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Sample records for health association acha

  1. The American College Health Association National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA), Spring 2003 Reference Group Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of American College Health, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Assessing and understanding the health needs and capacities of college students is paramount to creating healthy campus communities. The American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA) is a survey instrument developed by the American College Health Association (ACHA) in 1998 to assist institutions of higher

  2. ACHA Campus Violence White Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Joetta L.; Ward, Robert L.

    2006-01-01

    In 1999, the American College Health Association (ACHA) adopted a position statement for the Association that addresses acts of violence, bias, and other violations of human rights that have been occurring all too often within or adjacent to college communities. The purpose of this ACHA White Paper is to confront this serious college health issue

  3. American College Health Association

    MedlinePLUS

    ... News, Programs, and Services Vote in the ACHA Leadership Election: March 18–April 18, 2016 Your vote ... help ACHA expand its position as the principal leadership organization for advancing the health of college students ...

  4. "Mens Sana": The Growth of Mental Health in the American College Health Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, David P.

    2009-01-01

    In 1910, the first college mental health service sought to help college students with personality development and building a healthy mind. In 1920, the meeting that founded the American College Health Association (ACHA) identified "mental hygiene" as important, although a separate Mental Health Section was not established in ACHA until 1957.

  5. "Mens Sana": The Growth of Mental Health in the American College Health Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, David P.

    2009-01-01

    In 1910, the first college mental health service sought to help college students with personality development and building a healthy mind. In 1920, the meeting that founded the American College Health Association (ACHA) identified "mental hygiene" as important, although a separate Mental Health Section was not established in ACHA until 1957.…

  6. The Status of Nutrition Education in ACHA College and University Health Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessler, Lisa; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Study investigated the status of student health center nutrition services. Surveys completed by directors of 168 centers indicated that 79 percent provided some nutrition education and 96 percent had one-to-one counseling. Larger institutions were more likely to have nutrition programs. Registered dietitians were the typical service providers. (SM)

  7. Evaluating California Campus Tobacco Policies Using the American College Health Association Guidelines and the Institutional Grammar Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roditis, Maria L.; Wang, Donna; Glantz, Stanton A.; Fallin, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To measure comprehensiveness of California campus tobacco policies. Participants: Sixteen campuses representing different regions, institution types, and policies. Research occurred June-August 2013. Methods: Comprehensiveness was scored using American College Health Association's (ACHA) "Position Statement on Tobacco."

  8. Health-Related Barriers to Learning among Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan, William; Bogart, Jane; Wheat, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report the perceived impact of various health concerns on the academic performance of health sciences graduate students. Design/methodology/approach: The American College Health Association's National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA), a 58-item anonymous survey, was distributed to all graduate health

  9. Health-Related Barriers to Learning among Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan, William; Bogart, Jane; Wheat, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report the perceived impact of various health concerns on the academic performance of health sciences graduate students. Design/methodology/approach: The American College Health Association's National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA), a 58-item anonymous survey, was distributed to all graduate health…

  10. Sexual and Reproductive Health Behaviors of California Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trieu, Sang Leng; Bratton, Sally; Marshak, Helen Hopp

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the sexual and reproductive health behaviors of students from 13 community college campuses in California. Participants: Heterosexual college students, ages 18 to 24, who have had sexual intercourse (N = 4,487). Methods: The American College Health Association's National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA) survey was

  11. Sexual and Reproductive Health Behaviors of California Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trieu, Sang Leng; Bratton, Sally; Marshak, Helen Hopp

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the sexual and reproductive health behaviors of students from 13 community college campuses in California. Participants: Heterosexual college students, ages 18 to 24, who have had sexual intercourse (N = 4,487). Methods: The American College Health Association's National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA) survey was…

  12. Community College Student Mental Health: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Daniel Seth; Davison, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This study explores community college student mental health by comparing the responses of California community college and traditional university students on the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II (ACHA-NCHA II). Using MANOVA, we compared community college and traditional university students, examining

  13. A Scope-of-Practice Survey Leading to the Development of Standards of Practices for Health Promotion in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer, Christine G.; Hill, Martin H.; Sonnad, Subhash R.

    2003-01-01

    To review and analyze the scope of practice of health promotion services and draft standards of quality indicators for higher education communities, the American College Health Association (ACHA) initiated a Task Force on Health Promotion in Higher Education in May 1996. Members of the task force developed a National Survey on Health Promotion and

  14. Production and evaluation of breakfast cereals from blends of acha and fermented soybean paste (okara).

    PubMed

    Mbaeyi-Nwaoha, I E; Uchendu, N O

    2016-01-01

    Breakfast cereals was formulated from blends of acha and fermented okara (soybean residue). Acha grains were cleaned, winnowed, washed, dried (at 50C for 4h) and milled into flour. Okara was processed from soybean seed through the stepwise procedure of cleaning, soaking, washing, milling and sieving. The residue was divided into five portions, fermented differently for 0, 12, 24, 36, and 48h and then dried at 50C for 6h. Acha flour (UFAC) was milled and blended at 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100% ratio with milled okara flour. Functional properties (bulk density, water absorption capacity, swelling capacity, wettability, viscosity and particle size distribution, microbial load, and proximate composition were carried out on the individual flour samples. The blended flours were conditioned, partially heat treated (for 10min), aged (4C for 6h), cut, toasted (120C for 1h), cooled and packaged. The different toasted breakfast cereals, TBFC, were subjected to sensory evaluation, proximate composition, micronutrient composition (vitamin A, B1, B2, B3, calcium, iron, phosphorus, and zinc) and microbial analyses (mould count and total viable count). The proximate composition of the unfermented okara (UFOK) and fermented okara (FEOK 1, 2, 3, and 4 fermented at 12, 24, 36, 48h respectively) flour samples showed that fermentation increased moisture from 4.71??0.06 to 6.11??0.05, crude fibre from 36.62??0.01 to 46.18??0.55, and carbohydrate from 2.50??0.18 to 2.71??0.34 contents. There was a decrease in the fat content from 16.29??0.04 to 13.27??0.22, ash from 1.41??0.17 to 6.36??0.17 and crude protein from 30.32??0.21 to 33.53??0.11 contents. From the sensory evaluation, the result showed that 70:30 acha-unfermented okara TBFC, FEOK 1D 60:40 acha-12h FEOK TBFC, 70:30 acha-24h FEOK TBFC, 50:50 acha-36h FEOK TBFC, and 70:30 acha-48h FEOK TBFC had the best overall acceptability for the different fermentation times. The functional properties, proximate and sensory evaluation were the basis for selection of the best products which were UFAC (control), UFOK C (70:30 acha UFOK TBFC) and FEOK 4C (70:30 acha 48h FEOK TBFC) which were further subjected to proximate, micronutrient, and microbial analyses. There was an increase in the protein, fat, ash, crude fibre content whereas the moisture and carbohydrate contents decreased. A considerable decrease was found in vitamin A and B1 contents of the products, whereas vitamin B2 and B3 increased. Also the mineral contents of all the products were improved as indicated in the increase in ash content. PMID:26787932

  15. Exploitation of Acha (Digitaria exiliis) and Iburu (Digitaria iburua) flours: chemical characterization and their use for sourdough fermentation.

    PubMed

    Coda, Rossana; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Edema, Mojisola O; Nionelli, Luana; Gobbetti, Marco

    2010-12-01

    This study aimed at characterizing the chemical and microbiological composition of Acha (Digitaria exiliis) and Iburu (Digitaria iburua) flours and at exploiting their potential for sourdough fermentation. Both the flours had a gross composition similar to other cereals. As shown by two-dimensional electrophoresis analysis, Acha flour had a higher number of prolamins with respect to Iburu flour. The opposite was found for the number of glutelin spots. The concentration of total free amino acids of Iburu flour was higher than that of Acha flour (134834 vs. 10020 mg/kg). Pediococcus pentosaceus was the dominant species in both the flours. Several isolates were used to ferment Acha or Iburu flours. After 8h fermentation at 30C, pH ranged from 3.41 to 3.83 and from 4.20 to 4.66 for Acha and Iburu sourdoughs, respectively. The highest values of TTA and concentration of lactic acid were found in almost all Iburu sourdoughs. The synthesis of acetoin and ?-amino butyric acid (GABA) was only found in Iburu sourdoughs. Data from the kinetics of acidification, synthesis of lactic and acetic acids, acetoin, and liberation of total free amino acids were elaborated by Principal Component Analysis. Sourdoughs from Acha and Iburu flour were clearly differentiated. PMID:20832683

  16. Nutritive value of baobab milk (gubdi) and mixtures of baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) and hungry rice, acha (Digitaria exilis) flours.

    PubMed

    Obizoba, I C; Anyika, J U

    1994-09-01

    The baobab milk and fermented baobab/acha flour mixtures were analyzed chemically for their proximate, ascorbate, mineral and antinutrient composition. The dry pulp scraped from baobab fruits was kneaded, made into solution, extracted through cheese-cloth and stored frozen until analyzed. The acha and baobab grains were cleaned, fermented for 24 to 120 hours, dried and hammermilled into fine flours. The unfermented flours served as controls. The standard assay methods of AOAC were selected for use for the analysis of the nutrients and the antinutrients. The mixtures were composed of 70% acha and 30% baobab flours (70:30 protein basis). The baobab milk contained more protein (1.5%) and minerals (Fe, 17.8 mg; Ca 134.2 mg) than those of human milk (protein, 1.3%, Fe, 0.2 mg, Ca 30 mg) and cow milk (Fe, 0.1 mg; Ca 1.20 mg) and most leading national commercial infant formulas e.g. cerelac (Fe, 10.0 mg). The composite flours contained more nutrients than the baobab or the acha flour alone. The BF96 had greater advantage over other BF flours as a supplement to acha. The mixtures are within the reach of lower income group and can be incorporated into their diets. PMID:7855083

  17. American Health Care Association

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    ... Educational Webinars Quality Improvement ahcancalED Gero Nurse Prep Leadership Excellence Nurse Assistant Training Quality Award Program Quality ... Degree in Nursing, Health Care Administration, Health Care Leadership, Health Policy or related field of study. • 6- ...

  18. National Rural Health Association

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    ... Committee Overview and Roster NRHA Past Presidents NRHA Leadership Constituency Groups Membership Membership Categories and Benefits NRHA ... Equity Conference 2008 Health Equity Conference recap SRHA Leadership Conference Rural Hospital Innovation Summit NRHA HIT webinars & ...

  19. Health care-associated pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Amin, Alpesh; Kollef, Marin H

    2010-06-01

    Traditionally, pneumonia developing in patients who receive health care services in the outpatient environment, such as nursing homes, long-term care facilities, and dialysis centers, has been classified and treated as community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Recent studies, however, have shown that this type of infection, known as health care-associated pneumonia (HCAP) is distinct from CAP in terms of its epidemiology and etiology, and increases the risk for infection with multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. A review of available clinical data about HCAP was conducted to determine effective empiric treatment strategies and improve clinical outcomes. Analysis of multi-institutional clinical data showed that mortality associated with HCAP is higher than with CAP, suggesting that patients with HCAP may have been treated as hospitalized patients with CAP and received inappropriate initial empiric antibiotic treatment. All patients presenting to the hospital with suspected HCAP or CAP should be evaluated for their underlying risk of infection with MDR pathogens. Because HCAP may be similar to hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) both clinically and etiologically, it should be treated as HAP until culture data become available. A greater recognition of HCAP as a new class of pneumonia with a distinct epidemiologic, microbiologic, and clinical profile should lead physicians to initiate appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy more often, thereby improving the likelihood for optimal clinical outcomes and patient care. PMID:20499775

  20. Association between health beliefs and health behavior in early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bödecs, Tamás; Horváth, Boldizsár; Szilágyi, Eniko; Diffellné Németh, Marietta; Sándor, János

    2011-11-01

    Folate-supplementation significantly reduces the risk of neural tube defects. The aim of this research was to reveal associations between health beliefs and folate -supplementation as well as other elements of health behavior among Hungarian women early in their pregnancy. Three-hundred and seven women in early pregnancy completed the second part of Health and Illness Scale. Factor structure of health beliefs was established and associations of factors with pregnancy planning, folate-intake, vitamin-intake, smoking-habits and alcohol-consumption were tested. A six factor health model was formulated; the factor named 'mental capacities and abilities' was associated with greater chance on folate-intake, vitamin-intake and prepared pregnancy, as well as a reduced chance of smoking. The factors 'destiny', 'measures aiming at prevention', and 'relatives and acquaintances' related to lower chance on folate-intake. The health belief factor representing Internal Health Locus of Control was associated with more than one component of healthy behavior, while factors of external dimensions (Powerful Others Health Locus of Control and Chance Health Locus of Control) were predictive on unhealthy behavioral tendencies. New approaches aiming to shift one's health beliefs and health locus of control from external causes to internal dimensions are needed in order to reach greater openness towards health-improving interventions. PMID:20957513

  1. Associations between health behaviours and health related fitness.

    PubMed Central

    Shephard, R J; Bouchard, C

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine relations between health behaviours and health related fitness. METHODS: Subjects were a convenience sample of 350 healthy adults (172 men, 178 women). Covariance analysis adjusted data for significant influences of age and socioeconomic status. Obesity was assessed by anthropometry and body density. Cardiovascular fitness was assessed and various metabolic measurements were made. Questionnaires on physical activity and health related behaviours were completed. RESULTS: Cigarette abstinence was associated with a small abdominal circumference (men) and a low trunk/extremity skinfold ratio (women). Obesity indices (body mass index, total skinfolds, percent fat, and abdominal circumference) were negatively associated with perceived fitness. Leisure activity and exercise frequency were also negatively linked to some obesity indices. Blood glucose, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides were favourably influenced by perceived activity, exercise frequency, and perceived fitness, but not by exercise intensity. Abstinence from coffee was associated with a low cholesterol/HDL ratio (men only). Principal component, discriminant, and multiple logistic regression analyses showed only weak clustering of habitual physical activity with other positive health behaviours. CONCLUSIONS: Although multiphasic health promotion programmes are economical, favourable interactions between individual programme elements seem likely to be quite limited. PMID:8799591

  2. Health effects associated with waterpipe smoking

    PubMed Central

    El-Zaatari, Ziad M; Chami, Hassan A; Zaatari, Ghazi S

    2015-01-01

    Objective It is widely held that waterpipe smoking (WPS) is not associated with health hazards. However, several studies have documented the uptake of several toxicants and carcinogens during WPS that is strongly associated with harmful health effects. This paper reviews the literature on the health effects of WPS. Data sources Three databases-PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE-were searched until August 2014 for the acute and long-term health effects of WPS using the terms ‘waterpipe’ and its synonyms (hookah, shisha, goza, narghileh, arghileh and hubble-bubble) in various spellings. Study selection We included original clinical studies, case reports and systematic reviews and focused on clinical human studies. ∼10% of the identified studies met the selection criteria. Data extraction Data were abstracted by all three authors and summarised into tables. Abstracted data included study type, results and methodological limitations and were analysed jointly by all three authors. Data synthesis WPS acutely leads to increased heart rate, blood pressure, impaired pulmonary function and carbon monoxide intoxication. Chronic bronchitis, emphysema and coronary artery disease are serious complications of long-term use. Lung, gastric and oesophageal cancer are associated with WPS as well as periodontal disease, obstetrical complications, osteoporosis and mental health problems. Conclusions Contrary to the widely held misconception, WPS is associated with a variety of adverse short-term and long-term health effects that should reinforce the need for stronger regulation. In addition, this review highlights the limitations of the published work, which is mostly cross-sectional or retrospective. Prospective studies should be undertaken to assess the full spectrum of health effects of WPS, particularly in view of its growing popularity and attractiveness to youth. PMID:25661414

  3. Emergency Planning Guidelines for Campus Health Services: An All-Hazards Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of American College Health, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This document, written collaboratively by members of ACHA's Emerging Public Health Threats and Emergency Response Coalition and Campus Safety and Violence Coalition, is designed to assist members of the college health community in planning for emergencies using an all-hazards approach. Its perspective is both macro and micro, beginning with a…

  4. Emergency Planning Guidelines for Campus Health Services: An All-Hazards Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of American College Health, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This document, written collaboratively by members of ACHA's Emerging Public Health Threats and Emergency Response Coalition and Campus Safety and Violence Coalition, is designed to assist members of the college health community in planning for emergencies using an all-hazards approach. Its perspective is both macro and micro, beginning with a

  5. Association between Electronic Health Records and Health Care Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, A.; Kern, L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The federal government is investing approximately $20 billion in electronic health records (EHRs), in part to address escalating health care costs. However, empirical evidence that provider use of EHRs decreases health care costs is limited. Objective To determine any association between EHRs and health care utilization. Methods We conducted a cohort study (20082009) in the Hudson Valley, a multi-payer, multiprovider community in New York State. We included 328 primary care physicians in predominantly small practices (median practice size four primary care physicians), who were caring for 223,772 patients. Data from an independent practice association was used to determine adoption of EHRs. Claims data aggregated across five commercial health plans was used to characterize seven types of health care utilization: primary care visits, specialist visits, radiology tests, laboratory tests, emergency department visits, hospital admissions, and readmissions. We used negative binomial regression to determine associations between EHR adoption and each utilization outcome, adjusting for ten physician characteristics. Results Approximately half (48%) of the physicians were using paper records and half (52%) were using EHRs. For every 100 patients seen by physicians using EHRs, there were 14 fewer specialist visits (adjusted p < 0.01) and 9 fewer radiology tests (adjusted p = 0.01). There were no significant differences in rates of primary care visits, laboratory tests, emergency department visits, hospitalizations or readmissions. Conclusions Patients of primary care providers who used EHRs were less likely to have specialist visits and radiology tests than patients of primary care providers who did not use EHRs. PMID:25848412

  6. The human microbiota associated with overall health.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaofei; Wang, Zhujun; Zhang, Xuewu

    2015-03-01

    Human body harbors diverse microbes, the main components include bacteria, eukaryotes and viruses. Emerging evidences show that the human microbiota is intrinsically linked with overall health. The development of next-generation sequencing provides an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the complex microbial communities that are associated with the human body. Many factors like host genetics and environmental factors have a major impact on the composition and dynamic changes of human microbiota. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the relationship between human health and human microbiota (skin, nasal, throat, oral, vaginal and gut microbiota), then to focus on the factors modulating the composition of the microbiota and the future challenges to manipulate the microbiota for personalized health. PMID:23914990

  7. Health Care Associated Hematogenous Pyogenic Vertebral Osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Pigrau, Carlos; Rodríguez-Pardo, Dolors; Fernández-Hidalgo, Nuria; Moretó, Laura; Pellise, Ferran; Larrosa, Maria-Nieves; Puig, Mireia; Almirante, Benito

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although hematogenous pyogenic spinal infections have been related to hemodialysis (HD), catheter-related sepsis, and sporadically, to other nosocomial infections or procedures, in most recent studies and reviews the impact of nosocomial infection as a risk factor for vertebral osteomyelitis (VO) is not well established. The aim of our study was to describe the risk factors, infectious source, etiology, clinical features, therapy, and outcome of health care associated VO (HCAVO), and compare them with community-acquired VO (CAVO) cases. A retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients with hematogenous VO was conducted in our third-level hospital between 1987 and 2011. HCAVO was defined as onset of symptoms after 1 month of hospitalization or within 6 months after hospital discharge, or ambulatory manipulations in the 6 months before the diagnosis. Over the 25-year study period, among 163 hematogenous pyogenic VO, 41 (25%) were health care associated, a percentage that increased from 15% (9/61) in the 1987–1999 period to 31% (32/102) in the 2000–2011 period (P < 0.01). The presumed source of infection was an intravenous catheter in 14 (34%), cutaneous foci in 8 (20%), urinary tract in 7 (17%), gastrointestinal in 3 (7%), other foci in 3 (7%), and unknown in 6 (15%). Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently isolated microorganism (14 cases, 34%), followed by coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CoNS) in 6 (15%), and Enterobacteriaceae in 6 (15%) cases. Compared with CAVO cases, patients with HCAVO were older (mean 66.0 SD 13.0 years vs 60.5 SD 15.5 years), had more underlying conditions (73% vs 50%, P < 0.05), neoplasm/immunosuppression (39% vs 7%, P < 0.005), chronic renal failure (19% vs 4%, P < 0.001), a known source of infection (85% vs 54% P < 0.05), Candida spp (7% vs 0%, P < 0.01) or CoNS infections (15% vs 2%, P < 0.05), higher mortality (15% vs 6%, P = 0.069), and a higher relapse rate in survivors (9% vs 1%, P < 0.05). Presently, in our setting, one-third of hematogenous pyogenic VO infections are health care associated, and a third of these are potentially preventable catheter-related infections. Compared with CAVO, in health care associated hematogenous VO, mortality and relapse rates are higher; hence, further prevention measures should be assessed. PMID:25621677

  8. Space Radiation and its Associated Health Consequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Honglu

    2007-01-01

    During space travel, astronauts are exposed to energetic particles of a complex composition and energy distribution. For the same amount of absorbed dose, these particles can be much more effective than X- or gamma rays in the induction of biological effects, including cell inactivation, genetic mutations, cataracts, and cancer induction. Several of the biological consequences of space radiation exposure have already been observed in astronauts. This presentation will introduce the space radiation environment and discuss its associated health risks. Accurate assessment of the radiation risks and development of respective countermeasures are essential for the success of future exploration missions to the Moon and Mars.

  9. Health risk associated with airborne asbestos.

    PubMed

    Pawe?czyk, Adam; Boek, Frantiek

    2015-07-01

    The following paper presents an assessment of health risks associated with air polluted with respirable asbestos fibers in towns of southwest Poland. The aim of the work was to determine whether or not any prevention measures are necessary in order to reduce the level of exposure to the pollutant. The risk assessment was carried out based on the air analyses and the latest asbestos toxicity data published by the Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), USA and Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA). It was found that in some sites, the concentration of the asbestos fibers exceeded the acceptable levels, which should be a reason of special concern. The highest concentration of asbestos was found in town centers during the rush hours. In three spots, the calculated maximum health risk exceeded 1E-04 which is considered too high according to the adopted standards. So far, it has not yet been possible to find a reasonable method of ensuring the hazard reduction. PMID:26070993

  10. Health literacy among university students in Greece: determinants and association with self-perceived health, health behaviours and health risks

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health literacy is widely considered as a key determinant of health and a priority in the public health policy agenda. Low health literacy has been associated with poorer health states, broader inequalities and higher health systems costs. In the present study we bring into focus the functional health literacy among university students in Greece, researching and assessing mainly their ability to apply basic knowledge in a health context. Methods The study was carried out during the period 1530 April 2013, among a random sample of 1,526 students of 14 Higher Tertiary Public universities and Technological Educational Institutes in Greece. The objective of the study was to assess the functional health literacy among university students in Greece, adopting the short four-item comprehension test of Bostock and Steptoe. Summary statistics, correlations and regressions were used to assess the determinants of health literacy and the association with self-perceived health, health behaviours and health risks. Results Economic factors, such as family income, demographic factors, such as gender, and health behaviours and risks, namely consumption of alcohol, smoking and physical workout are associated with the level of health literacy and health status of the participant. While the results of the study are consistent with previous work in this area, several findings worth further research. Conclusions Though, health promotion interventions in Greece include health literacy as one of the basic pillars of the public health policy agenda, it is clear, that health literacy needs to become a key policy issue in Greece, mainly focusing in young ages, where healthy (or unhealthy) behaviours are established affecting the health through the life span. PMID:24987522

  11. Association of Parental Health Literacy with Oral Health of Navajo Nation Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brega, A. G.; Thomas, J. F.; Henderson, W. G.; Batliner, T. S.; Quissell, D. O.; Braun, P. A.; Wilson, A.; Bryant, L. L.; Nadeau, K. J.; Albino, J.

    2016-01-01

    Health literacy is "the capacity to obtain, process and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions". Although numerous studies show a link between health literacy and clinical outcomes, little research has examined the association of health literacy with oral health. No large-scale…

  12. Association of Parental Health Literacy with Oral Health of Navajo Nation Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brega, A. G.; Thomas, J. F.; Henderson, W. G.; Batliner, T. S.; Quissell, D. O.; Braun, P. A.; Wilson, A.; Bryant, L. L.; Nadeau, K. J.; Albino, J.

    2016-01-01

    Health literacy is "the capacity to obtain, process and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions". Although numerous studies show a link between health literacy and clinical outcomes, little research has examined the association of health literacy with oral health. No large-scale

  13. Prevention and Management of Health Care-Associated Infections.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Raghav

    2015-12-01

    Health care-associated infections (formerly called hospital-acquired infections or nosocomial infections) are a major public health concern. They place an enormous burden on the health care system, prolong hospitalization, and increase health care costs. Neurologists act as primary providers in the hospital or the clinic for patients with multiple comorbidities. We must be aware of the burden of health care-associated infections, their common types, risk factors, and various prevention strategies. Common strategies can be applied in day-to-day practice to help prevent health care-associated infections. PMID:26633788

  14. Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care

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  15. Association of parental health literacy with oral health of Navajo Nation preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Brega, A G; Thomas, J F; Henderson, W G; Batliner, T S; Quissell, D O; Braun, P A; Wilson, A; Bryant, L L; Nadeau, K J; Albino, J

    2016-02-01

    Health literacy is 'the capacity to obtain, process and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions'. Although numerous studies show a link between health literacy and clinical outcomes, little research has examined the association of health literacy with oral health. No large-scale studies have assessed these relationships among American Indians, a population at risk for limited health literacy and oral health problems. This analysis was conducted as part of a clinical trial aimed at reducing dental decay among preschoolers in the Navajo Nation Head Start program. Using baseline data for 1016 parent-child dyads, we examined the association of parental health literacy with parents' oral health knowledge, attitudes, and behavior, as well as indicators of parental and pediatric oral health. More limited health literacy was associated with lower levels of oral health knowledge, more negative oral health attitudes, and lower levels of adherence to recommended oral health behavior. Parents with more limited health literacy also had significantly worse oral health status (OHS) and reported their children to have significantly worse oral health-related quality of life. These results highlight the importance of oral health promotion interventions that are sensitive to the needs of participants with limited health literacy. PMID:26612050

  16. History of the American College Health Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Following Dr. Edward Hitchcock's lead at Amherst College in 1861, soon other institutions of higher education established physical education departments that evolved into independent college health programs. As the field of college health expanded, leaders from numerous campuses began meeting to share information and discuss formation of a…

  17. History of the American College Health Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Following Dr. Edward Hitchcock's lead at Amherst College in 1861, soon other institutions of higher education established physical education departments that evolved into independent college health programs. As the field of college health expanded, leaders from numerous campuses began meeting to share information and discuss formation of a

  18. Position Statement on Tobacco on College and University Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of American College Health, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The American College Health Association (ACHA) acknowledges and supports the findings of the Surgeon General that tobacco use in any form, active and/or passive, is a significant health hazard. ACHA further recognizes that environmental tobacco smoke has been classified as a Class-A carcinogen and that there is no safe level of exposure to…

  19. Position Statement on Tobacco on College and University Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of American College Health, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The American College Health Association (ACHA) acknowledges and supports the findings of the Surgeon General that tobacco use in any form, active and/or passive, is a significant health hazard. ACHA further recognizes that environmental tobacco smoke has been classified as a Class-A carcinogen and that there is no safe level of exposure to…

  20. Position Statement on Tobacco on College and University Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of American College Health, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The American College Health Association (ACHA) acknowledges and supports the findings of the Surgeon General that tobacco use in any form, active and/or passive, is a significant health hazard. ACHA further recognizes that environmental tobacco smoke has been classified as a Class-A carcinogen and that there is no safe level of exposure to

  1. Position Statement on Tobacco on College and University Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of American College Health, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The American College Health Association (ACHA) acknowledges and supports the findings of the Surgeon General that tobacco use in any form, active and/or passive, is a significant health hazard. ACHA further recognizes that environmental tobacco smoke has been classified as a Class-A carcinogen and that there is no safe level of exposure to

  2. Health care-associated Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Duncan; Chui, Linda; Tyrrell, Gregory J; Marrie, Thomas J

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION While Staphylococcus aureus is an uncommon but serious cause of traditional community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), it is a predominant cause of nosocomial pneumonia in addition to the unique clinical entity of health care-associated pneumonia (HCAP). A cohort of bacteremic S aureus pneumonia cases was reviewed to determine the role of HCAP among the cohort, and to assess for differences between CAP and HCAP. PATIENTS AND METHODS Bacteremic S aureus pneumonia cases were identified from a prospective study of all patients diagnosed with CAP who presented to hospitals in Edmonton, Alberta, between November 2000 and November 2002. These cases were subsequently reviewed retrospectively. Demographic, clinical and microbiological data were obtained, and patients were classified as having CAP or HCAP. Relatedness of isolates was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis in conjunction with epidemiological information. RESULTS There were 28 cases of bacteremic S aureus pneumonia identified. Fifty-seven per cent were reclassified as having HCAP, and 43% remained classified as having CAP. The CAP cohort was significantly younger than the HCAP cohort (mean age 49.023.7 years versus 67.818.6 years; P=0.035) with higher rates of intravenous drug use (50% versus 0%; P=0.002). Long-term care facility residence (44%) was common in the HCAP cohort. The HCAP cohort presented with more severe illness, having a higher mean pneumonia severity index score (143.141.1 versus 98.254.6; P=0.028), and despite fewer embolic complications, there was a trend toward a significantly higher mortality rate (31% versus 0%; P=0.052). Two community-acquired isolates cultured in the setting of intravenous drug use were methicillin-resistant, and no isolates were positive for Panton-Valentine leukocidin. There was evidence of relatedness involving 44% of the HCAP isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis. CONCLUSION HCAP accounts for a significant number of cases that, when using traditional definitions, would be classified as CAP. Severity of illness and mortality was excessive within the HCAP group. There was evidence of relatedness and spread of common strains in the HCAP cohort. The present study supports recommendations for treatment guidelines directed toward the entity of HCAP and the empirical coverage of S aureus among certain high-risk groups. PMID:18923721

  3. HEALTH EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH INDOOR AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A state-of-information survey concerning health effects of indoor air pollutants in the categories of formaldehyde, volatile organics, radon, particulates, and combustion products has been prepared by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Criteria and Assessmen...

  4. National Health Care Anti-Fraud Association

    MedlinePLUS

    ... AHFI AHFI FAQ AHFI Roster AHFI Approved For Vendors AHFI Approved Education Exhibit & Sponsor Anti-Fraud Expo ... Health Care Fraud & More. Contact Us 1220 L Street, NW, Suite 600 Washington, DC 20005 Phone: 202. ...

  5. National Health Care Anti-Fraud Association

    MedlinePLUS

    ... View Member Resources Newsroom View Newsroom Resources Latest News NHCAA comments on NAIC Subgroup work on Medical ... 8, 2016 AHFI Prep Course Health Care Fraud News International Partners Fraud Reporting & Other Resources Platinum & Premier ...

  6. Upgrading the Association for the Advancement of Health Education's Health Resources Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Richard E.

    The Association for the Advancement of Health Education (AAHE) and Academic Programs for Health Science, George Mason University (Virginia), have collaborated in upgrading AAHE's Health Resources Information System. The process involved updating the health resources information on file. This information, which represents addresses and telephone

  7. Health Effects Associated with Water Fluoridation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Virginia L.

    1979-01-01

    Discussion is presented concerning fluoridation of water supplies. Correlation between fluoride in drinking water and improved dental health is reviewed. Relationship is expressed between fluoridation and reduced tooth decay. Use of fluoride in treating skeletal disorders is discussed. Author advocates fluoridating water supplies. (SA)

  8. Investigating the Association of Health Literacy with Health Knowledge and Health Behavior Outcomes in a Sample of Urban Community College Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Hardaye Ramsaroop; Shneyderman, Yuliya; Belcastro, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is a paucity of evidence associating health literacy metrics with adults' enhanced health knowledge, health status, health practices, or health behaviors. Purpose: Investigate whether health-literate undergraduates exhibit enhanced health knowledge, health status, health practices, or behaviors compared to non-health-literate…

  9. Investigating the Association of Health Literacy with Health Knowledge and Health Behavior Outcomes in a Sample of Urban Community College Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Hardaye Ramsaroop; Shneyderman, Yuliya; Belcastro, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is a paucity of evidence associating health literacy metrics with adults' enhanced health knowledge, health status, health practices, or health behaviors. Purpose: Investigate whether health-literate undergraduates exhibit enhanced health knowledge, health status, health practices, or behaviors compared to non-health-literate

  10. Social capital, health behaviours and health: a population-based associational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Social capital is associated with health behaviours and health. Our objective was to explore how different dimensions of social capital and health-related behaviours are associated, and whether health behaviours mediate this association between social capital and self-rated health and psychological well-being. Methods We used data from the Health 2000 Survey (n=8028) of the adult population in Finland. The response rate varied between 87% (interview) and 77% (the last self-administered questionnaire). Due to item non-response, missing values were replaced using multiple imputation. The associations between three dimensions of social capital (social support, social participation and networks, trust and reciprocity) and five health behaviours (smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, vegetable consumption, sleep) were examined by using logistic regression and controlling for age, gender, education, income and living arrangements. The possible mediating role of health behaviours in the association between social capital and self-rated health and psychological well-being was also analysed with a logistic regression model. Results Social participation and networks were associated with all of the health behaviours. High levels of trust and reciprocity were associated with non-smoking and adequate duration of sleep, and high levels of social support with adequate duration of sleep and daily consumption of vegetables. Social support and trust and reciprocity were independently associated with self-rated health and psychological well-being. Part of the association between social participation and networks and health was explained by physical activity. Conclusions Irrespective of their social status, people with higher levels of social capital – especially in terms of social participation and networks – engage in healthier behaviours and feel healthier both physically and psychologically. PMID:23805881

  11. Grape phytochemicals and associated health benefits.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Xiao, Yang-Yu

    2013-01-01

    The phytochemicals present in fruits and vegetables may play an important role in deceasing chronic disease risk. Grapes, one of the most popular and widely cultivated and consumed fruits in the world, are rich in phytochemicals. Epidemiological evidence has linked the consumption of grapes with reduced risk of chronic diseases, including certain types of cancer and cardiovascular disease. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that grapes have strong antioxidant activity, inhibiting cancer cell proliferation and suppressing platelet aggregation, while also lowering cholesterol. Grapes contain a variety of phytochemicals, like phenolic acids, stilbenes, anthocyanins, and proanthocyanidins, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of grapes, however, varies greatly among different varieties. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of grapes and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The aim of this paper is to critically review the most recent literature regarding the concentrations, biological activities, and mechanisms of grape phytochemicals. PMID:24007424

  12. Associations between Number of Lifetime Partners and Other Health Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogletree, Roberta J.; Dinger, Mary K.; Vesely, Sara

    2001-01-01

    Examined associations between health behaviors and lifetime sexual partners. Data from the 1995 National College Health Risk Behavior Survey indicated that having two or more lifetime partners related to infrequent seatbelt use, driving after drinking, fighting, considering suicide, and using certain substances. Significant sex interactions

  13. Position of the American Dietetic Association: oral health and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Touger-Decker, Riva; Mobley, Connie C

    2007-08-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that nutrition is an integral component of oral health. The American Dietetic Association supports the integration of oral health with nutrition services, education, and research. Collaboration between dietetics and dental professionals is recommended for oral health promotion and disease prevention and intervention. Scientific and epidemiological data suggest a lifelong synergy between nutrition and the integrity of the oral cavity in health and disease. Oral health and nutrition have a synergistic bidirectional relationship. Oral infectious diseases, as well as acute, chronic, and terminal systemic diseases with oral manifestations, impact the functional ability to eat as well as diet and nutrition status. Likewise, nutrition and diet may affect the development and integrity of the oral cavity as well as the progression of oral diseases. As we advance in our discoveries of the links between oral and nutrition health, practitioners of both disciplines must learn to provide screening, baseline education, and referral to each other as part of comprehensive client/patient care. Dietetics practice requires registered dietitians to provide medical nutrition therapy that incorporates a person's total health needs, including oral health. Inclusion of both didactic and clinical practice concepts that illustrate the role of nutrition in oral health is essential in both dental and dietetic education programs. Collaborative endeavors between dietetics and dentistry in research, education, and delineation of health provider practice roles are needed to ensure comprehensive health care. The multifaceted interactions between diet, nutrition, and oral health in practice, education, and research in both dietetics and dentistry merit continued, detailed delineation. PMID:17712930

  14. Home Foreclosure, Health, and Mental Health: A Systematic Review of Individual, Aggregate, and Contextual Associations

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Alexander C.

    2015-01-01

    Background The U.S. foreclosure crisis intensified markedly during the Great Recession of 2007-09, and currently an estimated five percent of U.S. residential properties are more than 90 days past due or in the process of foreclosure. Yet there has been no systematic assessment of the effects of foreclosure on health and mental health. Methods and Findings I applied systematic search terms to PubMed and PsycINFO to identify quantitative or qualitative studies about the relationship between home foreclosure and health or mental health. After screening the titles and abstracts of 930 publications and reviewing the full text of 76 articles, dissertations, and other reports, I identified 42 publications representing 35 unique studies about foreclosure, health, and mental health. The majority of studies (32 [91%]) concluded that foreclosure had adverse effects on health or mental health, while three studies yielded null or mixed findings. Only two studies examined the extent to which foreclosure may have disproportionate impacts on ethnic or racial minority populations. Conclusions Home foreclosure adversely affects health and mental health through channels operating at multiple levels: at the individual level, the stress of personally experiencing foreclosure was associated with worsened mental health and adverse health behaviors, which were in turn linked to poorer health status; at the community level, increasing degradation of the neighborhood environment had indirect, cross-level adverse effects on health and mental health. Early intervention may be able to prevent acute economic shocks from eventually developing into the chronic stress of foreclosure, with all of the attendant benefits this implies for health and mental health status. Programs designed to encourage early return of foreclosed properties back into productive use may have similar health and mental health benefits. PMID:25849962

  15. Association between dental health and acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed Central

    Mattila, K. J.; Nieminen, M. S.; Valtonen, V. V.; Rasi, V. P.; Kesniemi, Y. A.; Syrjl, S. L.; Jungell, P. S.; Isoluoma, M.; Hietaniemi, K.; Jokinen, M. J.

    1989-01-01

    Known risk factors for coronary heart disease do not explain all of the clinical and epidemiological features of the disease. To examine the role of chronic bacterial infections as risk factors for the disease the association between poor dental health and acute myocardial infarction was investigated in two separate case-control studies of a total of 100 patients with acute myocardial infarction and 102 controls selected from the community at random. Dental health was graded by using two indexes, one of which was assessed blind. Based on these indexes dental health was significantly worse in patients with acute myocardial infarction than in controls. The association remained valid after adjustment for age, social class, smoking, serum lipid concentrations, and the presence of diabetes. Further prospective studies are required in different populations to confirm the association and to elucidate its nature. PMID:2496855

  16. Summary Review of Health Effects Associated with Naphthalene: Health Issue Assessment (1987)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Naphthalene is released into ambient air via industrial gaseous and particulate emissions, tobacco use, and through consumer use. The data base concerning exposure of humans via inhalation and associated health effects is virtually nonexistent. Overexposure often results in acute...

  17. Methylobacterium and Its Role in Health Care-Associated Infection

    PubMed Central

    Degener, John E.; van der Mei, Henny C.

    2014-01-01

    Methylobacterium species are a cause of health care-associated infection, including infections in immunocompromised hosts. The ability of Methylobacterium species to form biofilms and to develop resistance to high temperatures, drying, and disinfecting agents may explain the colonization of Methylobacterium in the hospital environment in, e.g., endoscopes. Due to its slow growth, it can be easily missed during microbiological surveillance of endoscope reprocessing. The purpose of this minireview is to present an overview of documented infections and cross-contaminations with Methylobacterium related to endoscopic procedures and to illustrate the health care-associated relevance of this slow-growing bacterium. PMID:24430456

  18. Methylobacterium and its role in health care-associated infection.

    PubMed

    Kovaleva, Julia; Degener, John E; van der Mei, Henny C

    2014-05-01

    Methylobacterium species are a cause of health care-associated infection, including infections in immunocompromised hosts. The ability of Methylobacterium species to form biofilms and to develop resistance to high temperatures, drying, and disinfecting agents may explain the colonization of Methylobacterium in the hospital environment in, e.g., endoscopes. Due to its slow growth, it can be easily missed during microbiological surveillance of endoscope reprocessing. The purpose of this minireview is to present an overview of documented infections and cross-contaminations with Methylobacterium related to endoscopic procedures and to illustrate the health care-associated relevance of this slow-growing bacterium. PMID:24430456

  19. An examination of sociocultural factors associated with health and health care seeking among Latina immigrants.

    PubMed

    Garcs, Isabel C; Scarinci, Isabel C; Harrison, Lynda

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the sociocultural factors associated with health maintenance and health care seeking among Latina immigrants. Data were collected from eight focus groups with 54 Latina immigrants between the ages of 19 and 62 (M=29.3+/-9.34). The PEN-3 model provided the framework for the study. Most of the participants came from Mexico; 46% had not completed high school; 85.2% had been in the United States for less than 7 years, and 73.6% reported not having health insurance coverage. Participants identified both positive and negative perceptions, enablers, and nurturers associated with health maintenance and health care seeking. Participants acknowledged the importance of physical, mental, and spiritual health and what they should do to be healthy. Despite such knowledge, they tended to engage in unhealthy behaviors due to a variety of nonstructural barriers such as lack of time, "tradition," and procrastination. They tended to use alternative/complementary medicine first, and then seek medical help if these practices are not effective. Many women believe that they do not have control over their own health attributing this lack of control to the "system." Participants also mentioned structural barriers to seeking health care such as lack of transportation, lack of proper documentation, lack of health insurance, language barriers, long waiting time at the clinics, and lack of knowledge on where to go for affordable care. Our study suggests that there are important structural and nonstructural barriers that hinder health maintenance and care seeking. The findings also lend support to the PEN-3 model, and suggest that positive perceptions, enablers, and nurturers associated with health maintenance and health care seeking, if properly reinforced, can counterbalance negative perceptions, enablers and nurturers in this population. PMID:16636902

  20. Neighbourhood social capital: measurement issues and associations with health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mackenbach, J D; Lakerveld, J; van Lenthe, F J; Kawachi, I; McKee, M; Rutter, H; Glonti, K; Compernolle, S; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Feuillet, T; Oppert, J-M; Nijpels, G; Brug, J

    2016-01-01

    We compared ecometric neighbourhood scores of social capital (contextual variation) to mean neighbourhood scores (individual and contextual variation), using several health-related outcomes (i.e. self-rated health, weight status and obesity-related behaviours). Data were analysed from 5,900 participants in the European SPOTLIGHT survey. Factor analysis of the 13-item social capital scale revealed two social capital constructs: social networks and social cohesion. The associations of ecometric and mean neighbourhood-level scores of these constructs with self-rated health, weight status and obesity-related behaviours were analysed using multilevel regression analyses, adjusted for key covariates. Analyses using ecometric and mean neighbourhood scores, but not mean neighbourhood scores adjusted for individual scores, yielded similar regression coefficients. Higher levels of social network and social cohesion were not only associated with better self-rated health, lower odds of obesity and higher fruit consumption, but also with prolonged sitting and less transport-related physical activity. Only associations with transport-related physical activity and sedentary behaviours were associated with mean neighbourhood scores adjusted for individual scores. As analyses using ecometric scores generated the same results as using mean neighbourhood scores, but different results when using mean neighbourhood scores adjusted for individual scores, this suggests that the theoretical advantage of the ecometric approach (i.e. teasing out individual and contextual variation) may not be achieved in practice. The different operationalisations of social network and social cohesion were associated with several health outcomes, but the constructs that appeared to represent the contextual variation best were only associated with two of the outcomes. PMID:26879117

  1. Health effects associated with energy conservation measures in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Stenner, R.D.; Baechler, M.C.

    1990-09-01

    Indoor air quality can be impacted by hundreds of different chemicals. More than 900 different organic compounds alone have been identified in indoor air. Health effects that could arise from exposure to individual pollutants or mixtures of pollutants cover the full range of acute and chronic effects, including largely reversible responses, such as rashes and irritations, to the irreversible toxic and carcinogenic effects. These indoor contaminants are emitted from a large variety of materials and substances that are widespread components of everyday life. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with indoor air contaminants for the Bonneville Power Administration to aid the agency in the preparation of environmental documents. Results are reported in two volumes. Volume 1 summarizes the results of the search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with a selected list of indoor air contaminants. In addition, the report discusses potential health effects of polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorofluorocarbons. All references to the literature reviewed are found in this document Volume 2. Volume 2 provides detailed information from the literature reviewed, summarizes potential health effects, reports health hazard ratings, and discusses quantitative estimates of carcinogenic risk in humans and animals. Contaminants discussed in this report are those that; have been measured in the indoor air of a public building; have been measured (significant concentrations) in test situations simulating indoor air quality (as presented in the referenced literature); and have a significant hazard rating. 38 refs., 7 figs., 23 tabs.

  2. Tracing technology in the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries

    PubMed Central

    Guard, J. Roger; Peay, Wayne J.

    2003-01-01

    From the beginning of the association, technology and the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries (AAHSL) have been intertwined. Technology was the focus of one of the first committees. Innovative applications of technology have been employed in the operations of the association. Early applications of mini-computers were used in preparing the Annual Statistics. The association's use of network communications was among the first in the country and later applications of the Web have enhanced association services. For its members, technology has transformed libraries. The association's support of the early development of Integrated Advanced Information Management Systems (IAIMS) and of its recent reconceptualization has contributed to the intellectual foundation for this revolution. PMID:12883580

  3. Health Effects Associated with Wastewater Treatment and Disposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowal, N. E.; Pahren, H. R.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the potential health effects associated with: (1) wastewater treatment plants; (2) land application of municipal wastewater; and (3) use of renovated water. This review covers the publications of 1976-77. A list of 96 references is also presented. (HM)

  4. Health Effects Associated with Wastewater Treatment, Reuse, and Disposal.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; Qu, Xiaoyan; Yu, Ruoren; Ikehata, Keisuke

    2015-10-01

    A review of the literature published in 2014 on topics relating to public and environmental health risks associated with wastewater treatment, reuse, and disposal is presented. This review is divided into the following sections: wastewater management, microbial hazards, chemical hazards, wastewater reuse, wastewater treatment plants, wastewater disposal, and sludge and biosolids. PMID:26420105

  5. Association between household food insecurity and annual health care costs

    PubMed Central

    Tarasuk, Valerie; Cheng, Joyce; de Oliveira, Claire; Dachner, Naomi; Gundersen, Craig; Kurdyak, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background: Household food insecurity, a measure of income-related problems of food access, is growing in Canada and is tightly linked to poorer health status. We examined the association between household food insecurity status and annual health care costs. Methods: We obtained data for 67 033 people aged 18–64 years in Ontario who participated in the Canadian Community Health Survey in 2005, 2007/08 or 2009/10 to assess their household food insecurity status in the 12 months before the survey interview. We linked these data with administrative health care data to determine individuals’ direct health care costs during the same 12-month period. Results: Total health care costs and mean costs for inpatient hospital care, emergency department visits, physician services, same-day surgeries, home care services and prescription drugs covered by the Ontario Drug Benefit Program rose systematically with increasing severity of household food insecurity. Compared with total annual health care costs in food-secure households, adjusted annual costs were 16% ($235) higher in households with marginal food insecurity (95% confidence interval [CI] 10%–23% [$141–$334]), 32% ($455) higher in households with moderate food insecurity (95% CI 25%–39% [$361–$553]) and 76% ($1092) higher in households with severe food insecurity (95% CI 65%–88% [$934–$1260]). When costs of prescription drugs covered by the Ontario Drug Benefit Program were included, the adjusted annual costs were 23% higher in households with marginal food insecurity (95% CI 16%–31%), 49% higher in those with moderate food insecurity (95% CI 41%–57%) and 121% higher in those with severe food insecurity (95% CI 107%–136%). Interpretation: Household food insecurity was a robust predictor of health care utilization and costs incurred by working-age adults, independent of other social determinants of health. Policy interventions at the provincial or federal level designed to reduce household food insecurity could offset considerable public expenditures in health care. PMID:26261199

  6. The Israeli Medical Association's discourse on health inequity.

    PubMed

    Avni, Shlomit; Filc, Dani; Davidovitch, Nadav

    2015-11-01

    The present paper analyses the emergence and characteristics of Israeli Medical Association (IMA) discourse on health inequality in Israel during the years 1977-2010. The IMA addressed the issue of health inequality at a relatively late stage in time (2000), as compared to other OECD countries such as the UK, and did so in a relatively limited way, focusing primarily on professional or economic interests. The dominant discourses on health inequalities within the IMA are biomedical and behavioral, characterized by a focus on medical and/or cultural and behavioral differences, the predominant use of medical terminology, and an individualistic rather than a structural conceptualization of the social characteristics of health differences. Additionally, IMA discourses emphasize certain aspects of health inequality such as the geographical and material inequities, and in doing so overlook the role played by class, nationality and the unequal structure of citizenship. Paradoxically, by disregarding the latter, the IMA's discourse on health inequality has the potential to reinforce the structural causes of these inequities. Our research is based on a textual critical discourse analysis (CDA) of hundreds of documents from the IMA's scientific medical journal, the IMA's members journal and public IMA documents such as press-releases, Knesset protocols, publications, and public surveys. By providing knowledge on the different ways in which the IMA, a key stakeholder in the health field, de-codifies, understands, explains, and attempts to deal with health inequality, the article illuminates possible implications on health policy and seeks to evaluate the direct interventions carried out by the IMA, or by other actors influenced by it, pertaining to health inequality. PMID:26409421

  7. Associations between perceived social environment and neighborhood safety: Health implications.

    PubMed

    De Jesus, Maria; Puleo, Elaine; Shelton, Rachel C; Emmons, Karen M

    2010-09-01

    This study examined the associations between social networks, social support, social cohesion, and perceived neighborhood safety among an ethnically diverse sample of 1352 residents living in 12 low-income public housing sites in Boston, Massachusetts. For males and females, social cohesion was associated with perceived safety. For males, a smaller social network was associated with greater feelings of safety. Social support was not a significant predictor of perceived safety. The findings reported here are useful in exploring a potential pathway through which social environmental factors influence health and in untangling the complex set of variables that may influence perceived safety. PMID:20598624

  8. The association of healthful diets and cognitive function: a review.

    PubMed

    Kuczmarski, Marie Fanelli; Allegro, Deanne; Stave, Emily

    2014-01-01

    The association of diet with mild cognitive impairment has not been extensively studied. Consumption of a healthful diet may help to attenuate age-related decline in older adults. Published studies have suggested that greater adherence to a Mediterranean-style dietary pattern is associated with a lower risk of developing Alzheimer's disease and with a slower rate of cognitive decline with age. However, published findings are inconsistent. The discrepancies most likely can be explained by the variations in both dietary and cognitive methodologies. It is not clear how diet contributes to the development of neurocognitive changes with age. This review will update available knowledge on the relationship between adherence to healthful diets and cognition and document the need for researchers to adopt more coherent and uniform methodology to allow for better quantification of the association of diet with cognitive function. There appears to be a relationship between diet and cognition. PMID:24827060

  9. The Association Between Self-Rated Mental Health Status and Total Health Care Expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Muoi T.; Chan, Winnie Y.; Keeler, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Both clinical diagnoses and self-rated measures of mental illness are associated with a variety of outcomes, including physical well-being, health utilization, and expenditure. However, much of current literature primarily utilizes clinically diagnosed data. This cross-sectional study explores the impact of mental illness and health care expenditure using 2 self-rated measures: self-rated measured of perceived mental health status (SRMH) and Kessler Screening Scale for Psychological Distress (K6). Data from the 2011 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Household Component, a nationally representative sample of noninstitutionalized individuals (n = 18,295), were analyzed using bivariate χ2 tests and a 2-part model (logistics regression and generalized linear model regression for the first and second stages, respectively). Although predictive of any health expenditure, SRMH alone was not highly predictive of the dollar value of that health expenditure conditional on any spending. By comparison, the K6 measure was significantly and positively associated with the probability of any health expenditure as well as the dollar value of that spending. Taken together, both the K6 and SRMH measures suggest a positive relationship between poor mental health and the probability of any health expenditure and total expenditure conditional on any spending, even when adjusting for other confounding factors such as race/ethnicity, sex, age, educational attainment, insurance status, and some regional characteristics. Our results suggest that psychological distress and SRMH may represent potential pathways linking poor mental health to increased health care expenditure. Further research exploring the nuances of these relationships may aid researchers, practitioners, and policy makers in addressing issues of inflated health care expenditure in populations at risk for poor mental health. PMID:26334899

  10. EPA/OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT'S NATIONAL HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS LABORATORY'S ASSOCIATE DIRECTOR FOR HEALTH INTERNET SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Internet site provides information about the Office of Research and Development's National Health and Environmental Effects Laboratory's Associate Director for Health (ADH) Internet site. The ADH is responsible for providing leadership for the health effects research program...

  11. 86th Annual Georgia Public Health Association Meeting & Conference Report

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Selina A.; Abbott, Regina; Sims, Christy

    2015-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The 86th annual meeting of the Georgia Public Health Association (GPHA) and joint conference with the Southern Health Association was held in Atlanta, Georgia, on April 1314, 2015, with pre-conference (April 12th) and post-conference (April 14th) Executive Board meetings. As Georgias leading forum for public health researchers, practitioners, and students, the annual meeting of the GPHA brings together participants from across the state to explore recent developments in the field and to exchange techniques, tools, and experiences. Historically, the GPHA conference has been held in Savannah (n=24); Jekyll Island (n=20); Atlanta (n=16); Augusta (n=4); and Gainesville (n=1). There was no annual meeting during the early years (19291936); during World War II (19411943 and 1945); and for four years during the 1980s. Between 2006 and 2010, GPHA held one-day annual meetings and business sessions with educational workshops. Several new initiatives were highlighted as part of this years conference. These included a move and groove physical activity lounge, registration scholarships for students with a dedicated meet-and-greet reception, an expanded exhibit hall, presentation and approval of three resolutions (related to healthy foods at official activities and events; weapons at official activities and events; and memorials), and approval of the 2015 legislative policy positions and amended association bylaws. The theme for the conference was Advocacy in Action for Public Health. Specifically, the program addressed ensuring access to care; protecting funding for core programs, services, and infrastructure; eliminating health disparities; and addressing key public health issues important to the state of Georgia. One hundred and nine (109) abstracts were submitted for peer review; 36 were accepted for poster and 40 for workshop presentations. Four plenary sessions with keynote speakers covered the intersection between advocacy and policy, Georgias response to the Ebola crisis, palliative care, and essentials of advocacy in action for public health. Concurrent workshops focused on Board of Health training, public health accreditation, capacity building, collaboration, patient-centered outcomes, synthetic cannabinoid use, the HIV care continuum, use of data for informed decision making, environmental threats, organizational development, epidemiology, policy, and regulation. Thirty-two (32) awards were presented, including Lawmaker of the Year Award to Governor Nathan and First Lady Sandra Deal for their active and engaged role in promoting public health in Georgia; and the Sellers-McCroan Award to Commissioner Brenda Fitzgerald, Georgia Department of Public Health (DPH) State Health Officer, for her leadership of the Georgia Ebola Response Team and leadership of the newly formed department. The conference attracted 569 registrants primarily through pre-registration (n=561) with limited onsite registration (n=8). For this years conference, there was a significant increase in attendance (36%) and exhibitors (33%) relative to 2014. Of registrants reporting GPHA section participation, representation included: academic (5%); administration (10%); boards of health (13%); career development (15%); emergency preparedness (2%); epidemiology (5%); health education and promotion (2%); information technology (2%); maternal and child health (3%); medical/dental (3%); nursing (10%); nutrition (<1%); and other/no record (15%). There was 100% participation in the conference from the states 18 public health districts. The conference evaluation completed by a representative sample of registrants indicated areas of potential improvement as: starting sessions on time, using electronic and social media for the conference agenda/syllabus, and decreasing workshop sessions to 45 minutes. Most rated the conference as good or excellent. PMID:26835519

  12. Distal and Proximal Factors of Health Behaviors and Their Associations with Health in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lämmle, Lena; Woll, Alexander; Mensink, Gert B. M.; Bös, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present paper was to analyze factors affecting distal and proximal health behavior within a biopsychosocial model for examining their interactions and associations with respect to health. Methods: Path analysis was based on the nationwide, cross-sectional German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (2003 to 2006). The data was collected from 4,529 participants with an average age of 9.45 years (SD = 4.01). Socio-demographic data, psychosocial factors and health behavior were assessed via questionnaire. Participants also underwent physical fitness tests and a medical examination. Results: Over the five levels of the model analyzed with socioeconomic status, immigration background, and rural-urban differences on the first level; physical activity of relatives and peers, intrinsic motivation, and quality of life on the second level; eating patterns, sedentary behavior, and physical activity on the third level; physical fitness and objective health on the fourth level; and health complaints and subjective health on the fifth level; direct, moderation, and mediation effects could be shown. Conclusions: Several distal and proximal factors are needed to take account of the multivariate complexity of health: e.g., immigration background affected health behaviors only indirectly and the effect of physical activity on objective health was mediated by physical fitness. PMID:23863614

  13. Factors Associated with Providers' Perceptions of Mental Health Care in Santa Luzia's Family Health Strategy, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ghesquiere, Angela R; Pinto, Rogerio M; Rahman, Rahbel; Spector, Anya Y

    2015-01-01

    Brazil has a unique mental health care system, characterized by universal coverage delivered by interdisciplinary teams both in the community and in specialized centros de ateno psicossocial (CAPS-psychosocial care centers). Provision of patient-centered mental health care is an important principle of Brazilian mental health care, but this topic has not been well-studied. We analyzed data from a cross-sectional survey of 151 community health workers (CHWs), nurses, and physicians in Santa Luzia, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Chi-squares, t-tests and multivariate regression analyses examined differences in socio-demographics, caseload, engagement in evidence-based practices (EBPs), and transdisciplinary collaboration between providers who reported providing high levels of patient-centered mental health care and those who did not. In multivariate regression models, components of transdisciplinary collaboration were significantly associated with providers' perceptions of patient-centered mental health care (p < 0.05). CHWs were also significantly more likely to report providing patient-centered care than physicians and nurses. EBP engagement and sociodemographics were not associated with perceptions. Results suggest that training efforts to improve patient-centered mental health care in Brazil could build upon CHWs' skills and focus on transdisciplinary collaboration. Findings may inform practice in other countries with similar health care systems. PMID:26703644

  14. Health issues associated with the smuggling and trafficking of migrants.

    PubMed

    Gushulak, B D; MacPherson, D W

    2000-04-01

    Approximately 4 million persons annually may be smuggled illegally across international borders. In 1997 it was estimated that 700,000 women or children were smuggled across international borders, of whom 175,000 were estimated to come from the former Soviet bloc; approximately 45,000-50,000 smuggled women and children arrived in the United States in that year. This article develops a framework to consider the impact of human trafficking on health within the context of migrant health and the destination population's health. Health risks are assumed by the individual being smuggled during the pre-journey, migratory, and arrival phases. In addition, the recipient country's population may also incur additional health burdens related to illegal arrivals from higher disease prevalence areas of the world. Some of this disease risk potential may be from transmissible agents, but there is increasing concern, and some evidence, that noncontagious diseases may be a significant problem associated with human trafficking. The global consideration of human smuggling and the individual and social impact on health are the focus of this paper. PMID:16228734

  15. Assess health effects associated with dichloromethane (methylene chloride). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-09

    On August 13-14, 1987 the Halogenated Organics Subcommittee of the Science Advisory Board's Environmental Health Committee met in Washington, D.C. to review two documents prepared by EPA's Office of Research and Development that assess health effects associated with dichloromethane (methylene chloride). The documents included: a June 1987 Draft Technical Analysis of New Methods and Data Regarding Dichloromethane: Pharmacokinetics, Mechanism of Action and Epidemiology, a July 1987 Draft Addendum to the Health Assessment Document for Dichloromethane: Pharmacokinetics, Mechanism of Action and Epidemiology. The Subcommittees concluded that the Addendum was one of the best documents it has received in terms of its clarity, coverage of the data and analysis of scientific issues. The document clearly demonstrates the potential utility of pharmacokinetics data in risk assessment.

  16. Uncertainties associated with assessing the public health risk from Legionella

    PubMed Central

    Whiley, Harriet; Keegan, Alexandra; Fallowfield, Howard; Ross, Kirstin

    2014-01-01

    Legionella is an opportunistic pathogen of public health concern. Current regulatory and management guidelines for the control of this organism are informed by risk assessments. However, there are many unanswered questions and uncertainties regarding Legionella epidemiology, strain infectivity, infectious dose, and detection methods. This review follows the EnHealth Risk Assessment Framework, to examine the current information available regarding Legionella risk and discuss the uncertainties and assumptions. This review can be used as a tool for understanding the uncertainties associated with Legionella risk assessment. It also serves to highlight the areas of Legionella research that require future focus. Improvement of these uncertainties will provide information to enhance risk management practices for Legionella, potentially improving public health protection and reducing the economic costs by streamlining current management practices. PMID:25309526

  17. Seeking Health Information Online: Association With Young Australian Womens Physical, Mental, and Reproductive Health

    PubMed Central

    Loxton, Deborah; Dobson, Annette; Mishra, Gita Devi

    2015-01-01

    Background Relatively little is known about the extent to which young adults use the Internet as a health information resource and whether there are factors that distinguish between those who do and do not go online for health information. Objective The aim was to identify the sociodemographic, physical, mental, and reproductive health factors associated with young womens use of the Internet for health information. Methods We used data from 17,069 young women aged 18-23 years who participated in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Womens Health. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the association between sociodemographic, physical, mental, and reproductive health factors associated with searching the Internet for health information. Results Overall, 43.54% (7433/17,069) of women used the Internet for health information. Women who used the Internet had higher odds of regular urinary or bowel symptoms (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.36-1.54), psychological distress (very high distress: OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.13-1.37), self-reported mental health diagnoses (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.09-1.23), and menstrual symptoms (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.15-1.36) than women who did not use the Internet for health information. Internet users were less likely to have had blood pressure checks (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.78-0.93) and skin cancer checks (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.84-0.97) and to have had a live birth (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.64-0.86) or pregnancy loss (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.79-0.98) than non-Internet users. Conclusions Women experiencing stigmatized conditions or symptoms were more likely to search the Internet for health information. The Internet may be an acceptable resource that offers anonymized information or support to young women and this has important implications for health service providers and public health policy. PMID:25986630

  18. Water quality associated public health risk in Bo, Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Jimmy, David H; Sundufu, Abu J; Malanoski, Anthony P; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Ansumana, Rashid; Leski, Tomasz A; Bangura, Umaru; Bockarie, Alfred S; Tejan, Edries; Lin, Baochuan; Stenger, David A

    2013-01-01

    Human health depends on reliable access to safe drinking water, but in many developing countries only a limited number of wells and boreholes are available. Many of these water resources are contaminated with biological or chemical pollutants. The goal of this study was to examine water access and quality in urban Bo, Sierra Leone. A health census and community mapping project in one neighborhood in Bo identified the 36 water sources used by the community. A water sample was taken from each water source and tested for a variety of microbiological and physicochemical substances. Only 38.9% of the water sources met World Health Organization (WHO) microbial safety requirements based on fecal coliform levels. Physiochemical analysis indicated that the majority (91.7%) of the water sources met the requirements set by the WHO. In combination, 25% of these water resources met safe drinking water criteria. No variables associated with wells were statistically significant predictors of contamination. This study indicated that fecal contamination is the greatest health risk associated with drinking water. There is a need to raise hygiene awareness and implement inexpensive methods to reduce fecal contamination and improve drinking water safety in Bo, Sierra Leone. PMID:22350346

  19. Time to get healthy: associations of time perspective with perceived health status and health behaviors.

    PubMed

    Griva, Fay; Tseferidi, Sofia-Ioanna; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the associations of time perspective (TP) with health behaviors including smoking, exercise, and body mass index (BMI), and perceptions of health status after controlling for sociodemographic factors. Participants (N?=?413) completed a web-based questionnaire that included a short version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, and reported their weight, height, smoking, and exercise frequency. Future TP was associated with more physical exercise, whereas past-negative and present-fatalistic dimensions were associated with higher BMI. Smoking was not associated with any of the TP dimensions. Additionally, all of the dimensions of TP were found to be associated with conceptually relevant perceptions of health status. Research on TP predominantly focuses on the future and the present orientation, but the findings of the present study suggest that all dimensions of TP should be used in health-related research. Also, issues regarding the role of the present-hedonistic dimension are discussed and directions for future research are proposed. PMID:24784153

  20. Low-Intensity Walking Activity is Associated with Better Health

    PubMed Central

    Varma, Vijay R.; Tan, Erwin J.; Wang, Tao; Xue, Qian-Li; Fried, Linda P.; Seplaki, Christopher L.; King, Abby C.; Seeman, Teresa E.; Rebok, George W.; Carlson, Michelle C.

    2014-01-01

    Recommended levels of physical activity may represent challenging targets for many older adults at risk for disability, leading to the importance of evaluating whether low-intensity activity is associated with health benefits. We examined the cross-sectional association between low-intensity walking activity (<100 steps/minute) and health and physical function in a group of older adults. Participants (n=187; age: 66.8; 91.4% African-American; 76.5% female) wore a StepWatch Activity Monitor to measure components of low-intensity walking activity. Only 7% of participants met physical activity guidelines and moderate-intensity activity (?100 steps/min) contributed only 10% of total steps/day and two percent of total minutes/day. Greater amount, frequency, and duration of low-intensity activity were associated with better self-report and performance-based measures of physical function, better quality of life, and fewer depressive symptoms (ps<0.05). The cross-sectional relationship between low-intensity activity and health outcomes important to independent function suggest that we further explore the longitudinal benefits of low-intensity activity. PMID:24652915

  1. Association of Recent Incarceration with Traumatic Injury, Substance Use Related Health Consequences, and Health Care Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Redmond, Nicole; Hicks, LeRoi S.; Cheng, Debbie M.; Allensworth-Davies, Donald; Winter, Michael R.; Samet, Jeffrey H.; Saitz, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Objective The higher risk of death among recently released inmates relative to the general population may be due to the higher prevalence of substance dependence among inmates or an independent effect of incarceration. We explored the effects of recent incarceration on health outcomes that may be intermediate markers for mortality. Methods Longitudinal multivariable regression analysis were conducted on interview data (baseline, 3, 6, and 12 month follow-up) from alcohol and/or drug dependent individuals (n=553) participating in a randomized clinical trial to test the effectiveness of chronic disease management for substance dependence in primary care. The main independent variable was recent incarceration (spending ?1 night in jail or prison in the past 3 months). The three main outcomes of this study were: any traumatic injury; substance use-related health consequences; and health care utilization defined as hospitalization (excluding addiction treatment or detoxification) and/or emergency department visit. Results Recent incarceration was not significantly associated with traumatic injury (adjusted odds ratio (AOR=0.98, 95%CI 0.651.49) or health care utilization (AOR=0.88, 95%CI: 0.641.20). However, recent incarceration was associated with higher odds for substance use-related health consequences (AOR=1.42, 95% CI: 1.021.98). Conclusions Among people with alcohol and/or drug dependence, recent incarceration was significantly associated with substance use-related health consequences but not injury or health care utilization after adjustment for covariates. These findings suggest that substance use related health consequences may be part of the explanation for the increased risk of death faced by former inmates. PMID:24365804

  2. Health care-associated hepatitis C virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Pozzetto, Bruno; Memmi, Meriam; Garraud, Olivier; Roblin, Xavier; Berthelot, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a blood-borne pathogen that has a worldwide distribution and infects millions of people. Care-associated HCV infections represented a huge part of hepatitis C burden in the past via contaminated blood and unsafe injections and continue to be a serious problem of public health. The present review proposes a panorama of health care-associated HCV infections via the three mode of contamination that have been identified: (1) infected patient to non-infected patient; (2) infected patient to non-infected health care worker (HCW); and (3) infected HCW to non infected patient. For each condition, the circumstances of contamination are described together with the means to prevent them. As a whole, the more important risk is represented by unsafe practices regarding injections, notably with the improper use of multidose vials used for multiple patients. The questions of occupational exposures and infected HCWs are also discussed. In terms of prevention and surveillance, the main arm for combating care-associated HCV infections is the implementation of standard precautions in all the fields of cares, with training programs and audits to verify their good application. HCWs must be sensitized to the risk of blood-borne pathogens, notably by the use of safety devices for injections and good hygiene practices in the operating theatre and in all the invasive procedures. The providers performing exposed-prone procedures must monitor their HCV serology regularly in order to detect early any primary infection and to treat it without delay. With the need to stay vigilant because HCV infection is often a hidden risk, it can be hoped that the number of people infected by HCV via health care will decrease very significantly in the next years. PMID:25516637

  3. Health care-associated hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Pozzetto, Bruno; Memmi, Meriam; Garraud, Olivier; Roblin, Xavier; Berthelot, Philippe

    2014-12-14

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a blood-borne pathogen that has a worldwide distribution and infects millions of people. Care-associated HCV infections represented a huge part of hepatitis C burden in the past via contaminated blood and unsafe injections and continue to be a serious problem of public health. The present review proposes a panorama of health care-associated HCV infections via the three mode of contamination that have been identified: (1) infected patient to non-infected patient; (2) infected patient to non-infected health care worker (HCW); and (3) infected HCW to non infected patient. For each condition, the circumstances of contamination are described together with the means to prevent them. As a whole, the more important risk is represented by unsafe practices regarding injections, notably with the improper use of multidose vials used for multiple patients. The questions of occupational exposures and infected HCWs are also discussed. In terms of prevention and surveillance, the main arm for combating care-associated HCV infections is the implementation of standard precautions in all the fields of cares, with training programs and audits to verify their good application. HCWs must be sensitized to the risk of blood-borne pathogens, notably by the use of safety devices for injections and good hygiene practices in the operating theatre and in all the invasive procedures. The providers performing exposed-prone procedures must monitor their HCV serology regularly in order to detect early any primary infection and to treat it without delay. With the need to stay vigilant because HCV infection is often a hidden risk, it can be hoped that the number of people infected by HCV via health care will decrease very significantly in the next years. PMID:25516637

  4. Auditing health insurance reimbursement by constructing association rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, I.-Jen

    2000-04-01

    Two months of reimbursement claim data of the admission patients from National Taiwan University Hospital have been used to be the training set (200 MB or so), a quick method has been used to find out the association rules among the illness, the examinations and treatments, the drugs, and the equipment. The filtered rules by setting the minimum support and the minimum confidence are used to screen out a month claimed data from the other hospital. Some unproper orders to the patients are able to checked out. In this paper, we will discuss the algorithm for generalizing association rule and the experiments of using the association rules to screen out the unproper orders in the health reimbursement claims.

  5. Health economics and the European Heart Rhythm Association.

    PubMed

    Vardas, Panos; Boriani, Giuseppe

    2011-05-01

    The management of healthcare is becoming extremely complex in developed countries, as a result of increasing age of the population and increasing costs of care, coupled with diminishing resources due to global financial crisis. This situation threatens access to appropriate care, and a more or less explicit rationing of some types of treatment may occur in 'real world' clinical practice. This is particularly true for those treatments or interventions with a relatively high up-front cost, such as cardioverter defibrillators, devices for cardiac resynchronization therapy or ablation procedures for atrial fibrillation. The European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) is strongly convinced that the skills of electrophysiologists and cardiologists responsible for the management of rhythm disorders have to evolve, also embracing the knowledge of health economics, clinical epidemiology, health-care management and outcome research. These disciplines do not belong to what is considered as the conventional cultural background of physicians, but knowledge of comparative cost effectiveness and of other economic approaches nowadays appears fundamental for a dialogue with a series of stakeholders, such as policy makers, politicians, and administrators, involved in budgeting the activity of hospitals and health-care services, as well as in approaching health technology assessment. PMID:21518741

  6. Factors associated with sense of community among allied health students.

    PubMed

    Haar, Mindy; Scanlan, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade, there has been a substantial increase in online education in the health professions, as well as growing recognition that teamwork and collaboration are essential to success. While the impact of students' sense of community on factors such as course satisfaction and retention has been studied among college enrollees in general, there is little research exploring this concept among allied health students. To address this shortcoming, a convenience sample of students enrolled in a large northeastern school of health-related professions was surveyed to gather information on their demographics, curriculum and selected course attributes, perceived instructor teaching perspectives, and sense of community. Univariate analysis indicated that entry-level students experienced a greater sense of community than post-professional students. Multivariate analysis revealed that instructor-determined factors of encouraging discussion, encouraging expression of opinions, and specifying response times best predicted sense of community. With all other variables controlled, perceptions of community were significantly lower in online courses, among students for whom English was their second language, and in courses where instructors were perceived as focused primarily on content delivery. This study supports promoting selected course and instructor-related attributes associated with sense of community in allied health education, with a particular focus on both non-native English speakers and post-professional students. Enhancement of online courses with strategies that increase instructor presence, better engage students, and facilitate interaction also are warranted. PMID:22968774

  7. Factors associated with mental health, general health, and school-based service use for child psychopathology.

    PubMed Central

    Zahner, G E; Daskalakis, C

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to identify factors associated with service use for child psychopathology in three settings: mental health, general health, and school. METHODS: Subjects were 2519 children, 6 to 11 years of age, assessed in two cross-sectional Connecticut surveys in the late 1980s. Three groups of variables (sociodemographics, child's illness profile, and parental attitudes) were examined through multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Most sociodemographics showed moderate associations with all settings, although some previously reported effects (e.g. birth order, sibship size) were not observed. Of the illness profile measures, only Child Behavior Checklist total scores predicted use in the final model (odds ratio [OR] = 1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1, 2.3). Health problems were associated with increased use in all settings (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.3, 1.9), while academic problems were associated only with increased school service use (OR = 5.2, 95% CI = 3.9, 7.0). Parental belief that the child needed help was most strongly associated with service use (common OR for all settings = 5.3, 95% CI = 4.1, 6.8). CONCLUSIONS: Sociodemographics, parental attitudes, and children's illness profiles independently influence service use for psychopathology in school-aged children. PMID:9314794

  8. Leadership skills are associated with health behaviours among Canadian children.

    PubMed

    Ferland, Adam; Chu, Yen Li; Gleddie, Doug; Storey, Kate; Veugelers, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Life skills development is a core area for action in the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. The role of life skills in influencing health behaviours among children has received little attention in research. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship between self-leadership, as a model of life skills, and diet quality, physical activity, sleep duration and body weight. A provincially representative sample of 2328 grade 5 students (aged 10-11 years) was surveyed in Alberta, Canada. Self-leadership skills were assessed based on student responses indicating frequency of performing various leadership traits. Diet quality was based on responses to the Harvard Youth/Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaire and physical activity on responses to the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children. Sleep duration was assessed based on parent survey responses, and body mass index determined based on measured height and weight. Random effects regression models with children nested within schools were used to determine the associations. Higher self-leadership was associated with better diet quality (P < 0.01) and more physical activity (P < 0.01). Although not statistically significant, higher self-leadership was suggestive of healthier body weight status (OR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.66, 1.27). No association of self-leadership with sleep duration was found. The incorporation of leadership skill development may enhance the effectiveness of school-based health promotion programs. This study reinforces the importance of leadership skill promotion in the promotion of healthy eating and active living, which may help curb the obesity epidemic in the short term, and prevention of chronic diseases and mounting healthcare costs in the long term. PMID:25348102

  9. Health effects associated with exposure to radioactively contaminated gold rings

    SciTech Connect

    Baptiste, M.S.; Rothenberg, R.; Nasca, P.C.; Janerich, D.T.; Stutzman, C.D.; Rimawi, K.; O'Brien, W.; Matuszek, J.

    1984-06-01

    This study was designed to assess the health risks associated with exposure to radioactively contaminated gold rings. A group of 135 exposed individuals, who were identified through a statewide jewelry screening program, were studied to determine the frequency of carcinoma and other skin problems on the ring finger. Severity of skin problems increased with increasing length of wear. Forty-one of the exposures were associated with mild to severe skin problems. Nine of the individuals studied were diagnosed as having histologically confirmed squamous cell carcinomas at the site of exposure. The incidence of skin cancer on the ring finger was eleven times that expected for men and forty-five times that expected for women. These data indicate that physicians who have patients with skin lesions of the ring finger should be aware of the possibility of exposure to a radioactive gold ring.

  10. Lacritin and other autophagy associated proteins in ocular surface health.

    PubMed

    Karnati, Roy; Talla, Venu; Peterson, Katherine; Laurie, Gordon W

    2016-03-01

    Advantage may be taken of macroautophagy ('autophagy') to promote ocular health. Autophagy continually captures aged or damaged cellular material for lysosomal degradation and recyling. When autophagic flux is chronically elevated, or alternatively deficient, health suffers. Chronic elevation of flux and stress are the consequence of inflammatory cytokines or of dry eye tears but not normal tears invitro. Exogenous tear protein lacritin transiently accelerates flux to restore homeostasis invitro and corneal health invivo, and yet the monomeric active form of lacritin appears to be selectively deficient in dry eye. Tissue transglutaminase-dependent cross-linking of monomer decreases monomer quantity and monomer affinity for coreceptor syndecan-1 thereby abrogating activity. Tissue transglutaminase is elevated in dry eye. Mutation of arylsulfatase A, arylsulfatase B, ceroid-lipofuscinosis neuronal 3, mucolipin, or Niemann-Pick disease type C1 respectively underlie several diseases of apparently insufficient autophagic flux that affect the eye, including: metachromatic leukodystrophy, mucopolysaccharidosis type VI, juvenile-onset Batten disease, mucolipidosis IV, and Niemann-Pick type C associated with myelin sheath destruction of corneal sensory and ciliary nerves and of the optic nerve; corneal clouding, ocular hypertension, glaucoma and optic nerve atrophy; accumulation of 'ceroid-lipofuscin' in surface conjunctival cells, and in ganglion and neuronal cells; decreased visual acuity and retinal dystrophy; and neurodegeneration. For some, enzyme or gene replacement, or substrate reduction, therapy is proving to be successful. Here we discuss examples of restoring ocular surface homeostasis through alteration of autophagy, with particular attention to lacritin. PMID:26318608

  11. Understanding and Improving Cardiovascular Health: An Update on the American Heart Association's Concept of Cardiovascular Health.

    PubMed

    Shay, Christina M; Gooding, Holly S; Murillo, Rosenda; Foraker, Randi

    2015-01-01

    The American Heart Association's 2020 Strategic Impact Goal is "By 2020, to improve the cardiovascular health of all Americans by 20% while reducing deaths from cardiovascular diseases and stroke by 20%." To monitor progress towards this goal, a new construct "ideal cardiovascular health" (iCVH) was defined that includes the simultaneous presence of optimal levels of seven health behaviors (physical activity, smoking, dietary intake, and body mass index) and factors (total cholesterol, blood pressure and fasting blood glucose). In this review, we present a summary of major concepts related to the concept of iCVH and an update of the literature in this area since publication of the 2020 Strategic Impact Goal, including trends in iCVH prevalence, new determinants and outcomes related to iCVH, strategies for maintaining or improving iCVH, policy implications of the iCVH model, and the remaining challenges to reaching the 2020 Strategic Impact Goal. PMID:25958016

  12. Risk of dependence associated with health, social support, and lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Alcañiz, Manuela; Brugulat, Pilar; Guillén, Montserrat; Medina-Bustos, Antonia; Mompart-Penina, Anna; Solé-Auró, Aïda

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the prevalence of individuals at risk of dependence and its associated factors. METHODS The study was based on data from the Catalan Health Survey, Spain conducted in 2010 and 2011. Logistic regression models from a random sample of 3,842 individuals aged ≥ 15 years were used to classify individuals according to the state of their personal autonomy. Predictive models were proposed to identify indicators that helped distinguish dependent individuals from those at risk of dependence. Variables on health status, social support, and lifestyles were considered. RESULTS We found that 18.6% of the population presented a risk of dependence, especially after age 65. Compared with this group, individuals who reported dependence (11.0%) had difficulties performing activities of daily living and had to receive support to perform them. Habits such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and being sedentary were associated with a higher probability of dependence, particularly for women. CONCLUSIONS Difficulties in carrying out activities of daily living precede the onset of dependence. Preserving personal autonomy and function without receiving support appear to be a preventive factor. Adopting an active and healthy lifestyle helps reduce the risk of dependence. PMID:26018786

  13. Is Dental Utilization Associated with Oral Health Literacy?

    PubMed

    Burgette, J M; Lee, J Y; Baker, A D; Vann, W F

    2016-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the pattern of association between dental utilization and oral health literacy (OHL). As part of the Carolina Oral Health Literacy Project, clients in the Women, Infants, and Children's Special Supplemental Nutrition Program completed a structured 30-min in-person interview conducted by 2 trained interviewers at 9 sites in 7 counties in North Carolina. Data were collected on clients' OHL, sociodemographics, dental utilization, self-efficacy, and dental knowledge. The outcome, OHL, was measured with a dental word recognition test (30-item Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Dentistry). Descriptive and multiple linear regression methods were used to examine the distribution of OHL and its association with covariates. After adjusting for age, education, race, marital status, self-efficacy, and dental knowledge, multiple linear regression showed that dental utilization was not a significant predictor of OHL (P > 0.05). Under the conditions of this study, dental utilization was not a significant predictor of OHL. PMID:26567035

  14. Calcium fructoborate helps control inflammation associated with diminished bone health.

    PubMed

    Scorei, Iulia Daria; Scorei, Romulus Ion

    2013-12-01

    Inflammation has been identified as a possible contributory factor to disruption of the normal bone remodeling process, a process essential to healthy bone mineral density. Several large population-based clinical studies have specifically shown that levels of C-reactive protein, an immune recognition protein that is a sensitive marker of inflammation, are inversely and independently associated with total bone mineral density. The evidence suggests that control of C-reactive protein levels may contribute to bone health by protecting against inflammation's disruption of the equilibrium between bone resorption and bone deposition. Calcium fructoborate, a patented complex of calcium, fructose, and boron found naturally in fresh and dried fruits, vegetables and herbs, and wine, is a sugar-borate ester. A growing body of peer-reviewed, published clinical research indicates that the calcium fructoborate significantly reduces serum levels of the C-reactive protein in humans, suggesting that this unique plant-mineral complex may contribute to bone health by controlling the inflammation associated with loss of bone mineral density. PMID:23982445

  15. Overview of Disinfection By-products and Associated Health Effects.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Cristina M; Cordier, Sylvaine; Font-Ribera, Laia; Salas, Lucas A; Levallois, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    The presence of chemical compounds formed as disinfection by-products (DBPs) is widespread in developed countries, and virtually whole populations are exposed to these chemicals through ingestion, inhalation, or dermal absorption from drinking water and swimming pools. Epidemiological evidence has shown a consistent association between long-term exposure to trihalomethanes and the risk of bladder cancer, although the causal nature of the association is not conclusive. Evidence concerning other cancer sites is insufficient or mixed. Numerous studies have evaluated reproductive implications, including sperm quality, time to pregnancy, menstrual cycle, and pregnancy outcomes such as fetal loss, fetal growth, preterm delivery, and congenital malformation. The body of evidence suggests only minor effects from high exposure during pregnancy on fetal growth indices such as small for gestational age (SGA) at birth. Populations highly exposed to swimming pools such as pool workers and professional swimmers show a higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms and asthma, respectively, although the direction of the association, and thus causality, is not clear among professional swimmers. The risk of asthma, wheezing, eczema, and other respiratory outcomes among children attending swimming pools has been the object of extensive research. Early studies suggested a positive association, while subsequent larger studies found no correlations or showed a protective association. Future research should develop methods to evaluate the effects of the DBP mixture and the interaction with personal characteristics (e.g., genetics, lifestyle), clarify the association between swimming pools and respiratory health, evaluate the occurrence of DBPs in low- and middle-income countries, and evaluate outcomes suggested by animal studies that have not been considered in epidemiological investigations. PMID:26231245

  16. Health care expenditures associated with depression in adults with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xiaoyun; Sambamoorthi, Usha

    2015-01-01

    Background The rates of depression in adults with cancer have been reported as high as 38%58%. How depression affects overall health care expenditures in individuals with cancer is an under-researched area. Objective To estimate excess average total health care expenditures associated with depression in adults with cancer by comparing those with and without depression after controlling for demographic, socioeconomic, access to care, and other health status variables. Methods Cross-sectional data on 4,766 adult survivors of cancer from 20062009 of the nationally representative household survey, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), were used. The patients were older than 21 years. Cancer and depression were identified from the patients medical conditions files. Dependent variables consisted of total, inpatient, outpatient, emergency department, prescription drugs, and other expenditures. Ordinary least square (OLS) on logged dollars and generalized linear models with log-link function were performed. All analyses (SAS 9.3 and STATA12) accounted for the complex survey design of the MEPS. Results Overall, 14% of individuals with cancer reported having depression. In those with cancer and depression, the average annual health care expenditures were $18,401 compared with $12,091 in those without depression. After adjusting for demographic, socio-economic, access to care, and other health status variables, those with depression had about 31.7% greater total expenditures compared with those without depression. Total, outpatient, and prescription expenditures were higher in individuals with depression than in those without depression. Individuals with cancer and depression were significantly more likely to use emergency departments (adjusted odds ratio, 1.46) compared with their counterparts without depression. Limitations Cancer patients who died during the reporting year were excluded. The financial burden of depression may have been underestimated because the costs of end-of-life care are high. The burden for each cancer type was not analyzed because of the small sample size. Conclusion In adults with cancer, those with depression had higher health care utilization and expenditures compared with those without depression. PMID:26270540

  17. Cross-sectional schooling-health associations misrepresented causal schooling effects on adult health and health-related behaviors: evidence from the Chinese Adults Twins Survey.

    PubMed

    Behrman, Jere R; Xiong, Yanyan; Zhang, Junsen

    2015-02-01

    Adult health outcomes and health behaviors are often associated with schooling. However, such associations do not necessarily imply that schooling has causal effects on health with the signs or magnitudes found in the cross-sectional associations. Schooling may be proxying for unobserved factors related to genetics and family background that directly affect both health and schooling. Recently several studies have used within-monozygotic (MZ) twins methods to control for unobserved factors shared by identical twins. Within-MZ estimates for developed countries are generally smaller than suggested by cross-sectional associations, consistent with positive correlations between unobserved factors that determine schooling and those that determine health. This study contributes new estimates of cross-sectional associations and within-MZ causal effects using the Chinese Adults Twins Survey, the first study of its type for developing countries. The cross-sectional estimates suggest that schooling is significantly associated with adult health-related behaviors (smoking, drinking, exercising) but not with own or spouse health outcomes (general health, mental health, overweight, chronic diseases). However, within-MZ-twins estimators change the estimates for approximately half of these health indicators, in one case declining in absolute magnitudes and becoming insignificant and in the other cases increasing in absolute magnitudes. Within-MZ estimates indicate significant pro-health effects for at least one of the indicators for own health (better mental health), own health-related behaviors (less smoking) and spouse health (less overweight). PMID:25464872

  18. Associations between multiple health risk behaviors and mental health among Chinese college students.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yong-Ling; Wang, Pei-Gang; Qu, Geng-Cong; Yuan, Shuai; Phongsavan, Philayrath; He, Qi-Qiang

    2016-04-01

    Although there is substantial evidence that health risk behaviors increase risks of premature morbidity and mortality, little is known about the multiple health risk behaviors in Chinese college students. Here, we investigated the prevalence of multiple health risk behaviors and its relation to mental health among Chinese college students. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Wuhan, China from May to June 2012. The students reported their health risk behaviors using self-administered questionnaires. Depression and anxiety were assessed using the self-rating depression scale and self-rating anxiety scale, respectively. A total of 2422 college students (1433 males) aged 19.7 ± 1.2 years were participated in the study. The prevalence of physical inactivity, sleep disturbance, poor dietary behavior, Internet addiction disorder (IAD), frequent alcohol use and current smoking was 62.0, 42.6, 29.8, 22.3, 11.6 and 9.3%, respectively. Significantly increased risks for depression and anxiety were found among students with frequent alcohol use, sleep disturbance, poor dietary behavior and IAD. Two-step cluster analysis identified two different clusters. Participants in the cluster with more unhealthy behaviors showed significantly increased risk for depression (odds ratio (OR): 2.21; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.83, 2.67) and anxiety (OR: 2.32; 95%CI: 1.85, 2.92). This study indicates that a relatively high prevalence of multiple health risk behaviors was found among Chinese college students. Furthermore, the clustering of health risk behaviors was significantly associated with increased risks for depression and anxiety. PMID:26222809

  19. [Health hazards associated with flying and diving. ENT aspects].

    PubMed

    Moser, M; Wolf, G

    1990-08-30

    The popularity of scuba diving among the general public and the great increase in air travel are increasingly associated with health problems. In the ENT sector, such problems mainly take the form of barotrauma that can arise from changes in the volume of gases enclosed within body cavities, due to fluctuations in pressure during diving and air travel. More rarely, decompression illness can occur when the required time for decompression is ignored by a diver coming up to the surface, or when a sudden loss of pressure occurs in the cabin of a plane, leading to the liberation of nitrogen dissolved in body fluids. Pathomechanisms, symptoms and treatment of barotrauma affecting the middle and inner ear and the sinuses, together with the effects of decompression errors on the organs of hearing and balance, are described, and suggestions for their prevention given. Fitness for diving and air travel, together with diseases that render these inadvisable, are discussed. PMID:2210584

  20. Decolonization in Prevention of Health Care-Associated Infections.

    PubMed

    Septimus, Edward J; Schweizer, Marin L

    2016-04-01

    Colonization with health care-associated pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, enterococci, Gram-negative organisms, and Clostridium difficile is associated with increased risk of infection. Decolonization is an evidence-based intervention that can be used to prevent health care-associated infections (HAIs). This review evaluates agents used for nasal topical decolonization, topical (e.g., skin) decolonization, oral decolonization, and selective digestive or oropharyngeal decontamination. Although the majority of studies performed to date have focused on S. aureus decolonization, there is increasing interest in how to apply decolonization strategies to reduce infections due to Gram-negative organisms, especially those that are multidrug resistant. Nasal topical decolonization agents reviewed include mupirocin, bacitracin, retapamulin, povidone-iodine, alcohol-based nasal antiseptic, tea tree oil, photodynamic therapy, omiganan pentahydrochloride, and lysostaphin. Mupirocin is still the gold standard agent for S. aureus nasal decolonization, but there is concern about mupirocin resistance, and alternative agents are needed. Of the other nasal decolonization agents, large clinical trials are still needed to evaluate the effectiveness of retapamulin, povidone-iodine, alcohol-based nasal antiseptic, tea tree oil, omiganan pentahydrochloride, and lysostaphin. Given inferior outcomes and increased risk of allergic dermatitis, the use of bacitracin-containing compounds cannot be recommended as a decolonization strategy. Topical decolonization agents reviewed included chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG), hexachlorophane, povidone-iodine, triclosan, and sodium hypochlorite. Of these, CHG is the skin decolonization agent that has the strongest evidence base, and sodium hypochlorite can also be recommended. CHG is associated with prevention of infections due to Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms as well as Candida. Conversely, triclosan use is discouraged, and topical decolonization with hexachlorophane and povidone-iodine cannot be recommended at this time. There is also evidence to support use of selective digestive decontamination and selective oropharyngeal decontamination, but additional studies are needed to assess resistance to these agents, especially selection for resistance among Gram-negative organisms. The strongest evidence for decolonization is for use among surgical patients as a strategy to prevent surgical site infections. PMID:26817630

  1. Overview of Emerging Contaminants and Associated Human Health Effects

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Meng; Zhang, Lun; Lei, Jianjun; Zong, Liang; Li, Jiahui; Wu, Zheng; Wang, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, because of significant progress in the analysis and detection of trace pollutants, emerging contaminants have been discovered and quantified in living beings and diverse environmental substances; however, the adverse effects of environmental exposure on the general population are largely unknown. This review summarizes the conclusions of the comprehensive epidemic literature and representative case reports relevant to emerging contaminants and the human body to address concerns about potential harmful health effects in the general population. The most prevalent emerging contaminants include perfluorinated compounds, water disinfection byproducts, gasoline additives, manufactured nanomaterials, human and veterinary pharmaceuticals, and UV-filters. Rare but statistically meaningful connections have been reported for a number of contaminants and cancer and reproductive risks. Because of contradictions in the outcomes of some investigations and the limited number of articles, no significant conclusions regarding the relationship between adverse effects on humans and extents of exposure can be drawn at this time. Here, we report that the current evidence is not conclusive and comprehensive and suggest prospective cohort studies in the future to evaluate the associations between human health outcomes and emerging environmental contaminants. PMID:26713315

  2. Health effects associated with energy conservation measures in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Stenner, R.D.; Baechler, M.C.

    1990-09-01

    Indoor air quality can conceivably be impacted by hundreds of different chemicals. More than 900 different organic compounds alone have been identified in indoor air. The health effects that could potentially arise from exposure to individual pollutants or mixtures of pollutants cover the full range of acute and chronic effects, including largely reversible responses, such as rashes and irritations, as well as irreversible toxic and carcinogenic effects. These indoor contaminants are emitted from a large variety of materials and substances that are widespread components of everyday life. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with indoor air contaminants for the Bonneville Power Administration to aid the agency in the preparation of environmental documents. The results of this search are reported in two volumes. Volume 1 is a summary of the results of the literature search; Volume 2 is the complete results of the literature search and contains all references to the material reviewed. 16 tabs.

  3. National Association of School Nurses ISSUE BRIEF: School Health Nurse's Role in Education: Privacy Standards for Student Health Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohlman, Katherine; Schwab, Nadine

    2003-01-01

    This article is a reprint of the National Association of School Nurses' "Issue Brief" on Privacy Standards for Student Health Records. It distinguishes between the Family Education Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) and the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HI-PAA), clarifies which of these laws governs the privacy of student health

  4. [Possible health effects associated with Pre-Columbian metallurgy].

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Idrovo AJ

    2005-09-01

    In the Old World, several researchers have indicated that adverse health effects were associated with exposure to arsenic, and that this influenced a change in the use of copper-arsenic alloys to others less toxic. This hypothesis was evaluated for three Pre-Columbian metallurgy traditions: Central Andes, Intermediate Area, and West Mexico. The metal artifacts from the Central Andes showed arsenic concentrations similar to those in the Old World (0.5%-1.0%). In the Intermediate Area the values were smallest; however, in West Mexico the arsenic content was very high (7%-25%). In Central Andes arsenical bronze was used initially, but copper-tin alloys when introduced were preferred and distributed throughout the Inca Empire. Osteological and artistic evidences of foot amputations among Moche individuals from Central Andes support the presence of "black foot disease" (a condition associated with arsenic poisoning) among Pre-Columbian populations. In conclusion, the adverse effects of arsenic have been observed in the New World, and that these effects promoted a change toward the use of less toxic alloys.

  5. [Possible health effects associated with Pre-Columbian metallurgy].

    PubMed

    Idrovo, Alvaro Javier

    2005-09-01

    In the Old World, several researchers have indicated that adverse health effects were associated with exposure to arsenic, and that this influenced a change in the use of copper-arsenic alloys to others less toxic. This hypothesis was evaluated for three Pre-Columbian metallurgy traditions: Central Andes, Intermediate Area, and West Mexico. The metal artifacts from the Central Andes showed arsenic concentrations similar to those in the Old World (0.5%-1.0%). In the Intermediate Area the values were smallest; however, in West Mexico the arsenic content was very high (7%-25%). In Central Andes arsenical bronze was used initially, but copper-tin alloys when introduced were preferred and distributed throughout the Inca Empire. Osteological and artistic evidences of foot amputations among Moche individuals from Central Andes support the presence of "black foot disease" (a condition associated with arsenic poisoning) among Pre-Columbian populations. In conclusion, the adverse effects of arsenic have been observed in the New World, and that these effects promoted a change toward the use of less toxic alloys. PMID:16276677

  6. Factors Associated with Physician Discussion of Health Behaviors with Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Won S.; Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Kaur, Harsohena; Nazir, Niaman; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2006-01-01

    Behaviors developed in adolescence influence health later in life. The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of health care provider's discussion of health behaviors with overweight and non-overweight adolescents and identify demographic and health behaviors related to exercise, hours of television viewing, and weight issues

  7. Factors Associated with American Indian Teens' Self-Rated Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Tassy

    2004-01-01

    Factors related to American Indian (AI) high school students' self-rated health were examined. Self rated health was measured as a single-item with a four-point response option ranging from poor to excellent health. Of the 574 participants, 19% reported "fair" or "poor" health, a percentage more than twice that for U.S. high school students in

  8. Factors Associated with Physician Discussion of Health Behaviors with Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Won S.; Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Kaur, Harsohena; Nazir, Niaman; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2006-01-01

    Behaviors developed in adolescence influence health later in life. The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of health care provider's discussion of health behaviors with overweight and non-overweight adolescents and identify demographic and health behaviors related to exercise, hours of television viewing, and weight issues…

  9. The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries' legislative activities and the Joint Medical Library Association/Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries Legislative Task Force

    PubMed Central

    Zenan, Joan S.

    2003-01-01

    The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries' (AAHSL's) involvement in national legislative activities and other advocacy initiatives has evolved and matured over the last twenty-five years. Some activities conducted by the Medical Library Association's (MLA's) Legislative Committee from 1976 to 1984 are highlighted to show the evolution of MLA's and AAHSL's interests in collaborating on national legislative issues, which resulted in an agreement to form a joint legislative task force. The history, work, challenges, and accomplishments of the Joint MLA/AAHSL Legislative Task Force, formed in 1985, are discussed. PMID:12883581

  10. Association of social isolation and health across different racial and ethnic groups of older Americans

    PubMed Central

    MIYAWAKI, CHRISTINA E.

    2015-01-01

    Social isolation is a social and public health problem that affects people of all ages, especially elders. Previous studies have found that social isolation across numerous industrialised countries is associated with negative health outcomes. However, it is unknown whether and how this association differs by race/ethnicity and age. To begin to address this gap, this study examines the association of social isolation and physical and mental health among Black, White and Hispanic elders in the United States of America. Building on Cornwell and Waite's perceived isolation and social disconnectedness dimension model of social isolation, the author used multi-stage survey data from a nationally representative sample of 3,005 community-residing adults aged 57–85 from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. Tests for association were conducted on health by age, gender, marital status, education and race/ethnicity separately. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to test the association of social isolation and health exclusively and separately among these three groups. Results showed that social isolation is strongly associated with physical and mental health. Both perceived isolation and social disconnectedness had a significant negative association with physical and mental health among White elders. For Blacks, social disconnectedness is negatively associated with their physical health while perceived isolation had a negative association with mental health. Among Hispanic elders, there seemed to be no association between social isolation and physical health, but a significant negative association was found with their mental health. Despite various associated patterns, however, social isolation overall was associated with health outcomes that were similar across three elder groups. By identifying factors influencing social isolation and health among minority older Americans, this study has relevance to the development of culturally sensitive health-care practice and services, which may be applicable to minority elders in different countries. PMID:26494934

  11. Competency Guidelines for Public Health Laboratory Professionals: CDC and the Association of Public Health Laboratories.

    PubMed

    Ned-Sykes, Renée; Johnson, Catherine; Ridderhof, John C; Perlman, Eva; Pollock, Anne; DeBoy, John M

    2015-05-15

    These competency guidelines outline the knowledge, skills, and abilities necessary for public health laboratory (PHL) professionals to deliver the core services of PHLs efficiently and effectively. As part of a 2-year workforce project sponsored in 2012 by CDC and the Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL), competencies for 15 domain areas were developed by experts representing state and local PHLs, clinical laboratories, academic institutions, laboratory professional organizations, CDC, and APHL. The competencies were developed and reviewed by approximately 170 subject matter experts with diverse backgrounds and experiences in laboratory science and public health. The guidelines comprise general, cross-cutting, and specialized domain areas and are divided into four levels of proficiency: beginner, competent, proficient, and expert. The 15 domain areas are 1) Quality Management System, 2) Ethics, 3) Management and Leadership, 4) Communication, 5) Security, 6) Emergency Management and Response, 7) Workforce Training, 8) General Laboratory Practice, 9) Safety, 10) Surveillance, 11) Informatics, 12) Microbiology, 13) Chemistry, 14) Bioinformatics, and 15) Research. These competency guidelines are targeted to scientists working in PHLs, defined as governmental public health, environmental, and agricultural laboratories that provide analytic biological and/or chemical testing and testing-related services that protect human populations against infectious diseases, foodborne and waterborne diseases, environmental hazards, treatable hereditary disorders, and natural and human-made public health emergencies. The competencies support certain PHL workforce needs such as identifying job responsibilities, assessing individual performance, and providing a guiding framework for producing education and training programs. Although these competencies were developed specifically for the PHL community, this does not preclude their broader application to other professionals in a variety of different work settings. PMID:25974716

  12. Human health risk associated with brominated flame-retardants (BFRs).

    PubMed

    Lyche, Jan L; Rosseland, Carola; Berge, Gunnar; Polder, Anuschka

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this review are to assess the human exposure and human and experimental evidence for adverse effects of brominated flame-retardants (BFRs) with specific focus on intake from seafood. The leakage of BFRs from consumer products leads to exposure of humans from fetal life to adulthood. Fish and fish products contain the highest levels of BFRs and dominate the dietary intake of frequent fish eaters in Europe, while meat, followed by seafood and dairy products accounted for the highest US dietary intake. House dust is also reported as an important source of exposure for children as well as adults. The levels of BFRs in the general North American populations are higher than those in Europe and Japan and the highest levels are detected in infants and toddlers. The daily intake via breast milk exceeds the RfD in 10% of US infants. BFRs including PBDEs, HBCDs and TBBP-A have induced endocrine-, reproductive- and behavior effects in laboratory animals. Furthermore, recent human epidemiological data demonstrated association between exposure to BFRs and similar adverse effects as observed in animal studies. Fish including farmed fish and crude fish oil for human consumption may contain substantial levels of BFRs and infants and toddlers consuming these products on a daily basis may exceed the tolerable daily intake suggesting that fish and fish oil alone represent a risk to human health. This intake comes in addition to exposure from other sources (breast milk, other food, house dust). Because potential harmful concentrations of BFRs and other toxicants occur in fish and fish products, research on a wider range of products is warranted, to assess health hazard related to the contamination of fish and fish products for human consumption. PMID:25454234

  13. Associations between the Five-Factor Model of Personality and Health Behaviors among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raynor, Douglas A.; Levine, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Objective: In fall 2006, the authors examined associations between the five-factor model of personality and several key health behaviors. Methods: College students (N = 583) completed the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment and the International Personality Item Pool Big Five short-form questionnaire. Results:

  14. 77 FR 70783 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Approval of the Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-27

    ... Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care (AAAHC) Application for Continuing CMS Approval of Its... Association for Ambulatory Health Care (AAAHC) for continued recognition as a national accrediting... by CMS. The Ambulatory Health Care's (AAAHC) current term of approval for their ASC...

  15. Periodontal Health Condition and Associated Factors among University Students, Yemen

    PubMed Central

    Dhaifullah, Esam; Al-Motareb, Fouad; Halboub, Esam; Elkhatat, Essam; Baroudi, Kusai; Tarakji, Bassel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Studies on oral health status among Yemeni population are scarce. Aim This study aimed to evaluate the periodontal health among advantaged section of Yemeni society, university students, in health and non-health fields. Materials and Methods Periodontal health status of a sample of 360 students from dental, medical and literature faculties (120 each with equal gender distribution) at Sana’a University was evaluated by two calibrated examiners using CPI index. Data regarding tooth-brushing practices and smoking and khat chewing habits were obtained using a structured interview questionnaire. Results Only 45 students (12.5%) had healthy periodontium, while 113 (31.4%), 186 (51.7%) and 16 (4.4%) had bleeding, calculus and shallow pocket, respectively, with no significant differences between faculties. Females revealed significantly better periodontal health compared to males, though their bleeding score was higher. Dental and medical students and female students in general were significantly more interested in tooth-brushing and significantly less interested in practicing the deleterious habits such as smoking and khat chewing. Conclusion The overall periodontal health of Sana’a University students is still unsatisfactory even among students in health field. Females and students in health field revealed better periodontal health and oral health practices (tooth-brushing) in comparison to male students and those in non-health field. The negative effects of the highly prevalent smoking and khat chewing habits deserve further reliable researches and proper educational programs at the national level. PMID:26813290

  16. Mental health problems associated with female genital mutilation

    PubMed Central

    Knipscheer, Jeroen; Vloeberghs, Erick; van der Kwaak, Anke; van den Muijsenbergh, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Aims and method To study the mental health status of 66 genitally mutilated immigrant women originating from Africa (i.e. Somalia, Sudan, Eritrea and Sierra Leone). Scores on standardised questionnaires (Harvard Trauma Questionnaire-30, Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25, COPE-Easy, Lowlands Acculturation Scale) and demographic and psychosocial correlates were analysed. Results A third of the respondents reported scores above the cut-off for affective or anxiety disorders; scores indicative for post-traumatic stress disorder were presented by 17.5% of women. Type of circumcision (infibulation), recollection of the event (a vivid memory), coping style (avoidance, in particular substance misuse) and employment status (lack of income) were significantly associated with psychopathology. Clinical implications A considerable minority group, characterised by infibulated women who have a vivid memory of the circumcision and cope with their symptoms in an avoidant way, reports to experience severe consequences of genital circumcision. In terms of public healthcare, interventions should target these groups as a priority. PMID:26755984

  17. Mental health problems associated with female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Knipscheer, Jeroen; Vloeberghs, Erick; van der Kwaak, Anke; van den Muijsenbergh, Maria

    2015-12-01

    Aims and method To study the mental health status of 66 genitally mutilated immigrant women originating from Africa (i.e. Somalia, Sudan, Eritrea and Sierra Leone). Scores on standardised questionnaires (Harvard Trauma Questionnaire-30, Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25, COPE-Easy, Lowlands Acculturation Scale) and demographic and psychosocial correlates were analysed. Results A third of the respondents reported scores above the cut-off for affective or anxiety disorders; scores indicative for post-traumatic stress disorder were presented by 17.5% of women. Type of circumcision (infibulation), recollection of the event (a vivid memory), coping style (avoidance, in particular substance misuse) and employment status (lack of income) were significantly associated with psychopathology. Clinical implications A considerable minority group, characterised by infibulated women who have a vivid memory of the circumcision and cope with their symptoms in an avoidant way, reports to experience severe consequences of genital circumcision. In terms of public healthcare, interventions should target these groups as a priority. PMID:26755984

  18. Fragile X-Associated Disorders (FXD): A Handbook for Families, Health Care Providers, Counselors, and Educators

    MedlinePLUS

    ... X-associated Disorders (FXD) A Handbook for Families, Health Care Providers, Counselors, and Educators For Personal Use Only ... many family members. This handbook is for families, health care providers, counselors, educators, and all those wishing to ...

  19. Health effects associated with cyanobacteria exposure among beach attendees in Puerto Rico

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyanobacteria and their toxins are associated with adverse human health effects, although among marine waters, the pyrrhophyta, including dinoflagellates are more recognized as health hazards. We recruited beach attendees during summer 2009, at Boquerón Beach, Puerto Rico...

  20. Health effects associated with cyanobacteria exposure among beach attendees in Puerto Rico

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyanobacteria and their toxins are associated with adverse human health effects, although among marine waters, the pyrrhophyta, including dinoflagellates are more recognized as health hazards. We recruited beach attendees during summer 2009, at Boquern Beach, Puerto Rico...

  1. Is Healthier Nutrition Behaviour Associated with Better Self-Reported Health and Less Health Complaints? Evidence from Turku, Finland.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Walid El; Suominen, Sakari; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-10-01

    We examined nutrition behaviour, self-reported health and 20 health complaints of undergraduates in Finland. Students at the University of Turku in Finland participated in a cross-sectional online survey (N = 1189). For nutrition behaviour, we computed two composite food intake pattern scores (sweets, cakes and snacks; and fruits and vegetables), a dietary guideline adherence index and the subjective importance of healthy eating. Multinomial logistic regression assessed the association of students' nutrition behaviour with three levels of self-reported health, controlling for many potential confounders (age, sex, living with partner, economic situation, moderate physical activity, Faculty and BMI). Factor analysis of the 20 health complaints revealed three components (psychological, pains/aches and circulatory/breathing symptoms). Multiple linear regression tested the association of students' eating habits with the three components of health complaints, controlling for the same confounders. Fruits and raw and cooked vegetable consumption, dietary guideline adherence index and subjective importance of healthy eating were highest among students with excellent/very good self-reported health, exhibiting a decreasing trend for those individuals with poor/fair self-reported health. High levels of psychological symptoms were associated with decreased consumption of fruits and vegetables, less dietary guideline adherence and less subjective importance of healthy eating. Pain/aches symptoms were associated with a higher consumption of sweets, cookies and snacks and a lower adherence to dietary guidelines. More healthy nutrition behaviour was consistently associated with better self-reported health and less health complaints. Of the four nutrition behaviour indicators we employed, the dietary guideline adherence index was the best indicator and exhibited the most consistent associations with self-reported health and health complaints. PMID:26473918

  2. Is Healthier Nutrition Behaviour Associated with Better Self-Reported Health and Less Health Complaints? Evidence from Turku, Finland

    PubMed Central

    El Ansari, Walid; Suominen, Sakari; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    We examined nutrition behaviour, self-reported health and 20 health complaints of undergraduates in Finland. Students at the University of Turku in Finland participated in a cross-sectional online survey (N = 1189). For nutrition behaviour, we computed two composite food intake pattern scores (sweets, cakes and snacks; and fruits and vegetables), a dietary guideline adherence index and the subjective importance of healthy eating. Multinomial logistic regression assessed the association of students’ nutrition behaviour with three levels of self-reported health, controlling for many potential confounders (age, sex, living with partner, economic situation, moderate physical activity, Faculty and BMI). Factor analysis of the 20 health complaints revealed three components (psychological, pains/aches and circulatory/breathing symptoms). Multiple linear regression tested the association of students’ eating habits with the three components of health complaints, controlling for the same confounders. Fruits and raw and cooked vegetable consumption, dietary guideline adherence index and subjective importance of healthy eating were highest among students with excellent/very good self-reported health, exhibiting a decreasing trend for those individuals with poor/fair self-reported health. High levels of psychological symptoms were associated with decreased consumption of fruits and vegetables, less dietary guideline adherence and less subjective importance of healthy eating. Pain/aches symptoms were associated with a higher consumption of sweets, cookies and snacks and a lower adherence to dietary guidelines. More healthy nutrition behaviour was consistently associated with better self-reported health and less health complaints. Of the four nutrition behaviour indicators we employed, the dietary guideline adherence index was the best indicator and exhibited the most consistent associations with self-reported health and health complaints. PMID:26473918

  3. Associations Among Health Behaviors and Time Perspective in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Henson, James M.; Carey, Michael P.; Carey, Kate B.; Maisto, Stephen A.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research suggests that time perspective relates to health behavior; however, researchers have frequently employed inconsistent operational definitions and have often used projective or unpublished measures. The Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory was created to provide a sound, objective measure of five distinct time perspective components. We examined the independent prediction of both risky and protective health behaviors from future, hedonistic, and fatalistic time perspective in 1,568 undergraduates using the ZTPI. Health behaviors included alcohol, drug, tobacco, and seat belt use, sex behaviors, and exercise. Future time perspective was related to increased protective and decreased risky health behaviors, whereas hedonism exhibited an opposite pattern though was a stronger predictor; fatalism was related only to health-destructive behaviors. Gender interactions reveal that hedonism is a stronger predictor of risky health behaviors for females. PMID:16421652

  4. Housing Insecurity and the Association With Health Outcomes and Unhealthy Behaviors, Washington State, 2011.

    PubMed

    Stahre, Mandy; VanEenwyk, Juliet; Siegel, Paul; Njai, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    Few studies of associations between housing and health have focused on housing insecurity and health risk behaviors and outcomes. We measured the association between housing insecurity and selected health risk behaviors and outcomes, adjusted for socioeconomic measures, among 8,415 respondents to the 2011 Washington State Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Housing insecure respondents were about twice as likely as those who were not housing insecure to report poor or fair health status or delay doctor visits because of costs. This analysis supports a call to action among public health practitioners who address disparities to focus on social determinants of health risk behaviors and outcomes. PMID:26160295

  5. Housing Insecurity and the Association With Health Outcomes and Unhealthy Behaviors, Washington State, 2011

    PubMed Central

    VanEenwyk, Juliet; Siegel, Paul; Njai, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    Few studies of associations between housing and health have focused on housing insecurity and health risk behaviors and outcomes. We measured the association between housing insecurity and selected health risk behaviors and outcomes, adjusted for socioeconomic measures, among 8,415 respondents to the 2011 Washington State Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Housing insecure respondents were about twice as likely as those who were not housing insecure to report poor or fair health status or delay doctor visits because of costs. This analysis supports a call to action among public health practitioners who address disparities to focus on social determinants of health risk behaviors and outcomes. PMID:26160295

  6. Associations between Intelligence in Adolescence and Indicators of Health and Health Behaviors in Midlife in a Cohort of Swedish Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modig, Karin; Bergman, Lars R.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate associations between intelligence and indicators of health status and health behaviors at age 43 in a cohort of Swedish women (n = 682). Intelligence was measured by standard IQ tests given at ages 10, 13, and 15. At the age of 43, 479 of the women were sampled for a medical examination in which 369…

  7. Associations between Intelligence in Adolescence and Indicators of Health and Health Behaviors in Midlife in a Cohort of Swedish Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modig, Karin; Bergman, Lars R.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate associations between intelligence and indicators of health status and health behaviors at age 43 in a cohort of Swedish women (n = 682). Intelligence was measured by standard IQ tests given at ages 10, 13, and 15. At the age of 43, 479 of the women were sampled for a medical examination in which 369

  8. The Associations between Health Literacy, Reasons for Seeking Health Information, and Information Sources Utilized by Taiwanese Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Mi-Hsiu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the associations between health literacy, the reasons for seeking health information, and the information sources utilized by Taiwanese adults. Method: A cross-sectional survey of 752 adults residing in rural and urban areas of Taiwan was conducted via questionnaires. Chi-squared tests and logistic regression were used for…

  9. The Associations between Health Literacy, Reasons for Seeking Health Information, and Information Sources Utilized by Taiwanese Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Mi-Hsiu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the associations between health literacy, the reasons for seeking health information, and the information sources utilized by Taiwanese adults. Method: A cross-sectional survey of 752 adults residing in rural and urban areas of Taiwan was conducted via questionnaires. Chi-squared tests and logistic regression were used for

  10. Subjective relative deprivation is associated with poorer physical and mental health.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sandeep; Carleton, R Nicholas

    2015-12-01

    Substantial epidemiological evidence has shown that income inequality and objective measures of relative deprivation are associated with poorer health outcomes. However, surprisingly little research has examined whether subjective feelings of relative deprivation are similarly linked with poorer health outcomes. The relative deprivation hypothesis suggests that inequality affects health at the individual level through negative consequences of social comparison. We directly examined the relationship between subjective feelings of personal relative deprivation and self-reported physical and mental health in a diverse community sample (n=328). Results demonstrated that subjective feelings of personal relative deprivation are associated with significantly poorer physical and mental health. These relationships held even when accounting for covariates that have been previously associated with both relative deprivation and health. These results further support the link between relative deprivation and health outcomes and suggest that addressing root causes of relative deprivation may lead to greater individual health. PMID:26575605

  11. Health Concerns Associated with Adolescent Growth and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stivers, Cathie

    Just as infants and the elderly have special health care needs based on their stages in the life cycle, adolescents also have particular health needs. While some of those needs are simply a result of the bodily changes that define adolescence, others are true medical conditions which are most commonly found in this age group. Among achievements

  12. Summary review of health effects associated with naphthalene: health issue assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    Naphthalene is released into ambient air via industrial gaseous and particulate emissions, tobacco use, and through consumer use. The data base concerning exposure of humans via inhalation and associated health effects is virtually nonexistent. Overexposure often results in acute hemolytic anemia and has been associated with cataract formation. There are no available dose-response data. In laboratory animals, two principal target tissues have been identified: non-ciliated bronchiolar epithelial (Clara) cells and eye tissue. The metabolite(s) responsible for Clara cell damage is unknown. There are no published studies involving inhalation exposure. Administration of naphthalene by routes other than inhalation has been shown to produce cataracts in rats, rabbits, and one mouse strain. Animal strains with pigmented eyes develop cataracts faster and more severely than albino strains. The likely causative agent is polyphenol oxydase, found only in pigmented eyes, that catalyzes the formation of 1,2-naphthoquione which binds to lens tissue. Negative results have been reported for gene mutations (Salmonella), unscheduled DNA synthesis in rat hepatocytes and microneuclei in mouse bone marrow. Limited teratology studies in rats and rabbits reported no gross abnormalities. In a single dose (300 mg/kg) study in mice, both maternal and fetal toxicity were reported.

  13. Association Between Availability and Quality of Health Services in Schools and Reproductive Health Outcomes Among Students: A Multilevel Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Elizabeth; Lawler, Catriona; Bagshaw, Sue; Farrant, Bridget; Bell, Fionna; Dawson, Dianne; Nicholson, Diana; Hart, Mo; Fleming, Theresa; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Clark, Terryann; Kekus, Maria; Utter, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We determined the association between availability and quality of school health services and reproductive health outcomes among sexually active students. Methods. We used a 2-stage random sampling cluster design to collect nationally representative data from 9107 students from 96 New Zealand high schools. Students self-reported whether they were sexually active, how often they used condoms or contraception, and their involvement in pregnancy. School administrators completed questionnaires on their school-based health services, including doctor and nursing hours per week, team-based services, and health screening. We conducted analyses using multilevel models controlling for individual variables, with schools treated as random effects. Results. There was an inverse association between hours of nursing and doctor time and pregnancy involvement among sexually active students, with fewer pregnancies among students in schools with more than 10 hours of nursing and doctor time per 100 students. There was no association between doctor visits, team-based services, health screening, and reproductive health outcomes. Conclusions. School health services are associated with fewer pregnancies among students, but only when the availability of doctor and nursing time exceeds 10 hours per 100 students per week. PMID:22897539

  14. The Association between Membership in the Sandwich Generation and Health Behaviors: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chassin, Laurie; Macy, Jon T.; Seo, Dong-Chul; Presson, Clark C.; Sherman, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the association between membership in the sandwich generation, defined as providing care to both children and parents or in-laws, and five health behaviors: checking the food label for health value when buying foods, using a seat belt, choosing foods based on health value, exercising regularly, and cigarette smoking.…

  15. Modifying effect of the County Level Health Indices on Cardiopulmonary Effects Associated with Wildfire Exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background and Aims: Socioeconomic status (SES) is a known risk factor for cardiopulmonary health and some studies suggest SES may be an effect modifier for health effects associated with exposure to air pollution. We investigated the synergistic impact of health disparities on ...

  16. American Association for Health Education (AAHE) 2011 Membership Survey: Summary of Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaney, Elizabeth H.; Chavarria, Enmanuel; Stellefson, Michael L.; Birch, David A.; Spear, Caile

    2012-01-01

    The American Association for Health Education (AAHE), a national health education organization with the mission of advancing the profession of health education, launched the 2011 AAHE membership survey between October 13, 2011 and November 1, 2011, under the leadership of the AAHE Board of Directors and AAHE Staff. The primary objective of the

  17. The Association between Membership in the Sandwich Generation and Health Behaviors: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chassin, Laurie; Macy, Jon T.; Seo, Dong-Chul; Presson, Clark C.; Sherman, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the association between membership in the sandwich generation, defined as providing care to both children and parents or in-laws, and five health behaviors: checking the food label for health value when buying foods, using a seat belt, choosing foods based on health value, exercising regularly, and cigarette smoking.

  18. Association Between Housing Quality and Individual Health Characteristics on Sleep Quality Among Latino Farmworkers

    PubMed Central

    Talton, Jennifer W.; Quandt, Sara A.; Chen, Haiying; Weir, Maria; Doumani, Walkiria R.; Chatterjee, Arjun B.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Although poor sleep quality and associated sleep disorders are associated with increased risk of job injury and multiple mental and physical health problems, scant research has examined sleep quality among Latino farmworkers. Interviews were conducted with 371 male Latino farmworkers working in North Carolina during the 2010 agricultural season. Data on housing quality and sleep quality were collected. Access to air conditioning was significantly and positively associated with good sleep quality. This association remained when other housing characteristics and individual health indicators were controlled. Good sleep quality was associated with low levels of pain, depression, and anxiety. Poor sleep quality among Latino farmworkers was associated with poorer indicators of health. One important indicator of housing quality, air conditioning, was associated with better sleep quality. Further research is required to delineate how to improve the adequacy of farmworker housing to improve sleep quality and other health indicators. PMID:23161266

  19. Weight- and race-based bullying: health associations among urban adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Lisa; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Henderson, Kathryn E; Peters, Susan M; McCaslin, Catherine; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2015-04-01

    Stigma-based bullying is associated with negative mental and physical health outcomes. In a longitudinal study, surveys and physical assessments were conducted with mostly Black and Latino, socioeconomically disadvantaged, urban students. As hypothesized, greater weight- and race-based bullying each was significantly indirectly associated with increased blood pressure and body mass index, as well as decreased overall self-rated health across 2 years, through the mechanism of more negative emotional symptoms. Results support important avenues for future research on mechanisms and longitudinal associations of stigma-based bullying with health. Interventions are needed to reduce stigma-based bullying and buffer adolescents from adverse health effects. PMID:24155192

  20. Are well functioning civil registration and vital statistics systems associated with better health outcomes?

    PubMed

    Phillips, David E; AbouZahr, Carla; Lopez, Alan D; Mikkelsen, Lene; de Savigny, Don; Lozano, Rafael; Wilmoth, John; Setel, Philip W

    2015-10-01

    In this Series paper, we examine whether well functioning civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) systems are associated with improved population health outcomes. We present a conceptual model connecting CRVS to wellbeing, and describe an ecological association between CRVS and health outcomes. The conceptual model posits that the legal identity that civil registration provides to individuals is key to access entitlements and services. Vital statistics produced by CRVS systems provide essential information for public health policy and prevention. These outcomes benefit individuals and societies, including improved health. We use marginal linear models and lag-lead analysis to measure ecological associations between a composite metric of CRVS performance and three health outcomes. Results are consistent with the conceptual model: improved CRVS performance coincides with improved health outcomes worldwide in a temporally consistent manner. Investment to strengthen CRVS systems is not only an important goal for individuals and societies, but also a development imperative that is good for health. PMID:25971222

  1. Associations among Socioeconomic Status, Perceived Neighborhood Control, Perceived Individual Control, and Self-Reported Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Spencer; Daniel, Mark; Bockenholt, Ulf; Gauvin, Lise; Richard, Lucie; Stewart, Steven; Dube, Laurette

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that perceived control and a person's perceptions of their neighborhood environment may mediate the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and health. This cross-sectional study assessed whether perceptions of informal social control mediated the association between SES and self-reported health, and if these

  2. Associations between state economic and health systems capacities and service use by children with special health care needs.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Lewis H; Mayer, Michelle; Clark, Kathryn A; Farel, Anita M

    2011-08-01

    To examine the relationship between measures of state economic, political, health services, and Title V capacity and individual level measures of the well-being of CSHCN. We selected five measures of Title V capacity from the Title V Information System and 13 state capacity measures from a variety of data sources, and eight indicators of intermediate health outcomes from the National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs. To assess the associations between Title V capacity and health services outcomes, we used stepwise regression to identify significant capacity measures while accounting for the survey design and clustering of observations by state. To assess the associations between economic, political and health systems capacity and health outcomes we fit weighted logistic regression models for each outcome, using a stepwise procedure to reduce the models. Using statistically significant capacity measures from the stepwise models, we fit reduced random effects logistic regression models to account for clustering of observations by state. Few measures of Title V and state capacity were associated with health services outcomes. For health systems measures, a higher percentage of uninsured children was associated with decreased odds of receipt of early intervention services, decreased odds of receipt of professional care coordination, and increased odds of delayed or missed care. Parents in states with higher per capita Medicaid expenditures on children were more likely to report receipt of special education services. Only two state capacity measures were associated explicitly with Title V: states with higher generalist physician to population ratios were associated with a greater likelihood of parent report of having heard of Title V and states with higher per capita gross state product were less likely to be associated with a report of using Title V services, conditional on having heard of Title V. The state level measure of family participation in Title V governance was negatively associated with receipt of care coordination and having used Title V services. The measures of state economic, political, health systems, and Title V capacity that we have analyzed are only weakly associated with the well-being of children with special health care needs. If Congress and other policymakers increase the expectations of the states in assuring that the needs of CSHCN and their families are addressed, it is essential to be cognizant of the capacities of the states to undertake that role. PMID:20628797

  3. Human health problems associated with current agricultural food production.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Ramesh V

    2008-01-01

    Scientific and technological developments in the agricultural sectors in the recent past has resulted in increased food production and at the same time led to certain public health concerns. Unseasonal rains at the time of harvest and improper post harvest technology often results in agricultural commodities being contaminated with certain fungi and results in the production of mycotoxins. Consumption of such commodities has resulted in human disease outbreaks. Naturally occurring toxins, inherently present in foods and either consumed as such or mixed up with grains, had been responsible for disease outbreaks. Other possible causes of health concern include the application of various agrochemicals such as pesticides and the use of antibiotics in aquaculture and veterinary practices. Foodborne pathogens entering the food chain during both traditional and organic agriculture pose a challenge to public health. Modern biotechnology, producing genetically modified foods, if not regulated appropriately could pose dangers to human health. Use of various integrated food management systems like the Hazard Analysis and critical control system approach for risk prevention, monitoring and control of food hazards are being emphasized with globalization to minimise the danger posed to human health from improper agricultural practices. PMID:18296310

  4. The association of patients' oral health literacy and dental school communication tools: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tam, Amy; Yue, Olivia; Atchison, Kathryn A; Richards, Jessica K; Holtzman, Jennifer S

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to assess adult patients' ability to read and understand two communication tools at the University of California, Los Angeles, School of Dentistry: the dental school clinic website and a patient education brochure pertaining to sedation in children that was written by dental school personnel. A convenience sample of 100 adults seeking treatment at the school's general dental clinic during 2012-13 completed a health literacy screening instrument. They were then asked to read clinic educational and informational materials and complete a survey. Analyses were conducted to determine the association between the subjects' oral health literacy and sociodemographics and their ability to locate and interpret information in written oral health information materials. SMOG and Flesch-Kincade formulas were used to assess the readability level of the electronic and written communication tools. The results demonstrated an association between these adults' oral health literacy and their dental knowledge and ability to navigate health information website resources and understand health education materials. Health literacy was not associated with age or gender, but was associated with education and race/ethnicity. The SMOG Readability Index determined that the website and the sedation form were written at a ninth grade reading level. These results suggest that dental schools and other health care organizations should incorporate a health-literate approach for their digital and written materials to enhance patients' ability to navigate and understand health information, regardless of their health literacy. PMID:25941146

  5. Bone health and associated metabolic complications in neuromuscular diseases.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Nanette C; Hache, Lauren P; Clemens, Paula R

    2012-11-01

    This article reviews the recent literature regarding bone health as it relates to the patient living with neuromuscular disease (NMD). Studies defining the scope of bone-related disease in NMD are scant. The available evidence is discussed, focusing on abnormal calcium metabolism, increased fracture risk, and the prevalence of both scoliosis and hypovitaminosis D in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and spinal muscular atrophy. Future directions are discussed, including the urgent need for studies both to determine the nature and extent of poor bone health, and to evaluate the therapeutic effect of available osteoporosis treatments in patients with NMD. PMID:23137737

  6. Self-Reported Health Status in Primary Health Care: The Influence of Immigration and Other Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    Salinero-Fort, Miguel .; Jimnez-Garca, Rodrigo; del Otero-Sanz, Laura; de Burgos-Lunar, Carmen; Chico-Moraleja, Rosa M.; Martn-Madrazo, Carmen; Gmez-Campelo, Paloma

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study are to compare self-reported health status between Spanish-born and Latin American-born Spanish residents, adjusted by length of residence in the host country; and additionally, to analyse sociodemographic and psychosocial variables associated with a better health status. Design This is a cross-sectional population based study of Latin American-born (n?=?691) and Spanish-born (n?=?903) in 15 urban primary health care centres in Madrid (Spain), carried out between 2007 and 2009. The participants provided information, through an interview, about self-reported health status, socioeconomic characteristics, psychosocial factors and migration conditions. Descriptive and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results The Spanish-born participants reported a better health status than the Latin America-born participants (79.8% versus 69.3%, p<0.001). Different patterns of self-reported health status were observed depending on the length of residence in the host country. The proportion of immigrants with a better health status is greater in those who have been in Spain for less than five years compared to those who have stayed longer. Better health status is significantly associated with being men, under 34 years old, being Spanish-born, having a monthly incomes of over 1000 euros, and having considerable social support and low stress. Conclusions Better self-reported health status is associated with being Spanish-born, men, under 34 years old, having an uppermiddle-socioeconomic status, adequate social support, and low stress. Additionally, length of residence in the host country is seen as a related factor in the self-reported health status of immigrants. PMID:22675564

  7. Date Violence and Rape among Adolescents: Associations with Psychological Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackard, Diann M.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    This study assessed the prevalence of date violence and rape among adolescents in order to examine the associations between date violence and rape, and eating disorders and psychopathology. The study also attempted to determine if these associations remained significant after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. A Minnesota…

  8. Factors Associated with Providers’ Perceptions of Mental Health Care in Santa Luzia’s Family Health Strategy, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ghesquiere, Angela R.; Pinto, Rogerio M.; Rahman, Rahbel; Spector, Anya Y.

    2015-01-01

    Brazil has a unique mental health care system, characterized by universal coverage delivered by interdisciplinary teams both in the community and in specialized centros de atenção psicossocial (CAPS—psychosocial care centers). Provision of patient-centered mental health care is an important principle of Brazilian mental health care, but this topic has not been well-studied. We analyzed data from a cross-sectional survey of 151 community health workers (CHWs), nurses, and physicians in Santa Luzia, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Chi-squares, t-tests and multivariate regression analyses examined differences in socio-demographics, caseload, engagement in evidence-based practices (EBPs), and transdisciplinary collaboration between providers who reported providing high levels of patient-centered mental health care and those who did not. In multivariate regression models, components of transdisciplinary collaboration were significantly associated with providers’ perceptions of patient-centered mental health care (p < 0.05). CHWs were also significantly more likely to report providing patient-centered care than physicians and nurses. EBP engagement and sociodemographics were not associated with perceptions. Results suggest that training efforts to improve patient-centered mental health care in Brazil could build upon CHWs’ skills and focus on transdisciplinary collaboration. Findings may inform practice in other countries with similar health care systems. PMID:26703644

  9. Health status and socio-economic factors associated with health facility utilization in rural and urban areas in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstracts Background With regards to equity, the objective for health care systems is “equal access for equal needs”. We examined associations of predisposing, enabling and need factors with health facility utilization in areas with high HIV prevalence and few people being aware of their HIV status. Methods The data is from a population-based survey among adults aged 15years or older conducted in 2003. The current study is based on a subset of this data of adults 15–49 years with a valid HIV test result. A modified Health behaviour model guided our analytical approach. We report unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals from logistic regression analyses. Results Totals of 1042 males and 1547 females in urban areas, and 822 males and 1055 females in rural areas were included in the study. Overall, 53.1% of urban and 56.8% of rural respondents utilized health facilities past 12 months. In urban areas, significantly more females than males utilized health facilities (OR=1.4 (95% CI [1.1, 1.6]). Higher educational attainment (10+ years of schooling) was associated with utilization of health facilities in both urban (OR=1.7, 95% CI [1.3, 2.1]) and rural (OR=1.4, 95% CI [1.0, 2.0]) areas compared to respondents who attained up to 7 years of schooling. Respondents who self-rated their health status as very poor/ poor/fair were twice more likely to utilize health facilities compared to those who rated their health as good/excellent. Respondents who reported illnesses were about three times more likely to utilize health facilities compared to those who did not report the illnesses. In urban areas, respondents who had mental distress were 1.7 times more likely to utilize health facilities compare to those who had no mental distress. Compared to respondents who were HIV negative, respondents who were HIV positive were 1.3 times more likely to utilize health facilities. Conclusion The health care needs were the factors most strongly associated with health care seeking. After accounting for need differentials, health care seeking differed modestly by urban and rural residence, was somewhat skewed towards women, and increased substantially with socioeconomic position. PMID:23145945

  10. Factors Associated with Oral Health Status in American Indian Children

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Tamanna; Quissell, David O.; Henderson, William G.; Thomas, Jacob F.; Bryant, Lucinda L.; Braun, Patricia A.; Albino, Judith E.

    2014-01-01

    The literature reports psychosocial, environmental, and cultural factors related to Early Childhood Caries (ECC), but few studies have included American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations. AI/AN children have the highest prevalence of ECC among any population group in the United States. This study examined socio-demographic characteristics of children and their parents/caregivers and psychosocial characteristics of parents/caregivers as risk factors for baseline oral health status of preschool children in the Navajo Nation, as part of a 3-year cluster randomized clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness of trained community workers providing a fluoride varnish and oral health promotion intervention to. The study recruited 1,015 children at 52 Head Start Centers. Baseline ECC data were collected by calibrated dental hygienists for 981 of the children ages of 3-5 years, and a Basic Research Factors Questionnaire (BRFQ) was completed by their parents/caregivers. Bivariable analysis revealed that dmfs was higher in older children; in males; in children with male parents/caregivers; and when the parent/caregiver had less education and income, worse oral health behavior in caring for their children's teeth, and higher scores for external powerful others and external chance locus of control, greater perceived susceptibility and barriers, and lower scores for community risky behavior. In a multiple linear regression model, the variables that remained statistically significant were child's age and gender, and oral health behavior score of the parent/caregiver. Intervening to improve parent/caregiver oral health behavior in caring for the teeth of children potentially could in AI/AN children. PMID:25232515

  11. Factors Associated with Oral Health Status in American Indian Children.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Tamanna; Quissell, David O; Henderson, William G; Thomas, Jacob F; Bryant, Lucinda L; Braun, Patricia A; Albino, Judith E

    2014-09-01

    The literature reports psychosocial, environmental, and cultural factors related to Early Childhood Caries (ECC), but few studies have included American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations. AI/AN children have the highest prevalence of ECC among any population group in the United States. This study examined socio-demographic characteristics of children and their parents/caregivers and psychosocial characteristics of parents/caregivers as risk factors for baseline oral health status of preschool children in the Navajo Nation, as part of a 3-year cluster randomized clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness of trained community workers providing a fluoride varnish and oral health promotion intervention to. The study recruited 1,015 children at 52 Head Start Centers. Baseline ECC data were collected by calibrated dental hygienists for 981 of the children ages of 3-5 years, and a Basic Research Factors Questionnaire (BRFQ) was completed by their parents/caregivers. Bivariable analysis revealed that dmfs was higher in older children; in males; in children with male parents/caregivers; and when the parent/caregiver had less education and income, worse oral health behavior in caring for their children's teeth, and higher scores for external powerful others and external chance locus of control, greater perceived susceptibility and barriers, and lower scores for community risky behavior. In a multiple linear regression model, the variables that remained statistically significant were child's age and gender, and oral health behavior score of the parent/caregiver. Intervening to improve parent/caregiver oral health behavior in caring for the teeth of children potentially could in AI/AN children. PMID:25232515

  12. Associations between Self-medication, Health Literacy, and Self-perceived Health Status: A Community-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Kamran, Aziz; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Shafaeei, Yousef; Mohebi, Siamak

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although the frequency of self-medication has been well-documented in the public health literature, but no study has examined the relationship between health literacy and self-medication yet. This study was aimed to investigating the relationship between health literacy and self-medication in a community-based study. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 924 adults to survey association between health literacy and self-medication among peoples in Ardabil city in 2014 who were selected using a multi-stage random sampling method. Health literacy was measured by the test of functional health literacy in adults and general health status was measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire, and self-reported self-medication (overall, sedative, antibiotic and herbal) in last 3 months was assessed. All statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS version 18 and a P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The mean age and weight of respondents were 37 years and 74.7 kg, respectively. The prevalence of self-medication was 61.6%, and the percentage of self-administering antibiotics, sedative, and herbal medicines were 40%, 54.4%, and 59.1% in the last 3 months, respectively. Significant relationship was found between of total health literacy and general health status with self-medication. The prevalence of self-medication among participants with poor and very poor self-rated physical and mental health was significantly higher than other participants (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Self-medication had a significant relationship with health literacy and health status. Therefore, the design and implementation of training programs are necessary to increase the perception on the risk of self-medication. PMID:26288710

  13. The Association Between Household Consumer Durable Assets and Maternal Health-Seeking Behavior in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Ansong, Eric

    2015-01-01

    This article examined the association between household consumer durable assets and maternal health-seeking behavior. Several studies have suggested a relationship between households' socioeconomic status (SES) and health outcomes. However, SES is a multidimensional concept that encompasses variables, such as wealth, education, and income. By grouping these variables together as one construct, prior studies have not provided enough insight into possible independent associations with health outcomes. This study used data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey of 2,065 women aged between 15 and 49 years to examine the association between household consumer durables (a component of SES) and maternal health-seeking behavior in Ghana. Results from a set of generalized linear models indicated that household consumer durable assets were positively associated with four measures of maternal health-seeking behaviors, namely, seeking prenatal care from skilled health personnel, delivery by skilled birth attendant, place of delivery, and the number of antenatal visits. Also, households with more assets whose residents lived in urban areas were more likely to use skilled health personnel before and during delivery, and at an approved health facility, compared those who lived in rural areas. Implications for health interventions and policies that focus on the most vulnerable households are discussed. PMID:25833407

  14. Wealth Index association with gender issues and the reproductive health of Egyptian women.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Mustafa

    2009-03-01

    This study investigated the association of the Wealth Index of married women in Egypt with a number of gender and reproductive health issues found in the 2005 Egypt Demographic Health Survey. The data from a subsample of 5249 currently married women from a total of 19,474 was examined using logistic regression analysis. The women's lowest wealth quintile predicted the intention to continue female genital cutting for their daughters, exposure to physical and sexual marital violence, not being empowered in household decisions, having a higher number of children, having an unintended last child, mothers' maltreatment of their children, the perception of a lack of health-care providers or drugs as an obstacle to receiving care, and not being covered by health insurance. The association of poverty with the aforementioned adverse health outcomes are discussed. Physicians should understand the effect of poverty on health and endeavour to influence policy-makers to reduce the poverty burden on health. PMID:19298306

  15. The Association between Insomnia Severity and Healthcare and Productivity Costs in a Health Plan Sample

    PubMed Central

    Sarsour, Khaled; Kalsekar, Anupama; Swindle, Ralph; Foley, Kathleen; Walsh, James K.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: Insomnia is a chronic condition with significant burden on health care and productivity costs. Despite this recognized burden, very few studies have examined associations between insomnia severity and healthcare and productivity costs. Design: A retrospective study linking health claims data with a telephone survey of members of a health plan in the Midwestern region of the United States. Participants: The total healthcare costs study sample consisted of 2086 health plan members who completed the survey and who had complete health claims data. The productivity costs sample consisted of 1329 health plan members who worked for paya subset of the total healthcare costs sample. Measurements: Subjects' age, gender, demographic variables, comorbidities, and total health care costs were ascertained using health claims. Insomnia severity and lost productivity related variables were assessed using telephone interview. Results: Compared with the no insomnia group, mean total healthcare costs were 75% larger in the group with moderate and severe insomnia ($1323 vs. $757, P < 0.05). Compared with the no insomnia group, mean lost productivity costs were 72% larger in the moderate and severe insomnia group ($1739 vs. $1013, P < 0.001). Chronic medical comorbidities and psychiatric comorbidities were positively associated with health care cost. In contrast, psychiatric comorbidities were associated with lost productivity; while, medical comorbidities were not associated with lost productivity. Conclusions: Health care and lost productivity costs were consistently found to be greater in moderate and severe insomniacs compared with non-insomniacs. Factors associated with lost productivity and health care costs may be fundamentally different and may require different kinds of interventions. Future studies should focus on better understanding mechanisms linking insomnia to healthcare and productivity costs and to understanding whether developing targeted interventions will reduce these costs. Citation: Sarsour K; Kalsekar A; Swindle R; Foley K; Walsh JK. The association between insomnia severity and healthcare and productivity costs in a health plan sample. SLEEP 2011;34(4):443-450. PMID:21461322

  16. Factors associated with maternal rating of infant health in central Harlem.

    PubMed

    McCormick, M C; Brooks-Gunn, J; Shorter, T; Holmes, J H; Heagarty, M C

    1989-06-01

    Maternal perceptions of infant health are strongly associated with the use of health services and may influence the child's future health and development. The extent to which such perceptions reflect infant health problems or a response to environmental stress in the mother's life is unclear. Because this issue may be especially important in disadvantaged groups for which both high levels of infant morbidity and environmental stress are common, we have explored the correlates of maternal perceptions of infant health among 367 mothers of 12-month-olds in central Harlem. Lower ratings of infant health were associated with such indicators of morbidity as problems in the neonatal period, hospitalization, and one or more episodes of illness. They were also associated with lower family income and the mother's rating of her own health in the bivariate analyses, but not in multivariate analyses. Neither maternal mental health, social support, nor environmental stress appeared to influence maternal rating of child health. These findings indicate that a mother's ratings of her infant's health relate specifically to the child's morbidity, independent of her own health and environmental stress. Moreover, within disadvantaged communities, infants of the poorest mothers may experience greater levels of morbidity. PMID:2745721

  17. Factors accounting for the association between anxiety and depression, and eczema: the Hordaland health study (HUSK)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The association between anxiety and depression, and eczema is well known in the literature, but factors underlying this association remain unclear. Low levels of omega-3 fatty acids and female gender have been found to be associated with both depression and eczema. Somatization and health anxiety are known to be associated with anxiety and depression, further, somatization symptoms and health anxiety have also been found in several dermatological conditions. Accordingly, omega-3 fatty acid supplement, female gender, somatization and health anxiety are possible contributing factors in the association between anxiety and depression, and eczema. The aim of the study is to examine the relevance of proposed contributing factors for the association between anxiety and depression, and eczema, including, omega-3 fatty acid supplement, female gender, health anxiety and somatization. Methods Anxiety and depression was measured in the general population (n = 15715) employing the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Information on eczema, female gender, omega-3 fatty acid supplement, health anxiety and somatization was obtained by self-report. Results Somatization and health anxiety accounted for more than half of the association between anxiety/depression, and eczema, while the other factors examined were of minor relevance for the association of interest. Conclusions We found no support for female gender and omega-3 fatty acid supplement as contributing factors in the association between anxiety/depression, and eczema. Somatization and health anxiety accounted for about half of the association between anxiety/depression, and eczema, somatization contributed most. The association between anxiety/depression, and eczema was insignificant after adjustment for somatization and health anxiety. Biological mechanisms underlying the mediating effect of somatization are yet to be revealed. PMID:20412596

  18. Tobacco: Its historical, cultural, oral, and periodontal health association

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Shanu; Mishra, M. B.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides information on the origin of tobacco and its subsequent spread throughout the world. In the era of the migration of communities, tobacco use gradually gained access and subsequently migrated along with the migrants, establishing in different locations. Probably at that time people were unaware of the health hazards and were using tobacco in treating certain ailments. Much has been known and written about tobacco in the context of oral and general health hazards but little has been explored and is known to many about where from and how this plant, which is now used in various forms, and speading widely. In what form, where, and how it had been served in religious rituals and considered for treatment or remedy of certain ailments in those days could not certainly be known. In the 21st century, people are considering hazardous tobacco as beneficial for their teeth, good for concentration of mind, and something which keeps them engaged. Even many professionals, though knowing the deleterious effects, are still using tobacco and gutkha in one or the other form. This article has been designed to revive the awareness for health hazards of tobacco and similar products. A pilot project questionnaire survey comprising this subject involving the educated mass has already been started and will be produced after analysis of data in part II of this paper. PMID:24478974

  19. Factors associated with mental health service utilization among bipolar youth

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, Christie J; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Swenson, Lance; Birmaher, Boris; Ryan, Neal; Strober, Michael; Chiappetta, Laurel; Valeri, Sylvia; Hunt, Jeffrey; Axelson, David; Leonard, Henrietta; Keller, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study aims to characterize patterns of mental health service utilization within a sample of bipolar youth. Demographic variables, youth bipolar characteristics, youth comorbid conditions, and parental psychopathology were examined as predictors of treatment utilization across different levels of care. Methods A total of 293 bipolar youth (aged 7–17 years) and their parents completed a diagnostic interview, family psychiatric history measures, and an assessment of mental health service utilization. Demographic and clinical variables were measured at baseline and mental health service use was measured at the six-month follow-up. Results Approximately 80% of bipolar youth attended psychosocial treatment services over the span of 6 months. Of those who attended treatment, 67% attended only outpatient services, 22% received inpatient/partial hospitalization, and 12% received residential/therapeutic school-based services. Using multinomial logistic regression, older age, female gender, and bipolar characteristics, including greater symptom severity and rapid cycling, were found to predict higher levels of care. Youth suicidal and non-suicidal self-injurious behavior, comorbid conduct disorder, and parental substance use disorders also predicted use of more restrictive treatment settings. Conclusions Results underscore the importance of assessing for and addressing suicidality, comorbid conduct disorder, and parental substance use disorders early in the treatment of bipolar youth to potentially reduce the need for more restrictive levels of care. PMID:18076533

  20. Public health and food safety: a historical association.

    PubMed Central

    Wagstaff, D J

    1986-01-01

    Since the initial passage in 1906 of the first Pure Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection Act, public health, as measured by mortality trends, has greatly improved. These acts have been amended several times, and other laws dealing with safety of foods and drinks have been enacted. Food- and beverage-transmitted infectious diseases that were so devastating after the Civil War have been controlled. Nutritional deficiencies such as pellagra are almost nonexistent. Mass episodes of poisoning of food by chemical contaminants that have plagued some other countries have not occurred in the United States. Other factors such as refrigeration and improved transportation have helped, but it is probable that food safety regulatory activities have contributed to the saving of the 1.8 million Americans who would die each year if the public health advances since 1900 had not been made. Effective use of information was a key factor in the improvement in public health. Now, as then, effective information systems are needed. PMID:3097743

  1. Human health hazards associated with chemical contamination of aquatic environment.

    PubMed Central

    Stara, J F; Kello, D; Durkin, P

    1980-01-01

    Given the finite supply of water available for human use, continued chemical contamination of the aquatic environment may pose a significant human health hazard. Consequently, an effort must be made to develop ambient water quality criteria to protect human health and preserve the integrity of the aquatic environment. In developing water quality criteria based on human health effects, information on sources of exposure, pharmacokinetics, and adverse effects must be carefully evaluated. Information on sources of exposure is needed to determine the contribution of exposure from water relative to all other sources. Pharmacokinetic data are used in inter- and intraspecies extrapolation and in characterizing the mode of toxic action. Information on toxic effects includes data on acute, subchronic, and chronic toxicity, mutagenicity, teratogenicity, and carcinogenicity. In analyzing such information, a distinction is made between threshold and nonthreshold effects. Currently, carcinogenicity and mutagenicity are considered to be nonthreshold effects. For carcinogens and mutagens, criteria are calculated by postulating an "acceptable" increased level of risk and using extrapolation models to estimate the dose which would result in this increased level of risk. For other chemicals, thresholds are assumed and criteria are calculated by deriving "acceptable daily intakes" for man which would presumably result in no observable adverse effects. Neither process is exact, and attempts must be made to improve and verify risk assessment methodologies. PMID:6993199

  2. Excess body weight increases the burden of age-associated chronic diseases and their associated health care expenditures

    PubMed Central

    Atella, Vincenzo; Kopinska, Joanna; Medea, Gerardo; Belotti, Federico; Tosti, Valeria; Mortari, Andrea Piano; Cricelli, Claudio; Fontana, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Aging and excessive adiposity are both associated with an increased risk of developing multiple chronic diseases, which drive ever increasing health costs. The main aim of this study was to determine the net (non?estimated) health costs of excessive adiposity and associated age?related chronic diseases. We used a prevalence?based approach that combines accurate data from the Health Search CSD?LPD, an observational dataset with patient records collected by Italian general practitioners and up?to?date health care expenditures data from the SiSSI Project. In this very large study, 557,145 men and women older than 18 years were observed at different points in time between 2004 and 2010. The proportion of younger and older adults reporting no chronic disease decreased with increasing BMI. After adjustment for age, sex, geographic residence, and GPs heterogeneity, a strong J?shaped association was found between BMI and total health care costs, more pronounced in middle?aged and older adults. Relative to normal weight, in the 45?64 age group, the per?capita total cost was 10% higher in overweight individuals, and 27 to 68% greater in patients with obesity and very severe obesity, respectively. The association between BMI and diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease largely explained these elevated costs. PMID:26540605

  3. Excess body weight increases the burden of age-associated chronic diseases and their associated health care expenditures.

    PubMed

    Atella, Vincenzo; Kopinska, Joanna; Medea, Gerardo; Belotti, Federico; Tosti, Valeria; Mortari, Andrea Piano; Cricelli, Claudio; Fontana, Luigi

    2015-10-01

    Aging and excessive adiposity are both associated with an increased risk of developing multiple chronic diseases, which drive ever increasing health costs. The main aim of this study was to determine the net (non-estimated) health costs of excessive adiposity and associated age-related chronic diseases. We used a prevalence-based approach that combines accurate data from the Health Search CSD-LPD, an observational dataset with patient records collected by Italian general practitioners and up-to-date health care expenditures data from the SiSSI Project. In this very large study, 557,145 men and women older than 18 years were observed at different points in time between 2004 and 2010. The proportion of younger and older adults reporting no chronic disease decreased with increasing BMI. After adjustment for age, sex, geographic residence, and GPs heterogeneity, a strong J-shaped association was found between BMI and total health care costs, more pronounced in middle-aged and older adults. Relative to normal weight, in the 45-64 age group, the per-capita total cost was 10% higher in overweight individuals, and 27 to 68% greater in patients with obesity and very severe obesity, respectively. The association between BMI and diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease largely explained these elevated costs. PMID:26540605

  4. Do Measured and Unmeasured Family Factors Bias the Association between Education and Self-Assessed Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monden, Christiaan W. S.

    2010-01-01

    The association between educational attainment and self-assessed health is well established but the mechanisms that explain this association are not fully understood yet. It is likely that part of the association is spurious because (genetic and non-genetic) characteristics of a person's family of origin simultaneously affect one's educational

  5. Does the Association with Psychosomatic Health Problems Differ between Cyberbullying and Traditional Bullying?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckman, Linda; Hagquist, Curt; Hellstrom, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    The association between mental health problems and traditional bullying is well known, whereas the strength of the association in cyberbullying is less known. This study aimed to compare the association between mutually exclusive groups of bullying involvement and psychosomatic problems as measured by the PsychoSomatic Problems scale. The sample

  6. SUMMARY REVIEW OF THE HEALTH EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH COPPER: HEALTH ISSUE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health Assessment Summary Document is a brief review of the scientific knowledge on copper. The emphasis of the document is on inhalation exposure from atmospheric copper and the environmental, ecological and health effects from the species of copper expected to be present in...

  7. SUMMARY REVIEW OF THE HEALTH EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH PROPYLENE OXIDE: HEALTH ISSUE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report provides a brief summary of the data available on the health effects of exposure to propylene oxide. Emphasis is placed on determining whether there is evidence to suggest that propylene oxide exerts effects on human health under conditions and at concentrations common...

  8. Strategies for prevention of health care-associated infections in the NICU.

    PubMed

    Polin, Richard A; Denson, Susan; Brady, Michael T

    2012-04-01

    Health care-associated infections in the NICU result in increased morbidity and mortality, prolonged lengths of stay, and increased medical costs. Neonates are at high risk of acquiring health care-associated infections because of impaired host-defense mechanisms, limited amounts of protective endogenous flora on skin and mucosal surfaces at time of birth, reduced barrier function of their skin, use of invasive procedures and devices, and frequent exposure to broad-spectrum antibiotic agents. This clinical report reviews management and prevention of health care-associated infections in newborn infants. PMID:22451712

  9. Epidemiology and diagnosis of health care-associated infections in the NICU.

    PubMed

    Polin, Richard A; Denson, Susan; Brady, Michael T

    2012-04-01

    Health care-associated infections in the NICU are a major clinical problem resulting in increased morbidity and mortality, prolonged length of hospital stays, and increased medical costs. Neonates are at high risk for health care-associated infections because of impaired host defense mechanisms, limited amounts of protective endogenous flora on skin and mucosal surfaces at time of birth, reduced barrier function of neonatal skin, the use of invasive procedures and devices, and frequent exposure to broad-spectrum antibiotics. This statement will review the epidemiology and diagnosis of health care-associated infections in newborn infants. PMID:22451708

  10. Online cancer services: types of services offered and associated health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Doolittle, Gary C; Spaulding, Ashley

    2005-07-01

    There are advantages and disadvantages associated with utilization of online health services among individuals living with cancer. Accessing accurate, reliable health-related information online gives patients the power to enhance their understanding of information they obtain from their health care providers. However, online health information can often be confusing for patients to interpret, and it can sometimes be conflicting or incorrect. Based on a framework by Eysenbach, the following paper discusses various types of cancer services that are available online, and it addresses both positive and negative health outcomes that have been linked to utilizing such services. PMID:15998626

  11. State High-Risk Pools: An Update on the Minnesota Comprehensive Health Association

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Donna; Burke, Courtney E.

    2011-01-01

    State health insurance high-risk pools are a key component of the US health care system's safety net, because they provide health insurance to the “uninsurable.” In 2007, 34 states had individual high-risk pools, which covered more than 200 000 people at a total cost of $1.8 billion. We examine the experience of the largest and oldest pool in the nation, the Minnesota Comprehensive Health Association, to document key issues facing state high-risk pools in enrollment and financing. We also considered the role and future of high-risk pools in light of national health care finance reform. PMID:21228286

  12. Cancer Survivors Health Worries and Associations with Lifestyle Practices

    PubMed Central

    Mosher, Catherine E.; Lipkus, Isaac M.; Sloane, Richard; Kraus, William E.; Snyder, Denise Clutter; Peterson, Bercedis; Jones, Lee W.; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    This study examined among recently diagnosed breast and prostate cancer survivors (N = 678) associations between worry about a future diagnosis of heart disease or cancer and hypothetical and actual adherence to exercise and dietary guidelines. Greater worry about future illness was reported under the hypothetical scenario of non-adherence to guidelines relative to the scenario of adherence. Worry about potential heart disease was associated with actual adherence to guidelines, whereas worry about a potential cancer diagnosis was not. Findings suggest that the motivational properties of worry should be considered when developing interventions to reduce heart disease risk among cancer survivors. PMID:18987083

  13. Healthcare – associated infections: A public health problem

    PubMed Central

    Revelas, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Disinfection and sterilization in hospitals, is of increasing concern. Nosocomial infections can be defined as those occurring within 48 hours of hospital admission, 3 days of discharge or 30 days of an operation. They affect 1 in 10 patients admitted to hospital. Nosocomial infections are associated with a great deal of morbidity, mortality, and increased financial burden PMID:23271847

  14. Potential Health Effects Associated with Dermal Exposure to Occupational Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Stacey E; Meade, B Jean

    2014-01-01

    There are a large number of workers in the United States, spanning a variety of occupational industries and sectors, who are potentially exposed to chemicals that can be absorbed through the skin. Occupational skin exposures can result in numerous diseases that can adversely affect an individual’s health and capacity to perform at work. In general, there are three types of chemical–skin interactions of concern: direct skin effects, immune-mediated skin effects, and systemic effects. While hundreds of chemicals (metals, epoxy and acrylic resins, rubber additives, and chemical intermediates) present in virtually every industry have been identified to cause direct and immune-mediated effects such as contact dermatitis or urticaria, less is known about the number and types of chemicals contributing to systemic effects. In an attempt to raise awareness, skin notation assignments communicate the potential for dermal absorption; however, there is a need for standardization among agencies to communicate an accurate description of occupational hazards. Studies have suggested that exposure to complex mixtures, excessive hand washing, use of hand sanitizers, high frequency of wet work, and environmental or other factors may enhance penetration and stimulate other biological responses altering the outcomes of dermal chemical exposure. Understanding the hazards of dermal exposure is essential for the proper implementation of protective measures to ensure worker safety and health. PMID:25574139

  15. Association between overuse of mobile phones on quality of sleep and general health among occupational health and safety students.

    PubMed

    Eyvazlou, Meysam; Zarei, Esmaeil; Rahimi, Azin; Abazari, Malek

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about health problems due to the increasing use of mobile phones are growing. Excessive use of mobile phones can affect the quality of sleep as one of the important issues in the health literature and general health of people. Therefore, this study investigated the relationship between the excessive use of mobile phones and general health and quality of sleep on 450 Occupational Health and Safety (OH&S) students in five universities of medical sciences in the North East of Iran in 2014. To achieve this objective, special questionnaires that included Cell Phone Overuse Scale, Pittsburgh's Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) were used, respectively. In addition to descriptive statistical methods, independent t-test, Pearson correlation, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple regression tests were performed. The results revealed that half of the students had a poor level of sleep quality and most of them were considered unhealthy. The Pearson correlation co-efficient indicated a significant association between the excessive use of mobile phones and the total score of general health and the quality of sleep. In addition, the results of the multiple regression showed that the excessive use of mobile phones has a significant relationship between each of the four subscales of general health and the quality of sleep. Furthermore, the results of the multivariate regression indicated that the quality of sleep has a simultaneous effect on each of the four scales of the general health. Overall, a simultaneous study of the effects of the mobile phones on the quality of sleep and the general health could be considered as a trigger to employ some intervention programs to improve their general health status, quality of sleep and consequently educational performance. PMID:26942630

  16. Nutrition and Health – The Association between Eating Behavior and Various Health Parameters: A Matched Sample Study

    PubMed Central

    Burkert, Nathalie T.; Muckenhuber, Johanna; Großschädl, Franziska; Rásky, Éva; Freidl, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Population-based studies have consistently shown that our diet has an influence on health. Therefore, the aim of our study was to analyze differences between different dietary habit groups in terms of health-related variables. The sample used for this cross-sectional study was taken from the Austrian Health Interview Survey AT-HIS 2006/07. In a first step, subjects were matched according to their age, sex, and socioeconomic status (SES). After matching, the total number of subjects included in the analysis was 1320 (N = 330 for each form of diet – vegetarian, carnivorous diet rich in fruits and vegetables, carnivorous diet less rich in meat, and carnivorous diet rich in meat). Analyses of variance were conducted controlling for lifestyle factors in the following domains: health (self-assessed health, impairment, number of chronic conditions, vascular risk), health care (medical treatment, vaccinations, preventive check-ups), and quality of life. In addition, differences concerning the presence of 18 chronic conditions were analyzed by means of Chi-square tests. Overall, 76.4% of all subjects were female. 40.0% of the individuals were younger than 30 years, 35.4% between 30 and 49 years, and 24.0% older than 50 years. 30.3% of the subjects had a low SES, 48.8% a middle one, and 20.9% had a high SES. Our results revealed that a vegetarian diet is related to a lower BMI and less frequent alcohol consumption. Moreover, our results showed that a vegetarian diet is associated with poorer health (higher incidences of cancer, allergies, and mental health disorders), a higher need for health care, and poorer quality of life. Therefore, public health programs are needed in order to reduce the health risk due to nutritional factors. PMID:24516625

  17. Workplace characteristics associated with health and comfort concerns in three office buildings in Washington, DC

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, L.A.; Nelson, C.J.; Dunteman, G.

    1991-01-01

    Nearly 4000 employees of a Federal Agency in Washington, DC were surveyed in March of 1989 to determine their health symptoms, comfort concerns, and reports of odor during the previous year. Their personal characteristics and perceptions of workplace conditions were also determined. A multivariate regression analysis indicated that the workplace variable affecting the largest number of health symptoms and comfort/odor concerns was dust. Perceptions of hot stuffy air and the odor of paint, carpet cleaning, and other chemicals were also associated with a number of health symptoms. Other workplace variables associated with comfort and odor concerns included glare, noise, and nearby water leaks. In most cases, individual air handling units could not be associated with health symptoms. Areas with new carpet reported higher frequency of throat problems. It was concluded that improved maintenance, better recirculation and filtration of air, and glare screens were desirable to improve employee health and productivity.

  18. Which modifiable health risks are associated with changes in productivity costs?

    PubMed

    Kirkham, Heather S; Clark, Bobby L; Bolas, Cheryl A; Lewis, Geraint Hywel; Jackson, Allison S; Fisher, Don; Duncan, Ian

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this retrospective, longitudinal study was to assess longitudinal associations between modifiable health risks and workplace absenteeism and presenteeism and to estimate lost productivity costs. Across the 4-year study period (2007-2010), 17,089 unique employees from a large US computer manufacturer with a highly technical workforce completed at least 1 health risk assessment. Generalized estimating equation models were used to estimate the mean population-level absenteeism and presenteeism for 11 modifiable health risks and adjust for 9 sociodemographic and employment-related factors. Because patient age was highly correlated with several other variables, the analysis was stratified by age (<45 vs. ?45 years). For all ages, poor emotional health, inadequate exercise, tobacco use, and having a body mass index (BMI) greater than 35 (all P<.05) were consistently associated with both absenteeism and presenteeism. Having a BMI over 35 and poor emotional health were associated with the largest impact in absenteeism (0.46 days) and presenteeism (4.03 days), respectively. Younger and older workers had similar associations between health risks and presenteeism; however, hypertension, blood sugar, inadequate exercise, and alcohol were associated (P?.01) with greater absenteeism among older but not younger workers. The results suggest that productivity loss is strongly related to emotional health and obesity-related health risks (eg, BMI, exercise) but differs by age. These findings could help prioritize preventive health programs offered by employers at their worksite health centers. Given the aging of the US workforce, keeping older workers healthy and productive will be crucial to remaining competitive in the global economy. (Population Health Management 2015;18:30-38). PMID:25375893

  19. Health hazards associated with windsurfing on polluted water

    SciTech Connect

    Dewailly, E.; Poirier, C.; Meyer, F.M.

    1986-06-01

    We documented the risks associated with windsurfing on sewage polluted water. Seventy-nine windsurfers and 41 controls were studied over a nine-day period for occurrence of symptoms of gastroenteritis, otitis, conjunctivitis, and skin infection. Relative risks were 2.9 for occurrence of one or more of these symptoms and 5.5 for symptoms of gastroenteritis. Relative risk increased with the reported number of falls into the water.

  20. Certified Health Education Specialists' Participation in Professional Associations: Implications for Marketing and Membership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Neiger, Brad L.; Roe, Kathleen M.

    2005-01-01

    A number of health education professional associations exist to advance the profession through research, practice, and professional development. Benefits of individual membership may include continuing education, networking, leadership, professional recognition, advocacy, professional mobility, access to research findings, advances in the

  1. [Testing doses? Environmental health stakes associated with nanotechnologies].

    PubMed

    Jouzel, Jean-Noël

    2011-01-01

    In this contribution, we analyse how nanoscience and nanotechnology have given birth to an important environmental health controversy regarding the potential sanitary dangers of engineered nanomaterials. We show how this controversy is part of a larger picture, made of a series of social and scientific disputes about the effects of man made chemicals on the human body. We show how these disputes have contributed throughout the 20th century to the emergence and the transformation of toxicology as a scientific field, and to test the robustness of the dose paradigm that constitues the cornerstone of this discipline. We suggest that the contemporary emergence of a new scientific field known as "nanotoxicolgy" must be interpreted as a successful adaptation of this paradigm to the specific toxicological questions raised by engineered nanomaterials. PMID:21850975

  2. The Medical Library Association: promoting new roles for health information professionals

    PubMed Central

    Homan, J. Michael; McGowan, Julie J.

    2002-01-01

    As the Medical Library Association (MLA) enters its second century, its role in providing leadership and focus for the education of health information professionals in a changing environment will be critical. MLA members face dramatic changes in the health care environment as well as significant opportunities and must position themselves to thrive in the new environment. This paper examines new roles for health information professionals, new approaches to education and training, and related issues of credentialing, certification, and licensure. PMID:11838464

  3. Association of Sedentary Behavior Time with Ideal Cardiovascular Health: The ORISCAV-LUX Study

    PubMed Central

    Crichton, Georgina E.; Alkerwi, Ala'a

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently attention has been drawn to the health impacts of time spent engaging in sedentary behaviors. No studies have examined sedentary behaviors in relation to the newly defined construct of ideal cardiovascular health, which incorporates three health factors (blood pressure, total cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose) and four behaviors (physical activity, smoking, body mass index, diet). The purpose of this study was to examine associations between sedentary behaviors, including sitting time, and time spent viewing television and in front of a computer, with cardiovascular health, in a representative sample of adults from Luxembourg. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of 1262 participants in the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg study was conducted, who underwent objective cardiovascular health assessments and completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. A Cardiovascular Health Score was calculated based on the number of health factors and behaviors at ideal levels. Sitting time on a weekday, television time, and computer time (both on a workday and a day off), were related to the Cardiovascular Health Score. Results Higher weekday sitting time was significantly associated with a poorer Cardiovascular Health Score (p?=?0.002 for linear trend), after full adjustment for age, gender, education, income and occupation. Television time was inversely associated with the Cardiovascular Health Score, on both a workday and a day off (p?=?0.002 for both). A similar inverse relationship was observed between the Cardiovascular Health Score and computer time, only on a day off (p?=?0.04). Conclusion Higher time spent sitting, viewing television, and using a computer during a day off may be unfavorably associated with ideal cardiovascular health. PMID:24925084

  4. Association of social determinants of health with self-rated health among Australian gay and bisexual men living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Koelmeyer, Rachel; English, Dallas R; Smith, Anthony; Grierson, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Despite a vast improvement in the survival of people living with HIV (PLHIV) since the introduction of combination antiretroviral treatment (cART), little change in the self-rated health of PLHIV has been observed since the introduction of cART in Australia. Difficulties with attaining employment or achieving financial security have been noted as some of the key challenges still facing PLHIV in the post-cART era. As a result, we investigated the independent association of a number of key social determinants of health with self-rated health among HIV-positive gay and bisexual men in Australia. Data from two recent national, cross-sectional surveys of PLHIV (the HIV Futures 5 and 6 surveys) were used. Logistic regression was used to assess the independent association of ethnicity, region of residence, education level, employment status, after-tax income, experience of HIV-related discrimination, level of social support, relationship status and recent sexual activity with reporting good-excellent self-rated health, after adjusting for clinical factors and other social determinants of health. Multiple imputation was used to estimate missing data for variables with >5% missing data. Of the 1713 HIV-positive gay/bisexual men who responded to the HIV Futures 5 and 6 surveys, information on self-rated health was available for 99.3%. Close to three-quarters of these respondents (72.1%) reported their self-rated health as good or excellent; the remainder (27.9%) reported their self-rated health as poor or fair. In multivariable analysis involving 89.3% of respondents, being employed, reporting recent sexual activity, a greater number of sources of social support and a higher weekly after-tax income were found to be independently associated with reporting good-excellent self-rated health. Despite the inability of this study to detect causal associations, addressing barriers to employment and sexual activity, and mechanisms to increase social support, is likely to have positive health effects for PLHIV in Australia. PMID:23651416

  5. Cumulative Adverse Financial Circumstances: Associations with Patient Health Status and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisgaier, Joanna; Rhodes, Karin V.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines associations between cumulative adverse financial circumstances and patient health in a sample of 1,506 urban emergency department (ED) patients. Study participants completed a previously validated Social Health Survey between May and October 2009. Five categories of economic deprivation were studied: food insecurity, housing

  6. Cumulative Adverse Financial Circumstances: Associations with Patient Health Status and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisgaier, Joanna; Rhodes, Karin V.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines associations between cumulative adverse financial circumstances and patient health in a sample of 1,506 urban emergency department (ED) patients. Study participants completed a previously validated Social Health Survey between May and October 2009. Five categories of economic deprivation were studied: food insecurity, housing…

  7. Association of a Behaviorally Based High School Health Education Curriculum with Increased Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annesi, James J.; Trinity, John; Mareno, Nicole; Walsh, Stephanie M.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing exercise in children and adolescents through academic classes is an understudied area. Potential benefits include associated improvements in health, psychosocial, and quality-of-life factors. A sample of 98 students (M[subscript age] = 14.3) from high school health education classes received six, 40-min lessons incorporating…

  8. Individual, Interpersonal, and Institutional Level Factors Associated with the Mental Health of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, DeAnnah R.; McKinney, Kristen J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study investigates the individual, interpersonal, and institutional level factors that are associated with overall mental health among college students. Participants: Data are from an online cross-sectional survey of 2,203 students currently enrolled at a large public university. Methods: Mental health was ascertained using a…

  9. Associations between Physical Activity and Health-Related Factors in a National Sample of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinger, Mary K.; Brittain, Danielle R.; Hutchinson, Susan R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between meeting the current moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) recommendation and health-related factors in a national sample of college students. Participants: Participants (N = 67,861) completed the National College Health Assessment II during the Fall 2008/Spring 2009 academic year. Methods:

  10. Associations between Finnish 9th Grade Students' School Perceptions, Health Behaviors, and Family Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilona, Haapasalo; Raili, Valimaa; Lasse, Kannas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the associations between students' perceptions of the psychosocial school environment, health-compromising behaviours, and selected family factors. The analyses were based on data provided for the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study (2006). Design/methodology/approach: The data were obtained…

  11. Building associations between markers of environmental stressors and adverse human health impacts using frequent itemset mining

    EPA Science Inventory

    Building associations between markers of exposure and effect using frequent itemset mining The human-health impact of environmental contaminant exposures is unclear. While some exposure-effect relationships are well studied, health effects are unknown for the vast majority of the...

  12. Associations between Physical Activity and Health-Related Factors in a National Sample of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinger, Mary K.; Brittain, Danielle R.; Hutchinson, Susan R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between meeting the current moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) recommendation and health-related factors in a national sample of college students. Participants: Participants (N = 67,861) completed the National College Health Assessment II during the Fall 2008/Spring 2009 academic year. Methods:…

  13. Health Outcomes in Adolescence: Associations with Family, Friends and School Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Melissa; McGee, Rob; Taylor, Barry; Williams, Sheila

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To examine the associations between connectedness to family and friends, and school engagement, and selected health compromising and health promoting behaviours in a sample of New Zealand adolescents. Methods: A web-based survey was designed and administered to a random sample of 652 Year 11 students aged 16 years from all Dunedin (NZ) high…

  14. Enrollment in Physical Education Is Associated with Health-Related Behavior among High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tassitano, Rafael M.; Barros, Mauro V. G.; Tenorio, Maria C. M.; Bezerra, Jorge; Florindo, Alex A.; Reis, Rodrigo S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Physical education (PE) plays a critical role in the healthy development of youth; however, the influence of PE classes in helping to provide students with health-related behavior patterns is not clear. This study aims to analyze whether participation in PE classes is associated with health-related behavior among high school students.…

  15. High School Students' Experiences of Bullying and Victimization and the Association with School Health Center Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Catherine; Deardorff, Julianna; Lahiff, Maureen; Soleimanpour, Samira; Sakashita, Kimi; Brindis, Claire D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bullying and victimization are ongoing concerns in schools. School health centers (SHCs) are well situated to support affected students because they provide crisis intervention, mental health care, and broader interventions to improve school climate. This study examined the association between urban adolescents' experiences of

  16. Association of a Behaviorally Based High School Health Education Curriculum with Increased Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annesi, James J.; Trinity, John; Mareno, Nicole; Walsh, Stephanie M.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing exercise in children and adolescents through academic classes is an understudied area. Potential benefits include associated improvements in health, psychosocial, and quality-of-life factors. A sample of 98 students (M[subscript age] = 14.3) from high school health education classes received six, 40-min lessons incorporating

  17. Individual, Interpersonal, and Institutional Level Factors Associated with the Mental Health of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, DeAnnah R.; McKinney, Kristen J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study investigates the individual, interpersonal, and institutional level factors that are associated with overall mental health among college students. Participants: Data are from an online cross-sectional survey of 2,203 students currently enrolled at a large public university. Methods: Mental health was ascertained using a

  18. PM CONSTITUENT ROLES IN MASS ASSOCIATIONS WITH HEALTH EFFECTS IN PHILADELPHIA, PA

    EPA Science Inventory

    An environmental and health database was constructed for Philadelphia, PA for the period 1992-1995 in order to assess the importance of PM components in mass associations with adverse health effects. PM data were collected by Harvard University for the U.S. EPA. Daily measureme...

  19. Associations between Finnish 9th Grade Students' School Perceptions, Health Behaviors, and Family Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilona, Haapasalo; Raili, Valimaa; Lasse, Kannas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the associations between students' perceptions of the psychosocial school environment, health-compromising behaviours, and selected family factors. The analyses were based on data provided for the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study (2006). Design/methodology/approach: The data were obtained

  20. Enrollment in Physical Education Is Associated with Health-Related Behavior among High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tassitano, Rafael M.; Barros, Mauro V. G.; Tenorio, Maria C. M.; Bezerra, Jorge; Florindo, Alex A.; Reis, Rodrigo S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Physical education (PE) plays a critical role in the healthy development of youth; however, the influence of PE classes in helping to provide students with health-related behavior patterns is not clear. This study aims to analyze whether participation in PE classes is associated with health-related behavior among high school students.

  1. General Practitioners' Understanding Pertaining to Reliability, Interactive and Usability Components Associated with Health Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usher, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the level of understanding of Gold Coast general practitioners (GPs) pertaining to such criteria as reliability, interactive and usability components associated with health websites. These are important considerations due to the increased levels of computer and World Wide Web (WWW)/Internet use and health

  2. Methods of Economic Valuation of The Health Risks Associated with Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalhevet, S.; Haruvy, N.

    The worldwide market for nanomaterials is growing rapidly, but relatively little is still known about the potential risks associated with these materials. The potential health hazards associated with exposure to nanomaterials may lead in the future to increased health costs as well as increased economic costs to the companies involved, as has happened in the past in the case of asbestos. Therefore, it is important to make an initial estimate of the potential costs associated with these health hazards, and to prepare ahead with appropriate health insurance for individuals and financial insurance for companies. While several studies have examined the environmental and health hazards of different nanomaterials by performing life cycle impact assessments, so far these studies have concentrated on the cost of production, and did not estimate the economic impact of the health hazards. This paper discusses methods of evaluating the economic impact of potential health hazards on the public. The proposed method is based on using life cycle impact assessment studies of nanomaterials to estimate the DALYs (Disability Adjusted Life Years) associated with the increased probability of these health hazards. The economic valuation of DALY's can be carried out based on the income lost and the costs of medical treatment. The total expected increase in cost depends on the increase in the statistical probability of each disease.

  3. High School Students' Experiences of Bullying and Victimization and the Association with School Health Center Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Catherine; Deardorff, Julianna; Lahiff, Maureen; Soleimanpour, Samira; Sakashita, Kimi; Brindis, Claire D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bullying and victimization are ongoing concerns in schools. School health centers (SHCs) are well situated to support affected students because they provide crisis intervention, mental health care, and broader interventions to improve school climate. This study examined the association between urban adolescents' experiences of…

  4. The association between childhood maltreatment, mental health problems, and aggression in justice-involved boys.

    PubMed

    Hoeve, Machteld; Colins, Olivier F; Mulder, Eva A; Loeber, Rolf; Stams, Geert Jan J M; Vermeiren, Robert R J M

    2015-09-01

    The link between childhood maltreatment and adolescent aggression is well documented; yet, studies examining potential mechanisms that explain this association are limited. In the present study, we tested the association between childhood maltreatment and adolescent aggression in boys in juvenile justice facilities (N?=?767) and examined the contribution of mental health problems to this relationship. Data on childhood maltreatment, mental health problems, and aggression were collected by means of self-report measures and structural equation models were used to test mediation models. We found that mental health problems mediated the link between maltreatment and aggression. Results demonstrated different pathways depending on the type of aggression examined. The association between childhood maltreatment and reactive aggression was fully mediated by a variety of mental health problems and for proactive aggression the association was partially mediated by mental health problems. We also found that reactive and proactive aggression partially mediated the association between maltreatment and mental health problems. These findings suggest that a transactional model may best explain the negative effects of childhood trauma on mental health problems and (in particular reactive) aggression. In addition, our findings add to the existing evidence that reactive and proactive aggression have different etiological pathways. Aggr. Behav. 41:488-501, 2015. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25788428

  5. Associations Between Health-Related Quality of Life and Mortality in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, William W.; Zack, Matthew M.; Arnold, Sarah E.; Barile, John P.

    2015-01-01

    This study measures the use and relative importance of different measures of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) as predictors of mortality in a large sample of older US adults. We used Cox proportional hazards models to analyze the association between general self-reported health and three “healthy days” (HDs) measures of HRQOL and mortality at short-term (90-day) and long-term (2.5 years) follow-up. The data were from Cohorts 6 through 8 of the Medicare Health Outcomes Survey, a national sample of older adults who completed baseline surveys in 2003–2005. At the long term, reduced HRQOL in general health and all categories of the HDs were separately and significantly associated with greater mortality (P <0.001). In multivariate analysis of long-term mortality, at least one HD category remained significant for each measure, but the associations between mental health and mortality were inconsistent. For short-term mortality, the physical health measures had larger hazard ratios, but fewer categories were significant. Hazard ratios decreased over time for all measures of HRQOL except mental health. In conclusion, HRQOL measures were shown to be significant predictors of short- and long-term mortality, further supporting their value in health surveillance and as markers of risk for targeted prevention efforts. Although all four measures of HRQOL significantly predicted mortality, general self-rated health and age were more important predictors than the HDs. PMID:24189743

  6. Suboptimal maternal and paternal mental health are associated with child bullying perpetration.

    PubMed

    Shetgiri, Rashmi; Lin, Hua; Flores, Glenn

    2015-06-01

    This study examines associations between maternal and paternal mental health and child bullying perpetration among school-age children, and whether having one or both parents with suboptimal mental health is associated with bullying. The 2007 National Survey of Children's Health, a nationally-representative, random-digit-dial survey, was analyzed, using a parent-reported bullying measure. Suboptimal mental health was defined as fair/poor (vs. good/very good/excellent) parental self-reported mental and emotional health. Of the 61,613 parents surveyed, more than half were parents of boys and were white, 20% were Latino, 15% African American, and 7% other race/ethnicity. Suboptimal maternal (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1-1.8) and paternal (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.1-2.2) mental health are associated with bullying. Compared with children with no parents with suboptimal mental health, children with only one or both parents with suboptimal mental health have higher bullying odds. Addressing the mental health of both parents may prove beneficial in preventing bullying. PMID:25096508

  7. Association of Health and Food Expenditures Inequality With Health Outcomes: A Case Study on Iranian Rural Households

    PubMed Central

    Naghdi, Seyran; Ghiasvand, Hesam; Shaarbafchi Zadeh, Nasrin; Azami, Saeidreza; Moradi, Tayebeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Inequality in households and individuals' consumption expenditures is one of the most important aspects of health status difference among households and individuals. Objectives: We investigated the impact of some macro-economic factors specially inequality factors on the Iranian rural health status since 1986 through 2012. Patients and Methods: We conducted a longitudinal ecological and analytical study. The average sample size was 14602 households whom Iranian Statistics Center selected by a multi-stages clustering sampling approach. All required data has been collected from Iranian Statistics Centre and Deputy for Curial Affaires of Iranian Ministry of Health. We calculated the Gini coefficients for the rural food and health expenditures, then conducted a transloge autoregressive order one (AR1) to investigate the association between the Iranian rural households' key mortality rates and the food and health expenditure Gini coefficients, time trend, GDP per capita (PPP), and GDP per capita Gini coefficients. Results: The mean of Gini coefficients were 0.137 and 0.21 for the rural food expenditures inequality based on current and constant price, respectively. In addition, the mean of Gini coefficients were 0.26 and 0.31 for the rural health expenditures inequality based on current and constant price, respectively. The time trend, transloged form of Gini coefficients for health expenditures and GDP per capita Gini coefficients presented a significant negative correlation with transloged form of neonatal mortality rate. With regard to the transloged form of under five mortality we observed a significant negative correlation with time trend and transloged form of Gini coefficients for health expenditure and GDP per capita. Finally, there was a significant negative correlation between transloged forms of maternal mortality rate. Conclusions: Iranian policy makers should consider the rural health and food expenditures inequality and try to adopt more effective policies and plans to decrease it. In addition, they should improve the macro-economic factors to improve the rural households' health status. PMID:24829771

  8. On the empirical association between poor health and low socioeconomic status at old age.

    PubMed

    Salas, Christian

    2002-04-01

    Epidemiologic studies using mortality rates as indicators of health fail to find any meaningful association between poor health and low socioeconomic status in older age-groups, whereas economic studies using self-assessed health consistently find a significant positive correlation, even after controlling for self-reporting errors. Such contradictory results have not been reported for working age individuals. A simple explanation might be that the elderly samples on which the epidemiologic and economic studies are based come from different populations. However, this paper shows that similar contradictory results are obtained even when the same samples are used, simply by switching between self-assessed health and mortality as health indicators. An alternative explanation is proposed, namely that these health indicators yield different results because they relate to different ranges of the latent health variable at old age. PMID:11921318

  9. Healthcare-associated infections: challenges to public health in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Padoveze, Maria Clara; Fortaleza, Carlos Magno Castelo Branco

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a critical evaluation of the scientific literature related to this subject, aiming to assess the policies and administrative issues regarding the prevention and magnitude of healthcare-associated infections and discuss the challenges for their prevention in Brazil. The topics discussed included historical and administrative issues, challenges imposed by the characteristics of the healthcare system and the territorial dimension, laboratorial support limitations, costs, institutional culture, professional qualification, and patient engagement. It is urgent to hold a nationwide discussion among government representatives, institutions, and healthcare workers and users to overcome these challenges. PMID:26039403

  10. A Panel Analysis of the Strategic Association Between Information and Communication Technology and Public Health Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Sarah Jinhui

    2012-01-01

    Background In this exploratory research, we use panel data analysis to examine the correlation between Information and Communication Technology (ICTs) and public health delivery at the country level. Objective The goal of this exploratory research is to examine the strategic association over time between ICTs and country-level public health. Methods Using data from the World Development Indicators, we construct a panel data set of countries of five different income levels and look closely at the period from 2000 to 2008. The panel data analysis allows us to explore this dynamic relationship under the control for unobserved country-specific effects by using a fixed-effects estimation method. In particular,, we examine the association of five ICT factors with five public health indicators: adolescent fertility rate, child immunization coverage, tuberculosis case detected, life expectancy, and adult mortality rate. Results First, overall ICTs’ factors substantially improve a country’s public health delivery on the top of wealth effect. Second, among all the ICTs’ factors, accessibility is the only one that is associated with improvements in all aspects of public health delivery, while the contributions from the usage, quality, and applications are negligible. ICTs’ accessibility factor is associated with a considerable extension to life expectancy and reduced adult mortality rate. Third, all entity-specific factors are significant in each model, indicating that countries’ economic development level does influence their public health delivery. Conclusions Our results indicate that ICT accessibility has a strong association with effective delivery of public health. There are others, but the key strategic applications are eHealth and mHealth. The findings of this study will help government officials and public health policy makers to formulate strategic decisions regarding the best ICT investments and deployment. For example, the study shows that providing accessibility should be a critical focus. PMID:23089193

  11. Association between Social Integration and Health among Internal Migrants in ZhongShan, China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yanwei; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Wen; Shi, Jingrong; Han, Siqi; Song, Xiaolei; Xu, Yong; Ling, Li

    2016-01-01

    Internal migrants are the individuals who migrate between regions in one country. The number of internal migrants were estimated at 245 million in China in 2013. Results were inconsistent in the literature about the relationship between their health statuses and social integration. The main difference exists on how to measure the social integration and whether health statuses of internal migrants improve with years of residence. To complement the existing literature, this study measured social integration more comprehensively and estimated the internal migrants' health statuses with varying years of residence, and explored the associations between the migrants' social integration and health. We used the data from 2014 Internal Migrant Dynamic Monitoring Survey of Health and Family Planning in ZhongShan, China. Health status was measured from four aspects: self-reported health, subjective well-being, perception of stress, mental health. We measured social integration through four dimensions: economy, social communication, acculturation, and self-identity. The analyses used multiple linear regressions to examine the associations between self-reported health, subjective well-being, and perception of stress, mental health and social integration. The analytical sample included 1,999 households of the internal migrants and 1,997 local registered households, who were permanent residents in ZhongShan. Among the internal migrants, Adults in the labor force, who were aged 25 to 44 years old, accounted for 91.2% of the internal migrant population, while 74.6% of the registered population were in that age group. Median residential time among migrants was 2.8 (1.3-6.2) years, and 20.2% of them were migrating in the same Guangdong province. Except for mental health, other health statuses among migrants had significant differences compared with local registered population, e.g. self-reported health was better, but subjective well-being was worse. However, these health measurements were improved with more years of residence. Moreover, our results show that two aspects of social integration, economic integration and self-identity, were significantly associated with health status. Subjective feeling of relative social status levels were more associated with health, which prompted the attention to social fairness and the creation of a fair and respectful culture. More interventions could be experimented, such as encouraging internal migrants to participate in community activities more actively, educating local registered residents to treat internal migrants more equally, and developing self-identity among internal migrants. Better social, economic, and cultural environment can benefit internal migrants' health statuses. PMID:26863008

  12. Association between Social Integration and Health among Internal Migrants in ZhongShan, China

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yanwei; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Wen; Shi, Jingrong; Han, Siqi; Song, Xiaolei; Xu, Yong; Ling, Li

    2016-01-01

    Internal migrants are the individuals who migrate between regions in one country. The number of internal migrants were estimated at 245 million in China in 2013. Results were inconsistent in the literature about the relationship between their health statuses and social integration. The main difference exists on how to measure the social integration and whether health statuses of internal migrants improve with years of residence. To complement the existing literature, this study measured social integration more comprehensively and estimated the internal migrants’ health statuses with varying years of residence, and explored the associations between the migrants’ social integration and health. We used the data from 2014 Internal Migrant Dynamic Monitoring Survey of Health and Family Planning in ZhongShan, China. Health status was measured from four aspects: self-reported health, subjective well-being, perception of stress, mental health. We measured social integration through four dimensions: economy, social communication, acculturation, and self-identity. The analyses used multiple linear regressions to examine the associations between self-reported health, subjective well-being, and perception of stress, mental health and social integration. The analytical sample included 1,999 households of the internal migrants and 1,997 local registered households, who were permanent residents in ZhongShan. Among the internal migrants, Adults in the labor force, who were aged 25 to 44 years old, accounted for 91.2% of the internal migrant population, while 74.6% of the registered population were in that age group. Median residential time among migrants was 2.8 (1.3–6.2) years, and 20.2% of them were migrating in the same Guangdong province. Except for mental health, other health statuses among migrants had significant differences compared with local registered population, e.g. self-reported health was better, but subjective well-being was worse. However, these health measurements were improved with more years of residence. Moreover, our results show that two aspects of social integration, economic integration and self-identity, were significantly associated with health status. Subjective feeling of relative social status levels were more associated with health, which prompted the attention to social fairness and the creation of a fair and respectful culture. More interventions could be experimented, such as encouraging internal migrants to participate in community activities more actively, educating local registered residents to treat internal migrants more equally, and developing self-identity among internal migrants. Better social, economic, and cultural environment can benefit internal migrants’ health statuses. PMID:26863008

  13. Health benefits and risk associated with adopting a vegetarian diet.

    PubMed

    Pilis, Wiesław; Stec, Krzysztof; Zych, Michał; Pilis, Anna

    2014-01-01

    A vegetarian diet may be adopted for various reasons that can include ecological, economic, religious, ethical and health considerations. In the latter case they arise from the desire to lose weight, in tackling obesity, improving physical fitness and/or in reducing the risk of acquiring certain diseases. It has been shown that properly applied vegetarian diet is the most effective way of reducing body mass (expressed as BMI), improving the plasma lipid profile and in decreasing the incidence of high arterial blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, stroke, metabolic syndrome and arteriosclerosis. In addition, improved insulin sensitivity together with lower rates of diabetes and cancer has been observed. Some studies have however found that a vegetarian diet may result in changes adversely affecting the body. These could include; hyperhomocysteinaemia, protein deficiency, anaemia, decreased creatinine content in muscles and menstrual disruption in women who undertake increased physical activity. Some of these changes may decrease the ability for performing activities that require physical effort. Nevertheless, on balance it can be reasonably concluded that the beneficial effects of a vegetarian diet significantly, by far, outweigh the adverse ones. It should also be noted that the term 'vegetarian diet' is not always clearly defined in the literature and it may include many dietary variations. PMID:24964573

  14. Assessment of health hazard associated with nitrogen compounds in water.

    PubMed

    Pawe?czyk, Adam

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents results of analyses of water in the river Ma?a Panew in South West Poland flowing through a rural area with some chemical industry developed. The aims of the work were to investigate the pollutants level in the river, compare the obtained results with obligatory drinking water standards and determine possible health effects when using the river as a source for drinking water production. Attention was given to nitrogen compounds as nitrate(V) ions (NO(3-)) and nitrite(III) ions (NO(2-)), mostly of anthropogenic origin, were detected in the monitored water. The average concentrations of NO(3-) and NO(2-) were 3.54 and 0.286 mg/dm(3), respectively. The chances for non-carcinogenic effects, namely methemoglobinemia, resulting from possible exposure to the examined chemicals were determined based on the analytical and toxicological data. As infants are the sub-population most susceptible to nitrate-induced methemoglobinemia, the assessment was limited to children aged 0-3 years. The determined values expressed by hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) indicate that the water pollutants and their concentrations do not exceed unity; however, in the case of infants, the other nitrate sources should be controlled. PMID:22744700

  15. Neighborhood conditions are associated with maternal health behaviors and pregnancy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Vinikoor-Imler, L C; Messer, L C; Evenson, K R; Laraia, B A

    2011-11-01

    Women residing in neighborhoods of low socioeconomic status are more likely to experience adverse reproductive outcomes; however, few studies explore which specific neighborhood features are associated with poor maternal health behaviors and pregnancy outcomes. Based upon our conceptual model, directly observed street-level data from four North Carolina US counties were used to create five neighborhood indices: physical incivilities (neighborhood degradation), social spaces (public space for socializing), walkability (walkable neighborhoods), borders (property boundaries), and arterial features (traffic safety). Singleton birth records (2001-2005) were obtained from the North Carolina State Center for Vital Statistics and maternal health behavior information (smoking, inadequate or excessive weight gain) and pregnancy outcomes (pregnancy-induced hypertension/pre-eclampsia, low birthweight, preterm birth) were abstracted. Race-stratified random effect models were used to estimate associations between neighborhood indices and women's reproductive behaviors and outcomes. In adjusted models, higher amounts of physical incivilities were positively associated with maternal smoking and inadequate weight gain, while walkability was associated with lower odds of these maternal health behaviors. Social spaces were also associated with inadequate weight gain during pregnancy. Among pregnancy outcomes, high levels of physical incivilities were consistently associated with all adverse pregnancy outcomes, and high levels of walkability were inversely associated with pregnancy-induced hypertension and preterm birth for Non-Hispanic white women only. None of the indices were associated with adverse birth outcomes for Non-Hispanic black women. In conclusion, certain neighborhood conditions were associated with maternal health behaviors and pregnancy outcomes. PMID:21920650

  16. Pregnancy health problems and low birth weight associated with maternal insecure attachment style.

    PubMed

    Sabuncuoglu, Osman; Basgul, Alin

    2014-07-28

    We aimed to determine the association between attachment style and health problems during pregnancy, as well as perinatal health variables. In 122 mothers who were 2-18 months postpartum, hot flushes, vaginal discharge, back pain, breast tenderness, hair changes, and psychological problems were shown to be associated with insecure attachment as measured by the Adult Attachment Style Questionnaires. Babies born to mothers with insecure attachment were more likely to have a low birth weight. It is vital to increase awareness of insecure attachment style as a risk factor among perinatal health care providers to optimize services. PMID:25070968

  17. Edentulism and other variables associated with self-reported health status in Mexican adults

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Sols, Carlo Eduardo; Pontigo-Loyola, Amrica Patricia; Prez-Campos, Eduardo; Hernndez-Cruz, Pedro; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Mendoza-Rodrguez, Martha; Maupom, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine if edentulism, controlling for other known factors, is associated with subjective self-report health status (SRH) in Mexican adults. Material/Methods We examined the SRH of 13 966 individuals 35 years and older, using data from the National Survey of Performance Assessment, a cross-sectional study that is part of the technical collaboration between the Ministry of Health of Mexico and the World Health Organization, which used the survey instrument and sampling strategies developed by WHO for the World Health Survey. Sociodemographic, socioeconomic, medical, and behavioral variables were collected using questionnaires. Self-reported health was our dependent variable. Data on edentulism were available from 20 of the 32 Mexican states. A polynomial logistic regression model adjusted for complex sampling was generated. Results In the SRH, 58.2% reported their health status as very good/good, 33.8% said they had a moderate health status, and 8.0% reported that their health was bad/very bad. The association between edentulism and SRH was modified by age and was significant only for bad/very bad SRH. Higher odds of reporting moderate health or poor/very poor health were found in women, people with lower socio-economic status and with physical disabilities, those who were not physically active, or those who were underweight or obese, those who had any chronic disease, and those who used alcohol. Conclusions The association of edentulism with a self-report of a poor health status (poor/very poor) was higher in young people than in adults. The results suggest socioeconomic inequalities in SRH. Inequality was further confirmed among people who had a general health condition or a disability. PMID:24852266

  18. Association between maternal health literacy and child vaccination in India: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Johri, Mira; Subramanian, S V; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Dudeja, Sakshi; Chandra, Dinesh; Koné, Georges K; Sharma, Jitendar K; Pahwa, Smriti

    2015-01-01

    Background Education of mothers may improve child health. We investigated whether maternal health literacy, a rapidly modifiable factor related to mother's education, was associated with children's receipt of vaccines in two underserved Indian communities. Methods Cross-sectional surveys in an urban and a rural site. We assessed health literacy using Indian child health promotion materials. The outcome was receipt of three doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP3) vaccine. We used multivariate logistic regression to investigate the relationship between maternal health literacy and vaccination status independently in each site. For both sites, adjusted models considered maternal age, maternal and paternal education, child sex, birth order, household religion and wealth quintile. Rural analyses used multilevel models adjusted for service delivery characteristics. Urban analyses represented cluster characteristics through fixed effects. Results The rural analysis included 1170 women from 60 villages. The urban analysis included 670 women from nine slum clusters. In each site, crude and adjusted models revealed a positive association between maternal health literacy and DTP3. In the rural site, the adjusted OR was 1.57 (95% CI 1.11 to 2.21, p=0.010) for those with medium health literacy, and OR=1.30 (95% CI 0.89 to 1.91, p=0.172) for those with high health literacy. In the urban site, the adjusted OR was 1.10 (95% CI 0.65 to 1.88, p=0.705) for those with medium health literacy, and OR=2.06 (95% CI 1.06 to 3.99, p=0.032) for those with high health literacy. Conclusions In these study settings, maternal health literacy is independently associated with child vaccination. Initiatives targeting health literacy could improve vaccination coverage. PMID:25827469

  19. Health care expenditures associated with pediatric pain-related conditions in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Groenewald, Cornelius B.; Wright, Davene R.; Palermo, Tonya M.

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the impact of pediatric pain-related conditions on health care expenditures. We analyzed data from a nationally representative sample of 6- to 17-year-old children captured in the 2007 National Health Interview Survey and 2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Health care expenditures of children with pain-related conditions were compared with those of children without pain-related conditions. Pain-related conditions were associated with incremental health care expenditures of $1339 (95% confidence interval [CI], $248-$2447) per capita. Extrapolated to the nation, pediatric pain-related conditions were associated with $11.8 billion (95% CI, $2.18-$21.5 billion) in total incremental health care expenditures. The incremental health care expenditures associated with pediatric pain-related conditions were similar to those of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder ($9.23 billion; 95% CI, $1.89-$18.1 billion), but more than those associated with asthma ($5.35 billion; 95% CI, $0-$12.3 billion) and obesity ($0.73 billion; 95% CI, $6.28-$8.81 billion). Health care expenditures for pediatric pain-related conditions exert a considerable economic burden on society. Efforts to prevent and treat pediatric pain-related conditions are urgently needed. PMID:25734992

  20. The associations between psychosocial workload and mental health complaints in different age groups.

    PubMed

    Zoer, I; Ruitenburg, M M; Botje, D; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Sluiter, J K

    2011-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to explore associations between psychosocial workload and mental health complaints in different age groups. A questionnaire was sent to 2021 employees of a Dutch railway company. Six aspects of psychosocial workload (work pressure, mental workload, emotional workload, autonomy, social support from colleagues and social support from supervisors) and three mental health outcomes (work-related fatigue, stress and burnout) were assessed. Associations between the aspects of psychosocial workload (distributed into tertiles) and health complaints were analysed by logistic regression analysis in four age groups (22-35, 36-45, 46-55 and 56-66 years old). In all age groups, worse work pressure was a significant risk factor for having mental health complaints. Worse emotional load in the younger employees and lack of social support in older employees were associated with a higher risk of having mental health complaints. Age-specific preventive measures should be implemented on both individual and group levels. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: With an ageing workforce, understanding relationships between age and work-related health ailments is increasingly important. This study found that emotional workload in younger and lack of social support in older employees were associated with a higher risk of mental health complaints. Work pressure was a risk factor in all age groups. PMID:21973005

  1. Symptoms and Health Complaints and Their Association with Perceived Stressors among Students at Nine Libyan Universities

    PubMed Central

    El Ansari, Walid; Khalil, Khalid; Stock, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    University students are exposed to many stressors. We assessed the associations between two stressors (educational related and general overall), socio-demographic characteristics (five variables), health behaviours/lifestyle factors (six variables), as well as religiosity and quality of life as independent variables, with self-reported symptoms/health complaints as dependent variables (eight health complaints). A sample of 2100 undergraduate students from nine institutions (six universities, three colleges) located in seven cities in Libya completed a general health questionnaire. The most prevalent symptoms were headaches, depressive mood, difficulties to concentrate and sleep disorder/insomnia that have been reported by 50%60% of the students. The majority of students (62%) reported having had three or more symptoms sometimes or very often in the last 12 months. There was a positive association between perceived stressors and health symptoms, which remained significant after adjustment for gender and many other relevant factors for headache (OR 1.52; 95% CI 1.152.02), depressive mood (OR 2.20; 95% CI 1.642.94) and sleep disorder/ insomnia (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.192.03). Other factors independently associated with most health symptoms were female gender and poor self-perceived health. Stress management programmes and a reduction of educational related stressors might help to prevent stress-related symptoms and health complaints in this student population. PMID:25429678

  2. Self-Rated Health Status and Subjective Health Complaints Associated with Health-Promoting Lifestyles among Urban Chinese Women: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jingru; Wang, Tian; Li, Fei; Xiao, Ya; Bi, Jianlu; Chen, Jieyu; Sun, Xiaomin; Wu, Liuguo; Wu, Shengwei; Liu, Yanyan; Luo, Ren; Zhao, Xiaoshan

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate whether self-rated health status (SRH) and subjective health complaints (SHC) of urban Chinese women are associated with their health-promoting lifestyles (HPL). Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study on 8142 eligible Chinese participants between 2012 and 2013. Demographic and SHC data were collected. Each subject completed the SRH questionnaire and the Chinese version of the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II (HPLP-II). Correlation and binary regression analyses were performed to examine the associations of SRH and SHC with HPL. Results Both SRH and HPL of urban Chinese women were moderate. The most common complaints were fatigue (1972, 24.2%), eye discomfort (1571, 19.3%), and insomnia (1542, 18.9%). Teachers, highly educated subjects and elderly women had lower SRH scores, while college students and married women had better HPL. All items of HPLP-II were positively correlated with SRH (r = 0.127-0.533, P = 0.000) and negatively correlated with SHC to a significant extent (odds ratio [OR] = 1.40-11.37). Conclusions Aspects of HPL, particularly stress management and spiritual growth, are associated with higher SRH and lower SHC ratings among urban Chinese women. Physical activity and health responsibility are additionally related to reduced fatigue and nervousness. We believe that these findings will be instrumental in encouraging researchers and urban women to adopt better health-promoting lifestyles with different priorities in their daily lives. PMID:25671578

  3. Forest Cover Associated with Improved Child Health and Nutrition: Evidence from the Malawi Demographic and Health Survey and Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Kiersten B.; Jacob, Anila; Brown, Molly Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Healthy forests provide human communities with a host of important ecosystem services, including the provision of food, clean water, fuel, and natural medicines. Yet globally, about 13 million hectares of forests are lost every year, with the biggest losses in Africa and South America. As biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation due to deforestation continue at unprecedented rates, with concomitant loss of ecosystem services, impacts on human health remain poorly understood. Here, we use data from the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey, linked with satellite remote sensing data on forest cover, to explore and better understand this relationship. Our analysis finds that forest cover is associated with improved health and nutrition outcomes among children in Malawi. Children living in areas with net forest cover loss between 2000 and 2010 were 19% less likely to have a diverse diet and 29% less likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods than children living in areas with no net change in forest cover. Conversely, children living in communities with higher percentages of forest cover were more likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods and less likely to experience diarrhea. Net gain in forest cover over the 10-year period was associated with a 34% decrease in the odds of children experiencing diarrhea (P5.002). Given that our analysis relied on observational data and that there were potential unknown factors for which we could not account, these preliminary findings demonstrate only associations, not causal relationships, between forest cover and child health and nutrition outcomes. However, the findings raise concerns about the potential short- and long-term impacts of ongoing deforestation and ecosystem degradation on community health in Malawi, and they suggest that preventing forest loss and maintaining the ecosystems services of forests are important factors in improving human health and nutrition outcomes.

  4. Factors associated with self-reported ill health among older Ugandans: A cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Wandera, Stephen Ojiambo; Golaz, Valerie; Kwagala, Betty; Ntozi, James

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There is limited research on the prevalence and factors associated with self-reported ill health among older people in Uganda. Objective Therefore, the aim of this paper was to estimate the prevalence of self-reported ill health and to identify associated risk factors among older people (age 50+) in Uganda. Materials and methods We conducted secondary analysis of a cross sectional survey data from a weighted sample of 2382 older persons from the 2010 Uganda National Household survey. We used frequency distributions for descriptive statistics, chi-square tests (significance set at 95%) to identify initial associations and multivariable logistic regressions reporting odds ratios to examine observed associations with self-reported ill health. Results Over half (62%) of the older people reported ill health in the 30 days preceding the survey. Self-reported ill health was positively associated with being a woman, being among the oldest old, living in the eastern region, being a household head, being Catholic, self-reported non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and being disabled. Conclusion Gender differentials exist in self-reported ill health among older persons in Uganda. PMID:26043957

  5. Association between Family Communication and Health Literacy among Underserved Racial/Ethnic Women.

    PubMed

    Zambrana, Ruth E; Meghea, Cristian; Talley, Costellia; Hammad, Adnan; Lockett, Murlisa; Williams, Karen Patricia

    2015-05-01

    Health literacy and the family can be used to promote cancer screenings. We examined the associations of socio-demographic factors, family communication, and cancer literacy in a diverse population. Baseline data from the Kin Keeper(SM) Cancer Prevention randomized controlled trial were analyzed for Black (n=216), Latino (n=65), and Arab (n=235) women. Key variables were based on the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale IV, and the Cancer Literacy Assessment Tool. Among Blacks, cervical cancer literacy was positively associated with family communication. Cancer literacy was associated with higher educational level, employment, and family self-rated health status among Black and Arab women. Among Latinas, who were the least educated and had the lowest literacy scores, family communication was inversely related to breast cancer literacy. Family-centered networks may be a viable resource for the transmission of health cancer literacy information, inform health care decision-making, and contribute to decreasing breast and cervical cancer mortality. PMID:25913337

  6. Lay perceptions of health and environmental inequalities and their associations to mental health.

    PubMed

    Lima, Maria Luisa; Morais, Rita

    2015-11-01

    Health inequalities are very well documented in epidemiological research: rich people live longer and have fewer diseases than poor people. Recently, a growing amount of evidence from environmental sciences confirms that poor people are also more exposed to pollution and other environmental threats. However, research in the social sciences has shown a broad lack of awareness about health inequalities. In this paper, based on data collected in Portugal, we will analyze the consciousness of both health and environmental injustices and test one hypothesis for this social blindness. The results show, even more clearly than before, that public opinion tends to see rich and poor people as being equally susceptible to health and environmental events. Furthermore, those who have this equal view of the world present lower levels of depression and anxiety. Following cognitive adaptation theory, this "belief in an equal world" can be interpreted as a protective positive illusion about social justice, particularly relevant in one of the most unequal countries in Europe. PMID:26840814

  7. Multidisciplinary performance improvement team for reducing health care-associated Clostridium difficile infection.

    PubMed

    Waqar, Sana; Nigh, Kathy; Sisler, Lori; Fanning, Mary; Tancin, Steven; Brozik, Erin; Jones, Rebekah; Briggs, Frank; Keller, Lisa; LaSala, P Rocco; Krautz, Sam; Khakoo, Rashida

    2016-03-01

    Clostridium difficile is the most frequent cause of health care-associated diarrhea and is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. It is also associated with a considerable financial burden. A concerted multidisciplinary approach is required for prevention. PMID:26541068

  8. Health Care Costs Associated With Child Maltreatment: Impact on Medicaid

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Derek S.; Fang, Xiangming; Thompson, Hope F.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the increased Medicaid expenditures associated with child maltreatment. METHODS: Data on child maltreatment were collected from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, a nationally representative sample of cases investigated or assessed by local Child Protective Services agencies between October 1999 and December 2000. Medicaid claims data for 2000 to 2003 were obtained from the Medicaid Analytic Extract (MAX). Children from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being who had Medicaid were matched to the MAX data by Social Security number or birthdate, gender, and zip code. Propensity score matching was used to select a comparison group from the MAX data. Two-part regression models were used to estimate the impact of child maltreatment on expenditures. Data with individual identifiers were obtained under confidentiality agreements with the collecting agencies. RESULTS: Children who were identified as maltreated or as being at risk of maltreatment incurred, on average, Medicaid expenditures that were >$2600 higher per year compared with children not so identified. This finding accounted for ∼9% of all Medicaid expenditures for children. CONCLUSIONS: Child maltreatment imposes a substantial financial burden on the Medicaid system. These expenses could be partially offset by increased investment in child maltreatment prevention. PMID:23821692

  9. Cumulative adverse financial circumstances: associations with patient health status and behaviors.

    PubMed

    Bisgaier, Joanna; Rhodes, Karin V

    2011-05-01

    This article examines associations between cumulative adverse financial circumstances and patient health in a sample of 1,506 urban emergency department (ED) patients. Study participants completed a previously validated Social Health Survey between May and October 2009. Five categories of economic deprivation were studied: food insecurity, housing concerns, employment concerns, cost-related medication nonadherence, and cost barriers to accessing physician care. Logistic regression that adjusted for the effects of demographics (age, gender, race, education) tested the association between the cumulative number of adverse financial circumstances (range: 0 to 5) and patients' health status (self-rated health, stress level, depressed mood) and health behaviors (smoking and substance abuse). Approximately 48 percent of respondents reported one or more financial concern, and 31 percent reported two or more financial concerns. A significant graded relationship was found between the number of adverse financial circumstances and patients' poor/fair self-rated health, depressed mood, high stress, smoking, and illicit drug use. Findings suggest that in today's acute health safety net, patients' concerns related to financial insecurity are very relevant to patient health.This underscores the imperative for hospital-based social workers to design models of routine social health risk screening and system interventions that address patient financial well-being in the ED. PMID:21661302

  10. Association Between Patient-Centered Medical Home Rating and Operating Cost at Federally Funded Health Centers

    PubMed Central

    Nocon, Robert S.; Sharma, Ravi; Birnberg, Jonathan M.; Ngo-Metzger, Quyen; Lee, Sang Mee; Chin, Marshall H.

    2013-01-01

    Context Little is known about the cost associated with a health centers rating as a patient-centered medical home (PCMH). Objective To determine whether PCMH rating is associated with operating cost among health centers funded by the US Health Resources and Services Administration. Design, Setting, and Participants Cross-sectional study of PCMH rating and operating cost in 2009. PCMH rating was assessed through surveys of health center administrators conducted by Harris Interactive of all 1009 Health Resources and Services Administrationfunded community health centers. The survey provided scores from 0 (worst) to 100 (best) for total PCMH score and 6 subscales: access/communication, care management, external coordination, patient tracking, test/referral tracking, and quality improvement. Costs were obtained from the Uniform Data System reports submitted to the Health Resources and Services Administration. We used generalized linear models to determine the relationship between PCMH rating and operating cost. Main Outcome Measures Operating cost per physician full-time equivalent, operating cost per patient per month, and medical cost per visit. Results Six hundred sixty-nine health centers (66%) were included in the study sample, with 340 excluded because of nonresponse or incomplete data. Mean total PCMH score was 60 (SD,12; range, 2190). For the average health center, a 10-point higher total PCMH score was associated with a $2.26 (4.6%) higher operating cost per patient per month (95% CI, $0.86$4.12). Among PCMH subscales, a 10-point higher score for patient tracking was associated with higher operating cost per physician full-time equivalent ($27 300; 95% CI,$3047$57 804) and higher operating cost per patient per month ($1.06;95%CI,$0.29$1.98). A 10-point higher score for quality improvement was also associated with higher operating cost per physician full-time equivalent ($32 731; 95% CI, $1571$73 670) and higher operating cost per patient per month ($1.86; 95% CI, $0.54$3.61). A 10-point higher PCMH subscale score for access/communication was associated with lower operating cost per physician full-time equivalent ($39 809; 95% CI, $1893$63 169). Conclusions According to a survey of health center administrators, higher scores on a scale that assessed 6 aspects of the PCMH were associated with higher health center operating costs. Two subscales of the medical home were associated with higher cost and 1 with lower cost. PMID:22729481

  11. Describing Local Boards of Health: Insights from the 2008 National Association of Local Boards of Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Patton, Dana; Moon, Charles E.; Jones, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Objectives We examined findings from the 2008 National Association of Local Boards of Health Survey to provide information about this understudied entity to the public health community. Methods The survey instrument consisted of 196 items covering five parts: (1) demographics; (2) composition and organizational structure; (3) roles, responsibilities, and authorities; (4) telecommunications infrastructure; and (5) concerns and needs. The survey was sent to chairs of local boards of health (LBHs) in 2008 (n=3,276). After six months of follow-ups and reminders, and a month of data cleaning and screening, the final sample consisted of 870 respondents, for a return rate of 27%. Results LBHs tend to represent smaller communities and are primarily appointed. Governing and policy-making boards are more prevalent than advisory boards. Most boards do not have official websites or e-mail addresses of board members available to the public; however, most report the capability to receive training via webcasts. Boards express concerns and needs in a variety of areas, particularly public health law, strategic planning, and accreditation. Conclusion Little is known about the more than 3,000 LBHs across the United States that are often charged with making and enforcing public health law. This article is a first step toward providing the public health community with information about LBHs based on survey data. PMID:21553670

  12. Evaluating Epidemiology and Improving Surveillance of Infections Associated with Health Care, United States

    PubMed Central

    Dumyati, Ghinwa; Ray, Susan M.; Fridkin, Scott K.

    2015-01-01

    The Healthcare-Associated Infections Community Interface (HAIC), launched in 2009, is the newest major activity of the Emerging Infections Program. The HAIC activity addresses population- and laboratory-based surveillance for Clostridium difficile infections, candidemia, and multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli. Other activities include special projects: the multistate Healthcare-Associated Infections and Antimicrobial Use Prevalence Survey and projects that evaluate new approaches for improving surveillance. The HAIC activity has provided information about the epidemiology and adverse health outcomes of health care–associated infections and antimicrobial drug use in the United States and informs efforts to improve patient safety through prevention of these infections. PMID:26291035

  13. Workplace wellness recognition for optimizing workplace health: a presidential advisory from the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Fonarow, Gregg C; Calitz, Chris; Arena, Ross; Baase, Catherine; Isaac, Fikry W; Lloyd-Jones, Donald; Peterson, Eric D; Pronk, Nico; Sanchez, Eduardo; Terry, Paul E; Volpp, Kevin G; Antman, Elliott M

    2015-05-19

    The workplace is an important setting for promoting cardiovascular health and cardiovascular disease and stroke prevention in the United States. Well-designed, comprehensive workplace wellness programs have the potential to improve cardiovascular health and to reduce mortality, morbidity, and disability resulting from cardiovascular disease and stroke. Nevertheless, widespread implementation of comprehensive workplace wellness programs is lacking, and program composition and quality vary. Several organizations provide worksite wellness recognition programs; however, there is variation in recognition criteria, and they do not specifically focus on cardiovascular disease and stroke prevention. Although there is limited evidence to suggest that company performance on employer health management scorecards is associated with favorable healthcare cost trends, these data are not currently robust, and further evaluation is needed. As a recognized national leader in evidence-based guidelines, care systems, and quality programs, the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association is uniquely positioned and committed to promoting the adoption of comprehensive workplace wellness programs, as well as improving program quality and workforce health outcomes. As part of its commitment to improve the cardiovascular health of all Americans, the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association will promote science-based best practices for comprehensive workplace wellness programs and establish benchmarks for a national workplace wellness recognition program to assist employers in applying the best systems and strategies for optimal programming. The recognition program will integrate identification of a workplace culture of health and achievement of rigorous standards for cardiovascular health based on Life's Simple 7 metrics. In addition, the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association will develop resources that assist employers in meeting these rigorous standards, facilitating access to high-quality comprehensive workplace wellness programs for both employees and dependents, and fostering innovation and additional research. PMID:25869199

  14. The association between health literacy and cancer-related attitudes, behaviors, and knowledge.

    PubMed

    Morris, Nancy S; Field, Terry S; Wagner, Joann L; Cutrona, Sarah L; Roblin, Douglas W; Gaglio, Bridget; Williams, Andrew E; Han, Paul J K; Costanza, Mary E; Mazor, Kathleen M

    2013-01-01

    Using a multidimensional assessment of health literacy (the Cancer Message Literacy Test-Listening, the Cancer Message Literacy Test-Reading, and the Lipkus Numeracy Scale), the authors assessed a stratified random sample of 1013 insured adults (40-70 years of age). The authors explored whether low health literacy across all 3 domains (n =111) was associated with sets of variables likely to affect engagement in cancer prevention and screening activities: (a) attitudes and behaviors relating to health care encounters and providers, (b) attitudes toward cancer and health, (c) knowledge of cancer screening tests, and (d) attitudes toward health related media and actual media use. Adults with low health literacy were more likely to report avoiding doctor's visits, to have more fatalistic attitudes toward cancer, to be less accurate in identifying the purpose of cancer screening tests, and more likely to avoid information about diseases they did not have. Compared with other participants, those with lower health literacy were more likely to say that they would seek information about cancer prevention or screening from a health care professional and less likely to turn to the Internet first for such information. Those with lower health literacy reported reading on fewer days and using the computer on fewer days than did other participants. The authors assessed the association of low health literacy with colorectal cancer screening in an age-appropriate subgroup for which colorectal cancer screening is recommended. In these insured subjects receiving care in integrated health care delivery systems, those with low health literacy were less likely to be up to date on screening for colorectal cancer, but the difference was not statistically significant. PMID:24093358

  15. The Association Between Health Literacy and Cancer-Related Attitudes, Behaviors, and Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Nancy S.; Field, Terry S.; Wagner, Joann L.; Cutrona, Sarah L.; Roblin, Douglas W.; Gaglio, Bridget; Williams, Andrew E.; Han, Paul J. K.; Costanza, Mary E.; Mazor, Kathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    Using a multidimensional assessment of health literacy (the Cancer Message Literacy Test-Listening, the Cancer Message Literacy Test-Reading, and the Lipkus Numeracy Scale), the authors assessed a stratified random sample of 1013 insured adults (4070 years of age). The authors explored whether low health literacy across all 3 domains (n = 111) was associated with sets of variables likely to affect engagement in cancer prevention and screening activities: (a) attitudes and behaviors relating to health care encounters and providers, (b) attitudes toward cancer and health, (c) knowledge of cancer screening tests, and (d) attitudes toward health related media and actual media use. Adults with low health literacy were more likely to report avoiding doctor's visits, to have more fatalistic attitudes toward cancer, to be less accurate in identifying the purpose of cancer screening tests, and more likely to avoid information about diseases they did not have. Compared with other participants, those with lower health literacy were more likely to say that they would seek information about cancer prevention or screening from a health care professional and less likely to turn to the Internet first for such information. Those with lower health literacy reported reading on fewer days and using the computer on fewer days than did other participants. The authors assessed the association of low health literacy with colorectal cancer screening in an age-appropriate subgroup for which colorectal cancer screening is recommended. In these insured subjects receiving care in integrated health care delivery systems, those with low health literacy were less likely to be up to date on screening for colorectal cancer, but the difference was not statistically significant. PMID:24093358

  16. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Is Significantly Associated with Bone Health Status in Men

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Kok-Yong; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman; Mohamed, Isa Naina; Aminuddin, Amilia; Johari, Mohamad Hanapi; Ngah, Wan Zurinah Wan

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim: Recent studies revealed a novel association between thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and bone health status in healthy male populations. The present study aimed to validate this association and provide new information on the relationship between TSH levels and calcaneal speed of sound (SOS) in men. Methods: This cross-sectional study recruited 681 men with complete data of calcaneal SOS, body anthropometry, serum TSH, free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) levels. Results: All subjects had FT3 and FT4 levels within the in-house reference range and 13 subjects had lower than normal TSH levels. The results revealed that the SOS value of subjects was significantly associated with TSH after multiple adjustments (p<0.05). When subjects were divided into quintiles according to their TSH levels, the difference of SOS between men with low-normal TSH and high-normal TSH contributed significantly to the association between TSH and bone health status (p<0.05). The significance of the association persisted with the inclusion and exclusion of subclinical hyperthyroid subjects. Conclusions: There was a significant association between TSH levels and bone health status in men as assessed by quantitative ultrasound. This age-independent association between TSH and SOS might explain some of the individual variation of bone health status in men. PMID:23781131

  17. Environmental health risks associated with off-campus student-tenant housing.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Erin; Cole, Eugene C; Merrill, Ray

    2009-01-01

    While previous studies have established an association between poor housing conditions and adverse health effects, none has specifically addressed health and safety risks to the college student population in rental housing. A needs-assessment survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of adverse health and safety conditions in off-campus student housing associated with a large university in the western United States. Results from 1959 student-tenant surveys revealed problems with installed appliances (39.6%); visible mold (39.3%); heating/cooling systems (31.9%); indoor dampness/water damage (24.9%); security locks (23.4%); ants (17.1%); electrical wiring (11.3%); malfunctioning or missing smoke alarms (11.2%); broken steps/handrails (7.8%); and mice (4.8%), among other problems. Reported health effects associated with housing included headaches, coughing, sneezing, nausea, and dizziness, and these effects were found to significantly correlate with increased environmental problems. The results of this study indicate a need to inform college students about environmental health and safety problems in leased housing, to promote responsibility of landlords to provide safe and healthful environments, and to raise awareness of this issue for public health and housing officials in university communities across the country. PMID:19192743

  18. Associations of Grandparental Schooling With Adult Grandchildren's Health Status, Smoking, and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    L-Scherban, Flice; Diez Roux, Ana V.; Li, Yun; Morgenstern, Hal

    2014-01-01

    Despite persistent schooling-related health disparities in the United States, little is known about the multigenerational effects of schooling on adult health. As expected lifespans increase, direct influences of grandparental schooling on grandchildren's health may become increasingly important. We used multigenerational data spanning 41 years from a national sample of US families to investigate associations of grandparents educational attainment with global health status, smoking, and obesity in their grandchildren who were aged 2555 years in 2009. We estimated total effects of grandparental schooling and, by using marginal structural models, we estimated controlled direct effects that were independent of parents and participants schooling. Among whites, lower levels of grandparental schooling were monotonically associated with poor health status, current smoking, and obesity in adult grandchildren. There was also evidence suggesting direct effects, which was stronger for poor health status among participants whose highest-educated grandparent lived in the same state. Among blacks, the only association suggesting a total or direct effect of grandparental schooling was for smoking. Despite the relative imprecision of our estimates and possible residual bias, these results suggest that higher levels of grandparental schooling may benefit the health of grandchildren in adulthood, especially among whites. Furthermore, part of those apparent effects, especially for obesity, may not be mediated by parents and grandchildren's schooling. PMID:25106617

  19. Cumulative Adversity Sensitizes Neural Response to Acute Stress: Association with Health Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Dongju; Tsou, Kristen A; Ansell, Emily B; Potenza, Marc N; Sinha, Rajita

    2014-01-01

    Cumulative adversity (CA) increases stress sensitivity and risk of adverse health outcomes. However, neural mechanisms underlying these associations in humans remain unclear. To understand neural responses underlying the link between CA and adverse health symptoms, the current study assessed brain activity during stress and neutral-relaxing states in 75 demographically matched, healthy individuals with high, mid, and low CA (25 in each group), and their health symptoms using the Cornell Medical Index. CA was significantly associated with greater adverse health symptoms (P=0.01) in all participants. Functional magnetic resonance imaging results indicated significant associations between CA scores and increased stress-induced activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex, insula, striatum, right amygdala, hippocampus, and temporal regions in all 75 participants (p<0.05, whole-brain corrected). In addition to these regions, the high vs low CA group comparison revealed decreased stress-induced activity in the medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in the high CA group (p<0.01, whole-brain corrected). Specifically, hypoactive medial OFC and hyperactive right hippocampus responses to stress were each significantly associated with greater adverse health symptoms (p<0.01). Furthermore, an inverse correlation was found between activity in the medial OFC and right hippocampus (p=0.01). These results indicate that high CA sensitizes limbic–striatal responses to acute stress and also identifies an important role for stress-related medial OFC and hippocampus responses in the effects of CA on increasing vulnerability to adverse health consequences. PMID:24051900

  20. The Association of Mental and Physical Health Problems in High-Risk Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Aarons, Gregory A.; Monn, Amy R.; Leslie, Laurel K.; Garland, Ann; Lugo, Lindsay; Hough, Richard L.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose This longitudinal study examined the relationship between mental and physical health problems in a sample of high-risk youth served in the public sector. Methods Participants included youth ages 9 to 18 at baseline, randomly sampled from one of five public service sectors in San Diego County, California and youths may have been active to more than one sector. Diagnoses for mood, anxiety, and disruptive disorders based on structured diagnostic interviews were determined at baseline and data regarding health-related problems were collected two years post-baseline. Results Mood and disruptive behavior disorders were related to cumulative health problem incidence, as well as aggregate measures of health problems and severe health problems. Additionally, mood disorder diagnosis was associated with higher rates of infectious diseases, respiratory problems, and weight problems. Disruptive disorder diagnosis was related to higher rates of risk-behavior related health problems. Conclusions The present work extends the research on the relationship between mental and physical health problems to adolescents served in the public sector, who are at especially high risk for behavioral and emotional problems. Potential mechanisms by which mental health problems may impact health problems are discussed. We suggest the development of effective interagency cooperation between medical and mental health systems in order to improve the care of youth with comorbid mental and physical disorders. PMID:18710681

  1. Associations Between Abnormal Rod-Mediated Dark Adaptation and Health and Functioning in Older Adults With Normal Macular Health

    PubMed Central

    Owsley, Cynthia; Huisingh, Carrie; Jackson, Gregory R.; Curcio, Christine A.; Szalai, Alexander J.; Dashti, Nassrin; Clark, Mark; Rookard, Kia; McCrory, Mark A.; Wright, Tyler T.; Callahan, Michael A.; Kline, Lanning B.; Witherspoon, C. Douglas; McGwin, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Delayed rod-mediated dark adaptation (DA) is characteristic of early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and also can be observed in some older adults in normal macular health. We examine cross-sectional associations between rod-mediated DA and risk factors for AMD in older adults in normal macular health. Methods. The sample consisted of adults aged ≥60 years old in normal macular health per grading of fundus photos using an established disease classification system. Rod-mediated DA was measured psychophysically following a photobleach using a computer-automated dark adaptometer with targets centered at 5° on the inferior vertical meridian. The speed of DA was characterized by the rod-intercept value, with abnormal DA defined as rod-intercept ≥ 12.3 minutes. We assessed several health and functional characteristics that the literature has suggested increase AMD risk (e.g., smoking, alcohol use, inflammatory markers, apolipoproteins, low luminance visual acuity, chronic medical conditions, body mass, family history). Results. Among 381 participants (mean age, 68.5 years; SD, 5.5), 78% had normal and 22% had abnormal DA, with the prevalence of abnormal DA increasing with age. After age-adjustment, abnormal DA was associated with increased odds of elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), heavy use of or abstention from alcohol, high blood pressure, and drop in visual acuity under mesopic conditions. Conclusions. Despite having normal macular health according to accepted definitions of AMD presence, approximately one-quarter of older adults recruited from primary eye care clinics had abnormal DA, which was associated with known risk factors for AMD, including elevated CRP. PMID:24854857

  2. Historical Research: A Thematic Analysis of Convention and Conference Themes for Selected Professional Health Education Associations from 1975 to 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Jill M.; Ubbes, Valerie A.

    2009-01-01

    Many professional organizations and associations hold conventions and conferences on an annual basis. Health Education professional associations take part in this process. Using a historical research perspective, this article delineates conference themes for four prominent professional Health Education associations: the American Association for…

  3. Association of rule of law and health outcomes: an ecological study

    PubMed Central

    Pinzon-Rondon, Angela Maria; Attaran, Amir; Botero, Juan Carlos; Ruiz-Sternberg, Angela Maria

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore whether the rule of law is a foundational determinant of health that underlies other socioeconomic, political and cultural factors that have been associated with health outcomes. Setting Global project. Participants Data set of 96 countries, comprising 91% of the global population. Primary and secondary outcome measures The following health indicators, infant mortality rate, maternal mortality rate, life expectancy, and cardiovascular disease and diabetes mortality rate, were included to explore their association with the rule of law. We used a novel Rule of Law Index, gathered from survey sources, in a cross-sectional and ecological design. The Index is based on eight subindices: (1) Constraints on Government Powers; (2) Absence of Corruption; (3) Order and Security; (4) Fundamental Rights; (5) Open Government; (6) Regulatory Enforcement, (7) Civil Justice; and (8) Criminal Justice. Results The rule of law showed an independent association with infant mortality rate, maternal mortality rate, life expectancy, and cardiovascular disease and diabetes mortality rate, after adjusting for the countries’ level of per capita income, their expenditures in health, their level of political and civil freedom, their Gini measure of inequality and women's status (p<0.05). Rule of law remained significant in all the multivariate models, and the following adjustment for potential confounders remained robust for at least one or more of the health outcomes across all eight subindices of the rule of law. Findings show that the higher the country's level of adherence to the rule of law, the better the health of the population. Conclusions It is necessary to start considering the country's adherence to the rule of law as a foundational determinant of health. Health advocates should consider the improvement of rule of law as a tool to improve population health. Conversely, lack of progress in rule of law may constitute a structural barrier to health improvement. PMID:26515684

  4. The association between parent’s health and the educational attainment of their children

    PubMed Central

    Boardman, Jason D.; Alexander, Kari B.; Miech, Richard; MacMillan, Ross; Shanahan, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we compare the educational attainment of adults who had relatively unhealthy parents when they were adolescents to those whose parents were relatively healthy during this time of their lives. We use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n=13,556) to show that U.S. adolescents whose parents described their health as “fair” or “poor” at Wave 1 of the study were more likely to drop out of high school compared to those whose parents reported better levels of health. We do not observe any association between parental health and the likelihood of attending college among those who graduated from high school, however we do show that completing college (among college attendees) is more likely among those whose parents reported better health when they were adolescents. This association persists despite a wide range of statistical controls including socioeconomic status of the household, the physical and mental health status of the respondent, the grade point average of the respondent, the health behaviors of parents, as well as parental time investment. These findings add an important intergenerational component to research on the relationship between socioeconomic status and health. PMID:22682661

  5. Neurocognitive Impairment is Associated with Lower Health Literacy Among Persons Living with HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Erin E.; Iudicello, Jennifer E.; Cattie, Jordan E.; Blackstone, Kaitlin; Grant, Igor

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to determine the effects of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) on health literacy, which encompasses the ability to access, understand, appraise, and apply health-related information. Participants included 56 HIV seropositive individuals, 24 of whom met Frascati criteria for HAND, and 24 seronegative subjects who were comparable on age, education, ethnicity, and oral word reading. Each participant was administered a brief battery of well-validated measures of health literacy, including the Expanded Numeracy Scale (ENS), Newest Vital Sign (NVS), Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM), and Brief Health Literacy Screen (BHLS). Results revealed significant omnibus differences on the ENS and NVS, which were driven by poorer performance in the HAND group. There were no significant differences on the REALM or the BHLS by HAND status. Among individuals with HAND, lower scores on the NVS were associated with greater severity of neurocognitive dysfunction (e.g., working memory and verbal fluency) and self-reported dependence in activities of daily living. These preliminary findings suggest that HAND hinders both fundamental (i.e., basic knowledge, such as numeracy) and critical (i.e., comprehension and application of healthcare information) health literacy capacities, and therefore may be an important factor in the prevalence of health illiteracy. Health literacy-focused intervention may play an important role in the treatment and health trajectories among persons living with HIV infection. PMID:25008384

  6. [Association between tooth root remains and self-reported oral health among the elderly].

    PubMed

    Martins, Aline Blaya; Dalberto, Charlene da Silveira; Hugo, Fernando Neves

    2015-12-01

    The presence of tooth root remains is a common clinical finding among elderly patients and may reflect a need for treatment. The scope of this study sought to explore the association between the presence of tooth root remains and self-reported oral health among the elderly. Secondary data from two sanitary districts of Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul, were analyzed. A conceptual theoretical model was used in the analysis to assess factors related to self-perceived oral health: gender, age, education, marital status, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, demand for oral health care, participation in community groups, family economic self-sufficiency, oral health service accessed, number of teeth and the presence of tooth root remains. The statistical data were analyzed using Chi-square and Poisson Regression tests (95% CI analysis; α 5%). The sample consisted of 849 elderly individuals with a mean age of 69.7 years (± 7.2); 14.5% of the elderly had tooth root remains and 60.7% reported good self-perceived oral health. According to the hierarchical analysis, the absence of tooth root remains was associated with good oral health perception. The qualification and expansion of health care provided should be considered in order to allow planning actions to ensure the maintenance of good oral health for the elderly. PMID:26691792

  7. Tech-Prep/Associate Degree Program Guide: Tech Prep Associate Degree Program, Business Administration Associate Degree Program, Office Administration Associate Degree Program, Allied Health Associate Degree Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmaras, Judy; Neri, Pat

    The Tech-Prep Associate Degree Program (TPAD) at the Community College of Rhode Island (CCRI) in Warwick, is a high school/community college partnership providing high school students with an alternative program of study focused on goal setting, basic academic skills development, and the skills needed to pursue a career in a technical, business or

  8. Somatic Symptoms: Prevalence, Co-Occurrence and Associations with Self-Perceived Health and Limitations Due To Physical Health – A Danish Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Eliasen, Marie; Kreiner, Svend; Ebstrup, Jeanette F.; Poulsen, Chalotte H.; Lau, Cathrine J.; Skovbjerg, Sine; Fink, Per K.; Jørgensen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    A high number of somatic symptoms have been associated with poor health status and increased health care use. Previous studies focused on number of symptoms without considering the specific symptoms. The aim of the study was to investigate 1) the prevalence of 19 somatic symptoms, 2) the associations between the symptoms, and 3) the associations between the somatic symptoms, self-perceived health and limitations due to physical health accounting for the co-occurrence of symptoms. Information on 19 somatic symptoms, self-perceived health and limitations due to physical health was achieved from a population-based questionnaire survey of 36,163 randomly selected adults in the Capital Region of Denmark in 2006/07. Chain graph models were used to transparently identify and describe the associations between symptoms, self-perceived health and limitations due to physical health. In total, 94.9% of the respondents were bothered by one or more of the 19 somatic symptoms. The symptoms were associated in a complex structure. Still, recognisable patterns were identified within organ systems/body parts. When accounting for symptom co-occurrence; dizziness, pain in legs, respiratory distress and tiredness were all strongly directly associated with both of the outcomes (γ>0.30). Chest pain was strongly associated with self-perceived health, and other musculoskeletal symptoms and urinary retention were strongly associated with limitations due to physical health. Other symptoms were either moderate or not statistically associated with the health status outcomes. Opposite, almost all the symptoms were strongly associated with the two outcomes when not accounting for symptom co-occurrence. In conclusion, we found that somatic symptoms were frequent and associated in a complex structure. The associations between symptoms and health status measures differed between the symptoms and depended on the co-occurrence of symptoms. This indicates an importance of considering both the specific symptoms and symptom co-occurrence in further symptom research instead of merely counting symptoms. PMID:26930630

  9. Is Low Health Literacy Associated with Increased Emergency Department Utilization and Recidivism?

    PubMed Central

    Griffey, Richard T.; Kennedy, Sarah K.; McGownan, Lucy; Goodman, Melody; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether patients with low health literacy have higher ED utilization and higher ED recidivism than patients with adequate health literacy. Methods The study was conducted at an urban academic ED with over 95,000 annual visits that is part of a 13-hospital health system, using electronic records that are captured in a central data repository. As part of a larger, cross sectional, convenience sample study, health literacy testing was performed using the short test of functional health literacy in adults (STOFHLA), and standard test thresholds identifying those with inadequate, marginal, and adequate health literacy. The authors collected patients' demographic and clinical data, including items known to affect recidivism. This was a structured electronic record review directed at determining 1) the median number of total ED visits in this health system within a 2-year period, and 2) the proportion of patients with each level of health literacy who had return visits within 3, 7, and 14 days of index visits. Descriptive data for demographics and ED returns are reported, stratified by health literacy level. The Mantel-Haenszel chi-square was used to test whether there is an association between health literacy and ED recidivism. A negative binomial multivariable model was performed to examine whether health literacy affects ED use, including variables significant at the 0.1 alpha level on bivariate analysis, and retaining those significant at an alpha of 0.05 in the final model. Results Among 431 patients evaluated, 13.2% had inadequate, 10% had marginal, and 76.3% had adequate health literacy as identified by S-TOFHLA. Patients with inadequate health literacy had higher ED utilization compared to those with adequate health literacy (p = 0.03). Variables retained in the final model included S-TOFHLA score, number of medications, having a personal doctor, being a property owner, race, insurance, age, and simple comorbidity score. During the study period, 118 unique patients each made at least one return ED visit within a 14-day period. The proportion of patients with inadequate health literacy making at least one return visit was higher than that of patients with adequate health literacy at 14 days, but was not significantly higher within 3 or 7 days. Conclusions In this single-center study, higher utilization of the ED by patients with inadequate health literacy when compared to those with adequate health literacy was observed. Patients with inadequate health literacy made a higher number of return visits at 14 days but not at 3 or 7 days. PMID:25308133

  10. Poor self-rated health and its associations with somatisation in two Australian national surveys

    PubMed Central

    Mewton, Louise; Andrews, Gavin

    2013-01-01

    Objectives It is hypothesised that across two national surveys poor self-rated health will be independently associated with somatisation and will result in high rates of service use after adjusting for established diagnoses. Design Two cross-sectional population-based surveys were conducted in 1997 and 2007. The use of both surveys allowed replication of results. Setting Australia. Participants The 1997 and 2007 National Surveys of Mental Health and Well-Being were based on stratified, multistage area probability samples of persons living in private dwellings in Australia. The 1997 survey included 10?641 respondents aged 1875?years, a response rate of 78%. The 2007 survey included 8841 respondents aged 1685?years, a response rate of 60%. Main outcome measures Self-rated health. Results Approximately 15% of the Australian population rated their health as fair or poor in both surveys. The independent relationship between self-rated health and somatisation was replicated across both surveys in multivariate analyses. Individuals with negative self-rated health were 4.1 times as likely to screen positive for health anxiety (OR 4.1, 95% CI 2.8 to 5.9) and 3.4 times as likely to be diagnosed with neurasthenia (OR 3.4, 95% CI 2.2 to 5.2), when compared with individuals who rated their health positively. Individuals with negative self-rated health were also more likely to use health services after controlling for demographics and mental and physical illness. Conclusions These results confirm both of the study hypotheses: (1) that negative self-rated health was powerfully and independently associated with somatisation and (2) that this relationship manifested itself in high rates of service use, even after adjusting for an extensive range of demographics and psychiatric and physical conditions. PMID:23811174

  11. [Gender differences in measures of mental health associated with a marital relationship].

    PubMed

    Ito, Yuko; Sagara, Junko

    2014-02-01

    This study examined gender differences for two measures of mental health as related to the quality of the marital relationship. Middle-aged respondents (221 female; 210 male) rated their marital satisfaction, affection, and communication. They also rated their psychological well-being and depression. The correlations between marital quality and mental health indicated that for males marital quality was more strongly associated with psychological well-being than with depression. Females showed no such difference, or their marital quality was associated with depression. This implies that for females, depression was a more sensitive measure of their mental health related to their husband-wife relationship. On the other hand, for males subjective well-being which was correlated with self-esteem was a more sensitive measure of their mental health. PMID:24669502

  12. Perceived health is associated with visiting natural favourite places in the vicinity.

    PubMed

    Korpela, Kalevi M; Yln, Matti

    2007-03-01

    Visiting favourite natural settings may serve as a resource for regulating negative feelings and coping with perceived stress. The authors investigated the association between perceived health, the selection and experiential qualities of favourite places in four residential areas; 211 respondents (average age 40 years) responded to the questionnaire. Respondents with a certain amount of health complaints, such as headaches, chest or stomach pains, and faintness or dizziness, were more likely to select natural favourite places than those with few complaints. Respondents with health complaints benefited more in emotional terms from their visits to the favourite place although they did not visit their places more frequently than others. The change toward positive feelings was associated in particular with natural favourite places and relaxing in them. The results give impetus to research on the self-regulation of mood and neighbourhood context in health. PMID:16386449

  13. Unpacking capacity to utilize research: A tale of the Burkina Faso public health association.

    PubMed

    Hamel, Nadia; Schrecker, Ted

    2011-01-01

    One of the most important challenges in addressing global health is for institutions to monitor and use research in policy-making. In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), civil society organizations such as health professional associations can be key contributors to effective national health systems. However, there is little empirical data on their capacity to use research. This case study was used to gain insight into the factors that affect the knowledge translation performance of health professional associations in LMICs by describing the organizational elements and processes constituting capacity to use research, and examining the potential determinants of this capacity. Case study methodology was chosen for its flexibility to capture the multiple and often tacit processes within organizational routines. The Burkina Faso Public Health Association (ABSP) was studied, using in-depth, semi-structured interviews and key documents review. Five key dimensions that affect the association's capacity to use research to influence health policy emerged: organizational motivation; catalysts; organizational capacity to acquire and organizational capacity to transform research findings; moderating organizational factors. Also examined were the dissemination strategies used by ABSP and its abilities to enhance its capacity through networking, to advocate for more relevant research and to develop its potential role as knowledge broker, as well as limitations due to scarce resources. We conclude that a better understanding of the organizational capacity to use research of health professional associations in LMICs is needed to assess, improve and reinforce such capacity. Increased knowledge translation potential may leverage research resources and promote knowledge-sharing. PMID:21074923

  14. Health risks associated with residential exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lamarine, R.J.; Narad, R.A. )

    1992-10-01

    Extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation has received considerable attention recently as a possible threat to the health of persons living near high tension electric power lines, distribution substations, and even in close proximity to common household electric appliances. Results of epidemiological and laboratory research are examined to assess risks associated with magnetic fields generated by extremely low frequency electromagnetic sources. Health risks associated with such fields include a wide variety of ills ranging from disruption of normal circadian rhythms to childhood cancers. Risk assessment has been particularly difficult to determine in light of an ostensible lack of a dose-response relationship. Current media sensation fueled in part by an equivocal position adopted by the United States Environmental Protection Agency has contributed to the controversy. Recommendations for prudent avoidance of possible dangers are presented along with policy implications concerning health risks associated with magnetic fields.32 references.

  15. Association of a behaviorally based high school health education curriculum with increased exercise.

    PubMed

    Annesi, James J; Trinity, John; Mareno, Nicole; Walsh, Stephanie M

    2015-06-01

    Increasing exercise in children and adolescents through academic classes is an understudied area. Potential benefits include associated improvements in health, psychosocial, and quality-of-life factors. A sample of 98 students (M(age) = 14.3) from high school health education classes received six, 40-min lessons incorporating cognitive-behavioral methods to increase exercise over 6 weeks. Significant within-group improvements in exercise, mood, and body satisfaction were found, with slightly larger effect sizes identified for the boys. Increase in exercise was significantly associated with reduced mood distress (β = -.17, p < .001). For the girls only, change in body satisfaction significantly mediated that relationship, and a reciprocal relationship between changes in mood and body satisfaction was also identified. Incorporation of lessons emphasizing goal setting and self-regulation within high school health education classes may foster increased exercise and associated improvements in mood and body satisfaction. For girls, the positive effects may reinforce one another. PMID:24902998

  16. A population-based analysis of health behaviours, chronic diseases and associated costs.

    PubMed

    Ohinmaa, Arto; Schopflocher, Donald; Jacobs, Philip; Demeter, Sandor; Chuck, Anderson; Golmohammadi, Kamran; Klarenbach, Scott W

    2006-01-01

    Health behaviours influence the future incidence of certain common chronic diseases and thus have an impact on health status and utilization of health care services and costs. We analyzed person-level data of the Albertan adult population from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 1.1 (2000) to determine health care costs associated with specific health behaviours (smoking, sub-optimal diet, physical inactivity) and chronic disease states (heart disease, diabetes, COPD). We found that 74.7 percent of the population exhibited one or more risk behaviours, while 10.5 percent had one or more of the chronic diseases of interest. Greater health care utilization and costs were noted in groups exhibiting risk behaviour and chronic disease states. Approximately 31 percent of health care costs in Alberta were attributable to people having one or more of the three chronic diseases. Our findings of higher health care costs incurred by those exhibiting unhealthy behaviour prior to development of disease, as well as by those with multiple co-existent diseases, are important indicators to guide future prevention and treatment strategies of chronic illness. PMID:16672136

  17. Association of Returning to Work With Better Health in Working-Aged Adults: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Lori; Wilson, Mike; Mustard, Cameron; Rourke, Sean B.; Bayoumi, Ahmed; Raboud, Janet; Lavis, John

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We systematically reviewed the literature on the impact of returning to work on health among working-aged adults. Methods. We searched 6 electronic databases in 2005. We selected longitudinal studies that documented a transition from unemployment to employment and included a comparison group. Two reviewers independently appraised the retrieved literature for potential relevance and methodological quality. Results. Eighteen studies met our inclusion criteria, including 1 randomized controlled trial. Fifteen studies revealed a beneficial effect of returning to work on health, either demonstrating a significant improvement in health after reemployment or a significant decline in health attributed to continued unemployment. We also found evidence for health selection, suggesting that poor health interferes with peoples ability to go back to work. Some evidence suggested that earlier reemployment may be associated with better health. Conclusions. Beneficial health effects of returning to work have been documented in a variety of populations, times, and settings. Return-to-work programs may improve not only financial situations but also health. PMID:22390520

  18. Trends and factors associated with mental health problems among children and adolescents in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, NoorAni; MuhdYusoff, Fadhli; Ratnasingam, Selva; Mohamed, Fauziah; Nasir, Nazrila Hairizan; MohdSallehuddin, Syafinaz; MahadirNaidu, Balkish; Ismail, Rohana; Aris, Tahir

    2015-01-01

    Studying trends in mental health morbidity will guide the planning of future interventions for mental and public health services. To assess the trends in mental health problems among children and adolescents aged 5 through 15 years in Malaysia from 1996 to 2011, data from the children's mental health component of three population-based surveys was analysed using a two-stage stratified sampling design. Mental health problems were assessed using the Reporting Questionnaire for Children. The prevalence of mental health problems among children and adolescents aged 5 through 15 years showed an increasing trend from 13.0% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 11.514.6) in 1996 to 19.4% (95% CI: 18.520.3) in 2006 and 20.0% (95% CI: 18.821.3) in 2011. In 2011, male children and adolescents and those who were in less affluent families were significantly associated with mental health problems. The findings indicate that even though mental health problems among children and adolescents in Malaysia are increasing, the rate of increase has decreased in the past five years. Socially and economically disadvantaged groups were most vulnerable to mental health problems. PMID:26000035

  19. Variation in Narrative Identity is Associated with Trajectories of Mental Health over Several Years

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Jonathan M.; Turner, Ariana F.; Brookshier, Kathryn M.; Monahan, Casey; Walder-Biesanz, Ilana; Harmeling, Luke H.; Albaugh, Michelle; McAdams, Dan P.; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents two longitudinal studies designed to assess the relationship between variability in narrative identity and trajectories of mental health over several years. In Study 1, core scenes from 89 late-mid-life adults’ life stories were assessed for several narrative themes. Participants’ mental health and physical health were assessed concurrently with the narratives and once a year for the subsequent four years. Concurrent analyses indicated that the themes of agency, redemption, and contamination were significantly associated with mental (but not physical) health. Longitudinal analyses indicated that these same three themes were significantly associated with participants’ trajectories of mental health over the course of four years. Exploratory analyses indicated that narratives of challenging experiences may be central to this pattern of results. In Study 2, similar longitudinal analyses were conducted on a sample of 27 late-mid-life adults who received a major physical illness diagnosis between the baseline assessment and six months later and a matched sample of 27 control participants who remained healthy throughout the study. Participants’ mental health and physical health were assessed every six months for two years. In this tightly controlled study, the themes of agency, communion, redemption, and contamination in participants’ life narratives collected at Baseline (before any participant got sick) were significantly positively associated with mental health in the group of participants who went on to receive a medical diagnosis, but not in the control group. Taken together, the results of these two studies indicate that the way an individual constructs personal narratives may impact his or her trajectory of mental health over time. PMID:25751718

  20. Association between health worker motivation and healthcare quality efforts in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ghana is one of the sub-Saharan African countries making significant progress towards universal access to quality healthcare. However, it remains a challenge to attain the 2015 targets for the health related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) partly due to health sector human resource challenges including low staff motivation. Purpose This paper addresses indicators of health worker motivation and assesses associations with quality care and patient safety in Ghana. The aim is to identify interventions at the health worker level that contribute to quality improvement in healthcare facilities. Methods The study is a baseline survey of health workers (n = 324) in 64 primary healthcare facilities in two regions in Ghana. Data collection involved quality care assessment using the SafeCare Essentials tool, the National Health Insurance Authority (NHIA) accreditation data and structured staff interviews on workplace motivating factors. The Spearman correlation test was conducted to test the hypothesis that the level of health worker motivation is associated with level of effort by primary healthcare facilities to improve quality care and patient safety. Results The quality care situation in health facilities was generally low, as determined by the SafeCare Essentials tool and NHIA data. The majority of facilities assessed did not have documented evidence of processes for continuous quality improvement and patient safety. Overall, staff motivation appeared low although workers in private facilities perceived better working conditions than workers in public facilities (P <0.05). Significant positive associations were found between staff satisfaction levels with working conditions and the clinics effort towards quality improvement and patient safety (P <0.05). Conclusion As part of efforts towards attainment of the health related MDGs in Ghana, more comprehensive staff motivation interventions should be integrated into quality improvement strategies especially in government-owned healthcare facilities where working conditions are perceived to be the worst. PMID:23945073

  1. Variation in narrative identity is associated with trajectories of mental health over several years.

    PubMed

    Adler, Jonathan M; Turner, Ariana F; Brookshier, Kathryn M; Monahan, Casey; Walder-Biesanz, Ilana; Harmeling, Luke H; Albaugh, Michelle; McAdams, Dan P; Oltmanns, Thomas F

    2015-03-01

    This article presents 2 longitudinal studies designed to assess the relationship between variability in narrative identity and trajectories of mental health over several years. In Study 1, core scenes from 89 late-mid-life adults' life stories were assessed for several narrative themes. Participants' mental health and physical health were assessed concurrently with the narratives and annually for the subsequent 4 years. Concurrent analyses indicated that the themes of agency, redemption, and contamination were significantly associated with mental health. Longitudinal analyses indicated that these same 3 themes were significantly associated with participants' trajectories of mental health over the course of 4 years. Exploratory analyses indicated that narratives of challenging experiences may be central to this pattern of results. In Study 2, similar longitudinal analyses were conducted on a sample of 27 late-mid-life adults who received a major physical illness diagnosis between the baseline assessment and 6 months later and a matched sample of 27 control participants who remained healthy throughout the study. Participants' mental health and physical health were assessed every 6 months for 2 years. In this study, the themes of agency, communion, redemption, and contamination in participants' life narratives collected at baseline (before any participant became sick) were significantly associated with mental health in the group of participants who went on to receive a medical diagnosis, but not in the control group. Taken together, the results of these 2 studies indicate that the way an individual constructs personal narratives may impact his or her trajectory of mental health over time. PMID:25751718

  2. "Not always smooth sailing": mental health issues associated with the transition from high school to college.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Michelle; Walter, Garry; Jackson, Debra

    2011-01-01

    Students who transition from high school to college are often excited by the new phase of their lives. However, they are exposed to circumstances and expectations which place them at risk for psychiatric disorders or that may exacerbate pre-existing problems. In this paper, we discuss risk factors and other issues associated with students transitioning to college or university life, identify challenges for health professionals, and suggest possible strategies to improve the mental health of young adults on college campuses. Academic staff and health care providers need to be aware of how best to engage and assist students during an important phase of their life. Processes and care pathways also need to be easily understood, user friendly, and appropriately resourced. It is anticipated that staff, students, and industry health care providers will benefit from a greater awareness of some of the mental health issues that may occur in higher education. PMID:21355760

  3. Health-Related Factors Associated with Mode of Travel to Work

    PubMed Central

    Bopp, Melissa; Kaczynski, Andrew T.; Campbell, Matthew E.

    2013-01-01

    Active commuting (AC) to the workplace is a potential strategy for incorporating physical activity into daily life and is associated with health benefits. This study examined the association between health-related factors and mode of travel to the workplace. Methods. A volunteer convenience sample of employed adults completed an online survey regarding demographics, health-related factors, and the number of times/week walking, biking, driving, and using public transit to work (dichotomized as no walk/bike/drive/PT and walk/bike/drive/PT 1 + x/week). Logistic regression was used to predict the likelihood of each mode of transport and meeting PA recommendations from AC according to demographics and health-related factors. Results. The sample (n = 1175) was aged 43.5 11.4 years and was primarily White (92.7%) and female (67.9%). Respondents reported walking (7.3%), biking (14.4%), taking public transit (20.3%), and driving (78.3%) to work at least one time/week. Among those reporting AC, 9.6% met PA recommendations from AC alone. Mode of travel to work was associated with several demographic and health-related factors, including age, number of chronic diseases, weight status, and AC beliefs. Discussion. Mode of transportation to the workplace and health-related factors such as disease or weight status should be considered in future interventions targeting AC. PMID:23533450

  4. The factors associated with the belief that vegetarian diets provide health benefits.

    PubMed

    Lea, Emma; Worsley, Anthony

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the factors associated with the belief that vegetarian diets provide health benefits. A random population mail survey about food choice was conducted among a sample of 1000 South Australians. An additional (non-random) survey of 106 vegetarians and semi-vegetarians was also conducted, giving a total of 707 participants from both samples. The main predictors of the belief that vegetarian diets provide health benefits for all respondents were found to be the belief that meat is neither healthy nor necessary and frequent searching for information on healthy eating. However, there were differences between vegetarians, non-vegetarians and semi-vegetarians. In particular, health issues were relatively more important for semi-vegetarians and vegetarians, while knowledge and convenience issues were most important for non-vegetarians. The results have important implications for public health. Many South Australians perceive that health benefits are associated with eating a vegetarian diet, which may also apply to plant-based diets in general. However, if non-vegetarians are to obtain some of the health benefits associated with the consumption of a plant-based diet, they require information on the preparation of quick and easy plant- based meals. PMID:14505993

  5. Enhancement of Health Department Capacity for Health Care–Associated Infection Prevention Through Recovery Act–Funded Programs

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, Kelly; Sinkowitz-Cochran, Ronda; Woodard, Tiffanee; Jernigan, John; Srinivasan, Arjun; Rask, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated capacity built and outcomes achieved from September 1, 2009, to December 31, 2011, by 51 health departments (HDs) funded through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) for health care–associated infection (HAI) program development. Methods. We defined capacity for HAI prevention at HDs by 25 indicators of activity in 6 categories: staffing, partnerships, training, technical assistance, surveillance, and prevention. We assessed state-level infection outcomes by modeling quarterly standardized infection ratios (SIRs) for device- and procedure-associated infections with longitudinal regression models. Results. With ARRA funds, HDs created 188 HAI-related positions and supported 1042 training programs, 53 surveillance data validation projects, and 60 prevention collaboratives. All states demonstrated significant declines in central line–associated bloodstream and surgical site infections. States that implemented ARRA-funded catheter-associated urinary tract infection prevention collaboratives showed significantly greater SIR reductions over time than states that did not (P = .02). Conclusions. ARRA–HAI funding substantially improved HD capacity to reduce HAIs not targeted by other national efforts, suggesting that HDs can play a critical role in addressing emerging or neglected HAIs. PMID:24524522

  6. Perceived health status associated with transport choice for short distance trips

    PubMed Central

    Scheepers, C.E.; Wendel-Vos, G.C.W.; van Wesemael, P.J.V.; den Hertog, F.R.J.; Stipdonk, H.L.; Int Panis, L.L.R.; van Kempen, E.E.M.M.; Schuit, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background This study examines the association between active transport and perceived general health, perceived psychological wellbeing and a healthy body weight in the Netherlands. Methods Data were collected by an online questionnaire (N = 3663) in the Netherlands. Data collection was conducted over a period of one calendar year starting July 2012. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the association between choice of transport mode (bicycling vs car use and walking vs car use) and perceived general health, perceived psychological wellbeing and having a healthy weight respectively. The presented OR's may be interpreted as the likelihood of an average person in our dataset to have a better perceived health or body weight when choosing active transport (either bicycling or walking) over using the car for trips up to 7.5 km. Results Cycling was found to be significantly associated with a better perceived general health (OR = 1.35, 95%CI:1.07–1.70) and having a healthy body weight (OR = 1.52, 95%CI:1.28–1.79), but not with a better perceived psychological wellbeing (OR = 1.12, 95%CI:0.93–1.34). Walking was found to be significantly associated with having a healthy body weight (OR = 1.35, 95%CI:1.09–1.69), but not with a better perceived general (OR = 1.12, 95%CI:0.84–1.51) or psychological wellbeing (OR = 0.85, 95%CI:0.67–1.08). Conclusion Our results suggest that active transport use has been associated with a better perceived general health and a healthy body weight. However, more research is needed to be able to elucidate which factors cause this better health. No associations were observed between transport choice and perceived psychological wellbeing. PMID:26844158

  7. Sarcopenic obesity is associated with lower indicators of psychological health and quality of life in Koreans.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yoonsu; Shin, So-Youn; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2015-05-01

    Sarcopenic obesity (SO) is known to contribute to morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases. However, there exists limited information regarding its effect on psychological health. The aim of this study was to evaluate association of SO with several indices of psychological health and quality of life (QoL) in Korean adults. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 11521 participants older than 20 years from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2011. Sarcopenic obesity was defined by a low appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by body weight less than 1 standard deviation below the sex-specific mean for the young reference group, and by a high waist circumference of at least 90 cm for men and at least 85 cm for women. Psychological health status, including depressive symptoms, perceived stress, and suicidal ideation, as well as QoL, was assessed by a self-reporting questionnaire. Association between SO and psychological health status was assessed under a logistic regression model. After multivariate adjustment for demographics and lifestyle factors, SO was significantly associated with perceived stress (odds ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.44; P value = .004) and suicidal ideation (odds ratio, 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.50; P value = .010). In addition, SO was found to have a negative association with a range of QoL indicators. Interestingly, these association patterns were more significant in participants younger than 60 years. In conclusion, our results suggest that SO was associated with adverse psychological health and lower QoL more than body mass index-based general obesity. PMID:25931418

  8. Supplement use is associated with health status and health-related behaviors in the 1946 British birth cohort.

    PubMed

    McNaughton, Sarah A; Mishra, Gita D; Paul, Alison A; Prynne, Celia J; Wadsworth, Mike E J

    2005-07-01

    Use of dietary supplements may be one of a number of health-related behaviors that cluster together. The current study investigated the underlying diet, health-related characteristics, and behaviors of users and nonusers of dietary supplements in a longitudinal study of health. Participants (n = 1776) completed a 5-d food diary including information on dietary supplement use (vitamins, minerals, and nutraceuticals) at age 53 y. Sociodemographic information and data on smoking, alcohol, and physical activity were obtained along with anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, and a blood sample (nonfasting subjects). A significantly greater percentage of women reported supplement use compared with men (45.1 vs. 25.2%). Supplement use was associated with lower BMI, lower waist circumference, higher plasma folate and plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations, nonsmoking, participation in physical activity, and nonmanual social class in women and with plasma folate concentrations and participation in physical activity in men. Nonsupplement users tended to be nonconsumers of breakfast cereals, fruit, fruit juice, yogurt, oily fish, and olive oil and had lower dietary intakes of potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron, and vitamin C even after adjustment for sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Overall, supplement users tended to differ from nonsupplement users on a range of health-related behaviors and health status indicators, although there were fewer significant associations in men. Similarly, dietary supplements users tended to have underlying diets that, were healthier and those taking supplements may be the least likely to need them. These results support the notion of a clustering of healthy behaviors and cardiovascular risk factors, particularly for women. PMID:15987865

  9. Practices and Perceptions of Animal Contact and Associated Health Outcomes in Pregnant Women and New Mothers.

    PubMed

    Weng, Hsin-Yi; Ankrom, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Companion animals play an important role in our society. However, pregnant women and new mothers might have specific concerns about animal-associated health outcomes because of their altered immune function and posture as well as their newborn babies. The study was conducted to collect baseline data for developing an evidence-based intervention for pregnant women and new mothers to help them adopt certain behaviors to prevent adverse animal-associated health outcomes. A survey, using the Health Belief Model as the theoretical framework, was developed and administered to 326 women attending the Women, Infants, and Children programs in Illinois and Indiana in 2015. Prevalence of dog and cat ownership was estimated to be 39% (95% CI: 33-45%) and 26% (95% CI: 21-31%), respectively. Regardless of pet ownership, 74% of the respondents reported having some type of animal contact in the past month. Pregnancy or the birth of a child altered some animal contact practices among the study participants; particularly a discontinuation or decrease in cleaning cat litter boxes. Reports of diseases contracted from animals were low (4%) in this study. By contrast, animal-associated injuries were prevalent (42%), and the majority were caused by animals the respondents owned (56%). Overall, respondents indicated that they appreciated the benefits of a program addressing animal-associated health outcomes and did not indicate strong resistance to adopt certain behaviors. The majority recognized human health-care providers as a source of information about animal contact and associated health outcomes but less frequently identified veterinarians as a source for such information. In addition, although most of the respondents felt that health-care providers and veterinarians should initiate discussions about preventing animal-associated illness and injuries, only 41% among those who had visited doctors or prenatal care services reported that their health-care providers discussed these issues with them. The results indicate the importance of an intervention concerning animal contact and associated health outcomes for the target population and provide insights to the potential implications of program implementation. PMID:26870739

  10. Practices and Perceptions of Animal Contact and Associated Health Outcomes in Pregnant Women and New Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Hsin-Yi; Ankrom, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Companion animals play an important role in our society. However, pregnant women and new mothers might have specific concerns about animal-associated health outcomes because of their altered immune function and posture as well as their newborn babies. The study was conducted to collect baseline data for developing an evidence-based intervention for pregnant women and new mothers to help them adopt certain behaviors to prevent adverse animal-associated health outcomes. A survey, using the Health Belief Model as the theoretical framework, was developed and administered to 326 women attending the Women, Infants, and Children programs in Illinois and Indiana in 2015. Prevalence of dog and cat ownership was estimated to be 39% (95% CI: 33–45%) and 26% (95% CI: 21–31%), respectively. Regardless of pet ownership, 74% of the respondents reported having some type of animal contact in the past month. Pregnancy or the birth of a child altered some animal contact practices among the study participants; particularly a discontinuation or decrease in cleaning cat litter boxes. Reports of diseases contracted from animals were low (4%) in this study. By contrast, animal-associated injuries were prevalent (42%), and the majority were caused by animals the respondents owned (56%). Overall, respondents indicated that they appreciated the benefits of a program addressing animal-associated health outcomes and did not indicate strong resistance to adopt certain behaviors. The majority recognized human health-care providers as a source of information about animal contact and associated health outcomes but less frequently identified veterinarians as a source for such information. In addition, although most of the respondents felt that health-care providers and veterinarians should initiate discussions about preventing animal-associated illness and injuries, only 41% among those who had visited doctors or prenatal care services reported that their health-care providers discussed these issues with them. The results indicate the importance of an intervention concerning animal contact and associated health outcomes for the target population and provide insights to the potential implications of program implementation. PMID:26870739

  11. Environmental Conditions in Low-Income Urban Housing: Clustering and Associations With Self-Reported Health

    PubMed Central

    Spengler, John D.; Harley, Amy E.; Stoddard, Anne; Yang, May; Alvarez-Reeves, Marty; Sorensen, Glorian

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We explored prevalence and clustering of key environmental conditions in low-income housing and associations with self-reported health. Methods. The Health in Common Study, conducted between 2005 and 2009, recruited participants (n = 828) from 20 low-income housing developments in the Boston area. We interviewed 1 participant per household and conducted a brief inspection of the unit (apartment). We created binary indexes and a summed index for household exposures: mold, combustion by-products, secondhand smoke, chemicals, pests, and inadequate ventilation. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine the associations between each index and household characteristics and between each index and self-reported health. Results. Environmental problems were common; more than half of homes had 3 or more exposure-related problems (median summed index = 3). After adjustment for household-level demographics, we found clustering of problems in site (P < .01) for pests, combustion byproducts, mold, and ventilation. Higher summed index values were associated with higher adjusted odds of reporting fair–poor health (odds ratio = 2.7 for highest category; P < .008 for trend). Conclusions. We found evidence that indoor environmental conditions in multifamily housing cluster by site and that cumulative exposures may be associated with poor health. PMID:24028244

  12. Evidence of Health Risks Associated with Prolonged Standing at Work and Intervention Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Thomas R.; Dick, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Prolonged standing at work has been shown to be associated with a number of potentially serious health outcomes, such as lower back and leg pain, cardiovascular problems, fatigue, discomfort, and pregnancy related health outcomes. Recent studies have been conducted examining the relationship between these health outcomes and the amount of time spent standing while on the job. The purpose of this article was to provide a review of the health risks and interventions for workers and employers that are involved in occupations requiring prolonged standing. A brief review of recommendations by governmental and professional organizations for hours of prolonged standing is also included. Findings Based on our review of the literature, there seems to be ample evidence showing that prolonged standing at work leads to adverse health outcomes. Review of the literature also supports the conclusion that certain interventions are effective in reducing the hazards associated with prolonged standing. Suggested interventions include the use of floor mats, sit-stand workstations/chairs, shoes, shoe inserts and hosiery or stockings. Studies could be improved by using more precise definitions of prolonged standing (e.g., duration, movement restrictions, and type of work), better measurement of the health outcomes and more rigorous study protocols. Conclusion and Clinical Relevance Use of interventions and following suggested guidelines on hours of standing from governmental and professional organizations should reduce the health risks from prolonged standing. PMID:25041875

  13. Urban Aboriginal mobility in Canada: examining the association with health care utilization.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Marcie; Wilson, Kathi

    2012-12-01

    In recent decades, Indigenous peoples across the globe have become increasingly urbanized. Growing urbanization has been associated with high rates of geographic mobility between rural areas and cities, as well as within cities. In Canada, over 54 percent of Aboriginal peoples are urban and change their place of residence at a higher rate than the non-Aboriginal population. High rates of mobility may affect the delivery and use of health services. The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between urban Aboriginal peoples' mobility and conventional (physician/nurse) as well as traditional (traditional healer) health service use in two distinct Canadian cities: Toronto and Winnipeg. Using data from Statistics Canada's 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey, this analysis demonstrates that mobility is a significant predisposing correlate of health service use and that the impact of mobility on health care use varies by urban setting. In Toronto, urban newcomers were more likely to use a physician or nurse compared to long-term residents. This was in direct contrast to the effect of residency on physician and nurse use in Winnipeg. In Toronto, urban newcomers were less likely to use a traditional healer than long-term residents, indicating that traditional healing may represent an unmet health care need. The results demonstrate that distinct urban settings differentially influence patterns of health service utilization for mobile Aboriginal peoples. This has important implications for how health services are planned and delivered to urban Aboriginal movers on a local, and potentially global, scale. PMID:23078674

  14. The Association between Discrimination and the Health of Sikh Asian Indians

    PubMed Central

    Nadimpalli, S.B.; Cleland, C.M.; Hutchinson, M.K.; Islam, N.; Barnes, L.L.; Van Devanter, N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationships between self-reported discrimination (SRD) and mental and physical health (self-reported physical health conditions and direct, physiologic measures (BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, and blood pressure) among Sikh Asian Indians (AI), a group that may be particularly discriminated against due to physical manifestations of their faith, including a tendency to wear turbans or ethnic clothing. Methods Sikh AIs (N = 196) were recruited from Sikh gurdwaras in Queens, New York. Data were collected on SRD, social support and self-reported health, along with multiple direct physiological measures for cardiovascular health. Results Participants who wore turbans/scarves reported higher levels of discrimination than those who did not wear turbans/scarves. As hypothesized, multiple regression analysis supported that discrimination is significantly associated with poorer self-reported mental (B = −.53, p < .001) and physical health (B = −.16, p = .04) while controlling for socioeconomic, acculturation, and social support factors. The study did not support an association between SRD and physiologic measures (elevated BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, and blood pressure). Conclusion Consistent with previous discrimination and health reports, this study demonstrated an inverse relationship between discrimination and health among Sikh AIs, an understudied yet high risk minority population. Community-based efforts are also needed to reduce the occurrence or buffer the effects of discrimination experienced by Sikh AIs. PMID:27018726

  15. Fathers’ Involvement in Child Health Care: Associations with Prenatal Involvement, Parents’ Beliefs, and Maternal Gatekeeping

    PubMed Central

    Zvara, B.J.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Dush, Claire M. Kamp

    2015-01-01

    Using data from 182 dual-earner couples experiencing the transition to parenthood, this study examined associations between prenatal involvement, gender role beliefs, and maternal gatekeeping and new fathers’ involvement in child health care. Results indicated that prenatal father involvement was associated with both fathers’ direct engagement in child health care and fathers’ perceived influence in child health-related decision-making. Fathers also demonstrated greater direct engagement in child health care when mothers held more nontraditional beliefs about gender roles. Moreover, when mothers were more encouraging of fathers’ involvement in childrearing, fathers felt more influential in child health-related decision-making, whereas when mothers engaged in greater gate closing behavior, fathers with more traditional gender role beliefs felt less influential in child health-related decision-making. This study suggests that fathers’ prenatal involvement, mothers’ beliefs, and maternal gatekeeping may play a role in the development of new fathers’ involvement in child health care at the transition to parenthood. PMID:26405366

  16. British Association for Sexual Health and HIV: framework for guideline development and assessment.

    PubMed

    Kingston, Margaret; Radcliffe, Keith; Cousins, Darren; Fifer, Helen; FitzGerald, Mark; Grover, Deepa; Hardman, Sarah; Higgins, Stephen; Rayment, Michael; Sullivan, Ann

    2016-03-01

    SummaryThe Clinical Effectiveness Group of the British Association for Sexual Health has updated their methodology for the production of national guidelines for the management of sexually transmitted infections and related conditions. The main changes are the adoption of the GRADE system for assessing evidence and making recommendations and the introduction of a specific Conflict of Interests policy for Clinical Effectiveness Group members and guideline authors. This new methodology has been piloted during the production of the 2015 British Association for Sexual Health & HIV guideline on the management of syphilis. PMID:26464503

  17. Associations of Eye Diseases and Symptoms with Self-Reported Physical and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Paul P.; Cunningham, William E.; Nakazono, Terry T.; Hays, Ron D.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To study the associations of eye diseases and visual symptoms with the most widely used health-related quality of life (HRQOL) generic profile measure. Design HRQOL was assessed using the SF-36 version 1 survey administered to a sample of patients receiving care provided by a physician group practice association. Methods Eye dieases, ocular symptoms, and general health was assessed in a sample of patients from 48 physician groups. A total of 18,480 surveys were mailed out and 7,093 returned; 5,021of these had complete data. Multiple linear regression models were used to examine the decrements in self-reported physical and mental health associated with eye diseases and symptoms, including trouble seeing and blurred vision. Results Nine percent of the respondents had cataracts, 2% had age-related macular degeneration, 2% glaucoma, 8% blurred vision, and 13% trouble seeing. Trouble seeing and blurred vision both had statistically unique associations with worse scores on the SF-36 mental health summary score. Only trouble seeing had a significant association with the SF-36 physical health summary score. While these ocular symptoms were significantly associated with SF-36 scores, having an eye disease (cataracts, glaucoma, macular degeneration) was not, after adjusting for other variables in the model. Conclusions Our results suggest an important link between visual symptoms and general HRQOL. The study extends the findings of prior research to show that both trouble seeing and blurred vision have independent, measurable associations with HRQOL, while the presence of specific eye diseases may not. PMID:19712923

  18. Lower cumulative stress is associated with better health for physically active adults in the community

    PubMed Central

    Stults-Kolehmainen, Matthew A.; Tuit, Keri; Sinha, Rajita

    2015-01-01

    Both cumulative adversity, an individual's lifetime exposure to stressors, and insufficient exercise are associated with poor health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether exercise buffers the association of cumulative adverse life events (CALE) with health in a community-wide sample of healthy adults (ages 1850 years; women: n 219, 29.5 9.2 years; men: n = 176, 29.4 8.7 years, mean standard deviation). Participants underwent the Cumulative Adversity Interview, which divides life events into three subsets: major life events (MLE), recent life events (RLE) and traumatic experiences (TLE). These individuals also completed the Cornell Medical Index and a short assessment for moderate or greater intensity exercise behavior, modified from the Nurses Health Study. Results indicated that higher CALE was associated with greater total health problems (r = 0.431, p<0.001). Interactions between stress and exercise were not apparent for RLE and TLE. However, at low levels of MLE, greater exercise was related to fewer total, physical, cardiovascular and psychological health problems (p value<0.05). Conversely, at high levels of MLE, the benefits of exercise appear to be absent. Three-way interactions were observed between sex, exercise and stress. Increased levels of exercise were related to better physical health in men, at all levels of CALE. Only women who reported both low levels of CALE and high levels of exercise had more favorable physical health outcomes. A similar pattern of results emerged for RLE. Together, these data suggest that increased exercise is related to better health, but these effects may vary by cumulative stress exposure and sex. PMID:24392966

  19. Examining diet- and exercise-related communication in romantic relationships: associations with health behaviors.

    PubMed

    Burke, Tricia J; Segrin, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the association between diet- and exercise-related social influence and support among romantic partners, as well as whether these variables were associated with their health behaviors. An Actor-Partner Mediator Model was used to examine these associations at the couple level (n = 192). Results indicated that individuals who felt their partners used more positive influence strategies also reported feeling more supported by their partners. Further, men who reported feeling more supported by their partners also engaged in healthier diet and exercise behaviors. Overall, the results suggested that people's perceptions of positive communication (i.e., influence and support) from their partners were generally more likely to be associated with their enactment of healthier behaviors. Implications for intrapersonal as well as interpersonal effects of influence, support, and health behaviors are discussed. PMID:24295060

  20. Factors Associated With Adoption of Health Information Technology: A Conceptual Model Based on a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    DeShazo, Jonathan; Kim, Forest; Fulton, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Background The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (HITECH) allocated $19.2 billion to incentivize adoption of the electronic health record (EHR). Since 2009, Meaningful Use Criteria have dominated information technology (IT) strategy. Health care organizations have struggled to meet expectations and avoid penalties to reimbursements from the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). Organizational theories attempt to explain factors that influence organizational change, and many theories address changes in organizational strategy. However, due to the complexities of the health care industry, existing organizational theories fall short of demonstrating association with significant health care IT implementations. There is no organizational theory for health care that identifies, groups, and analyzes both internal and external factors of influence for large health care IT implementations like adoption of the EHR. Objective The purpose of this systematic review is to identify a full-spectrum of both internal organizational and external environmental factors associated with the adoption of health information technology (HIT), specifically the EHR. The result is a conceptual model that is commensurate with the complexity of with the health care sector. Methods We performed a systematic literature search in PubMed (restricted to English), EBSCO Host, and Google Scholar for both empirical studies and theory-based writing from 1993-2013 that demonstrated association between influential factors and three modes of HIT: EHR, electronic medical record (EMR), and computerized provider order entry (CPOE). We also looked at published books on organizational theories. We made notes and noted trends on adoption factors. These factors were grouped as adoption factors associated with various versions of EHR adoption. Results The resulting conceptual model summarizes the diversity of independent variables (IVs) and dependent variables (DVs) used in articles, editorials, books, as well as quantitative and qualitative studies (n=83). As of 2009, only 16.30% (815/4999) of nonfederal, acute-care hospitals had adopted a fully interoperable EHR. From the 83 articles reviewed in this study, 16/83 (19%) identified internal organizational factors and 9/83 (11%) identified external environmental factors associated with adoption of the EHR, EMR, or CPOE. The conceptual model for EHR adoption associates each variable with the work that identified it. Conclusions Commonalities exist in the literature for internal organizational and external environmental factors associated with the adoption of the EHR and/or CPOE. The conceptual model for EHR adoption associates internal and external factors, specific to the health care industry, associated with adoption of the EHR. It becomes apparent that these factors have some level of association, but the association is not consistently calculated individually or in combination. To better understand effective adoption strategies, empirical studies should be performed from this conceptual model to quantify the positive or negative effect of each factor. PMID:25599673

  1. ARE LITERACY SKILLS ASSOCIATED WITH YOUNG ADULTS HEALTH IN AFRICA? EVIDENCE FROM MALAWI

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Greenaway, Emily

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates whether literacy skills are a distinct dimension of education that influences young adults health in the southeast African context of Malawi. It uses new data from Tsogolo la Thanzi, a study of young adults in southern Malawi, to achieve three aims. The first is descriptive: to demonstrate a direct assessment for measuring literacy in a population-based survey, and show that it captures variability in skills among young adults, including those with comparable levels of educational attainment. The second aim is to identify whether literacy influences young adults healthnet of their educational attainment and other confounding factors. Multivariate analyses reveal that literacy is associated with two measures of physical health: self-rated health and prolonged sickness. Because literacy is a key determinant of health, the third aim is to provide insight into how to measure it: can commonly used indirect approaches to estimating literacy (e.g., based on educational attainment or self-reports), accurately capture its prevalence and relationship with health? In a second set of analyses, bivariate results show whether, and the extent to which, indirect measures of literacy overestimate literacys prevalence, and multivariate models assess whether indirect estimates of literacy capture its relationship with health. The findings support future efforts to incorporate literacy assessments into population surveys to accurately estimate literacys prevalence and health benefits, particularly in contexts like Malawi where access to high-quality schools remains limited. PMID:25164414

  2. Are literacy skills associated with young adults' health in Africa? Evidence from Malawi.

    PubMed

    Smith-Greenaway, Emily

    2015-02-01

    This study investigates whether literacy skills are a distinct dimension of education that influences young adults' health in the southeast African context of Malawi. It uses new data from Tsogolo la Thanzi, a study of young adults in southern Malawi, to achieve three aims. The first is descriptive: to demonstrate a direct assessment for measuring literacy in a population-based survey, and show that it captures variability in skills among young adults, including those with comparable levels of educational attainment. The second aim is to identify whether literacy influences young adults' health - net of their educational attainment and other confounding factors. Multivariate analyses reveal that literacy is associated with two measures of physical health: self-rated health and prolonged sickness. Because literacy is a key determinant of health, the third aim is to provide insight into how to measure it: can commonly used indirect approaches to estimating literacy (e.g., based on educational attainment or self-reports), accurately capture its prevalence and relationship with health? In a second set of analyses, bivariate results show whether, and the extent to which, indirect measures of literacy overestimate literacy's prevalence, and multivariate models assess whether indirect estimates of literacy capture its relationship with health. The findings support future efforts to incorporate literacy assessments into population surveys to accurately estimate literacy's prevalence and health benefits, particularly in contexts like Malawi where access to high-quality schools remains limited. PMID:25164414

  3. Urinary Biomarkers of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Are Associated with Cardiometabolic Health Risk

    PubMed Central

    Ranjbar, Mahsa; Rotondi, Michael A.; Ardern, Chris I.; Kuk, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are both man-made and naturally occurring environmental pollutants that may be related to cardiometabolic health risk. Objective To determine whether PAH is associated with obesity in the adult population and to examine whether urinary concentrations of PAH metabolites are associated with differences in how obesity relates to 3 or more risk factors for the metabolic syndrome (3RFMetS), type 2 diabetes (T2D), hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Methods A total of 4765 adult participants from the 2001–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were examined. The association between 8 urinary hydroxylated PAH metabolites, obesity, and health were examined using weighted logistic regressions adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, PIR, smoking status, and urinary creatinine. Results There was a positive dose-dependent association between obesity and 2-phenanthrene quintiles (P trend <0.0001). Contrarily, higher quintiles of 1-naphthalene were associated with lower risk of obesity (P trend = 0.0004). For a given BMI, those in the highest quintile of 2-naphthalene, 2-fluorene, 3-fluorene and 2-phenanthrene had a 66–80% greater likelihood of 3RFMetS (P≤0.05) compared to low levels. Higher quintiles of 1-naphthalene, 2-naphthalene, 2-phenanthrene and 1-pyrene were associated with a 78–124% greater likelihood of T2D (P≤0.05) compared to low levels while high 1-naphthalene, 2-naphthalene, 2-fluorene, 3-fluorene and 2-phenanthrene were associated with a 38–68% greater likelihood of dyslipidemia (P≤0.05) compared to lower levels. Finally, 2-naphthalene and 2-phenanthrene were positively associated with hypertension (P trend = 0.008 and P trend = 0.02 respectively). Conclusions PAH is related to obesity and the expression of a number of obesity-related cardiometabolic health risk factors. Future research is needed to bring to light the mechanistic pathways related to these findings. PMID:26340343

  4. Brief Report: Predictors of Heavy Internet Use and Associations with Health-Promoting and Health Risk Behaviors among Hong Kong University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jean H.; Lau, C. H.; Cheuk, Ka-Kin; Kan, Pauline; Hui, Heidi L. C.; Griffiths, Sian M.

    2010-01-01

    To examine the correlates of heavy Internet use and determine the associations of heavy Internet use with various health risk behaviors and health-promoting behaviors among Chinese adolescents, an anonymous, self-administered health behavior questionnaire was completed by 2427 matriculants into a Hong Kong university (mean age = 18.9 y) and…

  5. Brief Report: Predictors of Heavy Internet Use and Associations with Health-Promoting and Health Risk Behaviors among Hong Kong University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jean H.; Lau, C. H.; Cheuk, Ka-Kin; Kan, Pauline; Hui, Heidi L. C.; Griffiths, Sian M.

    2010-01-01

    To examine the correlates of heavy Internet use and determine the associations of heavy Internet use with various health risk behaviors and health-promoting behaviors among Chinese adolescents, an anonymous, self-administered health behavior questionnaire was completed by 2427 matriculants into a Hong Kong university (mean age = 18.9 y) and

  6. Association between environmental contaminants and health outcomes in indigenous populations of the Circumpolar North

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kavita; Bjerregaard, Peter; Man Chan, Hing

    2014-01-01

    Background Since the 1990s, research has been carried out to monitor environmental contaminants and their effects on human health in the Arctic. Although evidence shows that Arctic indigenous peoples are exposed to higher levels of contaminants and do worse on several dimensions of health compared with other populations, the contribution of such exposures on adverse outcomes is unclear. Objective The purpose of this review is to provide a synopsis of the published epidemiological literature that has examined association between environmental contaminants and health outcomes in Arctic indigenous populations. Design A literature search was conducted in OVID Medline (1946-January 2014) using search terms that combined concepts of contaminant and indigenous populations in the Arctic. No language or date restrictions were applied. The reference lists of review articles were hand-searched. Results Of 559 citations, 60 studies were relevant. The studies fell under the following categories: paediatric (n=18), reproductive health (n=18), obstetrics and gynaecology (n=9), cardiology (n=7), bone health (n=2), oncology (n=2), endocrinology (n=2) and other (n=2). All studies, except one from Arctic Finland, were either from Nunavik or Greenland. Most studies assessed polychlorinated biphenyls (n=43) and organochlorine pesticides (n=29). Fewer studies examined heavy metals, perfluorinated compounds, or polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Details of study results for each health category are provided. Conclusions It is difficult to make conclusive statements about the effects of environmental contaminants on health due to mixed results, small number of studies and studies being restricted to a small number of regions. Meta-analytical synthesis of the evidence should be considered for priority contaminants and health outcomes. The following research gaps should be addressed in future studies: association of contaminants and health in other Arctic regions (i.e. Inuvialuit Settlement Region, Nunavut, Nunatsiavut, Alaska, European North and Russian North); assessment of contaminants on chronic diseases; inclusion of clinical endpoints in assessments; and assessment of the emerging contaminants of perfluorinated compounds and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. PMID:25491153

  7. Organizational justice at school and its associations with pupils' psychosocial school environment, health, and wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Elovainio, Marko; Pietikäinen, Minna; Luopa, Pauliina; Kivimäki, Mika; Ferrie, Jane E; Jokela, Jukka; Suominen, Sakari; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna

    2011-12-01

    It has been shown that the psychosocial environment perceived by school staff is associated with children's academic performance and wellbeing. In this study we examined the associations between organizational justice (procedural and relational justice) as reported by school staff and pupils' perceptions of their school environment, health problems, academic performance, and absenteeism. We combined data from two surveys: for the staff (the Finnish Public Sector Study, n = 1946) and pupils (the Finnish school health promotion survey, n = 11,781 boys and 12,842 girls) of 136 secondary schools, collected during 2004-2005. Multilevel cumulative logistic regression analyses showed that after adjustment for potential individual and school-level confounding factors, low procedural justice was associated with pupils' dissatisfaction with school-going. Low relational justice was associated with a 1.30 times higher risk of poor academic performance, 1.15 times higher risk of psychosomatic symptoms and 1.13 times higher risk of depressive symptoms among pupils. Both organizational justice components were associated with truancy. We concluded that staff perceptions of organizational justice at school are associated with pupils' reports of their psychosocial school environment, health, performance, and absenteeism due to truancy. Improving managerial and decision making procedures among school personnel may be an important factor for protecting pupils' academic performance and wellbeing. PMID:22019366

  8. Social and Health Factors Associated with Physical Activity among Kuwaiti College Students

    PubMed Central

    Al-Isa, Abdulwahab Naser; Campbell, Jennifer; Desapriya, Ediriweera; Wijesinghe, Namal

    2011-01-01

    Our aim was to explore the social and health factors that are associated with the level of physical activity among Kuwaiti college students. A random sample of 787 students (48% males and 52% females) was chosen and weight and height were measured to obtain body mass index (BMI, kg/m2). Associated social and health factors were obtained using a questionnaire. Those reporting being physically inactive numbered 354 and the remaining 433 were active. Obesity among males was 13% and was 10.5% among females. The social and health factors that were found to be significantly associated with physical activity among the students were gender (P < .001), marital status (P < .05), BMI category (obese or nonobese) (P < .05), last dental and health checkup (P < .01), desiring a higher degree (P < .001), and countries preferred for visiting (P < .01). Males significantly exceeded females in the practice of physical activity. In conclusion, behavioural modifications, intervention studies, and health education touting the benefits of being physically active should be instituted to increase the practice of sports and other physical activities in order to control and decrease obesity-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:21603221

  9. [Self-assessment of health status and associated factors: a study in bank workers].

    PubMed

    Petarli, Glenda Blaser; Salaroli, Luciane Bresciani; Bissoli, Nazar Souza; Zandonade, Eliana

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how bank employees assess their health status and risk factors associated with this indicator in this population. This is a cross-sectional study involving 525 workers of a banking system in the State of Esprito Santo, Brazil. The magnitude of the associations was assessed using logistic regression hierquizada in levels. It was found that 17% (n = 87) of bank self-rated their health status as fair or poor. Were associated with worse self-assessed health of the low socioeconomic level (OR = 1.80; 95%CI: 1.06-3.05), the sedentary lifestyle (OR = 2.64; 95%CI: 1.42-4.89), the excess weight (OR = 3.18; 95%CI: 1.79-5.65), low social support (OR = 3.71; 95%CI: 2.10-6.58), and the presence of chronic diseases (OR = 5,49; 95%CI: 2.46-12.27). It is concluded that, compared with other locations, there was a significant number of banking that self-rated their health status as fair or poor, and that the presence of chronic diseases was presented as the factor with the greatest impact on how the individual evaluates their own health. PMID:25945988

  10. Is perceived racial privilege associated with health? Findings from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Fujishiro, Kaori

    2009-03-01

    While racial discrimination has gained increasing attention in public health research, little is known about perceived racial privilege and health. Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data, this study explored the relationship of both perceived racial discrimination and privilege with well-being in the USA. Data were extracted from the BRFSS 2004 data set, in which 22,412 respondents in seven states and one major city provided data on perceived racial discrimination and privilege at work. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the relationships of differential racial treatment to self-rated general health status and the number of physically and mentally unhealthy days. Racially stratified analyses found that perceived racial privilege was significantly associated with more days of poor physical and mental health. This relationship was consistent for Whites, but for racial minorities it appeared on only some outcome measures. Reports of being treated worse than other races in the workplace were associated with poor health for all racial groups, as had been reported in previous studies on racial discrimination. Because racial discrimination and racial privilege are both products of racism, this study's findings suggest that racism may harm all involved. Impacts of perceived racial privilege deserve more attention in the literature on racism and health. PMID:19136189

  11. Traits associated with innate and adaptive immunity in pigs: heritability and associations with performance under different health status conditions

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    There is a need for genetic markers or biomarkers that can predict resistance towards a wide range of infectious diseases, especially within a health environment typical of commercial farms. Such markers also need to be heritable under these conditions and ideally correlate with commercial performance traits. In this study, we estimated the heritabilities of a wide range of immune traits, as potential biomarkers, and measured their relationship with performance within both specific pathogen-free (SPF) and non-SPF environments. Immune traits were measured in 674 SPF pigs and 606 non-SPF pigs, which were subsets of the populations for which we had performance measurements (average daily gain), viz. 1549 SPF pigs and 1093 non-SPF pigs. Immune traits measured included total and differential white blood cell counts, peripheral blood mononuclear leucocyte (PBML) subsets (CD4+ cells, total CD8?+ cells, classical CD8??+ cells, CD11R1+ cells (CD8?+ and CD8?-), B cells, monocytes and CD16+ cells) and acute phase proteins (alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP), haptoglobin, C-reactive protein (CRP) and transthyretin). Nearly all traits tested were heritable regardless of health status, although the heritability estimate for average daily gain was lower under non-SPF conditions. There were also negative genetic correlations between performance and the following immune traits: CD11R1+ cells, monocytes and the acute phase protein AGP. The strength of the association between performance and AGP was not affected by health status. However, negative genetic correlations were only apparent between performance and monocytes under SPF conditions and between performance and CD11R1+ cells under non-SPF conditions. Although we cannot infer causality in these relationships, these results suggest a role for using some immune traits, particularly CD11R1+ cells or AGP concentrations, as predictors of pig performance under the lower health status conditions associated with commercial farms. PMID:20042096

  12. (Un)Healthy in the City: Respiratory, Cardiometabolic and Mental Health Associated with Urbanity

    PubMed Central

    Zijlema, Wilma L.; Klijs, Bart; Stolk, Ronald P.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Research has shown that health differences exist between urban and rural areas. Most studies conducted, however, have focused on single health outcomes and have not assessed to what extent the association of urbanity with health is explained by population composition or socioeconomic status of the area. Our aim is to investigate associations of urbanity with four different health outcomes (i.e. lung function, metabolic syndrome, depression and anxiety) and to assess whether these associations are independent of residents’ characteristics and area socioeconomic status. Methods Our study population consisted of 74,733 individuals (42% males, mean age 43.8) who were part of the baseline sample of the LifeLines Cohort Study. Health outcomes were objectively measured with spirometry, a physical examination, laboratory blood analyses, and a psychiatric interview. Using multilevel linear and logistic regression models, associations of urbanity with lung function, and prevalence of metabolic syndrome, major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder were assessed. All models were sequentially adjusted for age, sex, highest education, household equivalent income, smoking, physical activity, and mean neighborhood income. Results As compared with individuals living in rural areas, those in semi-urban or urban areas had a poorer lung function (β -1.62, 95% CI -2.07;-1.16), and higher prevalence of major depressive disorder (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.35;2.00), and generalized anxiety disorder (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.35;1.84). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome, however, was lower in urban areas (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.44;0.59). These associations were only partly explained by differences in residents’ demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle characteristics and socioeconomic status of the areas. Conclusions Our results suggest a differential health impact of urbanity according to type of disease. Living in an urban environment appears to be beneficial for cardiometabolic health but to have a detrimental impact on respiratory function and mental health. Future research should investigate which underlying mechanisms explain the differential health impact of urbanity. PMID:26630577

  13. Fish Health Studies Associated with the Kingston Fly Ash Spill, Spring 2009 - Fall 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Marshall; Fortner, Allison M

    2012-05-01

    On December 22, 2008, over 4 million cubic meters of fly ash slurry was released into the Emory River when a dike surrounding a solid waste containment area at the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant ruptured. One component of TVA's response to the spill is a biological monitoring program to assess short- and long-term ecological responses to the ash and associated chemicals, including studies on fish health and contaminant bioaccumulation. These studies were initiated in early Spring 2009 for the purposes of: (1) documenting the levels of fly ash-associated metals in various tissues of representative sentinel fish species in the area of the fly ash spill, (2) determining if exposure to fly ash-associated metals causes short, intermediate, or long-term health effects on these sentinel fish species, (3) assessing if there are causal relationships between exposure to metals and health effects on fish, (4) evaluating, along with information from other ecological and physicochemical studies, the nature and route of contaminant transfer though food chains into higher level consumers, (5) providing important information for the Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) for the Kingston fly ash project, and (6) serving as an important technology information transfer or model study focused on how to best evaluate the environmental effects of fly ash (and related environmental stressors), not only at the Kingston site, but also at sites on other aquatic systems where coal-fired generating stations are located. This report presents the results of the first two years of the fish health study. To date, fish health and bioaccumulation studies have been conducted from Spring 2009 though Fall 2011 and includes 6 seasonal studies: Spring 2009, Fall 2009, Spring 2010, Fall 2010, Spring 2011, and Fall 2011. Both the Spring and Fall studies have focused on 3-4 sentinel fish species that represent different feeding habits, behaviors, and home ranges. In addition to fish health and bioaccumulation, the Spring investigations also included reproductive integrity studies on the same fish used for bioaccumulation and fish health. In this report, results of the fish health studies from Spring 2009 through Fall 2010 are presented while an associated report will present the fish reproductive studies conducted during Spring 2009 and Spring 2010. A report on fish bioaccumulation was submitted to TVA in June 2011. The fish health study conducted in conjunction with the bioaccumulation and reproductive study is critical for assessing and evaluating possible causal relationships between contaminant exposure (bioaccumulation) and the response of fish to exposure as reflected by the various measurements of fish health.

  14. Associations between Dopamine and Serotonin Genes and Job Satisfaction: Preliminary Evidence from the Add Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Zhaoli; Li, Wendong; Arvey, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    Previous behavioral genetic studies have found that job satisfaction is partially heritable. We went a step further to examine particular genetic markers that may be associated with job satisfaction. Using an oversample from the National Adolescent Longitudinal Study (Add Health Study), we found 2 genetic markers, dopamine receptor gene DRD4 VNTR

  15. ASSOCIATION OF NEONATAL SERUM IMMUNOGLOBULIN G1 CONCENTRATION WITH HEALTH AND PERFORMANCE IN BEEF CALVES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective--To evaluate associations between neonatal serum IgG1 concentration and pre- and postweaning morbidity and mortality rates and average daily gains (ADGs) in beef calves and define a cutoff point for serum IgG1 concentration necessary for optimal health and performance of beef calves. Desig...

  16. Mental Health Problems in Adults with Down Syndrome and Their Association with Life Circumstances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallardo, Mariarosa; Cuskelly, Monica; White, Paul; Jobling, Anne

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on current life circumstances, previous life events, and engagement with productive and enjoyable activities. It examined the association of these variables with mental health problems and mood in a cohort of young adults with Down syndrome. Participants were 49 adults with Down syndrome (age range 20-31 years) and their

  17. The Heart's Content : The Association between Positive Psychological Well-Being and Cardiovascular Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehm, Julia K.; Kubzansky, Laura D.

    2012-01-01

    This review investigates the association between positive psychological well-being (PPWB) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We also consider the mechanisms by which PPWB may be linked with CVD, focusing on the health behaviors (e.g., smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, sleep quality and quantity, and food consumption) and biological

  18. Associations of Truancy, Perceived School Performance, and Mental Health with Alcohol Consumption among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtes, Muriel; Bannink, Rienke; Joosten-van Zwanenburg, Evelien; van As, Els; Raat, Hein; Broeren, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study examined associations of truancy, perceived school performance, and mental health with adolescents' week, weekend, and binge drinking. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1167 secondary school students of Dutch ethnicity (mean age, 15.9 years, SD?=?0.69). Alcohol consumption, truancy, perceived school

  19. Factors and Outcomes Associated with Mentoring among Health-Care Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koberg, Christine S.; Boss, R. Wayne; Goodman, Eric

    1998-01-01

    In a sample of health professionals (92 male, 275 female), most had same-sex (n=235) and same-race (n=285) mentors. Protege ethnicity and education, intragroup trust, leader approachability, and gender/racial composition of the mentoring pair were significant influences on psychosocial mentoring, which was associated with increased job involvement…

  20. Irregular Breakfast Eating and Associated Health Behaviors: A Pilot Study among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiagarajah, Krisha; Torabi, Mohammad R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine prevalence of eating breakfast and associated health compromising behaviors. This study utilized a cross-sectional survey methodology. A purposive cluster sampling technique was utilized to collect data from a representative sample of college students in a Midwestern university in the U.S. A total of 1,257…

  1. Association between BDNF-rs6265 and obesity in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study is to examine a functional variant (rs6265) in the BDNF gene interacting with dietary intake modulate obesity traits in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study population. BDNF rs6265 was genotyped in 1147 Puerto Ricans (aged 45-75 years), and examined for association with o...

  2. Dietary & health predictors associated with overweight & obesity in young adults: the Bogalusa Heart Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined independent associations between diet and lifestyle behaviors; differences in markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); and self-reported health problems among normal weight (NW); overweight (OW), and obese (OB) young adults. Cross-sectional data on pa...

  3. The Association of Health-Related Fitness with Indicators of Academic Performance in Texas Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welk, Gregory J.; Jackson, Allen W.; Morrow, James R., Jr.; Haskell, William H.; Meredith, Marilu D.; Cooper, Kenneth H.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations between indicators of health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and body mass index) and academic performance (Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills). Partial correlations were generally stronger for cardiovascular fitness than body mass index and consistently stronger in the middle school…

  4. The Heart's Content : The Association between Positive Psychological Well-Being and Cardiovascular Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehm, Julia K.; Kubzansky, Laura D.

    2012-01-01

    This review investigates the association between positive psychological well-being (PPWB) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We also consider the mechanisms by which PPWB may be linked with CVD, focusing on the health behaviors (e.g., smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, sleep quality and quantity, and food consumption) and biological…

  5. The Association of Health-Related Fitness with Indicators of Academic Performance in Texas Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welk, Gregory J.; Jackson, Allen W.; Morrow, James R., Jr.; Haskell, William H.; Meredith, Marilu D.; Cooper, Kenneth H.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations between indicators of health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and body mass index) and academic performance (Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills). Partial correlations were generally stronger for cardiovascular fitness than body mass index and consistently stronger in the middle school

  6. Typologies of Childhood Exposure to Violence: Associations with College Student Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller-Graff, Laura E.; Howell, Kathryn H.; Martinez-Torteya, Cecilia; Hunter, Erin C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study examined typologies of childhood violence exposure (CVE) and the associations of profiles with current demographic characteristics and mental health in emerging adulthood. Participants: The study evaluated a sample of college students from 2 US geographic regions (Midwest, n = 195; Southeast, n = 200). Methods: An online

  7. Associations of Truancy, Perceived School Performance, and Mental Health with Alcohol Consumption among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtes, Muriel; Bannink, Rienke; Joosten-van Zwanenburg, Evelien; van As, Els; Raat, Hein; Broeren, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study examined associations of truancy, perceived school performance, and mental health with adolescents' week, weekend, and binge drinking. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1167 secondary school students of Dutch ethnicity (mean age, 15.9 years, SD?=?0.69). Alcohol consumption, truancy, perceived school…

  8. Psychosocial, Environmental and Behavioral Factors Associated with Bone Health in Middle-School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Shreela V.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Kelder, Steven H.; Day, R. Sue; Hergenroeder, Albert

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the psychosocial, environmental and behavioral factors associated with calcium intake, physical activity and bone health in a cohort of adolescent girls. Baseline data (N = 718 girls, mean age: 11.6 plus or minus 0.4 years) from the Incorporating More Physical Activity and Calcium in Teens (IMPACT) study…

  9. Associations between Dopamine and Serotonin Genes and Job Satisfaction: Preliminary Evidence from the Add Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Zhaoli; Li, Wendong; Arvey, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    Previous behavioral genetic studies have found that job satisfaction is partially heritable. We went a step further to examine particular genetic markers that may be associated with job satisfaction. Using an oversample from the National Adolescent Longitudinal Study (Add Health Study), we found 2 genetic markers, dopamine receptor gene DRD4 VNTR…

  10. CARDIOVASCULAR AND OTHER HEALTH EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH ARSENIC EXPOSURE IN INNER MONGOLIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic exposure is associated with cardiovascular and other health effects. The study objectives were to investigate the mode of action and to assess dose-response relationships of arsenic on cardiovascular, diabetic and carcinogenic effects in Ba Men, Inner Mongolia. Ba Men res...

  11. General Practitioners' Understanding Pertaining to Reliability, Interactive and Usability Components Associated with Health Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usher, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the level of understanding of Gold Coast general practitioners (GPs) pertaining to such criteria as reliability, interactive and usability components associated with health websites. These are important considerations due to the increased levels of computer and World Wide Web (WWW)/Internet use and health…

  12. Psychosocial, environmental and behavioral factors associated with bone health in middle-school girls.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shreela V; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Kelder, Steven H; Day, R Sue; Hergenroeder, Albert

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the psychosocial, environmental and behavioral factors associated with calcium intake, physical activity and bone health in a cohort of adolescent girls. Baseline data (N = 718 girls, mean age: 11.6 +/-0.4 years) from the Incorporating More Physical Activity and Calcium in Teens (IMPACT) study conducted in Texas, 2001-03, were utilized for the analyses. Hierarchical linear regression was used to examine the associations of interest. Confounders adjusted for included ethnicity, menarchal status, body mass index and lactose intolerance. Several psychosocial and behavioral factors were significantly associated with bone quality. These included knowledge of calcium content of foods (beta = 0.08, P = 0.016), self-efficacy toward consuming calcium-rich foods (beta = 0.16, P = 0.047), physical activity self-efficacy (beta = 0.20, P = 0.002), physical activity outcome expectations (beta = 0.5, P = 0.004), family encouragement to do physical activity (beta = 0.96, P = 0.027), friend engagement in physical activity (beta = 1.3, P = 0.001) and participation in sports teams (beta = 1.7, P < 0.001). Self-efficacy, social support and participation in sports teams appear to be strongly associated with bone health in adolescent girls. Future health education/health promotion programs need to address these factors for effective primary prevention of osteoporosis in this population. PMID:18359949

  13. Psychosocial, Environmental and Behavioral Factors Associated with Bone Health in Middle-School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Shreela V.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Kelder, Steven H.; Day, R. Sue; Hergenroeder, Albert

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the psychosocial, environmental and behavioral factors associated with calcium intake, physical activity and bone health in a cohort of adolescent girls. Baseline data (N = 718 girls, mean age: 11.6 plus or minus 0.4 years) from the Incorporating More Physical Activity and Calcium in Teens (IMPACT) study

  14. Longitudinal associations between social support and physical and mental health in African American adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    African Americans report a greater number of modifiable risk factors, such as overweight/obesity, physical inactivity and poor dietary habits, putting them at increased risk of developing and dying from chronic diseases. These risk factors are also associated with poorer health-related quality of li...

  15. Mental Health Problems in Adults with Down Syndrome and Their Association with Life Circumstances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallardo, Mariarosa; Cuskelly, Monica; White, Paul; Jobling, Anne

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on current life circumstances, previous life events, and engagement with productive and enjoyable activities. It examined the association of these variables with mental health problems and mood in a cohort of young adults with Down syndrome. Participants were 49 adults with Down syndrome (age range 20-31 years) and their…

  16. ARE ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES TO CHLOROPHENOXY HERBICIDES ASSOCIATED WITH AN INCREASE IN ADVERSE HUMAN HEALTH EFFECTS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Associations between adverse health effects and environmental exposures are difficult to study because exposures may be widespread, low-dose in nature, and common throughout the study population. Individual risk-factor epidemiology may not be able to initially ident...

  17. Associations between mental health, substance use, and sexual abuse experiences among Latinas.

    PubMed

    Ulibarri, Monica D; Ulloa, Emilio C; Salazar, Marissa

    2015-01-01

    This study examined self-reported sexually abusive experiences in childhood and adulthood as correlates of current drug use, alcohol abuse, and depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants were 204 Latina women 18-34 years old. Results indicated significant relationships between history of sexual abuse (regardless of age of occurrence), depression symptoms, PTSD symptoms, alcohol abuse, and drug use. When examined separately, childhood sexual abuse was associated with symptoms of depression, PTSD, and substance use but not alcohol abuse behaviors. Experiencing sexual abuse in adulthood was associated with symptoms of depression, alcohol abuse behaviors, and substance use but not PTSD symptoms. Structural equation modeling showed that substance use partially mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and mental health outcomes. These findings suggest mental health and substance use services should incorporate treatment for trauma, which may be the root of comorbid mental health and substance use issues. PMID:25635897

  18. Public health implications of the Bhopal disaster report to the Program Development Board, American Public Health Association

    SciTech Connect

    Levenstein, C.; Ozonoff, D.; Boden, L.; Eisen, E.; Freudenberg, N.; Greaves, I.; Kleefield, S.; Kotelchuck, D.; Kriebel, D.; Laird, F.; Lewis, S.

    1987-02-01

    The accidental release of methyl isocyanate (MIC) gas from a Union Carbide pesticide plant in Bhopal, India, in December 1984 now ranks as the worst industrial catastrophe in history. There is still no reliable estimate of the total number dead and injured. An estimated 100,000 to 200,000 people were exposed to a toxic plume of MIC that extended as far as 8 kilometers from the factory and covered and area of 40 square kilometers. The Program Development Board of the American Public Health Association (APHA) is charged with identifying those areas in which deficiencies in scientific knowledge exist in matters important to public health. In the present instance, merely defining the problem has been a formidable task, much less identifying the knowledge required to solve it. The first question is whether there is a need for APHA to concern itself with a subject that is already drawing considerable attention. APHA has recently issued position papers on some important issues that touch on the Bhopal tragedy and it would be wise to review these positions to see if they need any amendment in light of the Bhopal accident. The disaster in Bhopal has focused international public attention on occupational and environmental health, while at the same time the spectre of enormous financial liability has drawn serious attention on the part of industry to issues of health and safety. With the prevention of injury and disease as our central concern, the Bhopal Working Group undertook to identify the variety of public health problems raised by the Bhopal disaster.

  19. Associations between physical activity and mental health among bariatric surgical candidates

    PubMed Central

    King, Wendy C.; Kalarchian, Melissa A.; Steffen, Kristine J.; Wolfe, Bruce M.; Elder, Katherine A.; Mitchell, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to examine associations between physical activity (PA) and mental health among adults undergoing bariatric surgery. Methods Cross sectional analysis was conducted on pre-operative data of 850 adults with ? class 2 obesity. PA was measured with a step activity monitor; mean daily steps, active minutes, and high-cadence minutes (proxy for moderate-vigorous intensity PA) were determined. Mental health functioning, depressive symptoms and treatment for depression or anxiety were measured with the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form, Beck Depression Inventory, and a study-specific questionnaire, respectively. Logistic regression analyses tested associations between PA and mental health indicators, controlling for potential confounders. Receiver operative characteristic analysis determined PA thresholds that best differentiated odds of each mental health indicator. Results Each PA parameter was significantly (P<.05) associated with a decreased odds of depressive symptoms and/or treatment for depression or anxiety, but not with impaired mental health functioning. After controlling for sociodemographics and physical health, only associations with treatment for depression and anxiety remained statistically significant. PA thresholds that best differentiated those who had vs. had not recently received treatment for depression or anxiety were <191 active minutes/day, <4750 steps/day, and <8 high-cadence minutes/day. Utilizing high-cadence minutes, compared to active minutes or steps, yielded the highest classification accuracy. Conclusion Adults undergoing bariatric surgery who meet relatively low thresholds of PA (e.g., ? 8 high-cadence minutes/day, representative of approximately one hour/week of moderate-vigorous intensity PA) are less likely to have recently received treatment for depression or anxiety compared to less active counterparts. PMID:23332532

  20. Multifactorial beliefs about the role of genetics and behavior in common health conditions: Prevalence and associations with participant characteristics and engagement in health behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Erika A.; Muff, Jaclyn; Hamilton, Jada G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Many common health conditions arise due to a combination of genetic factors and lifestyle-related behaviors. Peoples understanding of the multifactorial nature of health conditions has implications for their receptivity to health messages regarding genomics and medicine, and may be related to their adoption of protective health behaviors. Although past work has investigated aspects of either genetic or behavioral causal beliefs, multifactorial beliefs have not been evaluated systematically. Methods Utilizing nationally-representative cross-sectional data from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS), we examined the prevalence of multifactorial beliefs regarding the etiology of cancer, obesity, diabetes, heart disease, and hypertension, as well as associations between such beliefs and demographic, health history, and health behavior variables in the U.S. population. Results Among 3,630 participants, the vast majority (64.2-78.6%) endorsed multifactorial beliefs. The number of statistically significant associations were limited. Trends suggest that endorsement of multifactorial beliefs may differ by demographic and health history characteristics. Beliefs about the multifactorial etiology of cancer were associated with cancer screening behaviors. Multifactorial beliefs about other common health conditions were associated with few health promotion behaviors. Conclusion These findings and recommendations for future research provide preliminary guidance for developing and targeting genomics-related health messages and communications. PMID:24830327

  1. The Oral History Program: II. Personal views of health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association.

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, D; Pifalo, V

    1998-01-01

    The Medical Library Association Oral History Program uses accepted oral history techniques to collect and preserve interviews with members. The original taped interviews and transcripts are kept in the Medical Library Association archives and made available for research purposes; edited copies of the interviews are distributed through the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, and members are encouraged to borrow and read the histories. Summaries of forty-three interviews provide personal views on health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association. PMID:9681172

  2. The Oral History Program: I. Personal views of health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association.

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, D; Pifalo, V

    1998-01-01

    The Medical Library Association Oral History Program uses accepted oral history techniques to collect and preserve interviews with members. The original taped interviews and transcripts are kept in the Medical Library Association archives and made available for research purposes; edited copies of the interviews are distributed through the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, and members are encouraged to borrow and read the histories. Summaries of forty-three interviews provide personal views on health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association. PMID:9578936

  3. Social network types and the health of older adults: exploring reciprocal associations.

    PubMed

    Li, Ting; Zhang, Yanlong

    2015-04-01

    Social network types have been proved to have significant impacts on older population's health outcomes. However, the existing discoveries are still inconsistent, which may be attributed largely to the heterogeneous measures and methods scholars used and to the unidirectional causalities presumed in most research. This study addresses these gaps by using more-refined measures to explore whether the network types have differential impacts on older adults' health outcomes, and whether a reverse causal relationship exists between older adults' health conditions and the network types they adopted. Using data from three recent waves (2005, 2008, and 2012) of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (n = 4190), we constructed four network types using the K-means clustering method (i.e., diverse, friend, family, and restricted), and examined their impacts on a variety of health outcomes (i.e., physical, cognitive, psychological, and overall well-being). Our results demonstrate that there are strong reciprocal associations between these two factors. On the one hand, a diverse network type yielded the most beneficial health outcomes as measured by multiple health indicators, and the friend-focused network type is more beneficial than the family-focused network type in physical outcomes but not in psychological outcomes. On the other hand, we found that a decrease in all health indicators leads to withdrawal from more-beneficial network types such as a diversified network type, and a shift to less-beneficial network types such as family-focused or restricted networks. The understanding of this reciprocal association could encourage programs designed to enhance healthy aging to focus on improving the bridging social capital of older adults so that they can break the vicious cycle between network isolation and poor health conditions. PMID:25681715

  4. Economic Barriers To Improvement Of Human Health Associated With Wastewater Irrigation In The Mezquital Valley, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagata, H.; Sedlak, D. L.

    2008-12-01

    To improve public health, the United Nations' Johannesburg Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002 set Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of reducing by half the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and sanitation by 2015. The Mezquital Valley of Mexico is one of the places suffering serious human health problems such as ascariasis due to agricultural irrigation with untreated wastewater discharged by Mexico City. Despite the existence of serious health problems, wastewater treatment has not been installed due to economic barriers: the agricultural benefit of nutrients in the wastewater and cost of building and operating wastewater treatment plants. To develop solutions to this problem, the human health damage and the benefits of nutrient input were evaluated. The health impact caused by untreated wastewater reuse in the Mezquital Valley was estimated to be about 14 DALYs (disability-adjusted life year) per 100,000, which was 2.8 times higher than the DALYs lost by ascariasis in Mexico in 2002 estimated by WHO. The economic damage of the health impact was evaluated at 77,000 /year using willingness-to-pay (WTP) for reducing DALYs. The value of nutrient inputs (nitrogen and phosphorus) due to reuse of untreated wastewater was evaluated at 33 million /year using fertilizer prices. Therefore, attempts to decrease public health problems associated with reuse in the Mezquital Valley need to address losses of economic benefits associated with nutrients in sewage. In 2007, the Mexican Government announced plans to install wastewater treatment plants in this area. Although nutrient inputs in irrigated water is expected to decrease by 33% due to the wastewater treatment, farmers in the Mezquital Valley would still benefit from improved public health in the community and increases of crop values due to the ability to grow raw-eaten vegetables.

  5. Comparative assessments of VOC emission rates and associated health risks from wastewater treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen-Ben; Chen, Wei-Hsiang; Yuan, Chung-Shin; Yang, Jun-Chen; Zhao, Qing-Liang

    2012-09-01

    With the growing concern regarding emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), the relationship between the VOC emission rates and the associated public health risks has been rarely discussed. The objective of this study was to examine and compare the VOC emission rates and cancer and non-cancer risks by inhalation intake, using a municipal WWTP in China as an example, with respect to the effects of treatment technologies, VOC species, and seasonal variation. Given the treatment technology considered, the emission rates of VOCs in this study were estimated by means of mass balance or calculated on the molecular level. From the viewpoints of both emission rates and cancer and non-cancer risks, sedimentation was the treatment technology with the highest health risks to the workers. Slightly lower VOC emission rates and health risks than those for sedimentation were observed in anaerobic treatment. Although the aeration significantly enhanced the VOC emission rates in the aerobic treatment process, the associated health risks were limited due to the low VOC concentrations in the gas phase, which were likely attributed to the strong mixing and dilution with fresh air by aeration. Amongst the VOCs investigated, benzene was the VOC with both a relatively high emission rate and health risk, while trichloroethylene possessed a high emission rate but the lowest health risk. Without strong interfacial aeration and turbulence between the water and atmosphere, the effects of treatment technology and seasonal variation on the health risks might be connected to the VOC emission rates, while the effect of VOC species depended considerably on the respective cancer slope factors and reference concentrations; the employment of aeration provided a different conclusion in which the emission rates were enhanced without a significant increase in the related cancer risks. These findings can provide insight into future health risk management and reduction strategies for workers in WWTPs. PMID:22842594

  6. Causal versus spurious spatial exposure-response associations in health risk analysis.

    PubMed

    Cox, Louis Anthony Tony; Popken, Douglas A; Berman, D Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Many recent health risk assessments have noted that adverse health outcomes are significantly statistically associated with proximity to suspected sources of health hazard, such as manufacturing plants or point sources of air pollution. Using geographic proximity to sources as surrogates for exposure to (possibly unknown) releases, spatial ecological studies have identified potential adverse health effects based on significant regression coefficients between risk rates and distances from sources in multivariate statistical risk models. Although this procedure has been fruitful in identifying exposure-response associations, it is not always clear whether the resulting regression coefficients have valid causal interpretations. Spurious spatial regression and other threats to valid causal inference may undermine practical efforts to causally link health effects to geographic sources, even when there are clear statistical associations between them. This paper demonstrates the methodological problems by examining statistical associations and regression coefficients between spatially distributed exposure and response variables in a realistic data set for California. We find that distance from "nonsense" sources (such as arbitrary points or lines) are highly statistically significant predictors of cause-specific risks, such as traffic fatalities and incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma. However, the signs of such associations typically depend on the distance scale chosen. This is consistent with theoretical analyses showing that random spatial trends (which tend to fluctuate in sign), rather than true causal relations, can create statistically significant regression coefficients: spatial location itself becomes a confounder for spatially distributed exposure and response variables. Hence, extreme caution and careful application of spatial statistical methods are warranted before interpreting proximity-based exposure-response relations as evidence of a possible or probable causal relation. PMID:23557011

  7. Measures of Maternal Socioeconomic Status in Yemen and Association with Maternal and Child Health Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Alosaimi, Abdullah N; Luoto, Riitta; Al Serouri, Abdul Wahed; Nwaru, Bright I; Mouniri, Halima

    2016-02-01

    Background Reliable measurement of socioeconomic status (SES) in health research requires extensive resources and can be challenging in low-income countries. We aimed to develop a set of maternal SES indices and investigate their associations with maternal and child health outcomes in rural Yemen. Methods We applied factor analysis based on principal component analysis extraction to construct the SES indices by capturing household attributes for 7295 women of reproductive age. Data were collected from a sub-national household survey conducted in six rural districts in four Yemeni provinces in 2008-2009. Logistic regression models were fitted to estimate the associations between the SES indices and maternal mortality, spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, neonatal and infant mortality. Results Three SES indices (wealth, educational and housing quality) were extracted, which together explained 54 % of the total variation in SES. Factor scores were derived and categorized into tertiles. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, higher tertiles of all the indices were inversely associated with spontaneous abortion. Higher tertiles of wealth and educational indices were inversely associated with stillbirth, neonatal and infant mortality. None of the SES indices was strongly associated with maternal mortality. Conclusion By subjecting a number of household attributes to factor analysis, we derived three SES indices (wealth, educational, and housing quality) that are useful for maternal and child health research in rural Yemen. The indices were worthwhile in predicting a number of maternal and child health outcomes. In low-income settings, failure to account for the multidimensionality of SES may underestimate the influence of SES on maternal and child health. PMID:26530035

  8. Distributed Lag Models: Examining Associations Between the Built Environment and Health.

    PubMed

    Baek, Jonggyu; Snchez, Brisa N; Berrocal, Veronica J; Sanchez-Vaznaugh, Emma V

    2016-01-01

    Built environment factors constrain individual level behaviors and choices, and thus are receiving increasing attention to assess their influence on health. Traditional regression methods have been widely used to examine associations between built environment measures and health outcomes, where a fixed, prespecified spatial scale (e.g., 1 mile buffer) is used to construct environment measures. However, the spatial scale for these associations remains largely unknown and misspecifying it introduces bias. We propose the use of distributed lag models (DLMs) to describe the association between built environment features and health as a function of distance from the locations of interest and circumvent a-priori selection of a spatial scale. Based on simulation studies, we demonstrate that traditional regression models produce associations biased away from the null when there is spatial correlation among the built environment features. Inference based on DLMs is robust under a range of scenarios of the built environment. We use this innovative application of DLMs to examine the association between the availability of convenience stores near California public schools, which may affect children's dietary choices both through direct access to junk food and exposure to advertisement, and children's body mass index z scores. PMID:26414942

  9. Instrumentalism, civil association and the ethics of health care: understanding the "politics of faith".

    PubMed

    Sedgwick, Peter R

    2013-09-01

    This paper offers critical reflection on the contemporary tendency to approach health care in instrumentalist terms. Instrumentalism is means-ends rationality. In contemporary society, the instrumentalist attitude is exemplified by the relationship between individual consumer and a provider of goods and services. The problematic nature of this attitude is illustrated by Michael Oakeshott's conceptions of enterprise association and civil association. Enterprise association is instrumental; civil association is association in terms of an ethically delineated realm of practices. The latter offers a richer ethical conception of the relation between person and society than instrumentalism does. Oakeshott's conception is further illustrated by reflection on the connection between morality and religion that he explores in an early essay concerning "religious sensibility". Religious sensibility turns on the acknowledgement of the vulnerability of the self to the vicissitudes of life. This vulnerability cannot be bargained over instrumentally without imperilling the self. Religious sensibility is thus a valuable resource for criticising instrumentalist attitudes. It allows for the cultivation of ethical self-understanding that is essential to comprehending the conditions in virtue of which genuine civil life is possible. These conditions need to be taken into account in health care. Health care is not simply about substantive wants. It also necessarily concerns the universal and constant condition of being prey to illness that is the common lot of all citizens. PMID:23612784

  10. Oral mucosal lesions and their association with sociodemographic, behavioral, and health status factors.

    PubMed

    Gheno, José Nicolau; Martins, Marco Antonio Trevizani; Munerato, Maria Cristina; Hugo, Fernando Neves; Sant'ana Filho, Manoel; Weissheimer, Camila; Carrard, Vinicius Coelho; Martins, Manoela Domingues

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of oral mucosal lesions and their associations with sociodemographic, health, and behavioral factors in a southern Brazilian population. Information was collected from participants (n = 801) using a structured questionnaire during an oral cancer screening campaign held at an agribusiness show in southern Brazil in 2009. Data were described using frequency distributions or means and standard deviations. Associations between independent variables and outcomes were assessed using the Chi-squared test. A total of 465 lesions were detected (actinic cheilitis: n = 204, 25.5%; candidiasis: n = 50, 6.2%; fibrous inflammatory hyperplasia: n = 42, 5.2%; ulceration, n = 33, 4.1%; hemangioma: n = 14, 1.7%; leukoplakia: n = 11, 1.4%). Candidiasis, actinic cheilitis, and fibrous inflammatory hyperplasia were associated significantly with literacy. Actinic cheilitis was also associated significantly with sun exposure and hat use, and leukoplakia was associated with smoking. The high frequency of oral mucosal lesions observed highlights the importance of education about risk factors. Additionally, training of health professionals, mainly those from public health services, in the use of preventive and community education strategies is needed. PMID:26247518

  11. Association between serum uric acid and bone health in general population: a large and multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xianfeng; Zhao, Chenchen; Qin, An; Hong, Dun; Liu, Wenyue; Huang, Kangmao; Mo, Jian; Yu, Hejun; Wu, Shengjie; Fan, Shunwu

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies proposed that serum uric acid (UA), an endogenous antioxidant, could be a protective factor against bone loss. However, recently, a study with a population of US adults did not note the protective effects of serum UA. Therefore, the exact association between serum UA and bone health remains unclear. We performed a retrospective consecutive cohort study in a Chinese population to examine the association between serum UA and bone health. This cross-sectional study included 17,735 individuals who underwent lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) measurements as part of a health examination. In covariance analyses (multivariable-adjusted), a high serum UA level was associated with a high BMD, T-score, and Z-score. In binary logistic regression analyses (multivariable-adjusted), a high serum UA level was associated with low odds ratios (ORs) for at least osteopenia and osteoporosis in male (age ?50 years) (OR = 0.72-0.60 and OR = 0.49-0.39, respectively) and postmenopausal female participants (OR = 0.61-0.51 and OR = 0.66-0.49, respectively). In conclusion, serum UA is associated with BMD, the T-score, and the Z-score, and has a strong protective effect against at least osteopenia and osteoporosis. PMID:26496032

  12. Impacts of climate change on the population health associated with pluvial disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Tsung-Yi; Chang, Tsang-Jung; Cheng, Ke-Sheng; Lai, Jihn-Sung; Chang, Hsiang-Kuan; Wu, Yii-Chen; Ho, Hao-Wei

    2013-04-01

    Many metropolises located in lowlands suffer pluvial inundation disaster more than pluvial flood disaster. During the post-inundation period, some water-borne illnesses would be induced from the polluted area. For improving mitigation strategies, population health risk assessment is an important tool of post-inundation disaster management, especially in the countries suffering tropical cyclones and monsoon with high frequency. Locating in the hot zone of typhoon tracks in the Western Pacific, Taiwan suffers three to five typhoons annually. Furthermore, the trend of 24 global circulation models (GCMs) shows that climate change would enhance rainfall in Taiwan. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impacts of climate change on the population health associated with pluvial disaster. This study applies the concept that risk is composed by hazard and vulnerability to assess the risk of the population health associated with pluvial disaster. Stochastic simulation of bi-variate Gamma distribution is developed to downscale the GCMs' monthly data to extreme rainfall event scale in time domain. According to A1B scenario in short-term period of climate change, two-dimensional overland-flow coupled with drainage systems simulation is performed based on a design extreme rainfall event to calculate the impacts of climate change on pluvial hazard to population health, including flood depth, velocity and the duration of flood recession. The environmental vulnerability for population health is carried out according to the factors of resident and environment. The risk matrix is applied to show the risk by composing the inundation hazards and vulnerabilities associated with population health. The Taipei City, the Capital of Taiwan, is selected as the case study because the highest density of population in Taiwan causes high exposure to the risk of water-borne illnesses. Through assessing the impacts of climate change on the population health associated with pluvial disaster of the Taipei City, the analytical results of pluvial-induced health risk can provide useful information for setting mitigation strategies of post-inundation disaster management. Keywords: climate change, population health, pluvial disaster.

  13. Strengthening the organizational capacity of health professional associations: the FIGO LOGIC Toolkit.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Helena; Perron, Liette; Vander Plaetse, Bart; Taylor, David J

    2013-09-01

    Health professional associations, including national associations of obstetrics and gynecology, can have a leading role in influencing and developing health policy and practice. However, in low- and middle-resource countries, the organizational capacity to facilitate this role is often insufficient. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics LOGIC (Leadership in Obstetrics and Gynaecology for Impact and Change) Initiative has been developing the capacity of national associations in Africa and Asia. Through this work, an electronic resource of materials (http://figo-toolkit.org/) has been brought together to support organizational capacity development, addressing domains such as culture, strategic planning, human resources, project and financial management, performance, external relations, membership services, and the development and revision of clinical guidelines. PMID:23820029

  14. A comparative study of professional and interprofessional values between health professional associations.

    PubMed

    Tsou, PaiHsuan; Shih, Julie; Ho, Ming-Jung

    2015-11-01

    The need for effective interprofessional collaboration to ensure safe patient care is crucial. However, health professions are guided by separate professional codes of conduct. To examine whether professional codes are consistent across professions, this review examines 13 key health professional associations in the United States and compares their values to the guiding principles of interprofessional practice defined by the Interprofessional Professionalism Collaborative (IPC). Findings indicate that all six of the IPC's principles (altruism/caring, excellence, ethics, respect, communication, and accountability) were shared by the majority of professions, with many emphasizing two additional attributes, integrity and justice, suggesting there is room to expand the IPC's core principles. Few associations included interprofessional communication and collaboration in their professional codes. There is potential for associations to promote greater interprofessional collaboration by reshaping their professional frameworks. With many shared values across professions, establishing a common framework of interprofessional professionalism is feasible. PMID:26652636

  15. Risk Factors and Health Profiles of Recent Migrant Women Who Experienced Violence Associated with Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Anita J.; Merry, Lisa A.; Dennis, Cindy-Lee

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Violence associated with pregnancy is a major public health concern, but little is known about it in recent migrant women. This study looked at (1) risk factors for violence associated with pregnancy among newly arrived migrant women in Canada and (2) if those who experienced violence associated with pregnancy had a different health profile or use of healthcare services for themselves or their infants during pregnancy and up to 4 months postpartum compared to other childbearing migrant women. Methods Pregnant migrant women in Canada <5 years were recruited in 12 hospitals in 3 large cities between 2006 and 2009 and followed to 4 months postpartum. Data were collected on maternal background, migration history, violence associated with pregnancy, maternal and infant physical and mental health, and services used. Results Of a total of 774 pregnant migrant women, 59 (7.6%) women reported violence associated with pregnancy. Migrant women who experienced violence, compared to those who did not, were at increased risk of violence if they lived without a partner, were asylum seekers, migrated <2 years ago, or had less than high school education. Women who reported violence were less likely to have up-to-date vaccinations, take folic acid before pregnancy, more likely to commence prenatal care after 3 months gestation and to not use contraceptives after birth. They were also more likely to have a history of miscarriage and report more postpartum pain and increased bleeding. They were also more likely to have inadequate social support and report more depression, anxiety, somatization, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on standardized tests. No differences were found in the health status of the infants of women who experienced violence compared to those who did not. Conclusions Clinicians should sensitively ask recent migrant women (asylum seekers, refugees, and nonrefugee immigrants) about violence associated with pregnancy and appropriately assess, treat, and refer them. PMID:22900928

  16. Association between Maternal and Child Dietary Diversity: An Analysis of the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Amugsi, Dickson Abanimi

    2015-01-01

    Objective (s) This study examined the association between maternal and child dietary diversity in a population-based national sample in Ghana. Methods The data for this analysis are from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. We used data obtained from 1187 dyads comprised of mothers’ ages 15–49 and their youngest child (ages 6–36 months). Maternal and child dietary diversity scores (DDS) were created based on the mother’s recall of her own and her child’s consumption of 15 food groups, during the 24 hours prior to the in-home survey. The same food groups were used to compose both maternal and child DDS. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between the predicted outcome – child DDS -- and maternal DDS, taking into account child age and sex, maternal factors (age, education, occupation, literacy, empowerment, number of antenatal visits as an indicator of health care use), household Wealth Index, and urban/rural place of residence. Results There was a statistically significant positive association between child and maternal DDS, after adjusting for all other variables. A difference of one food group in mother’s consumption was associated with a difference of 0.72 food groups in the child’s food consumption (95% CI: 0.63, 0.82). Also, statistically significant positive associations were observed such that higher child DDS was associated with older child age, and with greater women’s empowerment. Conclusions The results show a significant positive association between child and maternal DD, after accounting for the influence of child, maternal and household level factors. Since the likely path of influence is that maternal DDS impacts child DDS, public health efforts to improve child health may be strengthened by promoting maternal DDS due to its potential for a widened effect on the entire family. PMID:26305458

  17. I35W collapse, rebuild, and structural health monitoring - challenges associated with structural health monitoring of bridge systems

    SciTech Connect

    French, C. E.; Hedegaard, B.; Shield, C. K.; Stolarski, H.

    2011-06-23

    During evening rush hour traffic on August 1, 2007, the major interstate highway bridge carrying I35W over the Mississippi River in Minneapolis catastrophically failed, tragically taking the lives of thirteen people and injuring many more. The steel truss bridge, constructed in 1967, was undergoing deck reconstruction during the collapse, and was estimated to carry more than 140,000 vehicles daily. This tragedy generated great interest in employment of structural health monitoring systems. The I35W St. Anthony Falls Bridge, a post-tensioned concrete box bridge constructed to replace the collapsed steel truss bridge, contains over 500 instruments to monitor the structural behavior. Numerical models of the bridge are being developed and calibrated to the collected data obtained from truck load tests and thermal effects. The data obtained over the first few years of monitoring are being correlated with the calibrated models and used to develop the baseline bridge behavior. This information is being used to develop a system to monitor and interpret the long-term behavior of the bridge. This paper describes the instrumentation, preliminary results from the data and model calibration, the plan for developing long-term monitoring capabilities, and the challenges associated with structural health monitoring of bridge systems. In addition, opportunities and directions for future research required to fully realize the objectives of structural health monitoring are described.

  18. I35W Collapse, Rebuild, and Structural Health MONITORINGCHALLENGES Associated with Structural Health Monitoring of Bridge Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, C. E.; Hedegaard, B.; Shield, C. K.; Stolarski, H.

    2011-06-01

    During evening rush hour traffic on August 1, 2007, the major interstate highway bridge carrying I35W over the Mississippi River in Minneapolis catastrophically failed, tragically taking the lives of thirteen people and injuring many more. The steel truss bridge, constructed in 1967, was undergoing deck reconstruction during the collapse, and was estimated to carry more than 140,000 vehicles daily. This tragedy generated great interest in employment of structural health monitoring systems. The I35W St. Anthony Falls Bridge, a post-tensioned concrete box bridge constructed to replace the collapsed steel truss bridge, contains over 500 instruments to monitor the structural behavior. Numerical models of the bridge are being developed and calibrated to the collected data obtained from truck load tests and thermal effects. The data obtained over the first few years of monitoring are being correlated with the calibrated models and used to develop the baseline bridge behavior. This information is being used to develop a system to monitor and interpret the long-term behavior of the bridge. This paper describes the instrumentation, preliminary results from the data and model calibration, the plan for developing long-term monitoring capabilities, and the challenges associated with structural health monitoring of bridge systems. In addition, opportunities and directions for future research required to fully realize the objectives of structural health monitoring are described.

  19. Aberdeen Area Indian Health Service Environmental Health Program Review Conducted by: Indian Health Committee of the National Environmental Health Association (Aberdeen, South Dakota, May 23-27, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Aberdeen, SD. Aberdeen Area Office.

    The Indian Health Committee met in Aberdeen, South Dakota, during the week of May 23, 1977 to (1) review the environmental health services provided to the tribal units on the 15 Indian reservations located in North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska and Iowa, and (2) make recommendations for improvement or expansion of current programs, if needed. The

  20. Predisposing, enabling, and need factors associated with high service use in a public mental health system.

    PubMed

    Lindamer, Laurie A; Liu, Lin; Sommerfeld, David H; Folsom, David P; Hawthorne, William; Garcia, Piedad; Aarons, Gregory A; Jeste, Dilip V

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) To investigate the individual- and system-level characteristics associated with high utilization of acute mental health services according to a widely-used theory of service use-Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Service Use -in individuals enrolled in a large, public-funded mental health system; and (2) To document service utilization by high use consumers prior to a transformation of the service delivery system. We analyzed data from 10,128 individuals receiving care in a large public mental health system from fiscal years 2000-2004. Subjects with information in the database for the index year (fiscal year 2000-2001) and all of the following 3years were included in this study. Using logistic regression, we identified predisposing, enabling, and need characteristics associated with being categorized as a single-year high use consumer (HU: >3 acute care episodes in a single year) or multiple-year HU (>3 acute care episodes in more than 1year). Thirteen percent of the sample met the criteria for being a single-year HU and an additional 8% met the definition for multiple-year HU. Although some predisposing factors were significantly associated with an increased likelihood of being classified as a HU (younger age and female gender) relative to non-HUs, the characteristics with the strongest associations with the HU definition, when controlling for all other factors, were enabling and need factors. Homelessness was associated with 115% increase in the odds of ever being classified as a HU compared to those living independently or with family and others. Having insurance was associated with increased odds of being classified as a HU by about 19% relative to non-HUs. Attending four or more outpatient visits was an enabling factor that decreased the chances of being defined as a HU. Need factors, such as having a diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or other psychotic disorder or having a substance use disorder increased the likelihood of being categorized as a HU. Characteristics with the strongest association with heavy use of a public mental health system were enabling and need factors. Therefore, optimal use of public mental services may be achieved by developing and implementing interventions that address the issues of homelessness, insurance coverage, and substance use. This may be best achieved by the integration of mental health, intensive case management, and supportive housing, as well as other social services. PMID:21533848

  1. Health state utilities associated with adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Matza, Louis S; Devine, Mary K; Haynes, Virginia Sutton; Davies, Evan W; Kostelec, Jacqueline M; Televantou, Foula; Jordan, Jessica B

    2014-01-01

    Objectives With growing awareness of the importance of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment, cost-effectiveness analyses, including utilities, are needed to compare the value of treatment options. Although utilities have been reported for childhood ADHD, little is known about utilities representing adult ADHD. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to estimate utilities associated with adult ADHD. Methods Health-state descriptions of adult ADHD were drafted based on literature review, interviews with four clinicians, and clinical trial data. Health states were revised based on a pilot study with 26 participants. Final health states were rated in time trade-off interviews with general population respondents in London and Edinburgh, UK. Results A total of 158 participants completed interviews (mean age =47.0 years; 49.4% female; Edinburgh =80 participants). Mean (standard deviation [SD]) utilities were 0.82 (0.17), 0.68 (0.28), and 0.67 (0.28) for health states describing treatment responders (health state A), nonresponders (health state B), and untreated patients (health state C), respectively. Most participants rated health state A as preferable to B (n=92; 58.2%) and C (n=97; 61.4%). The majority rated B and C as equal (n=125; 79.1%). Paired Student’s t-tests found that A had a significantly greater mean utility than B (t=10.0; P<0.0001) and C (t=10.2; P<0.0001). Conclusion The current study provides utilities that may be used in cost–utility models of treatment for adult ADHD. Results reflected clear differences between health states representing treatment responders and nonresponders/untreated patients. Current utilities were comparable to those previously reported for childhood ADHD. PMID:25114511

  2. Factors associated with chronic diseases among the elderly receiving treatment under the Family Health Strategy.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Fernanda Batista; Pinho, Lucinia; Silveira, Marise Fagundes; Botelho, Ana Cristina de Carvalho

    2015-08-01

    The profile of a sample population of elderly receiving treatment under the Family Health Strategy in the municipality of Tefilo Otoni, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, is described, and the factors associated with diseases prevalence examined. Using simple random sampling, 385 elderly were interviewed using Form A and Elderly Form from the Primary Health Care Information System. The majority of the sample (83.1%) self-reported at least one disease, 69.9% had hypertension, and 17.7% had diabetes. Poisson regression analysis showed that the main factors associated with hypertension and other diseases were being non-white, having a low level of education, medication use, dental prosthesis use, and lack of a private health plan. The prevalence of diabetes was greater among women and individuals who depended on other people to live. It can be concluded that this sample population of elderly has a generally low socioeconomic status and are more susceptible to developing diseases, particularly hypertension. Diabetes should be controlled although had relatively low prevalence. It is suggested investments in structuring the health system network to provide adequate care for the elderly and in training health professionals to play an effective role in improving the quality of life of the elderly in Brazil. PMID:26221814

  3. Student learning outcomes associated with video vs. paper cases in a public health dentistry course.

    PubMed

    Chi, Donald L; Pickrell, Jacqueline E; Riedy, Christine A

    2014-01-01

    Educational technologies such as video cases can improve health professions student learning outcomes, but few studies in dentistry have evaluated video-based technologies. The goal of this study was to compare outcomes associated with video and paper cases used in an introductory public health dentistry course. This was a retrospective cohort study with a historical control group. Based on dual coding theory, the authors tested the hypotheses that dental students who received a video case (n=37) would report better affective, cognitive, and overall learning outcomes than students who received a paper case (n=75). One-way ANOVA was used to test the hypotheses across ten cognitive, two affective, and one general assessment measures (α=0.05). Students in the video group reported a significantly higher overall mean effectiveness score than students in the paper group (4.2 and 3.3, respectively; p<0.001). Video cases were also associated with significantly higher mean scores across the remaining twelve measures and were effective in helping students achieve cognitive (e.g., facilitating good discussions, identifying public health problems, realizing how health disparities might impact their future role as dentists) and affective (e.g., empathizing with vulnerable individuals, appreciating how health disparities impact real people) goals. Compared to paper cases, video cases significantly improved cognitive, affective, and overall learning outcomes for dental students. PMID:24385521

  4. The Association of Health and Employment in Mature Women: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Byles, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite a reduction in income inequalities between men and women, there is still a large gap between income and retirement savings of Australian men and women. This is especially true for women who have health or disability problems. Mature age women are closest to retirement and, therefore, have less chance than younger women to build up enough retirement savings and may need to continue working to fund their older age. Continued workforce participation may be particularly difficult for women who are less healthy. Understanding which health problems lead to a decrease in workforce participation among mature age women is crucial. Therefore, this longitudinal study sought to identify which health problems are associated with employment among midage women over time. Methods Data were analyzed from the midage cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH), which involved 14,200 midage women (aged 45–50 years in 1996). The women have been surveyed four additional times, in 1998, 2001, 2004, and 2007. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to conduct nested multivariate longitudinal analyses. Results The percentages of women who were employed in the years 2001, 2004, and 2007 were 77%, 72%, and 68%, respectively. Results were adjusted for sociodemographic variables. Being employed decreased as physical and mental health deteriorated and with self-reported conditions: diabetes, high blood pressure, depression, anxiety, and other psychiatric conditions. Back pain, arthritis, cancer, obesity, and being a current smoker are associated with employment but not when quality of life is added to the model. Conclusions There were significant associations between health and employment. Understanding these relationships could inform policies and guidelines for preventing declines in employment in mature age women. PMID:22060315

  5. Impediments to Academic Performance of Bisexual College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Nicole Aydt; Dudley, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate health-related impediments to academic success for bisexual college students. Participants: Respondents to the Fall 2011 American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II (ACHA-NCHA II) survey who self-identified as bisexual, heterosexual, gay, or lesbian. Methods: Secondary analyses of the…

  6. Impediments to Academic Performance of Bisexual College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Nicole Aydt; Dudley, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate health-related impediments to academic success for bisexual college students. Participants: Respondents to the Fall 2011 American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II (ACHA-NCHA II) survey who self-identified as bisexual, heterosexual, gay, or lesbian. Methods: Secondary analyses of the

  7. The Effect of College Student Spirituality on Alcohol Use and Sexual Behaviors: A Comparison of Faith-Based and Non Faith-Based Institutional NCHA Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kristen S.

    2014-01-01

    College-aged individuals have a significant impact on national health. People in this age group have the highest rates of engagement in many risky health behaviors, such as binge drinking, substance use, and engaging in unprotected sexual activity. The American College Health Association (ACHA) has been actively involved in the study of college

  8. The Effect of College Student Spirituality on Alcohol Use and Sexual Behaviors: A Comparison of Faith-Based and Non Faith-Based Institutional NCHA Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kristen S.

    2014-01-01

    College-aged individuals have a significant impact on national health. People in this age group have the highest rates of engagement in many risky health behaviors, such as binge drinking, substance use, and engaging in unprotected sexual activity. The American College Health Association (ACHA) has been actively involved in the study of college…

  9. ASSOCIATION OF PERSONAL AND WORKPLACE CHARACTERISTICS WITH REPORTED HEALTH SYMPTOMS OF 6771 GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES IN WASHINGTON, DC

    EPA Science Inventory

    An indoor air quality questionnaire was completed by 6771 employees of two government agencies. egression analyses on 12 clusters of health symptoms indicated that both personal and workplace characteristics were associated with symptoms. he variables associated with the largest ...

  10. Association between Obesity and Cardiometabolic Health Risk in Asian-Canadian Sub-Groups

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Jason X.; Ardern, Chris I.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To quantify and compare the association between the World Health Organizations’ Asian-specific trigger points for public health action [‘increased risk’: body mass index (BMI) ≥23 kg/m2, and; ‘high risk’: BMI ≥27.5 kg/m2] with self-reported cardiovascular-related conditions in Asian-Canadian sub-groups. Methods Six cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey (2001–2009) were pooled to examine BMI and health in Asian sub-groups (South Asians, Chinese, Filipino, Southeast Asians, Arabs, West Asians, Japanese and Korean; N = 18 794 participants, ages 18–64 y). Multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for demographic, lifestyle characteristics and acculturation measures, was used to estimate the odds of cardiovascular-related health (high blood pressure, heart disease, diabetes, ‘at least one cardiometabolic condition’) outcomes across all eight Asian sub-groups. Results Compared to South Asians (OR = 1.00), Filipinos had higher odds of having ‘at least one cardiometabolic condition’ (OR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.04–1.62), whereas Chinese (0.63, 0.474–0.9) and Arab-Canadians had lower odds (0.38, 0.28–0.51). In ethnic-specific analyses (with ‘acceptable’ risk weight as the referent), ‘increased’ and ‘high’ risk weight categories were the most highly associated with ‘at least one cardiometabolic condition’ in Chinese (‘increased’: 3.6, 2.34–5.63; ‘high’: 8.9, 3.6–22.01). Compared to normal weight South Asians, being in the ‘high’ risk weight category in all but the Southeast Asian, Arab, and Japanese ethnic groups was associated with approximately 3-times the likelihood of having ‘at least one cardiometabolic condition’. Conclusion Differences in the association between obesity and cardiometabolic health risks were seen among Asian sub-groups in Canada. The use of WHO’s lowered Asian-specific BMI cut-offs identified obesity-related risks in South Asian, Filipino and Chinese sub-groups that would have been masked by traditional BMI categories. These findings have implications for public health messaging, especially for ethnic groups at higher odds of obesity-related health risks. PMID:25222283

  11. Campus Violence White Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Joetta L.

    2007-01-01

    In 1999, the American College Health Association (ACHA) Executive Committee issued a position statement for the Association that addresses acts of violence, bias, and other violations of human rights that have been occurring all too often within or adjacent to college communities. The statement called for all campus health professionals to become

  12. Factors Associated with Health-Related Quality of Life Among Older People with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Banker, Wendy M.; Clement, Lynn M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study was conducted to determine which factors (clinical and demographic) are associated with mental and physical health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among people with multiple sclerosis (MS) aged 60 years and older. Methods: Data were collected at four MS centers on Long Island, New York, from a total of 211 patients. Three surveys were administered that collected demographic information and included validated questionnaires measuring quality of life (QOL), cognition, depression, and disability. Multivariate linear regression analyses examined the relationship between patient demographics and scores on standardized scales measuring mental and physical HRQOL (Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life54). Variables included in the regression models were selected on the basis of the Andersen Healthcare Utilization model. This framework encompasses the multiple influences on health status, including predisposing characteristics, enabling resources, need, and health behavior. Results: We found that mental HRQOL was negatively associated with having a high school education or less, risk of neurologic impairment, physical disability, and depression. No variables were positively associated with mental HRQOL. Physical HRQOL was negatively associated with risk of neurologic impairment, physical disability, depression, and the comorbidity of thyroid disease. However, patient employment and, surprisingly, being widowed were positively associated with physical HRQOL. These findings are consistent with those of similar studies among younger patients in which lower HRQOL was associated with increased disability, depression, risk of neurologic impairment, and lower levels of education. Conclusions: The findings that patient employment and being widowed were associated with better physical HRQOL suggest that older patients have the ability to adapt and adjust to the challenges of MS over time. Clinicians should regularly screen for HRQOL in older patients with MS. PMID:24688350

  13. Poor mental health status and aggression are associated with poor driving behavior among male traffic offenders

    PubMed Central

    Abdoli, Nasrin; Farnia, Vahid; Delavar, Ali; Esmaeili, Alirez; Dortaj, Fariborz; Farrokhi, Noorali; Karami, Majid; Shakeri, Jalal; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Background In Iran, traffic accidents and deaths from traffic accidents are among the highest in the world, and generally driver behavior rather than either technical failures or environmental conditions are responsible for traffic accidents. In the present study, we explored the extent to which aggressive traits, health status, and sociodemographic variables explain driving behavior among Iranian male traffic offenders. Method A total of 443 male driving offenders (mean age: M =31.40 years, standard deviation =9.56) from Kermanshah (Iran) took part in the study. Participants completed a questionnaire booklet covering sociodemographic variables, traits of aggression, health status, and driving behavior. Results Poor health status, such as symptoms of depression, anxiety, insomnia, and social dysfunction, and also higher levels of trait aggression explained poor driving behavior. Multiple regressions indicated that poor health status, but not aggression, independently predicted poor driving behavior. Conclusion Results suggest that health status concerns are associated with poor driving behavior. Prevention and intervention might therefore focus on drivers reporting poor mental health status. PMID:26316753

  14. Intimate partner violence associated with poor health outcomes in U.S. South Asian women.

    PubMed

    Hurwitz, Elizabeth J Himelfarb; Gupta, Jhumka; Liu, Rosalyn; Silverman, Jay G; Raj, Anita

    2006-07-01

    To assess the associations between Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) victimization and health outcomes of South Asian women in Greater Boston. To explore the nature of the health experiences of victimized women in this population. Cross-sectional surveys with a community-based sample of women in relationships with males (n = 208) assessed demographics, IPV history, and health. In-depth interviews were conducted with a separate sample of women with a history of IPV (n = 23). Quantitative data were assessed by logistic regression, qualitative data by a grounded theory approach. Twenty-one percent of the quantitative sample reported IPV in the current relationship. Abused women were significantly more likely than those with no history of IPV in their current relationship to report poor physical health (95% CI = 1.3-12.0), depression (95% CI = 1.8-9.3), anxiety (95% CI = 1.3-6.4), and suicidal ideation (95% CI = 1.9-25.1). Qualitative subjects described how victimization resulted in injury and chronic health concerns and how IPV-induced depression and anxiety affected their sleep, appetite, energy, and wellbeing. Experiences of IPV are related to increased poor health among South Asian women. This elevated risk demands intervention. Healthcare providers should be trained to screen and refer South Asian patients for partner violence. PMID:16791535

  15. Associations between Dietary Factors and Self-Reported Physical Health in Chinese Scientific Workers

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Qian-fen; Tu, Ling; Zhou, Liang; Chen, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background: Scientific workers play an important role in the development of science and technology. However, evidence is lacking with regard to the associations between their dietary factors and their health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 775 scientific workers from multiple universities and institutes in the Southwest region of China. A self-administered food-frequency questionnaire was used to collect the food consumption information, and the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey was used to assess physical HRQOL. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with scientific workers’ HRQOL. Results: Physical HRQOL was negatively associated with age and intake of fresh pork (fat) and animal viscera, whereas consumption of vegetables, fruits, refined cereals and dairy products were positively correlated with physical HRQOL. Participants with daily intake of vegetable oils or mixed oils showed higher physical HRQOL scores than those with intake of animal oils. Conclusions: Dietary habits are closely associated with the physical HRQOL of scientific workers. The dietary patterns that had more vegetables and fruits, less fresh pork (fat) and animal viscera, and used vegetable oils during cooking corresponded to higher physical HRQOL scores. These findings are important for planning dietary strategies to improve physical health in scientific workers. PMID:26694441

  16. Eating Behaviors, Mental Health, and Food Intake are Associated with Obesity in Older Congregate Meal Participants

    PubMed Central

    Porter Starr, Kathryn N.; Fischer, Joan G.; Johnson, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between eating behaviors, food intake, and mental health and the occurrence of obesity in older adults has rarely been investigated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to establish the associative links of these factors with two measures of obesity: class I obesity as indicated by body mass index (OB-BMI; BMI ≥ 30kg/m2) and class I obesity as indicated by waist circumference (OB-WC; WC ≥ 43 inches for men and ≥ 42 inches for women). Older adults participating in the Older American’s Act (OAA) congregate meal program (N = 113, mean age = 74 years, 74% female, 45% African American) were assessed. Eating behaviors (cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, and emotional eating), food groups group choices (sweets, salty snacks, and fruits), and mental health indices (depression, anxiety, and stress) were recorded by questionnaire and related to measured occurrence of OB-BMI and OB-WC. In a series of multivariate logistical regression models, we found cognitive restraint to be consistently and robustly associated with both measures of obesity. In the fully adjusted model, cognitive restraint, consumption of sweets, anxiety, and lack of depression were associated with OB-WC. In summary, we found an association of obesity with abnormal eating behaviors, certain food group intakes, and mental health symptoms in this population. These findings may guide the development of future weight management interventions in a congregate meal setting. PMID:25424510

  17. The Association of Health Literacy with Adherence and Outcomes in Moderate-Severe Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Apter, Andrea J.; Wan, Fei; Reisine, Susan; Bender, Bruce; Rand, Cynthia; Bogen, Daniel K.; Bennett, Ian M.; Bryant-Stephens, Tyra; Roy, Jason; Gonzalez, Rodalyn; Priolo, Chantel; Have, Thomas Ten; Morales, Knashawn H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Low health literacy is associated with poor outcomes in asthma and other diseases but the mechanisms governing this relationship are not well-defined. Objective To assess whether literacy is related to subsequent asthma self-management, measured as adherence to inhaled steroids, and asthma outcomes. Methods In a prospective longitudinal cohort study, numeric (Asthma Numeracy Questionnaire (ANQ)) and print literacy (Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA)) were assessed at baseline in adults with moderate or severe asthma for their impact on subsequent electronically monitored adherence and asthma outcomes (asthma control, asthma-related quality of life, and FEV1) over 26 weeks, using mixed-effects linear regression models. Results 284 adults participated: 48±14 years, 71% female, 70% African American, 6% Latino, mean FEV1 66% ± 19%, 86 (30%) with hospitalizations and 148 (52%) with ED visits for asthma in the prior year. Mean ANQ score (range 0–4) was 2.3 ± 1.2; mean S-TOFHLA score 31 ± 8 (range 0–36). In unadjusted analyses numeric and print literacy were associated with better adherence (p=0.01, p=0.08), asthma control (p=0.005, p <0.001), and quality of life (p<0.001, p<0.001). After controlling for age, sex, and race/ethnicity, the associations diminished and only quality of life (numeric: p=0.03, print p=0.006) and asthma control (print p=0.005) remained significantly associated with literacy. Race/ethnicity, income, and educational attainment were correlated (p<0.001). Conclusion While the relationship between literacy and health is complex, interventions which account for and address the literacy needs of patients may improve asthma outcomes. Clinical Implications/Key Summary In adults with moderate or severe asthma, higher health literacy scores were associated with better subsequent quality of life and asthma control. PMID:23591273

  18. Association between Self-Rated Health and the Ethnic Composition of the Residential Environment of Six Ethnic Groups in Amsterdam

    PubMed Central

    Veldhuizen, Eleonore M.; Musterd, Sako; Dijkshoorn, Henriëtte; Kunst, Anton E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies on the association between health and neighborhood ethnic composition yielded inconsistent results, possibly due to methodological limitations. We assessed these associations at different spatial scales and for different measures of ethnic composition. Methods: We obtained health survey data of 4673 respondents of Dutch, Surinamese, Moroccan, Turkish other non-Western and other Western origin. Neighborhood ethnic composition was measured for buffers varying from 50–1000 m. Associations with self-rated health were measured using logistic multilevel regression analysis, with control for socioeconomic position at the individual and area level. Results: Overall ethnic heterogeneity was not related to health for any ethnic group. The presence of other Surinamese was associated with poor self-rated health among Surinamese respondents. The presence of Moroccans or Turks was associated with poor health among some groups. The presence of Dutch was associated with better self-rated health among Surinamese and Turks. In most cases, these associations were stronger at lower spatial scales. We found no other associations. Conclusions: In Amsterdam, self-rated health was not associated with ethnic heterogeneity in general, but may be related to the presence of specific ethnic groups. Policies regarding social and ethnic mixing should pay special attention to the co-residence of groups with problematic interrelations. PMID:26569282

  19. Food Avoidance and Food Modification Practices of Older Rural Adults: Association with Oral Health Status and Implications for Service Provision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quandt, Sara A.; Chen, Haiying; Bell, Ronny A.; Savoca, Margaret R.; Anderson, Andrea M.; Leng, Xiaoyan; Kohrman, Teresa; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Dietary variation is important for health maintenance and disease prevention among older adults. However, oral health deficits impair ability to bite and chew foods. This study examines the association between oral health and foods avoided or modified in a multiethnic rural population of older adults. It considers implications for

  20. Food Avoidance and Food Modification Practices of Older Rural Adults: Association with Oral Health Status and Implications for Service Provision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quandt, Sara A.; Chen, Haiying; Bell, Ronny A.; Savoca, Margaret R.; Anderson, Andrea M.; Leng, Xiaoyan; Kohrman, Teresa; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Dietary variation is important for health maintenance and disease prevention among older adults. However, oral health deficits impair ability to bite and chew foods. This study examines the association between oral health and foods avoided or modified in a multiethnic rural population of older adults. It considers implications for…

  1. Socioeconomic status moderates associations among stressful events, mental health, and relationship satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Maisel, Natalya C; Karney, Benjamin R

    2012-08-01

    Although stressful events and poor mental health predict worse intimate relationships in all segments of society, they may be especially detrimental for poorer couples who lack the financial resources that facilitate successful coping. To examine this hypothesis, associations among stress, mental health, and relationship satisfaction were examined in the Florida Family Formation study, a stratified random sample of more than 2000 Florida residents that included oversamples of low-income participants. As predicted, stressful life events and mental health problems accounted for more variance in relationship satisfaction among poorer than among more affluent individuals. These results suggest that models of relationship satisfaction addressing low-income populations may need to emphasize contextual and individual variables more than models developed in more affluent populations. PMID:22686266

  2. Health complaints among adolescents: Associations with more screen-based behaviours and less physical activity.

    PubMed

    Marques, Adilson; Calmeiro, Lus; Loureiro, Nuno; Frasquilho, Diana; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationship between screen-based behaviours, physical activity, and health complaints (headaches, feeling low, irritability, and nervousness). Screen-based behaviour included TV viewing, computer use, and time spent playing video games. Data were collected from 4462 Portuguese adolescents (2394 girls) aged 11-16 years. Girls who reported engaging in more screen-based behaviour (hours/day) also reported having more headaches, feeling lower, being more irritable, and feeling more nervous. Boys who reported more screen time were more irritable. Physical activity (times/week) was negatively associated with reports of feeling nervous among girls, and with headaches, feeling low, irritability, and feeling nervous among boys. Considering that time spent using the computer is related with more health complaints, and physical activity was related with fewer health complaints among boys, it is important to develop strategies to reduce adolescents' computer screen time, and to promote physical activity. PMID:26275746

  3. [Health risks and economic costs associated with obesity requiring a comprehensive weight reduction program].

    PubMed

    Hainer, V; Kunesov, M; Parzkov, J; Stunkard, A

    1997-06-12

    An increasing prevalence of obesity all over the world reflects a lack of effective measures in both prevention and treatment of obesity. Obesity as a disease has been underestimated by the lay-public as well as health care providers. However, obesity represents a substantial health problem associated with a decreased quality of life. Obesity is linked to numerous chronic diseases (cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, gout, osteoarthritis, gall-stones, and bowel, breast and genitourinary cancers) that lead to premature disability and mortality. Health risks increase with a body mass index (BMI) over 25 in individuals 19-35 years of age and with a BMI over 27 in those 35 years of age and older. Health risks also increase with an excess accumulation of visceral fat manifested as an increase in waist circumference (> 100 cm) or in waist to hip ratio (> 0.85 for females and > 1.00 for males). According to studies carried out in different countries current economic costs of obesity represent 5-8% of all direct health costs. In contrast, effective treatment of obesity results in a substantial decrease in expenditures associated with pharmacotherapy of hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and osteoarthritis. Both scientists and clinicians involved in obesity research and treatment recommend to introduce the long-term weight management programs focussing more on the overall health of the participants than the weight loss per se. Therefore, it will be necessary to establish new realistic goals in the obesity management that reflect reasonable weights and recently experienced beneficial health effects of modest (5-10%) weight loss. Comprehensive obesity treatment consisting of low fat diet, exercise, behavioral modification, drug therapy and surgical procedures requires differentiated weight management programs modified according to the degree and type of obesity as well as to current health complications present. The Czech Society for the Study of Obesity defined a comprehensive weight reduction program carried out in weight reduction clubs, out-patient obesity clinics and in specialized departments attached to the university hospitals. In order to provide an integrated knowledge from many different disciplines connected with obesity three week postgraduate course has been organized for physicians involved in obesity management. Even the most spread weight reduction clubs in our country (STOB) are supervised by the trained counselors. The main goal of different weight management programs is to find out optimal approaches leading to long-term beneficial outcome and ameliorating the variety of disorders associated with obesity. PMID:9333508

  4. Associations between Health Effects and Particulate Matter and Black Carbon in Subjects with Respiratory Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Karen L.; Larson, Timothy V.; Koenig, Jane Q.; Mar, Therese F.; Fields, Carrie; Stewart, Jim; Lippmann, Morton

    2005-01-01

    We measured fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), spirometry, blood pressure, oxygen saturation of the blood (SaO2), and pulse rate in 16 older subjects with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Seattle, Washington. Data were collected daily for 12 days. We simultaneously collected PM10 and PM2.5 (particulate matter ≤10 μm or ≤2.5 μm, respectively) filter samples at a central outdoor site, as well as outside and inside the subjects’ homes. Personal PM10 filter samples were also collected. All filters were analyzed for mass and light absorbance. We analyzed within-subject associations between health outcomes and air pollution metrics using a linear mixed-effects model with random intercept, controlling for age, ambient relative humidity, and ambient temperature. For the 7 subjects with asthma, a 10 μg/m3 increase in 24-hr average outdoor PM10 and PM2.5 was associated with a 5.9 [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.9–8.9] and 4.2 ppb (95% CI, 1.3–7.1) increase in FENO, respectively. A 1 μg/m3 increase in outdoor, indoor, and personal black carbon (BC) was associated with increases in FENO of 2.3 ppb (95% CI, 1.1–3.6), 4.0 ppb (95% CI, 2.0–5.9), and 1.2 ppb (95% CI, 0.2–2.2), respectively. No significant association was found between PM or BC measures and changes in spirometry, blood pressure, pulse rate, or SaO2 in these subjects. Results from this study indicate that FENO may be a more sensitive marker of PM exposure than traditional health outcomes and that particle-associated BC is useful for examining associations between primary combustion constituents of PM and health outcomes. PMID:16330357

  5. Engaging health care workers to prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infection and avert patient harm.

    PubMed

    Fakih, Mohamad G; Krein, Sarah L; Edson, Barbara; Watson, Sam R; Battles, James B; Saint, Sanjay

    2014-10-01

    Preventing catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) remains a significant challenge for US hospitals. The "On the CUSP: Stop CAUTI" initiative represents the single largest national effort (involving >950 hospitals) to mitigate urinary catheter risk. The program brings together key organizations to assist state hospital associations and hospitals by providing education and coaching support, addressing both the technical aspects of preventing CAUTI and CAUTI-specific socio-adaptive challenges. At the local level, engaging health care workers, from physicians and nurses to other ancillary services, is critical. This includes (1) making the importance of addressing CAUTI stakeholder specific, (2) ensuring support from leaders of essential disciplines, (3) underscoring the importance of the collaborative nature of CAUTI prevention, and (4) identifying champions within the organization to lead and be accountable for the work. Sustainability is ensured by integrating the process into the health care worker's daily routine activities. PMID:25239714

  6. Religious Attitude Associated with General Health and Smoking in Iranian Students

    PubMed Central

    Divsalar, Kouros; Nejadnaderi, Samira; Nakhaee, Nowzar; Rouhani, Saed

    2010-01-01

    Background: Given the university students’ model role in the society and the importance of period of university education in selecting behavioral methods and lifestyles in the future have made it necessary to study the smoking pattern and its associated factors and complications among students. The aim of this study was to compare religious attitude and mental health between smoking and non-smoking students. Methods: In this research, religious attitude and mental health was studied in 1065 smoking and non-smoking students of Kerman University of Medical Sciences. In this study, three questionnaires were used (Demographic Questionnaire, General Health Questionnaire and Religious Attitude Scale Questionnaire) which were completed by the students voluntarily. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistic methods, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), t-test, Pearson correlation, and regression coefficient. Findings: The mean age of smokers was 20 years and most of the smokers were male (78.9%), single (86.5%) and in BS or BA degree (52.5%). Most of them smoked a cigarette or more in the past month. The average age of start of smoking was 18 years. There was no significant difference between religious attitude and mental health in smoking students in terms of gender but in non-smoking students there was a significant difference in this regard. Smoking students had lower mental health status and religious attitude in comparison with non-smoking students. Between religious attitude and general health in smoking and non-smoking students was also a direct association. Conclusion: Due to psychological and physiological consequences of cigarette smoking, promoting smoking prevention by religious missionaries and university professors, and helping the students to quit smoking by counselors, psychologists and psychiatrics are necessary. PMID:24494094

  7. Association Between Mental Health Apprehensions by Police and Monthly Income Assistance (Welfare) Payments

    PubMed Central

    Pickett, Tracy A; Stenstrom, Robert J; Abu-Laban, Riyad B

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Social misconduct, increased police activity, and increased emergency department (ED) use are associated with monthly income assistance (welfare) payments. The relation, if any, between welfare payments and mental health and addictions presentations to the ED requiring police involvement remains unknown. Our purpose was to determine if a relation exists between mental health apprehensions (MHAs) by police and monthly welfare cheque distribution, and the association between monthly payments and mental health and substance-related ED presentations. Method: The Vancouver Police administrative database was analyzed during an 81-week period (June 8, 2011, to December 25, 2012). Comparisons were made between the numbers of MHAs by police during the week following welfare payment to those during nonpayment weeks. The weekly number of mental health and substance-related ED presentations were also analyzed during the study period. MHAs were analyzed continuously, and compared using the 2-tailed t test. Results: During the study period, 4009 MHAs occurred (range 1 to 18 MHAs/day). The mean weekly MHAs during welfare week was 54.6 (95% CI 51.75 to 57.45), compared with 48.6 (95% CI 46.35 to 50.85) during nonpayment weeks (P = 0.004). This translates to 85 MHAs annually related to welfare payments. Total mental health and addictions-related presentations to the ED were also significantly increased in the week following welfare payments (P < 0.001), and could not be solely attributed to increased MHAs by police. Conclusion: A statistically significant increase in the number of MHAs by police follows welfare payments. This is superimposed on a significant increase in overall mental health and substance-related ED presentations seen during the same period. PMID:25886690

  8. Risky Decision Making in a Laboratory Driving Task Is Associated with Health Risk Behaviors during Late Adolescence but Not Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Kahn, Rachel; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Chiu, Pearl; Steinberg, Laurence; King-Casas, Brooks

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized by increasing incidence of health risk behaviors, including experimentation with drugs and alcohol. To fill the gap in our understanding of the associations between risky decision-making and health risk behaviors, we investigated associations between laboratory-based risky decision-making using the Stoplight task and

  9. Risky Decision Making in a Laboratory Driving Task Is Associated with Health Risk Behaviors during Late Adolescence but Not Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Kahn, Rachel; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Chiu, Pearl; Steinberg, Laurence; King-Casas, Brooks

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized by increasing incidence of health risk behaviors, including experimentation with drugs and alcohol. To fill the gap in our understanding of the associations between risky decision-making and health risk behaviors, we investigated associations between laboratory-based risky decision-making using the Stoplight task and…

  10. Child Physical Abuse and Concurrence of Other Types of Child Abuse in Sweden--Associations with Health and Risk Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annerback, E. M.; Sahlqvist, L.; Svedin, C. G.; Wingren, G.; Gustafsson, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the associations between child physical abuse executed by a parent or caretaker and self-rated health problems/risk-taking behaviors among teenagers. Further to evaluate concurrence of other types of abuse and how these alone and in addition to child physical abuse were associated with bad health status and risk-taking…

  11. Child Physical Abuse and Concurrence of Other Types of Child Abuse in Sweden--Associations with Health and Risk Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annerback, E. M.; Sahlqvist, L.; Svedin, C. G.; Wingren, G.; Gustafsson, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the associations between child physical abuse executed by a parent or caretaker and self-rated health problems/risk-taking behaviors among teenagers. Further to evaluate concurrence of other types of abuse and how these alone and in addition to child physical abuse were associated with bad health status and risk-taking

  12. The Moderating Role of Centrality on Associations between Ethnic Identity Affirmation and Ethnic Minority College Students' Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brittian, Aerika S.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Lee, Richard M.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Kim, Su Yeong; Weisskirch, Robert S.; Castillo, Linda G.; Whitbourne, Susan Krauss; Hurley, Eric A.; Huynh, Que-Lam; Brown, Elissa J.; Caraway, S. Jean

    2013-01-01

    Background: Prior literature has shown that ethnic affirmation, one aspect of ethnic identity, is positively associated with mental health. However, the associations between ethnic affirmation and mental health may vary depending how much importance individuals place on their ethnic group membership (ie, centrality). Methods: Using path analysis,

  13. The Moderating Role of Centrality on Associations between Ethnic Identity Affirmation and Ethnic Minority College Students' Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brittian, Aerika S.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Lee, Richard M.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Kim, Su Yeong; Weisskirch, Robert S.; Castillo, Linda G.; Whitbourne, Susan Krauss; Hurley, Eric A.; Huynh, Que-Lam; Brown, Elissa J.; Caraway, S. Jean

    2013-01-01

    Background: Prior literature has shown that ethnic affirmation, one aspect of ethnic identity, is positively associated with mental health. However, the associations between ethnic affirmation and mental health may vary depending how much importance individuals place on their ethnic group membership (ie, centrality). Methods: Using path analysis,…

  14. The Association between Proximity to Animal Feeding Operations and Community Health: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Annette M.; Auvermann, Brent; Bickett-Weddle, Danelle; Kirkhorn, Steve; Sargeant, Jan M.; Ramirez, Alejandro; Von Essen, Susanna G.

    2010-01-01

    Background A systematic review was conducted for the association between animal feeding operations (AFOs) and the health of individuals living near AFOs. Methodology/Principal Findings The review was restricted to studies reporting respiratory, gastrointestinal and mental health outcomes in individuals living near AFOs in North America, European Union, United Kingdom, and Scandinavia. From June to September 2008 searches were conducted in PUBMED, CAB, Web-of-Science, and Agricola with no restrictions. Hand searching of narrative reviews was also used. Two reviewers independently evaluated the role of chance, confounding, information, selection and analytic bias on the study outcome. Nine relevant studies were identified. The studies were heterogeneous with respect to outcomes and exposures assessed. Few studies reported an association between surrogate clinical outcomes and AFO proximity. A negative association was reported when odor was the measure of exposure to AFOs and self-reported disease, the measure of outcome. There was evidence of an association between self-reported disease and proximity to AFO in individuals annoyed by AFO odor. Conclusions/Significance There was inconsistent evidence of a weak association between self-reported disease in people with allergies or familial history of allergies. No consistent dose response relationship between exposure and disease was observable. PMID:20224825

  15. A conditional expectation approach for associating ambient air pollutant exposures with health outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Wannemuehler, Kathleen A.; Lyles, Robert H.; Waller, Lance A.; Hoekstra, Robert M.; Klein, Mitchel; Tolbert, Paige

    2009-01-01

    Our research focuses on the association between exposure to an airborne pollutant and counts of emergency department visits attributed to a specific chronic illness. The motivating example for this analysis of measurement error in time series studies of air pollution and acute health outcomes was a study of emergency department visits from a 20-county Atlanta metropolitan statistical area from 19931999. The research presented illustrates the impact of using various surrogates for unobserved measurements of ambient concentrations at the zip code level. Simulation results indicate that the impact of measurement error on the association between pollutant exposure and a health outcome can be substantial. The proposed conditional expectation approach provided reliable estimates of the association and exhibited good confidence interval coverage for a variety of magnitudes of association. Use of a single-centrally located monitor, the arithmetic average, the nearest-neighbor monitor, and the inverse-distance weighted average surrogates resulted in biased estimates and poor coverage rates, especially for larger magnitudes of the association. A focus on obtaining reasonable exposure measurements within clearly defined subregions is important when the pollutant exposure of interest exhibits strong spatial variability. PMID:20161413

  16. The Association of Immigration and Acculturation Attributes With Oral Health Among Immigrants in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu; Salazar, Christian R.; Le Geros, Racquel Z.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We examined associations between immigration and acculturation attributes and oral disease among immigrants. Methods. We conducted a large cross-sectional study of 1318 immigrants in New York City. We performed comprehensive interviews and oral examinations of the participants and used linear regression models to assess differences in oral disease levels among immigrant subgroups. We also constructed proportional odds models to evaluate the association of oral disease level with length of stay in the United States, age at immigration, and language preference. Results. After we controlled for most known risk factors, country of birth and age at immigration were associated with variations in oral disease prevalence and need for oral health care. Length of stay was inversely associated with need for treatment of dental caries but not with any other indicator of oral disease. Language preference was not associated with any indicator of oral disease. Conclusions. Immigrants’ country of birth, length of stay in the United States, and age at immigration played important roles in their oral disease prevalence, independently of most known risk factors for oral diseases. Our findings emphasize the need for more studies to elucidate the complex relationships of ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and culturally influenced factors that impact immigrants' oral health. PMID:19443820

  17. Association of ventilation with health and other responses in commercial and institutional buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Seppanen, Olli; Fisk, William J.; Mendell, Mark J.

    2000-08-01

    The paper presents a summary of a review [1] of current literature on the associations of ventilation rates in non-residential and non-industrial buildings (primarily offices) with health and other human outcomes. Twenty studies, with close to 30,000 subjects, investigated the association of ventilation rates with human responses. (Twenty one studies investigating the association of carbon dioxide with human responses, although included in the previous review, are not summarized here.) Almost all studies including ventilation rates below 10 Ls{sup -1} per person found these ventilation rates to be associated in all building types with statistically significant worsening in one or more health or perceived air quality outcomes. Some studies comparing only ventilation rates above 10 Ls{sup -1} per person determined that increases in ventilation rate above 10 Ls{sup -1} per person, up to approximately 20 Ls{sup -1} per person, were associated with further significant decreases in the prevalence of SBS symptoms or with further significant improvements in perceived air quality. The studies reported relative risks of 1.5-2 for respiratory illnesses and 1.1-6 for sick building syndrome symptoms for low compared to high ventilation rates.

  18. Association of the oral health impact profile with malnutrition risk in Spanish elders.

    PubMed

    Gil-Montoya, J A; Ponce, G; Snchez Lara, I; Barrios, R; Llodra, J C; Bravo, M

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine any relationship between oral health-related quality of life (OHR-QoL) and malnutrition risk in the elderly using the oral health impact profile (OHIP). We studied 250 institutionalized elderly people, 162 females and 88 males, with and without teeth. Data were gathered on: general health; oral health; malnutrition risk, measured with the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA); and OHR-QoL, evaluated with the OHIP. A multivariate binary logistic regression model was constructed with malnutrition presence/risk as dependent variable. Mean age was 82.7 8.2 years. Malnutrition or malnutrition risk was shown by 36.8% of the sample. OHIP was associated with malnutrition/risk after adjustment for age, sex, functional status, and mild dementia diagnosis. Malnutrition/risk was 3.43-fold more likely in participants with OHIP-reported "problems" than in those with none. The conclusion of the study was that OHIP-measured OHR-QoL is associated with malnutrition risk. PMID:23763956

  19. Subgroups of US IRAQ and Afghanistan veterans: associations with traumatic brain injury and mental health conditions.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Carlos A; Cooper, Douglas B; Wang, Chen-Pin; Tate, David F; Eapen, Blessen C; York, Gerald E; Pugh, Mary Jo

    2015-09-01

    U. S. veterans of Iraq and Afghanistan are known to have a high prevalence of traumatic brain injury (TBI), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depression, which are often comorbid and share many symptoms. Attempts to describe this cohort by single diagnoses have limited our understanding of the complex nature of this population. The objective of this study was to identify subgroups of Iraq and Afghanistan veterans (IAVs) with distinct compositions of symptoms associated with TBI, PTSD, and depression. Our cross-sectional, observational study included 303,716 IAVs who received care in the Veterans Health Administration in 2010-2011. Symptoms and conditions were defined using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes and symptom-clusters were identified using latent class analysis. We identified seven classes with distinct symptom compositions. One class had low probability of any condition and low health care utilization (HCU) (48%). Other classes were characterized by high probabilities of mental health comorbidities (14%); chronic pain and sleep disturbance (20%); headaches and memory problems (6%); and auditory problems (2.5%). Another class had mental health comorbidities and chronic pain (7%), and the last had high probabilities of most symptoms examined (3%). These last two classes had the highest likelihood of TBI, PTSD, and depression and were identified as high healthcare utilizers. There are subgroups of IAVs with distinct clusters of symptom that are meaningfully associated with TBI, PTSD, depression, and HCU. Additional studies examining these veteran subgroups could improve our understanding of this complex comorbid patient population. PMID:25963862

  20. An International Health Track Is Associated With Care for Underserved US Populations in Subsequent Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Bazemore, Andrew W.; Goldenhar, Linda M.; Lindsell, Christopher J.; Diller, Philip M.; Huntington, Mark K.

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent efforts to increase insurance coverage have revealed limits in primary care capacity, in part due to physician maldistribution. Of interest to policymakers and educators is the impact of nontraditional curricula, including global health education, on eventual physician location. We sought to measure the association between graduate medical education in global health and subsequent care of the underserved in the United States. Methods In 2005, we surveyed 137 graduates of a family medicine program with one of the country's longest-running international health tracks (IHTs). We compared graduates of the IHT, those in the traditional residency track, and graduates prior to IHT implementation, assessing the anticipated and actual involvement in care of rural and other underserved populations, physician characteristics, and practice location and practice population. Results IHT participants were more likely to practice abroad and care for the underserved in the United States in the first 5years following residency than non-IHT peers. Their current practices were more likely to be in underserved settings and they had higher percentages of uninsured and nonEnglish-speaking patients. Comparisons between pre-IHT and post-IHT inception showed that in the first 5years following residency, post-IHT graduates were more likely to care for the underserved and practice in rural areas and were likely to offer volunteer community health care services but were not more likely to practice abroad or to be in an academic practice. Conclusions Presence of an IHT was associated with increased care of underserved populations. After the institution of an IHT track, this association was seen among IHT participants and nonparticipants and was not associated with increased long-term service abroad. PMID:22655132

  1. Factors Associated with Health-Related Quality of Life among Overweight or Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Sereika, Susan M.; Styn, Mindi A.; Burke, Lora E.

    2014-01-01

    Aims and objectives To identify factors associated with HRQL among overweight or obese adults. Background The obesity epidemic presents a global challenge. Obesity is associated with lower health-related quality of life (HRQL); however, no study has comprehensively examined correlates of HRQL in this population. Design A cross-sectional design. Methods The physical component score (PCS), mental component score (MCS), and eight domain scores of the SF-36 v2 were used to assess HRQL. We identified 23 possible correlates of HRQL, including age, BMI, health and weight histories, perceived stress, cholesterol-lowering diet self-efficacy, problem-solving, binge eating, dietary intake and physical activity. Correlational analyses were used to examine the bivariate associations between correlates and HRQL variables. All possible subsets regression was used to develop predictive models of HRQL. Results The sample (N = 210) was predominantly White (84.8%), female (78.1%), and middle-aged (average age=46.80 years). Age, BMI, education, having children at home, and being hypertensive were identified as the best predictors of PCS, explaining about 9% of the variance. Age, marital status, having hyperlipidemia, perceived stress, problem-solving, self-efficacy, binge eating, and barriers to healthy eating predicted MCS, explaining approximately 48% of the variance. Physical functioning and role physical domains of HRQL had similar sets of predictors, with 15% and 13% of the variance explained, respectively; while similar predictors were identified for bodily pain (6%), general health (26%), vitality (40%), social functioning (32%), role emotional (42%), and mental health (46%) domains. Conclusions Psychosocial factors were associated with the mental-related quality of life. Further exploration of factors related to physical-related quality of life is warranted in this population. Relevance to clinical practice When working with overweight/obese adults who are trying to lose weight, nurses need to consider sociodemographic and psychosocial factors in the development of a treatment plan that will improve HRQL in this population. PMID:23829404

  2. Associations between Green Space and Health in English Cities: An Ecological, Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Bixby, Honor; Hodgson, Susan; Fortunato, La; Hansell, Anna; Fecht, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Green space has been identified as a modifiable feature of the urban environment and associations with physiological and psychological health have been reported at the local level. This study aims to assess whether these associations between health and green space are transferable to a larger scale, with English cities as the unit of analysis. We used an ecological, cross-sectional study design. We classified satellite-based land cover data to quantify green space coverage for the 50 largest cities in England. We assessed associations between city green space coverage with risk of death from all causes, cardiovascular disease, lung cancer and suicide between 2002 and 2009 using Poisson regression with random effect. After adjustment for age, income deprivation and air pollution, we found that at the city level the risk of death from all causes and a priori selected causes, for men and women, did not significantly differ between the greenest and least green cities. These findings suggest that the local health effects of urban green space observed at the neighbourhood level in some studies do not transfer to the city level. Further work is needed to establish how urban residents interact with local green space, in order to ascertain the most relevant measures of green space. PMID:25775020

  3. Associations between behavior disorders and health status among older adults with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Davidson, P W; Janicki, M P; Ladrigan, P; Houser, K; Henderson, C M; Cain, N N

    2003-11-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship of behavior and health status among aging persons with intellectual and developmental disabilities (I/DD). Behavioral disorders, which often are coincident with functional decline in older persons with I/DD, may be more related to medical morbidity than previously reported. This cross-sectional study examined the association between health status and behavior disorders with increasing age in a cohort of 60,752 adults with I/DD clustered into four adult-age groupings (21-44, 45-59, 60-74, and >74). Age grouping data suggested an association between morbidity and increased likelihood of behavior symptoms in all but the oldest age grouping. The magnitude of the association and trend varied by specific disease across age groupings compared to that found in healthy cohorts. About 25% of the adults with I/DD had psychiatric diagnoses and the frequency of such diagnoses did not decrease with age grouping. These results suggest that adverse health status may increase the likelihood of persistent behavioral disturbances in older persons with I/DD. Moreover, behavioral disorders may be sentinels for occult medical morbidity, which in turn may be responsive to intervention. PMID:14578003

  4. Betrayal trauma among homeless adults: associations with revictimization, psychological well-being, and health.

    PubMed

    Mackelprang, Jessica L; Klest, Bridget; Najmabadi, Shadae J; Valley-Gray, Sarah; Gonzalez, Efrain A; Cash, Ralph E Gene

    2014-04-01

    Betrayal trauma theory postulates that traumas perpetrated by a caregiver or close other are more detrimental to mental health functioning than are traumatic experiences in which the victim is not affiliated closely with the perpetrator. This study is the first to examine the concept of betrayal among a sample of individuals with a history of homelessness. A total of 95 homeless or formerly homeless adults completed the Brief Betrayal Trauma Survey, the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale the Perceived Stress Scale, and a demographics questionnaire assessing participants' histories of homelessness, health, and relationships with their families. Regression analyses were conducted to explore the associations between high betrayal (HB) and low betrayal (LB) trauma exposure, relationship with family, and physical and mental health symptoms. Exposure to HB traumas in childhood and poor family relationships predicted earlier age at first episode of homelessness, and participants who had been exposed to a greater number of traumas during childhood were more likely to be revictimized during adulthood. Trauma exposure as an adult and earlier age of first homeless episode predicted symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, while trauma exposure alone predicted symptoms of depression and perceived stress. Number of medical diagnoses was associated with trauma exposure and becoming homeless at an older age. These findings emphasize that even among the most marginalized and multiply victimized individuals in our society, traumas that are characterized by a higher degree of betrayal are associated with more adverse outcomes. PMID:24257592

  5. Children exposed to the arrest of a family member: Associations with mental health

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Frank J.; Kaufman, Joy S.; Finley, Meghan K.; Griffin, Amy; Anderson, Janet; Marshall, Tim; Radway, Susan; Stack, Virginia; Crusto, Cindy A.

    2013-01-01

    The arrest of a parent or other family member can be detrimental to children’s health. To study the impact of exposure to the arrest of a family member on children’s mental health and how said association may change across developmental periods, we examined baseline data for children (birth through 11 years) entering family-based systems of care (SOC). Children exposed to the arrest of a family member had experienced significantly more 5.38 (SD = 2.59) different types of potentially traumatic events (PTE) than children not exposed to arrest 2.84 (SD = 2.56). Multiple regression model results showed that arrest exposure was significantly associated with greater behavioral and emotional challenges after controlling for children’s age, gender, race/ethnicity, household income, caregiver’s education, parenting factors, and other PTE exposure. Further analyses revealed differences in internalizing and externalizing behaviors associated with arrest exposure across developmental levels. This study highlights some of the mental health challenges for children exposed to the arrest of a family member, while adding to our knowledge of how such an event affects children across different developmental periods. More trauma-informed, developmentally appropriate systems need to be in place at all levels to assist children and families experiencing arrest. PMID:24829537

  6. Moderated mediation analysis: An illustration using the association of gender with delinquency and mental health

    PubMed Central

    Miles, Jeremy N.V.; Kulesza, Magdalena; Ewing, Brett; Shih, Regina A.; Tucker, Joan S.; D’Amico, Elizabeth J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose When researchers find an association between two variables, it is useful to evaluate the role of other constructs in this association. While assessing these mediation effects, it is important to determine if results are equal for different groups. It is possible that the strength of a mediation effect may differ for males and females, for example – such an effect is known as moderated mediation. Design Participants were 2532 adolescents from diverse ethnic/racial backgrounds and equally distributed across gender. The goal of this study was to investigate parental respect as a potential mediator of the relationship between gender and delinquency and mental health, and to determine whether observed mediation is moderated by gender. Findings Parental respect mediated the association between gender and both delinquency and mental health. Specifically, parental respect was a protective factor against delinquency and mental health problems for both females and males. Practical implications Demonstrated the process of estimating models in Lavaan, using two approaches (i.e. single group regression and multiple group regression model), and including covariates in both models. PMID:26500722

  7. Self-Reported Physical Health Associations of Traumatic Events in Medical and Dental Outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Raja, Sheela; Hannan, Susan M.; Boykin, Derrecka; Orcutt, Holly; Hamad, Judy; Hoersch, Michelle; Hasnain, Memoona

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to understand the prevalence and severity of health-related sequelae of traumatic exposure in a nonpsychiatric, outpatient sample. Self-report surveys were completed by patients seeking outpatient medical (n = 123) and dental care (n = 125) at a large, urban academic medical center. Results suggested that trauma exposure was associated with a decrease in perceptions of overall health and an increase in pain interference at work. Contrary to prediction, a history of interpersonal trauma was associated with less physical and emotional interference with social activities. A history of trauma exposure was associated with an increase in time elapsed since last medical visit. Depression and anxiety did not mediate the relationship between trauma history and medical care. Based on these results, clinical and research implications in relation to the health effects of trauma are discussed. The results suggest that routine screening for traumatic events may be important, particularly when providers have long-term relationships with patients. PMID:25929906

  8. The Association between Membership in the Sandwich Generation and Health Behaviors: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Chassin, Laurie; Macy, Jon T.; Seo, Dong-Chul; Presson, Clark C.; Sherman, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the association between membership in the sandwich generation, defined as providing care to both children and parents or in-laws, and five health behaviors: checking the food label for health value when buying foods, using a seat belt, choosing foods based on health value, exercising regularly, and cigarette smoking. Participants (N=4943) were from a longitudinal study of a midwestern community-based sample. Regression analyses tested the unique effect of sandwich generation membership on health behaviors above and beyond demographic factors and prior levels of the same behavior. Compared to other caregivers and noncaregivers, multigenerational caregivers were less likely to check food labels and to choose foods based on health values. Multigenerational caregivers were less likely than noncaregivers and those who cared for children only to use seat belts, and they smoked marginally more cigarettes per day than those groups. Multigenerational caregivers were less likely than noncaregivers and those who cared for parents/in-laws only to exercise regularly. Thus, in general, healthy behaviors were diminished for multigenerational caregivers. PMID:20161605

  9. The Association between Membership in the Sandwich Generation and Health Behaviors: A Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Chassin, Laurie; Macy, Jon T; Seo, Dong-Chul; Presson, Clark C; Sherman, Steven J

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the association between membership in the sandwich generation, defined as providing care to both children and parents or in-laws, and five health behaviors: checking the food label for health value when buying foods, using a seat belt, choosing foods based on health value, exercising regularly, and cigarette smoking. Participants (N=4943) were from a longitudinal study of a midwestern community-based sample. Regression analyses tested the unique effect of sandwich generation membership on health behaviors above and beyond demographic factors and prior levels of the same behavior. Compared to other caregivers and noncaregivers, multigenerational caregivers were less likely to check food labels and to choose foods based on health values. Multigenerational caregivers were less likely than noncaregivers and those who cared for children only to use seat belts, and they smoked marginally more cigarettes per day than those groups. Multigenerational caregivers were less likely than noncaregivers and those who cared for parents/in-laws only to exercise regularly. Thus, in general, healthy behaviors were diminished for multigenerational caregivers. PMID:20161605

  10. Oral health of elite athletes and association with performance: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ashley, P; Di Iorio, A; Cole, E; Tanday, A; Needleman, I

    2015-01-01

    Background We aimed to systematically review the epidemiology of oral disease and trauma in the elite athlete population and to investigate the impact of oral health on sporting performance. Methods Authors searched Ovid MEDLINE (1950 to October 2013), Ovid EMBASE (1980 to October 2013), EBSCO SPORTDiscus (up to October 2013) and OpenGrey (http://www.opengrey.eu). No date or language restrictions were applied. Papers were included if they evaluated the oral health of professional athletes. The methodological quality of papers was evaluated using a modification of the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Results The literature search led to 9858 potentially relevant citations. Following a set of predefined exclusion criteria, 34 studies remained. Twenty-six studies reported on dental trauma, which ranged in prevalence from 14% to 47% varying by sport and country. Sixteen studies considered the oral health of athletes and reported high prevalence of oral diseases: dental caries 1575%, dental erosion 3685%, periodontal disease 15%. In four studies, a range between 5% and 18% of athletes reported negative impact of oral health or trauma on performance. The methodological quality of included studies was generally low. Conclusions Within the limits of the review, oral health of athletes is poor. We hypothesise that poor oral health associates with self-reported performance; however, this needs to be tested. Further studies on representative samples of athletes are needed to assess the size of the problem of poor oral health as well as to investigate the possible impact on performance using objective measures of performance. PMID:25388551

  11. Health status and quality of life in postpartum women: a systematic review of associated factors.

    PubMed

    Van der Woude, Daisy A A; Pijnenborg, Johanna M A; de Vries, Jolanda

    2015-02-01

    Since health care is becoming more and more patient centered, patient-reported outcomes such as quality of life (QOL) and health status (HS) are becoming increasingly important. The aim of this systematic review was to provide an overview of physical, psychological, and social domains of QOL and HS in postpartum women, and to assess which factors are associated with QOL and HS domains postpartum. A computerized literature search was performed using the PubMed, PsycINFO, and Cochrane databases. Studies were selected if the three domains of QOL or HS were measured in a (sub)group of postpartum women, by using validated standardized questionnaires. The methodological quality of the 66 included studies was examined by two independent reviewers. All three domains of QOL were impaired in postpartum women with urinary incontinence, with even worse QOL in women with mixed urinary incontinence. Mental QOL was impaired in women with urge urinary incontinence after cesarean section. Social QOL was decreased in HIV-positive women. HS was impaired in all three domains in postpartum depressed women. Physical HS was impaired after cesarean section for at least two months postpartum. Additional supportive interventions from health care social support were not associated with improved HS. Urinary incontinence and being HIV-positive seemed to be associated with impaired QOL. Postpartum depression and a cesarean section seemed to be associated with impaired HS. Prospective longitudinal research is needed in order to draw valid conclusions regarding postpartum HS and QOL, and the predictive value of the associated factors. PMID:25522118

  12. Association of Adiposity and Mental Health Functioning across the Lifespan: Findings from Understanding Society (The UK Household Longitudinal Study)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence on the adiposity-mental health associations is mixed, with studies finding positive, negative or no associations, and less is known about how these associations may vary by age. Objective To examine the association of adiposity -body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and percentage body fat (BF%)- with mental health functioning across the adult lifespan. Methods Data from 11,257 participants (aged 18+) of Understanding Society: the UK Household Longitudinal Study (waves 2 and 3, 5/2010-7/2013) were employed. Regressions of mental health functioning, assessed by the Mental Component Summary (MCS-12) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), on adiposity measures (continuous or dichotomous indicators) were estimated adjusted for covariates. Polynomial age-adiposity interactions were estimated. Results Higher adiposity was associated with poorer mental health functioning. This emerged in the 30s, increased up to mid-40s (all central adiposity and obesity-BF% measures) or early 50s (all BMI measures) and then decreased with age. Underlying physical health generally accounted for these associations except for central adiposity, where associations remained statistically significant from the mid-30s to50s. Cardiovascular, followed by arthritis and endocrine, conditions played the greatest role in attenuating the associations under investigation. Conclusions We found strong age-specific patterns in the adiposity-mental health functioning association that varied across adiposity measures. Underlying physical health had the dominant role in attenuating these associations. Policy makers and health professionals should target increased adiposity, mainly central adiposity, as it is a risk factor for poor mental health functioning in those aged between mid-30s to 50 years. PMID:26849046

  13. Self-Rated Health among Urban Adolescents: The Roles of Age, Gender, and Their Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    Meireles, Adriana Lúcia; Xavier, César Coelho; de Souza Andrade, Amanda Cristina; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    Health status is often analyzed in population surveys. Self-rated health (SRH) is a single-item summary measure of the perception of one’s health. In Brazil, studies on the SRH of adolescents remain scarce, especially those aiming to understand the domains that compose this construct. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of poor SRH and its associated factors among 11- to 13-year-olds and 14- to 17-year-olds living in a large urban center in Brazil. This cross-sectional study was conducted using a household survey across Belo Horizonte that included 1,042 adolescents. Stratified logistic regression models were used for each age group to assess the associations between worse SRH and the following variables: socio-demographic, social and family support, lifestyles, psychological health, and anthropometry. Approximately 11% (95% CIs = 8.7–13.6) of the studied adolescents rated their health as poor, and SHR decreased with age among males and females. This trend was more pronounced among girls (from 6.9% among 11- to 13-year-old girls to 16.9% among 14- to 17-year-old girls) than boys (from 8.3% among 11- to 13-year-old boys to 11% among 14- to 17-year-old boys). Worse SRH was associated with family support (as assessed by the absence of parent-adolescent conversations; odds ratio [OR] = 3.5 among 11- to 13-year-olds), family structure (OR = 2.8 among 14- to 17-year-olds), and argument reporting (OR = 8.2 among 14- to 17-year-olds). Among older adolescents, the consumption of fruit fewer than five times per week (OR = 2.4), life dissatisfaction (OR = 2.8), underweight status (OR = 6.7), and overweight status (OR = 2.7) were associated with poor SRH. As adolescents age, their universe expands from their relationship with their parents to include more complex issues, such as their lifestyles and life satisfaction. Therefore, these results suggest the importance of evaluating SRH across adolescent age groups and demonstrate the influence of the family environment (in addition to other factors) on negative health assessments, particularly among 14- to 17-year-olds. PMID:26177464

  14. Self-Rated Health among Urban Adolescents: The Roles of Age, Gender, and Their Associated Factors.

    PubMed

    Meireles, Adriana Lúcia; Xavier, César Coelho; de Souza Andrade, Amanda Cristina; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    Health status is often analyzed in population surveys. Self-rated health (SRH) is a single-item summary measure of the perception of one's health. In Brazil, studies on the SRH of adolescents remain scarce, especially those aiming to understand the domains that compose this construct. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of poor SRH and its associated factors among 11- to 13-year-olds and 14- to 17-year-olds living in a large urban center in Brazil. This cross-sectional study was conducted using a household survey across Belo Horizonte that included 1,042 adolescents. Stratified logistic regression models were used for each age group to assess the associations between worse SRH and the following variables: socio-demographic, social and family support, lifestyles, psychological health, and anthropometry. Approximately 11% (95% CIs = 8.7-13.6) of the studied adolescents rated their health as poor, and SHR decreased with age among males and females. This trend was more pronounced among girls (from 6.9% among 11- to 13-year-old girls to 16.9% among 14- to 17-year-old girls) than boys (from 8.3% among 11- to 13-year-old boys to 11% among 14- to 17-year-old boys). Worse SRH was associated with family support (as assessed by the absence of parent-adolescent conversations; odds ratio [OR] = 3.5 among 11- to 13-year-olds), family structure (OR = 2.8 among 14- to 17-year-olds), and argument reporting (OR = 8.2 among 14- to 17-year-olds). Among older adolescents, the consumption of fruit fewer than five times per week (OR = 2.4), life dissatisfaction (OR = 2.8), underweight status (OR = 6.7), and overweight status (OR = 2.7) were associated with poor SRH. As adolescents age, their universe expands from their relationship with their parents to include more complex issues, such as their lifestyles and life satisfaction. Therefore, these results suggest the importance of evaluating SRH across adolescent age groups and demonstrate the influence of the family environment (in addition to other factors) on negative health assessments, particularly among 14- to 17-year-olds. PMID:26177464

  15. An Association between Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and Migraine HeadachesNational Health Interview Survey, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Law, Huay-Zong; Amirlak, Bardia; Cheng, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Migraine headaches have not historically been considered a compression neuropathy. Recent studies suggest that some migraines are successfully treated by targeted peripheral nerve decompression. Other compression neuropathies have previously been associated with one another. The goal of this study is to evaluate whether an association exists between migraines and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), the most common compression neuropathy. Methods: Data from 25,880 respondents of the cross-sectional 2010 National Health Interview Survey were used to calculate nationally representative prevalence estimates and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of CTS and migraine headaches. Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% CI for the degree of association between migraines and CTS after controlling for known demographic and health-related factors. Results: CTS was associated with older age, female gender, obesity, diabetes, and smoking. CTS was less common in Hispanics and Asians. Migraine was associated with younger age, female gender, obesity, diabetes, and current smoking. Migraine was less common in Asians. Migraine prevalence was 34% in those with CTS compared with 16% in those without CTS (aOR, 2.60; 95% CI, 2.163.13). CTS prevalence in patients with migraine headache was 8% compared with 3% in those without migraine headache (aOR, 2.67; 95% CI, 2.223.22). Conclusions: This study is the first to demonstrate an association between CTS and migraine headache. Longitudinal and genetic studies with physician verification of migraine headaches and CTS are needed to further define this association. PMID:25878944

  16. Reducing Health Disparity in People with Intellectual Disabilities: A Report from Health Issues Special Interest Research Group of the International Association for the Scientific Study of Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheepers, M.; Kerr, M.; O'Hara, D.; Bainbridge, D.; Cooper, S.-A.; Davis, R.; Fujiura, G.; Heller, T.; Holland, A.; Krahn, G.; Lennox, N.; Meaney, J.; Wehmeyer, M.

    2005-01-01

    Disparities in the health status and care experienced by people with intellectual disabilities are increasingly being recognized. This special report presents the results of an international expert consensus workshop held under the auspices of the Health Issues Special Interest Research Group of the International Association for the Scientific

  17. Reducing Health Disparity in People with Intellectual Disabilities: A Report from Health Issues Special Interest Research Group of the International Association for the Scientific Study of Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheepers, M.; Kerr, M.; O'Hara, D.; Bainbridge, D.; Cooper, S.-A.; Davis, R.; Fujiura, G.; Heller, T.; Holland, A.; Krahn, G.; Lennox, N.; Meaney, J.; Wehmeyer, M.

    2005-01-01

    Disparities in the health status and care experienced by people with intellectual disabilities are increasingly being recognized. This special report presents the results of an international expert consensus workshop held under the auspices of the Health Issues Special Interest Research Group of the International Association for the Scientific…

  18. Motivation of health workers and associated factors in public hospitals of West Amhara, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Weldegebriel, Zemichael; Ejigu, Yohannes; Weldegebreal, Fitsum; Woldie, Mirkuzie

    2016-01-01

    Background Health professionals’ motivation reflects the interaction between health professionals and their work environment. It can potentially affect the provision of health services; however, this important attribute of the workplace climate in public hospitals is not usually given serious attention to the desired level. For this reason, the authors of this study have assessed the level of motivation of health professionals and associated factors in public hospitals of West Amhara, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted in eight public hospitals of West Amhara from June 1 to July 30, 2013. A total of 304 health professionals were included in this study. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20. The reliability of the instrument was assessed through Cronbach’s α. Factor scores were generated for the items found to represent the scales (eigenvalue greater than one in varimax rotation) used in the measurement of the variables. The scores were further analyzed using one-way analysis of variance, t-tests, Pearson’s correlation, and hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses. The cut-off point for the regression analysis to determine significance was set at β (95% confidence interval, P<0.05). Results Mean motivation scores (as the percentage of maximum scale scores) were 58.6% for the overall motivation score, 71.0% for the conscientiousness scale, 52.8% for the organizational commitment scale, 58.3% for the intrinsic motivation scale, and 64.0% for organizational burnout scale. Professional category, age, type of the hospital, nonfinancial motivators like performance evaluation and management, staffing and work schedule, staff development and promotion, availability of necessary resources, and ease of communication were found to be strong predictors of health worker motivation. Across the hospitals and professional categories, health workers’ overall level of motivation with absolute level of compensation was not significantly associated with their overall level of motivation. Conclusion The strongest drivers of all motivation dimensions were found to be nonfinancial human resource management tools, so policy makers and health workforce stake holders should focus on these tools to alleviate motivation problems. PMID:26929608

  19. Adherence to the 2006 American Heart Association Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations for cardiovascular disease risk reduction is associated with bone health in older Puerto Ricans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and osteoporosis are 2 major public health problems that share common pathophysiological mechanisms. It is possible that strategies to reduce CVD risk may also benefit bone health. We tested the hypothesis that adherence to the 2006 American Heart Association Diet and Li...

  20. Mis-reporting, previous health status and health status of family may seriously bias the association between food patterns and disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Food pattern analyses are popular tools in the study of associations between diet and health. However, there is a need for further evaluation of this methodology. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to evaluate the relationship between food pattern groups (FPG) and existing health, and to identify factors influencing this relationship. Methods The inhabitants of Västerbotten County in northern Sweden are invited to health check-ups when they turn 30, 40, 50, and 60 years of age. The present study includes data collected from almost 60,000 individuals between 1992 and 2005. Associations between FPG (established using K-means cluster analyses) and health were analyzed separately in men and women. Results The health status of the participants and their close family and reporting accuracy differed significantly between men and women and among FPG. Crude regression analyses, with the high fat FPG as reference, showed increased risks for several health outcomes for all other FPGs in both sexes. However, when limiting analysis to individuals without previous ill-health and with adequate energy intake reports, most of the risks instead showed a trend towards protective effects. Conclusions Food pattern classifications reflect both eating habits and other own and family health related factors, a finding important to remember and to adjust for before singling out the diet as a primary cause for present and future health problems. Appropriate exclusions are suggested to avoid biases and attenuated associations in nutrition epidemiology. PMID:21034501

  1. Associations between Vascular Health Indices and Serum Total, Free and Bioavailable 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Ambika P.; Alvarez, Jessica A.; Dudenbostel, Tanja; Calhoun, David; Griffin, Russell; Wang, Xudong; Hanks, Lynae J.; Gower, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The role of vitamin D in cardiovascular health remains debated as results have been inconsistent. Previous studies have not considered the bioavailability of 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D]. Objectives of our study were to investigate the association between serum concentrations of total, free and bioavailable 25(OH)D and independent predictors of cardiovascular risk such as flow mediated dilatation (FMD) and augmentation index (AIx). Design This cross-sectional study included 47 post-menarchal, adolescent females [31 African American (AA) and 16 European American (EA)]. Methods AIx was standardized to a heart rate of 75 beats/min (AIx75). Free and bioavailable 25(OH)D concentrations were calculated from standard formulas. Results and Conclusions Mean age of the participants was 15.81.4 years and mean body mass index was 23.14.0 kg/m2. Serum total 25(OH)D was not associated with FMD, but was positively associated with AIx75 in the adjusted model (rho?=?0.4, P?=?0.03). AIx75 was positively associated with bioavailable 25(OH)D (rho?=?0.4, P?=?0.004) and free 25(OH)D (rho?=?0.4, P?=?0.009) and the associations persisted after adjusting for covariates. In race-specific analyses, total, free and bioavailable 25(OH)D were strongly positively associated with AIx75 in AA (rho?=?0.5, 0.4, 0.4, respectively), which persisted even after adjusting for covariates. Whereas in EA there was an inverse association between total 25(OH)D and AIx75 in EA (rho?=??0.6), which attenuated after adjusting for covariates. Conclusion Circulating total, free and bioavailable 25(OH)D were associated with arterial stiffness in adolescent girls, and these associations were race dependent. Notwithstanding, the implications of associations between vascular function indices and 25(OH)D remains unclear. PMID:25479358

  2. Ideal Cardiovascular Health Metrics Are Associated with Disability Independently of Vascular Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Devulapalli, Saravana; Shoirah, Hazem; Dhamoon, Mandip S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Vascular risk factors may be associated with disability independently of vascular events. We examined whether the American Heart Association’s 7 ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) metrics were independently associated with disability in a nationally representative cohort. Methods Adults age ≥20 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2012 were included. Ideal CVH was calculated as a composite of 7 measures, each scored 0–2. Primary predictors were number of ideal CVH metrics and score of CVH metrics. The outcome was a dichotomous score from 20 activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental ADLs. Unadjusted and adjusted weighted logistic models estimated associations between ideal CVH and disability. The data were analyzed in 2015. Results Among 22692 participants, mean age was 46.9 years. Cardiac disease and stroke were present in 6.6% and 2.8%; 90.3% had poor physical activity and 89.9% poor diet. Among 3975 individuals with full CVH data, in fully adjusted models, OR for disability was 0.90 (95% CI 0.83–0.98) per point increase in ideal CVH score, and 0.84 (0.73–0.97) per additional number of ideal CVH metrics. Conclusions CVH metrics were strongly and significantly associated with reduced odds of disability independently of vascular and non-vascular conditions. Poorer CVH may cause subclinical vascular disease resulting in disability. PMID:26926808

  3. More missing teeth are associated with poorer general health in the rural Korean elderly.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee-Kyung; Lee, Kyung-Dong; Merchant, Anwar T; Lee, Sung-Kook; Song, Keun-Bae; Lee, Sang Gyu; Choi, Youn-Hee

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the association between missing teeth and general health conditions in elderly Korean people. This cross-sectional study was conducted as a part of a health-screening program supported by the National Health Insurance Corporation of Korea in a local region of Sungju-gun, Gyeongsangbuk-do from 2000 to 2006. The participants were 3611 in number (1494 males and 2117 females) aged 60 years and over. The outcome variable was the number of missing teeth in the mouth determined by dental examination; general medical examination included blood pressure, body height and weight to compute body mass index (BMI). Laboratory investigations included aspartate transaminase (AST), hemoglobin (HB), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and total cholesterol (CHOL). Demographic factors and smoking status were obtained from questionnaires by an interviewer. Multiple regression models were used as a statistical analysis. The subjects were classified into three groups according to the number of missing teeth (<8, 8-18, and >18). In unadjusted analyses individuals with more missing teeth, had poorer general health status (higher blood pressure, higher levels of AST, FPG, and CHOL, and higher BMI in females). In multiple regression models with the number of missing teeth as an outcome, systolic blood pressure, CHOL, FPG, and HB in males were statistically significant after adjusting for age and smoking. In females, systolic blood pressure, CHOL, FPG, and BMI were positively associated with the number of missing teeth. The number of missing teeth was positively related to poorer general health status such as blood pressure, FPG, CHOL, after adjusting for age and smoking in the rural elderly in Korea. PMID:19230988

  4. Health care expenditures associated with skeletal fractures among Medicare beneficiaries, 1999-2005.

    PubMed

    Kilgore, Meredith L; Morrisey, Michael A; Becker, David J; Gary, Lisa C; Curtis, Jeffrey R; Saag, Kenneth G; Yun, Huifeng; Matthews, Robert; Smith, Wilson; Taylor, Allison; Arora, Tarun; Delzell, Elizabeth

    2009-12-01

    Fractures impose substantial burdens, in terms of both costs and health, on individuals and health care systems. This is particularly true for older Americans and the Medicare system. The objective of this study was to estimate the costs of care associated with selected fractures among Medicare beneficiaries. This was a retrospective, person-level, pre/postfracture analysis using administrative data. The study used Medicare claims data from 1999 through 2005 for a 5% sample of Medicare beneficiaries. The subjects included Medicare beneficiaries, >or=65 yr of age, who had at least 13 mo of both Parts A and B coverage and not enrolled in Medicare Advantage and who experienced a closed fracture of the hip, femur, pelvis, tibia/fibula, ankle, distal forearm, nondistal radius/ulna, humerus, clavicle, spine, or wrist, or any fracture of the distal forearm or ankle during the years 2000 through 2005. The main outcome measures were incremental (greater than baseline) and attributable (directly associated) payments for Medicare-covered services for the first 6 mo after incident fractures. Incremental payments ranged from $7788 (95% CI, $7550-$8025) for distal forearm fractures to $31,310 (95% CI, $31,073-$31,547) for open hip fractures; the attributable payments for distal forearm and hip fractures were $1856 and $18,734, respectively. Fractures are associated with substantial increases in health services utilization and costs among Medicare beneficiaries, but significant proportions of those costs are not directly attributable to fracture treatment. Further research is needed to ascertain other health conditions that are driving costs for Medicare beneficiaries after fractures. PMID:19453260

  5. Alcohol, Binge Drinking and Associated Mental Health Problems in Young Urban Chileans

    PubMed Central

    Mason-Jones, Amanda J.; Cabieses, Báltica

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the link between alcohol use, binge drinking and mental health problems in a representative sample of adolescent and young adult Chileans. Methods Age and sex-adjusted Odds Ratios (OR) for four mental wellbeing measures were estimated with separate conditional logistic regression models for adolescents aged 15-20 years, and young adults aged 21-25 years, using population-based estimates of alcohol use prevalence rates from the Chilean National Health Survey 2010. Results Sixty five per cent of adolescents and 85% of young adults reported drinking alcohol in the last year and of those 83% per cent of adolescents and 86% of young adults reported binge drinking in the previous month. Adolescents who reported binging alcohol were also more likely, compared to young adults, to report being always or almost always depressed (OR 12.97 [95% CI, 1.86-19.54]) or to feel very anxious in the last month (OR 9.37 [1.77-19.54]). Adolescent females were more likely to report poor life satisfaction in the previous year than adolescent males (OR 8.50 [1.61-15.78]), feel always or almost always depressed (OR 3.41 [1.25-9.58]). Being female was also associated with a self-reported diagnosis of depression for both age groups (adolescents, OR 4.74 [1.49-15.08] and young adults, OR 4.08 [1.65-10.05]). Conclusion Young people in Chile self-report a high prevalence of alcohol use, binge drinking and associated mental health problems. The harms associated with alcohol consumption need to be highlighted through evidence-based prevention programs. Health and education systems need to be strengthened to screen and support young people. Focussing on policy initiatives to limit beverage companies targeting alcohol to young people will also be needed. PMID:25830508

  6. Meta-Analyses of the Associations of Respiratory Health Effectswith Dampness and Mold in Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.; Lei-Gomez, Quanhong; Mendell, Mark J.

    2006-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academy of Sciences recently completed a critical review of the scientific literature pertaining to the association of indoor dampness and mold contamination with adverse health effects. In this paper, we report the results of quantitative meta-analysis of the studies reviewed in the IOM report. We developed point estimates and confidence intervals (CIs) to summarize the association of several respiratory and asthma-related health outcomes with the presence of dampness and mold in homes. The odds ratios and confidence intervals from the original studies were transformed to the log scale and random effect models were applied to the log odds ratios and their variance. Models were constructed both accounting for the correlation between multiple results within the studies analyzed and ignoring such potential correlation. Central estimates of ORs for the health outcomes ranged from 1.32 to 2.10, with most central estimates between 1.3 and 1.8. Confidence intervals (95%) excluded unity except in two of 28 instances, and in most cases the lower bound of the CI exceeded 1.2. In general, the two meta-analysis methods produced similar estimates for ORs and CIs. Based on the results of the meta-analyses, building dampness and mold are associated with approximately 30% to 80% increases in a variety of respiratory and asthma-related health outcomes. The results of these meta-analyses reinforce the IOM's recommendation that actions be taken to prevent and reduce building dampness problems.

  7. Navajo Environmental Health Review by the National Environmental Health Association (Window Rock, Arizona, May 24-27, 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navajo Health Authority, Window Rock, AZ.

    The Indian Health Committee met with key staff of the Indian Health Service (IHS) Area Office to review the environmental health services provided on the Navajo Reservation and make recommendations for improvement or expansion of current programs, if needed. Recommendations were made regarding environmental health and institutional personnel,

  8. Navajo Environmental Health Review by the National Environmental Health Association (Window Rock, Arizona, May 24-27, 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navajo Health Authority, Window Rock, AZ.

    The Indian Health Committee met with key staff of the Indian Health Service (IHS) Area Office to review the environmental health services provided on the Navajo Reservation and make recommendations for improvement or expansion of current programs, if needed. Recommendations were made regarding environmental health and institutional personnel,…

  9. The Association between Mental Health and Acute Infectious Illness among a National Sample of 18- To 24-Year-Old College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Troy B.; Wharton, Christopher M.; Quilter, Lyndsay; Hirsch, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    Poor mental health is associated with physical illness, but this association is poorly characterized among college students. Objective and Participants: Using American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment data, the authors characterized poor mental health (depression, anxiety, negative affect) and examined the relationship…

  10. The Association between Mental Health and Acute Infectious Illness among a National Sample of 18- To 24-Year-Old College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Troy B.; Wharton, Christopher M.; Quilter, Lyndsay; Hirsch, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    Poor mental health is associated with physical illness, but this association is poorly characterized among college students. Objective and Participants: Using American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment data, the authors characterized poor mental health (depression, anxiety, negative affect) and examined the relationship

  11. An exploratory study of associations of physical activity with mental health and work engagement

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have found moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) to be associated with a decreased risk of mental disorders. Although the focus in the field of psychology has shifted towards human strengths and optimal functioning, studies examining associations between MVPA and mental health in general (MH) and between MVPA and well-being are scarce. An indicator of work-related well-being is work engagement (WE). The aim of this study was to explore the associations between MVPA and MH, and between MVPA and WE. Methods In this study, a total of 257 employees from two research institutes, self-reported their MVPA, MH and level of WE. In addition, a randomly chosen subgroup (n=100) wore an Actigraph accelerometer for a 1-week period to measure their MVPA objectively. Crude and adjusted associations between MVPA and both WE and MH were analyzed using linear regression analyses. Results There was no statistically significant association between self-reported MVPA and mental health, resulting from both the crude (b=0.058, 95% CI -0.118 - 0.235) and adjusted analyses (b=0.026; 95% CI -0.158- 0.210), nor between objectively measured MVPA and mental health for both crude and adjusted analyses (b=-0.144; 95% CI -1.315- 1.027; b=-0.199; 95% CI 1.417- 1.018 respectively). There was also no significant association between self-reported MVPA and work engagement (crude: b=0.005; 95% CI -0.005-0.016, adjusted: b= 0.002; 95% CI -0.010- 0.013), nor between objectively measured MVPA and work engagement (crude: b= 0.012; 95% CI -0.084- 0.060, adjusted: b=0.007; 95% CI -0.083-0.069). Conclusions Although the beneficial effects of MVPA on the negative side of MH (i.e. mental disorders) have been established in previous studies, this study found no evidence for the beneficial effects of MVPA on positive side of MH (i.e. well-being). The possible difference in how the physical activity-mental health relationship works for negative and positive sides of MH should be considered in future studies. PMID:23758966

  12. The association between academic engagement and achievement in health sciences students

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Educational institutions play an important role in encouraging student engagement, being necessary to know how engaged are students at university and if this factor is involved in student success point and followed. To explore the association between academic engagement and achievement. Methods Cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of 304 students of Health Sciences. They were asked to fill out an on-line questionnaire. Academic achievements were calculated using three types of measurement. Results Positive correlations were found in all cases. Grade point average was the academic rate most strongly associated with engagement dimensions and this association is different for male and female students. The independent variables could explain between 18.9 and 23.9% of the variance (p < 0.05) in the population of university students being analyzed. Conclusions Engagement has been shown to be one of the many factors, which are positively involved, in the academic achievements of college students. PMID:23446005

  13. Health and health-related quality of life among treatment-seeking overweight and obese adults: associations with internalized weight bias

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Weight bias is widespread and has numerous harmful consequences. The internalization of weight bias has been associated with significant psychological impairment. Other forms of discrimination, such as racial and anti-gay bias, have been shown to be associated with physical health impairment. However, research has not yet examined whether internalized weight bias is associated with physical as well as psychological impairment in health-related quality of life. Methods Participants included 120 treatment-seeking overweight and obese adults (mean body mass index = 35.09; mean age = 48.31; 68% female; 59% mixed or Asian ethnicity). Participants were administered measures of internalized weight bias and physical and mental health-related quality of life, and they were assessed for the presence of chronic medical conditions, use of prescription and non-prescription medications, and current exercise. Results Internalized weight bias was significantly correlated with health impairment in both physical (r = ?.25) and mental (r = ?.48) domains. In multivariate analyses controlling for body mass index, age, and other physical health indicators, internalized weight bias significantly and independently predicted impairment in both physical (? = ?.31) and mental (? = ?.47) health. Conclusions Internalized weight bias was associated with greater impairment in both the physical and mental domains of health-related quality of life. Internalized weight bias also contributed significantly to the variance in physical and mental health impairment over and above the contributions of BMI, age, and medical comorbidity. Consistent with the association between prejudice and physical health in other minority groups, these findings suggest a link between the effects of internalized weight-based discrimination and physical health. Research is needed on strategies to prevent weight bias and its internalization on both a societal and individual level. PMID:24764526

  14. National Breakthrough Pain Study: prevalence, characteristics, and associations with health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Narayana, Arvind; Katz, Nathaniel; Shillington, Alicia C; Stephenson, Judith J; Harshaw, Qing; Frye, Carla B; Portenoy, Russell K

    2015-02-01

    The National Breakthrough Pain Study is a large observational study that assessed breakthrough pain (BTP) in a population of commercially insured community-dwelling patients with opioid-treated chronic pain. Eligible patients were identified from an administrative claims database, and consenting patients were asked to complete a structured telephone interview and several validated questionnaires. Questionnaires assessed pain interference with function (Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form), health status (Short Form 12 [SF-12] Health Survey), disability (Sheehan Disability Scale), work performance (World Health Organization Health and Work Performance Questionnaire), and mood (Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 Screener [GAD-7] and Patient Health Questionnaire-2 [PHQ-2]). Of 2198 patients interviewed, 1278 patients had persistent pain controlled with opioid therapy; 1023 (80%) of these patients reported BTP. Patients had a median of 2.0 episodes of BTP per day (range, 1-50) and a median duration of BTP of 45 minutes (range, 1-720). Compared with patients without BTP, patients with BTP had more pain-related interference in function (Brief Pain Inventory, mean ± SD: 34.2 ± 15.6 vs 25.0 ± 15.7 [P < 0.001]), worse physical health (SF-12 physical component score: 29.9 ± 9.6 vs 35.1 ± 10.4 [P < 0.001]) and mental health (SF-12 mental component score: 47.4 ± 11.3 vs 49.3 ± 10.4 [P < 0.001]), more disability (Sheehan Disability Scale global impairment score: 15.1 ± 9.1 vs 10.6 ± 8.5; World Health Organization Health and Work Performance Questionnaire absolute absenteeism: 12.4 ± 59.9 vs 7.7 ± 44.9 hours [both P < 0.001]), and worse mood (GAD-7 score: 7.4 ± 5.9 vs 5.9 ± 5.4; PHQ-2 anhedonia score: 1.2 ± 1.1 vs 0.9 ± 1.0 [both P < 0.001]). In this population of community-dwelling patients with opioid-treated chronic pain, BTP was highly prevalent and associated with negative outcomes. This burden of illness suggests the need for specific treatment plans. PMID:25599446

  15. Perceptions of Stressful Life Events as Turning Points Are Associated with Self-rated Health and Psychological Distress

    PubMed Central

    Sutin, Angelina R.; Costa, Paul T.; Wethington, Elaine; Eaton, William

    2010-01-01

    We test the hypothesis that changes in physical and psychological health are associated with construals of stressful life events. At two points in time, approximately 10 years apart, participants (N=1,038) rated their physical health and psychological distress. At the second assessment, participants also reported their most stressful life event since the first assessment and indicated whether they considered the event a turning point and/or lesson learned. Lower self-ratings of health and higher ratings of psychological distress, controlling for baseline health and distress and relevant demographic factors, were associated with perceiving the stressful life event as a turning point, particularly a negative turning point. The two health measures were primarily unrelated to lessons learned. How individuals construe the most stressful events in their lives is associated with changes in self-rated health and distress. PMID:20099168

  16. Association between Aluminum and Silicon Concentrations in Isfahan Drinking Water and Their Health Risk Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Pourgheysari, Hajar; Hajizadeh, Yaghoub; Tarrahi, Mohammad Javad; Ebrahimi, Afshin

    2015-01-01

    Background: High concentrations of elements such as aluminum (Al) and silicon (Si) in drinking water can affect human health. It is suggested that high daily intake of Al is associated with increased risk of neurodegenerative disorders. Si, as an antidote of Al, may decrease Al bioavailability. The study was conducted to estimate Al and Si concentration and correlation in water and evaluate their health risk. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, water samples were collected from 20 points of water distribution system and the water treatment plant of Isfahan in spring and summer. Samples were analyzed using DR-5000. The health risk was evaluated via calculating chronic daily intake (CDI) and hazard index (HI). Results: Significant negative correlation was documented between Al and Si (R = −0.482, P = 0.037 in spring, and R = −0.452, P = 0.049 in summer). These values were approximately similar in all types of Al and Si. The amounts of CDI for Al in spring and summer were 6.67E-04 and 0.002 mg/kg/day, respectively. The Al HI values were below 1 in both seasons. Conclusions: The significant correlation between Al and Si concentrations suggests that Si can eliminate Al in water, and probably it might do the same in the body. The health risk of Al intake from tap water was negligible, it was assessed in an acceptable range with an HI value of less than the standard levels. The health risk of Si remained unknown due to lack of information regarding its toxicity and adverse health effects. PMID:26682032

  17. Association of micronutrient status with subclinical health complaints in lactovegetarian adults

    PubMed Central

    Chiplonkar, Shashi Ajit; Agte, Vaishali Vilas

    2007-01-01

    Background Micronutrient malnutrition has many adverse effects on human health, not all of which may be clinically evident. Objective To explore linkages between subclinical health complaints and micronutrient status in lactovegetarian Indian adults. Design Health was assessed in 502 lactovegetarian adults (275 men, 227 women, aged 30.69 years) using a structured questionnaire for existing complaints with severity of symptoms on a four-point scale and morbidity over the preceding month. Subjects were categorized as having no complaints (NC), or complaints of mild (MI) or moderate (MD) degree, using cluster analysis. Diet was recorded by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and nutrient intakes were computed using standard databases. Levels of haemoglobin, vitamin C, retinol, ceruloplasmin, riboflavin (EGRAC), folic acid, vitamin B12 and erythrocyte membrane zinc (RBCMZn) in blood were estimated. Results Health complaints of a mild and moderate degree were observed in 30.5% and 24.7% of the subjects, respectively. Average dietary intakes of ?-carotene, riboflavin, iron and zinc were observed to be only about half of the recommended dietary intakes. There was a decreasing trend in micronutrient intakes from NC to MD. Intakes of iron, zinc, niacin and thiamin of men from the MI group tended to be lower than in the NC group (p<0.1). Men from the MD group had significantly lower intakes of calcium, zinc and riboflavin than those from the NC group (p<0.05). The intakes of these nutrients in women from NC, MI and MD were not significantly different. Multinomial logistic regression of health status revealed that plasma vitamin C and RBCMZn were negatively associated with MD and RBCMZn with MI. Conclusions The study indicates a need to increase micronutrient intakes of vegetarian populations, especially regarding vitamin C and zinc for maintenance of health.

  18. Prevalence and factors associated with the co-occurrence of health risk behaviors in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Anísio Luiz da Silva; Hardman, Carla Meneses; de Barros, Mauro Virgílio Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the prevalence and factors associated with the co-occurrence of health risk behaviors in adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed with a sample of high school students from state public schools in Pernambuco, Brazil (n=4207, 14-19 years old). Data were obtained using a questionnaire. The co-occurrence of health risk behaviors was established based on the sum of five behavioral risk factors (low physical activity, sedentary behavior, low consumption of fruits/vegetables, alcohol consumption and tobacco use). The independent variables were gender, age group, time of day attending school, school size, maternal education, occupational status, skin color, geographic region and place of residence. Data were analyzed by ordinal logistic regression with proportional odds model. Results: Approximately 10% of adolescents were not exposed to health risk behaviors, while 58.5% reported being exposed to at least two health risk behaviors simultaneously. There was a higher likelihood of co-occurrence of health risk behaviors among adolescents in the older age group, with intermediate maternal education (9-11 years of schooling), and who reported living in the driest (semi-arid) region of the state of Pernambuco. Adolescents who reported having a job and living in rural areas had a lower likelihood of co-occurrence of risk behaviors. Conclusions: The findings suggest a high prevalence of co-occurrence of health risk behaviors in this group of adolescents, with a higher chance in five subgroups (older age, intermediate maternal education, the ones that reported not working, those living in urban areas and in the driest region of the state). PMID:26298656

  19. Obesity, Oxidative Stress, Adipose Tissue Dysfunction, and the Associated Health Risks: Causes and Therapeutic Strategies.

    PubMed

    Manna, Prasenjit; Jain, Sushil K

    2015-12-01

    Obesity is gaining acceptance as a serious primary health burden that impairs the quality of life because of its associated complications, including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, asthma, sleep disorders, hepatic dysfunction, renal dysfunction, and infertility. It is a complex metabolic disorder with a multifactorial origin. Growing evidence suggests that oxidative stress plays a role as the critical factor linking obesity with its associated complications. Obesity per se can induce systemic oxidative stress through various biochemical mechanisms, such as superoxide generation from NADPH oxidases, oxidative phosphorylation, glyceraldehyde auto-oxidation, protein kinase C activation, and polyol and hexosamine pathways. Other factors that also contribute to oxidative stress in obesity include hyperleptinemia, low antioxidant defense, chronic inflammation, and postprandial reactive oxygen species generation. In addition, recent studies suggest that adipose tissue plays a critical role in regulating the pathophysiological mechanisms of obesity and its related co-morbidities. To establish an adequate platform for the prevention of obesity and its associated health risks, understanding the factors that contribute to the cause of obesity is necessary. The most current list of obesity determinants includes genetic factors, dietary intake, physical activity, environmental and socioeconomic factors, eating disorders, and societal influences. On the basis of the currently identified predominant determinants of obesity, a broad range of strategies have been recommended to reduce the prevalence of obesity, such as regular physical activity, ad libitum food intake limiting to certain micronutrients, increased dietary intake of fruits and vegetables, and meal replacements. This review aims to highlight recent findings regarding the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of obesity and its associated risk factors, the role of dysfunctional adipose tissue in development of these risk factors, and potential strategies to regulate body weight loss/gain for better health benefits. PMID:26569333

  20. Association Between Acute Medical Exacerbations and Consuming or Producing Web-Based Health Information: Analysis From Pew Survey Data

    PubMed Central

    Zulman, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Background The Internet is an increasingly important resource for individuals who seek information from both health professionals and peers. While the demographic and health characteristics of persons who use health information technology has been well described, less is known about the relationship between these health characteristics and level of engagement with health information technology. Even less is known about whether persons who produce Web-based health information differ in health status from persons who consume such content. Objective We explored the health characteristics of persons who engage with the Internet for the purposes of consuming or producing Web-based health information, and specifically, whether healthier versus sicker persons engage with health information technology in different ways. Methods We analyzed data from the 2012 Pew Health survey, a landline and cell phone survey of 3104 adults in the United States. Using multiple logistic regression with sampling weights, we examined the association between sociodemographic and health characteristics and the consumption or production of Web-based health information. Sociodemographic variables included age, sex, race, and education. Health characteristics included self-reported health status, presence of chronic condition(s), and having an acute medical exacerbation. Acute medical exacerbations were defined as an emergency department visit, hospitalization, or other serious medical emergency in the last 12 months. Results The majority of the sample reported good or excellent health (79.7%), although 50.3% reported having at least one chronic condition. About a fifth (20.2%) of the sample experienced an acute medical exacerbation in the past year. Education was the sociodemographic characteristic most strongly associated with consuming Web-based health information. The strongest health-related predictors of consuming Web-based health information were an acute medical exacerbation (OR 2.39, P<.001) and having a chronic condition (OR 1.54, P=.007). Having an acute medical exacerbation was the only predictor of producing Web-based health information (OR 1.97, P=.003). All participants, regardless of health status, were most interested in Web-based health information regarding diseases or medical problems. However, persons with acute medical exacerbations were more likely to seek Web-based health information regarding medical tests, procedures, and drugs compared to persons without acute medical exacerbations. Conclusions Producers of Web-based health information differ from consumers of this information in important health characteristics that could skew the content of peer-generated Web-based health information and overrepresent the experiences of persons with acute medical exacerbations. Providers may have a role to play in directing patients towards high-quality, easy-to-understand online information, especially information regarding treatments and procedures. PMID:26104000

  1. Modified Ideal Cardiovascular Health Status is Associated with Lower Prevalence of Stroke in Rural Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Liang; Guo, Xiaofan; Chang, Ye; Li, Zhao; Yu, Shasha; Yang, Hongmei; Sun, Yingxian

    2016-01-01

    Background: In 2010, the American Heart Association developed a new definition of ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) based on seven cardiovascular health metrics. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between modified ideal CVH metrics and the risk of stroke in the rural population of Northeast China. Methods: We included 11,417 adults from the rural population in Northeast China and collected all the information, including the baseline characteristics, history of stroke, and the seven ideal CVH metrics. Results: Our results showed that the presence of stroke was associated with high body mass index (BMI), poor diet score (salt intake), high total cholesterol (TC), high blood pressure (BP), and high fasting plasma glucose (FPG). The prevalence of stroke increased as the number of ideal CVH metrics decreased, and peaked to 13.1% among those with only one ideal CVH metric. Participants with only one ideal CVH had a 4.40-fold increased susceptibility of stroke than those with all seven ideal health metrics. Conclusion: This study revealed that people with a better CVH status had a lower prevalence of stroke and the susceptibility of stroke increased with the decreasing of the number of ideal CVH metrics. PMID:26861368

  2. An empirical typology of lifetime and current gambling behaviors: Association with health status of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Song-Iee; Sacco, Paul; Cunningham-Williams, Renee M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Despite the low prevalence of gambling problems, older adults experience poorer health status given certain vulnerabilities associated with aging. Thus, we aimed to classify lifetime (LPG) and current (CPG) problem gambling patterns, identify determinants of gambling patterns, and examine their association with current health status Methods Using older adult gamblers (n = 489) in the Gambling Impact and Behavior Study, Latent Class Analysis classified LPG and CPG subgroups based on 10 DSM-IV criteria: preoccupation, tolerance, withdrawal, loss of control, escape, chasing losses, lying, illegal acts, relationship impairment and financial bailout. Results A two-class solution was the best fitting for LPG and CPG groups. Except for illegal acts, the remaining criteria endorsed the distinguishing patterns. We observed 10.8% LPGs, 8.4% CPGs and 2.2% with both. Participation in religious services was protective of both groups. Gambling for excitement and to win money were related to CPG. Further, CPG was significantly related to worse self-rated health. Implications Although problem gambling is strongly characterized by number and type of diagnostic criteria, findings support a focus to include targeted assessment of additional clinically meaningful gambling correlates. Research on the moderator of participation in faith-based communities on problem gambling is also warranted. PMID:19347693

  3. The mechanisms that associate community social capital with post-disaster mental health: a multilevel model.

    PubMed

    Wind, Tim R; Komproe, Ivan H

    2012-11-01

    Many scholars have advocated that the time has come to provide empirical evidence of the mechanisms that associate community social capital with individual disaster mental health. For this purpose we conducted a study (n = 232) one year after a flood (2008) in Morpeth, a rural town in northern England. We selected posttraumatic stress as an indicator of disaster mental health. Our multilevel model shows that high community social capital is indirectly salutary for individual posttraumatic stress. In particular, in communities (defined as postcode areas) with high structural social capital, the results suggest that individuals confide in the social context (high cognitive social capital) to address disaster-related demands (high collective efficacy), and employ less individual psychosocial resources (i.e. coping strategies and social support). This "conservation of individual psychosocial resources" in a salutary social context decreases the association between the appraisal of the disaster and posttraumatic stress. As a result of this mechanism, individuals suffer less from posttraumatic stress in communities with high social capital. These findings provide new insights how intervention policies aimed at strengthening both objective and subjective dimensions of social capital may reduce post-disaster mental health. PMID:22883254

  4. Latent Tuberculosis Infection and Associated Factors among Health Care Workers in Kigali, Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Rutanga, Claude; Lowrance, David W.; Oeltmann, John E.; Mutembayire, Grace; Willis, Matt; Uwizeye, Claude Bernard; Hinda, Ruton; Bassirou, Chitou; Gutreuter, Steve; Gasana, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Data are limited regarding tuberculosis (TB) and latent TB infection prevalence in Rwandan health facilities. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey among healthcare workers (HCWs) in Kigali during 2010. We purposively selected the public referral hospital, both district hospitals, and randomly selected 7 of 17 health centers. School workers (SWs) from the nearest willing public schools served as a local reference group. We tested for latent TB infection (LTBI) using tuberculin skin testing (TST) and asked about past TB disease. We assessed risk of LTBI and past history of TB disease associated with hospital employment. Among HCWs, we assessed risk associated with facility type (district hospital, referral hospital, health center), work setting (inpatient, outpatient), and occupation. Results Age, gender, and HIV status was similar between the enrolled 1,131 HCWs and 381 SWs. LTBI was more prevalent among HCWs (62%) than SWs (39%). Adjusted odds of a positive TST result were 2.71 (95% CI 2.013.67) times greater among HCWs than SWs. Among HCWs, there was no detectable difference between prevalence of LTBI according to facility type, work setting, or occupation. Conclusion HCWs are at greater risk of LTBI, regardless of facility type, work setting, or occupation. The current status of TB infection control practices should be evaluated in the entire workforce in all Rwandan healthcare facilities. PMID:25919759

  5. It Gets Better: Resolution of Internalized Homophobia over Time and Associations with Positive Health Outcomes among MSM

    PubMed Central

    Herrick, Amy L.; Stall, Ron; Chmiel, Joan S.; Guadamuz, Thomas E.; Penniman, Typhanye; Shoptaw, Steven; Ostrow, David; Plankey, Michael w.

    2013-01-01

    Health disparities research among gay and bisexual men has focused primarily on risk and deficits. However, a focus on resiliencies within this population may greatly benefit health promotion. We describe a pattern of resilience (internalized homophobia (IHP) resolution) over the life-course and its associations with current health outcomes. 1,541 gay and bisexual men from the Multi-Center AIDS Cohort study, an ongoing prospective study of the natural and treated histories of HIV, completed a survey about life-course events thought to be related to health. The majority of men resolved IHP over time independent of demographics. Men who resolved IHP had significantly higher odds of positive health outcomes compared to those who did not. These results provide evidence of resilience among participants that is associated with positive health outcomes. Understanding resiliencies and incorporating them into interventions may help to promote health and well-being among gay and bisexual men. PMID:23283578

  6. The Association between Trust in Health Care Providers and Medication Adherence among Black Women with Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Abel, Willie M.; Efird, Jimmy T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Black women have the highest prevalence of hypertension in the world. Reasons for this disparity are poorly understood. The historical legacy of medical maltreatment of Blacks in the U.S. provides some insight into distrust in the medical profession, refusal of treatment, and poor adherence to treatment regimens. Methods: Black women (N = 80) who were prescribed antihypertensive medications were recruited from urban communities in North Carolina. Study participants completed the Trust in Physician and Hill-Bone Compliance to High Blood Pressure Therapy questionnaires. An exact discrete-event model was used to examine the relationship between trust and medication adherence. Results: Mean age of study participants was 48 ± 9.2 years. The majority of participants (67%) were actively employed and 30% had incomes at or below the federal poverty level. Increasing levels of trust in the health care provider was independently associated with greater medication adherence (PTrend = 0.015). Conclusion: Black women with hypertension who trusted their health care providers were more likely to be adherent with their prescribed antihypertensive medications than those who did not trust their health care providers. Findings suggest that trusting relationships between Black women and health care providers are important to decreasing disparate rates of hypertension. PMID:24350234

  7. Health behavior factors associated with obesity in the adult population in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Milanovi?, Sanja Musi?; Uhernik, Ana Ivicevi?; Fister, Kristina

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association of obesity and selected health behaviors, based on the data from Croatian Adult Health Survey 2003. Cross-sectional study on representative random sample of 9070 Croatian adults showed that in both men and women, mean BMI varied significantly with age (p < 0.001). It tended to increased with age until 55-64 years, and then decreased slightly in men, but remained unchanged in women. The prevalence of obesity (BMI > or = 30.0 kg m(-2)) demonstrated almost the same prevalence in men and women, 20.1% and 20.6% respectively. The likelihood of being obese, either in men or women, was more likely in the middle-aged groups, among respondents from rural areas and those from the Continental region of Croatia, with drinking lifestyle pattern, and non-smokers. Women who mostly used animal fat for food preparations were more likely to be obese. Overweight and obesity are major public health problem in the adult population in Croatia, and health promotion strategies based on behavioral correlates are needed to prevent excess weight gain in the Croatian population. PMID:19563149

  8. Associations Between Seattle Heart Failure Model Scores and Health Utilities: Findings From HF-ACTION

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanhong; Neilson, Matthew P.; Whellan, David J.; Schulman, Kevin A.; Levy, Wayne C.; Reed, Shelby D.

    2013-01-01

    Background The Seattle Heart Failure Model (SHFM) is a well-validated prediction model of all-cause mortality in patients with heart failure, but its relationship with generic health status measures has not been evaluated. We sought to investigate relationships between SHFM scores and health utility weights, which are necessary to estimate quality-adjusted life-years in cost-effectiveness analyses. Methods and Results We applied mixed linear regression to examine relationships between baseline SHFM scores and EQ-5D–derived health utilities collected longitudinally in a large clinical trial. A 1-unit increase in SHFM score (higher predicted mortality) was associated with a 0.030 decrease in utility (P < .001) and an additional 0.006 decrease per year (P < .001). With SHFM score modeled as a categorical variable, EQ-5D utilities for patients with rounded SHFM scores of 1 or 2 were significantly lower (–0.041 and –0.053, respectively; both P < .001) and declined more rapidly over time (–0.011 and –0.020, respectively; both P ≤ .004) than for patients with scores of –1. Conclusion Patients with higher SHFM-predicted mortality had significantly lower health utilities at baseline and greater rates of decline over time, compared with patients with lower SHFM-predicted mortality. These relationships can be applied when examining the cost-effectiveness of heart failure interventions. PMID:23663813

  9. Is Physical Fitness Associated with Health in Overweight and Obese Youth? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Millard-Stafford, Melinda; Becasen, Jeffrey S.; Beets, Michael W.; Nihiser, Allison J.; Lee, Sarah M.; Fulton, Janet E.

    2015-01-01

    A systematic review of literature was conducted to examine the association between changes in health-related fitness (e.g. aerobic capacity and muscular strength /endurance) and chronic disease risk factors in overweight and/or obese youth. Studies published from 2000–2010 were included if the physical activity intervention was a randomized controlled trial and reported changes in fitness and health outcomes by direction and significance (p< 0.05) of the effect. Aerobic capacity improved in 91% and muscular fitness improved in 82% of measures reported. Nearly all studies (32 of 33) reported improvement in at least one fitness test. Changes in outcomes related to adiposity, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, metabolic, and mental/emotional health improved in 60%, 32%, 53%, 41%, and 33% of comparisons studied, respectively. In conclusion, overweight and obese youth can improve physical fitness across a variety of test measures. When fitness improves, beneficial health effects are observed in some, but not all chronic disease risk factors. PMID:26457234

  10. The estimation of consumer health risk associated with organochlorine xenobiotics in hard smoked cheese in Poland.

    PubMed

    Witczak, Agata; Pohory?o, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the health risks associated with consumption of smoked cheeses, which are popular in Poland. The analysis covered polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) indicator congeners (ndl-PCBs: PCB 28, PCB 52, PCB 101, PCB 138, PCB 153, PCB 180), dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs): non-ortho (PCB 77, PCB 81, PCB 126, PCB 169) and mono-ortho (PCB 105, PCB 114, PCB 118, PCB 156, PCB 157), as well as organochlorine pesticides (OCPs: ?HCH, ?HCH, ?HCH, heptachlor, aldrin, heptachlor epoxid isomer B, dieldrin, pp'DDE op'DDD, pp'DDT, pp'DDD, op'DDT, endrin). The pesticide residues detected in the examined cheese were below the maximum residues levels. The estimated daily intake [lifetime average daily dose (LADD)] referring to the sum of the compounds varied within 4.21 10(-7)-3.92 10(-6) mg kg(-1) day(-1) and was significantly lower than the tolerable daily intake/acceptable daily intake (TDI/ADI) for individual compounds. The health hazard quotient, being the exact measure of the magnitude of exposure potential or a quantifiable potential for developing non-carcinogenic health effects after an averaged exposure period, was also very low, ranging from 2.87 10(-6) to 5.32 10(-5). The obtained results confirmed that the intake of rennet cheese does not pose any consumer health risk in Poland. PMID:26065520

  11. Diabetes, HIV and other health determinants associated with absenteeism among formal sector workers in Namibia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background As countries in sub-Saharan Africa develop their economies, it is important to understand the health of employees and its impact on productivity and absenteeism. While previous studies have assessed the impact of single conditions on absenteeism, the current study evaluates multiple health factors associated with absenteeism in a large worker population across several sectors in Namibia. Methods From March 2009 to June 2010, PharmAccess Namibia conducted a series of cross-sectional surveys of 7,666 employees in 7 sectors of industry in Namibia. These included a self-reported health questionnaire and biomedical screenings for certain infectious diseases and non-communicable disease (NCD) risk factors. Data were collected on demographics, absenteeism over a 90-day period, smoking behavior, alcohol use, hemoglobin, blood pressure, blood glucose, cholesterol, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), HIV status, and presence of hepatitis B antigens and syphilis antibodies. The associations of these factors to absenteeism were ascertained using negative binomial regression. Results Controlling for demographic and job-related factors, high blood glucose and diabetes had the largest effect on absenteeism (IRR: 3.67, 95%CI: 2.06-6.55). This was followed by anemia (IRR: 1.59, 95%CI: 1.17-2.18) and being HIV positive (IRR: 1.47; 95%CI: 1.12-1.95). In addition, working in the fishing or services sectors was associated with an increased incidence of sick days (IRR: 1.53, 95%CI: 1.23-1.90; and IRR: 1.70, 95%CI: 1.32-2.20 respectively). The highest prevalence of diabetes was in the services sector (3.6%, 95%CI:-2.5-4.7). The highest prevalence of HIV was found in the fishing sector (14.3%, 95%CI: 10.1-18.5). Conclusion Both NCD risk factors and infectious diseases are associated with increased rates of short-term absenteeism of formal sector employees in Namibia. Programs to manage these conditions could help employers avoid costs associated with absenteeism. These programs could include basic health care insurance including regular wellness screenings. PMID:22257589

  12. Personality Change at Mid-Life is Associated with Changes in Self-Rated Health: Evidence from the Hawaii Personality and Health Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Letzring, Tera D.; Edmonds, Grant W.; Hampson, Sarah E.

    2013-01-01

    Personality traits change across the lifespan, and trait change, in addition to trait level, may be related to health. Longitudinal data from the Hawaii Personality and Health Cohort were used to investigate associations between changes in traits and self-rated health (SRH). Participants (N = 733, Mage = 44.4) completed measures of the Big Five personality traits and SRH twice approximately 3 years apart. Personality trait changes were associated with SRH change. Additionally, increases on Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness, and decreases on Neuroticism, predicted increases in SRH, even when controlling for gender and education. Relating correlated trait change at mid-life, when traits reach peak stability, to a consequential health outcome such as SRH change, demonstrates the value of treating both traits and health indicators as dynamic variables. PMID:24357892

  13. An ecological framework for sexual minority women's health: factors associated with greater body mass.

    PubMed

    Eliason, Michele J; Fogel, Sarah C

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, many studies have focused on the body of sexual minority women, particularly emphasizing their larger size. These studies rarely offer theoretically based explanations for the increased weight, nor study the potential consequences (or lack thereof) of being heavier. This article provides a brief overview of the multitude of factors that might cause or contribute to larger size of sexual minority women, using an ecological framework that elucidates upstream social determinants of health as well as individual risk factors. This model is infused with a minority stress model, which hypothesizes excess strain resulting from the stigma associated with oppressed minority identities such as woman, lesbian, bisexual, woman of color, and others. We argue that lack of attention to the upstream social determinants of health may result in individual-level victim blaming and interventions that do not address the root causes of minority stress or increased weight. PMID:25569747

  14. The Health Extension Program and Its Association with Change in Utilization of Selected Maternal Health Services in Tigray Region, Ethiopia: A Segmented Linear Regression Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gebrehiwot, Tesfay Gebregzabher; San Sebastian, Miguel; Edin, Kerstin; Goicolea, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2003, the Ethiopian Ministry of Health established the Health Extension Program (HEP), with the goal of improving access to health care and health promotion activities in rural areas of the country. This paper aims to assess the association of the HEP with improved utilization of maternal health services in Northern Ethiopia using institution-based retrospective data. Methods Average quarterly total attendances for antenatal care (ANC), delivery care (DC) and post-natal care (PNC) at health posts and health care centres were studied from 2002 to 2012. Regression analysis was applied to two models to assess whether trends were statistically significant. One model was used to estimate the level and trend changes associated with the immediate period of intervention, while changes related to the post-intervention period were estimated by the other. Results The total number of consultations for ANC, DC and PNC increased constantly, particularly after the late-intervention period. Increases were higher for ANC and PNC at health post level and for DC at health centres. A positive statistically significant upward trend was found for DC and PNC in all facilities (p<0.01). The positive trend was also present in ANC at health centres (p = 0.04), but not at health posts. Conclusion Our findings revealed an increase in the use of antenatal, delivery and post-natal care after the introduction of the HEP. We are aware that other factors, that we could not control for, might be explaining that increase. The figures for DC and PNC are however low and more needs to be done in order to increase the access to the health care system as well as the demand for these services by the population. Strengthening of the health information system in the region needs also to be prioritized. PMID:26218074

  15. Systematic review of epidemiological studies on health effects associated with management of solid waste

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Management of solid waste (mainly landfills and incineration) releases a number of toxic substances, most in small quantities and at extremely low levels. Because of the wide range of pollutants, the different pathways of exposure, long-term low-level exposure, and the potential for synergism among the pollutants, concerns remain about potential health effects but there are many uncertainties involved in the assessment. Our aim was to systematically review the available epidemiological literature on the health effects in the vicinity of landfills and incinerators and among workers at waste processing plants to derive usable excess risk estimates for health impact assessment. Methods We examined the published, peer-reviewed literature addressing health effects of waste management between 1983 and 2008. For each paper, we examined the study design and assessed potential biases in the effect estimates. We evaluated the overall evidence and graded the associated uncertainties. Results In most cases the overall evidence was inadequate to establish a relationship between a specific waste process and health effects; the evidence from occupational studies was not sufficient to make an overall assessment. For community studies, at least for some processes, there was limited evidence of a causal relationship and a few studies were selected for a quantitative evaluation. In particular, for populations living within two kilometres of landfills there was limited evidence of congenital anomalies and low birth weight with excess risk of 2 percent and 6 percent, respectively. The excess risk tended to be higher when sites dealing with toxic wastes were considered. For populations living within three kilometres of old incinerators, there was limited evidence of an increased risk of cancer, with an estimated excess risk of 3.5 percent. The confidence in the evaluation and in the estimated excess risk tended to be higher for specific cancer forms such as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and soft tissue sarcoma than for other cancers. Conclusions The studies we have reviewed suffer from many limitations due to poor exposure assessment, ecological level of analysis, and lack of information on relevant confounders. With a moderate level confidence, however, we have derived some effect estimates that could be used for health impact assessment of old landfill and incineration plants. The uncertainties surrounding these numbers should be considered carefully when health effects are estimated. It is clear that future research into the health risks of waste management needs to overcome current limitations. PMID:20030820

  16. Association between social capital and self-perception of health in Brazilian adults

    PubMed Central

    Loch, Mathias Roberto; de Souza, Regina Kazue Tanno; Mesas, Arthur Eumann; González, Alberto Durán; Rodriguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between social capital and social capital and self-perception of health based on examining the influence of health-related behaviors as possible mediators of this relationship. METHODS A cross-sectional study was used with 1,081 subjects, which is representative of the population of individuals aged 40 years or more in a medium-sized city in Southern Brazil. The subjects who perceived their health as fine, bad or very bad were considered to have a negative self-perception of their health. The social capital indicators were: number of friends, people from whom they could borrow money from when needed; the extent of trust in community members; whether or not members of the community helped each other; community safety; and extent of participation in community activities. The behaviors were: physical activity during leisure time, fruits and vegetable consumption, tobacco use and alcohol abuse. The odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (CI) 95% were calculated by binary logistic regression. The significance of mediation was verified using the Sobel test. RESULTS Following adjustment for demographic and clinical variables, subjects with fewer friends (OR = 1.39, 95%CI 1.08;1.80), those who perceived less frequently help from people in the neighborhood (OR = 1.30, 95%CI 1.01;1.68), who saw the violent neighborhood (OR = 1.33, 95%CI 1.01;1.74) and who had not participated in any community activity (OR = 1.39, 95%CI 1.07;1.80) had more negative self-perception of their health. Physical activity during leisure time was a significant mediator in the relationship between all social capital indicators (except for the borrowed money variable) and self-perceived health. Fruit and vegetable consumption was a significant mediator of the relationship between the extent of participation in community activities and self-perceived health. Tobacco use and alcohol abuse did not seem to have a mediating role in any relationship. CONCLUSIONS Lifestyle seems to only partially explain the relationship between social capital and self-perceived health. Among the investigated behaviors, physical activity during leisure time is what seems to have the most important role as a mediator of this relationship. PMID:26270010

  17. Factors associated with job satisfaction among Chinese community health workers: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background With the medical reform, the function of community health centres emerged to be more important recently in China. However, the health service capabilities were tremendously different between metropolitan cities and small cities. This study aims to clarify the level of job satisfaction of Chinese community health workers between a metropolitan (Shenyang) and a small city (Benxi) in Liaoning province and explore its associated factors. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted from December 2009 to February 2010. A multi-stage sample was used and a total of 2,100 Chinese community health workers from the two cities completed self-administered questionnaire pertaining to job satisfaction indicated by Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ), demographic characteristic and working situations, stress and job burnout. The effective response rate was 80.7%. Hierarchical regression analysis was performed to explore the related factors. All data analyses for the two cities were performed separately. Results The averages of overall job satisfaction score of Chinese community health workers were 67.17 in Shenyang and 69.95 in Benxi. Intrinsic job satisfaction and extrinsic job satisfaction among Chinese community health workers were significantly different between Shenyang and Benxi (p < 0.05). In Shenyang, hierarchical regression analysis showed that the fourth model explained 36%, 32% of the variance of intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfactions, respectively. In Benxi, the fourth model explained 48%, 52% of the variance of intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfactions, respectively. Three significant predictors of intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfactions for the two cities were the two dimensions (social support and decision latitude) of stress and cynicism of burnout. Conclusion From this study, the job satisfaction among Chinese community health workers in the two cities enjoyed a moderate level of job satisfactions, which represented they are not fully satisfied with their jobs. Community health workers in Shenyang had lower job satisfaction as compared to those in Benxi. This study strengthened the evidence that stress and burnout were important predictors of intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfactions. PMID:22111511

  18. Factors Associated With Health Service Utilization in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia: A Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Gan-Yadam, Amarsanaa; Shinohara, Ryoji; Sugisawa, Yuka; Tanaka, Emiko; Watanabe, Taeko; Hirano, Maki; Tomisaki, Etsuko; Morita, Kentaro; Onda, Yoko; Tokutake, Kentaro; Mochizuki, Yukiko; Matsumoto, Misako; Sugita, Chihiro; Anme, Tokie

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding patterns of health service utilization can improve health care and increase use of health services. We examined patterns of health service utilization among residents of Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Methods A total of 500 adults were surveyed using paper-based questionnaires. The χ2 test and multiple logistic regression were used to identify associations between factors. Results 44.1% of respondents had visited a physician during the previous 12 months. After controlling for determinants, the significant predictors of utilization of health service were attention to health examinations (OR = 3.6, CI: 1.93–6.76), being married (OR = 2.7, CI: 1.50–4.72), being satisfied with the overall cleanliness of the hospital (OR = 2.4, CI: 1.12–5.19), being a nonsmoker (OR = 2.2, CI: 1.21–3.98), having periodic physical examinations (OR = 2.2, CI: 1.25–3.71), not being a hospital patient during the previous 3 years (OR = 2.1, CI: 1.22–3.73), having proper documentation (OR = 1.9, CI: 1.10–3.43), having medical insurance (OR = 1.9, CI: 1.96–3.28), not wanting to receive information on food and nutrition (OR = 0.6, CI: 0.36–0.96), having more than 5 household members (OR = 0.5, CI: 0.50–0.85), low income (OR = 0.5, CI: 0.30–0.85), lack of concern for food and nutrition (OR = 0.5, CI: 0.28–0.84), self-medication during the past 12 months (OR = 0.4, CI: 0.24–0.69), and desire for treatment abroad (OR = 0.4, CI: 0.20–0.60). Conclusions A number of health-related behaviors and sociodemographic factors were important predictors of health service utilization. PMID:23831715

  19. Greek-Cypriot mental health nurses' professional satisfaction and association with mild psychiatric symptoms.

    PubMed

    Karanikola, Maria N K; Kaite, Charis

    2013-08-01

    The present descriptive correlational study aims to explore among Greek-Cypriot mental health nurses (MHNs) the level of professional satisfaction, potential differences with regard to vocational characteristics, and associations with anxiety and depressive symptoms. A random sample of 225 Greek-Cypriot MHNs employed in hospital and community settings completed Hamilton's Anxiety Scale, Beck's Depression Inventory, and Stamps's Index of Work Satisfaction. Moderate levels of overall professional satisfaction of 4.38 (0.58) were detected. Work experience was positively correlated with satisfaction from payment (? = 0.230, P < 0.0001). Men seemed to be more satisfied with organizational policies (P = 0.0043) and performed tasks (P = 0.027) than women. Nurses working in psychiatric clinics of general hospitals experienced higher levels of professional satisfaction in general, and more satisfaction from organizational policies, autonomy, and task requirements than nurses working in community settings, substance misuse programs, and community mental health centres (P = 0.001). Nurses working in acute/admission settings were the less satisfied, compared to nurses working in rehabilitation wards (P = 0.017). Professional satisfaction was associated with anxiety (? = 0.280, P < 0.0001) and depressive (? = 0.246, P < 0.0001) symptoms. Greek-Cypriot MHNs seem to get moderate satisfaction from their work, whilst professional satisfaction is associated with their psychological well-being. Targeted managerial interventions and longitudinal research are warranted. PMID:22897681

  20. Integrated Text Mining and Chemoinformatics Analysis Associates Diet to Health Benefit at Molecular Level

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Kasper; Panagiotou, Gianni; Kouskoumvekaki, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Awareness that disease susceptibility is not only dependent on genetic make up, but can be affected by lifestyle decisions, has brought more attention to the role of diet. However, food is often treated as a black box, or the focus is limited to few, well-studied compounds, such as polyphenols, lipids and nutrients. In this work, we applied text mining and Naïve Bayes classification to assemble the knowledge space of food-phytochemical and food-disease associations, where we distinguish between disease prevention/amelioration and disease progression. We subsequently searched for frequently occurring phytochemical-disease pairs and we identified 20,654 phytochemicals from 16,102 plants associated to 1,592 human disease phenotypes. We selected colon cancer as a case study and analyzed our results in three directions; i) one stop legacy knowledge-shop for the effect of food on disease, ii) discovery of novel bioactive compounds with drug-like properties, and iii) discovery of novel health benefits from foods. This works represents a systematized approach to the association of food with health effect, and provides the phytochemical layer of information for nutritional systems biology research. PMID:24453957

  1. Associations of serious mental illness with earnings: results from the WHO World Mental Health surveys

    PubMed Central

    Levinson, Daphna; Lakoma, Matthew D.; Petukhova, Maria; Schoenbaum, Michael; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Angermeyer, Matthias; Borges, Guilherme; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Hu, Chiyi; Karam, Aimee N.; Kawakami, Norito; Lee, Sing; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Browne, Mark Oakley; Okoliyski, Michail; Posada-Villa, José; Sagar, Rajesh; Viana, Maria Carmen; Williams, David R.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Burden-of-illness data, which are often used in setting healthcare policy-spending priorities, are unavailable for mental disorders in most countries. Aims To examine one central aspect of illness burden, the association of serious mental illness with earnings, in the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys. Method The WMH Surveys were carried out in 10 high-income and 9 low- and middle-income countries. The associations of personal earnings with serious mental illness were estimated. Results Respondents with serious mental illness earned on average a third less than median earnings, with no significant between-country differences (χ2(9) = 5.5–8.1, P = 0.52–0.79). These losses are equivalent to 0.3–0.8% of total national earnings. Reduced earnings among those with earnings and the increased probability of not earning are both important components of these associations. Conclusions These results add to a growing body of evidence that mental disorders have high societal costs. Decisions about healthcare resource allocation should take these costs into consideration. PMID:20679263

  2. Animal health risks associated with the transportation and utilisation of wildlife products.

    PubMed

    Bengis, R G

    1997-04-01

    The animal health risks associated with the movement of wildlife products are infinitely less than those associated with the movement of live animals. Very few pathogens are sufficiently robust to survive the significant changes in temperature, pH, moisture content and osmolality which occur post mortem, or which are associated with preservation processes such as pickling, smoking or drying. Certain pathogens, however, (e.g. foot and mouth disease, classical swine fever [hog cholera] and African swine fever viruses and the anthrax bacillus) are hardy and resistant to these environmental changes and therefore constitute a finite animal health risk if raw, undercooked or under-preserved products from infected wild animals are imported. Other less robust pathogens, such as rinderpest virus, may remain infectious in animal products if these are obtained from acutely infected animals and frozen immediately. Macroparasitic diseases such as trichinellosis and echinococcosis-hydatidosis, if present in the unprocessed tissues of infected wildlife, are potentially infectious to carnivorous or omnivorous companion animals. The importation of untreated wet hides may result in the introduction of alien ectoparasites and/or the infectious diseases for which they are vectors. The author discusses the more significant pathogens found in free-ranging wildlife which should be taken into consideration when importing wildlife products from endemically or epidemically infected countries. PMID:9329110

  3. The Association between Road Traffic Noise Exposure, Annoyance and Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL)

    PubMed Central

    Hritier, Harris; Vienneau, Danielle; Frei, Patrizia; Eze, Ikenna C.; Brink, Mark; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Rsli, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between road traffic noise exposure, annoyance caused by different noise sources and validated health indicators in a cohort of 1375 adults from the region of Basel, Switzerland. Road traffic noise exposure for each study participant was determined using modelling, and annoyance from various noise sources was inquired by means of a four-point Likert scale. Regression parameters from multivariable regression models for the von Zerssen score of somatic symptoms (point symptom score increase per annoyance category) showed strongest associations with annoyance from industry noise (2.36, 95% CI: 1.54, 3.17), neighbour noise (1.62, 95% CI: 1.17, 2.06) and road traffic noise (1.53, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.96). Increase in modelled noise exposure by 10 dB(A) resulted in a von Zerssen symptom score increase of 0.47 (95% CI: ?0.01, 0.95) units. Subsequent structural equation modelling revealed that the association between physical noise exposure and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is strongly mediated by annoyance and sleep disturbance. This study elucidates the complex interplay of different factors for the association between physical noise exposure and HRQOL. PMID:25489999

  4. Microbial health risks associated with exposure to stormwater in a water plaza.

    PubMed

    Sales-Ortells, Helena; Medema, Gertjan

    2015-05-01

    Climate change scenarios predict an increase of intense rainfall events in summer in Western Europe. Current urban drainage systems cannot cope with such intense precipitation events. Cities are constructing stormwater storage facilities to prevent pluvial flooding. Combining storage with other functions, such as recreation, may lead to exposure to contaminants. This study assessed the microbial quality of rainwater collected in a water plaza and the health risks associated with recreational exposure. The water plaza collects street run-off, diverges first flush to the sewer system and stores the rest of the run-off in the plaza as open water. Campylobacter, Cryptosporidium and Legionella pneumophila were the pathogens investigated. Microbial source tracking tools were used to determine the origin (human, animal) of the intestinal pathogens. Cryptosporidium was not found in any sample. Campylobacter was found in all samples, with higher concentrations in samples containing human Bacteroides than in samples with zoonotic contamination (15 vs 3.7 gc (genomic copies)/100 mL). In both cases, the estimated disease risk associated with Campylobacter and recreational exposure was higher than the Dutch national incidence. This indicates that the health risk associated with recreational exposure to the water plaza is significant. L. pneumophila was found only in two out of ten pond samples. Legionnaire's disease risks were lower than the Dutch national incidence. Presence of human Bacteroides indicates possible cross-connections with the CSS that should be identified and removed. PMID:25706222

  5. Integrated text mining and chemoinformatics analysis associates diet to health benefit at molecular level.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kasper; Panagiotou, Gianni; Kouskoumvekaki, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Awareness that disease susceptibility is not only dependent on genetic make up, but can be affected by lifestyle decisions, has brought more attention to the role of diet. However, food is often treated as a black box, or the focus is limited to few, well-studied compounds, such as polyphenols, lipids and nutrients. In this work, we applied text mining and Nave Bayes classification to assemble the knowledge space of food-phytochemical and food-disease associations, where we distinguish between disease prevention/amelioration and disease progression. We subsequently searched for frequently occurring phytochemical-disease pairs and we identified 20,654 phytochemicals from 16,102 plants associated to 1,592 human disease phenotypes. We selected colon cancer as a case study and analyzed our results in three directions; i) one stop legacy knowledge-shop for the effect of food on disease, ii) discovery of novel bioactive compounds with drug-like properties, and iii) discovery of novel health benefits from foods. This works represents a systematized approach to the association of food with health effect, and provides the phytochemical layer of information for nutritional systems biology research. PMID:24453957

  6. Gingival Inflammation Associates with Stroke A Role for Oral Health Personnel in Prevention: A Database Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Gingival inflammation is the physiological response to poor oral hygiene. If gingivitis is not resolved the response will become an established lesion.We studied whether gingivitis associates with elevated risk for stroke. The hypothesis was based on the periodontitisatherosclerosis paradigm. Methods In our prospective cohort study from Sweden 1676 randomly selected subjects were followed up from 1985 to 2012. All subjects underwent clinical oral examination and answered a questionnaire assessing background variables such as socio-economic status and pack-years of smoking. Cases with stroke were recorded from the Center of Epidemiology, Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare, Sweden, and classified according to the WHO International Classification of Diseases. Unpaired t-test, chi-square tests, and multiple logistic regression analyses were used. Results Of the 1676 participants, 39 subjects (2.3%) had been diagnosed with stroke. There were significant differences between the patients with stroke and subjects without in pack-years of smoking (p = 0.01), prevalence of gingival inflammation (GI) (p = 0.03), and dental calculus (p = 0.017). In a multiple regression analysis the association between GI, confounders and stroke, GI showed odds ratio 2.20 (95% confidence interval 1.024.74) for stroke. Conclusion Our present findings showed that gingival inflammation clearly associated with stroke in this 26-year cohort study. The results emphasize the role of oral health personnel in prevention. PMID:26405803

  7. Associations of Health Risk Behaviors with School Absenteeism. Does Having Permission for the Absence Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Danice K.; Brener, Nancy; Kann, Laura K.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Nearly 10% of students enrolled in US public schools are absent daily. Although previous research has shown associations of school absenteeism with participation in risk behaviors, it is unclear if these associations vary by whether the absence was excused. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of health risk

  8. Regular Fat and Reduced Fat Dairy Products Show Similar Associations with Markers of Adolescent Cardiometabolic Health.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Therese A; Bremner, Alexandra P; Mori, Trevor A; Beilin, Lawrence J; Wilson, Charlotte; Hafekost, Katherine; Ambrosini, Gina L; Huang, Rae Chi; Oddy, Wendy H

    2016-01-01

    Reduced fat dairy products are generally recommended for adults and children over the age of two years. However, emerging evidence suggests that dairy fat may not have detrimental health effects. We aimed to investigate prospective associations between consumption of regular versus reduced fat dairy products and cardiometabolic risk factors from early to late adolescence. In the West Australian Raine Study, dairy intake was assessed using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires in 860 adolescents at 14 and 17-year follow-ups; 582 of these also had blood biochemistry at both points. Using generalized estimating equations, we examined associations with cardiometabolic risk factors. Models incorporated reduced fat and regular fat dairy together (in serves/day) and were adjusted for a range of factors including overall dietary pattern. In boys, there was a mean reduction in diastolic blood pressure of 0.66 mmHg (95% CI 0.23-1.09) per serve of reduced fat dairy and an independent, additional reduction of 0.47 mmHg (95% CI 0.04-0.90) per serve of regular fat dairy. Each additional serve of reduced fat dairy was associated with a 2% reduction in HDL-cholesterol (95% CI 0.97-0.995) and a 2% increase in total: HDL-cholesterol ratio (95% CI 1.002-1.03); these associations were not observed with regular fat products. In girls, there were no significant independent associations observed in fully adjusted models. Although regular fat dairy was associated with a slightly better cholesterol profile in boys, overall, intakes of both regular fat and reduced fat dairy products were associated with similar cardiometabolic associations in adolescents. PMID:26729163

  9. Regular Fat and Reduced Fat Dairy Products Show Similar Associations with Markers of Adolescent Cardiometabolic Health

    PubMed Central

    O’Sullivan, Therese A.; Bremner, Alexandra P.; Mori, Trevor A.; Beilin, Lawrence J.; Wilson, Charlotte; Hafekost, Katherine; Ambrosini, Gina L.; Huang, Rae Chi; Oddy, Wendy H.

    2016-01-01

    Reduced fat dairy products are generally recommended for adults and children over the age of two years. However, emerging evidence suggests that dairy fat may not have detrimental health effects. We aimed to investigate prospective associations between consumption of regular versus reduced fat dairy products and cardiometabolic risk factors from early to late adolescence. In the West Australian Raine Study, dairy intake was assessed using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires in 860 adolescents at 14 and 17-year follow-ups; 582 of these also had blood biochemistry at both points. Using generalized estimating equations, we examined associations with cardiometabolic risk factors. Models incorporated reduced fat and regular fat dairy together (in serves/day) and were adjusted for a range of factors including overall dietary pattern. In boys, there was a mean reduction in diastolic blood pressure of 0.66 mmHg (95% CI 0.23–1.09) per serve of reduced fat dairy and an independent, additional reduction of 0.47 mmHg (95% CI 0.04–0.90) per serve of regular fat dairy. Each additional serve of reduced fat dairy was associated with a 2% reduction in HDL-cholesterol (95% CI 0.97–0.995) and a 2% increase in total: HDL-cholesterol ratio (95% CI 1.002–1.03); these associations were not observed with regular fat products. In girls, there were no significant independent associations observed in fully adjusted models. Although regular fat dairy was associated with a slightly better cholesterol profile in boys, overall, intakes of both regular fat and reduced fat dairy products were associated with similar cardiometabolic associations in adolescents. PMID:26729163

  10. Psychosocial risk factors in home and community settings and their associations with population health and health inequalities: A systematic meta-review

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Matt; Tannahill, Carol; Petticrew, Mark; Thomas, Sian

    2008-01-01

    Background The effects of psychosocial risk factors on population health and health inequalities has featured prominently in epidemiological research literature as well as public health policy strategies. We have conducted a meta-review (a review of reviews) exploring how psychosocial factors may relate to population health in home and community settings. Methods Systematic review (QUORUM) of literature reviews (published in any language or country) on the health associations of psychosocial risk factors in community settings. The literature search included electronic and manual searches. Two reviewers appraised included reviews using criteria for assessing systematic reviews. Data from the more robust reviews were extracted, tabulated and synthesised. Results Thirty-one reviews met our inclusion criteria. These explored a variety of psychosocial factors including social support and networks, social capital, social cohesion, collective efficacy, participation in local organisations – and less favourable psychosocial risk factors such as demands, exposure to community violence or anti-social behaviour, exposure to discrimination, and stress related to acculturation to western society. Most of the reviews focused on associations between social networks/support and physical or mental health. We identified some evidence of favourable psychosocial environments associated with better health. Reviews also found evidence of unfavourable psychosocial risk factors linked to poorer health, particularly among socially disadvantaged groups. However, the more robust reviews each identified studies with inconclusive findings, as well as studies finding evidence of associations. We also identified some evidence of apparently favourable psychosocial risk factors associated with poorer health. Conclusion From the review literature we have synthesised, where associations have been identified, they generally support the view that favourable psychosocial environments go hand in hand with better health. Poor psychosocial environments may be health damaging and contribute to health inequalities. The evidence that underpins our understanding of these associations is of variable quality and consistency. Future research should seek to improve this evidence base, with more longitudinal analysis (and intervention evaluations) of the effects of apparently under-researched psychosocial factors such as control and participation within communities. Future policy interventions relevant to this field should be developed in partnership with researchers to enable a better understanding of psychosocial mechanisms and the effects of psychosocial interventions. PMID:18631374

  11. Health care associated infections, antibiotic resistance and clinical outcome: A surveillance study from Sanandaj, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Soltani, Jafar; Poorabbas, Bahman; Miri, Neda; Mardaneh, Jalal

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To study the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of gram-negative healthcare associated bacterial infections at two tertiary hospitals in the Sanandaj city, Kurdistan Province, Iran. METHODS: From January 2012 to December 2012, all positive cultures from potentially sterile body fluids were gathered. They sent to professor Alborzi clinical microbiology center in Shiraz for further analysis and susceptibility testing. The antibiotic susceptibility was determined using the Kirby-Bauer method (disk diffusion technique). The Results were interpreted according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines against a series of antimicrobials. World Health Organization definitions for Healthcare associated infections were followed. RESULTS: Seven hundred and thirty-two positive cultures were reported from both hospitals. Seventy-nine isolates/patients fulfilled the study criteria for health-care associated gram-negative infections. The most frequent bacterial cultures were from the pediatric wards (52%). Serratia marcescens (S. marcescens) (38%) Escherichia coli (E. coli) (19%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) (19%), Acinetobacter baumannii (6%), Enterobacter species (6%), Serratia odorifera (4%) and Pseudomonas species (5%) were the most frequently isolated organisms. The susceptibility pattern of common isolates i.e., S. marcescens, E. coli and K. pneumoniae for commonly used antibiotics were as follows: Ampicillin 3.3%, 6.7%, 20%; gentamicin 73.3%, 73.3%, 46.7%; ceftazidim 80%, 73.3%, 33.3%; cefepim 80%, 86.7%, 46.7%; piperacillin/tazobactam 90%, 66.7%, 86.7%; ciprofloxacin 100%, 73.3%, 86.7%; imipenem 100%, 100%, 100%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The most effective antibiotics against gram-negative healthcare associated infections are imipenem followed by ciprofloxacin. The resistance rate is high against ampicillin and cephalothin. The high mortality rate (46.1%) associated with S. marcescens is alarming. PMID:26989670

  12. A Longitudinal Study of Association between Adiposity Markers and Intraocular Pressure: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Di; Kim, Myung Hun; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Zhang, Yiyi; Rampal, Sanjay; Shin, Hocheol; Kim, Joon Mo; Friedman, David S.; Guallar, Eliseo; Cho, Juhee

    2016-01-01

    Importance Intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction or stabilization is the only proven method for glaucoma management. Identifying risk factors for IOP is crucial to understand the pathophysiology of glaucoma. Objective To examine the associations of change in body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and percent fat mass with change in intraocular pressure (IOP) in a large sample of Korean adults. Design, setting and participants Cohort study of 274,064 young and middle age Korean adults with normal fundoscopic findings who attended annual or biennial health exams from January 1, 2002 to Feb 28, 2010 (577,981 screening visits). Exposures BMI, waist circumference, and percent fat mass. Main Outcome Measure(s) At each visit, IOP was measured in both eyes with automated noncontact tonometers. Results In multivariable-adjusted models, the average increase in IOP (95% confidence intervals) over time per interquartile increase in BMI (1.26 kg/m2), waist circumference (6.20 cm), and percent fat mass (3.40%) were 0.18 mmHg (0.17 to 0.19), 0.27 mmHg (0.26 to 0.29), and 0.10 mmHg (0.09 to 0.11), respectively (all P < 0.001). The association was stronger in men compared to women (P < 0.001) and it was only slightly attenuated after including diabetes and hypertension as potential mediators in the model. Conclusions and Relevance Increases in adiposity were significantly associated with an increase in IOP in a large cohort of Korean adults attending health screening visits, an association that was stronger for central obesity. Further research is needed to understand better the underlying mechanisms of this association, and to establish the role of weight gain in increasing IOP and the risk of glaucoma and its complications. PMID:26731527

  13. Association between phosphorus intake and bone health in the NHANES population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Albert W; Cho, Susan S

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the independent associations between intake of phosphorus (P) and bone health parameters such as bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD). It provides odds ratio (OR) of osteoporosis with quartiles of P intake adjusted for covariates (i.e., age, gender, BMI, and consumption of calcium (Ca), protein, total dairy foods, and vitamin D as well as intakes of supplemental Ca, vitamin D, and multivitamins/minerals). Data came from males and females aged 13-99 years who participated in the 2005-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Analyses showed that higher P intake was associated with higher Ca intake, and that dietary Ca:P ratios (0.51-0.62, with a mean of 0.60 for adults) were adequate in all age/gender groups. High intake of P was positively associated with BMC in female teenagers (Q4 vs. Q1: BMC, 30.9 1.1 vs. 29.0 0.5 g, P = 0.001). It was also positively associated with BMC and BMD as well as reduced risk of osteoporosis in adults >20 years of age (Q4 vs. Q1: OR of osteoporosis, 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39- 0.79; P = 0.001; BMC, 37.5 0.4 vs. 36.70 0.3 g, P < 0.01; BMD, 0.986 0.004 vs. 0.966 0.005 g/cm(2), P < 0.05). The data suggest that high intake of P has no adverse effect on bone metabolism in populations with adequate Ca intake, and that it is also associated with positive bone parameters in some age/gender groups. PMID:25856461

  14. Association between Sleep and Breast Cancer Incidence among Postmenopausal Women in the Women's Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Vogtmann, Emily; Levitan, Emily B.; Hale, Lauren; Shikany, James M.; Shah, Neomi A.; Endeshaw, Yohannes; Lewis, Cora E.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Chlebowski, Rowan T.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine whether the duration of sleep, sleep quality, insomnia, or sleep disturbance was associated with incident breast cancer in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Women enrolled in one of the Clinical Trial (CT) arms or the Observational Study (OS) from the WHI conducted in the United States. Participants: This study included 110,011 women age 50 to 79 years with no history of cancer. Measurements and Results: Typical sleep duration, sleep quality, and other self-reported sleep measures over the past 4 weeks were assessed during the screening visits for both the CT and OS participants. The presence of insomnia and level of sleep disturbance was calculated from an index of the WHI Insomnia Rating Scale. The outcome for this study was primary, invasive breast cancer. A total of 5,149 incident cases of breast cancer were identified in this study. No statistically significant associations were found between sleep duration, sleep quality, insomnia, or level of sleep disturbance with the risk of breast cancer after multivariable adjustment. A positive trend was observed for increasing sleeping duration with the risk of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer, but the association estimates for each sleep duration category were weak and nonsignificant. Conclusions: This study does not provide strong support for an association between self-reported sleep duration, sleep quality, insomnia, or sleep disturbance with the risk of breast cancer. Citation: Vogtmann E; Levitan EB; Hale L; Shikany JM; Shah NA; Endeshaw Y; Lewis CE; Manson JE; Chlebowski RT. Association between sleep and breast cancer incidence among postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative. SLEEP 2013;36(10):1437-1444. PMID:24082303

  15. Economic and Health Impacts Associated with a Salmonella Typhimurium Drinking Water Outbreak?Alamosa, CO, 2008

    PubMed Central

    Ailes, Elizabeth; Budge, Philip; Shankar, Manjunath; Collier, Sarah; Brinton, William; Cronquist, Alicia; Chen, Melissa; Thornton, Andrew; Beach, Michael J.; Brunkard, Joan M.

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, a large Salmonella outbreak caused by contamination of the municipal drinking water supply occurred in Alamosa, Colorado. The objectives of this assessment were to determine the full economic costs associated with the outbreak and the long-term health impacts on the community of Alamosa. We conducted a postal survey of City of Alamosa (2008 population: 8,746) households and businesses, and conducted in-depth interviews with local, state, and nongovernmental agencies, and City of Alamosa healthcare facilities and schools to assess the economic and long-term health impacts of the outbreak. Twenty-one percent of household survey respondents (n?=?369/1,732) reported diarrheal illness during the outbreak. Of those, 29% (n?=?108) reported experiencing potential long-term health consequences. Most households (n?=?699/771, 91%) reported municipal water as their main drinking water source at home before the outbreak; afterwards, only 30% (n?=?233) drank unfiltered municipal tap water. The outbreaks estimated total cost to residents and businesses of Alamosa using a Monte Carlo simulation model (10,000 iterations) was approximately $1.5 million dollars (range: $196,677$6,002,879), and rose to $2.6 million dollars (range: $1,123,471$7,792,973) with the inclusion of outbreak response costs to local, state and nongovernmental agencies and City of Alamosa healthcare facilities and schools. This investigation documents the significant economic and health impacts associated with waterborne disease outbreaks and highlights the potential for loss of trust in public water systems following such outbreaks. PMID:23526942

  16. Factors associated with data quality in the routine health information system of Benin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Routine health information systems (RHIS) are crucial to the acquisition of data for health sector planning. In developing countries, the insufficient quality of the data produced by these systems limits their usefulness in regards to decision-making. The aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with poor data quality in the RHIS in Benin. Methods This cross-sectional descriptive and analytical study included health workers who were responsible for data collection in public and private health centers. The technique and tools used were an interview with a self-administered questionnaire. The dependent variable was the quality of the data. The independent variables were socio-demographic and work-related characteristics, personal and work-related resources, and the perception of the technical factors. The quality of the data was assessed using the Lot Quality Assurance Sampling method. We used survival analysis with univariate proportional hazards (PH) Cox models to derive hazards ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Focus group data were evaluated with a content analysis. Results A significant link was found between data quality and level of responsibility (p = 0.011), sector of employment (p = 0.007), RHIS training (p = 0.026), level of work engagement (p < 0.001), and the level of perceived self-efficacy (p = 0.03). The focus groups confirmed a positive relationship with organizational factors such as the availability of resources, supervision, and the perceived complexity of the technical factors. Conclusion This exploratory study identified several factors associated with the quality of the data in the RHIS in Benin. The results could provide strategic decision support in improving the system’s performance. PMID:25114792

  17. Intimate Partner Violence Among Hong Kong Young Adults: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Associated Health Problems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huiping; Wong, William C W; Ip, Patrick; Fan, Susan; Yip, Paul S F

    2015-08-01

    Intimate partner violence is a serious social problem and public health issue affecting the well-being of the young adults. However, there is very little epidemiological evidence on the incidence and associated health problems in contemporary Chinese society. Using a representative community sample of 1,223 young adults aged 18 to 27 years conducted by Hong Kong Family Planning Association in 2011, this study aimed to estimate the prevalence, risk factors, and possible health consequences of intimate partner violence among young adults in Hong Kong. It is found that the prevalence of lifetime and preceding 1-year intimate partner violence by former or current partners was 8.6% and 4.9% respectively. Male youths who were older were less likely to experience past-year intimate partner violence (odds ratio [OR] = 0.21, p < .05) and those who had a university degree or were unemployed were more likely to experience past-year intimate partner violence (OR = 8.48, p < .01 and OR = 8.14, p < .05 respectively). Female youths who had a full-time job were less likely to experience the lifetime violence (OR = 0.15, p < .05) and those who were ever pregnant with current partner were more likely to experience both lifetime intimate partner violence (OR = 5.00, p < .05) and past-year violence (OR = 5.63, p < .05). Both female and male victims were more likely to be subjected to mental health problems and only female victims felt fear for the violent partner. PMID:25304670

  18. Uncertainties Associated with Quantifying Climate Change Impacts on Human Health: A Case Study for Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Kolstad, Erik W.; Johansson, Kjell Arne

    2011-01-01

    Background Climate change is expected to have large impacts on health at low latitudes where droughts and malnutrition, diarrhea, and malaria are projected to increase. Objectives The main objective of this study was to indicate a method to assess a range of plausible health impacts of climate change while handling uncertainties in a unambiguous manner. We illustrate this method by quantifying the impacts of projected regional warming on diarrhea in this century. Methods We combined a range of linear regression coefficients to compute projections of future climate change-induced increases in diarrhea using the results from five empirical studies and a 19-member climate model ensemble for which future greenhouse gas emissions were prescribed. Six geographical regions were analyzed. Results The model ensemble projected temperature increases of up to 4C over land in the tropics and subtropics by the end of this century. The associated mean projected increases of relative risk of diarrhea in the six study regions were 811% (with SDs of 35%) by 20102039 and 2229% (SDs of 912%) by 20702099. Conclusions Even our most conservative estimates indicate substantial impacts from climate change on the incidence of diarrhea. Nevertheless, our main conclusion is that large uncertainties are associated with future projections of diarrhea and climate change. We believe that these uncertainties can be attributed primarily to the sparsity of empirical climatehealth data. Our results therefore highlight the need for empirical data in the cross section between climate and human health. PMID:20929684

  19. Investigating the associations of self-rated health: heart rate variability is more strongly associated than inflammatory and other frequently used biomarkers in a cross sectional occupational sample.

    PubMed

    Jarczok, Marc N; Kleber, Marcus E; Koenig, Julian; Loerbroks, Adrian; Herr, Raphael M; Hoffmann, Kristina; Fischer, Joachim E; Benyamini, Yael; Thayer, Julian F

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the possible mechanisms linking a single-item measure of global self-rated health (SRH) with morbidity by comparing the association strengths between SRH with markers of autonomic nervous system (ANS) function, inflammation, blood glucose and blood lipids. Cross-sectional comprehensive health-check data of 3947 working adults (age 4211) was used to calculate logistic regressions, partial correlations and compare correlation strength using Olkins Z. Adjusted logistic regression models showed a negative association between SRH (higher values indicating worse health) and measures of heart rate variability (HRV). Glycemic markers were positively associated with poor SRH. No adjusted association was found with inflammatory markers, BP or lipids. In both unadjusted and adjusted linear models Pearson's correlation strength was significantly higher between SRH with HRV measures compared to SRH with other biomarkers. This is the first study investigating the association of ANS function and SRH. We showed that a global measure of SRH is associated with HRV, and that all measures of ANS function were significantly more strongly associated with SRH than any other biomarker. The current study supports the hypothesis that the extent of brain-body communication, as indexed by HRV, is associated with self-rated health. PMID:25693164

  20. Rhinitis Associated with Pesticide Exposure among Commercial Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Slager, Rebecca E.; Poole, Jill A.; LeVan, Tricia D.; Sandler, Dale P.; Alavanja, Michael C. R.; Hoppin, Jane A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Rhinitis is common, but the risk factors are not well described. To investigate the association between current rhinitis and pesticide use, we used data from 2,245 Iowa commercial pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study. Methods Using logistic regression models adjusted for age, education, and growing up on a farm, we evaluated the association between current rhinitis and 34 pesticides used in the past year. Results Seventy-four percent of commercial pesticide applicators reported at least one episode of rhinitis in the past year (current rhinitis). Five pesticides used in the past year were significantly positively associated with current rhinitis: the herbicides 2,4-D, glyphosate and petroleum oil, the insecticide diazinon and the fungicide benomyl. The association for 2,4-D and glyphosate was limited to individuals who used both in the past year (Odds Ratio = 1.42, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.14, 1.77). Both petroleum oil and diazinon showed consistent evidence of an association with rhinitis, based on both current use and exposure-response models. We saw no evidence of confounding by common agricultural rhinitis triggers such as handling grain or hay. Conclusions Exposure to pesticides may increase the risk of rhinitis. PMID:19289390

  1. Age, class and race discrimination: their interactions and associations with mental health among Brazilian university students.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Joo Luiz; Barros, Aluisio J D; Celeste, Roger Keller; Paradies, Yin; Faerstein, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Although research on discrimination and health has progressed significantly, it has tended to focus on racial discrimination and US populations. This study explored different types of discrimination, their interactions and associations with common mental disorders among Brazilian university students, in Rio de Janeiro in 2010. Associations between discrimination and common mental disorders were examined using multiple logistic regression models, adjusted for confounders. Interactions between discrimination and socio-demographics were tested. Discrimination attributed to age, class and skin color/race were the most frequently reported. In a fully adjusted model, discrimination attributed to skin color/race and class were both independently associated with increased odds of common mental disorders. The simultaneous reporting of skin color/race, class and age discrimination was associated with the highest odds ratio. No significant interactions were found. Skin color/race and class discrimination were important, but their simultaneous reporting, in conjunction with age discrimination, were associated with the highest occurrence of common mental disorders. PMID:24627024

  2. The association between exaggeration in health related science news and academic press releases: retrospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Vivian-Griffiths, Solveiga; Boivin, Jacky; Williams, Andy; Venetis, Christos A; Davies, Aimée; Ogden, Jack; Whelan, Leanne; Hughes, Bethan; Dalton, Bethan; Boy, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify the source (press releases or news) of distortions, exaggerations, or changes to the main conclusions drawn from research that could potentially influence a reader’s health related behaviour. Design Retrospective quantitative content analysis. Setting Journal articles, press releases, and related news, with accompanying simulations. Sample Press releases (n=462) on biomedical and health related science issued by 20 leading UK universities in 2011, alongside their associated peer reviewed research papers and news stories (n=668). Main outcome measures Advice to readers to change behaviour, causal statements drawn from correlational research, and inference to humans from animal research that went beyond those in the associated peer reviewed papers. Results 40% (95% confidence interval 33% to 46%) of the press releases contained exaggerated advice, 33% (26% to 40%) contained exaggerated causal claims, and 36% (28% to 46%) contained exaggerated inference to humans from animal research. When press releases contained such exaggeration, 58% (95% confidence interval 48% to 68%), 81% (70% to 93%), and 86% (77% to 95%) of news stories, respectively, contained similar exaggeration, compared with exaggeration rates of 17% (10% to 24%), 18% (9% to 27%), and 10% (0% to 19%) in news when the press releases were not exaggerated. Odds ratios for each category of analysis were 6.5 (95% confidence interval 3.5 to 12), 20 (7.6 to 51), and 56 (15 to 211). At the same time, there was little evidence that exaggeration in press releases increased the uptake of news. Conclusions Exaggeration in news is strongly associated with exaggeration in press releases. Improving the accuracy of academic press releases could represent a key opportunity for reducing misleading health related news. PMID:25498121

  3. Personalized Risk Assessment of Drug-Related Harm Is Associated with Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Andrea A.; Vila-Rodriguez, Fidel; Panenka, William J.; Leonova, Olga; Strehlau, Verena; Lang, Donna J.; Thornton, Allen E.; Wong, Hubert; Barr, Alasdair M.; Procyshyn, Ric M.; Smith, Geoffrey N.; Buchanan, Tari; Krajden, Mel; Krausz, Michael; Montaner, Julio S.; MacEwan, G. William; Nutt, David J.; Honer, William G.

    2013-01-01

    Background The Independent Scientific Committee on Drugs (ISCD) assigned quantitative scores for harm to 20 drugs. We hypothesized that a personalized, ISCD-based Composite Harm Score (CHS) would be associated with poor health outcomes in polysubstance users. Methods A prospective community sample (n=293) of adults living in marginal housing was assessed for substance use. The CHS was calculated based on the ISCD index, and the personal substance use characteristics over four weeks. Regression models estimated the association between CHS and physical, psychological, and social health outcomes. Results Polysubstance use was pervasive (95.8%), as was multimorbid illness (median 3, possible range 012). The median CHS was 2845 (interquartile range 18653977). Adjusting for age and sex, every 1000-unit CHS increase was associated with greater mortality (odds ratio [OR] 1.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.072.01, p = 0.02), and persistent hepatitis C infection (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.021.67, p = 0.04). The likelihood of substance-induced psychosis increased 1.39-fold (95% CI 1.131.67, p = 0.001). The amount spent on drugs increased 1.51-fold (1.401.62, p < 0.001) and the odds of having committed a crime increased 1.74-fold (1.462.10, p < 0.001). Multimorbid illness increased 1.43-fold (95% CI 1.261.63, p < 0.001). Conclusions Greater CHS predicts poorer physical, psychological, and social health, and may be a useful quantitative, personalized measure of risk for drug-related harm. PMID:24223192

  4. Associations Between Patterns of Emerging Sexual Behavior and Young Adult Reproductive Health

    PubMed Central

    Haydon, Abigail A.; Herring, Amy H.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

    2012-01-01

    CONTEXT Identifying young adult outcomes associated with adolescent sexual behavior, including patterns of first oral, vaginal and anal sex, is critical to promoting healthy sexual development. METHODS Associations between patterns of emerging sexual behavior, defined using latent class analysis, and young adult sexual and reproductive health were examined among 9,441 respondents to Waves 1 (19941995), 3 (20012002) and 4 (2008) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Logistic regression analyses examined associations between class membership and young adult outcomes, and tested for interactions by race and ethnicity. RESULTS Compared with respondents who initiated vaginal sex first and reported other sexual behaviors within two years, those who initiated oral and vaginal sex during the same year had similar odds of having had an STD diagnosis ever or in the last year, of having had concurrent sexual partnerships in the last year and of having exchanged sex for money. However, respondents who postponed sexual activity had reduced odds of each outcome (odds ratios, 0.20.4); those who initiated vaginal sex and reported only one type of sexual behavior had reduced odds of reporting STD diagnoses and concurrent partnerships (0.40.6). Respondents who reported early initiation of sexual activity combined with anal sex experience during adolescence had elevated odds of having had concurrent partnerships (1.6). The data suggest racial and ethnic disparities even when patterns of emerging sexual behavior were the same. CONCLUSIONS Patterns of early sexual behavior considered high-risk may not predict poor sexual and reproductive health in young adulthood. PMID:23231329

  5. The prevalence of fatigue and associated health and safety risk factors among taxi drivers in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Lim, See Ming; Chia, Sin Eng

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Driver fatigue is one of the biggest health and safety concerns within the road transport sector. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of fatigue among taxi drivers in Singapore, to better understand the general working and health conditions of this group of people, and to determine the risk factors associated with fatigued driving. METHODS A total of 340 taxi drivers were randomly selected for participation in a self-administered questionnaire survey, which included height and weight measurements. The response rate was 68.2%. The survey consisted of four main categories: personal particulars; social habits; work patterns; and sleep profile. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale was used to estimate the level of daytime sleepiness and fatigue. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the adjusted odd ratios and 95% confidence intervals associated with risk factors related to fatigue among taxi drivers. RESULTS A high proportion of taxi drivers were obese and had self-reported hypertension, diabetes mellitus and high cholesterol. Driver fatigue was associated with very poor/poor self-rating of quality of sleep, having an additional part-time job, drinking three or more caffeinated drinks daily, and driving more than 10 hours a day. CONCLUSION We hope that the findings of the present study will improve awareness of the work and health conditions of taxi drivers, and contribute toward efforts to achieve a healthier workforce. A lower prevalence of fatigued driving may lead to lower risks of road traffic accidents, decreased economic loss, increased productivity, and safer roads for all. PMID:25532512

  6. Association of suboptimal health status and cardiovascular risk factors in urban Chinese workers.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yu X; Dong, Jing; Liu, You Q; Yang, Xing H; Li, Man; Shia, Gilbert; Wang, Wei

    2012-04-01

    Suboptimal health status (SHS) has become a new public health challenge in urban China. Despite indications that SHS may be associated with progression or development of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, there are few reports on SHS investigations. To explore the relationship between SHS and traditional cardiovascular risk factors, a cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 4,881 workers employed in 21 companies in urban Beijing. Blood pressure, glucose, lipid levels (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein [HDL] cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein [LDL] cholesterol and triglycerides), cortisol, and body mass index were measured. SHS score was derived from data collection in the SHS questionnaire (SHSQ-25). Univariate analysis and linear two-level model were used to analyze the association of SHS with the cardiovascular risk factors. Serum cortisol level was much higher among the SHS high-score group than that among the low SHS score group (204.31 versus 161.33ng/ml, P?associated with cardiovascular risk factors and contributes to the development of cardiovascular disease. SHS should be recognized in the health care system, especially in primary care. PMID:22203493

  7. Health and safety problems associated with long working hours: a review of the current position.

    PubMed Central

    Spurgeon, A; Harrington, J M; Cooper, C L

    1997-01-01

    The European Community Directive on Working Time, which should have been implemented in member states of the European Community by November 1996, contains several requirements related to working hours, including the right of employees to refuse to work more than 48 hours a week. The United Kingdom government attempted to oppose the Directive, arguing that there is no convincing evidence that hours of work should be limited on health and safety grounds. Much of the research in this area has focused on the problems of shiftworking and previous reviews have therefore tended to emphasise this aspect of working hours. However, there is much less information about the effects of overtime work, which is a central element of the terms of the Directive. This paper reviews the current evidence relating to the potential effects on health and performance of extensions to the normal working day. Several gaps in the literature are identified. Research to date has been restricted to a limited range of health outcomes--namely, mental health and cardiovascular disorders. Other potential effects which are normally associated with stress--for example, gastrointestinal disorders, musculoskeletal disorders, and problems associated with depression of the immune system, have received little attention. Also, there have been few systematic investigations of performance effects, and little consideration of the implications for occupational exposure limits of extensions to the working day. Existing data relate largely to situations where working hours exceed 50 a week and there is a lack of information on hours below this level, which is of direct relevance to the European Community proposal. Finally, it is clear from investigations relating to shiftwork that a range of modifying factors are likely to influence the level and nature of health and performance outcomes. These include the attitudes and motivation of the people concerned, the job requirements, and other aspects of the organisational and cultural climate. It is concluded that there is currently sufficient evidence to raise concerns about the risks to health and safety of long working hours. However, much more work is required to define the level and nature of those risks. PMID:9245942

  8. Influence of air quality model resolution on uncertainty associated with health impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, T. M.; Selin, N. E.

    2012-10-01

    We use regional air quality modeling to evaluate the impact of model resolution on uncertainty associated with the human health benefits resulting from proposed air quality regulations. Using a regional photochemical model (CAMx), we ran a modeling episode with meteorological inputs simulating conditions as they occurred during August through September 2006 (a period representative of conditions leading to high ozone), and two emissions inventories (a 2006 base case and a 2018 proposed control scenario, both for Houston, Texas) at 36, 12, 4 and 2 km resolution. The base case model performance was evaluated for each resolution against daily maximum 8-h averaged ozone measured at monitoring stations. Results from each resolution were more similar to each other than they were to measured values. Population-weighted ozone concentrations were calculated for each resolution and applied to concentration response functions (with 95% confidence intervals) to estimate the health impacts of modeled ozone reduction from the base case to the control scenario. We found that estimated avoided mortalities were not significantly different between the 2, 4 and 12 km resolution runs, but the 36 km resolution may over-predict some potential health impacts. Given the cost/benefit analysis requirements motivated by Executive Order 12866 as it applies to the Clean Air Act, the uncertainty associated with human health impacts and therefore the results reported in this study, we conclude that health impacts calculated from population weighted ozone concentrations obtained using regional photochemical models at 36 km resolution fall within the range of values obtained using fine (12 km or finer) resolution modeling. However, in some cases, 36 km resolution may not be fine enough to statistically replicate the results achieved using 2, 4 or 12 km resolution. On average, when modeling at 36 km resolution, an estimated 5 deaths per week during the May through September ozone season are avoided because of ozone reductions resulting from the proposed emissions reductions (95% confidence interval was 2-8). When modeling at 2, 4 or 12 km finer scale resolution, on average 4 deaths are avoided due to the same reductions (95% confidence interval was 1-7). Study results show that ozone modeling at a resolution finer than 12 km is unlikely to reduce uncertainty in benefits analysis for this specific region. We suggest that 12 km resolution may be appropriate for uncertainty analyses of health impacts due to ozone control scenarios, in areas with similar chemistry, meteorology and population density, but that resolution requirements should be assessed on a case-by-case basis and revised as confidence intervals for concentration-response functions are updated.

  9. Health Problems and Risk Factors Associated with Long Haul Transport of Horses in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Padalino, Barbara; Hall, Evelyn; Raidal, Sharanne; Celi, Pietro; Knight, Peter; Jeffcott, Leo; Muscatello, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Records from road transport of horses from Perth to Sydney over a two year period were analysed to explore the incidence of transport related issues and identify risk factors. Transportation resulted in health problems in 2.8% of the transported horses, and in fatalities in 0.24%. Journey duration and season were risk factors for the development of transport related health problems, while breed, sex and age did not predict disease or injury risk. Overall, this study provides statistics to inform policy development for the equine transport industry and enhance management of the transported horse. Abstract Equine transportation is associated with a variety of serious health disorders causing economic losses. However; statistics on horse transport are limited and epidemiological data on transport related diseases are available only for horses transported to abattoirs for slaughter. This study analysed reports of transport related health problems identified by drivers and horse owners for 180 journeys of an Australian horse transport company transporting horses between Perth and Sydney (~4000 km) in 2013–2015. Records showed that 97.2% (1604/1650) of the horses arrived at their destination with no clinical signs of disease or injury. Based on the veterinary reports of the affected horses; the most common issues were respiratory problems (27%); gastrointestinal problems (27%); pyrexia (19%); traumatic injuries (15%); and death (12%). Journey duration and season had a significant effect on the distribution of transport related issues (p < 0.05); with a marked increase of the proportion of the most severe problems (i.e., gastrointestinal; respiratory problems and death) in spring and after 20 h in transit. Although not statistically significant; elevated disease rate predictions were seen for stallions/colts; horses aged over 10 years; and Thoroughbreds. Overall; the data demonstrate that long haul transportation is a risk for horse health and welfare and requires appropriate management to minimize transport stress. PMID:26690482

  10. Association of work-related stress with mental health problems in a special police force unit

    PubMed Central

    Garbarino, Sergio; Cuomo, Giovanni; Chiorri, Carlo; Magnavita, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Law and order enforcement tasks may expose special force police officers to significant psychosocial risk factors. The aim of this work is to investigate the relationship between job stress and the presence of mental health symptoms while controlling sociodemographical, occupational and personality variables in special force police officers. Method At different time points, 292 of 294 members of the VI Reparto Mobile, a special police force engaged exclusively in the enforcement of law and order, responded to our invitation to complete questionnaires for the assessment of personality traits, work-related stress (using the DemandControlSupport (DCS) and the EffortRewardImbalance (ERI) models) and mental health problems such as depression, anxiety and burnout. Results Regression analyses showed that lower levels of support and reward and higher levels of effort and overcommitment were associated with higher levels of mental health symptoms. Psychological screening revealed 21 (7.3%) likely cases of mild depression (Beck Depression Inventory, BDI?10). Officers who had experienced a discrepancy between work effort and rewards showed a marked increase in the risk of depression (OR 7.89, 95% CI 2.32 to 26.82) when compared with their counterparts who did not perceive themselves to be in a condition of distress. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that work-related stress may play a role in the development of mental health problems in police officers. The prevalence of mental health symptoms in the cohort investigated here was low, but not negligible in the case of depression. Since special forces police officers have to perform sensitive tasks for which a healthy psychological functioning is needed, the results of this study suggest that steps should be taken to prevent distress and improve the mental well-being of these workers. PMID:23872288

  11. Australian Medical Students' Association Global Health Essay Competition - Global climate change, geo-engineering and human health.

    PubMed

    Boyages, Costa S

    2013-10-01

    Rio+20's proposed Sustainable Development Goals have the potential to redefine the course of international action on climate change. They recognise that environmental health is inextricably linked with human health, and that environmental sustainability is of paramount importance in safeguarding global health. Competition entrants were asked to discuss ways of making global health a central component of international sustainable development initiatives and environmental policy, using one or two concrete examples PMID:24099214

  12. Poor self-reported health and its association with biomarkers among Canadian Inuit

    PubMed Central

    Saudny, Helga; Cao, Zhirong; Egeland, Grace M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine the extent to which demographic characteristics, clinical measurements and biomarkers were associated with poor self-reported health (SRH) among Inuit adults in the Canadian Arctic. Study design Cross-sectional survey was adopted as the study design. Methods The International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey carried out in 36 Canadian Arctic communities in 2007 and 2008 included Inuit men and women, aged 18 years or older, recruited from randomly selected households. The main outcome measure was SRH, which was dichotomized into good health (excellent, very good and good responses) and poor health (fair and poor responses). Results Of the 2,796 eligible households, 1,901 (68%) households and 2,595 participants took part in the survey. The weighted prevalence of poor SRH was 27.8%. Increasing age was significantly associated with poor SRH. The relative risk ratios for poor SRH was 2.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.33.1) for men aged 50 years or older and 2.3 (95% CI 1.73.0) for women aged 50 years or older, compared with men and women aged 29 years or younger. After adjusting for age, gender and body mass index, poor SRH was significantly associated with smoking status (odds ratio [OR]=1.5; CI 1.12.0), at-risk fasting glucose levels (?6.1 mmol/L) (OR=2.5; 95%; CI 1.54.2) and elevated hs C-reactive protein levels (>3?10 mg/L) (OR=2.1; 95% CI 1.43.1). Poor SRH was also significantly associated with a hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype (high-risk waist circumference ?102 cm for men and ?88 cm for women with high triglyceride levels, ?1.7 mmol/L), adjusted for age and gender, OR=1.6; 95% CI 1.12.3. Conclusions Clinically relevant indicators of chronic disease risk were related to subjective assessment of SRH among Inuit. PMID:22973568

  13. Health care associated hematogenous pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis: a severe and potentially preventable infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Pigrau, Carlos; Rodríguez-Pardo, Dolors; Fernández-Hidalgo, Nuria; Moretó, Laura; Pellise, Ferran; Larrosa, Maria-Nieves; Puig, Mireia; Almirante, Benito

    2015-01-01

    Although hematogenous pyogenic spinal infections have been related to hemodialysis (HD), catheter-related sepsis, and sporadically, to other nosocomial infections or procedures, in most recent studies and reviews the impact of nosocomial infection as a risk factor for vertebral osteomyelitis (VO) is not well established. The aim of our study was to describe the risk factors, infectious source, etiology, clinical features, therapy, and outcome of health care associated VO (HCAVO), and compare them with community-acquired VO (CAVO) cases.A retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients with hematogenous VO was conducted in our third-level hospital between 1987 and 2011. HCAVO was defined as onset of symptoms after 1 month of hospitalization or within 6 months after hospital discharge, or ambulatory manipulations in the 6 months before the diagnosis.Over the 25-year study period, among 163 hematogenous pyogenic VO, 41 (25%) were health care associated, a percentage that increased from 15% (9/61) in the 1987-1999 period to 31% (32/102) in the 2000-2011 period (P < 0.01). The presumed source of infection was an intravenous catheter in 14 (34%), cutaneous foci in 8 (20%), urinary tract in 7 (17%), gastrointestinal in 3 (7%), other foci in 3 (7%), and unknown in 6 (15%). Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently isolated microorganism (14 cases, 34%), followed by coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CoNS) in 6 (15%), and Enterobacteriaceae in 6 (15%) cases.Compared with CAVO cases, patients with HCAVO were older (mean 66.0 SD 13.0 years vs 60.5 SD 15.5 years), had more underlying conditions (73% vs 50%, P < 0.05), neoplasm/immunosuppression (39% vs 7%, P < 0.005), chronic renal failure (19% vs 4%, P < 0.001), a known source of infection (85% vs 54% P < 0.05), Candida spp (7% vs 0%, P < 0.01) or CoNS infections (15% vs 2%, P < 0.05), higher mortality (15% vs 6%, P = 0.069), and a higher relapse rate in survivors (9% vs 1%, P < 0.05).Presently, in our setting, one-third of hematogenous pyogenic VO infections are health care associated, and a third of these are potentially preventable catheter-related infections. Compared with CAVO, in health care associated hematogenous VO, mortality and relapse rates are higher; hence, further prevention measures should be assessed. PMID:25621677

  14. Global Association of Cold Spells and Adverse Health Effects: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ryti, Niilo R.I.; Guo, Yuming; Jaakkola, Jouni J.K.

    2015-01-01

    Background There is substantial evidence that mortality increases in low temperatures. Less is known about the role of prolonged cold periods denoted as cold spells. Objective We conducted the first systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize the evidence on the adverse health effects of cold spells in varying climates. Data sources and extraction Four databases (Ovid Medline, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science) were searched for all years and languages available. “Cold spell” was defined as an event below a temperature threshold lasting for a minimum duration of 2 days. Of 1,527 identified articles, 26 satisfied our eligibility criteria for the systematic review, and 9 were eligible for meta-analyses. The articles were grouped by the three main study questions into Overall-effect Group, Added-effect Group, and Temperature-change-effect Group. Data synthesis Based on random-effects models in the meta-analyses, cold spells were associated with increased mortality from all or all nonaccidental causes (summary rate ratio = 1.10; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.17 based on 9 estimates from five studies), cardiovascular diseases (1.11; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.19; 12 estimates from eight studies), and respiratory diseases (1.21; 95% CI: 0.97, 1.51; 8 estimates from four studies). Estimated associations were stronger for people ≥ 65 years of age (1.06; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.12) than for people 0–64 years of age (1.01; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.03). Study-specific effect estimates from a limited number of studies suggested an increased morbidity related to cold spells, but it was not possible to quantitatively summarize the evidence. Conclusions Cold spells are associated with increased mortality rates in populations around the world. The body of evidence suggests that cold spells also have other adverse health effects. There was substantial heterogeneity among the studies, which should be taken into account in the interpretation of the results. Citation Ryti NR, Guo Y, Jaakkola JJ. 2016. Global association of cold spells and adverse health effects: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Environ Health Perspect 124:12–22; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408104 PMID:25978526

  15. The association between relative deprivation and self-rated health, depressive symptoms, and smoking behavior in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chun-Tung; Chiang, Tung-liang

    2013-07-01

    Relative deprivation has been hypothesized as one explanation for the association between income inequality and health. However, few studies have examined the effect of relative deprivation on psychosocial and behavioral outcomes. Using a cross-sectional data from the National Survey on Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Health Promotion in Taiwan, this study examined the relationship between relative deprivation and physical health (self-rated health), psychosocial health (depressive symptoms), and behavioral health (smoking) among working-age Taiwanese men and women. We found that higher relative deprivation (measured by the Yitzhaki Index) is significantly associated with a higher prevalence of poor self-rated health, depressive symptoms, and current smoking in both genders. After controlling for demographic variables and absolute income, the prevalence ratios (PRs) of reporting poor health for each 10,000 NT-dollars higher in the Yitzhaki Index are between 1.25 and 1.57, depending on the reference groups. The PRs were between 1.33 and 1.77 for depressive symptoms, and between 1.04 and 1.46 for smoking. Additionally, the depressive symptoms attenuated the association between relative deprivation and self-rated health. The results were consistent with various definitions of reference groups. In conclusion, this study suggests that the psychosocial process of relative deprivation is a crucial mechanism linking income inequality to health. Narrowing the income gap between rich and poor may protect the physical and mental well-being of the population and reduce the prevalence of smoking. PMID:23726214

  16. Associations between overweight, obesity, health measures and need for recovery in office employees: a cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background With both a high need for recovery (NFR) and overweight and obesity being a potential burden for organizations (e.g. productivity loss and sickness absence), the aim of this paper was to examine the associations between overweight and obesity and several other health measures and NFR in office workers. Methods Baseline data of 412 office employees participating in a randomised controlled trial aimed at improving NFR in office workers were used. Associations between self-reported BMI categories (normal body weight, overweight, obesity) and several other health measures (general health, mental health, sleep quality, stress and vitality) with NFR were examined. Unadjusted and adjusted linear regression analyses were performed and adjusted for age, education and job demands. In addition, we adjusted for general health in the association between overweight and obesity and NFR. Results A significant positive association was observed between stress and NFR (B?=?18.04, 95%CI:14.53-21.56). General health, mental health, sleep quality and vitality were negatively associated with NFR (p?association between obesity and NFR (B?=?8.77, 95%CI:0.01-17.56), but not between overweight and NFR. Conclusions The findings suggest that self-reported stress is, and obesity may be, associated with a higher NFR. Additionally, the results imply that health measures that indicate a better health are associated with a lower NFR. Trial registration The trial is registered at the Dutch Trial Register (NTR) under trial registration number: NTR2553. PMID:24359267

  17. Internet Use Among Older Adults: Association With Health Needs, Psychological Capital, and Social Capital

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have identified socioeconomic status and health status as predictors of older adults’ computer and Internet use, but researchers have not examined the relationships between older adults’ health needs and psychological capital (emotional well-being and self-efficacy) and social capital (social integration/ties and support networks) to different types of Internet use. Objective This study examined (1) whether older adults’ health conditions and psychological and social capital differentiate Internet users from nonusers, and (2) whether the Internet users differed in their types of Internet use on the basis of their health conditions and psychological and social capital. Methods Data for this study came from the National Health and Aging Trends Study, which is based on a nationally representative sample of US Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years and older. The sample for this study were those who resided in the community in their own or others’ homes (N=6680). Binary logistic regression analysis was used to compare health needs, psychological capital, and social capital among (1) any type of Internet users and nonusers, (2) Internet users who engaged in health-related tasks and Internet users who did not, (3) Internet users who engaged in shopping/banking tasks and Internet users who did not, and (4) Internet users only used the Internet for email/texting and all other Internet users. Results Depressive and anxiety symptoms, measures of psychological capital, were negatively associated with Internet use among older adults (odds ratio [OR] 0.83, 95% CI 0.70-0.98, P=.03 and OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.65-0.97, P=.03, respectively), whereas most measures of social capital were positively associated with Internet use. Having more chronic medical conditions and engaging in formal volunteering increased the odds of Internet use for health-related tasks by 1.15 (95% CI 1.08-1.23, P<.001) and 1.28 (95% CI 1.05-1.57, P=.02), respectively, but anxiety symptoms decreased the odds (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.55-0.99, P=.05). Religious service attendance was negatively associated with Internet use for shopping/banking activities (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.62-0.91, P=.01). Anxiety symptoms increased the odds of using the Internet only for emails/texting (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.12-2.75, P=.02), but formal volunteering decreased the odds (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.43-0.92, P=.02). Other correlates of Internet use solely for emails/texting were older age (80-84 years and ≥85 years), a black or “other” racial/ethnic background, a high school education or less than high school, and lower income. Conclusions The findings point to the importance of social capital in facilitating older adults’ learning and adoption of Internet technology. Older adults who used the Internet for email/texting purposes only were the most socially and economically disadvantaged group of Internet users. Computer/Internet training for older adults and computer/Internet use for various purposes need to consider the significant role their social capital can play. PMID:23681083

  18. The Association Between Self-Rated Mental Health Status and Total Health Care Expenditure: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of a Nationally Representative Sample.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Muoi T; Chan, Winnie Y; Keeler, Courtney

    2015-09-01

    Both clinical diagnoses and self-rated measures of mental illness are associated with a variety of outcomes, including physical well-being, health utilization, and expenditure. However, much of current literature primarily utilizes clinically diagnosed data.This cross-sectional study explores the impact of mental illness and health care expenditure using 2 self-rated measures: self-rated measured of perceived mental health status (SRMH) and Kessler Screening Scale for Psychological Distress (K6).Data from the 2011 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Household Component, a nationally representative sample of noninstitutionalized individuals (n = 18,295), were analyzed using bivariate χ tests and a 2-part model (logistics regression and generalized linear model regression for the first and second stages, respectively).Although predictive of any health expenditure, SRMH alone was not highly predictive of the dollar value of that health expenditure conditional on any spending. By comparison, the K6 measure was significantly and positively associated with the probability of any health expenditure as well as the dollar value of that spending. Taken together, both the K6 and SRMH measures suggest a positive relationship between poor mental health and the probability of any health expenditure and total expenditure conditional on any spending, even when adjusting for other confounding factors such as race/ethnicity, sex, age, educational attainment, insurance status, and some regional characteristics.Our results suggest that psychological distress and SRMH may represent potential pathways linking poor mental health to increased health care expenditure. Further research exploring the nuances of these relationships may aid researchers, practitioners, and policy makers in addressing issues of inflated health care expenditure in populations at risk for poor mental health. PMID:26334899

  19. The Oslo health study: soft drink intake is associated with the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Høstmark, Arne Torbjørn

    2010-10-01

    It has been reported that the frequency of cola intake (COLA) is positively associated with serum triglycerides and negatively associated with high-density-lioprotein (HDL) cholesterol, both components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). The question now is whether noncola soft drink intake (NCOLA) is associated with MetS. Among the 18 770 participants in the Oslo Health Study, 5373 men and 6181 women had data on COLA and NCOLA and risk factors for MetS (except fasting glucose). Main MetS requirements are central obesity and 2 of the following: increased triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, increased systolic or diastolic blood pressure, and elevated fasting blood glucose. The MetSRisk index was calculated to estimate many MetS components. Using regression analyses, the association between COLA (NCOLA) and MetS (MetSRisk) was studied. In young (aged 30 years), middle-aged (aged 40 and 45 years), and senior (aged 59 and 60 years) men and women, there was, in general, a positive correlation between COLA and MetSRisk, and between COLA and single MetS risk factors, except HDL cholesterol, which was negatively correlated. A less consistent picture was found for NCOLA. By regression analyses, after adjustment for sex, age, time since last meal, and use of sugar-sweetened soft drinks, a positive association between COLA (NCOLA) and MetSRisk (MetS) was still found. However, when also controlling for cheese, fatty fish, coffee, alcohol, smoking, physical activity, education, and birthplace, only the association with COLA remained significant, irrespective of the presence or absence of sugar. In conclusion, the self-reported intake frequency of soft drinks can be positively associated with MetS. PMID:20962919

  20. Medication Discrepancies and Associated Risk Factors Identified in Home Health patients.

    PubMed

    Hale, Jennifer; Neal, Erin B; Myers, Amy; Wright, Kelly H S; Triplett, Julia; Brown, Laura Beth; Kripalani, Sunil; Mixon, Amanda S

    2015-10-01

    Medication discrepancies can place patients at increased risk for adverse drug events. We sought to determine the frequency, type, and reason for medication discrepancies in patients receiving home healthcare following hospital discharge. We conducted a retrospec