment,andhighhealth careuse.However,littleisknownaboutactualhealthcare costs associated with PTSD. Methods: We administered the PTSD Checklist (PCL) to 1225 female members of a metropolitan health main- tenance organization and validated the instrument us- ingastructuredPTSDinterviewinasubsetof268women. Participants were classified into 3 groups by PCL

Edward A. Walker; Wayne Katon; Joan Russo; Paul Ciechanowski; Mph Elana Newman; Amy W. Wagner

2003-01-01

266

Further examination of the cross-country association between income inequality and population health.  

PubMed

Several scholars have put forward the view that the estimates by Rodgers [(1979). Income and inequality as determinants of mortality: An international cross-section analysis. Population Studies, 33 (2), 343-351], Flegg [(1982). Inequality of income, illiteracy and medical care as determinants of infant mortality in underdeveloped countries. Population Studies, 36 (3), 441-458] and Waldmann [(1992). Income distribution and infant mortality. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 107 (4), 1283-1302] showing a negative cross-country association between income inequality and population health, cannot be replicated from recent data. In view of the importance of this matter, the present study further examines the issue from the most recent, and probably more accurate, data for the largest cross-country sample used in this line of research. The main conclusion is that the negative cross-country association between income inequality and good health, reported by Rodgers, Flegg, and Waldmann, is replicated very well. The different findings indicated by some scholars may have been due to their samples or the models being unusual. Therefore, the recent skepticism about the existence of such a negative association needs to be reconsidered. Several additional points are also noted. First, income inequality shows significance even after an index of ethnic heterogeneity is included. Second, ethnic heterogeneity itself has a negative association with population health. Third, income inequality retains significance in the presence of a measure of social capital. Fourth, however, the association between the measure of social capital and population health appears weak. Fifth, a simple analysis does not support the view that the positive association between income inequality and infant mortality in less developed countries (LDCs) may just be a reflection of the role of poverty. Finally, there is some support for the proposition that while income may be relatively more important for health in LDCs, the role of income inequality may be stronger in developed economies. PMID:16051408

Ram, Rati

2005-07-26

267

Fish Health Studies Associated with the Kingston Fly Ash Spill, Spring 2009 - Fall 2010  

SciTech Connect

On December 22, 2008, over 4 million cubic meters of fly ash slurry was released into the Emory River when a dike surrounding a solid waste containment area at the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant ruptured. One component of TVA's response to the spill is a biological monitoring program to assess short- and long-term ecological responses to the ash and associated chemicals, including studies on fish health and contaminant bioaccumulation. These studies were initiated in early Spring 2009 for the purposes of: (1) documenting the levels of fly ash-associated metals in various tissues of representative sentinel fish species in the area of the fly ash spill, (2) determining if exposure to fly ash-associated metals causes short, intermediate, or long-term health effects on these sentinel fish species, (3) assessing if there are causal relationships between exposure to metals and health effects on fish, (4) evaluating, along with information from other ecological and physicochemical studies, the nature and route of contaminant transfer though food chains into higher level consumers, (5) providing important information for the Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) for the Kingston fly ash project, and (6) serving as an important technology information transfer or model study focused on how to best evaluate the environmental effects of fly ash (and related environmental stressors), not only at the Kingston site, but also at sites on other aquatic systems where coal-fired generating stations are located. This report presents the results of the first two years of the fish health study. To date, fish health and bioaccumulation studies have been conducted from Spring 2009 though Fall 2011 and includes 6 seasonal studies: Spring 2009, Fall 2009, Spring 2010, Fall 2010, Spring 2011, and Fall 2011. Both the Spring and Fall studies have focused on 3-4 sentinel fish species that represent different feeding habits, behaviors, and home ranges. In addition to fish health and bioaccumulation, the Spring investigations also included reproductive integrity studies on the same fish used for bioaccumulation and fish health. In this report, results of the fish health studies from Spring 2009 through Fall 2010 are presented while an associated report will present the fish reproductive studies conducted during Spring 2009 and Spring 2010. A report on fish bioaccumulation was submitted to TVA in June 2011. The fish health study conducted in conjunction with the bioaccumulation and reproductive study is critical for assessing and evaluating possible causal relationships between contaminant exposure (bioaccumulation) and the response of fish to exposure as reflected by the various measurements of fish health.

Adams, Marshall [ORNL; Fortner, Allison M [ORNL

2012-05-01

268

Relationships between menstrual and menopausal attitudes and associated demographic and health characteristics: The Hilo Women's Health Study  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to examine the relation of menstrual attitudes to menopausal attitudes and the demographic and health characteristics associated with each. This cross-sectional study consisted of a randomly selected sample of 1824 respondents aged 16 to 100 years in multi-ethnic Hilo, Hawai`i. Women completed questionnaires for demographic and health information, such as age, ethnicity, education, residency in Hawai`i, menopausal status, exercise, and attitudes toward menstruation and menopause. Women more often chose positive terms, such as “natural,” to describe menstruation (60.8%) and menopause (59.4%). In bivariate analyses, post-menopausal women were significantly more likely to have positive menstrual and menopausal attitudes than pre-menopausal women. Factor analyses were used to cluster attitudes followed by linear regression to identify demographic characteristics associated with factor scores. Asian-American ethnicity, higher education, reporting more exercise, and growing up outside of Hawai`i were associated with positive menstrual attitudes. Higher education, older age, post-menopausal status, growing up outside of Hawai`i and having hot flashes were associated with positive menopausal attitudes. Bivariate correlation analyses suggested significant associations between factor scores for menstrual and menopausal attitudes. Both negative and positive menstrual attitudes were positively correlated with the anticipation of menopause, although negative attitudes toward menstruation were negatively correlated with menopause as a positive, natural life event. Demographic variables, specifically education and where one grows up, influenced women’s attitudes toward menstruation and menopause and should be considered for inclusion in subsequent multi-ethnic studies. Further research is also warranted in assessing the relationship between menstrual and menopausal attitudes.

Sievert, Lynnette L.; Brown, Daniel E.; Rahberg, Nichole; Reza, Angela

2010-01-01

269

Intimate Partner Violence and Functional Health Status: Associations with Severity, Danger, and Self-Advocacy Behaviors  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To assess physical and mental functional health status as associated with the severity of intimate partner violence (IPV) and perceived danger. Methods Prospective cross-sectional survey of all patients aged 18–55 in an urban emergency department during a convenience sample of shifts. Instruments included the George Washington Universal Violence Prevention Screening protocol, administered by computer during the initial visit, the Short-Form 12 Health Survey (SF-12), the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2), and the Revised Danger Assessment (DA), administered by interview at 1 week follow-up. Results In total, 548 (20%) participants screened disclosed IPV victimization. Of those, 216 (40%) completed the follow-up assessment 1 week later. This cohort was 91% African American, 70% single, and 63% female, with a mean age of 35 (SD 10.41). Both physical and mental health functioning scores were lower than normative levels (50) compared with national averages: Physical Component Summary (PCS) scale 43.64 (SD 10.86) and Mental Component Summary (MCS) scale 37.46 (SD 12.29). As physical assault, psychological aggression, and reported injury increased on the CTS2, mental health functioning diminished (p?associated with diminished physical health functioning (p?health functioning decreased (p?associated with lower mental (but not physical) health functioning as well. Females experienced worsening mental health functioning as both physical assault and psychological aggression increased, whereas male victims experienced worsening mental health functioning only as psychological aggression increased. Conclusions These findings suggest that IPV takes a greater mental than physical toll (for both sexes) and that as IPV severity increases, mental health functioning diminishes and self-advocacy behaviors increase. Additionally, as perceived danger increases, both physical and mental health status worsens. This has important implications for clinicians to assess and consider IPV victims' perceptions of their situations relative to danger, not just the levels of abuse they are experiencing.

Straus, Helen; McNutt, Louise Anne; Rhodes, Karin V.; Conner, Kenneth R.; Kemball, Robin S.; Kaslow, Nadine J.; Houry, Debra

2009-01-01

270

Factors associated with health-seeking behavior among migrant workers in Beijing, China  

PubMed Central

Background Migrant workers are a unique phenomenon in the process of China's economic transformation. The household registration system classifies them as temporary residents in cities, putting them in a vulnerable state with an unfair share of urban infrastructure and social public welfare. The amount of pressure inflicted by migrant workers in Beijing, as one of the major migration destinations, is currently at a threshold. This study was designed to assess the factors associated with health-seeking behavior and to explore feasible solutions to the obstacles migrant workers in China faced with when accessing health-care. Methods A sample of 2,478 migrant workers in Beijing was chosen by the multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method. A structured questionnaire survey was conducted via face-to-face interviews between investigators and subjects. The multilevel methodology (MLM) was used to demonstrate the independent effects of the explanatory variables on health seeking behavior in migrant workers. Results The medical visitation rate of migrant workers within the past two weeks was 4.8%, which only accounted for 36.4% of those who were ill. Nearly one-third of the migrant workers chose self-medication (33.3%) or no measures (30.3%) while ill within the past two weeks. 19.7% of the sick migrants who should have been hospitalized failed to receive medical treatment within the past year. According to self-reported reasons, the high cost of health service was a significant obstacle to health-care access for 40.5% of the migrant workers who became sick. However, 94.0% of the migrant workers didn't have any insurance coverage in Beijing. The multilevel model analysis indicates that health-seeking behavior among migrants is significantly associated with their insurance coverage. Meanwhile, such factors as household monthly income per capita and working hours per day also affect the medical visitation rate of the migrant workers in Beijing. Conclusion This study assesses the influence of socio-demographic characteristics on the migrant workers' decision to seek health care services when they fall ill, and it also indicates that the current health service system discourages migrant workers from seeking appropriate care of good quality. Relevant policies of public medical insurance and assistance program should be vigorously implemented for providing affordable health care services to the migrants. Feasible measures need to be taken to reduce the health risks associated with current hygiene practices and equity should be assured in access to health care services among migrant workers.

2010-01-01

271

Factors associated with the utilization and costs of health and social services in frail elderly patients  

PubMed Central

Background Universal access is one of the major aims in public health and social care. Services should be provided on the basis of individual needs. However, municipal autonomy and the fragmentation of services may jeopardize universal access and lead to variation between municipalities in the delivery of services. This paper aims to identify patient-level characteristics and municipality-level service patterns that may have an influence on the use and costs of health and social services of frail elderly patients. Methods Hierarchical analysis was applied to estimate the effects of patient and municipality-level variables on services utilization. Results The variation in the use of health care services was entirely due to patient-related variables, whereas in the social services, 9% of the variation was explained by the municipality-level and 91% by the patient-level characteristics. Health-related quality of life explained a major part of variation in the costs of health care services. Those who had reported improvement in their health status during the preceding year were more frequent users of social care services. Low informal support, poor functional status and poor instrumental activities of daily living, living at a residential home, and living alone were associated with higher social services expenditure. Conclusions The results of this study showed municipality-level variation in the utilization of social services, whereas health care services provided for frail elderly people seem to be highly equitable across municipalities. Another important finding was that the utilization of social and health services were connected. Those who reported improvement in their health status during the preceding year were more frequently also using social services. This result suggests that if municipalities continue to limit the provision of support services only for those who are in the highest need, this saving in the social sector may, in the long run, result in increased costs of health care.

2012-01-01

272

Patterns of health-related quality of life and patterns associated with health risks among Rhode Island adults  

PubMed Central

Background Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has become an important consideration in assessing the impact of chronic disease on individuals as well as in populations. HRQOL is often assessed using multiple indicators. The authors sought to determine if multiple indicators of HRQOL could be used to characterize patterns of HRQOL in a population, and if so, to examine the association between such patterns and demographic, health risk and health condition covariates. Methods Data from Rhode Island's 2004 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) were used for this analysis. The BRFSS is a population-based random-digit-dialed telephone survey of adults ages 18 and older. In 2004 RI's BRFSS interviewed 3,999 respondents. A latent class regression (LCR) model, using 9 BRFSS HRQOL indicators, was used to determine latent classes of HRQOL for RI adults and to model the relationship between latent class membership and covariates. Results RI adults were categorized into four latent classes of HRQOL. Class 1 (76%) was characterized by good physical and mental HRQOL; Class 2 (9%) was characterized as having physically related poor HRQOL; Class 3 (11%) was characterized as having mentally related poor HRQOL; and Class 4 (4%) as having both physically and mentally related poor HRQOL. Class 2 was associated with older age, being female, unable to work, disabled, or unemployed, no participation in leisure time physical activity, or with having asthma or diabetes. Class 3 was associated with being female, current smoking, or having asthma or disability. Class 4 was associated with almost all the same predictors of Classes 2 and 3, i.e. older age, being female, unable to work, disabled, or unemployed, no participation in leisure time physical activity, current smoking, with having asthma or diabetes, or with low income. Conclusion Using a LCR model, the authors found 4 distinct patterns of HRQOL among RI adults. The largest class was associated with good HRQOL; three smaller classes were associated with poor HRQOL. We identified the characteristics of subgroups at higher-risk for each of the three classes of poor HRQOL. Focusing interventions on the high-risk populations may be one approach to improving HRQOL in RI.

Jiang, Yongwen; Hesser, Jana Earl

2008-01-01

273

Psychosocial, Environmental and Behavioral Factors Associated with Bone Health in Middle-School Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to identify the psychosocial, environmental and behavioral factors associated with calcium intake, physical activity and bone health in a cohort of adolescent girls. Baseline data (N = 718 girls, mean age: 11.6 plus or minus 0.4 years) from the Incorporating More Physical Activity and Calcium in Teens (IMPACT) study…

Sharma, Shreela V.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Kelder, Steven H.; Day, R. Sue; Hergenroeder, Albert

2009-01-01

274

Assessment of the health hazards associated with wastewater reuse: Transmission of geohelminthic infections (Marrakech, Morocco)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To address the problem of water scarcity, wastewater has long been used for agricultural purposes in Marrakech (Morocco) and its benefits have long been recognized. However, the benefits of urban wastewater reuse may be limited by its potential health hazards associated essentially to the danger of transmission of pathogenic organisms to human beings. The current study aimed to evaluate the

O. Amahmid; K. Bouhoum

2005-01-01

275

Milk intelligence: Mining milk for bioactive substances associated with human health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Milk has evolved as a complete food for the mammalian nourishment of its young. However, research is unveiling an ever-accumulating range of bioactivities associated with milk substituents, emphasizing a role in programming human health. One good example is the increased complexity of carbohydrates in colostrum that may have a controlling influence on the selection of gut microbiota in infants at

S. Mills; R. P. Ross; C. Hill; G. F. Fitzgerald; C. Stanton

2011-01-01

276

FOOD INSECURITY IS ASSOCIATED WITH ADVERSE HEALTH OUTCOMES AMOUNG HUMAN INFANTS AND TODDLERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The U.S. Household Food Security Scale, developed with federal support for use in national surveys, is an effective research tool. This study uses these new measures to examine associations between food insecurity and health outcomes in young children. The purpose of this study was to determine whet...

277

FOOD INSECURITY IS ASSOCIATED WITH ADVERSE HEALTH OUTCOMES AMONG HUMAN INFANTS AND TODDLERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The U.S. Household Food Security Scale, developed with federal support for use in national surveys, is an effective research tool. This study uses these new measures to examine associations between food insecurity and health outcomes in young children. The purpose of this study was to determine whet...

278

Environmental, health, and safety concerns associated with nonpetroleum fuel use in US transportation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report qualitatively examines the environmental, health, and safety concerns associated with the use of three alternative fuels in the US transportation system: methanol, compressed natural gas, and electricity. For each of these fuels, this report presents the results of a literature review, discussions with specialists, and recent data from in-use fleet tests and summarizes the state of knowledge of

J. B. Rajan; C. L. Saricks; M. K. Singh; W. J. Walsh

1989-01-01

279

CARDIOVASCULAR AND OTHER HEALTH EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH ARSENIC EXPOSURE IN INNER MONGOLIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Arsenic exposure is associated with cardiovascular and other health effects. The study objectives were to investigate the mode of action and to assess dose-response relationships of arsenic on cardiovascular, diabetic and carcinogenic effects in Ba Men, Inner Mongolia. Ba Men res...

280

The association between gout and nephrolithiasis in men: The Health Professionals' Follow-Up Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between gout and nephrolithiasis in men: The Health Professionals' Follow-Up Study. Approximately 10 million adults in the United States have experienced the passage of a kidney stone, and up to 5 million have been diagnosed with gout by a physician. Previous reports have suggested that gout increases the risk for the development of kidney stones, but there are

Holly J. Kramer; Hyon K. Choi; Karen Atkinson; Meir Stampfer; Gary C. Curhan

2003-01-01

281

The Association of Health-Related Fitness with Indicators of Academic Performance in Texas Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the associations between indicators of health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and body mass index) and academic performance (Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills). Partial correlations were generally stronger for cardiovascular fitness than body mass index and consistently stronger in the middle school…

Welk, Gregory J.; Jackson, Allen W.; Morrow, James R., Jr.; Haskell, William H.; Meredith, Marilu D.; Cooper, Kenneth H.

2010-01-01

282

Mental Health Associate Program T-056: A Program Review, Spring 1991.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At Lenoir Community College (LCC) in Kinston, North Carolina, 20% of established programs and 33% of the non-academic support services are reviewed each year in an annual cycle, with all programs reviewed within a 5-year period. To evaluate the Mental Health Associate (MHA) Program at LCC, assessment surveys were sent to 44 graduates from the…

Lenoir Community Coll., Kinston, NC.

283

Association Between Fear of Crime and Mental Health and Physical Functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. Studies have reported an inverse association between fear of crime and subjective mental and physical health. We investigated the direction of causality and the curtailment of physical and social activities as a possible mediating pathway. Methods. We analyzed data from 2002 to 2004 of the Whitehall II study, a longitudinal study of more than 10 000 London-based civil servants

Tarani Chandola; Michael Marmot

2007-01-01

284

Safety, Health and Environmental Hazards Associated with Composites: A Complete Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The need to address safety, health, and environmental hazards associated with composites and their use is a key aspect of continued growth and development within the composites industry. The complex challenges facing each facet of this field require in-de...

J. M. Olson

1992-01-01

285

Associations between Dopamine and Serotonin Genes and Job Satisfaction: Preliminary Evidence from the Add Health Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Previous behavioral genetic studies have found that job satisfaction is partially heritable. We went a step further to examine particular genetic markers that may be associated with job satisfaction. Using an oversample from the National Adolescent Longitudinal Study (Add Health Study), we found 2 genetic markers, dopamine receptor gene DRD4 VNTR…

Song, Zhaoli; Li, Wendong; Arvey, Richard D.

2011-01-01

286

The Heart's Content : The Association between Positive Psychological Well-Being and Cardiovascular Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This review investigates the association between positive psychological well-being (PPWB) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We also consider the mechanisms by which PPWB may be linked with CVD, focusing on the health behaviors (e.g., smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, sleep quality and quantity, and food consumption) and biological…

Boehm, Julia K.; Kubzansky, Laura D.

2012-01-01

287

Psychosocial, environmental and behavioral factors associated with bone health in middle-school girls  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to identify the psychosocial, environmental and behavioral factors associated with calcium intake, physical activity and bone health in a cohort of adolescent girls. Baseline data (N = 718 girls, mean age: 11.6 ±0.4 years) from the Incorporating More Physical Activity and Calcium in Teens (IMPACT) study conducted in Texas, 2001–03, were utilized for the analyses. Hierarchical linear regression was used to examine the associations of interest. Confounders adjusted for included ethnicity, menarchal status, body mass index and lactose intolerance. Several psychosocial and behavioral factors were significantly associated with bone quality. These included knowledge of calcium content of foods (? = 0.08, P = 0.016), self-efficacy toward consuming calcium-rich foods (? = 0.16, P = 0.047), physical activity self-efficacy (? = 0.20, P = 0.002), physical activity outcome expectations (? = 0.5, P = 0.004), family encouragement to do physical activity (? = 0.96, P = 0.027), friend engagement in physical activity (? = 1.3, P = 0.001) and participation in sports teams (? = 1.7, P < 0.001). Self-efficacy, social support and participation in sports teams appear to be strongly associated with bone health in adolescent girls. Future health education/health promotion programs need to address these factors for effective primary prevention of osteoporosis in this population.

Sharma, Shreela V.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Kelder, Steven H.; Day, R. Sue; Hergenroeder, Albert

2009-01-01

288

Psychosocial, Environmental and Behavioral Factors Associated with Bone Health in Middle-School Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to identify the psychosocial, environmental and behavioral factors associated with calcium intake, physical activity and bone health in a cohort of adolescent girls. Baseline data (N = 718 girls, mean age: 11.6 plus or minus 0.4 years) from the Incorporating More Physical Activity and Calcium in Teens (IMPACT) study…

Sharma, Shreela V.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Kelder, Steven H.; Day, R. Sue; Hergenroeder, Albert

2009-01-01

289

Neighborhood conditions are associated with maternal health behaviors and pregnancy outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women residing in neighborhoods of low socioeconomic status are more likely to experience adverse reproductive outcomes; however, few studies explore which specific neighborhood features are associated with poor maternal health behaviors and pregnancy outcomes. Based upon our conceptual model, directly observed street-level data from four North Carolina US counties were used to create five neighborhood indices: physical incivilities (neighborhood degradation),

L. C. Vinikoor-Imler; L. C. Messer; K. R. Evenson; B. A. Laraia

2011-01-01

290

A Qualitative Study of Consumers’ Views on Public Reporting of Health Care–Associated Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent interest in publicly reporting health care–associated infections (HAIs) makes it important to develop reports that consumers can understand and evaluate. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 59 consumers. Interviews focused on responses to existing and prototypical reports and on recommendations for improvements. Many interviewees were unfamiliar with HAIs and were distressed to learn HAIs occur and can result in

Kathleen M. Mazor; Katherine S. Dodd

2009-01-01

291

Status Report on Potential Human Health Effects Associated with Power Frequency Electric and Magnetic Fields.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Over the past 20 years, a number of scientific studies have suggested that exposure to 60 Hz electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) may be associated with human health effects, including an increased risk of cancer. The report presents the major results, act...

1991-01-01

292

Irregular Breakfast Eating and Associated Health Behaviors: A Pilot Study among College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to examine prevalence of eating breakfast and associated health compromising behaviors. This study utilized a cross-sectional survey methodology. A purposive cluster sampling technique was utilized to collect data from a representative sample of college students in a Midwestern university in the U.S. A total of 1,257…

Thiagarajah, Krisha; Torabi, Mohammad R.

2009-01-01

293

Critical incident exposure in South African emergency services personnel: prevalence and associated mental health issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To assess critical incident exposure among prehospital emergency services personnel in the developing world context of South Africa; and to assess associated mental health consequences.Methods: We recruited a representative sample from emergency services in the Western Cape Province, South Africa, to participate in this cross sectional epidemiological study. Questionnaires covered critical incident exposure, general psychopathology, risky alcohol use, symptoms

C L Ward; C J Lombard; N Gwebushe

2006-01-01

294

Health Care Provider Advice and Risk Factors Associated With Alcohol Consumption Following Pregnancy Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study examined the extent to which preg- nant women participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Pro- gram for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) were counseled by their health care providers to stop drinking alcohol during pregnancy. A sec- ond purpose was to identify characteristics associated with alcohol con- sumption postrecognition of pregnancy. Method: The sample consisted of 279

MARY J. O'CONNOR; SHANNON E. WHALEY

2006-01-01

295

Handgrip Strength, Positive Affect, and Perceived Health Are Prospectively Associated with Fewer Functional Limitations among Centenarians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study assessed the association between perceived health, fatigue, positive and negative affect, handgrip strength, objectively measured physical activity, body mass index, and self-reported functional limitations, assessed 6 months later, among 11 centenarians (age = 102 plus or minus 1). Activities of daily living, assessed 6 months prior…

Franke, Warren D.; Margrett, Jennifer A.; Heinz, Melinda; Martin, Peter

2012-01-01

296

Associations Between Dopamine and Serotonin Genes and Job Satisfaction: Preliminary Evidence From the Add Health Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous behavioral genetic studies have found that job satisfaction is partially heritable. We went a step further to examine particular genetic markers that may be associated with job satisfaction. Using an oversample from the National Adolescent Longitudinal Study (Add Health Study), we found 2 genetic markers, dopamine receptor gene DRD4 VNTR and serotonin transporter gene 5-HTTLPR, to be weakly but

Zhaoli Song; Wendong Li; Richard D. Arvey

2011-01-01

297

Factors associated with the health status of internally displaced persons in northern Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background: Globally, there are over 24 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) who have fled their homes due to violence and insecurity but who remain within their own country. There have been up to 2 million IDPs in northern Uganda alone. The objective of this study was to investigate factors associated with mental and physical health status of IDPs in northern Uganda. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in November 2006 in IDP camps in the Gulu and Amuru districts of northern Uganda. The study outcome of physical and mental health was measured using the SF-8 instrument, which produces physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) component summary measures. Independent demographic, socio-economic, and trauma exposure (using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire) variables were also measured. Multivariate regression linear regression analysis was conducted to investigate associations of the independent variables on the PCS and MCS outcomes. Results: 1206 interviews were completed. The respective mean PCS and MCS scores were 42.2 (95% CI 41.32 to 43.10) and 39.3 (95% CI 38.42 to 40.13), well below the instrument norm of 50, indicating poor health. Variables with negative associations with physical or mental health included gender, age, marital status, income, distance of camp from home areas, food security, soap availability, and sense of safety in the camp. A number of individual trauma variables and the frequency of trauma exposure also had negative associations with physical and mental health. Conclusions: This study provides evidence on the impact on health of deprivation of basic goods and services, traumatic events, and fear and uncertainty amongst displaced and crisis affected populations.

Roberts, B; Ocaka, K Felix; Browne, J; Oyok, T; Sondorp, E

2009-01-01

298

Bullying and victimization among Turkish children and adolescents: examining prevalence and associated health symptoms.  

PubMed

Over the past decade, concerns about bullying and its effects on school health have grown. However, few studies in Turkey have examined the prevalence of bullying in childhood and adolescence and its association with health problems. The current study aimed to examine the prevalence and manifestation of bullying and victimization among male and female students aged 11-15 years. A second goal was to examine the physical and psychological symptoms associated with being a bully, victim and both a bully and a victim ('bully-victim'). Participants were 1,315 students from grades 5, 7, and 9, selected from three schools in Western Turkey. Twenty percent of the students were found to be involved in the cycle of bullying (5 % as a bully, 8 % as a victim, and 7 % as bully-victims). Bullies (although not victims) were found to show decreased levels of school satisfaction and school attendance. Being a victim or a bully-victim was associated with a significantly increased risk of experiencing a wide range of physical and psychological health symptoms (victims OR, 1.67-3.38; p?associated with high levels of irritability (OR, 2.82; p?health concerns. Children that were bullies and victims were almost as vulnerable to health symptoms as children that were purely victims. Conclusion: These findings contribute to a better understanding of bullying in Turkish schools, emphasizing the negative effects of bullying involvement on health and well-being. PMID:22735980

Arslan, Sevda; Hallett, Victoria; Akkas, Esref; Akkas, Ozlem Altinbas

2012-06-27

299

The association of neighbourhood psychosocial stressors and self-rated health in Amsterdam, The Netherlands  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate associations between neighbourhood?level psychosocial stressors (i.e. experience of crime, nuisance from neighbours, drug misuse, youngsters frequently hanging around, rubbish on the streets, feeling unsafe and dissatisfaction with the quality of green space) and self?rated health in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Participants A random sample of 2914 subjects aged ??18 years from 75 neighbourhoods in the city of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Design Individual data from the Social State of Amsterdam Survey 2004 were linked to data on neighbourhood?level attributes from the Amsterdam Living and Security Survey 2003. Multilevel logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and neighbourhood?level variance. Results Fair to poor self?rated health was significantly associated with neighbourhood?level psychosocial stressors: nuisance from neighbours, drug misuse, youngsters frequently hanging around, rubbish on the streets, feeling unsafe and dissatisfaction with green space. In addition, when all the neighbourhood?level psychosocial stressors were combined, individuals from neighbourhoods with a high score of psychosocial stressors were more likely than those from neighbourhoods with a low score to report fair to poor health. These associations remained after adjustments for individual?level factors (i.e. age, sex, educational level, income and ethnicity). The neighbourhood?level variance showed significant differences in self?rated health between neighbourhoods independent of individual?level demographic and socioeconomic factors. Conclusion Our findings show that neighbourhood?level psychosocial stressors are associated with self?rated health. Strategies that target these factors might prove a promising way to improve public health.

Agyemang, Charles; van Hooijdonk, Carolien; Wendel-Vos, Wanda; Lindeman, Ellen; Stronks, Karien; Droomers, Mariel

2007-01-01

300

Veterans Affairs methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus prevention initiative associated with a sustained reduction in transmissions and health care-associated infections.  

PubMed

Implementation of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Prevention Initiative was associated with significant declines in MRSA transmission and MRSA health care-associated infection rates in Veterans Affairs acute care facilities nationwide in the 33-month period from October 2007 through June 2010. Here, we show continuing declines in MRSA transmissions (P = .004 for trend, Poisson regression) and MRSA health care-associated infections (P < .001) from July 2010 through June 2012. The Veterans Affairs Initiative was associated with these effects, sustained over 57 months, in a large national health care system. PMID:24176769

Evans, Martin E; Kralovic, Stephen M; Simbartl, Loretta A; Freyberg, Ron W; Obrosky, D Scott; Roselle, Gary A; Jain, Rajiv

2013-11-01

301

Associations between altered vitellogenin concentrations and adverse health effects in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).  

PubMed

Mechanism specific biomarkers are used in ecotoxicology to identify classes of chemicals and to inform on their presence in the environment, but their use in signalling for adverse effects has been limited by a poor understanding of their associated links with health. In this study an experimental analysis was undertaken to investigate how induction or suppression of an estrogen-dependent biomarker, vitellogenin (VTG), related to health effects in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas, FHM). Exposure to an oestrogen agonist, estradiol (29 and 60 ng/L), resulted in rapid induction of VTG (elevated plasma concentrations within 2 days of exposure) in male FHM that was subsequently slow to clear from the plasma (concentrations remained elevated 70 days after cessation of exposure). The induction of VTG to concentrations of 0.5 mg/mL, however, and its continued presence in the plasma were not associated with any overt adverse health effects to the males. In contrast, induction of higher concentrations of VTG (>1 mg/mL) in reproductively active FHM exposed to estrone (307 and 781 ng/L), were associated with impacts on male survival (>33% male mortality) and an inhibitory effect on egg production in females (>51% decrease in egg number). Exposure of reproductively active FHM to a chemical that disrupts estrogen biosynthesis (an aromatase inhibitor; fenarimol 497 microg/L) also reduced reproductive success (40% decrease in egg number), and this was associated with a reduction in plasma VTG concentrations in females (36% decrease). These findings show that high level induction or suppression (in females) of plasma VTG are associated with alterations in health status and reproductive fitness. VTG, therefore, has the potential to act as a health measure as well as a biomarker for exposure, for chemicals that alter the oestrogen signalling pathway. PMID:17942165

Thorpe, Karen L; Benstead, Rachel; Hutchinson, Thomas H; Tyler, Charles R

2007-09-14

302

Peer victimisation and its association with psychological and somatic health problems among adolescents in northern Russia  

PubMed Central

Background A growing body of evidence from countries around the world suggests that school-based peer victimisation is associated with worse health outcomes among adolescents. So far, however, there has been little systematic research on this phenomenon in the countries of the former Soviet Union. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between peer victimisation at school and a range of different psychological and somatic health problems among Russian adolescents. Methods This study used data from the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA) – a cross-sectional survey undertaken in Arkhangelsk, Russia in 2003. Information was collected from 2892 adolescents aged 12–17 about their experiences of school-based peer victimisation and on a variety of psychological and somatic health conditions. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between victimisation and health. Results Peer victimisation in school was commonplace: 22.1% of the students reported that they had experienced frequent victimisation in the current school year (girls – 17.6%; boys – 28.5%). There was a strong relationship between experiencing victimisation and reporting worse health among both boys and girls with more victimisation associated with an increased risk of experiencing worse health. Girls in the highest victimisation category had odds ratios ranging between 1.90 (problems with eyes) and 5.26 (aches/pains) for experiencing somatic complaints when compared to their non-victimised counterparts, while the corresponding figures for boys were 2.04 (headaches) and 4.36 (aches/pains). Girls and boys who had the highest victimisation scores were also 2.42 (girls) and 3.33 (boys) times more likely to report symptoms of anxiety, over 5 times more likely to suffer from posttraumatic stress and over 6 times more likely to experience depressive symptoms. Conclusion Peer victimisation at school has a strong association with poor health outcomes among Russian adolescents. Effective school-based interventions are now urgently needed to counter the negative effects of victimisation on adolescents’ health in Russia.

2013-01-01

303

Impacts of climate change on the population health associated with pluvial disaster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many metropolises located in lowlands suffer pluvial inundation disaster more than pluvial flood disaster. During the post-inundation period, some water-borne illnesses would be induced from the polluted area. For improving mitigation strategies, population health risk assessment is an important tool of post-inundation disaster management, especially in the countries suffering tropical cyclones and monsoon with high frequency. Locating in the hot zone of typhoon tracks in the Western Pacific, Taiwan suffers three to five typhoons annually. Furthermore, the trend of 24 global circulation models (GCMs) shows that climate change would enhance rainfall in Taiwan. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impacts of climate change on the population health associated with pluvial disaster. This study applies the concept that risk is composed by hazard and vulnerability to assess the risk of the population health associated with pluvial disaster. Stochastic simulation of bi-variate Gamma distribution is developed to downscale the GCMs' monthly data to extreme rainfall event scale in time domain. According to A1B scenario in short-term period of climate change, two-dimensional overland-flow coupled with drainage systems simulation is performed based on a design extreme rainfall event to calculate the impacts of climate change on pluvial hazard to population health, including flood depth, velocity and the duration of flood recession. The environmental vulnerability for population health is carried out according to the factors of resident and environment. The risk matrix is applied to show the risk by composing the inundation hazards and vulnerabilities associated with population health. The Taipei City, the Capital of Taiwan, is selected as the case study because the highest density of population in Taiwan causes high exposure to the risk of water-borne illnesses. Through assessing the impacts of climate change on the population health associated with pluvial disaster of the Taipei City, the analytical results of pluvial-induced health risk can provide useful information for setting mitigation strategies of post-inundation disaster management. Keywords: climate change, population health, pluvial disaster.

Pan, Tsung-Yi; Chang, Tsang-Jung; Cheng, Ke-Sheng; Lai, Jihn-Sung; Chang, Hsiang-Kuan; Wu, Yii-Chen; Ho, Hao-Wei

2013-04-01

304

I35W collapse, rebuild, and structural health monitoring - challenges associated with structural health monitoring of bridge systems  

SciTech Connect

During evening rush hour traffic on August 1, 2007, the major interstate highway bridge carrying I35W over the Mississippi River in Minneapolis catastrophically failed, tragically taking the lives of thirteen people and injuring many more. The steel truss bridge, constructed in 1967, was undergoing deck reconstruction during the collapse, and was estimated to carry more than 140,000 vehicles daily. This tragedy generated great interest in employment of structural health monitoring systems. The I35W St. Anthony Falls Bridge, a post-tensioned concrete box bridge constructed to replace the collapsed steel truss bridge, contains over 500 instruments to monitor the structural behavior. Numerical models of the bridge are being developed and calibrated to the collected data obtained from truck load tests and thermal effects. The data obtained over the first few years of monitoring are being correlated with the calibrated models and used to develop the baseline bridge behavior. This information is being used to develop a system to monitor and interpret the long-term behavior of the bridge. This paper describes the instrumentation, preliminary results from the data and model calibration, the plan for developing long-term monitoring capabilities, and the challenges associated with structural health monitoring of bridge systems. In addition, opportunities and directions for future research required to fully realize the objectives of structural health monitoring are described.

French, C. E.; Hedegaard, B.; Shield, C. K.; Stolarski, H. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

2011-06-23

305

Instrumentalism, civil association and the ethics of health care: understanding the "politics of faith".  

PubMed

This paper offers critical reflection on the contemporary tendency to approach health care in instrumentalist terms. Instrumentalism is means-ends rationality. In contemporary society, the instrumentalist attitude is exemplified by the relationship between individual consumer and a provider of goods and services. The problematic nature of this attitude is illustrated by Michael Oakeshott's conceptions of enterprise association and civil association. Enterprise association is instrumental; civil association is association in terms of an ethically delineated realm of practices. The latter offers a richer ethical conception of the relation between person and society than instrumentalism does. Oakeshott's conception is further illustrated by reflection on the connection between morality and religion that he explores in an early essay concerning "religious sensibility". Religious sensibility turns on the acknowledgement of the vulnerability of the self to the vicissitudes of life. This vulnerability cannot be bargained over instrumentally without imperilling the self. Religious sensibility is thus a valuable resource for criticising instrumentalist attitudes. It allows for the cultivation of ethical self-understanding that is essential to comprehending the conditions in virtue of which genuine civil life is possible. These conditions need to be taken into account in health care. Health care is not simply about substantive wants. It also necessarily concerns the universal and constant condition of being prey to illness that is the common lot of all citizens. PMID:23612784

Sedgwick, Peter R

2013-09-01

306

Factors Associated with Medication Refill Adherence in Cardiovascular-related Diseases: A Focus on Health Literacy  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND The factors influencing medication adherence have not been fully elucidated. Inadequate health literacy skills may impair comprehension of medical care instructions, and thereby reduce medication adherence. OBJECTIVES To examine the relationship between health literacy and medication refill adherence among Medicare managed care enrollees with cardiovascular-related conditions. RESEARCH DESIGN Prospective cohort study. SUBJECTS New Medicare enrollees from 4 managed care plans who completed an in-person survey and were identified through administrative data as having coronary heart disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and/or hyperlipidemia (n=1,549). MEASURES Health literacy was determined using the short form of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA). Prospective administrative data were used to calculate the cumulative medication gap (CMG), a valid measure of medication refill adherence, over a 1-year period. Low adherence was defined as CMG?20%. RESULTS Overall, 40% of the enrollees had low refill adherence. Bivariate analyses indicated that health literacy, race/ethnicity, education, and regimen complexity were each related to medication refill adherence (P<.05). In unadjusted analysis, those with inadequate health literacy skills had increased odds (odds ratio [OR]=1.37, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08 to 1.74) of low refill adherence compared with those with adequate health literacy skills. However, the OR for inadequate health literacy and low refill adherence was not statistically significant in multivariate analyses (OR=1.23, 95% CI: 0.92 to 1.64). CONCLUSIONS The present study suggests, but did not conclusively demonstrate, that low health literacy predicts poor refill adherence. Given the prevalence of both conditions, future research should continue to examine this important potential association.

Gazmararian, Julie A; Kripalani, Sunil; Miller, Michael J; Echt, Katharina V; Ren, Junling; Rask, Kimberly

2006-01-01

307

Linear and Non-Linear Associations of Gonorrhea Diagnosis Rates with Social Determinants of Health  

PubMed Central

Identifying how social determinants of health (SDH) influence the burden of disease in communities and populations is critically important to determine how to target public health interventions and move toward health equity. A holistic approach to disease prevention involves understanding the combined effects of individual, social, health system, and environmental determinants on geographic area-based disease burden. Using 2006–2008 gonorrhea surveillance data from the National Notifiable Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance and SDH variables from the American Community Survey, we calculated the diagnosis rate for each geographic area and analyzed the associations between those rates and the SDH and demographic variables. The estimated product moment correlation (PMC) between gonorrhea rate and SDH variables ranged from 0.11 to 0.83. Proportions of the population that were black, of minority race/ethnicity, and unmarried, were each strongly correlated with gonorrhea diagnosis rates. The population density, female proportion, and proportion below the poverty level were moderately correlated with gonorrhea diagnosis rate. To better understand relationships among SDH, demographic variables, and gonorrhea diagnosis rates, more geographic area-based estimates of additional variables are required. With the availability of more SDH variables and methods that distinguish linear from non-linear associations, geographic area-based analysis of disease incidence and SDH can add value to public health prevention and control programs.

Moonesinghe, Ramal; Fleming, Eleanor; Truman, Benedict I.; Dean, Hazel D.

2012-01-01

308

Risk Factors and Health Profiles of Recent Migrant Women Who Experienced Violence Associated with Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Violence associated with pregnancy is a major public health concern, but little is known about it in recent migrant women. This study looked at (1) risk factors for violence associated with pregnancy among newly arrived migrant women in Canada and (2) if those who experienced violence associated with pregnancy had a different health profile or use of healthcare services for themselves or their infants during pregnancy and up to 4 months postpartum compared to other childbearing migrant women. Methods Pregnant migrant women in Canada <5 years were recruited in 12 hospitals in 3 large cities between 2006 and 2009 and followed to 4 months postpartum. Data were collected on maternal background, migration history, violence associated with pregnancy, maternal and infant physical and mental health, and services used. Results Of a total of 774 pregnant migrant women, 59 (7.6%) women reported violence associated with pregnancy. Migrant women who experienced violence, compared to those who did not, were at increased risk of violence if they lived without a partner, were asylum seekers, migrated <2 years ago, or had less than high school education. Women who reported violence were less likely to have up-to-date vaccinations, take folic acid before pregnancy, more likely to commence prenatal care after 3 months gestation and to not use contraceptives after birth. They were also more likely to have a history of miscarriage and report more postpartum pain and increased bleeding. They were also more likely to have inadequate social support and report more depression, anxiety, somatization, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on standardized tests. No differences were found in the health status of the infants of women who experienced violence compared to those who did not. Conclusions Clinicians should sensitively ask recent migrant women (asylum seekers, refugees, and nonrefugee immigrants) about violence associated with pregnancy and appropriately assess, treat, and refer them.

Gagnon, Anita J.; Merry, Lisa A.; Dennis, Cindy-Lee

2012-01-01

309

ASSOCIATION OF PERSONAL AND WORKPLACE CHARACTERISTICS WITH REPORTED HEALTH SYMPTOMS OF 6771 GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES IN WASHINGTON, DC  

EPA Science Inventory

An indoor air quality questionnaire was completed by 6771 employees of two government agencies. egression analyses on 12 clusters of health symptoms indicated that both personal and workplace characteristics were associated with symptoms. he variables associated with the largest ...

310

Predisposing, enabling, and need factors associated with high service use in a public mental health system.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) To investigate the individual- and system-level characteristics associated with high utilization of acute mental health services according to a widely-used theory of service use-Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Service Use -in individuals enrolled in a large, public-funded mental health system; and (2) To document service utilization by high use consumers prior to a transformation of the service delivery system. We analyzed data from 10,128 individuals receiving care in a large public mental health system from fiscal years 2000-2004. Subjects with information in the database for the index year (fiscal year 2000-2001) and all of the following 3 years were included in this study. Using logistic regression, we identified predisposing, enabling, and need characteristics associated with being categorized as a single-year high use consumer (HU: >3 acute care episodes in a single year) or multiple-year HU (>3 acute care episodes in more than 1 year). Thirteen percent of the sample met the criteria for being a single-year HU and an additional 8% met the definition for multiple-year HU. Although some predisposing factors were significantly associated with an increased likelihood of being classified as a HU (younger age and female gender) relative to non-HUs, the characteristics with the strongest associations with the HU definition, when controlling for all other factors, were enabling and need factors. Homelessness was associated with 115% increase in the odds of ever being classified as a HU compared to those living independently or with family and others. Having insurance was associated with increased odds of being classified as a HU by about 19% relative to non-HUs. Attending four or more outpatient visits was an enabling factor that decreased the chances of being defined as a HU. Need factors, such as having a diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or other psychotic disorder or having a substance use disorder increased the likelihood of being categorized as a HU. Characteristics with the strongest association with heavy use of a public mental health system were enabling and need factors. Therefore, optimal use of public mental services may be achieved by developing and implementing interventions that address the issues of homelessness, insurance coverage, and substance use. This may be best achieved by the integration of mental health, intensive case management, and supportive housing, as well as other social services. PMID:21533848

Lindamer, Laurie A; Liu, Lin; Sommerfeld, David H; Folsom, David P; Hawthorne, William; Garcia, Piedad; Aarons, Gregory A; Jeste, Dilip V

2012-05-01

311

Modeling the Association Between Particle Constituents of Air Pollution and Health Outcomes  

PubMed Central

There is increasing interest in evaluating the association between specific fine-particle (particles with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 µm; PM2.5) constituents and adverse health outcomes rather than focusing solely on the impact of total PM2.5. Because PM2.5 may be related to both constituent concentration and health outcomes, constituents that are more strongly correlated with PM2.5 may appear more closely related to adverse health outcomes than other constituents even if they are not inherently more toxic. Therefore, it is important to properly account for potential confounding by PM2.5 in these analyses. Usually, confounding is due to a factor that is distinct from the exposure and outcome. However, because constituents are a component of PM2.5, standard covariate adjustment is not appropriate. Similar considerations apply to source-apportioned concentrations and studies assessing either short-term or long-term impacts of constituents. Using data on 18 constituents and data from 1,060 patients admitted to a Boston medical center with ischemic stroke in 2003–2008, the authors illustrate several options for modeling the association between constituents and health outcomes that account for the impact of PM2.5. Although the different methods yield results with different interpretations, the relative rankings of the association between constituents and ischemic stroke were fairly consistent across models.

Mostofsky, Elizabeth; Schwartz, Joel; Coull, Brent A.; Koutrakis, Petros; Wellenius, Gregory A.; Suh, Helen H.; Gold, Diane R.; Mittleman, Murray A.

2012-01-01

312

Association between subjective memory complaints and health care utilisation: a three-year follow up  

PubMed Central

Background Subjective memory complaints (SMC) are common among elderly patients and little is know about the association between SMC and health care utilisation. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate health care utilisation during a three-year follow-up among elderly patients consulting their general practitioner and reporting subjective memory complaints (SMC). Methods This study was conducted as a prospective cohort survey in general practice with three-year follow-up. Selected health care utilisation or costs relative to SMC adjusted for potential confounders were analyzed in a two-part model where the incidence of use of a selected health care service were analyzed separately from the quantity of use for those that use the service. The former analyzed in a Poisson regression approach, the latter in a generalized linear regression model. Results A total 758 non-nursing home residents aged 65 years and older consulted their GP in October and November 2002 and participated in the present study. The adjusted probability of nursing home placement was significantly increased in subjects with SMC relative to subjects without SMC (RR = 2.3). More generally, SMC was associated with an increase in the cost of selected health care utilisation of 60% over three years (p = 0.003). Conclusion The data of this study indicated that in an elderly primary care population the presence of SMC increased the cost of health care utilisation by 60% over three years. Thus, inquiry into SMC may contribute to a risk profile assessment of elderly patients and may identify patients with an increased use of health care services.

Waldorff, Frans Boch; Siersma, Volkert; Waldemar, Gunhild

2009-01-01

313

Building public health associations in the transition countries of south-eastern Europe: the example of Albania.  

PubMed

The Albanian Forum of Public Health (AFPH), an umbrella organization including different public health associations operating in Albania, was established in March 2004 with the support of the European Public Health Association (EUPHA) and the Open Society Institute (OSI). Ever since its establishment the AFPH has been an open arena wherein opinions and options for rational health policies comprising all relevant issues of the New Public Health are discussed, formulated, and documented near the Albanian Ministry of Health. Notwithstanding the laudable mission of the AFPH, there is an emerging need to establish a regional Public Health Forum in south-east Europe as a basic prerequisite for sustainable development of public health in these countries. Most conveniently, this regional umbrella organization should have a supporting Secretariat based in one of the south-east European countries. Nevertheless, there is a clear call for international funding with participation of different agencies and bodies (OSI, EUPHA, Canadian International Development Agency, and the Stability Pact). A regional association in the south-east Europe would enable the organization of annual conferences in the most renowned institutions in the region. Also, a regional collaboration among public health associations would be a suitable start for the development of research in south-east Europe. Furthermore, the existence of a regional public health association would make feasible the establishment of a scientific public health journal for south-east Europe in the English language. PMID:16601111

Roshi, Enver; Burazeri, Genc; Bjegovic, Vesna; Georgieva, Lidia; Donev, Doncho; Scintee, Gabriela; Hysa, Bajram; Laaser, Ulrich

2006-04-06

314

Position of the American Dietetic Association: optimal weight as a health promotion strategy.  

PubMed

The American Dietetic Association supports the concept of optimal weight that considers a variety of factors to determine the most favorable weight for the individual. Adequate research exists to support the following: The prevention of obesity in children and adults through nutrition and health education should be a primary objective for registered dietitians and other health care professionals. Optimal weight for individuals should be determined by considering health risks, heredity, age, sex, percentage body fat, and realistic goal-setting. Children should not be placed on restricted-calorie diets; rather, efforts should be made to encourage the child to be physically active, to eat a well-balanced diet, and to return to internal control of eating. Also, normalization of the feeding relationship between parent and child is important. Weight control programs should include behavioral management techniques for food intake, exercise, stress, and improved self-esteem. The programs should focus on loss of body fat and avoidance of repeated diet failures. Healthful behaviors that can prevent and reduce the incidence of obesity should be encouraged by registered dietitians and other health care providers, educators, the food industry, insurance companies, employers, school programs, and families. The concept of optimal weight may be modified as scientific evidence is accumulated on the determinants of body composition and weight, effective nutrition and health education approaches, and effective weight management strategies. Research is needed to permit development of more effective weight management strategies and programs for the overweight population. PMID:2592715

1989-12-01

315

Worse than sticks and stones? Bullying is associated with altered HPA axis functioning and poorer health.  

PubMed

Adolescents (N=107; M=12.23 years, SD=1.09 months) participated in a two-part study examining peer victimization, neuroendocrine functioning, and physical health. In phase 1, adolescents completed questionnaires assessing peer victimization and health. They returned for phase 2 which consisted of two sessions. In session 1, adolescents learned to collect salivary cortisol samples; they collected four samples over 2 non-sports school days. In session 2, adolescents completed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in which they prepared and delivered a speech while cortisol was collected. Peer victimization predicted poor health outcomes and a flattened cortisol awakening response (CAR); this CAR was linked with health problems. During the TSST, victims reported more stress and exhibited altered cortisol levels. Higher cortisol immediately after the stressor and lower cortisol 30 min after the stressor were associated with more health problems. This study provides evidence that the relationship between peer victimization and poor physical health may be explained by differences in neuroendocrine functioning. PMID:21839567

Knack, Jennifer M; Jensen-Campbell, Lauri A; Baum, Andrew

2011-08-11

316

Menstrual health care behavior and associated factors among female elementary students in the Hualien region.  

PubMed

The purposes of this study were to measure menstrual knowledge, assess menstrual health care behavior and investigate the factors associated with menstrual health care behavior among fifth and sixth grade female students. The subjects were 417 female students from 12 elementary schools in the Hualien region of Taiwan. The stratified cluster random sampling method was adopted. The questionnaire used in the study consisted of three sections: personal information, a menstrual knowledge questionnaire, and a menstrual health care behavior questionnaire. The results of this study show that the majority of the respondents felt that menstruation had an influence on their emotions (74.8%), daily life (73.1%), schoolwork (61.6%), and social interaction (50.1%). The total correct response rate for the menstrual knowledge questionnaire was 45.1%. There was a significant difference between aboriginal and non-aboriginal female students in terms of the correct answer rate for the menstrual knowledge questionnaire. The mean score for menstrual health care behavior was 2.66 (SD = 0.82). Elementary level female students who had better menarche preparation scored higher on the menstrual knowledge questionnaire, and those whose first period had already occurred felt more confident in their ability to execute proper menstrual health care behavior. The results prompted the recommendation to families and elementary schools to encourage students to improve their menstrual health care behavior during menses. PMID:18348103

Chang, Yu-Ting; Chen, Yueh-Chih

2008-03-01

317

Differences in the Association between Social Support and Mental Health in a MultiCultural Population in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals who report higher levels of social support also report better mental and physical health. This study characterises levels of social support in three distinct populations in Israel, and assesses the extent to which social support is associated with mental health. Data from the National Health Survey (2003—4) was analysed. Social support was measured by having trust in others, having

Orna Baron-Epel

2009-01-01

318

Food Avoidance and Food Modification Practices of Older Rural Adults: Association with Oral Health Status and Implications for Service Provision  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: Dietary variation is important for health maintenance and disease prevention among older adults. However, oral health deficits impair ability to bite and chew foods. This study examines the association between oral health and foods avoided or modified in a multiethnic rural population of older adults. It considers implications for…

Quandt, Sara A.; Chen, Haiying; Bell, Ronny A.; Savoca, Margaret R.; Anderson, Andrea M.; Leng, Xiaoyan; Kohrman, Teresa; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Arcury, Thomas A.

2010-01-01

319

Food Avoidance and Food Modification Practices of Older Rural Adults: Association with Oral Health Status and Implications for Service Provision  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Dietary variation is important for health maintenance and disease prevention among older adults. However, oral health deficits impair ability to bite and chew foods. This study examines the association between oral health and foods avoided or modified in a multiethnic rural population of older adults. It considers implications for…

Quandt, Sara A.; Chen, Haiying; Bell, Ronny A.; Savoca, Margaret R.; Anderson, Andrea M.; Leng, Xiaoyan; Kohrman, Teresa; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Arcury, Thomas A.

2010-01-01

320

The ABC of Physical Activity for Health: A consensus statement from the British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our understanding of the relationship between physical activity and health is constantly evolving. Therefore, the British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences convened a panel of experts to review the literature and produce guidelines that health professionals might use. In the ABC of Physical Activity for Health, A is for All healthy adults, B is for Beginners, and C is

Gary ODonovan; Anthony J. Blazevich; Colin Boreham; Ashley R. Cooper; Helen Crank; Ulf Ekelund; Kenneth R. Fox; Paul Gately; Billie Giles-Corti; Jason M. R. Gill; Mark Hamer; Ian McDermott; Marie Murphy; Nanette Mutrie; John J. Reilly; John M. Saxton; Emmanuel Stamatakis

2010-01-01

321

Does socioeconomic status affect the association of social relationships and health? A moderator analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Social relations have repeatedly been found to be an important determinant of health. However, it is unclear whether the association between social relations and health is consistent throughout different status groups. It is likely that health effects of social relations vary in different status groups, as stated in the hypothesis of differential vulnerability. In this analysis we explore whether socioeconomic status (SES) moderates the association between social relations and health. Methods In the baseline examination of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall study, conducted in a dense populated Western German region (N = 4,814, response rate 56%), SES was measured by income and education. Social relations were classified by using both structural as well as functional measures. The Social Integration Index was used as a structural measure, whilst functional aspects were assessed by emotional and instrumental support. Health was indicated by self-rated health (1 item) and a short version of the CES-D scale measuring the frequency of depressive symptoms. Based on logistic regression models we calculated the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) which indicates existing moderator effects. Results Our findings show highest odds ratios (ORs) for both poor self-rated health and more frequent depressive symptoms when respondents have a low SES as well as inappropriate social relations. For example, respondents with low income and a low level of social integration have an OR for a high depression score of 2.85 (95% CI 2.32-4.49), compared to an OR of 1.44 (95% CI 1.12-1.86) amongst those with a low income but a high level of social integration and an OR of 1.72 (95% CI 1.45-2.03) amongst respondents with high income but a low level of social integration. As reference group those reporting high income and a high level of social integration were used. Conclusions The analyses indicate that the association of social relations and subjective health differs across SES groups as we find moderating effects of SES. However, results are inconsistent as nearly all RERI scores are positive but do not reach a significant level. Also moderating effects vary between women and men and depending on the indicators of SES and social relations used. Thus, the hypothesis of differential vulnerability can only partially be supported. In terms of practical implications, psychosocial and health interventions aiming towards the enhancement of social relations should especially consider the situation of the socially deprived.

2011-01-01

322

The prevalence of depression and associated factors in Ethiopia: findings from the National Health Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Integrating mental health into primarily health care and studying risk for mental health particularly depression needs assessment of different factors including those that impede diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders. But so far the numbers of literature for local context to analyze risk factors for depression and its treatment are scare. The objective of this study was to assess risk factors and health service attendance for depression among adults, in Ethiopia. Methods For this analysis, data from the Ethiopian National health survey was used. The Ethiopian national health survey studied 4,925 adults aged 18 years and older to obtain among other things, data on depression episodes, socio-demographic, chronic diseases, life style factors and treatment receiving for depression episodes in the past twelve months using questionnaire from world health organization (WHO). Prevalence of Depression in respondents based on ICD-10 criteria was estimated and logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for depression and treatment receiving. Results The prevalence of depressive episode was 9.1% (95% CI: 8.39-9.90). In a Univariate analysis, residence, age, marital status, educational status, number of diagnosed chronic non communicable diseases (heart diseases, diabetic mellitus and arthritis) and alcohol drinking status were associated with depression. After full adjustment for possible confounding, odds ratios for depression were significantly higher only for older age, divorced and widowed, number of diagnosed chronic non communicable diseases and alcohol drinking status. The proportion of attending health service among those with depression episodes was 22.9%. After full control for all socio-demographic variables the only predictor variable was educational status, being in grade 5–8 had a higher odds (OR=2.6, 95% CI: 1.23-5.43) and 9–12 grade (OR=1.8 95% CI: 1.45-6.12) of attending service for depressive episodes. Conclusions Age, marital status, number of diagnosed chronic non communicable diseases and alcohol consumption were the most important risk factors for depressive episodes. Generally there was lower use of health service for depressive episodes and low educational status was found to be barriers for service use. There is a need to formulate policy for mental health and training of primary health care workers in mental health to early identify and treat cases with depression episodes, so as to decrease prevalence of depression episodes and to improve accessibility of service use.

2012-01-01

323

Evaluation of potential health effects associated with serum polychlorinated biphenyl levels  

SciTech Connect

In late 1983, we conducted a cross-sectional epidemiologic study to evaluate persons at risk of exposure to three chemical waste sites by comparing clinical disease end points and clinical chemistry parameters with serum polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) levels. A total of 106 individuals participated in the study. The only statistically significant finding in regard to self-reported, physician-diagnosed health problems was a dose-response relationship between serum PCB levels and the occurrence of high blood pressure; however, this association failed to achieve statistical significance when we controlled for possible confounding effects of both age and smoking. Serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels were also higher in the group with elevated serum PCBs; additionally, there were isolated statistically significant correlations of serum aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT) with serum lipid fraction-adjusted PCB level and serum albumin and total bilirubin with serum PCB level. Although the ranges of serum levels reported herein from exposures to PCBs in the general environment are lower than those that have been associated with acute symptoms or illness in other studies, whether these levels are associated with long-term health risks is not known. Associations of such chronic, low-dose exposures with observable health effects as suggested by this study must be evaluated further before any final conclusions can be drawn.

Stehr-Green, P.A.; Welty, E.; Steele, G.; Steinberg, K.

1986-12-01

324

Association between physical and cognitive function in healthy elderly: the health, aging and body composition study.  

PubMed

Performance measures of physical function (gait speed, chair stands, standing balance) and cognitive function [Teng-modified Mini-Mental Status Exam (3MS) and digit symbol substitution test (DSST)] were assessed at baseline in 3,075 participants in the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study. Each physical function measure was examined for the strength and magnitude of association with cognitive function. All physical function measures were associated with both the 3MS and DSST scores (p < 0.001), and in multivariate analysis each relationship was independent of demographic characteristics, weight, physical activity and comorbid health conditions of participants. The association of motor performance was consistently greater for the DSST than the 3MS and, among the motor tests, gait speed retained a significant association with both cognitive measures independent of demographic, weight, physical activity and comorbid health conditions. In this large cohort of high-functioning older adults, the correlation between physical and cognitive function was not entirely explained by demographics. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine the direction of causality in this relationship. PMID:15459503

Rosano, Caterina; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Harris, Tamara B; Kritchevsky, Steven B; Brach, Jennifer; Visser, Marjolein; Yaffe, Kristine; Newman, Anne B

2005-01-01

325

THE ASSOCIATION OF RESILIENCE WITH MENTAL AND PHYSICAL HEALTH AMONG OLDER AMERICAN INDIANS: THE NATIVE ELDER CARE STUDY  

PubMed Central

We examined the association of resilience with measures of mental and physical health in a sample of older American Indians (AIs). A validated scale measuring resilience was administered to 185 noninstitutionalized AIs aged ?55 years. Unadjusted analyses revealed that higher levels of resilience were associated with lower levels of depressive symptomatology and chronic pain, and with higher levels of mental and physical health. Resilience remained significantly associated with depressive symptomatology after controlling for demographic and other health measures. Our findings suggest that resilience among older AIs has important implications for some aspects of mental and physical health.

Schure, Marc B.; Odden, Michelle; Goins, R. Turner

2013-01-01

326

Health Problems and Medical Utilization Associated With Gambling Disorders: Results From the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Pathologic gambling is believed to be associated with adverse health consequences, but no prior studies have rigorously evaluated these relationships. We sought to examine medical disorders and health service utilization associated with problem and pathologic gambling. Method: A total of 43,093 adults aged 18 years and older were evaluated in the 2001 to 2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol

BENJAMIN J. MORASCO; ROBERT H. PIETRZAK; CARLOS BLANCO; BRIDGET F. GRANT; DEBORAH HASIN; NANCY M. PETRY

2006-01-01

327

Child Physical Abuse and Concurrence of Other Types of Child Abuse in Sweden--Associations with Health and Risk Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine the associations between child physical abuse executed by a parent or caretaker and self-rated health problems/risk-taking behaviors among teenagers. Further to evaluate concurrence of other types of abuse and how these alone and in addition to child physical abuse were associated with bad health status and risk-taking…

Annerback, E. M.; Sahlqvist, L.; Svedin, C. G.; Wingren, G.; Gustafsson, P. A.

2012-01-01

328

Factors associated with early menarche: results from the French Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Puberty is a transition period making physiological development a challenge adolescents have to face. Early pubertal development could be associated with higher risks of poor health. Our objective was to examine risk behaviours, physical and psychological determinants associated with early menarche (<11 years). METHODS: Early menarche was assessed in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children French cross-sectional survey. Data

Adrien Gaudineau; Virginie Ehlinger; Christophe Vayssiere; Beatrice Jouret; Catherine Arnaud; Emmanuelle Godeau

2010-01-01

329

Child Physical Abuse and Concurrence of Other Types of Child Abuse in Sweden--Associations with Health and Risk Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To examine the associations between child physical abuse executed by a parent or caretaker and self-rated health problems/risk-taking behaviors among teenagers. Further to evaluate concurrence of other types of abuse and how these alone and in addition to child physical abuse were associated with bad health status and risk-taking…

Annerback, E. M.; Sahlqvist, L.; Svedin, C. G.; Wingren, G.; Gustafsson, P. A.

2012-01-01

330

Associations of Depressive Symptoms With Health Behaviors, Stress, and Self-assessed Health Status in Hawai'i: A Population Study.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine how depressive symptoms are associated with health behaviors, stress, and self-assessed health status in the population of Hawai'i. METHODS: Randomized phone calls were made using computer assistant telephone interviews. A regression analysis with depressive symptoms as the outcome and sociodemographic variables, health behaviors, stress, and health status as predictors was conducted in 1483 adults. RESULTS: Depressive symptoms were associated with stress (? = .32), alcohol consumption (? = .19), health status (? = -.10), fast food consumption (? = .06), avoidance of fat (? = -.06), and fruit and vegetable consumption (? = .06). Moreover, depressive symptoms were linked to being female (? = .06), being single (? = -.06), and being Caucasian compared with being Native Hawaiian (? = -.06) or Japanese (? = -.08). The overall explained variance was 22%. CONCLUSION: Depressive symptoms correlate with health risk behaviors and might be considered as a risk for chronic diseases. PMID:22743856

Pomp, Sarah; Keller, Stefan; Maddock, Jay E

2012-06-28

331

Psychosocial Factors Associated With Routine Health Examination Scheduling and Receipt Among African American Men  

PubMed Central

Introduction African American men often fail to obtain routine health examinations, which increases the probability of disease detection, yet little is known about psychosocial factors that motivate scheduling and receipt among this group. Methods We used the Andersen model and theory of reasoned action as frameworks to evaluate the relative contribution of psychosocial factors to self-reported routine health examination scheduling and receipt in a cross-sectional sample of African American men (N = 386) recruited from barbershops (65.3%) and academic institutions/events (34.7%) in Michigan, Georgia, and North Carolina between 2003-2004 and 2007-2009. Participants completed measures assessing demographic factors, physical/mental health status, traditional male role norms, health-promoting male subjective norms, health value, and medical mistrust. Pearson's ?2, analysis of variance, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to investigate associations between these study factors and routine health examination scheduling and receipt in the past year. Results After final adjustment, the odds of scheduling a routine health examination were increased for men with a usual source of care (OR, 5.48; 95% CI, 3.06-9.78) and more health-promoting male subjective norms exposure (OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.02-2.04). Higher medical mistrust (OR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.09-0.76) and traditional male role norms (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.52-0.98) reduced the odds of routine health examination receipt. The odds of routine health examination receipt were increased among men who were older (OR=1.05; 95% CI, 1.01-1.10), had a usual source of care (OR, 2.91; 95% CI, 1.54-5.51) and reported more male subjective norms exposure (OR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.02-2.22). Conclusions Improving African American men's uptake of routine health examinations will require addressing medical mistrust, mitigating traditional masculine concerns about disclosing vulnerability, and leveraging male social networks.

Hammond, Wizdom Powell; Matthews, Derrick; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

2010-01-01

332

Gender-specific responses to social determinants associated with self-perceived health in Taiwan: A multilevel approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are well-documented gender differences in health. However, few studies have considered that the associations of personal and household characteristics with perceived health may vary between men and women because of their different socialized gender roles. This study investigates gender differences in health and addresses gender-specific responses to individual- and household-level determinants of health. We analyze the data of the

Duan-Rung Chen; Ly-Yun Chang; Meng-Li Yang

2008-01-01

333

Women's Health Policies Associated with Obesity, Diabetes, High Blood Pressure, and Smoking: A Follow-Up on the Women's Health Report Card  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to elucidate associations between state-level policies related to women's health and state prevalence of obesity, smoking, high blood pressure, and diabetes among women. Using data from national sources compiled for Making the Grade on Women's Health: A National and State-by-State Report Card, state policies on key women's health issues were evaluated on the degree to which policies

Jennifer P. Wisdom; Yvonne L. Michael; Katrina Ramsey; Michelle Berlin

2008-01-01

334

Associations of job strain and working overtime with adverse health behaviors and obesity: Evidence from the Whitehall II Study, Helsinki Health Study, and the Japanese Civil Servants Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adverse health behaviors and obesity are key determinants of major chronic diseases. Evidence on work-related determinants of these behavioral risk factors is inconclusive, and comparative studies are especially lacking. We aimed to examine the associations between job strain, working overtime, adverse health behaviors, and obesity among 45–60-year-old white-collar employees of the Whitehall II Study from London (n=3397), Helsinki Health Study

Tea Lallukka; Eero Lahelma; Ossi Rahkonen; Eva Roos; Elina Laaksonen; Pekka Martikainen; Jenny Head; Eric Brunner; Annhild Mosdol; Michael Marmot; Michikazu Sekine; Ali Nasermoaddeli; Sadanobu Kagamimori

2008-01-01

335

Increased health burden associated with comorbid depression in older Brazilians with diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background The health burden associated with comorbid depression and diabetes in older community residents in middle income countries is unclear. Methods Data came from a statewide representative sample (N= 6,963, age ?60) in Brazil. Controlled polytomous logistic regression was used to determine whether four mutually exclusive groups (all possible combinations of the presence or absence of depression and diabetes) differed in sociodemographic characteristics, social resources, health behaviors, and selected health conditions. Results While 2.37% were expected to have comorbid depression/diabetes given sample base rates (depression: 20.92% [1457/6963]; diabetes: 11.35% [790/6959]), comorbidity was present in 3.62% (52.5% beyond expectation; P<0.0001; OR = 1.58, 95% Confidence Interval 1.29–1.95). Depression without diabetes was reported by17.3%, and diabetes without depression by 7.7%. In controlled analyses, the depression group had poorer socioeconomic status and health behaviors, and a greater likelihood of vascular, respiratory, and musculoskeletal problems than the diabetes group. Vascular, respiratory, and urinary problems were exacerbated in comorbid depression/diabetes; the comorbid group was also more likely to be female and younger. Limitations cross-sectional design. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study that explicitly reports on all four possible depression/diabetes combinations in an older representative community-resident sample, using controlled analyses to identify unique associations with sociodemographic characteristics and other health conditions. The burden of comorbid depression/diabetes in Brazil, a middle income country, appears to be comparable to that found in higher income countries. So, similarly, depression without diabetes had a greater odds of adverse sociodemographic and health conditions than diabetes without depression; comorbid depression/diabetes was more likely in women and young elderly, and the odds of vascular, respiratory, and urinary conditions was increased significantly. Attention to comorbid depression/diabetes as a unique entity is needed.

Blay, S. L.; Fillenbaum, G.G.; Marinho, V.; Andreoli, S.B.; Gastal, F.L.

2013-01-01

336

Anxiety and depression in association with morbid obesity: changes with improved physical health after duodenal switch  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with morbid obesity have an increased risk for anxiety and depression. The "duodenal switch" is perhaps the most effective obesity surgery procedure for inducing weight loss. However, to our knowledge, data on symptoms of anxiety and depression after the duodenal switch are lacking. Furthermore, it has been hypothesized that self-reported physical health is the major predictor of symptoms of depression in patients with morbid obesity. We therefore investigated the symptoms of anxiety and depression before and after the duodenal switch procedure and whether post-operative changes in self-reported physical health were predictive of changes in these symptoms. Methods Data were assessed before surgery (n = 50), and one (n = 47) and two (n = 44) years afterwards. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed by the "Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale", and self-reported physical health was assessed by the "Short-Form 36" questionnaire. Linear mixed effect models were used to investigate changes in the symptoms of anxiety and depression. Correlation and linear multiple regression analyses were used to study whether changes in self-reported physical health were predictive of post-operative changes in the symptoms of anxiety and depression. Results The symptom burden of anxiety and depression were high before surgery but were normalized one and two years afterwards (P < 0.001). The degree of improvement in self-reported physical health was associated with statistically significant reductions in the symptoms of anxiety (P = 0.003) and depression (P = 0.004). Conclusions The novelty of this study is the large and sustained reductions in the symptoms of anxiety and depression after the duodenal switch procedure, and that these changes were closely associated with improvements in self-reported physical health.

2010-01-01

337

MENTAL HEALTH, HEALTH, AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE SERVICE NEEDS FOR THE NATIVE AMERICAN REHABILITATION ASSOCIATION NORTHWEST (NARA NW) IN THE PORTLAND, OREGON METROPOLITAN AREA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consistent with results of previous needs assessments for urban American Indian and Alaska Native populations, a needs assessment in the Portland, Oregon metropolitan area for the Native American Rehabilitation Association Northwest revealed high levels of co-occurring conditions for American Indian and Alaska Native clients, often combining chronic health problems, substance abuse histories, and mental health diagnoses. Focus group results suggest

Thomas L. Crofoot; Naomi Harris; Mary Anne Plumb; Keri Slingerland Smith; Gloria Brooks; Lisa Hungry; Artice Geary; Irene Holland

338

Reducing Health Disparity in People with Intellectual Disabilities: A Report from Health Issues Special Interest Research Group of the International Association for the Scientific Study of Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Disparities in the health status and care experienced by people with intellectual disabilities are increasingly being recognized. This special report presents the results of an international expert consensus workshop held under the auspices of the Health Issues Special Interest Research Group of the International Association for the Scientific…

Scheepers, M.; Kerr, M.; O'Hara, D.; Bainbridge, D.; Cooper, S.-A.; Davis, R.; Fujiura, G.; Heller, T.; Holland, A.; Krahn, G.; Lennox, N.; Meaney, J.; Wehmeyer, M.

2005-01-01

339

Factors Associated With Overweight and Obesity Among Mexican Americans and Central Americans: Results From the 2001 California Health Interview Survey ORIGINAL RESEARCH  

Microsoft Academic Search

1019 Central Americans, 39.2% were overweight and 22.2% were obese. Among Mexican American men, age and marital status were associated with overweight and obesity; and education, acculturation, health insurance status, health status, and use of vitamins were associated with obesity only. Among Mexican American women, age, education, number of children, health status, and health behavior were associated with overweight and

Janice V. Bowie; Hee-Soon Juon; Juhee Cho; Elisa M. Rodriguez

340

The Association between Mental Health and Acute Infectious Illness among a National Sample of 18- To 24-Year-Old College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Poor mental health is associated with physical illness, but this association is poorly characterized among college students. Objective and Participants: Using American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment data, the authors characterized poor mental health (depression, anxiety, negative affect) and examined the…

Adams, Troy B.; Wharton, Christopher M.; Quilter, Lyndsay; Hirsch, Tiffany

2008-01-01

341

Happiness is best kept stable: positive emotion variability is associated with poorer psychological health.  

PubMed

Positive emotion has been shown to be associated with adaptive outcomes in a number of domains, including psychological health. However, research has largely focused on overall levels of positive emotion with less attention paid to how variable versus stable it is across time. We thus examined the psychological health correlates of positive emotion variability versus stability across 2 distinct studies, populations, and scientifically validated approaches for quantifying variability in emotion across time. Study 1 used a daily experience approach in a U.S. community sample (N = 244) to examine positive emotion variability across 2 weeks (macrolevel). Study 2 adopted a daily reconstruction method in a French adult sample (N = 2,391) to examine variability within 1 day (microlevel). Greater macro- and microlevel variability in positive emotion was associated with worse psychological health, including lower well-being and life satisfaction and greater depression and anxiety (Study 1), and lower daily satisfaction, life satisfaction, and happiness (Study 2). Taken together, these findings support the notion that positive emotion variability plays an important and incremental role in psychological health above and beyond overall levels of happiness, and that too much variability might be maladaptive. PMID:23163709

Gruber, June; Kogan, Aleksandr; Quoidbach, Jordi; Mauss, Iris B

2012-11-19

342

Mis-reporting, previous health status and health status of family may seriously bias the association between food patterns and disease  

PubMed Central

Background Food pattern analyses are popular tools in the study of associations between diet and health. However, there is a need for further evaluation of this methodology. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to evaluate the relationship between food pattern groups (FPG) and existing health, and to identify factors influencing this relationship. Methods The inhabitants of Västerbotten County in northern Sweden are invited to health check-ups when they turn 30, 40, 50, and 60 years of age. The present study includes data collected from almost 60,000 individuals between 1992 and 2005. Associations between FPG (established using K-means cluster analyses) and health were analyzed separately in men and women. Results The health status of the participants and their close family and reporting accuracy differed significantly between men and women and among FPG. Crude regression analyses, with the high fat FPG as reference, showed increased risks for several health outcomes for all other FPGs in both sexes. However, when limiting analysis to individuals without previous ill-health and with adequate energy intake reports, most of the risks instead showed a trend towards protective effects. Conclusions Food pattern classifications reflect both eating habits and other own and family health related factors, a finding important to remember and to adjust for before singling out the diet as a primary cause for present and future health problems. Appropriate exclusions are suggested to avoid biases and attenuated associations in nutrition epidemiology.

2010-01-01

343

Associations between Health Effects and Particulate Matter and Black Carbon in Subjects with Respiratory Disease  

PubMed Central

We measured fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), spirometry, blood pressure, oxygen saturation of the blood (SaO2), and pulse rate in 16 older subjects with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Seattle, Washington. Data were collected daily for 12 days. We simultaneously collected PM10 and PM2.5 (particulate matter ?10 ?m or ?2.5 ?m, respectively) filter samples at a central outdoor site, as well as outside and inside the subjects’ homes. Personal PM10 filter samples were also collected. All filters were analyzed for mass and light absorbance. We analyzed within-subject associations between health outcomes and air pollution metrics using a linear mixed-effects model with random intercept, controlling for age, ambient relative humidity, and ambient temperature. For the 7 subjects with asthma, a 10 ?g/m3 increase in 24-hr average outdoor PM10 and PM2.5 was associated with a 5.9 [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.9–8.9] and 4.2 ppb (95% CI, 1.3–7.1) increase in FENO, respectively. A 1 ?g/m3 increase in outdoor, indoor, and personal black carbon (BC) was associated with increases in FENO of 2.3 ppb (95% CI, 1.1–3.6), 4.0 ppb (95% CI, 2.0–5.9), and 1.2 ppb (95% CI, 0.2–2.2), respectively. No significant association was found between PM or BC measures and changes in spirometry, blood pressure, pulse rate, or SaO2 in these subjects. Results from this study indicate that FENO may be a more sensitive marker of PM exposure than traditional health outcomes and that particle-associated BC is useful for examining associations between primary combustion constituents of PM and health outcomes.

Jansen, Karen L.; Larson, Timothy V.; Koenig, Jane Q.; Mar, Therese F.; Fields, Carrie; Stewart, Jim; Lippmann, Morton

2005-01-01

344

Associations between health effects and particulate matter and black carbon in subjects with respiratory disease.  

PubMed

We measured fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FE(NO)), spirometry, blood pressure, oxygen saturation of the blood (SaO2), and pulse rate in 16 older subjects with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Seattle, Washington. Data were collected daily for 12 days. We simultaneously collected PM10 and PM2.5 (particulate matter < or = 10 microm or < or = 2.5 microm, respectively) filter samples at a central outdoor site, as well as outside and inside the subjects' homes. Personal PM10 filter samples were also collected. All filters were analyzed for mass and light absorbance. We analyzed within-subject associations between health outcomes and air pollution metrics using a linear mixed-effects model with random intercept, controlling for age, ambient relative humidity, and ambient temperature. For the 7 subjects with asthma, a 10 microg/m3 increase in 24-hr average outdoor PM10 and PM2.5 was associated with a 5.9 [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.9-8.9] and 4.2 ppb (95% CI, 1.3-7.1) increase in FE(NO), respectively. A 1 microg/m3 increase in outdoor, indoor, and personal black carbon (BC) was associated with increases in FE(NO) of 2.3 ppb (95% CI, 1.1-3.6), 4.0 ppb (95% CI, 2.0-5.9), and 1.2 ppb (95% CI, 0.2-2.2), respectively. No significant association was found between PM or BC measures and changes in spirometry, blood pressure, pulse rate, or SaO2 in these subjects. Results from this study indicate that FE(NO) may be a more sensitive marker of PM exposure than traditional health outcomes and that particle-associated BC is useful for examining associations between primary combustion constituents of PM and health outcomes. PMID:16330357

Jansen, Karen L; Larson, Timothy V; Koenig, Jane Q; Mar, Therese F; Fields, Carrie; Stewart, Jim; Lippmann, Morton

2005-12-01

345

Association between obesity and health-related quality of life in patients with coronary artery disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Objective:In patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), obesity is paradoxically associated with better survival (the ‘obesity paradox’). Our objective was to determine whether this counterintuitive relationship extends to health-related quality of life (HRQOL) outcomes.Design:Cross-sectional observational study.Subjects:All adults undergoing coronary angiography residing in Alberta, Canada between January 2003 and March 2006 in the Alberta Provincial Project for Outcome Assessment

A Oreopoulos; R Padwal; F A McAlister; J Ezekowitz; A M Sharma; K Kalantar-Zadeh; G C Fonarow; C M Norris

2010-01-01

346

Associations between Exercise and Health Behaviors in a Community Sample of Working Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The present study examined the associations between leisure-time exercise and a range of health behaviors and reports of illness and injury in a sample of community working adults.Methods. The study population included 4907 women and 4136 men who completed surveys in 24 worksites in the Minneapolis–St. Paul metropolitan area.Results. Participants in the study were ranked by gender according to

Kerri N. Boutelle; David M. Murray; Robert W. Jeffery; Deborah J. Hennrikus; Harry A. Lando

2000-01-01

347

Associations between sleep disturbance and primary headaches: the third Nord-Trøndelag Health Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between sleep disturbance and headache type and frequency, in a random\\u000a sample of participants in the third Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey. The headache diagnoses were set by neurologists using the\\u000a ICHD-2 criteria performing a semi structured face-to-face interview. Sleep problems were measured by the two validated instruments\\u000a Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire (KSQ)

Siv Steinsmo Ødegård; Morten Engstrøm; Trond Sand; Lars Jacob Stovner; John-Anker Zwart; Knut Hagen

2010-01-01

348

Contextual Factors and Health Risk Behaviors Associated with Date Fighting Among High School Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 2,000 North Carolina high school students completed surveys measuring community risk and protective factors and individual health risk behaviors including dating violence perpetration and victimization. Females reported more date fighting perpetration than males (8.8% to 4.0%), as well as greater levels of date fighting victimization (7.2% and 5.0%). In multivariate models, factors associated with date fighting perpetration among females

Heather Champion; Kristie Long Foley; Karen Sigmon-Smith; Erin L. Sutfin; Robert H. DuRant

2008-01-01

349

The association between alcohol consumption and mortality: the Swedish women’s lifestyle and health study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although light to moderate alcohol intake may reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, the effect on total mortality\\u000a requires further study, particularly among young and middle-aged women. We studied the association between alcohol consumption\\u000a and mortality from all causes, from cancer, and from CVD in the Swedish Women’s Lifestyle and Health Study, a cohort of 47,921\\u000a female residents of Sweden aged

Gundula BehrensMichael; Michael F. Leitzmann; Sven Sandin; Marie Löf; Iris M. Heid; Hans-Olov Adami; Elisabete Weiderpass

2011-01-01

350

One-Year Health Care Costs Associated With Delirium in the Elderly Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Whiledeliriumhasbeenincreasinglyrec- ognized as a serious and potentially preventable condi- tion, its long-term implications are not well under- stood. This study determined the total 1-year health care costs associated with delirium. Methods: Hospitalized patients aged 70 years and older who participated in a previous controlled clini- cal trial of a delirium prevention intervention at an academic medical center between 1995 and

Douglas L. Leslie; Edward R. Marcantonio; Ying Zhang; Linda Leo-Summers; Sharon K. Inouye

2008-01-01

351

Parental Nativity is an Important Factor Associated with Where Children Usually Go for Health Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose Few studies of children’s access to care account for the independent effects of parental immigration characteristics. To\\u000a address this gap in knowledge, we examine the association between parental nativity and where children usually obtain health\\u000a care. Data source The 2002 National Survey of America’s Families (N = 34,332). Results Fourteen percent of the sampled children had only foreign-born parents. Most of

Andrea C. Weathers; Scott P. Novak; Narayan Sastry; Edward C. Norton

2008-01-01

352

Health-related quality of life associated with lower urinary tract symptoms in four countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To describe health-related quality of life (HRQL) associated with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) assessed by validated questionnaires in four countries.Methods. More than 6000 men, recruited by using community- or population-based sampling in four countries, completed questionnaires soliciting information about urinary symptom frequency, bother, degree of interference with daily activities, and other measures of HRQL.Results. In all countries, disease-specific

Cynthia J. Girman; Steven J. Jacobsen; Taiji Tsukamoto; François Richard; W. Michael Garraway; Pierre-P. Sagnier; Harry A. Guess; Thomas Rhodes; Peter Boyle; Michael M. Lieber

1998-01-01

353

Hypercalcaemia is associated with poor mental health in haemodialysis patients: results from Japan DOPPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS) reported high incidence of depression in haemodialysis patients. Hypercalcaemia and high parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels are aetiological factors of psychological disorders. We examined the association between mineral metabolism abnormalities and mental health in Japanese-DOPPS patients. Methods. We used baseline data of Japan-DOPPS, Phase 1 (2755 patients, 1999-2001) and Phase 2 (2286

Motoko Tanaka; Shin Yamazaki; Yasuaki Hayashino; Shunichi Fukuhara; Takashi Akiba; Akira Saito; Yasushi Asano; Friedrich K. Port; Kiyoshi Kurokawa; Tadao Akizawa

2007-01-01

354

The Heart's Content: The Association Between Positive Psychological Well-Being and Cardiovascular Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review investigates the association between positive psychological well-being (PPWB) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We also consider the mechanisms by which PPWB may be linked with CVD, focusing on the health behaviors (e.g., smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, sleep quality and quantity, and food consumption) and biological functions (e.g., cardiovascular, inflammatory, and metabolic processes) that are most relevant for cardiovascular

Julia K. Boehm; Laura D. Kubzansky

2012-01-01

355

Intimate Partner Violence During Pregnancy: Incidence and Associated Health Behaviors in a Rural Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The goal of this investigation was to examine the prevalence of different types of intimate partner violence (IPV) during\\u000a pregnancy, as well as the association between both physical and psychological IPV and negative health behaviors, including\\u000a smoking, other substance use, inadequate prenatal care utilization, and nutrition, in a rural sample. Methods: 104 southern Appalachian women, primarily Caucasian and lower

Beth A. Bailey; Ruth Ann Daugherty

2007-01-01

356

Association Between Lifestyle Factors and Mental Health Measures Among Community-Dwelling Older Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the association between potentially modifiable lifestyle factors and cognitive abilities\\/depressive symptoms in community-dwelling women aged 70 years and over.Method: Cross-sectional study of community-dwelling women aged 70 years and over (n = 278; mean age = 74.6 years). Lifestyle variables assessed included smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, nutrition and education. The mental health measures of interest were depression,

Kellie Cassidy; Ria Kotynia-English; John Acres; Leon Flicker; Nicola T. Lautenschlager; Osvaldo P. Almeida

2004-01-01

357

Psychosocial, environmental and behavioral factors associated with bone health in middle-school girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to identify the psychosocial, environmental and behavioral fac- tors associated with calcium intake, physical ac- tivity and bone health in a cohort of adolescent girls. Baseline data (N 5 718 girls, mean age: 11.6 60.4 years) from the Incorporating More Physical Activity and Calcium in Teens (IM- PACT) study conducted in Texas, 2001-03, were

Shreela V. Sharma; Deanna M. Hoelscher; Steven H. Kelder; R. Sue Day; Albert Hergenroeder

2008-01-01

358

Factors Associated with Attributions About Child Health Conditions and Social Distance Preference  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to better understand factors that account for the emergence and persistence of negative attitudes towards mental\\u000a health problems, attributions about and stigma towards children’s mental and physical illnesses were examined using National\\u000a Stigma Study—Children data. Parent blame attributions were most strongly associated with attention deficit disorder, environmental\\u000a causes with depression, and biology with asthma. Parent blame was more

Abraham MukoloCraig; Craig Anne Heflinger

2011-01-01

359

Date Fighting Experiences Among College Students: Are They Associated With Other Health-Risk Behaviors?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The authors examined the clustering of health-risk behaviors among college students who reported date fight involvement. Participants and Methods: The authors administered a Web-based survey to a stratified random sample of 3,920 college students from 10 universities in North Carolina. Results: Among men, 5.6% reported date fight victimization, and 1% reported date fight perpetration. Victimization among men was associated

Robert DuRant; Heather Champion; Mark Wolfson; Morrow Omli; Thomas McCoy; Ralph B. DAgostino Jr; Kim Wagoner; Ananda Mitra

2007-01-01

360

Health Is Associated With Antiparasite Behavior and Fear of Disease-Relevant Animals in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolutionary arms races between humans and parasites resulted in a set of behavioral adaptations that serve as parasite-avoidance mechanisms. We investigated associations among reported health of the respondent, antiparasite behavior, and sensitivity to disgust and fear of disease-relevant and irrelevant animals. Ninety-seven participants (15–19 years old) rated their fear and disgust at 25 colorful pictures of disease-relevant and disease-irrelevant invertebrates.

Pavol Prokop; Jana Fan?ovi?ová; Peter Fedor

2010-01-01

361

Antipsychotic treatment adherence and associated mental health care use among individuals with bipolar disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Up to 48% of patients with bipolar disorder are either nonadherent or partially adherent to antipsychotic drug treatment. Medication adherence may differ by bipolar disorder subtype.Objective: This study evaluated the association between antipsychotic treatment adherence and mental health care use among individuals with bipolar disorder with predominantly manic\\/mixed symptoms or predominantly depressive symptoms.Methods: Individuals with bipolar or manic disorder

Frank D. Gianfrancesco; Martha Sajatovic; Krithika Rajagopalan; Ruey-Hua Wang

2008-01-01

362

An International Health Track Is Associated With Care for Underserved US Populations in Subsequent Clinical Practice  

PubMed Central

Background Recent efforts to increase insurance coverage have revealed limits in primary care capacity, in part due to physician maldistribution. Of interest to policymakers and educators is the impact of nontraditional curricula, including global health education, on eventual physician location. We sought to measure the association between graduate medical education in global health and subsequent care of the underserved in the United States. Methods In 2005, we surveyed 137 graduates of a family medicine program with one of the country's longest-running international health tracks (IHTs). We compared graduates of the IHT, those in the traditional residency track, and graduates prior to IHT implementation, assessing the anticipated and actual involvement in care of rural and other underserved populations, physician characteristics, and practice location and practice population. Results IHT participants were more likely to practice abroad and care for the underserved in the United States in the first 5 years following residency than non-IHT peers. Their current practices were more likely to be in underserved settings and they had higher percentages of uninsured and non–English-speaking patients. Comparisons between pre-IHT and post-IHT inception showed that in the first 5 years following residency, post-IHT graduates were more likely to care for the underserved and practice in rural areas and were likely to offer volunteer community health care services but were not more likely to practice abroad or to be in an academic practice. Conclusions Presence of an IHT was associated with increased care of underserved populations. After the institution of an IHT track, this association was seen among IHT participants and nonparticipants and was not associated with increased long-term service abroad.

Bazemore, Andrew W.; Goldenhar, Linda M.; Lindsell, Christopher J.; Diller, Philip M.; Huntington, Mark K.

2011-01-01

363

Monetary value of the environmental and health externalities associated with production of ethanol from biomass feedstocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research is aimed at monetizing the life cycle environmental and health externalities associated with production of ethanol from corn, corn stover, switchgrass, and forest residue. The results of this study reveal current average external costs for the production of 1l of ethanol ranged from $0.07 for forest residue to $0.57 for ethanol production from corn. Among the various feedstocks,

Jamil M. Kusiima; Susan E. Powers

2010-01-01

364

Effort-reward imbalance and its association with health among permanent and fixed-term workers  

PubMed Central

Background In the past decade, the changing labor market seems to have rejected the traditional standards employment and has begun to support a variety of non-standard forms of work in their place. The purpose of our study was to compare the degree of job stress, sources of job stress, and association of high job stress with health among permanent and fixed-term workers. Methods Our study subjects were 709 male workers aged 30 to 49 years in a suburb of Tokyo, Japan. In 2008, we conducted a cross-sectional study to compare job stress using an effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model questionnaire. Lifestyles, subjective symptoms, and body mass index were also observed from the 2008 health check-up data. Results The rate of job stress of the high-risk group measured by ERI questionnaire was not different between permanent and fixed-term workers. However, the content of the ERI components differed. Permanent workers were distressed more by effort, overwork, or job demand, while fixed-term workers were distressed more by their job insecurity. Moreover, higher ERI was associated with existence of subjective symptoms (OR = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.42-3.03) and obesity (OR = 2.84, 95% CI:1.78-4.53) in fixed-term workers while this tendency was not found in permanent workers. Conclusions Our study showed that workers with different employment types, permanent and fixed-term, have dissimilar sources of job stress even though their degree of job stress seems to be the same. High ERI was associated with existing subjective symptoms and obesity in fixed-term workers. Therefore, understanding different sources of job stress and their association with health among permanent and fixed-term workers should be considered to prevent further health problems.

2010-01-01

365

Hospital staffing and health care-associated infections: a systematic review of the literature.  

PubMed

In the past 10 years, many researchers have examined relationships between hospital staffing and patients' risk of health care-associated infection (HAI). To gain understanding of this evidence base, a systematic review was conducted, and 42 articles were audited. The most common infection studied was bloodstream infection (n=18; 43%). The majority of researchers examined nurse staffing (n=38; 90%); of these, only 7 (18%) did not find a statistically significant association between nurse staffing variable(s) and HAI rates. Use of nonpermanent staff was associated with increased rates of HAI in 4 studies (P<.05). Three studies addressed infection control professional staffing with mixed results. Physician staffing was not found to be associated with patients' HAI risk (n=2). The methods employed and operational definitions used for both staffing and HAI varied; despite this variability, trends were apparent. Research characterizing effective staffing for infection control departments is needed. PMID:18767987

Stone, Patricia W; Pogorzelska, Monika; Kunches, Laureen; Hirschhorn, Lisa R

2008-10-01

366

Economic aspects of preventing health care-associated infections in the intensive care unit.  

PubMed

Infection prevention is critical to providing a high standard of care in the intensive care unit (ICU). Recent focus on eliminating health care–associated infections (HAIs) has met with variable results. Although evidence-based as far as their components, policy-driven bundled HAI prevention interventions have been evaluated in a limited and potentially biased fashion for their effectiveness, and analyses of their cost-effectiveness are lacking. We use ventilator-associated pneumonia as the case study to illustrate the pitfalls and challenges of arriving at the optimal HAI preventive strategies in the ICU. PMID:22123101

Zilberberg, Marya D; Shorr, Andrew F

2012-01-01

367

The Association between Membership in the Sandwich Generation and Health Behaviors: A Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

The current study examined the association between membership in the sandwich generation, defined as providing care to both children and parents or in-laws, and five health behaviors: checking the food label for health value when buying foods, using a seat belt, choosing foods based on health value, exercising regularly, and cigarette smoking. Participants (N=4943) were from a longitudinal study of a midwestern community-based sample. Regression analyses tested the unique effect of sandwich generation membership on health behaviors above and beyond demographic factors and prior levels of the same behavior. Compared to other caregivers and noncaregivers, multigenerational caregivers were less likely to check food labels and to choose foods based on health values. Multigenerational caregivers were less likely than noncaregivers and those who cared for children only to use seat belts, and they smoked marginally more cigarettes per day than those groups. Multigenerational caregivers were less likely than noncaregivers and those who cared for parents/in-laws only to exercise regularly. Thus, in general, healthy behaviors were diminished for multigenerational caregivers.

Chassin, Laurie; Macy, Jon T.; Seo, Dong-Chul; Presson, Clark C.; Sherman, Steven J.

2009-01-01

368

Associations of Environmental Factors With Elderly Health and Mortality in China  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined the effects of community socioeconomic conditions, air pollution, and the physical environment on elderly health and survival in China. Methods. We analyzed data from a nationally representative sample of 15 973 elderly residents of 866 counties and cities with multilevel logistic regression models in which individuals were nested within each county or city. Results. After control for individual-level factors, communities' gross domestic product per capita, adult labor force participation rate, and illiteracy rate were significantly associated with physical, mental, and overall health and mortality among the elderly in China. We also found that air pollution increased the odds of disability in activities of daily living (ADLs), cognitive impairment, and health deficits; more rainfall was protective, reducing the odds of ADL disability and cognitive impairment; low seasonal temperatures increased the odds of ADL disability and mortality; high seasonal temperatures increased the odds of cognitive impairment and deficits; and living in hilly areas decreased the odds of ADL disability and health deficits. Conclusions. Efforts to reduce pollution and improve socioeconomic conditions could significantly improve elderly health and survival.

Gu, Danan; Purser, Jama; Hoenig, Helen; Christakis, Nicholas

2010-01-01

369

The Association between Membership in the Sandwich Generation and Health Behaviors: A Longitudinal Study.  

PubMed

The current study examined the association between membership in the sandwich generation, defined as providing care to both children and parents or in-laws, and five health behaviors: checking the food label for health value when buying foods, using a seat belt, choosing foods based on health value, exercising regularly, and cigarette smoking. Participants (N=4943) were from a longitudinal study of a midwestern community-based sample. Regression analyses tested the unique effect of sandwich generation membership on health behaviors above and beyond demographic factors and prior levels of the same behavior. Compared to other caregivers and noncaregivers, multigenerational caregivers were less likely to check food labels and to choose foods based on health values. Multigenerational caregivers were less likely than noncaregivers and those who cared for children only to use seat belts, and they smoked marginally more cigarettes per day than those groups. Multigenerational caregivers were less likely than noncaregivers and those who cared for parents/in-laws only to exercise regularly. Thus, in general, healthy behaviors were diminished for multigenerational caregivers. PMID:20161605

Chassin, Laurie; Macy, Jon T; Seo, Dong-Chul; Presson, Clark C; Sherman, Steven J

2010-01-01

370

Health Care Utilization and Costs Associated with Physical and Nonphysical-Only Intimate Partner Violence  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate health care utilization and costs associated with the type of intimate partner violence (IPV) women experience by the timing of their abuse. Methods A total of 3,333 women (ages 18–64) were randomly sampled from the membership files of a large health plan located in a metropolitan area and participated in a telephone survey to assess IPV history, including the type of IPV (physical IPV or nonphysical abuse only) and the timing of the abuse (ongoing; recent, not ongoing but occurring in the past 5 years; remote, ending at least 5 years prior). Automated annual health care utilization and costs were assembled over 7.4 years for women with physical IPV and nonphysical abuse only by the time period during which their abuse occurred (ongoing, recent, remote), and compared with those of never-abused women (reference group). Results Mental health utilization was significantly higher for women with physical or nonphysical abuse only compared with never-abused women—with the highest use among women with ongoing abuse (relative risk for those with ongoing abuse: physical, 2.61; nonphysical, 2.18). Physically abused women also used more emergency department, hospital outpatient, primary care, pharmacy, and specialty services; for emergency department, pharmacy, and specialty care, utilization was the highest for women with ongoing abuse. Total annual health care costs were higher for physically abused women, with the highest costs for ongoing abuse (42 percent higher compared with nonabused women), followed by recent (24 percent higher) and remote abuse (19 percent higher). Women with recent nonphysical abuse only had annual costs that were 33 percent higher than nonabused women. Conclusion Physical and nonphysical abuse contributed to higher health care utilization, particularly mental health services utilization.

Bonomi, Amy E; Anderson, Melissa L; Rivara, Frederick P; Thompson, Robert S

2009-01-01

371

Association of ventilation with health and other responses in commercial and institutional buildings  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents a summary of a review [1] of current literature on the associations of ventilation rates in non-residential and non-industrial buildings (primarily offices) with health and other human outcomes. Twenty studies, with close to 30,000 subjects, investigated the association of ventilation rates with human responses. (Twenty one studies investigating the association of carbon dioxide with human responses, although included in the previous review, are not summarized here.) Almost all studies including ventilation rates below 10 Ls{sup -1} per person found these ventilation rates to be associated in all building types with statistically significant worsening in one or more health or perceived air quality outcomes. Some studies comparing only ventilation rates above 10 Ls{sup -1} per person determined that increases in ventilation rate above 10 Ls{sup -1} per person, up to approximately 20 Ls{sup -1} per person, were associated with further significant decreases in the prevalence of SBS symptoms or with further significant improvements in perceived air quality. The studies reported relative risks of 1.5-2 for respiratory illnesses and 1.1-6 for sick building syndrome symptoms for low compared to high ventilation rates.

Seppanen, Olli; Fisk, William J.; Mendell, Mark J.

2000-08-01

372

Association of Health Literacy with Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use: A Cross-Sectional Study in Adult Primary Care Patients  

PubMed Central

Background In the United States, it is estimated that 40% of adults utilize complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies. Recently, national surveys report that over 90 million adults have inadequate health literacy. To date, no study has assessed health literacy and its effect on CAM use. The primary objective of this study was to assess the relationship between health literacy and CAM use independent of educational attainment. Second objective was to evaluate the differential effect of health literacy on CAM use by race. Methods 351 patients were recruited from an outpatient primary care clinic. Validated surveys assessed CAM use (I-CAM-Q), health literacy (REALM-R), and demographic information. We compared demographics by health literacy (adequate vs. inadequate) and overall and individual CAM categories by health literacy using chi square statistics. We found a race by health literacy interaction and ran sequential logistic regression models stratified by race to test the association between health literacy and overall CAM use (Model 1), Model 1 + education (Model 2), and Model 2 + other demographic characteristics (Model 3). We reported the adjusted effect of health literacy on CAM use for both whites and African Americans separately. Results 75% of the participants had adequate literacy and 80% used CAM. CAM use differed by CAM category. Among whites, adequate health literacy was significantly associated with increased CAM use in both unadjusted (Model 1, OR 7.68; p = 0.001) and models adjusted for education (Model 2, OR 7.70; p = 0.002) and other sociodemographics (Model 3, OR 9.42; p = 0.01). Among African Americans, adequate health literacy was not associated with CAM use in any of the models. Conclusions We found a race by literacy interaction suggesting that the relationship between health literacy and CAM use differed significantly by race. Adequate health literacy among whites is associated with increased CAM use, but not associated with CAM use in African Americans.

2011-01-01

373

Synergism between obesity and poor oral health associated with diabetes in an elderly human population.  

PubMed

We investigated associations between type 2 diabetes (DM) and several variables, including poor oral health and overweight/obesity, among a group of elderly Hmong subjects (60 years and older) who emigrated to the United States following the Vietnam conflict. Each subject was interviewed and their weight, height and waist circumference were measured. Each subject had an oral health examination. Each subject's saliva was analyzed for seven components related to inflammation. The presence of DM was correlated with poor oral health (POH) and overweight/obesity (OW) separately. There was a strong correlation between concurrent POH and OW and the presence of DM: all subjects with both POH and OW had DM. Logistic multivariate analysis of OW, POH, age, years of residence in California, and stress level revealed a significant association between the presence of DM and concurrent OW and POH. A change in diet after immigration was excluded as an explanatory variable. Subjects with DM and concurrent OW and POH had significantly elevated salivary levels of five analyses related to chronic inflammation. The association between POH and OW and the presence of DM needs further study. PMID:23691642

Albright, Julia W; Woo, Perry H; Ji, Shaoquan; Sun, Binggang; Lang, Kathleen; Albright, Joseph F

2013-03-01

374

Does an immigrant health paradox exist among Asian Americans? Associations of nativity and occupational class with self-rated health and mental disorders.  

PubMed

A robust socioeconomic gradient in health is well-documented, with higher socioeconomic status (SES) associated with better health across the SES spectrum. However, recent studies of U.S. racial/ethnic minorities and immigrants show complex SES-health patterns (e.g., flat gradients), with individuals of low SES having similar or better health than their richer, U.S.-born and more acculturated counterparts, a so-called "epidemiological paradox" or "immigrant health paradox". To examine whether this exists among Asian Americans, we investigate how nativity and occupational class (white-collar, blue-collar, service, unemployed) are associated with subjective health (self-rated physical health, self-rated mental health) and 12-month DSM-IV mental disorders (any mental disorder, anxiety, depression). We analyzed data from 1530 Asian respondents to the 2002-2003 National Latino and Asian American Study in the labor force using hierarchical multivariate logistic regression models controlling for confounders, subjective social status (SSS), material and psychosocial factors theorized to explain health inequalities. Compared to U.S.-born Asians, immigrants had worse socioeconomic profiles, and controlling for age and gender, increased odds for reporting fair/poor mental health and decreased odds for any DSM-IV mental disorder and anxiety. No strong occupational class-health gradients were found. The foreign-born health-protective effect persisted after controlling for SSS but became nonsignificant after controlling for material and psychosocial factors. Speaking fair/poor English was strongly associated with all outcomes. Material and psychosocial factors were associated with some outcomes--perceived financial need with subjective health, uninsurance with self-rated mental health and depression, social support, discrimination and acculturative stress with all or most DSM-IV outcomes. Our findings caution against using terms like "immigrant health paradox" which oversimplify complex patterns and mask negative outcomes among underserved sub-groups (e.g., speaking fair/poor English, experiencing acculturative stress). We discuss implications for better measurement of SES and health given the absence of a gradient and seemingly contradictory finding of nativity-related differences in self-rated health and DSM-IV mental disorders. PMID:22503561

John, Dolly A; de Castro, A B; Martin, Diane P; Duran, Bonnie; Takeuchi, David T

2012-03-13

375

Navajo Environmental Health Review by the National Environmental Health Association (Window Rock, Arizona, May 24-27, 1976).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Indian Health Committee met with key staff of the Indian Health Service (IHS) Area Office to review the environmental health services provided on the Navajo Reservation and make recommendations for improvement or expansion of current programs, if needed. Recommendations were made regarding environmental health and institutional personnel,…

Navajo Health Authority, Window Rock, AZ.

376

Perceptions of Stressful Life Events as Turning Points Are Associated with Self-rated Health and Psychological Distress  

PubMed Central

We test the hypothesis that changes in physical and psychological health are associated with construals of stressful life events. At two points in time, approximately 10 years apart, participants (N=1,038) rated their physical health and psychological distress. At the second assessment, participants also reported their most stressful life event since the first assessment and indicated whether they considered the event a turning point and/or lesson learned. Lower self-ratings of health and higher ratings of psychological distress, controlling for baseline health and distress and relevant demographic factors, were associated with perceiving the stressful life event as a turning point, particularly a negative turning point. The two health measures were primarily unrelated to lessons learned. How individuals construe the most stressful events in their lives is associated with changes in self-rated health and distress.

Sutin, Angelina R.; Costa, Paul T.; Wethington, Elaine; Eaton, William

2010-01-01

377

Leisure time physical activity and health-related quality of life: Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies that relate change in physical activity to change in health-related quality of life in the general population are needed to confirm associations suggested by cross-sectional studies. In the present study, cross-sectional as well as longitudinal associations between leisure time physical activity and health-related quality of life were studied in an apparently healthy population. The present study showed cross-sectional associations

G. C. W. Wendel-Vos; A. J. Schuit; M. A. R. Tijhuis; D. Kromhout

2004-01-01

378

Job insecurity and its association with health among employees in the Taiwanese general population.  

PubMed

As employers respond to intensive global competition through the deregulation of labor, job insecurity has become a widespread problem. It has been shown to have significant health impacts in a growing number of workers, but less is known about its social distribution, the mechanisms through which it may act, and the moderating effects of gender, socioeconomic position, and company size. Utilizing data from a national survey of a representative sample of paid employees in Taiwan, we examined the prevalence of job insecurity and its associations with psychosocial work characteristics and health status. A total of 8705 men and 5986 women aged between 25 and 65 years old were studied. Information on perceived job insecurity, industrial and occupational types, psychosocial work characteristics as assessed by the Job Strain model, and various measures of health status were obtained by a self-administered questionnaire. The overall prevalence of job insecurity was high (50%). Job insecurity was more prevalent among employees with lower education attainment, in blue-collar and construction workers, those employed in smaller companies, and in older women. Insecure employees also reported lower job control, higher job demands, and poor workplace social support, as compared with those who held secure positions. Regression analyses showed that job insecurity was strongly associated with poor health, even with adjustment of age, job control, job demands, and work place social support. The deleterious effects of job insecurity appeared to be stronger in men than women, in women who held managerial or professional jobs than women in other employment grades, and in those working in larger companies than smaller ones. The findings of this study suggest that perceived job insecurity is an important source of stress, and it is accompanied with adverse psychosocial work conditions and poor health. High-risk groups were identified for further investigation. PMID:15847960

Cheng, Yawen; Chen, Chun-Wan; Chen, Chiou-Jong; Chiang, Tung-liang

2005-01-12

379

Are doctors and nurses associated with coverage of essential health services in developing countries? A cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background There is broad policy consensus that a shortage of doctors and nurses is a key constraint to increasing utilization of essential health services important for achieving the health Millennium Development Goals. However there is limited research on the quantitative links between health workers and service coverage rates. We examined the relationship between doctor and nurse concentrations and utilization rates of five essential health services in developing countries. Methods We performed cross-national analyses of low- and middle-income countries by means of ordinary least squares regression with coverage rates of antenatal care, attended delivery, caesarean section, measles immunization, tuberculosis case diagnosis and care for acute respiratory infection as outcomes. Doctor, nurse and aggregate health worker (sum of doctors and nurses) concentrations were the main explanatory variables. Results Nurses were associated with utilization of skilled birth attendants (P = 0.02) and doctors were associated with measles immunization rates (P = 0.01) in separate adjusted analyses. Aggregate health workers were associated with the utilization of skilled birth attendants (P < 0.01) and measles immunization (P < 0.01). Doctors, nurses and aggregate health workers were not associated with the remaining four services. Conclusion A range of health system and population-level factors aside from health workers influences coverage of health services in developing countries. However, it is also plausible that health workers who are neither doctors nor nurses, such as clinical officers and community health workers, may be providing a substantial proportion of health services. The human resources for health research agenda should be expanded beyond doctors and nurses.

Kruk, Margaret E; Prescott, Marta R; de Pinho, Helen; Galea, Sandro

2009-01-01

380

Meta-Analyses of the Associations of Respiratory Health Effectswith Dampness and Mold in Homes  

SciTech Connect

The Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academy of Sciences recently completed a critical review of the scientific literature pertaining to the association of indoor dampness and mold contamination with adverse health effects. In this paper, we report the results of quantitative meta-analysis of the studies reviewed in the IOM report. We developed point estimates and confidence intervals (CIs) to summarize the association of several respiratory and asthma-related health outcomes with the presence of dampness and mold in homes. The odds ratios and confidence intervals from the original studies were transformed to the log scale and random effect models were applied to the log odds ratios and their variance. Models were constructed both accounting for the correlation between multiple results within the studies analyzed and ignoring such potential correlation. Central estimates of ORs for the health outcomes ranged from 1.32 to 2.10, with most central estimates between 1.3 and 1.8. Confidence intervals (95%) excluded unity except in two of 28 instances, and in most cases the lower bound of the CI exceeded 1.2. In general, the two meta-analysis methods produced similar estimates for ORs and CIs. Based on the results of the meta-analyses, building dampness and mold are associated with approximately 30% to 80% increases in a variety of respiratory and asthma-related health outcomes. The results of these meta-analyses reinforce the IOM's recommendation that actions be taken to prevent and reduce building dampness problems.

Fisk, William J.; Lei-Gomez, Quanhong; Mendell, Mark J.

2006-01-01

381

Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: association with personal characteristics and self reported health conditions  

PubMed Central

STUDY OBJECTIVE—To examine the association between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and demographic, lifestyle, occupational characteristics and self reported health conditions.?DESIGN—Cross sectional study, using data from multiphasic health checkups between 1979 and 1985.?SETTING—Large health plan in Northern California, USA.?PARTICIPANTS—16 524 men aged 15-89 years and 26 197 women aged 15-105 years who never smoked.?RESULTS—Sixty eight per cent of men and 64 per cent of women reported any current ETS exposure (at home, in small spaces other than home or in large indoor areas). The exposure time from all three sources of ETS exposure correlated negatively with age. Men and women reporting high level ETS exposure were more likely to be black and never married or separated/divorced, to have no college or partial college education, to consume three alcoholic drink/day or more and to report exposure to several occupational hazards. Consistent independent relations across sexes were found between any current exposure to ETS and a positive history of hay fever/asthma (odds ratio (OR)=1.22 in men, 1.14 in women), hearing loss (OR=1.30 in men, 1.27 in women), severe headache (OR=1.22 in men, 1.17 in women), and cold/flu symptoms (OR=1.52 in men, 1.57 in women). Any current ETS exposure was also associated with chronic cough (OR=1.22) in men and with heart disease (OR=1.10) in women. Self reported stroke was inversely associated with any current ETS exposure in men (OR=0.27). No associations were noted for cancer or tumour and for migraine.?CONCLUSION—ETS exposure correlated with several personal characteristics potentially associated with adverse health outcomes. Although the study design precluded causal inference, ETS exposure was associated with several self reported acute and chronic medical conditions.???Keywords: environmental tobacco smoke; smoking

Iribarren, C; Friedman, G; Klatsky, A; Eisner, M

2001-01-01

382

Psychosocial risk factors in home and community settings and their associations with population health and health inequalities: A systematic meta-review  

PubMed Central

Background The effects of psychosocial risk factors on population health and health inequalities has featured prominently in epidemiological research literature as well as public health policy strategies. We have conducted a meta-review (a review of reviews) exploring how psychosocial factors may relate to population health in home and community settings. Methods Systematic review (QUORUM) of literature reviews (published in any language or country) on the health associations of psychosocial risk factors in community settings. The literature search included electronic and manual searches. Two reviewers appraised included reviews using criteria for assessing systematic reviews. Data from the more robust reviews were extracted, tabulated and synthesised. Results Thirty-one reviews met our inclusion criteria. These explored a variety of psychosocial factors including social support and networks, social capital, social cohesion, collective efficacy, participation in local organisations – and less favourable psychosocial risk factors such as demands, exposure to community violence or anti-social behaviour, exposure to discrimination, and stress related to acculturation to western society. Most of the reviews focused on associations between social networks/support and physical or mental health. We identified some evidence of favourable psychosocial environments associated with better health. Reviews also found evidence of unfavourable psychosocial risk factors linked to poorer health, particularly among socially disadvantaged groups. However, the more robust reviews each identified studies with inconclusive findings, as well as studies finding evidence of associations. We also identified some evidence of apparently favourable psychosocial risk factors associated with poorer health. Conclusion From the review literature we have synthesised, where associations have been identified, they generally support the view that favourable psychosocial environments go hand in hand with better health. Poor psychosocial environments may be health damaging and contribute to health inequalities. The evidence that underpins our understanding of these associations is of variable quality and consistency. Future research should seek to improve this evidence base, with more longitudinal analysis (and intervention evaluations) of the effects of apparently under-researched psychosocial factors such as control and participation within communities. Future policy interventions relevant to this field should be developed in partnership with researchers to enable a better understanding of psychosocial mechanisms and the effects of psychosocial interventions.

Egan, Matt; Tannahill, Carol; Petticrew, Mark; Thomas, Sian

2008-01-01

383

Neurologic Symptoms Associated With Raising Poultry and Swine Among Participants in the Agricultural Health Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) is the leading cause of acute peripheral neuropathy worldwide, often associated with recent foodborne infection with Campylobacter jejuni. In this cross-sectional analysis of data from the Agricultural Health Study, we tested whether swine and poultry exposure were associated with increased prevalence of GBS-like neurologic symptoms. Methods Using multivariate analysis, we tested the symptoms such as numbness and weakness, relevant to inflammatory peripheral neuropathies, among farmers with self-reported occupational poultry or swine exposure compared with farmers who reported no occupational animal exposure. Results Among swine farmers/workers, prevalence of weakness and numbness were increased (P< 0.05). Among poultry farmers/workers, prevalence of weakness and numbness were increased, but increased prevalence of weakness was not statistically significant. Conclusions Occupational contact with live poultry or swine, potentially related to C. jejuni exposure, was associated with increased reporting of GBS-like symptoms.

Davis, Meghan F.; Kamel, Freya; Hoppin, Jane A.; Alavanja, Michael CR; Freeman, Laura Beane; Gray, Gregory C.; Nelson, Kenrad; Silbergeld, Ellen

2011-01-01

384

Translating Health Care-Associated Urinary Tract Infection Prevention Research into Practice via the Bladder Bundle  

PubMed Central

Article-at-a-Glance Background: Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), a frequent health care–associated infection (HAI), is a costly and common condition resulting in patient discomfort, activity restriction, and hospital discharge delays. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) no longer reimburses hospitals for the extra cost of caring for patients who develop CAUTI. The Michigan Health and Hospital Association (MHA) Keystone Center for Patient Safety & Quality has initiated a statewide initiative, MHA Keystone HAI, to help ameliorate the burden of disease associated with indwelling catheterization. In addition, a long-term research project is being conducted to evaluate the current initiative and to identify practical strategies to ensure the effective use of proven infection prevention and patient safety practices. Overview of the Bladder Bundle Initiative in Michigan: The bladder bundle as conceived by MHA Keystone HAI focuses on preventing CAUTI by optimizing the use of urinary catheters with a specific emphasis on continual assessment and catheter removal as soon as possible, especially for patients without a clear indication. Collaboration Between Researchers and State wide Patient Safety Organizations: A synergistic collaboration between patient safety researchers and a statewide patient safety organization is aimed at identifying effective strategies to move evidence from peer-reviewed literature to the bedside. Practical strategies that facilitate implementation of the bundle will be developed and tested using mixed quantitative and qualitative methods. Discussion: Simply disseminating scientific evidence is often ineffective in changing clinical practice. Therefore, learning how to implement these findings is critically important to promoting high-quality care and a safe health care environment.

Saint, Sanjay; Olmsted, Russell N.; Fakih, Mohamad G.; Kowalski, Christine P.; Watson, Sam R.; Sales, Anne E.; Krein, Sarah L.

2009-01-01

385

The mechanisms that associate community social capital with post-disaster mental health: a multilevel model.  

PubMed

Many scholars have advocated that the time has come to provide empirical evidence of the mechanisms that associate community social capital with individual disaster mental health. For this purpose we conducted a study (n = 232) one year after a flood (2008) in Morpeth, a rural town in northern England. We selected posttraumatic stress as an indicator of disaster mental health. Our multilevel model shows that high community social capital is indirectly salutary for individual posttraumatic stress. In particular, in communities (defined as postcode areas) with high structural social capital, the results suggest that individuals confide in the social context (high cognitive social capital) to address disaster-related demands (high collective efficacy), and employ less individual psychosocial resources (i.e. coping strategies and social support). This "conservation of individual psychosocial resources" in a salutary social context decreases the association between the appraisal of the disaster and posttraumatic stress. As a result of this mechanism, individuals suffer less from posttraumatic stress in communities with high social capital. These findings provide new insights how intervention policies aimed at strengthening both objective and subjective dimensions of social capital may reduce post-disaster mental health. PMID:22883254

Wind, Tim R; Komproe, Ivan H

2012-07-27

386

Health-related quality of life and its associated factors in Chinese myocardial infarction patients.  

PubMed

Background: Healthcare providers are called on to assess and improve the health-related quality of life (HRQL) of patients with myocardial infarction (MI). However, there is lack of empirical data on HRQL of such individuals in mainland China. The purpose of this study is to assess HRQL and identify associated factors in hospitalized Chinese MI patients.Methods: A single group, cross-sectional design was adopted with a sample of 192 hospitalized MI patients at two teaching hospitals in Xi'an, People's Republic of China. HRQL was assessed using the Chinese Mandarin versions of the Short Form 36 health survey (SF-36), the Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale (MIDAS), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS).Results: Chinese MI patients reported poor HRQL as measured by both the generic (SF-36) and disease-specific (MIDAS) instruments. Advancing age and the presence of heart failure, anxiety, and depression were significant predictors of overall HRQL. Smoking and hypertension were significant predictors of the physical aspects of HRQL.Conclusions: Assessing HRQL of hospitalized Chinese MI patients and identifying associated factors may help health professionals in the design and delivery of appropriately tailored and culturally relevant interventions to this group of patients. PMID:22767965

Wang, Wenru; Thompson, David R; Ski, Chantal F; Liu, Meili

2012-07-01

387

Health seeking behavioral analysis associated with breast cancer screening among Asian American women  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this community-based study was to apply a Sociocultural Health Behavior Model to determine the association of factors proposed in the model with breast cancer screening behaviors among Asian American women. Methods A cross-sectional design included a sample of 682 Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese women aged 40 years and older. The frequency distribution analysis and Chi-square analysis were used for the initial screening of the following variables: sociodemographic, cultural, enabling, environmental, and social support. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted on factors for breast cancer screening using multinomial logistic regression analysis. Results Correlates to positive breast cancer screening included demographics (ethnicity), cultural factors (living in the United States for 15 years or more, speaking English well), enabling factors (having a regular physician to visit, health insurance covering the screening), and family/social support factors (those who had a family/friend receiving a mammogram). Conclusions The results of this study suggest that breast cancer screening programs will be more effective if they include the cultural and health beliefs, enabling, and social support factors associated with breast cancer screening. The use of community organizations may play a role in helping to increase breast cancer screening rates among Asian American women.

Ma, Grace X; Gao, Wanzhen; Lee, Sunmin; Wang, MinQi; Tan, Yin; Shive, Steven E

2012-01-01

388

What are the health implications associated with the consumption of energy drinks? A systematic review.  

PubMed

There is increasing interest regarding the potential health effects of energy drink (ED) consumption. The aim of the present review was to investigate the existing evidence on health outcomes associated with ED consumption. Studies published between 1966 and February 2011 were retrieved and included if they met the following criteria: were randomized or pseudo randomized control trials; studied a human population; reported a health-related measure; and investigated a whole ED (as opposed to individual ingredients). Study quality was evaluated and data extracted using standardized tools. Fifteen studies were identified, the majority of which had less than 30 participants and included a short term of follow-up (range: 30 min-3 h). The following outcome measures were included: cardiorespiratory effects, physiological measures, pathological measures, and body composition. The mean dosage of ED was 390 mL (range: 250-750 mL). Commercial ED funding and/or study associations were identified in six studies. Studies investigating long-term consumption and follow-up were lacking. The findings from this review do not allow definitive dietary recommendations to be made regarding safe levels of ED consumption; caution should be exercised when consuming these drinks until further high-quality research is undertaken to substantiate findings. PMID:23452281

Burrows, Tracy; Pursey, Kirrilly; Neve, Melinda; Stanwell, Peter

2013-01-29

389

Health assessment for Cheshire Associates Site, Cheshire, Connecticut, Region 1. CERCLIS No. CTD981067317. Preliminary report  

SciTech Connect

The Cheshire Associates site, Cheshire, Connecticut, has been proposed for the National Priorities List by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Cheshire Associates leases the site to Airpax Corporation, which manufactures electrochemical and electronic devices. Groundwater and soil contamination by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was documented before the Airpax lease was executed, and may have been caused by past disposal practices of the two manufacturers of plastic molding that occupied the site, Valley National Corporation and Cheshire Molding Company. Based upon information reviewed, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) has concluded that this site is of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health resulting from possible exposure to hazardous substances at concentrations that may result in adverse health effects. As noted in the Human Exposure Pathways Section, human exposure to VOCs may occur via groundwater. ATSDR recommends additional environmental sampling to determine the extent of groundwater and soil contamination and to better identify any potentially affected population.

Not Available

1990-06-25

390

The association between occupational factors and adverse health outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims: Despite recognition that occupational exposures may make a substantive contribution to the aetiology of COPD, little is known about the potential role of work related factors in COPD related health outcomes. Methods: Prospective cohort study using structured telephone interviews among a random sample of adults aged 55–75 reporting a COPD condition (emphysema, chronic bronchitis, or COPD). Using multivariate models adjusting for smoking and demographic factors, the separate and combined associations were estimated between occupational exposure to vapours, gas, dust, or fumes (VGDF) and leaving work due to lung disease (respiratory related work disability) with health outcomes and utilisation ascertained at one year follow up. Results: Of 234 subjects, 128 (55%) reported exposure to VGDF on their longest held jobs, 58 (25%) reported respiratory related work disability, and 38 (16%) subjects reported both. Combined exposure to VGDF and respiratory related work disability (rather than either factor alone) was associated with the greatest risk at follow up of frequent (everyday) restricted activity days attributed to a breathing or lung condition (OR 3.8; 95% CI 1.4 to 10.1), emergency department (ED) visit (OR 3.9; 95% CI 1.4 to 10.5), and hospitalisation (OR 7.6; 95% CI 1.8 to 32). Conclusions: Among persons with COPD, past occupational exposures and work disability attributed to lung disease, particularly in combination, appear to be risk factors for adverse health related outcomes.

Blanc, P; Eisner, M; Trupin, L; Yelin, E; Katz, P; Balmes, J

2004-01-01

391

A test of association between spatially defined exposure patterns and health outcome risk contours.  

PubMed

Advances in the availability of geographically referenced health and environmental quality data of high spatial resolution have created new opportunities in environmental epidemiology. Novel statistical methods for linking health, exposure, and hazards are required to underpin the development of public health tracking. A test for the association between spatial contours of health risk and exposure is outlined. This test is examined using, as an example, the spatial contours of congenital malformation risk obtained from a routine dataset in the vicinity of a landfill site and an exposure model based on exponential reduction with distance from the site. Spatial contours of risk of congenital malformation were simulated using the exposure model stated and a given population pattern. These were compared with the corresponding expected risk derived from routine birth data to yield relative risk contours. For each simulation three test statistics were devised: the slope of the regression line of standardized relative risk on exposure level, the proportion of standardized relative risks above zero, and the mean standardized relative risk of individuals not subject to exposure. The distributions of these test statistics (under the null no exposure from site and alternative hypotheses) were determined from a simulation exercise. A comparison of receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves between those relating to the proposed test and those relating to a widely used method proposed by Stone (1988) demonstrated our test to be more efficient. Formal statistical testing of the concordance between spatial contours of risk and environmental exposure enables optimal use of spatial data. PMID:18049994

Read, Jessica; Matthews, Ian; Nix, Barry

2007-12-01

392

Factors associated with job satisfaction among Chinese community health workers: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background With the medical reform, the function of community health centres emerged to be more important recently in China. However, the health service capabilities were tremendously different between metropolitan cities and small cities. This study aims to clarify the level of job satisfaction of Chinese community health workers between a metropolitan (Shenyang) and a small city (Benxi) in Liaoning province and explore its associated factors. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted from December 2009 to February 2010. A multi-stage sample was used and a total of 2,100 Chinese community health workers from the two cities completed self-administered questionnaire pertaining to job satisfaction indicated by Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ), demographic characteristic and working situations, stress and job burnout. The effective response rate was 80.7%. Hierarchical regression analysis was performed to explore the related factors. All data analyses for the two cities were performed separately. Results The averages of overall job satisfaction score of Chinese community health workers were 67.17 in Shenyang and 69.95 in Benxi. Intrinsic job satisfaction and extrinsic job satisfaction among Chinese community health workers were significantly different between Shenyang and Benxi (p < 0.05). In Shenyang, hierarchical regression analysis showed that the fourth model explained 36%, 32% of the variance of intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfactions, respectively. In Benxi, the fourth model explained 48%, 52% of the variance of intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfactions, respectively. Three significant predictors of intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfactions for the two cities were the two dimensions (social support and decision latitude) of stress and cynicism of burnout. Conclusion From this study, the job satisfaction among Chinese community health workers in the two cities enjoyed a moderate level of job satisfactions, which represented they are not fully satisfied with their jobs. Community health workers in Shenyang had lower job satisfaction as compared to those in Benxi. This study strengthened the evidence that stress and burnout were important predictors of intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfactions.

2011-01-01

393

Systematic review of epidemiological studies on health effects associated with management of solid waste  

PubMed Central

Background Management of solid waste (mainly landfills and incineration) releases a number of toxic substances, most in small quantities and at extremely low levels. Because of the wide range of pollutants, the different pathways of exposure, long-term low-level exposure, and the potential for synergism among the pollutants, concerns remain about potential health effects but there are many uncertainties involved in the assessment. Our aim was to systematically review the available epidemiological literature on the health effects in the vicinity of landfills and incinerators and among workers at waste processing plants to derive usable excess risk estimates for health impact assessment. Methods We examined the published, peer-reviewed literature addressing health effects of waste management between 1983 and 2008. For each paper, we examined the study design and assessed potential biases in the effect estimates. We evaluated the overall evidence and graded the associated uncertainties. Results In most cases the overall evidence was inadequate to establish a relationship between a specific waste process and health effects; the evidence from occupational studies was not sufficient to make an overall assessment. For community studies, at least for some processes, there was limited evidence of a causal relationship and a few studies were selected for a quantitative evaluation. In particular, for populations living within two kilometres of landfills there was limited evidence of congenital anomalies and low birth weight with excess risk of 2 percent and 6 percent, respectively. The excess risk tended to be higher when sites dealing with toxic wastes were considered. For populations living within three kilometres of old incinerators, there was limited evidence of an increased risk of cancer, with an estimated excess risk of 3.5 percent. The confidence in the evaluation and in the estimated excess risk tended to be higher for specific cancer forms such as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and soft tissue sarcoma than for other cancers. Conclusions The studies we have reviewed suffer from many limitations due to poor exposure assessment, ecological level of analysis, and lack of information on relevant confounders. With a moderate level confidence, however, we have derived some effect estimates that could be used for health impact assessment of old landfill and incineration plants. The uncertainties surrounding these numbers should be considered carefully when health effects are estimated. It is clear that future research into the health risks of waste management needs to overcome current limitations.

2009-01-01

394

Associations of Health Risk Behaviors with School Absenteeism. Does Having Permission for the Absence Make a Difference?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Nearly 10% of students enrolled in US public schools are absent daily. Although previous research has shown associations of school absenteeism with participation in risk behaviors, it is unclear if these associations vary by whether the absence was excused. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of health risk…

Eaton, Danice K.; Brener, Nancy; Kann, Laura K.

2008-01-01

395

Many Pathways from Land Use to Health: Associations between Neighborhood Walkability and Active Transportation, Body Mass Index, and Air Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature shows single-use, low- density land development and discon- nected street networks to be positively associated with auto dependence and negatively associated with walking and transit use. These factors in turn appear to affect health by influencing physical activity, obesity, and emissions of air pollutants. We evaluated the association between a single index of walkability that incorporated land use

Lawrence D. Frank; James F. Sallis; Terry L. Conway; James E. Chapman; Brian E. Saelens; William Bachman

2006-01-01

396

Leptin genotype is associated with lactation performance and health of Holstein cows.  

PubMed

The objectives were to evaluate the associations among single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the R4C locus in exon 2 of the leptin gene and the lactational performance and health of Holstein cows. Eight hundred and fourteen lactating dairy cows had their DNA sequenced in exon 2 of the leptin gene to determine the presence of SNP in the R4C locus. Cows were milked 3 times daily, and yields of milk and milk components were recorded monthly individually during the first 305 d of lactation. Cows were examined daily by herd personnel for diagnosis of health events such as retained fetal membranes, displacement of abomasum, lameness, and mastitis. Resulting genotypes were CC (34.6%), CT (48.2%), and TT (17.2%). Cows bearing the CT genotype had lower body condition (2.98 +/- 0.02) during the first 62 d in milk (DIM) than cows homozygous for the C (3.02 +/- 0.02) and T (3.04 +/- 0.03) alleles. Leptin genotype was associated with yields of milk and milk components, and cows homozygous for the C allele were less productive than those carrying the CT and TT genotypes. The 305-d yields of 3.5% fat-corrected milk, milk fat, and milk true protein were less in CC compared with CT cows by 258, 12, and 10.7 kg, respectively. Cows carrying the TT genotype had increased incidence of displacement of abomasum (4.3%), but genotype did not affect the incidence of retained fetal membranes, clinical and subclinical mastitis, or lameness. Risk of developing at least one clinical health disorder was influenced by leptin genotype, and cows carrying the CT genotype had the lowest risk for developing any disease (19.6%). Mating decisions to increase the frequency of cows heterozygous in the R4C locus may improve productivity and health. PMID:18565947

Chebel, R C; Susca, F; Santos, J E P

2008-07-01

397

Economic and health impacts associated with a Salmonella Typhimurium drinking water outbreak-Alamosa, CO, 2008.  

PubMed

In 2008, a large Salmonella outbreak caused by contamination of the municipal drinking water supply occurred in Alamosa, Colorado. The objectives of this assessment were to determine the full economic costs associated with the outbreak and the long-term health impacts on the community of Alamosa. We conducted a postal survey of City of Alamosa (2008 population: 8,746) households and businesses, and conducted in-depth interviews with local, state, and nongovernmental agencies, and City of Alamosa healthcare facilities and schools to assess the economic and long-term health impacts of the outbreak. Twenty-one percent of household survey respondents (n?=?369/1,732) reported diarrheal illness during the outbreak. Of those, 29% (n?=?108) reported experiencing potential long-term health consequences. Most households (n?=?699/771, 91%) reported municipal water as their main drinking water source at home before the outbreak; afterwards, only 30% (n?=?233) drank unfiltered municipal tap water. The outbreak's estimated total cost to residents and businesses of Alamosa using a Monte Carlo simulation model (10,000 iterations) was approximately $1.5 million dollars (range: $196,677-$6,002,879), and rose to $2.6 million dollars (range: $1,123,471-$7,792,973) with the inclusion of outbreak response costs to local, state and nongovernmental agencies and City of Alamosa healthcare facilities and schools. This investigation documents the significant economic and health impacts associated with waterborne disease outbreaks and highlights the potential for loss of trust in public water systems following such outbreaks. PMID:23526942

Ailes, Elizabeth; Budge, Philip; Shankar, Manjunath; Collier, Sarah; Brinton, William; Cronquist, Alicia; Chen, Melissa; Thornton, Andrew; Beach, Michael J; Brunkard, Joan M

2013-03-18

398

Prevalence of nail biting and its association with mental health in a community sample of children  

PubMed Central

Background This study evaluates onychophagia or nail biting (NB) prevalence and association with mental health of a community sample of children from Shiraz, Iran. Findings The parents of 743 primary school children, selected by random sampling, reported NB behavior of their children and themselves. Children's mental health problem was assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). 22.3% (95% CI: 19.3 to 25.3) of children had NB behavior in the last three months (girls: 20.1% (95% CI: 15.9 to 24.2). The rate in boys was 24.4% (95% CI: 20.1 to 28.7). 36.8% of the children with NB had at least one family member with nail biting. Older age was associated with a higher prevalence of NB while a higher score on the prosocial score was associated with a lower prevalence of NB. Conclusions NB is a very common behavior in both genders in children and their family members. Children with NB have less prosocial ability than those without it.

2011-01-01

399

Association Rules and Data Mining in Hospital Infection Control and Public Health Surveillance  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objectives: The authors consider the problem of identifying new, unexpected, and interesting patterns in hospital infection control and public health surveillance data and present a new data analysis process and system based on association rules to address this problem. Design: The authors first illustrate the need for automated pattern discovery and data mining in hospital infection control and public health surveillance. Next, they define association rules, explain how those rules can be used in surveillance, and present a novel process and system—the Data Mining Surveillance System (DMSS)—that utilize association rules to identify new and interesting patterns in surveillance data. Results: Experimental results were obtained using DMSS to analyze Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection control data collected over one year (1996) at University of Alabama at Birmingham Hospital. Experiments using one-, three-, and six-month time partitions yielded 34, 57, and 28 statistically significant events, respectively. Although not all statistically significant events are clinically significant, a subset of events generated in each analysis indicated potentially significant shifts in the occurrence of infection or antimicrobial resistance patterns of P. aeruginosa. Conclusion: The new process and system are efficient and effective in identifying new, unexpected, and interesting patterns in surveillance data. The clinical relevance and utility of this process await the results of prospective studies currently in progress.

Brossette, Stephen E.; Sprague, Alan P.; Hardin, J. Michael; Waites, Ken B.; Jones, Warren T.; Moser, Stephen A.

1998-01-01

400

Greek-Cypriot mental health nurses' professional satisfaction and association with mild psychiatric symptoms.  

PubMed

The present descriptive correlational study aims to explore among Greek-Cypriot mental health nurses (MHNs) the level of professional satisfaction, potential differences with regard to vocational characteristics, and associations with anxiety and depressive symptoms. A random sample of 225 Greek-Cypriot MHNs employed in hospital and community settings completed Hamilton's Anxiety Scale, Beck's Depression Inventory, and Stamps's Index of Work Satisfaction. Moderate levels of overall professional satisfaction of 4.38 (±0.58) were detected. Work experience was positively correlated with satisfaction from payment (? = 0.230, P < 0.0001). Men seemed to be more satisfied with organizational policies (P = 0.0043) and performed tasks (P = 0.027) than women. Nurses working in psychiatric clinics of general hospitals experienced higher levels of professional satisfaction in general, and more satisfaction from organizational policies, autonomy, and task requirements than nurses working in community settings, substance misuse programs, and community mental health centres (P = 0.001). Nurses working in acute/admission settings were the less satisfied, compared to nurses working in rehabilitation wards (P = 0.017). Professional satisfaction was associated with anxiety (? = 0.280, P < 0.0001) and depressive (? = 0.246, P < 0.0001) symptoms. Greek-Cypriot MHNs seem to get moderate satisfaction from their work, whilst professional satisfaction is associated with their psychological well-being. Targeted managerial interventions and longitudinal research are warranted. PMID:22897681

Karanikola, Maria N K; Kaite, Charis

2012-08-16

401

Health and respirable particulate (PM10) air pollution: a causal or statistical association?  

PubMed Central

Numerous studies have reported weak but statistically significant acute health effects of particulate air pollution. The associations are observed at levels below the current U.S. standard of 150 micrograms/m3 (24 hr). Health effects include acute increased mortality from cardiopulmonary conditions and acute morbidity such as hospital admissions for related diseases. We reviewed recent epidemiology studies to evaluate whether criteria for causality are met, and we conclude that they are not. The weak associations are as likely to be due to confounding by weather, copollutants, or exposure misclassification as by ambient particulate matter (PM). The results from the same metropolitan areas are inconsistent, and PM explains such a small amount of the variability in mortality/morbidity that the association has little practical significance. Finally, experimental chamber studies of susceptible individuals exposed to PM concentrations well above 150 micrograms/m3 provide no evidence to support the morbidity/mortality findings. None of the criteria for establishing causality of the PM/mortality hypothesis are clearly met at ambient concentrations common in many U.S. cities. Images p838-a Figure 1.

Gamble, J F; Lewis, R J

1996-01-01

402

Associations of serious mental illness with earnings: results from the WHO World Mental Health surveys  

PubMed Central

Background Burden-of-illness data, which are often used in setting healthcare policy-spending priorities, are unavailable for mental disorders in most countries. Aims To examine one central aspect of illness burden, the association of serious mental illness with earnings, in the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys. Method The WMH Surveys were carried out in 10 high-income and 9 low- and middle-income countries. The associations of personal earnings with serious mental illness were estimated. Results Respondents with serious mental illness earned on average a third less than median earnings, with no significant between-country differences (?2(9) = 5.5–8.1, P = 0.52–0.79). These losses are equivalent to 0.3–0.8% of total national earnings. Reduced earnings among those with earnings and the increased probability of not earning are both important components of these associations. Conclusions These results add to a growing body of evidence that mental disorders have high societal costs. Decisions about healthcare resource allocation should take these costs into consideration.

Levinson, Daphna; Lakoma, Matthew D.; Petukhova, Maria; Schoenbaum, Michael; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Angermeyer, Matthias; Borges, Guilherme; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Hu, Chiyi; Karam, Aimee N.; Kawakami, Norito; Lee, Sing; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Browne, Mark Oakley; Okoliyski, Michail; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sagar, Rajesh; Viana, Maria Carmen; Williams, David R.; Kessler, Ronald C.

2010-01-01

403

Health problems presented in general practice by survivors before and after a fireworks disaster: associations with mental health care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To study the health problems presented to general practitioners by disaster survivors who received specialized ambulatory mental health care. Design: (Longitudinal) case-control study based on general practitioners' electronic medical records. Setting: General practice and a mental health institution (MHI) in Enschede, the Netherlands. Subject: A total of 728 adult disaster survivors who were registered in 30 study practices and

Dirk-Jan den Ouden; Anja J. E. Dirkzwager; C. J. IJzermans

2005-01-01

404

Associations between health care factors and self-reported health status among individuals with diabetes: results from a community assessment.  

PubMed

To identify the influence of select health care variables on self-reported physical and mental health status of individuals with diabetes. Data from the 2006 Brazos Valley Health Status Assessment (BVHSA) were analyzed. Aspects of health care were defined through exploratory factor analysis. Structural equation modeling was used to create relationships between health care aspects, personal characteristics of the participants, and self-reported physical and mental health status of individuals with diabetes. The significant predictors of self-reported physical health status were the number of co-morbid chronic diseases (? = 0.27, P = .002), and medical system access (? = -0.20, P = .035). The significant predictor of self-reported mental health status was the number of co-morbid chronic diseases (? = 0.35, P < .001). Self-reported physical (? = 0.27, P = .028) and mental (? = 0.29, P = .020) health status were both predictive of physician communication of mental health issues. Communication about mental health issues strongly relates to both self-reported physical and mental health status and should be an important part of physicians' care for individuals with diabetes. Further, the nuances of medical system access for diabetes care should be further examined. PMID:20865306

Dickerson, Justin B; Smith, Matthew L; Ahn, SangNam; Ory, Marcia G

2011-04-01

405

Influence of air quality model resolution on uncertainty associated with health impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use regional air quality modeling to evaluate the impact of model resolution on uncertainty associated with the human health benefits resulting from proposed air quality regulations. Using a regional photochemical model (CAMx), we ran a modeling episode with meteorological inputs simulating conditions as they occurred during August through September 2006 (a period representative of conditions leading to high ozone), and two emissions inventories (a 2006 base case and a 2018 proposed control scenario, both for Houston, Texas) at 36, 12, 4 and 2 km resolution. The base case model performance was evaluated for each resolution against daily maximum 8-h averaged ozone measured at monitoring stations. Results from each resolution were more similar to each other than they were to measured values. Population-weighted ozone concentrations were calculated for each resolution and applied to concentration response functions (with 95% confidence intervals) to estimate the health impacts of modeled ozone reduction from the base case to the control scenario. We found that estimated avoided mortalities were not significantly different between the 2, 4 and 12 km resolution runs, but the 36 km resolution may over-predict some potential health impacts. Given the cost/benefit analysis requirements motivated by Executive Order 12866 as it applies to the Clean Air Act, the uncertainty associated with human health impacts and therefore the results reported in this study, we conclude that health impacts calculated from population weighted ozone concentrations obtained using regional photochemical models at 36 km resolution fall within the range of values obtained using fine (12 km or finer) resolution modeling. However, in some cases, 36 km resolution may not be fine enough to statistically replicate the results achieved using 2, 4 or 12 km resolution. On average, when modeling at 36 km resolution, an estimated 5 deaths per week during the May through September ozone season are avoided because of ozone reductions resulting from the proposed emissions reductions (95% confidence interval was 2-8). When modeling at 2, 4 or 12 km finer scale resolution, on average 4 deaths are avoided due to the same reductions (95% confidence interval was 1-7). Study results show that ozone modeling at a resolution finer than 12 km is unlikely to reduce uncertainty in benefits analysis for this specific region. We suggest that 12 km resolution may be appropriate for uncertainty analyses of health impacts due to ozone control scenarios, in areas with similar chemistry, meteorology and population density, but that resolution requirements should be assessed on a case-by-case basis and revised as confidence intervals for concentration-response functions are updated.

Thompson, T. M.; Selin, N. E.

2012-10-01

406

Health and safety problems associated with long working hours: a review of the current position.  

PubMed Central

The European Community Directive on Working Time, which should have been implemented in member states of the European Community by November 1996, contains several requirements related to working hours, including the right of employees to refuse to work more than 48 hours a week. The United Kingdom government attempted to oppose the Directive, arguing that there is no convincing evidence that hours of work should be limited on health and safety grounds. Much of the research in this area has focused on the problems of shiftworking and previous reviews have therefore tended to emphasise this aspect of working hours. However, there is much less information about the effects of overtime work, which is a central element of the terms of the Directive. This paper reviews the current evidence relating to the potential effects on health and performance of extensions to the normal working day. Several gaps in the literature are identified. Research to date has been restricted to a limited range of health outcomes--namely, mental health and cardiovascular disorders. Other potential effects which are normally associated with stress--for example, gastrointestinal disorders, musculoskeletal disorders, and problems associated with depression of the immune system, have received little attention. Also, there have been few systematic investigations of performance effects, and little consideration of the implications for occupational exposure limits of extensions to the working day. Existing data relate largely to situations where working hours exceed 50 a week and there is a lack of information on hours below this level, which is of direct relevance to the European Community proposal. Finally, it is clear from investigations relating to shiftwork that a range of modifying factors are likely to influence the level and nature of health and performance outcomes. These include the attitudes and motivation of the people concerned, the job requirements, and other aspects of the organisational and cultural climate. It is concluded that there is currently sufficient evidence to raise concerns about the risks to health and safety of long working hours. However, much more work is required to define the level and nature of those risks.

Spurgeon, A; Harrington, J M; Cooper, C L

1997-01-01

407

Time spent on health related activities associated with chronic illness: a scoping literature review  

PubMed Central

Background The management of health care, particularly for people with chronic conditions, combines the activities of health professionals, patients, informal carers and social networks that support them. Understanding the non-professional roles in health management requires information about the health related activities (HRA) that are undertaken by patients and informal carers. This understanding allows management planning that incorporates the capacity of patients and informal carers, as well as identifying the particular skills, knowledge and technical support that are necessary. This review was undertaken to identify how much time people with chronic illness and their informal carers spend on HRA. Methods Literature searches of three electronic databases (CINAHL, Medline, and PubMed) and two journals (Time and Society, Sociology of Health and Illness) were carried out in 2011 using the following search terms (and derivatives): chronic illness AND time AND consumer OR carer. The search was aimed at finding studies of time spent on HRA. A scoping literature review method was utilised. Results Twenty-two peer reviewed articles published between 1990 and 2010 were included for review. The review identified limited but specific studies about time use by people with a chronic illness and/or their carers. While illness work was seen as demanding, few studies combined inquiry about both defined tasks and defined time use. It also identified methodological issues such as consistency of definition and data collection methods, which remain unresolved. Conclusions While HRA are seen as demanding by people doing them, few studies have measured actual time taken to carry out a comprehensive range of HRA. The results of this review suggest that both patients with chronic illness and informal carers may be spending 2 hours a day or more on HRA. Illnesses such as diabetes may be associated with higher time use. More empirical research is needed to understand the time demands of self-management, particularly for those affected by chronic illness.

2012-01-01

408

Pesticides associated with wheeze among commercial pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study.  

PubMed

Pesticides are potential risk factors for respiratory disease among farmers, but farmers are also exposed to other respiratory toxicants. To explore the association of pesticides with wheeze in a population without other farming exposures, the authors analyzed data from 2,255 Iowa commercial pesticide applicators enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study. Controlling for age, smoking status, asthma and atopy history, and body mass index, the authors calculated odds ratios for the relationship between wheeze and 36 individual pesticides participants had used during the year before enrollment (1993-1997). Eight of 16 herbicides were associated with wheeze in single-agent models; however, the risk was almost exclusively associated with the herbicide chlorimuron-ethyl (odds ratio (OR) = 1.62, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.25, 2.10). Inclusion of chlorimuron-ethyl in models for the other herbicides virtually eliminated the associations. The odds ratios for four organophosphate insecticides (terbufos, fonofos, chlorpyrifos, and phorate) were elevated when these chemicals were modeled individually and remained elevated, though attenuated somewhat, when chlorimuron-ethyl was included. The association for dichlorvos, another organophosphate insecticide, was not attenuated by chlorimuron-ethyl (OR = 2.48, 95% CI: 1.08, 5.66). Dose-response trends were observed for chlorimuron-ethyl, chlorpyrifos, and phorate; the strongest odds ratio was for applying chlorpyrifos on more than 40 days per year (OR = 2.40, 95% CI: 1.24, 4.65). These results add to the emerging literature linking organophosphate insecticides and respiratory health and suggest a role for chlorimuron-ethyl. PMID:16611668

Hoppin, Jane A; Umbach, David M; London, Stephanie J; Lynch, Charles F; Alavanja, Michael C R; Sandler, Dale P

2006-04-12

409

Factors associated with health-related quality of life among Belgrade University students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The aims of the study were to evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among students of University of Belgrade (Serbia)\\u000a and to identify factors that might have associated with their HRQoL including relationship with depression.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Between April and June, 2009, 1624 students were enrolled in the cross-sectional study. HRQoL was assessed by using SF-36\\u000a questionnaire and general depressive status by

Aleksandra Popovic; Darija Kisic Tepavcevic; Tatjana Gazibara; Mila Paunic

2011-01-01

410

Do the American Medical Association's campaign contributions influence health care legislation?  

PubMed

Despite the fact that ideology and party overshadow campaign contributions as determinants of congressional voting behavior, the thesis of this study is that the American Medical Association's contributions have an important policy impact. Their donations had a significant effect on an index of three votes in 1979 in the House of Representatives. The contributions of the AMA had more of an effect than did those of the AFL-CIO. The AMA's money was related to decision-making in the Ways and Means and Energy and Commerce Committees. While the medical lobby does not dominate health care policy, its power should not be underestimated. PMID:3736146

Keiser, K R; Jones, W

1986-08-01

411

American Health Lawyers Association: the year in review 2002-2003.  

PubMed

Every year, the Practice Groups of the American Health Lawyers Association assemble a Year in Review summary of the leading developments in case law, legislation, and administrative actions affecting healthcare. This Article provides a comprehensive overview of these developments. The introduction presents a "Top Ten" list of the year's most noteworthy developments. The remainder of the Article is divided into fourteen topical areas, and offers a brief overview of issues in those areas. Overall, these various developments demonstrate society's efforts to balance accountability, efficiency, and affordability in the delivery of healthcare. PMID:14632379

Leibold, Peter

2003-01-01

412

Chinese parental perceptions of weight and associated health risks of young children.  

PubMed

A mixed method was employed to determine how caregivers view preschool children's body size and associated health risks. A survey of 505 caregivers was nested in 10 in-depth case studies of mothers. Based on the International Obesity Task Force calculation of children's weight status, the caregivers who had underweight children overestimated their children's weight status but the caregivers who had overweight/obese children underestimated their children's weight status. Their estimates were substantially different from those of the caregivers of normal weight children. The mothers' thoughts revealed the complexity of beliefs and sociocultural experiences about weight preferences and affirmed the quantitative findings. PMID:22956680

Chan, Christine M S; Wang, Wen-Chung

2012-09-05

413

Health risks associated with late-preterm infants: implications for newborn primary care.  

PubMed

This integrative literature review focuses on the health risks associated with late-preterm infants (34 to 36 and 6/7 weeks gestation) and the implications for newborn primary care providers and pediatric nurses. Common morbidities in the late-term population included hyperbilirubinemia, respiratory compromise, hyperglycemia and poor feeding, temperature instability, and infection. Primary care providers should be aware of these morbidities to be sure risk-focused evaluation is performed during and after the birth hospitalization, and treatment is administered when necessary. PMID:24027954

Forsythe, Erica Saleski; Allen, Patricia Jackson

414

Exposure Patterns and Health Effects Associated with Swimming and Surfing in Polluted Marine Waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine bathing beaches are closed to the public whenever water quality fails to meet State and Federal standards. In this talk I will explore the science (and lack thereof!) behind these beach closures, including the health effects data upon which standards are based, shortcomings of the current approach used for testing and notification, and the high degree of spatial and temporal heterogeneity associated with human exposure to pollutants in these systems. The talk will focus on examples from Huntington Beach, where the speaker has conducted research over the past several years.

Grant, S. B.

2007-05-01

415

FINE PARTICLES ARE MORE STRONGLY ASSOCIATED THAN COARSE PARTICLES WITH ACUTE REPIRATORY HEALTH EFFECTS IN SCHOOL CHILDREN  

EPA Science Inventory

Numerous studies have reported associations between airborne particles and a range of respiratory outcomes from symptoms to mortality. Current attention has been focused on the characteristics of these particles responsible for the adverse health effects. We have reanalyzed three...

416

Guidelines for Preventing Health-Care-Associated Pneumonia, 2003: Recommendations of CDC and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report updates, expands, and replaces the previously published CDC 'Guideline for Prevention of Nosocomial Pneumonia, 1994'. The new guidelines are designed to reduce the incidence of health-care-associated pneumonia and other severe, acute lower res...

C. Bridges L. J. Anderson O. C. Tablan R. Besser R. Hajjeh

2003-01-01

417

Are Worries, Satisfaction with Oneself and Outlook in Secondary School Students Associated with Mental Health in Early Adulthood?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to find factors that can be identified in adolescence and are associated with mental health symptoms in early adulthood. Data pertaining to worries, satisfaction with oneself and outlook were collected from 14-year-old adolescents in 1996 (N = 235), using a structured questionnaire. Mental health data were collected in 2006 from the same people at

Pirjo Kinnunen; Eila Laukkanen; Pirjo Pölkki; Jari Kylmä

2010-01-01

418

A Longitudinal Investigation of Associations between Boys' Pubertal Timing and Adult Behavioral Health and Well-Being  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To extend research linking pubertal timing and adolescent health outcomes, this study examines boys' pubertal timing and subsequent interpersonal success and health behaviors in mid adulthood. Past research has shown that boys' pubertal timing is associated with both positive and negative developmental outcomes in the short term, and so it is…

Taga, Keiko A.; Markey, Charlotte N.; Friedman, Howard S.

2006-01-01

419

Attitudes toward patient aggression amongst mental health nurses in the 'zero tolerance' era: associations with burnout and length of experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary • UK government policy now officially encourages an attitude of 'zero tolerance' towards aggression against health care staff. • This study examines levels of such tolerance amongst a group of mental health care staff and associations between tolerance and other occupational and stress factors. • Thirty-seven staff completed a Tolerance Scale (from the Perceptions of Aggression Scale) and the

RICHARD WHITTINGTON

420

Factors associated with self-rated health status in university students: a cross-sectional study in three European countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Self-rated health status (SRHS) is a reliable and valid measure for assessing the subjective and objective health of individuals. Previous studies have either focused predominantly on the elderly or investigated only a narrow range of factors potentially associated with SRHS. In examining student populations, these past studies were limited to single countries. The objectives of this study were to

Rafael T Mikolajczyk; Patrick Brzoska; Claudia Maier; Veronika Ottova; Sabine Meier; Urszula Dudziak; Snezhana Ilieva; Walid El Ansari

2008-01-01

421

The association of sexual orientation with self-rated health, and cigarette and alcohol use in Mexican adolescents and youths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence of health inequities associated with sexual orientation has been gathered for industrialized countries. The situation for lesbians, gay males, and bisexuals (LGB) from middle- or low-income countries may be worse than those in industrialized nations. Here, we analyze the relationship of sexual orientation with self-rated health and cigarette and alcohol use among a representative sample of Mexican adolescents and

Luis Ortiz-Hernández; Blanca Lilia Gómez Tello; Jesús Valdés

2009-01-01

422

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder is Associated With Poor Health Behaviors: Findings From the Heart and Soul Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) results in substantial disability, including increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Poor health behaviors are major risk factors for initial and recurrent CVD events. Therefore, this study investigated whether PTSD is associated with poor health behaviors in patients with CVD. Method: Cross-sectional study of 1,022 men and women with CVD. PTSD was assessed with the

Angelica L. Zen; Mary A. Whooley; Shoujun Zhao; Beth E. Cohen

2012-01-01

423

Pain Catastrophizing Is Associated With Health Indices in Musculoskeletal Pain: A Cross-Sectional Study in the Dutch Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross-sectional associations were examined between pain catastrophizing and several health indices in 1,164 people with musculoskeletal pain from a Dutch community sample. Health indices included in the present study were specialist consultation, use of medication, and absenteeism or work disability. The results demonstrate that for people with a current episode of musculoskeletal pain, pain catastrophizing, pain intensity, and the presence

Rudy Severeijns; Johan W. S. Vlaeyen; Marcel A. van den Hout; H. Susan J. Picavet

2004-01-01

424

A Longitudinal Investigation of Associations Between Boys’ Pubertal Timing and Adult Behavioral Health and Well-Being  

Microsoft Academic Search

To extend research linking pubertal timing and adolescent health outcomes, this study examines boys’ pubertal timing and subsequent interpersonal success and health behaviors in mid adulthood. Past research has shown that boys’ pubertal timing is associated with both positive and negative developmental outcomes in the short term, and so it is unclear how pubertal timing is consequential for adjustment across

Keiko A. Taga; Charlotte N. Markey; Howard S. Friedman