Sample records for health association acha

  1. American College Health Association National College Health Assessment Spring 2006 Reference Group Data Report (Abridged): The American College Health Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of American College Health, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Assessing and understanding the health needs and capacities of college students is paramount to creating healthy campus communities. The American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA) is a survey developed by the ACHA in 1998 to assist institutions of higher education in achieving this goal. The…

  2. American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment Spring 2007 Reference Group Data Report (Abridged)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of American College Health, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Assessing and understanding the health needs and capacities of college students is paramount to creating healthy campus communities. The American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA) is a survey that ACHA developed in 1998 to assist institutions of higher education in achieving this goal. The…

  3. American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment Spring 2008 Reference Group Data Report (Abridged): The American College Health Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of American College Health, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Assessing and understanding the health needs and capacities of college students is paramount to creating healthy campus communities. The American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA) is a survey that ACHA developed in 1998 to assist institutions of higher education in achieving this goal. The…

  4. A Comprehensive Critique of the American College Health Association's National College Health Assessment Survey Instrument

    E-print Network

    Rahn, Rhonda

    2014-07-17

    [ACHA], 2013a). The ACHA NCHA consists of questions taken from a variety of adolescent health based questionnaires including the Harvard College Alcohol Study (Wechsler & Nelson, 2008) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s College... 2 populations. The ACHA NCHA aids researchers and health educators in collecting data on a wide array of health topics including alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use; sexual health; weight, nutrition, and exercise; mental health; and personal...

  5. Sexual and Reproductive Health Behaviors of California Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trieu, Sang Leng; Bratton, Sally; Marshak, Helen Hopp

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the sexual and reproductive health behaviors of students from 13 community college campuses in California. Participants: Heterosexual college students, ages 18 to 24, who have had sexual intercourse (N = 4,487). Methods: The American College Health Association's National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA) survey was…

  6. Community College Student Mental Health: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Daniel Seth; Davison, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This study explores community college student mental health by comparing the responses of California community college and traditional university students on the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II (ACHA-NCHA II). Using MANOVA, we compared community college and traditional university students, examining…

  7. American College Health Association

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in the ACHA Webinar Series: Measles Update 2015: Implications for the College Setting > Participate in the Pap Test ... 6.3.15. USPSTF Draft Research Plan: Screening for Cervical Cancer in Primary Care > 5.19.15. Sexual Assault Resource Guide from the National Center for ...

  8. National Rural Health Association

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Rural Health Fellows Program Application Volunteer Options NRHA Social Media Rural HIV/AIDS Resource Center Rural Health Students Education Liason Program NRHA International Task Force National ...

  9. American Public Health Association

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on key public health issues like funding and climate change. APHA and coalition letters About APHA APHA champions ... Healthy Environments is hosting trainings for nurses on climate change and the Clean Power Plan. Nurses will learn ...

  10. The National Mental Health Association

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2006-01-01

    As it approaches its 100th anniversary in 2009, the National Mental Health Association (NMHA) remains the countryâ??s oldest and largest nonprofit organization that deals with all aspects of mental health and mental illness. First-time users of their site will find that their homepage contains copious amounts of material related to their advocacy efforts, along with materials that deal with helping a loved one who may be suffering the effects of mental illness. The â??Need Info?â?ť area is a good place to start for these types of materials, as it provides access to information on treatment resources, support groups, and fact sheets. Visitors can also elect to sign up for one (or several) of their helpful email updates, which include work on related legislation, and mental health news coverage.

  11. Appl. Comput. Harmon. Anal. 17 (2004) 259276 www.elsevier.com/locate/acha

    E-print Network

    Averbuch, Amir

    2004-01-01

    images. Our definition of the discrete X-ray transform is shown to be exact and geometrically faithful of the underlying image, and then use this Fourier slice theorem to derive an algorithm that computes the discrete X-rayAppl. Comput. Harmon. Anal. 17 (2004) 259­276 www.elsevier.com/locate/acha 3D discrete X-ray

  12. PUBLIC HEALTH Chair, Associate Professor TARA WATSON

    E-print Network

    Aalberts, Daniel P.

    and society, and between reality and possibility: what effective public health policy is and how we can1 PUBLIC HEALTH Chair, Associate Professor TARA WATSON Advisory Committee: Professors: DARROW, D, HONDERICH, J. PEDRONI. Public health seeks to understand, and also to protect and improve, health

  13. Identifying Factors Associated with Good Health and Ill Health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriella Olsson; Örjan Hemström; Johan Fritzell

    2009-01-01

    Background  Work-related health research has traditionally focused on identifying risks rather than determinants of good health. Our knowledge\\u000a of variation in ill health is thus greater than our understanding of such variations in good health.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Purpose  In this study, the associations between work-environment exposures and good health are examined. We are especially interested\\u000a in contrasting our indices of ill health with a

  14. American Health Information Management Association

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Forward AHIMA’s primary goal is to provide the knowledge, resources and tools to advance health information professional ... and timely information you need. HIM Body of Knowledge™ Searchable articles, briefs, statements and more Engage Communities ...

  15. International Health Economics Association (iHEA)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1997-01-01

    The International Health Economics Association (iHEA) is devoted to increasing "communication among health economists." The web site provides information about the association and a searchable directory of health economists. Both eHEAL and HEAL, the electronic and print newsletter of iHEA can be found at the site. The newsletters provide listings of job openings, conferences, calls for papers and new research initiatives. Past issues of both newsletters are available at the site. Users can benefit from the exemplary collection of links to health economics sites.

  16. Health Conditions Associated with Psoriasis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hunger, blurred vision or fatigue, tell your doctor. Metabolic Syndrome There is a significant association between psoriatic disease and metabolic syndrome – a cluster of conditions that include heart disease, ...

  17. 78 FR 56711 - Health Insurance Exchanges; Application by the Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ...Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care To Be a Recognized Accrediting...Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care (AAAHC) to be a recognized accrediting...Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care's (AAAHC) request for...

  18. Health effects associated with waterpipe smoking

    PubMed Central

    El-Zaatari, Ziad M; Chami, Hassan A; Zaatari, Ghazi S

    2015-01-01

    Objective It is widely held that waterpipe smoking (WPS) is not associated with health hazards. However, several studies have documented the uptake of several toxicants and carcinogens during WPS that is strongly associated with harmful health effects. This paper reviews the literature on the health effects of WPS. Data sources Three databases-PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE-were searched until August 2014 for the acute and long-term health effects of WPS using the terms ‘waterpipe’ and its synonyms (hookah, shisha, goza, narghileh, arghileh and hubble-bubble) in various spellings. Study selection We included original clinical studies, case reports and systematic reviews and focused on clinical human studies. ?10% of the identified studies met the selection criteria. Data extraction Data were abstracted by all three authors and summarised into tables. Abstracted data included study type, results and methodological limitations and were analysed jointly by all three authors. Data synthesis WPS acutely leads to increased heart rate, blood pressure, impaired pulmonary function and carbon monoxide intoxication. Chronic bronchitis, emphysema and coronary artery disease are serious complications of long-term use. Lung, gastric and oesophageal cancer are associated with WPS as well as periodontal disease, obstetrical complications, osteoporosis and mental health problems. Conclusions Contrary to the widely held misconception, WPS is associated with a variety of adverse short-term and long-term health effects that should reinforce the need for stronger regulation. In addition, this review highlights the limitations of the published work, which is mostly cross-sectional or retrospective. Prospective studies should be undertaken to assess the full spectrum of health effects of WPS, particularly in view of its growing popularity and attractiveness to youth. PMID:25661414

  19. Chemical and organoleptic evaluation of biscuits made from mixtures of hungry rice, acha ( Digitaria exilis ) sesame; ( Sesamum indicum ); and breadfruit ( Artocarpus atilis ) flours

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. M. Nnam; M. O. Nwokocha

    2003-01-01

    The proximate, mineral and vitamin compositions of the biscuits prepared from mixtures of unprocessed and processed hungry rice (acha), sesame and breadfruit flours were evaluated. Processing included sprouting acha for 48 h, dehulling sesame and boiling breadfruit for 10 min. The samples were milled into fine flours and combined in ratios of 70:15:15, 60:25:15 and 60:15:25 (protein basis) of sesame,

  20. c 2004 Elsevier. This is the author version of an article published in an Elsevier journal. The original publication is available at www.sciencedirect.com with DOI: 10.1016/j.acha.2004.01.004

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    . The original publication is available at www.sciencedirect.com with DOI: 10.1016/j.acha.2004.01.004 inria, 1 (2004) 3--28" DOI : 10.1016/j.acha.2004.01.004 #12;c 2004 Elsevier. This is the author version.sciencedirect.com with DOI: 10.1016/j.acha.2004.01.004 inria-00567265,version1-19Feb2011 #12;c 2004 Elsevier

  1. The human microbiota associated with overall health.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaofei; Wang, Zhujun; Zhang, Xuewu

    2015-03-01

    Human body harbors diverse microbes, the main components include bacteria, eukaryotes and viruses. Emerging evidences show that the human microbiota is intrinsically linked with overall health. The development of next-generation sequencing provides an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the complex microbial communities that are associated with the human body. Many factors like host genetics and environmental factors have a major impact on the composition and dynamic changes of human microbiota. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the relationship between human health and human microbiota (skin, nasal, throat, oral, vaginal and gut microbiota), then to focus on the factors modulating the composition of the microbiota and the future challenges to manipulate the microbiota for personalized health. PMID:23914990

  2. A Comprehensive Critique of the American College Health Association's National College Health Assessment Survey Instrument 

    E-print Network

    Rahn, Rhonda

    2014-07-17

    There are many instruments used to identify health behaviors of a population. Used by both practitioners and researchers, one such instrument is the American College Health Association’s National College Health Assessment ...

  3. Copyright 2012, National Environmental Health Association (www.neha.org) Environmental Health

    E-print Network

    United States Import Safety, Environmental Health, and Food Safety Regulation in China' Copyright 2012, National Environmental Health Association (www.neha.org) JOURNAL OF Environmental Health Dedicated to the advancement of the environmental health professional Volume 74, No. 6

  4. Health literacy among university students in Greece: determinants and association with self-perceived health, health behaviours and health risks

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health literacy is widely considered as a key determinant of health and a priority in the public health policy agenda. Low health literacy has been associated with poorer health states, broader inequalities and higher health systems’ costs. In the present study we bring into focus the functional health literacy among university students in Greece, researching and assessing mainly their ability to apply basic knowledge in a health context. Methods The study was carried out during the period 15–30 April 2013, among a random sample of 1,526 students of 14 Higher Tertiary Public universities and Technological Educational Institutes in Greece. The objective of the study was to assess the functional health literacy among university students in Greece, adopting the short four-item comprehension test of Bostock and Steptoe. Summary statistics, correlations and regressions were used to assess the determinants of health literacy and the association with self-perceived health, health behaviours and health risks. Results Economic factors, such as family income, demographic factors, such as gender, and health behaviours and risks, namely consumption of alcohol, smoking and physical workout are associated with the level of health literacy and health status of the participant. While the results of the study are consistent with previous work in this area, several findings worth further research. Conclusions Though, health promotion interventions in Greece include health literacy as one of the basic pillars of the public health policy agenda, it is clear, that health literacy needs to become a key policy issue in Greece, mainly focusing in young ages, where healthy (or unhealthy) behaviours are established affecting the health through the life span. PMID:24987522

  5. Space Radiation and its Associated Health Consequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Honglu

    2007-01-01

    During space travel, astronauts are exposed to energetic particles of a complex composition and energy distribution. For the same amount of absorbed dose, these particles can be much more effective than X- or gamma rays in the induction of biological effects, including cell inactivation, genetic mutations, cataracts, and cancer induction. Several of the biological consequences of space radiation exposure have already been observed in astronauts. This presentation will introduce the space radiation environment and discuss its associated health risks. Accurate assessment of the radiation risks and development of respective countermeasures are essential for the success of future exploration missions to the Moon and Mars.

  6. Roadmap: Environmental Health and Safety Occupational Health and Industrial Hygiene Associate of Applied Science

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Scott

    Roadmap: Environmental Health and Safety ­ Occupational Health and Industrial Hygiene ­ Associate Research 3 PH 30007 Prevention and Control of Diseases 3 Graduation Requirements Summary Minimum Total

  7. Health risk associated with airborne asbestos.

    PubMed

    Pawe?czyk, Adam; Božek, František

    2015-07-01

    The following paper presents an assessment of health risks associated with air polluted with respirable asbestos fibers in towns of southwest Poland. The aim of the work was to determine whether or not any prevention measures are necessary in order to reduce the level of exposure to the pollutant. The risk assessment was carried out based on the air analyses and the latest asbestos toxicity data published by the Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), USA and Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA). It was found that in some sites, the concentration of the asbestos fibers exceeded the acceptable levels, which should be a reason of special concern. The highest concentration of asbestos was found in town centers during the rush hours. In three spots, the calculated maximum health risk exceeded 1E-04 which is considered too high according to the adopted standards. So far, it has not yet been possible to find a reasonable method of ensuring the hazard reduction. PMID:26070993

  8. Roadmap: Environmental Health and Safety -Occupational Health and Industrial Hygiene -Associate of Applied Science

    E-print Network

    Khan, Javed I.

    Roadmap: Environmental Health and Safety - Occupational Health and Industrial Hygiene - Associate Environmental Technology I or PH 10001 Introduction to Public Health 1 3 EVHS 10004 Toxicology 3 EVHS 10010

  9. Roadmap: Environmental Health and Safety Occupational Health and Industrial Hygiene Associate of Applied Science

    E-print Network

    Khan, Javed I.

    Roadmap: Environmental Health and Safety ­ Occupational Health and Industrial Hygiene ­ Associate planning to enroll in the Bachelor of Science in Public Health should take PH 10001 EVHS 10004 Toxicology 3

  10. American Urological Association: UrologyHealth.org

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Established in 1902, the American Urological Association (AUA) works to "promote the highest standards of urological clinical care through education, research and in the formulation of health care policy." In line with the educational component of its mission, AUA developed this website as an information resource for patients. The website offers sections for both Adult and Pediatric Conditions. These sections provide information about a range of conditions and/or diseases under the broad categories of Bladder, Adrenal & Kidney Diseases, Cancers, Inflammations & Infections, Stones, and more. The site also provides a search engine, printer-friendly formats, an online directory service for locating urologists, and a quite extensive glossary of urology-related terms.

  11. Directions to: University Health Associates Physician Office Center

    E-print Network

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    Directions to: · University Health Associates Physician Office Center · West Virginia University Patteson Drive (WV 705). At the third light, turn right into the WVU Health Sciences Center. Overhead signs

  12. Emergency Planning Guidelines for Campus Health Services: An All-Hazards Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of American College Health, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This document, written collaboratively by members of ACHA's Emerging Public Health Threats and Emergency Response Coalition and Campus Safety and Violence Coalition, is designed to assist members of the college health community in planning for emergencies using an all-hazards approach. Its perspective is both macro and micro, beginning with a…

  13. Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... HIPAA compliance Federal and State Regulations/Legislative Resources Health Care Resources News & Press Releases Contact Us Find a Health Care Organization Accreditation Programs General information Application for survey ...

  14. Obesity in Children Is Associated With Increased Health Care Use

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elie Hering; Irena Pritsker; Ludmila Gonchar; Giora Pillar

    2009-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of obesity in children has steadily risen during recent years in developed countries. There is increasing data associating this rise in obesity with a rise in morbidity. In adults, data show clear association between obesity and health care use. This study examined the effects of obesity on health care use in children of several age groups. Methods:

  15. Health Care Expenditures Associated with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Medicaid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Wang; Douglas Leslie

    2010-01-01

    Research Objective: Little is known about health care expenditures associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). To bridge this gap, we used Medicaid data from 42 states to study ASD associated health care expenditures and their time trends.Methods: Using state Medicaid administrative data between 2000 and 2003, patients with any claims related to autism were identified, as were patients with claims

  16. History of the American College Health Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Following Dr. Edward Hitchcock's lead at Amherst College in 1861, soon other institutions of higher education established physical education departments that evolved into independent college health programs. As the field of college health expanded, leaders from numerous campuses began meeting to share information and discuss formation of a…

  17. PEDIATRIC MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS AND ASSOCIATED BURDEN ON FAMILIES

    PubMed Central

    Houtrow, Amy J.; Okumura, Megumi J.

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 20% of children in the United States have mental health problems. The factors associated with childhood mental health problems and the associated burdens on families are not well understood. Therefore, our goals were to profile mental health problems in children to identify disparities, and to quantify and identify correlates of family burden. We used the National Survey of Children’s Health, 2003 (N=85,116 children aged 3–17 years) for this analysis. The prevalence, unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios of mental health problems and family burden were calculated for children by child-, family- and health systems- level characteristics. The prevalence of mental health problems among children aged 3–17 years was 18%. The odds of mental health problems were higher for boys, older children, children living in or near relative poverty, those covered by public insurance, children of mothers with fair or poor mental health, children living in homes without two parents, children without a personal doctor or nurse, and children with unmet health care needs. Among families with children with mental health problems, 28% reported family burden. Correlates of family burden included White race, severity, older age, higher income, non-two parent family structure, and having a mother with mental health problems. In conclusion, childhood mental health problems are common and disproportionally affect children with fewer family and health care resources. Families frequently report burden, especially if the mental health problem is moderate to severe, but the correlates of family burden are not the same correlates associated with mental health problems. Understanding those highest at risk for mental health problems and family burden will help assist clinicians and policy makers to ensure appropriate support systems for children and families. PMID:22135697

  18. Health care-associated Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Duncan; Chui, Linda; Tyrrell, Gregory J; Marrie, Thomas J

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION While Staphylococcus aureus is an uncommon but serious cause of traditional community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), it is a predominant cause of nosocomial pneumonia in addition to the unique clinical entity of health care-associated pneumonia (HCAP). A cohort of bacteremic S aureus pneumonia cases was reviewed to determine the role of HCAP among the cohort, and to assess for differences between CAP and HCAP. PATIENTS AND METHODS Bacteremic S aureus pneumonia cases were identified from a prospective study of all patients diagnosed with CAP who presented to hospitals in Edmonton, Alberta, between November 2000 and November 2002. These cases were subsequently reviewed retrospectively. Demographic, clinical and microbiological data were obtained, and patients were classified as having CAP or HCAP. Relatedness of isolates was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis in conjunction with epidemiological information. RESULTS There were 28 cases of bacteremic S aureus pneumonia identified. Fifty-seven per cent were reclassified as having HCAP, and 43% remained classified as having CAP. The CAP cohort was significantly younger than the HCAP cohort (mean age 49.0±23.7 years versus 67.8±18.6 years; P=0.035) with higher rates of intravenous drug use (50% versus 0%; P=0.002). Long-term care facility residence (44%) was common in the HCAP cohort. The HCAP cohort presented with more severe illness, having a higher mean pneumonia severity index score (143.1±41.1 versus 98.2±54.6; P=0.028), and despite fewer embolic complications, there was a trend toward a significantly higher mortality rate (31% versus 0%; P=0.052). Two community-acquired isolates cultured in the setting of intravenous drug use were methicillin-resistant, and no isolates were positive for Panton-Valentine leukocidin. There was evidence of relatedness involving 44% of the HCAP isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis. CONCLUSION HCAP accounts for a significant number of cases that, when using traditional definitions, would be classified as CAP. Severity of illness and mortality was excessive within the HCAP group. There was evidence of relatedness and spread of common strains in the HCAP cohort. The present study supports recommendations for treatment guidelines directed toward the entity of HCAP and the empirical coverage of S aureus among certain high-risk groups. PMID:18923721

  19. Health Literacy Associations Between Hispanic Elderly Patients and Their Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Cesar H.; Espinoza, Sara E.; Lichtenstein, Michael; Hazuda, Helen P.

    2013-01-01

    Knowing health literacy levels of older patients and their caregivers is important because caregivers assist patients in the administration of medications, manage daily health care tasks, and help make health services utilization decisions. The authors examined the association of health literacy levels between older Hispanic patients and their caregivers among 174 patient-caregiver dyads enrolled from 3 community clinics and 28 senior centers in San Antonio, Texas. Health literacy was measured using English and Spanish versions of the Short-Test of Functional Health Literacy Assessment and categorized as “low” or “adequate.” The largest dyad category (41%) consisted of a caregiver with adequate health literacy and patient with low health literacy. Among the dyads with the same health literacy levels, 28% had adequate health literacy and 24% had low health literacy. It is notable that 7% of dyads consisted of a caregiver with low health literacy and a patient with adequate health literacy. Low health literacy is a concern not only for older Hispanic patients but also for their caregivers. To provide optimal care, clinicians must ensure that information is given to both patients and their caregivers in clear effective ways as it may significantly affect patient health outcomes. PMID:24093360

  20. Improving Children's Heart Health: A Report from the American Heart Association's Children's Heart Health Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gidding, Samuel S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This article presents recommendations developed at the 1994 American Heart Association's Children's Heart Health Conference to promote cardiovascular health in children, particularly regarding public health, lifestyle, and behavior. The recommendations cover the areas of physical activity, nutrition, and tobacco, providing suggestions for schools,…

  1. Health Effects Associated with Water Fluoridation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Virginia L.

    1979-01-01

    Discussion is presented concerning fluoridation of water supplies. Correlation between fluoride in drinking water and improved dental health is reviewed. Relationship is expressed between fluoridation and reduced tooth decay. Use of fluoride in treating skeletal disorders is discussed. Author advocates fluoridating water supplies. (SA)

  2. SASKATCHEWAN HEALTH-CARE AUXILIARIES ASSOCIATION Bursary Application

    E-print Network

    Peak, Derek

    SASKATCHEWAN HEALTH-CARE AUXILIARIES ASSOCIATION Bursary Application This bursary is awarded to a student entering the second year of a Registered Nursing Education Program in Saskatchewan. It is awarded

  3. Public Health Issues Associated with Small Drinking Water Systems

    E-print Network

    Mountains. The lodge had a private drinking water system that was too small to be regulated under the SDWAPublic Health Issues Associated with Small Drinking Water Systems Not Regulated by the Safe Drinking Water Act From: Nonfederally Regulated Drinking Water Systems: State and Local Public Health

  4. Research paper: Characteristics associated with Regional Health Information Organization viability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia Adler-Milstein; John Landefeld; Ashish K. Jha

    2010-01-01

    ObjectiveRegional Health Information Organizations (RHIOs) will likely play a key role in our nation's effort to catalyze health information exchange. Yet we know little about why some efforts succeed while others fail. We sought to identify factors associated with RHIO viability.DesignUsing data from a national survey of RHIOs that we conducted in mid-2008, we examined factors associated with becoming operational

  5. 78 FR 77470 - Health Insurance Exchanges; Approval of an Application by the Accreditation Association for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ...Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care (AAAHC) To Be a Recognized Accrediting...Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care (AAAHC) for recognition as an...Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care (AAAHC) to be a recognized...

  6. Healthcare – associated infections: A public health problem

    PubMed Central

    Revelas, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Disinfection and sterilization in hospitals, is of increasing concern. Nosocomial infections can be defined as those occurring within 48 hours of hospital admission, 3 days of discharge or 30 days of an operation. They affect 1 in 10 patients admitted to hospital. Nosocomial infections are associated with a great deal of morbidity, mortality, and increased financial burden PMID:23271847

  7. Is Personality Associated with Health Care Use by Older Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Bruce; Veazie, Peter J; Chapman, Benjamin P; Manning, Willard G; Duberstein, Paul R

    2013-01-01

    Context The patterns of health care utilization in the United States pose well-established challenges for public policy. Although economic and sociological research has resulted in considerable knowledge about what influences the use of health services, the psychological literature in this area is underdeveloped. Importantly, it is not known whether personality traits are associated with older adults’ use of acute and long-term care services. Methods Data were collected from 1,074 community-dwelling seniors participating in a Medicare demonstration. First they completed a self-report questionnaire measuring the “Big Five” personality traits: Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. During the next two years, the participants maintained daily journals of their use of health care services. We used regression models based on the Andersen behavioral model of health care utilization to test for associations. Findings Our hypothesis that higher Neuroticism would be associated with greater health care use was confirmed for three services—probability of any emergency department (ED) use, likelihood of any custodial nursing home use, and more skilled nursing facility (SNF) days for SNF users—but was disconfirmed for hospital days for those hospitalized. Higher Openness to Experience was associated with a greater likelihood of custodial home care use, and higher Agreeableness and lower Conscientiousness with a higher probability of custodial nursing home use. For users, lower Openness was associated with more ED visits and SNF days, and lower Conscientiousness with more ED visits. For many traits with significant associations, the predicted use was 16 to 30 percent greater for people high (low) versus low (high) in specific traits. Conclusions Personality traits are associated with Medicare beneficiaries’ use of many expensive health care services, findings that have implications for health services research and policy. Accordingly, person-centered interventions, population-based translational effectiveness programs, and other personalized approaches that leverage the profound advances in personality psychology in recent decades should be considered. PMID:24028697

  8. Longitudinal associations between health behaviors and mental health in low-income adults.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Jennifer L; Senn, Theresa E; Carey, Michael P

    2013-03-01

    Although there are established relationships between physical and mental health, few studies have explored the relationship between health behaviors and mental health over time. To explore rates of health-compromising behaviors (HCBs) and the longitudinal relationship between HCBs and depression, anxiety, and stress, five waves of data were collected over 1 year from 482 patients at an urban public health clinic (47 % female, 68 % African-American, M age?=?28). Smoking (61 %), binge drinking (52 %), illegal drug use (53 %), unprotected sex with non-primary partners (55 %), and fast food consumption (71 %) were common, while consumption of fruits or vegetables (30 %) and breakfast (17 %) were rare. Cross-lagged models identified within-time associations between HCBs and depression/anxiety and stress. Additionally, depression/anxiety and stress predicted later HCBs, but HCBs did not predict later mental health. Results suggest that targeting mental health may be important to promoting improvements across multiple health behaviors. PMID:23997836

  9. Health Literacy Association With Health Behaviors and Health Care Utilization in Multiple Sclerosis: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Salter, Amber; Tyry, Tuula; Fox, Robert J; Cutter, Gary R

    2014-01-01

    Background Low health literacy is generally associated with poor health outcomes; however, health literacy has received little attention in multiple sclerosis (MS). Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the health literacy of persons with MS using the North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis (NARCOMS) Registry. Methods In 2012, we conducted a cross-sectional study of health literacy among NARCOMS participants. Respondents completed the Medical Term Recognition Test (METER) which assesses the ability to distinguish medical and nonmedical words, and the Newest Vital Sign (NVS) instrument which evaluates reading, interpretation, and numeracy skills. Respondents reported their sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviors, comorbidities, visits to the emergency room (ER), and hospitalizations in the last 6 months. We used logistic regression to evaluate the characteristics associated with functional literacy, and the association between functional literacy and health care utilization. Results Of 13,020 eligible participants, 8934 (68.6%) completed the questionnaire and were US residents. Most of them performed well on the instruments with 81.04% (7066/8719) having functional literacy on the METER and 74.62% (6666/8933) having adequate literacy on the NVS. Low literacy on the METER or the NVS was associated with smoking, being overweight or obese (all P<.001). After adjustment, low literacy on the METER was associated with ER visits (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.10-1.48) and hospitalizations (OR 1.19, 95% CI 0.98-1.44). Findings were similar for the NVS. Conclusions In the NARCOMS cohort, functional health literacy is high. However, lower levels of health literacy are associated with adverse health behaviors and greater health care utilization. PMID:24513479

  10. Adult Congenital Heart Association

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Grant Funders Careers Store | Blog | Espanol | Contact Us Heart to Heart Where You Live ACHA and our local partners ... to connect with others with CHD. Register Today Heart to Heart Ambassadors Ambassadors connect ACHA patient and ...

  11. Factors Associated with Health Care Access for Mississippi Children with Special Health Care Needs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debra J. Kane; Marianne E. Zotti; Deborah Rosenberg

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: This purpose of the study was to examine the factors associated with access to routine care and to specialty care for Mississippi children with special health care needs (CSHCN). Methods: We analyzed data for Mississippi CSHCN from the 2001 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs. Using a modified version of Andersen and Aday’s Behavioral Model of

  12. Environmental Health in the 21st Century: A Role for the National Environmental Health Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Bailus, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the public health ramifications of environmental management and how the National Environmental Health Association should play a role in addressing the issues on the Earth Summit agenda and the National Agenda for Environmental Quality. Explores the link between ecological ills, national and international trade, and related consumption of…

  13. EPA/OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT'S NATIONAL HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS LABORATORY'S ASSOCIATE DIRECTOR FOR HEALTH INTERNET SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Internet site provides information about the Office of Research and Development's National Health and Environmental Effects Laboratory's Associate Director for Health (ADH) Internet site. The ADH is responsible for providing leadership for the health effects research program...

  14. 77 FR 70783 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Approval of the Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-27

    ...Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care (AAAHC) Application for Continuing...Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care (AAAHC) for continued recognition...determined by CMS. The Ambulatory Health Care's (AAAHC) current term of...

  15. [Association between social capital and oral health conditions and behavior].

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Isabella Azevedo; Goes, Paulo Sávio Angeiras de

    2014-06-01

    The theory of social capital seeks to explain social inequality in health through the interaction of social, economic and environmental factors and has been associated with many health problems, though there is still little research in the area of oral health. The scope of this study was to evaluate the association between social capital and socio-demographic and behavioral factors related to oral health among schoolchildren aged from 15 to 19. A random sample of 1,417 adolescents filled out a self-administered survey and the data were descriptively analyzed (simple frequencies, central tendency and variability measurement) and inferential statistics (Pearson's chi-square test). The results showed that the social capital which is more prevalent among adolescents was intermediate level, as well as between each of its dimensions, except for social action where the majority were classified as lower-leveled. Among the variables analyzed, social capital was statistically associated only with sex, with women being more likely to be classified under the 'low social capital' label. This area still needs considerable research to increase theoretical-conceptual and methodological maturity in order to better understand the social contexts that are essential for formulating effective public health policies. PMID:24897493

  16. Management of HealthCare Associated Pneumonia (HCAP)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alessia Rosato; Claudio Santini

    IntroductionThe traditional classification of Pneumonia as either community acquired (CAP) or hospital acquired (HAP) reflects deep differences in the etiology, pathogenesis, approach and prognosis between the two entities. Health-Care Associated Pneumonia (HCAP) develops in a heterogeneous group of patients receiving invasive medical care or surgical procedures in an outpatient setting. For epidemiology and outcomes, HCAP closely resembles HAP and possibly

  17. Association of Functional and Health Status Measures in Heart Failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JONATHAN MYERS; NAYMA ZAHEER; SUSAN QUAGLIETTI; RUPA MADHAVAN; VICTOR FROELICHER; PAUL HEIDENREICH

    2006-01-01

    Background: A wide variety of instruments have been used to assess the functional capabilities and health status of patients with chronic heart failure (I-F), but it is not known how well these tests are correlated with one another, nor which one has the best association with measured exercise capacity. Methods and Results: Forty-one patients with HF were assessed with commonly

  18. Health Effects Associated with Wastewater Treatment and Disposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowal, N. E.; Pahren, H. R.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the potential health effects associated with: (1) wastewater treatment plants; (2) land application of municipal wastewater; and (3) use of renovated water. This review covers the publications of 1976-77. A list of 96 references is also presented. (HM)

  19. Health Divide: Economic and Demographic Factors Associated with Self-Reported Health Among Older Malaysians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharifah Azizah Haron; Deanna L. Sharpe; Jariah Masud; Mohamed Abdel-Ghany

    2010-01-01

    Data from the 2004 Survey of Economic and Financial Aspects of Aging in Malaysia were analyzed to determine factors associated\\u000a with self-reported health status among older Malaysians. Odds of self-reporting health as bad versus moderate or good were\\u000a higher for respondents who were in lower income quintiles, who perceived their financial situation as bad, who were older\\u000a and who were

  20. Development of the Tongan American Health Professionals Association: Sharing, Mentoring and Networking for Community Health

    PubMed Central

    Tulua-Tata, Alisi; Hui, Brian; Tisnado, Diana M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Tongan-Americans face severe disparities in health including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Educational disparities also affect health opportunities and well-being, influencing health status and community capacity to address disparities. Few resources have been identified within the Tongan-American community to address these concerns. The Tongan American Health Professionals Association (TAHPA) was conceived to identify and develop health and health career resources for the Tongan community. Through TAHPA, the Tongan-American community is utilizing a community-empowerment approach to address disparities and well-being. Methods TAHPA was formed in 2008 through the leadership of individuals with a vision of a healthier Tongan-American community. TAHPA’s purpose was to inspire and empower the Tongan-American community by developing an organization of Tongan-American health care professionals and pre-professionals, celebrating their accomplishments, and providing resources and support for educational and career development. Founders gathered in small work groups in community settings to discuss health concerns, well-being and solutions. Key community members facilitated the process to establish goals and objectives. Next Steps To date, 40 Tongan health professionals and pre-professionals have become members. TAHPA’s vision and outreach processes have been developed. TAHPA’s uniqueness and strength is that it is rooted in the community, created by the community to serve the community.

  1. Position Statement on Tobacco on College and University Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of American College Health, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The American College Health Association (ACHA) acknowledges and supports the findings of the Surgeon General that tobacco use in any form, active and/or passive, is a significant health hazard. ACHA further recognizes that environmental tobacco smoke has been classified as a Class-A carcinogen and that there is no safe level of exposure to…

  2. Position Statement on Tobacco on College and University Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of American College Health, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The American College Health Association (ACHA) acknowledges and supports the findings of the Surgeon General that tobacco use in any form, active and/or passive, is a significant health hazard. ACHA further recognizes that environmental tobacco smoke has been classified as a Class-A carcinogen and that there is no safe level of exposure to…

  3. National rural health mission--opportunity for Indian Public Health Association.

    PubMed

    Ray, Sandip Kumar

    2005-01-01

    Indian Public Health Association (IPHA) welcomes the release of National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) documents. It suggests that manpower requirements of the Community Health Centre (CHC) should be rationally determined on the basis of work and patient load of the CHC. Importance should be given on availability of simple & life saving equipment, female staff when male staff is not available. Safe drinking water, an adequate sanitation and excreta disposal facility through Panchayet Raj Institution (PRI) or privatization was proposed. Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA) has been accepted more streamlining based on the community was suggested. Capacity building or training should be CHC based for grass-root level functionaries with incentive to Medical officer (MO). IPHA proposes to extend support in capacity building, development of manual for ASHA & other categories of health professional as well as Program Implementation Plan (PIP). PMID:16468283

  4. Seeking Health Information Online: Association With Young Australian Women’s Physical, Mental, and Reproductive Health

    PubMed Central

    Loxton, Deborah; Dobson, Annette; Mishra, Gita Devi

    2015-01-01

    Background Relatively little is known about the extent to which young adults use the Internet as a health information resource and whether there are factors that distinguish between those who do and do not go online for health information. Objective The aim was to identify the sociodemographic, physical, mental, and reproductive health factors associated with young women’s use of the Internet for health information. Methods We used data from 17,069 young women aged 18-23 years who participated in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the association between sociodemographic, physical, mental, and reproductive health factors associated with searching the Internet for health information. Results Overall, 43.54% (7433/17,069) of women used the Internet for health information. Women who used the Internet had higher odds of regular urinary or bowel symptoms (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.36-1.54), psychological distress (very high distress: OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.13-1.37), self-reported mental health diagnoses (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.09-1.23), and menstrual symptoms (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.15-1.36) than women who did not use the Internet for health information. Internet users were less likely to have had blood pressure checks (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.78-0.93) and skin cancer checks (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.84-0.97) and to have had a live birth (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.64-0.86) or pregnancy loss (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.79-0.98) than non-Internet users. Conclusions Women experiencing “stigmatized” conditions or symptoms were more likely to search the Internet for health information. The Internet may be an acceptable resource that offers “anonymized” information or support to young women and this has important implications for health service providers and public health policy. PMID:25986630

  5. Characteristics Associated with Hospital Health IT Vendor Switching and Dropping

    PubMed Central

    Lammers, Eric J.; Zheng, Kai

    2011-01-01

    While a growing body of research has investigated the diffusion of health IT among providers, no empirical research has yet focused on health IT vendor switching by hospitals. Vendor switching is one indicator of a competitive commercial vendor market, and competition among vendors can spur innovations which contribute to better products over time. This study examines the interaction of hospitals with commercial vendors in the recent past to serve as a baseline for future investigations into how the federal health IT incentive program influences changes in the vendor market and vendor-provider relationships. We find that there has been considerable switching between vendors by hospitals, including some hospitals switching away from automated systems all together. Furthermore, our descriptive cross-sectional analysis reveals various hospital characteristics which are associated with vendor switching and dropping, including lower constraints on hospitals’ financial resources, nonprofit ownership, and having some form of integrated arrangement with physicians. PMID:22195131

  6. Health Beliefs Associated with Cervical Cancer Screening Among Vietnamese Americans

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wanzhen; Fang, Carolyn Y.; Tan, Yin; Feng, Ziding; Ge, Shaokui; Nguyen, Joseph An

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Vietnamese American women represent one of the ethnic subgroups at great risk for cervical cancer in the United States. The underutilization of cervical cancer screening and the vulnerability of Vietnamese American women to cervical cancer may be compounded by their health beliefs. Objective The objective of this study was to explore the associations between factors of the Health Belief Model (HBM) and cervical cancer screening among Vietnamese American women. Methods Vietnamese American women (n=1,450) were enrolled into the randomized controlled trial (RCT) study who were recruited from 30 Vietnamese community-based organizations located in Pennsylvania and New Jersey. Participants completed baseline assessments of demographic and acculturation variables, health care access factors, and constructs of the HBM, as well as health behaviors in either English or Vietnamese. Results The rate of those who had ever undergone cervical cancer screening was 53% (769/1450) among the participants. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, the significant associated factors from HBM included: believing themselves at risk and more likely than average women to get cervical cancer; believing that cervical cancer changes life; believing a Pap test is important for staying healthy, not understanding what is done during a Pap test, being scared to know having cervical cancer; taking a Pap test is embarrassing; not being available by doctors at convenient times; having too much time for a test; believing no need for a Pap test when feeling well; and being confident in getting a test. Conclusion Understanding how health beliefs may be associated with cervical cancer screening among underserved Vietnamese American women is essential for identifying the subgroup of women who are most at risk for cervical cancer and would benefit from intervention programs to increase screening rates. PMID:23428284

  7. Nutrition and Health – The Association between Eating Behavior and Various Health Parameters: A Matched Sample Study

    PubMed Central

    Burkert, Nathalie T.; Muckenhuber, Johanna; Großschädl, Franziska; Rásky, Éva; Freidl, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Population-based studies have consistently shown that our diet has an influence on health. Therefore, the aim of our study was to analyze differences between different dietary habit groups in terms of health-related variables. The sample used for this cross-sectional study was taken from the Austrian Health Interview Survey AT-HIS 2006/07. In a first step, subjects were matched according to their age, sex, and socioeconomic status (SES). After matching, the total number of subjects included in the analysis was 1320 (N?=?330 for each form of diet – vegetarian, carnivorous diet rich in fruits and vegetables, carnivorous diet less rich in meat, and carnivorous diet rich in meat). Analyses of variance were conducted controlling for lifestyle factors in the following domains: health (self-assessed health, impairment, number of chronic conditions, vascular risk), health care (medical treatment, vaccinations, preventive check-ups), and quality of life. In addition, differences concerning the presence of 18 chronic conditions were analyzed by means of Chi-square tests. Overall, 76.4% of all subjects were female. 40.0% of the individuals were younger than 30 years, 35.4% between 30 and 49 years, and 24.0% older than 50 years. 30.3% of the subjects had a low SES, 48.8% a middle one, and 20.9% had a high SES. Our results revealed that a vegetarian diet is related to a lower BMI and less frequent alcohol consumption. Moreover, our results showed that a vegetarian diet is associated with poorer health (higher incidences of cancer, allergies, and mental health disorders), a higher need for health care, and poorer quality of life. Therefore, public health programs are needed in order to reduce the health risk due to nutritional factors. PMID:24516625

  8. Associations between health literacy and health outcomes in a predominantly low-income african american population with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Al Sayah, Fatima; Majumdar, Sumit R; Egede, Leonard E; Johnson, Jeffrey A

    2015-05-01

    Inadequate health literacy has been associated with poorer health behaviors and outcomes in individuals with diabetes or depression. This study was conducted to examine the associations between inadequate health literacy and behavioral and cardiometabolic parameters in individuals with type 2 diabetes and to explore whether these associations are affected by concurrent depression. The authors used cross-sectional data from a study of 343 predominantly African Americans with type 2 diabetes. Inadequate health literacy was significantly and modestly associated with diabetes knowledge (r = -0.34) but weakly associated with self-efficacy (r = 0.16) and depressive symptoms (r = 0.24). In multivariate regression models, there were no associations between health literacy and A1c, blood pressure, or body mass index or control of any of these parameters. There was no evidence that depression was an effect-modifier of the associations between health literacy and outcomes. Although inadequate health literacy was modestly associated with worse knowledge and weakly associated with self-efficacy, it was not associated with any of the cardiometabolic parameters the authors studied. Because this study showed no association between health literacy and behavioral and cardiometabolic outcomes, it is unseemly and premature to embark on trials or controlled interventions to improve health literacy for the purposes of improving patient-related outcomes in diabetes. PMID:25826448

  9. Health care-associated hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Pozzetto, Bruno; Memmi, Meriam; Garraud, Olivier; Roblin, Xavier; Berthelot, Philippe

    2014-12-14

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a blood-borne pathogen that has a worldwide distribution and infects millions of people. Care-associated HCV infections represented a huge part of hepatitis C burden in the past via contaminated blood and unsafe injections and continue to be a serious problem of public health. The present review proposes a panorama of health care-associated HCV infections via the three mode of contamination that have been identified: (1) infected patient to non-infected patient; (2) infected patient to non-infected health care worker (HCW); and (3) infected HCW to non infected patient. For each condition, the circumstances of contamination are described together with the means to prevent them. As a whole, the more important risk is represented by unsafe practices regarding injections, notably with the improper use of multidose vials used for multiple patients. The questions of occupational exposures and infected HCWs are also discussed. In terms of prevention and surveillance, the main arm for combating care-associated HCV infections is the implementation of standard precautions in all the fields of cares, with training programs and audits to verify their good application. HCWs must be sensitized to the risk of blood-borne pathogens, notably by the use of safety devices for injections and good hygiene practices in the operating theatre and in all the invasive procedures. The providers performing exposed-prone procedures must monitor their HCV serology regularly in order to detect early any primary infection and to treat it without delay. With the need to stay vigilant because HCV infection is often a hidden risk, it can be hoped that the number of people infected by HCV via health care will decrease very significantly in the next years. PMID:25516637

  10. Health care-associated hepatitis C virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Pozzetto, Bruno; Memmi, Meriam; Garraud, Olivier; Roblin, Xavier; Berthelot, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a blood-borne pathogen that has a worldwide distribution and infects millions of people. Care-associated HCV infections represented a huge part of hepatitis C burden in the past via contaminated blood and unsafe injections and continue to be a serious problem of public health. The present review proposes a panorama of health care-associated HCV infections via the three mode of contamination that have been identified: (1) infected patient to non-infected patient; (2) infected patient to non-infected health care worker (HCW); and (3) infected HCW to non infected patient. For each condition, the circumstances of contamination are described together with the means to prevent them. As a whole, the more important risk is represented by unsafe practices regarding injections, notably with the improper use of multidose vials used for multiple patients. The questions of occupational exposures and infected HCWs are also discussed. In terms of prevention and surveillance, the main arm for combating care-associated HCV infections is the implementation of standard precautions in all the fields of cares, with training programs and audits to verify their good application. HCWs must be sensitized to the risk of blood-borne pathogens, notably by the use of safety devices for injections and good hygiene practices in the operating theatre and in all the invasive procedures. The providers performing exposed-prone procedures must monitor their HCV serology regularly in order to detect early any primary infection and to treat it without delay. With the need to stay vigilant because HCV infection is often a hidden risk, it can be hoped that the number of people infected by HCV via health care will decrease very significantly in the next years. PMID:25516637

  11. 78 FR 54652 - Sole Source Cooperative Agreement Award to the Association for State and Territorial Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Sole Source Cooperative...Association for State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO) AGENCY: Office of...and Response (ASPR), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)....

  12. 78 FR 38043 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Application From the American Osteopathic Association/Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ...Association/Health Facilities Accreditation Program for Continued CMS-Approval...Its Critical Access Hospital Accreditation Program AGENCY: Centers for...Association/Health Facilities Accreditation Program (AOA/HFAP) for...

  13. NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH RESEARCH PLAN ON FRAGILE X SYNDROME AND ASSOCIATED DISORDERS

    E-print Network

    Rau, Don C.

    NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH RESEARCH PLAN ON FRAGILE X SYNDROME AND ASSOCIATED DISORDERS.................................................................................................................... 3 Fragile X Syndrome (FXS)...................................................................................................... 4 Fragile X-associated Tremor/Ataxia Syndrome (FXTAS

  14. Use of Health Care Services and Associated Factors among Women

    PubMed Central

    ESMAILNASAB, Nader; HASSANZADEH, Jafar; REZAEIAN, Shahab; BARKHORDARI, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background To estimate the prevalence and analyze factors associated with both public and private health services utilization in women population in a western district of Iran. Method A cross-sectional study with 1200 individuals aged 18-49 years carried out in different districts of Sanandaj City, western Iran, in 2012. The main outcome variable was use of health service in the previous 12 months. The in-dependent variables were age, education level, place of residence, marital and pregnancy status, household wealth, oc-cupation and duration time of employment, and rating of quality of health services. Results The prevalence of public and private health services utilization were 60.8% [95%CI: 57.8, 63.8] and 53.8% [95%CI: 50.8%, 56.8%], respectively (P=0.001). After controlling other investigated factors using logistic regression; the academic educational level (OR=1.36, 95%CI: 1.03, 1.80; OR=1.76, 95%CI: 1.33, 2.33), residents of urban (OR=1.65, 95%CI: 1.10, 2.47; OR=1.60, 95%CI: 1.10, 2.42), pregnancy status (OR=2.38, 95%CI: 1.60, 3.55; OR=2.36, 95%CI: 1.61, 3.47), and high level of quality of health services (OR=1.61, 95%CI: 1.15, 2.27; OR=1.70, 95%CI: 1.20, 2.40) were found to be predictors of utilization of both public and private health care respectively. There was also statistically relation between high level of household wealth (OR=3.01, 95% CI: 2.00, 4.57) and private health services utilization. Conclusions Prevalence of health services utilization varied according to the individual and social factors of popula-tion studied. Present study emphasizes the need to develop care models that focus on the characteristics and demands of the subjects.

  15. Leadership skills are associated with health behaviours among Canadian children.

    PubMed

    Ferland, Adam; Chu, Yen Li; Gleddie, Doug; Storey, Kate; Veugelers, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Life skills development is a core area for action in the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. The role of life skills in influencing health behaviours among children has received little attention in research. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship between self-leadership, as a model of life skills, and diet quality, physical activity, sleep duration and body weight. A provincially representative sample of 2328 grade 5 students (aged 10-11 years) was surveyed in Alberta, Canada. Self-leadership skills were assessed based on student responses indicating frequency of performing various leadership traits. Diet quality was based on responses to the Harvard Youth/Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaire and physical activity on responses to the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children. Sleep duration was assessed based on parent survey responses, and body mass index determined based on measured height and weight. Random effects regression models with children nested within schools were used to determine the associations. Higher self-leadership was associated with better diet quality (P < 0.01) and more physical activity (P < 0.01). Although not statistically significant, higher self-leadership was suggestive of healthier body weight status (OR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.66, 1.27). No association of self-leadership with sleep duration was found. The incorporation of leadership skill development may enhance the effectiveness of school-based health promotion programs. This study reinforces the importance of leadership skill promotion in the promotion of healthy eating and active living, which may help curb the obesity epidemic in the short term, and prevention of chronic diseases and mounting healthcare costs in the long term. PMID:25348102

  16. The association of child mental health conditions and parent mental health status among U.S. Children, 2007.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Amanda C; Brewer, Katherine C; Rankin, Kristin M

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the association of child mental health conditions and parent mental health status. This study used data from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health on 80,982 children ages 2-17. The presence of a child mental health condition was defined as a parent-reported diagnosis of at least one of seven child mental health conditions. Parent mental health was assessed via a 5-point scale. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of child mental health conditions and parent mental health status, while examining socioeconomic, parent, family, and community factors as potential effect modifiers and confounders of the association. 11.1% of children had a mental health condition (95% CI = 10.5-11.6). The prevalence of child mental health conditions increased as parent mental health status worsened. Race/ethnicity was the only significant effect modifier of the child-parent mental health association. After adjustment for confounders, the stratum-specific adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) of child mental health conditions related to a one-level decline in parent mental health were: 1.44 (1.35-1.55) for non-Hispanic whites, 1.24 (1.06-1.46) for non-Hispanic blacks, 1.04 (0.81-1.32) for Hispanics from non-immigrant families, 1.21 (0.96-1.93) for Hispanics from immigrant families, and 1.43 (1.21-1.70) for non-Hispanic other race children. The effect of parent mental health status on child mental health conditions was significant only among non-Hispanic children. Parent-focused interventions to prevent or improve child mental health conditions may be best targeted to the sub-populations for whom parent and child mental health are most strongly associated. PMID:21948199

  17. Reducing Cancer Health Disparities in the US-associated Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Tsark, JoAnn U.; Braun, Kathryn L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To assess cancer prevention and control capacity in the US-associated Pacific Islands (USAPI, including American Samoa, Northern Mariana Islands, Micronesia, Guam, Marshall Islands, and Palau) and to support indigenous leadership in reducing cancer health disparities. Methods Jurisdiction-specific needs assessments were conducted to assess cancer prevention and control capacity and challenges, The Cancer Council of the Pacific islands (CCPI), an indigenous health leadership team from public health and medicine, was supported to review assessment findings, develop priorities, and build capacity to address recommendations. Results Capacity varied across jurisdictions, but generally there is limited ability to measure cancer burden and a lack of programs, equipment, and trained personnel to detect and treat cancer. Most cancers are diagnosed in late stages when survival is compromised and care is most costly. Jurisdictions also are challenged by geographic, social, and political constraints and multiple in-country demands for funding. Based on findings, strategies were developed by the CCPI to guide efforts, including fund seeking, to expand cancer prevention and control capacity in regionally appropriate ways. Conclusions Concerted planning, training, and funding efforts are needed to overcome challenges and upgrade capacity in cancer education, prevention, detection, and treatment in the USAPI. Indigenous leadership and local capacity building are essential to this process. PMID:17149100

  18. [Complaints associated with locomotor system and other health problems of female health professionals.].

    PubMed

    Müller, I; Chlubnová, B

    1994-01-01

    In a group of 393 nurses, laboratory assistants and rehabilitation workers, mean age 37.5 years, employed in the health services for an average period of 17.7 years the authors assessed, using an anonymous questionnaire, complaints regarding the locomotor apparatus and other health problems. Although the majority of respondents liked their jobs, 74% of the subjects suffered from vertebrogenic pain, painful feet (45 %), and headache (46 %). One third of the examined subjects reported insomnia and vertigo. Overweight was minimal in the investigated group. Physical activity was very restricted (only 14% of the women were regularly engaged in sports); an important factor was inadequate rest in 34 % of the women. As to weaknesses, the high rate of smokers was striking (33 %) and the popularity of sweets (30%) which apparently is associated with the stress of the medical profession. Social problems in interpersonal relations at the work place were mentioned by 28 % of the respondents. The percentage of subjects with impaired eyesight (22 %) was highly significant. From the investigation ensues that more attention should be paid to the control of risks in health professions, to regeneration of strength and prophylaxis of locomotor disorders by exercise. A major task is also to improve interpersonal relations and social problems of women in the health services. Key words: vertebrogenic complaints, articular complaints, stress among health professionals, prevention. PMID:20444388

  19. Health care-associated infections in children after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Turcotte, Rebecca F; Brozovich, Ava; Corda, Rozelle; Demmer, Ryan T; Biagas, Katherine V; Mangino, Diane; Covington, Lisa; Ferris, Anne; Thumm, Brian; Bacha, Emile; Smerling, Art; Saiman, Lisa

    2014-12-01

    Few recent studies have assessed the epidemiology of health care-associated infections (HAIs) in the pediatric population after cardiac surgery. A retrospective cohort study was performed to assess the epidemiology of several types of HAIs in children 18 years of age or younger undergoing cardiac surgery from July 2010 to June 2012. Potential pre-, intra-, and postoperative risk factors, including adherence to the perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis regimen at the authors' hospital, were assessed by multivariable analysis using Poisson regression models. Microorganisms associated with HAIs and their susceptibility patterns were described. Overall, 634 surgeries were performed, 38 (6 %) of which were complicated by an HAI occurring within 90 days after surgery. The HAIs included 7 central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs), 12 non-CLABSI bacteremias, 6 episodes of early postoperative infective endocarditis (IE), 9 surgical-site infections (SSIs), and 4 ventilator-associated pneumonias (VAPs). Mechanical ventilation (rate ratio [RR] 1.07 per day; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.03-1.11; p = 0.0002), postoperative transfusion of blood products (RR 3.12; 95 %, CI 1.38-7.06; p = 0.0062), postoperative steroid use (RR 3.32; 95 % CI 1.56-7.02; p = 0.0018), and continuation of antibiotic prophylaxis longer than 48 h after surgery (RR 2.56; 95 % CI 1.31-5.03; p = 0.0062) were associated with HAIs. Overall, 66.7 % of the pathogens associated with SSIs were susceptible to cefazolin, the perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis used by the authors' hospital. In conclusion, HAIs occurred after 6 % of cardiac surgeries. Bacteremia and CLABSI were the most common. This study identified several potentially modifiable risk factors that suggest interventions. Further studies should assess the role of improving adherence to perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis, the age of transfused red blood cells, and evidence-based guidelines for postoperative steroids. PMID:24996642

  20. Associations of psychosocial working conditions with self-rated general health and mental health among municipal employees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mikko Laaksonen; Ossi Rahkonen; Pekka Martikainen; Eero Lahelma

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To examine associations of job demands and job control, procedural and relational organizational fairness, and physical work load with self-rated general health and mental health. In addition, the effect of occupational class on these associations is examined. Methods: The data were derived from the Helsinki Health Study baseline surveys in 2001–2002. Respondents to cross-sectional postal surveys were middle-aged employees

  1. [Health hazards associated with occupational exposure to birds].

    PubMed

    Swiderska-Kie?bik, Sylwia; Krakowiak, Anna; Wiszniewska, Marta; Dudek, Wojciech; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta; Krawczyk-Szulc, Patrycja; Michowicz, Aleksandra; Pa?czy?ski, Cezary

    2010-01-01

    The occupational group particularly exposed to contact with birds are zoo keepers, animal shop workers, individual bird's keepers and food industry workers. Work associated with contact with birds may contribute to the development of different symptoms and diseases, including allergic and contagious ones. This paper reviews the most common allergens occurring in the environment of bird's keepers, namely: feathers, egg proteins, allergens of plant origin, acarinae, allergens from latex and disinfectants. The most common health effects associated with occupational exposure to birds are also presented. Taking account of not fully understood pathogenesis of allergy to these allergens, complexity of occupational exposure and a possible coincidence of non-specific irritant effects of factors present in work environment, the diagnostic and certification procedures for occupational allergic diseases require highly specialized investigations. Objective and subjective medical examinations, taken medical history and physical examination also play a significant role in diagnostics of contagious diseases, whereas different laboratory tests are used in searching for their etiologic factors. The prevention of diseases associated with occupational exposure to birds comprises educational work, technical actions (hygiene prophylaxis) and medical prophylaxis. PMID:20509558

  2. Genome-wide association study of body height in African Americans: the Women's Health Initiative SNP Health Association Resource (SHARe)

    PubMed Central

    Carty, Cara L.; Johnson, Nicholas A.; Hutter, Carolyn M.; Reiner, Alexander P.; Peters, Ulrike; Tang, Hua; Kooperberg, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Height is a complex trait under strong genetic influence. To date, numerous genetic loci have been associated with height in individuals of European ancestry. However, few large-scale discovery genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of height in minority populations have been conducted and thus information about population-specific height regulation is limited. We conducted a GWA analysis of height in 8149 African-American (AA) women from the Women's Health Initiative. Genetic variants with P< 5 × 10?5 (n = 169) were followed up in a replication data set (n = 20 809) and meta-analyzed in a total of 28 958 AAs and African-descent individuals. Twelve single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) representing 7 independent loci were significantly associated with height at P < 5 × 10?8. We identified novel SNPs in 17q23 (TMEM100/PCTP) and Xp22.3 (ARSE) reflecting population-specific regulation of height in AAs and replicated five loci previously reported in European-descent populations [4p15/LCORL, 11q13/SERPINH1, 12q14/HMGA2, 17q23/MAP3K3 (mitogen-activated protein kinase3) and 18q21/DYM]. In addition, we performed an admixture mapping analysis of height which is both complementary and supportive to the GWA analysis and suggests potential associations between ancestry and height on chromosomes 4 (4q21), 15 (15q26) and 17 (17q23). Our findings provide insight into the genetic architecture of height and support the investigation of non-European-descent populations for identifying genetic factors associated with complex traits. Specifically, we identify new loci that may reflect population-specific regulation of height and report several known height loci that are important in determining height in African-descent populations. PMID:22021425

  3. [Social class, psychosocial occupational risk factors, and the association with self-rated health and mental health in Chile].

    PubMed

    Rocha, Kátia Bones; Muntaner, Carles; Solar, Orielle; Borrell, Carme; Bernales, Pamela; González, María José; Ibańez, Ciro; Benach, Joan; Vallebuona, Clélia

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the association between social class and psychosocial occupational risk factors and self-rated health and mental health in a Chilean population. A cross-sectional study analyzed data from the First National Survey on Employment, Work, Quality of Life, and Male and Female Workers in Chile (N = 9,503). The dependent variables were self-rated health status and mental health. The independent variables were social class (neo-Marxist), psychosocial occupational risk factors, and material deprivation. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were performed. There were inequalities in the distribution of psychosocial occupational risk factors by social class and sex. Furthermore, social class and psychosocial occupational risk factors were associated with unequal distribution of self-rated health and mental health among the working population in Chile. Occupational health interventions should consider workers' exposure to socioeconomic and psychosocial risk factors. PMID:25388324

  4. Roadmap: Environmental Health and Safety Environmental Technology Associate of Applied Science

    E-print Network

    Khan, Javed I.

    Roadmap: Environmental Health and Safety ­ Environmental Technology ­ Associate of Applied Science 10110 Biological Diversity 4 Fulfills Kent Core Basic Sciences EVHS 20004 Environmental Health CHEM 10050 Fundamentals of Chemistry 3 Fulfills Kent Core Basic Sciences EVHS 20001 Environmental Law 3

  5. Genome-wide association study of body height in African Americans: the Women's Health Initiative

    E-print Network

    Tang, Hua

    Genome-wide association study of body height in African Americans: the Women's Health Initiative of height in 8149 African- American (AA) women from the Women's Health Initiative. Genetic variants with P

  6. The association between periodontitis and systemic health: an overview.

    PubMed

    Shangase, S L; Mohangi, G U; Hassam-Essa, S; Wood, N H

    2013-02-01

    A putative association between periodontitis and several systemic conditions is reflected in the literature. However, the nature of the relationship is not fully understood and at times may be confusing. It is reported that active periodontitis may contribute towards the development of a high systemic disease burden and that oral heath maintenance, following effective periodontal treatment, will improve the quality of life of the patient and reduce the morbidity of these systemic conditions. Evidence has been presented of direct relationships between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease, with pre-term low-birth-weight infants and with diabetes mellitus, amongst others. Whether these relationships are causal or not, still needs to be established by further investigation. In the endeavour to make sense of this rapidly advancing area of research, a series of papers is planned for publication during the year 2012. These evidence-based, condensed reviews will hopefully provide clarity on the associations and/or possible causal relationships of periodonttis with specific systemic conditions. The present paper introduces and reviews the concept of the inter-relationships between periodontal and systemic health. The importance of a multidisciplinary approach with co-operation between dental and medical professionals, whether general practitioners or specialists, in the management of patients with these diseases is highlighted. PMID:23951755

  7. Environmental Public Health Surveillance: Possible Estuary-Associated Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorraine C. Backer; Amanda Sue Niskar; Carol Rubin; Kim Blindauer; Dennis Christianson; Luke Naeher; Helen Schurz Rogers

    2001-01-01

    Public health surveillance involves the collection, analysis, and dissemination of data for use in public health practice. A surveillance system includes the capacity to collect and analyze data as well as the ability to disseminate the data to public health agencies that can undertake effective prevention and control activities. An emerging issue in environmental public health surveillance involves human exposure

  8. Factors Associated with American Indian Teens' Self-Rated Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Tassy

    2004-01-01

    Factors related to American Indian (AI) high school students' self-rated health were examined. Self rated health was measured as a single-item with a four-point response option ranging from poor to excellent health. Of the 574 participants, 19% reported "fair" or "poor" health, a percentage more than twice that for U.S. high school students in…

  9. Associations of typeD personality and depression with somatic health in myocardial infarction patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter de Jonge; Johan Denollet; Joost P. van Melle; Astrid Kuyper; Adriaan Honig; Aart H. Schene; Johan Ormel

    2007-01-01

    ObjectiveDepression and type-D personality have both been associated with worse cardiac prognosis in myocardial infarction (MI) patients. There is some debate, however, that the association between depression and cardiac prognosis is confounded by somatic health. We therefore compared to what extent depression and type-D personality are associated with somatic health.

  10. Self-reported segregation experience throughout the life course and its association with adequate health literacy.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Melody S; Gaskin, Darrell J; Si, Xuemei; Stafford, Jewel D; Lachance, Christina; Kaphingst, Kimberly A

    2012-09-01

    Residential segregation has been shown to be associated with health outcomes and health care utilization. We examined the association between racial composition of five physical environments throughout the life course and adequate health literacy among 836 community health center patients in Suffolk County, NY. Respondents who attended a mostly White junior high school or currently lived in a mostly White neighborhood were more likely to have adequate health literacy compared to those educated or living in predominantly minority or diverse environments. This association was independent of the respondent's race, ethnicity, age, education, and country of birth. PMID:22658579

  11. Self-reported segregation experience throughout the life course and its association with adequate health literacy

    PubMed Central

    Gaskin, Darrell J.; Si, Xuemei; Stafford, Jewel D.; Lachance, Christina; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    Residential segregation has been shown to be associated with health outcomes and health care utilization. We examined the association between racial composition of five physical environments throughout the life course and adequate health literacy among 836 community health center patients in Suffolk County, NY. Respondents who attended a mostly White junior high school or currently lived in a mostly White neighborhood were more likely to have adequate health literacy compared to those educated or living in predominantly minority or diverse environments. This association was independent of the respondent’s race, ethnicity, age, education, and country of birth. PMID:22658579

  12. Housing Insecurity and the Association With Health Outcomes and Unhealthy Behaviors, Washington State, 2011

    PubMed Central

    VanEenwyk, Juliet; Siegel, Paul; Njai, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    Few studies of associations between housing and health have focused on housing insecurity and health risk behaviors and outcomes. We measured the association between housing insecurity and selected health risk behaviors and outcomes, adjusted for socioeconomic measures, among 8,415 respondents to the 2011 Washington State Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Housing insecure respondents were about twice as likely as those who were not housing insecure to report poor or fair health status or delay doctor visits because of costs. This analysis supports a call to action among public health practitioners who address disparities to focus on social determinants of health risk behaviors and outcomes. PMID:26160295

  13. SEPTEMBER 2009 ACHA Guidelines

    E-print Network

    Russell, Lynn

    not smoked cigarettes in the last 30 days); 90% reported being non-smokers for hookah/water pipes (never used to, cigarettes (clove, bidis, kreteks), cigars and cigarillos, hookah-smoked products, and oral vehicles. c. All tobacco industry promotions, advertising, marketing, and distribution are prohibited

  14. Differences in Physical and Mental Health Symptoms and Mental Health Utilization Associated With Intimate-Partner Violence Versus Childhood Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Nicolaidis, Christina; McFarland, Bentson; Curry, MaryAnn; Gerrity, Martha

    2009-01-01

    Background There is ample evidence that both intimate-partner violence (IPV) and childhood abuse adversely affect the physical and mental health of adult women over the long term. Objective The authors assessed the associations between abuse, symptoms, and mental health utilization. Method The authors performed a cross-sectional survey of 380 adult female, internal-medicine patients. Results Although both IPV and childhood abuse were associated with depressive and physical symptoms, IPV was independently associated with physical symptoms, and childhood abuse was independently associated with depression. Women with a history of childhood abuse had higher odds, whereas women with IPV had lower odds, of receiving care from mental health providers. Conclusion IPV and childhood abuse may have different effects on women’s symptoms and mental health utilization. PMID:19687174

  15. College students' social anxiety associated with stress and mental health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shi Kan; Jiang Nan; Chen Xuefeng; Wang Zhen; Gao Jing; Hu Weipeng

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the mediator effects of social anxiety on college students' life stress and mental health. METHODS: 1430 college students were tested by revised Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List (ASLEO), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12) and social anxiety scale chose from Self Consciousness Scale. RESUTL AND ANALYSIS: The college students' stressors were related to social anxiety and mental health.

  16. The Associations between Health Literacy, Reasons for Seeking Health Information, and Information Sources Utilized by Taiwanese Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Mi-Hsiu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the associations between health literacy, the reasons for seeking health information, and the information sources utilized by Taiwanese adults. Method: A cross-sectional survey of 752 adults residing in rural and urban areas of Taiwan was conducted via questionnaires. Chi-squared tests and logistic regression were used for…

  17. Associations and foundations in the field of health care and their role in the health system of Poland.

    PubMed

    Piotrowicz, Maria; Cianciara, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    The article presents data on associations and foundations active in health care field in Poland, on the basis of a review of research done by Klon/Jawor Association and the Central Statistical Office. The article also applies to the issue of cooperation between NGOs and governmental adminstration in the health area and identifies lacking information that is necessary for better planning of national health policy. In Poland there are about three thousand associations and foundations whose main focus is the health care. In 2010, they accounted for about 7% of all non-governmental organizations. Results of representative nationwide surveys from 2008 and 2010 indicate that the NGO's active in the field of health care have, in most cases, legal form of associations. Almost half of the organizations declared national or international scope of action. Headquarters of most organizations were mainly in the cities, and only, one in twenty in the village. Most organizations were located in the mazowieckie province and a significant fraction of them was in Warsaw itself. Organizations were stood out by a relatively large number of personnel on the background of the entire NGO sector. Half of the organizations employed paid workers, the majority also collaborated with volunteers who were not members of the organization. More than a third of organizations dealt with the rehabilitation, therapy and long-term care, and about 1/3 dealt with prevention, health promotion and education, and blood donations. World Health Organization indicates the need for systematic collection of data about the role of the nongovernmental sector in health. In Poland, legal regulations require the public institutions and organizations to cooperate with NGOs to achieve health objectives. In spite of relevant data on NGOs in the field of health care in Poland, the necessary information to assess their potential are still lacking. Recognition of the capacity and limitations ofNGOs could enable better planning of national health policy. PMID:23745378

  18. Second Conference of the African Health Economics and Policy Association 15th to 19th

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Second Conference of the African Health Economics and Policy Association (AfHEA) 15th to 19th March to 2 alternatives: an outreach health and nutrition programme with a behavioral change communication and nutrition programmes (20% to real GDP) than a large scale health-oriented conditional cash transfer (25

  19. General practitioners' understanding pertaining to reliability, interactive and usability components associated with health websites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wayne Usher

    2009-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the level of understanding of Gold Coast general practitioners (GPs) pertaining to such criteria as reliability, interactive and usability components associated with health websites. These are important considerations due to the increased levels of computer and World Wide Web (WWW)\\/Internet use and health website recommendations by GPs as a medium for modern e-health care

  20. Position: Associate Director, Center for Global Women's Health Technologies, Duke University

    E-print Network

    Ramanujam, Nimmi

    Position: Associate Director, Center for Global Women's Health Technologies, Duke University Start date: Fall 2014 Location: Duke University, Durham, NC The Center for Global Women's Health Technologies of Global Women's Health Technologies, which is a joint center between the Pratt School of Engineering

  1. Association between Psychopathology and Physical Health Problems among Youth in Residential Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Timothy D.; Smith, Tori R.; Duppong Hurley, Kristin; Epstein, Michael H.; Thompson, Ronald W.; Tonniges, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    Youth in residential treatment settings often present with a complex combination of mental and physical health problems. Despite an emerging literature documenting significant associations between mental health and physical health, the relationship between these two areas of functioning has not been systematically examined in youth presenting to…

  2. Psychol Med . Author manuscript The association of cognitive performance with mental health and physical

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    performance has been associated with mental and physical health, but it is unknown whether the strength whether cognitive performance predicted mental and physical health from midlife to early old age. Methods and 2006. The age range included over the follow-up was from 40 to 75 years. Mental health and physical

  3. Modifying effect of the County Level Health Indices on Cardiopulmonary Effects Associated with Wildfire Exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background and Aims: Socioeconomic status (SES) is a known risk factor for cardiopulmonary health and some studies suggest SES may be an effect modifier for health effects associated with exposure to air pollution. We investigated the synergistic impact of health disparities on ...

  4. Association Between Housing Quality and Individual Health Characteristics on Sleep Quality Among Latino Farmworkers

    PubMed Central

    Talton, Jennifer W.; Quandt, Sara A.; Chen, Haiying; Weir, Maria; Doumani, Walkiria R.; Chatterjee, Arjun B.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Although poor sleep quality and associated sleep disorders are associated with increased risk of job injury and multiple mental and physical health problems, scant research has examined sleep quality among Latino farmworkers. Interviews were conducted with 371 male Latino farmworkers working in North Carolina during the 2010 agricultural season. Data on housing quality and sleep quality were collected. Access to air conditioning was significantly and positively associated with good sleep quality. This association remained when other housing characteristics and individual health indicators were controlled. Good sleep quality was associated with low levels of pain, depression, and anxiety. Poor sleep quality among Latino farmworkers was associated with poorer indicators of health. One important indicator of housing quality, air conditioning, was associated with better sleep quality. Further research is required to delineate how to improve the adequacy of farmworker housing to improve sleep quality and other health indicators. PMID:23161266

  5. An empirical typology of lifetime and current gambling behaviors: Association with health status of older adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Song-Iee Hong; Paul Sacco; Renee M. Cunningham-Williams

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the low prevalence of gambling problems, older adults experience poorer health status given certain vulnerabilities associated with aging. Thus, we aimed to classify lifetime (LPG) and current (CPG) problem gambling patterns, identify determinants of gambling patterns, and examine their association with current health statusMethods: Using older adult gamblers (n = 489) in the Gambling Impact and Behavior Study,

  6. Association Between Availability and Quality of Health Services in Schools and Reproductive Health Outcomes Among Students: A Multilevel Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Elizabeth; Lawler, Catriona; Bagshaw, Sue; Farrant, Bridget; Bell, Fionna; Dawson, Dianne; Nicholson, Diana; Hart, Mo; Fleming, Theresa; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Clark, Terryann; Kekus, Maria; Utter, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We determined the association between availability and quality of school health services and reproductive health outcomes among sexually active students. Methods. We used a 2-stage random sampling cluster design to collect nationally representative data from 9107 students from 96 New Zealand high schools. Students self-reported whether they were sexually active, how often they used condoms or contraception, and their involvement in pregnancy. School administrators completed questionnaires on their school-based health services, including doctor and nursing hours per week, team-based services, and health screening. We conducted analyses using multilevel models controlling for individual variables, with schools treated as random effects. Results. There was an inverse association between hours of nursing and doctor time and pregnancy involvement among sexually active students, with fewer pregnancies among students in schools with more than 10 hours of nursing and doctor time per 100 students. There was no association between doctor visits, team-based services, health screening, and reproductive health outcomes. Conclusions. School health services are associated with fewer pregnancies among students, but only when the availability of doctor and nursing time exceeds 10 hours per 100 students per week. PMID:22897539

  7. How are individual-level social capital and poverty associated with health equity? A study from two Chinese cities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaojie Sun; Clas Rehnberg; Qingyue Meng

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A growing body of literature has demonstrated that higher social capital is associated with improved health conditions. However, some research indicated that the association between social capital and health was substantially attenuated after adjustment for material deprivation. Studies exploring the association between poverty, social capital and health still have some serious limitations. In China, health equity studies focusing on

  8. Genetic and Environmental Mediation of the Associations Between Self-rated Health and Cognitive Abilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pia Svedberg; Margaret Gatz; Nancy L. Pedersen

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between self-rated health and cognitive abilities. First, the authors investigated whether common complex diseases mediate the associations between self-rated health and cognitive abilities. Slight evidence was found that associations between self-rated health and cognitive test scores were mediated by chronic diseases. Second, the authors explored the genetic and environmental mediation of these relationships using bivariate

  9. Associations between mood and specific health composites during U.S. Navy Persian Gulf operations.

    PubMed

    Burr, R G; Woodruff, S I; Banta, G R

    1993-04-01

    Previously conducted field studies using shipboard U.S. Navy personnel during at-sea operations in the Persian Gulf have shown that crew members experience mood changes and degradations in general physical health. The objectives of this study were to: (a) examine the relationship between mood and health complaints among personnel deployed in the Persian Gulf; and (b) extend previous research using specific health composites rather than a general measure of health. Mood was assessed for 104 shipboard volunteers using the Profile of Mood States Tension/Anxiety and Fatigue subscales. Health symptoms were measures using the Environmental Symptoms Questionnaire. Results of multiple regression analyses showed that each of 11 distinct health composites was significantly associated with one or both mood variables. Further, the two mood factors were differentially associated with 9 of the 11 health composites. This study underscores the usefulness of employing multiple specific health measures rather than global measures. PMID:8478824

  10. Socioeconomic and demographic factors associated with health care choices in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chieh-Yu; Liu, Jih-Shin

    2010-01-01

    By using the data from the 2001 National Health Interview Survey and the National Heath Insurance database in Taiwan, this study aims at investigating the socioeconomic and demographic factors associated with different health care choices. This study incorporated hierarchical cluster analysis into multiple correspondent analysis to determine 5 attribute clusters of socioeconomic and demographic factors associated with different health care choices. This study found that older women with higher education levels were more likely to choose multiple sources of health care and that low- to middle-income people were more likely to use over-the-counter medications in pharmacies. In addition, people's self-reported health care choices were inconsistent with their observed health care seeking behavior. The health policy authority may need to provide more health promotion education programs, especially for older women with higher educational levels, and funding incentives for quality of care provided rather than relying solely on reimbursements for episodic care. PMID:20032035

  11. Association of Brief Health Literacy Screening and Blood Pressure in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Willens, David E.; Kripalani, Sunil; Schildcrout, Jonathan S.; Cawthon, Courtney; Wallston, Ken; Mion, Lorraine C.; Davis, Corinne; Danciu, Iona; Rothman, Russell L.; Roumie, Christianne L.

    2013-01-01

    Health literacy impacts health outcomes. However, the relationship to blood pressure is inconsistent. This study aimed to determine whether health literacy, assessed by clinic staff, is associated with blood pressure among patients with hypertension. The design was a cross-sectional study of a large sample of primary care patient encounters in 3 academic medical center clinics in Nashville, Tennessee. Health literacy was assessed using the Brief Health Literacy Screen, with higher scores indicating higher health literacy. Blood pressure was extracted from the electronic health record. Using 23,483 encounters in 10,644 patients, the authors examined the association of health literacy with blood pressure in multivariable analyses, adjusting for age, gender, race, education, and clinic location. Independent of educational attainment, 3-point increases in health literacy scores were associated with 0.74 mmHg higher systolic blood pressure (95% CI [0.38, 1.09]) and 0.30 mmHg higher diastolic blood pressure (95% CI [0.08, 0.51]). No interaction between education and health literacy was observed (p = .91). In this large primary care population of patients with hypertension, higher health literacy, as screened in clinical practice, was associated with a small increase in blood pressures. Future research is needed to explore this unexpected finding. PMID:24093351

  12. The Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care, Inc.

    E-print Network

    removal Holistic Medical Practice Staffed by: Physicians, RN's, Physician Assistants, Nurse Practitioners Physician, GYN Nurse Practitioner, GYN Physician Assistants, RN's, clinical assistant. By appointment, call noon, 1 p.m. to 4:00 p.m. Hours ofOperation #12;The student health fee covers: physician/health care

  13. Denial and its association with mental health care use

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander N. Ortega; Margarita Alegría

    2005-01-01

    In clinical practice, denial has long been thought to be a determinant of treatment initiation and retention; however, little empirical research has focused on denial as a mechanism. For example, denial has not been standardized or operationalized in epidemiological studies for mental health services research and, thus, the magnitude of the effects of denial on mental health care use are

  14. Health Concerns Associated with Adolescent Growth and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stivers, Cathie

    Just as infants and the elderly have special health care needs based on their stages in the life cycle, adolescents also have particular health needs. While some of those needs are simply a result of the bodily changes that define adolescence, others are true medical conditions which are most commonly found in this age group. Among achievements…

  15. Tools for advance directives. American Health Information Management Association.

    PubMed

    Schraffenberger, L A

    1992-02-01

    This issue of the Journal of AHIMA contains a Position Statement on advance directives. Here we have included several "tools" or helpful documents to support your organization's ongoing education regarding advance directives. First, we offer a "Sample Policy and Procedure" addressing the administrative process of advance directives. This sample policy was adapted from a policy shared by Jean Clark, RRA, operations director with Roper Hospital in Charleston, SC, and a director on the AHIMA Board of Directors. Do not automatically accept this policy and procedure for your organization. Instead, the health information management professional could use this sample to write your organization's own, specific policy and procedures that are consistent with your state's law and legal counsel's advice. The second article, "Advance Directives and the New Joint Commission Requirements," compares 1992 Joint Commission standards for Patient Rights and The Patient Self-Determination Act requirements. Selected sections from the Joint Commission chapter on Patient Rights are highlighted and comments added that contrast it with the act. "Common Questions and Answers Related to Advance Directives" is the third tool we offer. These questions and answers may be used for a patient education brochure or staff inservice education program outline. Again, information specific to your own state needs to be added. The fourth tool we offer is miniature "Sample Slides" or overhead transparency copy that can be enlarged and used for a presentation on the basics of advance directives for a community group for staff education. We thank Dee McLane, RRA, director, Medical Information Services at Self Memorial Hospital in Greenwood, SC, who developed these slides for presentations conducted at her hospital. We also thank Jeri Whitworth, RRA, who produced the graphics on these slides. Whitworth is a first year director on the AHIMA Board of Directors this year. Again you can use as is or consider these a model as you develop your own presentation geared for your specific audience. Last, but not least, we include samples of a "Living Will Declaration" and a "Durable Power of Attorney for Health Care" forms reprinted with permission from the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP). We include them here so you can examine the language of each type of advance directive. Copies for your organization should be requested from AARP at 1909 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20049, (202) 662-4895. Forms specific to each state are available from The Society for the Right to Die/Concern for Dying at 250 W. 57th Street, New York, NY 10107, (212) 246-6973. The requirement under The Patient Self-Determination Act became effective December 1, 1991, but the educational requirements of the act are meant to be ongoing. These "tools" are to help you continue to be a regular contributor to the educational process in your organization. PMID:10145646

  16. The Association Between Household Consumer Durable Assets and Maternal Health-Seeking Behavior in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Ansong, Eric

    2015-07-01

    This article examined the association between household consumer durable assets and maternal health-seeking behavior. Several studies have suggested a relationship between households' socioeconomic status (SES) and health outcomes. However, SES is a multidimensional concept that encompasses variables, such as wealth, education, and income. By grouping these variables together as one construct, prior studies have not provided enough insight into possible independent associations with health outcomes. This study used data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey of 2,065 women aged between 15 and 49 years to examine the association between household consumer durables (a component of SES) and maternal health-seeking behavior in Ghana. Results from a set of generalized linear models indicated that household consumer durable assets were positively associated with four measures of maternal health-seeking behaviors, namely, seeking prenatal care from skilled health personnel, delivery by skilled birth attendant, place of delivery, and the number of antenatal visits. Also, households with more assets whose residents lived in urban areas were more likely to use skilled health personnel before and during delivery, and at an approved health facility, compared those who lived in rural areas. Implications for health interventions and policies that focus on the most vulnerable households are discussed. PMID:25833407

  17. Bone Health and Associated Metabolic Complications in Neuromuscular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, Nanette C.; Hache, Lauren P.; Clemens, Paula R.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis This article reviews the recent literature regarding bone health as it relates to the patient living with neuromuscular disease (NMD). Poor bone health with related morbidity is a significant problem for patients with NMD. Although the evidence addressing issues of bone health and osteoporosis have increased as a result of the Bone and Joint Decade, studies defining the scope of bone-related disease in NMD are scant. The available evidence is discussed focusing on abnormal calcium metabolism, increased fracture risk, and the prevalence of both scoliosis and hypovitaminosis D in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinal muscular atrophy. These problems appear common. Osteomalacia often complicates disease-related baseline osteoporosis and may reduce fracture risk if treated. Future directions are discussed, including the urgent need for studies to both determine the nature and extent of poor bone health, and to evaluate the therapeutic effect of available osteoporosis treatments in patients with NMD. PMID:23137737

  18. Factors associated with health perception of Saudi elderly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jamal S. Jarallah; Sulaiman A. Al-Shammari

    1999-01-01

    To study the pattern and determinants of health perception among Saudi elderly a cross-sectional house-hold survey of 6,139 elderly in Saudi Arabia performed between January 1994 and December 1995. A stratified two stage sampling technique was used to select the elderly subjects (60 years and above). Using a pre-designed, pre-tested questionnaire, the subjects' physical, mental, social and environmental health status

  19. Copyright 2014, National Environmental Health Association (www.neha.org). Environmental Health

    E-print Network

    baseline to one year after renovation in health, housing, and allergens. The authors' results suggest ...............................................................................................................42 Direct From CDC/EHSB: Food Safety Tools and Products for Environmental Health Practitioners

  20. Sexual differences in oral health behaviour and factors associated with oral health behaviour in Japanese young adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akio Tada; Nobuhiro Hanada

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the state of oral health behaviour between genders and to analyse factors associated with oral health behaviour by gender in young adults. Anonymous questionnaire data were collected from 527 adults (245 men and 282 women) aged 20–29 years who consulted dentists in Chiba City. The Chi-square test, Mann–Whitney analysis, and logistic regression

  1. Do Measured and Unmeasured Family Factors Bias the Association between Education and Self-Assessed Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monden, Christiaan W. S.

    2010-01-01

    The association between educational attainment and self-assessed health is well established but the mechanisms that explain this association are not fully understood yet. It is likely that part of the association is spurious because (genetic and non-genetic) characteristics of a person's family of origin simultaneously affect one's educational…

  2. Does the Association with Psychosomatic Health Problems Differ between Cyberbullying and Traditional Bullying?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckman, Linda; Hagquist, Curt; Hellstrom, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    The association between mental health problems and traditional bullying is well known, whereas the strength of the association in cyberbullying is less known. This study aimed to compare the association between mutually exclusive groups of bullying involvement and psychosomatic problems as measured by the PsychoSomatic Problems scale. The sample…

  3. 78 FR 54651 - Sole Source Cooperative Agreement Award to the National Association of County and City Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Sole Source Cooperative...National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO) AGENCY: Office of...and Response (ASPR), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)....

  4. Work, health, and welfare: the association between working conditions, welfare states, and self-reported general health in Europe.

    PubMed

    Bambra, Clare; Lunau, Thorsten; Van der Wel, Kjetil A; Eikemo, Terje A; Dragano, Nico

    2014-01-01

    This article is the first to examine the association between self-reported general health and a wide range of working conditions at the European level and by type of welfare state regime. Data for 21,705 men and women ages 16 to 60 from 27 European countries were obtained from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey. The influence of individual-level sociodemographic, physical, and psychosocial working conditions and of the organization of work were assessed in multilevel logistic regression analyses, with additional stratification by welfare state regime type (Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian, Eastern European, Scandinavian, and Southern). At the European level, we found that "not good" general health was more likely to be reported by workers more exposed to hazardous working conditions. Most notably, tiring working positions, job strain, and temporary job contracts were strongly associated with a higher likelihood of reporting "not good" health. Analysis by welfare state regime found that only tiring or painful working conditions were consistently associated with worse self-reported health in all regimes. There was no evidence that the Scandinavian welfare regime protected against the adverse health effects of poor working conditions. The article concludes by examining the implications for comparative occupational health research. PMID:24684087

  5. The public health risks associated with wild and feral swine.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, E P

    1997-08-01

    Wild swine populations (Sus scrofa) are present in many regions of the world. Large feral populations in North America and Australia are principally derived from introduced domestic pigs. In Europe, most wild boar are found in Germany and Poland. While wild swine are certainly a significant reservoir of infection for domestic swine diseases (for example, African swine fever virus in wild boar in Sardinia), these swine generally do not constitute a major public health risk. Brucella suis infections and trichinellosis are the most important zoonotic threats to public health. PMID:9501373

  6. Testing the association between social capital and health over time: a family-based design

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The past decade has seen a vast increase in empirical research investigating associations between social capital and health outcomes. Literature reviews reveal ‘generalized trust’ and ‘social participation’ to be the most robust of the commonly used social capital proxies, both showing positive association with health outcomes. However, this association could be confounded by unmeasured factors, such as the shared environment. Currently, there is a distinct lack of social capital research that takes into account such residual confounding. Methods Using data from the United Kingdom’s British Household Panel Survey (BHPS) (waves thirteen to eighteen, N?=?6982), this longitudinal, multilevel study investigates the validity of the association between trust, social participation and self-rated health using a family-based design. As the BHPS samples on entire households, we employed ‘mean’ and ‘difference from the mean’ aggregate measures of social capital, the latter of which is considered a social capital measurement that is not biased by the shared environment of the household. We employed Generalized Estimating Equations for all analyses, our two-level model controlling for correlation at the household level. Results Results show that after adjusting for the shared environment of the household over a six year period, the association between social participation and self-rated health was fully attenuated (OR?=?0.97 (95% confidence interval 0.89-1.06)), while the association with trust remained significant (OR?=?1.11 (1.02-1.20)). Other health determinants, such as being a smoker, having no formal qualifications and being unemployed maintain their associations with poor self-rated health. Conclusions The association between social capital (specifically trust and social participation) and self-rated health appear to be confounded by shared environmental factors not previously considered by researchers. However, the association with trust remains, adding to existing empirical evidence that generalized trust may be an independent predictor of health. PMID:23866259

  7. Binge drinking and associated health risk behaviors among high...

    Science.gov Websites

    Manual NCBI News PubMed PubMed Central (PMC) PubMed Clinical Queries PubMed Health All Literature Resources... Proteins BioSystems BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool)...

  8. Certified Health Education Specialists' Participation in Professional Associations: Implications for Marketing and Membership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Neiger, Brad L.; Roe, Kathleen M.

    2005-01-01

    A number of health education professional associations exist to advance the profession through research, practice, and professional development. Benefits of individual membership may include continuing education, networking, leadership, professional recognition, advocacy, professional mobility, access to research findings, advances in the…

  9. Factors Associated with Mental Health Services Use among Disconnected African-American Young Adult Population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pallab K. Maulik; Tamar Mendelson; S. Darius Tandon

    2011-01-01

    Research related to mental health service use among vulnerable young adults is limited. This study used an expanded version\\u000a of Andersen’s Behavioral Model of Health Services Use to evaluate factors associated with the use of different types of mental\\u000a health services among a sample of predominantly African-American 16–24 year olds (n?=?500) in an employment training program in Baltimore City. Results indicated

  10. Stress-Associated Poor Health Among Adult Immigrants with a Language Barrier in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongliu Ding; Lee Hargraves

    2008-01-01

    The healthy migrant hypothesis supported by the 'Hispanic paradox' suggests that immigrants are healthier than non-immigrants. To test the generalizability of this hypothesis, we studied the stress-associated health status of adult immigrants with a language barrier in the USA. Three stress-related conditions (Unhappiness, Depression, and Anxiety) and self-reported health status were ascertained from participants of the Community Tracking Study Health

  11. Stress-Associated Poor Health Among Adult Immigrants with a Language Barrier in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongliu Ding; Lee Hargraves

    2009-01-01

    The healthy migrant hypothesis supported by the ‘Hispanic paradox’ suggests that immigrants are healthier than non-immigrants.\\u000a To test the generalizability of this hypothesis, we studied the stress-associated health status of adult immigrants with a\\u000a language barrier in the USA. Three stress-related conditions (Unhappiness, Depression, and Anxiety) and self-reported health\\u000a status were ascertained from participants of the Community Tracking Study Health

  12. The Association of Coping to Physical and Psychological Health Outcomes: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie A. Penley; Joe Tomaka; John S. Wiebe

    2002-01-01

    We performed a series of meta-analyses examining the associations between coping and health-related outcomes in nonclinical adult samples. Results revealed that problem-focused coping was positively correlated with overall health outcomes, whereas confrontive coping, distancing, self-control, seeking social support, accepting responsibility, avoidance, and wishful thinking were each negatively correlated with overall health outcomes. Neither planful problem solving nor positive reappraisal was

  13. Association of Sedentary Behavior Time with Ideal Cardiovascular Health: The ORISCAV-LUX Study

    PubMed Central

    Crichton, Georgina E.; Alkerwi, Ala'a

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently attention has been drawn to the health impacts of time spent engaging in sedentary behaviors. No studies have examined sedentary behaviors in relation to the newly defined construct of ideal cardiovascular health, which incorporates three health factors (blood pressure, total cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose) and four behaviors (physical activity, smoking, body mass index, diet). The purpose of this study was to examine associations between sedentary behaviors, including sitting time, and time spent viewing television and in front of a computer, with cardiovascular health, in a representative sample of adults from Luxembourg. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of 1262 participants in the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg study was conducted, who underwent objective cardiovascular health assessments and completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. A Cardiovascular Health Score was calculated based on the number of health factors and behaviors at ideal levels. Sitting time on a weekday, television time, and computer time (both on a workday and a day off), were related to the Cardiovascular Health Score. Results Higher weekday sitting time was significantly associated with a poorer Cardiovascular Health Score (p?=?0.002 for linear trend), after full adjustment for age, gender, education, income and occupation. Television time was inversely associated with the Cardiovascular Health Score, on both a workday and a day off (p?=?0.002 for both). A similar inverse relationship was observed between the Cardiovascular Health Score and computer time, only on a day off (p?=?0.04). Conclusion Higher time spent sitting, viewing television, and using a computer during a day off may be unfavorably associated with ideal cardiovascular health. PMID:24925084

  14. High School Students' Experiences of Bullying and Victimization and the Association with School Health Center Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Catherine; Deardorff, Julianna; Lahiff, Maureen; Soleimanpour, Samira; Sakashita, Kimi; Brindis, Claire D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bullying and victimization are ongoing concerns in schools. School health centers (SHCs) are well situated to support affected students because they provide crisis intervention, mental health care, and broader interventions to improve school climate. This study examined the association between urban adolescents' experiences of…

  15. Discomfort and Exertion Associated with Prolonged Wear of Respiratory Protection in a Health Care Setting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian V. Shenal; Lewis J. Radonovich Jr; Jing Cheng; Michael Hodgson; Bradley S. Bender

    2012-01-01

    The nature of discomfort and level of exertion associated with wearing respiratory protection in the health care workplace are not well understood. Although a few studies have assessed these topics in a laboratory setting, little is known about the magnitude of discomfort and the level of exertion experienced by workers while they deliver health care to patients for prolonged periods.

  16. Chronic arsenic exposure is associated with many human health conditions, including

    E-print Network

    van Geen, Alexander

    Chronic arsenic exposure is associated with many human health conditions, including skin lesions and cancers of the liver, lung, bladder, and skin (Ahsan et al. 2000; Guha Mazumder et al. 1998; Haque et al. 2003; Smith et al. 1998), as well as other noncancer health effects, such as adverse reproductive

  17. Roadmap: Environmental Health and Safety Environmental Safety and Security Associate of Applied Science

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Scott

    Basic Sciences EVHS 20001 Environmental Law (3) or EVHS 20004 Environmental Health and Safety I (3 Fulfills Kent Core Basic Sciences PH 30007 Prevention and Control of Diseases 3 EVHS 20001 EnvironmentalRoadmap: Environmental Health and Safety ­ Environmental Safety and Security ­ Associate of Applied

  18. Roadmap: Environmental Health and Safety -Environmental Technology -Associate of Applied Science

    E-print Network

    Khan, Javed I.

    Roadmap: Environmental Health and Safety - Environmental Technology - Associate of Applied Science [17 Credits] COMT 11000 Introduction to Computer Systems 3 EVHS 10001 Environmental Technology I or PH] BSCI 10110 Biological Diversity 4 KBS EVHS 20004 Environmental Health and Safety I 3 GEOG 17063 World

  19. Association of a Behaviorally Based High School Health Education Curriculum with Increased Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annesi, James J.; Trinity, John; Mareno, Nicole; Walsh, Stephanie M.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing exercise in children and adolescents through academic classes is an understudied area. Potential benefits include associated improvements in health, psychosocial, and quality-of-life factors. A sample of 98 students (M[subscript age] = 14.3) from high school health education classes received six, 40-min lessons incorporating…

  20. Building associations between markers of environmental stressors and adverse human health impacts using frequent itemset mining

    EPA Science Inventory

    Building associations between markers of exposure and effect using frequent itemset mining The human-health impact of environmental contaminant exposures is unclear. While some exposure-effect relationships are well studied, health effects are unknown for the vast majority of the...

  1. Distributing National Library of Medicine Duplicate Books to the Michigan Health Sciences Libraries Association

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heidi M. Schroeder

    2011-01-01

    Due to shrinking library budgets and a struggling economy, many health sciences libraries have been forced to decrease or eliminate spending on library collections, especially for monographs. In order to assist its members, the Michigan Health Sciences Libraries Association initiated a resource-sharing project to distribute free National Library of Medicine duplicate books to member libraries. This article provides background information

  2. Associations between Physical Activity and Health-Related Factors in a National Sample of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinger, Mary K.; Brittain, Danielle R.; Hutchinson, Susan R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between meeting the current moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) recommendation and health-related factors in a national sample of college students. Participants: Participants (N = 67,861) completed the National College Health Assessment II during the Fall 2008/Spring 2009 academic year. Methods:…

  3. On exposure and response relationships for health effects associated with exposure to vehicular traffic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederick W Lipfert; Ronald E Wyzga

    2008-01-01

    This work examines various metrics and models that have been used to estimate long-term health effects of exposure to vehicular traffic. Such health impacts may include effects of air pollution due to emissions of combustion products and from vehicle or roadway wear, of noise, stress, or from socioeconomic effects associated with preferred residential locations. Both categorical and continuous exposure metrics

  4. Business Associates in the National Health Information Network: Implications for Medical Information Privacy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward J. Szewczak; Coral R. Snodgrass

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the role of the business associate of healthcare providers (BAHP) in the National Health Information Network. Current Health Insurance Portability and Accountability legislation has little to say about BAHPs and their potential impact on medical information privacy. For the good of the business enterprise, managers who are BAHPs or who supervise BAHPs need to be aware of

  5. Care Recipient Agreeableness Is Associated With Caregiver Subjective Physical Health Status

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. The emotional and physical health consequences of caring for a family member are well documented. However, although personality has been shown to affect dyadic interactions and been linked with individual outcomes for both care recipients (CRs) and caregivers (CGs), the influence of CR personality on CG health remains unexplored. Method. This study investigated cross-sectional associations between CRs’ five-factor personality traits and CGs’ physical and emotional health in 312 dyads of older adults with disability and their informal CGs who participated in the Medicare Primary and Consumer-Directed Care Demonstration. Results. Regression models controlling for CG personality, strain, and sociodemographic characteristics and CR physical impairment and pain found that agreeableness in CRs was associated with better physical health among CGs. Facet-level analyses showed specific associations between the trust and compliance facets of CR agreeableness and CG physical health. Investigation of CR personality styles revealed that the “easygoing” (N?, A+) and “well-intentioned” (A+, C?) styles predicted better CG physical health; the “leaders” (E+, A?) style had the opposite effect. No significant associations were found between CR personality and CG mental health. Discussion. Results from this study reveal the value of considering CR personality in relation to CG health and highlight the importance of assessing dispositional qualities within the context of care provision and informal assistance. PMID:23231831

  6. Suboptimal maternal and paternal mental health are associated with child bullying perpetration.

    PubMed

    Shetgiri, Rashmi; Lin, Hua; Flores, Glenn

    2015-06-01

    This study examines associations between maternal and paternal mental health and child bullying perpetration among school-age children, and whether having one or both parents with suboptimal mental health is associated with bullying. The 2007 National Survey of Children's Health, a nationally-representative, random-digit-dial survey, was analyzed, using a parent-reported bullying measure. Suboptimal mental health was defined as fair/poor (vs. good/very good/excellent) parental self-reported mental and emotional health. Of the 61,613 parents surveyed, more than half were parents of boys and were white, 20% were Latino, 15% African American, and 7% other race/ethnicity. Suboptimal maternal (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1-1.8) and paternal (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.1-2.2) mental health are associated with bullying. Compared with children with no parents with suboptimal mental health, children with only one or both parents with suboptimal mental health have higher bullying odds. Addressing the mental health of both parents may prove beneficial in preventing bullying. PMID:25096508

  7. Tobacco: Its historical, cultural, oral, and periodontal health association.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Shanu; Mishra, M B

    2013-01-01

    This article provides information on the origin of tobacco and its subsequent spread throughout the world. In the era of the migration of communities, tobacco use gradually gained access and subsequently migrated along with the migrants, establishing in different locations. Probably at that time people were unaware of the health hazards and were using tobacco in treating certain ailments. Much has been known and written about tobacco in the context of oral and general health hazards but little has been explored and is known to many about where from and how this plant, which is now used in various forms, and speading widely. In what form, where, and how it had been served in religious rituals and considered for treatment or remedy of certain ailments in those days could not certainly be known. In the 21(st) century, people are considering hazardous tobacco as beneficial for their teeth, good for concentration of mind, and something which keeps them engaged. Even many professionals, though knowing the deleterious effects, are still using tobacco and gutkha in one or the other form. This article has been designed to revive the awareness for health hazards of tobacco and similar products. A pilot project questionnaire survey comprising this subject involving the educated mass has already been started and will be produced after analysis of data in part II of this paper. PMID:24478974

  8. Association between mental health and comorbid obesity and hypertension among children and adolescents in the US.

    PubMed

    Tevie, Justin; Shaya, Fadia T

    2015-05-01

    This paper examines the association between mental health and comorbid obesity and hypertension among US children and adolescents using data from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES). Questionnaires from NHANES were used to assess mental health during the previous 30 days. Respondents were then categorized into two groups namely "poor mental health" and "good mental health" based on their responses to these survey questions. Three multiple logistic regression models, based on these categories, are estimated to compute the odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals in the association of obesity and hypertension and mental health. As a select example, the results of Model 2 reveal that compared with respondents who are not obese, obese respondents have increased odds (OR = 1.24; P < 0.0001) of poor mental health. Furthermore compared with non-hypertensive respondents, hypertensive respondents have higher odds (OR = 2.96; P < 0.0001) of poor mental health. These findings have important implications for mental health management in younger populations. It brings into focus the maintenance of a healthy body mass index and hypertension control in mitigating poor mental health. PMID:25146327

  9. A Panel Analysis of the Strategic Association Between Information and Communication Technology and Public Health Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Sarah Jinhui

    2012-01-01

    Background In this exploratory research, we use panel data analysis to examine the correlation between Information and Communication Technology (ICTs) and public health delivery at the country level. Objective The goal of this exploratory research is to examine the strategic association over time between ICTs and country-level public health. Methods Using data from the World Development Indicators, we construct a panel data set of countries of five different income levels and look closely at the period from 2000 to 2008. The panel data analysis allows us to explore this dynamic relationship under the control for unobserved country-specific effects by using a fixed-effects estimation method. In particular,, we examine the association of five ICT factors with five public health indicators: adolescent fertility rate, child immunization coverage, tuberculosis case detected, life expectancy, and adult mortality rate. Results First, overall ICTs’ factors substantially improve a country’s public health delivery on the top of wealth effect. Second, among all the ICTs’ factors, accessibility is the only one that is associated with improvements in all aspects of public health delivery, while the contributions from the usage, quality, and applications are negligible. ICTs’ accessibility factor is associated with a considerable extension to life expectancy and reduced adult mortality rate. Third, all entity-specific factors are significant in each model, indicating that countries’ economic development level does influence their public health delivery. Conclusions Our results indicate that ICT accessibility has a strong association with effective delivery of public health. There are others, but the key strategic applications are eHealth and mHealth. The findings of this study will help government officials and public health policy makers to formulate strategic decisions regarding the best ICT investments and deployment. For example, the study shows that providing accessibility should be a critical focus. PMID:23089193

  10. Do Measured and Unmeasured Family Factors Bias the Association Between Education and Self-Assessed Health?

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The association between educational attainment and self-assessed health is well established but the mechanisms that explain this association are not fully understood yet. It is likely that part of the association is spurious because (genetic and non-genetic) characteristics of a person’s family of origin simultaneously affect one’s educational attainment and one’s adult health. In order to obtain an unbiased estimate of the association between education and health, we have to control for all relevant family factors. In practice, however, it is impossible to measure all relevant family factors. Sibling models are particularly appropriate in this case, because they control for the total impact of family factors, even if not all relevant aspects can be measured. I use data on siblings from a US study (MIDUS) and Dutch study (NKPS) to assess the total family impact on self-assessed health and, more importantly, to assess whether there is a family bias in the association between educational attainment and self-assessed health. The results suggest that there is a substantial family effect; about 20% of the variation in self-assessed health between siblings can be ascribed to (measured and unmeasured) family factors. Measured family factors, such as parental education and father’s occupation, could account only for a small part of the family effect. Furthermore, the results imply that it is unlikely that there is substantial bias due to family effects in the association between education and self-assessed health. This strengthens the conclusions from prior studies on the association between education and self-assessed health. PMID:20835293

  11. Edentulism and other variables associated with self-reported health status in Mexican adults

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Pontigo-Loyola, América Patricia; Pérez-Campos, Eduardo; Hernández-Cruz, Pedro; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Martha; Maupomé, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine if edentulism, controlling for other known factors, is associated with subjective self-report health status (SRH) in Mexican adults. Material/Methods We examined the SRH of 13 966 individuals 35 years and older, using data from the National Survey of Performance Assessment, a cross-sectional study that is part of the technical collaboration between the Ministry of Health of Mexico and the World Health Organization, which used the survey instrument and sampling strategies developed by WHO for the World Health Survey. Sociodemographic, socioeconomic, medical, and behavioral variables were collected using questionnaires. Self-reported health was our dependent variable. Data on edentulism were available from 20 of the 32 Mexican states. A polynomial logistic regression model adjusted for complex sampling was generated. Results In the SRH, 58.2% reported their health status as very good/good, 33.8% said they had a moderate health status, and 8.0% reported that their health was bad/very bad. The association between edentulism and SRH was modified by age and was significant only for bad/very bad SRH. Higher odds of reporting moderate health or poor/very poor health were found in women, people with lower socio-economic status and with physical disabilities, those who were not physically active, or those who were underweight or obese, those who had any chronic disease, and those who used alcohol. Conclusions The association of edentulism with a self-report of a poor health status (poor/very poor) was higher in young people than in adults. The results suggest socioeconomic inequalities in SRH. Inequality was further confirmed among people who had a general health condition or a disability. PMID:24852266

  12. The associations between psychosocial workload and mental health complaints in different age groups.

    PubMed

    Zoer, I; Ruitenburg, M M; Botje, D; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Sluiter, J K

    2011-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to explore associations between psychosocial workload and mental health complaints in different age groups. A questionnaire was sent to 2021 employees of a Dutch railway company. Six aspects of psychosocial workload (work pressure, mental workload, emotional workload, autonomy, social support from colleagues and social support from supervisors) and three mental health outcomes (work-related fatigue, stress and burnout) were assessed. Associations between the aspects of psychosocial workload (distributed into tertiles) and health complaints were analysed by logistic regression analysis in four age groups (22-35, 36-45, 46-55 and 56-66 years old). In all age groups, worse work pressure was a significant risk factor for having mental health complaints. Worse emotional load in the younger employees and lack of social support in older employees were associated with a higher risk of having mental health complaints. Age-specific preventive measures should be implemented on both individual and group levels. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: With an ageing workforce, understanding relationships between age and work-related health ailments is increasingly important. This study found that emotional workload in younger and lack of social support in older employees were associated with a higher risk of mental health complaints. Work pressure was a risk factor in all age groups. PMID:21973005

  13. Cancer Survivors’ Health Worries and Associations with Lifestyle Practices

    PubMed Central

    Mosher, Catherine E.; Lipkus, Isaac M.; Sloane, Richard; Kraus, William E.; Snyder, Denise Clutter; Peterson, Bercedis; Jones, Lee W.; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    This study examined among recently diagnosed breast and prostate cancer survivors (N = 678) associations between worry about a future diagnosis of heart disease or cancer and hypothetical and actual adherence to exercise and dietary guidelines. Greater worry about future illness was reported under the hypothetical scenario of non-adherence to guidelines relative to the scenario of adherence. Worry about potential heart disease was associated with actual adherence to guidelines, whereas worry about a potential cancer diagnosis was not. Findings suggest that the motivational properties of worry should be considered when developing interventions to reduce heart disease risk among cancer survivors. PMID:18987083

  14. Symptoms and Health Complaints and Their Association with Perceived Stressors among Students at Nine Libyan Universities

    PubMed Central

    El Ansari, Walid; Khalil, Khalid; Stock, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    University students are exposed to many stressors. We assessed the associations between two stressors (educational related and general overall), socio-demographic characteristics (five variables), health behaviours/lifestyle factors (six variables), as well as religiosity and quality of life as independent variables, with self-reported symptoms/health complaints as dependent variables (eight health complaints). A sample of 2100 undergraduate students from nine institutions (six universities, three colleges) located in seven cities in Libya completed a general health questionnaire. The most prevalent symptoms were headaches, depressive mood, difficulties to concentrate and sleep disorder/insomnia that have been reported by 50%–60% of the students. The majority of students (62%) reported having had three or more symptoms sometimes or very often in the last 12 months. There was a positive association between perceived stressors and health symptoms, which remained significant after adjustment for gender and many other relevant factors for headache (OR 1.52; 95% CI 1.15–2.02), depressive mood (OR 2.20; 95% CI 1.64–2.94) and sleep disorder/ insomnia (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.19–2.03). Other factors independently associated with most health symptoms were female gender and poor self-perceived health. Stress management programmes and a reduction of educational related stressors might help to prevent stress-related symptoms and health complaints in this student population. PMID:25429678

  15. National Environmental Health Association position on global climate change adopted July 2, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Radtke, T.; Gist, G.L.; Wittkopf, T.E.

    1997-11-01

    The National Environmental Health Association (NEHA) supports the precept that anthropogenic sources, specifically greenhouse gases, are responsible for a significant portion of the measured change in global climate. Further, NEHA supports the concept of an association between global warming and an increased risk to public health. Reducing the amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere will benefit human health. This position paper reviews current information on the status of global climate change with particular emphasis on the implications for environmental and public health. It is intended to be used as a basis from which environmental and public health practitioners and colleagues in related fields can initiate discussions with policy makers at all levels -- local, state, national, and worldwide.

  16. Historical Research: A Thematic Analysis of Convention and Conference Themes for Selected Professional Health Education Associations from 1975 to 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Jill M.; Ubbes, Valerie A.

    2009-01-01

    Many professional organizations and associations hold conventions and conferences on an annual basis. Health Education professional associations take part in this process. Using a historical research perspective, this article delineates conference themes for four prominent professional Health Education associations: the American Association for…

  17. Environmental impact and health risks associated with greywater irrigation: a case study

    E-print Network

    Gross, Amit

    Environmental impact and health risks associated with greywater irrigation: a case study Abstract There is an increasing trend to use greywater for irrigation in households. This is partly due to the notion risks associated with the use of greywater for irrigation on a small private farm. Over a three

  18. Potential Health Effects Associated with Dermal Exposure to Occupational Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Stacey E; Meade, B Jean

    2014-01-01

    There are a large number of workers in the United States, spanning a variety of occupational industries and sectors, who are potentially exposed to chemicals that can be absorbed through the skin. Occupational skin exposures can result in numerous diseases that can adversely affect an individual’s health and capacity to perform at work. In general, there are three types of chemical–skin interactions of concern: direct skin effects, immune-mediated skin effects, and systemic effects. While hundreds of chemicals (metals, epoxy and acrylic resins, rubber additives, and chemical intermediates) present in virtually every industry have been identified to cause direct and immune-mediated effects such as contact dermatitis or urticaria, less is known about the number and types of chemicals contributing to systemic effects. In an attempt to raise awareness, skin notation assignments communicate the potential for dermal absorption; however, there is a need for standardization among agencies to communicate an accurate description of occupational hazards. Studies have suggested that exposure to complex mixtures, excessive hand washing, use of hand sanitizers, high frequency of wet work, and environmental or other factors may enhance penetration and stimulate other biological responses altering the outcomes of dermal chemical exposure. Understanding the hazards of dermal exposure is essential for the proper implementation of protective measures to ensure worker safety and health. PMID:25574139

  19. HEALTH AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC HAZARDS ASSOCIATED WITH KHAT CONSUMPTION

    PubMed Central

    Ageely, Hussein M. A.

    2008-01-01

    The consumption of the stimulant leaf Khat (Catha edulis Forsk) is widespread in several countries of East Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. The leaf comes from a small evergreen shrub that can grow to the size of a tree. Young buds and tender leaves are chewed to attain a state of euphoria and stimulation. Khat leaves contain cathinones, an active brain stimulant that is similar in structure and pharmacological activity to amphetamines. Like amphetamines, Khat ingestion in low doses results in decreased appetite, euphoria, increased intellectual efficiency, and hyperalertness. High doses and chronic use of Khat can cause more serious adverse neurological, psychiatric, cardiovascular, dental, gastrointestinal and genitourinary effects. Besides damaging health, Khat has adverse socio-economic consequences effects on many other aspects of life including the loss of thousands of acres of arable land and billions of hours of work. The purpose of this review is to describe briefly the adverse consequences of habitual chewing of Khat on health, and help educate the general public. The study is based on literature review that includes internet search and journals. PMID:23012161

  20. Forest cover associated with improved child health and nutrition: evidence from the Malawi Demographic and Health Survey and satellite data

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kiersten B; Jacob, Anila; Brown, Molly E

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Healthy forests provide human communities with a host of important ecosystem services, including the provision of food, clean water, fuel, and natural medicines. Yet globally, about 13 million hectares of forests are lost every year, with the biggest losses in Africa and South America. As biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation due to deforestation continue at unprecedented rates, with concomitant loss of ecosystem services, impacts on human health remain poorly understood. Here, we use data from the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey, linked with satellite remote sensing data on forest cover, to explore and better understand this relationship. Our analysis finds that forest cover is associated with improved health and nutrition outcomes among children in Malawi. Children living in areas with net forest cover loss between 2000 and 2010 were 19% less likely to have a diverse diet and 29% less likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods than children living in areas with no net change in forest cover. Conversely, children living in communities with higher percentages of forest cover were more likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods and less likely to experience diarrhea. Net gain in forest cover over the 10-year period was associated with a 34% decrease in the odds of children experiencing diarrhea (P?=?.002). Given that our analysis relied on observational data and that there were potential unknown factors for which we could not account, these preliminary findings demonstrate only associations, not causal relationships, between forest cover and child health and nutrition outcomes. However, the findings raise concerns about the potential short- and long-term impacts of ongoing deforestation and ecosystem degradation on community health in Malawi, and they suggest that preventing forest loss and maintaining the ecosystem services of forests are important factors in improving human health and nutrition outcomes. PMID:25276536

  1. Forest Cover Associated with Improved Child Health and Nutrition: Evidence from the Malawi Demographic and Health Survey and Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Kiersten B.; Jacob, Anila; Brown, Molly Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Healthy forests provide human communities with a host of important ecosystem services, including the provision of food, clean water, fuel, and natural medicines. Yet globally, about 13 million hectares of forests are lost every year, with the biggest losses in Africa and South America. As biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation due to deforestation continue at unprecedented rates, with concomitant loss of ecosystem services, impacts on human health remain poorly understood. Here, we use data from the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey, linked with satellite remote sensing data on forest cover, to explore and better understand this relationship. Our analysis finds that forest cover is associated with improved health and nutrition outcomes among children in Malawi. Children living in areas with net forest cover loss between 2000 and 2010 were 19% less likely to have a diverse diet and 29% less likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods than children living in areas with no net change in forest cover. Conversely, children living in communities with higher percentages of forest cover were more likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods and less likely to experience diarrhea. Net gain in forest cover over the 10-year period was associated with a 34% decrease in the odds of children experiencing diarrhea (P5.002). Given that our analysis relied on observational data and that there were potential unknown factors for which we could not account, these preliminary findings demonstrate only associations, not causal relationships, between forest cover and child health and nutrition outcomes. However, the findings raise concerns about the potential short- and long-term impacts of ongoing deforestation and ecosystem degradation on community health in Malawi, and they suggest that preventing forest loss and maintaining the ecosystems services of forests are important factors in improving human health and nutrition outcomes.

  2. Workplace wellness recognition for optimizing workplace health: a presidential advisory from the american heart association.

    PubMed

    Fonarow, Gregg C; Calitz, Chris; Arena, Ross; Baase, Catherine; Isaac, Fikry W; Lloyd-Jones, Donald; Peterson, Eric D; Pronk, Nico; Sanchez, Eduardo; Terry, Paul E; Volpp, Kevin G; Antman, Elliott M

    2015-05-19

    The workplace is an important setting for promoting cardiovascular health and cardiovascular disease and stroke prevention in the United States. Well-designed, comprehensive workplace wellness programs have the potential to improve cardiovascular health and to reduce mortality, morbidity, and disability resulting from cardiovascular disease and stroke. Nevertheless, widespread implementation of comprehensive workplace wellness programs is lacking, and program composition and quality vary. Several organizations provide worksite wellness recognition programs; however, there is variation in recognition criteria, and they do not specifically focus on cardiovascular disease and stroke prevention. Although there is limited evidence to suggest that company performance on employer health management scorecards is associated with favorable healthcare cost trends, these data are not currently robust, and further evaluation is needed. As a recognized national leader in evidence-based guidelines, care systems, and quality programs, the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association is uniquely positioned and committed to promoting the adoption of comprehensive workplace wellness programs, as well as improving program quality and workforce health outcomes. As part of its commitment to improve the cardiovascular health of all Americans, the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association will promote science-based best practices for comprehensive workplace wellness programs and establish benchmarks for a national workplace wellness recognition program to assist employers in applying the best systems and strategies for optimal programming. The recognition program will integrate identification of a workplace culture of health and achievement of rigorous standards for cardiovascular health based on Life's Simple 7 metrics. In addition, the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association will develop resources that assist employers in meeting these rigorous standards, facilitating access to high-quality comprehensive workplace wellness programs for both employees and dependents, and fostering innovation and additional research. PMID:25869199

  3. Factors associated with mental health services use among disconnected African-American young adult population.

    PubMed

    Maulik, Pallab K; Mendelson, Tamar; Tandon, S Darius

    2011-04-01

    Research related to mental health service use among vulnerable young adults is limited. This study used an expanded version of Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use to evaluate factors associated with the use of different types of mental health services among a sample of predominantly African-American 16-24 year olds (n?=?500) in an employment training program in Baltimore City. Results indicated that participants were more likely to have received mental health services in correctional facilities than in community- or school-based contexts. Use of mental health services in correctional facilities was significantly greater among males, those less than 18 years, and those who experienced more stressful events. Findings illustrate the need to develop seamless mental health services for vulnerable young adults in multiple contexts, including the criminal justice system. PMID:20571924

  4. Assessment of swimming associated health effects in marine bathing beach: an example from Morib beach (Malaysia).

    PubMed

    Praveena, Sarva Mangala; Pauzi, Norfasmawati Mohd; Hamdan, Munashamimi; Sham, Shaharuddin Mohd

    2015-03-15

    A survey among beachgoers was conducted to determine the swimming associated health effects experienced and its relationship with beach water exposure behaviour in Morib beach. For beach water exposure behaviour, the highest frequency of visit among the respondents was once a year (41.9%). For ways of water exposure, whole body exposure including head was the highest (38.5%). For duration of water exposure, 30.8% respondents prefer to be in water for about 30 min with low possibilities of accidental ingestion of beach water. A total of 30.8% of beachgoers in Morib beach were reported of having dermal symptoms. Bivariate analysis showed only water activity, water contact and accidental ingestion of beach water showed significant association with swimming associated health effects experienced by swimmers. This study output showed that epidemiological study can be used to identify swimming associated health effects in beach water exposed to faecal contamination. PMID:25597267

  5. Factors associated with self-reported, pesticide-related visits to health care providers in the agricultural health study.

    PubMed

    Alavanja, M C; Sandler, D P; McDonnell, C J; Lynch, C F; Pennybacker, M; Zahm, S H; Lubin, J; Mage, D; Steen, W C; Wintersteen, W; Blair, A

    1998-07-01

    To investigate factors associated with pesticide-related visits to health care providers (i.e., doctor or hospital visits), responses to self-administered questionnaires received from 35,879 licensed restricted-use pesticide applicators participating in the Agricultural Health Study were analyzed. (In Iowa, applicators are actually certified, whereas in North Carolina they are licensed; for ease of reference, the term license will be used for both states in this paper.) The cohort reported a total of more than 10.9 million pesticide-application days. These applications were associated with one or more pesticide-related health care visits by 2,214 applicators (7.0% of the applicator cohort for whom health care visit data were available). The odds of a pesticide-related health care visit were increased for commercial applicators compared to private applicators [odds ratio (OR = 1.77; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.52-2.06) and for applicators who used insecticides 70 times or more in their lifetime compared to those who used insecticides less frequently (OR = 1.43; CI, 1.26-1.63). After adjusting for the number of applications in a logistic regression model, significantly higher odds of health care visits were observed among North Carolina applicators compared to Iowa applicators (OR = 1.35; CI, 1.17-1.52), among applicators who mixed their own pesticides (OR = 1.65; CI, 1. 22-2.23), and among applicators who personally repaired their pesticide application equipment at least once per year (OR = 1.12; CI, 1.06-1.25). Significantly lower odds were found among female versus male applicators (OR = 0.68; CI, 0.46-0.99) and among applicators who graduated from high school versus those who did not (OR = 0.82; CI, 0.71-0.94 for high school graduates and OR = 0.79; CI, 0.68-0.91 for those with at least some college). Several methods of pesticide application to crops, seed, or stored grain were also associated with significantly elevated odds ratios of health care visits. These observations suggest that several steps can be taken to reduce the number of health care visits resulting from occupational exposure to pesticides. The implications of this pattern of pesticide-related health care visits may have etiologic implications for cancer and other chronic diseases. PMID:9637799

  6. [Testing doses? Environmental health stakes associated with nanotechnologies].

    PubMed

    Jouzel, Jean-Noël

    2011-01-01

    In this contribution, we analyse how nanoscience and nanotechnology have given birth to an important environmental health controversy regarding the potential sanitary dangers of engineered nanomaterials. We show how this controversy is part of a larger picture, made of a series of social and scientific disputes about the effects of man made chemicals on the human body. We show how these disputes have contributed throughout the 20th century to the emergence and the transformation of toxicology as a scientific field, and to test the robustness of the dose paradigm that constitues the cornerstone of this discipline. We suggest that the contemporary emergence of a new scientific field known as "nanotoxicolgy" must be interpreted as a successful adaptation of this paradigm to the specific toxicological questions raised by engineered nanomaterials. PMID:21850975

  7. Association between job characteristics and health behaviors in Japanese rural workers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akizumi Tsutsumi; Kazunori Kayaba; Manabu Yoshimura; Machi Sawada; Shizukiyo Ishikawa; Kenichiro Sakai; Tadao Gotoh; Naoki Nago

    2003-01-01

    Associations between job characteristics defined by the Karasek’s job demand-control model and health behaviors were investigated\\u000a in a cross-sectional analysis of 6,759 Japanese rural workers. High psychological demands were associated with heavy smoking,\\u000a exaggerated prevalence of alcohol drinking, and high work-related physical activity. Low job control was associated with lower\\u000a consumption of vegetables, a smaller quantity number of cigarettes smoked,

  8. Neurocognitive impairment is associated with lower health literacy among persons living with HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Erin E; Iudicello, Jennifer E; Cattie, Jordan E; Blackstone, Kaitlin; Grant, Igor; Woods, Steven Paul

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to determine the effects of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) on health literacy, which encompasses the ability to access, understand, appraise, and apply health-related information. Participants included 56 HIV seropositive individuals, 24 of whom met Frascati criteria for HAND, and 24 seronegative subjects who were comparable on age, education, ethnicity, and oral word reading. Each participant was administered a brief battery of well-validated measures of health literacy, including the Expanded Numeracy Scale (ENS), Newest Vital Sign (NVS), Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM), and Brief Health Literacy Screen (BHLS). Results revealed significant omnibus differences on the ENS and NVS, which were driven by poorer performance in the HAND group. There were no significant differences on the REALM or the BHLS by HAND status. Among individuals with HAND, lower scores on the NVS were associated with greater severity of neurocognitive dysfunction (e.g., working memory and verbal fluency) and self-reported dependence in activities of daily living. These preliminary findings suggest that HAND hinders both fundamental (i.e., basic knowledge, such as numeracy) and critical (i.e., comprehension and application of healthcare information) health literacy capacities, and therefore may be an important factor in the prevalence of health illiteracy. Health literacy-focused intervention may play an important role in the treatment and health trajectories among persons living with HIV infection. PMID:25008384

  9. Podiatric problems are associated with worse health status in persons with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Crews, Cynthia K; Vu, Kieu O; Davidson, Arthur J; Crane, Lori A; Mehler, Philip S; Steiner, John F

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of self-reported podiatric impairments and their effect on health status in persons with severe mental illness. A sample of psychiatric outpatients (N=309) underwent interviews assessing medical conditions and health status with the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36). Podiatric health was assessed using nine items from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Eighty percent of patients reported at least one podiatric problem. The most common problems were foot pain (48%), nail disorders (35%) and corns/calluses (28%). Prevalence rates were 4-11 times higher than those reported by the general population in the 1990 NHIS. The total number of podiatric problems was inversely related to eight self-reported health status domains and both summary SF-36 scores (all P<==.0001). After controlling for sociodemographic factors, psychiatric illness and medical conditions, the total number of podiatric limitations remained significantly associated with lower patient ratings in four of the eight SF-36 domains and both summary scores. We concluded that persons with severe and persistent mental illness have markedly elevated rates of podiatric problems when compared to the general population group. These problems are associated with worsened self-perceived health status. Addressing podiatric health may be a successful way to improve the overall health of this population. PMID:15121351

  10. Associations Between Abnormal Rod-Mediated Dark Adaptation and Health and Functioning in Older Adults With Normal Macular Health

    PubMed Central

    Owsley, Cynthia; Huisingh, Carrie; Jackson, Gregory R.; Curcio, Christine A.; Szalai, Alexander J.; Dashti, Nassrin; Clark, Mark; Rookard, Kia; McCrory, Mark A.; Wright, Tyler T.; Callahan, Michael A.; Kline, Lanning B.; Witherspoon, C. Douglas; McGwin, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Delayed rod-mediated dark adaptation (DA) is characteristic of early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and also can be observed in some older adults in normal macular health. We examine cross-sectional associations between rod-mediated DA and risk factors for AMD in older adults in normal macular health. Methods. The sample consisted of adults aged ?60 years old in normal macular health per grading of fundus photos using an established disease classification system. Rod-mediated DA was measured psychophysically following a photobleach using a computer-automated dark adaptometer with targets centered at 5° on the inferior vertical meridian. The speed of DA was characterized by the rod-intercept value, with abnormal DA defined as rod-intercept ? 12.3 minutes. We assessed several health and functional characteristics that the literature has suggested increase AMD risk (e.g., smoking, alcohol use, inflammatory markers, apolipoproteins, low luminance visual acuity, chronic medical conditions, body mass, family history). Results. Among 381 participants (mean age, 68.5 years; SD, 5.5), 78% had normal and 22% had abnormal DA, with the prevalence of abnormal DA increasing with age. After age-adjustment, abnormal DA was associated with increased odds of elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), heavy use of or abstention from alcohol, high blood pressure, and drop in visual acuity under mesopic conditions. Conclusions. Despite having normal macular health according to accepted definitions of AMD presence, approximately one-quarter of older adults recruited from primary eye care clinics had abnormal DA, which was associated with known risk factors for AMD, including elevated CRP. PMID:24854857

  11. Copyright 2012, National Environmental Health Association (www.neha.org) Environmental Health

    E-print Network

    preparedness, such as how to handle food safety, sanitation, clean water, and vector control in tent communities. Examining the experiences from the Occupy Movement can lead to a path of better management District Redevelopment in Colorado: Case Study on the Health Impact Assessment Process

  12. Copyright 2014, National Environmental Health Association (www.neha.org). Environmental Health

    E-print Network

    Women: A Pilot Study on the Health Implications of its Practice and En vironmental Conditions........................45 ADVANCEMENT OF THE SCIENCE Hot Yoga Establishments in Local Communities Serving Pregnant Women..............................8 O-Chlorobenzylidene Malononitrile (CS Riot Control Agent) Exposure in a U.S. Army Basic Combat

  13. Public Health Professionals and Students Encouraged to Submit Abstracts for the 2014 Wildlife Disease Association (WDA) Conference

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    Public Health Professionals and Students Encouraged to Submit Abstracts for the 2014 Wildlife and posters from professionals and students from within the field of public health and epidemiology. Health Association of State Public Health Veterinarians and will feature unique opportunities for inter

  14. [Gender differences in measures of mental health associated with a marital relationship].

    PubMed

    Ito, Yuko; Sagara, Junko

    2014-02-01

    This study examined gender differences for two measures of mental health as related to the quality of the marital relationship. Middle-aged respondents (221 female; 210 male) rated their marital satisfaction, affection, and communication. They also rated their psychological well-being and depression. The correlations between marital quality and mental health indicated that for males marital quality was more strongly associated with psychological well-being than with depression. Females showed no such difference, or their marital quality was associated with depression. This implies that for females, depression was a more sensitive measure of their mental health related to their husband-wife relationship. On the other hand, for males subjective well-being which was correlated with self-esteem was a more sensitive measure of their mental health. PMID:24669502

  15. A national study of associate degree mental health and human services workers.

    PubMed

    Young, C E; True, J E

    1976-01-01

    A random sample of 140 graduates of associate degree mental health/human services programs were studied to determine their work activities, adequacy of work performance, and job satisfaction. Seventy-seven percent were employed in relevant human services jobs. On site interviews with these workers and their supervisors revealed that they were performing virtually the entire range of traditional mental health service functions and performing them well. A majority were satisfied with their work, although low salary levels and restricted opportunities for future advancement were recognized as problems. Many were receiving little supervision and the user agencies had, for the most part, not developed appropriate in-service training programs. The findings appear very supportive to the notion that the mental health associate is a valuable new source of manpower for the mental health/human services field. PMID:10243932

  16. Association of Cystatin C and Depression in Healthy Elders: The Health, Aging and Body Composition Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evgueni Minev; Mark Unruh; Michael G. Shlipak; Eleanor Simsonick; Kristine Yaffe; Tennille S. Leak; Anne B. Newman; Linda F. Fried

    2010-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: Depression is highly prevalent in individuals with advanced kidney disease, but is less well studied in individuals with milder disease. We evaluated the association between kidney function and depression in the Health, Aging and Body Composition (Health ABC) study. Methods: The study enrolled 3,075 community-dwelling black and white adults aged 70–79 years. Kidney function was measured by cystatin C

  17. Refining the association between education and health: The effects of quantity, credential, and selectivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine E. Ross; John Mirowsky

    1999-01-01

    We refine the established association between education and health by distinguishing three aspects of a person s education\\u000a (quantity, credential, and selectivity) and by examining the mechanisms through which they may correlate with health. Data\\u000a are from the 1995 Aging, Status, and the Sense of Control Survey, a representative U.S. national telephone survey of 2,593\\u000a respondents aged 18 to 95,

  18. Neighborhood Deprivation Is Strongly Associated with Participation in a Population-Based Health Check

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Anne Mette; Kawachi, Ichiro; Jřrgensen, Torben; Pisinger, Charlotta

    2015-01-01

    Background We sought to examine whether neighborhood deprivation is associated with participation in a large population-based health check. Such analyses will help answer the question whether health checks, which are designed to meet the needs of residents in deprived neighborhoods, may increase participation and prove to be more effective in preventing disease. In Europe, no study has previously looked at the association between neighborhood deprivation and participation in a population-based health check. Methods The study population comprised 12,768 persons invited for a health check including screening for ischemic heart disease and lifestyle counseling. The study population was randomly drawn from a population of 179,097 persons living in 73 neighborhoods in Denmark. Data on neighborhood deprivation (percentage with basic education, with low income and not in work) and individual socioeconomic position were retrieved from national administrative registers. Multilevel regression analyses with log links and binary distributions were conducted to obtain relative risks, intraclass correlation coefficients and proportional change in variance. Results Large differences between neighborhoods existed in both deprivation levels and neighborhood health check participation rate (mean 53%; range 35-84%). In multilevel analyses adjusted for age and sex, higher levels of all three indicators of neighborhood deprivation and a deprivation score were associated with lower participation in a dose-response fashion. Persons living in the most deprived neighborhoods had up to 37% decreased probability of participating compared to those living in the least deprived neighborhoods. Inclusion of individual socioeconomic position in the model attenuated the neighborhood deprivation coefficients, but all except for income deprivation remained statistically significant. Conclusion Neighborhood deprivation was associated with participation in a population-based health check in a dose-response manner, in which increasing neighborhood deprivation was associated with decreasing participation. This suggests the need to develop preventive health checks tailored to deprived neighborhoods. PMID:26039635

  19. Association of Returning to Work With Better Health in Working-Aged Adults: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Lori; Wilson, Mike; Mustard, Cameron; Rourke, Sean B.; Bayoumi, Ahmed; Raboud, Janet; Lavis, John

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We systematically reviewed the literature on the impact of returning to work on health among working-aged adults. Methods. We searched 6 electronic databases in 2005. We selected longitudinal studies that documented a transition from unemployment to employment and included a comparison group. Two reviewers independently appraised the retrieved literature for potential relevance and methodological quality. Results. Eighteen studies met our inclusion criteria, including 1 randomized controlled trial. Fifteen studies revealed a beneficial effect of returning to work on health, either demonstrating a significant improvement in health after reemployment or a significant decline in health attributed to continued unemployment. We also found evidence for health selection, suggesting that poor health interferes with people’s ability to go back to work. Some evidence suggested that earlier reemployment may be associated with better health. Conclusions. Beneficial health effects of returning to work have been documented in a variety of populations, times, and settings. Return-to-work programs may improve not only financial situations but also health. PMID:22390520

  20. Association of a behaviorally based high school health education curriculum with increased exercise.

    PubMed

    Annesi, James J; Trinity, John; Mareno, Nicole; Walsh, Stephanie M

    2015-06-01

    Increasing exercise in children and adolescents through academic classes is an understudied area. Potential benefits include associated improvements in health, psychosocial, and quality-of-life factors. A sample of 98 students (M age = 14.3) from high school health education classes received six, 40-min lessons incorporating cognitive-behavioral methods to increase exercise over 6 weeks. Significant within-group improvements in exercise, mood, and body satisfaction were found, with slightly larger effect sizes identified for the boys. Increase in exercise was significantly associated with reduced mood distress (? = -.17, p < .001). For the girls only, change in body satisfaction significantly mediated that relationship, and a reciprocal relationship between changes in mood and body satisfaction was also identified. Incorporation of lessons emphasizing goal setting and self-regulation within high school health education classes may foster increased exercise and associated improvements in mood and body satisfaction. For girls, the positive effects may reinforce one another. PMID:24902998

  1. Association between health worker motivation and healthcare quality efforts in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ghana is one of the sub-Saharan African countries making significant progress towards universal access to quality healthcare. However, it remains a challenge to attain the 2015 targets for the health related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) partly due to health sector human resource challenges including low staff motivation. Purpose This paper addresses indicators of health worker motivation and assesses associations with quality care and patient safety in Ghana. The aim is to identify interventions at the health worker level that contribute to quality improvement in healthcare facilities. Methods The study is a baseline survey of health workers (n = 324) in 64 primary healthcare facilities in two regions in Ghana. Data collection involved quality care assessment using the SafeCare Essentials tool, the National Health Insurance Authority (NHIA) accreditation data and structured staff interviews on workplace motivating factors. The Spearman correlation test was conducted to test the hypothesis that the level of health worker motivation is associated with level of effort by primary healthcare facilities to improve quality care and patient safety. Results The quality care situation in health facilities was generally low, as determined by the SafeCare Essentials tool and NHIA data. The majority of facilities assessed did not have documented evidence of processes for continuous quality improvement and patient safety. Overall, staff motivation appeared low although workers in private facilities perceived better working conditions than workers in public facilities (P <0.05). Significant positive associations were found between staff satisfaction levels with working conditions and the clinic’s effort towards quality improvement and patient safety (P <0.05). Conclusion As part of efforts towards attainment of the health related MDGs in Ghana, more comprehensive staff motivation interventions should be integrated into quality improvement strategies especially in government-owned healthcare facilities where working conditions are perceived to be the worst. PMID:23945073

  2. Who Uses CAM? A Narrative Review of Demographic Characteristics and Health Factors Associated with CAM Use

    PubMed Central

    Lewith, G. T.

    2010-01-01

    Complementary and Alternative Medicines (CAM) are used by an extensive number of patients in the UK and elsewhere. In order to understand this pattern of behavior, it is helpful to examine the characteristics of people who use CAM. This narrative review collates and evaluates the evidence concerning the demographic characteristics and health status factors associated with CAM use in community-based non-clinical populations. A systematic literature search of computerized databases was conducted, and published research papers which present evidence concerning associations between CAM use and demographic and health characteristics are discussed and evaluated. The evidence suggests that people who use CAM tend to be female, of middle age and have more education. In terms of their health, CAM users tend to have more than one medical condition, but might not be more likely than non-users to have specific conditions such as cancer or to rate their own general health as poor. The multivariate studies that have been conducted suggest that both demographic and health characteristics contribute independently to CAM use. In conclusion, demographic characteristics and factors related to an individual's health status are associated with CAM use. Future research is needed to address methodological limitations in existing studies. PMID:18955327

  3. The factors associated with the belief that vegetarian diets provide health benefits.

    PubMed

    Lea, Emma; Worsley, Anthony

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the factors associated with the belief that vegetarian diets provide health benefits. A random population mail survey about food choice was conducted among a sample of 1000 South Australians. An additional (non-random) survey of 106 vegetarians and semi-vegetarians was also conducted, giving a total of 707 participants from both samples. The main predictors of the belief that vegetarian diets provide health benefits for all respondents were found to be the belief that meat is neither healthy nor necessary and frequent searching for information on healthy eating. However, there were differences between vegetarians, non-vegetarians and semi-vegetarians. In particular, health issues were relatively more important for semi-vegetarians and vegetarians, while knowledge and convenience issues were most important for non-vegetarians. The results have important implications for public health. Many South Australians perceive that health benefits are associated with eating a vegetarian diet, which may also apply to plant-based diets in general. However, if non-vegetarians are to obtain some of the health benefits associated with the consumption of a plant-based diet, they require information on the preparation of quick and easy plant- based meals. PMID:14505993

  4. Health-Related Factors Associated with Mode of Travel to Work

    PubMed Central

    Bopp, Melissa; Kaczynski, Andrew T.; Campbell, Matthew E.

    2013-01-01

    Active commuting (AC) to the workplace is a potential strategy for incorporating physical activity into daily life and is associated with health benefits. This study examined the association between health-related factors and mode of travel to the workplace. Methods. A volunteer convenience sample of employed adults completed an online survey regarding demographics, health-related factors, and the number of times/week walking, biking, driving, and using public transit to work (dichotomized as no walk/bike/drive/PT and walk/bike/drive/PT 1 + x/week). Logistic regression was used to predict the likelihood of each mode of transport and meeting PA recommendations from AC according to demographics and health-related factors. Results. The sample (n = 1175) was aged 43.5 ± 11.4 years and was primarily White (92.7%) and female (67.9%). Respondents reported walking (7.3%), biking (14.4%), taking public transit (20.3%), and driving (78.3%) to work at least one time/week. Among those reporting AC, 9.6% met PA recommendations from AC alone. Mode of travel to work was associated with several demographic and health-related factors, including age, number of chronic diseases, weight status, and AC beliefs. Discussion. Mode of transportation to the workplace and health-related factors such as disease or weight status should be considered in future interventions targeting AC. PMID:23533450

  5. Sarcopenic obesity is associated with lower indicators of psychological health and quality of life in Koreans.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yoonsu; Shin, So-Youn; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2015-05-01

    Sarcopenic obesity (SO) is known to contribute to morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases. However, there exists limited information regarding its effect on psychological health. The aim of this study was to evaluate association of SO with several indices of psychological health and quality of life (QoL) in Korean adults. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 11521 participants older than 20 years from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2011. Sarcopenic obesity was defined by a low appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by body weight less than 1 standard deviation below the sex-specific mean for the young reference group, and by a high waist circumference of at least 90 cm for men and at least 85 cm for women. Psychological health status, including depressive symptoms, perceived stress, and suicidal ideation, as well as QoL, was assessed by a self-reporting questionnaire. Association between SO and psychological health status was assessed under a logistic regression model. After multivariate adjustment for demographics and lifestyle factors, SO was significantly associated with perceived stress (odds ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.44; P value = .004) and suicidal ideation (odds ratio, 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.50; P value = .010). In addition, SO was found to have a negative association with a range of QoL indicators. Interestingly, these association patterns were more significant in participants younger than 60 years. In conclusion, our results suggest that SO was associated with adverse psychological health and lower QoL more than body mass index-based general obesity. PMID:25931418

  6. The associations between noise sensitivity, reported physical and mental health, perceived environmental quality, and noise annoyance.

    PubMed

    Schreckenberg, Dirk; Griefahn, Barbara; Meis, Markus

    2010-01-01

    One hundred and ninety residents around Frankfurt Airport (46% female; 17-80 years) were interviewed concerning noise annoyance due to transportation noise (aircraft, road traffic), perceived mental and physical health, perceived environmental quality, and noise sensitivity. The aim of the analyses was to test whether noise sensitivity reflects partly general environmental sensitivity and is associated with an elevated susceptibility for the perception of mental and physical health. In this study, the reported physical and mental health variables were not associated with noise exposure but with noise annoyance, and were interpreted to reflect nonspecific codeterminants of annoyance rather than noise effects. Noise sensitivity was found to influence total noise annoyance and aircraft noise annoyance but to a lesser degree annoyance due to road traffic noise. Noise sensitivity was associated with reported physical health, but not with reported mental health. Noise-sensitive persons reported poorer environmental quality in their residential area than less sensitive persons in particular with regard to air traffic (including the facets noise, pollution, and contaminations) and quietness. Other aspects of the perceived quality of the environment were scarcely associated with noise sensitivity. This indicates that noise sensitivity is more specific and a reliable predictor of responses to noise from the dominant source (in this case air traffic) rather than a predictor of the individual perception of the environmental quality in general. PMID:20160386

  7. The Ten Tasks of the Mental Health Provider: Recommendations for Revision of the World Professional Association for Transgender Health's Standards of Care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arlene Istar Lev

    2009-01-01

    This article outlines recommendations for the World Professional Association for Transgender Health's (WPATH) Standards of Care (SOC) regarding the roles, responsibilities, and tasks of the mental health provider in assessing eligibility and readiness for medical and surgical treatment of gender nonconforming, transgender, and transsexual clients. It reflects a reconceptualization of the role of the mental health provider as a gender

  8. APPENDIX 6 -WADHAM COLLEGE HEALTH AND SAFETY GENERAL POLICY STATEMENT At Wadham College we recognise our duties under health and safety legislation and associated

    E-print Network

    Wallace, Mark

    APPENDIX 6 - WADHAM COLLEGE HEALTH AND SAFETY GENERAL POLICY STATEMENT At Wadham College we recognise our duties under health and safety legislation and associated regulations. Our intention precautions, to ensure the safety, health and welfare of anyone likely to be affected by the operation of our

  9. Does Health Insurance and Seeing the Doctor Keep You Out of the Hospital? We obtain estimates of associations between health insurance and hospitalization and between

    E-print Network

    Mateo, Jill M.

    than those 1 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services News Release: http://www.hhs.gov/news0 Does Health Insurance and Seeing the Doctor Keep You Out of the Hospital? June 2011 We obtain estimates of associations between health insurance and hospitalization and between use of doctor visits

  10. Self-Management Behaviors among Older Adults with Asthma: Associations with Health Literacy

    PubMed Central

    Federman, Alex D.; Wolf, Michael S.; Sofianou, Anastasia; Martynenko, Melissa; O’Connor, Rachel; Halm, Ethan A.; Leventhal, Howard; Wisnivesky, Juan P.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Older adults asthmatics experience high rates of morbidity and mortality yet little is known about their self-management behaviors. We examined self-management behaviors, including medication adherence and inhaler technique, among older adults and their association with health literacy. Design: Observational cohort study. Setting: Primary care and pulmonary specialty practices in two tertiary academic medical centers and three Federally Qualified Health Centers in New York City, NY and Chicago, IL. Participants: Adults with moderate or severe persistent asthma, ages 60 years and older (n=433). Measurements: Outcomes were adherence to asthma controller medications, metered dose inhaler (MDI) and dry powder inhaler (DPI) techniques, having a usual asthma physician, and avoidance of four common triggers. Health literacy was assessed with the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Results: The mean age was 67 years and 36% had marginal or low health literacy. Adherence was low (38%) overall and worse among individuals with low health literacy (22% vs. 47%, p<0.0001) and after adjusting for demographic factors and health status (odds ratio [OR] 0.48, 95% confidence [CI] 0.31-0.73). Similarly, inhaler technique was poor: only 38% and 54% had good MDI and DPI technique, respectively. Technique was worse among those with low health literacy (MDI technique: OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.38-0.85; DPI technique: OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.71). Asthma self-monitoring and avoidance of triggers occurred infrequently but were less consistently associated with low health literacy. Conclusion: Adherence to medications and inhaler technique are poor among older asthmatics, and worse among those with low health literacy. Clinicians should routinely assess controller medication adherence and inhaler technique, and use low-literacy communication strategies to support self-management in older asthmatics. PMID:24779482

  11. Variations in Asian Americans: How Neighborhood Concordance Is Associated With Health Care Access and Utilization.

    PubMed

    Chang, Eva; Chan, Kitty S

    2015-01-01

    We examined associations of different levels of same-ethnicity neighborhood concordance with health care access and utilization among all Asian American, Chinese, Filipino, and Vietnamese adults (aged 18-64 years) using the 2005, 2007, and 2009 California Health Interview Survey and the 2010 US Census. Although associations varied by subgroup, Asian Americans in highly concordant neighborhoods were more likely to lack a usual source of care but did not lack doctor visits or experience delays in medical care and prescriptions. PMID:25393190

  12. Supplement use is associated with health status and health-related behaviors in the 1946 British birth cohort.

    PubMed

    McNaughton, Sarah A; Mishra, Gita D; Paul, Alison A; Prynne, Celia J; Wadsworth, Mike E J

    2005-07-01

    Use of dietary supplements may be one of a number of health-related behaviors that cluster together. The current study investigated the underlying diet, health-related characteristics, and behaviors of users and nonusers of dietary supplements in a longitudinal study of health. Participants (n = 1776) completed a 5-d food diary including information on dietary supplement use (vitamins, minerals, and nutraceuticals) at age 53 y. Sociodemographic information and data on smoking, alcohol, and physical activity were obtained along with anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, and a blood sample (nonfasting subjects). A significantly greater percentage of women reported supplement use compared with men (45.1 vs. 25.2%). Supplement use was associated with lower BMI, lower waist circumference, higher plasma folate and plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations, nonsmoking, participation in physical activity, and nonmanual social class in women and with plasma folate concentrations and participation in physical activity in men. Nonsupplement users tended to be nonconsumers of breakfast cereals, fruit, fruit juice, yogurt, oily fish, and olive oil and had lower dietary intakes of potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron, and vitamin C even after adjustment for sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Overall, supplement users tended to differ from nonsupplement users on a range of health-related behaviors and health status indicators, although there were fewer significant associations in men. Similarly, dietary supplements users tended to have underlying diets that, were healthier and those taking supplements may be the least likely to need them. These results support the notion of a clustering of healthy behaviors and cardiovascular risk factors, particularly for women. PMID:15987865

  13. Health outcomes associated with long-term regular cannabis and tobacco smoking.

    PubMed

    Rooke, Sally E; Norberg, Melissa M; Copeland, Jan; Swift, Wendy

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to identify patterns of health concerns associated with long-term use of cannabis and tobacco individually, as well as in combination. We recruited 350 adults aged 40 or over who smoked cannabis but not tobacco (cannabis-only group, n=59), smoked both cannabis and tobacco (cannabis/tobacco group, n=88), smoked tobacco but not cannabis (tobacco-only group, n=80), or used neither substance (control group, n=123). Participants completed a survey addressing substance use, diagnosed medical conditions, health concerns relating to smoking cannabis/tobacco, and general health (measured using the Physical Health Questionnaire and the Short Form 36). Several significant differences were found among the four groups. With regard to diagnosed medical conditions, the three smoking groups reported significantly higher rates of emphysema than did the control group (ps<.001). However, all members of the cannabis-only group diagnosed with emphysema were former regular tobacco smokers. Total general health scores, general health subscales, and items addressing smoking-related health concerns also revealed several significant group differences, and these tended to show worse outcomes for the two tobacco smoking groups. Findings suggest that using tobacco on its own and mixing it with cannabis may lead to worse physical health outcomes than using cannabis alone. PMID:23501136

  14. The demographic viewpoint in the vital and health statistics monographs of The American Public Health Association.

    PubMed

    Spiegelman, M

    1966-06-01

    The plan calls for monographs on 16 specific topics and a review volume. The specific topics include a monograph on fertility, another on marriage and divorce, and one on social and economic factors in mortality, all of which are of obvious demographic interest. The core of the development of the monographs dealing with the disease topics, and accidents, homicide, and suicide, is a tabulation program involving specific and age-adjusted death rates based upon the deaths in the United States for the three year period 1959-61 and the 1960 census of population. The program called for a set of standard tabulations common to each monograph and also a set of special tabulations tailored to meet the particular needs for each topic as specified by its authors. This wealth of demographic detail regarding mortality in the United States during 1959-61 fills only one aspect of its health picture. To fill out the health picture, use is being made of the great volume of morbidity data out of the National Health Interview and Examination Surveys and a wide variety of other specialized surveys. In all of these, the findings are invariably described in terms of the demographic characteristics of age and sex, and frequently in terms of such social-economic variables as education, income, work status, and occupational class.A large part of the content of the monograph on social and economic factors in mortality will come out of available results of the 1960 census-death certificate matching study at the University of Chicago. One important feature of this monograph, not contained in the Chicago study, is a regression and correlation analysis of total mortality in 202 Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas in relation to a large number of social, economic, and climatic factors. Among the features in the monograph on fertility are chapters on the medical and biological characteristics of births, fecundity and family planning, and an analysis of cohort fertility trends. The monograph on marriage and divorce will make use of the detailed tabulations from the 1960 census on marital status in relation to education, race, parentage, earnings and other classifications of individuals and of husband and wife in married couples. It will also contain a matching study of divorce records in certain states for a short period before the census of 1960 with the returns in the census. The project is supported by a grant from the United States Public Health Service (CH 00075; formerly RG 08262). Publication will be by the Harvard University Press. PMID:21318727

  15. The Association Between Penis Size and Sexual Health Among Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Grov; Jeffrey T. Parsons; David S. Bimbi

    2010-01-01

    Larger penis size has been equated with a symbol of power, stamina, masculinity, and social status. Yet, there has been little\\u000a research among men who have sex with men assessing the association between penis size and social-sexual health. Survey data\\u000a from a diverse sample of 1,065 men who have sex with men were used to explore the association between perceived

  16. Rhinitis associated with pesticide exposure among commercial pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R E Slager; J A Poole; T D LeVan; D P Sandler; M C R Alavanja; J A Hoppin

    2009-01-01

    Objectives:Rhinitis is common, but the risk factors are not well described. To investigate the association between current rhinitis and pesticide use, we used data from 2245 Iowa commercial pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study.Methods:Using logistic regression models adjusted for age, education and growing up on a farm, we evaluated the association between current rhinitis and 34 pesticides used in

  17. Association of health literacy with elevated blood pressure: a cohort study of hospitalized patients

    PubMed Central

    McNaughton, Candace D.; Kripalani, Sunil; Cawthon, Courtney; Mion, Lorraine C.; Wallston, Kenneth A.; Roumie, Christianne L.

    2014-01-01

    Background The clinical consequences of low health literacy are not fully understood. Objectives We evaluated the relationship between low health literacy and elevated blood pressure (BP) at hospital presentation. Research Design and Subjects We conducted a cross-sectional evaluation of adult patients hospitalized at a university hospital between November 1, 2010 and April 30, 2012. Measures Health literacy was assessed using the Brief Health Literacy Screen (BHLS). Low health literacy was defined as a BHLS score ?9. BP was assessed using clinical measurements. The outcome was elevated BP (?140/90 mmHg; ?130/80 mmHg with diabetes or renal disease) or extremely elevated BP (>160/100 mmHg) at hospital presentation. Multivariate logistic regression adjusted for age, gender, race, insurance, comorbidities, and antihypertensive medications; pre-planned restricted analysis among patients with diagnosed hypertension was performed. Results Of 46,263 hospitalizations, 23% had low health literacy, which occurred more often among patients who were older (61 vs. 54 years), less educated (28.4% vs. 11.2% had not completed high school), and more often admitted through the emergency department (54.3% vs. 48.1%) than those with BHLS>9. Elevated BP was more frequent among those with low health literacy (40.0% versus 35.5%; adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR] 1.06, 95%CI 1.01, 1.12). Low health literacy was associated with extremely elevated BP (aOR 1.08, 95% CI 1.01, 1.16) and elevated BP among those without diagnosed hypertension (aOR 1.09, 95% CI 1.02, 1.16). Conclusions More than 1/3 of patients had elevated BP at hospital presentation. Low health literacy was independently associated with elevated BP, particularly among patients without diagnosed hypertension. PMID:24556896

  18. [Self-assessment of health status and associated factors: a study in bank workers].

    PubMed

    Petarli, Glenda Blaser; Salaroli, Luciane Bresciani; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza; Zandonade, Eliana

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how bank employees assess their health status and risk factors associated with this indicator in this population. This is a cross-sectional study involving 525 workers of a banking system in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The magnitude of the associations was assessed using logistic regression hierquizada in levels. It was found that 17% (n = 87) of bank self-rated their health status as fair or poor. Were associated with worse self-assessed health of the low socioeconomic level (OR = 1.80; 95%CI: 1.06-3.05), the sedentary lifestyle (OR = 2.64; 95%CI: 1.42-4.89), the excess weight (OR = 3.18; 95%CI: 1.79-5.65), low social support (OR = 3.71; 95%CI: 2.10-6.58), and the presence of chronic diseases (OR = 5,49; 95%CI: 2.46-12.27). It is concluded that, compared with other locations, there was a significant number of banking that self-rated their health status as fair or poor, and that the presence of chronic diseases was presented as the factor with the greatest impact on how the individual evaluates their own health. PMID:25945988

  19. Veterans Affairs methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus prevention initiative associated with a sustained reduction in transmissions and health care-associated infections.

    PubMed

    Evans, Martin E; Kralovic, Stephen M; Simbartl, Loretta A; Freyberg, Ron W; Obrosky, D Scott; Roselle, Gary A; Jain, Rajiv

    2013-11-01

    Implementation of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Prevention Initiative was associated with significant declines in MRSA transmission and MRSA health care-associated infection rates in Veterans Affairs acute care facilities nationwide in the 33-month period from October 2007 through June 2010. Here, we show continuing declines in MRSA transmissions (P = .004 for trend, Poisson regression) and MRSA health care-associated infections (P < .001) from July 2010 through June 2012. The Veterans Affairs Initiative was associated with these effects, sustained over 57 months, in a large national health care system. PMID:24176769

  20. Association of language spoken at home with health and school issues among Asian American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yu, Stella M; Huang, Zhihuan J; Schwalberg, Renee H; Overpeck, Mary D; Kogan, Michael D

    2002-05-01

    The study examined the association of language spoken at home with the school and health risks and behaviors of Asian American adolescents. Using the United States component of the 1997-1998 World Health Organization Study of Health Behavior in School Children, bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted of records for Asian children to explore the relationship between language spoken at home and outcome variables regarding health behaviors, psychosocial and school risk factors, and parental factors. Compared to those who usually speak English at home, adolescents who usually speak another language, or who speak two languages equally, face a greater risk for health risk factors, psychosocial and school risk factors, and parental risk factors. Not speaking English at home was associated with higher health risks, including not wearing seat belts and bicycle helmets; higher psychosocial and school risk factors, including feeling that they do not belong at school, difficulty making new friends, and lacking confidence; and higher parental risks, including reporting that parents were not ready to help them or willing to talk to teachers. Adolescents less acculturated to the United States experience a variety of physical and psychosocial risks. School-based interventions such as early identification and outreach, needs assessment, and counseling and support services should be provided to immigrant students and their families. PMID:12109174

  1. Factors associated with the health status of internally displaced persons in northern Uganda

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B Roberts; K Felix Ocaka; J Browne; T Oyok; E Sondorp

    2009-01-01

    Background: Globally, there are over 24 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) who have fled their homes due to violence and insecurity but who remain within their own country. There have been up to 2 million IDPs in northern Uganda alone. The objective of this study was to investigate factors associated with mental and physical health status of IDPs in northern

  2. Irregular Breakfast Eating and Associated Health Behaviors: A Pilot Study among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiagarajah, Krisha; Torabi, Mohammad R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine prevalence of eating breakfast and associated health compromising behaviors. This study utilized a cross-sectional survey methodology. A purposive cluster sampling technique was utilized to collect data from a representative sample of college students in a Midwestern university in the U.S. A total of 1,257…

  3. Dietary & health predictors associated with overweight & obesity in young adults: the Bogalusa Heart Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined independent associations between diet and lifestyle behaviors; differences in markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); and self-reported health problems among normal weight (NW); overweight (OW), and obese (OB) young adults. Cross-sectional data on pa...

  4. Mental Health Associate Program T-056: A Program Review, Spring 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenoir Community Coll., Kinston, NC.

    At Lenoir Community College (LCC) in Kinston, North Carolina, 20% of established programs and 33% of the non-academic support services are reviewed each year in an annual cycle, with all programs reviewed within a 5-year period. To evaluate the Mental Health Associate (MHA) Program at LCC, assessment surveys were sent to 44 graduates from the…

  5. Associations between Dopamine and Serotonin Genes and Job Satisfaction: Preliminary Evidence from the Add Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Zhaoli; Li, Wendong; Arvey, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    Previous behavioral genetic studies have found that job satisfaction is partially heritable. We went a step further to examine particular genetic markers that may be associated with job satisfaction. Using an oversample from the National Adolescent Longitudinal Study (Add Health Study), we found 2 genetic markers, dopamine receptor gene DRD4 VNTR…

  6. ARE ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES TO CHLOROPHENOXY HERBICIDES ASSOCIATED WITH AN INCREASE IN ADVERSE HUMAN HEALTH EFFECTS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Associations between adverse health effects and environmental exposures are difficult to study because exposures may be widespread, low-dose in nature, and common throughout the study population. Individual risk-factor epidemiology may not be able to initially ident...

  7. CARDIOVASCULAR AND OTHER HEALTH EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH ARSENIC EXPOSURE IN INNER MONGOLIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic exposure is associated with cardiovascular and other health effects. The study objectives were to investigate the mode of action and to assess dose-response relationships of arsenic on cardiovascular, diabetic and carcinogenic effects in Ba Men, Inner Mongolia. Ba Men res...

  8. Mental Health Problems in Adults with Down Syndrome and Their Association with Life Circumstances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallardo, Mariarosa; Cuskelly, Monica; White, Paul; Jobling, Anne

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on current life circumstances, previous life events, and engagement with productive and enjoyable activities. It examined the association of these variables with mental health problems and mood in a cohort of young adults with Down syndrome. Participants were 49 adults with Down syndrome (age range 20-31 years) and their…

  9. Roadmap: Environmental Health and Safety -Environmental Safety and Security -Associate of Applied Science

    E-print Network

    Khan, Javed I.

    CHEM 10050 Fundamentals of Chemistry 3 KBS GEOL 21062 Environmental Earth Science 3 KBS ConcentrationRoadmap: Environmental Health and Safety - Environmental Safety and Security - Associate of Applied Science RE-AAS-EVHS-ESS Regional College Catalog Year: 2014-2015 Page 1 of 1 | Last Updated: 28-May-14/JSK

  10. Roadmap: Environmental Health and Safety Environmental Safety and Security Associate of Applied Science

    E-print Network

    Khan, Javed I.

    Sciences CHEM 10050 Fundamentals of Chemistry 3 Fulfills Kent Core Basic Sciences GEOL 21062 EnvironmentalRoadmap: Environmental Health and Safety ­ Environmental Safety and Security ­ Associate of Applied Science [RE-AAS-EVHS-ESS] Regional College Catalog Year: 2013-2014 Page 1 of 1 | Last Updated: 8-Apr-13

  11. Roadmap: Environmental Health and Safety Environmental Technology Associate of Applied Science

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Scott

    Roadmap: Environmental Health and Safety ­ Environmental Technology ­ Associate of Applied Science Environmental Geology 3 Fulfills Kent Core Basic Sciences Semester Four: [14-15 Credit Hours] CHEM 10052 Social Sciences (3 credit hours) 3 Basic Sciences (3 credit hours) Fulfilled in this major with CHEM

  12. Handgrip Strength, Positive Affect, and Perceived Health Are Prospectively Associated with Fewer Functional Limitations among Centenarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franke, Warren D.; Margrett, Jennifer A.; Heinz, Melinda; Martin, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the association between perceived health, fatigue, positive and negative affect, handgrip strength, objectively measured physical activity, body mass index, and self-reported functional limitations, assessed 6 months later, among 11 centenarians (age = 102 plus or minus 1). Activities of daily living, assessed 6 months prior to…

  13. The Association of Health-Related Fitness with Indicators of Academic Performance in Texas Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welk, Gregory J.; Jackson, Allen W.; Morrow, James R., Jr.; Haskell, William H.; Meredith, Marilu D.; Cooper, Kenneth H.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations between indicators of health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and body mass index) and academic performance (Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills). Partial correlations were generally stronger for cardiovascular fitness than body mass index and consistently stronger in the middle school…

  14. Association of adolescent risk behaviors with mental health symptoms in high school students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Traci L Brooks; Sion Kim Harris; Jeannie S Thrall; Elizabeth R Woods

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the hypothesis that self-reported symptoms of depression and stress may be associated with other risk behaviors.Methods: A secondary data analysis of the 1992 Massachusetts Adolescent Health Survey involving a representative sample of 2224 ninth and twelfth grade students was performed. The dichotomous dependent variable was positive if the adolescent reported feeling depressed or stressed for 10 or

  15. FactorsAssociatedWiththeSexualBehaviorof CanadianAboriginalYoungPeopleandTheir ImplicationsforHealthPromotion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen M. Devries; Caroline J. Free; Linda Morison; Elizabeth Saewyc

    Objectives. We examined factors associated with having ever had sex, having more than 1 lifetime sexual partner, and condom nonuse at last incident of sexual intercourse among Canadian Aboriginal young people. Methods. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the 2003 British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey, a cross-sectional survey of young people in grades 7 through 12. Results. Of

  16. Psychosocial, Environmental and Behavioral Factors Associated with Bone Health in Middle-School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Shreela V.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Kelder, Steven H.; Day, R. Sue; Hergenroeder, Albert

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the psychosocial, environmental and behavioral factors associated with calcium intake, physical activity and bone health in a cohort of adolescent girls. Baseline data (N = 718 girls, mean age: 11.6 plus or minus 0.4 years) from the Incorporating More Physical Activity and Calcium in Teens (IMPACT) study…

  17. Psychotherapy in the World Professional Association for Transgender Health's Standards of Care: Background and Recommendations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lin Fraser

    2009-01-01

    This invited article on psychotherapy in the Standards of Care (SOC) of the World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH) provides background and makes recommendations for the psychotherapy section of the next revision of the SOC. The article describes (1) the history of psychotherapy within the Standards; (2) the major changes affecting psychotherapy since the 2001 SOC; (3) new directions

  18. Associations between mental health, substance use, and sexual abuse experiences among Latinas.

    PubMed

    Ulibarri, Monica D; Ulloa, Emilio C; Salazar, Marissa

    2015-01-01

    This study examined self-reported sexually abusive experiences in childhood and adulthood as correlates of current drug use, alcohol abuse, and depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants were 204 Latina women 18-34 years old. Results indicated significant relationships between history of sexual abuse (regardless of age of occurrence), depression symptoms, PTSD symptoms, alcohol abuse, and drug use. When examined separately, childhood sexual abuse was associated with symptoms of depression, PTSD, and substance use but not alcohol abuse behaviors. Experiencing sexual abuse in adulthood was associated with symptoms of depression, alcohol abuse behaviors, and substance use but not PTSD symptoms. Structural equation modeling showed that substance use partially mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and mental health outcomes. These findings suggest mental health and substance use services should incorporate treatment for trauma, which may be the root of comorbid mental health and substance use issues. PMID:25635897

  19. [Slave-descendent communities in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil: self-rated health and associated factors].

    PubMed

    Kochergin, Clavdia Nicolaevna; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; César, Cibele Comini

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to analyze the prevalence of negative self-rated health and associated factors in the quilombola community (descendants of escaped slaves) in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil. A household survey was conducted with 797 adults in 2011. Data on self-rated health, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, lifestyle, social support, health status, and access to health services were obtained through questionnaires. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed, adjusted for sex and age. Prevalence of negative self-rated health was 12.5%. After statistical modeling, the following variables remained associated with self-rated health: skin color, schooling, adequate consumption of fruits and vegetables, chronic illness, physical limitations, and at least one medical visit in the previous 12 months. Self-rated health was associated with socioeconomic/demographic dimensions, lifestyle, social support, and health status. PMID:25166945

  20. Intimate Partner Violence and Functional Health Status: Associations with Severity, Danger, and Self-Advocacy Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Straus, Helen; McNutt, Louise Anne; Rhodes, Karin V.; Conner, Kenneth R.; Kemball, Robin S.; Kaslow, Nadine J.; Houry, Debra

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess physical and mental functional health status as associated with the severity of intimate partner violence (IPV) and perceived danger. Methods Prospective cross-sectional survey of all patients aged 18–55 in an urban emergency department during a convenience sample of shifts. Instruments included the George Washington Universal Violence Prevention Screening protocol, administered by computer during the initial visit, the Short-Form 12 Health Survey (SF-12), the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2), and the Revised Danger Assessment (DA), administered by interview at 1 week follow-up. Results In total, 548 (20%) participants screened disclosed IPV victimization. Of those, 216 (40%) completed the follow-up assessment 1 week later. This cohort was 91% African American, 70% single, and 63% female, with a mean age of 35 (SD 10.41). Both physical and mental health functioning scores were lower than normative levels (50) compared with national averages: Physical Component Summary (PCS) scale 43.64 (SD 10.86) and Mental Component Summary (MCS) scale 37.46 (SD 12.29). As physical assault, psychological aggression, and reported injury increased on the CTS2, mental health functioning diminished (p?associated with diminished physical health functioning (p?health functioning decreased (p?associated with lower mental (but not physical) health functioning as well. Females experienced worsening mental health functioning as both physical assault and psychological aggression increased, whereas male victims experienced worsening mental health functioning only as psychological aggression increased. Conclusions These findings suggest that IPV takes a greater mental than physical toll (for both sexes) and that as IPV severity increases, mental health functioning diminishes and self-advocacy behaviors increase. Additionally, as perceived danger increases, both physical and mental health status worsens. This has important implications for clinicians to assess and consider IPV victims' perceptions of their situations relative to danger, not just the levels of abuse they are experiencing. PMID:19445614

  1. Health inequalities, physician citizens and professional medical associations: an Australian case study

    PubMed Central

    Furler, John; Harris, Elizabeth; Harris, Mark; Naccarella, Lucio; Young, Doris; Snowdon, Teri

    2007-01-01

    Background As socioeconomic health inequalities persist and widen, the health effects of adversity are a constant presence in the daily work of physicians. Gruen and colleagues suggest that, in responding to important population health issues such as this, defining those areas of professional obligation in contrast to professional aspiration should be on the basis of evidence and feasibility. Drawing this line between obligation and aspiration is a part of the work of professional medical colleges and associations, and in doing so they must respond to members as well as a range of other interest groups. Our aim was to explore the usefulness of Gruen's model of physician responsibility in defining how professional medical colleges and associations should lead the profession in responding to socioeconomic health inequalities. Methods We report a case study of how the Royal Australian College of General Practitioners is responding to the issue of health inequalities through its work. We undertook a consultation (80 interviews with stakeholders internal and external to the College and two focus groups with general practitioners) and program and policy review of core programs of College interest and responsibility: general practitioner training and setting of practice standards, as well as its work in public advocacy. Results Some strategies within each of these College program areas were seen as legitimate professional obligations in responding to socioeconomic health inequality. However, other strategies, while potentially professional obligations within Gruen's model, were nevertheless contested. The key difference between these lay in different moral orientations. Actions where agreement existed were based on an ethos of care and compassion. Actions that were contested were based on an ethos of justice and human rights. Conclusion Colleges and professional medical associations have a role in explicitly leading a debate about values, engaging both external stakeholder and practicing member constituencies. This is an important and necessary step in defining an agreed role for the profession in addressing health inequalities. PMID:17697318

  2. ASSOCIATION OF PERSONAL AND WORKPLACE CHARACTERISTICS WITH REPORTED HEALTH SYMPTOMS OF 6771 GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES IN WASHINGTON, DC

    EPA Science Inventory

    An indoor air quality questionnaire was completed by 6771 employees of two government agencies. egression analyses on 12 clusters of health symptoms indicated that both personal and workplace characteristics were associated with symptoms. he variables associated with the largest ...

  3. Social network types and the health of older adults: exploring reciprocal associations.

    PubMed

    Li, Ting; Zhang, Yanlong

    2015-04-01

    Social network types have been proved to have significant impacts on older population's health outcomes. However, the existing discoveries are still inconsistent, which may be attributed largely to the heterogeneous measures and methods scholars used and to the unidirectional causalities presumed in most research. This study addresses these gaps by using more-refined measures to explore whether the network types have differential impacts on older adults' health outcomes, and whether a reverse causal relationship exists between older adults' health conditions and the network types they adopted. Using data from three recent waves (2005, 2008, and 2012) of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (n = 4190), we constructed four network types using the K-means clustering method (i.e., diverse, friend, family, and restricted), and examined their impacts on a variety of health outcomes (i.e., physical, cognitive, psychological, and overall well-being). Our results demonstrate that there are strong reciprocal associations between these two factors. On the one hand, a diverse network type yielded the most beneficial health outcomes as measured by multiple health indicators, and the friend-focused network type is more beneficial than the family-focused network type in physical outcomes but not in psychological outcomes. On the other hand, we found that a decrease in all health indicators leads to withdrawal from more-beneficial network types such as a diversified network type, and a shift to less-beneficial network types such as family-focused or restricted networks. The understanding of this reciprocal association could encourage programs designed to enhance healthy aging to focus on improving the bridging social capital of older adults so that they can break the vicious cycle between network isolation and poor health conditions. PMID:25681715

  4. Economic Barriers To Improvement Of Human Health Associated With Wastewater Irrigation In The Mezquital Valley, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagata, H.; Sedlak, D. L.

    2008-12-01

    To improve public health, the United Nations' Johannesburg Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002 set Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of reducing by half the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and sanitation by 2015. The Mezquital Valley of Mexico is one of the places suffering serious human health problems such as ascariasis due to agricultural irrigation with untreated wastewater discharged by Mexico City. Despite the existence of serious health problems, wastewater treatment has not been installed due to economic barriers: the agricultural benefit of nutrients in the wastewater and cost of building and operating wastewater treatment plants. To develop solutions to this problem, the human health damage and the benefits of nutrient input were evaluated. The health impact caused by untreated wastewater reuse in the Mezquital Valley was estimated to be about 14 DALYs (disability-adjusted life year) per 100,000, which was 2.8 times higher than the DALYs lost by ascariasis in Mexico in 2002 estimated by WHO. The economic damage of the health impact was evaluated at 77,000 /year using willingness-to-pay (WTP) for reducing DALYs. The value of nutrient inputs (nitrogen and phosphorus) due to reuse of untreated wastewater was evaluated at 33 million /year using fertilizer prices. Therefore, attempts to decrease public health problems associated with reuse in the Mezquital Valley need to address losses of economic benefits associated with nutrients in sewage. In 2007, the Mexican Government announced plans to install wastewater treatment plants in this area. Although nutrient inputs in irrigated water is expected to decrease by 33% due to the wastewater treatment, farmers in the Mezquital Valley would still benefit from improved public health in the community and increases of crop values due to the ability to grow raw-eaten vegetables.

  5. Association Between Asthma and Obesity Among Immigrant Asian Americans, California Health Interview Survey, 2001–2011

    PubMed Central

    Becerra, Benjamin J.; Scroggins, Christy M.

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to study the comorbidity of asthma and obesity among foreign-born Asian Americans, by subgroups. Public data from the California Health Interview Survey, 2001–2011, were analyzed by using independent logistic regressions, yielding the association between asthma and obesity (Asian and standard cutoffs for body mass index [BMIs]) of 19,841 Asian American immigrant respondents. Chinese, Filipino, South Asian, and Japanese immigrants had a positive association between lifetime asthma and obesity, whereas among Korean immigrants, a positive association was found between lifetime asthma and overweight status (standard BMI cutoffs). Routine screening for this comorbidity is warranted among immigrant Asian Americans. PMID:25427317

  6. Problem drinking's associations with social structure and mental health care: race/ethnicity differences.

    PubMed

    Lo, Celia C; Cheng, Tyrone C; Howell, Rebecca J

    2014-01-01

    This research used a nationally representative sample of 12,756 respondents self-identified as White, Black, Hispanic, or Asian to examine problem drinking in relationship to social structure and mental healthcare factors. Associations between problem drinking and particular factors varied by racial/ethnic group. Results also indicated that Whites' problem-drinking rates were higher than those of Hispanics, Blacks, and Asians. Americans sometimes use alcohol to manage stress stemming from social disadvantage and inadequate material resources. Across racial/ethnic groups, drinking level was associated with the type and degree of such disadvantage. Additionally, the presence of a mental health problem was associated with problem drinking. PMID:25052882

  7. The Oral History Program: II. Personal views of health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association.

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, D; Pifalo, V

    1998-01-01

    The Medical Library Association Oral History Program uses accepted oral history techniques to collect and preserve interviews with members. The original taped interviews and transcripts are kept in the Medical Library Association archives and made available for research purposes; edited copies of the interviews are distributed through the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, and members are encouraged to borrow and read the histories. Summaries of forty-three interviews provide personal views on health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association. PMID:9681172

  8. The Oral History Program: I. Personal views of health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association.

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, D; Pifalo, V

    1998-01-01

    The Medical Library Association Oral History Program uses accepted oral history techniques to collect and preserve interviews with members. The original taped interviews and transcripts are kept in the Medical Library Association archives and made available for research purposes; edited copies of the interviews are distributed through the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, and members are encouraged to borrow and read the histories. Summaries of forty-three interviews provide personal views on health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association. PMID:9578936

  9. Peer victimisation and its association with psychological and somatic health problems among adolescents in northern Russia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A growing body of evidence from countries around the world suggests that school-based peer victimisation is associated with worse health outcomes among adolescents. So far, however, there has been little systematic research on this phenomenon in the countries of the former Soviet Union. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between peer victimisation at school and a range of different psychological and somatic health problems among Russian adolescents. Methods This study used data from the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA) – a cross-sectional survey undertaken in Arkhangelsk, Russia in 2003. Information was collected from 2892 adolescents aged 12–17 about their experiences of school-based peer victimisation and on a variety of psychological and somatic health conditions. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between victimisation and health. Results Peer victimisation in school was commonplace: 22.1% of the students reported that they had experienced frequent victimisation in the current school year (girls – 17.6%; boys – 28.5%). There was a strong relationship between experiencing victimisation and reporting worse health among both boys and girls with more victimisation associated with an increased risk of experiencing worse health. Girls in the highest victimisation category had odds ratios ranging between 1.90 (problems with eyes) and 5.26 (aches/pains) for experiencing somatic complaints when compared to their non-victimised counterparts, while the corresponding figures for boys were 2.04 (headaches) and 4.36 (aches/pains). Girls and boys who had the highest victimisation scores were also 2.42 (girls) and 3.33 (boys) times more likely to report symptoms of anxiety, over 5 times more likely to suffer from posttraumatic stress and over 6 times more likely to experience depressive symptoms. Conclusion Peer victimisation at school has a strong association with poor health outcomes among Russian adolescents. Effective school-based interventions are now urgently needed to counter the negative effects of victimisation on adolescents’ health in Russia. PMID:23672615

  10. Student learning outcomes associated with video vs. paper cases in a public health dentistry course.

    PubMed

    Chi, Donald L; Pickrell, Jacqueline E; Riedy, Christine A

    2014-01-01

    Educational technologies such as video cases can improve health professions student learning outcomes, but few studies in dentistry have evaluated video-based technologies. The goal of this study was to compare outcomes associated with video and paper cases used in an introductory public health dentistry course. This was a retrospective cohort study with a historical control group. Based on dual coding theory, the authors tested the hypotheses that dental students who received a video case (n=37) would report better affective, cognitive, and overall learning outcomes than students who received a paper case (n=75). One-way ANOVA was used to test the hypotheses across ten cognitive, two affective, and one general assessment measures (?=0.05). Students in the video group reported a significantly higher overall mean effectiveness score than students in the paper group (4.2 and 3.3, respectively; p<0.001). Video cases were also associated with significantly higher mean scores across the remaining twelve measures and were effective in helping students achieve cognitive (e.g., facilitating good discussions, identifying public health problems, realizing how health disparities might impact their future role as dentists) and affective (e.g., empathizing with vulnerable individuals, appreciating how health disparities impact real people) goals. Compared to paper cases, video cases significantly improved cognitive, affective, and overall learning outcomes for dental students. PMID:24385521

  11. The ABC of Physical Activity for Health: A consensus statement from the British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary ODonovan; Anthony J. Blazevich; Colin Boreham; Ashley R. Cooper; Helen Crank; Ulf Ekelund; Kenneth R. Fox; Paul Gately; Billie Giles-Corti; Jason M. R. Gill; Mark Hamer; Ian McDermott; Marie Murphy; Nanette Mutrie; John J. Reilly; John M. Saxton; Emmanuel Stamatakis

    2010-01-01

    Our understanding of the relationship between physical activity and health is constantly evolving. Therefore, the British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences convened a panel of experts to review the literature and produce guidelines that health professionals might use. In the ABC of Physical Activity for Health, A is for All healthy adults, B is for Beginners, and C is

  12. Food Avoidance and Food Modification Practices of Older Rural Adults: Association with Oral Health Status and Implications for Service Provision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quandt, Sara A.; Chen, Haiying; Bell, Ronny A.; Savoca, Margaret R.; Anderson, Andrea M.; Leng, Xiaoyan; Kohrman, Teresa; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Dietary variation is important for health maintenance and disease prevention among older adults. However, oral health deficits impair ability to bite and chew foods. This study examines the association between oral health and foods avoided or modified in a multiethnic rural population of older adults. It considers implications for…

  13. Does the evidence about health risks associated with nitrate ingestion warrant an increase of the nitrate standard for drinking water?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans JM van Grinsven; Mary H Ward; Nigel Benjamin; Theo M de Kok

    2006-01-01

    Several authors have suggested that it is safe to raise the health standard for nitrate in drinking water, and save money on measures associated with nitrate pollution of drinking water resources. The major argument has been that the epidemiologic evidence for acute and chronic health effects related to drinking water nitrate at concentrations near the health standard is inconclusive. With

  14. Is the Health and Wellbeing of University Students Associated with their Academic Performance? Cross Sectional Findings from the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Walid El; Stock, Christiane

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the associations between health awareness, health behaviour, subjective health status, and satisfaction of students with their educational experience as independent variables and three outcomes of educational achievement as dependent variables. We undertook two simultaneous cross-sectional surveys among students from one University in the UK during 2008?2009. The first survey was a general health survey; the second survey measured students’ satisfaction with different aspects of their learning and teaching experience. Students’ registration numbers linked the responses of both questionnaires together, and subsequently linked the questionnaires to the university database to import the grades that students actually achieved in their studies. Generally, on average, students (N = 380) exhibited medium to high satisfaction with their educational experiences. In the multivariate regression analyses, students’ satisfaction with their educational experiences was not associated with any of the three indicators of educational achievement (actual module mark; perceived own performance; importance of achieving good grades). The associations of educational satisfaction, health, health behaviours, heath complaints and financial parameters with the three outcomes of educational achievement did not differ between male and female students. Each of the health, health behaviours, health complaints and financial parameters were selectively associated with only some but not all three indicators of student educational achievement. We conclude that the findings support a conceptual framework suggesting reciprocal relationships between health, health behaviour and educational achievement. Comprehensive health promotion programmes may have the potential to influence relevant predictors of educational achievement in university students. PMID:20616988

  15. Factors Associated with the Reporting of Adverse Drug Reactions by Health Workers in Nnewi Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ezeuko, Amaka Y.; Ebenebe, Uzo E.; Nnebue, Chinomnso C; Ugoji, John O.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Under-reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) by the prescribers is a common public health problem. Monitoring of factors that influence ADR reporting will reduce risks associated with drug use; improve patients care, safety and treatment outcome. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with the reporting of ADRs by health workers in Nnewi Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 372 health workers in different health facilities in Nnewi North Local Government Area of Anambra state, selected using multistage sampling technique was done. Data collection employed pretested, self-administered structured questionnaires. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17. Tests of statistical significance were carried out using Chi-square tests for proportions. A P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Out of the 372 respondents studied, 255 (68.5%) were females, and 117 (31.5%) were males. The modal age range (37.6%) was 31–40 years. Factors related by the respondents to influence ADR reporting include: Unavailability of electronic reporting (83.6%), unavailability of reporting forms (66.4%) and ignorance (58.2%). The difference among medical practitioners who related unavailability of electronic reporting process as obstacle to ADR reporting was not significant (P = 0.18). Conclusions: The study results revealed the factors associated with the reporting of ADRs among health workers in Nnewi Nigeria. It is desirable to initiate electronic reporting process, training programs on ADR reporting and make reporting forms/guidelines available to relevant health workers. PMID:25949775

  16. I35W Collapse, Rebuild, and Structural Health MONITORING—CHALLENGES Associated with Structural Health Monitoring of Bridge Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, C. E.; Hedegaard, B.; Shield, C. K.; Stolarski, H.

    2011-06-01

    During evening rush hour traffic on August 1, 2007, the major interstate highway bridge carrying I35W over the Mississippi River in Minneapolis catastrophically failed, tragically taking the lives of thirteen people and injuring many more. The steel truss bridge, constructed in 1967, was undergoing deck reconstruction during the collapse, and was estimated to carry more than 140,000 vehicles daily. This tragedy generated great interest in employment of structural health monitoring systems. The I35W St. Anthony Falls Bridge, a post-tensioned concrete box bridge constructed to replace the collapsed steel truss bridge, contains over 500 instruments to monitor the structural behavior. Numerical models of the bridge are being developed and calibrated to the collected data obtained from truck load tests and thermal effects. The data obtained over the first few years of monitoring are being correlated with the calibrated models and used to develop the baseline bridge behavior. This information is being used to develop a system to monitor and interpret the long-term behavior of the bridge. This paper describes the instrumentation, preliminary results from the data and model calibration, the plan for developing long-term monitoring capabilities, and the challenges associated with structural health monitoring of bridge systems. In addition, opportunities and directions for future research required to fully realize the objectives of structural health monitoring are described.

  17. Academic faculty qualifications for community/public health nursing: an Association of Community Health Nursing Educators position paper.

    PubMed

    Collier, Jill; Davidson, Gail; Allen, Carol B; Dieckmann, Janna; Hoke, Mary M; Sawaya, Mary Alice

    2010-01-01

    The Association of Community Health Nursing Educators (ACHNE) has developed a number of documents designed to delineate the scope and function of community/public health nursing (C/PHN) educators, researchers, and practitioners. Consistent with the mission of ACHNE, this position paper entitled Academic Faculty Qualifications for Community/Public Health Nursing has been developed by the Faculty Qualifications Task Force. The shortage of qualified nursing faculty has been well documented. In particular, this shortage has increased the difficulty in having sufficient numbers of faculty who are educationally and experientially qualified to teach in the C/PHN specialty. ACHNE is addressing this concern by setting forth preferred qualifications for faculty to teach C/PHN at both the graduate and undergraduate level. While we recognize that the current faculty shortage may require schools to use faculty to teach in areas in which they do not have appropriate formal preparation, the paper outlines best practices for teaching C/PHN, a goal we urge all schools of nursing to work toward. Task Force members developed an earlier draft of the document in fall 2008, and input was solicited and received from ACHNE members and considered in the final document, which was approved by the ACHNE Executive Board in July 2009. PMID:20055972

  18. Association between Race, Place, and Preventive Health Screenings among Men: Findings from the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, Roland J.; Bowie, Janice V.; Wilson-Frederick, Shondelle M.; Coa, Kisha I.; LaVeist, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    African American men consistently report poorer health and have lower participation rates in preventive screening tests than white men. This finding is generally attributed to race differences in access to care which may be a consequence of the different healthcare markets in which African American and white men typically live. This proposition is tested by assessing race differences in use of preventive screenings among African American and white men residing within the same healthcare marketplace. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between race and physical, dental, eye and foot examinations, blood pressure and cholesterol checks, and colon and prostate cancer screenings in men in the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities in Southwest Baltimore Study. After adjusting for covariates, African American men had greater odds of having had a physical, dental, and eye examination; having had their blood pressure and cholesterol checked; and having been screened for colon and prostate cancer than white men. No race differences in having a foot examination were observed. Contrary to most findings, African American men had a higher participation rate in preventive screenings than white men. This underscores the importance of accounting for social context in public health campaigns targeting preventive screenings in men. PMID:23184335

  19. I35W collapse, rebuild, and structural health monitoring - challenges associated with structural health monitoring of bridge systems

    SciTech Connect

    French, C. E.; Hedegaard, B.; Shield, C. K.; Stolarski, H. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2011-06-23

    During evening rush hour traffic on August 1, 2007, the major interstate highway bridge carrying I35W over the Mississippi River in Minneapolis catastrophically failed, tragically taking the lives of thirteen people and injuring many more. The steel truss bridge, constructed in 1967, was undergoing deck reconstruction during the collapse, and was estimated to carry more than 140,000 vehicles daily. This tragedy generated great interest in employment of structural health monitoring systems. The I35W St. Anthony Falls Bridge, a post-tensioned concrete box bridge constructed to replace the collapsed steel truss bridge, contains over 500 instruments to monitor the structural behavior. Numerical models of the bridge are being developed and calibrated to the collected data obtained from truck load tests and thermal effects. The data obtained over the first few years of monitoring are being correlated with the calibrated models and used to develop the baseline bridge behavior. This information is being used to develop a system to monitor and interpret the long-term behavior of the bridge. This paper describes the instrumentation, preliminary results from the data and model calibration, the plan for developing long-term monitoring capabilities, and the challenges associated with structural health monitoring of bridge systems. In addition, opportunities and directions for future research required to fully realize the objectives of structural health monitoring are described.

  20. Impact of vehicular traffic emissions on particulate-bound PAHs: Levels and associated health risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slezakova, Klara; Castro, Dionísia; Delerue–Matos, Cristina; Alvim–Ferraz, Maria da Conceiçăo; Morais, Simone; Pereira, Maria do Carmo

    2013-06-01

    Considering vehicular transport as one of the most health-relevant emission sources of urban air, and with aim to further understand its negative impact on human health, the objective of this work was to study its influence on levels of particulate-bound PAHs and to evaluate associated health risks. The 16 PAHs considered by USEPA as priority pollutants, and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene associated with fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM2.5-10) particles were determined. The samples were collected at one urban site, as well as at a reference place for comparison. The results showed that the air of the urban site was more seriously polluted than at the reference one, with total concentrations of 17 PAHs being 2240% and 640% higher for PM2.5 and PM2.5-10, respectively; vehicular traffic was the major emission source at the urban site. PAHs were predominantly associated with PM2.5 (83% to 94% of ?PAHs at urban and reference site, respectively) with 5 rings PAHs being the most abundant groups of compounds at both sites. The risks associated with exposure to particulate PAHs were evaluated using the TEF approach. The estimated value of lifetime lung cancer risks exceeded the health-based guideline levels, thus demonstrating that exposure to PM2.5-bound PAHs at levels found at urban site might cause potential health risks. Furthermore, the results showed that evaluation of benzo[a]pyrene (regarded as a marker of the genotoxic and carcinogenic PAHs) alone would probably underestimate the carcinogenic potential of the studied PAH mixtures.

  1. Factors associated with early menarche: results from the French Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrien Gaudineau; Virginie Ehlinger; Christophe Vayssiere; Beatrice Jouret; Catherine Arnaud; Emmanuelle Godeau

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Puberty is a transition period making physiological development a challenge adolescents have to face. Early pubertal development could be associated with higher risks of poor health. Our objective was to examine risk behaviours, physical and psychological determinants associated with early menarche (<11 years). METHODS: Early menarche was assessed in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children French cross-sectional survey. Data

  2. The Moderating Role of Centrality on Associations between Ethnic Identity Affirmation and Ethnic Minority College Students' Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brittian, Aerika S.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Lee, Richard M.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Kim, Su Yeong; Weisskirch, Robert S.; Castillo, Linda G.; Whitbourne, Susan Krauss; Hurley, Eric A.; Huynh, Que-Lam; Brown, Elissa J.; Caraway, S. Jean

    2013-01-01

    Background: Prior literature has shown that ethnic affirmation, one aspect of ethnic identity, is positively associated with mental health. However, the associations between ethnic affirmation and mental health may vary depending how much importance individuals place on their ethnic group membership (ie, centrality). Methods: Using path analysis,…

  3. Health Problems and Medical Utilization Associated With Gambling Disorders: Results From the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BENJAMIN J. MORASCO; ROBERT H. PIETRZAK; CARLOS BLANCO; BRIDGET F. GRANT; DEBORAH HASIN; NANCY M. PETRY

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Pathologic gambling is believed to be associated with adverse health consequences, but no prior studies have rigorously evaluated these relationships. We sought to examine medical disorders and health service utilization associated with problem and pathologic gambling. Method: A total of 43,093 adults aged 18 years and older were evaluated in the 2001 to 2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol

  4. The Social Determinants of Health in Association with Women’s Health Status of Reproductive Age: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    BAHEIRAEI, Azam; BAKOUEI, Fatemeh; MOHAMMADI, Eesa; MONTAZERI, Ali; HOSSENI, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Prioritizing women’s health helps achievement of the 4th and 5th goals of Millennium Development Program. This study aimed to investigate association between social determinants of health and women’s health of reproductive age. Methods This population-based cross-sectional study, using multi-stage sampling procedure was conducted on 770, 15 to 49-year-old women residing in any one of the 22 municipality zones across Tehran, Iran. Eligible women were interviewed at home with SF-36 (Short Form Health Survey) and socio-demographic questionnaires. Social determinants of health contains; ethnicity, education, job, income, and crowding index. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Multiple Linear Regression using SPSS-16. The threshold of P.V was considered 0.05. Results Overall, 770 women with mean age 33.9±9.3 years were interviewed. Majority of them were married (72.27%), housewives (62.2%), of Persian ethnicity (64.3%), and educated to high school level (43.8%). Age with dimensions of health except role emotional, mental health, and social functioning had significant association with B from -0.65 to -0.16.educational level with dimensions of health except role emotional andsocial functioning had significant association with B from 3.61 to 6.43 (P<0.05). Income with dimensions of health except role physical had significant association with B from -9.97 to -4.42. Conclusion Reflection of unfavorable economic conditions and low education level on negative women’ health experiences are alarming. Interaction between social determinants of health and health status must be considered in policymaking, and there is a need for policies that would enhance health of women in the low education and income brackets.

  5. Factors Associated with Health-Related Quality of Life Among Older People with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Banker, Wendy M.; Clement, Lynn M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study was conducted to determine which factors (clinical and demographic) are associated with mental and physical health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among people with multiple sclerosis (MS) aged 60 years and older. Methods: Data were collected at four MS centers on Long Island, New York, from a total of 211 patients. Three surveys were administered that collected demographic information and included validated questionnaires measuring quality of life (QOL), cognition, depression, and disability. Multivariate linear regression analyses examined the relationship between patient demographics and scores on standardized scales measuring mental and physical HRQOL (Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life–54). Variables included in the regression models were selected on the basis of the Andersen Healthcare Utilization model. This framework encompasses the multiple influences on health status, including predisposing characteristics, enabling resources, need, and health behavior. Results: We found that mental HRQOL was negatively associated with having a high school education or less, risk of neurologic impairment, physical disability, and depression. No variables were positively associated with mental HRQOL. Physical HRQOL was negatively associated with risk of neurologic impairment, physical disability, depression, and the comorbidity of thyroid disease. However, patient employment and, surprisingly, being widowed were positively associated with physical HRQOL. These findings are consistent with those of similar studies among younger patients in which lower HRQOL was associated with increased disability, depression, risk of neurologic impairment, and lower levels of education. Conclusions: The findings that patient employment and being widowed were associated with better physical HRQOL suggest that older patients have the ability to adapt and adjust to the challenges of MS over time. Clinicians should regularly screen for HRQOL in older patients with MS. PMID:24688350

  6. Health-related outcomes associated with patterns of risk factors in primary care patients.

    PubMed

    Funderburk, Jennifer S; Maisto, Stephen A; Labbe, Allison K

    2014-03-01

    It is important to find ways to identify prevalent co-occurring health risk factors to help facilitate treatment programming. One method is to use electronic medical record (EMR) data. Funderburk et al. (J Behav Med 31:525-535, 2008) used such data and latent class analysis to identify three classes of individuals based on standard health screens administered in Veterans Affairs primary care clinics. The present study extended these results by examining the health-related outcomes for each of these identified classes. Follow-up data were collected from a subgroup of the original sample (N = 4,132). Analyses showed that class assignment predicted number of diagnoses associated with the diseases that the health screens target and number of primary care behavioral health, and emergency room encounters. The findings illustrate one way an EMR can be used to identify clusters of individuals presenting with multiple health risk factors and where the healthcare system comes in contact with them. PMID:24158242

  7. Factors associated with job satisfaction among commune health workers: implications for human resource policies

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Bach Xuan; Minh, Hoang Van; Hinh, Nguyen Duc

    2013-01-01

    Background Job satisfaction among health workers is an important indicator in assessing the performance and efficiency of health services. Objective This study measured job satisfaction and determined associated factors among health workers in 38 commune health stations in an urban district and a rural district of Hanoi, Vietnam. A total of 252 health workers (36 medical doctors and 216 nurses and technicians; 74% female) were interviewed. A job satisfaction measure was developed using factor analysis, from which four dimensions emerged, namely ‘benefits and prospects,’ ‘facility and equipment,’ ‘performance,’ and ‘professionals.’ Results The results demonstrate that respondents were least satisfied with the following categories: salary and incentives (24.0%), benefit packages (25.1%), equipment (35.7%), and environment (41.8%). The average satisfaction score was moderate across four domains; it was the highest for ‘performance’ (66.6/100) and lowest for ‘facility and equipment’ (50.4/100). Tobit-censored regression models, constructed using stepwise selection, determined significant predictors of job satisfaction including age, areas of work and expertise, professional education, urban versus rural setting, and sufficient number of staff. Conclusion The findings highlight the need to implement health policies that focus on incentives, working conditions, workloads, and personnel management at grassroots level. PMID:23374700

  8. Evaluation of potential health effects associated with serum polychlorinated biphenyl levels

    SciTech Connect

    Stehr-Green, P.A.; Welty, E.; Steele, G.; Steinberg, K.

    1986-12-01

    In late 1983, we conducted a cross-sectional epidemiologic study to evaluate persons at risk of exposure to three chemical waste sites by comparing clinical disease end points and clinical chemistry parameters with serum polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) levels. A total of 106 individuals participated in the study. The only statistically significant finding in regard to self-reported, physician-diagnosed health problems was a dose-response relationship between serum PCB levels and the occurrence of high blood pressure; however, this association failed to achieve statistical significance when we controlled for possible confounding effects of both age and smoking. Serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels were also higher in the group with elevated serum PCBs; additionally, there were isolated statistically significant correlations of serum aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT) with serum lipid fraction-adjusted PCB level and serum albumin and total bilirubin with serum PCB level. Although the ranges of serum levels reported herein from exposures to PCBs in the general environment are lower than those that have been associated with acute symptoms or illness in other studies, whether these levels are associated with long-term health risks is not known. Associations of such chronic, low-dose exposures with observable health effects as suggested by this study must be evaluated further before any final conclusions can be drawn.

  9. Eating behaviors, mental health, and food intake are associated with obesity in older congregate meal participants.

    PubMed

    Porter Starr, Kathryn; Fischer, Joan G; Johnson, Mary Ann

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between eating behaviors, food intake, and mental health and the occurrence of obesity in older adults has rarely been investigated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to establish the associative links of these factors with two measures of obesity: class I obesity as indicated by body mass index (OB-BMI; BMI ? 30 kg/m˛) and class I obesity as indicated by waist circumference (OB-WC; WC ? 43 inches for men and ? 42 inches for women). Older adults participating in the Older American's Act congregate meal program (N = 113, mean age = 74 years, 74% female, 45% African American) were assessed. Eating behaviors (cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, and emotional eating), food group choices (sweets, salty snacks, and fruits), and mental health indices (depression, anxiety, and stress) were recorded by questionnaire and related to measured occurrence of OB-BMI and OB-WC. In a series of multivariate logistical regression models, we found cognitive restraint to be consistently and robustly associated with both measures of obesity. In the fully adjusted model, cognitive restraint, consumption of sweets, anxiety, and lack of depression were associated with OB-WC. In summary, we found an association of obesity with abnormal eating behaviors, certain food group intakes, and mental health symptoms in this population. These findings may guide the development of future weight management interventions in a congregate meal setting. PMID:25424510

  10. Disordered eating behaviors in young adult Mexican American women: prevalence and associations with health risks.

    PubMed

    Stein, Karen Farchaus; Chen, Ding-Geng Din; Corte, Colleen; Keller, Colleen; Trabold, Nicole

    2013-12-01

    Recent research has shown that disordered eating behaviors are as prevalent in heterogenous samples of Latinas living in the U.S. as in non-Hispanic white women, yet less is known about the prevalence in women of Mexican origin. The primary purpose of this study is to report the prevalence and associations among DE behaviors and health risk of alcohol, tobacco use and obesity in a sample of N = 472 young adult college enrolled Mexican American (MA) women living in the United States. This report focuses on baseline data from a 12-month repeated measures longitudinal study. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) was used to capture the prevalence of disordered eating and health risk behaviors in the context of everyday activities. Disordered eating behaviors including purging, binge eating, fasting and exercise were reported by approximately 15% of the sample. Food/calorie restricting, was the most prevalent behavior reported by 48% of the sample and along with binge eating was a positive predictor of BMI. Fasting was the only disordered eating behavior associated with tobacco use. These findings suggest that subclinical levels of DE behaviors are prevalent in a community sample of women of Mexican origin and are associated with health risks of tobacco use and higher BMI. Early identification of DE behaviors and community-based interventions targeting MA women may help reduce disparities associated with overweight and obesity in this population. PMID:24183140

  11. The Association of Health Literacy with Adherence and Outcomes in Moderate-Severe Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Apter, Andrea J.; Wan, Fei; Reisine, Susan; Bender, Bruce; Rand, Cynthia; Bogen, Daniel K.; Bennett, Ian M.; Bryant-Stephens, Tyra; Roy, Jason; Gonzalez, Rodalyn; Priolo, Chantel; Have, Thomas Ten; Morales, Knashawn H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Low health literacy is associated with poor outcomes in asthma and other diseases but the mechanisms governing this relationship are not well-defined. Objective To assess whether literacy is related to subsequent asthma self-management, measured as adherence to inhaled steroids, and asthma outcomes. Methods In a prospective longitudinal cohort study, numeric (Asthma Numeracy Questionnaire (ANQ)) and print literacy (Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA)) were assessed at baseline in adults with moderate or severe asthma for their impact on subsequent electronically monitored adherence and asthma outcomes (asthma control, asthma-related quality of life, and FEV1) over 26 weeks, using mixed-effects linear regression models. Results 284 adults participated: 48±14 years, 71% female, 70% African American, 6% Latino, mean FEV1 66% ± 19%, 86 (30%) with hospitalizations and 148 (52%) with ED visits for asthma in the prior year. Mean ANQ score (range 0–4) was 2.3 ± 1.2; mean S-TOFHLA score 31 ± 8 (range 0–36). In unadjusted analyses numeric and print literacy were associated with better adherence (p=0.01, p=0.08), asthma control (p=0.005, p <0.001), and quality of life (p<0.001, p<0.001). After controlling for age, sex, and race/ethnicity, the associations diminished and only quality of life (numeric: p=0.03, print p=0.006) and asthma control (print p=0.005) remained significantly associated with literacy. Race/ethnicity, income, and educational attainment were correlated (p<0.001). Conclusion While the relationship between literacy and health is complex, interventions which account for and address the literacy needs of patients may improve asthma outcomes. Clinical Implications/Key Summary In adults with moderate or severe asthma, higher health literacy scores were associated with better subsequent quality of life and asthma control. PMID:23591273

  12. Specific associations of insulin resistance with impaired health-related quality of life in the Hertfordshire Cohort Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolff Schlotz; Phil Ambery; Holly E. Syddall; Sarah R. Crozier; Avan Aihie Sayer; Cyrus Cooper; David I. W. Phillips

    2007-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a metabolic abnormality that underlies Type 2 diabetes, the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease,\\u000a but it may also be associated with more global health deficits. This study assessed associations of insulin resistance with\\u000a health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in different domains of physical and mental health in a large elderly population study.\\u000a Cross-sectional data of 1212 participants

  13. Aberdeen Area Indian Health Service Environmental Health Program Review Conducted by: Indian Health Committee of the National Environmental Health Association (Aberdeen, South Dakota, May 23-27, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Aberdeen, SD. Aberdeen Area Office.

    The Indian Health Committee met in Aberdeen, South Dakota, during the week of May 23, 1977 to (1) review the environmental health services provided to the tribal units on the 15 Indian reservations located in North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska and Iowa, and (2) make recommendations for improvement or expansion of current programs, if needed. The…

  14. Ventilator-associated pneumonia risk decreased by use of oral moisture gel in oral health care.

    PubMed

    Takeyasu, Yoshihiro; Yamane, Gen-Yuki; Tonogi, Morio; Watanabe, Yutaka; Nishikubo, Shuichi; Serita, Ryohei; Imura, Kumiko

    2014-01-01

    Although oral health care has a preventive effect against ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), the most effective method of oral health care in this respect remains to be established. The objective of this single-center, randomized, controlled trial was to investigate the relationship between VAP and various methods of oral health care. All patients included in the study (n=142) were on mechanical ventilation with oral intubation at the intensive care unit of the Tokyo Dental College Ichikawa General Hospital. They were divided into two groups, one receiving standard oral health care (Standard group), and the other receiving oral health care using an oral moisture gel instead of water (Gel group). After removal of the intubation tube, biofilm on cuff of the tube was stained with a disclosing agent to determine the contamination level. Factors investigated included sex, age, number of remaining teeth, intubation time, fever ?38.5°C, VAP, cuff contamination level, and time required for one oral health care session. No VAP occurred in either group during the study period. The level of cuff contamination was significantly lower in the Gel group than the Standard group, and the time required for one session of oral health care was shorter (p<0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed use of the oral moisture gel as a factor affecting cuff contamination level. Use of an oral moisture gel decreased invasion of the pharynx by bacteria and contaminants together with biofilm formation on the intubation tube cuff. These results suggest that oral health care using an oral moisture gel is effective in preventing cuff contamination. PMID:24965954

  15. Mortality in South Africa – socioeconomic profile and association with self-reported health

    PubMed Central

    Gasealahwe, Boingotlo

    2013-01-01

    This paper exploits the first two waves of NIDS to describe the socioeconomic profile of mortality and to assess whether self-rated health status is predictive of mortality between waves. Mortality rates in NIDS are in line with estimates from official death notification data and display the expected hump of excess mortality in early and middle adulthood due to AIDS, with the excess peaking earlier for women than for men. We find evidence of a socioeconomic gradient in mortality with higher rates of mortality for individuals from asset poor households and with lower levels of education. Consistent with evidence from many industrialized countries and a few developing countries, we find self-rated health to be a significant predictor of two year mortality, an association that remains after controlling for socioeconomic status and several other subjective and objective measures of health. PMID:24436509

  16. Associations between Health Effects and Particulate Matter and Black Carbon in Subjects with Respiratory Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Karen L.; Larson, Timothy V.; Koenig, Jane Q.; Mar, Therese F.; Fields, Carrie; Stewart, Jim; Lippmann, Morton

    2005-01-01

    We measured fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), spirometry, blood pressure, oxygen saturation of the blood (SaO2), and pulse rate in 16 older subjects with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Seattle, Washington. Data were collected daily for 12 days. We simultaneously collected PM10 and PM2.5 (particulate matter ?10 ?m or ?2.5 ?m, respectively) filter samples at a central outdoor site, as well as outside and inside the subjects’ homes. Personal PM10 filter samples were also collected. All filters were analyzed for mass and light absorbance. We analyzed within-subject associations between health outcomes and air pollution metrics using a linear mixed-effects model with random intercept, controlling for age, ambient relative humidity, and ambient temperature. For the 7 subjects with asthma, a 10 ?g/m3 increase in 24-hr average outdoor PM10 and PM2.5 was associated with a 5.9 [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.9–8.9] and 4.2 ppb (95% CI, 1.3–7.1) increase in FENO, respectively. A 1 ?g/m3 increase in outdoor, indoor, and personal black carbon (BC) was associated with increases in FENO of 2.3 ppb (95% CI, 1.1–3.6), 4.0 ppb (95% CI, 2.0–5.9), and 1.2 ppb (95% CI, 0.2–2.2), respectively. No significant association was found between PM or BC measures and changes in spirometry, blood pressure, pulse rate, or SaO2 in these subjects. Results from this study indicate that FENO may be a more sensitive marker of PM exposure than traditional health outcomes and that particle-associated BC is useful for examining associations between primary combustion constituents of PM and health outcomes. PMID:16330357

  17. Associations between scores of psychosomatic health symptoms and health-related quality of life in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aims of the present study are to investigate whether there are differences in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) between girls and boys in two different age groups, to study how much of children’s variance in HRQoL can be explained by common psychosomatic health symptoms, and to examine whether the same set of psychosomatic symptoms can explain differences in HRQoL, both between girls and boys and between older and younger school children. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted of 253 children, 99 of ages 11–12 years (n=51 girls, n=48 boys) and 154 of ages 15–16 years (n=82 girls, n=72 boys), in Swedish schools. The KIDSCREEN-52 instrument, which covers 10 dimensions of HRQoL and additional questions about psychosomatic health symptoms, were used. Analyses of variance were conducted to investigate differences between the genders and age groups, and in interaction effects on the KIDSCREEN-52 dimensions. Regression analyses were used to investigate the impacts of psychosomatic symptoms on gender and age group differences in HRQoL. Results Boys rated themselves higher than girls on the KIDSCREEN dimensions: physical and psychological well-being, moods and emotions, self-perception, and autonomy. Main effects of age group were found for physical well-being, psychological well-being, moods and emotions, self-perception, autonomy, and school environment, where younger children rated their HRQoL more highly than those aged 15–16 years. Girls rated their moods and emotions dramatically lower than boys in the older age group, but the ratings of emotional status were more similar between genders at younger ages. Psychosomatic symptoms explained between 27% and 50% of the variance in the children’s HRQoL. Sleeping difficulties were a common problem for both girls and boys. Depression and concentration difficulties were particularly associated with HRQoL among girls whereas stomach aches were associated with HRQoL among boys. Conclusions Girls and adolescents experience poorer HRQoL than boys and younger children, but having psychosomatic symptoms seem to explain a substantial part of the variation. Strategies to promote health among school children, in particular to alleviate sleep problems among all children, depression and concentration difficulties among girls, and stomach aches among boys, are of great importance. PMID:24148880

  18. MENTAL HEALTH, HEALTH, AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE SERVICE NEEDS FOR THE NATIVE AMERICAN REHABILITATION ASSOCIATION NORTHWEST (NARA NW) IN THE PORTLAND, OREGON METROPOLITAN AREA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas L. Crofoot; Naomi Harris; Mary Anne Plumb; Keri Slingerland Smith; Gloria Brooks; Lisa Hungry; Artice Geary; Irene Holland

    Consistent with results of previous needs assessments for urban American Indian and Alaska Native populations, a needs assessment in the Portland, Oregon metropolitan area for the Native American Rehabilitation Association Northwest revealed high levels of co-occurring conditions for American Indian and Alaska Native clients, often combining chronic health problems, substance abuse histories, and mental health diagnoses. Focus group results suggest

  19. Anxiety and depression in association with morbid obesity: changes with improved physical health after duodenal switch

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Patients with morbid obesity have an increased risk for anxiety and depression. The "duodenal switch" is perhaps the most effective obesity surgery procedure for inducing weight loss. However, to our knowledge, data on symptoms of anxiety and depression after the duodenal switch are lacking. Furthermore, it has been hypothesized that self-reported physical health is the major predictor of symptoms of depression in patients with morbid obesity. We therefore investigated the symptoms of anxiety and depression before and after the duodenal switch procedure and whether post-operative changes in self-reported physical health were predictive of changes in these symptoms. Methods Data were assessed before surgery (n = 50), and one (n = 47) and two (n = 44) years afterwards. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed by the "Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale", and self-reported physical health was assessed by the "Short-Form 36" questionnaire. Linear mixed effect models were used to investigate changes in the symptoms of anxiety and depression. Correlation and linear multiple regression analyses were used to study whether changes in self-reported physical health were predictive of post-operative changes in the symptoms of anxiety and depression. Results The symptom burden of anxiety and depression were high before surgery but were normalized one and two years afterwards (P < 0.001). The degree of improvement in self-reported physical health was associated with statistically significant reductions in the symptoms of anxiety (P = 0.003) and depression (P = 0.004). Conclusions The novelty of this study is the large and sustained reductions in the symptoms of anxiety and depression after the duodenal switch procedure, and that these changes were closely associated with improvements in self-reported physical health. PMID:20492663

  20. Health care-associated infection outbreaks in pediatric long-term care facilities.

    PubMed

    Murray, Meghan T; Pavia, Marianne; Jackson, Olivia; Keenan, Mary; Neu, Natalie M; Cohen, B; Saiman, Lisa; Larson, Elaine L

    2015-07-01

    Children in pediatric long-term care facilities (pLTCFs) have complex medical conditions and increased risk for health care-associated infections (HAIs). We performed a retrospective study from January 2010-December 2013 at 3 pLTCFs to describe HAI outbreaks and associated infection control interventions. There were 62 outbreaks involving 700 cases in residents and 250 cases in staff. The most common interventions were isolation precautions and education and in-services. Further research should examine interventions to limit transmission of infections in pLTCFs. PMID:25934066

  1. The Association between Proximity to Animal Feeding Operations and Community Health: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Annette M.; Auvermann, Brent; Bickett-Weddle, Danelle; Kirkhorn, Steve; Sargeant, Jan M.; Ramirez, Alejandro; Von Essen, Susanna G.

    2010-01-01

    Background A systematic review was conducted for the association between animal feeding operations (AFOs) and the health of individuals living near AFOs. Methodology/Principal Findings The review was restricted to studies reporting respiratory, gastrointestinal and mental health outcomes in individuals living near AFOs in North America, European Union, United Kingdom, and Scandinavia. From June to September 2008 searches were conducted in PUBMED, CAB, Web-of-Science, and Agricola with no restrictions. Hand searching of narrative reviews was also used. Two reviewers independently evaluated the role of chance, confounding, information, selection and analytic bias on the study outcome. Nine relevant studies were identified. The studies were heterogeneous with respect to outcomes and exposures assessed. Few studies reported an association between surrogate clinical outcomes and AFO proximity. A negative association was reported when odor was the measure of exposure to AFOs and self-reported disease, the measure of outcome. There was evidence of an association between self-reported disease and proximity to AFO in individuals annoyed by AFO odor. Conclusions/Significance There was inconsistent evidence of a weak association between self-reported disease in people with allergies or familial history of allergies. No consistent dose response relationship between exposure and disease was observable. PMID:20224825

  2. A conditional expectation approach for associating ambient air pollutant exposures with health outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Wannemuehler, Kathleen A.; Lyles, Robert H.; Waller, Lance A.; Hoekstra, Robert M.; Klein, Mitchel; Tolbert, Paige

    2009-01-01

    Our research focuses on the association between exposure to an airborne pollutant and counts of emergency department visits attributed to a specific chronic illness. The motivating example for this analysis of measurement error in time series studies of air pollution and acute health outcomes was a study of emergency department visits from a 20-county Atlanta metropolitan statistical area from 1993–1999. The research presented illustrates the impact of using various surrogates for unobserved measurements of ambient concentrations at the zip code level. Simulation results indicate that the impact of measurement error on the association between pollutant exposure and a health outcome can be substantial. The proposed conditional expectation approach provided reliable estimates of the association and exhibited good confidence interval coverage for a variety of magnitudes of association. Use of a single-centrally located monitor, the arithmetic average, the nearest-neighbor monitor, and the inverse-distance weighted average surrogates resulted in biased estimates and poor coverage rates, especially for larger magnitudes of the association. A focus on obtaining reasonable exposure measurements within clearly defined subregions is important when the pollutant exposure of interest exhibits strong spatial variability. PMID:20161413

  3. Infant face interest is associated with voice information and maternal psychological health.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Gemma; Slade, Pauline; Herbert, Jane S

    2014-11-01

    Early infant interest in their mother's face is driven by an experience based face processing system, and is associated with maternal psychological health, even within a non clinical community sample. The present study examined the role of the voice in eliciting infants' interest in mother and stranger faces and in the association between infant face interest and maternal psychological health. Infants aged 3.5-months were shown photographs of their mother's and a stranger's face paired with an audio recording of their mother's and a stranger's voice that was either matched (e.g., mother's face and voice) or mismatched (e.g., mother's face and stranger's voice). Infants spent more time attending to the stranger's matched face and voice than the mother's matched face and voice and the mismatched faces and voices. Thus, infants demonstrated an earlier preference for a stranger's face when given voice information than when the face is presented alone. In the present sample, maternal psychological health varied with 56.7% of mothers reporting mild mood symptoms (depression, anxiety or stress response to childbirth). Infants of mothers with significant mild maternal mood symptoms looked longer at the faces and voices compared to infants of mothers who did not report mild maternal mood symptoms. In sum, infants' experience based face processing system is sensitive to their mothers' maternal psychological health and the multimodal nature of faces. PMID:25195036

  4. Factors associated with the academic success of first year Health Science students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina Mills; Jane Heyworth; Lorna Rosenwax; Sandra Carr; Michael Rosenberg

    2009-01-01

    The academic success of students is a priority for all universities. This study identifies factors associated with first year\\u000a academic success (performance and retention) that can be used to improve the quality of the student learning experience. A\\u000a retrospective cohort study was conducted with a census of all 381 full time students enrolled in the Bachelor of Health Science\\u000a at

  5. Psychosocial, environmental and behavioral factors associated with bone health in middle-school girls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shreela V. Sharma; Deanna M. Hoelscher; Steven H. Kelder; R. Sue Day; Albert Hergenroeder

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the psychosocial, environmental and behavioral fac- tors associated with calcium intake, physical ac- tivity and bone health in a cohort of adolescent girls. Baseline data (N 5 718 girls, mean age: 11.6 60.4 years) from the Incorporating More Physical Activity and Calcium in Teens (IM- PACT) study conducted in Texas, 2001-03, were

  6. Variation in health care-associated infection surveillance practices in Australia.

    PubMed

    Russo, Philip L; Cheng, Allen C; Richards, Michael; Graves, Nicholas; Hall, Lisa

    2015-07-01

    In the absence of a national health care-associated infection surveillance program in Australia, differences between existing state-based programs were explored using an online survey. Only 51% of respondents who undertake surveillance have been trained, fewer than half perform surgical site infection surveillance prospectively, and only 41% indicated they risk adjust surgical site infection data. Widespread variation of surveillance methods highlights future challenges when considering the development and implementation of a national program in Australia. PMID:25858307

  7. Associations between Exercise and Health Behaviors in a Community Sample of Working Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kerri N. Boutelle; David M. Murray; Robert W. Jeffery; Deborah J. Hennrikus; Harry A. Lando

    2000-01-01

    Background. The present study examined the associations between leisure-time exercise and a range of health behaviors and reports of illness and injury in a sample of community working adults.Methods. The study population included 4907 women and 4136 men who completed surveys in 24 worksites in the Minneapolis–St. Paul metropolitan area.Results. Participants in the study were ranked by gender according to

  8. Antipsychotic treatment adherence and associated mental health care use among individuals with bipolar disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank D. Gianfrancesco; Martha Sajatovic; Krithika Rajagopalan; Ruey-Hua Wang

    2008-01-01

    Background: Up to 48% of patients with bipolar disorder are either nonadherent or partially adherent to antipsychotic drug treatment. Medication adherence may differ by bipolar disorder subtype.Objective: This study evaluated the association between antipsychotic treatment adherence and mental health care use among individuals with bipolar disorder with predominantly manic\\/mixed symptoms or predominantly depressive symptoms.Methods: Individuals with bipolar or manic disorder

  9. Health Impact Associated with Vertebral Deformities: Results from the European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study (EVOS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Matthis; U. Weber; T. W. O'Neill; H. Raspe

    1998-01-01

    :   To study the association between vertebral deformities and subjective health outcome indicators, including back pain and\\u000a disability, a cross-sectional survey with spinal radiographs and personal interviews was carried out in 36 study centres in\\u000a 19 European countries on a total of 15570 men and women aged 50–79 years (population-based stratified random samples). No\\u000a interventions were done. The main outcome

  10. Adherence to the 2006 American Heart Association Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations for cardiovascular disease risk reduction is associated with bone health in older Puerto Ricans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and osteoporosis are 2 major public health problems that share common pathophysiological mechanisms. It is possible that strategies to reduce CVD risk may also benefit bone health. We tested the hypothesis that adherence to the 2006 American Heart Association Diet and Li...

  11. Associations between green space and health in english cities: an ecological, cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Bixby, Honor; Hodgson, Susan; Fortunato, Léa; Hansell, Anna; Fecht, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Green space has been identified as a modifiable feature of the urban environment and associations with physiological and psychological health have been reported at the local level. This study aims to assess whether these associations between health and green space are transferable to a larger scale, with English cities as the unit of analysis. We used an ecological, cross-sectional study design. We classified satellite-based land cover data to quantify green space coverage for the 50 largest cities in England. We assessed associations between city green space coverage with risk of death from all causes, cardiovascular disease, lung cancer and suicide between 2002 and 2009 using Poisson regression with random effect. After adjustment for age, income deprivation and air pollution, we found that at the city level the risk of death from all causes and a priori selected causes, for men and women, did not significantly differ between the greenest and least green cities. These findings suggest that the local health effects of urban green space observed at the neighbourhood level in some studies do not transfer to the city level. Further work is needed to establish how urban residents interact with local green space, in order to ascertain the most relevant measures of green space. PMID:25775020

  12. Induced abortion and associated factors in health facilities of Guraghe zone, southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tesfaye, Gezahegn; Hambisa, Mitiku Teshome; Semahegn, Agumasie

    2014-01-01

    Unsafe abortion is one of the major medical and public health problems in developing countries including Ethiopia. However, there is a lack of up-to-date and reliable information on induced abortion distribution and its determinant factors in the country. This study was intended to assess induced abortion and associated factors in health facilities of Guraghe zone, Southern Ethiopia. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted in eight health facilities in Guraghe zone. Client exit interview was conducted on 400 patients using a structured questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with induced abortion. Out of 400 women, 75.5% responded that the current pregnancy that ended in abortion is unwanted. However, only 12.3% of the respondents have admitted interference to the current pregnancy. Having more than four pregnancies (AOR = 4.28, CI: (1.24-14.71)), age of 30-34 years (AOR = 0.15, CI: (0.04-0.55)), primary education (AOR = 0.26, CI: (0.13-0.88)), and wanted pregnancy (AOR = 0.44, CI: (0.14-0.65)) were found to have association with induced abortion. The study revealed high level of induced abortion which is underpinned by high magnitude of unwanted pregnancy. There is requirement for widespread expansion of increased access to high quality family planning service and post-abortion care. PMID:24800079

  13. Induced Abortion and Associated Factors in Health Facilities of Guraghe Zone, Southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Hambisa, Mitiku Teshome; Semahegn, Agumasie

    2014-01-01

    Unsafe abortion is one of the major medical and public health problems in developing countries including Ethiopia. However, there is a lack of up-to-date and reliable information on induced abortion distribution and its determinant factors in the country. This study was intended to assess induced abortion and associated factors in health facilities of Guraghe zone, Southern Ethiopia. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted in eight health facilities in Guraghe zone. Client exit interview was conducted on 400 patients using a structured questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with induced abortion. Out of 400 women, 75.5% responded that the current pregnancy that ended in abortion is unwanted. However, only 12.3% of the respondents have admitted interference to the current pregnancy. Having more than four pregnancies (AOR?=?4.28, CI: (1.24–14.71)), age of 30–34 years (AOR?=?0.15, CI: (0.04–0.55)), primary education (AOR?=?0.26, CI: (0.13–0.88)), and wanted pregnancy (AOR?=?0.44, CI: (0.14–0.65)) were found to have association with induced abortion. The study revealed high level of induced abortion which is underpinned by high magnitude of unwanted pregnancy. There is requirement for widespread expansion of increased access to high quality family planning service and post-abortion care. PMID:24800079

  14. Synergism between obesity and poor oral health associated with diabetes in an elderly human population.

    PubMed

    Albright, Julia W; Woo, Perry H; Ji, Shaoquan; Sun, Binggang; Lang, Kathleen; Albright, Joseph F

    2013-03-01

    We investigated associations between type 2 diabetes (DM) and several variables, including poor oral health and overweight/obesity, among a group of elderly Hmong subjects (60 years and older) who emigrated to the United States following the Vietnam conflict. Each subject was interviewed and their weight, height and waist circumference were measured. Each subject had an oral health examination. Each subject's saliva was analyzed for seven components related to inflammation. The presence of DM was correlated with poor oral health (POH) and overweight/obesity (OW) separately. There was a strong correlation between concurrent POH and OW and the presence of DM: all subjects with both POH and OW had DM. Logistic multivariate analysis of OW, POH, age, years of residence in California, and stress level revealed a significant association between the presence of DM and concurrent OW and POH. A change in diet after immigration was excluded as an explanatory variable. Subjects with DM and concurrent OW and POH had significantly elevated salivary levels of five analyses related to chronic inflammation. The association between POH and OW and the presence of DM needs further study. PMID:23691642

  15. [How does the German Association against Rheumatism and Arthritis convey health literacy?].

    PubMed

    Gromnica-Ihle, E; Faubel, U; Cattelaens, K

    2014-10-01

    The German Association against Rheumatism and Arthritis considers the improvement of health literacy as one of their most important tasks. In local groups people with arthritis have the chance to exchange experiences and to benefit from consultation. Individual experiences are merged into a collective knowledge. Numerous printed media as well as information and exchange via the internet help to improve health literacy. Self-management courses and patient education courses are specific instruments to improve the competences of people with arthritis to manage their own condition. Through exercise programs, which are offered locally, the Association strives to improve self-efficacy regarding exercise. A survey of the members showed that the activities of the patient association are well accepted and valued. The empowered patient has more and more become a partner in the micro-level communication with their doctor. On the macro-level, patient representatives play an important role in the committees of the German self-administration of health insurance and physician organizations. PMID:25260819

  16. Perceptions of Stressful Life Events as Turning Points Are Associated with Self-rated Health and Psychological Distress

    PubMed Central

    Sutin, Angelina R.; Costa, Paul T.; Wethington, Elaine; Eaton, William

    2010-01-01

    We test the hypothesis that changes in physical and psychological health are associated with construals of stressful life events. At two points in time, approximately 10 years apart, participants (N=1,038) rated their physical health and psychological distress. At the second assessment, participants also reported their most stressful life event since the first assessment and indicated whether they considered the event a turning point and/or lesson learned. Lower self-ratings of health and higher ratings of psychological distress, controlling for baseline health and distress and relevant demographic factors, were associated with perceiving the stressful life event as a turning point, particularly a negative turning point. The two health measures were primarily unrelated to lessons learned. How individuals construe the most stressful events in their lives is associated with changes in self-rated health and distress. PMID:20099168

  17. Methods of estimating or accounting for neighborhood associations with health using complex survey data.

    PubMed

    Brumback, Babette A; Cai, Zhuangyu; Dailey, Amy B

    2014-05-15

    Reasons for health disparities may include neighborhood-level factors, such as availability of health services, social norms, and environmental determinants, as well as individual-level factors. Investigating health inequalities using nationally or locally representative data often requires an approach that can accommodate a complex sampling design, in which individuals have unequal probabilities of selection into the study. The goal of the present article is to review and compare methods of estimating or accounting for neighborhood influences with complex survey data. We considered 3 types of methods, each generalized for use with complex survey data: ordinary regression, conditional likelihood regression, and generalized linear mixed-model regression. The relative strengths and weaknesses of each method differ from one study to another; we provide an overview of the advantages and disadvantages of each method theoretically, in terms of the nature of the estimable associations and the plausibility of the assumptions required for validity, and also practically, via a simulation study and 2 epidemiologic data analyses. The first analysis addresses determinants of repeat mammography screening use using data from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey. The second analysis addresses disparities in preventive oral health care using data from the 2008 Florida Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey. PMID:24723000

  18. Health Care Utilization and Costs Associated with Physical and Nonphysical-Only Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Bonomi, Amy E; Anderson, Melissa L; Rivara, Frederick P; Thompson, Robert S

    2009-01-01

    Objective To estimate health care utilization and costs associated with the type of intimate partner violence (IPV) women experience by the timing of their abuse. Methods A total of 3,333 women (ages 18–64) were randomly sampled from the membership files of a large health plan located in a metropolitan area and participated in a telephone survey to assess IPV history, including the type of IPV (physical IPV or nonphysical abuse only) and the timing of the abuse (ongoing; recent, not ongoing but occurring in the past 5 years; remote, ending at least 5 years prior). Automated annual health care utilization and costs were assembled over 7.4 years for women with physical IPV and nonphysical abuse only by the time period during which their abuse occurred (ongoing, recent, remote), and compared with those of never-abused women (reference group). Results Mental health utilization was significantly higher for women with physical or nonphysical abuse only compared with never-abused women—with the highest use among women with ongoing abuse (relative risk for those with ongoing abuse: physical, 2.61; nonphysical, 2.18). Physically abused women also used more emergency department, hospital outpatient, primary care, pharmacy, and specialty services; for emergency department, pharmacy, and specialty care, utilization was the highest for women with ongoing abuse. Total annual health care costs were higher for physically abused women, with the highest costs for ongoing abuse (42 percent higher compared with nonabused women), followed by recent (24 percent higher) and remote abuse (19 percent higher). Women with recent nonphysical abuse only had annual costs that were 33 percent higher than nonabused women. Conclusion Physical and nonphysical abuse contributed to higher health care utilization, particularly mental health services utilization. PMID:19674432

  19. Health status and quality of life in postpartum women: a systematic review of associated factors.

    PubMed

    Van der Woude, Daisy A A; Pijnenborg, Johanna M A; de Vries, Jolanda

    2015-02-01

    Since health care is becoming more and more patient centered, patient-reported outcomes such as quality of life (QOL) and health status (HS) are becoming increasingly important. The aim of this systematic review was to provide an overview of physical, psychological, and social domains of QOL and HS in postpartum women, and to assess which factors are associated with QOL and HS domains postpartum. A computerized literature search was performed using the PubMed, PsycINFO, and Cochrane databases. Studies were selected if the three domains of QOL or HS were measured in a (sub)group of postpartum women, by using validated standardized questionnaires. The methodological quality of the 66 included studies was examined by two independent reviewers. All three domains of QOL were impaired in postpartum women with urinary incontinence, with even worse QOL in women with mixed urinary incontinence. Mental QOL was impaired in women with urge urinary incontinence after cesarean section. Social QOL was decreased in HIV-positive women. HS was impaired in all three domains in postpartum depressed women. Physical HS was impaired after cesarean section for at least two months postpartum. Additional supportive interventions from health care social support were not associated with improved HS. Urinary incontinence and being HIV-positive seemed to be associated with impaired QOL. Postpartum depression and a cesarean section seemed to be associated with impaired HS. Prospective longitudinal research is needed in order to draw valid conclusions regarding postpartum HS and QOL, and the predictive value of the associated factors. PMID:25522118

  20. Self-Rated Health among Urban Adolescents: The Roles of Age, Gender, and Their Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    Meireles, Adriana Lúcia; Xavier, César Coelho; de Souza Andrade, Amanda Cristina; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    Health status is often analyzed in population surveys. Self-rated health (SRH) is a single-item summary measure of the perception of one’s health. In Brazil, studies on the SRH of adolescents remain scarce, especially those aiming to understand the domains that compose this construct. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of poor SRH and its associated factors among 11- to 13-year-olds and 14- to 17-year-olds living in a large urban center in Brazil. This cross-sectional study was conducted using a household survey across Belo Horizonte that included 1,042 adolescents. Stratified logistic regression models were used for each age group to assess the associations between worse SRH and the following variables: socio-demographic, social and family support, lifestyles, psychological health, and anthropometry. Approximately 11% (95% CIs = 8.7–13.6) of the studied adolescents rated their health as poor, and SHR decreased with age among males and females. This trend was more pronounced among girls (from 6.9% among 11- to 13-year-old girls to 16.9% among 14- to 17-year-old girls) than boys (from 8.3% among 11- to 13-year-old boys to 11% among 14- to 17-year-old boys). Worse SRH was associated with family support (as assessed by the absence of parent-adolescent conversations; odds ratio [OR] = 3.5 among 11- to 13-year-olds), family structure (OR = 2.8 among 14- to 17-year-olds), and argument reporting (OR = 8.2 among 14- to 17-year-olds). Among older adolescents, the consumption of fruit fewer than five times per week (OR = 2.4), life dissatisfaction (OR = 2.8), underweight status (OR = 6.7), and overweight status (OR = 2.7) were associated with poor SRH. As adolescents age, their universe expands from their relationship with their parents to include more complex issues, such as their lifestyles and life satisfaction. Therefore, these results suggest the importance of evaluating SRH across adolescent age groups and demonstrate the influence of the family environment (in addition to other factors) on negative health assessments, particularly among 14- to 17-year-olds. PMID:26177464

  1. Evaluation of sex differences in health-related quality of life outcomes associated with child abuse: Results from the Ontario Child Health Study.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, M; Afifi, T O; Wathen, C N; Boyle, M H; Macmillan, H L

    2014-05-01

    Aims. Despite the advances in child maltreatment research, there is still the need for comprehensive information about how abuse affects a broad range of categories of young adult functioning, and the extent to which these vary by sex. We examined the associations between child physical abuse (PA) and sexual abuse (SA) and six areas of functioning (mental health, physical health, life satisfaction, illegal substance use, alcohol problems and daily smoking). Methods. Data were obtained from the 1983 Ontario Child Health Study and follow-up in 2000/2001 (n = 1893). Multilevel regression estimated the adjusted associations for PA (with severity) and SA with each of the outcomes. Estimates with an entire sample were presented with sex-by-abuse interactions to examine sex differences and then presented separately by sex. Results. In the adjusted model, severe PA and SA were associated with impairment in mental health, and both forms of PA (severe and non-severe) and SA were associated with low life satisfaction. In addition, severe PA was associated with illegal substance use. Child abuse variables were not associated with poor physical health, alcohol problems or smoking. Although sex-stratified analyses revealed different patterns, there was no significant sex difference in the integrated sample. Conclusions. This is among the first community-based studies to show a strong association between child PA and SA and low life satisfaction in young adults. The abuse effects were similar for both sexes. PMID:24786388

  2. Is there an association between disease ignorance and self-rated health? The HUNT Study, a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Jřrgensen, Pĺl; Langhammer, Arnulf; Krokstad, Steinar; Forsmo, Siri

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore whether awareness versus unawareness of thyroid dysfunction, diabetes mellitus or hypertension is associated with self-rated health. Design Large-scale, cross-sectional population-based study. The association between thyroid function, diabetes mellitus and blood pressure and self-rated health was explored by multiple logistic regression analysis. Setting The second survey of the Nord-Trřndelag Health Study, HUNT2, 1995–1997. Participants 33?734 persons aged 40–70?years. Primary outcome measures Logistic regression was used to estimate ORs for good self-rated health as a function of thyroid status, diabetes mellitus status and blood pressure status. Results Persons aware of their hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus or hypertension reported poorer self-rated health than individuals without such conditions. Women with unknown and subclinical hypothyroidism reported better self-rated health than women with normal thyroid status. In women and men, unknown and probable diabetes as well as unknown mild/moderate hypertension was not associated with poorer health. Furthermore, persons with unknown severe hypertension reported better health than normotensive persons. Conclusions People with undiagnosed but prevalent hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus and hypertension often have good self-rated health, while when aware of their diagnoses, they report reduced self-rated health. Use of screening, more sensitive tests and widened diagnostic criteria might have a negative effect on perceived health in the population. PMID:24871539

  3. Associations between Vascular Health Indices and Serum Total, Free and Bioavailable 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Ambika P.; Alvarez, Jessica A.; Dudenbostel, Tanja; Calhoun, David; Griffin, Russell; Wang, Xudong; Hanks, Lynae J.; Gower, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The role of vitamin D in cardiovascular health remains debated as results have been inconsistent. Previous studies have not considered the bioavailability of 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D]. Objectives of our study were to investigate the association between serum concentrations of total, free and bioavailable 25(OH)D and independent predictors of cardiovascular risk such as flow mediated dilatation (FMD) and augmentation index (AIx). Design This cross-sectional study included 47 post-menarchal, adolescent females [31 African American (AA) and 16 European American (EA)]. Methods AIx was standardized to a heart rate of 75 beats/min (AIx75). Free and bioavailable 25(OH)D concentrations were calculated from standard formulas. Results and Conclusions Mean age of the participants was 15.8±1.4 years and mean body mass index was 23.1±4.0 kg/m2. Serum total 25(OH)D was not associated with FMD, but was positively associated with AIx75 in the adjusted model (rho?=?0.4, P?=?0.03). AIx75 was positively associated with bioavailable 25(OH)D (rho?=?0.4, P?=?0.004) and free 25(OH)D (rho?=?0.4, P?=?0.009) and the associations persisted after adjusting for covariates. In race-specific analyses, total, free and bioavailable 25(OH)D were strongly positively associated with AIx75 in AA (rho?=?0.5, 0.4, 0.4, respectively), which persisted even after adjusting for covariates. Whereas in EA there was an inverse association between total 25(OH)D and AIx75 in EA (rho?=??0.6), which attenuated after adjusting for covariates. Conclusion Circulating total, free and bioavailable 25(OH)D were associated with arterial stiffness in adolescent girls, and these associations were race dependent. Notwithstanding, the implications of associations between vascular function indices and 25(OH)D remains unclear. PMID:25479358

  4. The Association of Health-Promoting Lifestyle With Quality of Life Among the Iranian Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Rakhshani, Tayebeh; Shojaiezadeh, Davood; Lankarani, Kamran Bagheri; Rakhshani, Fatemeh; Kaveh, Mohammad Hossain; Zare, Najaf

    2014-01-01

    Background: As individuals live a longer life, health-promoting lifestyle (HPL) becomes even more essential, particularly with regard to maintaining functional independence and improving quality of life (QoL). Objectives: This study aimed to determine the association between QoL and HPL in the Iranian elderly living in Shiraz. Materials and Methods: This analytical cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 at retirement centers of Shiraz City, Iran. The sample included 500 elderly who aged > 60 years. Proportional stratified random sampling was used to select the elderly from retirement centers. QoL was assessed by the Farsi version of Short Form Health Survey questionnaire (SF-36) and HPL was measured by health-promoting lifestyle profile (HPLP II). Data were analyzed using independent-samples t test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson’s correlation, and stepwise multiple regression using SPSS 21. Results: There were significant differences in QoL in terms of sex, age, education, and marital status. There were significant differences in HPL in terms of gender, age and education (P < 0.05) There was a statistically significant association between QoL and HPL in the elderly (r = 0.42, P < 0.05). Based on HPLP II constructs, the significant predicting factors of QoL in the elderly consisted of spiritual growth, stress management, and physical activity (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Health providers should improve the QoL in the elderly by facilitating HPL through health-promoting interventions, which will maintain and increase physical activity, stress management, and spiritual growth. PMID:25593729

  5. More missing teeth are associated with poorer general health in the rural Korean elderly.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee-Kyung; Lee, Kyung-Dong; Merchant, Anwar T; Lee, Sung-Kook; Song, Keun-Bae; Lee, Sang Gyu; Choi, Youn-Hee

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the association between missing teeth and general health conditions in elderly Korean people. This cross-sectional study was conducted as a part of a health-screening program supported by the National Health Insurance Corporation of Korea in a local region of Sungju-gun, Gyeongsangbuk-do from 2000 to 2006. The participants were 3611 in number (1494 males and 2117 females) aged 60 years and over. The outcome variable was the number of missing teeth in the mouth determined by dental examination; general medical examination included blood pressure, body height and weight to compute body mass index (BMI). Laboratory investigations included aspartate transaminase (AST), hemoglobin (HB), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and total cholesterol (CHOL). Demographic factors and smoking status were obtained from questionnaires by an interviewer. Multiple regression models were used as a statistical analysis. The subjects were classified into three groups according to the number of missing teeth (<8, 8-18, and >18). In unadjusted analyses individuals with more missing teeth, had poorer general health status (higher blood pressure, higher levels of AST, FPG, and CHOL, and higher BMI in females). In multiple regression models with the number of missing teeth as an outcome, systolic blood pressure, CHOL, FPG, and HB in males were statistically significant after adjusting for age and smoking. In females, systolic blood pressure, CHOL, FPG, and BMI were positively associated with the number of missing teeth. The number of missing teeth was positively related to poorer general health status such as blood pressure, FPG, CHOL, after adjusting for age and smoking in the rural elderly in Korea. PMID:19230988

  6. Alcohol, Binge Drinking and Associated Mental Health Problems in Young Urban Chileans

    PubMed Central

    Mason-Jones, Amanda J.; Cabieses, Báltica

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the link between alcohol use, binge drinking and mental health problems in a representative sample of adolescent and young adult Chileans. Methods Age and sex-adjusted Odds Ratios (OR) for four mental wellbeing measures were estimated with separate conditional logistic regression models for adolescents aged 15-20 years, and young adults aged 21-25 years, using population-based estimates of alcohol use prevalence rates from the Chilean National Health Survey 2010. Results Sixty five per cent of adolescents and 85% of young adults reported drinking alcohol in the last year and of those 83% per cent of adolescents and 86% of young adults reported binge drinking in the previous month. Adolescents who reported binging alcohol were also more likely, compared to young adults, to report being always or almost always depressed (OR 12.97 [95% CI, 1.86-19.54]) or to feel very anxious in the last month (OR 9.37 [1.77-19.54]). Adolescent females were more likely to report poor life satisfaction in the previous year than adolescent males (OR 8.50 [1.61-15.78]), feel always or almost always depressed (OR 3.41 [1.25-9.58]). Being female was also associated with a self-reported diagnosis of depression for both age groups (adolescents, OR 4.74 [1.49-15.08] and young adults, OR 4.08 [1.65-10.05]). Conclusion Young people in Chile self-report a high prevalence of alcohol use, binge drinking and associated mental health problems. The harms associated with alcohol consumption need to be highlighted through evidence-based prevention programs. Health and education systems need to be strengthened to screen and support young people. Focussing on policy initiatives to limit beverage companies targeting alcohol to young people will also be needed. PMID:25830508

  7. Associations of Health Risk Behaviors with School Absenteeism. Does Having Permission for the Absence Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Danice K.; Brener, Nancy; Kann, Laura K.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Nearly 10% of students enrolled in US public schools are absent daily. Although previous research has shown associations of school absenteeism with participation in risk behaviors, it is unclear if these associations vary by whether the absence was excused. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of health risk…

  8. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: association with personal characteristics and self reported health conditions

    PubMed Central

    Iribarren, C; Friedman, G; Klatsky, A; Eisner, M

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To examine the association between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and demographic, lifestyle, occupational characteristics and self reported health conditions.?DESIGN—Cross sectional study, using data from multiphasic health checkups between 1979 and 1985.?SETTING—Large health plan in Northern California, USA.?PARTICIPANTS—16 524 men aged 15-89 years and 26 197 women aged 15-105 years who never smoked.?RESULTS—Sixty eight per cent of men and 64 per cent of women reported any current ETS exposure (at home, in small spaces other than home or in large indoor areas). The exposure time from all three sources of ETS exposure correlated negatively with age. Men and women reporting high level ETS exposure were more likely to be black and never married or separated/divorced, to have no college or partial college education, to consume three alcoholic drink/day or more and to report exposure to several occupational hazards. Consistent independent relations across sexes were found between any current exposure to ETS and a positive history of hay fever/asthma (odds ratio (OR)=1.22 in men, 1.14 in women), hearing loss (OR=1.30 in men, 1.27 in women), severe headache (OR=1.22 in men, 1.17 in women), and cold/flu symptoms (OR=1.52 in men, 1.57 in women). Any current ETS exposure was also associated with chronic cough (OR=1.22) in men and with heart disease (OR=1.10) in women. Self reported stroke was inversely associated with any current ETS exposure in men (OR=0.27). No associations were noted for cancer or tumour and for migraine.?CONCLUSION—ETS exposure correlated with several personal characteristics potentially associated with adverse health outcomes. Although the study design precluded causal inference, ETS exposure was associated with several self reported acute and chronic medical conditions.???Keywords: environmental tobacco smoke; smoking PMID:11553655

  9. Longitudinal associations between oral health impacts and quality of life among a national cohort of Thai adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is limited evidence on the association between oral health and general health in middle-income countries. This study analysed data from 60,569 adult students enrolled at Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University and residing throughout Thailand who reported oral health impacts at the 2005 baseline and 2009 health status based on Short Form (SF-8) survey. Findings In 2005, 16.4% had difficulty chewing and/or swallowing, 13.4% reported difficulty speaking and/or discomfort with social interaction, and 10.8% of the cohort reported having pain associated with teeth or dentures. Cohort members reporting one or more oral health impacts in 2005 had lower SF-8 mean scores in 2009. In particular, monotonic dose–response gradients in 2005–2009 associations based on multivariate linear regression were found between an increase in number of oral impacts (0, 1, 2, 3) and a decline in SF-8 Physical Component Summary scores (adjusted means of 50.5, 49.2, 48.6, 47.9) as well as SF-8 Mental Component Summary scores (adjusted means of 43.2, 40.9, 40.3, 38.6) in younger cohort members. Similar dose response gradients were found in older cohort members. Conclusions We found strong association between oral health impacts and adverse health and quality of life among Thai adults. This finding confirms that oral health is one of the key determinants of population health. PMID:24139328

  10. Navajo Environmental Health Review by the National Environmental Health Association (Window Rock, Arizona, May 24-27, 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navajo Health Authority, Window Rock, AZ.

    The Indian Health Committee met with key staff of the Indian Health Service (IHS) Area Office to review the environmental health services provided on the Navajo Reservation and make recommendations for improvement or expansion of current programs, if needed. Recommendations were made regarding environmental health and institutional personnel,…

  11. Associate Editor of the ASME Journal of Pressure Vessels Technology, since Jan 2006 Associate Editor of the Structural Health Monitoring: An International Journal , since May

    E-print Network

    Wong, Pak Kin

    Associate Editor of the ASME Journal of Pressure Vessels Technology, since Jan 2006 Associate Editor of the Structural Health Monitoring: An International Journal , since May 2008 Advisory Editor of Structural Longevity Journal, since 2009 Advisory Board Member of the International Journal of Geomechanics

  12. The association between occupational factors and adverse health outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Blanc, P; Eisner, M; Trupin, L; Yelin, E; Katz, P; Balmes, J

    2004-01-01

    Background and Aims: Despite recognition that occupational exposures may make a substantive contribution to the aetiology of COPD, little is known about the potential role of work related factors in COPD related health outcomes. Methods: Prospective cohort study using structured telephone interviews among a random sample of adults aged 55–75 reporting a COPD condition (emphysema, chronic bronchitis, or COPD). Using multivariate models adjusting for smoking and demographic factors, the separate and combined associations were estimated between occupational exposure to vapours, gas, dust, or fumes (VGDF) and leaving work due to lung disease (respiratory related work disability) with health outcomes and utilisation ascertained at one year follow up. Results: Of 234 subjects, 128 (55%) reported exposure to VGDF on their longest held jobs, 58 (25%) reported respiratory related work disability, and 38 (16%) subjects reported both. Combined exposure to VGDF and respiratory related work disability (rather than either factor alone) was associated with the greatest risk at follow up of frequent (everyday) restricted activity days attributed to a breathing or lung condition (OR 3.8; 95% CI 1.4 to 10.1), emergency department (ED) visit (OR 3.9; 95% CI 1.4 to 10.5), and hospitalisation (OR 7.6; 95% CI 1.8 to 32). Conclusions: Among persons with COPD, past occupational exposures and work disability attributed to lung disease, particularly in combination, appear to be risk factors for adverse health related outcomes. PMID:15258271

  13. Latent Tuberculosis Infection and Associated Factors among Health Care Workers in Kigali, Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Rutanga, Claude; Lowrance, David W.; Oeltmann, John E.; Mutembayire, Grace; Willis, Matt; Uwizeye, Claude Bernard; Hinda, Ruton; Bassirou, Chitou; Gutreuter, Steve; Gasana, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Data are limited regarding tuberculosis (TB) and latent TB infection prevalence in Rwandan health facilities. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey among healthcare workers (HCWs) in Kigali during 2010. We purposively selected the public referral hospital, both district hospitals, and randomly selected 7 of 17 health centers. School workers (SWs) from the nearest willing public schools served as a local reference group. We tested for latent TB infection (LTBI) using tuberculin skin testing (TST) and asked about past TB disease. We assessed risk of LTBI and past history of TB disease associated with hospital employment. Among HCWs, we assessed risk associated with facility type (district hospital, referral hospital, health center), work setting (inpatient, outpatient), and occupation. Results Age, gender, and HIV status was similar between the enrolled 1,131 HCWs and 381 SWs. LTBI was more prevalent among HCWs (62%) than SWs (39%). Adjusted odds of a positive TST result were 2.71 (95% CI 2.01–3.67) times greater among HCWs than SWs. Among HCWs, there was no detectable difference between prevalence of LTBI according to facility type, work setting, or occupation. Conclusion HCWs are at greater risk of LTBI, regardless of facility type, work setting, or occupation. The current status of TB infection control practices should be evaluated in the entire workforce in all Rwandan healthcare facilities. PMID:25919759

  14. An empirical typology of lifetime and current gambling behaviors: Association with health status of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Song-Iee; Sacco, Paul; Cunningham-Williams, Renee M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Despite the low prevalence of gambling problems, older adults experience poorer health status given certain vulnerabilities associated with aging. Thus, we aimed to classify lifetime (LPG) and current (CPG) problem gambling patterns, identify determinants of gambling patterns, and examine their association with current health status Methods Using older adult gamblers (n = 489) in the Gambling Impact and Behavior Study, Latent Class Analysis classified LPG and CPG subgroups based on 10 DSM-IV criteria: preoccupation, tolerance, withdrawal, loss of control, escape, chasing losses, lying, illegal acts, relationship impairment and financial bailout. Results A two-class solution was the best fitting for LPG and CPG groups. Except for illegal acts, the remaining criteria endorsed the distinguishing patterns. We observed 10.8% LPGs, 8.4% CPGs and 2.2% with both. Participation in religious services was protective of both groups. Gambling for excitement and to win money were related to CPG. Further, CPG was significantly related to worse self-rated health. Implications Although problem gambling is strongly characterized by number and type of diagnostic criteria, findings support a focus to include targeted assessment of additional clinically meaningful gambling correlates. Research on the moderator of participation in faith-based communities on problem gambling is also warranted. PMID:19347693

  15. The estimation of consumer health risk associated with organochlorine xenobiotics in hard smoked cheese in Poland.

    PubMed

    Witczak, Agata; Pohory?o, Anna

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the health risks associated with consumption of smoked cheeses, which are popular in Poland. The analysis covered polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) indicator congeners (ndl-PCBs: PCB 28, PCB 52, PCB 101, PCB 138, PCB 153, PCB 180), dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs): non-ortho (PCB 77, PCB 81, PCB 126, PCB 169) and mono-ortho (PCB 105, PCB 114, PCB 118, PCB 156, PCB 157), as well as organochlorine pesticides (OCPs: ?HCH, ?HCH, ?HCH, heptachlor, aldrin, heptachlor epoxid isomer B, dieldrin, pp'DDE op'DDD, pp'DDT, pp'DDD, op'DDT, endrin). The pesticide residues detected in the examined cheese were below the maximum residues levels. The estimated daily intake [lifetime average daily dose (LADD)] referring to the sum of the compounds varied within 4.21·10(-7)-3.92·10(-6) mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) and was significantly lower than the tolerable daily intake/acceptable daily intake (TDI/ADI) for individual compounds. The health hazard quotient, being the exact measure of the magnitude of exposure potential or a quantifiable potential for developing non-carcinogenic health effects after an averaged exposure period, was also very low, ranging from 2.87·10(-6) to 5.32·10(-5). The obtained results confirmed that the intake of rennet cheese does not pose any consumer health risk in Poland. PMID:26065520

  16. [Factors associated with difficulty of access of the elderly with disabilities to the health services].

    PubMed

    Amaral, Fabienne Louise Juvęncio dos Santos; Motta, Márcia Heloyse Alves; da Silva, Laíla Pereira Gomes; Alves, Simone Bezerra

    2012-11-01

    This study seeks to analyze which are the variables associated with the difficulty of elderly people with disabilities gaining access to the health services. This is an observational study of an analytical cross-sectional nature, with a sample of 244 elderly people with disabilities. Data relating to socio-economic profile, the nature of the disability, and the conditions of access to health services were gathered. Version 11.0 of the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software was used for descriptive, statistical and analytical assessment of the data. The protection variables for difficulties in being treated in the health services were: the lack of drains, culverts, trash, bags of refuse, or irregular floor surfaces; the absence of ramps on sidewalks and pavements; the availability of transport; ease in scheduling appointments; and the length of the waiting period to be attended. The number of factors listed shows that the architectonic barriers and the current situation of healthcare need to be adequate in order to ensure full access and use by the elderly with disabilities to the health services. PMID:23175306

  17. Diabetes, HIV and other health determinants associated with absenteeism among formal sector workers in Namibia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background As countries in sub-Saharan Africa develop their economies, it is important to understand the health of employees and its impact on productivity and absenteeism. While previous studies have assessed the impact of single conditions on absenteeism, the current study evaluates multiple health factors associated with absenteeism in a large worker population across several sectors in Namibia. Methods From March 2009 to June 2010, PharmAccess Namibia conducted a series of cross-sectional surveys of 7,666 employees in 7 sectors of industry in Namibia. These included a self-reported health questionnaire and biomedical screenings for certain infectious diseases and non-communicable disease (NCD) risk factors. Data were collected on demographics, absenteeism over a 90-day period, smoking behavior, alcohol use, hemoglobin, blood pressure, blood glucose, cholesterol, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), HIV status, and presence of hepatitis B antigens and syphilis antibodies. The associations of these factors to absenteeism were ascertained using negative binomial regression. Results Controlling for demographic and job-related factors, high blood glucose and diabetes had the largest effect on absenteeism (IRR: 3.67, 95%CI: 2.06-6.55). This was followed by anemia (IRR: 1.59, 95%CI: 1.17-2.18) and being HIV positive (IRR: 1.47; 95%CI: 1.12-1.95). In addition, working in the fishing or services sectors was associated with an increased incidence of sick days (IRR: 1.53, 95%CI: 1.23-1.90; and IRR: 1.70, 95%CI: 1.32-2.20 respectively). The highest prevalence of diabetes was in the services sector (3.6%, 95%CI:-2.5-4.7). The highest prevalence of HIV was found in the fishing sector (14.3%, 95%CI: 10.1-18.5). Conclusion Both NCD risk factors and infectious diseases are associated with increased rates of short-term absenteeism of formal sector employees in Namibia. Programs to manage these conditions could help employers avoid costs associated with absenteeism. These programs could include basic health care insurance including regular wellness screenings. PMID:22257589

  18. Racial/ethnic differences in the association between symptoms of depression and self-rated mental health among older adults.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yuri; Park, Nan Sook; Kang, Suk-Young; Chiriboga, David A

    2014-04-01

    The study examined racial/ethnic differences in the association between symptoms of depression and self-rated mental health among older adults. Data came from the first wave of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, a population-based study of non-institutionalized older adults aged 57 to 85. The sample consisted of non-Hispanic Whites (n = 2,110), Blacks (n = 509), and Hispanics (n = 304). The association between symptoms of depression and self-rated mental health was weaker among minority groups than that among non-Hispanic Whites. Tests of interaction effects showed that the predictability of depressive symptoms to self-rated mental health was substantially weakened among Blacks of advanced ages and Hispanics with multiple chronic conditions. The study explored potential sources of racial/ethnic differences in subjective reports of mental health and called attention to older minorities with advanced ages and cormorbid conditions in mental health services and interventions. PMID:23925731

  19. Adverse health effects of nighttime lighting: comments on American Medical Association policy statement.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Richard G; Brainard, George C; Blask, David E; Lockley, Steven W; Motta, Mario E

    2013-09-01

    The American Medical Association House of Delegates in June of 2012 adopted a policy statement on nighttime lighting and human health. This major policy statement summarizes the scientific evidence that nighttime electric light can disrupt circadian rhythms in humans and documents the rapidly advancing understanding from basic science of how disruption of circadian rhythmicity affects aspects of physiology with direct links to human health, such as cell cycle regulation, DNA damage response, and metabolism. The human evidence is also accumulating, with the strongest epidemiologic support for a link of circadian disruption from light at night to breast cancer. There are practical implications of the basic and epidemiologic science in the form of advancing lighting technologies that better accommodate human circadian rhythmicity. PMID:23953362

  20. Factors associated with job satisfaction among Chinese community health workers: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background With the medical reform, the function of community health centres emerged to be more important recently in China. However, the health service capabilities were tremendously different between metropolitan cities and small cities. This study aims to clarify the level of job satisfaction of Chinese community health workers between a metropolitan (Shenyang) and a small city (Benxi) in Liaoning province and explore its associated factors. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted from December 2009 to February 2010. A multi-stage sample was used and a total of 2,100 Chinese community health workers from the two cities completed self-administered questionnaire pertaining to job satisfaction indicated by Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ), demographic characteristic and working situations, stress and job burnout. The effective response rate was 80.7%. Hierarchical regression analysis was performed to explore the related factors. All data analyses for the two cities were performed separately. Results The averages of overall job satisfaction score of Chinese community health workers were 67.17 in Shenyang and 69.95 in Benxi. Intrinsic job satisfaction and extrinsic job satisfaction among Chinese community health workers were significantly different between Shenyang and Benxi (p < 0.05). In Shenyang, hierarchical regression analysis showed that the fourth model explained 36%, 32% of the variance of intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfactions, respectively. In Benxi, the fourth model explained 48%, 52% of the variance of intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfactions, respectively. Three significant predictors of intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfactions for the two cities were the two dimensions (social support and decision latitude) of stress and cynicism of burnout. Conclusion From this study, the job satisfaction among Chinese community health workers in the two cities enjoyed a moderate level of job satisfactions, which represented they are not fully satisfied with their jobs. Community health workers in Shenyang had lower job satisfaction as compared to those in Benxi. This study strengthened the evidence that stress and burnout were important predictors of intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfactions. PMID:22111511

  1. Microbial health risks associated with exposure to stormwater in a water plaza.

    PubMed

    Sales-Ortells, Helena; Medema, Gertjan

    2015-05-01

    Climate change scenarios predict an increase of intense rainfall events in summer in Western Europe. Current urban drainage systems cannot cope with such intense precipitation events. Cities are constructing stormwater storage facilities to prevent pluvial flooding. Combining storage with other functions, such as recreation, may lead to exposure to contaminants. This study assessed the microbial quality of rainwater collected in a water plaza and the health risks associated with recreational exposure. The water plaza collects street run-off, diverges first flush to the sewer system and stores the rest of the run-off in the plaza as open water. Campylobacter, Cryptosporidium and Legionella pneumophila were the pathogens investigated. Microbial source tracking tools were used to determine the origin (human, animal) of the intestinal pathogens. Cryptosporidium was not found in any sample. Campylobacter was found in all samples, with higher concentrations in samples containing human Bacteroides than in samples with zoonotic contamination (15 vs 3.7 gc (genomic copies)/100 mL). In both cases, the estimated disease risk associated with Campylobacter and recreational exposure was higher than the Dutch national incidence. This indicates that the health risk associated with recreational exposure to the water plaza is significant. L. pneumophila was found only in two out of ten pond samples. Legionnaire's disease risks were lower than the Dutch national incidence. Presence of human Bacteroides indicates possible cross-connections with the CSS that should be identified and removed. PMID:25706222

  2. The Association between Road Traffic Noise Exposure, Annoyance and Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL)

    PubMed Central

    Héritier, Harris; Vienneau, Danielle; Frei, Patrizia; Eze, Ikenna C.; Brink, Mark; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Röösli, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between road traffic noise exposure, annoyance caused by different noise sources and validated health indicators in a cohort of 1375 adults from the region of Basel, Switzerland. Road traffic noise exposure for each study participant was determined using modelling, and annoyance from various noise sources was inquired by means of a four-point Likert scale. Regression parameters from multivariable regression models for the von Zerssen score of somatic symptoms (point symptom score increase per annoyance category) showed strongest associations with annoyance from industry noise (2.36, 95% CI: 1.54, 3.17), neighbour noise (1.62, 95% CI: 1.17, 2.06) and road traffic noise (1.53, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.96). Increase in modelled noise exposure by 10 dB(A) resulted in a von Zerssen symptom score increase of 0.47 (95% CI: ?0.01, 0.95) units. Subsequent structural equation modelling revealed that the association between physical noise exposure and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is strongly mediated by annoyance and sleep disturbance. This study elucidates the complex interplay of different factors for the association between physical noise exposure and HRQOL. PMID:25489999

  3. Associations of Child Insomnia, Sleep Movement, and Their Persistence With Mental Health Symptoms in Childhood and Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Ruttle, Paula L.; Klein, Marjorie H.; Essex, Marilyn J.; Benca, Ruth M.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine the patterns of insomnia and sleep-related movement from ages 4.5 to 9 years, their concurrent associations with mental health symptoms in childhood, and the longitudinal associations of sleep-problem persistence with mental health symptoms at ages 9 and 18 years. Design: A 14-year prospective follow-up study. Assessments included maternal report on the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire at ages 4.5 and 9, and child mental health symptoms via maternal report at age 4.5, multi-informant (child, teacher, mother) report at age 9, and adolescent report at age 18. Setting: Community. Participants: A total of 396 children (51% female). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Sleep problems were more common at age 4.5 than 9; symptoms of insomnia and abnormal sleep movement both had persistence rates of 9–10%. At age 4.5, insomnia was associated with hostile-aggressive and hyperactive-distractible behavior, but there were no significant associations for sleep movement. At age 9, both insomnia and sleep movement were associated with symptoms of depression, externalizing, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Insomnia persistence was associated with symptoms of depression, externalizing, and ADHD at age 9 and anxiety and externalizing at age 18; sleep- movement persistence was associated with externalizing and ADHD at age 9, and ADHD at age 18. The age 18 persistence effects for insomnia and anxiety and for sleep movement and ADHD were significant when controlling for earlier mental health. Conclusions: Childhood insomnia and sleep movement are common and associated with mental health symptoms. Their persistence from middle to late childhood predicts associations with specific types of mental health symptoms at age 18. Citation: Armstrong JM, Ruttle PL, Klein MH, Essex MJ, Benca RM. Associations of child insomnia, sleep movement, and their persistence with mental health symptoms in childhood and adolescence. SLEEP 2014;37(5):901-909. PMID:24790268

  4. Intimate Partner Violence Among Hong Kong Young Adults: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Associated Health Problems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huiping; Wong, William C W; Ip, Patrick; Fan, Susan; Yip, Paul S F

    2015-08-01

    Intimate partner violence is a serious social problem and public health issue affecting the well-being of the young adults. However, there is very little epidemiological evidence on the incidence and associated health problems in contemporary Chinese society. Using a representative community sample of 1,223 young adults aged 18 to 27 years conducted by Hong Kong Family Planning Association in 2011, this study aimed to estimate the prevalence, risk factors, and possible health consequences of intimate partner violence among young adults in Hong Kong. It is found that the prevalence of lifetime and preceding 1-year intimate partner violence by former or current partners was 8.6% and 4.9% respectively. Male youths who were older were less likely to experience past-year intimate partner violence (odds ratio [OR] = 0.21, p < .05) and those who had a university degree or were unemployed were more likely to experience past-year intimate partner violence (OR = 8.48, p < .01 and OR = 8.14, p < .05 respectively). Female youths who had a full-time job were less likely to experience the lifetime violence (OR = 0.15, p < .05) and those who were ever pregnant with current partner were more likely to experience both lifetime intimate partner violence (OR = 5.00, p < .05) and past-year violence (OR = 5.63, p < .05). Both female and male victims were more likely to be subjected to mental health problems and only female victims felt fear for the violent partner. PMID:25304670

  5. Factors associated with data quality in the routine health information system of Benin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Routine health information systems (RHIS) are crucial to the acquisition of data for health sector planning. In developing countries, the insufficient quality of the data produced by these systems limits their usefulness in regards to decision-making. The aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with poor data quality in the RHIS in Benin. Methods This cross-sectional descriptive and analytical study included health workers who were responsible for data collection in public and private health centers. The technique and tools used were an interview with a self-administered questionnaire. The dependent variable was the quality of the data. The independent variables were socio-demographic and work-related characteristics, personal and work-related resources, and the perception of the technical factors. The quality of the data was assessed using the Lot Quality Assurance Sampling method. We used survival analysis with univariate proportional hazards (PH) Cox models to derive hazards ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Focus group data were evaluated with a content analysis. Results A significant link was found between data quality and level of responsibility (p?=?0.011), sector of employment (p?=?0.007), RHIS training (p?=?0.026), level of work engagement (p?associated with the quality of the data in the RHIS in Benin. The results could provide strategic decision support in improving the system’s performance. PMID:25114792

  6. FINE PARTICLES ARE MORE STRONGLY ASSOCIATED THAN COARSE PARTICLES WITH ACUTE REPIRATORY HEALTH EFFECTS IN SCHOOL CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous studies have reported associations between airborne particles and a range of respiratory outcomes from symptoms to mortality. Current attention has been focused on the characteristics of these particles responsible for the adverse health effects. We have reanalyzed three...

  7. Sexually transmitted infections associated syndromes assisted in the primary health care in Northeast, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The lack of information on the care for sexually transmitted infections (STI) associated syndromes may contribute for its non-inclusion as prevention and control strategy for STI in Brazil. This study aims to analyze the cases of STI – Associated Syndromes assisted in primary health care center in a city in Northeast Brazil associating them with socio-demographic and behavioral variables. Methods This is a retrospective study that analyzed 5148 consultation forms and medical records of patients assisted in a primary health care center who presented at least one genital syndrome from 1999 to 2008. Was considered as dependent variables the genital syndromes and serologies for syphilis and HIV and as independent variables the socio-demographic and behavioral aspects. It was used Pearson’s chi-square test to analyze the differences between the categorical variables, with a significance level of 5%. It was performed a multivariate analysis through the multivariate logistic regression model with the variables with p <0.05. We used odds ratio with a confidence interval of 95%. Results The most frequent syndromes were vaginal discharge and/or cervicitis (44%) and genital wart (42.2%). Most people were between 20 and 39 years old (70%) and women (74.2%). Genital ulcer was most prevalent among men (OR?=?2.67; CI 95% 1.99-3.58) and people who studied more than eight years (OR?=?1.33; CI 95% 1.00-1.75) and wart prevailed among men (OR?=?3.92; IC 95% 3.36-4.57), people under 29 years old (OR?=?1.81; CI 95% 1.59-2.07) and who studied more than eight years (OR?=?1.75; CI 95% 1.54-1.99). The Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) was positive in 7.3% of men and in 7.1% of women and the Anti-HIV in 3.1% of men and 0.7% of women. Conclusion Vaginal discharge was the most frequent syndrome assisted in primary health care, followed by genital wart. The high prevalence of genital wart justifies the greater effort for the proper follow-up of these cases. Men presented more genital wart and ulcer and reported having more sexual partners, showing their need for a greater access and inclusion in health activities developed in primary health care in Brazil. PMID:22853173

  8. A Longitudinal Investigation of Associations between Boys' Pubertal Timing and Adult Behavioral Health and Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taga, Keiko A.; Markey, Charlotte N.; Friedman, Howard S.

    2006-01-01

    To extend research linking pubertal timing and adolescent health outcomes, this study examines boys' pubertal timing and subsequent interpersonal success and health behaviors in mid adulthood. Past research has shown that boys' pubertal timing is associated with both positive and negative developmental outcomes in the short term, and so it is…

  9. Fee-For-Service The Campus Health Service is an AAAHC (Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Care, Inc.) accredited outpatient

    E-print Network

    Arizona, University of

    Fee-For-Service The Campus Health Service is an AAAHC (Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Care, Inc.) accredited outpatient medical facility offering a variety of services. We are an available of services that we have available. Urgent Care General Medicine Women's Health Counseling & Psych Services

  10. An Analysis of the External Environmental and Internal Organizational Factors Associated with Adoption of the Electronic Health Record

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruse, Clemens Scott

    2013-01-01

    Despite a Presidential Order in 2004 that launched national incentives for the use of health information technology, specifically the Electronic Health Record (EHR), adoption of the EHR has been slow. This study attempts to quantify factors associated with adoption of the EHR and Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) by combining multiple…

  11. February 2010 MS ID#: JAMA09-6847 Association of socioeconomic position with health behaviors and mortality. The

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and mortality. The Whitehall II study Silvia Stringhini* 1 , MSc Séverine Sabia 1 , PhD Martin Shipley 2 , MSc the contribution of health behaviors to social inequalities in mortality because health behaviors were assessed in the association between socioeconomic position and mortality and compare whether their contribution differs when

  12. Risk management in primary apicultural production. Part 1: bee health and disease prevention and associated best practices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giovanni Formato; Frans J. M. Smulders

    2011-01-01

    Prompted by FAO\\/WHO's and the European Commission's recognition that documents on Good Farming Practices (GFPs) and Good Veterinary Practices (GVPs) in apicultural production are hardly available, part 1 of this contribution provides an update of current apicultural production and associated best practices to ensure animal and public health. Major bee health and disease prevention issues and risk management options at

  13. Can familial factors account for the association of body mass index with poor mental health in men or women??

    PubMed Central

    Schur, Ellen; Godfrey, Kathryn M.; Dansie, Elizabeth; Buchwald, Dedra; Pagoto, Sherry; Afari, Niloofar

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examined if associations between body mass index (BMI) and mental and physical health were independent of genetic and familial factors. Method Data from 2831 twins (66% female) were used in an epidemiological co-twin control design with measures of BMI and mental and physical health outcomes. Generalized estimating equation regressions assessed relationships between BMI and health outcomes controlling for interdependency among twins and demographics. Within-pair regression analyses examined the association of BMI with health outcomes controlling for genetic and familial influences. Results Adjusted analyses with individual twins found associations in women between BMI and perceived stress (P=.01) and depression (P=.002), and the link between BMI and depression (P=.03) was significant in men. All physical health outcomes were significantly related to BMI. Once genetic and familial factors were taken into account, mental health outcomes were no longer significantly associated with BMI. BMI in women remained related to ratings of physical health (P=.01) and body pain (P=.004), independent of genetic and familial influences. Conclusion These findings suggest that genetic and familial factors may account for the relationship between increased weight and poor mental health. PMID:23664570

  14. Social and Psychological Resources Associated with Health Status in a Representative Sample of Adults Affected by the 2004 Florida Hurricanes

    PubMed Central

    Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Acierno, Ron; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Tracy, Melissa; Galea, Sandro

    2009-01-01

    Overall health status after a disaster may be associated with long-term physical morbidity and mortality. Little is known about factors associated with overall health status in the aftermath of disasters. We examined self-rated health in relation to disaster characteristics, social resources, and post-disaster outcomes in a sample of adults who experienced the 2004 Florida hurricanes. We interviewed a representative sample of 1,452 adults aged 18 years and older residing in the 33 Florida counties that were in the direct path of at least one of the 2004 hurricanes (Charley, Frances, Ivan, Jeanne). Overall health status was assessed using a self-rating format known to be predictive of mortality. Poor self-rated health was endorsed by 14.6% of the sample. Final multivariable models showed that poor self-rated health was associated with older age (p < 0.001), extreme fear during the hurricane (p = 0.03), low social support (p = 0.03), and depression (p = 0.003) since the hurricane. Self-rated health following the Florida hurricanes was strongly associated with two variables (social support and depression) that potentially can be mitigated through targeted interventions after disasters. Future work should evaluate secondary prevention strategies that can address general health-related concerns in the wake of a disaster. PMID:19614556

  15. Does Obesity Associate with Mortality among Hispanic Persons?: Results from the National Health Interview Survey

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Tapan; McCubrey, Raymond; Pajewski, Nicholas M.; Keith, Scott W.; Allison, David B.; Crespo, Carlos J.; Fontaine, Kevin R.

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the association between body mass index (BMI: kg/m2) and mortality among Hispanic adults, we acquired 8 years (1997–2004) of National Health Interview Survey data linked to public-use mortality follow-up data through 2006. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we fit separate models for two attained age strata (18 to <60 years, ?60 years) adjusting for sex, smoking, and physical activity with over 38,000 analyzable respondents. We found that, among those aged ?60 years, underweight (BMI ? 18.5) associated with elevated mortality (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38–3.46) while overweight (BMI of 25 to <30) and obesity grade 1 (BMI of 30 to <35) associated with reduced mortality (HR’s = 0.79; 95% CI, 0.65–0.95 and 0.71; 95% CI, 0.56–0.91), respectively. There were no significant associations between BMI and mortality among the 18 to <60 years attained age strata or among never smokers for either age strata. Overweight and obesity are not obviously associated with elevated mortality among Hispanic adults. PMID:23596157

  16. Prediction of Infection Due to Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria by Select Risk Factors for Health Care-Associated Pneumonia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew F. Shorr; Marya D. Zilberberg; Scott T. Micek; Marin H. Kollef

    2008-01-01

    Background: Pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aerugi- nosanow cause pneumonia in patients presenting to the hospital. The concept of health care-associated pneu- monia (HCAP) attempts to capture this, but its predic- tive value is unclear. Methods: We examined patients admitted with pneu- monia; infection with a resistant pathogen served as the study end point. Health care-associated

  17. Udder health in beef cows and its association with calf growth

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies outside the Nordic countries have indicated that subclinical mastitis (measured by milk somatic cell count or the California Mastitis Test), intramammary infections (IMI), or blind quarters in beef cows may have negative effects on beef calf growth. Knowledge on prevalence of such udder health problems in Swedish beef cows is scarce. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to investigate subclinical mastitis, IMI and udder conformation in a number of beef cow herds. Production of ?-lactamase in staphylococci was also investigated. Associations between certain cow factors and subclinical mastitis and IMI, and associations between cow and calf factors and 200 day calf weaning weight were also studied. The herds were visited once within a month after calving and once at weaning. Udder examination and quarter milk sampling, for somatic cell count and bacteriology, were performed in 8 to 12 cows per herd and occasion. Results Approximately 50%, 40% and 10% of the cows had subclinical mastitis, IMI, and at least one blind quarter, respectively, but the prevalence varied markedly between herds. Intramammary infections (mainly due to staphylococci) were identified in 13-16% of the milk samples. Less than 5% of the staphylococcal isolates produced ?-lactamase. Approximately 11% of the cows sampled twice had the same IMI (mostly Staphylococcus aureus) at both samplings. Cow factors of importance for subclinical mastitis and/or IMI were teat and udder shape, breed, parity, presence of blind quarters, and cow hygiene. No significant associations were found between udder health parameters studied and calf weaning weights. Conclusions Subclinical mastitis and IMI, but not blind quarters, were common in beef cows, but the prevalence varied markedly between herds. Most IMI were caused by staphylococci and more than 95% of those were sensitive to penicillin. Cows with large funnel-shaped teats or pendulous udder after calving, and cows with blind quarters were at risk of having subclinical mastitis and/or IMI. Poor hygiene was also a risk factor for udder health problems. No significant associations were found between udder health and calf weaning weight. More studies on risk factors are warranted to improve advisory services on awareness and prevention of mastitis in beef cows. PMID:24479386

  18. Non-medical prescription drug and illicit street drug use among young Swiss men and associated mental health issues.

    PubMed

    Baggio, Stéphanie; Studer, Joseph; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) is increasing among the general population, particularly among teenagers and young adults. Although prescription drugs are considered safer than illicit street drugs, NMUPD can lead to detrimental consequences. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between drug use (NMUPD on the one side, illicit street drugs on the other side) with mental health issues and then compare these associations. A representative sample of 5719 young Swiss men aged around 20 years filled in a questionnaire as part of the ongoing baseline Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors (C-SURF). Drug use (16 illicit street drugs and 5 NMUPDs, including sleeping pills, sedatives, pain killers, antidepressants, stimulants) and mental health issues (depression, SF12) were assessed. Simple and multiple linear regressions were employed. In simple regressions, all illicit and prescription drugs were associated with poorer mental health. In multiple regressions, most of the NMUPDs, except for stimulants, were significantly associated with poorer mental health and with depression. On the contrary, the only associations that remained significant between illicit street drugs and mental health involved cannabis. NMUPD is of growing concern not only because of its increasing occurrence, but also because of its association with depression and mental health problems, which is stronger than the association observed between these problems and illicit street drug use, excepted for cannabis. Therefore, NMUPD must be considered in screening for substance use prevention purposes. PMID:24447983

  19. Pool chemical-associated health events in public and residential settings - United States, 2003-2012, and Minnesota, 2013.

    PubMed

    Hlavsa, Michele C; Robinson, Trisha J; Collier, Sarah A; Beach, Michael J

    2014-05-16

    Pool chemicals are added to treated recreational water venues (e.g., pools, hot tubs/spas, and interactive fountains) primarily to protect public health by inactivating pathogens and maximizing the effectiveness of disinfection by controlling pH. However, pool chemicals also can cause injuries when handled or stored improperly. To estimate the number of emergency department (ED) visits for injuries associated with pool chemicals in the United States per year during 2003-2012, CDC analyzed data from the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission's National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS). This report summarizes the results of that analysis. In 2012 alone, an estimated 4,876 persons (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2,821-6,930) visited an ED for injuries associated with pool chemicals. Almost half of the patients were aged <18 years. This report also describes a pool chemical-associated health event that occurred in Minnesota in 2013, which sent seven children and one adult to an ED. An investigation by the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) determined the cause to be poor monitoring of or response to pool chemistry. Pool chemical-associated health events are preventable. CDC's Model Aquatic Health Code (MAHC) (1) is a resource that state and local agencies can use to optimize prevention of injuries and illnesses associated with public treated recreational water venues, including pool chemical-associated health events. PMID:24827410

  20. Internet Use Among Older Adults: Association With Health Needs, Psychological Capital, and Social Capital

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have identified socioeconomic status and health status as predictors of older adults’ computer and Internet use, but researchers have not examined the relationships between older adults’ health needs and psychological capital (emotional well-being and self-efficacy) and social capital (social integration/ties and support networks) to different types of Internet use. Objective This study examined (1) whether older adults’ health conditions and psychological and social capital differentiate Internet users from nonusers, and (2) whether the Internet users differed in their types of Internet use on the basis of their health conditions and psychological and social capital. Methods Data for this study came from the National Health and Aging Trends Study, which is based on a nationally representative sample of US Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years and older. The sample for this study were those who resided in the community in their own or others’ homes (N=6680). Binary logistic regression analysis was used to compare health needs, psychological capital, and social capital among (1) any type of Internet users and nonusers, (2) Internet users who engaged in health-related tasks and Internet users who did not, (3) Internet users who engaged in shopping/banking tasks and Internet users who did not, and (4) Internet users only used the Internet for email/texting and all other Internet users. Results Depressive and anxiety symptoms, measures of psychological capital, were negatively associated with Internet use among older adults (odds ratio [OR] 0.83, 95% CI 0.70-0.98, P=.03 and OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.65-0.97, P=.03, respectively), whereas most measures of social capital were positively associated with Internet use. Having more chronic medical conditions and engaging in formal volunteering increased the odds of Internet use for health-related tasks by 1.15 (95% CI 1.08-1.23, P<.001) and 1.28 (95% CI 1.05-1.57, P=.02), respectively, but anxiety symptoms decreased the odds (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.55-0.99, P=.05). Religious service attendance was negatively associated with Internet use for shopping/banking activities (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.62-0.91, P=.01). Anxiety symptoms increased the odds of using the Internet only for emails/texting (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.12-2.75, P=.02), but formal volunteering decreased the odds (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.43-0.92, P=.02). Other correlates of Internet use solely for emails/texting were older age (80-84 years and ?85 years), a black or “other” racial/ethnic background, a high school education or less than high school, and lower income. Conclusions The findings point to the importance of social capital in facilitating older adults’ learning and adoption of Internet technology. Older adults who used the Internet for email/texting purposes only were the most socially and economically disadvantaged group of Internet users. Computer/Internet training for older adults and computer/Internet use for various purposes need to consider the significant role their social capital can play. PMID:23681083

  1. Disgust Sensitivity Is Not Associated with Health in a Rural Bangladeshi Sample

    PubMed Central

    de Barra, Mícheál; Islam, M. Sirajul; Curtis, Val

    2014-01-01

    Disgust can be considered a psychological arm of the immune system that acts to prevent exposure to infectious agents. High disgust sensitivity is associated with greater behavioral avoidance of disease vectors and thus may reduce infection risk. A cross-sectional survey in rural Bangladesh provided no strong support for this hypothesis. In many species, the expression of pathogen- and predator-avoidance mechanisms is contingent on early life exposure to predators and pathogens. Using childhood health data collected in the 1990s, we examined if adults with more infectious diseases in childhood showed greater adult disgust sensitivity: no support for this association was found. Explanations for these null finding and possible directions for future research are discussed. PMID:24977418

  2. Mental health, health, and substance abuse service needs for the Native American Rehabilitation Association Northwest (NARA NW) in the Portland, Oregon metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Crofoot, Thomas L; Harris, Naomi; Plumb, Mary Anne; Smith, Keri Slingerland; Gault, Jaime; Brooks, Gloria; Hungry, Lisa; Geary, Artice; Holland, Irene

    2008-01-01

    Consistent with results of previous needs assessments for urban American Indian and Alaska Native populations, a needs assessment in the Portland,Oregon metropolitan area for the Native American Rehabilitation Association Northwest revealed high levels of co-occurring conditions for American Indian and Alaska Native clients, often combining chronic health problems, substance abuse histories, and mental health diagnoses. Focus group results suggest the need for crisis care as well as specific needs of children and families, veterans, elders, and adults. PMID:18286444

  3. The Association of Health Literacy with Illness and Medication Beliefs among Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kale, Minal S.; Federman, Alex D.; Krauskopf, Katherine; Wolf, Michael; O’Conor, Rachel; Martynenko, Melissa; Leventhal, Howard; Wisnivesky, Juan P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Low health literacy is associated with low adherence to self-management in many chronic diseases. Additionally, health beliefs are thought to be determinants of self-management behaviors. In this study we sought to determine the association, if any, of health literacy and health beliefs among elderly individuals with COPD. Methods We enrolled a cohort of patients with COPD from two academic urban settings in New York, NY and Chicago, IL. Health literacy was measured using the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Using the framework of the Self-Regulation Model, illness and medication beliefs were measured with the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (B-IPQ) and Beliefs about Medications Questionnaire (BMQ). Unadjusted analyses, with corresponding Cohen’s d effect sizes, and multiple logistic regression were used to assess the relationships between HL and illness and medication beliefs. Results We enrolled 235 participants, 29% of whom had low health literacy. Patients with low health literacy were more likely to belong to a racial minority group (p<0.001), not be married (p = 0.006), and to have lower income (p<0.001) or education (p<0.001). In unadjusted analyses, patients with low health literacy were less likely to believe they will always have COPD (p = 0.003, Cohen’s d = 0.42), and were more likely to be concerned about their illness ((p = 0.04, Cohen’s d = 0.17). In analyses adjusted for sociodemographic factors and other health beliefs, patients with low health literacy were less likely to believe that they will always have COPD (odds ratio [OR]: 0.78, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.65–0.94). In addition, the association of low health literacy with expressed concern about medications remained significant (OR: 1.20, 95% CI: 1.05–1.37) though the association of low health literacy with belief in the necessity of medications was no longer significant (OR: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.82–1.04). Conclusions In this cohort of urban individuals with COPD, low health literacy was prevalent, and associated with illness beliefs that predict decreased adherence. Our results suggest that targeted strategies to address low health literacy and related illness and medications beliefs might improve COPD medication adherence and other self-management behaviors. PMID:25915420

  4. Gamma delta T cell responses associated with the development of tuberculosis in health care workers.

    PubMed

    Ordway, Diane J; Pinto, Luisa; Costa, Leonor; Martins, Marta; Leandro, Clara; Viveiros, Miguel; Amaral, Leonard; Arroz, Maria J; Ventura, Fernando A; Dockrell, Hazel M

    2005-03-01

    This study evaluated T cell immune responses to purified protein derivative (PPD) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in health care workers who remained free of active tuberculosis (HCWs w/o TB), health care workers who went on to develop active TB (HCWs w/TB), non-health care workers who were TB free (Non-HCWs) and tuberculosis patients presenting with minimal (Min TB) or advanced (Adv TB) disease. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were stimulated with Mtb and PPD and the expression of T cell activation markers CD25+ and HLA-DR+, intracellular IL-4 and IFN-gamma production and cytotoxic responses were evaluated. PBMC from HCWs who developed TB showed decreased percentages of cells expressing CD8+CD25+ in comparison to HCWs who remained healthy. HCWs who developed TB showed increased gammadelta TCR+ cell cytotoxicity and decreased CD3+gammadelta TCR- cell cytotoxicity in comparison to HCWs who remained healthy. PBMC from TB patients with advanced disease showed decreased percentages of CD25+CD4+ and CD25+CD8+ T cells that were associated with increased IL-4 production in CD8+ and gammadelta TCR+ phenotypes, in comparison with TB patients presenting minimal disease. TB patients with advanced disease showed increased gammadelta TCR+ cytotoxicity and reduced CD3+gammadelta TCR- cell cytotoxicity. Our results suggest that HCWs who developed TB show an early compensatory mechanism involving an increase in lytic responses of gammadelta TCR+ cells which did not prevent TB. PMID:15708307

  5. Composition of European chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) and association with health effects: fresh and processed products.

    PubMed

    De Vasconcelos, Maria C B M; Bennett, Richard N; Rosa, Eduardo A S; Ferreira-Cardoso, Jorge V

    2010-08-15

    Chestnut fruits are highly regarded and widely consumed throughout Europe, America and Asia. Various commercial forms are available, e.g. fresh and industrially processed. There have been various reviews on the composition of chestnut fruits but there has not been a comprehensive review of the different health benefits that this fruit can provide. This review is focused on the composition and associated health effects of European fresh chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) fruits and their home-processed and industrial products, e.g. boiled, roasted, frozen, and 'marron glacées'. We also expand the knowledge of chestnut uses by presenting data for other chestnut materials that have potential applications as new foods, as sources of antioxidants, and as sources of other useful bioactives. There is considerable literature data on nutrients in fresh chestnut fruits but less information on bioactive non-nutrients such as phenolics. Chestnuts are mostly consumed as processed forms, and the different types of processing clearly affect the nutrient and non-nutrient composition of the fruits. The benefits that this fruit can provide for human and animal health are numerous, but it is clear that improvements can be made for both production and quality of chestnut products, e.g. genetic selection and optimizing industrial processing. PMID:20564434

  6. Association between work-related health problems and job insecurity in permanent and temporary employees

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This research was conducted with an aim of determining the correlation between job insecurity and an employee’s work-related health problems among permanent and temporary workers. Methods Using the data from the First Korean Working Conditions Survey conducted in 2006, a total of 7,071 workers, excluding employers and the self-employed, were analyzed. Work-related health problems were categorized as backache, headache, abdominal pain, muscular pain, stress, fatigue, insomnia, anxiety or depression. Each problem was then analyzed for its relationship to job insecurity through logistic regression analysis. Results Among the 7,071 workers, 5,294 (74.9%) were permanent workers and 1,777 (25.1%) were temporary workers. For the permanent workers, presence of high or moderate job insecurity appeared more closely linked to backache, headache, abdominal pain, muscular pain, stress, fatigue, insomnia, anxiety, and depression compared to absence of job insecurity. However, for the temporary workers, only depression appeared to be associated with the presence of high job insecurity. Conclusion The study showed that the presence of job insecurity is correlated with work-related health problems. The deleterious effects of job insecurity appeared to be stronger in permanent than temporary workers. Additional research should investigate ways to effectively reduce job insecurity. PMID:24472497

  7. Occupational exposure to solid chemical agents in biomass-fired power plants and associated health effects.

    PubMed

    Jumpponen, M; Rönkkömäki, H; Pasanen, P; Laitinen, J

    2014-06-01

    Occupational exposure to aluminium, arsenic, lead, cadmium, and manganese can increase the risk of numerous neurophysiological changes in workers, and may lead to conditions resembling Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. However, although the health hazard aspect of these agents has been examined, biomass-fired power plant workers' exposure to them remains a neglected issue. The purpose of this study was to measure maintenance and ash removal workers' multiple exposures to inhalable dust, metals, and crystalline silica during their work tasks in biomass-fired power plants. Maintenance and ash removal workers were exposed to high inhalable dust concentrations inside biomass-fired boilers. The median air inhalable dust concentration in workers' breathing zones were 33 mg m(-3) and 120 mg m(-3) in ash removal and maintenance tasks, respectively. The median concentration of manganese (0.31 mg m(-3)) exceeded the occupational exposure limit in worker's breathing zone samples in maintenance tasks. The most evident exposure-associated health risk from multiple exposures to metals was that of cancer, followed by central nervous system disorders, lower respiratory tract irritation, and finally upper respiratory tract irritation. To avoid the above mentioned health effects, powered air respirators with ABEK+P3 cartridges and carbon monoxide gas detectors are recommended as the minimum requirement for these work tasks. A compressed air breathing apparatus is the best form of protection for the most demanding work phases inside boilers in biomass-fired power plants. PMID:24289933

  8. Tricyclic and SSRI usage influences the association between BMI and health risk factors.

    PubMed

    Serodio, K J; Ardern, C I; Rotondi, M A; Kuk, J L

    2014-12-01

    To determine if selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) influence the association between obesity and cardiovascular disease risk, participants from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III; 1988-1992) and continuous NHANES (1999-2009, n?=?18?274) were used. For a given body mass index (BMI), individuals taking SSRIs (n?=?219) tended to have significantly better health risk profiles with lower systolic blood pressure (P?=?0.002) and higher high-density lipoprotein (P?=?0.003) compared with non-users. Conversely, those who used TCAs (n?=?116) had significantly worse health risk profiles with higher diastolic blood pressure (P???0.0001) and triglycerides (P?=?0.023) as compared with non-users for a given BMI. Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was higher in TCA users and those with larger BMIs, whereby the differences in insulin resistance between TCA users and non-users was greater with higher BMIs (interaction effect: P?=?0.013). Furthermore, individuals taking SSRIs were less likely to have cardiovascular disease than non-users (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval?=?0.50, 0.33-0.75) for a given BMI, with no differences by TCA use (odds ratio?=?0.74, 0.44-1.24). SSRI and TCA use may alter how body weight relates with cardiovascular risk. When prescribing antidepressant medications, it may be necessary to monitor and consider body weight and cardiovascular risk profile of individual patients. PMID:25826158

  9. Factors associated with health risk behavior among school children in urban Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Phuong, Tran Bich; Huong, Nguyen Thanh; Tien, Truong Quang; Chi, Hoang Khanh; Dunne, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Health risk behavior among young people is a public health problem in Vietnam. In addition, road traffic injuries are the leading cause of death for those aged 15–29 years. The consequences can be devastating for adolescents and their families, and can create a significant economic burden on society. Objective The aim of this study was to identify protective and risk factors that may influence three health risk behaviors among school children: suicidal thinking (ST), drinking alcohol (DA), and underage motorbike driving (MD). Methods A cross-sectional survey of 972 adolescents (aged 12–15 years) was conducted in two secondary schools in Hanoi, Vietnam. The schools were purposely selected, one each from the inner city and a suburban area, from which classes (grade 6 to 8) were randomly selected. All students attending classes on survey days took part in the survey. The anonymous, self-completed questionnaire included measures of risk behavior, school connectedness, parental bonding, and other factors. Multivariable regression models were used to examine associations between the independent variables and the three health risk behaviors controlling for confounding factors. Results Young people in the inner city school reported a higher prevalence of all three risk behaviors than those in the suburban area (ST: 16.1% [95% confidence interval, or CI, 12.9–19.3] versus 4.6% [95% CI 2.7–6.5], p<0.001; DA: 20.3% [95% CI 16.8–23.8] versus 8.3% [95% CI 5.8–10.8], p<0.001, and MD: 10.1% [95% CI 7.4–12.8] versus 5.7% [95% CI 3.6–7.8], p<0.01). School connectedness and mother and father care appeared to be significant protective factors. For males, bullying in school was associated with suicidal thoughts, whereas for both males and females, school connectedness may be protective against suicidal ideation. Conclusion This study supports findings from other nations regarding suicidal thoughts and alcohol use, and appears to be one of the first to examine risk and protective factors forMD. Health promotion within schools should be introduced to improve students’ feelings of connectedness in combination with communication and education campaigns focusing on parental care and engaging teachers for the promotion of safer, supportive school environments. PMID:23336622

  10. The relationship between hand hygiene and health care-associated infection: it’s complicated

    PubMed Central

    McLaws, Mary-Louise

    2015-01-01

    The reasoning that improved hand hygiene compliance contributes to the prevention of health care-associated infections is widely accepted. It is also accepted that high hand hygiene alone cannot impact formidable risk factors, such as older age, immunosuppression, admission to the intensive care unit, longer length of stay, and indwelling devices. When hand hygiene interventions are concurrently undertaken with other routine or special preventive strategies, there is a potential for these concurrent strategies to confound the effect of the hand hygiene program. The result may be an overestimation of the hand hygiene intervention unless the design of the intervention or analysis controls the effect of the potential confounders. Other epidemiologic principles that may also impact the result of a hand hygiene program include failure to consider measurement error of the content of the hand hygiene program and the measurement error of compliance. Some epidemiological errors in hand hygiene programs aimed at reducing health care-associated infections are inherent and not easily controlled. Nevertheless, the inadvertent omission by authors to report these common epidemiological errors, including concurrent infection prevention strategies, suggests to readers that the effect of hand hygiene is greater than the sum of all infection prevention strategies. Worse still, this omission does not assist evidence-based practice. PMID:25678805

  11. Factors Associated with Hemorrhoids in Korean Adults: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Hyo-Eun; Kang, Ji-Hun

    2014-01-01

    Background Although hemorrhoids are one of the most common anal diseases among Koreans, risk factors for hemorrhoids have not been well identified. Methods We analyzed the data from the 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) between 2007 and 2009. Study subjects were 17,228 participants of KNHANES who were aged 19 years or older. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate associations between hemorrhoids and probable risk factors. Results Overall prevalence of hemorrhoids among study subjects was 14.4%, being more prevalent among women (15.7%) than among men (13.0%). Obesity and abdominal obesity were associated with a higher risk of hemorrhoids with odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence intervals, 95% CI) of 1.13 (1.01 to 1.26) and 1.16 (1.04 to 1.30), respectively. Both self-reported depression (OR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.62 to 2.08) and physician diagnosed depression (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.35 to 2.17) were associated with significantly higher risk of hemorrhoids. No regular walking (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.23) and experience of pregnancy (OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.17 to 2.25) for women were also associated with higher risk of hemorrhoids. However, educational level, alcohol consumption, physical activities, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, fiber, fat intake, and energy intake were not associated with a risk of hemorrhoids. Low quality of life assessed with EuroQol-5 Dimension and EuroQol-Visual Analogue Scale was significantly associated with hemorrhoids. Conclusion This nationwide cross-sectional study of Korean adults suggests that obesity, abdominal obesity, depression, and past pregnancy may be risk factors for hemorrhoids and hemorrhoids affect quality of life negatively. PMID:25309703

  12. Family Experiences and Pediatric Health Services Use Associated With Family-Centered Rounds

    PubMed Central

    Sisterhen, Laura L.; Sigrest, Ted E.; Biazo, James M.; Aitken, Mary E.; Smith, Christopher E.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Family-centered rounds (FCR) are defined as interdisciplinary bedside teaching rounds with active family participation. The objective of this study was to examine the association of FCR with family experiences and health services use. METHODS: Prospective study comparing families with a child admitted to general pediatric inpatient services with and without FCR. The presence of FCR elements was assessed before study enrollment. Study data were obtained by an in-person interview, a follow-up phone interview <1 week after discharge, and medical record review. Family outcomes were informed by Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems measures. Health service use outcomes included hour of discharge, number of medications, and overall charges. Primary analyses included ?2 and multivariate regression. Secondary analyses by using propensity score matching were performed to account for differences on observed variables. RESULTS: A total of 140 of 203 eligible families were enrolled; 97 completed follow-up surveys (49 on FCR team). Compared with non-FCR, FCR families were more likely to report consistent medical information (P < .001), the option of discussing care plan (P < .001), doctors listening carefully (P < .01), and doctors showing respect (P < .001). No differences were found in number of medications (mean 2.4 vs 2.9, P = .26) or discharge time (mean 3:06 pm versus 2:43 pm, P = .39). No difference was found for hospital charges after adjusting for length of stay outliers. CONCLUSIONS: FCR are associated with higher parent satisfaction, consistent medical information, and care plan discussion, with no additional burden to health service use. Additional studies should assess FCR under different settings of care. PMID:22778299

  13. The Association between Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration, Victimization, and Mental Health among Women Arrested for Domestic Violence

    PubMed Central

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Elmquist, Joanna; Ninnemann, Andrew; Brasfield, Hope; Febres, Jeniimarie; Rothman, Emily F.; Schonbrun, Yael C.; Temple, Jeff R.; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major problem. Unfortunately there is a dearth of research on the associations between IPV perpetration, victimization, and mental health among women. The current study examined these associations among a sample of women arrested for domestic violence and court-referred to batterer intervention programs (BIPs; N = 88). Using self-report screening instruments for Axis I and Axis II mental health problems, results showed very high rates of mental health problems among women. In addition, both IPV perpetration and victimization were associated with increased mental health symptoms. Women who met diagnostic cutoff scores reported greater IPV perpetration/victimization than women who did not meet those cutoff scores. Implications of these findings for future research and IPV interventions are discussed. PMID:22792418

  14. Is Violent Radicalisation Associated with Poverty, Migration, Poor Self-Reported Health and Common Mental Disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Bhui, Kamaldeep; Warfa, Nasir; Jones, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Background Doctors, lawyers and criminal justice agencies need methods to assess vulnerability to violent radicalization. In synergy, public health interventions aim to prevent the emergence of risk behaviours as well as prevent and treat new illness events. This paper describes a new method of assessing vulnerability to violent radicalization, and then investigates the role of previously reported causes, including poor self-reported health, anxiety and depression, adverse life events, poverty, and migration and socio-political factors. The aim is to identify foci for preventive intervention. Methods A cross-sectional survey of a representative population sample of men and women aged 18–45, of Muslim heritage and recruited by quota sampling by age, gender, working status, in two English cities. The main outcomes include self-reported health, symptoms of anxiety and depression (common mental disorders), and vulnerability to violent radicalization assessed by sympathies for violent protest and terrorist acts. Results 2.4% of people showed some sympathy for violent protest and terrorist acts. Sympathy was more likely to be articulated by the under 20s, those in full time education rather than employment, those born in the UK, those speaking English at home, and high earners (>Ł75,000 a year). People with poor self-reported health were less likely to show sympathies for violent protest and terrorism. Anxiety and depressive symptoms, adverse life events and socio-political attitudes showed no associations. Conclusions Sympathies for violent protest and terrorism were uncommon among men and women, aged 18–45, of Muslim heritage living in two English cities. Youth, wealth, and being in education rather than employment were risk factors. PMID:24599058

  15. Fostering a strategic alliance between patients' associations and health care professionals.

    PubMed

    Mosconi, Paola; Colombo, Cinzia

    2010-01-01

    The Laboratory for Medical Research and Consumer Involvement was established in 2005 at Mario Negri Institute, a nonprofit institute for pharmacological research, as a consequence of the increasing interest in boosting citizens' and patients' involvement in the health care debate. It has developed several projects with patients' associations, researchers, and clinicians. Its objectives are to foster a strategic alliance among health care professionals, patients, and their organizations, developing activities with different levels of involvement. Among the laboratory' s activities, the PartecipaSalute project has organized training courses for consumers, published a Web site disseminating evidence-based information and critical appraisal tools, and collected research priorities set by patients. Two consensus conferences have been organized, one dealing with brain injury patients' assistance and the other with hormone therapy and menopause. The quality of health information covered by different sources (press articles, Web sites, and brochures) has also been assessed. Seventy consumers attended the training courses from 2006 to 2008, and between January 2008 and June 2009 the PartecipaSalute Web site registered a mean of 30 500 single visits monthly. At the consensus conference Informing women on hormone replacement therapy, 7 members of the 14-member panel defining the final recommendations were lay people. Other data from the laboratory's main activities are given in this article. The criteria for selecting patients and their organizations, the methods of involvement, and evaluation of the impact of the activities are still open questions. We are now developing ways of evaluating our activities, and trying to boost citizens' and patients' participation in decisional settings, concerning health care assistance and research studies. PMID:20539149

  16. Longitudinal Association between Body Mass Index and Health-Related Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Englert, Heike; Grittner, Ulrike; Berger, Hendrike; Sonntag, Frank; Völler, Heinz; Prugger, Christof; Wegscheider, Karl; Katus, Hugo A.; Willich, Stefan N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important outcome in individuals with a high risk for cardiovascular diseases. We investigated the association of HRQoL and body mass index (BMI) as an indicator for obesity. Design Secondary longitudinal analysis of the ORBITAL study, an intervention study which included high-risk cardiovascular primary care patients with hypercholesterolemia and an indication for statin therapy. Methods HRQoL was determined with the generic Short Form (SF)-12 health status instrument. Body weight and height were assessed at baseline and at months 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36. We used a linear and a linear mixed-effects regression model to investigate the association between BMI and SF-12 summary scores at baseline as well as between change in BMI and SF-12 summary scores over 3 years. We adjusted for age, sex, smoking status, and in the longitudinal analysis also for the study arm and its interaction term with time. Results Of the 7640 participants who completed the baseline questionnaire, 6726 participants (mean age: 61 years) were analyzed. The baseline BMI was inversely associated with physical and mental SF-12 summary scores (? [95% CI] per 1 kg/m2: ?0.36 [?0.41; ?0.30] and ?0.05 [?0.11; ?0.00], respectively). A significant association between the change in BMI and physical SF-12 summary scores over time was only present in women (?0.18 [?0.27; ?0.09]) and only in obese participants (?0.19 [?0.29; ?0.10]). A change in BMI was directly associated with mental SF-12 summary scores (0.12 [0.06; 0.19]) in the total population. Conclusion Increases in BMI were associated with decreases in physical HRQoL, particularly in obese individuals and in women. In contrast, the mental HRQoL seemed to increase with increasing BMI over time. Thus, body weight management with respect to the HRQoL should be evaluated differentially by sex and body weight status. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00379249 PMID:24671104

  17. Invited review: Body condition score and its association with dairy cow productivity, health, and welfare.

    PubMed

    Roche, J R; Friggens, N C; Kay, J K; Fisher, M W; Stafford, K J; Berry, D P

    2009-12-01

    The body condition score (BCS) of a dairy cow is an assessment of the proportion of body fat that it possesses, and it is recognized by animal scientists and producers as being an important factor in dairy cattle management. The scale used to measure BCS differs between countries, but low values always reflect emaciation and high values equate to obesity. The intercalving profile of BCS is a mirror image of the milk lactation profile. Cows lose condition for 50 to 100 d postcalving, because of homeorhetic changes that occur in the somatotropic axis and the sensitivity of peripheral tissues to insulin, and the upregulation of lipolytic pathways in adipose tissue. Management and feeding have little effect on early postcalving BCS loss (wk 1 to 4 postcalving) until the natural period of insulin resistance has passed and the somatotropic axis has recoupled. There is evidence, however, that management and diet can influence the timing of recoupling of the somatotropic axis and the sensitivity of peripheral tissues to insulin, and gene expression differences in adipose tissue 30 d in milk confirm an effect of energy intake on lipogenic enzymes. The BCS in which a cow calves, nadir BCS, and the amount of BCS she loses postcalving are associated with milk production, reproduction, and health. Body condition score may also be a valid indicator of animal welfare, but further research is required to determine the effect of BCS and BCS change on how a cow "feels." Although the actual strength of the association may vary, there is relative consistency in the associations among calving and nadir BCS, and BCS change on milk production, postpartum anestrous, the likelihood of a successful pregnancy and days open, the risk of uterine infection, and the risk of metabolic disorders. For many production and health variables, the association with BCS is nonlinear, with an optimum calving BCS of 3.0 to 3.25 (5-point scale); lower calving BCS is associated with reduced production and reproduction, whereas calving BCS >/=3.5 (5-point scale) is associated with a reduction in early lactation dry matter intake and milk production and an increased risk of metabolic disorders. Ongoing research into the automation of body condition scoring suggests that it is a likely candidate to be incorporated into decision support systems in the near future to aid producers in making operational and tactical decisions. PMID:19923585

  18. Risk of malnutrition is associated with mental health symptoms in community living elderly men and women: The Tromsř Study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Little research has been done on the relationship between malnutrition and mental health in community living elderly individuals. In the present study, we aimed to assess the associations between mental health (particularly anxiety and depression) and both the risk of malnutrition and body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) in a large sample of elderly men and women from Tromsř, Norway. Methods In a cross-sectional survey, with 1558 men and 1553 women aged 65 to 87 years, the risk of malnutrition was assessed by the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool ('MUST'), and mental health was measured by the Symptoms Check List 10 (SCL-10). BMI was categorised into six groups (< 20.0, 20.0-22.4, 22.5-24.9, 25.0-27.4, 27.5-29.9, ? 30.0 kg/m2). Results The risk of malnutrition (combining medium and high risk) was found in 5.6% of the men and 8.6% of the women. Significant mental health symptoms were reported by 3.9% of the men and 9.1% of the women. In a model adjusted for age, marital status, smoking and education, significant mental health symptoms (SCL-10 score ? 1.85) were positively associated with the risk of malnutrition (odds ratio 3.9 [95% CI 1.7-8.6] in men and 2.5 [95%CI 1.3-4.9] in women), the association was positive also for subthreshold mental health symptoms. For individuals with BMI < 20.0 the adjusted odds ratio for significant mental health symptoms was 2.0 [95% CI 1.0-4.0]. Conclusions Impaired mental health was strongly associated with the risk of malnutrition in community living elderly men and women and this association was also significant for subthreshold mental health symptoms. PMID:21762535

  19. Legal and regulatory considerations associated with use of patient-generated health data from social media and mobile health (mHealth) devices.

    PubMed

    Petersen, C; DeMuro, P

    2015-01-01

    Patient-generated health data are coming into broader use across the health care spectrum and hold great promise as a means to improve care and health outcomes. At the same time, rapid evolution in the social media and mobile health (mHealth) market has promoted an environment in which creation and transmission of personal health information is easy, quick, and appealing to patients. However, adoption of social media and mHealth by providers is hampered by legal and regulatory concerns with regard to data ownership and data use. This article defines common forms of patient-generated health data (PGHD) and describes how PGHD is used in clinical settings. It explores issues related to protection of personal health information, including that of children and adolescents, data security, and other potential barriers such as physician licensure. It also discusses regulatory and legal considerations providers and patients should consider before using social media and mobile health apps. PMID:25848410

  20. What Have "Omics" Taught Us about the Health Risks Associated with Exposure to Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, William F.; Sowa, Marianne B.

    2011-04-27

    There is a plethora of data available on the DNA damages associated with exposures to ionizing radiation and the subsequent cellular responses. Indeed, much of radiation research has focused on these initial insults and induced responses, particularly DNA repair, cell signaling pathways, cell cycle checkpoint control, mutation induction, chromosomal rearrangements, transformation and apoptosis etc. While many of these endpoints correlate with exposure dose, few, if any, provide substantive information on human health risk(s) associated with radiation exposure. Here the contribution of recent advances in high throughput ‘omics technologies are evaluated to examine what they have taught us about health risk(s) to humans associated with exposure to ionizing radiation.

  1. Microbial Health Risks Associated with Exposure to Stormwater in a Water Plaza

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sales-Ortells, Helena; Medema, Gertjan

    2015-04-01

    Climate change scenarios predict an increase of intense rainfall events in summer in Western Europe. Current urban drainage systems cannot cope with such intense precipitation events. Cities are constructing local stormwater storage facilities to prevent pluvial flooding. Combining storage with other functions, such as recreation, may lead to exposure to contaminants. This study assessed the microbial quality of rainwater collected in a water plaza in Rotterdam (The Netherlands) and the health risks associated with recreational exposure. The water plaza collects street run-off, diverges first flush to the sewer system and stores the rest of the run-off in the plaza as open water. A rain simulation experiment was conducted using drinking water from fire hydrants. The water flowed over the street pavement into the street gutters and into the square. Samples were collected from the first flush diverted water and from two different levels of the water plaza at different points in time. Campylobacter spp., Cryptosporidium, and Legionella pneumophila were the pathogens investigated, using quantitative PCR. Escherichia coli was quantified with culture methods to obtain information on faecal contamination. Microbial source tracking tools (human Bacteroides, avian Helicobacter and canine mitochondrial DNA, all analysed with quantitative PCR) were used to determine the origin (human, animal) of the intestinal pathogens. To estimate the health risks for children playing in the water plaza after a rain event, a quantitative microbial risk assessment model was built. The volume of water ingested was obtained from literature on similar locations (flooded streets). Published dose-response models were used to calculate the risk per event. Exposure frequency was estimated using weather data (precipitation events). E. coli concentrations were below the level for excellent bathing water in the EU Bathing Water Directive. Cryptosporidium was not found in any sample. Campylobacter spp. was found in all samples, with higher concentrations in samples that contained human Bacteroides than in samples with contamination from birds and dogs (15 vs 3.7 gc (genomic copies)/100mL). In both cases, the estimated disease risk associated with Campylobacter and recreational exposure to the water plaza were higher than the Dutch national incidence. This indicates that the health risk associated with recreational exposure to the water plaza is significant. L. pneumophila was found only in two out of ten pond samples. Legionnaire's disease risks were lower than the Dutch national incidence. However,higher health risks are expected in the future because of increased frequency of rain events. Presence of human Bacteroides indicates possible cross-connections with the combined sewer system that should be identified and removed to reduce the gastrointestinal disease risks. Other measures include cleaning/disinfection of the water plaza after extreme precipitation; increasing the capacity of the first flush pump; regular cleaning of the catchment area and gutters; informing the neighbours of the importance of keeping the streets clean of pets depositions; and informing the public about the health risks derived from recreational uses of the water plaza after rain events. Finally, monitoring the water quality during real rain events is recommended to better characterize the health risks.

  2. Association of family and health care provider opinion on infant feeding with mother's breastfeeding decision.

    PubMed

    Odom, Erika C; Li, Ruowei; Scanlon, Kelley S; Perrine, Cria G; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence

    2014-08-01

    In the United States, about 25% of women choose not to initiate breastfeeding, yet little is known about how opinions of individuals in a woman's support network influence her decision to breastfeed. In the 2005-2007 Infant Feeding Practices Study II, women completed questionnaires from the last trimester of pregnancy until 12 months postpartum. Mothers indicated prenatally their family members' and health care providers' opinion on how newborns should be fed: breastfed only, formula fed only, breast and formula fed, or no opinion/don't know. Breastfeeding initiation was determined by asking mothers around 4 weeks postpartum (n=2,041) whether they ever breastfed. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between mothers' perception of family members' and health care providers' opinion on how to feed the infant and the initiation of breastfeeding, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Nearly 14% of mothers surveyed did not initiate breastfeeding. Mothers who believed their family members or health care providers preferred breastfeeding only were least likely not to initiate breastfeeding. Never breastfeeding was significantly associated with the following perceptions: the infant's father (odds ratio [OR]=110.4; 95% CI 52.0 to 234.4) or maternal grandmother (OR=15.9; 95% CI 7.0 to 36.0) preferred only formula feeding; the infant's father (OR=3.2; 95% CI 1.7 to 5.9) or doctor (OR=2.7; 95% CI 1.2 to 6.2) preferred both breast and formula feeding; and the infant's father (OR=7.6; 95% CI 4.5 to 12.7), maternal grandmother (OR=5.4; 95% CI 2.6 to 11.0), or doctor (OR=1.9; 95% CI 1.0 to 3.7) had no opinion/didn't know their feeding preference. The prenatal opinions of family members and health care providers play an important role in a woman's breastfeeding decisions after the infant's birth. PMID:24200653

  3. Political influence associates with cortisol and health among egalitarian forager-farmers

    PubMed Central

    von Rueden, Christopher R.; Trumble, Benjamin C.; Emery Thompson, Melissa; Stieglitz, Jonathan; Hooper, Paul L.; Blackwell, Aaron D.; Kaplan, Hillard S.; Gurven, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives: Low social status increases risk of disease due, in part, to the psychosocial stress that accompanies feeling subordinate or poor. Previous studies report that chronic stress and chronically elevated cortisol can impair cardiovascular and immune function. We test whether lower status is more benign in small-scale, relatively egalitarian societies, where leaders lack coercive authority and there is minimal material wealth to contest. Methodology: Among Tsimane’ forager-horticulturalists of lowland Bolivia, we compare informal political influence among men with urinary cortisol, immune activation (innate and acquired), and morbidity as assessed during routine medical exams. Results: After controlling for potential confounds, we find that politically influential men have lower cortisol, and that this association is partly attributable to access to social support. Cortisol is positively associated with men’s income, which may reflect chronic psychosocial stress from market involvement. Greater influence is also associated with lower probability of respiratory infection, which is a frequent source of morbidity among Tsimane’. Among men who lost influence over a 4-year period, cortisol and probability of respiratory infection were higher the greater the decline in influence. Conclusions and implications: Deleterious effects of low status on health are not merely ‘diseases of civilization’ but may result from how (even subtle) status differences structure human behavior. PMID:25214482

  4. Mortality associated with lithium and valproate treatment of US Veterans Health Administration patients with mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Smith, Eric G; Austin, Karen L; Kim, Hyungjin Myra; Eisen, Susan V; Kilbourne, Amy M; Miller, Donald R; Zivin, Kara; Hannemann, Claire; Sauer, Brian C; Valenstein, Marcia

    2015-07-01

    BackgroundThe mood stabilisers lithium and valproate might plausibly have differing associations with mortality because of differing effects on mental health and various physiological indicators.AimsTo assess associations between lithium, valproate and non-suicide mortality.MethodIntention-to-treat, propensity score-matched cohort study.ResultsLithium was associated with significantly reduced non-suicide mortality in the intent-to-treat cohort over 0-90 days (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.67, 95% CI 0.51-0.87) but not longer. In secondary analyses, a sizeable reduction in mortality was observed during active treatment with lithium across all time periods studied (for example 365-day HR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.45-0.84), but significantly increased risks were observed among patients discontinuing lithium by 180 days (HR = 1.54, 95% CI 1.01-2.37).ConclusionsPatients initiating lithium had lower non-suicide mortality over 0-90 days than patients initiating valproate and consistently lower non-suicide mortality among patients maintaining treatment, but elevated risk among patients discontinuing treatment by 180 days. Although residual confounding or selection effects cannot be excluded, this study suggests potential benefits to enhancing lithium treatment persistence and the monitoring of patients discontinuing lithium. There is a need for further research. PMID:25953891

  5. [The profile of fragility and associated factors among the elderly registered in a Family Health Unit].

    PubMed

    Santos, Patrícia Honório Silva; Fernandes, Marcos Henrique; Casotti, Cezar Augusto; Coqueiro, Raildo da Silva; Carneiro, José Ailton Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    The scope of this study was to identify the profile of fragility and associated factors among the elderly registered in a Family Health Unit. It involved an observational, exploratory, household -based and cross-sectional study conducted with 139 elderly individuals. The data were collected using a structured questionnaire requesting the following information: personal history, family and self-reported diseases, socio-demographic information, level of physical activity, behavior variables, number of falls in the last year, depressive symptoms, unintentional weight loss and fatigue. Anthropometric measurements (weight and height) were also taken and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Descriptive analyses and Pearson's chi-square test or Fisher's exact test were performed, with a significance level of p < 0.05. SPSS software version 21.0 was used for statistical analysis. The prevalence of fragility among the elderly was: frail (16.9%), pre-frail (61.8%) and non-frail (21.3%), respectively. The fragility profile was associated with: age (p < 0.001), BMI (p = 0.018), family situation (p = 0.014), level of physical activity (p < 0.001) and falls (p = 0.043). In this study, a high prevalence was observed of pre-frail and frail elderly individuals and identified factors associated with this syndrome. PMID:26060970

  6. Health state preferences associated with weight status in children and adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mandy B Belfort; John AF Zupancic; Katherine M Riera; Jane HG Turner; Lisa A Prosser

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is a substantial public health problem. The extent to which health state preferences (utilities) are related to a child's weight status has not been reported. The aims of this study were (1) to use a generic health state classification system to measure health related quality of life and calculate health utilities in a convenience sample of children

  7. Health-related quality of life changes associated with buprenorphine treatment for opioid dependence

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Heather M.; Garnand, David A.; Jones, Mark A.; Sather, Mike R.; Naik, Rupali; Ling, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have described improvement in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) associated with opioid dependence treatment with buprenorphine (ODT-B). Objective To evaluate HRQOL changes in domain scores, physical and mental component summaries, and health utilities (HUs) associated with ODT-B using the Short Form 36 (SF-36). Methods We assessed HRQOL changes in a substudy of a pharmacokinetic study that compared buprenorphine oral tablet and liquid dosage formulations over 16 weeks. Individuals, aged 18–65 years, were screened for opioid dependence. They were excluded if they would not agree to birth control or had a serious medical condition. Subjects received psychosocial counseling and weekly group therapy. The SF-36 was administered upon enrollment and at 4-week intervals. We used the SF-6D to estimate HUs. We performed intention to treat (ITT) analyses based on the last observation available for each subject. Paired t tests of each domain and HU, limited to remaining patients at each 4-week interval, were also conducted. Results Of 96 subjects enrolled, cumulative dropouts over time resulted in 80, 69, 59, and 44 subjects remaining at 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks. There were no significant differences in opioid-positive urines, dropout rates, or dosage changes between formulations. In the ITT analyses, HRQOL improvements over time were bodily pain (62.1 vs. 69.1, P = 0.017), vitality (49.8 vs. 56.5, P = 0.001), mental health (59.9 vs. 66.0, P = 0.001), social function (66.4 vs. 74.7, P = 0.001), role emotional (59.4 vs. 71.9, P = 0.003), role physical (60.9 vs. 70.6, P = 0.005), and mental component summary (41.9 vs. 45.4, P<0.001). HU scores also improved (0.674 vs. 0.715, P = 0.001). Results from paired t tests, with only concurrently enrolled patients, showed similar improvements from baseline to 4, 8, 12, or 16 weeks. Conclusion Buprenorphine, accompanied with psychosocial counseling, was associated with improved HRQOL and HUs. PMID:21987030

  8. Change in Self-Reported Health Status among Immigrants in the United States: Associations with Measures of Acculturation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sunmin; O’Neill, Allison H.; Ihara, Emily S.; Chae, David H.

    2013-01-01

    Although acculturation may have positive effects for immigrants, including better socioeconomic profiles and increased occupational opportunities, their health profiles deteriorate with longer duration in the U.S. Prior research indicates that increasing acculturation is associated with some poorer health outcomes among immigrants in the U.S. However, most of these studies have used length of stay or English language proficiency as proxies for acculturation, and have mainly examined self-reported “current” health outcomes. This study advances knowledge on associations between acculturation and health among immigrants by explicitly examining self-reported “change” in health since immigration, in relation to acculturation-related variables. We use data from the New Immigrant Survey (NIS; 2003-2004), a cross-sectional study of legal immigrants to the U.S. In addition to testing more conventionally examined proxies of acculturation (length of stay and English proficiency), we also examine English language use and self-reported change in diet. Multivariable logistic regression analyses on 5,982 participants generally supported previous literature indicating a deleterious impact of acculturation, with increasing duration of stay and greater self-reported change in diet being associated with a poorer change in health since moving to the U.S. Although English language proficiency and use were associated with greater odds of reporting a worse change in health when examined individually, they were non-significant in multivariable models including all acculturation measures. Findings from this study suggest that when taking into account multiple measures of acculturation, language may not necessarily indicate unhealthy assimilation and dietary change may be a pathway leading to declines in immigrant health. Increasing duration in the U.S. may also reflect the adoption of unhealthy behaviors, as well as greater exposure to harmful sources of psychosocial stress including racial and anti-immigrant discrimination. Our study suggests that multiple indicators of acculturation may be useful in examining the effect of acculturation on changes in health among immigrants. PMID:24098515

  9. Associations of a Short Sleep Duration, Insufficient Sleep, and Insomnia with Self-Rated Health among Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Costa, Aline; Griep, Rosane Härter; Rotenberg, Lúcia

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that sleep duration and poor sleep are associated with mortality, as well as with a wide range of negative health outcomes. However, few studies have examined the association between sleep and self-rated health, particularly through the combination of sleep complaints. The objective of this study was to examine whether self-rated health is associated with sleep complaints, considering the combination of sleep duration, insomnia, and sleep sufficiency. This cross-sectional study was performed in the 18 largest public hospitals in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A total of 2518 female nurses answered a self-filled multidimensional questionnaire. The adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) estimated the chance of poor self-rated health in the presence of different combinations of sleep duration and quality. Compared with women who reported adequate sleep duration with no sleep quality complaints (reference group), the odds ratios (95% CI) for poor self-rated health were 1.79 (1.27–2.24) for those who reported only insufficient sleep, 1.85 (0.94–3.66) for only a short sleep duration, and 3.12 (1.94–5.01) for only insomnia. Compared with those who expressed all three complaints (short sleep duration, insomnia, and insufficient sleep), the odds ratio for poor self-rated health was 4.49 (3.25–6.22). Differences in the magnitude of the associations were observed, depending on the combination of sleep complaints. Because self-rated health is a consistent predictor of morbidity, these results reinforce the increasing awareness of the role of sleep in health and disease. Our findings contribute to the recognition of sleep as a public health matter that deserves to be better understood and addressed by policymakers. PMID:25961874

  10. Practice Features Associated With Patient-Reported Accessibility, Continuity, and Coordination of Primary Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Haggerty, Jeannie L.; Pineault, Raynald; Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique; Brunelle, Yvon; Gauthier, Josée; Goulet, François; Rodrigue, Jean

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE On the eve of major primary health care reforms, we conducted a multilevel survey of primary health care clinics to identify attributes of clinic organization and physician practice that predict accessibility, continuity, and coordination of care as experienced by patients. METHODS Primary health care clinics were selected by stratified random sampling in urban, suburban, rural, and remote locations in Quebec, Canada. Up to 4 family or general physicians were selected in each clinic, and 20 patients seeing each physician used the Primary Care Assessment Tool to report on first-contact accessibility (being able to obtain care promptly for sudden illness), relational continuity (having an ongoing relationship with a physician who knew their particulars), and coordination continuity (having coordination between their physician and specialists). Physicians reported on aspects of their practice, and secretaries and directors reported on organizational features of the clinic. We used hierarchical regression modeling on the subsample of regular patients at the clinic. RESULTS One hundred clinics participated (61% response rate), for a total of 221 physicians and 2,725 regular patients (87% response and completion rate). First-contact accessibility was most problematic. Such accessibility was better in clinics with 10 or fewer physicians, a nurse, telephone access 24 hours a day and 7 days a week, operational agreements to facilitate care with other health care establishments, and evening walk-in services. Operational agreements and evening care also positively affected relational continuity. Physicians who valued continuity and felt attached to the community fostered better relational continuity, whereas an accessibility-oriented style (as indicated by a high proportion of walk-in care and high patient volume) hindered it. Coordination continuity was also associated with more operational agreements and continuous telephone access, and was better when physicians practiced part time in hospitals and performed a larger range of medical procedures in their office. CONCLUSIONS The way a clinic is organized allows physicians to achieve both accessibility and continuity rather than one or the other. Features that achieve both are offering care in the evenings and access to telephone advice, and having operational agreements with other health care establishments. PMID:18332403

  11. Occupational Safety and Health Symposia (37th American Medical Association Congress on Occupational Health. St. Louis, Missouri, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglass, Bruce E.; And Others

    The papers compiled here were presented at the fourth symposium in a series designed to provide a continuing introduction to current aspects of occupational safety and health. The papers represent eight topics: (1) special health programs, (2) degenerative disease and injury of the back, (3) job stress and work performance, (4) role of industry in…

  12. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Self-Reported Racism and Its Association With Cancer-Related Health Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Klassen, Ann C.; Bowie, Janice V.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We used population-based survey data to estimate the prevalence of self-reported racism across racial/ethnic groups and to evaluate the association between self-reported racism and cancer-related health behaviors. Methods. We used cross-sectional data from the 2003 California Health Interview Survey. Questions measured self-reported racism in general and in health care. The cancer risk behaviors we assessed were smoking, binge drinking, not walking, being overweight or obese, and not being up to date with screenings for breast, cervical, colorectal, and prostate cancers. Analyses included descriptive analyses and logistic regression. Results. Prevalences of self-reported racism varied between and within aggregate racial/ethnic groups. In adjusted analyses, general racism was associated with smoking, binge drinking, and being overweight or obese; health care racism was associated with not being up to date with screening for prostate cancer. Associations varied across racial/ethnic groups. Conclusions. Associations between general racism and lifestyle behaviors suggest that racism is a potential stressor that may shape cancer-related health behaviors, and its impact may vary by race/ethnicity. PMID:20019302

  13. Health-care-associated infections: Risk factors and epidemiology from an intensive care unit in Northern India

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Priya; Rani, Hena; Chauhan, Rajni; Gombar, Satinder; Chander, Jagdish

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: Health-care-associated infection is a key factor determining the clinical outcome among patients admitted in critical care areas. The objective of the study was to ascertain the epidemiology and risk factors of health-care-associated infections in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) in a tertiary care hospital. Methods: This prospective, observational clinical study included patients admitted in ICU over a period of one and a half years. Routine surveillance of various health-care-associated infections such as catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI), central-line-associated blood stream infections (CLABSI), and ventilator-associated pneumonias (VAP) was done by the Department of Microbiology through specific Infection Surveillance Proforma. Results: Out of 679 patients, 166 suffered 198 episodes of device-associated infections. The infections included CAUTI, CLABSI, and VAP. The number of urinary tract infection (UTI) episodes was found to be 73 (10.75%) among the ICU patients who had indwelling urinary catheter. In addition, for 1 year CAUTI was calculated as 9.08/1000 catheter days. The number of episodes of blood stream infection was 86 (13.50%) among ICU patients having central line catheters. Also, CLABSI was found to be 13.86/1000 central line days. A total of 39 episodes (6.15%) of VAP was found in ICU patients over 18 months and VAP present for 6.04/1000 ventilator days. Conclusions: The organisms most commonly associated with health-care-associated infections were Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species. The risk factors identified as being significantly associated with device associated infections in our ICU were diabetes, COPD and ICU stay for ?8 days (P < 0.05). PMID:24700896

  14. Dietary patterns of adolescents in Germany - Associations with nutrient intake and other health related lifestyle characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to identify dietary patterns among a representative sample of German adolescents and their associations with energy and nutrient intake, socioeconomic and lifestyle characteristics, and overweight status. Methods In the analysis, data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents were used. The survey included a comprehensive dietary history interview conducted among 1272 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years. Dietary patterns were determined with principal component analysis (PCA) based on 48 food groups, for boys and girls separately. Results Three dietary patterns among boys and two among girls were identified. Among boys, high adherence to the 'western' pattern was associated with higher age, lower socioeconomic status (SES), and lower physical activity level (PA). High adherence to the 'healthy' pattern among boys, but not among girls, was associated with higher SES, and higher PA. Among boys, high adherence to the 'traditional' pattern was associated with higher age. Among girls, high adherence to the 'traditional and western' pattern was associated with lower age, lower SES and more hours watching TV per day. The nutrient density of several vitamins and minerals, particularly of B-vitamins and calcium, increased with increasing scores of the 'healthy' pattern among both sexes. Conversely, with increasing scores of the 'western' pattern among boys, most nutrient densities decreased, particularly of fibre, beta-carotene, vitamin D, biotin and calcium. Among girls with higher scores of the 'traditional and western' pattern, nutrient densities of vitamin A, C, E, K and folate decreased. Among boys, high adherence to the 'traditional' pattern was correlated with higher densities of vitamin B12 and vitamin D and lower densities of fibre, magnesium and iron. No significant associations between dietary patterns and overweight were found. Conclusions Higher scores for dietary patterns characterized by higher consumption of take away food, meat, confectionary and soft drinks ('western' and 'traditional and western') were found particularly among 16- to 17-years old boys and among adolescents with lower SES. These patterns were also associated with higher energy density, higher percent of energy from unsaturated fatty acids and lower percent of energy from carbohydrates as well as lower nutrient densities of several vitamins and minerals. Therefore, nutritional interventions should try to focus more on adolescents with lower SES and boys in general. PMID:22439777

  15. Latent variable modelling of personality-health associations: measures, models and extensions 

    E-print Network

    Hagger-Johnson, Gareth

    Functional health status, morbidity and mortality are determined partly by health behaviours (World Health Organization, 2002), which have determinants of their own. Personality traits, such as Conscientiousness, have a ...

  16. PUBLIC HEALTH AND ECOLOGICAL INTERCONNECTIVITY: A CONDITIONAL PROBABILITY APPROACH ASSOCIATING DEGRADATION OF STREAMS AND INFANT MORTALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective public health policy should not be based solely on clinical, individualbased information, but requires a broad characterization of human health conditions across large geographic areas. For the most part, the necessary monitoring of human health to ...

  17. Skin microbiota: Microbial community structure and its potential association with health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Mariana; Goldberg, Deborah; Aiello, Allison; Larson, Elaine; Foxman, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    Skin, the largest human organ, is a complex and dynamic ecosystem inhabited by a multitude of microorganisms. Host demographics and genetics, human behavior, local and regional environmental characteristics, and transmission events may all potentially drive human skin microbiota variability, resulting in an alteration of microbial community structure. This alteration may have important consequences regarding health and disease outcomes among individuals. More specifically, certain diversity patterns of human microbiota may be predictive or diagnostic of disease. The purpose of this review is to briefly describe the skin microbiota, outline the potential determining factors driving its variability, posit the likelihood of an association between the resulting microbial community structure on the skin with disease outcomes among individuals, and finally, to present some challenges and implications for studying the skin microbiota. PMID:21463709

  18. Psychiatric and medical comorbidities, associated pain, and health care utilization of patients prescribed buprenorphine.

    PubMed

    Mark, Tami L; Dilonardo, Joan; Vandivort, Rita; Miller, Kay

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the comorbidities and health care utilization of individuals treated with buprenorphine using the 2007-2009 MarketScan Research Databases. Buprenorphine recipients had a high prevalence of comorbidities associated with chronic pain, including back problems (42%), connective tissue disease (24-27%), and nontraumatic joint disorders (20-23%). Approximately 69% of recipients filled prescriptions for opioid agonist medications in the 6 months before buprenorphine initiation. Buprenorphine recipients were frequently diagnosed with anxiety (23-42%) and mood disorders (39-51%) and filled prescriptions for antidepressants (47-56%) and benzodiazepines (47-56%) at high rates. Surprisingly, only 53-54% of patients filling a prescription for buprenorphine had a coded opioid abuse/dependence diagnosis. Research is needed to better understand buprenorphine's effectiveness in the context of prescription drug abuse and the best way to coordinate services to address the patient's comorbid addiction, pain, and psychiatric illnesses. PMID:23265445

  19. Longitudinal Associations Between Teen Dating Violence Victimization and Adverse Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Eckenrode, John; Rothman, Emily

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the longitudinal association between teen dating violence victimization and selected adverse health outcomes. METHODS: Secondary analysis of Waves 1 (1994–1995), 2 (1996), and 3 (2001–2002) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a nationally representative sample of US high schools and middle schools. Participants were 5681 12- to 18-year-old adolescents who reported heterosexual dating experiences at Wave 2. These participants were followed-up ?5 years later (Wave 3) when they were aged 18 to 25. Physical and psychological dating violence victimization was assessed at Wave 2. Outcome measures were reported at Wave 3, and included depressive symptomatology, self-esteem, antisocial behaviors, sexual risk behaviors, extreme weight control behaviors, suicidal ideation and attempt, substance use (smoking, heavy episodic drinking, marijuana, other drugs), and adult intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization. Data were analyzed by using multivariate linear and logistic regression models. RESULTS: Compared with participants reporting no teen dating violence victimization at Wave 2, female participants experiencing victimization reported increased heavy episodic drinking, depressive symptomatology, suicidal ideation, smoking, and IPV victimization at Wave 3, whereas male participants experiencing victimization reported increased antisocial behaviors, suicidal ideation, marijuana use, and IPV victimization at Wave 3, controlling for sociodemographics, child maltreatment, and pubertal status. CONCLUSIONS: The results from the present analyses suggest that dating violence experienced during adolescence is related to adverse health outcomes in young adulthood. Findings from this study emphasize the importance of screening and offering secondary prevention programs to both male and female victims. PMID:23230075

  20. Is involvement in school bullying associated with general health and psychosocial adjustment outcomes in adulthood?

    PubMed

    Sigurdson, J F; Wallander, J; Sund, A M

    2014-10-01

    The aim was to examine prospectively associations between bullying involvement at 14-15 years of age and self-reported general health and psychosocial adjustment in young adulthood, at 26-27 years of age. A large representative sample (N=2,464) was recruited and assessed in two counties in Mid-Norway in 1998 (T1) and 1999/2000 (T2) when the respondents had a mean age of 13.7 and 14.9, respectively, leading to classification as being bullied, bully-victim, being aggressive toward others or non-involved. Information about general health and psychosocial adjustment was gathered at a follow-up in 2012 (T4) (N=1,266) with a respondent mean age of 27.2. Logistic regression and ANOVA analyses showed that groups involved in bullying of any type in adolescence had increased risk for lower education as young adults compared to those non-involved. The group aggressive toward others also had a higher risk of being unemployed and receiving any kind of social help. Compared with the non-involved, those being bullied and bully-victims had increased risk of poor general health and high levels of pain. Bully-victims and those aggressive toward others during adolescence subsequently had increased risk of tobacco use and lower job functioning than non-involved. Further, those being bullied and aggressive toward others had increased risk of illegal drug use. Relations to live-in spouse/partner were poorer among those being bullied. Involvement in bullying, either as victim or perpetrator, has significant social costs even 12 years after the bullying experience. Accordingly, it will be important to provide early intervention for those involved in bullying in adolescence. PMID:24972719

  1. Association of Perception of Front-of-Pack Labels with Dietary, Lifestyle and Health Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Méjean, Caroline; Macouillard, Pauline; Péneau, Sandrine; Lassale, Camille; Hercberg, Serge; Castetbon, Katia

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify patterns of perception of front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition labels and determine dietary, lifestyle and health profiles related to such patterns. Design Cross-sectional. Participants/Setting 28,952 French adults participating in the web-based Nutrinet-Santé cohort. Outcome measures Perception was measured using indicators of understanding and acceptability for three simple FOP labels (“green tick”, the logo of the French Nutrition and Health Program and “simple traffic lights” (STL)), and two detailed FOP formats (“multiple traffic lights” (MTL) and “color range” logo (CR)), placed on ready-to-eat soup packages. Dietary intake data were collected using three web-based 24 h records. Statistical analyses Associations of perception patterns with individual characteristics, including diet, lifestyle and health status, were examined using analysis of covariance and logistic regression, adjusted for socio-demographic and economic factors. Results No clear trend emerged concerning differences in dietary intake between perception groups. Low physical activity and obesity were more frequent in the ‘favorable to STL’ group (respectively, 20.7% and 10.7%). The ‘favorable to MTL’ group included the highest percentage of individuals who declared type 2 diabetes (2.2%). Persons with hypertension were proportionally more numerous in the ‘favorable to MTL’ and the ‘favorable to CR logo’ groups (respectively, 9.5% and 9.3%). Conclusions After adjustment for socio-demographic and economic factors, no FOP label stood out as being more suitable than another for reaching populations with poor diet. However, both STL and MTL may be most appropriate for increasing awareness of healthy eating among groups at higher risk of nutrition-related chronic diseases. PMID:24621617

  2. Metal accumulation and health effects in raccoons (Procyon lotor) associated with coal fly ash exposure.

    PubMed

    Souza, Marcy J; Ramsay, Edward C; Donnell, Robert L

    2013-05-01

    Approximately 5.4 million cubic yards of coal fly ash and water spilled into the Emory River embayment of Watts Bar Reservoir in east Tennessee on Dec 22, 2008. Raccoons were collected in 2009 and 2010 from the spill site (10/y) and unexposed areas (5/y) to determine whether metals and metalloids were accumulating in raccoons and if any negative health effects resulted from exposure to the spilled coal fly ash. Tissues were analyzed from each animal to determine the concentrations of 26 metals/metalloids. Complete blood cell counts (CBC), plasma biochemistry panels, and histopathology of select tissues also were performed. Results were analyzed by year and exposure status. Although significant differences were present in some tissues for some metals/metalloids, only arsenic in hair, iron in muscle, nickel in hair, selenium in hair and muscle, strontium in hair, and vanadium in hair and liver were increased in spill site animals (one or both years) compared with unexposed animals. No clinically important differences were observed between groups regarding CBC or plasma biochemistry analyses. Lesions were observed on histopathology in some tissues, but there was no difference in the prevalence of lesions between spill site and unexposed animals. There does not seem to be any important accumulation of metals/metalloids or negative health effects in raccoons associated with exposure to coal fly ash compared with unexposed animals. PMID:23292273

  3. Genetic association analysis under complex survey sampling: the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.

    PubMed

    Lin, Dan-Yu; Tao, Ran; Kalsbeek, William D; Zeng, Donglin; Gonzalez, Franklyn; Fernández-Rhodes, Lindsay; Graff, Mariaelisa; Koch, Gary G; North, Kari E; Heiss, Gerardo

    2014-12-01

    The cohort design allows investigators to explore the genetic basis of a variety of diseases and traits in a single study while avoiding major weaknesses of the case-control design. Most cohort studies employ multistage cluster sampling with unequal probabilities to conveniently select participants with desired characteristics, and participants from different clusters might be genetically related. Analysis that ignores the complex sampling design can yield biased estimation of the genetic association and inflation of the type I error. Herein, we develop weighted estimators that reflect unequal selection probabilities and differential nonresponse rates, and we derive variance estimators that properly account for the sampling design and the potential relatedness of participants in different sampling units. We compare, both analytically and numerically, the performance of the proposed weighted estimators with unweighted estimators that disregard the sampling design. We demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed methods through analysis of MetaboChip data in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos, which is the largest health study of the Hispanic/Latino population in the United States aimed at identifying risk factors for various diseases and determining the role of genes and environment in the occurrence of diseases. We provide guidelines on the use of weighted and unweighted estimators, as well as the relevant software. PMID:25480034

  4. Genetic Association Analysis under Complex Survey Sampling: The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Dan-Yu; Tao, Ran; Kalsbeek, William D.; Zeng, Donglin; Gonzalez, Franklyn; Fernández-Rhodes, Lindsay; Graff, Mariaelisa; Koch, Gary G.; North, Kari E.; Heiss, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    The cohort design allows investigators to explore the genetic basis of a variety of diseases and traits in a single study while avoiding major weaknesses of the case-control design. Most cohort studies employ multistage cluster sampling with unequal probabilities to conveniently select participants with desired characteristics, and participants from different clusters might be genetically related. Analysis that ignores the complex sampling design can yield biased estimation of the genetic association and inflation of the type I error. Herein, we develop weighted estimators that reflect unequal selection probabilities and differential nonresponse rates, and we derive variance estimators that properly account for the sampling design and the potential relatedness of participants in different sampling units. We compare, both analytically and numerically, the performance of the proposed weighted estimators with unweighted estimators that disregard the sampling design. We demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed methods through analysis of MetaboChip data in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos, which is the largest health study of the Hispanic/Latino population in the United States aimed at identifying risk factors for various diseases and determining the role of genes and environment in the occurrence of diseases. We provide guidelines on the use of weighted and unweighted estimators, as well as the relevant software. PMID:25480034

  5. Phthalates and other additives in plastics: human exposure and associated health outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Meeker, John D.; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Swan, Shanna H.

    2009-01-01

    Concern exists over whether additives in plastics to which most people are exposed, such as phthalates, bisphenol A or polybrominated diphenyl ethers, may cause harm to human health by altering endocrine function or through other biological mechanisms. Human data are limited compared with the large body of experimental evidence documenting reproductive or developmental toxicity in relation to these compounds. Here, we discuss the current state of human evidence, as well as future research trends and needs. Because exposure assessment is often a major weakness in epidemiological studies, and in utero exposures to reproductive or developmental toxicants are important, we also provide original data on maternal exposure to phthalates during and after pregnancy (n = 242). Phthalate metabolite concentrations in urine showed weak correlations between pre- and post-natal samples, though the strength of the relationship increased when duration between the two samples decreased. Phthalate metabolite levels also tended to be higher in post-natal samples. In conclusion, there is a great need for more human studies of adverse health effects associated with plastic additives. Recent advances in the measurement of exposure biomarkers hold much promise in improving the epidemiological data, but their utility must be understood to facilitate appropriate study design. PMID:19528058

  6. California Hospitals’ Response to State and Federal Policies Related to Health Care–Associated Infections

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Patricia W.; Pogorzelska, Monika; Graham, Denise; Jia, Haomiao; Uchida, Mayuko; Larson, Elaine L.

    2011-01-01

    In October 2008, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) denied payment for ten selected health care–associated infections (HAI). In January 2009, California enacted mandatory reporting of infection prevention processes and HAI rates. This longitudinal mixed-methods study examined the impact of federal and state policy changes on California hospitals. Data on structures, processes, and outcomes of care were collected pre- and post-policy changes. In-depth interviews with hospital personnel were performed after policy implementation. More than 200 hospitals participated with 25 personnel interviewed. We found significant increases in adoption of and adherence to evidence-based practices and decreased HAI rates (p < .05). Infection preventionists (IP) spent more time on surveillance and in their offices and less time on education and in other locations (p < .05). Qualitative data confirmed mandatory reporting had intended and unintended consequences and highlighted the importance of technology and organizational climate in preventing infections and the changing IPs’ role. This is especially relevant because the California Department of Public Health has since mandated hospitals to report data on 29 different for surgical site infections and a lawsuit has been filed to delay the implementation of these requirements. PMID:22042613

  7. Developing a new mid-level health worker: lessons from South Africa's experience with clinical associates

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Jane; Conco, Daphney; Couper, Ian; Fonn, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Background Mid-level medical workers play an important role in health systems and hold great potential for addressing the human resource shortage, especially in low- and middle-income countries. South Africa began the production of its first mid-level medical workers – known as clinical associates – in small numbers in 2008. Objective We describe the way in which scopes of practice and course design were negotiated and assess progress during the early years. We derive lessons for other countries wishing to introduce new types of mid-level worker. Methods We conducted a rapid assessment in 2010 consisting of a review of 19 documents and 11 semi-structured interviews with a variety of stakeholders. A thematic analysis was performed. Results Central to the success of the clinical associate training programme was a clear definition and understanding of the interests of various stakeholders. Stakeholder sensitivities were taken into account in the conceptualisation of the role and scope of practice of the clinical associate. This was achieved by dealing with quality of care concerns through service-based training and doctor supervision, and using a national curriculum framework to set uniform standards. Conclusions This new mid-level medical worker can contribute to the quality of district hospital care and address human resource shortages. However, a number of significant challenges lie ahead. To sustain and expand on early achievements, clinical associates must be produced in greater numbers and the required funding, training capacity, public sector posts, and supervision must be made available. Retaining the new cadre will depend on the public system becoming an employer of choice. Nonetheless, the South African experience yields positive lessons that could be of use to other countries contemplating similar initiatives. PMID:23364079

  8. The Effect of College Student Spirituality on Alcohol Use and Sexual Behaviors: A Comparison of Faith-Based and Non Faith-Based Institutional NCHA Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kristen S.

    2014-01-01

    College-aged individuals have a significant impact on national health. People in this age group have the highest rates of engagement in many risky health behaviors, such as binge drinking, substance use, and engaging in unprotected sexual activity. The American College Health Association (ACHA) has been actively involved in the study of college…

  9. Priorities for mental health research in Europe: A survey among national stakeholders' associations within the ROAMER project

    PubMed Central

    Fiorillo, Andrea; Luciano, Mario; Del Vecchio, Valeria; Sampogna, Gaia; Obradors-Tarragó, Carla; Maj, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Within the ROAMER project, funded by the European Commission, a survey was conducted with national associations/organizations of psychiatrists, other mental health professionals, users and/or carers, and psychiatric trainees in the 27 countries of the European Union, aiming to explore their views about priorities for mental health research in Europe. One hundred and eight associations/organizations returned the questionnaire. The five most frequently selected research priorities were early detection and management of mental disorders, quality of mental health services, prevention of mental disorders, rehabilitation and social inclusion, and new medications for mental disorders. All these areas, except the last one, were among the top ten research priorities according to all categories of stakeholders, along with stigma and discrimination. These results seem to support the recent argument that some rebalancing in favor of psychosocial and health service studies may be needed in psychiatric research. PMID:23737426

  10. Electronic medical records and the transgender patient: recommendations from the World Professional Association for Transgender Health EMR Working Group

    PubMed Central

    Deutsch, Madeline B; Green, Jamison; Keatley, JoAnne; Mayer, Gal; Hastings, Jennifer; Hall, Alexandra M

    2013-01-01

    Transgender patients have particular needs with respect to demographic information and health records; specifically, transgender patients may have a chosen name and gender identity that differs from their current legally designated name and sex. Additionally, sex-specific health information, for example, a man with a cervix or a woman with a prostate, requires special attention in electronic health record (EHR) systems. The World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH) is an international multidisciplinary professional association that publishes recognized standards for the care of transgender and gender variant persons. In September 2011, the WPATH Executive Committee convened an Electronic Medical Records Working Group comprised of both expert clinicians and medical information technology specialists, to make recommendations for developers, vendors, and users of EHR systems with respect to transgender patients. These recommendations and supporting rationale are presented here. PMID:23631835

  11. Campus Violence White Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Joetta L.

    2007-01-01

    In 1999, the American College Health Association (ACHA) Executive Committee issued a position statement for the Association that addresses acts of violence, bias, and other violations of human rights that have been occurring all too often within or adjacent to college communities. The statement called for all campus health professionals to become…

  12. Self-rated health and associated factors among older South Africans: evidence from the study on global ageing and adult health

    PubMed Central

    Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Peltzer, Karl; Chirinda, Witness; Kose, Zamakayise; Hoosain, Ebrahim; Ramlagan, Shandir; Tabane, Cily; Davids, Adlai

    2013-01-01

    Background Population ageing has become significant in South African society, increasing the need to improve understandings of health and well-being among the aged. Objective To describe the self-reported ratings of overall health and functioning, and to identify factors associated with self-rated health among older South Africans. Design A national population-based cross-sectional survey, with a sample of 3,840 individuals aged 50 years and older, was completed in South Africa in 2008. Self-reported ratings of overall health and functioning were measured using a single self-reported health state covering nine health domains (used to generate the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) composite health state score). Disability was measured using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHODAS-II) activities of daily living (ADLs), instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), perceptions of well-being, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life index/metric (WHOQoL). Results Overall, more than three quarters (76.8%) of adults rated their health as moderate or good. On balance, men reported very good or good health more often than women (p<0.001). Older people (aged 70 years and above) reported significantly poorer health status than those aged 50–59 (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00–2.30). Indians and Blacks were significantly more likely to report poorer health status at (AOR=4.01; 95% CI 1.27–12.70) and (AOR=0.42; 95% CI 0.18–0.98; 30 p <0.045), respectively, compared to Whites. Respondents with primary education (AOR=1.83; 95% CI 1.19–2.80) and less than primary education (AOR=1.94; 95% CI 1.37–2.76) were more likely to report poorer health compared to those with secondary education. In terms of wealth status, those in low wealth quintile (AOR=2.02; 95% CI 1.14–3.57) and medium wealth quintile (AOR=1.47; 95% CI 1.01–2.13) were more likely to report poorer health status than those in high wealth quintile. Overall, the mean WHODAS-II score was 20%, suggesting a low level of disability. The mean WHOQoL score for females (Mean=51.5; SD=12.2) was comparable to that of males (Mean=49.1; SD=12.6). Conclusions The depreciation in health and daily functioning with increasing age is likely to increase demand for health care and other services as people grow older. There is a need for regular monitoring of the health status of older people to provide public health agencies with the data they need to assess, protect, and promote the health and well-being of older people.

  13. Associations between strain in domestic work and self-rated health: A study of employed women in Sweden

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CARIN STALAND-NYMAN; KRISTINA ALEXANDERSON; GUNNEL HENSING

    Aim: The aim of this study was to analyse the association between strain in domestic work and self-rated health among employed women in Sweden, using two different methods of measuring strain in domestic work. Methods: Questionnaire data were collected on health and living conditions in paid and unpaid work for employed women (n51,417), aged 17-64 years. ''Domestic job strain'' was

  14. Do welfare regimes influence the association between disability and self-perceived health? A multilevel analysis of 57 countries.

    PubMed

    Foubert, Josephine; Levecque, Katia; Van Rossem, Ronan; Romagnoli, Alessia

    2014-09-01

    Disability is usually associated with poorer self-rated health. However, as many people with disabilities do not consider themselves unhealthy, the association may not be as straightforward as it appears. This study examines whether the relationship between disability and self-rated health is dependent on a country's welfare regime. Welfare regimes can play a significant role in securing the needs of disabled people and lessening their social exclusion. However, welfare regimes also label disabled people accordingly, before they become entitled to specific provisions and services. Being given a low status label and being dependent on welfare provisions might trigger a negative self-evaluation of health. Using data from 57 countries of the World Health Survey of 2002-2004, the multilevel regression analyses show that people with a disability tend to rate their health worse than people without any disability. Moreover, the strength of this negative association varies significantly across countries and is affected by a country's welfare regime. The association is the strongest in the various Welfare State regimes (mostly European countries) and the weakest in Informal-Security regimes (Latin-American and Asian countries) and in Insecurity regimes (African countries). Disabled people living in Welfare States regimes tend to rate their health worse than people in other regimes. These findings confirm that welfare regimes play a role in shaping the health perception of disabled people and that processes of labeling may result in unintended and negative consequences of welfare programs. Research on the nexus between disability and self-rated health that neglects this macro-social context of welfare regimes may lead to undifferentiated and even incorrect conclusions. PMID:25016461

  15. Cardiovascular Health: Associations with Race-ethnicity, Nativity, and Education in a Diverse, Population-based Sample of Californians

    PubMed Central

    Bostean, Georgiana; Roberts, Christian K.; Crespi, Catherine M.; Prelip, Michael; Peters, Anne; Belin, Thomas R.; McCarthy, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study examined how race-ethnicity, nativity, and education interact to influence disparities in cardiovascular (CV) health, a new concept defined by the American Heart Association (AHA). We assessed whether race-ethnicity and nativity disparities in CV health vary by education, and whether the foreign-born differ in CV health from their US-born race-ethnic counterparts with comparable education. Methods We used data from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey to determine the prevalence of optimal CV health metrics (based on selected AHA guidelines) among adults ages 25 and over (n = 42,014). We examined the interaction between education and ethnicity-nativity, comparing predicted probabilities of each CV health measure between US-born and foreign-born Whites, Asians, and Latinos. Results All groups were at high risk of suboptimal physical activity levels, fruit and vegetable and fast food consumption, and overweight/obesity. Those with higher education were generally better-off, except among Asians. Ethnicity-nativity differences were more pronounced among those with less than a college degree. The foreign-born exhibited both advantages and disadvantages in CV health compared to their US-born counterparts that varied by ethnicity-nativity. Conclusions Education influences ethnicity-nativity disparities in CV health, with most race-ethnic and nativity differences occurring among the less educated. Studies of nativity differences in CV health should stratify by education in order to adequately address SES differences. PMID:23726820

  16. Socio-Environmental Factors Associated with Self-Rated Oral Health in South Africa: A Multilevel Effects Model

    PubMed Central

    Olutola, Bukola G.; Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: This study examined the influence of the social context in which people live on self-ratings of their oral health. Method: This study involved a representative sample of 2,907 South African adults (?16 years) who participated in the 2007 South African Social Attitude Survey (SASAS). We used the 2005 General Household Survey (n = 107,987 persons from 28,129 households) to obtain living environment characteristics of SASAS participants, including sources of water and energy, and household cell-phone ownership (a proxy measure for the social network available to them). Information obtained from SASAS included socio-demographic data, respondents’ level of trust in people, oral health behaviors and self-rated oral health. Results: Of the respondents, 76.3% self-rated their oral health as good. Social context influenced women’s self-rated oral health differently from that of men. Good self-rated oral health was significantly higher among non-smokers, employed respondents and women living in areas with higher household cell-phone ownership. Furthermore, trust and higher social position were associated with good self-rated oral health among men and women respectively. Overall, 55.1% and 18.3% of the variance in self-rated oral health were explained by factors operating at the individual and community levels respectively. Conclusion: The findings highlight the potential role of social capital in improving the population’s oral health. PMID:23202757

  17. Child and family psychiatric and psychological factors associated with child physical health problems: results from the Boricua youth study.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Jonathan M; Ortega, Alexander N; Koinis-Mitchell, Daphne; Kuo, Alice A; Canino, Glorisa

    2010-04-01

    To examine associations among Puerto Rican children's physical health problems and children's internalizing disorders, parental psychopathology and acculturative stress, and family factors. A population-based probability sample of 2491 Puerto Rican children, aged between 5 and 13 years, and caregivers from the South Bronx and the U.S. Commonwealth of Puerto Rico participated in this study. The parent version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-IV was used to assess children's internalizing disorders. Children's anxiety disorders, parental psychopathology, and acculturative stress were associated with childhood asthma, abdominal pain, and headaches. Children's depressive disorders, maternal acceptance, and family functioning were associated with abdominal pain and headaches. Parents of children living in Puerto Rico were more likely to report physical health problems in their children than in the Bronx. Children's internalizing disorders, parental psychopathology, and acculturative stress may be important areas to target among Puerto Rican children with physical health problems. PMID:20386256

  18. Health Facility Graduation from Donor-Supported Intensive Technical Assistance and Associated Factors in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Koni, Phillip; Chishinga, Nathaniel; Nyirenda, Lameck; Kasonde, Prisca; Nsakanya, Richard; Welsh, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The FHI360-led Zambia Prevention Care and Treatment partnership II (ZPCT II) with funding from United States Agency for International Development, supports the Zambian Ministry of Health in scaling up HIV/AIDS services. To improve the quality of HIV/AIDS services, ZPCT II provides technical assistance until desired standards are met and districts are weaned-off intensive technical support, a process referred to as district graduation. This study describes the graduation process and determines performance domains associated with district graduation. Methods Data were collected from 275 health facilities in 39 districts in 5 provinces of Zambia between 2008 and 2012. Performance in technical capacity, commodity management, data management and human resources domains were assessed in the following services areas: HIV counselling and testing and prevention of mother to child transmission, antiretroviral therapy/clinical care, pharmacy and laboratory. The overall mean percentage score was calculated by obtaining the mean of mean percentage scores for the four domains. Logistic regression models were used to obtain odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the domain mean percentage scores in graduated versus non-graduated districts; according to rural-urban, and province strata. Results 24 districts out of 39 graduated from intensive donor supported technical assistance while 15 districts did not graduate. The overall mean percentage score for all four domains was statistically significantly higher in graduated than non-graduated districts (93.2% versus 91.2%, OR = 1.34, 95%CI:1.20–1.49); including rural settings (92.4% versus 89.4%, OR = 1.43,95%CI:1.24–1.65). The mean percentage score in human resource domain was statistically significantly higher in graduated than non-graduated districts (93.6% versus 71.6%, OR = 5.81, 95%CI: 4.29–7.86) and in both rural and urban settings. Conclusions QA/QI tools can be used to assess performance at health facilities and determine readiness for district graduation. Human resources management domain was found to be an important factor associated with district graduation. PMID:26098555

  19. Uncertainties in estimating health risks associated with exposure to ionising radiation.

    PubMed

    Preston, R Julian; Boice, John D; Brill, A Bertrand; Chakraborty, Ranajit; Conolly, Rory; Hoffman, F Owen; Hornung, Richard W; Kocher, David C; Land, Charles E; Shore, Roy E; Woloschak, Gayle E

    2013-09-01

    The information for the present discussion on the uncertainties associated with estimation of radiation risks and probability of disease causation was assembled for the recently published NCRP Report No. 171 on this topic. This memorandum provides a timely overview of the topic, given that quantitative uncertainty analysis is the state of the art in health risk assessment and given its potential importance to developments in radiation protection. Over the past decade the increasing volume of epidemiology data and the supporting radiobiology findings have aided in the reduction of uncertainty in the risk estimates derived. However, it is equally apparent that there remain significant uncertainties related to dose assessment, low dose and low dose-rate extrapolation approaches (e.g. the selection of an appropriate dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor), the biological effectiveness where considerations of the health effects of high-LET and lower-energy low-LET radiations are required and the transfer of risks from a population for which health effects data are available to one for which such data are not available. The impact of radiation on human health has focused in recent years on cancer, although there has been a decided increase in the data for noncancer effects together with more reliable estimates of the risk following radiation exposure, even at relatively low doses (notably for cataracts and cardiovascular disease). New approaches for the estimation of hereditary risk have been developed with the use of human data whenever feasible, although the current estimates of heritable radiation effects still are based on mouse data because of an absence of effects in human studies. Uncertainties associated with estimation of these different types of health effects are discussed in a qualitative and semi-quantitative manner as appropriate. The way forward would seem to require additional epidemiological studies, especially studies of low dose and low dose-rate occupational and perhaps environmental exposures and for exposures to x rays and high-LET radiations used in medicine. The development of models for more reliably combining the epidemiology data with experimental laboratory animal and cellular data can enhance the overall risk assessment approach by providing biologically refined data to strengthen the estimation of effects at low doses as opposed to the sole use of mathematical models of epidemiological data that are primarily driven by medium/high doses. NASA's approach to radiation protection for astronauts, although a unique occupational group, indicates the possible applicability of estimates of risk and their uncertainty in a broader context for developing recommendations on: (1) dose limits for occupational exposure and exposure of members of the public; (2) criteria to limit exposures of workers and members of the public to radon and its short-lived decay products; and (3) the dosimetric quantity (effective dose) used in radiation protection. PMID:23803503

  20. Coral-associated micro-organisms and their roles in promoting coral health and thwarting diseases

    PubMed Central

    Krediet, Cory J.; Ritchie, Kim B.; Paul, Valerie J.; Teplitski, Max

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, significant advances have been made in characterization of the coral microbiota. Shifts in its composition often correlate with the appearance of signs of diseases and/or bleaching, thus suggesting a link between microbes, coral health and stability of reef ecosystems. The understanding of interactions in coral-associated microbiota is informed by the on-going characterization of other microbiomes, which suggest that metabolic pathways and functional capabilities define the ‘core’ microbiota more accurately than the taxonomic diversity of its members. Consistent with this hypothesis, there does not appear to be a consensus on the specificity in the interactions of corals with microbial commensals, even though recent studies report potentially beneficial functions of the coral-associated bacteria. They cycle sulphur, fix nitrogen, produce antimicrobial compounds, inhibit cell-to-cell signalling and disrupt virulence in opportunistic pathogens. While their beneficial functions have been documented, it is not certain whether or how these microbes are selected by the hosts. Therefore, understanding the role of innate immunity, signal and nutrient exchange in the establishment of coral microbiota and in controlling its functions will probably reveal ancient, evolutionarily conserved mechanisms that dictate the outcomes of host–microbial interactions, and impact the resilience of the host. PMID:23363627

  1. MRNA and miRNA expression patterns associated to pathways linked to metal mixture health effects.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pacheco, M; Hidalgo-Miranda, A; Romero-Córdoba, S; Valverde, M; Rojas, E

    2014-01-10

    Metals are a threat to human health by increasing disease risk. Experimental data have linked altered miRNA expression with exposure to some metals. MiRNAs comprise a large family of non-coding single-stranded molecules that primarily function to negatively regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. Although several human populations are exposed to low concentrations of As, Cd and Pb as a mixture, most toxicology research focuses on the individual effects that these metals exert. Thus, this study aims to evaluate global miRNA and mRNA expression changes induced by a metal mixture containing NaAsO2, CdCl2, Pb(C2H3O2)2·3H2O and to predict possible metal-associated disease development under these conditions. Our results show that this metal mixture results in a miRNA expression profile that may be responsible for the mRNA expression changes observed under experimental conditions in which coding proteins are involved in cellular processes, including cell death, growth and proliferation related to the metal-associated inflammatory response and cancer. PMID:24080485

  2. Dietary sugars intake and cardiovascular health: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rachel K; Appel, Lawrence J; Brands, Michael; Howard, Barbara V; Lefevre, Michael; Lustig, Robert H; Sacks, Frank; Steffen, Lyn M; Wylie-Rosett, Judith

    2009-09-15

    High intakes of dietary sugars in the setting of a worldwide pandemic of obesity and cardiovascular disease have heightened concerns about the adverse effects of excessive consumption of sugars. In 2001 to 2004, the usual intake of added sugars for Americans was 22.2 teaspoons per day (355 calories per day). Between 1970 and 2005, average annual availability of sugars/added sugars increased by 19%, which added 76 calories to Americans' average daily energy intake. Soft drinks and other sugar-sweetened beverages are the primary source of added sugars in Americans' diets. Excessive consumption of sugars has been linked with several metabolic abnormalities and adverse health conditions, as well as shortfalls of essential nutrients. Although trial data are limited, evidence from observational studies indicates that a higher intake of soft drinks is associated with greater energy intake, higher body weight, and lower intake of essential nutrients. National survey data also indicate that excessive consumption of added sugars is contributing to overconsumption of discretionary calories by Americans. On the basis of the 2005 US Dietary Guidelines, intake of added sugars greatly exceeds discretionary calorie allowances, regardless of energy needs. In view of these considerations, the American Heart Association recommends reductions in the intake of added sugars. A prudent upper limit of intake is half of the discretionary calorie allowance, which for most American women is no more than 100 calories per day and for most American men is no more than 150 calories per day from added sugars. PMID:19704096

  3. Social Determinants of Health Associated with Self-Reported HIV Testing among Women

    PubMed Central

    REZAEIAN, Shahab; ESMAILNASAB, Nader

    2013-01-01

    Background There currently is lack of knowledge about HIV testing practices in Iran. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the prevalence of self-reported HIV testing and its associated factors among women. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Sanandaj City, located in the west of Iran, in 2012. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaire including demographics characteristics and the main outcome variable was self-reported HIV testing. The univariate and multivariate logistic regression models using STATA software was used for data analysis. Results: A total of 1200 women were interviewed during the study (Response rate=87.5%). The mean age was 29.67 years (SD: 7.01 years), 49% were aged 28 years or younger, 39.2% were single, 16.9% were pregnant and 60% did not have academic education. The proportion of women that were HIV-tested was, 32.1% (CI 95%: 29.2%, 35.0%). HIV testing was associated with younger age, knowledge of HIV/AIDS, household wealth, pregnancy, academic education, occupation and duration time of occupation, rating of quality of health services and substance use history in her husband. Conclusion: The self-reported HIV testing rate among our sample women is 32.1%, lower than the HIV testing rate in other studies. Therefore, interventions to expand HIV testing and increase awareness of HIV risk are urgently needed in Iran. PMID:23785685

  4. Young People with Down Syndrome: A Preliminary Investigation of Health Knowledge and Associated Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobling, Anne; Cuskelly, Monica

    2006-01-01

    Background: Adults with intellectual disability have a range of significant health problems. If they are to live independently, they need to engage in behaviours that are health promoting, as well as avoiding behaviours that might directly lead to ill health. There is very little research about health-related knowledge and behaviour in this group.…

  5. Low parent health literacy is associated with 'obesogenic' infant care behaviours.

    PubMed

    Cha, EunSeok; Besse, Jennifer Lee

    2015-04-01

    Implications for practice and research: Obesogenic infant care behaviours may increase childhood obesity, and predict obesity and related health risks in adulthood. Poor parent health literacy predicts poor child health outcomes including childhood obesity. Nurses should assess parent health literacy and provide appropriate support to prevent obesogenic infant care behaviours. Future research could focus on evaluating parent educational programmes tailored to health literacy level and effectiveness on reducing obesogenic care behaviours. PMID:25079221

  6. Prevalence and Cardiovascular Associations of Diabetic Retinopathy and Maculopathy: Results from the Gutenberg Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Raum, Philipp; Lamparter, Julia; Ponto, Katharina A.; Peto, Tunde; Hoehn, René; Schulz, Andreas; Schneider, Astrid; Wild, Philipp S.; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Mirshahi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Objective Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of blindness in people of working age. The purpose of this paper is to report the prevalence and cardiovascular associations of diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy (DMac) in Germany. Research Design and Methods The Gutenberg Health Study (GHS) is a population-based study with 15,010 participants aged between 35 at 74 years from the city of Mainz and the district of Mainz-Bingen. We determined the weighted prevalence of DR and DMac by assessing fundus photographs of persons with diabetes from the GHS data base. Diabetes was defined as HbA1c ? 6.5%, known diagnosis diabetes mellitus or known diabetes medication. Furthermore, we analysed the association between DR and cardiovascular risk factors and diseases. Results Overall, 7.5% (1,124/15,010) of the GHS cohort had diabetes. Of these, 27.7% were unaware of their disease and thus were newly diagnosed by their participation in the GHS. The prevalence of DR and DMac was 21.7% and 2.3%, respectively among patients with diabetes. Vision-threatening disease was present in 5% of the diabetic cohort. In the multivariable analysis DR (all types) was associated with age (Odds Ratio [95% confidence interval]: 0.97 [0.955–0.992]; p = 0.006) arterial hypertension (1.90 [1.190–3.044]; p = 0.0072) and vision-threatening DR with obesity (3.29 [1.504–7.206]; p = 0.0029). DR (all stages) and vision-threatening DR were associated with duration of diabetes (1.09 [1.068–1.114]; p<0.0001 and 1.18 [1.137–1.222]; p<0.0001, respectively). Conclusions Our calculations suggest that more than a quarter-million persons have vision-threatening diabetic retinal disease in Germany. Prevalence of DR was lower in the GHS compared to East-Asian studies. Associations were found with age, arterial hypertension, obesity, and duration of diabetes mellitus. PMID:26075604

  7. Excessive Daytime Sleepiness is Associated with Increased Health Care Utilization Among Patients Referred for Assessment of OSA

    PubMed Central

    Ronksley, Paul E.; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R.; Heitman, Steven J.; Flemons, W. Ward; Ghali, William A.; Manns, Braden; Faris, Peter; Tsai, Willis H.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: Excessive daytime sleepiness is an important public health concern associated with increased morbidity and mortality. However, in the absence of sleep diagnostic testing, it is difficult to separate the independent effects of sleepiness from those of intrinsic sleep disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The objective of this study was to determine if excessive daytime sleepiness was independently associated with increased health care utilization among patients referred for assessment of OSA. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting/Participants: 2149 adults referred for sleep diagnostic testing between July 2005 and August 2007. Interventions: N/A Measurements: Subjective daytime sleepiness was defined as an Epworth Sleepiness Scale score ?10. Health care use (outpatient physician visits, all-cause hospitalizations, and emergency department visits) was determined from Alberta Health and Wellness administrative databases for the 18-month period preceding their sleep study. Rates of health resource use were analyzed using negative binomial regression, with predictors of increased health care use determined using logistic regression. Results: Excessive daytime sleepiness was associated with an increased rate of outpatient physician visits after adjustment for demographic variables, sleep medication use, hypertension, diabetes, depression, and OSA severity (rate ratio [RR]: 1.09 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01, 1.18, P = 0.02) compared to non-sleepy subjects. There was an interaction between severe OSA and sleepiness (RR: 1.22 [95% CI: 1.06, 1.41]), although OSA was not an independent predictor of health care use. Also, sleepy patients with treated depression had a lower likelihood of outpatient visits (RR: 0.95 [95% CI: 0.86, 1.05]). Finally, sleepiness was an independent predictor of increased health care use for outpatient physician visits (odds ratio [OR]: 1.25 [95% CI: 1.00, 1.57; P = 0.048]) and all-cause hospitalizations (OR: 3.94 [95% CI: 1.03, 15.04; P = 0.046]). Conclusions: Excessive daytime sleepiness is associated with increased health care utilization among patients referred for assessment of OSA. Further investigation is required to determine whether the findings are related to direct effects of sleepiness, or in part, to interactions with other comorbidity such as OSA. Citation: Ronksley PE; Hemmelgarn BR; Heitman SJ; Flemons WW; Ghali WA; Manns B; Faris P; Tsai WH. Excessive daytime sleepiness is associated with increased health care utilization among patients referred for assessment of OSA. SLEEP 2011;34(3):363-370. PMID:21358854

  8. How are individual-level social capital and poverty associated with health equity? A study from two Chinese cities

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaojie; Rehnberg, Clas; Meng, Qingyue

    2009-01-01

    Background A growing body of literature has demonstrated that higher social capital is associated with improved health conditions. However, some research indicated that the association between social capital and health was substantially attenuated after adjustment for material deprivation. Studies exploring the association between poverty, social capital and health still have some serious limitations. In China, health equity studies focusing on urban poor are scarce. The purpose of this study is therefore to examine how poverty and individual-level social capital in urban China are associated with health equity. Methods Our study is based on a household study sample consisting of 1605 participants in two Chinese cities. For all participants, data on personal characteristics, health status, health care utilisation and social capital were collected. Factor analysis was performed to extract social capital factors. Dichotomised social capital factors were used for logistic regression models. A synergy index (if it is above 1, we can know the existence of the co-operative effect) was computed to examine the interaction effect between lack of social capital and poverty. Results Results indicated the poor had an obviously higher probability of belonging to the low individual-level social capital group in all the five dimensions, with the adjusted odds ratios ranging from 1.42 to 2.12. When the other variables were controlled for in the total sample, neighbourhood cohesion (NC), and reciprocity and social support (RSS) were statistically associated with poor self-rated health (NC: OR = 1.40; RSS: OR = 1.34). However, for the non-poor sub-sample, no social capital variable was a statistically significant predictor. The synergy index between low individual-level NC and poverty, and between low individual-level RSS and poverty were 1.22 and 1.28, respectively, indicating an aggravating effect between them. Conclusion In this study, we have shown that the interaction effect between poverty and lack of social capital (NC and RSS) was a good predictor of poor SRH in urban China. Improving NC and RSS may be helpful in reducing health inequity; however, poverty reduction is more important and therefore should be implemented at the same time. Policies that attempt to improve health equity via social capital, but neglect poverty intervention, would be counter-productive. PMID:19216800

  9. Association between smoking cessation and short-term health-care use: results from an international prospective cohort study (ATTEMPT)

    PubMed Central

    Beard, Emma; Shahab, Lion; Curry, Susan J; West, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims Previous studies have found that smoking cessation is associated with a short-term increase in health-care use. This may be because ‘sicker’ smokers are more likely to stop smoking. The current study assessed the association between smoking cessation and health-care use, adjusting for pre-cessation physical and mental health conditions. Design/setting Data came from the ATTEMPT cohort, a multi-national prospective survey of smokers in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, France and Spain, that lasted 18 months (with follow-ups every 3 months). Participants A total of 3645 smokers completed the baseline questionnaire. All participants smoked at least five cigarettes per day, intended to quit smoking within the next 3 months and were between 35 and 65 years of age. Measurements Participants were asked questions about their socio-demographic and smoking characteristics, as well previous smoking-related morbidities. Participants were also asked to report their health-care use in the previous 3 months i.e. emergency room (ER) visits, hospitalization, whether hospitalization required surgery, and health-care appointments. Findings A total of 8252, 4779 and 1954 baseline episodes of smoking were available for 3, 6 and 12 months, respectively. Of these, 2.8% (n = 230), 0.9% (n = 40) and 0.7% (n = 14) were followed by 3, 6 and 12 months of abstinence. No significant differences were found among 3, 6 or 12 months of abstinence and ER visits, hospitalization and whether hospitalization required surgery or health-care visits. However, 6-month smoking cessation episodes were associated with higher odds of reporting an appointment with a dietician. Conclusion Smoking cessation does not appear to be associated with a substantial short-term increase or decrease in health-care use after adjusting for pre-cessation morbidities. PMID:23795578

  10. Health Care–Associated Native Valve Endocarditis in Patients with no History of Injection Drug Use: Current Importance of Non-Nosocomial Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Benito, Natividad; Miró, José M.; de Lazzari, Elisa; Cabell, Christopher H; del Río, Ana; Altclas, Javier; Commerford, Patrick; Delahaye, Francois; Dragulescu, Stefan; Giamarellou, Helen; Habib, Gilbert; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Kumar, A. Sampath; Nacinovich, Francisco M.; Suter, Fredy; Tribouilloy, Christophe; Venugopal, K; Moreno, Asuncion; Fowler, Vance G.

    2013-01-01

    Background The clinical profile and outcome of nosocomial and non-nosocomial health care–associated native valve endocarditis are not well defined. Objective To describe the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of nosocomial and non-nosocomial health care–associated native valve endocarditis. Design Prospective observational study. Setting 61 hospitals in 28 countries. Patients Patients with definite native valve endocarditis and no history of injection drug use who were enrolled in the International Collaboration on Endocarditis–Prospective Cohort Study from June 2000 to August 2005. Measurements Characteristics of nosocomial and non-nosocomial health care–associated native valve endocarditis cases were described and compared with those cases acquired in the community. Results Health care–associated native valve endocarditis was present in 557 (34%) of 1622 patients with native valve endocarditis and no history of injection drug use (nosocomial native valve endocarditis 303 patients [54%]; non-nosocomial health care–associated native valve endocarditis 254 patients [46%]). Staphylococcus aureus was the most common cause of health care-associated native valve endocarditis (nosocomial native valve endocarditis, 47%; non-nosocomial health care–associated native valve endocarditis, 42%; p=0.3), with a notable proportion of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (nosocomial native valve endocarditis, 57%; non-nosocomial health care–associated native valve endocarditis, 41%; p=0.014). Patients with health care–associated native valve endocarditis had lower rates of cardiac surgery (41% health care–associated native valve endocarditis vs 51% community-acquired native valve endocarditis, p<0.001) and higher in-hospital mortality rates than patients with community-acquired native valve endocarditis (25% health care–associated native valve endocarditis vs. 13% community-acquired native valve endocarditis vs., p<0.001). Multivariable analysis confirmed a higher mortality associated with health care–associated native valve endocarditis (incidence risk ratio=1.20 (CI 95%, 1.03–1.61). Limitations This study involves tertiary hospitals with cardiac surgery programs. The results may not be generalized to patient populations receiving care in other types of facility. Conclusions More than one-third of all cases of native valve endocarditis in non-drug users involve contact with health care. S. aureus is the leading cause of health care–associated native valve endocarditis. Non-nosocomial health care–associated native valve endocarditis is common, especially in the US. Patients with health care-associated and community-acquired native valve endocarditis differ in their presentation, microbiology, and outcome. By contrast, patients with nosocomial and non-nosocomial healthcare-associated endocarditis are similar. PMID:19414837

  11. Association of Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse with Intimate Partner Violence, Poor General Health and Depressive Symptoms among Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Barrios, Yasmin V.; Gelaye, Bizu; Zhong, Qiuyue; Nicolaidis, Christina; Rondon, Marta B.; Garcia, Pedro J.; Sanchez, Pedro A. Mascaro; Sanchez, Sixto E.; Williams, Michelle A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examined associations of childhood physical and sexual abuse with risk of intimate partner violence (IPV). We also evaluated the extent to which childhood abuse was associated with self-reported general health status and symptoms of antepartum depression in a cohort of pregnant Peruvian women. Methods In-person interviews were conducted to collect information regarding history of childhood abuse and IPV from 1,521 women during early pregnancy. Antepartum depressive symptomatology was evaluated using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Multivariable logistic regression procedures were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Results Any childhood abuse was associated with 2.2-fold increased odds of lifetime IPV (95%CI: 1.72–2.83). Compared with women who reported no childhood abuse, those who reported both, childhood physical and sexual abuse had a 7.14-fold lifetime risk of physical and sexual IPV (95%CI: 4.15–12.26). The odds of experiencing physical and sexual abuse by an intimate partner in the past year was 3.33-fold higher among women with a history of childhood physical and sexual abuse as compared to women who were not abused as children (95%CI 1.60–6.89). Childhood abuse was associated with higher odds of self-reported poor health status during early pregnancy (aOR = 1.32, 95%CI: 1.04–1.68) and with symptoms of antepartum depression (aOR = 2.07, 95%CI: 1.58–2.71). Conclusion These data indicate that childhood sexual and physical abuse is associated with IPV, poor general health and depressive symptoms in early pregnancy. The high prevalence of childhood trauma and its enduring effects of on women’s health warrant concerted global health efforts in preventing violence. PMID:25635902

  12. Factors associated with the reproductive health risk behavior of high school students in the Republic of the Marshall Islands.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Keiko; Motohashi, Yutaka; Kaneko, Yoshihiro

    2006-04-01

    This study revealed factors associated with reproductive health risk behavior among high school students in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. The survey was conducted among high school students from grades 9 through 12 at 2 schools in Majuro, the capital of the Marshall Islands. The questions asked inquired about knowledge, attitude, and behavior related to reproductive health, experience of sexual acts and pregnancy. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the association between risk behavior and knowledge, attitude, and other factors. Data obtained from 433 students were used in the analysis. Factors significantly associated with reproductive health risk behavior among both the boys and the girls were a negative attitude toward condom use (odds ratio of the risk group to the low-risk group: boys, 19.54; girls 4.10), not considering receiving public health information and services as a human right (8.10, 3.96), and not knowing where to go for consultation about questions and concerns related to sex (3.32, 4.73). A factor associated with risk behavior in boys alone was acceptance of sexual acts without love (8.46), and factors in girls alone were insufficient knowledge concerning routes of infection by sexually transmitted diseases (6.75) and lack of future life plans (5.00). Neither age nor sex education was a significant predictor. In conclusion, considering reproductive health not to be a personal right was associated with the risk behavior of high school students in the Marshall Islands in regard to reproductive health. PMID:16536853

  13. Association between pain severity, depression severity, and use of health care services in Japan: results of a nationwide survey

    PubMed Central

    Vietri, Jeffrey; Otsubo, Tempei; Montgomery, William; Tsuji, Toshinaga; Harada, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    Background Depression is often associated with painful physical symptoms. Previous research has seldom assessed the relationship between the severity of physical symptoms and the severity of mental and emotional symptoms of depression or other health outcomes, and no such studies have been conducted previously among individuals with depression in Japan. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the severity of physical pain and depression and other outcomes among individuals in Japan diagnosed with depression. Methods Data for individuals aged 18 and older in Japan who reported being diagnosed with depression and also reported physical pain were obtained from the Japan National Health and Wellness Survey. These respondents were characterized on sociodemographics and health characteristics, and the relationship between ratings of severity on pain in the last week and health outcomes were assessed using bivariate correlations and generalized linear models. Measures included the Patient Health Questionnaire for depression severity, Medical Outcomes Study 12-Item Short Form Survey Instrument for health-related quality of life, the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment for work and activity impairment, and 6-month report of health care use. Results More severe physical pain in the past week was correlated with more severe depression, worse health-related quality of life, lower health utility, greater impairment at work, and more health care provider visits. These relationships remained significant after incorporating sociodemographics and health characteristics in the statistical models. Conclusion Individuals whose depression is accompanied by more severe physical pain have a higher burden of illness than those whose depression includes less severe pain, suggesting that even partially ameliorating painful physical symptoms may significantly benefit patients with depression. Clinicians should take the presence and severity of physical pain into account and consider treating both the physical and emotional symptoms of these patients. PMID:25792837

  14. Association Between Symptoms of Depression and Contraceptive Method Choices Among Low-Income Women at Urban Reproductive Health Centers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samantha Garbers; Nereida Correa; Natalie Tobier; Sarah Blust; Mary Ann Chiasson

    2010-01-01

    Among adult women of reproductive age, research has focused on depression symptoms after unintended pregnancy, or associated\\u000a with hormonal contraceptive method use, with little focus on depression as a predictor of unintended pregnancy. This study\\u000a was conducted to identify mental and behavioral health characteristics associated with use of less effective contraceptive\\u000a methods. Choosing a less effective method of contraception places

  15. Healthcare workers and health care-associated infections: knowledge, attitudes, and behavior in emergency departments in Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cristiana Parmeggiani; Rossella Abbate; Paolo Marinelli; Italo F Angelillo

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This survey assessed knowledge, attitudes, and compliance regarding standard precautions about health care-associated infections (HAIs) and the associated determinants among healthcare workers (HCWs) in emergency departments in Italy. METHODS: An anonymous questionnaire, self-administered by all HCWs in eight randomly selected non-academic acute general public hospitals, comprised questions on demographic and occupational characteristics; knowledge about the risks of acquiring and\\/or

  16. Examining Factors Associated with Oral Health-Related Quality of Life for Youth with Cleft

    PubMed Central

    Broder, Hillary L.; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen; Sischo, Lacey; Norman, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Patient-reported quality of life (QoL) outcomes in cleft lip and palate treatment are critical as we advance evidence-based care. To date, scant data exist analyzing cleft treatment from the patients’ perspective. The purpose of this manuscript is to examine the interrelationship among variables associated with oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among youth with cleft. Methods As part of an ongoing longitudinal study among school-aged youth with cleft, clinical evaluations and research questionnaire packets were completed prior to a determination of surgical recommendation status (baseline). Participants completed the Child Oral Health Impact Profile (COHIP), a validated OHRQoL measure for children with cleft, as part of their clinical appointments. During the participants’ baseline clinical evaluations, plastic surgeons determined whether surgical interventions were recommended within the year (the expert determination of such represents a greater degree of current clinical need). General linear models (GLM) incorporating surgical recommendation, gender, and age were fit for each COHIP subscale and for the total COHIP. Significant interaction terms were evaluated for their effect on the COHIP subscale. Results Baseline assessments were obtained from 1,200 participants (x?=11.8 years; 57% male). GLM analysis showed that participants with a surgical recommendation had lower QoL on all but the Self-Esteem subscale compared to those without a surgical recommendation (p<0.002). Two subscales had statistically significant age-gender interactions (p<0.003), while another subscale had a statistically significant surgery by gender interaction term (p=0.027). Conclusions Overall, youth currently recommended for surgery had lower OHRQoL scores on the COHIP Total scale than those with no surgical recommendation; older females had lower QoL scores than males. PMID:24867742

  17. Quantification of waterborne pathogens and associated health risks in urban water.

    PubMed

    Sales-Ortells, Helena; Agostini, Giulia; Medema, Gertjan

    2015-06-01

    Citizens are exposed to microbial hazards in urban waters. To quantify health risks associated with this exposure, pathogen concentrations in an urban river, lake, rainwater sedimentation pond, a pond in a park, and a wadi, were assessed. E. coli concentrations were variable in all locations, with mean values ranging between 1.2 × 10(2) (lake) and 1.7 × 10(4) (sedimentation pond) cfu (colony forming units)/100 mL. High concentrations of Campylobacter were found, being the lowest in the lake (4.2 × 10(1) gc (genomic copies)/L) and the highest in the wadi (1.7 × 10(4) gc/L). Cryptosporidium was not found in any sample. Low levels of adenovirus 40/41 were found in some samples in the river (1.8 × 10(1) gc/L) and lake (7.2 × 10° gc/L), indicating human fecal contamination. Legionella pneumophila was found in the sedimentation pond, with higher concentrations after rain events (1.3 × 10(2) gc/L). Cyanochlorophyll-a was found in the lake (7.0 × 10(-1) ?g/L), the sedimentation pond (1.1 × 10° ?g/L), and the pond in the park (2.9 × 10(1) ?g/L), where low levels of microcystin were found (2.1 × 10° ?g/L). Campylobacter data were used to estimate gastrointestinal risks from recreational exposure. This revealed risks above the annual disease incidence of campylobacteriosis in The Netherlands, being highest in the wadi and river. Measures are proposed to reduce the health risks. PMID:25932966

  18. Health System Resource Gaps and Associated Mortality from Pandemic Influenza across Six Asian Territories

    PubMed Central

    Rudge, James W.; Hanvoravongchai, Piya; Krumkamp, Ralf; Chavez, Irwin; Adisasmito, Wiku; Ngoc Chau, Pham; Phommasak, Bounlay; Putthasri, Weerasak; Shih, Chin-Shui; Stein, Mart; Timen, Aura; Touch, Sok; Reintjes, Ralf; Coker, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Background Southeast Asia has been the focus of considerable investment in pandemic influenza preparedness. Given the wide variation in socio-economic conditions, health system capacity across the region is likely to impact to varying degrees on pandemic mitigation operations. We aimed to estimate and compare the resource gaps, and potential mortalities associated with those gaps, for responding to pandemic influenza within and between six territories in Asia. Methods and Findings We collected health system resource data from Cambodia, Indonesia (Jakarta and Bali), Lao PDR, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam. We applied a mathematical transmission model to simulate a “mild-to-moderate” pandemic influenza scenario to estimate resource needs, gaps, and attributable mortalities at province level within each territory. The results show that wide variations exist in resource capacities between and within the six territories, with substantial mortalities predicted as a result of resource gaps (referred to here as “avoidable” mortalities), particularly in poorer areas. Severe nationwide shortages of mechanical ventilators were estimated to be a major cause of avoidable mortalities in all territories except Taiwan. Other resources (oseltamivir, hospital beds and human resources) are inequitably distributed within countries. Estimates of resource gaps and avoidable mortalities were highly sensitive to model parameters defining the transmissibility and clinical severity of the pandemic scenario. However, geographic patterns observed within and across territories remained similar for the range of parameter values explored. Conclusions The findings have important implications for where (both geographically and in terms of which resource types) investment is most needed, and the potential impact of resource mobilization for mitigating the disease burden of an influenza pandemic. Effective mobilization of resources across administrative boundaries could go some way towards minimizing avoidable deaths. PMID:22363739

  19. The longitudinal association from obesity to depression: results from the 12-year National Population Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Gariepy, Genevieve; Wang, JianLi; Lesage, Alain D; Schmitz, Norbert

    2010-05-01

    Prior observational studies have investigated the association between obesity and depression but evidence remains weak and mixed. There has been a call for high-quality longitudinal studies to elucidate the etiologic relationship from obesity to depression. The main objective of this study was therefore to investigate whether obesity was a risk factor for depression in a nationally representative sample followed for 12 years. Seven waves of data collection (1994-1995 to 2006-2007) were obtained from the National Population Health Survey (NPHS). Our analyses included 10,545 adults without depression at baseline. Past-year major depression episode (MDE) was assessed from the Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Short Form for Major Depression (CIDI-SFMD). Obesity was estimated using baseline BMI from self-reported weight and height (obesity: BMI > or =30 kg/m(2)). Kaplan-Meier survival curves were generated and Cox proportional hazard regression modeling was used to estimate the risk of MDE by obesity status, controlling for sociodemographic and health and lifestyle variables. We found that obesity at baseline did not significantly predict subsequent MDE in women (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR): 1.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84-1.26) and negatively predicted MDE in men (HR: 0.71, CI 0.51-0.98), after adjusting for important confounders. In summary, our findings suggest that obesity is a significant (negative) predictor of depression in adult men but not in women. These results moderate prior evidence supporting a positive link from obesity to depression. PMID:19816409

  20. Assessment of public health risk associated with viral contamination in harvested urban stormwater for domestic applications.

    PubMed

    Lim, Keah-Ying; Hamilton, Andrew J; Jiang, Sunny C

    2015-08-01

    Capturing stormwater is becoming a new standard for sustainable urban stormwater management, which can be used to supplement water supply portfolios in water-stressed cities. The key advantage of harvesting stormwater is to use low impact development (LID) systems for treatment to meet water quality requirement for non-potable uses. However, the lack of scientific studies to validate the safety of such practice has limited its adoption. Microbial hazards in stormwater, especially human viruses, represent the primary public health threat. Using adenovirus and norovirus as target pathogens, we investigated the viral health risk associated with a generic scenario of urban stormwater harvesting practice and its application for three non-potable uses: 1) toilet flushing, 2) showering, and 3) food-crop irrigation. The Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) results showed that food-crop irrigation has the highest annual viral infection risk (median range: 6.8×10(-4)-9.7×10(-1) per-person-per-year or pppy), followed by showering (3.6×10(-7)-4.3×10(-2)pppy), and toilet flushing (1.1×10(-7)-1.3×10(-4)pppy). Disease burden of each stormwater use was ranked in the same order as its viral infection risk: food-crop irrigation>showering>toilet flushing. The median and 95th percentile risk values of toilet-flushing using treated stormwater are below U.S. EPA annual risk benchmark of ?10(-4)pppy, whereas the disease burdens of both toilet-flushing and showering are within the WHO recommended disease burdens of ?10(-6)DALYspppy. However, the acceptability of showering risk interpreted based on the U.S. EPA and WHO benchmarks is in disagreement. These results confirm the safety of stormwater application in toilet flushing, but call for further research to fill the data gaps in risk modeling as well as risk benchmarks. PMID:25863500

  1. Mental health problems of Iranian female adolescents and its association with pubertal development: a nationwide study.

    PubMed

    Rabbani, Ali; Mahmoudi-Gharaei, Javad; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Mohammad, Kazem; Ardalan, Gelayol; Maftoon, Farzaneh; Shahryari, Safiyeh; Khodaei, Shahnaz; Sotoudeh, Aria; Ziaaldini, Hassan; Kamali, Kobra; Motaghian, Molouk

    2012-01-01

    Mental health problems including emotional and behavioral problems during puberty may be under influence of different risk factors including cultures, living in urban or rural areas and ethnic factors which may vary between different countries. The main aim of this study is to investigate the profile of emotional and behavioral problems and the role of factors such as age, stage of puberty, ethnicity, rurality and living in urban area, as risk factors in Iranian girls. As a part of a large national study we evaluated the emotional and behavioral problems in different stages of puberty in a community sample of Iranian adolescent girls from public schools that were selected by clustered random sampling method. In all subjects, demographic characteristics, and pubertal stages were measured. Emotional and behavioral problems were evaluated using Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The associations of age, pubertal development indices, socioeconomic and demographic factors with the behavioral problems were assessed. A total number of 4576 students enrolled the study and responded to the questions. The mean age of participants was 13.83 ± 2.19 years. The mean total score of difficulties in participants was 14.34 ± 5.81. According to these results 813 (17.8%) adolescents had total problem scores higher than Goodman's cutoff points and the most frequent problem domain was conduct problems (20.5%). According to the results the most related variable with the total difficulty score of SDQ were ethnicity, residency in urban areas and development of menstrual cycle respectively. The results of this study showed that the most correlated factors with mental health problems in Iranian girls during puberty are ethnicity, urbanity and development of menstrual cycle. PMID:22418985

  2. The association of marital relationship and perceived social support with mental health of women in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Marital circumstances have been indicated to be a salient risk factor for disproportionately high prevalence of depression and anxiety among Pakistani women. Although social support is a known buffer of psychological distress, there is no clear evidence as to how different aspects of marital relations interact and associate with depression and anxiety in the lives of Pakistani married women and the role of social supports in the context of their marriage. Methods Two hundred seventy seven married women were recruited from Rawalpindi district of Pakistan using a door knocking approach to psychometrically evaluate five scales for use in the Pakistani context. A confirmatory factor analysis approach was used to investigate the underlying factor structure of Couple satisfaction Index (CSI-4), Locke-Wallace Marital Adjustment Test (LWMAT), Relationship Dynamic Scale (RDS), Multidimensional Scale for Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The interplay of the constructs underlying the three aspects of marital relations, and the role of social support on the mental health of married Pakistani women were examined using the Structural Equation Model. Results The factor structures of MSPSS, CSI-4, LWMAT, RDS and HADS were similar to the findings reported in the developed and developing countries. Perceived higher social support reduces the likelihood of depression and anxiety by enhancing positive relationship as reflected by a low score on the relationship dynamics scale which decreases CMD symptoms. Moreover, perceived higher social support is positively associated with marital adjustment directly and indirectly through relationship dynamics which is associated with the reduced risk of depression through the increased level of reported marital satisfaction. Nuclear family structure, low level of education and higher socio-economic status were significantly associated with increased risk of mental illness among married women. Conclusion Findings of this study support the importance of considering elements of marital relationship: satisfaction, adjustment and negative interactions which can be prioritized to increase the efficiency of marital interventions. It also highlights the role of social support in the context of marital relationships among Pakistani women. Furthermore, the study presents the etiological models of depression and anxiety with reference to the above. PMID:25226599

  3. Employer-incurred health care costs and productivity losses associated with influenza

    PubMed Central

    Karve, Sudeep; Misurski, Derek A.; Meier, Genevieve; Davis, Keith L.

    2013-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess trends in employer expenditures for both direct medical costs and indirect productivity losses associated with influenza. A retrospective analysis was performed using two of the MarketScan family of databases for 2005–2009. Patients with at least one diagnosis claim for influenza during an influenza season were selected. We estimated seasonal incidence of influenza in the employed population from the MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters database. Health care utilization and costs and productivity losses were assessed during the 21-d period following the influenza diagnosis date. Compared with the 2005–2006 season (493 per 100,000 plan members), influenza incidence increased during the 2006–2007 (598 per 100,000 plan members) and 2007–2008 (1,142 per 100,000 plan members) seasons and had a dramatic increase during the pandemic season of 2008–2009 (1,715 per 100,000 plan members) . The total influenza-related employer spending per 100,000 plan members also increased by over 400% during the 2008–2009 influenza season [$623,248; confidence interval (CI]):$601,518-$644,991], compared with 2005–2006 ($145,834; 95% CI: $135,067-$156,603). The primary drivers of the increased costs were emergency room, outpatient and inpatient visits. Total costs associated with influenza-related missed work time per 100,000 plan members increased over 4-fold from $26,479 in the 2005–2006 influenza season to $122,811 in 2008–2009. Overall, as expected, considerably higher direct and indirect costs were observed during the 2008–2009 influenza pandemic season than during other influenza seasons. In recent years, the influenza-related employer burden has increased considerably. In future, employers may need efficient resource allocation in order to address the productivity losses and increasing direct medical costs associated with increased influenza incidence. One of the strategies that employers may consider is increasing influenza vaccination rates among employees, which likely will help lower the influenza incidence and the associated downstream direct and indirect costs. PMID:23321849

  4. Facial fluctuating asymmetry is not associated with childhood ill-health in a large British cohort study.

    PubMed

    Pound, Nicholas; Lawson, David W; Toma, Arshed M; Richmond, Stephen; Zhurov, Alexei I; Penton-Voak, Ian S

    2014-10-01

    The idea that symmetry in facial traits is associated with attractiveness because it reliably indicates good physiological health, particularly to potential sexual partners, has generated an extensive literature on the evolution of human mate choice. However, large-scale tests of this hypothesis using direct or longitudinal assessments of physiological health are lacking. Here, we investigate relationships between facial fluctuating asymmetry (FA) and detailed individual health histories in a sample (n = 4732) derived from a large longitudinal study (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children) in South West England. Facial FA was assessed using geometric morphometric analysis of facial landmark configurations derived from three-dimensional facial scans taken at 15 years of age. Facial FA was not associated with longitudinal measures of childhood health. However, there was a very small negative association between facial FA and IQ that remained significant after correcting for a positive allometric relationship between FA and face size. Overall, this study does not support the idea that facial symmetry acts as a reliable cue to physiological health. Consequently, if preferences for facial symmetry do represent an evolved adaptation, then they probably function not to provide marginal fitness benefits by choosing between relatively healthy individuals on the basis of small differences in FA, but rather evolved to motivate avoidance of markers of substantial developmental disturbance and significant pathology. PMID:25122232

  5. Facial fluctuating asymmetry is not associated with childhood ill-health in a large British cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Pound, Nicholas; Lawson, David W.; Toma, Arshed M.; Richmond, Stephen; Zhurov, Alexei I.; Penton-Voak, Ian S.

    2014-01-01

    The idea that symmetry in facial traits is associated with attractiveness because it reliably indicates good physiological health, particularly to potential sexual partners, has generated an extensive literature on the evolution of human mate choice. However, large-scale tests of this hypothesis using direct or longitudinal assessments of physiological health are lacking. Here, we investigate relationships between facial fluctuating asymmetry (FA) and detailed individual health histories in a sample (n = 4732) derived from a large longitudinal study (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children) in South West England. Facial FA was assessed using geometric morphometric analysis of facial landmark configurations derived from three-dimensional facial scans taken at 15 years of age. Facial FA was not associated with longitudinal measures of childhood health. However, there was a very small negative association between facial FA and IQ that remained significant after correcting for a positive allometric relationship between FA and face size. Overall, this study does not support the idea that facial symmetry acts as a reliable cue to physiological health. Consequently, if preferences for facial symmetry do represent an evolved adaptation, then they probably function not to provide marginal fitness benefits by choosing between relatively healthy individuals on the basis of small differences in FA, but rather evolved to motivate avoidance of markers of substantial developmental disturbance and significant pathology. PMID:25122232

  6. Using poison center data for national public health surveillance for chemical and poison exposure and associated illness.

    PubMed

    Wolkin, Amy F; Martin, Colleen A; Law, Royal K; Schier, Josh G; Bronstein, Alvin C

    2012-01-01

    The National Poison Data System (NPDS) is a national near-real-time surveillance system that improves situational awareness for chemical and poison exposures, according to data from US poison centers. NPDS is the successor to the Toxic Exposure Surveillance System. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) use these data, which are owned and managed by the American Association of Poison Control Centers, to improve public health surveillance for chemical and poison exposures and associated illness, identify early markers of chemical events, and enhance situational awareness during outbreaks. Information recorded in this database is from self-reported calls from the public or health care professionals. In 2009, NPDS detected 22 events of public health significance and CDC used the system to monitor several multistate outbreaks. One of the limitations of the system is that exposures do not necessarily represent a poisoning. Incorporating NPDS data into the public health surveillance network and subsequently using NPDS to rapidly identify chemical and poison exposures exemplifies the importance of the poison centers and NPDS to public health surveillance. This integration provides the opportunity to improve the public health response to chemical and poison exposures, minimizes morbidity and mortality, and serves as an important step forward in surveillance technology and integration. PMID:21937144

  7. Worker Safety and Health Issues Associated with the DOE Environmental Cleanup Program: Insights From the DOE Laboratory Directors' Environmental and Occupational/Public health Standards Steering Group

    SciTech Connect

    M.C. Edelson; Samuel C. Morris; Joan M. Daisey

    2001-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Laboratory Directors' Environmental and Occupational/Public Health Standards Steering Group (or ''SSG'') was formed in 1990. It was felt then that ''risk'' could be an organizing principle for environmental cleanup and that risk-based cleanup standards could rationalize clean up work. The environmental remediation process puts workers engaged in cleanup activities at risk from hazardous materials and from the more usual hazards associated with construction activities. In a real sense, the site remediation process involves the transfer of a hypothetical risk to the environment and the public from isolated contamination into real risks to the workers engaged in the remediation activities. Late in its existence the SSG, primarily motivated by its LANL representative, Dr. Harry Ettinger, actively investigated issues associated with worker health and safety during environmental remediation activities. This paper summarizes the insights noted by the SSG. Most continue to be pertinent today.

  8. Nonmarital Romantic Relationships and Mental Health in Early Adulthood: Does the Association Differ for Women and Men?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Robin W.; Barrett, Anne E.

    2010-01-01

    Although social scientists have long assumed that intimate social relationships are more closely associated with women's than men's mental health, recent research indicates that there are no gender differences in the advantages of marriage and disadvantages of unmarried statuses when males' and females' distinct expressions of emotional distress…

  9. DEVELOPMENTAL EXPOSURE TO SOY PROTEIN ISOLATE: POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH FEEDING SOY-BASED INFANT FORMULAS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soy protein isolate (SPI) is the sole protein source in soy infant formulas, approximately 25% of all formula sold in the USA. No reports of significant adverse health effects associated with soy formula have appeared in the more than 23 million infants fed soy formula over the past 50 years. Howeve...

  10. Organizational and Institutional Factors Associated with National Institutes of Health Research Grant Awards to Social Work Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corvo, Kenneth; Zlotnik, Joan; Chen, Wan-Yi

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the organizational and institutional factors that may be associated with the success of schools of social work (SOSWs) in securing research grant awards from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and constituent agencies. Using data from the CRISP database on NIH grant funding, the Lombardi Program on Measuring University…

  11. Sources: UCSF, Zero Breast Cancer, California Department of Public Health, American Association for Cancer Research, SEER Facts on Breast Cancer

    E-print Network

    Mullins, Dyche

    Top 5 cancers ALL CANCERS Prostate Breast Brain Melanoma ­ Skin Lung and Bronchus 6,234 832 575 405Sources: UCSF, Zero Breast Cancer, California Department of Public Health, American Association for Cancer Research, SEER Facts on Breast Cancer · UCSF's second highest ethnic group of breast cancer

  12. The Associations Between Health Risk Behaviours and Suicidal Ideation and Attempts in a Nationally Representative Sample of Young Adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracie O Afifi; Brian J Co; Laurence Y Katz

    Objective: To examine associations between health risk behaviours and suicidal ideation and attempts in Canadian adolescents aged 12 to 13 years. Young adolescents think about and attempt suicide. However, most existing research on suicide has been conducted on individuals aged 15 years and older. Method: The present study examined a nationally representative Canadian sample of adolescents aged 12 to 13

  13. Exposure to 911 among Youth and Their Mothers in New York City: Enduring Associations with Mental Health and Sociopolitical Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Aber, J. Lawrence; Ware, Angelica; Kotler, Jennifer A.

    2010-01-01

    The enduring impact of exposure to the 911 terrorist attacks on mental health and sociopolitical attitudes was examined in a sample of 427 adolescents (M = 16.20 years) and their mothers residing in New York City. Direct exposure to the terrorist attack was associated with youth depression symptoms and with mothers' posttraumatic stress disorder…

  14. Dose-response associations between cycling activity and risk of hypertension in regular cyclists: The UK Cycling for Health Study.

    PubMed

    Hollingworth, M; Harper, A; Hamer, M

    2015-04-01

    Most population studies on physical activity and health have involved largely inactive men and women, thus making it difficult to infer if health benefits occur at exercise levels above the current minimum guidelines. The aim was to examine associations between cycling volume and classical cardiovascular risk markers, including hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, in a population sample of habitual cyclists. A nationwide sample comprising 6949 men and women (aged 47.6 years on average) completed questions about their cycling levels, demographics and health. Nearly the entire sample (96.3%) achieved the current minimum physical activity recommendation through cycling alone. There was a dose-response association between cycling volume and risk of diagnosed hypertension (P-trend =0.001), with odds ratios of 0.98 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.80-1.21), 0.86 (0.70, 1.06), 0.67 (95% CI, 0.53-0.83) across categories of 23-40, 40-61 and >61 metabolic equivalent hours/week (MET-h/week) compared with <23 MET-h/week. These associations persisted in models adjusted for age, sex, smoking, alcohol, body mass index (BMI) and other moderatevigorous physical activities. We also observed inverse associations between cycling volume and other risk factors including BMI and hypercholesterolemia. In summary, results from a population sample of cyclists suggest that additional cardiovascular health benefits can be achieved beyond the current minimum physical activity recommendation. PMID:25273856

  15. Association between Self-Reported Health and Physical and/or Sexual Abuse Experienced before Age 18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonomi, Amy E.; Cannon, Elizabeth A.; Anderson, Melissa L.; Rivara, Frederick P.; Thompson, Robert S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The present study evaluated the association between women's health and physical and sexual abuse suffered before age 18. Methods: A total of 3,568 randomly sampled insured women ages 18-64 completed a telephone interview to assess history of physical only, sexual only, or both physical and sexual abuse before age 18 (Behavioral Risk…

  16. Factors Associated with the Reproductive Health Risk Behavior of High School Students in the Republic of the Marshall Islands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suzuki, Keiko; Motohashi, Yutaka; Kaneko, Yoshihiro

    2006-01-01

    This study revealed factors associated with reproductive health risk behavior among high school students in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. The survey was conducted among high school students from grades 9 through 12 at 2 schools in Majuro, the capital of the Marshall Islands. The questions asked inquired about knowledge, attitude, and…

  17. Association of age, race, and obstetric history with urinary symptoms among women in the Nurses' Health Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francine Grodstein; Ruth Fretts; Karen Lifford; Neil Resnick; Gary Curhan

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to better understand associations among age, race, obstetric history, and urinary incontinence in women.STUDY DESIGN: Race and obstetric history were assessed through the use of biennial mailed questionnaires from 1976 to 1996 among participants of the Nurses' Health Study. In 1996, 83,168 women aged 50 to 75 years reported their frequency of leaking

  18. Project health and safety plan for the Gunite and Associated Tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abston

    1997-01-01

    The Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) policy is to provide a safe and healthful workplace for all employees and subcontractors. The accomplishment of this policy requires that operations at the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) in the North and South Tank Farms (NTF and STF) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory are guided by

  19. Association between obesity, quality of life, physical activity and health service utilization in primary care patients with osteoarthritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Rosemann; Richard Grol; Katja Herman; Michel Wensing; Joachim Szecsenyi

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of obesity with quality of life, health service utilization and physical activity in a large sample of primary care patients with osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: Data were retrieved from the PraxArt project, representing a cohort of 1021 primary care patients with OA. In 978 patients, height and weight were measured and the Body Mass Index (BMI)

  20. American Medical Association: Diagnosis and Management of Foodborne Illnesses: A Primer for Physicians and Other Health Care Professionals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    According to the American Medical Association, an estimated 76 million people get sick from food borne illnesses annually. It is no wonder than, that this free food borne illnesses primer has been so popular among physicians and other health care professionals. The primer was developed collaboratively by the American Medical Association and four other national organizations, and "is intended to provide health care professionals with current and accurate information for the diagnosis, treatment and reporting of foodborne illnesses." The 17,500 copies from the first printing are gone, but the entire primer is available in downloadable sections. The Primer includes Foodborne Illnesses Tables and Patient Scenarios regarding: Bacterial Agents, Viral Agents, Hepatitis A Infection, Antibiotic-resistant Salmonellosis, Norovirus Infection, and more. Health care professionals may also select to be put on a waiting list for the second printing of the primer. Be sure to check back for the forthcoming downloadable, interactive personal digital assistant version as well.

  1. Mental Health, Quality of Life, and Health Functioning in Women Veterans: Differential Outcomes Associated with Military and Civilian Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suris, Alina; Lind, Lisa; Kashner, T. Michael; Borman, Patricia D.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined psychiatric, physical, and quality-of-life functioning in a sample of 270 women veterans receiving outpatient treatment at a Veterans Affairs medical center. Participants were interviewed regarding their civilian (CSA) and military sexual assault (MSA) histories, and data regarding quality of life and health outcomes…

  2. PLANNING FOR PEDIATRIC ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM SPONSORED BY THE AMBULATORY PEDIATRIC ASSOCIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pediatric Environmental Health Fellowship program is a three year fellowship which will emphasize teaching, research and mastery of scientific and grant writing skills, the development of advocacy skills, and the the ability to review pediatric environmental health literature...

  3. COMMUNITY HEALTH ASSOCIATED WITH ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER IN MILLARD COUNTY, UTAH

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study evaluates the health effects of arsenic in drinking water at levels approximately four times the maximum allowed by the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations. Physical examinations of 250 people included evaluating dermatological and neurological health, ...

  4. Associations between neighborhood characteristics and self-rated health: A cross-sectional investigation in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort

    PubMed Central

    Tomey, Kristin; Diez Roux, Ana V.; Clarke, Philippa; Seeman, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Quantifying the effects of specific neighborhood features on self-reported health is important to understanding the global health impact of neighborhood context. We investigated associations of neighborhood poverty, sociability and walkability with self-rated physical and mental health in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). In separate models, each neighborhood variable was associated with physical health but associations with sociability and walkability were stronger than those for poverty. Only walkability remained significant after adjusting for the other neighborhood variables. There was no evidence that self-rated mental health as assessed by the SF12 was associated with neighborhood poverty, walkability or sociability. This study provides information on how neighborhood context is associated with global health in diverse midlife and older persons. PMID:24211514

  5. Podiatric problems are associated with worse health status in persons with severe mental illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia K Crews; Kieu O Vu; Arthur J Davidson; Lori A Crane; Philip S Mehler; John F Steiner

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of self-reported podiatric impairments and their effect on health status in persons with severe mental illness. A sample of psychiatric outpatients (N=309) underwent interviews assessing medical conditions and health status with the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36). Podiatric health was assessed using nine items from the National Health Interview

  6. Factors Associated with Health Information-Seeking in Low-Income Pregnant Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol Shieh; Marion E. Broome; Timothy E. Stump

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of health literacy, self-efficacy, and fetal health locus of control to health information-seeking in low-income pregnant women and the contribution from each factor alone or in combination to the variance in health information-seeking. This was a cross-sectional study of 143 English-speaking pregnant women who were recruited from a prenatal clinic

  7. Participant characteristics associated with greater reductions in waist circumference during a four-month, pedometer-based, workplace health program

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Workplace health programs have demonstrated improvements in a number of risk factors for chronic disease. However, there has been little investigation of participant characteristics that may be associated with change in risk factors during such programs. The aim of this paper is to identify participant characteristics associated with improved waist circumference (WC) following participation in a four-month, pedometer-based, physical activity, workplace health program. Methods 762 adults employed in primarily sedentary occupations and voluntarily enrolled in a four-month workplace program aimed at increasing physical activity were recruited from ten Australian worksites in 2008. Seventy-nine percent returned at the end of the health program. Data included demographic, behavioural, anthropometric and biomedical measurements. WC change (before versus after) was assessed by multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses. Seven groupings of potential associated variables from baseline were sequentially added to build progressively larger regression models. Results Greater improvement in WC during the program was associated with having completed tertiary education, consuming two or less standard alcoholic beverages in one occasion in the twelve months prior to baseline, undertaking less baseline weekend sitting time and lower baseline total cholesterol. A greater WC at baseline was strongly associated with a greater improvement in WC. A sub-analysis in participants with a 'high-risk' baseline WC revealed that younger age, enrolling for reasons other than appearance, undertaking less weekend sitting time at baseline, eating two or more pieces of fruit per day at baseline, higher baseline physical functioning and lower baseline body mass index were associated with greater odds of moving to 'low risk' WC at the end of the program. Conclusions While employees with 'high-risk' WC at baseline experienced the greatest improvements in WC, the other variables associated with greater WC improvement were generally indicators of better baseline health. These results indicate that employees who started with better health, potentially due to lifestyle or recent behavioural changes, were more likely to respond positively to the program. Future health program initiators should think innovatively to encourage all enrolees along the health spectrum to achieve a successful outcome. PMID:22024045

  8. Forced sexual intercourse and associated health-risk behaviors among female college students in the United States.

    PubMed

    Brener, N D; McMahon, P M; Warren, C W; Douglas, K A

    1999-04-01

    This study analyzed data from the 1995 National College Health Risk Behavior Survey (NCHRBS) to assess the prevalence of lifetime rape among female college students and to examine the association between rape and health-risk behaviors. The NCHRBS used a mail questionnaire to assess health-risk behaviors among a nationally representative sample of undergraduate students. Twenty percent of female students reported ever having been forced to have sexual intercourse, most often during adolescence. When analyses controlled for demographic characteristics, female students who had ever been raped were significantly more likely than those who had not to report a wide range of health-risk behaviors. These results highlight a need to improve rape prevention and treatment programs for female adolescents. PMID:10224736

  9. Are case management services associated with increased utilization of adolescent mental health treatment?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberly Bender; Stephen Kapp; Sur Ah Hahn

    2011-01-01

    Retention in treatment is one of the strongest predictors of positive mental health outcomes. Adolescents, however, are particularly challenging to retain in mental health treatment. Concurrent case management services may offer one strategy for retaining youth in mental health treatment as it aims to reduce barriers to services, coordinate multiple services, and establish a consistent relationship between each client and

  10. An Association between College Students' Health Promotion Practices and Perceived Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ying; Lindsey, Billie J.

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to gain a better understanding of health promotion practices among college students and the relationship of stress and the practice of various health behaviors. Method: In Fall 2008, 319 students from a mid-size university participated in a cross-sectional survey utilizing the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Health

  11. Sociodemographic Characteristics Associated with the Everyday Health Information Literacy of Young Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirvonen, Noora; Ek, Stefan; Niemelä, Raimo; Korpelainen, Raija; Huotari, Maija-Leena

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Everyday health information literacy refers to the competencies needed to find relevant information, evaluate its reliability, and use it to make decisions concerning health in everyday life. More evidence is needed of the determinants of health information literacy to better understand how it is acquired and through which mechanisms…

  12. Differences in Affective and Behavioral Health-Related Variables Associated with Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bausell, R. Barker; Soeken, Karen L.

    Although considerable data exist linking individual lifestyle variables to health outcomes, little is known about how the elderly differ from younger adults with respect to both their health seeking behavior and their beliefs about health. A national survey contrasted 155 persons aged 65 years of age or older with 1100 younger adults in order to…

  13. Intimate partner violence and Hurricane Katrina: predictors and associated mental health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Julie A; Coffey, Scott F; Norris, Fran H; Tracy, Melissa; Clements, Kahni; Galea, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to establish the prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization in the 6 months before and after Hurricane Katrina. Participants were 445 married or cohabiting persons who were living in the 23 southernmost counties of Mississippi at the time of Hurricane Katrina. Data for this study were collected as part of a larger, population-based, representative study. The percentage of women reporting psychological victimization increased from 33.6% prior to Hurricane Katrina to 45.2% following Hurricane Katrina (p < .001). The percentage of men reporting psychological victimization increased from 36.7% to 43.1% (p = .01). Reports of physical victimization increased from 4.2% to 8.3% for women (p = .01) but were unchanged for men. Significant predictors of post-Katrina victimization included pre-Katrina victimization, age, educational attainment, marital status, and hurricane-related stressors. Reports of IPV were associated with greater risk of post-Katrina depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Data from the first population-based study to document IPV following a large-scale natural disaster suggest that IPV may be an important but often overlooked public health concern following disasters. PMID:21061866

  14. Dimensions of acculturation: associations with health risk behaviors among college students from immigrant families.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Seth J; Weisskirch, Robert S; Zamboanga, Byron L; Castillo, Linda G; Ham, Lindsay S; Huynh, Que-Lam; Park, Irene J K; Donovan, Roxanne; Kim, Su Yeong; Vernon, Michael; Davis, Matthew J; Cano, Miguel A

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we examined a bidimensional model of acculturation (which includes both heritage and U.S. practices, values, and identifications) in relation to hazardous alcohol use, illicit drug use, unsafe sexual behavior, and impaired driving. A sample of 3,251 first- and second-generation immigrant students from 30 U.S. colleges and universities completed measures of behavioral acculturation; cultural values (individualism, collectivism, and self-construal); ethnic and U.S. identity; and patterns of alcohol and drug use, engagement in potentially unsafe sexual activities, and driving while (or riding with a driver who was) intoxicated. Results indicate that heritage practices and collectivist values were generally protective against health risk behaviors, with collectivist values most strongly and consistently protective. Nonetheless, heritage identifications were positively associated with sexual risk taking for Hispanics. U.S. practices, values, and identifications were not consistently related to risk behavior participation. Results are discussed in terms of bidimensional approaches to acculturation, the immigrant paradox, and implications for counseling practice. PMID:21171742

  15. Establishing an Association between Renal Failure and Periodontal Health: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Chhokra, Mehak; Manocha, Srishti; Dodwad, Vidya; Gupta, Udayan; Vaish, Shubhra

    2013-01-01

    Periodontal infections can act as focus of infection, aggravating the immunocompromised state of End Stage Renal Disease patients (ESRD). Aim: Evaluation of the periodontal health status of ESRD patients undergoing haemodialysis and establishing the underlying association between renal failure and periodontal disease. Material and Methods: Eighty control and test subjects were included in the study, after matching age and sex. Creatinine and GFR were measured in each patient. Oral hygiene index- Simplified (OHI-S), Gingival Index (GI), Pocket Depth (PD) and Clinical Attachment Level (CAL) were recorded as periodontal parameters to assess the correlation between the subjects of the two groups. Further, the test group was divided into three sub–groups, on basis of duration, as less than 6 months, from 6 months to one year and more than one year. Statistical Analysis: Student’s t – test and ANOVA were used to analyze the inter–group and intragroup comparisons. Results: Statistical significant difference was observed for all periodontal parameters between the test and control group. However, difference amongst periodontal parameters on basis of duration of haemodialysis was seen between the subgroups of test subjects, it was not found to be statistically significant. Conclusion: Severity of periodontal diseases in ESRD patients undergoing haemodialysis majorly affected due to debilitating condition of the subjects. Dialysis vintage has only a small role to play in worsening of the condition. Further research is needed to potentiate the establishment of two–way relationship between renal disease and periodontal condition. PMID:24298526

  16. Intimate partner violence and Hurricane Katrina: Predictors and associated mental health outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Julie A.; Coffey, Scott F.; Norris, Fran H.; Tracy, Melissa; Clements, Kahni; Galea, Sandro

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to establish the prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization in the six months before and after Hurricane Katrina. Participants were 445 married or cohabiting persons who were living in the 23 southernmost counties of Mississippi at the time of Hurricane Katrina. Data for this study were collected as part of a larger, population-based, representative study. The percentage of women reporting psychological victimization increased from 33.6% prior to Hurricane Katrina to 45.2 % following Hurricane Katrina (p < 0.001). The percentage of men reporting psychological victimization increased from 36.7% to 43.1% (p = 0.01). Reports of physical victimization increased from 4.2% to 8.3% for women (p=.01), but were unchanged for men. Significant predictors of post-Katrina victimization included pre-Katrina victimization, age, educational attainment, marital status and hurricane-related stressors. Reports of IPV were associated with greater risk of post-Katrina depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Data from the first population-based study to document IPV following a large scale natural disaster suggest that IPV may be an important, but often overlooked public health concern following disasters. PMID:21061866

  17. Health-hazard evaluation report No. MHETA 88-249-1931, Community Savings Association, Finleyville, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Sanderson, W.T.; Costa, C.

    1988-09-01

    In response to a request from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, an evaluation was made of possible hazardous working conditions at the Finleyville Branch of the Community Savings Association (SIC-6036), located in Finleyville, Pennsylvania. Employees had been sensitized to a fungus and were experiencing nausea, headache, fatigue, sinus congestion, and difficulty in breathing even after action to control the fungus had been taken. The first allergic reaction was noted in October of 1986 with four more cases developing by December 5 of that same year. During early February of 1987 the wall in the storeroom was scraped, cleaned, and painted with a fungal-resistant paint. On March 16 the office was closed early due to three full-time employees suffering the aforementioned symptoms plus dermatological symptoms of an allergic reaction. Additional control efforts were likewise unsuccessful. Analysis indicated that exposure to microorganisms and an inadequate supply of fresh air were likely the causes of the symptoms experienced by these workers. The authors recommend that the ventilation, heating, and air conditioning unit be operated according to ASHRAE standards; that the storeroom wall be maintained free of microbial growth and that files in open boxes be cleaned and placed in enclosed cabinets, and humidity be adjusted.

  18. Perceived impact of the Medicare policy to adjust payment for health care-associated infections

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Grace M.; Hartmann, Christine W.; Graham, Denise; Kassler, William; Linn, Maya Dutta; Krein, Sarah; Saint, Sanjay; Goldmann, Donald A.; Fridkin, Scott; Horan, Teresa; Jernigan, John; Jha, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2008, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) ceased additional payment for hospitalizations resulting in complications deemed preventable, including several health care-associated infections. We sought to understand the impact of the CMS payment policy on infection prevention efforts. Methods A national survey of infection preventionists from a random sample of US hospitals was conducted in December 2010. Results Eighty-one percent reported increased attention to HAIs targeted by the CMS policy, whereas one-third reported spending less time on nontargeted HAIs. Only 15% reported increased funding for infection control as a result of the CMS policy, whereas most reported stable (77%) funding. Respondents reported faster removal of urinary (71%) and central venous (50%) catheters as a result of the CMS policy, whereas routine urine and blood cultures on admission occurred infrequently (27% and 13%, respectively). Resource shifting (ie, less time spent on nontargeted HAIs) occurred more commonly in large hospitals (odds ratio, 2.3; 95% confidence interval: 1.0–5.1; P = .038) but less often in hospitals where front-line staff were receptive to changes in clinical processes (odds ratio, 0.5; 95% confidence interval: 0.3–0.8; P = .005). Conclusion Infection preventionists reported greater hospital attention to preventing targeted HAIs as a result of the CMS nonpayment policy. Whether the increased focus and greater engagement in HAI prevention practices has led to better patient outcomes is unclear. PMID:22541855

  19. Bundling hand hygiene interventions and measurement to decrease health care-associated infections.

    PubMed

    Pincock, Ted; Bernstein, Paul; Warthman, Shawn; Holst, Elizabeth

    2012-05-01

    Proper performance of hand hygiene at key moments during patient care is the most important means of preventing health care-associated infections (HAIs). With increasing awareness of the cost and societal impact caused by HAIs has come the realization that hand hygiene improvement initiatives are crucial to reducing the burden of HAIs. Multimodal strategies have emerged as the best approach to improving hand hygiene compliance. These strategies use a variety of intervention components intended to address obstacles to complying with good hand hygiene practices, and to reinforce behavioral change. Although research has substantiated the effectiveness of the multimodal design, challenges remain in promoting widespread adoption and implementation of a coordinated approach. This article reviews elements of a multimodal approach to improve hand hygiene and advocates the use of a "bundled" strategy. Eight key components of this bundle are proposed as a cohesive program to enable the deployment of synergistic, coordinated efforts to promote good hand hygiene practice. A consistent, bundled methodology implemented at multiple study centers would standardize processes and allow comparison of outcomes, validation of the methodology, and benchmarking. Most important, a bundled approach can lead to sustained infection reduction. PMID:22546269

  20. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 90-361-2112, Associated Press, New York, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, N.J.

    1991-05-01

    In response to a request from an authorized employee representative, an investigation was made of potential inorganic mercury (7439976) exposure to staff working with and around photo laser machines at Associated Press (SIC-2711), New York, New York. Direct mercury vapor measurements were obtained. Four area samples and one personal breathing zone sample for inorganic mercury vapor and dust were also collected. Bulk samples of processed and unprocessed paper dust were collected. Air movement around the photo laser machines was checked using smoke tubes. The highest mercury concentrations were found in the vicinity of ten machines on the fourth floor. These concentrations were well below the currently recommended exposure level of 50 micrograms/cubic meter. The mercury content of bulk paper and paper dust samples was 220 micrograms/gram. The dust collected from the wall behind the photo laser machines on the sixth floor contained a trace level of mercury. Similar dust build up was noted on the supply diffusers and exhaust grills on the sixth floor. The author concludes that mercury levels found around the photo laser machines did not constitute a long or short term health hazard to employees. Direct handling of the paper and dust inside the machine did have a potentially high mercury exposure due to possible skin absorption of mercury.

  1. Project health and safety plan for the Gunite and Associated Tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Abston, J.P.

    1997-04-01

    The Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) policy is to provide a safe and healthful workplace for all employees and subcontractors. The accomplishment of this policy requires that operations at the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) in the North and South Tank Farms (NTF and STF) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory are guided by an overall plan and consistent proactive approach to health and safety (H and S) issues. The policy and procedures in this plan apply to all GAAT operations in the NTF and STF. The provisions of this plan are to be carried out whenever activities identifies s part of the GAAT are initiated that could be a threat to human health or the environment. This plan implements a policy and establishes criteria for the development of procedures for day-to-day operations to prevent or minimize any adverse impact to the environment and personnel safety and health and to meet standards that define acceptable management of hazardous and radioactive materials and wastes. The plan is written to utilize past experience and best management practices in order to minimize hazards to human health or the environment from events such as fires, explosions, falls, mechanical hazards, or any unplanned release of hazardous or radioactive materials to the air. This plan explains additional task-specific health and safety requirements such as the Site Safety and health Addendum and Activity Hazard Analysis, which should be used in concert with this plan and existing established procedures.

  2. Systematic review of beliefs, behaviours and influencing factors associated with disclosure of a mental health problem in the workplace

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Stigma and discrimination present an important barrier to finding and keeping work for individuals with a mental health problem. This paper reviews evidence on: 1) employment-related disclosure beliefs and behaviours of people with a mental health problem; 2) factors associated with the disclosure of a mental health problem in the employment setting; 3) whether employers are less likely to hire applicants who disclose a mental health problem; and 4) factors influencing employers' hiring beliefs and behaviours towards job applicants with a mental health problem. Methods A systematic review was conducted for the period 1990-2010, using eight bibliographic databases. Meta-ethnography was used to provide a thematic understanding of the disclosure beliefs and behaviours of individuals with mental health problem. Results The searches yielded 8,971 items which was systematically reduced to 48 included studies. Sixteen qualitative, one mixed methods and seven quantitative studies were located containing evidence on the disclosure beliefs and behaviours of people with a mental health problem, and the factors associated with these beliefs and behaviours. In the meta-ethnography four super-ordinate themes were generated: 1) expectations and experiences of discrimination; 2) other reasons for non-disclosure; 3) reasons for disclosure; and 4) disclosure dimensions. Two qualitative, one mixed methods and 22 quantitative studies provided data to address the remaining two questions on the employers perspective. Conclusions By presenting evidence from the perspective of individuals on both sides of the employment interaction, this review provides integrated perspective on the impact of disclosure of a mental health problem on employment outcomes. PMID:22339944

  3. Material, psychosocial and sociodemographic determinants are associated with positive mental health in Europe: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Dreger, Stefanie; Buck, Christoph; Bolte, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between psychosocial, sociodemographic and material determinants of positive mental health in Europe. Design Cross-sectional analysis of survey data. Setting 34 European countries. Participants Representative Europe-wide sample consisting of 21?066 men and 22?569 women aged 18?years and over, from 34 European countries participating in the third wave of the European Quality of Life Survey (2011–2012). Outcome Positive mental health as measured by the WHO-5—Mental Well-being Index, while the lowest 25% centile indicated poor positive mental health. Results The prevalence of poor positive mental health was 30% in women and 24% in men. Material, as well as psychosocial, and sociodemographic factors were independently associated with poor positive mental health in a Europe-wide sample from 34 European countries. When studying all factors together, the highest OR for poor positive mental health was reported for social exclusion (men: OR=1.73, 95% CI 1.59 to 1.90; women: OR=1.69, 95% CI 1.57 to 1.81) among the psychosocial factors. Among the material factors, material deprivation had the highest impact (men: OR=1.96, 95% CI 1.78 to 2.15; women: OR=1.93, 95% CI 1.79 to 2.08). Conclusions This study gives the first overview on determinants of positive mental health at a European level and could be used as the basis for preventive policies in the field of positive mental health in Europe. PMID:24871540

  4. Utilization of Health Care Services for Childhood Morbidity and Associated Factors in India: A National Cross-Sectional Household Survey

    PubMed Central

    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.; Sathyanarayana, T. N.; Kumar, H. N. Harsha

    2012-01-01

    Background Information about utilization of health services and associated factors are useful for improving service delivery to achieve universal health coverage. Methods Data on a sample of ever-married women from India Demographic and Health survey 2005–06 was used. Mothers of children aged 0–59 months were asked about child’s illnesses and type of health facilities where treatment was given during 15 days prior to the survey date. Type of health facilities were grouped as informal provider, public provider and private provider. Factors associated with utilization of health services for diarrhea and fever/cough was assessed according to Andersen’s health behavior model. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were done considering sampling weights for complex sampling design. Results A total of 48,679 of ever-married women reported that 9.1% 14.8% and 17.67% of their children had diarrhea, fever and cough respectively. Nearly one-third of the children with diarrhea and fever/cough did not receive any treatment. Two-thirds of children who received treatment were from private health care providers (HCPs). Among predisposing factors, children aged 1–2 years and those born at health facility (public/private) were more likely to be taken to any type of HCP during illness. Among enabling factors, as compared to poorer household, wealthier households were 2.5 times more likely to choose private HCPs for any illness. Children in rural areas were likely to be taken to any type of HCP for diarrhea but rural children were less likely to utilize private HCP for fever/cough. ‘Need’ factors i.e. children having severe symptoms were 2–3 times more likely to be taken to any type of HCP. Conclusion Private HCPs were preferred for treatment of childhood illnesses. Involvement of private HCPs may be considered while planning child health programs. Health insurance scheme for childhood illnesses may to protect economically weaker sections from out-of-pocket health expenditure during child illness. PMID:23284810

  5. The association between cognitive functioning and health-related quality of life in low-grade glioma patients

    PubMed Central

    Boele, Florien W.; Zant, Maaike; Heine, Emma C.E.; Aaronson, Neil K.; Taphoorn, Martin J.B.; Reijneveld, Jaap C.; Postma, Tjeerd J.; Heimans, Jan J.; Klein, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background Glioma patients are not only confronted with the diagnosis and treatment of a brain tumor, but also with changes in cognitive and neurological functioning that can profoundly affect their daily lives. At present, little is known about the relationship between cognitive functioning and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) during the disease trajectory. We studied this association in low-grade glioma (LGG) patients with stable disease at an average of 6 years after diagnosis. Methods Patients and healthy controls underwent neuropsychological testing and completed self-report measures of generic (MOS SF36) and disease-specific (EORTC BN20) HRQOL. Associations were determined with Pearson correlations, and corrections for multiple testing were made. Results We analyzed data gathered from 190 LGG patients. Performance in all cognitive domains was positively associated with physical health (SF36 Physical Component Summary). Executive functioning, processing speed, working memory, and information processing were positively associated with mental health (SF36 Mental Component Summary). We found negative associations between a wide range of cognitive domains and disease-specific HRQOL scales. Conclusions In stable LGG patients, poorer cognitive functioning is related to lower generic and disease-specific HRQOL. This confirms that cognitive assessment of LGG patients should not be done in isolation from assessment of its impact on HRQOL, both in clinical and in research settings.

  6. Factors Associated with Mental Health Service Utilization among Korean American Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Park, So-Youn; Cho, Sunhee; Park, Yeddi; Bernstein, Kunsook S.; Shin, Jinah K.

    2014-01-01

    This study adapted Andersen's Health Belief Model to examine the predictors of mental health services utilization among Korean American (KA) immigrants. A cross-sectional survey was used to gather data on 363 KA immigrants 18 years and older residing in New York City. Predisposing factors included gender, age, marital status, education, length of stay in the US, and religion; the need factor was depression; and enabling factors included health insurance, English proficiency, income, and perceived need for help. Approximately 8.5 % of participants reported having utilized mental health services, while 23 % reported having depressive symptoms. Shorter duration of residence in the US, lower income, and the presence of perceived need for help were significantly related to use of mental health services. The perceived need for help mediated the relationship between depression and mental health service utilization. Failure to perceive the need for psychological help continues to be a major reason that KA immigrants do not use mental health services. PMID:23417654

  7. The Association between Selenium and Other Micronutrients and Thyroid Cancer Incidence in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study

    PubMed Central

    O’Grady, Thomas J.; Kitahara, Cari M.; DiRienzo, A. Gregory; Gates, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Selenium is an essential trace element that is important for thyroid hormone metabolism and has antioxidant properties which protect the thyroid gland from oxidative stress. The association of selenium, as well as intake of other micronutrients, with thyroid cancer is unclear. Methods We evaluated associations of dietary selenium, beta-carotene, calcium, vitamin D, vitamin C, vitamin E, folate, magnesium, and zinc intake with thyroid cancer risk in the National Institutes of Health – American Association of Retired Persons Diet and Health Study, a large prospective cohort of 566,398 men and women aged 50–71 years in 1995–1996. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine associations between dietary intake of micronutrients, assessed using a food frequency questionnaire, and thyroid cancer cases, ascertained by linkage to state cancer registries and the National Death Index. Results With the exception of vitamin C, which was associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer (HRQ5 vs Q1, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.02–1.76; Ptrend, <0.01), we observed no evidence of an association between quintile of selenium (HRQ5 vs Q1, 1.23; 95% CI, 0.92–1.65; Ptrend, 0.26) or other micronutrient intake and thyroid cancer. Conclusion Our study does not suggest strong evidence for an association between dietary intake of selenium or other micronutrients and thyroid cancer risk. More studies are needed to clarify the role of selenium and other micronutrients in thyroid carcinogenesis. PMID:25329812

  8. Physical health symptoms reported by trafficked women receiving post-trafficking support in Moldova: prevalence, severity and associated factors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many trafficked people suffer high levels of physical, sexual and psychological abuse. Yet, there has been limited research on the physical health problems associated with human trafficking or how the health needs of women in post-trafficking support settings vary according to socio-demographic or trafficking characteristics. Methods We analysed the prevalence and severity of 15 health symptoms reported by 120 trafficked women who had returned to Moldova between December 2007 and December 2008 and were registered with the International Organisation for Migration Assistance and Protection Programme. Women had returned to Moldova an average of 5.9 months prior to interview (range 2-12 months). Results Headaches (61.7%), stomach pain (60.9%), memory problems (44.2%), back pain (42.5%), loss of appetite (35%), and tooth pain (35%) were amongst the most commonly reported symptoms amongst both women trafficked for sexual exploitation and women trafficked for labour exploitation. The prevalence of headache and memory problems was strongly associated with duration of exploitation. Conclusions Trafficked women who register for post-trafficking support services after returning to their country of origin are likely to have long-term physical and dental health needs and should be provided with access to comprehensive medical services. Health problems among women who register for post-trafficking support services after returning to their country of origin are not limited to women trafficked for sexual exploitation but are also experienced by victims of labour exploitation. PMID:22834807

  9. Factors associated with health care discrimination experiences among a national sample of female-to-male transgender individuals.

    PubMed

    Shires, Deirdre A; Jaffee, Kim

    2015-05-01

    Transgender individuals experience harassment, violence, and discrimination in a number of settings. Although health care discrimination against transgender people has been documented, this issue is understudied. Using a national cross-sectional survey data set (N = 1,711), the authors sought to determine how gender identity and presentation predict health care discrimination experiences among female-to-male (FTM) transgender people after demographic and socioeconomic characteristics are controlled. Analyses were conducted using chi-square tests and a two-step logistic regression. The majority of participants were white (73.9 percent) and between 25 and 44 years old (65.2 percent). Overall, 41.8 percent of FTM participants reported verbal harassment, physical assault, or denial of equal treatment in a doctor's office or hospital. When other factors were controlled, being Native American or multiracial, identifying as queer or asexual/other, having a graduate degree, living full-time as nonbirth gender, using hormones or surgery for medical transition, and having identification documents that list one's preferred gender were associated with increased reporting of health care discrimination experiences; being 45 years or older and reporting an annual income of $60,000 or more were associated with decreased risk. The study's findings can be useful to social workers, who play a role in educating health care providers and advocating for policies that improve health care experiences for FTM and other transgender patients. PMID:26027422

  10. Virulence genes of Aeromonas isolates, bacterial endotoxins and cyanobacterial toxins from recreational water samples associated with human health symptoms.

    PubMed

    Berg, Katri A; Lyra, Christina; Niemi, R Maarit; Heens, Benoit; Hoppu, Kalle; Erkomaa, Kirsti; Sivonen, Kaarina; Rapala, Jarkko

    2011-12-01

    Exposure to cyanobacterial water blooms has been associated with various kinds of adverse health effects. In addition to cyanobacteria and their toxins, the bacteria associated with cyanobacteria could also be the etiological agents. We isolated Aeromonas strains (n = 176) from water samples (n = 38) taken from sites where cyanobacteria were suspected to have caused human health symptoms, of which fever and gastrointestinal symptoms were the most common. The isolates were screened by PCR for six virulence gene types (12 genes). The majority (90%) of the strains contained at least one of the virulence genes. Most common amplification products were those of genes (act/aerA/hlyA) that encode cytotoxic enterotoxin and haemolytic products. The genes encoding cytotonic enterotoxins (ast and alt), phospholipase (lip/pla/lipH3/alp-1), elastase (ahyB) and flagellin subunits (flaA/flaB) were also present in 5-37% of the Aeromonas strains. Analysed toxins (cyanobacterial hepatotoxins and neurotoxins, and bacterial endotoxins) were not detectable or were present in only low concentrations in the majority of the samples. The results indicated that the toxins were unlikely to be the main cause of the reported adverse health effects, whereas more attention should be paid to bacteria associated with cyanobacteria as a source of health effects. PMID:22048427

  11. Factors associated with health-related quality of life among Indian women in mining and agriculture

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Women facing social and economic disadvantage in stressed communities of developing countries are at greater risk due to health problems. This paper investigates the relationships between structural, health and psychosocial predictors among women in mining and agricultural communities. This paper is a report of a study of the predictors of the health-related quality of life among Indian women in mining and agricultural communities. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional research design was used. The instruments used are SF-36 Health Survey and Coping Strategy Checklist. ANOVA, MANOVA and GLM were used in the analysis. The study was conducted between January-September 2008 with randomly selected women in a mining (145) and an agricultural community (133) in India. Results Women in the agricultural community had significantly increased Physical Health, Mental Health and SF36 scores compared with those in the mining community. Years of stay, education and employment were significant predictors among women in the agricultural community. 39% (33%) and 40% (26%) of the variance in Physical and Mental health respectively among women in agricultural and mining communities are predicted by the structural, health and psychosocial variables. Conclusion Perceived health status should be recognised as an important assessment of Physical and Mental Health among women in rural stressed communities. Cognitive, emotional and behavioural coping strategies are significant predictors of health related quality of life. Implications. Nurses should use the SF-36 as a diagnostic tool for assessing health related quality of life among women and discuss coping strategies, so that these can target women’s adaptive behaviour. This should be an essential part of the nursing process for facilitating adaptive process for improved health related quality of life. PMID:23336256

  12. The associations between diet quality, body mass index (BMI) and health and activity limitation index (HALEX) in the Geisinger Rural Aging Study (GRAS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives To determine the associations between diet quality, body mass index (BMI), and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) as assessed by the health and activity limitation index (HALex) in older adults. Design Multivariate linear regression models were used to analyze associations between Di...

  13. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN WHITE MATTER MICROSTRUCTURE, EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONS AND PROCESSING SPEED IN OLDER ADULTS: THE IMPACT OF VASCULAR HEALTH

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Heidi I.L.; Leritz, Elizabeth C.; Williams, Victoria J.; Van Boxtel, Martin P.J.; van der Elst, Wim; Jolles, Jelle; Verhey, Frans R. J.; McGlinchey, Regina E.; Milberg, William P.; Salat, David H.

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral white matter damage is a commonly reported consequence of healthy aging, but is also associated with cognitive decline and dementia. The aetiology of this damage is unclear, however, individuals with hypertension have a greater burden of white matter signal abnormalities (WMSA) on MR imaging than those without hypertension. It is therefore possible that elevated blood pressure (BP) impacts white matter tissue structure which in turn has a negative impact on cognition. However, little information exists about whether vascular health indexed by BP mediates the relationship between cognition and white matter tissue structure. We used diffusion tensor imaging to examine the impact of vascular health on regional associations between white matter integrity and cognition in healthy older adults spanning the normotensive to moderate-severe hypertensive BP range (43–87 years; N=128). We examined how white matter structure was associated with performance on tests of two cognitive domains, executive functioning (EF) and processing speed (PS), and how patterns of regional associations were modified by BP and WMSA. Multiple linear regression and structural equation models demonstrated associations between tissue structure, EF and PS in frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital white matter regions. Radial diffusivity was more prominently associated with performance than axial diffusivity. BP only minimally influenced the relationship between white matter integrity, EF and PS. However, WMSA volume had a major impact on neurocognitive associations. This suggests that, although BP and WMSA are causally related, these differential metrics of vascular health may act via independent pathways to influence brain structure, EF and PS. PMID:21954054

  14. Childhood social and early developmental factors associated with mental health service use

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicole Gunther; Barbara Slavenburg; Frans Feron; Jim van Os

    2003-01-01

    .   Background: The aim of this study was to determine the influence of family and child variables on the pathway to mental health care in\\u000a children. Methods: A blinded, matched case control study was conducted, involving a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from\\u000a routine examinations at the Youth Health Care Division from the Municipal Health Centre Maastricht (YHCD), where

  15. Chicago hospitals teaming-up to improve health education. Publisher, American Heart Association provide 'neutral' support.

    PubMed

    Botvin, Judith D

    2004-01-01

    In Chicago's southern section, known as Southland, the need for improved health status among the local population brought together marketing and business planning professionals from 11 healthcare entities that normally compete. Their group, named the Southland Health Alliance, came together to meet these urgent needs for better health education and lifestyle changes. With the visionary support of Midwest Suburban Publishing Co., they are collaborating on a year-long series of print advertisements addressing the problem faced by their community. PMID:15162574

  16. Epidemiology and Predictors of Multidrug-Resistant Community-Acquired and Health Care-Associated Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Van Schooneveld, Trevor C.; Olsen, Keith M.; Rupp, Mark E.; Bui, Thu Hong; Forsung, Elsie; Kalil, Andre C.

    2014-01-01

    There are limited U.S. data describing the risk factors for multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) isolation in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and health care-associated pneumonia (HCAP). However, concern for the presence of these pathogens drives the prescribing of empiric broad-spectrum antibiotics for CAP and HCAP. A retrospective study of all adults hospitalized with community-onset pneumonia (CAP and HCAP) at a large U.S. medical center from January 2010 to December 2011 was conducted. The objective was to ascertain the rate of pneumonia caused by MDROs and to evaluate whether HCAP is a risk factor for MDRO pneumonia. Univariate and propensity score-adjusted multivariate analyses were performed. A total of 521 patients (50.5% CAP and 49.5% HCAP) were included. The most common etiologies of pneumonia were primary viral and Streptococcus pneumoniae. MDROs were isolated in 20 (3.8%) patients overall, and MDROs occurred in 5.9% and 1.9% of HCAP and CAP patients, respectively. The presence of an MDRO was not associated with HCAP classification (odds ratio [OR] = 1.95; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.66 to 5.80; P = 0.23) or with most of its individual components (hemodialysis, home infusion, home wound care, and ?48-h hospitalization in the last 90 days). Independent predictors of MDRO included the following: Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization/infection in the previous year (OR = 7.43; 95% CI, 2.24 to 24.61; P < 0.001), antimicrobial use in the previous 90 days (OR = 2.90; 95% CI, 1.13 to 7.45; P = 0.027), admission from a nursing home (OR = 4.19; 95% CI, 1.55 to 11.31; P = 0.005), and duration of hospitalization in the previous 90 or 180 days (P = 0.013 and P = 0.002, respectively). MDROs were uncommon in HCAP and CAP. HCAP did not predict MDRO isolation. Local etiology of community onset pneumonia and specific MDRO risk factors should be integrated into therapeutic decisions to prevent empirical overprescribing of antibiotics for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and P. aeruginosa. PMID:24957843

  17. Community health coalitions in context: associations between geographic context, member type and length of membership with coalition functions.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, V; Sanders, M; Andrews, M L; Hale, R; Carrillo, C

    2014-10-01

    The coalition literature recognizes context (geography, demographics and history) as a variable of interest, yet few coalition evaluation studies have focused on it. This study explores the association between geographic context and structures (e.g. member type) with functional characteristics (e.g. decision making or levels of conflict) in a statewide system of community health councils (coalitions). The study was part of a multiyear, statewide evaluation of New Mexico's health councils' contributions to systems-level changes. We adapted the Coalition Self-Assessment Survey (CSAS) for all county health council members and paid council coordinators. Both multilevel univariate and multivariate procedures were used to compare index scores, summaries of CSAS questions used to characterize council functions, with selected demographic variables and region. Member type was associated with decision making and policy capacity; paid staff expressed higher levels of agreement than voting members for both items. Length of membership was associated with decision making, positive leadership and shared vision. Results indicated that geographic context was significantly associated with many functional characteristics. The study highlights the idea that geographic context may influence coalition functioning. Understanding how geographic context influences coalition planning and actions may help explain differences among coalitions that on the surface share common organizational characteristics and external goals. PMID:24974218

  18. Mental Health and Substance Use Factors Associated With Unwanted Sexual Contact Among U.S. Active Duty Service Women.

    PubMed

    Stahlman, Shauna; Javanbakht, Marjan; Cochran, Susan; Hamilton, Alison B; Shoptaw, Steven; Gorbach, Pamina M

    2015-06-01

    Many U.S. military women are exposed to unwanted sexual contact during military service, which can have important implications for mental health. Using data from the 2008 Department of Defense Survey of Health Related Behaviors, we employed multiple logistic regression methods to examine whether unwanted sexual contact was associated with stress, screening positive for mental disorders, or substance use, among active duty service women. The sample included 7,415 female military personnel, of whom 13.4% reported unwanted sexual contact (including any touching of genitals) since entering the military. After adjusting for potentially confounding variables, factors independently associated with unwanted sexual contact included military-related stress (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.44), family/personal life-related stress (AOR = 1.78), and gender-related stress (AOR = 1.98) in the past 12 months. In addition, screening positive for depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, or psychological distress, and suicidal ideation or attempt were associated with unwanted sexual contact (AOR = 1.57-2.11). For drug/alcohol use, only misuse of tranquilizers/muscle relaxers (past 12 months) was associated with report of unwanted sexual contact (AOR = 1.35). Given the prevalence of unwanted sexual contact and corresponding adverse health outcomes in this sample of active duty women, strategies to create military structural/cultural changes and reduce gender-related stress and sexism are needed. PMID:25976935

  19. Human health risk assessment of organochlorines associated with fish consumption in a coastal city in China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Q T; Lee, T K M; Chen, K; Wong, H L; Zheng, J S; Giesy, J P; Lo, K K W; Yamashita, N; Lam, P K S

    2005-07-01

    Food consumption is an important route of human exposure to organochlorines (OCs). In order to assess the potential health risks associated with these contaminants due to fish consumption, five species of fish were collected from a local market in Zhoushan City, an island in the East China Sea. Dioxin-like compounds, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/ dibenzofurans, in the fish samples were screened by H4IIE-luc cell bioassay, and the concentrations of specific organochlorines were measured by gas chromatograph-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The bioassay results indicated that concentrations of dioxin-like compounds in the fish samples were below detection limit (0.64 pg/mL). The concentrations of OC pesticides and PCBs ranged from 0.67 to 13 and 0.24 to 1.4 ng/g wet wt., respectively. Significantly, concentrations of p,p'-DDE in fish meat were comparatively high (average 3.9 ng/g wet wt.) compared with the other OC pesticides. The daily fish consumption, based on a dietary survey conducted among 160 local healthy residents, was determined to be 105 g/person. The relevant cancer benchmark concentrations of HCB, dieldrin, chlordane, DDTs and PCBs were 0.36, 0.04, 1.6, 1.7, and 0.29 ng/kg per day, respectively, based on the local diet. The hazard ratios (HRs), based on non-cancer endpoints were all less than 1.0, while the HRs based on cancer were greater than 1.0 for certain contaminants based on the 95th centile concentration in fish tissue. PMID:15809117

  20. Prospective Analysis of Association between Statin Use and Breast Cancer Risk in the Women's Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Pinkal; Chlebowski, Rowan; Cauley, Jane A.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Wu, Chunyuan; Martin, Lisa W.; Jay, Allison; Bock, Cathryn; Cote, Michele; Petrucelli, Nancie; Rosenberg, Carol A.; Peters, Ulrike; Agalliu, IIir; Budrys, Nicole; Abdul-Hussein, Mustafa; Lane, Dorothy; Luo, Juhua; Park, Hannah Lui; Thomas, Fridtjof; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Simon, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Statins are a class of cholesterol-lowering drugs that affect many intracellular pathways that may have implications for chemoprevention against cancer. Epidemiologic data on statins and breast cancer are conflicting. We analyzed updated data from the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) to assess the relationship between statins and breast cancer risk. Methods The population included 154,587 postmenopausal women ages 50 to 79 years, with 7,430 pathologically confirmed cases of breast cancer identified over an average of 10.8 (SD, 3.3) years. Information on statins was collected at baseline and years one, three, six, and nine. Self- and interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to collect information on risk factors. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate HRs with 95% confidence intervals (CI) to evaluate the relationship between statin use and cancer risk. Statistical tests were two-sided. Results Statins were used by 11,584 (7.5%) women at baseline. The annualized rate of breast cancer was 0.42% among statin users and 0.42% among nonusers. The multivariable adjusted HR of breast cancer for users versus nonusers was 0.94 (95% CI, 0.83–1.06). In the multivariable-adjusted, time-dependent model, the HR for simvastatin was 0.87 (95% CI, 0.71–1.07). There was no significant trend by overall duration of use (P value for trend 0.68). There was no effect of tumor stage, grade, or hormone receptor status. Conclusion Overall, statins were not associated with breast cancer risk. Impact Our study is one of the largest prospective observational studies on this topic, and substantially adds to the literature suggesting no relationship between statins and breast cancer risk. PMID:23975947

  1. Electronic medical record data to identify variables associated with a fibromyalgia diagnosis: importance of health care resource utilization

    PubMed Central

    Masters, Elizabeth T; Mardekian, Jack; Emir, Birol; Clair, Andrew; Kuhn, Max; Silverman, Stuart L

    2015-01-01

    Background Diagnosis of fibromyalgia (FM) is often challenging. Identifying factors associated with an FM diagnosis may guide health care providers in implementing appropriate diagnostic and management strategies. Methods This retrospective study used the de-identified Humedica electronic medical record (EMR) database to identify variables associated with an FM diagnosis. Cases (n=4,296) were subjects ?18 years old with ?2 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes for FM (729.1) ?30 days apart during 2012, associated with an integrated delivery network, with ?1 encounter with a health care provider in 2011 and 2012. Controls without FM (no-FM; n=583,665) did not have the ICD-9 codes for FM. Demographic, clinical, and health care resource utilization variables were extracted from structured EMR data. Univariate analysis identified variables showing significant differences between the cohorts based on odds ratios (ORs). Results Consistent with FM epidemiology, FM subjects were predominantly female (78.7% vs 64.5%; P<0.0001) and slightly older (mean age 53.3 vs 52.7 years; P=0.0318). Relative to the no-FM cohort, the FM cohort was characterized by a higher prevalence of nearly all evaluated comorbidities; the ORs suggested a higher likelihood of an FM diagnosis (P<0.0001), especially for musculoskeletal and neuropathic pain conditions (OR 3.1 for each condition). Variables potentially associated with an FM diagnosis included higher levels of use of specific health care resources including emergency-room visits, outpatient visits, hospitalizations, and medications. Units used per subject for emergency-room visits, outpatient visits, hospitalizations, and medications were also significantly higher in the FM cohort (P<0.0001), confirming resource utilization as an important variable associated with an FM diagnosis. Conclusion Significant differences between the FM and no-FM cohorts were observed for nearly all the demographic, clinical, and health care resource variables, suggesting an association with FM diagnosis. These results also support use of EMR data for identifying variables associated with FM, which may help in the diagnosis and management of this condition. PMID:25784819

  2. [The classifying criteria for the evaluation of the severity of the harm to health in the case of development of psychic health problems associated with HIV infection].

    PubMed

    Kadochnikov, D S; Polyansky, D A; Kalinin, V V; Minaeva, P V

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop the classifying criteria for the evaluation of the severity of the harm inflicted to human health that resulted in the development of mental disorders in response to subsequent HIV infection. The analysis of the available information about a rise in the prevalence of HIV infection and the high frequency of associated psychic disorders among the infected subjects gave evidence of the importance of this problem and the necessity to improve the existing statutory and legislative basis underlying the regulation of activities in this field. The scientifically substantiated criteria for the expert assessment of the severity of the harm to human health are proposed taking into consideration the clinical manifestations of psychic disorders. PMID:25874311

  3. Association Between Health Risk Knowledge and Risk Behavior Among Medical Students and Residents In Yerevan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tereza Khachkalyan; Varduhi Petrosyan; Krikor Soghikian

    2006-01-01

    Background. The relationship between risk knowledge, attitude, and behavior among different population groups is complex and has not been sufficiently explored. It was especially interesting to look at some aspects of this relationship among future health professionals (medical students and medical residents) assuming their detailed exposure to medical knowledge and health risks. The objectives of this study were to investigate

  4. Worse than Sticks and Stones? Bullying Is Associated with Altered HPA Axis Functioning and Poorer Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knack, Jennifer M.; Jensen-Campbell, Lauri A.; Baum, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents (N = 107; M = 12.23 years, SD = 1.09 months) participated in a two-part study examining peer victimization, neuroendocrine functioning, and physical health. In phase 1, adolescents completed questionnaires assessing peer victimization and health. They returned for phase 2 which consisted of two sessions. In session 1, adolescents…

  5. HEALTH PROFESSIONS RECRUITMENT & EXPOSURE PROGRAM Northwestern University's Feinberg School of Medicine, Student National Medical Association

    E-print Network

    Chisholm, Rex L.

    HEALTH PROFESSIONS RECRUITMENT & EXPOSURE PROGRAM 2012 (HPREP) Northwestern University's Feinberg of medicine, as well as have minority healthcare students interact with them on a regular basis. HRPEP by healthcare students · Information on different health professions and fields of medicine This program

  6. HEALTH PROFESSIONS RECRUITMENT & EXPOSURE PROGRAM Northwestern University's Feinberg School of Medicine, Student National Medical Association

    E-print Network

    Chisholm, Rex L.

    HEALTH PROFESSIONS RECRUITMENT & EXPOSURE PROGRAM 2013 (HPREP) Northwestern University's Feinberg of medicine, as well as have minority healthcare students interact with them on a regular basis. HRPEP by healthcare students Information on different health professions and fields of medicine This program

  7. HEALTH PROFESSIONS RECRUITMENT & EXPOSURE PROGRAM Northwestern University's Feinberg School of Medicine, Student National Medical Association

    E-print Network

    Chisholm, Rex L.

    HEALTH PROFESSIONS RECRUITMENT & EXPOSURE PROGRAM 2014 (HPREP) Northwestern University's Feinberg of medicine, as well as have minority healthcare students interact with them on a regular basis. HRPEP by healthcare students Information on different health professions and fields of medicine This program

  8. Association between Organizational Capacity and Involvement in Chronic Disease Prevention Programming among Canadian Public Health Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanusaik, Nancy; Sabiston, Catherine M.; Kishchuk, Natalie; Maximova, Katerina; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    In the context of the emerging field of public health services and systems research, this study (i) tested a model of the relationships between public health organizational capacity (OC) for chronic disease prevention, its determinants (organizational supports for evaluation, partnership effectiveness) and one possible outcome of OC (involvement…

  9. Understanding of School Related Factors Associated with Emotional Health and Bullying Behavior among Jordanian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    SHAHEEN, Abeer; NASSAR, Omayyah; SALEH, Mohammad; ARABIA T, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Students emotional health and bullying behavior are receiving greater attention worldwide due to their long-term effects on students’ health. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between perceived school climate, peer support, teacher support, school pressure and emotional health and bullying among adolescent school students in Jordan. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive design was used to recruit a sample of 1166 in-school adolescents in Amman between November 2013 and January 2014. A multi-stage cluster sampling technique was used to select respondents and Health Behavior in School Aged Children questionnaire was used to collect the data. Data were analyzed using Pearson Correlation to detect relationships among study variables. Results Significant correlations (P value was ?.05) were found between school climate including teacher and peer support and emotional health and bullying behavior of school students. School pressure was not correlated significantly with emotional health and bullying. Conclusion Study findings emphasize the importance of school related factors in influencing students’ emotional health and bullying behavior. This indicates that the issue of bullying and emotional health of students in Jordanian schools requires further attention, both for future research and preventive intervention.

  10. Exploring the Associations between Coping Patterns for Everyday Stressors and Mental Health in Young Schoolchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holen, Solveig; Lervag, Arne; Waaktaar, Trine; Ystgaard, Mette

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to explore the structure of coping with everyday stressors in a young nonclinical population and examine the relationship between coping and mental health. A total of 1324 children from 91 second-grade classes in 35 schools participated. Mental health was assessed using the parent and teacher forms of the Strengths…

  11. Recent advances and remaining gaps in our knowledge of associations between gut microbiota and human health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Volker Mai; Peter V Draganov

    2009-01-01

    The complex gut microbial flora harbored by individuals (microbiota) has long been proposed to contribute to intestinal health as well as disease. Pre- and probiotic products aimed at improving health by modifying microbiota composition have already become widely available and acceptance of these products appears to be on the rise. However, although required for the development of effective microbiota based

  12. American College Health Association Annual Pap Test and Sexually Transmitted Infection Survey: 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, P. Davis; Roberts, Craig M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe the cervical cytology and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing patterns of US college health centers. Participants and Methods: A total of 128 self-selected US college health centers--representing more than 2 million college students--completed an online survey during February and March 2007. Results: Almost…

  13. Multivariate imputation in cross-sectional analysis of health effects associated with air pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Duddek; N. D. Le; J. V. Zidek; R. T. Burnett

    1995-01-01

    We demonstrate a recently developed spatial interpolation methodology in a study of the chronic effects of air pollution on respiratory morbidity. Our study uses data from the Ontario Health Study, a large survey of households in Ontario conducted for the province by Statistics Canada. The interpolation procedure imputes unobserved vectors of air pollution concentrations for individual Public Health Units, from

  14. Estimated financial savings associated with health information exchange and ambulatory care referral

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark E. Frisse; Rodney L. Holmes

    2007-01-01

    Data and financial models based on an operational health information exchange suggest that health care delivery costs can be reduced by making clinical data available at the time of care in urban emergency departments. Reductions are the result of decreases in laboratory and radiographic tests, fewer admissions for observation, and lower overall emergency department costs. The likelihood of reducing these

  15. Risk of adverse health outcomes associated with frequency and duration of deployment with the Australian Defence Force.

    PubMed

    Bleier, Jonathan; McFarlane, Alexander; McGuire, Annabel; Treloar, Susan; Waller, Michael; Dobson, Annette

    2011-02-01

    The operational tempo of the Australian Defence Force has increased over the last two decades. We examine the relationship between health of personnel and the frequency and duration of their deployment. Self-reported health measures (number of symptoms, Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist) were compared for people who had never deployed to those who had deployed only once and for those who had deployed at least twice with at least one deployment to East Timor and one deployment to Afghanistan or Iraq. Comparisons were also made between people who had deployed for at least one month and those who had deployed for longer periods. Frequency of deployment but not duration of deployment was associated with poorer health. PMID:21366074

  16. Genomics for public health improvement: relevant international ethical and policy issues around genome-wide association studies and biobanks.

    PubMed

    Pang, T

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies and biobanks are at the forefront of genomics research and possess unprecedented potential to improve public health. However, for public health genomics to ultimately fulfill its potential, technological and scientific advances alone are insufficient. Scientists, ethicists, policy makers, and regulators must work closely together with research participants and communities in order to craft an equitable and just ethical framework, and a sustainable environment for effective policies. Such a framework should be a 'hybrid' form which balances equity and solidarity with entrepreneurship and scientific advances. A good balance between research and policy on one hand, and privacy, protection and trust on the other is the key for public health improvement based on advances in genomics science. PMID:23548720

  17. Associations of PM10 and airborne iron with respiratory health of adults living near a steel factory.

    PubMed

    Dusseldorp, A; Kruize, H; Brunekreef, B; Hofschreuder, P; de Meer, G; van Oudvorst, A B

    1995-12-01

    The association between daily PM10 (particles with a median aerodynamic diameter of < or = 10 microns) and iron particle concentrations and respiratory health was studied in a population of adults selected for current or recent bronchodilator use. Acute changes in respiratory health were measured as changes in peak expiratory flow (PEF), and daily prevalence of respiratory symptoms and medication use as recorded in a diary. The study period was October 11 through December 22, 1993. The study population included 32 adults living near a large steel industry in Wijk aan Zee, the Netherlands. During the study period, 24-h average PM10 concentrations in Wijk aan Zee ranged from 36 to 137 micrograms/m3 while the 24-h average concentrations of iron, silicon, sodium, and manganese ranged from approximately zero to 6.95, 1.84, 12.02, and 0.37 micrograms/m3 respectively. The steel industry was found to contribute significantly to the PM10 concentrations, and especially to the iron and manganese concentrations in the air. The association of changes in respiratory health with changes in PM10, iron, sodium, and silicon was evaluated using a time series approach. A statistically significant decrease in PEF was found to be associated with increasing PM10 concentrations. Stronger associations were found for smokers than for nonsmokers, and for subjects reporting many chronic respiratory symptoms than for subjects reporting few such symptoms. Increased concentrations of iron tended to be associated with a decline in PEF, with a lag of 2 to 3 d, although the association did not reach statistical significance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8520758

  18. Are students' symptoms and health complaints associated with perceived stress at university? Perspectives from the United Kingdom and Egypt.

    PubMed

    El Ansari, Walid; Oskrochi, Reza; Haghgoo, Ghollamreza

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional survey assessed and compared by country, the levels and correlates of 21 self-reported symptoms/health complaints. We examined the associations between self-reported symptoms and perceived stress. Data was collected from universities in the United Kingdom and Egypt (N = 3706 and 3271 undergraduates, respectively). A self-administered questionnaire assessed a range of self-reported symptoms, perceived stress, sociodemographic (gender, age, marital status, year of study, living arrangements during semester, income sufficiency), lifestyle (tobacco smoking, illicit drug/s use, alcohol consumption frequency), and health variables (subjective health status, health awareness, BMI), along with religiosity, and quality of life. Factor analysis categorized the 21 self-reported symptoms into four components. Correlation analysis and linear regression tested the associations between the self-reported symptoms and stress. Factor analysis of the health symptoms generated four symptom groups for each of the UK and Egypt (psychological; circulatory/breathing; gastrointestinal; and, pains/aches), and factor loadings were quite similar for both countries. Whilst the two samples showed similarities as to the kind of symptoms most frequently reported by students, the Egyptian sample had significantly higher frequency than the UK for every symptom. Frequent complaints (both countries) included difficulties to concentrate, fatigue, headaches, nervousness/anxiety, and back pain (UK) and mood swings (Egypt). Significantly more Egyptian students reported ? 4 symptoms over the past year than the UK. For each of the UK and Egypt, across each of the four symptom groups, there was a stepladder appearance whereby the frequency of symptoms increased with increasing quartiles of perceived stress. Not controlling for other variables, for both countries, there were significant positive correlations between each of the four symptom groups and stress; the highest correlation was for psychological symptoms. After controlling for sex, age country, and other symptom groups, stress was highly and significantly associated with psychological symptoms and also with pain & aches symptoms in both countries. UK students were generally less stressed than their counterparts in Egypt. Age and female gender were also associated with stress; the younger the student was the more likely to suffer from stress. Interactions were not significant. Across both countries, the levels of stress among students and the associations between perceived stress and health complaints suggest the need for a multiple approaches in order to understand the sources of stress; how college students experience stress; and, the coping mechanisms that different students employ to mitigate stress. Interventions aimed at both preventing, treating and caring for students' distress, and also preventive strategies to help minimize the impact of stressful situations are required. Strategies that address both physical and psychological complaints may be beneficial for this population. PMID:25264677

  19. Prevalence and Risk of Violence and the Physical, Mental, and Sexual Health Problems Associated with Human Trafficking: Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Oram, Siân; Stöckl, Heidi; Busza, Joanna; Howard, Louise M.; Zimmerman, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    Background There is very limited evidence on the health consequences of human trafficking. This systematic review reports on studies investigating the prevalence and risk of violence while trafficked and the prevalence and risk of physical, mental, and sexual health problems, including HIV, among trafficked people. Methods and Findings We conducted a systematic review comprising a search of Medline, PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and Web of Science, hand searches of reference lists of included articles, citation tracking, and expert recommendations. We included peer-reviewed papers reporting on the prevalence or risk of violence while trafficked and/or on the prevalence or risk of any measure of physical, mental, or sexual health among trafficked people. Two reviewers independently screened papers for eligibility and appraised the quality of included studies. The search identified 19 eligible studies, all of which reported on trafficked women and girls only and focused primarily on trafficking for sexual exploitation. The review suggests a high prevalence of violence and of mental distress among women and girls trafficked for sexual exploitation. The random effects pooled prevalence of diagnosed HIV was 31.9% (95% CI 21.3%–42.4%) in studies of women accessing post-trafficking support in India and Nepal, but the estimate was associated with high heterogeneity (I2?=?83.7%). Infection prevalence may be related as much to prevalence rates in women's areas of origin or exploitation as to the characteristics of their experience. Findings are limited by the methodological weaknesses of primary studies and their poor comparability and generalisability. Conclusions Although limited, existing evidence suggests that trafficking for sexual exploitation is associated with violence and a range of serious health problems. Further research is needed on the health of trafficked men, individuals trafficked for other forms of exploitation, and effective health intervention approaches. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:22666182

  20. Ideal Cardiovascular Health in Young Adult Populations From the United States, Finland, and Australia and Its Association With cIMT: The International Childhood Cardiovascular Cohort Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Oikonen, Mervi; Laitinen, Tomi T.; Magnussen, Costan G.; Steinberger, Julia; Sinaiko, Alan R.; Dwyer, Terence; Venn, Alison; Smith, Kylie J.; Hutri?Kähönen, Nina; Pahkala, Katja; Mikkilä, Vera; Prineas, Ronald; Viikari, Jorma S. A.; Morrison, John A.; Woo, Jessica G.; Chen, Wei; Nicklas, Theresa; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Berenson, Gerald; Juonala, Markus; Raitakari, Olli T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Goals for cardiovascular (CV) disease prevention were set by the American Heart Association in 2010 for the concept of CV health. Ideal CV health is defined by 7 CV health metrics: blood pressure, glucose, cholesterol, body mass index, and physical activity on recommended levels; nonsmoking; and a healthy diet. We studied the prevalence of ideal CV health and its associations with ultrasonographically measured carotid intima?media thickness (cIMT) cross?sectionally in 5 international populations. Methods and Results Prevalence of ideal CV health was assessed among 5785 young adults (age, 36.6±3.2 years) comprising 335 participants from the Minneapolis Childhood Cohort Studies (Minnesota), 723 from the Princeton Follow?up Study, 981 from the Bogalusa Heart Study (BHS), 1898 from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study (YFS), and 1848 from the Childhood Determinants of Adult Health Study (CDAH). Only 1% of the participants had all 7 ideal CV health metrics. The number of ideal CV health metrics associated inversely with cIMT in the 4 cohorts in which cIMT was available: for each additional ideal CV health metric, cIMT was 12.7 ?m thinner in Minnesota (P=0.0002), 9.1 ?m thinner in BHS (P=0.05), 10.4 ?m thinner in YFS (P<0.0001), and 3.4 ?m thinner in CDAH (P=0.03). Conclusions The number of ideal CV health metrics was inversely associated with cIMT in the cohorts in which cIMT was available, indicating that ideal CV health metrics are associated with vascular health at the population level. Ideal CV health was rare in this large international sample of young adults, emphasizing the need for effective strategies for health promotion. PMID:23782922

  1. Puberty timing associated with diabetes, cardiovascular disease and also diverse health outcomes in men and women: the UK Biobank study

    PubMed Central

    Day, Felix R; Elks, Cathy E; Murray, Anna; Ong, Ken K; Perry, John R.B.

    2015-01-01

    Early puberty timing is associated with higher risks for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease in women and therefore represents a potential target for early preventive interventions. We characterised the range of diseases and other adverse health outcomes associated with early or late puberty timing in men and women in the very large UK Biobank study. Recalled puberty timing and past/current diseases were self-reported by questionnaire. We limited analyses to individuals of White ethnicity (250,037 women; 197,714 men) and to disease outcomes with at least 500 cases (~0·2% prevalence) and we applied stringent correction for multiple testing (corrected threshold P?associated with higher risks for angina, hypertension and T2D. Furthermore, compared to the median/average group, earlier or later puberty timing in women or men was associated with higher risks for 48 adverse outcomes, across a range of cancers, cardio-metabolic, gynaecological/obstetric, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, and neuro-cognitive categories. Notably, both early and late menarche were associated with higher risks for early natural menopause in women. Puberty timing in both men and women appears to have a profound impact on later health. PMID:26084728

  2. High Urinary Tungsten Concentration Is Associated with Stroke in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2010

    PubMed Central

    Tyrrell, Jessica; Galloway, Tamara S.; Abo-Zaid, Ghada; Melzer, David; Depledge, Michael H.; Osborne, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent years there has been an exponential increase in tungsten demand, potentially increasing human exposure to the metal. Currently, the toxicology of tungsten is poorly understood, but mounting evidence suggests that both the elemental metal and its alloys have cytotoxic effects. Here, we investigate the association between tungsten and cardiovascular disease (CVD) or stroke using six waves of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods We investigated associations using crude and adjusted logistic regression models in a cohort of 8614 adults (18–74 years) with 193 reported stroke diagnoses and 428 reported diagnoses of CVD. We also stratified our data to characterize associations in a subset of younger individuals (18–50 years). Results Elevated tungsten concentrations were strongly associated with an increase in the prevalence of stroke, independent of typical risk factors (Odds Ratio (OR): 1.66, 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI): 1.17, 2.34). The association between tungsten and stroke in the young age category was still evident (OR: 2.17, 95% CI: 1.33, 3.53). Conclusion This study represents the most comprehensive analysis of the human health effects of tungsten to date. Individuals with higher urinary tungsten concentrations have double the odds of reported stroke. We hypothesize that the pathological pathway resulting from tungsten exposure may involve oxidative stress. PMID:24244278

  3. Puberty timing associated with diabetes, cardiovascular disease and also diverse health outcomes in men and women: the UK Biobank study.

    PubMed

    Day, Felix R; Elks, Cathy E; Murray, Anna; Ong, Ken K; Perry, John R B

    2015-01-01

    Early puberty timing is associated with higher risks for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease in women and therefore represents a potential target for early preventive interventions. We characterised the range of diseases and other adverse health outcomes associated with early or late puberty timing in men and women in the very large UK Biobank study. Recalled puberty timing and past/current diseases were self-reported by questionnaire. We limited analyses to individuals of White ethnicity (250,037 women; 197,714 men) and to disease outcomes with at least 500 cases (~0·2% prevalence) and we applied stringent correction for multiple testing (corrected threshold P?associated with higher risks for angina, hypertension and T2D. Furthermore, compared to the median/average group, earlier or later puberty timing in women or men was associated with higher risks for 48 adverse outcomes, across a range of cancers, cardio-metabolic, gynaecological/obstetric, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, and neuro-cognitive categories. Notably, both early and late menarche were associated with higher risks for early natural menopause in women. Puberty timing in both men and women appears to have a profound impact on later health. PMID:26084728

  4. Paid work is associated with improved health-related quality of life in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Grřnning, Kjersti; Rřdevand, Erik; Steinsbekk, Aslak

    2010-11-01

    Numerous patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) end their working career due to consequences of the disease. No publication has reported whether there is an independent association between patients' health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and employment status. The objective of the study was to investigate the association of paid work and HRQOL in patients with RA whilst controlling for demographics and disease severity. This was a cross-sectional study. Three hundred and ten patients were consecutively recruited from two Norwegians hospitals when commencing disease modifying anti-rheumatic drug treatment. Data on demographics, employment status, disease activity (DAS28-3), physical functioning, pain, tiredness, and HRQOL (SF-36) were collected. HRQOL were compared between 123 patients working full- or part-time and 187 patients not working due to disability pension, retirement, being students or "home workers". The regression analyses showed an independent positive association between paid work and the physical (p=001) and the mental component (p=012) of the SF-36 when controlling for demographics and disease severity. Paid work was statistically significantly associated with better HRQOL in patients with RA. The positive association of performing paid work and HRQOL imply that health care providers should thoroughly evaluate the possibilities for the patients to continue with paid work. PMID:20645116

  5. Factors Associated with Exclusive Breastfeeding in Timor-Leste: Findings from Demographic and Health Survey 2009–2010

    PubMed Central

    Khanal, Vishnu; da Cruz, Jonia Lourenca Nunes Brites; Karkee, Rajendra; Lee, Andy H.

    2014-01-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding is known to have nutritional and health benefits. This study investigated factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding among infants aged five months or less in Timor-Leste. The latest data from the national Demographic and Health Survey 2009–2010 were analyzed by binary logistic regression. Of the 975 infants included in the study, overall 49% (95% confidence interval 45.4% to 52.7%) were exclusively breastfed. The exclusive breastfeeding prevalence declined with increasing infant age, from 68.0% at less than one month to 24.9% at five months. Increasing infant age, mothers with a paid occupation, who perceived their newborn as non-average size, and residence in the capital city Dili, were associated with a lower likelihood of exclusive breastfeeding. On the other hand, women who could decide health-related matters tended to breastfeed exclusively, which was not the case for others whose decisions were made by someone else. The results suggested the need of breastfeeding promotion programs to improve the exclusive breastfeeding rate. Antenatal counseling, peer support network, and home visits by health workers could be feasible options to promote exclusive breastfeeding given that the majority of births occur at home. PMID:24756151

  6. Problem Gambling Among Ontario Students: Associations with Substance Abuse, Mental Health Problems, Suicide Attempts, and Delinquent Behaviours.

    PubMed

    Cook, Steven; Turner, Nigel E; Ballon, Bruce; Paglia-Boak, Angela; Murray, Robert; Adlaf, Edward M; Ilie, Gabriela; den Dunnen, Wendy; Mann, Robert E

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes gambling problems among Ontario students in 2009 and examines the relationship between gambling problems and substance use problems, mental health problem indicators, and delinquent behaviors. Data were derived from the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey of Ontario students in grades 7-12. Gambling problems were measured as 2 or more of 6 indicators of problem gambling. In total 2.8 % of the students surveyed endorsed two or more of the problem gambling items. The odds of problem gamblers reporting mental distress was 4.2 times higher than the rest of the sample and the odds of problem gamblers reporting a suicide attempt were 17.8 times greater than the rest of the sample. In addition compared to the rest of the students, delinquent behaviors were also more common among problem gamblers, including theft (OR = 14.5), selling marijuana (OR = 19.6), gang fights (OR = 11.3) and carrying a handgun (OR = 11.2). In a multivariate analysis, substance-use problems, mental health problems, and the participation in a variety of delinquent behaviors remained significantly associated with youth problem gambling behavior. Students who report problem gambling behaviors show increased substance abuse, mental health, and delinquency/criminal problems that are similar to those seen among adult problem gamblers. The association between these problems suggests that these problems could be addressed in a unified manner. PMID:24981225

  7. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in Timor-Leste: findings from Demographic and Health Survey 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Khanal, Vishnu; da Cruz, Jonia Lourenca Nunes Brites; Karkee, Rajendra; Lee, Andy H

    2014-04-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding is known to have nutritional and health benefits. This study investigated factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding among infants aged five months or less in Timor-Leste. The latest data from the national Demographic and Health Survey 2009-2010 were analyzed by binary logistic regression. Of the 975 infants included in the study, overall 49% (95% confidence interval 45.4% to 52.7%) were exclusively breastfed. The exclusive breastfeeding prevalence declined with increasing infant age, from 68.0% at less than one month to 24.9% at five months. Increasing infant age, mothers with a paid occupation, who perceived their newborn as non-average size, and residence in the capital city Dili, were associated with a lower likelihood of exclusive breastfeeding. On the other hand, women who could decide health-related matters tended to breastfeed exclusively, which was not the case for others whose decisions were made by someone else. The results suggested the need of breastfeeding promotion programs to improve the exclusive breastfeeding rate. Antenatal counseling, peer support network, and home visits by health workers could be feasible options to promote exclusive breastfeeding given that the majority of births occur at home. PMID:24756151

  8. Maternal health behaviours during pregnancy in an Irish obstetric population and their associations with socio-demographic and infant characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roslyn C Tarrant; Katherine Mary Younger; margaret Sheridan-Pereira; John Michael Kearney

    2011-01-01

    Background\\/Objectives:To examine the prevalence and combined occurrence of peri-conceptional folic acid (FA) supplement use, smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy in a sample of women in Dublin, and determine the factors associated with these health behaviours.Subjects\\/Methods:A prospective observational study (2004–2006) involving the recruitment of 491 pregnant women from antenatal clinics in a Dublin maternity hospital, with postpartum follow-up of 450

  9. Becoming Physically Active After Bariatric Surgery is Associated With Improved Weight Loss and Health-related Quality of Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dale S. Bond; Suzanne Phelan; Luke G. Wolfe; Ronald K. Evans; Jill G. Meador; John M. Kellum; James W. Maher; Rena R. Wing

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether pre- to postoperative increases in physical activity (PA) are associated with weight loss and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) following bariatric surgery. Participants were 199 Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery patients. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to categorize participants into three groups according to their preoperative and \\/1-year

  10. Assessment of environmental health and safety issues associated with the commercialization of unconventional gas recovery: Tight Western Sands

    SciTech Connect

    Riedel, E.F.; Cowan, C.E.; McLaughlin, T.J.

    1980-02-01

    Results of a study to identify and evaluate potential public health and safety problems and the potential environmental impacts from recovery of natural gas from Tight Western Sands are reported. A brief discussion of economic and technical constraints to development of this resource is also presented to place the environmental and safety issues in perspective. A description of the resource base, recovery techniques, and possible environmental effects associated with tight gas sands is presented.

  11. Diabetes Risk Associated with Use of Olanzapine, Quetiapine, and Risperidone in Veterans Health Administration Patients with Schizophrenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce L. Lambert; Francesca E. Cunningham; Donald R. Miller; Gregory W. Dalack; Kwan Hur; Edward Hines

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate risk of new-onset type 2 diabetes associated with use of selected antipsychotic agents, the authors conducted a new-user cohort study in a national sample of US Veterans Health Administration patients with schizophrenia (and no preexisting diabetes). The authors studied 15,767 patients who initiated use of olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine, or haloperidol in 1999-2001 after at least 3 months with

  12. Toxicity of Ambient Air PM10. A critical review of potentially causative PM properties and mechanisms associated with health effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bree L van; Cassee FR

    2007-01-01

    In this critical review studies focus on ambient particulate air\\u000apollution (PM) toxicity and particle hypotheses. Mechanisms were also\\u000aevaluated to investigate causality and plausibility of acute health\\u000aeffects associated with ambient exposure. High-dose studies indicate\\u000athat PM: 1) induces oxidative pulmonary inflammation and\\u000acardio-respiratory malfunctioning, which could contribute to a disease\\u000aexacerbation mechanism. PM surface reactivity seems more important

  13. Self-reported physical health associations of traumatic events in medical and dental outpatients: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Raja, Sheela; Hannan, Susan M; Boykin, Derrecka; Orcutt, Holly; Hamad, Judy; Hoersch, Michelle; Hasnain, Memoona

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to understand the prevalence and severity of health-related sequelae of traumatic exposure in a nonpsychiatric, outpatient sample.Self-report surveys were completed by patients seeking outpatient medical (n?=?123) and dental care (n?=?125) at a large, urban academic medical center.Results suggested that trauma exposure was associated with a decrease in perceptions of overall health and an increase in pain interference at work. Contrary to prediction, a history of interpersonal trauma was associated with less physical and emotional interference with social activities. A history of trauma exposure was associated with an increase in time elapsed since last medical visit. Depression and anxiety did not mediate the relationship between trauma history and medical care.Based on these results, clinical and research implications in relation to the health effects of trauma are discussed. The results suggest that routine screening for traumatic events may be important, particularly when providers have long-term relationships with patients. PMID:25929906

  14. Evaluation of the public health risks associated with semivolatile metal and dioxin emissions from hazardous waste incinerators.

    PubMed Central

    Sedman, R M; Esparza, J R

    1991-01-01

    The public health impacts associated with stack emissions from hazardous waste incinerators have become a major concern in recent years. Most evaluations of incinerator stack emissions have focused on three classes of compounds: metals, semivolatile, and volatile compounds. These investigations have been complicated by the difficulty and expense of analyzing the emissions and the limited amount of toxicity information for many of the compounds that have been detected. The results of over 20 trial burns at hazardous waste incinerators were assembled in an attempt to determine which compounds may pose a significant threat to the public health. The risks associated with semivolatile emissions were found to be inconsequential, although further study of dioxins and dibenzofurans emissions appears to be warranted. The risk associated with the emission of cadmium and perhaps chromium (VI) may pose a significant risk to public health at certain facilities. Controls on waste feed or air pollution control devices should be employed to reduce the emission of these metals. Any monitoring of metal emissions from hazardous waste incinerators should focus on cadmium and chromium (VI). PMID:1954929

  15. Association between sperm DNA integrity and seminal plasma antioxidant levels in health workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dayanidhi; Salian, Sujith Raj; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Uppangala, Shubhashree; Kumari, Sandhya; Challapalli, Srinivas; Chandraguthi, Shrinidhi Gururajarao; Jain, Navya; Krishnamurthy, Hanumanthappa; Kumar, Pratap; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2014-07-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding the association between occupational radiation exposure and risk to human fertility. Recently, we provided the first evidence on altered sperm functional characteristics, DNA damage and hypermethylation in radiation health workers. However, there is no report elucidating the association between seminal plasma antioxidants and sperm chromatin integrity in occupationally exposed subjects. Here, we assessed the seminal plasma antioxidants and lipid peroxidation level in 83 men who were occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation and then correlated with the sperm chromatin integrity. Flow cytometry based sperm chromatin integrity assay revealed a significant decline in ?t value in the exposed group in comparison to the non-exposed group (P<0.0001). Similarly, both total and reduced glutathione levels and total antioxidant capacity in the seminal plasma were significantly higher in exposed group than the non-exposed group (P<0.01, 0.001 and 0.0001, respectively). However, superoxide dismutase level and malondialdehyde level, which is an indicator of lipid peroxidation in the seminal plasma, did not differ significantly between two groups. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and GSH level exhibited a positive correlation with sperm DNA integrity in exposed subjects. To conclude, this study distinctly shows that altered sperm chromatin integrity in radiation health workers is associated with increase in seminal plasma antioxidant level. Further, the increased seminal plasma GSH and TAC could be an adaptive measure to tackle the oxidative stress to protect genetic and functional sperm deformities in radiation health workers. PMID:24834825

  16. Association of lifestyle factors and suboptimal health status: a cross-sectional study of Chinese students

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Jianlu; Huang, Ying; Xiao, Ya; Cheng, Jingru; Li, Fei; Wang, Tian; Chen, Jieyu; Wu, Liuguo; Liu, Yanyan; Luo, Ren; Zhao, Xiaoshan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Suboptimal health status (SHS) is considered to be an intermediate status between disease and health, and is characterised by a decline in vitality, in physiological function and in the capacity for adaptation. Although the incidence of SHS is high, the underlying causes remain unclear. Lifestyle is one of the most important factors affecting health status; however, the relationship between SHS and lifestyle has not been elucidated. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting A questionnaire, based on ‘Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II (HPLP-II)’ and ‘Sub-Health Measurement Scale V1.0 (SHMS V1.0)’, was sent to four colleges in four districts (Guangzhou, Foshan, Zhanjiang and Shaoguan) of China between May and July 2013. Participants A total of 12?429 questionnaires were distributed during the study period, and 11?144 completed responses were received. Results The prevalence rates for the ‘healthy’, ‘SHS’ and ‘disease’ groups of respondents (students) were 22.81% (2542), 55.9% (6234) and 21.25% (2368), respectively. Most of the students reported a ‘moderate’ or ‘good’ lifestyle. There were significant differences in lifestyle and health status between the two genders. It was notable that health status was significantly positively correlated with lifestyle (r=0.563). For every dimension of the HPLP-II model, the mean values were lower for those participants who reported as ‘SHS’ or ‘disease’ than for those who reported that they were ‘healthy’. The individual dimensions of the HPLP-II model, including ‘spiritual growth’, ‘health responsibility’, ‘physical activity’, ‘interpersonal relations’ and ‘stress management’ were all related to SHS. Conclusions Health status is significantly positively correlated with lifestyle. Poor lifestyle is a risk factor for SHS. Conversely, adopting a healthier lifestyle can improve SHS. Trial registration number ChiCTR-OCH-12002317. PMID:24951109

  17. Association between HIV programs and quality of maternal health inputs and processes in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kruk, Margaret E; Jakubowski, Aleksandra; Rabkin, Miriam; Kimanga, Davies O; Kundu, Francis; Lim, Travis; Lumumba, Vane; Oluoch, Tom; Robinson, Katherine A; El-Sadr, Wafaa

    2015-04-01

    We assessed whether quality of maternal and newborn health services is influenced by presence of HIV programs at Kenyan health facilities using data from a national facility survey. Facilities that provided services to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission had better prenatal and postnatal care inputs, such as infrastructure and supplies, and those providing antiretroviral therapy had better quality of prenatal and postnatal care processes. HIV-related programs may have benefits for quality of care for related services in the health system. PMID:25689188

  18. The Perceptions, Social Determinants, and Negative Health Outcomes Associated With Depressive Symptoms Among U.S. Chinese Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dong, XinQi; Chang, E-Shien; Wong, Esther; Simon, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study:?Recent demographic growth of the U.S. Chinese aging population calls for comprehensive understanding of their unique health needs. The objective of this study is to examine the perceptions, social determinants of depressive symptoms as well as their impact on health and well-being in a community-dwelling U.S. Chinese aging population in Chicago.?Design and Methods:?A community-based participatory research approach was implemented to partner with the Chicago Chinatown population in a geographically defined community. Data were collected from questionnaires and semistructured focus group interviews with 78 community-dwelling Chinese older adults.?Results:?Our findings suggest that the depressive symptoms were common among older adults. It was frequently identified through feelings of helplessness, feelings of dissatisfaction with life, feelings of getting bored, loss of interests in activities, suicidal ideation, and feelings of worthlessness. Societal conflicts, family conflicts, financial constraints, personality, and worsening physical health may be associated with greater depressive symptoms. In addition, depressive symptoms may be detrimental to the overall health and well-being of Chinese older adults.?Implications:?This study has wide implications for health care professionals, social services agencies, and policy makers. Our results call for improved public health education and awareness programs to highlight the health impact of depressive symptoms on Chinese older adults. Future prospective studies are needed to investigate the prevalence of depressive symptoms among U.S. Chinese older adults. Longitudinal research is needed to quantify the risk and protective factors of depressive symptoms. PMID:22156734

  19. Health Care Utilisation and Out-of-Pocket Expenditure Associated with Back Pain: A Nationally Representative Survey of Australian Women

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Emma R.; Broom, Alex F.; Sibbritt, David W.; Refshauge, Kathryn M.; Adams, Jon

    2013-01-01

    Background Back pain impacts on a significant proportion of the Australian population over the life course and has high prevalence rates among women, particularly in older age. Back pain care is characterised by multiple practitioner and self-prescribed treatment options, and the out-of-pocket costs associated with consultations and self-prescribed treatments have not been examined to date. Objective To analyse the extent of health care practitioner consultations and self-prescribed treatment for back pain care among Australian women, and to assess the self-reported costs associated with such usage. Methods Survey of 1,310 women (response rate 80.9%) who reported seeking help for back pain from the ‘1946-51 cohort’ of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health. Women were asked about their use of health care practitioners and self-prescribed treatments for back pain and the costs associated with such usage. Results In the past year 76.4% consulted a complementary and alternative practitioner, 56% an allied health practitioner and 59.2% a GP/medical specialist. Overall, women consulted with, on average, 3.0 (SD?=?2.0) different health care practitioners, and had, on average, 12.2 (SD?=?9.7) discrete health care practitioner consultations for back pain. Average self-reported out-of-pocket expenditure on practitioners and self-prescribed treatments for back pain care per annum was AU$873.10. Conclusions Multiple provider usage for various but distinct purposes (i.e. pain/mobility versus anxiety/stress) points to the need for further research into patient motivations and experiences of back pain care in order to improve and enhance access to and continuity of care. Our results suggest that the cost of back pain care represents a significant burden, and may ultimately limit women’s access to multiple providers. We extrapolate that for Australian working-age women, total out-of-pocket expenditure on back pain care per annum is in excess of AU$1.4billion, thus indicating the prominence of back pain as a major economic, social and health burden. PMID:24376716

  20. Mental health of victims of sexual violence in eastern Congo: associations with daily stressors, stigma, and labeling

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The conflict-ridden context of eastern Congo has set the scene for grueling human rights violations, with sexual violence as one of the ‘weapons of war’. Currently, sexual violence continues, with a considerable increase in civilian perpetrators. However, little is known regarding the particular impact of different experiences of sexual violence on adolescents’ mental health. This study therefore investigates the impact of sexual violence on eastern Congolese adolescents’ mental health and its differing associations with daily stressors, stigma, and the labeling of sexual violence (as ‘rape’ or ‘non-consensual sexual experience’). Methods A cross-sectional, population-based survey design was implemented in 22 secondary schools, randomly selected from a stratified sample, in Bunia, eastern Congo, a region extensively affected by war. A total of 1,305 school-going adolescent girls aged 11 to 23 participated. Self-report measures of mental health symptoms, war-related traumatic events, experiences of sexual violence, daily stressors, and stigmatization were administered. Differences in sociodemographic characteristics, traumatic experiences and daily and social stressors between types of sexual violence (rape, non-consensual sexual violence, no sexual violence) were explored through statistical analysis. ANCOVA analyses investigated associations between those risk factors and adolescents’ mental health. Results More than one third of eastern Congolese adolescent girls reported experiences of sexual violence. Elevated levels of daily stressors, experiences of stigmatization, and stressful war-related events were found amongst girl victims of sexual violence, with the highest levels for girls who labeled the sexual violence as rape. Daily stressors, stigmatization, and war-related events showed a large impact on the girls’ mental health. Last, girls who labeled the sexual violence as non-consensual sexual experiences reported more post-traumatic hyper-arousal and intrusion symptoms compared to those labeling the sexual violence as rape. Conclusions These findings point to the important association between how war-affected adolescent girls label sexual violence (rape or non-consensual sexual experiences) and their mental health. This study also documents the large impact of sexual violence on other stressors (daily stressors, stigmatization, and stressful war events) and the impact of these stressors on girl victims’ mental health. It discusses important implications for addressing sexual violence and its consequences in war-affected contexts. PMID:25195041