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1

The American College Health Association National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA), Spring 2003 Reference Group Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessing and understanding the health needs and capacities of college students is paramount to creating healthy campus communities. The American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA) is a survey instrument developed by the American College Health Association (ACHA) in 1998 to assist institutions of higher…

Journal of American College Health, 2005

2005-01-01

2

"Mens Sana": The Growth of Mental Health in the American College Health Association  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1910, the first college mental health service sought to help college students with personality development and building a healthy mind. In 1920, the meeting that founded the American College Health Association (ACHA) identified "mental hygiene" as important, although a separate Mental Health Section was not established in ACHA until 1957.…

Kraft, David P.

2009-01-01

3

Anti-cholesterol antibodies (ACHA) in patients with different atherosclerotic vascular diseases and healthy individuals. Characterization of human ACHA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In animal experiments the protective role of anti-cholesterol antibodies (ACHA) in the development of atherosclerosis has been demonstrated. Despite the fact that ACHA are present in the serum of healthy humans, no data on the occurrence of these antibodies in human diseases are available. We determined serum concentrations of IgG type ACHA by an enzyme immunosorbent assay in 600 patients

Anna Horváth; George Füst; István Horváth; Gábor Vallus; Jenö Duba; Péter Harcos; Zoltán Prohászka; Éva Rajnavölgyi; L??via Jánoskuti; Margit Kovács; Albert Császár; László Romics; István Karádi

2001-01-01

4

Developments on the cereal grains Digitaria exilis (acha) and Digitaria iburua (iburu)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research and development on these indigenous African cereal grains, acha (Digitaria exilis Stapf) and iburu (D. iburua Stapf), is experiencing renewed interest not just in Africa but the rest of the world. It is believed that acha and iburu\\u000a may have nutraceutical properties, as it is used in some areas for managing diabetes. Value addition and exploitation of fonio\\u000a (acha

I. A. Jideani; V. A. Jideani

2011-01-01

5

National Rural Health Association  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The antiquated image of the "old-time" family doctor traveling hundreds of miles to see patients widely dispersed across the rural landscape may remain in the minds of some persons, but the truth of the matter is that many persons in rural America have relatively little access to adequate health care. Advocating on the behalf of rural Americans (and their health) is the National Rural Health Association (NRHA). While some of the material on the site is available only to members, there is certainly enough publicly available information here to warrant several visits. On the site, visitors can read about rural health policy and read articles from the NRHA's own publication, The Journal of Rural Health. Of additional value is the NRHA issue papers and policy briefs section, which includes papers that cover topics such as the special needs of rural veterans and HIV/AIDS in rural America and its disproportionate impact on minority and multicultural populations.

6

American Public Health Association  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For the past 125 years, the American Public Health Association (APHA) has influenced the policy-making process at the local and national level in its efforts to prevent disease and promote health. Some of the organization's primary interests include issues such as environmental health, professional education in public health, and lobbying for a smoke-free society. The Association's main programmatic areas include its publication series, annual awards, educational services, and advocacy efforts across the United States. While some of the material here is limited to dues-paying members of the APHA, there is more than enough free material to warrant several visits. For example, all of the APHA's public press releases and news updates are available here, along with sample chapters from recent and forthcoming publications. One particularly pragmatic section is the Science & Programs area of the site, which includes several sites created by the APHA to address the importance of exercise for young people and another site that deals with deep vein thrombosis.

7

American Health Care Association  

MedlinePLUS

... AHCA/NCAL PAC Federal Political Directors Political Events Solutions Facility Operations Affordable Care Act Clinical Emergency Preparedness Finance Health Information Technology Integrity Medicaid Medicare Patient ...

8

Health Conditions Associated with Psoriasis  

MedlinePLUS

... Programs Calendar of Events Medical Professionals Donate Donate Psoriasis About Psoriasis Symptoms and Diagnosis Types of Psoriasis ... Online YouTube Twitter Facebook Health Conditions Associated with Psoriasis Individuals with psoriasis are at an elevated risk ...

9

The National Mental Health Association  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As it approaches its 100th anniversary in 2009, the National Mental Health Association (NMHA) remains the countryâÂÂs oldest and largest nonprofit organization that deals with all aspects of mental health and mental illness. First-time users of their site will find that their homepage contains copious amounts of material related to their advocacy efforts, along with materials that deal with helping a loved one who may be suffering the effects of mental illness. The âÂÂNeed Info?â area is a good place to start for these types of materials, as it provides access to information on treatment resources, support groups, and fact sheets. Visitors can also elect to sign up for one (or several) of their helpful email updates, which include work on related legislation, and mental health news coverage.

2006-01-01

10

Association of Schools of Public Health  

MedlinePLUS

... On Saturday, November 15, 2014, the Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health (ASPPH) and the ... 27, 2014 Welcome to ASPPH The Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health (ASPPH) is the ...

11

Health Manpower Planning and Linkage System: Associated Health Component of the South Dakota Health Manpower Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The associated health component of a health manpower planning project in South Dakota is detailed. Linkages in health manpower planning provide a framework for cooperative decisionmaking and facilitate communication. Particular attention in the South Dako...

1978-01-01

12

Are mental health problems associated with use of Accident and Emergency and health-related harm?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Previous findings indicate that mental health problems are common in Emergency departments; however, there are few studies of the extent of health-related problems and emergency service use in mental health populations as a whole. Methods: Record linkage methods were used to map the association between mental health, age, gender, and health-related harm across total health and mental health care

J. Keene; J. Rodriguez

2007-01-01

13

Health literacy among university students in Greece: determinants and association with self-perceived health, health behaviours and health risks  

PubMed Central

Background Health literacy is widely considered as a key determinant of health and a priority in the public health policy agenda. Low health literacy has been associated with poorer health states, broader inequalities and higher health systems’ costs. In the present study we bring into focus the functional health literacy among university students in Greece, researching and assessing mainly their ability to apply basic knowledge in a health context. Methods The study was carried out during the period 15–30 April 2013, among a random sample of 1,526 students of 14 Higher Tertiary Public universities and Technological Educational Institutes in Greece. The objective of the study was to assess the functional health literacy among university students in Greece, adopting the short four-item comprehension test of Bostock and Steptoe. Summary statistics, correlations and regressions were used to assess the determinants of health literacy and the association with self-perceived health, health behaviours and health risks. Results Economic factors, such as family income, demographic factors, such as gender, and health behaviours and risks, namely consumption of alcohol, smoking and physical workout are associated with the level of health literacy and health status of the participant. While the results of the study are consistent with previous work in this area, several findings worth further research. Conclusions Though, health promotion interventions in Greece include health literacy as one of the basic pillars of the public health policy agenda, it is clear, that health literacy needs to become a key policy issue in Greece, mainly focusing in young ages, where healthy (or unhealthy) behaviours are established affecting the health through the life span.

2014-01-01

14

American Urological Association: UrologyHealth.org  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established in 1902, the American Urological Association (AUA) works to "promote the highest standards of urological clinical care through education, research and in the formulation of health care policy." In line with the educational component of its mission, AUA developed this website as an information resource for patients. The website offers sections for both Adult and Pediatric Conditions. These sections provide information about a range of conditions and/or diseases under the broad categories of Bladder, Adrenal & Kidney Diseases, Cancers, Inflammations & Infections, Stones, and more. The site also provides a search engine, printer-friendly formats, an online directory service for locating urologists, and a quite extensive glossary of urology-related terms.

15

Pediatric mental health problems and associated burden on families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 20% of children in the United States have mental health problems. The factors associated with childhood mental health problems and the associated burdens on families are not well understood. Therefore, our goals were to profile mental health problems in children to identify disparities, and to quantify and identify correlates of family burden. We used the National Survey of Children's

Amy J. Houtrow; Megumi J. Okumura

2011-01-01

16

Travelers' Health: Animal-Associated Hazards  

MedlinePLUS

... Home CDC 24/7: Saving Lives. Protecting People.™ Travelers' Health All CDC Topics Search The CDC Note: Javascript ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Travelers' Health: Travel Safe, Travel Smart Share Compartir Chapter 2 ...

17

Associations between Indigenous Australian oral health literacy and self-reported oral health outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To determine oral health literacy (REALD-30) and oral health literacy-related outcome associations, and to calculate if oral health literacy-related outcomes are risk indicators for poor self-reported oral health among rural-dwelling Indigenous Australians. METHODS: 468 participants (aged 17-72 years, 63% female) completed a self-report questionnaire. REALD-30 and oral health literacy-related outcome associations were determined through bivariate analysis. Multivariate modelling was

Eleanor J Parker; Lisa M Jamieson

2010-01-01

18

Health effects associated with wastewater treatment and disposal. [Wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A literature review dealing with the health hazards associated with working in wastewater treatment plants and those hazards to the general public from land disposal of wastewater and sludge is presented. Specific areas reviewed include the health effects associated with the incineration and composting of sludge, aquaculture, and various onsite systems of wastewater treatment. The presence of organic chemicals, inorganic

N. E. Kowal; H. R. Pahren

1982-01-01

19

Oral health sensations associated with illicit drug abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To investigate oral health sensations (short term oral health effects) associated with illicit drug abuse. In addition, to identify variations in oral health sensations produced by different illicit drugs.Subject Young adults in a drug rehabilitation programme in Hong Kong, China.Method Self-completed questionnaire about their previous pattern of drug abuse and oral health sensations experienced (recalled).Results All (119) subjects were

B Chan; C McGrath

2005-01-01

20

Low health literacy is associated with HIV test acceptance  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has proposed increasing the proportion of people who learn their HIV serostatus.\\u000a The health care setting represents a logical site to accomplish this goal. However, little is known about factors that determine\\u000a acceptability of HIV testing in health care settings, particularly patients’ health literacy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between patients’ health

Maribel Barragán; Giselle Hicks; Mark V. Williams; Carlos Franco-Paredes; Wayne Duffus; Carlos del Rio

2005-01-01

21

HEALTH EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH INDOOR AIR POLLUTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A state-of-information survey concerning health effects of indoor air pollutants in the categories of formaldehyde, volatile organics, radon, particulates, and combustion products has been prepared by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Criteria and Assessmen...

22

Health Literacy Associations Between Hispanic Elderly Patients and Their Caregivers  

PubMed Central

Knowing health literacy levels of older patients and their caregivers is important because caregivers assist patients in the administration of medications, manage daily health care tasks, and help make health services utilization decisions. The authors examined the association of health literacy levels between older Hispanic patients and their caregivers among 174 patient-caregiver dyads enrolled from 3 community clinics and 28 senior centers in San Antonio, Texas. Health literacy was measured using English and Spanish versions of the Short-Test of Functional Health Literacy Assessment and categorized as “low” or “adequate.” The largest dyad category (41%) consisted of a caregiver with adequate health literacy and patient with low health literacy. Among the dyads with the same health literacy levels, 28% had adequate health literacy and 24% had low health literacy. It is notable that 7% of dyads consisted of a caregiver with low health literacy and a patient with adequate health literacy. Low health literacy is a concern not only for older Hispanic patients but also for their caregivers. To provide optimal care, clinicians must ensure that information is given to both patients and their caregivers in clear effective ways as it may significantly affect patient health outcomes.

Garcia, Cesar H.; Espinoza, Sara E.; Lichtenstein, Michael; Hazuda, Helen P.

2013-01-01

23

Access to mental health services among patients at health centers and factors associated with unmet needs.  

PubMed

Cross-sectional 2009 Health Center Patient Survey data describe the mental health status of health center patients, utilization of mental health services, and factors associated with unmet need for mental health treatment. One in five health center patients accessed mental health services in the past year, and over half of the patients who received counseling received this treatment at a health center. Patients who were unable to access mental health care cited affordability as a concern. Unmet need for mental health treatment was reported by one in three patients. Multivariate analysis found that the odds of reporting unmet need were higher for patients who lacked a usual source of care and patients with serious mental illness. PMID:24509036

Jones, Emily; Lebrun-Harris, Lydie A; Sripipatana, Alek; Ngo-Metzger, Quyen

2014-02-01

24

Low Health Literacy Associates with Increased Mortality in ESRD  

PubMed Central

Limited health literacy is common in the United States and associates with poor clinical outcomes. Little is known about the effect of health literacy in patients with advanced kidney disease. In this prospective cohort study we describe the prevalence of limited health literacy and examine its association with the risk for mortality in hemodialysis patients. We enrolled 480 incident chronic hemodialysis patients from 77 dialysis clinics between 2005 and 2007 and followed them until April 2008. Measured using the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine, 32% of patients had limited (<9th grade reading level) and 68% had adequate health literacy (?9th grade reading level). Limited health literacy was more likely in patients who were male and non-white and who had fewer years of education. Compared with adequate literacy, limited health literacy associated with a higher risk for death (HR 1.54; 95% CI 1.01 to 2.36) even after adjustment for age, sex, race, and diabetes. In summary, limited health literacy is common and associates with higher mortality in chronic hemodialysis patients. Addressing health literacy may improve survival for these patients.

Wingard, Rebecca L.; Hakim, Raymond M.; Eden, Svetlana; Shintani, Ayumi; Wallston, Kenneth A.; Huizinga, Mary Margaret; Elasy, Tom A.; Rothman, Russell L.; Ikizler, T. Alp

2010-01-01

25

Does the Perception that Stress Affects Health Matter? The Association with Health and Mortality  

PubMed Central

Objective This study sought to examine the relationship among the amount of stress, the perception that stress affects health, and health and mortality outcomes in a nationally-representative sample of U.S. adults. Methods Data from the 1998 National Health Interview Survey were linked to prospective National Death Index mortality data through 2006. Separate logistic regression models were used to examine the factors associated with current health status and psychological distress. Cox proportional hazard models were used to determine the impact of perceiving that stress affects health on all-cause mortality. Each model specifically examined the interaction between the amount of stress and the perception that stress affects health, controlling for sociodemographic, health behavior, and access to healthcare factors. Results 33.7% of nearly 186 million (n=28,753) U.S. adults perceived that stress affected their health a lot or to some extent. Both higher levels of reported stress and the perception that stress affects health were independently associated with an increased likelihood of worse health and mental health outcomes. The amount of stress and the perception that stress affects health interacted such that those who reported a lot of stress and that stress impacted their health a lot had a 43% increased risk of premature death (HR = 1.43, 95% CI [1.20, 1.71]). Conclusions High amounts of stress and the perception that stress impacts health are each associated with poor health and mental health. Individuals who perceived that stress affects their health and reported a large amount of stress had an increased risk of premature death.

Keller, Abiola; Litzelman, Kristin; Wisk, Lauren E.; Maddox, Torsheika; Cheng, Erika Rose; Creswell, Paul D.; Witt, Whitney P.

2012-01-01

26

Polity and health care expenditures: the association among 159 nations.  

PubMed

This paper hypothesized that democratic nations, as characterized by Polity IV Project regime scores, spend more on health care than autocratic nations and that the association reported here is independent of other demographic, health system or economic characteristics of nations. WHO Global Observatory data on 159 nations with roughly 98% of the world's population were examined. Regime scores had significant, direct and independent associations with each of four measures of health care expenditure. For every unit increment in a nation's regime score toward a more democratic authority structure of governance, we estimated significant (p<0.05) increments in the percent of GDP expended on health care (+0.14%), percent of general government expenditures targeted to health care (+0.25%), total per capita expenditures on health (+34.4Int$) and per capita general government expenditures (+22.4Int$), while controlling for a population's age distribution, life expectancy, health care workforce and system effectiveness and gross national income. Moreover, these relationships were found to persist across socio-economic development levels. The finding that practices of health care expenditure and authority structures of government co-vary is instructive about the politics of health and the challenges of advancing global health objectives. PMID:23856538

Gregorio, Leah E; Gregorio, David I

2013-03-01

27

Healthcare - associated infections: A public health problem  

PubMed Central

Disinfection and sterilization in hospitals, is of increasing concern. Nosocomial infections can be defined as those occurring within 48 hours of hospital admission, 3 days of discharge or 30 days of an operation. They affect 1 in 10 patients admitted to hospital. Nosocomial infections are associated with a great deal of morbidity, mortality, and increased financial burden

Revelas, Angela

2012-01-01

28

County workforce, reimbursement, and organizational factors associated with behavioral health capacity in health centers.  

PubMed

This study describes on-site behavioral health treatment capacity in health centers in 2007 and examines whether capacity was associated with health center characteristics, county-level behavioral health workforce, and same-day billing restrictions. Cross-sectional data from the 2007 Area Resource File and Uniform Data System were linked with data on Medicaid same-day billing restrictions. Mental health treatment capacity was common; almost four in five health centers provided on-site mental health services. Additional services such as crisis counseling (20 %), treatment from a psychiatrist (29 %), and substance abuse treatment were offered by fewer health centers (51 % provide on-site services and only 20 % employ substance abuse specialists). In multivariate analysis, larger health centers, health centers located in counties with a larger behavioral health workforce per capita, and those located in the West and Northeast were more likely to have behavioral health capacity. Same-day billing restrictions were associated with lower odds of substance use treatment capacity and providing 24 hr crisis counseling services. PMID:24114408

Jones, Emily; Ku, Leighton; Smith, Shelagh; Lardiere, Michael

2014-04-01

29

Environmental public health surveillance: possible estuary-associated syndrome.  

PubMed

Public health surveillance involves the collection, analysis, and dissemination of data for use in public health practice. A surveillance system includes the capacity to collect and analyze data as well as the ability to disseminate the data to public health agencies that can undertake effective prevention and control activities. An emerging issue in environmental public health surveillance involves human exposure to the toxins produced by microorganisms present in oceans and estuaries. One of these organisms is Pfiesteria piscicida Steidinger & Burkholder, a dinoflagellate found in estuaries along the Atlantic and gulf coasts of the United States. There have been reports of both human illness associated with occupational exposures to concentrated laboratory cultures of P. piscicida and massive fill kills associated with the presence of the organism in rivers and estuaries. These reports, and anecdotal reports from people who worked on rivers where the organism has been found, generated concern that environmental exposures to P. piscicida, similar organisms, or perhaps a toxin or toxins produced by the organism(s), could cause adverse human health effects. To begin to evaluate the public health burden associated with P. piscicida, investigators from the National Center for Environmental Health at Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and health agencies from states along the Atlantic coast collaborated to develop a passive surveillance system for collecting, classifying, and tracking public inquiries about the organism. Specifically, the group developed exposure and symptom criteria and developed data collection and reporting capabilities to capture the human health parameters collectively referred to as possible estuary-associated syndrome (PEAS). The surveillance system was implemented in six states (Delaware, Florida, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia) beginning in June 1998. From 1 June 1998 through 30 June 2001, the six state health agencies participating in the PEAS surveillance system received 3,859 calls: 3,768 callers requested information and 91 callers reported symptoms. Five individuals have been identified as meeting PEAS criteria. PMID:11677192

Backer, L C; Niskar, A S; Rubin, C; Blindauer, K; Christianson, D; Naeher, L; Rogers, H S

2001-10-01

30

Position of the American Dietetic Association: Oral health and nutrition.  

PubMed

It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA) that nutrition is an integral component of oral health. The ADA supports the integration of oral health with nutrition services, education, and research. Collaboration between dietetics and dental professionals is recommended for oral health promotion and disease prevention and intervention. Scientific and epidemiological data suggest a lifelong synergy between nutrition and the integrity of the oral cavity in health and disease. Oral health is an integral part of systemic and nutritional health. Two primary oral infectious diseases are directly influenced by diet and nutrition. Dental caries or tooth decay is modulated by numerous factors, including diet composition and frequency. Periodontal or gum disease is associated with malnutrition. Chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease that are modulated by diet and nutrition intervention have oral sequelae. As we advance in our discoveries of the links between oral and nutrition health, practitioners of both disciplines must learn to provide screening, baseline education, and referral to each other as part of comprehensive client/patient care. The future of dietetics practice requires dietetics professionals to provide medical nutrition therapy (MNT) that incorporates a person's total health needs, including oral health. Inclusion of both didactic and clinical practice concepts that illustrate the role of nutrition in oral health is essential in both dental and dietetic education programs. Collaborative endeavors between dietetics and dentistry in research, education, and delineation of health provider practice roles are needed to ensure comprehensive health care to persons with oral infectious disease and/or oral manifestations of systemic diseases. PMID:12728223

Touger-Decker, Riva; Mobley, Connie C

2003-05-01

31

Chaos as a social determinant of child health: Reciprocal associations?  

PubMed

This study informs the social determinants of child health by exploring an understudied aspect of children's social contexts: chaos. Chaos has been conceptualized as crowded, noisy, disorganized, unpredictable settings for child development (Evans, Eckenrode, & Marcynyszyn, 2010). We measure chaos at two levels of children's ecological environment - the microsystem (household) and the mesosystem (work-family-child care nexus) - and at two points in early childhood (ages 3 and 5). Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 3288), a study of predominantly low-income women and their partners in large US cities, we develop structural equation models that assess how maternal-rated child health (also assessed at ages 3 and 5) is associated with latent constructs of chaos, and whether there are important reciprocal effects. Autoregressive cross-lagged path analysis suggest that increasing chaos (at both the household and maternal work levels) is associated with worse child health, controlling for key confounders like household economic status, family structure, and maternal health status. Child health has little effect on chaos, providing further support for the hypothesis that chaos is an important social determinant of child health in this sample of relatively disadvantaged children. This suggests child health may be improved by supporting families in ways that reduce chaos in their home and work/family environments, and that as researchers move beyond SES, race, and family structure to explore other sources of health inequalities, chaos and its proximate determinants may be a promising avenue for future research. PMID:23541250

Kamp Dush, Claire M; Schmeer, Kammi K; Taylor, Miles

2013-10-01

32

Women's leadership status in the American Public Health Association.  

PubMed Central

Content analyses of the official printed programs for the 1973 and 1983 annual meetings of the American Public Health Association were used to compare the proportion of men and women serving as officers of the Association, members of the Executive Board, section representatives to the APHA Governing Council, and officers of section councils. The findings suggest substantial progress for women in gaining access to APHA leadership, despite continued underrepresentation in several of the Association's highest offices.

Levy, J A

1987-01-01

33

Examining the association between oral health and oral HPV infection.  

PubMed

Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the cause of 40% to 80% of oropharyngeal cancers; yet, no published study has examined the role of oral health in oral HPV infection, either independently or in conjunction with other risk factors. This study examined the relation between oral health and oral HPV infection and the interactive effects of oral health, smoking, and oral sex on oral HPV infection. Our analyses comprised 3,439 participants ages 30 to 69 years for whom data on oral HPV and oral health were available from the nationally representative 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results showed that higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was associated with four measures of oral health, including self-rated oral health as poor-to-fair [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-1.95], indicated the possibility of gum disease (PR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.13-2.01), reported use of mouthwash to treat dental problems in the past week (PR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.07-1.52), and higher number of teeth lost (Ptrend = 0.035). In multivariable logistic regression models, oral HPV infection had a statistically significant association with self-rated overall oral health (OR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.15-2.09), independent of smoking and oral sex. In conclusion, poor oral health was an independent risk factor of oral HPV infection, irrespective of smoking and oral sex practices. Public health interventions may aim to promote oral hygiene and oral health as an additional measure to prevent HPV-related oral cancers. PMID:23966202

Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M; Ross, Michael Wallis; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

2013-09-01

34

Association between Oral Health Impact Profile and General Health scores for patients seeking dental implants  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to investigate the possible association between the short form, 14-item Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) and 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) for patients requiring restorative dental work on Implant Assessment Clinic at Guy's Dental Institute.

B. Smith; A. Baysan; M. Fenlon

2009-01-01

35

Migrant and ethnic health research: report on the European Public Health Association Conference 2007.  

PubMed

Europe largely shifted from being a region of net emigration to one of net immigration during the second half of the 20th Century. Multi-ethnic societies in Europe are faced with a multiplicity of challenges, including meeting the diverse health and healthcare needs of ethnic-minority groups. A major issue facing Europe is filling the current gap in the availability of high-quality data on health determinants, health status and health service use among migrant populations throughout the region. As evidence-based decision making in public health and healthcare greatly depends on the availability of relevant health information, improving the collection of valid and comparable ethnic-minority health data should be regarded as a high priority. Migration, ethnicity and health researchers across Europe have been building alliances, particularly through the migrant health section of the European Public Health Association (EUPHA). The 2007 EUPHA Conference in Helsinki highlighted the public health challenges and opportunities facing an ever-growing and increasingly diversified European region, and provided public health professionals and researchers a platform to share their work, concerns and visions for the future. As the ethnic diversification of Europe continues, the challenges to the unification of its many populations become even more unpredictable. Such diversity may ease unification or could exacerbate existing political and economic tensions. It behooves us to take the actions now that will make Europe a more cohesive and successful place in the years to come. PMID:18358505

Rafnsson, Snorri B; Bhopal, Raj S

2008-05-01

36

Sense of humor at work : assessment and associations wit health  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation is about health-related sense of humor measurement and associations between a sense of humor and health. Two sense of humor measures were developed, the QOHC and the HCL. The QOHC measures four humorous coping styles, aimed at acquiring positive affective states: antecedent-focused (AFHC), response-focused (RFHC), affiliative and aggressive-manipulative. AFHC is defined as the preventive use of humor to

S. Doosje

2010-01-01

37

Associations between older adults' spoken interactive health literacy and selected health care and health communication outcomes.  

PubMed

Recent trends in the conceptualization of health literacy lead toward expansive notions of health literacy as social practice, rather than as a narrower cognitive capacity to understand health-related texts and materials. These expansive and complex constructions of health literacy demand tools for assessing individuals' propensities to actively seek information in their interactions with health care professionals and other health information sources. This study proposes a measure of this information-exchange component of health literacy and examines its capacity to predict outcomes and processes such as satisfaction with health care and comprehension of spoken health messages. Results for this sample ( n = 334) of low socioeconomic status older adults (mean age = 74.70 years) reveal that indices derived from the Measure of Interactive Health Literacy (MIHL) do contribute unique variance-apart from document-based health-literacy--on several criterion measures such as satisfaction with health care services. Comprehension checking improved health message listening comprehension, but for White participants only. These findings invite further investigations of interactive health literacy involving different populations, message topics, and elicitation methods. PMID:21951252

Rubin, Donald L; Parmer, John; Freimuth, Vicki; Kaley, Terry; Okundaye, Mumbi

2011-01-01

38

Microbial functional genes associated with coral health and disease.  

PubMed

Both the incidence and prevalence of coral disease are rapidly increasing, and as a consequence, many studies involving coral microbial associates have been conducted. However, very few of these have considered microbial functional genes. This is an underutilized approach for studying coral disease etiology which is capable of revealing the molecular processes of the coral microbial community. This review presents a summary of the known microbial functional genes that have been linked to coral health and disease. Overall functional gene diversity tended to be lower in healthy corals than diseased or bleached corals, and respiration and photosynthesis functional genes appeared to be crucial to coral health. Genes associated with the nitrogen cycle were the most studied, were highly represented within the coral holobiont, and their expression often shifted in diseased or stressed individuals. Carbon metabolism, such as fatty acid and amino acid catabolism, also tended to shift in unhealthy corals. Genes associated with sulfite respiration as well as dimethylsulfoniopropionate degradation have been detected, although they have yet to be directly associated with coral disease. In addition, genes associated with xenobiotic degradation, antibiotic resistance, virulence, and oxidative stress may all be involved in maintaining coral health. However, the links between these functional genes and their roles in interacting with the coral host are not clear. Continuing identification of coral-associated microbial functional genes within the coral holobiont should facilitate advances in the field of coral health and disease. PMID:24334358

Pratte, Zoe A

2013-12-12

39

[Situation and perspectives of public health in Germany--research and teaching. Position paper of the German Public Health Association].  

PubMed

This position paper of the German Public Health Association describes current situation and perspectives of public health in Germany with emphasis on research and teaching. It outlines those measures necessary for strengthening of public health research in Germany. PMID:23175125

Gerlinger, T; Babitsch, B; Blättner, B; Bolte, G; Brandes, I; Dierks, M-L; Faller, G; Gerhardus, A; Gusy, B

2012-11-01

40

Nurse staffing, burnout, and health care-associated infection  

PubMed Central

Background Each year, nearly 7 million hospitalized patients acquire infections while being treated for other conditions. Nurse staffing has been implicated in the spread of infection within hospitals, yet little evidence is available to explain this association. Methods We linked nurse survey data to the Pennsylvania Health Care Cost Containment Council report on hospital infections and the American Hospital Association Annual Survey. We examined urinary tract and surgical site infection, the most prevalent infections reported and those likely to be acquired on any unit within a hospital. Linear regression was used to estimate the effect of nurse and hospital characteristics on health care–associated infections. Results There was a significant association between patient-to-nurse ratio and urinary tract infection (0.86; P = .02) and surgical site infection (0.93; P = .04). In a multivariate model controlling for patient severity and nurse and hospital characteristics, only nurse burnout remained significantly associated with urinary tract infection (0.82; P = .03) and surgical site infection (1.56; P < .01) infection. Hospitals in which burnout was reduced by 30% had a total of 6,239 fewer infections, for an annual cost saving of up to $68 million. Conclusions We provide a plausible explanation for the association between nurse staffing and health care–associated infections. Reducing burnout in registered nurses is a promising strategy to help control infections in acute care facilities.

Cimiotti, Jeannie P.; Aiken, Linda H.; Sloane, Douglas M.; Wu, Evan S.

2012-01-01

41

Health effects associated with energy conservation measures in commercial buildings  

SciTech Connect

Indoor air quality can be impacted by hundreds of different chemicals. More than 900 different organic compounds alone have been identified in indoor air. Health effects that could arise from exposure to individual pollutants or mixtures of pollutants cover the full range of acute and chronic effects, including largely reversible responses, such as rashes and irritations, to the irreversible toxic and carcinogenic effects. These indoor contaminants are emitted from a large variety of materials and substances that are widespread components of everyday life. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with indoor air contaminants for the Bonneville Power Administration to aid the agency in the preparation of environmental documents. Results are reported in two volumes. Volume 1 summarizes the results of the search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with a selected list of indoor air contaminants. In addition, the report discusses potential health effects of polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorofluorocarbons. All references to the literature reviewed are found in this document Volume 2. Volume 2 provides detailed information from the literature reviewed, summarizes potential health effects, reports health hazard ratings, and discusses quantitative estimates of carcinogenic risk in humans and animals. Contaminants discussed in this report are those that; have been measured in the indoor air of a public building; have been measured (significant concentrations) in test situations simulating indoor air quality (as presented in the referenced literature); and have a significant hazard rating. 38 refs., 7 figs., 23 tabs.

Stenner, R.D.; Baechler, M.C.

1990-09-01

42

[Association between social capital and oral health conditions and behavior].  

PubMed

The theory of social capital seeks to explain social inequality in health through the interaction of social, economic and environmental factors and has been associated with many health problems, though there is still little research in the area of oral health. The scope of this study was to evaluate the association between social capital and socio-demographic and behavioral factors related to oral health among schoolchildren aged from 15 to 19. A random sample of 1,417 adolescents filled out a self-administered survey and the data were descriptively analyzed (simple frequencies, central tendency and variability measurement) and inferential statistics (Pearson's chi-square test). The results showed that the social capital which is more prevalent among adolescents was intermediate level, as well as between each of its dimensions, except for social action where the majority were classified as lower-leveled. Among the variables analyzed, social capital was statistically associated only with sex, with women being more likely to be classified under the 'low social capital' label. This area still needs considerable research to increase theoretical-conceptual and methodological maturity in order to better understand the social contexts that are essential for formulating effective public health policies. PMID:24897493

Bezerra, Isabella Azevedo; Goes, Paulo Sávio Angeiras de

2014-06-01

43

Distal and Proximal Factors of Health Behaviors and Their Associations with Health in Children and Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of the present paper was to analyze factors affecting distal and proximal health behavior within a biopsychosocial model for examining their interactions and associations with respect to health. Methods: Path analysis was based on the nationwide, cross-sectional German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (2003 to 2006). The data was collected from 4,529 participants with an average age of 9.45 years (SD = 4.01). Socio-demographic data, psychosocial factors and health behavior were assessed via questionnaire. Participants also underwent physical fitness tests and a medical examination. Results: Over the five levels of the model analyzed with socioeconomic status, immigration background, and rural-urban differences on the first level; physical activity of relatives and peers, intrinsic motivation, and quality of life on the second level; eating patterns, sedentary behavior, and physical activity on the third level; physical fitness and objective health on the fourth level; and health complaints and subjective health on the fifth level; direct, moderation, and mediation effects could be shown. Conclusions: Several distal and proximal factors are needed to take account of the multivariate complexity of health: e.g., immigration background affected health behaviors only indirectly and the effect of physical activity on objective health was mediated by physical fitness.

Lammle, Lena; Woll, Alexander; Mensink, Gert B. M.; Bos, Klaus

2013-01-01

44

Health Effects Associated with Wastewater Treatment and Disposal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of the potential health effects associated with: (1) wastewater treatment plants; (2) land application of municipal wastewater; and (3) use of renovated water. This review covers the publications of 1976-77. A list of 96 references is also presented. (HM)

Kowal, N. E.; Pahren, H. R.

1978-01-01

45

The Association Between Life Chaos, Health Care Use, and Health Status Among HIV-Infected Persons  

PubMed Central

Background Whether having a stable and predictable lifestyle is associated with health care use and health status among HIV patients is unknown. Objective To develop and test the reliability and validity of a measure of life chaos for adults with HIV and examine its association with health care use and health status. Design Prospective cohort study. Participants Two hundred twenty HIV-infected persons recruited from those who tested positive in a mobile testing van and from HIV clinics serving low-income populations. Measurements Participants completed a survey every 6 months, assessing their health care use, SF-12 mental and physical health status and life chaos. Results Cronbach’s alpha for the six-item measure of chaos was .67. Those without a spouse or partner and those with one or more unmet social service needs, such as housing or transportation, had higher chaos scores. Compared to those with less chaos, those with more chaos were less likely to have two or more outpatient visits (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.48, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.24–0.98), more likely to have two or more missed visits (adjusted OR 2.30, 95%CI: 1.20–4.41) in the 6 months before study enrollment and had lower mental health status at enrollment and at follow-up. Life chaos was not associated with emergency department visits or physical health status. Conclusions We created a new measure of life chaos, which was associated with outpatient visits and mental health status. Chaos may be an important barrier to regular medical care. Future studies need to test this measure in more diverse populations and those with other diseases.

Sarkisian, Catherine A.; Davis, Cynthia; Kinsler, Janni; Cunningham, William E.

2007-01-01

46

Associations of muscular fitness with psychological positive health, health complaints, and health risk behaviors in Spanish children and adolescents.  

PubMed

We examined the association of muscular fitness with psychological positive health, health complaints, and health risk behaviors in 690 (n = 322 girls) Spanish children and adolescents (6-17.9 years old). Lower body muscular strength was assessed with the standing long jump test, and upper-body muscular strength was assessed with the throw basketball test. A muscular fitness index was computed by means of standardized measures of both tests. Psychosocial positive health, health complaints, and health risk behaviors were self-reported using the items of the Health Behavior in School-aged Children questionnaire. Psychological positive health indicators included the following: perceived health status, life satisfaction, quality of family relationships, quality of peer relationships, and academic performance. We computed a health complaints index from 8 registered symptoms: headache, stomach ache, backache, feeling low, irritability or bad temper, feeling nervous, difficulties getting to sleep, and feeling dizzy. The health risk behavior indicators studied included tobacco use, alcohol use, and getting drunk. Children and adolescents with low muscular fitness (below the mean) had a higher odds ratio (OR) of reporting fair (vs. excellent) perceived health status, low life satisfaction (vs. very happy), low quality of family relationships (vs. very good), and low academic performance (vs. very good). Likewise, children and adolescents having low muscular fitness had a significantly higher OR of reporting smoking tobacco sometimes (vs. never), drinking alcohol sometimes (vs. never), and getting drunk sometimes (vs. never). The results of this study suggest a link between muscular fitness and psychological positive health and health risk behavior indicators in children and adolescents. PMID:22158258

Padilla-Moledo, Carmen; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Ortega, Francisco B; Mora, Jesús; Castro-Piñero, José

2012-01-01

47

Social network characteristics associated with health promoting behaviors among Latinos.  

PubMed

Objective: This study examined the relationship between social network characteristics and health promoting behaviors (having a routine medical check-up, consuming no alcohol, consuming no fast food, and meeting recommendations for leisure-time physical activity and sleep duration) among Latinos to identify potential targets for behavioral interventions. Method: Personal network characteristics and health behavior data were collected from a community sample of 393 adult Latinos (73% women) in San Diego County, California. Network characteristics consisted of size and composition. Network size was calculated by the number of alters listed on a name generator questionnaire eliciting people with whom respondents discussed personal issues. Network composition variables were the proportion of Latinos, Spanish-speakers, females, family, and friends listed in the name generator. Additional network composition variables included marital status and the number of adults or children in the household. Results: Network members were predominately Latinos (95%), Spanish-speakers (80%), females (64%), and family (55%). In multivariate logistic regression analyses, gender moderated the relationship between network composition, but not size, and a health behavior. Married women were more likely to have had a routine medical check-up than married men. For both men and women, having a larger network was associated with meeting the recommendation for leisure-time physical activity. Conclusion: Few social network characteristics were significantly associated with health promoting behaviors, suggesting a need to examine other aspects of social relationships that may influence health behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24884908

Marquez, Becky; Elder, John P; Arredondo, Elva M; Madanat, Hala; Ji, Ming; Ayala, Guadalupe X

2014-06-01

48

Adverse staff health outcomes associated with endoscope reprocessing.  

PubMed

There are occupational challenges associated with cleaning, disinfecting, storing, and transporting flexible endoscopes. Although the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set standards to protect the safety of health workers in the United States, the standards are not specific to endoscope reprocessing, and the general standards that are in place are not fully implemented. Furthermore, adverse staff outcomes may not be fully preventable. To assess the evidence for adverse outcomes in staff associated with endoscope reprocessing, a literature review was performed in the PubMed database for articles on this topic published between Jan. 1, 2007 and March 7, 2012. Eight studies were identified, mainly European, which reported numerous adverse outcomes to healthcare personnel associated with endoscope reprocessing including respiratory ailments and physical discomfort. More scientifically rigorous studies are required to comprehensively describe adverse health outcomes in personnel engaged in reprocessing, particularly in the United States, and examine whether increased automation of the reprocessing process leads to decreased adverse health outcomes for staff. PMID:23600361

Gutterman, Elane; Jorgensen, Lindsay; Mitchell, Amber; Fua, Sherry

2013-01-01

49

UNDERSTANDING THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN MATERNAL EDUCATION AND USE OF HEALTH SERVICES IN GHANA: EXPLORING THE ROLE OF HEALTH KNOWLEDGE  

PubMed Central

Summary This paper examines the role of health knowledge in the association between mothers’ education and use of maternal and child health services in Ghana. The study uses data from a nationally representative sample of female respondents to the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. Ordered probit regression models evaluate whether women’s health knowledge helps to explain use of three specific maternal and child health services: antenatal care, giving birth with the supervision of a trained professional and complete child vaccination. The analyses reveal that mothers’ years of formal education are strongly associated with health knowledge; health knowledge helps explain the association between maternal education and use of health services; and, net of a set of stringent demographic and socioeconomic controls, mothers’ health knowledge is a key factor associated with use of health services.

GREENAWAY, EMILY SMITH; LEON, JUAN; BAKER, DAVID P.

2013-01-01

50

Prenatal health behaviors and postpartum depression: is there an association?  

PubMed

Postpartum depression is a prevalent mental disorder; however, scarce research has examined its association with prenatal health behaviors. This study investigated the associations of cigarette smoking, caffeine intake, and vitamin intake during pregnancy with postpartum depressive symptoms at 8 weeks after childbirth. Using a prospective cohort study design, participants were recruited from the postpartum floor at a hospital for women and newborns located in a northeastern city, from 2005 through 2008. Eligible women who were at least 18 years old and spoke English were interviewed in person while hospitalized for childbirth (N?=?662). A follow-up home interview was conducted at 8 weeks postpartum with a 79% response rate (N?=?526). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that smoking cigarettes anytime during pregnancy and not taking prenatal vitamins in the first trimester were significantly associated with worse depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale). Moreover, having a colicky infant, an infant that refuses feedings, being stressed out by parental responsibility, and having difficulty balancing responsibilities were stressors associated with worse depressive symptoms. Primary health care providers should consider evaluating women for risk of postpartum depression during their first prenatal visit, identifying prenatal health behaviors such as smoking and taking prenatal vitamins. PMID:22215286

Dagher, Rada K; Shenassa, Edmond D

2012-02-01

51

Prevalence, Characteristics, and Associated Health and Health Care of Family Homelessness Among Fifth-Grade Students  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We describe the lifetime prevalence and associated health-related concerns of family homelessness among fifth-grade students. Methods. We used a population-based, cross-sectional survey of 5147 fifth-grade students in 3 US cities to analyze parent-reported measures of family homelessness, child health status, health care access and use, and emotional, developmental, and behavioral health and child-reported measures of health-related quality of life and exposure to violence. Results. Seven percent of parents reported that they and their child had experienced homelessness (i.e., staying in shelters, cars, or on the street). Black children and children in the poorest families had the highest prevalence of homelessness (11%). In adjusted analyses, most general health measures were similar for children who had and had not been homeless. Children who had ever experienced homelessness were more likely to have an emotional, behavioral, or developmental problem (odds ratio [OR] = 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1, 2.6; P = .01), to have received mental health care (OR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.6, 3.2; P < .001), and to have witnessed serious violence with a knife (OR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.1, 2.3; P = .007) than were children who were never homeless. Conclusions. Family homelessness affects a substantial minority of fifth-grade children and may have an impact on their emotional, developmental, and behavioral health.

Elliott, Marc N.; Kanouse, David E.; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Gilliland, M. Janice; Tortolero, Susan R.; Cuccaro, Paula; Schuster, Mark A.

2009-01-01

52

Nutrition and health - the association between eating behavior and various health parameters: a matched sample study.  

PubMed

Population-based studies have consistently shown that our diet has an influence on health. Therefore, the aim of our study was to analyze differences between different dietary habit groups in terms of health-related variables. The sample used for this cross-sectional study was taken from the Austrian Health Interview Survey AT-HIS 2006/07. In a first step, subjects were matched according to their age, sex, and socioeconomic status (SES). After matching, the total number of subjects included in the analysis was 1320 (N?=?330 for each form of diet - vegetarian, carnivorous diet rich in fruits and vegetables, carnivorous diet less rich in meat, and carnivorous diet rich in meat). Analyses of variance were conducted controlling for lifestyle factors in the following domains: health (self-assessed health, impairment, number of chronic conditions, vascular risk), health care (medical treatment, vaccinations, preventive check-ups), and quality of life. In addition, differences concerning the presence of 18 chronic conditions were analyzed by means of Chi-square tests. Overall, 76.4% of all subjects were female. 40.0% of the individuals were younger than 30 years, 35.4% between 30 and 49 years, and 24.0% older than 50 years. 30.3% of the subjects had a low SES, 48.8% a middle one, and 20.9% had a high SES. Our results revealed that a vegetarian diet is related to a lower BMI and less frequent alcohol consumption. Moreover, our results showed that a vegetarian diet is associated with poorer health (higher incidences of cancer, allergies, and mental health disorders), a higher need for health care, and poorer quality of life. Therefore, public health programs are needed in order to reduce the health risk due to nutritional factors. PMID:24516625

Burkert, Nathalie T; Muckenhuber, Johanna; Großschädl, Franziska; Rásky, Eva; Freidl, Wolfgang

2014-01-01

53

Characteristics Associated with Hospital Health IT Vendor Switching and Dropping  

PubMed Central

While a growing body of research has investigated the diffusion of health IT among providers, no empirical research has yet focused on health IT vendor switching by hospitals. Vendor switching is one indicator of a competitive commercial vendor market, and competition among vendors can spur innovations which contribute to better products over time. This study examines the interaction of hospitals with commercial vendors in the recent past to serve as a baseline for future investigations into how the federal health IT incentive program influences changes in the vendor market and vendor-provider relationships. We find that there has been considerable switching between vendors by hospitals, including some hospitals switching away from automated systems all together. Furthermore, our descriptive cross-sectional analysis reveals various hospital characteristics which are associated with vendor switching and dropping, including lower constraints on hospitals’ financial resources, nonprofit ownership, and having some form of integrated arrangement with physicians.

Lammers, Eric J.; Zheng, Kai

2011-01-01

54

78 FR 54652 - Sole Source Cooperative Agreement Award to the Association for State and Territorial Health...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Sole Source Cooperative...Association for State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO) AGENCY: Office of...and Response (ASPR), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)....

2013-09-05

55

Position Statement on Tobacco on College and University Campuses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American College Health Association (ACHA) acknowledges and supports the findings of the Surgeon General that tobacco use in any form, active and/or passive, is a significant health hazard. ACHA further recognizes that environmental tobacco smoke has been classified as a Class-A carcinogen and that there is no safe level of exposure to…

Journal of American College Health, 2012

2012-01-01

56

Position Statement on Tobacco on College and University Campuses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American College Health Association (ACHA) acknowledges and supports the findings of the Surgeon General that tobacco use in any form, active and/or passive, is a significant health hazard. ACHA further recognizes that environmental tobacco smoke has been classified as a Class-A carcinogen and that there is no safe level of exposure to…

Journal of American College Health, 2009

2009-01-01

57

Associations between maternal mental health and child emotional and behavioral problems: does prenatal mental health matter?  

PubMed

This study examined associations between elevated symptoms of prenatal depression or anxiety and offspring emotional and behavioral problems during mid to late childhood taking into account the impact of later maternal mental health symptoms. The sample consisted of 2,891 women and their children (49 % male) from a prospective, community-based study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Women completed measures of depressive (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale) and anxious (Crown Crisp Experiential Index) symptoms at regular intervals beginning in pregnancy. Mothers and teachers assessed offspring emotional and behavioral problems using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire when children were 10-11 years old. Multivariable regression models were fit to address study hypotheses. Exposure to elevated symptoms of maternal depression during pregnancy was associated with increased total offspring emotional and behavioral problems, even after controlling for later maternal mental health problems and a range of sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics, according to mothers' but not teachers' reports. Similarly, children exposed to elevated symptoms of maternal anxiety during pregnancy were reported to have increased total emotional and behavioral problems by mothers but not by teachers. We found support for modest associations between elevated symptoms of maternal depression and anxiety during the prenatal period and certain domains of offspring emotional and behavioral problems in mid to late childhood above and beyond the impact of later maternal mental health problems. These findings highlight the need for additional clinical and research attention to the prenatal period and to both maternal depression and anxiety. PMID:23748337

Leis, Julie A; Heron, Jon; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Mendelson, Tamar

2014-01-01

58

Reducing Cancer Health Disparities in the US-associated Pacific  

PubMed Central

Purpose To assess cancer prevention and control capacity in the US-associated Pacific Islands (USAPI, including American Samoa, Northern Mariana Islands, Micronesia, Guam, Marshall Islands, and Palau) and to support indigenous leadership in reducing cancer health disparities. Methods Jurisdiction-specific needs assessments were conducted to assess cancer prevention and control capacity and challenges, The Cancer Council of the Pacific islands (CCPI), an indigenous health leadership team from public health and medicine, was supported to review assessment findings, develop priorities, and build capacity to address recommendations. Results Capacity varied across jurisdictions, but generally there is limited ability to measure cancer burden and a lack of programs, equipment, and trained personnel to detect and treat cancer. Most cancers are diagnosed in late stages when survival is compromised and care is most costly. Jurisdictions also are challenged by geographic, social, and political constraints and multiple in-country demands for funding. Based on findings, strategies were developed by the CCPI to guide efforts, including fund seeking, to expand cancer prevention and control capacity in regionally appropriate ways. Conclusions Concerted planning, training, and funding efforts are needed to overcome challenges and upgrade capacity in cancer education, prevention, detection, and treatment in the USAPI. Indigenous leadership and local capacity building are essential to this process.

Tsark, JoAnn U.; Braun, Kathryn L.

2010-01-01

59

[The European Health Information and Library Association--EAHIL/AEIBS].  

PubMed

The authors give a short history of the association, beginning with its establishment (1986) and a survey of its activities up to the summer of 1994, and its organization. They write about conditions and terms of membership, about aims and objectives of the association: to improve co-operation among European medical libraries, to raise standards of library and information services as well as professionality of librarians and information officers and their continuous education, especially in regard to new technologies. The authors also emphasize the European character and principles of tolerance that enable a connection of medical nursing, veterinary and pharmaceutical libraries/librarians in these specializations in various countries. It is necessary for information users to learn modern library methods, including information skills for the learning process (libraries of medical faculties). No less important is the role of libraries for research and evaluation of research. A survey of Czechoslovak and Czech participation in EAHIL is also given here. The course of the Fourth European Conference of Medical and Health Libraries on Oslo (from 28th June to 2nd July, 1994) is shortly described. Further library conference activities are also mentioned: 7th International Congress of Medical Librarianship in Washington, DC, May 10-12, 1995; Fourth Nordic Conference for Medical Libraries, Copenhagen (Denmark), August 21-24, 1995; EAHIL Symposium on Cooperation of Medical Libraries, Prague (Czech Republic), September 21-22, 1995; Fifth European Conference of Medical and Health Libraries, Coimbra (Portugal), September 18-21, 1996. PMID:8711356

Spála, M; Choc, F; Pinkas, O

1994-01-01

60

National Association of School Nurses ISSUE BRIEF: School Health Nurse's Role in Education: Privacy Standards for Student Health Records  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is a reprint of the National Association of School Nurses' "Issue Brief" on Privacy Standards for Student Health Records. It distinguishes between the Family Education Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) and the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HI-PAA), clarifies which of these laws governs the privacy of student health

Pohlman, Katherine; Schwab, Nadine

2003-01-01

61

Associations Between Sexual and Reproductive Health Communication and Health Service Use Among U.S. Adolescent Women  

PubMed Central

CONTEXT An understanding of the association between adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health knowledge and their use of relevant services is needed to improve young people’s sexual and reproductive health. METHODS Data from the National Survey of Family Growth were used to examine associations between sexual and reproductive health communication (parental and formal) and service use among 2,326 U.S. women aged 15–19 in 2002 and 2006–2008. Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression were used to assess relationships between adolescents’ receipt of sexual and reproductive health communication from parents and formal (school, church, community) sources and their use of sexual and reproductive health services. RESULTS The majority of adolescents had received parental (75%) and formal (92%) sexual and reproductive health communication; 43% reported recent service use. In unadjusted analyses, parental and formal communication were positively associated with service use. In regression models, overall parental communication remained positively associated with service use (odds ratio, 1.6); parental abstinence-only communication, which was not significant in 2002, was associated with reduced odds of service use for the pooled sample (0.4) and in 2006–2008 (0.3). Formal communication was not associated with service use. CONCLUSIONS Further research is needed to assess whether comprehensive sexual and reproductive health communication facilitates adolescents’ health care utilization. Examination of how communication sources, quality and content are related to service use is needed to understand adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health knowledge and needs.

Hall, Kelli Stidham; Moreau, Caroline; Trussell, James

2012-01-01

62

A brief office intervention is associated with improved health measures.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality for adults in developed countries. Many risk factors responsible for the development of cardiovascular disease are associated with behavior. We studied whether encouraging patients to be accountable for their own lifestyle choices would lead to improvements in subjective and objective health measures in 26 consecutive general cardiology clinic patients. Our hypothesis was, that after a simple brief cardiologist-initiated motivational discussion during a routine general cardiology clinic visit that included a weight loss "contract" signed by the patient, physician and a witness, patients would be more likely to lose weight or to remain the same weight as compared to historical controls. We found that intervention patients were more likely to lose weight or to remain the same weight, (p<0.01). PMID:17070611

Ostfeld, Robert J; Cheung, Yat Wa; Saal, Ilana; Janis, Gregory; Cabeza, Yolanda; Du, Yunling; Smoller, Sylvia; Wylie-Rosett, Judith

2007-07-10

63

Factors Associated with Physician Discussion of Health Behaviors with Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Behaviors developed in adolescence influence health later in life. The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of health care provider's discussion of health behaviors with overweight and non-overweight adolescents and identify demographic and health behaviors related to exercise, hours of television viewing, and weight issues…

Choi, Won S.; Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Kaur, Harsohena; Nazir, Niaman; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

2006-01-01

64

Factors Associated with American Indian Teens' Self-Rated Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Factors related to American Indian (AI) high school students' self-rated health were examined. Self rated health was measured as a single-item with a four-point response option ranging from poor to excellent health. Of the 574 participants, 19% reported "fair" or "poor" health, a percentage more than twice that for U.S. high school students in…

Parker, Tassy

2004-01-01

65

78 FR 38043 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Application From the American Osteopathic Association/Health...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Osteopathic Association/Health Facilities Accreditation...CMS-Approval of Its Critical Access Hospital Accreditation...Osteopathic Association/Health Facilities Accreditation...organization for critical access hospitals (CAHs...Services, Department of Health and Human Services...20201. (Because access to the interior...

2013-06-25

66

PTSD symptom clusters associated with physical health and health care utilization in rural primary care patients exposed to natural disaster.  

PubMed

This study investigated the influence of exposure to a tornado disaster and disaster-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology on physical health complaints and primary health care utilization among rural medical patients. One-hundred five patients completed self-report measures assessing disaster exposure, PTSD symptoms, and self-reported physical health complaints. Objective rates of health care utilization were gathered by a review of medical records. Tornado disaster exposure and generalized psychological distress were associated with physical health complaints one year following the disaster. After controlling for age, gender, and levels of predisaster health care utilization, PTSD Cluster C (avoidance) symptoms were associated with increased rates of postdisaster health care utilization. Implications of these findings for interventions within the medical system are discussed. PMID:18302175

Polusny, Melissa A; Ries, Barry J; Schultz, Jessica R; Calhoun, Patrick; Clemensen, Lisa; Johnsen, Ingrid R

2008-02-01

67

Health-care-associated infection in Africa: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To assess the epidemiology of endemic health-care-associated infection (HAI) in Africa. Methods Three databases (PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and the WHO regional medical database for Africa) were searched to identify studies published from 1995 to 2009 on the epidemiology of HAI in African countries. No language restriction was applied. Available abstract books of leading international infection control conferences were also searched from 2004 to 2009. Findings The eligibility criteria for inclusion in the review were met by 19 articles, only 2 of which met the criterion of high quality. Four relevant abstracts were retrieved from the international conference literature. The hospital-wide prevalence of HAI varied between 2.5% and 14.8%; in surgical wards, the cumulative incidence ranged from 5.7% to 45.8%. The largest number of studies focused on surgical site infection, whose cumulative incidence ranged from 2.5% to 30.9%. Data on causative pathogens were available from a few studies only and highlighted the importance of Gram-negative rods, particularly in surgical site infection and ventilator-associated pneumonia. Conclusion Limited information is available on the endemic burden of HAI in Africa, but our review reveals that its frequency is much higher than in developed countries. There is an urgent need to identify and implement feasible and sustainable approaches to strengthen HAI prevention, surveillance and control in Africa.

Bagheri Nejad, Sepideh; Allegranzi, Benedetta; Syed, Shamsuzzoha B; Ellis, Benjamin

2011-01-01

68

I35W Collapse, Rebuild, and Structural Health - Associated with Structural Health Monitoring of Bridge Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During evening rush hour traffic on August 1, 2007, the major interstate highway bridge carrying I35W over the Mississippi River in Minneapolis catastrophically failed, tragically taking the lives of thirteen people and injuring many more. The steel truss bridge, constructed in 1967, was undergoing deck reconstruction during the collapse, and was estimated to carry more than 140,000 vehicles daily. This tragedy generated great interest in employment of structural health monitoring systems. The I35W St. Anthony Falls Bridge, a post-tensioned concrete box bridge constructed to replace the collapsed steel truss bridge, contains over 500 instruments to monitor the structural behavior. Numerical models of the bridge are being developed and calibrated to the collected data obtained from truck load tests and thermal effects. The data obtained over the first few years of monitoring are being correlated with the calibrated models and used to develop the baseline bridge behavior. This information is being used to develop a system to monitor and interpret the long-term behavior of the bridge. This paper describes the instrumentation, preliminary results from the data and model calibration, the plan for developing long-term monitoring capabilities, and the challenges associated with structural health monitoring of bridge systems. In addition, opportunities and directions for future research required to fully realize the objectives of structural health monitoring are described.

French, C. E.; Hedegaard, B.; Shield, C. K.; Stolarski, H.

2011-06-01

69

Rural Socioeconomic Risk and Resiliency Inventory and Associated Health Outcomes. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Social and economic variables are among the strongest predictors of health outcomes. However, strong associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and health outcomes do not exist for all diseases and are not uniform for all populations defined by ethni...

J. Halverson M. Hendryz

2011-01-01

70

Is walking to school associated with improved metabolic health?  

PubMed Central

Background Active commuting to/from school is an important source of physical activity that has been declining over the past years. Although it is an affordable and simple way of increasing physical activity levels it is still unclear whether it has enough potential to improve health. Therefore, the aim of this cross sectional study was to examine the relationship between active commuting to/from school and metabolic risk factors in 10 to 12 year old children. Methods Participants were 229 adolescents, selected through consecutive sampling, (121 girls) with mean age of 11.65 (±0.73) years old from Porto, Portugal. Means of transport to/from school was accessed by asking: ”How do you usually travel to school?” and “How do you usually travel from school?”. Active commuting was considered if children reported at least one of the trips (to or from school) by active means. Total physical activity was obtained with Actigraph accelerometer for 7 consecutive days. Lipid profile measurements were conducted with Cholestech LDX® analyser. Waist circumference and blood pressure were measured by standard methods. The criteria for metabolic syndrome defined by International Diabetes Federation for children and adolescents were used. Results Adjusted binary logistic regression analysis suggested that walkers have higher odds to have a better waist circumference (OR?=?2.64, 95% CI?=?1.63-6.01) and better high density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR?=?2.14, 95% CI?=?1.01-4.52) profiles than non-active commuters, independent of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. No associations were found for other metabolic risk factors. Conclusions Exertions to increase and maintain walking to school may be particularly relevant as it is likely to have a positive impact on children’s health and eventually decrease metabolic and cardiovascular diseases.

2013-01-01

71

Health Effects Associated With Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The World Health Organization has identified ambient air pollution as a high public health priority, based on estimates of air pollution related death and disability-adjusted life years derived in its Global Burden of Disease initiative. The NERAM Colloquium Series on Health and Air Quality was initiated to strengthen the linkage between scientists, policymakers, and other stakeholders by reviewing the current

Jonathan Samet; Daniel Krewski

2007-01-01

72

Self-reported segregation experience throughout the life course and its association with adequate health literacy  

PubMed Central

Residential segregation has been shown to be associated with health outcomes and health care utilization. We examined the association between racial composition of five physical environments throughout the life course and adequate health literacy among 836 community health center patients in Suffolk County, NY. Respondents who attended a mostly White junior high school or currently lived in a mostly White neighborhood were more likely to have adequate health literacy compared to those educated or living in predominantly minority or diverse environments. This association was independent of the respondent’s race, ethnicity, age, education, and country of birth.

Gaskin, Darrell J.; Si, Xuemei; Stafford, Jewel D.; Lachance, Christina; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.

2012-01-01

73

Using physiological dysregulation to assess global health status: associations with self-rated health and health behaviors.  

PubMed

Six measures of physiological dysregulation were derived from 11 clinically assessed biomarkers, and related to health outcomes and health behaviors for the Hawaii Personality and Health cohort (N = 470). Measures summing extreme scores at one tail of the biomarker distributions performed better than ones summing both tails, and continuous measures performed better than count scores. Health behaviors predicted men's dysregulation but not women's. Dysregulation and health behaviors predicted self-rated health for both men and women, and depressive symptoms predicted self-rated health only for women. These findings provide preliminary guidelines for constructing valid summary measures of global health status for use in health psychology. PMID:19237490

Hampson, Sarah E; Goldberg, Lewis R; Vogt, Thomas M; Hillier, Teresa A; Dubanoski, Joan P

2009-03-01

74

Introduction to the Special Section from Recent Association of Psychologists in Academic Health Centers (APAHC) Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Association of Psychologists in Academic Health Centers (APAHC) offers programming at the annual American Psychological\\u000a Association (APA) conventions as well as periodic APAHC conferences. Participants from academic health centers across the\\u000a country convened in St. Louis, Missouri, October 15–17, 2009, for the 4th National Conference of the Association of Psychologists\\u000a in Academic Health Centers (APAHC). The title of the

Robert K. Klepac; Kim E. Dixon

2010-01-01

75

The Associations between Health Literacy, Reasons for Seeking Health Information, and Information Sources Utilized by Taiwanese Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To determine the associations between health literacy, the reasons for seeking health information, and the information sources utilized by Taiwanese adults. Method: A cross-sectional survey of 752 adults residing in rural and urban areas of Taiwan was conducted via questionnaires. Chi-squared tests and logistic regression were used for…

Wei, Mi-Hsiu

2014-01-01

76

Differences in Physical and Mental Health Symptoms and Mental Health Utilization Associated With Intimate-Partner Violence Versus Childhood Abuse  

PubMed Central

Background There is ample evidence that both intimate-partner violence (IPV) and childhood abuse adversely affect the physical and mental health of adult women over the long term. Objective The authors assessed the associations between abuse, symptoms, and mental health utilization. Method The authors performed a cross-sectional survey of 380 adult female, internal-medicine patients. Results Although both IPV and childhood abuse were associated with depressive and physical symptoms, IPV was independently associated with physical symptoms, and childhood abuse was independently associated with depression. Women with a history of childhood abuse had higher odds, whereas women with IPV had lower odds, of receiving care from mental health providers. Conclusion IPV and childhood abuse may have different effects on women’s symptoms and mental health utilization.

Nicolaidis, Christina; McFarland, Bentson; Curry, MaryAnn; Gerrity, Martha

2009-01-01

77

Associations and foundations in the field of health care and their role in the health system of Poland.  

PubMed

The article presents data on associations and foundations active in health care field in Poland, on the basis of a review of research done by Klon/Jawor Association and the Central Statistical Office. The article also applies to the issue of cooperation between NGOs and governmental adminstration in the health area and identifies lacking information that is necessary for better planning of national health policy. In Poland there are about three thousand associations and foundations whose main focus is the health care. In 2010, they accounted for about 7% of all non-governmental organizations. Results of representative nationwide surveys from 2008 and 2010 indicate that the NGO's active in the field of health care have, in most cases, legal form of associations. Almost half of the organizations declared national or international scope of action. Headquarters of most organizations were mainly in the cities, and only, one in twenty in the village. Most organizations were located in the mazowieckie province and a significant fraction of them was in Warsaw itself. Organizations were stood out by a relatively large number of personnel on the background of the entire NGO sector. Half of the organizations employed paid workers, the majority also collaborated with volunteers who were not members of the organization. More than a third of organizations dealt with the rehabilitation, therapy and long-term care, and about 1/3 dealt with prevention, health promotion and education, and blood donations. World Health Organization indicates the need for systematic collection of data about the role of the nongovernmental sector in health. In Poland, legal regulations require the public institutions and organizations to cooperate with NGOs to achieve health objectives. In spite of relevant data on NGOs in the field of health care in Poland, the necessary information to assess their potential are still lacking. Recognition of the capacity and limitations ofNGOs could enable better planning of national health policy. PMID:23745378

Piotrowicz, Maria; Cianciara, Dorota

2013-01-01

78

Factors associated with reproductive health care utilization among Ghanaian women  

PubMed Central

Background This study investigates factors determining the timing of antenatal care (ANC) visit and the type of delivery assistant present during delivery among a national representative sample of Ghanaian women. Method Data for the study was drawn from the women questionnaire (N=4,916) of the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey among 15–49-years-old women. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to explore factors determining the type of delivery assistance and timing of ANC visit for live births within five years prior to the survey. Results Majority of Ghanaian women attended ANC visit (96.5%) but many (42.7%) did so late (after the first trimester), while 36.5% had delivery without the assistance of a trained personnel (30.6%) or anyone (5.9%). Age (OR=1.5, CI=1.1-1.9, OR for 25-34-year-olds compared to 15-24-year-olds), religion (OR=1.8, CI=1.2-2.8, OR for Christians versus Traditional believers) wealth index (OR=2.6, CI=1.7-3.8, OR for the richest compared to the poorest) were independently associated with early ANC visit. Likewise, age, place of residence, education and partner’s education were associated with having a delivery assisted by a trained assistant. Also, Christians (OR=1.8, CI=1.1-3.0) and Moslems (OR=1.9, CI=1.1-3.3) were more likely to have trained delivery assistants compared to their counterparts who practised traditional belief. Furthermore, the richer a woman the more likely that she would have delivery assisted by a trained personnel (OR=8.2, CI= 4.2-16.0, OR for the richest in comparison to the poorest). Conclusions Despite the relatively high antenatal care utilisation among Ghanaian women, significant variations exist across the socio-demographic spectrum. Furthermore, a large number of women failed to meet the WHO recommendation to attend antenatal care within the first trimester of pregnancy. These findings have important implications for reducing maternal mortality ratio by three-quarters by the year 2015.

2012-01-01

79

Association between Psychopathology and Physical Health Problems among Youth in Residential Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth in residential treatment settings often present with a complex combination of mental and physical health problems. Despite an emerging literature documenting significant associations between mental health and physical health, the relationship between these two areas of functioning has not been systematically examined in youth presenting to…

Nelson, Timothy D.; Smith, Tori R.; Duppong Hurley, Kristin; Epstein, Michael H.; Thompson, Ronald W.; Tonniges, Thomas F.

2013-01-01

80

General practitioners' understanding pertaining to reliability, interactive and usability components associated with health websites  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to determine the level of understanding of Gold Coast general practitioners (GPs) pertaining to such criteria as reliability, interactive and usability components associated with health websites. These are important considerations due to the increased levels of computer and World Wide Web (WWW)\\/Internet use and health website recommendations by GPs as a medium for modern e-health care

Wayne Usher

2009-01-01

81

Health Concerns Associated with Adolescent Growth and Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Just as infants and the elderly have special health care needs based on their stages in the life cycle, adolescents also have particular health needs. While some of those needs are simply a result of the bodily changes that define adolescence, others are true medical conditions which are most commonly found in this age group. Among achievements…

Stivers, Cathie

82

Association between mental health and fall injury in Canadian immigrants and non-immigrants.  

PubMed

The study was to determine the association between mental health and the incidence of injury among Canadian immigrants and non-immigrants. We used data from 15,405 individuals aged 12 years or more, who were living in British Columbia, Canada, and participated in the 2007-2008 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS). We calculated a 12-month cumulative incidence of fall injury based on self-reporting. Logistic regression model was used to examine the association of the 12-month cumulative incidence of fall injury with immigration status and mental health before and after adjustment for covariates. The results show that self-reported mood and anxiety disorders were significantly associated with an increased incidence of fall injury. The adjusted odds ratios were 1.81 (95% CI: 1.37, 2.38) for mood disorder and 1.55 (95% CI: 1.12, 2.13) for anxiety disorder. Immigrant status was a significant effect modifier for the association between mental health and fall injury, with stronger associations in immigrants than in non-immigrants especially in elderly people. People with poor self perceived health were more likely to have a fall injury. Both mental health and general health were related to fall injury. There was a stronger association between mental health and fall injury in immigrants compared with non-immigrants in the elderly. More attention should be paid to mental health in immigrants associated with fall injury. PMID:23810953

Chen, Yue; Mo, Frank; Yi, Qilong; Morrison, Howard; Mao, Yang

2013-10-01

83

Associations of mental health problems with waterpipe tobacco and cigarette smoking among college students  

PubMed Central

Associations between the emerging trend of waterpipe tobacco smoking and mental health among college students have not been sufficiently explored. This study analyzed data collected from 152 academic institutions that participated in the National College Health Assessment during the 2008–2009 academic year to examine associations between mental health and waterpipe tobacco smoking among college students (N=100,891). For comparison, cigarette smoking was also examined. Associations with mental health variables were very strong for cigarette smoking but only moderate for waterpipe smoking. Study implications and limitations are noted. Funding was provided by NCI Grant [removed for blind version].

Primack, Brian A.; Land, Stephanie R.; Fan, Jieyu; Kim, Kevin H.; Rosen, Daniel A.

2013-01-01

84

Factors associated with differences in perceived health among German long-term unemployed  

PubMed Central

Background Unemployment is associated with reduced physical and psychological well-being. Perceived health is an important factor influencing health outcomes as well as successful returns to work. This study aims to determine the extent to which perceived health correlates with mental health, various health risk characteristics and socio-demographic characteristics in a setting-selected sample of long-term unemployed persons. Methods Using SF-12, 365 long-term unemployed persons were assessed for self-perceived health and various socio-demographic and health characteristics. Perceived health data of the sample was compared to the German SF-12 reference population. Bivariate analyses and multiple linear regression models were applied to identify those variables significantly associated with perceived health. Results The study population reported poorer perceived health compared with the general population. Analyses showed that perceived mental health was significantly worse in women, among persons with heightened depression and anxiety scores, and in participants reporting reduced levels of physical activity. Perceived physical health was significantly lower among older persons, participants with a higher BMI, and participants with heightened depression and anxiety scores. Both mental and physical health were worse among the unemployed assigned to an employment center as compared to those engaged in the secondary labor market. In total, 36% of the variance in the SF-12 mental score and 20% of the variance in the SF-12 physical score were explained by the factors included in the final multiple linear regression models. Conclusions Perceived health among a select group of long-term unemployed is reduced to a clinically relevant extent compared to the general population. The preliminary findings underline an association between mental health and perceived health. Negative self-perceptions of health were also associated with the labor market setting and some of the socio-demographic and health behavior variables. Further research is needed to determine risk factors leading to reduced perceived health in the unemployed. The strong association between mental health and perceived health suggests interventions targeting mental health are urgently needed to positively influence perceived health, a key determinant of individuals’ chances to successfully return to work.

2012-01-01

85

Systematic Analysis of Dynamic Association of Health Outcomes with Computer Usage for Office Staff  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper systematically investigates the time- dependent health outcomes for office staff during computer work using the developed mathematical model. The model describes time- dependent health outcomes in multiple body regions associated with computer usage. The association is explicitly presented with a dose- response relationship which is parametrized by body region parameters. Using the developed model we perform extensive investigations

Xiaoshu Lu; Esa-Pekka Takala; Risto Toivonen

2008-01-01

86

Systematic Analysis of Dynamic Association of Health Outcomes with Computer Usage for Office Staff  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper systematically investigates the time- dependent health outcomes for office staff during computer work using the developed mathematical model. The model describes time- dependent health outcomes in multiple body regions associated with computer usage. The association is explicitly presented with a dose- response relationship which is parametrized by body region parameters. Using the developed model we perform extensive investigations

Xiaoshu Lu; Esa-Pekka Takala; Risto Toivonen

2010-01-01

87

Potential Human Health Effects Associated with Pathogens in Urban Wet Weather Flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

High concentrations of pathogens and indicator organisms found in urban receiving waters are a common cause of concern. Though some question the actual public health risk associated with exposure to these organisms, large amounts of resources are spent attempting to identify and correct their source. This paper contains a summary of recent work describing the potential human health effects associated

Robert Pitt; Melinda Lalor; John Easton

88

Food Insecurity Is Associated with Adverse Health Outcomes among Human Infants and Toddlers1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Household Food Security Scale, developed with federal support for use in national surveys, is an effective research tool. This study uses these new measures to examine associations between food insecurity and health outcomes in young children. The purpose of this study was to determine whether household food insecurity is associated with adverse health outcomes in a sentinel population

John T. Cook; Deborah A. Frank; Carol Berkowitz; Maureen M. Black; Patrick H. Casey; Diana B. Cutts; Alan F. Meyers; Nieves Zaldivar; Anne Skalicky; Suzette Levenson; Tim Heeren; Mark Nord

89

Association between housing quality and individual health characteristics on sleep quality among Latino farmworkers.  

PubMed

Although poor sleep quality and associated sleep disorders are associated with increased risk of job injury and multiple mental and physical health problems, scant research has examined sleep quality among Latino farmworkers. Interviews were conducted with 371 male Latino farmworkers working in North Carolina during the 2010 agricultural season. Data on housing quality and sleep quality were collected. Access to air conditioning was significantly and positively associated with good sleep quality. This association remained when other housing characteristics and individual health indicators were controlled. Good sleep quality was associated with low levels of pain, depression, and anxiety. Poor sleep quality among Latino farmworkers was associated with poorer indicators of health. One important indicator of housing quality, air conditioning, was associated with better sleep quality. Further research is required to delineate how to improve the adequacy of farmworker housing to improve sleep quality and other health indicators. PMID:23161266

Sandberg, Joanne C; Talton, Jennifer W; Quandt, Sara A; Chen, Haiying; Weir, Maria; Doumani, Walkiria R; Chatterjee, Arjun B; Arcury, Thomas A

2014-04-01

90

Does the Perception That Stress Affects Health Matter? The Association With Health and Mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study sought to examine the relationship among the amount of stress, the perception that stress affects health, and health and mortality outcomes in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. Methods: Data from the 1998 National Health Interview Survey were linked to prospective National Death Index mortality data through 2006. Separate logistic regression models were used to examine

Abiola Keller; Kristin Litzelman; Lauren E. Wisk; Torsheika Maddox; Erika Rose Cheng; Paul D. Creswell; Whitney P. Witt

2012-01-01

91

American Health Information Management Association. Position statement. Issue: patient cards.  

PubMed

In its simplest form, a patient card is a credit card sized record made of paper or plastic that contains identification information. A card may contain additional information, such as insurance or limited health information. Of the many technologies available, chip cards and optical cards are best suited for use in healthcare. If their expense can be justified and nation-wide standards established, cards could help improve timely access to basic health information such as demographic, insurance, and basic medical information needed for emergency treatment. Technology may permit a patient's entire longitudinal (lifetime) health history to be maintained on a card, but this should not be the only source of the longitudinal record. To assure its accessibility to legitimate users throughout the healthcare system, the longitudinal health record must be a computer-based patient record maintained on a controlled access network. PMID:10130019

1993-11-01

92

Air pollutants and sources associated with health effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides four complementary perspectives on the understanding of the risk posed to health by particular sources\\u000a of air pollution. These perspectives are based on contributions to a plenary session \\

Alberto Ayala; Michael Brauer; Joe L. Mauderly; Jonathan M. Samet

93

Health maintenance organizations, independent practice associations, and cesarean section rates.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE. This study tests two hypotheses: that a given delivery is less likely to be by cesarean section (c-section) in an HMO (closed-panel health maintenance organization) or IPA (independent practice association), than in other settings; and that where HMO and IPA penetration is high, the probability of a c-section will be reduced for all deliveries, whether in prepaid groups or not. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SETTING. A data set consisting of 104,595 obstetric deliveries in New York state in 1986 is analyzed. STUDY DESIGN. A series of probit regressions is estimated, in which the dependent variable is either the probability that a given delivery is by c-section, or that a given delivery will result in a c-section for dystocia or fetal distress. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS. The Live Birth File is linked with SPARCS hospital discharge data and other variables. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. HMO setting reduces the probability of a cesarean section by 2.5 to 3.0 percentage points. However, this result is likely to be partly an artifact of offsetting diagnostic labeling and of choice of method of delivery, given diagnosis; a better estimate of the effect of HMO setting is -1.3 percentage points. IPA setting appears to affect the probability of a cesarean section even less, perhaps not at all. And HMO and IPA penetration in a region, as measured by HMO and IPA deliveries, respectively, as a percent of all deliveries, has relatively large depressing effects on the probability of a cesarean section. CONCLUSIONS. Ceteris paribus, the probability of a c-section is lower for an HMO delivery than for a fee-for-service delivery; however, HMO effects are smaller than previously reported in the literature for other types of inpatient care. For IPA deliveries, the effects are still smaller, perhaps nil. However, HMO and IPA penetration, possibly measuring the degree of competition in obstetrics markets, have important effects on c-section rates, not only in HMO/IPA settings, but throughout an area. These results appear to have important implications for public policy.

Tussing, A D; Wojtowycz, M A

1994-01-01

94

Factors associated with skills of health visitors in maternal-infant mental health in Japan.  

PubMed

This study is a formative evaluation of a training seminar for health visitors, who visit mothers to provide them with support in terms of postpartum mental health, and was performed to examine factors that relate to the skills of these health visitors. Subjects were all health visitors (n = 232) from around Japan who participated in a 2-day training seminar. One-hundred and thirty-three valid responses (57.3%) were received and written consent to participate in the research was obtained. Results of statistical analyses indicated that a health visitor's skill at supporting a mother in terms of postpartum mental health had two domains, such as interpersonal health care skills and skill at formulating measures. In addition to the length of experience (p < 0.001), the level of expertise (p < 0.001) and the total score on the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (p < 0.1 for interpersonal health care skills) was related to a higher level of the health visitor's skill at supporting mothers in terms of their postpartum mental health. In contrast, having a university degree (p < 0.1) was related to a lower level of the health visitor's interpersonal health care skills. Therefore, a training seminar aimed at promoting the skills of health visitors must provide them with the latest expertise and encourage their self-efficacy by helping them successfully envision supporting mothers in terms of their postpartum mental health. In addition, careful instruction of health visitors with less experience and a university degree is crucial. PMID:20103885

Kamibeppu, Kiyoko; Nishigaki, Kaori; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Suzumiya, Hiroko; Yoshida, Keiko

2007-12-01

95

Children's Health Status: Examining the Associations among Income Poverty, Material Hardship, and Parental Factors  

PubMed Central

Background We examined a model of multiple mediating pathways of income poverty, material hardship, parenting factors, and child health status to understand how material hardship and parental factors mediate the effects of poverty on child health. We hypothesized that: (a) poverty will be directly associated with material hardship, parental depression, and health status, and indirectly with parenting behaviors through its effects on parental depression and material hardship; (b) material hardship will be associated with parental depression, parenting behaviors, and health status; and (c) parental depression will be correlated with parenting behaviors, and that both parental depression and parenting behaviors will predict child health. Methods and Results We used data from the 2002 National Survey of American Families for a sample of 9,645 6-to-11 year-olds to examine a 4-step structural equation model. The baseline model included covariates and income poverty. In the hardship model, food insufficiency and medical need were added to the baseline model. The parental model included parental depression and parenting behavior and baseline model. In the full model, all the constructs were included. First, income poverty had a direct effect on health status, and an indirect effect through its association with material hardship, parental depressive affect, and parenting behaviors. Medical need and food insufficiency had negative effects on child health, and indirect effects on health through their association with parental depression and parenting behaviors. Finally, parental depression and parenting behaviors were associated with child health, and part of the effect of parental depression on health was explained by its association with parenting behaviors. Conclusions Poverty has an independent effect on health, however, its effects are partially explained by material hardship, parental depression and parental behaviors. To improve children's health would require a multi-pronged approach involving income transfers, health insurance coverage, food and nutrition assistance, and parenting interventions.

Ashiabi, Godwin S.; O'Neal, Keri K.

2007-01-01

96

Factors associated with poor mental health status among homeless women with and without dependent children.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of mental health problems among a representative sample of homeless women with and without dependent children and determine if the effects of risk factors for mental health are modified by the presence of dependent children. Homeless women (n = 522) were recruited in 2004-2005 from shelters and meal programs in Toronto, Canada. Linear and logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with mental health status. Poor mental health was associated with low perceived access to social support, physical/sexual assault in the past 12 months, presence of a chronic health condition, and presence of a drug use problem in the past month. Efforts to improve mental health in this population will need to address the associated problems of victimization, substance abuse, and lack of social supports. PMID:23423484

Chambers, Catharine; Chiu, Shirley; Scott, Allison N; Tolomiczenko, George; Redelmeier, Donald A; Levinson, Wendy; Hwang, Stephen W

2014-07-01

97

Sociodemographic, Psychological and Health-Related Factors Associated with Poor Mental Health in Spanish Women and Men in Midlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The purpose of this work was to examine the sociodemographic, psychological, and health-related factors (considered jointly) associated with poor mental health in midlife and to analyze whether risk and protective factors differed in men and women.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a middle-class sample of 252 women and 189 men between 45 and 65 years of age from

María del Pilar Sánchez-López; Juan José López-García; Virginia Dresch; Javier Corbalán

2008-01-01

98

How significant is the 'significant other'? Associations between significant others' health behaviors and attitudes and young adults' health outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background Having a significant other has been shown to be protective against physical and psychological health conditions for adults. Less is known about the period of emerging young adulthood and associations between significant others’ weight and weight-related health behaviors (e.g. healthy dietary intake, the frequency of physical activity, weight status). This study examined the association between significant others’ health attitudes and behaviors regarding eating and physical activity and young adults’ weight status, dietary intake, and physical activity. Methods This study uses data from Project EAT-III, a population-based cohort study with emerging young adults from diverse ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds (n?=?1212). Logistic regression models examining cross-sectional associations, adjusted for sociodemographics and health behaviors five years earlier, were used to estimate predicted probabilities and calculate prevalence differences. Results Young adult women whose significant others had health promoting attitudes/behaviors were significantly less likely to be overweight/obese and were more likely to eat???5 fruits/vegetables per day and engage in???3.5 hours/week of physical activity, compared to women whose significant others did not have health promoting behaviors/attitudes. Young adult men whose significant other had health promoting behaviors/attitudes were more likely to engage in???3.5 hours/week of physical activity compared to men whose significant others did not have health promoting behaviors/attitudes. Conclusions Findings suggest the protective nature of the significant other with regard to weight-related health behaviors of young adults, particularly for young adult women. Obesity prevention efforts should consider the importance of including the significant other in intervention efforts with young adult women and potentially men.

2012-01-01

99

Human health problems associated with current agricultural food production.  

PubMed

Scientific and technological developments in the agricultural sectors in the recent past has resulted in increased food production and at the same time led to certain public health concerns. Unseasonal rains at the time of harvest and improper post harvest technology often results in agricultural commodities being contaminated with certain fungi and results in the production of mycotoxins. Consumption of such commodities has resulted in human disease outbreaks. Naturally occurring toxins, inherently present in foods and either consumed as such or mixed up with grains, had been responsible for disease outbreaks. Other possible causes of health concern include the application of various agrochemicals such as pesticides and the use of antibiotics in aquaculture and veterinary practices. Foodborne pathogens entering the food chain during both traditional and organic agriculture pose a challenge to public health. Modern biotechnology, producing genetically modified foods, if not regulated appropriately could pose dangers to human health. Use of various integrated food management systems like the Hazard Analysis and critical control system approach for risk prevention, monitoring and control of food hazards are being emphasized with globalization to minimise the danger posed to human health from improper agricultural practices. PMID:18296310

Bhat, Ramesh V

2008-01-01

100

Self-estimated oral and general health are related and associated with clinically investigated dental health.  

PubMed

The aim was to investigate whether the self-estimation of oral and general health is correlated and related to clinical parameters for dental health. Furthermore, to investigate the influence of socioeconomic factors on the self-assessment of oral and general health. During 2007 a dental health survey was performed in the Community of Gävle located in central Sweden. 1, 224 subjects randomized from the general population of Gävle (adult population 75, 000) were invited to participate. Seven hundred and forty-eight individuals answered a questionnaire regarding their health and 373 of these subjects participated in a dental examination. Self-estimated oral and general health was correlated (p<0.0001, r=0.35) and individuals who perceived their oral health as bad had more decayed surfaces, surfaces with secondary caries, fewer teeth and more bleeding on probing than those with good estimated oral health (p<0.017 for all). In a logistic regression analysis with self-estimated oral health as the dependent variable was related to, the independent variables NT, DFT, self-estimated general health and age were related to self-estimated oral health, but not to income or educational level. However, subjects with low disposable income and low education level had significantly more clinical caries and fewer teeth than subjects with high income or a high educational level. Conclusions: In the present study, self-estimation of oral and general health was correlated and related to some clinical oral parameters. Subjects in the low socioeconomic group had worse dental health and a tendency to underestimate their need of dental care. PMID:22372304

Engström, Sevek; Holmlund, Anders

2011-01-01

101

The Association between Insomnia Severity and Healthcare and Productivity Costs in a Health Plan Sample  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Insomnia is a chronic condition with significant burden on health care and productivity costs. Despite this recognized burden, very few studies have examined associations between insomnia severity and healthcare and productivity costs. Design: A retrospective study linking health claims data with a telephone survey of members of a health plan in the Midwestern region of the United States. Participants: The total healthcare costs study sample consisted of 2086 health plan members who completed the survey and who had complete health claims data. The productivity costs sample consisted of 1329 health plan members who worked for pay—a subset of the total healthcare costs sample. Measurements: Subjects' age, gender, demographic variables, comorbidities, and total health care costs were ascertained using health claims. Insomnia severity and lost productivity related variables were assessed using telephone interview. Results: Compared with the no insomnia group, mean total healthcare costs were 75% larger in the group with moderate and severe insomnia ($1323 vs. $757, P < 0.05). Compared with the no insomnia group, mean lost productivity costs were 72% larger in the moderate and severe insomnia group ($1739 vs. $1013, P < 0.001). Chronic medical comorbidities and psychiatric comorbidities were positively associated with health care cost. In contrast, psychiatric comorbidities were associated with lost productivity; while, medical comorbidities were not associated with lost productivity. Conclusions: Health care and lost productivity costs were consistently found to be greater in moderate and severe insomniacs compared with non-insomniacs. Factors associated with lost productivity and health care costs may be fundamentally different and may require different kinds of interventions. Future studies should focus on better understanding mechanisms linking insomnia to healthcare and productivity costs and to understanding whether developing targeted interventions will reduce these costs. Citation: Sarsour K; Kalsekar A; Swindle R; Foley K; Walsh JK. The association between insomnia severity and healthcare and productivity costs in a health plan sample. SLEEP 2011;34(4):443-450.

Sarsour, Khaled; Kalsekar, Anupama; Swindle, Ralph; Foley, Kathleen; Walsh, James K.

2011-01-01

102

Work, health, and welfare: the association between working conditions, welfare states, and self-reported general health in Europe.  

PubMed

This article is the first to examine the association between self-reported general health and a wide range of working conditions at the European level and by type of welfare state regime. Data for 21,705 men and women ages 16 to 60 from 27 European countries were obtained from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey. The influence of individual-level sociodemographic, physical, and psychosocial working conditions and of the organization of work were assessed in multilevel logistic regression analyses, with additional stratification by welfare state regime type (Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian, Eastern European, Scandinavian, and Southern). At the European level, we found that "not good" general health was more likely to be reported by workers more exposed to hazardous working conditions. Most notably, tiring working positions, job strain, and temporary job contracts were strongly associated with a higher likelihood of reporting "not good" health. Analysis by welfare state regime found that only tiring or painful working conditions were consistently associated with worse self-reported health in all regimes. There was no evidence that the Scandinavian welfare regime protected against the adverse health effects of poor working conditions. The article concludes by examining the implications for comparative occupational health research. PMID:24684087

Bambra, Clare; Lunau, Thorsten; Van der Wel, Kjetil A; Eikemo, Terje A; Dragano, Nico

2014-01-01

103

Interpersonal violence is associated with depression and chronic physical health problems in midlife women.  

PubMed

This research describes interpersonal violence (IPV) exposure in a community-based sample of midlife women from three ethnic groups and explores relationships among these exposures and variables associated with health outcomes. IPV, physical health, depression, and social support were measured by self-report questionnaires. More than 33% reported a history of physical abuse or sexual abuse and at least 20% reported both. Approximately 20% experienced sexual harassment in the past year. IPV exposure was associated with more chronic health problems and depressive symptoms. IPV, whenever it occurs, is detrimental to women's health regardless of socioeconomic status or ethnicity. PMID:19363725

Humphreys, Janice; Lee, Kathryn A

2009-04-01

104

Hepatitis C infection and associated oral health problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatitis C infection is widespread throughout the community. This study aimed to assess the status of oral health of persons infected with hepatitis C. DMFT and CPITN indices were recorded at a clinic providing priority dental care for people with hepatitis C infection. The data were compared with information from an existing survey of general dental patients. Social impact was

E. A. Coates; D. Brennan; R. M. Logan; A. N. Goss; B. Scopacasa; A. J. Spencer; E. Gorkic

2000-01-01

105

Mental Health Consequences Associated with Dropping out of High School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the mental health consequences of dropping out of high school. It looks at levels of depression, anxiety, and self esteem reported by high school dropouts and graduates during the adolescent to young adult transition. It examines the extent to which family structure and family processes (parental support and transition specific…

Liem, Joan H.; Dillon, Colleen O'Neill; Gore, Susan

106

78 FR 54651 - Sole Source Cooperative Agreement Award to the National Association of County and City Health...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Sole Source Cooperative...National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO) AGENCY: Office of...and Response (ASPR), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)....

2013-09-05

107

The Association of Sleep Duration, Mental Health, and Health Risk Behaviors among U.S. Afghanistan/Iraq Era Veterans  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Short and long sleep duration have been linked with higher rates of comorbid medical and mental health issues, as well as increased mortality. The current study examined the association between sleep duration, mental health problems, and health risk behaviors in a large sample of U.S. Afghanistan/Iraq era veterans. Design: NA. Setting: Mid-Atlantic VA Medical Center(s). Patients/Participants: The sample (N = 1,640) included 20% women (n = 333) and had an average age of 37 years (SD = 10.0). Interventions: NA. Measurements and Results: Results from logistic regression analyses that included age, minority status, gender, military rank, number of deployments, combat exposure, and health risk behaviors as covariates indicated that very short sleep duration (? 5 h of sleep) and long sleep duration (? 9 h) were each associated with increased odds of current post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and smoking; while poor sleep quality was associated with PTSD, panic disorder (PD), MDD, suicidal ideation (SI), and risky drinking. Conclusions: Sleep duration may be an important marker for psychiatric and health risk behavior problems, and our results suggest that clinical assessment of sleep disturbance in this veteran group is warranted to assess for both short and long sleep. Citation: Swinkels CM; Ulmer CS; Beckam JC; Buse N; the VA Mid-Atlantic MIRECC Registry Workgroup; Calhoun PS. The association of sleep duration, mental health, and health risk behaviors among U.S. Afghanistan/Iraq era veterans. SLEEP 2013;36(7):1019-1025.

Swinkels, Cindy M.; Ulmer, Christi S.; Beckham, Jean C.; Buse, Natalie; Calhoun, Patrick S.

2013-01-01

108

SUMMARY REVIEW OF THE HEALTH EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH COPPER: HEALTH ISSUE ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The Health Assessment Summary Document is a brief review of the scientific knowledge on copper. The emphasis of the document is on inhalation exposure from atmospheric copper and the environmental, ecological and health effects from the species of copper expected to be present in...

109

SUMMARY REVIEW OF THE HEALTH EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH PROPYLENE OXIDE: HEALTH ISSUE ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report provides a brief summary of the data available on the health effects of exposure to propylene oxide. Emphasis is placed on determining whether there is evidence to suggest that propylene oxide exerts effects on human health under conditions and at concentrations common...

110

The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries' collaboration with the Association of American Medical Colleges, Medical Library Association, and other organizations  

PubMed Central

The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries has made collaboration with other organizations a fundamental success strategy throughout its twenty-five year history. From the beginning its relationships with Association of American Medical Colleges and with the Medical Library Association have shaped its mission and influenced its success at promoting academic health sciences libraries' roles in their institutions. This article describes and evaluates those relationships. It also describes evolving relationships with other organizations including the National Library of Medicine and the Association of Research Libraries.

Jenkins, Carol G.; Bader, Shelley A.

2003-01-01

111

Association of Ideal Cardiovascular Health Metrics and Retinal Microvascular Findings: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study  

PubMed Central

Background This study evaluated the prevalence of ideal cardiovascular (CV) health in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study and determined its relationship with prevalent retinopathy, wider retinal venular diameters, and narrower arteriolar diameters, which are risk markers for subclinical cerebrovascular disease and are associated with increased stroke and coronary heart disease (CHD) morbidity and mortality. Methods and Results We used gradings of fundus photography measurements from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study to examine the association of retinopathy and retinal arteriolar and venular calibers to the number of ideal CV health metrics. Prevalent retinopathy showed a graded relationship with the CV health categories and number of ideal CV health metrics present: retinopathy prevalence was 2.1% among those with ?5 ideal CV health metrics compared with 13.1% among those with zero ideal CV health metrics (odds ratio [CI]), 4.8 [2.5 to 8.9]). Central retinal venule equivalent and central retinal arteriolar equivalent diameters also showed graded relationships with CV health categories and number of ideal CV health metrics: after adjustment for age, race, sex, and education, mean central retinal venular equivalent was 187.8 ?m (95% CI, 186.9 to 188.6 ?m) among those with ?5 ideal CV health metrics compared with 201.1 ?m (95% CI, 199.1 to 203.1 ?m) among those with zero ideal CV health metrics. Mean central retinal arteriolar equivalent was 163.8 ?m (95% CI, 163.0 to 164.5 ?m) among those with ?5 ideal CV health metrics compared with 157.9 ?m (95% CI, 156.1 to 159.7 ?m) among those with zero ideal CV health metrics. Conclusions Few adults had ideal cardiovascular health. Those with the best level of health were less likely to have retinopathy signs, wide retinal venules, and narrow retinal arterioles, which are associated with increased stroke and coronary heart disease risk.

Ogagarue, Ejovwoke R.; Lutsey, Pamela L.; Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E.; Folsom, Aaron R.

2013-01-01

112

Prevalence of health risk behaviors and their associated factors among university students in Kyrgyzstan.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: With the advancements in knowledge about health promotion, public health professionals have been seeking determinants of personal health behaviors. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of health risk behaviors and its associated factors in a sample of Kyrgyz university students. Methods: In a cross-sectional survey, health risk behaviors among a sample of randomly selected university students were assessed. The sample included 837 university students from health sciences undergraduate courses of the State Medical Academy in Kyrgyzstan. The students were 358 (42.8%) males and 479 (57.2%) females in the age range of 18-29 years (Median age=21.3 years, SD=1.5). Results: On average, students engaged in 9.4 (SD=2.3) out of 23 health risk behavior practices (range, 3-18). Generally, there was a high rate of insufficient fruit and vegetable intake (86.4%), eating red meat at least once a day (62%), usually adding salt to meals (78.3%), skipping breakfast (50.5%), current tobacco use (49.7%) and two or more sexual partners in the past 12 months (46.1%) among men, and never using a condom with a primary partner in the past 3 months (90.9%) among women. Furthermore, 60.8% of the women were physically inactive. In bivariate analysis among men, the lack of perceived benefits was associated with health risk behavior. In multivariate analysis among women, poorer family background, being Russian, high personal constraints or stress, and better subjective health were associated with the health risk behavior index. Conclusions: Students had a high proportion of health risk behavior practices. Several high health risk practices were identified, including poor dietary behavior, physical inactivity, sexual risk behavior, and tobacco use. Gender specific predictors identified included sociodemographic characteristics and social and health variables, which can be utilized in health promotion programs. PMID:23807671

Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl; Mirrakhimov, Erkin M

2014-01-01

113

Association of health behaviour with heart rate variability: a population-based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Reduced heart rate variability (HRV), a non-invasive marker of autonomic dysfunction, and an unhealthy lifestyle are associated with an increased morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The autonomic dysfunction is a potential mediator of the association of behavioural risk factors with adverse health outcomes. We studied the association of HRV with behavioural risk factors in an elderly population.

Alexander Kluttig; Barbara Schumann; Cees A Swenne; Jan A Kors; Oliver Kuss; Hendrik Schmidt; Karl Werdan; Johannes Haerting; Karin H Greiser

2010-01-01

114

Do Measured and Unmeasured Family Factors Bias the Association between Education and Self-Assessed Health?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The association between educational attainment and self-assessed health is well established but the mechanisms that explain this association are not fully understood yet. It is likely that part of the association is spurious because (genetic and non-genetic) characteristics of a person's family of origin simultaneously affect one's educational…

Monden, Christiaan W. S.

2010-01-01

115

Does the Association with Psychosomatic Health Problems Differ between Cyberbullying and Traditional Bullying?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The association between mental health problems and traditional bullying is well known, whereas the strength of the association in cyberbullying is less known. This study aimed to compare the association between mutually exclusive groups of bullying involvement and psychosomatic problems as measured by the PsychoSomatic Problems scale. The sample…

Beckman, Linda; Hagquist, Curt; Hellstrom, Lisa

2012-01-01

116

Heavy Internet use and its associations with health risk and health-promoting behaviours among Thai university students.  

PubMed

Abstract The Internet provides significant benefits for learning about the world, but excessive Internet use can lead to negative outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between heavy Internet use and health-promoting behaviour, health risk behaviour and health outcomes among university students. The sample included 860 undergraduate university students chosen at random from Mae Fah Luang University in Thailand. Of the participants, 27.3% were male and and 72.7% were female in the age range of 18-25 years (M age=20.1 years, SD=1.3). Overall, students spent on average 5.3 h (SD=2.6) per day on the internet, and 35.3% engaged in heavy internet use (6 or more hours per day). In multivariate logistic regression adjusting for sociodemographics, lack of dental check-ups, three health risk behaviours (sedentary lifestyle, illicit drug use and gambling) and three health outcomes [being underweight, overweight or obese and having screened positive for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)] were found to be associated with heavy Internet use. The results from this study may support the importance of developing early protective and preventive actions against problematic Internet use to promote university student health. PMID:24762639

Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; Apidechkul, Tawatchai

2014-01-01

117

Demand for emergency health service: factors associated with inappropriate use  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The inappropriate use of emergency room (ER) service by patients with non-urgent health problems is a worldwide problem. Inappropriate ER use makes it difficult to guarantee access for real emergency cases, decreases readiness for care, produces negative spillover effects on the quality of emergency services, and raises overall costs. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in a medium-sized city

Maria LV Carret; Anaclaudia G Fassa; Ichiro Kawachi

2007-01-01

118

Human health hazards associated with chemical contamination of aquatic environment.  

PubMed Central

Given the finite supply of water available for human use, continued chemical contamination of the aquatic environment may pose a significant human health hazard. Consequently, an effort must be made to develop ambient water quality criteria to protect human health and preserve the integrity of the aquatic environment. In developing water quality criteria based on human health effects, information on sources of exposure, pharmacokinetics, and adverse effects must be carefully evaluated. Information on sources of exposure is needed to determine the contribution of exposure from water relative to all other sources. Pharmacokinetic data are used in inter- and intraspecies extrapolation and in characterizing the mode of toxic action. Information on toxic effects includes data on acute, subchronic, and chronic toxicity, mutagenicity, teratogenicity, and carcinogenicity. In analyzing such information, a distinction is made between threshold and nonthreshold effects. Currently, carcinogenicity and mutagenicity are considered to be nonthreshold effects. For carcinogens and mutagens, criteria are calculated by postulating an "acceptable" increased level of risk and using extrapolation models to estimate the dose which would result in this increased level of risk. For other chemicals, thresholds are assumed and criteria are calculated by deriving "acceptable daily intakes" for man which would presumably result in no observable adverse effects. Neither process is exact, and attempts must be made to improve and verify risk assessment methodologies.

Stara, J F; Kello, D; Durkin, P

1980-01-01

119

Tobacco: Its historical, cultural, oral, and periodontal health association  

PubMed Central

This article provides information on the origin of tobacco and its subsequent spread throughout the world. In the era of the migration of communities, tobacco use gradually gained access and subsequently migrated along with the migrants, establishing in different locations. Probably at that time people were unaware of the health hazards and were using tobacco in treating certain ailments. Much has been known and written about tobacco in the context of oral and general health hazards but little has been explored and is known to many about where from and how this plant, which is now used in various forms, and speading widely. In what form, where, and how it had been served in religious rituals and considered for treatment or remedy of certain ailments in those days could not certainly be known. In the 21st century, people are considering hazardous tobacco as beneficial for their teeth, good for concentration of mind, and something which keeps them engaged. Even many professionals, though knowing the deleterious effects, are still using tobacco and gutkha in one or the other form. This article has been designed to revive the awareness for health hazards of tobacco and similar products. A pilot project questionnaire survey comprising this subject involving the educated mass has already been started and will be produced after analysis of data in part II of this paper.

Mishra, Shanu; Mishra, M. B.

2013-01-01

120

Testing the association between social capital and health over time: a family-based design  

PubMed Central

Background The past decade has seen a vast increase in empirical research investigating associations between social capital and health outcomes. Literature reviews reveal ‘generalized trust’ and ‘social participation’ to be the most robust of the commonly used social capital proxies, both showing positive association with health outcomes. However, this association could be confounded by unmeasured factors, such as the shared environment. Currently, there is a distinct lack of social capital research that takes into account such residual confounding. Methods Using data from the United Kingdom’s British Household Panel Survey (BHPS) (waves thirteen to eighteen, N?=?6982), this longitudinal, multilevel study investigates the validity of the association between trust, social participation and self-rated health using a family-based design. As the BHPS samples on entire households, we employed ‘mean’ and ‘difference from the mean’ aggregate measures of social capital, the latter of which is considered a social capital measurement that is not biased by the shared environment of the household. We employed Generalized Estimating Equations for all analyses, our two-level model controlling for correlation at the household level. Results Results show that after adjusting for the shared environment of the household over a six year period, the association between social participation and self-rated health was fully attenuated (OR?=?0.97 (95% confidence interval 0.89-1.06)), while the association with trust remained significant (OR?=?1.11 (1.02-1.20)). Other health determinants, such as being a smoker, having no formal qualifications and being unemployed maintain their associations with poor self-rated health. Conclusions The association between social capital (specifically trust and social participation) and self-rated health appear to be confounded by shared environmental factors not previously considered by researchers. However, the association with trust remains, adding to existing empirical evidence that generalized trust may be an independent predictor of health.

2013-01-01

121

Association of Health and Food Expenditures Inequality With Health Outcomes: A Case Study on Iranian Rural Households  

PubMed Central

Background: Inequality in households’ and individuals' consumption expenditures is one of the most important aspects of health status difference among households and individuals. Objectives: We investigated the impact of some macro-economic factors specially inequality factors on the Iranian rural health status since 1986 through 2012. Patients and Methods: We conducted a longitudinal ecological and analytical study. The average sample size was 14602 households whom Iranian Statistics Center selected by a multi-stages clustering sampling approach. All required data has been collected from Iranian Statistics Centre and Deputy for Curial Affaires of Iranian Ministry of Health. We calculated the Gini coefficients for the rural food and health expenditures, then conducted a transloge autoregressive order one (AR1) to investigate the association between the Iranian rural households' key mortality rates and the food and health expenditure Gini coefficients, time trend, GDP per capita (PPP), and GDP per capita Gini coefficients. Results: The mean of Gini coefficients were 0.137 and 0.21 for the rural food expenditures inequality based on current and constant price, respectively. In addition, the mean of Gini coefficients were 0.26 and 0.31 for the rural health expenditures inequality based on current and constant price, respectively. The time trend, transloged form of Gini coefficients for health expenditures and GDP per capita Gini coefficients presented a significant negative correlation with transloged form of neonatal mortality rate. With regard to the transloged form of under five mortality we observed a significant negative correlation with time trend and transloged form of Gini coefficients for health expenditure and GDP per capita. Finally, there was a significant negative correlation between transloged forms of maternal mortality rate. Conclusions: Iranian policy makers should consider the rural health and food expenditures inequality and try to adopt more effective policies and plans to decrease it. In addition, they should improve the macro-economic factors to improve the rural households' health status.

Naghdi, Seyran; Ghiasvand, Hesam; Shaarbafchi Zadeh, Nasrin; Azami, Saeidreza; Moradi, Tayebeh

2014-01-01

122

75 FR 52355 - A Review of Information Published Since 1995 on Coal Mine Dust Exposures and Associated Health...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [Docket Number...Published Since 1995 on Coal Mine Dust Exposures and Associated Health Outcomes AGENCY: National...Published Since 1995 on Coal Mine Dust Exposures and Associated Health Outcomes'' now...

2010-08-25

123

Predisposing, Enabling, and Need Factors Associated with High Service Use in a Public Mental Health System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) To investigate the individual- and system-level characteristics associated with\\u000a high utilization of acute mental health services according to a widely-used theory of service use—Andersen’s Behavioral Model\\u000a of Health Service Use —in individuals enrolled in a large, public-funded mental health system; and (2) To document service\\u000a utilization by high use consumers prior to

Laurie A. Lindamer; Lin Liu; David H. Sommerfeld; David P. Folsom; William Hawthorne; Piedad Garcia; Gregory A. Aarons; Dilip V. Jeste

124

Association of Sedentary Behavior Time with Ideal Cardiovascular Health: The ORISCAV-LUX Study  

PubMed Central

Background Recently attention has been drawn to the health impacts of time spent engaging in sedentary behaviors. No studies have examined sedentary behaviors in relation to the newly defined construct of ideal cardiovascular health, which incorporates three health factors (blood pressure, total cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose) and four behaviors (physical activity, smoking, body mass index, diet). The purpose of this study was to examine associations between sedentary behaviors, including sitting time, and time spent viewing television and in front of a computer, with cardiovascular health, in a representative sample of adults from Luxembourg. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of 1262 participants in the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg study was conducted, who underwent objective cardiovascular health assessments and completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. A Cardiovascular Health Score was calculated based on the number of health factors and behaviors at ideal levels. Sitting time on a weekday, television time, and computer time (both on a workday and a day off), were related to the Cardiovascular Health Score. Results Higher weekday sitting time was significantly associated with a poorer Cardiovascular Health Score (p?=?0.002 for linear trend), after full adjustment for age, gender, education, income and occupation. Television time was inversely associated with the Cardiovascular Health Score, on both a workday and a day off (p?=?0.002 for both). A similar inverse relationship was observed between the Cardiovascular Health Score and computer time, only on a day off (p?=?0.04). Conclusion Higher time spent sitting, viewing television, and using a computer during a day off may be unfavorably associated with ideal cardiovascular health.

Crichton, Georgina E.; Alkerwi, Ala'a

2014-01-01

125

Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Review of an Emerging Public Health Concern  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) traditionally has been recognized as a virulent pathogen affiliated with health care institutions. However, com- munity-associated strains of MRSA (CA-MRSA) have emerged over the past several years in young, healthy patients without significant health care contact. These isolates carry a distinct molecular makeup and lack the multidrug resistance pattern harbored by health care strains. CA-MRSA predominantly

Timothy D. Drews; Jonathan L. Temte; Barry C. Fox

126

Edentulism and other variables associated with self-reported health status in Mexican adults.  

PubMed

Background To determine if edentulism, controlling for other known factors, is associated with subjective self-report health status (SRH) in Mexican adults. Material and Methods We examined the SRH of 13 966 individuals 35 years and older, using data from the National Survey of Performance Assessment, a cross-sectional study that is part of the technical collaboration between the Ministry of Health of Mexico and the World Health Organization, which used the survey instrument and sampling strategies developed by WHO for the World Health Survey. Sociodemographic, socioeconomic, medical, and behavioral variables were collected using questionnaires. Self-reported health was our dependent variable. Data on edentulism were available from 20 of the 32 Mexican states. A polynomial logistic regression model adjusted for complex sampling was generated. Results In the SRH, 58.2% reported their health status as very good/good, 33.8% said they had a moderate health status, and 8.0% reported that their health was bad/very bad. The association between edentulism and SRH was modified by age and was significant only for bad/very bad SRH. Higher odds of reporting moderate health or poor/very poor health were found in women, people with lower socio-economic status and with physical disabilities, those who were not physically active, or those who were underweight or obese, those who had any chronic disease, and those who used alcohol. Conclusions The association of edentulism with a self-report of a poor health status (poor/very poor) was higher in young people than in adults. The results suggest socioeconomic inequalities in SRH. Inequality was further confirmed among people who had a general health condition or a disability. Dentists and health care professionals need to recognize the effect of edentulism on quality of life among elders people. PMID:24852266

Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Pontigo-Loyola, América Patricia; Pérez-Campos, Eduardo; Hernández-Cruz, Pedro; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Martha; Maupomé, Gerardo

2014-01-01

127

School-Based Mental Health Services in Baltimore: Association with School Climate and Special Education Referrals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the association between school-based mental health services and two proposed but untested outcomes of these services: (a) school climate and (b) patterns of referrals to special education. Results from a climate survey found that teachers and staff in eight elementary schools with expanded school mental health (ESMH)…

Bruns, Eric J.; Walrath, Christine; Glass-Siegel, Marcia; Weist, Mark D.

2004-01-01

128

Nutritional and Health Consequences Are Associated with Food Insecurity among U.S. Elderly Persons1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the consequences associated with food insecurity for the nutritional and health status of the elderly in the United States. The data analyzed were from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988 -1994) and the Nutrition Survey of the Elderly in New York State (1994). Multiple logistic and linear regression analyses

Jung Sun Lee; Edward A. Frongillo

129

Associate Degree Nursing Students in Family Health Maintenance: A Pilot Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report describes the implementation and continuation of a family health maintenance program for associate degree nursing students at a community college. Four specific objectives are stated supporting the overall purpose of increasing student awareness of the total health care situation of the family. Implementation of the project, which…

Conatser, Cheryl

130

Patient Management by Telephone by Child Health Associates and Pediatric House Officers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study, which is the first attempt to compare systematically the ability of different types of health professionals to effectively utilize the telephone in pediatrics, demonstrated shortcomings in the participants' education and indicated that curriculum changes were needed in the training of both medical and child health associate students to…

Ott, John E.; And Others

1974-01-01

131

Is Complexity of Work Associated with Risk of Dementia? The Canadian Study of Health and Aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors evaluated the association of complexity of work with data, people, and things with the incidence of dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and vascular dementia in the Canadian Study of Health and Aging, while adjusting for work-related physical activity. The Canadian Study of Health and Aging is a 10-year population study, from 1991 to 2001, of a representative sample of persons

Edeltraut Kroger; Ross Andel; Joan Lindsay; Zohra Benounissa; Danielle Laurin

2008-01-01

132

The American Mental Health Counselors Association: Reflection on 30 Historic Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American Mental Health Counselors Association (AMHCA) celebrated its 30th anniversary in May 2006. This article provides a synopsis of AMHCA's illustrious history, from its urgent beginnings in 1976 to its current status as the premier organization attending to the needs and representing the interests of mental health counselors in the United…

Colangelo, James J.

2009-01-01

133

Building associations between markers of environmental stressors and adverse human health impacts using frequent itemset mining  

EPA Science Inventory

Building associations between markers of exposure and effect using frequent itemset mining The human-health impact of environmental contaminant exposures is unclear. While some exposure-effect relationships are well studied, health effects are unknown for the vast majority of the...

134

Individual, Interpersonal, and Institutional Level Factors Associated with the Mental Health of College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study investigates the individual, interpersonal, and institutional level factors that are associated with overall mental health among college students. Participants: Data are from an online cross-sectional survey of 2,203 students currently enrolled at a large public university. Methods: Mental health was ascertained using a…

Byrd, DeAnnah R.; McKinney, Kristen J.

2012-01-01

135

Associations between Physical Activity and Health-Related Factors in a National Sample of College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine associations between meeting the current moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) recommendation and health-related factors in a national sample of college students. Participants: Participants (N = 67,861) completed the National College Health Assessment II during the Fall 2008/Spring 2009 academic year. Methods:…

Dinger, Mary K.; Brittain, Danielle R.; Hutchinson, Susan R.

2014-01-01

136

Continuity of Care and Health Decline Associated With a Hip Fracture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Identify determinants of health decline associated with hip fracture with the goal of designing interventions. Method: Prefracture and postfracture information was obtained from participants aged 65-plus years fracturing a hip between July 1996 and August 1997. Health utilization data were linked to the cohort data and to an age-gender matched cohort of nonfracture seniors. Results: Fracture patients were likely

Marilyn Cree; Qian Yang; Anne Sclater; David Johnson; K. C. Carriere

2002-01-01

137

Cumulative Adverse Financial Circumstances: Associations with Patient Health Status and Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines associations between cumulative adverse financial circumstances and patient health in a sample of 1,506 urban emergency department (ED) patients. Study participants completed a previously validated Social Health Survey between May and October 2009. Five categories of economic deprivation were studied: food insecurity, housing…

Bisgaier, Joanna; Rhodes, Karin V.

2011-01-01

138

PM CONSTITUENT ROLES IN MASS ASSOCIATIONS WITH HEALTH EFFECTS IN PHILADELPHIA, PA  

EPA Science Inventory

An environmental and health database was constructed for Philadelphia, PA for the period 1992-1995 in order to assess the importance of PM components in mass associations with adverse health effects. PM data were collected by Harvard University for the U.S. EPA. Daily measureme...

139

Association of Sexual Abstinence in Adolescence with Mental Health in Adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined whether adolescent sexual abstinence predicts better adult mental health. A total of 1,917 adolescents, recruited from middle schools at age 13, were surveyed at ages 13, 18, 23, and 29. In bivariate analyses, adolescent sexual abstinence was associated with better mental health at age 29 for females, but not for males; three adolescent factors, educational prospects, family bonding,

Laura M. Bogart; Rebecca L. Collins; Phyllis L. Ellickson; David J. Klein

2007-01-01

140

General Practitioners' Understanding Pertaining to Reliability, Interactive and Usability Components Associated with Health Websites  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was undertaken to determine the level of understanding of Gold Coast general practitioners (GPs) pertaining to such criteria as reliability, interactive and usability components associated with health websites. These are important considerations due to the increased levels of computer and World Wide Web (WWW)/Internet use and health

Usher, Wayne

2009-01-01

141

Enrollment in Physical Education Is Associated with Health-Related Behavior among High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Physical education (PE) plays a critical role in the healthy development of youth; however, the influence of PE classes in helping to provide students with health-related behavior patterns is not clear. This study aims to analyze whether participation in PE classes is associated with health-related behavior among high school students.…

Tassitano, Rafael M.; Barros, Mauro V. G.; Tenorio, Maria C. M.; Bezerra, Jorge; Florindo, Alex A.; Reis, Rodrigo S.

2010-01-01

142

Feasibility of National Surveillance of Health-Care-Associated Infections in Home-Care Settings  

PubMed Central

This article examines the rationale and strategies for surveillance of health-care-associated infections in home-care settings, the challenges of nonhospital-based surveillance, and the feasibility of developing a national surveillance system.

Manangan, Lilia P.; Pearson, Michele L.; Tokars, Jerome I.; Miller, Elaine

2002-01-01

143

American Association for Health Education (AAHE) 2011 Membership Survey: Summary of Findings  

PubMed Central

The American Association for Health Education (AAHE), a national health education organization with the mission of advancing the profession of health education, launched the 2011 AAHE membership survey between October 13, 2011 and November 1, 2011, under the leadership of the AAHE Board of Directors and AAHE Staff. The primary objective of the survey was to provide insight into the perspectives of AAHE members on several important issues facing the organization including: AAHE exiting its parent organization, the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD), and the proposed “modified” merger with the Society for Public Health Education (SOPHE), another national health education organization. A total of 240 AAHE members completed the survey. A majority of respondents were university faculty members in health education, and results provide keen insight into AAHE members’ perspectives on the AAHE-SOPHE modified merger.

Chaney, Beth H.; Chavarria, Enmanuel; Stellefson, Michael L.; Birch, David; Spear, Caile

2013-01-01

144

Association of residential mobility with child health: an analysis of the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health.  

PubMed

To describe the association of residential mobility with child health. We conducted descriptive, bivariate, and multivariable analyses of data from 63,131 children, 6-17 years, from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health. Logistic regression was used to explore the association of residential mobility with child health and measures of well-being. Analyses were carried out using SAS-callable SUDAAN to appropriately weight estimates and adjust for the complex sampling design. After adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, presence of a special health care need, family structure, parental education, poverty level, and health insurance status, children who moved ? 3 times were more likely to have poorer reported overall physical (AOR 1.21 [95 %CI: 1.01-1.46]) and oral health status (AOR 1.31 [95 % CI: 1.15-1.49]), and ? 1 moderate/severe chronic conditions (AOR 1.40 [95 % CI: 1.19-1.65]) than children who had no lifetime moves. When compared to children who had never moved, children who moved ? 3 times were more likely to be uninsured/have periods of no coverage (AOR 1.35; 95 % CI: 0.98-1.87) and lack a medical home (AOR 1.16, 95 % CI: 1.04-1.31). None of the outcomes were statistically significant for children who moved fewer than 3 times. Clinicians need to be aware that children who move frequently may lack stable medical homes and consistent coverage increasing their risk of poor health outcomes and aggravation of mild or underlying chronic conditions. Public health systems could provide the necessary link between parents and clinicians to ensure that continuous, coordinated care is established for children who move frequently. PMID:22527774

Busacker, Ashley; Kasehagen, Laurin

2012-04-01

145

Health Care Use and Costs Associated With Use of a Health Club Membership Benefit in Older Adults with Diabetes  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—The purpose of this study was to determine whether elective use of a health plan–sponsored health club membership had an impact on health care use and costs among older adults with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Administrative claims for 2,031 older adults with diabetes enrolled in a Medicare Advantage plan were obtained for this retrospective cohort study. Participants (n = 618) in the plan-sponsored health club benefit (Silver Sneakers [SS]) and control subjects (n = 1,413) matched on SS enrollment index date were enrolled in the plan for at least 1 year before the index date. Two-year health care use and costs of SS participants and control subjects were estimated in regressions adjusting for baseline differences. RESULTS—SS participants were more likely to be male, had a lower chronic disease burden, used more preventive services, and had a lower prevalence of arthritis (P ? 05). SS participants had lower adjusted total health care costs than control subjects in the first year after enrollment (?$1,633 [95% CI ?$2,620 to ?$646], P = 0.001), and adjusted total costs in year 2 trended lower (?$1,230 [?$2,494 to $33], P = 0.06). Participants who made on average ?2 SS visits/week in year 1 had lower total costs in year 2 ($2,141 [?$3,877 to ?$405], P = 0.02) than participants who made <2 visits/week. CONCLUSIONS—Use of a health club benefit by older adults with diabetes was associated with slower growth in total health care costs over 2 years; greater use of the benefit was actually associated with declines in total costs.

Nguyen, Huong Q.; Maciejewski, Matthew L.; Gao, Sue; Lin, Elizabeth; Williams, Barbara; LoGerfo, James P.

2008-01-01

146

The association of drooling and health-related quality of life in children with cerebral palsy  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the association between drooling in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and their health-related quality of life (HRQOL), as well as the possible variables that predict their HRQOL. Method A cross-sectional design was used for this study. Children with CP, without other identified disease, aged 2 to 6 years, who drool (n = 33) or did not drool (n = 14), were included. The dependent variables were the physical health summary scores and the psychosocial health summary scores of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory version 4.0. The t test, Pearson product–moment correlation, Mann–Whitney U test and stepwise regression analysis were used for statistical analysis. Results The physical health and psychosocial health summary scores of the children that drooled (16.29 ± 15.97 and 42.92 ± 17.57, respectively) were lower than for the children that did not drool (31.97 ± 22.22 and 57.09 ± 12.21, respectively; P < 0.01). The drooling ranking score was negatively correlated with the physical health summary score (r = ?0.355; P < 0.05) and the psychosocial health summary score (r = ?0.381; P < 0.01). The stepwise regression showed that gross motor development and the drooling ranking score predicted 56.6% of the variability of the physical health summary score (R2 = 0.566; P < 0.01). The language development score predicted 25.6% of the variability of the psychosocial health summary score (R2 = 0.256; P < 0.01). Conclusion Drooling was associated with a lower HRQOL. Prediction of the physical health summary score was more closely associated with gross motor development and the drooling ranking scores. Prediction of the psychosocial health summary score was more closely associated with the language development of children with CP aged 2 to 6 years.

Chang, Shih-Chung; Lin, Chin-Kai; Tung, Li-Chen; Chang, Nai-Yin

2012-01-01

147

A Panel Analysis of the Strategic Association Between Information and Communication Technology and Public Health Delivery  

PubMed Central

Background In this exploratory research, we use panel data analysis to examine the correlation between Information and Communication Technology (ICTs) and public health delivery at the country level. Objective The goal of this exploratory research is to examine the strategic association over time between ICTs and country-level public health. Methods Using data from the World Development Indicators, we construct a panel data set of countries of five different income levels and look closely at the period from 2000 to 2008. The panel data analysis allows us to explore this dynamic relationship under the control for unobserved country-specific effects by using a fixed-effects estimation method. In particular,, we examine the association of five ICT factors with five public health indicators: adolescent fertility rate, child immunization coverage, tuberculosis case detected, life expectancy, and adult mortality rate. Results First, overall ICTs’ factors substantially improve a country’s public health delivery on the top of wealth effect. Second, among all the ICTs’ factors, accessibility is the only one that is associated with improvements in all aspects of public health delivery, while the contributions from the usage, quality, and applications are negligible. ICTs’ accessibility factor is associated with a considerable extension to life expectancy and reduced adult mortality rate. Third, all entity-specific factors are significant in each model, indicating that countries’ economic development level does influence their public health delivery. Conclusions Our results indicate that ICT accessibility has a strong association with effective delivery of public health. There are others, but the key strategic applications are eHealth and mHealth. The findings of this study will help government officials and public health policy makers to formulate strategic decisions regarding the best ICT investments and deployment. For example, the study shows that providing accessibility should be a critical focus.

Wu, Sarah Jinhui

2012-01-01

148

HEALTH AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC HAZARDS ASSOCIATED WITH KHAT CONSUMPTION  

PubMed Central

The consumption of the stimulant leaf Khat (Catha edulis Forsk) is widespread in several countries of East Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. The leaf comes from a small evergreen shrub that can grow to the size of a tree. Young buds and tender leaves are chewed to attain a state of euphoria and stimulation. Khat leaves contain cathinones, an active brain stimulant that is similar in structure and pharmacological activity to amphetamines. Like amphetamines, Khat ingestion in low doses results in decreased appetite, euphoria, increased intellectual efficiency, and hyperalertness. High doses and chronic use of Khat can cause more serious adverse neurological, psychiatric, cardiovascular, dental, gastrointestinal and genitourinary effects. Besides damaging health, Khat has adverse socio-economic consequences effects on many other aspects of life including the loss of thousands of acres of arable land and billions of hours of work. The purpose of this review is to describe briefly the adverse consequences of habitual chewing of Khat on health, and help educate the general public. The study is based on literature review that includes internet search and journals.

Ageely, Hussein M. A.

2008-01-01

149

Edentulism and other variables associated with self-reported health status in Mexican adults  

PubMed Central

Background To determine if edentulism, controlling for other known factors, is associated with subjective self-report health status (SRH) in Mexican adults. Material/Methods We examined the SRH of 13 966 individuals 35 years and older, using data from the National Survey of Performance Assessment, a cross-sectional study that is part of the technical collaboration between the Ministry of Health of Mexico and the World Health Organization, which used the survey instrument and sampling strategies developed by WHO for the World Health Survey. Sociodemographic, socioeconomic, medical, and behavioral variables were collected using questionnaires. Self-reported health was our dependent variable. Data on edentulism were available from 20 of the 32 Mexican states. A polynomial logistic regression model adjusted for complex sampling was generated. Results In the SRH, 58.2% reported their health status as very good/good, 33.8% said they had a moderate health status, and 8.0% reported that their health was bad/very bad. The association between edentulism and SRH was modified by age and was significant only for bad/very bad SRH. Higher odds of reporting moderate health or poor/very poor health were found in women, people with lower socio-economic status and with physical disabilities, those who were not physically active, or those who were underweight or obese, those who had any chronic disease, and those who used alcohol. Conclusions The association of edentulism with a self-report of a poor health status (poor/very poor) was higher in young people than in adults. The results suggest socioeconomic inequalities in SRH. Inequality was further confirmed among people who had a general health condition or a disability.

Medina-Solis, Carlo Eduardo; Pontigo-Loyola, America Patricia; Perez-Campos, Eduardo; Hernandez-Cruz, Pedro; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Mendoza-Rodriguez, Martha; Maupome, Gerardo

2014-01-01

150

Do Measured and Unmeasured Family Factors Bias the Association Between Education and Self-Assessed Health?  

PubMed Central

The association between educational attainment and self-assessed health is well established but the mechanisms that explain this association are not fully understood yet. It is likely that part of the association is spurious because (genetic and non-genetic) characteristics of a person’s family of origin simultaneously affect one’s educational attainment and one’s adult health. In order to obtain an unbiased estimate of the association between education and health, we have to control for all relevant family factors. In practice, however, it is impossible to measure all relevant family factors. Sibling models are particularly appropriate in this case, because they control for the total impact of family factors, even if not all relevant aspects can be measured. I use data on siblings from a US study (MIDUS) and Dutch study (NKPS) to assess the total family impact on self-assessed health and, more importantly, to assess whether there is a family bias in the association between educational attainment and self-assessed health. The results suggest that there is a substantial family effect; about 20% of the variation in self-assessed health between siblings can be ascribed to (measured and unmeasured) family factors. Measured family factors, such as parental education and father’s occupation, could account only for a small part of the family effect. Furthermore, the results imply that it is unlikely that there is substantial bias due to family effects in the association between education and self-assessed health. This strengthens the conclusions from prior studies on the association between education and self-assessed health.

2009-01-01

151

Gender and time differences in the associations between sexual violence victimization, health outcomes, and risk behaviors.  

PubMed

An estimated 1 out of 6 women and 1 out of 33 men has been a victim of sexual assault at some point in their lifetime. The objective of this study was to quantify the associations between sexual assault and negative health outcomes among males and females who reported being sexually assaulted in the past 12 months or at some point before the past 12 months. Data were obtained from the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System core and sexual violence modules. A series of logistic regression models, including all respondents and stratified by gender, was used to identify differences associated with victimization. Among women, victimization before the past 12 months was significantly associated with poor health status, poor mental health, lower life satisfaction, activity limitations, smoking, and binge drinking. Women who reported victimization in the past 12 months were also significantly more likely to report poor mental health, lower life satisfaction, activity limitations, and binge drinking. Among males, significant associations were found with smoking (past 12 months), poor life satisfaction (before the past 12 months) and activity limitations (before the past 12 months). Results of this study suggest that poor mental and physical health associated with victimization are more prevalent in women and that these relationships persist over time. The broad range of outcomes associated with victimization suggests that further research is needed to better understand the consequences associated with sexual violence across the lifespan. PMID:19477788

Choudhary, Ekta; Coben, Jeffrey H; Bossarte, Robert M

2008-09-01

152

Association between adolescents' self-perceived oral health and self-reported experiences of abuse.  

PubMed

This study investigated the association between self-perceived oral health and self-reported exposure to different types of child abuse. It was hypothesized that self-perceived oral health is compromised in exposed adolescents. All Grade-9 compulsory school and second-year high-school pupils in Södermanland County, Sweden (n = 7,262) were invited to take part in a population-based survey; 5,940 adolescents responded. Survey items on health and social wellbeing included self-perceived oral health and exposure to abuse. The results showed that poor self-perceived oral health was associated with self-reported experience of physical abuse, intimate partner violence, forced sex, and bullying (adjusted OR = 2.3-14.7). The likelihood of reporting poor oral health increased from an adjusted OR of 2.1 for a single incident of abuse to an adjusted OR of 23.3 for multiple abuses. In conclusion, poor self-perceived oral health and previous exposure to child physical abuse, intimate partner violence, bullying, and forced sex is associated. It is important that dental professionals recognize adolescents with poor subjective oral health and take into consideration child abuse as a possible cause in order to prevent these adolescents from further victimization. These results further strengthen that dental professionals are an important resource in child protection. PMID:24206076

Kvist, Therese; Annerbäck, Eva-Maria; Sahlqvist, Lotta; Flodmark, Olof; Dahllöf, Göran

2013-12-01

153

National Environmental Health Association position on global climate change adopted July 2, 1997  

SciTech Connect

The National Environmental Health Association (NEHA) supports the precept that anthropogenic sources, specifically greenhouse gases, are responsible for a significant portion of the measured change in global climate. Further, NEHA supports the concept of an association between global warming and an increased risk to public health. Reducing the amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere will benefit human health. This position paper reviews current information on the status of global climate change with particular emphasis on the implications for environmental and public health. It is intended to be used as a basis from which environmental and public health practitioners and colleagues in related fields can initiate discussions with policy makers at all levels -- local, state, national, and worldwide.

Radtke, T.; Gist, G.L.; Wittkopf, T.E.

1997-11-01

154

American Health Information Management Association. Position Statement. Issue: retention of health information.  

PubMed

Patient health information must be available to meet the needs of continued patient care, legal requirements, research, education, and other legitimate uses. While there are no federal laws currently that outline time frames for the retention of health information, many states do have specific requirements with which providers must comply. Each healthcare provider should develop a retention schedule for patient health information that meets the needs of its patients, physicians, researchers, and other legitimate users and complies with legal, regulatory, and accreditation requirements. Providers should develop guidelines that specify what information should be kept, the time period for which it should be kept, and the storage medium (paper, microfilm, optical disk, magnetic tape, or other). PMID:10132186

1994-03-01

155

Associations Between Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors and Academic Performance in U.S. Undergraduates: A Secondary Analysis of the American College Health Association's National College Health Assessment II.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose . To examine associations between academic performance and moderate-vigorous physical activity, strength training, fruit and vegetable intake, and sleep. Design . Cross-sectional observational study. Setting . Forty U.S. colleges and universities participating in the Fall 2008 National College Health Assessment-II (NCHA-II) (median response, 27%). Subjects . A total of 16,095 undergraduate students (18-24 years; 70.3% female). Measures . Self-reported lifestyle variables from the NCHA-II questions were dichotomized as meeting or not meeting public health recommendations. Grade average ranged from 1.00 to 4.00 points. Analysis . Linear regression, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables. Results . The prevalence of meeting public health recommendations was as follows: moderate-vigorous physical activity, 41.9%; strength training, 32.4%; fruit and vegetable intake, 4.6%; and sleep, 23.6 %. Grade average was higher in students meeting moderate-vigorous physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, and sleep recommendations (p ? .019). If moderate-vigorous physical activity was met, grade average was higher by .03 points, .15 points higher when meeting fruit and vegetable intake recommendations, and .06 points higher for sleep. There was no significant change in grade average in those meeting strength-training recommendations. Conclusion . College students who adhere to public health recommendations for lifestyle behaviors have modestly higher grade averages after adjusting for sociodemographic and negative health behaviors. PMID:23941106

Wald, Adrienne; Muennig, Peter A; O'Connell, Kathleen A; Garber, Carol Ewing

2014-01-01

156

Association Between Patient-Centered Medical Home Rating and Operating Cost at Federally Funded Health Centers  

PubMed Central

Context Little is known about the cost associated with a health center’s rating as a patient-centered medical home (PCMH). Objective To determine whether PCMH rating is associated with operating cost among health centers funded by the US Health Resources and Services Administration. Design, Setting, and Participants Cross-sectional study of PCMH rating and operating cost in 2009. PCMH rating was assessed through surveys of health center administrators conducted by Harris Interactive of all 1009 Health Resources and Services Administration–funded community health centers. The survey provided scores from 0 (worst) to 100 (best) for total PCMH score and 6 subscales: access/communication, care management, external coordination, patient tracking, test/referral tracking, and quality improvement. Costs were obtained from the Uniform Data System reports submitted to the Health Resources and Services Administration. We used generalized linear models to determine the relationship between PCMH rating and operating cost. Main Outcome Measures Operating cost per physician full-time equivalent, operating cost per patient per month, and medical cost per visit. Results Six hundred sixty-nine health centers (66%) were included in the study sample, with 340 excluded because of nonresponse or incomplete data. Mean total PCMH score was 60 (SD,12; range, 21–90). For the average health center, a 10-point higher total PCMH score was associated with a $2.26 (4.6%) higher operating cost per patient per month (95% CI, $0.86–$4.12). Among PCMH subscales, a 10-point higher score for patient tracking was associated with higher operating cost per physician full-time equivalent ($27 300; 95% CI,$3047–$57 804) and higher operating cost per patient per month ($1.06;95%CI,$0.29–$1.98). A 10-point higher score for quality improvement was also associated with higher operating cost per physician full-time equivalent ($32 731; 95% CI, $1571–$73 670) and higher operating cost per patient per month ($1.86; 95% CI, $0.54–$3.61). A 10-point higher PCMH subscale score for access/communication was associated with lower operating cost per physician full-time equivalent ($39 809; 95% CI, $1893–$63 169). Conclusions According to a survey of health center administrators, higher scores on a scale that assessed 6 aspects of the PCMH were associated with higher health center operating costs. Two subscales of the medical home were associated with higher cost and 1 with lower cost.

Nocon, Robert S.; Sharma, Ravi; Birnberg, Jonathan M.; Ngo-Metzger, Quyen; Lee, Sang Mee; Chin, Marshall H.

2013-01-01

157

The Association Between Health Literacy and Cancer-Related Attitudes, Behaviors, and Knowledge  

PubMed Central

Using a multidimensional assessment of health literacy (the Cancer Message Literacy Test-Listening, the Cancer Message Literacy Test-Reading, and the Lipkus Numeracy Scale), the authors assessed a stratified random sample of 1013 insured adults (40–70 years of age). The authors explored whether low health literacy across all 3 domains (n = 111) was associated with sets of variables likely to affect engagement in cancer prevention and screening activities: (a) attitudes and behaviors relating to health care encounters and providers, (b) attitudes toward cancer and health, (c) knowledge of cancer screening tests, and (d) attitudes toward health related media and actual media use. Adults with low health literacy were more likely to report avoiding doctor's visits, to have more fatalistic attitudes toward cancer, to be less accurate in identifying the purpose of cancer screening tests, and more likely to avoid information about diseases they did not have. Compared with other participants, those with lower health literacy were more likely to say that they would seek information about cancer prevention or screening from a health care professional and less likely to turn to the Internet first for such information. Those with lower health literacy reported reading on fewer days and using the computer on fewer days than did other participants. The authors assessed the association of low health literacy with colorectal cancer screening in an age-appropriate subgroup for which colorectal cancer screening is recommended. In these insured subjects receiving care in integrated health care delivery systems, those with low health literacy were less likely to be up to date on screening for colorectal cancer, but the difference was not statistically significant.

Morris, Nancy S.; Field, Terry S.; Wagner, Joann L.; Cutrona, Sarah L.; Roblin, Douglas W.; Gaglio, Bridget; Williams, Andrew E.; Han, Paul J. K.; Costanza, Mary E.; Mazor, Kathleen M.

2013-01-01

158

Health benefits and risk associated with adopting a vegetarian diet.  

PubMed

A vegetarian diet may be adopted for various reasons that can include ecological, economic, religious, ethical and health considerations. In the latter case they arise from the desire to lose weight, in tackling obesity, improving physical fitness and/or in reducing the risk of acquiring certain diseases. It has been shown that properly applied vegetarian diet is the most effective way of reducing body mass (expressed as BMI), improving the plasma lipid profile and in decreasing the incidence of high arterial blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, stroke, metabolic syndrome and arteriosclerosis. In addition, improved insulin sensitivity together with lower rates of diabetes and cancer has been observed. Some studies have however found that a vegetarian diet may result in changes adversely affecting the body. These could include; hyperhomocysteinaemia, protein deficiency, anaemia, decreased creatinine content in muscles and menstrual disruption in women who undertake increased physical activity. Some of these changes may decrease the ability for performing activities that require physical effort. Nevertheless, on balance it can be reasonably concluded that the beneficial effects of a vegetarian diet significantly, by far, outweigh the adverse ones. It should also be noted that the term 'vegetarian diet' is not always clearly defined in the literature and it may include many dietary variations. PMID:24964573

Pilis, Wies?aw; Stec, Krzysztof; Zych, Micha?; Pilis, Anna

2014-01-01

159

Ethnobotanical knowledge is associated with indices of child health in the Bolivian Amazon  

PubMed Central

Culture is a critical determinant of human behavior and health, and the intergenerational transmission of knowledge regarding the use of available plant resources has historically been an essential function of culture. Local ethnobotanical knowledge is important for health and nutrition, particularly in rural low-resource settings, but cultural and economic transitions associated with globalization threaten such knowledge. This prospective study investigates the association between parental ethnobotanical knowledge and child health among the Tsimane', a horticulturalist and foraging society in Amazonian Bolivia. Anthropometric data and capillary blood samples were collected from 330 Tsimane' 2- to 10-year-olds, and mothers and fathers were interviewed to assess ethnobotanical knowledge and skills. Comprehensive measures of parental schooling, acculturation, and economic activities were also collected. Dependent variables included three measures of child health: (i) C-reactive protein, assayed in whole-blood spots as an indicator of immunostimulation; (ii) skinfold thickness, to estimate subcutaneous fat stores necessary to fuel growth and immune function; and (iii) height-for-age, to assess growth stunting. Each child health measure was associated with maternal ethnobotanical knowledge, independent of a wide range of potentially confounding variables. Each standard deviation of maternal ethnobotanical knowledge increased the likelihood of good child health by a factor of >1.5. Like many populations around the world, the Tsimane' are increasingly facing the challenges and opportunities of globalization. These results underscore the importance of local cultural factors to child health and document a potential cost if ethnobotanical knowledge is lost.

McDade, T. W.; Reyes-Garcia, V.; Blackinton, P.; Tanner, S.; Huanca, T.; Leonard, W. R.

2007-01-01

160

The longitudinal associations between marital happiness, problems, and self-rated health.  

PubMed

Although research has explored the association between marital quality and physical health in marriage, existing research fails to consider possible bidirectional associations between changes in individuals' marital quality and self-rated health. To address this gap, this study used latent change models to assess whether adults' marital happiness and problems over a 20-year period predicted subsequent changes in self-rated health, as well as whether self-rated health over the same time period was associated with changes in marital happiness and problems. The sample included 707 continuously married adults who participated in all six waves of the Marital Instability Over the Life Course panel study. Participants averaged 35 years in age at the first wave and were continuously married to the same spouse over the 20-year period. Latent differential models in AMOS 19 showed that unidirectional coupling existed for marital happiness and self-rated health only, such that higher levels of marital happiness predicted subsequent elevations in self-rated health over time. No evidence was found for bidirectional coupling between marital problems and self-rated health. Possible explanations for these patterns of results are discussed, including important directions for future researchers. PMID:23421827

Proulx, Christine M; Snyder-Rivas, Linley A

2013-04-01

161

Historical Research: A Thematic Analysis of Convention and Conference Themes for Selected Professional Health Education Associations from 1975 to 2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many professional organizations and associations hold conventions and conferences on an annual basis. Health Education professional associations take part in this process. Using a historical research perspective, this article delineates conference themes for four prominent professional Health Education associations: the American Association for…

Black, Jill M.; Ubbes, Valerie A.

2009-01-01

162

The Oral History Program: II. Personal views of health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association.  

PubMed Central

The Medical Library Association Oral History Program uses accepted oral history techniques to collect and preserve interviews with members. The original taped interviews and transcripts are kept in the Medical Library Association archives and made available for research purposes; edited copies of the interviews are distributed through the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, and members are encouraged to borrow and read the histories. Summaries of forty-three interviews provide personal views on health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association.

McKenzie, D; Pifalo, V

1998-01-01

163

Association between job characteristics and health behaviors in Japanese rural workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Associations between job characteristics defined by the Karasek’s job demand-control model and health behaviors were investigated\\u000a in a cross-sectional analysis of 6,759 Japanese rural workers. High psychological demands were associated with heavy smoking,\\u000a exaggerated prevalence of alcohol drinking, and high work-related physical activity. Low job control was associated with lower\\u000a consumption of vegetables, a smaller quantity number of cigarettes smoked,

Akizumi Tsutsumi; Kazunori Kayaba; Manabu Yoshimura; Machi Sawada; Shizukiyo Ishikawa; Kenichiro Sakai; Tadao Gotoh; Naoki Nago

2003-01-01

164

Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Is Significantly Associated with Bone Health Status in Men  

PubMed Central

Background and Aim: Recent studies revealed a novel association between thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and bone health status in healthy male populations. The present study aimed to validate this association and provide new information on the relationship between TSH levels and calcaneal speed of sound (SOS) in men. Methods: This cross-sectional study recruited 681 men with complete data of calcaneal SOS, body anthropometry, serum TSH, free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) levels. Results: All subjects had FT3 and FT4 levels within the in-house reference range and 13 subjects had lower than normal TSH levels. The results revealed that the SOS value of subjects was significantly associated with TSH after multiple adjustments (p<0.05). When subjects were divided into quintiles according to their TSH levels, the difference of SOS between men with low-normal TSH and high-normal TSH contributed significantly to the association between TSH and bone health status (p<0.05). The significance of the association persisted with the inclusion and exclusion of subclinical hyperthyroid subjects. Conclusions: There was a significant association between TSH levels and bone health status in men as assessed by quantitative ultrasound. This age-independent association between TSH and SOS might explain some of the individual variation of bone health status in men.

Chin, Kok-Yong; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman; Mohamed, Isa Naina; Aminuddin, Amilia; Johari, Mohamad Hanapi; Ngah, Wan Zurinah Wan

2013-01-01

165

Brief report: Predictors of heavy Internet use and associations with health-promoting and health risk behaviors among Hong Kong university students.  

PubMed

To examine the correlates of heavy Internet use and determine the associations of heavy Internet use with various health risk behaviors and health-promoting behaviors among Chinese adolescents, an anonymous, self-administered health behavior questionnaire was completed by 2427 matriculants into a Hong Kong university (mean age=18.9 y) and returned at compulsory health examination. Of students, 14.8% reported heavy Internet use (>4h/day) and such use was associated with lower likelihood of engaging in health-promoting activities such as exercising and seeking medical care. At the same time, heavy Internet use was correlated with multiple risk behaviors such as skipping meals and sleeping late as well as poorer health outcomes such as higher likelihood of being overweight or having hypersomnia. Given the double burden of poorer health outcomes and fewer health-promoting behaviors, heavy Internet users represent a particularly challenging group for adolescent health promotion. PMID:19427030

Kim, Jean H; Lau, C H; Cheuk, Ka-Kin; Kan, Pauline; Hui, Heidi L C; Griffiths, Sian M

2010-02-01

166

Association between Proximity to a Health Center and Early Childhood Mortality in Madagascar  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the association between proximity to a health center and early childhood mortality in Madagascar, and to assess the influence of household wealth, maternal educational attainment, and maternal health on the effects of distance. Methods From birth records of subjects in the Demographic and Health Survey, we identified 12565 singleton births from January 2004 to August 2009. After excluding 220 births that lacked global positioning system information for exposure assessment, odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for neonatal mortality and infant mortality were estimated using multilevel logistic regression models, with 12345 subjects (level 1), nested within 584 village locations (level 2), and in turn nested within 22 regions (level 3). We additionally stratified the subjects by the birth order. We estimated predicted probabilities of each outcome by a three-level model including cross-level interactions between proximity to a health center and household wealth, maternal educational attainment, and maternal anemia. Results Compared with those who lived >1.5–3.0 km from a health center, the risks for neonatal mortality and infant mortality tended to increase among those who lived further than 5.0 km from a health center; the adjusted ORs for neonatal mortality and infant mortality for those who lived >5.0–10.0 km away from a health center were 1.36 (95% CI: 0.92–2.01) and 1.42 (95% CI: 1.06–1.90), respectively. The positive associations were more pronounced among the second or later child. The distance effects were not modified by household wealth status, maternal educational attainment, or maternal health status. Conclusions Our study suggests that distance from a health center is a risk factor for early childhood mortality (primarily, infant mortality) in Madagascar by using a large-scale nationally representative dataset. The accessibility to health care in remote areas would be a key factor to achieve better infant health.

Kashima, Saori; Suzuki, Etsuji; Okayasu, Toshiharu; Jean Louis, Razafimahatratra; Eboshida, Akira; Subramanian, S. V.

2012-01-01

167

The Association of Sexual Orientation Measures With Young Adults' Health-Related Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined associations among 3 dimensions of sexual orientation (identity, behavior, and attraction) and key health-related indicators commonly studied among sexual minority populations: depressive symptoms, perceived stress, smoking, binge drinking, and victimization. Methods. We analyzed data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, Wave IV (2007–2008) when respondents were aged 24 to 32 years (n?=?14?412). We used multivariate linear and logistic regressions to examine consistency of associations between sexual orientation measures and health-related indicators. Results. Strength of associations differed by gender and sexual orientation measure. Among women, being attracted to both sexes, identifying as “mostly straight” or “bisexual,” and having mostly opposite-sex sexual partners was associated with greater risk for all indicators. Among men, sexual attraction was unrelated to health indicators. Men who were “mostly straight” were at greater risk for some, but not all, indicators. Men who had sexual partners of the same-sex or both sexes were at lower risk for binge drinking. Conclusions. Using all 3 dimensions of sexual orientation provides a more complete picture of the association between sexual orientation and health among young adults than does using any 1 dimension alone.

Walsemann, Katrina M.; Carter, Jarvis W.

2012-01-01

168

Association of Returning to Work With Better Health in Working-Aged Adults: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We systematically reviewed the literature on the impact of returning to work on health among working-aged adults. Methods. We searched 6 electronic databases in 2005. We selected longitudinal studies that documented a transition from unemployment to employment and included a comparison group. Two reviewers independently appraised the retrieved literature for potential relevance and methodological quality. Results. Eighteen studies met our inclusion criteria, including 1 randomized controlled trial. Fifteen studies revealed a beneficial effect of returning to work on health, either demonstrating a significant improvement in health after reemployment or a significant decline in health attributed to continued unemployment. We also found evidence for health selection, suggesting that poor health interferes with people’s ability to go back to work. Some evidence suggested that earlier reemployment may be associated with better health. Conclusions. Beneficial health effects of returning to work have been documented in a variety of populations, times, and settings. Return-to-work programs may improve not only financial situations but also health.

Chambers, Lori; Wilson, Mike; Mustard, Cameron; Rourke, Sean B.; Bayoumi, Ahmed; Raboud, Janet; Lavis, John

2012-01-01

169

[Gender differences in measures of mental health associated with a marital relationship].  

PubMed

This study examined gender differences for two measures of mental health as related to the quality of the marital relationship. Middle-aged respondents (221 female; 210 male) rated their marital satisfaction, affection, and communication. They also rated their psychological well-being and depression. The correlations between marital quality and mental health indicated that for males marital quality was more strongly associated with psychological well-being than with depression. Females showed no such difference, or their marital quality was associated with depression. This implies that for females, depression was a more sensitive measure of their mental health related to their husband-wife relationship. On the other hand, for males subjective well-being which was correlated with self-esteem was a more sensitive measure of their mental health. PMID:24669502

Ito, Yuko; Sagara, Junko

2014-02-01

170

The Association between Childhood Abuse and Labor Force Outcomes in Young Adults: Results from the Ontario Child Health Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the associations between childhood physical and sexual abuse and labor force outcomes in young adults and the possible mediating effects of educational attainment, current mental health, and physical health. Data from the Ontario Child Health Study (N = 1,893), a province-wide longitudinal study were analyzed. Controlling for childhood and demographic variables, severe childhood physical abuse was significantly associated

Masako Tanaka; Ellen Jamieson; Katholiki Georgiades; Eric K. Duku; Michael H. Boyle; Harriet L. MacMillan

2011-01-01

171

Factors Associated with Improved MCH Epidemiology Functioning in State Health Agencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses characteristics that are associated with enhanced maternal and child health (MCH) epidemiology functioning\\u000a in state health agencies. The concept of the “MCH Epidemiology Effort” is introduced as “the epidemiologic work carried out\\u000a by multiple units and agencies aimed at informing program planning and policy development on behalf of women, children and\\u000a families.” This concept focuses attention on

Deborah Rosenberg; Amy Herman-Roloff; Joan Kennelly; Arden Handler

172

Feasibility of National Surveillance of Health-Care-Associated Infections in Home-Care Settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the rationale and strategies for surveillance of health-care-associated infections in home- care settings, the challenges of nonhospital-based surveillance, and the feasibility of developing a national sur- veillance system. ver the past 2 decades, the delivery of health care in the United States has shifted increasingly from hospitals to patients' homes (1-3). Nearly eight million people in the

Lilia P. Manangan; Michele L. Pearson; Jerome I. Tokars; Elaine Miller; William R. Jarvis

2002-01-01

173

Association Rules and Data Mining in Hospital Infection Control and Public Health Surveillance  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThe authors consider the problem of identifying new, unexpected, and interesting patterns in hospital infection control and public health surveillance data and present a new data analysis process and system based on association rules to address this problem.DesignThe authors first illustrate the need for automated pattern discovery and data mining in hospital infection control and public health surveillance. Next, they

Stephen E Brossette; Alan P Sprague; J Michael Hardin; Ken B Waites; Warren T Jones; Stephen A Moser

1998-01-01

174

Unpacking capacity to utilize research: A tale of the Burkina Faso public health association.  

PubMed

One of the most important challenges in addressing global health is for institutions to monitor and use research in policy-making. In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), civil society organizations such as health professional associations can be key contributors to effective national health systems. However, there is little empirical data on their capacity to use research. This case study was used to gain insight into the factors that affect the knowledge translation performance of health professional associations in LMICs by describing the organizational elements and processes constituting capacity to use research, and examining the potential determinants of this capacity. Case study methodology was chosen for its flexibility to capture the multiple and often tacit processes within organizational routines. The Burkina Faso Public Health Association (ABSP) was studied, using in-depth, semi-structured interviews and key documents review. Five key dimensions that affect the association's capacity to use research to influence health policy emerged: organizational motivation; catalysts; organizational capacity to acquire and organizational capacity to transform research findings; moderating organizational factors. Also examined were the dissemination strategies used by ABSP and its abilities to enhance its capacity through networking, to advocate for more relevant research and to develop its potential role as knowledge broker, as well as limitations due to scarce resources. We conclude that a better understanding of the organizational capacity to use research of health professional associations in LMICs is needed to assess, improve and reinforce such capacity. Increased knowledge translation potential may leverage research resources and promote knowledge-sharing. PMID:21074923

Hamel, Nadia; Schrecker, Ted

2011-01-01

175

Brief Report: Predictors of Heavy Internet Use and Associations with Health-Promoting and Health Risk Behaviors among Hong Kong University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine the correlates of heavy Internet use and determine the associations of heavy Internet use with various health risk behaviors and health-promoting behaviors among Chinese adolescents, an anonymous, self-administered health behavior questionnaire was completed by 2427 matriculants into a Hong Kong university (mean age = 18.9 y) and…

Kim, Jean H.; Lau, C. H.; Cheuk, Ka-Kin; Kan, Pauline; Hui, Heidi L. C.; Griffiths, Sian M.

2010-01-01

176

Health-Related Factors Associated with Mode of Travel to Work  

PubMed Central

Active commuting (AC) to the workplace is a potential strategy for incorporating physical activity into daily life and is associated with health benefits. This study examined the association between health-related factors and mode of travel to the workplace. Methods. A volunteer convenience sample of employed adults completed an online survey regarding demographics, health-related factors, and the number of times/week walking, biking, driving, and using public transit to work (dichotomized as no walk/bike/drive/PT and walk/bike/drive/PT 1 + x/week). Logistic regression was used to predict the likelihood of each mode of transport and meeting PA recommendations from AC according to demographics and health-related factors. Results. The sample (n = 1175) was aged 43.5 ± 11.4 years and was primarily White (92.7%) and female (67.9%). Respondents reported walking (7.3%), biking (14.4%), taking public transit (20.3%), and driving (78.3%) to work at least one time/week. Among those reporting AC, 9.6% met PA recommendations from AC alone. Mode of travel to work was associated with several demographic and health-related factors, including age, number of chronic diseases, weight status, and AC beliefs. Discussion. Mode of transportation to the workplace and health-related factors such as disease or weight status should be considered in future interventions targeting AC.

Bopp, Melissa; Kaczynski, Andrew T.; Campbell, Matthew E.

2013-01-01

177

Health-related factors associated with mode of travel to work.  

PubMed

Active commuting (AC) to the workplace is a potential strategy for incorporating physical activity into daily life and is associated with health benefits. This study examined the association between health-related factors and mode of travel to the workplace. Methods. A volunteer convenience sample of employed adults completed an online survey regarding demographics, health-related factors, and the number of times/week walking, biking, driving, and using public transit to work (dichotomized as no walk/bike/drive/PT and walk/bike/drive/PT 1 + x/week). Logistic regression was used to predict the likelihood of each mode of transport and meeting PA recommendations from AC according to demographics and health-related factors. Results. The sample (n = 1175) was aged 43.5 ± 11.4 years and was primarily White (92.7%) and female (67.9%). Respondents reported walking (7.3%), biking (14.4%), taking public transit (20.3%), and driving (78.3%) to work at least one time/week. Among those reporting AC, 9.6% met PA recommendations from AC alone. Mode of travel to work was associated with several demographic and health-related factors, including age, number of chronic diseases, weight status, and AC beliefs. Discussion. Mode of transportation to the workplace and health-related factors such as disease or weight status should be considered in future interventions targeting AC. PMID:23533450

Bopp, Melissa; Kaczynski, Andrew T; Campbell, Matthew E

2013-01-01

178

Differences between family practices in the associations of patient characteristics with health care experiences.  

PubMed

When comparing health care providers, patient experience data are usually adjusted for case-mix associations to ensure fair comparisons. Previous studies in the United States showed that case-mix associations sometimes vary across health care providers. Such variation could indicate differential provider behavior for patient subgroups, in which case current adjustment techniques might be inappropriate. To see whether this variation is also apparent in a health care system different from the U.S. system, the authors analyzed Dutch patients' experiences with family practice care. Using multilevel random slope models, the associations between age, general health status, mental health status, education, sex, and ethnicity on one hand and reported experiences on the other hand were assessed across family practices. The authors found only five significant variances between case-mix coefficients, all for outcomes related to health care professionals' conduct. These findings correspond to previous U.S. findings, suggesting that the case-mix variations reported here and previously constitute a rather robust phenomenon. PMID:21536598

Damman, Olga C; de Boer, Dolf; Hendriks, Michelle; Meuwissen, Liesbeth E; Rademakers, Jany; Delnoij, Diana M J; Groenewegen, Peter P

2011-12-01

179

The factors associated with the belief that vegetarian diets provide health benefits.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to examine the factors associated with the belief that vegetarian diets provide health benefits. A random population mail survey about food choice was conducted among a sample of 1000 South Australians. An additional (non-random) survey of 106 vegetarians and semi-vegetarians was also conducted, giving a total of 707 participants from both samples. The main predictors of the belief that vegetarian diets provide health benefits for all respondents were found to be the belief that meat is neither healthy nor necessary and frequent searching for information on healthy eating. However, there were differences between vegetarians, non-vegetarians and semi-vegetarians. In particular, health issues were relatively more important for semi-vegetarians and vegetarians, while knowledge and convenience issues were most important for non-vegetarians. The results have important implications for public health. Many South Australians perceive that health benefits are associated with eating a vegetarian diet, which may also apply to plant-based diets in general. However, if non-vegetarians are to obtain some of the health benefits associated with the consumption of a plant-based diet, they require information on the preparation of quick and easy plant- based meals. PMID:14505993

Lea, Emma; Worsley, Anthony

2003-01-01

180

Who Uses CAM? A Narrative Review of Demographic Characteristics and Health Factors Associated with CAM Use.  

PubMed

Complementary and Alternative Medicines (CAM) are used by an extensive number of patients in the UK and elsewhere. In order to understand this pattern of behavior, it is helpful to examine the characteristics of people who use CAM. This narrative review collates and evaluates the evidence concerning the demographic characteristics and health status factors associated with CAM use in community-based non-clinical populations. A systematic literature search of computerized databases was conducted, and published research papers which present evidence concerning associations between CAM use and demographic and health characteristics are discussed and evaluated. The evidence suggests that people who use CAM tend to be female, of middle age and have more education. In terms of their health, CAM users tend to have more than one medical condition, but might not be more likely than non-users to have specific conditions such as cancer or to rate their own general health as poor. The multivariate studies that have been conducted suggest that both demographic and health characteristics contribute independently to CAM use. In conclusion, demographic characteristics and factors related to an individual's health status are associated with CAM use. Future research is needed to address methodological limitations in existing studies. PMID:18955327

Bishop, Felicity L; Lewith, G T

2010-03-01

181

The successful development of a subacute care service associated with a large academic health system.  

PubMed

Ensuring the safe transition of patients from hospitals to skilled nursing facilities and from skilled nursing facilities back to the hospital or the community can present significant challenges. The University of Michigan Health System was able to overcome many of these challenges through the implementation of a health system associated Subacute Care Service that consists of the University of Michigan Health System geriatricians and nurse practitioners working in privately operated skilled nursing facilities in our primary market area. We describe the planning process surrounding the development of the Subacute Care Service and report on efforts to date. PMID:22748721

Joshi, Darius K; Bluhm, Rick A; Malani, Preeti N; Fetyko, Steve; Denton, Tony; Blaum, Caroline S

2012-07-01

182

Health risks associated with residential exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation  

SciTech Connect

Extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation has received considerable attention recently as a possible threat to the health of persons living near high tension electric power lines, distribution substations, and even in close proximity to common household electric appliances. Results of epidemiological and laboratory research are examined to assess risks associated with magnetic fields generated by extremely low frequency electromagnetic sources. Health risks associated with such fields include a wide variety of ills ranging from disruption of normal circadian rhythms to childhood cancers. Risk assessment has been particularly difficult to determine in light of an ostensible lack of a dose-response relationship. Current media sensation fueled in part by an equivocal position adopted by the United States Environmental Protection Agency has contributed to the controversy. Recommendations for prudent avoidance of possible dangers are presented along with policy implications concerning health risks associated with magnetic fields.32 references.

Lamarine, R.J.; Narad, R.A. (Department of Health and Community Services, California State University, Chico (United States))

1992-10-01

183

Gender as a Moderator in the Association of Body Weight to Smoking and Mental Health  

PubMed Central

Objectives. I sought to examine gender's role as a moderator in the association of relative body weight to smoking and mental health. Methods. Data came from the 2004–2005 Minnesota Survey on Adult Substance Use, a statewide telephone survey (N = 16 289). Current smoking and mental health problems were examined in relation to relative body weight across genders, with control for covariates. Results. Relative to their healthy-weight counterparts, overweight or obese men were less likely to smoke, whereas overweight women were more likely to smoke. Mental health problems were not related to relative body weight among men. However, overweight or obese women were more likely than were their healthy-weight counterparts to have a negative self-assessment of mental health, and obese women were more likely to have a mental health problem. In addition, underweight women had increased odds of being a smoker and having mental health problems. Conclusions. The results indicate that gender has a moderating role in the association between body weight and both smoking and mental health. Gender-specific analysis rather than adjustment for the impact of gender in analyses is a promising avenue for future research.

2009-01-01

184

Urban Aboriginal mobility in Canada: examining the association with health care utilization.  

PubMed

In recent decades, Indigenous peoples across the globe have become increasingly urbanized. Growing urbanization has been associated with high rates of geographic mobility between rural areas and cities, as well as within cities. In Canada, over 54 percent of Aboriginal peoples are urban and change their place of residence at a higher rate than the non-Aboriginal population. High rates of mobility may affect the delivery and use of health services. The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between urban Aboriginal peoples' mobility and conventional (physician/nurse) as well as traditional (traditional healer) health service use in two distinct Canadian cities: Toronto and Winnipeg. Using data from Statistics Canada's 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey, this analysis demonstrates that mobility is a significant predisposing correlate of health service use and that the impact of mobility on health care use varies by urban setting. In Toronto, urban newcomers were more likely to use a physician or nurse compared to long-term residents. This was in direct contrast to the effect of residency on physician and nurse use in Winnipeg. In Toronto, urban newcomers were less likely to use a traditional healer than long-term residents, indicating that traditional healing may represent an unmet health care need. The results demonstrate that distinct urban settings differentially influence patterns of health service utilization for mobile Aboriginal peoples. This has important implications for how health services are planned and delivered to urban Aboriginal movers on a local, and potentially global, scale. PMID:23078674

Snyder, Marcie; Wilson, Kathi

2012-12-01

185

Association between seeking oral health information online and knowledge in adults with spinal cord injury: A pilot study  

PubMed Central

Objective To characterize adults with spinal cord injury (SCI) who seek oral health information online, and investigate whether seeking oral health information online is associated with oral health knowledge and behaviors. Methods An online oral health survey was posted on the South Carolina Spinal Cord Injury Association website. Respondents were 192 adult residents of the US ages 19–83 years who identified themselves as having SCI occurring at least 1 year before the survey date. Results About 12% (n = 23) of the respondents searched oral health information online in the past 12 months. Significant associations between the proportion of respondents who searched for oral health information online and socio-demographic and the proportion of respondents who engaged in various oral health behaviors were not detected. However, multivariable logistic regression indicated that respondents who searched oral health information online in the past 12 months have 3.4 times the odds of possessing adequate oral health knowledge compared to respondents who did not search oral health information online (adjusted odds ratio = 3.41, 95% confidence interval = 1.35, 8.62, P = 0.01). Conclusions Given the significant association between seeking oral health information online and adequate oral health knowledge, this study suggests that online oral health information may be a potential avenue for dental health professionals to supplement oral health education in adults with SCI.

Yuen, Hon K.; Azuero, Andres; London, Steven

2011-01-01

186

Food Insecurity is Associated with Adverse Health Outcomes Among Human Infants and Toddlers  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT The U.S. Household Food Security Scale, developed with federal support for use in national surveys, is an effective research,tool. This study uses these new,measures,to examine,associations,between,food insecurity and health outcomes,in young,children. The purpose,of this study was,to determine,whether,household,food insecurity is associated,with adverse health outcomes,in a sentinel population ages,36 mo. We conducted,a multisite retrospective cohort study with cross-sectional surveys at urban medical

J. Cook; D. Frank; C. Berkowitz; M. Black; P. Casey; D. Cutts; A. Meyers; N. Zaldivar; A. Skalicky; S. Lenenson; T. Heeren; M. Nord

2004-01-01

187

Preparedness and health risks associated with Moulay Abdellah Amghar moussem, Morocco, 2009-2010.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to describe the risks and human health outcomes associated with attendance at the Moulay Abdellah Amghar moussem (a pre-planned mass gathering attracting more than 360 000 participants) for the purposes of public health prevention, planning, preparedness and response. We performed an environmental health risk assessment and retrospectively reviewed local health centre records before, during and after the event. In addition, standardized interviews with key stakeholders were performed to qualitatively evaluate local public health preparedness and response capacities. During the event, average daily health centre visits increased 5-fold. The sex ratio of health-care visits changed significantly from an average of 1.8:1 female:male visits per day to 1.2:1. The proportion of injuries varied from an average of 3.7% pre- and post-event to 14.8% (P < 0.01) during the event. A significant increase in digestive diseases was also observed during the event. Recommendations include increasing accessibility to free sanitation and hygiene facilities and improving health communications concerning hand washing and food and water safety. PMID:24673094

Youbi, M; Dghoughi, N; Akrim, M; Essolbi, A; Barkia, A; Azami, A I; Fleischauer, A T; Schneider, D; Maaroufi, A

2013-01-01

188

Postoperative recovery and its association with health-related quality of life among day surgery patients  

PubMed Central

Background Day surgery holds advantages for both the patient and the health care organization. However, recovery beyond the first postoperative week and following different types of surgery has not been explored to any greater degree. The current aims were to prospectively describe postoperative recovery and health-related quality of life among different groups of day surgery patients and to explore the association between postoperative recovery and health-related quality of life 30 days after discharge. Methods A consecutive sample of 607 adult day surgery patients undergoing orthopaedic, gynaecological or general surgery was included. Postoperative recovery was assessed on days 1, 7 and 14 using the Swedish Post-discharge Surgery Recovery scale and the Quality of Recovery-23 scale. The EQ-5D was used to assess health-related quality of life preoperatively and 30 days following discharge. A repeated measure ANOVA was conducted to evaluate postoperative recovery from day 1 to day 14 and between different surgical groups. Hierarchical multiple linear regression models were used to explore the association between postoperative recovery and health-related quality of life. Results Postoperative recovery improved from day 1 to 14 in all surgical groups (p<0.001). The orthopaedic patients had lower postoperative recovery on day 14 compared to the general and the gynaecological patients (p<0.001). Health-related quality of life was lower among orthopaedic patients (p<0.001), even if significant improvements over time were seen in all groups. Recovery on day 7 was associated with health-related quality of life 30 days after the day surgery (p<0.05). Conclusion Particularly orthopaedic day surgical patients seem to favour a closer follow-up in order to support recovery and thereby also positively influence health-related quality of life.

2012-01-01

189

The Role of Physiological Markers of Health in the Association between Demographic Factors and Periodontal Disease  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study examines whether the association between periodontal disease and demographic factors is mediated by physiological measures of health. Background Age is highly related to oral health status. The higher prevalence of oral disease within sub-groups of the population may reflect a tendency towards “early aging” and dysregulation of multiple physiological systems. Methods Logistic regression was used to examine whether biomarkers and demographic factors, such as SES and race/ethnicity, were associated with periodontal disease, and then whether the strength of these relationships could be attributed to associations between demographic variables and physiological measures of systemic health. Results Periodontal disease was associated with measures of SES and race/ethnicity. Furthermore, one unit increases in CMV optical density, CRP, and HbA1c were associated with a 25% (OR=1.25; 95% CI: 1.14–1.36), 13% (OR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.03–1.24), and 19% (OR: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.12–1.27) increased likelihood of periodontal disease, respectively. However, when biomarkers and sociodemographic variables were both included in the model, their associations with periodontal disease were significantly reduced or eliminated. Conclusions The risk of periodontal disease is higher among blacks and/or low income individuals; however, these associations appear to be partly due to the greater probability of elevated levels of CRP, CMV, or HbA1c among these groups.

Levine, ME; Kim, JK; Crimmins, EM

2012-01-01

190

Effect of telephone health coaching (Birmingham OwnHealth) on hospital use and associated costs: cohort study with matched controls  

PubMed Central

Objectives To test the effect of a telephone health coaching service (Birmingham OwnHealth) on hospital use and associated costs. Design Analysis of person level administrative data. Difference-in-difference analysis was done relative to matched controls. Setting Community based intervention operating in a large English city with industry. Participants 2698 patients recruited from local general practices before 2009 with heart failure, coronary heart disease, diabetes, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; and a history of inpatient or outpatient hospital use. These individuals were matched on a 1:1 basis to control patients from similar areas of England with respect to demographics, diagnoses of health conditions, previous hospital use, and a predictive risk score. Intervention Telephone health coaching involved a personalised care plan and a series of outbound calls usually scheduled monthly. Median length of time enrolled on the service was 25.5 months. Control participants received usual healthcare in their areas, which did not include telephone health coaching. Main outcome measures Number of emergency hospital admissions per head over 12 months after enrolment. Secondary metrics calculated over 12 months were: hospital bed days, elective hospital admissions, outpatient attendances, and secondary care costs. Results In relation to diagnoses of health conditions and other baseline variables, matched controls and intervention patients were similar before the date of enrolment. After this point, emergency admissions increased more quickly among intervention participants than matched controls (difference 0.05 admissions per head, 95% confidence interval 0.00 to 0.09, P=0.046). Outpatient attendances also increased more quickly in the intervention group (difference 0.37 attendances per head, 0.16 to 0.58, P<0.001), as did secondary care costs (difference £175 per head, £22 to £328, P=0.025). Checks showed that we were unlikely to have missed reductions in emergency admissions because of unobserved differences between intervention and matched control groups. Conclusions The Birmingham OwnHealth telephone health coaching intervention did not lead to the expected reductions in hospital admissions or secondary care costs over 12 months, and could have led to increases.

2013-01-01

191

Health Risk or Resource? Gradual and Independent Association between Self-Rated Health and Mortality Persists Over 30 Years  

PubMed Central

Background Poor self-rated health (SRH) is associated with increased mortality. However, most studies only adjust for few health risk factors and/or do not analyse whether this association is consistent also for intermediate categories of SRH and for follow-up periods exceeding 5–10 years. This study examined whether the SRH-mortality association remained significant 30 years after assessment when adjusting for a wide range of known clinical, behavioural and socio-demographic risk factors. Methods We followed-up 8,251 men and women aged ?16 years who participated 1977–79 in a community based health study and were anonymously linked with the Swiss National Cohort (SNC) until the end of 2008. Covariates were measured at baseline and included education, marital status, smoking, medical history, medication, blood glucose and pressure. Results 92.8% of the original study participants could be linked to a census, mortality or emigration record of the SNC. Loss to follow-up 1980–2000 was 5.8%. Even after 30 years of follow-up and after adjustment for all covariates, the association between SRH and all-cause mortality remained strong and estimates almost linearly increased from “excellent” (reference: hazard ratio, HR 1) to “good” (men: HR 1.07 95% confidence interval 0.92–1.24, women: 1.22, 1.01–1.46) to “fair” (1.41, 1.18–1.68; 1.39, 1.14–1.70) to “poor”(1.61, 1.15–2.25; 1.49, 1.07–2.06) to “very poor” (2.85, 1.25–6.51; 1.30, 0.18–9.35). Persons answering the SRH question with “don't know” (1.87, 1.21–2.88; 1.26, 0.87–1.83) had also an increased mortality risk; this was pronounced in men and in the first years of follow-up. Conclusions SRH is a strong and “dose-dependent” predictor of mortality. The association was largely independent from covariates and remained significant after decades. This suggests that SRH provides relevant and sustained health information beyond classical risk factors or medical history and reflects salutogenetic rather than pathogenetic pathways.

Bopp, Matthias; Braun, Julia; Gutzwiller, Felix; Faeh, David

2012-01-01

192

Social and Health Factors Associated with Physical Activity among Kuwaiti College Students  

PubMed Central

Our aim was to explore the social and health factors that are associated with the level of physical activity among Kuwaiti college students. A random sample of 787 students (48% males and 52% females) was chosen and weight and height were measured to obtain body mass index (BMI, kg/m2). Associated social and health factors were obtained using a questionnaire. Those reporting being physically inactive numbered 354 and the remaining 433 were active. Obesity among males was 13% and was 10.5% among females. The social and health factors that were found to be significantly associated with physical activity among the students were gender (P < .001), marital status (P < .05), BMI category (obese or nonobese) (P < .05), last dental and health checkup (P < .01), desiring a higher degree (P < .001), and countries preferred for visiting (P < .01). Males significantly exceeded females in the practice of physical activity. In conclusion, behavioural modifications, intervention studies, and health education touting the benefits of being physically active should be instituted to increase the practice of sports and other physical activities in order to control and decrease obesity-related morbidity and mortality.

Al-Isa, Abdulwahab Naser; Campbell, Jennifer; Desapriya, Ediriweera; Wijesinghe, Namal

2011-01-01

193

The Association Between Penis Size and Sexual Health Among Men Who Have Sex with Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larger penis size has been equated with a symbol of power, stamina, masculinity, and social status. Yet, there has been little\\u000a research among men who have sex with men assessing the association between penis size and social-sexual health. Survey data\\u000a from a diverse sample of 1,065 men who have sex with men were used to explore the association between perceived

Christian Grov; Jeffrey T. Parsons; David S. Bimbi

2010-01-01

194

Association between reported alcohol intake and cognition: results from the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some, but not all, observational studies have suggested that moderate levels of alcohol intake may be associated with improved cognitive function and reduced risk of cognitive decline and dementia. The authors of this 1996-2002 study used data from the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study of postmenopausal combination hormone therapy to assess cross-sectional and prospective associations of self-reported alcohol intake with

Mark A. Espeland; Lin Gu; Kamal H. Masaki; Robert D. Langer; Laura H. Coker; Marcia L. Stefanick; Judith K. Ockene; Stephen R. Rapp

2005-01-01

195

Patterns of health-related quality of life and patterns associated with health risks among Rhode Island adults  

PubMed Central

Background Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has become an important consideration in assessing the impact of chronic disease on individuals as well as in populations. HRQOL is often assessed using multiple indicators. The authors sought to determine if multiple indicators of HRQOL could be used to characterize patterns of HRQOL in a population, and if so, to examine the association between such patterns and demographic, health risk and health condition covariates. Methods Data from Rhode Island's 2004 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) were used for this analysis. The BRFSS is a population-based random-digit-dialed telephone survey of adults ages 18 and older. In 2004 RI's BRFSS interviewed 3,999 respondents. A latent class regression (LCR) model, using 9 BRFSS HRQOL indicators, was used to determine latent classes of HRQOL for RI adults and to model the relationship between latent class membership and covariates. Results RI adults were categorized into four latent classes of HRQOL. Class 1 (76%) was characterized by good physical and mental HRQOL; Class 2 (9%) was characterized as having physically related poor HRQOL; Class 3 (11%) was characterized as having mentally related poor HRQOL; and Class 4 (4%) as having both physically and mentally related poor HRQOL. Class 2 was associated with older age, being female, unable to work, disabled, or unemployed, no participation in leisure time physical activity, or with having asthma or diabetes. Class 3 was associated with being female, current smoking, or having asthma or disability. Class 4 was associated with almost all the same predictors of Classes 2 and 3, i.e. older age, being female, unable to work, disabled, or unemployed, no participation in leisure time physical activity, current smoking, with having asthma or diabetes, or with low income. Conclusion Using a LCR model, the authors found 4 distinct patterns of HRQOL among RI adults. The largest class was associated with good HRQOL; three smaller classes were associated with poor HRQOL. We identified the characteristics of subgroups at higher-risk for each of the three classes of poor HRQOL. Focusing interventions on the high-risk populations may be one approach to improving HRQOL in RI.

Jiang, Yongwen; Hesser, Jana Earl

2008-01-01

196

The association between maternal ratings of child health interviews and maternal and child characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

O'Keefe M, Baghurst P, Sawyer M and Roberton D. The association between maternal ratings of child health interviews and maternal and child characteristics. Family Practice 2004; 21: 684-688. Background. Doctors develop the skills needed to interview parents and children in paediatric settings by practice and by receiving feedback during their medical training. Interviewed parents are ideally placed to provide evaluations

Maree O'Keefe; Peter Baghurst; Michael Sawyer

197

Associations between Dopamine and Serotonin Genes and Job Satisfaction: Preliminary Evidence from the Add Health Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous behavioral genetic studies have found that job satisfaction is partially heritable. We went a step further to examine particular genetic markers that may be associated with job satisfaction. Using an oversample from the National Adolescent Longitudinal Study (Add Health Study), we found 2 genetic markers, dopamine receptor gene DRD4 VNTR…

Song, Zhaoli; Li, Wendong; Arvey, Richard D.

2011-01-01

198

ARE ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES TO CHLOROPHENOXY HERBICIDES ASSOCIATED WITH AN INCREASE IN ADVERSE HUMAN HEALTH EFFECTS?  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: Associations between adverse health effects and environmental exposures are difficult to study because exposures may be widespread, low-dose in nature, and common throughout the study population. Individual risk-factor epidemiology may not be able to initially ident...

199

Critical incident exposure in South African emergency services personnel: prevalence and associated mental health issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To assess critical incident exposure among prehospital emergency services personnel in the developing world context of South Africa; and to assess associated mental health consequences.Methods: We recruited a representative sample from emergency services in the Western Cape Province, South Africa, to participate in this cross sectional epidemiological study. Questionnaires covered critical incident exposure, general psychopathology, risky alcohol use, symptoms

C L Ward; C J Lombard; N Gwebushe

2006-01-01

200

Status Report on Potential Human Health Effects Associated with Power Frequency Electric and Magnetic Fields.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Over the past 20 years, a number of scientific studies have suggested that exposure to 60 Hz electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) may be associated with human health effects, including an increased risk of cancer. The report presents the major results, act...

1991-01-01

201

American Medical Association Directory of National Voluntary Health Organizations. 1968 Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The directory lists 50 voluntary health agencies working with virtually all exceptionalities. Included for each agency are descriptions of their purpose, organizational structure, financing, key personnel, and programs of research, education, and services. An introduction discusses the relationships between medical associations and certain…

American Medical Association, Chicago, IL.

202

Associations of calcium and aluminum with the growth and health of sugar maple trees in Vermont  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared tree growth and crown condition with soil and foliar elemental composition in 14 sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) stands in VT, USA, to evaluate if deficiencies or imbalances in cation nutrition were associated with growth and health reductions in native stands. The Till Source Model (TSM) was used to select study sites potentially high or low in calcium

Paul G. Schaberg; James W. Tilley; Gary J. Hawley; Donald H. DeHayes; Scott W. Bailey

2006-01-01

203

Irregular Breakfast Eating and Associated Health Behaviors: A Pilot Study among College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine prevalence of eating breakfast and associated health compromising behaviors. This study utilized a cross-sectional survey methodology. A purposive cluster sampling technique was utilized to collect data from a representative sample of college students in a Midwestern university in the U.S. A total of 1,257…

Thiagarajah, Krisha; Torabi, Mohammad R.

2009-01-01

204

Psychosocial, environmental and behavioral factors associated with bone health in middle-school girls  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to identify the psychosocial, environmental and behavioral factors associated with calcium intake, physical activity and bone health in a cohort of adolescent girls. Baseline data (N = 718 girls, mean age: 11.6 ±0.4 years) from the Incorporating More Physical Activity and Calcium in Teens (IMPACT) study conducted in Texas, 2001–03, were utilized for the analyses. Hierarchical linear regression was used to examine the associations of interest. Confounders adjusted for included ethnicity, menarchal status, body mass index and lactose intolerance. Several psychosocial and behavioral factors were significantly associated with bone quality. These included knowledge of calcium content of foods (? = 0.08, P = 0.016), self-efficacy toward consuming calcium-rich foods (? = 0.16, P = 0.047), physical activity self-efficacy (? = 0.20, P = 0.002), physical activity outcome expectations (? = 0.5, P = 0.004), family encouragement to do physical activity (? = 0.96, P = 0.027), friend engagement in physical activity (? = 1.3, P = 0.001) and participation in sports teams (? = 1.7, P < 0.001). Self-efficacy, social support and participation in sports teams appear to be strongly associated with bone health in adolescent girls. Future health education/health promotion programs need to address these factors for effective primary prevention of osteoporosis in this population.

Sharma, Shreela V.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Kelder, Steven H.; Day, R. Sue; Hergenroeder, Albert

2009-01-01

205

The factors associated with the belief that vegetarian diets provide health benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to examine the factors associated with the belief that vegetarian diets provide health benefits. A random population mail survey about food choice was conducted among a sample of 1000 South Australians. An additional (non-random) survey of 106 vegetarians and semi-vegetarians was also conducted, giving a total of 707 participants from both samples. The main

Emma Lea; Anthony Worsley

2003-01-01

206

Handgrip Strength, Positive Affect, and Perceived Health Are Prospectively Associated with Fewer Functional Limitations among Centenarians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed the association between perceived health, fatigue, positive and negative affect, handgrip strength, objectively measured physical activity, body mass index, and self-reported functional limitations, assessed 6 months later, among 11 centenarians (age = 102 plus or minus 1). Activities of daily living, assessed 6 months prior to…

Franke, Warren D.; Margrett, Jennifer A.; Heinz, Melinda; Martin, Peter

2012-01-01

207

No evidence for an impact of selenium supplementation on environment associated health disorders – a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to vitamin C (and other vitamins\\/antioxidants), clinical ecologists (functional medicine) recommend selenium supplementation as a fundamental therapeutic remedy for the treatment of environment associated health disorders. This recommendation is based on the postulation that the trace element selenium inhibits oxidative stress generated during endogenous detoxification of xenobiotics (phase 1) by increasing selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase activity, and that it

Michael Lacour; Thomas Zunder; Anja Restle; Guido Schwarzer

2004-01-01

208

Assessment of the health hazards associated with wastewater reuse: Transmission of geohelminthic infections (Marrakech, Morocco)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To address the problem of water scarcity, wastewater has long been used for agricultural purposes in Marrakech (Morocco) and its benefits have long been recognized. However, the benefits of urban wastewater reuse may be limited by its potential health hazards associated essentially to the danger of transmission of pathogenic organisms to human beings. The current study aimed to evaluate the

O. Amahmid; K. Bouhoum

2005-01-01

209

Association between Smoking and Health Outcomes in Postmenopausal Women Living with Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Background. In multiple sclerosis (MS), symptom management and improved health-related quality of life (HrQOL) may be modified by smoking. Objective. To evaluate the extent to which smoking is associated with worsened health outcomes and HrQOL for postmenopausal women with MS. Methods. We identified 251 Women's Health Initiative Observational Study participants with a self-reported MS diagnosis. Using a linear model, we estimated changes from baseline to 3 years for activities of daily living, total metabolic equivalent tasks (MET) hours per week, mental and physical component scales (MCS, PCS) of the SF-36, and menopausal symptoms adjusting for years since menopause and other confounders. Results. Nine percent were current and 50% past smokers. Age at smoking initiation was associated with significant changes in MCS during menopause. PCS scores were unchanged. While women who had ever smoked experienced an increase in physical activity during menopause, the physical activity levels of women who never smoked declined. Residual confounding may explain this finding. Smoking was not associated with change in menopausal symptoms during the 3-year follow-up. Conclusion. Smoking was not associated with health outcomes among post-menopausal women with MS.

Eaton, Charles; Tindle, Hilary; Lapane, Kate L.

2014-01-01

210

Psychosocial, Environmental and Behavioral Factors Associated with Bone Health in Middle-School Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to identify the psychosocial, environmental and behavioral factors associated with calcium intake, physical activity and bone health in a cohort of adolescent girls. Baseline data (N = 718 girls, mean age: 11.6 plus or minus 0.4 years) from the Incorporating More Physical Activity and Calcium in Teens (IMPACT) study…

Sharma, Shreela V.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Kelder, Steven H.; Day, R. Sue; Hergenroeder, Albert

2009-01-01

211

Association between prenatal exposure to phthalates and the health of newborns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phthalates are developmental and reproductive toxicants for the fetus in pregnant rodents, and the ability of phthalates to penetrate the placenta have been reported. The aims of this study were to evaluate the association between maternal urine excretion, the exposure of fetus to phthalates in amniotic fluid, and the health of newborns. Amniotic fluid and urine samples from pregnant women

Po-Chin Huang; Pao-Lin Kuo; Yen-Yin Chou; Shio-Jean Lin; Ching-Chang Lee

2009-01-01

212

Association between Smoking and Health Outcomes in Postmenopausal Women Living with Multiple Sclerosis.  

PubMed

Background. In multiple sclerosis (MS), symptom management and improved health-related quality of life (HrQOL) may be modified by smoking. Objective. To evaluate the extent to which smoking is associated with worsened health outcomes and HrQOL for postmenopausal women with MS. Methods. We identified 251 Women's Health Initiative Observational Study participants with a self-reported MS diagnosis. Using a linear model, we estimated changes from baseline to 3 years for activities of daily living, total metabolic equivalent tasks (MET) hours per week, mental and physical component scales (MCS, PCS) of the SF-36, and menopausal symptoms adjusting for years since menopause and other confounders. Results. Nine percent were current and 50% past smokers. Age at smoking initiation was associated with significant changes in MCS during menopause. PCS scores were unchanged. While women who had ever smoked experienced an increase in physical activity during menopause, the physical activity levels of women who never smoked declined. Residual confounding may explain this finding. Smoking was not associated with change in menopausal symptoms during the 3-year follow-up. Conclusion. Smoking was not associated with health outcomes among post-menopausal women with MS. PMID:24860668

Jawahar, Rachel; Oh, Unsong; Eaton, Charles; Wright, Nicole; Tindle, Hilary; Lapane, Kate L

2014-01-01

213

Bullying and victimization among Turkish children and adolescents: examining prevalence and associated health symptoms.  

PubMed

Over the past decade, concerns about bullying and its effects on school health have grown. However, few studies in Turkey have examined the prevalence of bullying in childhood and adolescence and its association with health problems. The current study aimed to examine the prevalence and manifestation of bullying and victimization among male and female students aged 11-15 years. A second goal was to examine the physical and psychological symptoms associated with being a bully, victim and both a bully and a victim ('bully-victim'). Participants were 1,315 students from grades 5, 7, and 9, selected from three schools in Western Turkey. Twenty percent of the students were found to be involved in the cycle of bullying (5 % as a bully, 8 % as a victim, and 7 % as bully-victims). Bullies (although not victims) were found to show decreased levels of school satisfaction and school attendance. Being a victim or a bully-victim was associated with a significantly increased risk of experiencing a wide range of physical and psychological health symptoms (victims OR, 1.67-3.38; p?associated with high levels of irritability (OR, 2.82; p?health concerns. Children that were bullies and victims were almost as vulnerable to health symptoms as children that were purely victims. Conclusion: These findings contribute to a better understanding of bullying in Turkish schools, emphasizing the negative effects of bullying involvement on health and well-being. PMID:22735980

Arslan, Sevda; Hallett, Victoria; Akkas, Esref; Akkas, Ozlem Altinbas

2012-10-01

214

Factors associated with the health status of internally displaced persons in northern Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background: Globally, there are over 24 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) who have fled their homes due to violence and insecurity but who remain within their own country. There have been up to 2 million IDPs in northern Uganda alone. The objective of this study was to investigate factors associated with mental and physical health status of IDPs in northern Uganda. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in November 2006 in IDP camps in the Gulu and Amuru districts of northern Uganda. The study outcome of physical and mental health was measured using the SF-8 instrument, which produces physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) component summary measures. Independent demographic, socio-economic, and trauma exposure (using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire) variables were also measured. Multivariate regression linear regression analysis was conducted to investigate associations of the independent variables on the PCS and MCS outcomes. Results: 1206 interviews were completed. The respective mean PCS and MCS scores were 42.2 (95% CI 41.32 to 43.10) and 39.3 (95% CI 38.42 to 40.13), well below the instrument norm of 50, indicating poor health. Variables with negative associations with physical or mental health included gender, age, marital status, income, distance of camp from home areas, food security, soap availability, and sense of safety in the camp. A number of individual trauma variables and the frequency of trauma exposure also had negative associations with physical and mental health. Conclusions: This study provides evidence on the impact on health of deprivation of basic goods and services, traumatic events, and fear and uncertainty amongst displaced and crisis affected populations.

Roberts, B; Ocaka, K Felix; Browne, J; Oyok, T; Sondorp, E

2009-01-01

215

Peer victimisation and its association with psychological and somatic health problems among adolescents in northern Russia  

PubMed Central

Background A growing body of evidence from countries around the world suggests that school-based peer victimisation is associated with worse health outcomes among adolescents. So far, however, there has been little systematic research on this phenomenon in the countries of the former Soviet Union. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between peer victimisation at school and a range of different psychological and somatic health problems among Russian adolescents. Methods This study used data from the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA) – a cross-sectional survey undertaken in Arkhangelsk, Russia in 2003. Information was collected from 2892 adolescents aged 12–17 about their experiences of school-based peer victimisation and on a variety of psychological and somatic health conditions. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between victimisation and health. Results Peer victimisation in school was commonplace: 22.1% of the students reported that they had experienced frequent victimisation in the current school year (girls – 17.6%; boys – 28.5%). There was a strong relationship between experiencing victimisation and reporting worse health among both boys and girls with more victimisation associated with an increased risk of experiencing worse health. Girls in the highest victimisation category had odds ratios ranging between 1.90 (problems with eyes) and 5.26 (aches/pains) for experiencing somatic complaints when compared to their non-victimised counterparts, while the corresponding figures for boys were 2.04 (headaches) and 4.36 (aches/pains). Girls and boys who had the highest victimisation scores were also 2.42 (girls) and 3.33 (boys) times more likely to report symptoms of anxiety, over 5 times more likely to suffer from posttraumatic stress and over 6 times more likely to experience depressive symptoms. Conclusion Peer victimisation at school has a strong association with poor health outcomes among Russian adolescents. Effective school-based interventions are now urgently needed to counter the negative effects of victimisation on adolescents’ health in Russia.

2013-01-01

216

The association between excess weight and comorbidity and self-rated health in the Italian population  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the association of obesity with comorbidity and with subjective health perception in a large sample representative of the Italian population and how the association differs by age and gender. Methods Cross-sectional data were obtained from nine waves of the “Multipurpose Household Survey”, conducted by the Italian National Institute of Statistics. Self-reported height and weight, six weight-associated diseases and self-rated health (SRH) were evaluated on 352,020 subjects aged 20–89 years. Comorbidity was defined as the presence of 2 or more diseases. Results The prevalence of comorbidity was significantly different between obese and normal weight subject in all age categories. SRH was worse in obese subjects than in those of normal weight; this difference persisted, at least in females, into older ages. Conclusions Obesity is associated with comorbidity and self-rated health; this association varies across ages and genders. The results found for obese subjects of a given age category were similar to (or worse than) those found for older normal weight subjects of the next age class. For comorbidity this was true both in males and in females of all the considered age categories; for SRH, this was true in particular for females and younger males.

Micciolo, Rocco; Canal, Luisa; Mazzali, Gloria; Fantin, Francesco; Corzato, Francesca; Antonioli, Angela; Harris, Tamara B.; Zamboni, Mauro

2014-01-01

217

Strengthening the organizational capacity of health professional associations: the FIGO LOGIC Toolkit.  

PubMed

Health professional associations, including national associations of obstetrics and gynecology, can have a leading role in influencing and developing health policy and practice. However, in low- and middle-resource countries, the organizational capacity to facilitate this role is often insufficient. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics LOGIC (Leadership in Obstetrics and Gynaecology for Impact and Change) Initiative has been developing the capacity of national associations in Africa and Asia. Through this work, an electronic resource of materials (http://figo-toolkit.org/) has been brought together to support organizational capacity development, addressing domains such as culture, strategic planning, human resources, project and financial management, performance, external relations, membership services, and the development and revision of clinical guidelines. PMID:23820029

Andrews, Helena; Perron, Liette; Vander Plaetse, Bart; Taylor, David J

2013-09-01

218

Factors associated with access to sexual health services among teens in toronto: does immigration matter?  

PubMed

This manuscript explores predictors of access to sexual health services among urban immigrant adolescents who live in Toronto, Canada. Surveys (n = 1216) were collected from pre-existing youth groups in community settings. A binary logistic multivariate model was developed to examine associations between access to sexual health services and a series of individual, interpersonal, and structural variables. Sexual activity, age, race, and social resources each had significant partial impact on access to sexual health services. Among young women, those with more social resources had significantly accessed services more often than those with fewer resources, but among men there was no difference as a function of social resources. Although immigration predicted access to sexual health services on its own, it was not statistically significant in this model when other variables were included. Immigration status, in and of itself, was not a predictor of youth's access to sexual health services. The impact of immigration status appears to occur because of its association with other variables, such as race. Implications for practice are discussed. PMID:24748054

Salehi, Roxana; Hynie, Michaela; Flicker, Sarah

2014-08-01

219

A Qualitative Comparative Analysis of factors associated with trends in narrowing health inequalities in England.  

PubMed

This study explores why progress with tackling health inequalities has varied among a group of local authority areas in England that were set targets to narrow important health outcomes compared to national averages. It focuses on premature deaths from cancers and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and whether the local authority gap for these outcomes narrowed. Survey and secondary data were used to create dichotomised conditions describing each area. For cancers, ten conditions were found to be associated with whether or not narrowing occurred: presence/absence of a working culture of individual commitment and champions; spending on cancer programmes; aspirational or comfortable/complacent organisational cultures; deprivation; crime; assessments of strategic partnership working, commissioning and the public health workforce; frequency of progress reviews; and performance rating of the local Primary Care Trust (PCT). For CVD, six conditions were associated with whether or not narrowing occurred: a PCT budget closer or further away from target; assessments of primary care services, smoking cessation services and local leadership; presence/absence of a few major programmes; and population turnover. The method of Qualitative Comparative Analysis was used to find configurations of these conditions with either the narrowing or not narrowing outcomes. Narrowing cancer gaps were associated with three configurations in which individual commitment and champions was a necessary condition, and not narrowing was associated with a group of conditions that had in common a high level of bureaucratic-type work. Narrowing CVD gaps were associated with three configurations in which a high assessment of either primary care or smoking cessation services was a necessary condition, and not narrowing was associated with two configurations that both included an absence of major programmes. The article considers substantive and theoretical arguments for these configurations being causal and as pointing to ways of improving progress with tackling health inequalities. PMID:21640455

Blackman, Tim; Wistow, Jonathan; Byrne, David

2011-06-01

220

ASSOCIATION OF PERSONAL AND WORKPLACE CHARACTERISTICS WITH REPORTED HEALTH SYMPTOMS OF 6771 GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES IN WASHINGTON, DC  

EPA Science Inventory

An indoor air quality questionnaire was completed by 6771 employees of two government agencies. egression analyses on 12 clusters of health symptoms indicated that both personal and workplace characteristics were associated with symptoms. he variables associated with the largest ...

221

The Association of Health and Employment in Mature Women: A Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Despite a reduction in income inequalities between men and women, there is still a large gap between income and retirement savings of Australian men and women. This is especially true for women who have health or disability problems. Mature age women are closest to retirement and, therefore, have less chance than younger women to build up enough retirement savings and may need to continue working to fund their older age. Continued workforce participation may be particularly difficult for women who are less healthy. Understanding which health problems lead to a decrease in workforce participation among mature age women is crucial. Therefore, this longitudinal study sought to identify which health problems are associated with employment among midage women over time. Methods Data were analyzed from the midage cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH), which involved 14,200 midage women (aged 45–50 years in 1996). The women have been surveyed four additional times, in 1998, 2001, 2004, and 2007. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to conduct nested multivariate longitudinal analyses. Results The percentages of women who were employed in the years 2001, 2004, and 2007 were 77%, 72%, and 68%, respectively. Results were adjusted for sociodemographic variables. Being employed decreased as physical and mental health deteriorated and with self-reported conditions: diabetes, high blood pressure, depression, anxiety, and other psychiatric conditions. Back pain, arthritis, cancer, obesity, and being a current smoker are associated with employment but not when quality of life is added to the model. Conclusions There were significant associations between health and employment. Understanding these relationships could inform policies and guidelines for preventing declines in employment in mature age women.

Byles, Julie

2012-01-01

222

Associations between health risk behaviors and symptoms of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Objective To systematically review the literature to determine if health risk behaviors in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder are associated with subsequent symptom burden or level of functioning. Method Using the PRISMA systematic review method we searched PubMed, Cochrane, PsychInfo and EMBASE databases with key words: health risk behaviors, diet, obesity, overweight, BMI, smoking, tobacco use, cigarette use, sedentary lifestyle, sedentary behaviors, physical inactivity, activity level, fitness, sitting AND schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, bipolar illness, schizoaffective disorder, severe and persistent mental illness, and psychotic to identify prospective, controlled studies of greater than 6 months duration. Included studies examined associations between sedentary lifestyle, smoking, obesity, physical inactivity and subsequent symptom severity or functional impairment in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Results Eight of the 2130 articles identified met inclusion criteria and included 508 patients with a health risk behavior and 825 controls. Six studies examined tobacco use and two studies examined weight gain/obesity. Seven studies found that patients with schizophrenia or bipolar illness and at least one health risk behavior had more severe subsequent psychiatric symptoms and/or decreased level of functioning. Conclusion Tobacco use and weight gain/obesity may be associated with increased severity of symptoms of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder or decreased level of functioning.

Katon, Wayne J.

2012-01-01

223

The ABC of Physical Activity for Health: A consensus statement from the British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our understanding of the relationship between physical activity and health is constantly evolving. Therefore, the British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences convened a panel of experts to review the literature and produce guidelines that health professionals might use. In the ABC of Physical Activity for Health, A is for All healthy adults, B is for Beginners, and C is

Gary ODonovan; Anthony J. Blazevich; Colin Boreham; Ashley R. Cooper; Helen Crank; Ulf Ekelund; Kenneth R. Fox; Paul Gately; Billie Giles-Corti; Jason M. R. Gill; Mark Hamer; Ian McDermott; Marie Murphy; Nanette Mutrie; John J. Reilly; John M. Saxton; Emmanuel Stamatakis

2010-01-01

224

Association between perceived chewing ability and oral health-related quality of life in partially dentate patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: One of the most immediate and important functional consequences of many oral disorders is a reduction in chewing ability. The ability to chew is not only an important dimension of oral health, but is increasingly recognized as being associated with general health status. Whether perceived chewing ability and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) are correlated to a similar

Mika Inukai; Mike T John; Yoshimasa Igarashi; Kazuyoshi Baba

2010-01-01

225

Health-related quality of life deficits associated with varying degrees of disease severity in type 2 diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a chronic medical condition accompanied by a considerable health-related quality of life (HRQL) burden. The purpose of this analysis was to use generic measures of HRQL to describe HRQL deficits associated with varying degrees of severity of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: The RAND-12 physical and mental health composites (PHC and MHC, respectively) and Health Utilities Index Mark

Sheri L Maddigan; Sumit R Majumdar; Ellen L Toth; David H Feeny; Jeffrey A Johnson

2003-01-01

226

Factors associated with job satisfaction among commune health workers: implications for human resource policies  

PubMed Central

Background Job satisfaction among health workers is an important indicator in assessing the performance and efficiency of health services. Objective This study measured job satisfaction and determined associated factors among health workers in 38 commune health stations in an urban district and a rural district of Hanoi, Vietnam. A total of 252 health workers (36 medical doctors and 216 nurses and technicians; 74% female) were interviewed. A job satisfaction measure was developed using factor analysis, from which four dimensions emerged, namely ‘benefits and prospects,’ ‘facility and equipment,’ ‘performance,’ and ‘professionals.’ Results The results demonstrate that respondents were least satisfied with the following categories: salary and incentives (24.0%), benefit packages (25.1%), equipment (35.7%), and environment (41.8%). The average satisfaction score was moderate across four domains; it was the highest for ‘performance’ (66.6/100) and lowest for ‘facility and equipment’ (50.4/100). Tobit-censored regression models, constructed using stepwise selection, determined significant predictors of job satisfaction including age, areas of work and expertise, professional education, urban versus rural setting, and sufficient number of staff. Conclusion The findings highlight the need to implement health policies that focus on incentives, working conditions, workloads, and personnel management at grassroots level.

Tran, Bach Xuan; Minh, Hoang Van; Hinh, Nguyen Duc

2013-01-01

227

Gynecological cancer survivors’ health behaviors and their associations with quality of life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  To evaluate health behaviors (smoking, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake) and body mass index of gynecological\\u000a cancer survivors and their association with quality of life.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We collected cross-sectional mail survey data from 802 gynecological cancer survivors (56% response rate) The questionnaire\\u000a included validated measures of health behaviors, quality of life, clinical status, and demographics.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Depending on gynecological cancer subtype,

Vanessa L. Beesley; Elizabeth G. Eakin; Monika Janda; Diana Battistutta

2008-01-01

228

Evaluation of potential health effects associated with serum polychlorinated biphenyl levels  

SciTech Connect

In late 1983, we conducted a cross-sectional epidemiologic study to evaluate persons at risk of exposure to three chemical waste sites by comparing clinical disease end points and clinical chemistry parameters with serum polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) levels. A total of 106 individuals participated in the study. The only statistically significant finding in regard to self-reported, physician-diagnosed health problems was a dose-response relationship between serum PCB levels and the occurrence of high blood pressure; however, this association failed to achieve statistical significance when we controlled for possible confounding effects of both age and smoking. Serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels were also higher in the group with elevated serum PCBs; additionally, there were isolated statistically significant correlations of serum aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT) with serum lipid fraction-adjusted PCB level and serum albumin and total bilirubin with serum PCB level. Although the ranges of serum levels reported herein from exposures to PCBs in the general environment are lower than those that have been associated with acute symptoms or illness in other studies, whether these levels are associated with long-term health risks is not known. Associations of such chronic, low-dose exposures with observable health effects as suggested by this study must be evaluated further before any final conclusions can be drawn.

Stehr-Green, P.A.; Welty, E.; Steele, G.; Steinberg, K.

1986-12-01

229

Association between food intake and oral health in elderly: SEPAHAN systematic review no. 8  

PubMed Central

Dental status may influence food intake. The aim of this review was to summarize the earlier investigations on the association between food intake and dental status. We searched the electronic databases of PubMed and the Cochrane library for articles published until 30 February, 2012. To reach the related published articles, Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms of ‘oral health,’ ‘masticatory performance,’ ‘dental status,’ and ‘eating’ or ‘food intake’ were used. We included all research articles in the English language that (1) had used the random sampling method, and (2) had investigated the association between dental status and nutrient intake in elderly, non-denture wearer individuals, with no systemic illness. The findings of the seven original research articles had a great variation. Four of them supported a strong association between dietary intake and dental status and three of them found that there was no association between these variables. Most investigations found a significant relationship between the oral health status and nutrient intake; however, longitudinal studies were required for a better understanding of the diet-oral health relations.

Kazemi, Shantia; Savabi, Ghazal; Khazaei, Saber; Savabi, Omid; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Adibi, Peyman

2011-01-01

230

Association between food intake and oral health in elderly: SEPAHAN systematic review no. 8.  

PubMed

Dental status may influence food intake. The aim of this review was to summarize the earlier investigations on the association between food intake and dental status. We searched the electronic databases of PubMed and the Cochrane library for articles published until 30 February, 2012. To reach the related published articles, Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms of 'oral health,' 'masticatory performance,' 'dental status,' and 'eating' or 'food intake' were used. We included all research articles in the English language that (1) had used the random sampling method, and (2) had investigated the association between dental status and nutrient intake in elderly, non-denture wearer individuals, with no systemic illness. The findings of the seven original research articles had a great variation. Four of them supported a strong association between dietary intake and dental status and three of them found that there was no association between these variables. Most investigations found a significant relationship between the oral health status and nutrient intake; however, longitudinal studies were required for a better understanding of the diet-oral health relations. PMID:23372590

Kazemi, Shantia; Savabi, Ghazal; Khazaei, Saber; Savabi, Omid; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Adibi, Peyman

2011-12-01

231

THE ASSOCIATION OF RESILIENCE WITH MENTAL AND PHYSICAL HEALTH AMONG OLDER AMERICAN INDIANS: THE NATIVE ELDER CARE STUDY  

PubMed Central

We examined the association of resilience with measures of mental and physical health in a sample of older American Indians (AIs). A validated scale measuring resilience was administered to 185 noninstitutionalized AIs aged ?55 years. Unadjusted analyses revealed that higher levels of resilience were associated with lower levels of depressive symptomatology and chronic pain, and with higher levels of mental and physical health. Resilience remained significantly associated with depressive symptomatology after controlling for demographic and other health measures. Our findings suggest that resilience among older AIs has important implications for some aspects of mental and physical health.

Schure, Marc B.; Odden, Michelle; Goins, R. Turner

2013-01-01

232

Does gender moderate associations among impulsivity and health-risk behaviors?  

PubMed

The present study explores the relations among gender, impulsivity and three health-risk behaviors relevant to young adults (tobacco use, alcohol problems and gambling problems) in a sample of 197 college-age individuals. We sought to determine whether impulsivity is associated with health-risk behaviors in the same ways for men and women. For tobacco use and gambling problems, men were at higher risk than women, and impulsivity was not significantly associated with higher risk. Higher levels of motor impulsivity in men accounted for a significant amount of the gender difference in risk for alcohol problems. That is, impulsivity as measured by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (version 11), mediated the association between gender and risk for alcohol problems. For impulsivity as measured by Stop Signal Reaction Time (i.e. response inhibition), gender moderated the association between impulsivity and alcohol problems. Specifically, lower levels of impulsivity were associated with greater risk for alcohol problems in both men and women, but the effect was stronger in men. We speculate that this seemingly paradoxical result might be the result of coping drinking to deal with negative affect associated with behavioral overcontrol. These findings suggest that prevention efforts might well focus on identifying individuals at high risk for alcohol problems, especially males, by assessing response inhibition. PMID:17913380

Stoltenberg, Scott F; Batien, Bryan D; Birgenheir, Denis G

2008-02-01

233

The Moderating Role of Centrality on Associations between Ethnic Identity Affirmation and Ethnic Minority College Students' Mental Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Prior literature has shown that ethnic affirmation, one aspect of ethnic identity, is positively associated with mental health. However, the associations between ethnic affirmation and mental health may vary depending how much importance individuals place on their ethnic group membership (ie, centrality). Methods: Using path analysis,…

Brittian, Aerika S.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Lee, Richard M.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Kim, Su Yeong; Weisskirch, Robert S.; Castillo, Linda G.; Whitbourne, Susan Krauss; Hurley, Eric A.; Huynh, Que-Lam; Brown, Elissa J.; Caraway, S. Jean

2013-01-01

234

Factors associated with early menarche: results from the French Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Puberty is a transition period making physiological development a challenge adolescents have to face. Early pubertal development could be associated with higher risks of poor health. Our objective was to examine risk behaviours, physical and psychological determinants associated with early menarche (<11 years). METHODS: Early menarche was assessed in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children French cross-sectional survey. Data

Adrien Gaudineau; Virginie Ehlinger; Christophe Vayssiere; Beatrice Jouret; Catherine Arnaud; Emmanuelle Godeau

2010-01-01

235

Child Physical Abuse and Concurrence of Other Types of Child Abuse in Sweden--Associations with Health and Risk Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine the associations between child physical abuse executed by a parent or caretaker and self-rated health problems/risk-taking behaviors among teenagers. Further to evaluate concurrence of other types of abuse and how these alone and in addition to child physical abuse were associated with bad health status and risk-taking…

Annerback, E. M.; Sahlqvist, L.; Svedin, C. G.; Wingren, G.; Gustafsson, P. A.

2012-01-01

236

Women's Health Policies Associated with Obesity, Diabetes, High Blood Pressure, and Smoking: A Follow-Up on the Women's Health Report Card  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to elucidate associations between state-level policies related to women's health and state prevalence of obesity, smoking, high blood pressure, and diabetes among women. Using data from national sources compiled for Making the Grade on Women's Health: A National and State-by-State Report Card, state policies on key women's health issues were evaluated on the degree to which policies

Jennifer P. Wisdom; Yvonne L. Michael; Katrina Ramsey; Michelle Berlin

2008-01-01

237

Health of women: associations among life events, social support, and personality for selected patient groups.  

PubMed

This study examined the effects of life events, social support, personality traits, and siblings' birth-order on the health of women. 199 middle-class participants were included. 95 women, randomly assigned from four different patient groups, were compared with a control group of 96 randomly selected women without any special health problems. They completed a questionnaire which included questions regarding family background, health, different life events, social support, and signs of disease and a projective test, the Sivik Psychosomatism Test. Analysis indicated that report of negative life events was associated with more physical symptoms than positive life events and that the patient groups reported more negative life events and less social support than the control group. PMID:10778252

Norlander, T; Dahlin, A; Archer, T

2000-02-01

238

Preschool children's health and its association with parental education and individual living conditions in East and West Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Social inequalities in health exist globally and are a major public health concern. This study focus on a systematic investigation into the associations between health indicators, living conditions and parental educational level as indicator of the social status of 6-year-old children living in West and East Germany in the decade after re-unification. Explanations of observed associations between parental education

Xianming du Prel; Ursula Krämer; Heidrun Behrendt; Johannes Ring; Hanna Oppermann; Tamara Schikowski; Ulrich Ranft

2006-01-01

239

Anxiety and depression in association with morbid obesity: changes with improved physical health after duodenal switch  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with morbid obesity have an increased risk for anxiety and depression. The "duodenal switch" is perhaps the most effective obesity surgery procedure for inducing weight loss. However, to our knowledge, data on symptoms of anxiety and depression after the duodenal switch are lacking. Furthermore, it has been hypothesized that self-reported physical health is the major predictor of symptoms of depression in patients with morbid obesity. We therefore investigated the symptoms of anxiety and depression before and after the duodenal switch procedure and whether post-operative changes in self-reported physical health were predictive of changes in these symptoms. Methods Data were assessed before surgery (n = 50), and one (n = 47) and two (n = 44) years afterwards. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed by the "Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale", and self-reported physical health was assessed by the "Short-Form 36" questionnaire. Linear mixed effect models were used to investigate changes in the symptoms of anxiety and depression. Correlation and linear multiple regression analyses were used to study whether changes in self-reported physical health were predictive of post-operative changes in the symptoms of anxiety and depression. Results The symptom burden of anxiety and depression were high before surgery but were normalized one and two years afterwards (P < 0.001). The degree of improvement in self-reported physical health was associated with statistically significant reductions in the symptoms of anxiety (P = 0.003) and depression (P = 0.004). Conclusions The novelty of this study is the large and sustained reductions in the symptoms of anxiety and depression after the duodenal switch procedure, and that these changes were closely associated with improvements in self-reported physical health.

2010-01-01

240

Factors Associated With Overweight and Obesity Among Mexican Americans and Central Americans: Results From the 2001 California Health Interview Survey ORIGINAL RESEARCH  

Microsoft Academic Search

1019 Central Americans, 39.2% were overweight and 22.2% were obese. Among Mexican American men, age and marital status were associated with overweight and obesity; and education, acculturation, health insurance status, health status, and use of vitamins were associated with obesity only. Among Mexican American women, age, education, number of children, health status, and health behavior were associated with overweight and

Janice V. Bowie; Hee-Soon Juon; Juhee Cho; Elisa M. Rodriguez

241

DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH ENROLLMENT IN POST-TRIAL STUDIES: THE WOMEN'S HEALTH INITIATIVE HORMONE THERAPY TRIALS  

PubMed Central

Background After clinical trials end, continued follow-up of the assembled cohort often is desirable for additional research. Factors influencing participants’ decisions to consent to additional follow-up and how these shape post-trial cohorts have not been broadly studied. Purpose We examined how two re-enrollment campaigns and the passage of time altered features of the post-trial cohorts compared with the original Women’s Health Initiative Hormone Therapy clinical trials. Methods We examined associations that markers of socio-demography, health, lifestyle and on-trial experiences had with re-enrollment and contrasted the characteristics of successive post-trial cohorts with those of the original enrollees. Results The post-trial enrollment campaigns re-enrolled 81.1% and 82.5% of available women, respectively. Women who re-enrolled tended to have better health characteristics than those not re-enrolled. Compared to women of comparable age in the original cohort, women retained for the second post-trial follow-up less often had a history of cardiovascular disease [odds ratio OR=0.36], hypertension [OR=0.57], diabetes [OR=0.59], or measured cognitive deficit [OR=0.40]. These women more often had graduated from high school [OR=1.72] and had participated in other WHI trials [OR=1.76]. Limitations We have examined experience with creating follow-up cohorst from participants in a single study. Thus, our findings may not apply to other cohorts and protocols. Conclusions Post-trial enrollment in follow-up studies can be successful; however the characteristics of the resulting cohort may differ substantially from the originally assembled group of trial participants. Collection during the original trial of potential predictors of differential re-enrollment may facilitate re-enrollment.

Espeland, Mark A.; Pettinger, Mary; Falkner, Karen L.; Shumaker, Sally A.; Limacher, Marian; Thomas, Fridtjof; Weaver, Kathryn E.; Stefanick, Marcia L.; McQuellon, Cynthia; Hunt, Julie R.; Johnson, Karen C.

2014-01-01

242

Association of the oral health impact profile with malnutrition risk in Spanish elders.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine any relationship between oral health-related quality of life (OHR-QoL) and malnutrition risk in the elderly using the oral health impact profile (OHIP). We studied 250 institutionalized elderly people, 162 females and 88 males, with and without teeth. Data were gathered on: general health; oral health; malnutrition risk, measured with the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA); and OHR-QoL, evaluated with the OHIP. A multivariate binary logistic regression model was constructed with malnutrition presence/risk as dependent variable. Mean age was 82.7 ± 8.2 years. Malnutrition or malnutrition risk was shown by 36.8% of the sample. OHIP was associated with malnutrition/risk after adjustment for age, sex, functional status, and mild dementia diagnosis. Malnutrition/risk was 3.43-fold more likely in participants with OHIP-reported "problems" than in those with none. The conclusion of the study was that OHIP-measured OHR-QoL is associated with malnutrition risk. PMID:23763956

Gil-Montoya, J A; Ponce, G; Sánchez Lara, I; Barrios, R; Llodra, J C; Bravo, M

2013-01-01

243

Factors associated with provision of long-acting reversible contraception among adolescent health care providers  

PubMed Central

Purpose To identify provider and practice characteristics associated with long-acting reversible contraception (LARC – progesterone contraceptive implants or IUDs [intrauterine devices]) provision among adolescent health care providers. Methods We analyzed physician characteristics and self-reported provision of LARC using chi-square analyses. Multivariate logistic regressions identified factors predicting provision of any form of LARC, as well as progesterone contraceptive implants or IUDs specifically. Results In logistic regressions, residency training in obstetrics/gynecology or family medicine (rather than internal medicine/pediatrics) was the strongest predictor of LARC provision, particularly for IUDs. Practicing in suburban (rather than urban) and hospital-based (rather than private) settings was associated with lower and higher likelihoods of providing LARC respectively. Conclusions Exposure to procedural women’s health training was the strongest predictor LARC provision. Increasing the number of providers offering this type of contraception may have broad reaching consequences for adolescent pregnancy prevention, and may be most easily accomplished via contraceptive implants.

Greenberg, Katherine Blumoff; Makino, Kevin K; Coles, Mandy S

2013-01-01

244

Associations between Health Effects and Particulate Matter and Black Carbon in Subjects with Respiratory Disease  

PubMed Central

We measured fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), spirometry, blood pressure, oxygen saturation of the blood (SaO2), and pulse rate in 16 older subjects with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Seattle, Washington. Data were collected daily for 12 days. We simultaneously collected PM10 and PM2.5 (particulate matter ?10 ?m or ?2.5 ?m, respectively) filter samples at a central outdoor site, as well as outside and inside the subjects’ homes. Personal PM10 filter samples were also collected. All filters were analyzed for mass and light absorbance. We analyzed within-subject associations between health outcomes and air pollution metrics using a linear mixed-effects model with random intercept, controlling for age, ambient relative humidity, and ambient temperature. For the 7 subjects with asthma, a 10 ?g/m3 increase in 24-hr average outdoor PM10 and PM2.5 was associated with a 5.9 [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.9–8.9] and 4.2 ppb (95% CI, 1.3–7.1) increase in FENO, respectively. A 1 ?g/m3 increase in outdoor, indoor, and personal black carbon (BC) was associated with increases in FENO of 2.3 ppb (95% CI, 1.1–3.6), 4.0 ppb (95% CI, 2.0–5.9), and 1.2 ppb (95% CI, 0.2–2.2), respectively. No significant association was found between PM or BC measures and changes in spirometry, blood pressure, pulse rate, or SaO2 in these subjects. Results from this study indicate that FENO may be a more sensitive marker of PM exposure than traditional health outcomes and that particle-associated BC is useful for examining associations between primary combustion constituents of PM and health outcomes.

Jansen, Karen L.; Larson, Timothy V.; Koenig, Jane Q.; Mar, Therese F.; Fields, Carrie; Stewart, Jim; Lippmann, Morton

2005-01-01

245

Identifying dietary patterns and associated health-related lifestyle factors in the adult Danish population.  

PubMed

Background/objectives:To identify and describe dietary patterns in Danish adults and to examine which demographic and health-related lifestyle factors are associated with dietary patterns.Subjects/methods:Data derived from the Danish national survey of diet and physical activity collected in 2003-2008 and included 1569 men and 1785 women. Diet was assessed by a 7-day pre-coded food diary. Information on age, gender, weight, height, physical activity, smoking habits, educational level and attitudes towards healthy eating habits was derived from face-to-face interviews. Principal component analysis was applied to explore dietary patterns. Associations with lifestyle factors were examined by means of multiple regression analyses.Results:Three major dietary patterns were identified: a 'traditional' pattern correlated with intake of rye bread, white bread, fat on bread, cheese, jam, cold meat, minced meat, potatoes and gravy, and cake and biscuits; a 'health-conscious' pattern correlated with coarse bread, fruit, vegetables, low-fat dairy, nuts, water and tea; and a 'fast food' pattern correlated with pizza, hamburger/spring rolls, crisps, rice and pasta, sugar-sweetened soft drinks and sweets. The 'traditional' pattern was positively associated with male gender and age, whereas the 'health-conscious' pattern was positively associated with being female, increasing age and educational level. The 'fast food' pattern was inversely associated with age and smoking.Conclusions:Three distinct dietary patterns were identified, and associated lifestyle and demographic factors were characterised. The findings are valuable in targeting future nutrition education and will enable more focused strategies in communicating food-based dietary guidelines. PMID:24642781

Knudsen, V K; Matthiessen, J; Biltoft-Jensen, A; Sørensen, M R; Groth, M V; Trolle, E; Christensen, T; Fagt, S

2014-06-01

246

The Demographic Assessment for Health Literacy (DAHL): A New Tool for Estimating Associations between Health Literacy and Outcomes in National Surveys  

PubMed Central

Objective To impute limited health literacy from commonly measured socio-demographic data and to compare it to the Short-Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA) for estimating the influence of limited health literacy on health status in the elderly. Methods The Prudential Medicare Study assesses the S-TOFHLA score, leading to a “reference standard” classification of 25% of people with inadequate literacy; the National Health Interview Survey has no such assessment. We estimated a regression of S-TOFHLA on sex, age, years of schooling, and race/ethnicity in The Prudential Medicare Study data to derive a Demographic Assessment for Health Literacy (DAHL) score, and imputed inadequate literacy to the 25% with the lowest DAHL scores. Using regression, we then examined associations between several health status measures (including hypertension, diabetes, physical and mental SF-12) and inadequate literacy (imputed or test-based). Results Estimates of association using imputed inadequate literacy closely approximate those obtained using S-TOFHLA-based inadequate literacy for most outcomes examined. Conclusions As few population surveys measure health literacy, the DAHL, a readily calculated health literacy proxy score, may be useful for expanding the scope of health literacy research in national survey data.

Ash, Arlene S.; Gazmararian, Julie A.; Wolf, Michael S.; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K.

2008-01-01

247

The association between academic achievement and health status among eighth-grade Hispanic students in Houston  

Microsoft Academic Search

This cross-sectional study examines the association between health and academic achievement among Hispanic eighth-grade students in the Houston Independent School District. As part of the district's 3 year Safe Schools\\/Healthy Students Initiative to enhance comprehensive educational programs, a brief anonymous questionnaire was administered in the classroom to 359 students in two schools during a one-month period in the early part

Barbara Joan Low

2001-01-01

248

Hypercalcaemia is associated with poor mental health in haemodialysis patients: results from Japan DOPPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS) reported high incidence of depression in haemodialysis patients. Hypercalcaemia and high parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels are aetiological factors of psychological disorders. We examined the association between mineral metabolism abnormalities and mental health in Japanese-DOPPS patients. Methods. We used baseline data of Japan-DOPPS, Phase 1 (2755 patients, 1999-2001) and Phase 2 (2286

Motoko Tanaka; Shin Yamazaki; Yasuaki Hayashino; Shunichi Fukuhara; Takashi Akiba; Akira Saito; Yasushi Asano; Friedrich K. Port; Kiyoshi Kurokawa; Tadao Akizawa

2007-01-01

249

British Association for Sexual Health and HIV: framework for guideline development and assessment.  

PubMed

This article has been prepared by the Clinical Effectiveness Group (CEG) of the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) to specify the methodology BASHH requires for guideline development and the process of guideline evaluation by the CEG. This replaces the specifications for the development of UK guidelines on the management of sexually transmitted infections and closely related conditions previously published in this journal in 2004 and updated in 2005. PMID:20852192

Kingston, M; Radcliffe, K; Daniels, D; FitzGerald, M; Lazaro, N; McCarthy, G; Sullivan, A

2010-07-01

250

A house divided: deinstitutionalization, medicare and the Canadian Mental Health Association in Saskatchewan, 1944-1964.  

PubMed

Defined as a set of distinct processes that included the declining use of large psychiatric institutions and the increasing use of outpatient services and general hospitals, deinstitutionalization occurred earlier in Saskatchewan than other provinces in Canada. It was led by a CCF government dedicated to major change across a number of sectors including mental health, assisted by one of the most influential and well-organized social movement organizations of the 1950s, the Saskatchewan Division of the Canadian Mental Health Association (SCMHA). However, by the late 1950s and early 1960s, the SCMHA opposed the CCF government's policy priority on medicare which it felt came at the expense of mental health care, in particular the implementation of a regional psychiatric hospital system called the Saskatchewan Plan. As a consequence, the SCMHA, once such a powerful ally of the CCF government in health reform, formed a strategic and temporary coalition with the anti-medicare forces in the province. Given the fact that a number of medical staff within the government's department of public health were prominent members of the SCMHA, the CCF government found that it occupied an increasingly divided house at the very time it was struggling to introduce medicare in the midst of civil unrest and a doctors' strike. PMID:22514869

Marchildon, Gregory P

2011-01-01

251

Methods of estimating or accounting for neighborhood associations with health using complex survey data.  

PubMed

Reasons for health disparities may include neighborhood-level factors, such as availability of health services, social norms, and environmental determinants, as well as individual-level factors. Investigating health inequalities using nationally or locally representative data often requires an approach that can accommodate a complex sampling design, in which individuals have unequal probabilities of selection into the study. The goal of the present article is to review and compare methods of estimating or accounting for neighborhood influences with complex survey data. We considered 3 types of methods, each generalized for use with complex survey data: ordinary regression, conditional likelihood regression, and generalized linear mixed-model regression. The relative strengths and weaknesses of each method differ from one study to another; we provide an overview of the advantages and disadvantages of each method theoretically, in terms of the nature of the estimable associations and the plausibility of the assumptions required for validity, and also practically, via a simulation study and 2 epidemiologic data analyses. The first analysis addresses determinants of repeat mammography screening use using data from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey. The second analysis addresses disparities in preventive oral health care using data from the 2008 Florida Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey. PMID:24723000

Brumback, Babette A; Cai, Zhuangyu; Dailey, Amy B

2014-05-15

252

Associations of Environmental Factors With Elderly Health and Mortality in China  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined the effects of community socioeconomic conditions, air pollution, and the physical environment on elderly health and survival in China. Methods. We analyzed data from a nationally representative sample of 15 973 elderly residents of 866 counties and cities with multilevel logistic regression models in which individuals were nested within each county or city. Results. After control for individual-level factors, communities' gross domestic product per capita, adult labor force participation rate, and illiteracy rate were significantly associated with physical, mental, and overall health and mortality among the elderly in China. We also found that air pollution increased the odds of disability in activities of daily living (ADLs), cognitive impairment, and health deficits; more rainfall was protective, reducing the odds of ADL disability and cognitive impairment; low seasonal temperatures increased the odds of ADL disability and mortality; high seasonal temperatures increased the odds of cognitive impairment and deficits; and living in hilly areas decreased the odds of ADL disability and health deficits. Conclusions. Efforts to reduce pollution and improve socioeconomic conditions could significantly improve elderly health and survival.

Gu, Danan; Purser, Jama; Hoenig, Helen; Christakis, Nicholas

2010-01-01

253

Is Neighborhood Access to Health Care Provision Associated with Individual-Level Utilization and Satisfaction?  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore whether travel time access to the nearest general practitioner (GP) surgery (which is equivalent to U.S. primary care physician [PCP] office) and pharmacy predicts individual-level health service utilization and satisfaction. Data Sources GP and pharmacy addresses were obtained from the New Zealand Ministry of Health in 2003 and merged with a geographic boundaries data set. Travel times derived from these data were appended to the 2002/03 New Zealand Health Survey (N = 12,529). Study Design Multilevel logistic regression was used to model the relationship between travel time access and five health service outcomes: GP consultation, blood pressure test, cholesterol test, visit to pharmacy, and satisfaction with latest GP consultation. Data Collection/Extraction Travel times between each census meshblock centroid and the nearest GP and pharmacy were calculated using Geographical Information System. Principal Findings When travel times were long, blood pressure tests were less likely in urban areas (odds ratio [OR] 0.75 [0.59–0.97]), GP consultations were less likely in rural centers (OR 0.42 [0.22–0.78]) and pharmacy visits were less likely in highly rural areas (OR 0.36 [0.13–0.99]). There was some evidence of lower utilization in rural areas. Conclusions Locational access to GP surgeries and pharmacies appears to sometimes be associated with health service use but not satisfaction.

Hiscock, Rosemary; Pearce, Jamie; Blakely, Tony; Witten, Karen

2008-01-01

254

Hospital Staffing and Health Care-Associated Infections: A Systematic Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

In the past 10 years, many researchers have examined relationships between hospital staffing and patients’ risk of health care–associated infection (HAI). To gain understanding of this evidence base, a systematic review was conducted, and 42 articles were audited. The most common infection studied was bloodstream infection (n=18; 43%). The majority of researchers examined nurse staffing (n=38; 90%); of these, only 7 (18%) did not find a statistically significant association between nurse staffing variable(s) and HAI rates. Use of nonpermanent staff was associated with increased rates of HAI in 4 studies (P < .05). Three studies addressed infection control professional staffing with mixed results. Physician staffing was not found to be associated with patients’ HAI risk (n=2). The methods employed and operational definitions used for both staffing and HAI varied; despite this variability, trends were apparent. Research characterizing effective staffing for infection control departments is needed.

Stone, Patricia W.; Pogorzelska, Monika; Kunches, Laureen; Hirschhorn, Lisa R.

2009-01-01

255

Association of ventilation with health and other responses in commercial and institutional buildings  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents a summary of a review [1] of current literature on the associations of ventilation rates in non-residential and non-industrial buildings (primarily offices) with health and other human outcomes. Twenty studies, with close to 30,000 subjects, investigated the association of ventilation rates with human responses. (Twenty one studies investigating the association of carbon dioxide with human responses, although included in the previous review, are not summarized here.) Almost all studies including ventilation rates below 10 Ls{sup -1} per person found these ventilation rates to be associated in all building types with statistically significant worsening in one or more health or perceived air quality outcomes. Some studies comparing only ventilation rates above 10 Ls{sup -1} per person determined that increases in ventilation rate above 10 Ls{sup -1} per person, up to approximately 20 Ls{sup -1} per person, were associated with further significant decreases in the prevalence of SBS symptoms or with further significant improvements in perceived air quality. The studies reported relative risks of 1.5-2 for respiratory illnesses and 1.1-6 for sick building syndrome symptoms for low compared to high ventilation rates.

Seppanen, Olli; Fisk, William J.; Mendell, Mark J.

2000-08-01

256

The Association between Proximity to Animal Feeding Operations and Community Health: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background A systematic review was conducted for the association between animal feeding operations (AFOs) and the health of individuals living near AFOs. Methodology/Principal Findings The review was restricted to studies reporting respiratory, gastrointestinal and mental health outcomes in individuals living near AFOs in North America, European Union, United Kingdom, and Scandinavia. From June to September 2008 searches were conducted in PUBMED, CAB, Web-of-Science, and Agricola with no restrictions. Hand searching of narrative reviews was also used. Two reviewers independently evaluated the role of chance, confounding, information, selection and analytic bias on the study outcome. Nine relevant studies were identified. The studies were heterogeneous with respect to outcomes and exposures assessed. Few studies reported an association between surrogate clinical outcomes and AFO proximity. A negative association was reported when odor was the measure of exposure to AFOs and self-reported disease, the measure of outcome. There was evidence of an association between self-reported disease and proximity to AFO in individuals annoyed by AFO odor. Conclusions/Significance There was inconsistent evidence of a weak association between self-reported disease in people with allergies or familial history of allergies. No consistent dose response relationship between exposure and disease was observable.

O'Connor, Annette M.; Auvermann, Brent; Bickett-Weddle, Danelle; Kirkhorn, Steve; Sargeant, Jan M.; Ramirez, Alejandro; Von Essen, Susanna G.

2010-01-01

257

A conditional expectation approach for associating ambient air pollutant exposures with health outcomes  

PubMed Central

Our research focuses on the association between exposure to an airborne pollutant and counts of emergency department visits attributed to a specific chronic illness. The motivating example for this analysis of measurement error in time series studies of air pollution and acute health outcomes was a study of emergency department visits from a 20-county Atlanta metropolitan statistical area from 1993–1999. The research presented illustrates the impact of using various surrogates for unobserved measurements of ambient concentrations at the zip code level. Simulation results indicate that the impact of measurement error on the association between pollutant exposure and a health outcome can be substantial. The proposed conditional expectation approach provided reliable estimates of the association and exhibited good confidence interval coverage for a variety of magnitudes of association. Use of a single-centrally located monitor, the arithmetic average, the nearest-neighbor monitor, and the inverse-distance weighted average surrogates resulted in biased estimates and poor coverage rates, especially for larger magnitudes of the association. A focus on obtaining reasonable exposure measurements within clearly defined subregions is important when the pollutant exposure of interest exhibits strong spatial variability.

Wannemuehler, Kathleen A.; Lyles, Robert H.; Waller, Lance A.; Hoekstra, Robert M.; Klein, Mitchel; Tolbert, Paige

2009-01-01

258

Betrayal trauma among homeless adults: associations with revictimization, psychological well-being, and health.  

PubMed

Betrayal trauma theory postulates that traumas perpetrated by a caregiver or close other are more detrimental to mental health functioning than are traumatic experiences in which the victim is not affiliated closely with the perpetrator. This study is the first to examine the concept of betrayal among a sample of individuals with a history of homelessness. A total of 95 homeless or formerly homeless adults completed the Brief Betrayal Trauma Survey, the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale the Perceived Stress Scale, and a demographics questionnaire assessing participants' histories of homelessness, health, and relationships with their families. Regression analyses were conducted to explore the associations between high betrayal (HB) and low betrayal (LB) trauma exposure, relationship with family, and physical and mental health symptoms. Exposure to HB traumas in childhood and poor family relationships predicted earlier age at first episode of homelessness, and participants who had been exposed to a greater number of traumas during childhood were more likely to be revictimized during adulthood. Trauma exposure as an adult and earlier age of first homeless episode predicted symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, while trauma exposure alone predicted symptoms of depression and perceived stress. Number of medical diagnoses was associated with trauma exposure and becoming homeless at an older age. These findings emphasize that even among the most marginalized and multiply victimized individuals in our society, traumas that are characterized by a higher degree of betrayal are associated with more adverse outcomes. PMID:24257592

Mackelprang, Jessica L; Klest, Bridget; Najmabadi, Shadae J; Valley-Gray, Sarah; Gonzalez, Efrain A; Cash, Ralph E Gene

2014-04-01

259

Induced Abortion and Associated Factors in Health Facilities of Guraghe Zone, Southern Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Unsafe abortion is one of the major medical and public health problems in developing countries including Ethiopia. However, there is a lack of up-to-date and reliable information on induced abortion distribution and its determinant factors in the country. This study was intended to assess induced abortion and associated factors in health facilities of Guraghe zone, Southern Ethiopia. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted in eight health facilities in Guraghe zone. Client exit interview was conducted on 400 patients using a structured questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with induced abortion. Out of 400 women, 75.5% responded that the current pregnancy that ended in abortion is unwanted. However, only 12.3% of the respondents have admitted interference to the current pregnancy. Having more than four pregnancies (AOR?=?4.28, CI: (1.24–14.71)), age of 30–34 years (AOR?=?0.15, CI: (0.04–0.55)), primary education (AOR?=?0.26, CI: (0.13–0.88)), and wanted pregnancy (AOR?=?0.44, CI: (0.14–0.65)) were found to have association with induced abortion. The study revealed high level of induced abortion which is underpinned by high magnitude of unwanted pregnancy. There is requirement for widespread expansion of increased access to high quality family planning service and post-abortion care.

Hambisa, Mitiku Teshome; Semahegn, Agumasie

2014-01-01

260

Health and health-related quality of life among treatment-seeking overweight and obese adults: associations with internalized weight bias  

PubMed Central

Background Weight bias is widespread and has numerous harmful consequences. The internalization of weight bias has been associated with significant psychological impairment. Other forms of discrimination, such as racial and anti-gay bias, have been shown to be associated with physical health impairment. However, research has not yet examined whether internalized weight bias is associated with physical as well as psychological impairment in health-related quality of life. Methods Participants included 120 treatment-seeking overweight and obese adults (mean body mass index = 35.09; mean age = 48.31; 68% female; 59% mixed or Asian ethnicity). Participants were administered measures of internalized weight bias and physical and mental health-related quality of life, and they were assessed for the presence of chronic medical conditions, use of prescription and non-prescription medications, and current exercise. Results Internalized weight bias was significantly correlated with health impairment in both physical (r = ?.25) and mental (r = ?.48) domains. In multivariate analyses controlling for body mass index, age, and other physical health indicators, internalized weight bias significantly and independently predicted impairment in both physical (? = ?.31) and mental (? = ?.47) health. Conclusions Internalized weight bias was associated with greater impairment in both the physical and mental domains of health-related quality of life. Internalized weight bias also contributed significantly to the variance in physical and mental health impairment over and above the contributions of BMI, age, and medical comorbidity. Consistent with the association between prejudice and physical health in other minority groups, these findings suggest a link between the effects of internalized weight-based discrimination and physical health. Research is needed on strategies to prevent weight bias and its internalization on both a societal and individual level.

2013-01-01

261

Navajo Environmental Health Review by the National Environmental Health Association (Window Rock, Arizona, May 24-27, 1976).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Indian Health Committee met with key staff of the Indian Health Service (IHS) Area Office to review the environmental health services provided on the Navajo Reservation and make recommendations for improvement or expansion of current programs, if needed. Recommendations were made regarding environmental health and institutional personnel,…

Navajo Health Authority, Window Rock, AZ.

262

Analysis of the Diffusion of Values and Attitudes Associated with the Comprehensive Health Planning Model of Health Care.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study of the diffusion of values in the health system was carried out. The purpose of the research was to test hypotheses about the diffusion of health planning values throughout the health system and the impact of the values on health behavior. A strat...

R. L. Nuttall R. S. Bolan

1977-01-01

263

The Association of Community Health Indicators With Outcomes for Kidney Transplant Recipients in the United States  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the association of community health indicators with outcomes for kidney transplant recipients. Design Retrospective observational cohort study using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. Setting Transplant recipients in the United States from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients merged with health indicators compiled from several national databases and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, including the National Center for Health Statistics, the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, and the National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Patients A total of 100 164 living and deceased donor adult (aged ?18 years) kidney transplant recipients who underwent a transplant between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2010. Main Outcome Measures Risk-adjusted time to post-transplant mortality and graft loss. Results Multiple health indicators from recipients’ residence were independently associated with outcomes, in cluding low birth weight, preventable hospitalizations, inactivity rate, and smoking and obesity prevalence. Recipients in the highest-risk counties were more likely to be African American (adjusted odds ratio, 1.59, 95% CI, 1.51-1.68), to be younger (aged 18-39 years; 1.46; 1.32-1.60), to have lower educational attainment (health indicators and posttransplant mortality, including notable hazard associated with the highest-risk counties (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.13-1.40). Conclusions In a national cohort of patients undergoing complex medical procedures, health indicators from patients’ communities are strong independent predictors of all-cause mortality. Findings highlight the importance of community conditions for risk stratification of patients and development of individualized treatment protocols. Findings also demonstrate that standard risk adjustment does not capture important factors that may affect unbiased performance evaluations of transplant centers.

Schold, Jesse D.; Buccini, Laura D.; Kattan, Michael W.; Goldfarb, David A.; Flechner, Stuart M.; Srinivas, Titte R.; Poggio, Emilio D.; Fatica, Richard; Kayler, Liise K.; Sehgal, Ashwini R.

2013-01-01

264

It Gets Better: Resolution of Internalized Homophobia over Time and Associations with Positive Health Outcomes among MSM  

PubMed Central

Health disparities research among gay and bisexual men has focused primarily on risk and deficits. However, a focus on resiliencies within this population may greatly benefit health promotion. We describe a pattern of resilience (internalized homophobia (IHP) resolution) over the life-course and its associations with current health outcomes. 1,541 gay and bisexual men from the Multi-Center AIDS Cohort study, an ongoing prospective study of the natural and treated histories of HIV, completed a survey about life-course events thought to be related to health. The majority of men resolved IHP over time independent of demographics. Men who resolved IHP had significantly higher odds of positive health outcomes compared to those who did not. These results provide evidence of resilience among participants that is associated with positive health outcomes. Understanding resiliencies and incorporating them into interventions may help to promote health and well-being among gay and bisexual men.

Herrick, Amy L.; Stall, Ron; Chmiel, Joan S.; Guadamuz, Thomas E.; Penniman, Typhanye; Shoptaw, Steven; Ostrow, David; Plankey, Michael w.

2013-01-01

265

It gets better: resolution of internalized homophobia over time and associations with positive health outcomes among MSM.  

PubMed

Health disparities research among gay and bisexual men has focused primarily on risk and deficits. However, a focus on resiliencies within this population may greatly benefit health promotion. We describe a pattern of resilience (internalized homophobia (IHP) resolution) over the life-course and its associations with current health outcomes. 1,541 gay and bisexual men from the Multi-Center AIDS Cohort study, an ongoing prospective study of the natural and treated histories of HIV, completed a survey about life-course events thought to be related to health. The majority of men resolved IHP over time independent of demographics. Men who resolved IHP had significantly higher odds of positive health outcomes compared to those who did not. These results provide evidence of resilience among participants that is associated with positive health outcomes. Understanding resiliencies and incorporating them into interventions may help to promote health and well-being among gay and bisexual men. PMID:23283578

Herrick, Amy L; Stall, Ron; Chmiel, Joan S; Guadamuz, Thomas E; Penniman, Typhanye; Shoptaw, Steven; Ostrow, David; Plankey, Michael W

2013-05-01

266

Is there an association between disease ignorance and self-rated health? The HUNT Study, a cross-sectional survey  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore whether awareness versus unawareness of thyroid dysfunction, diabetes mellitus or hypertension is associated with self-rated health. Design Large-scale, cross-sectional population-based study. The association between thyroid function, diabetes mellitus and blood pressure and self-rated health was explored by multiple logistic regression analysis. Setting The second survey of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, HUNT2, 1995–1997. Participants 33?734 persons aged 40–70?years. Primary outcome measures Logistic regression was used to estimate ORs for good self-rated health as a function of thyroid status, diabetes mellitus status and blood pressure status. Results Persons aware of their hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus or hypertension reported poorer self-rated health than individuals without such conditions. Women with unknown and subclinical hypothyroidism reported better self-rated health than women with normal thyroid status. In women and men, unknown and probable diabetes as well as unknown mild/moderate hypertension was not associated with poorer health. Furthermore, persons with unknown severe hypertension reported better health than normotensive persons. Conclusions People with undiagnosed but prevalent hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus and hypertension often have good self-rated health, while when aware of their diagnoses, they report reduced self-rated health. Use of screening, more sensitive tests and widened diagnostic criteria might have a negative effect on perceived health in the population.

J?rgensen, Pal; Langhammer, Arnulf; Krokstad, Steinar; Forsmo, Siri

2014-01-01

267

Are doctors and nurses associated with coverage of essential health services in developing countries? A cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background There is broad policy consensus that a shortage of doctors and nurses is a key constraint to increasing utilization of essential health services important for achieving the health Millennium Development Goals. However there is limited research on the quantitative links between health workers and service coverage rates. We examined the relationship between doctor and nurse concentrations and utilization rates of five essential health services in developing countries. Methods We performed cross-national analyses of low- and middle-income countries by means of ordinary least squares regression with coverage rates of antenatal care, attended delivery, caesarean section, measles immunization, tuberculosis case diagnosis and care for acute respiratory infection as outcomes. Doctor, nurse and aggregate health worker (sum of doctors and nurses) concentrations were the main explanatory variables. Results Nurses were associated with utilization of skilled birth attendants (P = 0.02) and doctors were associated with measles immunization rates (P = 0.01) in separate adjusted analyses. Aggregate health workers were associated with the utilization of skilled birth attendants (P < 0.01) and measles immunization (P < 0.01). Doctors, nurses and aggregate health workers were not associated with the remaining four services. Conclusion A range of health system and population-level factors aside from health workers influences coverage of health services in developing countries. However, it is also plausible that health workers who are neither doctors nor nurses, such as clinical officers and community health workers, may be providing a substantial proportion of health services. The human resources for health research agenda should be expanded beyond doctors and nurses.

Kruk, Margaret E; Prescott, Marta R; de Pinho, Helen; Galea, Sandro

2009-01-01

268

The association between health information exchange and measures of patient satisfaction  

PubMed Central

Objective Health information exchange (HIE) is the interorganizational sharing of patient information and is one of many health information technology initiatives expected to transform the U.S. healthcare system. Two outcomes expected to be improved by HIE are patient-provider communication and patient satisfaction . This analysis examined the relationship between the level of HIE engagement and these two factors in a sample of U.S. hospitals. Methods Independent variables came from existing secondary sources and the dependent measures were from the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems. The analysis included 3,278 hospitals. Using ordinary least squares regression, implemented HIE was positively associated with the percentage of patients reporting nurses communicated well and higher satisfaction. Due to the potential for selection bias, results were further explored using a propensity score analysis. Results Hospitals that had adopted HIE, but not yet implemented saw no benefits. Hospitals’ level of HIE was not associated with the percentage of patients reporting doctors communicated well. According to propensity score corrected estimates, implemented HIE was associated with the percentage of patients who reported nurses always communicated well and who would definitely recommend the hospital. Conclusion Few studies have examined the impact of HIE at the organizational level. This examination provides some evidence that hospitals engaging in HIE are associated with higher patient satisfaction.

Vest, J.R.; Miller, T.R.

2011-01-01

269

The Association of Benefit Finding to Psychosocial and Health Behavior Adaptation Among HIV+ Men and Women  

PubMed Central

Psychological and behavioral adaptation to HIV is integral to long-term survival. Although most research on coping with HIV has focused on factors associated with poor adaptation, recent research has expanded to include positive concomitants of adaptation, such as benefit finding. This study examined the occurrence of benefit finding among HIV+ men and women and evaluated the potential relevance of benefit finding to positive health behavior and psychosocial adaptation. HIV+ participants (N = 221) recruited during outpatient care completed self-report assessments of benefit finding, social support, depression, HAART adherence, substance use, and physical activity. In a series of multivariate analyses that controlled for demographic and health status variables, benefit finding was associated with lower depression scores, greater social support, and more physical activity, but showed no association to HAART adherence or substance use. The association of benefit finding to depression was partially mediated by differences in social support. Thus, benefit finding may improve psychological adjustment by motivating patients who experience stress-related growth to seek improved social support.

Littlewood, Rae A.; Vanable, Peter A.; Carey, Michael P.; Blair, Donald C.

2008-01-01

270

Psychosocial risk factors in home and community settings and their associations with population health and health inequalities: A systematic meta-review  

PubMed Central

Background The effects of psychosocial risk factors on population health and health inequalities has featured prominently in epidemiological research literature as well as public health policy strategies. We have conducted a meta-review (a review of reviews) exploring how psychosocial factors may relate to population health in home and community settings. Methods Systematic review (QUORUM) of literature reviews (published in any language or country) on the health associations of psychosocial risk factors in community settings. The literature search included electronic and manual searches. Two reviewers appraised included reviews using criteria for assessing systematic reviews. Data from the more robust reviews were extracted, tabulated and synthesised. Results Thirty-one reviews met our inclusion criteria. These explored a variety of psychosocial factors including social support and networks, social capital, social cohesion, collective efficacy, participation in local organisations – and less favourable psychosocial risk factors such as demands, exposure to community violence or anti-social behaviour, exposure to discrimination, and stress related to acculturation to western society. Most of the reviews focused on associations between social networks/support and physical or mental health. We identified some evidence of favourable psychosocial environments associated with better health. Reviews also found evidence of unfavourable psychosocial risk factors linked to poorer health, particularly among socially disadvantaged groups. However, the more robust reviews each identified studies with inconclusive findings, as well as studies finding evidence of associations. We also identified some evidence of apparently favourable psychosocial risk factors associated with poorer health. Conclusion From the review literature we have synthesised, where associations have been identified, they generally support the view that favourable psychosocial environments go hand in hand with better health. Poor psychosocial environments may be health damaging and contribute to health inequalities. The evidence that underpins our understanding of these associations is of variable quality and consistency. Future research should seek to improve this evidence base, with more longitudinal analysis (and intervention evaluations) of the effects of apparently under-researched psychosocial factors such as control and participation within communities. Future policy interventions relevant to this field should be developed in partnership with researchers to enable a better understanding of psychosocial mechanisms and the effects of psychosocial interventions.

Egan, Matt; Tannahill, Carol; Petticrew, Mark; Thomas, Sian

2008-01-01

271

Neurologic Symptoms Associated With Raising Poultry and Swine Among Participants in the Agricultural Health Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) is the leading cause of acute peripheral neuropathy worldwide, often associated with recent foodborne infection with Campylobacter jejuni. In this cross-sectional analysis of data from the Agricultural Health Study, we tested whether swine and poultry exposure were associated with increased prevalence of GBS-like neurologic symptoms. Methods Using multivariate analysis, we tested the symptoms such as numbness and weakness, relevant to inflammatory peripheral neuropathies, among farmers with self-reported occupational poultry or swine exposure compared with farmers who reported no occupational animal exposure. Results Among swine farmers/workers, prevalence of weakness and numbness were increased (P< 0.05). Among poultry farmers/workers, prevalence of weakness and numbness were increased, but increased prevalence of weakness was not statistically significant. Conclusions Occupational contact with live poultry or swine, potentially related to C. jejuni exposure, was associated with increased reporting of GBS-like symptoms.

Davis, Meghan F.; Kamel, Freya; Hoppin, Jane A.; Alavanja, Michael CR; Freeman, Laura Beane; Gray, Gregory C.; Nelson, Kenrad; Silbergeld, Ellen

2011-01-01

272

The association between academic engagement and achievement in health sciences students  

PubMed Central

Background Educational institutions play an important role in encouraging student engagement, being necessary to know how engaged are students at university and if this factor is involved in student success point and followed. To explore the association between academic engagement and achievement. Methods Cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of 304 students of Health Sciences. They were asked to fill out an on-line questionnaire. Academic achievements were calculated using three types of measurement. Results Positive correlations were found in all cases. Grade point average was the academic rate most strongly associated with engagement dimensions and this association is different for male and female students. The independent variables could explain between 18.9 and 23.9% of the variance (p?

2013-01-01

273

Association between religiousness and blood donation among Brazilian postgraduate students from health-related areas  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to examine the association between religiousness and blood donation among postgraduate students. Methods The Portuguese-language version of the Duke University Religion Index was administered to a sample of 226 Brazilian students with ages ranging from 22 to 55 years. All study participants had completed undergraduate courses in health-related areas. Results In the present study, 23.5% of the students were regular donors. Organizational religiousness was found to be associated with attitudes related to blood donation. This study also shows evidence that regular blood donors have a higher intrinsic religiousness than subjects who donate only once and do not return. Conclusion This study shows that the attitudes concerning blood donation may have some association with religiosity.

Zangiacomi Martinez, Edson; dos Santos Almeida, Rodrigo Guimaraes; Garcia Braz, Ana Carolina; Duarte de Carvalho, Antonio Carlos

2014-01-01

274

Translating Health Care-Associated Urinary Tract Infection Prevention Research into Practice via the Bladder Bundle  

PubMed Central

Article-at-a-Glance Background: Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), a frequent health care–associated infection (HAI), is a costly and common condition resulting in patient discomfort, activity restriction, and hospital discharge delays. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) no longer reimburses hospitals for the extra cost of caring for patients who develop CAUTI. The Michigan Health and Hospital Association (MHA) Keystone Center for Patient Safety & Quality has initiated a statewide initiative, MHA Keystone HAI, to help ameliorate the burden of disease associated with indwelling catheterization. In addition, a long-term research project is being conducted to evaluate the current initiative and to identify practical strategies to ensure the effective use of proven infection prevention and patient safety practices. Overview of the Bladder Bundle Initiative in Michigan: The bladder bundle as conceived by MHA Keystone HAI focuses on preventing CAUTI by optimizing the use of urinary catheters with a specific emphasis on continual assessment and catheter removal as soon as possible, especially for patients without a clear indication. Collaboration Between Researchers and State wide Patient Safety Organizations: A synergistic collaboration between patient safety researchers and a statewide patient safety organization is aimed at identifying effective strategies to move evidence from peer-reviewed literature to the bedside. Practical strategies that facilitate implementation of the bundle will be developed and tested using mixed quantitative and qualitative methods. Discussion: Simply disseminating scientific evidence is often ineffective in changing clinical practice. Therefore, learning how to implement these findings is critically important to promoting high-quality care and a safe health care environment.

Saint, Sanjay; Olmsted, Russell N.; Fakih, Mohamad G.; Kowalski, Christine P.; Watson, Sam R.; Sales, Anne E.; Krein, Sarah L.

2009-01-01

275

The mechanisms that associate community social capital with post-disaster mental health: a multilevel model.  

PubMed

Many scholars have advocated that the time has come to provide empirical evidence of the mechanisms that associate community social capital with individual disaster mental health. For this purpose we conducted a study (n = 232) one year after a flood (2008) in Morpeth, a rural town in northern England. We selected posttraumatic stress as an indicator of disaster mental health. Our multilevel model shows that high community social capital is indirectly salutary for individual posttraumatic stress. In particular, in communities (defined as postcode areas) with high structural social capital, the results suggest that individuals confide in the social context (high cognitive social capital) to address disaster-related demands (high collective efficacy), and employ less individual psychosocial resources (i.e. coping strategies and social support). This "conservation of individual psychosocial resources" in a salutary social context decreases the association between the appraisal of the disaster and posttraumatic stress. As a result of this mechanism, individuals suffer less from posttraumatic stress in communities with high social capital. These findings provide new insights how intervention policies aimed at strengthening both objective and subjective dimensions of social capital may reduce post-disaster mental health. PMID:22883254

Wind, Tim R; Komproe, Ivan H

2012-11-01

276

The association between criminal history and mental health service use among people with serious mental illness.  

PubMed

This study examined the extent to which a criminal history is associated with the use of various mental health services as well as related service use predictors among people with serious mental illness (SMI). Data were obtained from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. The sample consisted of 1,588 adults with SMI, including major depressive disorder (n = 1,398) and bipolar disorder (n = 190). Chi square tests were conducted to compare respondent characteristics based upon the presence/absence of a criminal history. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine various mental health services usage among respondents while controlling for predisposing, enabling, and need factors. Approximately 30 % of respondents reported a criminal history. Those with a criminal history were more likely to use specialty mental health services (OR = 1.42, p < 0.05). Findings suggest that the criminal justice system may be serving as a substantial referrer to mental health services or that there is higher morbidity among people with SMI who have been justice involved. PMID:23783440

Matejkowski, Jason; Lee, Sungkyu; Han, Woojae

2014-03-01

277

Factors associated with job satisfaction among Chinese community health workers: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background With the medical reform, the function of community health centres emerged to be more important recently in China. However, the health service capabilities were tremendously different between metropolitan cities and small cities. This study aims to clarify the level of job satisfaction of Chinese community health workers between a metropolitan (Shenyang) and a small city (Benxi) in Liaoning province and explore its associated factors. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted from December 2009 to February 2010. A multi-stage sample was used and a total of 2,100 Chinese community health workers from the two cities completed self-administered questionnaire pertaining to job satisfaction indicated by Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ), demographic characteristic and working situations, stress and job burnout. The effective response rate was 80.7%. Hierarchical regression analysis was performed to explore the related factors. All data analyses for the two cities were performed separately. Results The averages of overall job satisfaction score of Chinese community health workers were 67.17 in Shenyang and 69.95 in Benxi. Intrinsic job satisfaction and extrinsic job satisfaction among Chinese community health workers were significantly different between Shenyang and Benxi (p < 0.05). In Shenyang, hierarchical regression analysis showed that the fourth model explained 36%, 32% of the variance of intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfactions, respectively. In Benxi, the fourth model explained 48%, 52% of the variance of intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfactions, respectively. Three significant predictors of intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfactions for the two cities were the two dimensions (social support and decision latitude) of stress and cynicism of burnout. Conclusion From this study, the job satisfaction among Chinese community health workers in the two cities enjoyed a moderate level of job satisfactions, which represented they are not fully satisfied with their jobs. Community health workers in Shenyang had lower job satisfaction as compared to those in Benxi. This study strengthened the evidence that stress and burnout were important predictors of intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfactions.

2011-01-01

278

Telomere-associated polymorphisms correlate with cardiovascular disease mortality in Caucasian women: The Cardiovascular Health Study  

PubMed Central

Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, it is unclear if LTL has an etiologic role in CVD. To gain insight into the LTL and CVD relationship, a cohort study of CVD mortality and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in OBFC1 and TERC, genes related to LTL, was conducted among 3271 Caucasian participants ages ?65 years enrolled 1989–1990 in the Cardiovascular Health Study. Leukocyte DNA was genotyped for SNPs in OBFC1 (rs4387287 and rs9419958) and TERC (rs3772190) that were previously associated with LTL through genome-wide association studies. Cox regression was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The OBFC1 SNPs were in linkage disequilibrium (r2=0.99), and both SNPs were similarly associated with CVD mortality in women. For women, there was a decreased risk of CVD death associated with the minor allele (rs4387287), HR=0.7; 95% CI: 0.5–0.9 (CC vs. AC) and HR=0.5; 95% CI: 0.20–1.4 (CC vs. AA) (p-trend <0.01). For men there was no association, HR=1.0; 95% CI: 0.7–1.3 (CC vs. AC) and HR=1.7; 95% CI: 0.8–3.6 (CC vs. AA) (p-trend=0.64). These findings support the hypothesis that telomere biology and associated genes may play a role in CVD-related death, particularly among women.

Burnett-Hartman, Andrea N.; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.; Kronmal, Richard A.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Jenny, Nancy S.; Bis, Josh C.; Tracy, Russ P.; Kimura, Masayuki; Aviv, Abraham

2012-01-01

279

Employment arrangements and mental health in a cohort of working australians: are transitions from permanent to temporary employment associated with changes in mental health?  

PubMed

We investigated whether being in temporary employment, as compared with permanent employment, was associated with a difference in Short Form 36 mental health and whether transitions from permanent employment to temporary employment were associated with mental health changes. We used fixed-effects regression in a nationally representative Australian sample with 10 waves of data collection (2001-2010). Interactions by age and sex were tested. Two forms of temporary employment were studied: "casual" (no paid leave entitlements or fixed hours) and "fixed-term contract" (a defined employment period plus paid leave). There were no significant mental health differences between temporary employment and permanent employment in standard fixed-effects analyses and no significant interactions by sex or age. For all age groups combined, there were no significant changes in mental health following transitions from stable permanent employment to temporary employment, but there was a significant interaction with age (P = 0.03) for the stable-permanent-to-casual employment transition, because of a small transition-associated improvement in mental health for workers aged 55-64 years (? = 1.61, 95% confidence interval: 0.34, 2.87; 16% of the standard deviation of mental health scores). Our analyses suggest that temporary employment is not harmful to mental health in the Australian context and that it may be beneficial for 55- to 64-year-olds transitioning from stable permanent employment to casual employment. PMID:24872351

LaMontagne, Anthony D; Milner, Allison; Krnjacki, Lauren; Kavanagh, Anne M; Blakely, Tony A; Bentley, Rebecca

2014-06-15

280

Australian Medical Students' Association Global Health Essay Competition - Global climate change, geo-engineering and human health.  

PubMed

Rio+20's proposed Sustainable Development Goals have the potential to redefine the course of international action on climate change. They recognise that environmental health is inextricably linked with human health, and that environmental sustainability is of paramount importance in safeguarding global health. Competition entrants were asked to discuss ways of making global health a central component of international sustainable development initiatives and environmental policy, using one or two concrete examples PMID:24099214

Boyages, Costa S

2013-10-01

281

The Association of Acculturation and Health Literacy, Numeracy and Health-Related Skills in Spanish-speaking Caregivers of Young Children  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the relationship among acculturation, literacy, and health skills in Latino caregivers of young children. Latino caregivers of children <30 months seeking primary care at four medical centers were administered measures of acculturation (SASH), functional health literacy (STOFHLA), numeracy (WRAT-3) and health-related skills (PHLAT Spanish). Child anthropomorphics and immunization status were ascertained by chart review. Caregivers (N = 184) with a median age of 27 years (IQR: 23–32) participated; 89.1 % were mothers, and 97.1 % had low acculturation. Lower SASH scores were significantly correlated (P < 0.01) with lower STOFHLA (? = 0.21), WRAT-3 (? = 0.25), and PHLAT Spanish scores (? = 0.34). SASH scores predicted PHLAT Spanish scores in a multivariable linear regression model that adjusted for the age of child, the age and gender of the caregiver, number of children in the family, the type of health insurance of the caregiver, and study site (adjusted ?: 0.84, 95 % CI 0.26–1.42, P = 0.005). This association was attenuated by the addition of literacy (adjusted ?: 0.66, 95 % CI 0.11–1.21, P = 0.02) or numeracy (adjusted ?: 0.50, 95 % CI ?0.04–1.04, P = 0.07) into the model. There was no significant association between acculturation and up-to-date child immunizations or a weight status of overweight/obese. Lower acculturation was associated with worse health literacy and diminished ability to perform child health-related skills. Literacy and numeracy skills attenuated the association between acculturation and child health skills. These associations may help to explain some child health disparities in Latino communities.

White, Richard O.; Perrin, Eliana M.; Yin, H. Shonna; Sanders, Lee M.; Gayle, Eryka A.; Rothman, Russell L.

2012-01-01

282

Quality of life valuations of HPV-associated cancer health states by the general population  

PubMed Central

Objectives To obtain health-related quality of life valuations (ie, utilities) for human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancer health states of vulval, vaginal, penile, anal and oropharyngeal cancers for use in modelling cost-effectiveness of prophylactic HPV vaccination. Methods Written case descriptions of each HPV-associated cancer describing the ‘average’ patient surviving after the initial cancer diagnosis and treatment were developed in consultation with oncology clinicians. A general overview, standard gamble questionnaire for each health state and a quiz was conducted in 120 participants recruited from the general population. Results In the included population sample (n=99), the average age was 43?years (range = 18–70?years) with 54% men, 44% never married/43% married, 76% education beyond year 12 and 39% employed full-time. The utility values for the five health states were 0.57 (95% CI 0.52 to 0.62) for anal cancer, 0.58 (0.53 to 0.63) for oropharyngeal cancer, 0.59 (0.54 to 0.64) for vaginal cancer, 0.65 (0.60 to 0.70) for vulval cancer and 0.79 (0.74 to 0.84) for penile cancer. Participants demonstrated a very good understanding of the symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of these cancers with a mean score of 9 (SD=1.1) on a 10-item quiz. Conclusions This study provides utility estimates for the specific HPV-related cancers of vulval, vaginal, penile, anal and oropharyngeal cancers valued by a general population sample using standard gamble. The results demonstrate considerable quality of life impact associated with surviving these cancers that will be important to incorporate into modelling cost-effectiveness of prophylactic HPV vaccination in different populations.

Farmer, K Chip; Lynch, William J; Rees, Guy L; Wain, Gerard; Adams, Jane

2012-01-01

283

Economic and Health Impacts Associated with a Salmonella Typhimurium Drinking Water Outbreak-Alamosa, CO, 2008  

PubMed Central

In 2008, a large Salmonella outbreak caused by contamination of the municipal drinking water supply occurred in Alamosa, Colorado. The objectives of this assessment were to determine the full economic costs associated with the outbreak and the long-term health impacts on the community of Alamosa. We conducted a postal survey of City of Alamosa (2008 population: 8,746) households and businesses, and conducted in-depth interviews with local, state, and nongovernmental agencies, and City of Alamosa healthcare facilities and schools to assess the economic and long-term health impacts of the outbreak. Twenty-one percent of household survey respondents (n?=?369/1,732) reported diarrheal illness during the outbreak. Of those, 29% (n?=?108) reported experiencing potential long-term health consequences. Most households (n?=?699/771, 91%) reported municipal water as their main drinking water source at home before the outbreak; afterwards, only 30% (n?=?233) drank unfiltered municipal tap water. The outbreak’s estimated total cost to residents and businesses of Alamosa using a Monte Carlo simulation model (10,000 iterations) was approximately $1.5 million dollars (range: $196,677–$6,002,879), and rose to $2.6 million dollars (range: $1,123,471–$7,792,973) with the inclusion of outbreak response costs to local, state and nongovernmental agencies and City of Alamosa healthcare facilities and schools. This investigation documents the significant economic and health impacts associated with waterborne disease outbreaks and highlights the potential for loss of trust in public water systems following such outbreaks.

Ailes, Elizabeth; Budge, Philip; Shankar, Manjunath; Collier, Sarah; Brinton, William; Cronquist, Alicia; Chen, Melissa; Thornton, Andrew; Beach, Michael J.; Brunkard, Joan M.

2013-01-01

284

Integrated text mining and chemoinformatics analysis associates diet to health benefit at molecular level.  

PubMed

Awareness that disease susceptibility is not only dependent on genetic make up, but can be affected by lifestyle decisions, has brought more attention to the role of diet. However, food is often treated as a black box, or the focus is limited to few, well-studied compounds, such as polyphenols, lipids and nutrients. In this work, we applied text mining and Naïve Bayes classification to assemble the knowledge space of food-phytochemical and food-disease associations, where we distinguish between disease prevention/amelioration and disease progression. We subsequently searched for frequently occurring phytochemical-disease pairs and we identified 20,654 phytochemicals from 16,102 plants associated to 1,592 human disease phenotypes. We selected colon cancer as a case study and analyzed our results in three directions; i) one stop legacy knowledge-shop for the effect of food on disease, ii) discovery of novel bioactive compounds with drug-like properties, and iii) discovery of novel health benefits from foods. This works represents a systematized approach to the association of food with health effect, and provides the phytochemical layer of information for nutritional systems biology research. PMID:24453957

Jensen, Kasper; Panagiotou, Gianni; Kouskoumvekaki, Irene

2014-01-01

285

Associations of serious mental illness with earnings: results from the WHO World Mental Health surveys  

PubMed Central

Background Burden-of-illness data, which are often used in setting healthcare policy-spending priorities, are unavailable for mental disorders in most countries. Aims To examine one central aspect of illness burden, the association of serious mental illness with earnings, in the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys. Method The WMH Surveys were carried out in 10 high-income and 9 low- and middle-income countries. The associations of personal earnings with serious mental illness were estimated. Results Respondents with serious mental illness earned on average a third less than median earnings, with no significant between-country differences (?2(9) = 5.5–8.1, P = 0.52–0.79). These losses are equivalent to 0.3–0.8% of total national earnings. Reduced earnings among those with earnings and the increased probability of not earning are both important components of these associations. Conclusions These results add to a growing body of evidence that mental disorders have high societal costs. Decisions about healthcare resource allocation should take these costs into consideration.

Levinson, Daphna; Lakoma, Matthew D.; Petukhova, Maria; Schoenbaum, Michael; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Angermeyer, Matthias; Borges, Guilherme; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Hu, Chiyi; Karam, Aimee N.; Kawakami, Norito; Lee, Sing; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Browne, Mark Oakley; Okoliyski, Michail; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sagar, Rajesh; Viana, Maria Carmen; Williams, David R.; Kessler, Ronald C.

2010-01-01

286

Influence of air quality model resolution on uncertainty associated with health impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use regional air quality modeling to evaluate the impact of model resolution on uncertainty associated with the human health benefits resulting from proposed air quality regulations. Using a regional photochemical model (CAMx), we ran a modeling episode with meteorological inputs simulating conditions as they occurred during August through September 2006 (a period representative of conditions leading to high ozone), and two emissions inventories (a 2006 base case and a 2018 proposed control scenario, both for Houston, Texas) at 36, 12, 4 and 2 km resolution. The base case model performance was evaluated for each resolution against daily maximum 8-h averaged ozone measured at monitoring stations. Results from each resolution were more similar to each other than they were to measured values. Population-weighted ozone concentrations were calculated for each resolution and applied to concentration response functions (with 95% confidence intervals) to estimate the health impacts of modeled ozone reduction from the base case to the control scenario. We found that estimated avoided mortalities were not significantly different between the 2, 4 and 12 km resolution runs, but the 36 km resolution may over-predict some potential health impacts. Given the cost/benefit analysis requirements motivated by Executive Order 12866 as it applies to the Clean Air Act, the uncertainty associated with human health impacts and therefore the results reported in this study, we conclude that health impacts calculated from population weighted ozone concentrations obtained using regional photochemical models at 36 km resolution fall within the range of values obtained using fine (12 km or finer) resolution modeling. However, in some cases, 36 km resolution may not be fine enough to statistically replicate the results achieved using 2, 4 or 12 km resolution. On average, when modeling at 36 km resolution, an estimated 5 deaths per week during the May through September ozone season are avoided because of ozone reductions resulting from the proposed emissions reductions (95% confidence interval was 2-8). When modeling at 2, 4 or 12 km finer scale resolution, on average 4 deaths are avoided due to the same reductions (95% confidence interval was 1-7). Study results show that ozone modeling at a resolution finer than 12 km is unlikely to reduce uncertainty in benefits analysis for this specific region. We suggest that 12 km resolution may be appropriate for uncertainty analyses of health impacts due to ozone control scenarios, in areas with similar chemistry, meteorology and population density, but that resolution requirements should be assessed on a case-by-case basis and revised as confidence intervals for concentration-response functions are updated.

Thompson, T. M.; Selin, N. E.

2012-10-01

287

Health and safety problems associated with long working hours: a review of the current position.  

PubMed

The European Community Directive on Working Time, which should have been implemented in member states of the European Community by November 1996, contains several requirements related to working hours, including the right of employees to refuse to work more than 48 hours a week. The United Kingdom government attempted to oppose the Directive, arguing that there is no convincing evidence that hours of work should be limited on health and safety grounds. Much of the research in this area has focused on the problems of shiftworking and previous reviews have therefore tended to emphasise this aspect of working hours. However, there is much less information about the effects of overtime work, which is a central element of the terms of the Directive. This paper reviews the current evidence relating to the potential effects on health and performance of extensions to the normal working day. Several gaps in the literature are identified. Research to date has been restricted to a limited range of health outcomes--namely, mental health and cardiovascular disorders. Other potential effects which are normally associated with stress--for example, gastrointestinal disorders, musculoskeletal disorders, and problems associated with depression of the immune system, have received little attention. Also, there have been few systematic investigations of performance effects, and little consideration of the implications for occupational exposure limits of extensions to the working day. Existing data relate largely to situations where working hours exceed 50 a week and there is a lack of information on hours below this level, which is of direct relevance to the European Community proposal. Finally, it is clear from investigations relating to shiftwork that a range of modifying factors are likely to influence the level and nature of health and performance outcomes. These include the attitudes and motivation of the people concerned, the job requirements, and other aspects of the organisational and cultural climate. It is concluded that there is currently sufficient evidence to raise concerns about the risks to health and safety of long working hours. However, much more work is required to define the level and nature of those risks. PMID:9245942

Spurgeon, A; Harrington, J M; Cooper, C L

1997-06-01

288

Association between Sleep and Breast Cancer Incidence among Postmenopausal Women in the Women's Health Initiative  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To determine whether the duration of sleep, sleep quality, insomnia, or sleep disturbance was associated with incident breast cancer in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Women enrolled in one of the Clinical Trial (CT) arms or the Observational Study (OS) from the WHI conducted in the United States. Participants: This study included 110,011 women age 50 to 79 years with no history of cancer. Measurements and Results: Typical sleep duration, sleep quality, and other self-reported sleep measures over the past 4 weeks were assessed during the screening visits for both the CT and OS participants. The presence of insomnia and level of sleep disturbance was calculated from an index of the WHI Insomnia Rating Scale. The outcome for this study was primary, invasive breast cancer. A total of 5,149 incident cases of breast cancer were identified in this study. No statistically significant associations were found between sleep duration, sleep quality, insomnia, or level of sleep disturbance with the risk of breast cancer after multivariable adjustment. A positive trend was observed for increasing sleeping duration with the risk of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer, but the association estimates for each sleep duration category were weak and nonsignificant. Conclusions: This study does not provide strong support for an association between self-reported sleep duration, sleep quality, insomnia, or sleep disturbance with the risk of breast cancer. Citation: Vogtmann E; Levitan EB; Hale L; Shikany JM; Shah NA; Endeshaw Y; Lewis CE; Manson JE; Chlebowski RT. Association between sleep and breast cancer incidence among postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative. SLEEP 2013;36(10):1437-1444.

Vogtmann, Emily; Levitan, Emily B.; Hale, Lauren; Shikany, James M.; Shah, Neomi A.; Endeshaw, Yohannes; Lewis, Cora E.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Chlebowski, Rowan T.

2013-01-01

289

Association of stereotypes about physicians to health care satisfaction, help-seeking behavior, and adherence to treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present research consists of three studies examining the role of patients’ stereotypes about health care providers in the health care decision process. Study 1 examined the association of stereotypes to health care satisfaction and help-seeking behavior among a low-income clinic sample; Study 2 examined the relationship of stereotypes to satisfaction and adherence to treatment among low-income individuals living with

Laura M. Bogart; Sheryl Thorburn Bird; Lisa C. Walt; Douglas L. Delahanty; Jacqueline L. Figler

2004-01-01

290

Personalized Risk Assessment of Drug-Related Harm Is Associated with Health Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background The Independent Scientific Committee on Drugs (ISCD) assigned quantitative scores for harm to 20 drugs. We hypothesized that a personalized, ISCD-based Composite Harm Score (CHS) would be associated with poor health outcomes in polysubstance users. Methods A prospective community sample (n=293) of adults living in marginal housing was assessed for substance use. The CHS was calculated based on the ISCD index, and the personal substance use characteristics over four weeks. Regression models estimated the association between CHS and physical, psychological, and social health outcomes. Results Polysubstance use was pervasive (95.8%), as was multimorbid illness (median 3, possible range 0–12). The median CHS was 2845 (interquartile range 1865–3977). Adjusting for age and sex, every 1000-unit CHS increase was associated with greater mortality (odds ratio [OR] 1.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07–2.01, p = 0.02), and persistent hepatitis C infection (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.02–1.67, p = 0.04). The likelihood of substance-induced psychosis increased 1.39-fold (95% CI 1.13–1.67, p = 0.001). The amount spent on drugs increased 1.51-fold (1.40–1.62, p < 0.001) and the odds of having committed a crime increased 1.74-fold (1.46–2.10, p < 0.001). Multimorbid illness increased 1.43-fold (95% CI 1.26–1.63, p < 0.001). Conclusions Greater CHS predicts poorer physical, psychological, and social health, and may be a useful quantitative, personalized measure of risk for drug-related harm.

Jones, Andrea A.; Vila-Rodriguez, Fidel; Panenka, William J.; Leonova, Olga; Strehlau, Verena; Lang, Donna J.; Thornton, Allen E.; Wong, Hubert; Barr, Alasdair M.; Procyshyn, Ric M.; Smith, Geoffrey N.; Buchanan, Tari; Krajden, Mel; Krausz, Michael; Montaner, Julio S.; MacEwan, G. William; Nutt, David J.; Honer, William G.

2013-01-01

291

Association of Arterial Rigidity with Incident Kidney Disease and Kidney Function Decline: The Health ABC Study  

PubMed Central

Summary Background and objective The association of large arterial rigidity and kidney function decline in longitudinal analyses is not well established. This study evaluated the association of aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) and pulse pressure (PP) with rapid kidney function decline and incident CKD in the Health, Aging and Body Composition study. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Participants were 2129 older adults with a baseline measurement of aPWV, PP, and cystatin C and at least one additional measurement of cystatin C, either at year 3 or year 10. Outcomes were rapid kidney function decline (estimated GFRcysC loss of >3 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year) and incident CKD (eGFRcysC < 60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 in participants with baseline estimated GFR > 60 ml/min per 1.73 m2). Multivariate regression models were used to evaluate association of aPWV and PP with each outcome. Results Mean (SD) baseline estimated GFRcysC was 79±29 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Median follow-up duration was 8.9 years. In multivariable analyses, aPWV was not associated with rapid decline (odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16, 0.89–1.52) but was associated with incident CKD (incident rate ratio [IRR], 95% CI, 1.39, 1.09–1.77) and PP was associated with both rapid decline (OR, 95% CI 1.10, 1.04–1.16) and incident CKD (IRR, 95% CI, 1.06, 1.01–1.11). Conclusions Large arterial stiffness assessed by aPWV and pulsatility assessed by PP were associated with incident CKD among older adults. Pulsatility assessed by PP was associated with rapid kidney function decline and incident CKD. Future research should determine whether interventions targeting arterial rigidity will prevent CKD development and progression.

Peralta, Carmen; Katz, Ronit; Canada, Robert; Fried, Linda; Najjar, Samer; Shlipak, Michael; Simonsick, Eleanor; Lakatta, Edward; Patel, Kushang; Rifkin, Dena; Hawkins, Marquis; Newman, Anne; Sarnak, Mark

2013-01-01

292

Chinese parental perceptions of weight and associated health risks of young children.  

PubMed

A mixed method was employed to determine how caregivers view preschool children's body size and associated health risks. A survey of 505 caregivers was nested in 10 in-depth case studies of mothers. Based on the International Obesity Task Force calculation of children's weight status, the caregivers who had underweight children overestimated their children's weight status but the caregivers who had overweight/obese children underestimated their children's weight status. Their estimates were substantially different from those of the caregivers of normal weight children. The mothers' thoughts revealed the complexity of beliefs and sociocultural experiences about weight preferences and affirmed the quantitative findings. PMID:22956680

Chan, Christine M S; Wang, Wen-Chung

2013-06-01

293

Longitudinal study of associations between perceived health status and self reported diseases in the French Gazel cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVEAlthough perceived health status is an indicator widely used in epidemiological studies, its relation to various diseases is not well known. The objective of this study is to examine these relations in detail.DESIGNMarginal models used for a longitudinal study of the association between three health scales and 47 diseases among 12 164 men and 44 diseases among 4415 women.SETTINGFrench

P Goldberg; A Guéguen; A Schmaus; J-P Nakache; M Goldberg

2001-01-01

294

A Longitudinal Investigation of Associations between Boys' Pubertal Timing and Adult Behavioral Health and Well-Being  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To extend research linking pubertal timing and adolescent health outcomes, this study examines boys' pubertal timing and subsequent interpersonal success and health behaviors in mid adulthood. Past research has shown that boys' pubertal timing is associated with both positive and negative developmental outcomes in the short term, and so it is…

Taga, Keiko A.; Markey, Charlotte N.; Friedman, Howard S.

2006-01-01

295

Factors associated with self-rated health status in university students: a cross-sectional study in three European countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Self-rated health status (SRHS) is a reliable and valid measure for assessing the subjective and objective health of individuals. Previous studies have either focused predominantly on the elderly or investigated only a narrow range of factors potentially associated with SRHS. In examining student populations, these past studies were limited to single countries. The objectives of this study were to

Rafael T Mikolajczyk; Patrick Brzoska; Claudia Maier; Veronika Ottova; Sabine Meier; Urszula Dudziak; Snezhana Ilieva; Walid El Ansari

2008-01-01

296

Managed behavioral health care premises, accountable systems of care, and AMBHA'S perms. American Managed Behavioral Healthcare Association.  

PubMed

This article discusses the concepts and approaches underlying managed behavioral health care and the need to assess quality of care. The author describes the Performance Measures for Managed Behavioral Healthcare Programs (PERMS) developed by the American Managed Behavioral Healthcare Association (AMBHA), which is offered as a first step toward enhanced quality of care assessment in managed behavioral health care. PMID:10183283

Ross, E C

1997-06-01

297

Panel discussion review: Session two - Interpretation of Observed Associations between Multiple Ambient Air Pollutants and Health Effects in Epidemiologic Analysis  

EPA Science Inventory

Air pollution epidemiologic research has often utilized ambient air concentrations measured from centrally located monitors as a surrogate measure of exposure to these pollutants. Associations between these ambient concentrations and health outcomes such as lung function, hospita...

298

Association of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder with Somatic Symptoms, Health Care Visits, and Absenteeism among Iraq War Veterans.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies of soldiers from prior wars conducted many years after combat have shown associations between combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and physical health problems. The current Iraqi War has posed a considerable PTSD risk, but the assoc...

A. Terhakopian C. A. Castro C. C. Engel C. W. Hoge S. C. Messer

2007-01-01

299

FINE PARTICLES ARE MORE STRONGLY ASSOCIATED THAN COARSE PARTICLES WITH ACUTE REPIRATORY HEALTH EFFECTS IN SCHOOL CHILDREN  

EPA Science Inventory

Numerous studies have reported associations between airborne particles and a range of respiratory outcomes from symptoms to mortality. Current attention has been focused on the characteristics of these particles responsible for the adverse health effects. We have reanalyzed three...

300

Status Report on Investigations of Potential Human Health Effects Associated with Power Frequency Electric and Magnetic Fields.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report, 'Status Report on investigations of Potential Human Health Effects Associated with Power Frequency Electric and Magnetic Fields,' is the most recent of a continuing series, produced by the Power Plant Research Program, reviewing recently publ...

S. S. Patty

2001-01-01

301

Age, class and race discrimination: their interactions and associations with mental health among Brazilian university students.  

PubMed

Although research on discrimination and health has progressed significantly, it has tended to focus on racial discrimination and US populations. This study explored different types of discrimination, their interactions and associations with common mental disorders among Brazilian university students, in Rio de Janeiro in 2010. Associations between discrimination and common mental disorders were examined using multiple logistic regression models, adjusted for confounders. Interactions between discrimination and socio-demographics were tested. Discrimination attributed to age, class and skin color/race were the most frequently reported. In a fully adjusted model, discrimination attributed to skin color/race and class were both independently associated with increased odds of common mental disorders. The simultaneous reporting of skin color/race, class and age discrimination was associated with the highest odds ratio. No significant interactions were found. Skin color/race and class discrimination were important, but their simultaneous reporting, in conjunction with age discrimination, were associated with the highest occurrence of common mental disorders. PMID:24627024

Bastos, João Luiz; Barros, Aluisio J D; Celeste, Roger Keller; Paradies, Yin; Faerstein, Eduardo

2014-01-01

302

Is change bad? Personality change is associated with poorer psychological health and greater metabolic syndrome in midlife  

PubMed Central

Objective Personality change is emerging as an important predictor of health and well-being. Extending previous research, we examined whether two types of personality change, directional and absolute, are associated with both subjective and objective indicators of health. Method Utilizing the longitudinal Midlife in the United States Survey (MIDUS) data, we examined whether both types of change over 10 years were associated with psychological well-being, self-reported global health, and the presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) components and diagnosis. Results Socially undesirable personality change (e.g., becoming less conscientious and more neurotic) and absolute personality change were independently associated with worse perceived health and well-being at Time 2. Notably, absolute personality change, regardless of the direction, was also associated with having a greater number of MetS components and a greater probability of diagnosis at Time 2. Conclusions In sum, too much personality change may be bad for one’s health: socially undesirable and absolute personality change were both associated with worse psychological health and worse metabolic profiles over 10 years. These findings suggest that personality change may contribute to psychological and physical health, and provide initial insight into potential intermediate links between personality change and distal outcomes such as mortality.

Human, Lauren J.; Biesanz, Jeremy C.; Miller, Gregory E.; Chen, Edith; Lachman, Margie E.; Seeman, Teresa E.

2013-01-01

303

Physicians' Plan for a healthy Minnesota. The MMA proposal for health care reform. The report of the Minnesota Medical Association Health Care Reform Task Force.  

PubMed

The health care system in the United States, according to some, is on the verge of imploding. The rapidly rising cost of services is causing more and more Minnesotans to forego needed care. At the same time, the increasing costs are placing additional pressure on families, businesses, and state and local government budgets. The Minnesota Medical Association's (MMA) Health Care Reform Task Force has proposed a bold new approach that seeks to ensure affordable health care for all Minnesotans. The proposal is a roadmap to provide all Minnesotans with affordable insurance for essential health care services. In creating this plan, the task force strove to achieve three common reform goals: expand access to care, improve quality, and control costs. To achieve those ends, it has proposed a model built on four key features: (1) A strong public health system, (2) A reformed insurance market that delivers universal coverage, (3) A reformed health care delivery market that creates incentives for increasing value, (4) Systems that fully support the delivery of high-quality care. The task force believes that these elements will provide the foundation for a system that serves everyone and allows Minnesotans to purchase better health care at a relatively lower price. Why health care reform again? The average annual cost of health care for an average Minnesota household is about 11,000 dollars--an amount that's projected to double by 2010, if current trends continue. Real wages are not growing fast enough to absorb such cost increases. If unabated, these trends portend a reduction in access to and quality of care, and a heavier economic burden on individuals, employers, and the government. Furthermore, Minnesota and the United States are not getting the best value for their health care dollars. The United States spends 50 percent more per capita than any other country on health care but lags far behind other countries in the health measures of its population. PMID:15853031

2005-03-01

304

A literature review of neck pain associated with computer use: public health implications  

PubMed Central

Prolonged use of computers during daily work activities and recreation is often cited as a cause of neck pain. This review of the literature identifies public health aspects of neck pain as associated with computer use. While some retrospective studies support the hypothesis that frequent computer operation is associated with neck pain, few prospective studies reveal causal relationships. Many risk factors are identified in the literature. Primary prevention strategies have largely been confined to addressing environmental exposure to ergonomic risk factors, since to date, no clear cause for this work-related neck pain has been acknowledged. Future research should include identifying causes of work related neck pain so that appropriate primary prevention strategies may be developed and to make policy recommendations pertaining to prevention.

Green, Bart N

2008-01-01

305

Disgust Sensitivity Is Not Associated with Health in a Rural Bangladeshi Sample  

PubMed Central

Disgust can be considered a psychological arm of the immune system that acts to prevent exposure to infectious agents. High disgust sensitivity is associated with greater behavioral avoidance of disease vectors and thus may reduce infection risk. A cross-sectional survey in rural Bangladesh provided no strong support for this hypothesis. In many species, the expression of pathogen- and predator-avoidance mechanisms is contingent on early life exposure to predators and pathogens. Using childhood health data collected in the 1990s, we examined if adults with more infectious diseases in childhood showed greater adult disgust sensitivity: no support for this association was found. Explanations for these null finding and possible directions for future research are discussed.

de Barra, Micheal; Islam, M. Sirajul; Curtis, Val

2014-01-01

306

Facility characteristics associated with the use of electronic health records in residential care facilities  

PubMed Central

The integration of electronic health records (EHRs) across care settings including residential care facilities (RCFs) promises to reduce medical errors and improve coordination of services. Using data from the 2010 National Survey of Residential Care Facilities (n=2302), this study examines the association between facility structural characteristics and the use of EHRs in RCFs. Findings indicate that in 2010, only 3% of RCFs nationwide were using an EHR. However, 55% of RCFs reported using a computerized system for one or more (but not all) of the functionalities defined by a basic EHR. Ownership, chain membership, staffing levels, and facility size were significantly associated with the use of one or more core EHR functionalities. These findings suggest that facility characteristics may play an important role in the adoption of EHRs in RCFs.

Holup, Amanda A; Dobbs, Debra; Meng, Hongdao; Hyer, Kathryn

2013-01-01

307

Health implications associated with exposure to farmed and wild sea turtles.  

PubMed

Exposure to sea turtles may be increasing with expanding tourism, although reports of problems arising from interaction with free-living animals appear of negligible human health and safety concern. Exposure both to wild-caught and captive-housed sea turtles, including consumption of turtle products, raises several health concerns for the public, including: microbiological (bacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi), macrobiological (macroparasites), and organic and inorganic toxic contaminants (biotoxins, organochlorines and heavy metals). We conducted a review of sea turtle associated human disease and its causative agents as well as a case study of the commercial sea turtle facility known as the Cayman Turtle Farm (which receives approximately 240,000 visitors annually) including the use of water sampling and laboratory microbial analysis which identified Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aeromonas spp., Vibrio spp. and Salmonella spp. Our assessment is that pathogens and toxic contaminants may be loosely categorized to represent the following levels of potential risk: viruses and fungi = very low; protozoan parasites = very low to low; metazoan parasites, bacteria and environmental toxic contaminants = low or moderate to high; and biotoxin contaminant = moderate to very high. Farmed turtles and their consumable products may constitute a significant reservoir of potential human pathogen and toxin contamination. Greater awareness among health-care professionals regarding both potential pathogens and toxic contaminants from sea turtles, as well as key signs and symptoms of sea turtle-related human disease, is important for the prevention and control of salient disease. PMID:23413410

Warwick, Clifford; Arena, Phillip C; Steedman, Catrina

2013-01-01

308

Norovirus Epidemiology in Community and Health Care Settings and Association with Patient Age, Denmark  

PubMed Central

Norovirus (NoV) is a major cause of gastroenteritis. NoV genotype II.4 (GII.4) is the predominant genotype in health care settings but the reason for this finding is unknown. Stool samples containing isolates with a known NoV genotype from 2,109 patients in Denmark (patients consulting a general practitioner or outpatient clinic, inpatients, and patients from foodborne outbreaks) were used to determine genotype distribution in relation to age and setting. NoV GII.4 was more prevalent among inpatients than among patients in community settings or those who became infected during foodborne outbreaks. In community and health care settings, we found an association between infection with GII.4 and increasing age. Norovirus GII.4 predominated in patients ?60 years of age and in health care settings. A larger proportion of children than adults were infected with NoV GII.3 or GII.P21. Susceptibility to NoV infection might depend on patient age and infecting NoV genotype. Cohort studies are warranted to test this hypothesis.

Fonager, Jannik; Ersb?ll, Annette K.; Bottiger, Blenda

2014-01-01

309

Norovirus epidemiology in community and health care settings and association with patient age, denmark.  

PubMed

Norovirus (NoV) is a major cause of gastroenteritis. NoV genotype II.4 (GII.4) is the predominant genotype in health care settings but the reason for this finding is unknown. Stool samples containing isolates with a known NoV genotype from 2,109 patients in Denmark (patients consulting a general practitioner or outpatient clinic, inpatients, and patients from foodborne outbreaks) were used to determine genotype distribution in relation to age and setting. NoV GII.4 was more prevalent among inpatients than among patients in community settings or those who became infected during foodborne outbreaks. In community and health care settings, we found an association between infection with GII.4 and increasing age. Norovirus GII.4 predominated in patients ?60 years of age and in health care settings. A larger proportion of children than adults were infected with NoV GII.3 or GII.P21. Susceptibility to NoV infection might depend on patient age and infecting NoV genotype. Cohort studies are warranted to test this hypothesis. PMID:24960024

Franck, Kristina T; Fonager, Jannik; Ersbøll, Annette K; Böttiger, Blenda

2014-07-01

310

Health effects associated with passenger vehicles: monetary values of air pollution.  

PubMed

Air pollution is regarded as one of the highest priorities in environmental protection in both developed and developing countries. High levels of air pollution have adverse effects on human health that might cause premature death. This study presents the monetary value estimates for the adverse human health effects resulted from ambient air pollution. It aids decision makers to set priorities in the public health relevance of pollution abatement. The main driver of policymaker is the need to reduce the avoidable cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality from pollutant exposures. The monetary valuation involves 2 steps: (i) relate levels of pollutants to mortality and morbidity (concentration-response relationships) and (ii) apply unit economic values. Cost of air pollution associated with passenger vehicles running over a major traffic bridge (6th of October Elevated Highway) is presented as a case study to demonstrate the use of monetary value of air pollution. The study proves that the cost of air pollution is extremely high and should not be overlooked. PMID:22845727

Marzouk, Mohamed; Madany, Magdy

2012-01-01

311

Psychosocial Factors of Different Health Behaviour Patterns in Adolescents: Association with Overweight and Weight Control Behaviours  

PubMed Central

Physical activity, nutrition, and sedentary behaviour combine to influence the risk of overweight among adolescents. This paper aims to identify psychosocial factors of different health behaviour patterns in adolescents and its association with overweight and weight control behaviours. The 3069 adolescents of both genders (average of 14.8 years old) from the 2010 Portuguese survey of Health Behaviour School-Aged Children (HBSC) answered the 2010 HBSC self-reported questionnaire. It used the cluster k-means (nonhierarchy method), qui-square, one-way ANOVA, and logistic regression. Three clusters with different behavioural patterns (physical activity, sedentary, and eating) composed the results obtained. The sedentary group (34%) had lower self-regulation, body satisfaction, health and wellness, family and classmates relationships, communication with the father than the other two groups. The active gamers (25%) had a smaller BMI but used more unhealthy weight control strategies than the other two groups. The healthy group (41%) was more motivated and more satisfied with school but was not different than the active gamers in most psychosocial variables. Differences were found between clusters for weight control behaviours and psychosocial variables. Different strategies for different patterns were necessary in order to promote obesity prevention and, simultaneously, target healthy lifestyle and wellbeing in adolescents.

Veloso, Susana M.; Matos, Margarida G.; Carvalho, Marina; Diniz, Jose A.

2012-01-01

312

Association between work-related health problems and job insecurity in permanent and temporary employees  

PubMed Central

Objectives This research was conducted with an aim of determining the correlation between job insecurity and an employee’s work-related health problems among permanent and temporary workers. Methods Using the data from the First Korean Working Conditions Survey conducted in 2006, a total of 7,071 workers, excluding employers and the self-employed, were analyzed. Work-related health problems were categorized as backache, headache, abdominal pain, muscular pain, stress, fatigue, insomnia, anxiety or depression. Each problem was then analyzed for its relationship to job insecurity through logistic regression analysis. Results Among the 7,071 workers, 5,294 (74.9%) were permanent workers and 1,777 (25.1%) were temporary workers. For the permanent workers, presence of high or moderate job insecurity appeared more closely linked to backache, headache, abdominal pain, muscular pain, stress, fatigue, insomnia, anxiety, and depression compared to absence of job insecurity. However, for the temporary workers, only depression appeared to be associated with the presence of high job insecurity. Conclusion The study showed that the presence of job insecurity is correlated with work-related health problems. The deleterious effects of job insecurity appeared to be stronger in permanent than temporary workers. Additional research should investigate ways to effectively reduce job insecurity.

2013-01-01

313

Longitudinal Associations Between Teen Dating Violence Victimization and Adverse Health Outcomes  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine the longitudinal association between teen dating violence victimization and selected adverse health outcomes. METHODS: Secondary analysis of Waves 1 (1994–1995), 2 (1996), and 3 (2001–2002) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a nationally representative sample of US high schools and middle schools. Participants were 5681 12- to 18-year-old adolescents who reported heterosexual dating experiences at Wave 2. These participants were followed-up ?5 years later (Wave 3) when they were aged 18 to 25. Physical and psychological dating violence victimization was assessed at Wave 2. Outcome measures were reported at Wave 3, and included depressive symptomatology, self-esteem, antisocial behaviors, sexual risk behaviors, extreme weight control behaviors, suicidal ideation and attempt, substance use (smoking, heavy episodic drinking, marijuana, other drugs), and adult intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization. Data were analyzed by using multivariate linear and logistic regression models. RESULTS: Compared with participants reporting no teen dating violence victimization at Wave 2, female participants experiencing victimization reported increased heavy episodic drinking, depressive symptomatology, suicidal ideation, smoking, and IPV victimization at Wave 3, whereas male participants experiencing victimization reported increased antisocial behaviors, suicidal ideation, marijuana use, and IPV victimization at Wave 3, controlling for sociodemographics, child maltreatment, and pubertal status. CONCLUSIONS: The results from the present analyses suggest that dating violence experienced during adolescence is related to adverse health outcomes in young adulthood. Findings from this study emphasize the importance of screening and offering secondary prevention programs to both male and female victims.

Eckenrode, John; Rothman, Emily

2013-01-01

314

Pool chemical-associated health events in public and residential settings - United States, 2003-2012, and Minnesota, 2013.  

PubMed

Pool chemicals are added to treated recreational water venues (e.g., pools, hot tubs/spas, and interactive fountains) primarily to protect public health by inactivating pathogens and maximizing the effectiveness of disinfection by controlling pH. However, pool chemicals also can cause injuries when handled or stored improperly. To estimate the number of emergency department (ED) visits for injuries associated with pool chemicals in the United States per year during 2003-2012, CDC analyzed data from the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission's National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS). This report summarizes the results of that analysis. In 2012 alone, an estimated 4,876 persons (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2,821-6,930) visited an ED for injuries associated with pool chemicals. Almost half of the patients were aged <18 years. This report also describes a pool chemical-associated health event that occurred in Minnesota in 2013, which sent seven children and one adult to an ED. An investigation by the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) determined the cause to be poor monitoring of or response to pool chemistry. Pool chemical-associated health events are preventable. CDC's Model Aquatic Health Code (MAHC) (1) is a resource that state and local agencies can use to optimize prevention of injuries and illnesses associated with public treated recreational water venues, including pool chemical-associated health events. PMID:24827410

Hlavsa, Michele C; Robinson, Trisha J; Collier, Sarah A; Beach, Michael J

2014-05-16

315

Factors associated with good self-rated health and quality of life in subjects with self-reported COPD  

PubMed Central

Background Recent guidelines for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) state that COPD is both preventable and treatable. To gain a more positive outlook on the disease it is interesting to investigate factors associated with good, self-rated health and quality of life in subjects with self-reported COPD in the population. Methods In a cross-sectional study design, postal survey questionnaires were sent to a stratified, random population in Sweden in 2004 and 2008. The prevalence of subjects (40–84 years) who reported having COPD was 2.1% in 2004 and 2.7% in 2008. Data were analyzed for 1475 subjects. Regression models were used to analyze the associations between health measures (general health status, the General Health Questionnaire, the EuroQol five-dimension questionnaire) and influencing factors. Results The most important factor associated with good, self-rated health and quality of life was level of physical activity. Odds ratios for general health varied from 2.4 to 7.7 depending on degree of physical activity, where subjects with the highest physical activity level reported the best health and also highest quality of life. Social support and absence of economic problems almost doubled the odds ratios for better health and quality of life. Conclusions In this population-based public health survey, better self-rated health status and quality of life in subjects with self-reported COPD was associated with higher levels of physical activity, social support, and absence of economic problems. The findings indicated that of possible factors that could be influenced, promoting physical activity and strengthening social support are important in maintaining or improving the health and quality of life in subjects with COPD. Severity of the disease as a possible confounding effect should be investigated in future population studies.

Arne, Mats; Lundin, Fredrik; Boman, Gunnar; Janson, Christer; Janson, Staffan; Emtner, Margareta

2011-01-01

316

Emerging health risks associated with modern agriculture practices: a comprehensive study in India.  

PubMed

In order to enhance food production, India has adopted modern agriculture practices and achieved noteworthy success. This achievement was essentially the result of a paradigm shift in agriculture that included high inputs of agrochemicals, water, and widespread practice of monoculture, as well as bureaucratic changes that promoted these changes. There are very few comprehensive analyses of potential adverse health outcomes that may be related to these changes. The objective of this study is to identify health risks associated with modern agricultural practices in the southern Indian state of Karnataka. This study aims to compare high-input and low-input agricultural practices and the consequences for health of people in these communities. The fieldwork was conducted from May to August, 2009 and included a survey carried out in six villages. Data were collected by in-depth personal interviews among 240 households and key informants, field observations, laboratory analyses, and data from secondary sources. The study identified four major visible impacts: occupational hazards, vector borne diseases, changing nutritional status, and inequity in development. In the high-input area, mechanization has resulted in more occurrences of serious accidents and injuries. Ecological changes due to rice cultivation in this area have further augmented mosquito breeding, and there has been a surge in the incidence of Japanese encephalitis and malaria. The traditional coarse cereals (complex carbohydrates, high protein) have been replaced by mill-polished rice (simple carbohydrate, low protein). The prevalence of overweight (BMI>25) has emerged as a new public health challenge, and this is most evident in large-landholding households, especially in the high-input agriculture areas. In all agro-ecological areas, it was observed that women faced a greater risk of both extremes of under-nutrition and being overweight. Output-driven and market-oriented modern agricultural practices have changed the ecology and disease pattern in this area in India, and our survey indicated significant health effects associated with these changes. There is a need for more extensive epidemiological studies in order to know the full impact on diseases and to understand the complex causal relationships. PMID:22480534

Sarkar, Atanu; Aronson, Kristan J; Patil, Shantagouda; Hugar, Lingappa B; vanLoon, Gary W

2012-05-01

317

Influence of air quality model resolution on uncertainty associated with health impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use regional air quality modeling to evaluate the impact of model resolution on uncertainty associated with the human health benefits resulting from proposed air quality regulations. Using a regional photochemical model (CAMx), we ran a modeling episode with meteorological inputs representing conditions as they occurred during August through September 2006, and two emissions inventories (a 2006 base case and a 2018 proposed control scenario, both for Houston, Texas) at 36, 12, 4 and 2 km resolution. The base case model performance was evaluated for each resolution against daily maximum 8-h averaged ozone measured at monitoring stations. Results from each resolution were more similar to each other than they were to measured values. Population-weighted ozone concentrations were calculated for each resolution and applied to concentration response functions (with 95% confidence intervals) to estimate the health impacts of modeled ozone reduction from the base case to the control scenario. We found that estimated avoided mortalities were not significantly different between 2, 4 and 12 km resolution runs, but 36 km resolution may over-predict some potential health impacts. Given the cost/benefit analysis requirements of the Clean Air Act, the uncertainty associated with human health impacts and therefore the results reported in this study, we conclude that health impacts calculated from population weighted ozone concentrations obtained using regional photochemical models at 36 km resolution fall within the range of values obtained using fine (12 km or finer) resolution modeling. However, in some cases, 36 km resolution may not be fine enough to statistically replicate the results achieved using 2 and 4 km resolution. On average, when modeling at 36 km resolution, 7 deaths per ozone month were avoided because of ozone reductions resulting from the proposed emissions reductions (95% confidence interval was 2-9). When modeling at 2, 4 or 12 km finer scale resolution, on average 5 deaths were avoided due to the same reductions (95% confidence interval was 2-7). Initial results for this specific region show that modeling at a resolution finer than 12 km is unlikely to improve uncertainty in benefits analysis. We suggest that 12 km resolution may be appropriate for uncertainty analyses in areas with similar chemistry, but that resolution requirements should be assessed on a case-by-case basis and revised as confidence intervals for concentration-response functions are updated.

Thompson, T. M.; Selin, N. E.

2012-06-01

318

Endogenous Testosterone Levels Are Associated With Assessments of Unfavourable Health Information  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether participants’ assessments of unfavourable health information are associated with individual differences in basal testosterone. Testosterone has previously been related to assessments of threat in social and other domains. Fifty-two undergraduate males were tested for a minor, fictitious medical condition (‘TAA deficiency’) in a paradigm that was developed to examine the thoughts and behaviours of individuals who have just received unfavourable medical news. In a variation on the classic paradigm, all participants were told that they had ‘TAA deficiency,’ after which they rated the seriousness and prevalence of that condition as well as 19 other actual conditions. Higher testosterone levels were significantly correlated with lower estimates of both the seriousness and prevalence of TAA deficiency as well as lower median seriousness and prevalence estimates of the 19 actual conditions. Findings are discussed in light of current research in the field of behavioural endocrinology. This study provides preliminary evidence that individual differences in assessments of threatening health information may be associated with neurobiological characteristics.

Josephs, Robert A.; Liening, Scott H.

2012-01-01

319

Patterns and associates of cognitive function, psychosocial wellbeing and health in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive function, psychosocial wellbeing and health are important domains of function. Consistencies and inconsistencies in patterns of wellbeing across these domains may be informative about wellbeing in old age and the ways it is manifested amongst individuals. In this study we investigated whether there were groups of individuals with different profiles of scores across these domains. We also aimed to identify characteristics of any evident groups by comparing them on variables that were not used in identifying the groups. Methods The sample was the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936, which included 1091 participants born in 1936. They are a community-dwelling, narrow-age-range sample of 70-year-olds. Most had taken part in the Scottish Mental Survey 1947 at an average age of 11, making available a measure of childhood intelligence. We used latent class analysis (LCA) to explore possible profiles using 9 variables indicating cognitive functioning, psychosocial wellbeing and health status. Demographic, personality, and lifestyle variables – none of which were used in the LCA – were used to characterize the resulting profile groups. Results We accepted a 3-group solution, which we labeled High Wellbeing (65.3%), Low Cognition (20.3%), and Low Bio-Psychosocial (14.5%). Notably, the High Wellbeing group had significantly higher childhood IQ, lower Neuroticism scores, and a lower percentage of current smokers than the other 2 groups. Conclusion The majority of individuals were functioning generally well; however, there was evidence of the presence of groups with different profiles, which may be explained in part in terms of cognitive ability differences. Results suggested that higher life-long intelligence, personality traits associated with less mental distress, and basic health practices such as avoiding smoking are important associates of wellbeing in old age.

2014-01-01

320

The Association between Obesity and Health-Related Quality of Life among Urban Latinos  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine differences in health-related quality of life (HRQL) by obesity status in a community-based sample of urban Latinos. To determine if sex moderates the relationship between HRQL and obesity status in this cohort. Design, Setting and Participants Cross-sectional study of 202 foreign-born Latinos with low levels of acculturation, living in an urban setting. Main outcome measure Health-related quality of life by the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12). Methods Including the entire study cohort, t-tests were used to determine the unadjusted difference between obese and non-obese participants on SF-12 physical and mental functioning scores (PCS and MCS, respectively). Linear regression was used to estimate the adjusted difference in SF-12 scores between obese and non-obese participants after adjusting for potential confounders. The association between obesity status and HRQL summary scores were then assessed separately in men and women both with and without adjustment for potential confounders. Results There was a small but statistically significant unadjusted difference between obese and non-obese participants in the physical functioning domain of HRQL (?22.2, 95% CI ?4.0, ?.4), which was no longer significant in multivariate analysis (difference ?1.5, 95% CI ?3.3, .3). There were no significant differences in mental functioning scores in unadjusted or adjusted analyses. Sex did not moderate the relationship between obesity status and HRQL scores in stratified analyses. Conclusions Our results in an under-studied population suggest that obesity may have little impact on HRQL in urban Latinos. Future studies with larger and more diverse Latino populations are needed to further investigate the relationship between obesity and HRQL, and explore how acculturation impacts the association between these two factors.

Wanat, Karolyn A.; Kovarik, Carrie L.; Shuman, Sara; Whitaker, Robert C.; Foster, Gary D.; O'Brien, Matthew J.

2014-01-01

321

Age-associated cardiovascular changes in health: impact on cardiovascular disease in older persons.  

PubMed

In the United States, cardiovascular disease, e.g., atherosclerosis and hypertension, that lead to heart failure and stroke, is the leading cause of mortality, accounting for over 40 percent of deaths in those aged 65 years and above. Over 80 percent of all cardio-vascular deaths occur in the same age group. Thus, age, per se, is the major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Clinical manifestations and prognosis of these cardiovascular diseases likely become altered in older persons with advanced age because interactions occur between age-associated cardiovascular changes in health and specific pathophysiologic mechanisms that underlie a disease. A fundamental understanding of age-associated changes in cardiovascular structure and function ranging in scope from humans to molecules is required for effective and efficient prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease in older persons. A sustained effort over the past two decades has been applied to characterize the multiple effects of aging in health on cardiovascular structure and function in a single study population, the Baltimore Longitudinal Study on Aging. In these studies, community dwelling, volunteer participants are rigorously screened to detect both clinical and occult cardiovascular disease and characterized with respect to lifestyle, e.g. exercise habits, in an attempt to deconvolute interactions among lifestyle, cardiovascular disease and the aging process in health. This review highlights some specific changes in resting cardiovascular structure and function and cardiovascular reserve capacity that occur with advancing age in healthy humans. Observations from relevant experiments in animal models have been integrated with those in humans to provide possible mechanistic insight. PMID:11790921

Lakatta, Edward G

2002-01-01

322

All-cause and disease-related health care costs associated with recurrent venous thromboembolism.  

PubMed

It was the objective of this study to quantify the risk of complications and the incremental health care costs associated with recurrent VTE events. Health care insurance claims from the Ingenix IMPACT database from 01/2004-09/2008 were analysed. Subjects aged ?18 years on the date of first recurrent VTE diagnosis with ?12 months of baseline observation prior to the index recurrent VTE were matched 1:1 with no-recurrent VTE patients based on propensity scores. The risk of developing post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) and other disease-related diagnoses (thrombocytopenia, superficial venous thrombosis, venous ulcer, pulmonary hypertension, stasis dermatitis, and venous insufficiency) was compared between the recurrent and no-recurrent VTE groups for up to one year. All-cause and disease-related costs per patient per year (PPPY) were calculated. The recurrent VTE and no-recurrent VTE cohorts (8,001 subjects in each group) were matched with respect to age, gender, and comorbidities. The risk ratios (RRs) indicated that the risk of developing post-event complications was significantly higher for the recurrent VTE group compared to the no-recurrent VTE group (RR [95% CI]: PTS: 2.7 [2.4 - 2.9], p-value <0.01). Patients with recurrent VTE had significantly higher average PPPY all-cause costs compared to no-recurrent VTE patients ($86,744 versus $37,525, cost difference: $49,219 [€33,617]; 95% CI= 46,253-51,989). Corresponding disease-related health care costs PPPY were also significantly higher for the recurrent VTE group ($11,120 vs $1,262, cost difference: $9,858 [€6,733]; 95% CI= $9,081-$10,476). In conclusion, in this large matched-cohort study, recurrent VTE patients had significantly higher risk of complications and health care costs compared to no-recurrent VTE patients. PMID:24085327

Lefebvre, Patrick; Laliberté, François; Nutescu, Edith A; Duh, Mei Sheng; LaMori, Joyce; Bookhart, Brahim K; Olson, William H; Dea, Katherine; Hossou, Yvonnick; Schein, Jeff; Kaatz, Scott

2013-12-01

323

Potential molecular tools for assessing the public health risk associated with waterborne Cryptosporidium oocysts.  

PubMed

The use of multiple barrier stages at water and wastewater treatment facilities allows for the effective removal of the vast majority of coliforms and other enteric and non-enteric microbes. Subsequent disinfection steps (chlorine, ozone and UV irradiation) are utilized to inactivate microbes that escape the preceding treatment stages. Most viruses, bacteria and protozoa, such as Giardia, are effectively inactivated by chlorination; however, Cryptosporidium is relatively more resistant to environmental conditions and to chlorination. Therefore, UV disinfection has been introduced at many water and wastewater treatment plants to increase log inactivation. Any accidental treatment failure may pose a significant risk to public health. Waterborne transmission of coccidian parasites such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia continues to be a major public health concern. No effective therapies currently exist to treat cryptosporidiosis and the global increase in immunocompromised populations has emphasized the need for water utilities and public health laboratories to have immediate and reliable access to highly sensitive test methods that can determine the host specificity, viability and infectivity of protozoa in the water supply. The most common method used for monitoring Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts at intermediate treatment stages and in finished drinking water is the US EPA Method 1623. Although Cryptosporidium species are morphologically indistinguishable, they differ greatly in their host specificity and infectivity. Method 1623 provides quantitative information about Cryptosporidium and Giardia contamination but cannot distinguish between species for intervention purposes in outbreak situations, nor is this method reliable for determining whether the oocyst on the slide is infective for humans. Molecular methods have proven valuable in diagnosing infectious diseases, especially those for which the causative agent is difficult to grow in culture, and similar tools would aid public health agencies to determine risk associated with Cryptosporidium. This review focuses on current methods for determining the host specificity (genotyping), viability and infectivity of Cryptosporidium oocysts. PMID:22628454

Kothavade, Rajendra J

2012-08-01

324

Is Violent Radicalisation Associated with Poverty, Migration, Poor Self-Reported Health and Common Mental Disorders?  

PubMed Central

Background Doctors, lawyers and criminal justice agencies need methods to assess vulnerability to violent radicalization. In synergy, public health interventions aim to prevent the emergence of risk behaviours as well as prevent and treat new illness events. This paper describes a new method of assessing vulnerability to violent radicalization, and then investigates the role of previously reported causes, including poor self-reported health, anxiety and depression, adverse life events, poverty, and migration and socio-political factors. The aim is to identify foci for preventive intervention. Methods A cross-sectional survey of a representative population sample of men and women aged 18–45, of Muslim heritage and recruited by quota sampling by age, gender, working status, in two English cities. The main outcomes include self-reported health, symptoms of anxiety and depression (common mental disorders), and vulnerability to violent radicalization assessed by sympathies for violent protest and terrorist acts. Results 2.4% of people showed some sympathy for violent protest and terrorist acts. Sympathy was more likely to be articulated by the under 20s, those in full time education rather than employment, those born in the UK, those speaking English at home, and high earners (>£75,000 a year). People with poor self-reported health were less likely to show sympathies for violent protest and terrorism. Anxiety and depressive symptoms, adverse life events and socio-political attitudes showed no associations. Conclusions Sympathies for violent protest and terrorism were uncommon among men and women, aged 18–45, of Muslim heritage living in two English cities. Youth, wealth, and being in education rather than employment were risk factors.

Bhui, Kamaldeep; Warfa, Nasir; Jones, Edgar

2014-01-01

325

Associations between different types of physical activity and teachers' perceived mental, physical, and work-related health  

PubMed Central

Background The teaching profession is characterized by high levels of stress and physical complaints, which might be improved through regular participation in physical activity (PA). However, the effect of PA on mental and physical health is not always consistent and depends on the type of PA performed. The aim of this study was to examine the mental, physical, and work-related health of Flemish secondary school teachers and identify the impact on those health variables by demographic and teaching-related factors and various types of PA. Methods This study included an online survey conducted across a representative sample of secondary school teachers (n?=?1066, average age 40 years; 68 percent female). Level of PA and sitting time were estimated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and perceived mental health and physical health were estimated using the Short Form 36. Work-related factors such as job satisfaction, occupational stress, and absenteeism were also collected. T-tests, ANOVAs, and linear regression analyses were performed. Results Flemish secondary school teachers have poorer perceived mental and physical health than a general healthy population. This difference is particularly evident among female teachers, who reported lower perceived health, more occupational stress, and more absent days compared to their male colleagues. Higher participation in leisure-time PA was associated with a more positive perceived health. In contrast, higher levels of occupational PA and sitting time had a negative impact on perceived health. Total amount of PA, total amount of moderate-to-vigorous PA, transportation-related PA, and PA at home were not associated to teachers’ perceived health. Conclusion Because secondary school teachers’ levels of perceived health are low, they are an important target group for interventions aiming to improve health. Only leisure-time PA was associated with more positive perceived health. This finding may indicate that teachers performing more exercise during leisure time, or in a more autonomous way, may be more resistant to physical and mental health problems. Future research should verify whether promoting leisure-time PA among teachers has the potential to improve their mental and physical health, and counteract the negative associations between teachers’ health and their occupational PA.

2014-01-01

326

Association of Perceived Stigma and Mood and Anxiety Disorders: Results from the World Mental Health Surveys  

PubMed Central

Introduction We assessed the prevalence of perceived stigma among persons with mental disorders and chronic physical conditions in an international study. Methods Perceived stigma (reporting health-related embarrassment and discrimination) was assessed to adults reporting significant disability. Mental disorders were assessed with CIDI 3.0. Chronic conditions were ascertained by self-report. 80,737 household-residing adults participated in 17 population surveys in 16 countries. Results Perceived stigma was present in 13.5% (22.1% in developing and 11.7% in developed countries). Suffering from a depressive or an anxiety disorder (vs. no mental disorder) was associated with about a two-fold increase in the likelihood of stigma, while comorbid depression and anxiety was even more strongly associated (OR= 4.0, 95%CI= 3.1, 5.4). Chronic physical conditions showed a lower association. Conclusion Perceived stigma is frequent and strongly associated with mental disorders worldwide. Efforts to alleviate stigma among individuals with comorbid depression and anxiety are needed.

Alonso, Jordi; Buron, Andrea; Bruffaerts, Ronny; He, Yanling; Posada-Villa, Jose; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Angermeyer, Mattias C.; Levinson, Daphna; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Tachimori, Hisateru; Mneimneh, Zeina N.; Medina-Mora, Ma Elena; Ormel, Johan; Scott, Kate Margaret; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Gluzman, Semyon; Lee, Sing; Vilagut, Gemma; Kessler, Ronald C.; Von Korff, Michael

2010-01-01

327

Contextual factors and health risk behaviors associated with date fighting among high school students.  

PubMed

Over 2,000 North Carolina high school students completed surveys measuring community risk and protective factors and individual health risk behaviors including dating violence perpetration and victimization. Females reported more date fighting perpetration than males (8.8% to 4.0%), as well as greater levels of date fighting victimization (7.2% and 5.0%). In multivariate models, factors associated with date fighting perpetration among females and males included riding with a drinking driver. Neighborhood organization was protective for both groups. Cigarette use, drinking and driving, and being a minority were also associated with perpetration among females, while tobacco use was associated with date fighting perpetration by males. Factors associated with victimization among both genders included riding with a drinking driver. Females were more likely to be victimized if they used marijuana, whereas males were less likely to be a victim of date fighting if they perceived their community to be "organized." Findings reflect comparable individual risk factors for date fighting across genders, with few exceptions, and warrant further investigation of the role of community assets in protecting young people from dating violence. PMID:18714709

Champion, Heather; Foley, Kristie Long; Sigmon-Smith, Karen; Sutfin, Erin L; DuRant, Robert H

2008-01-01

328

Association between adherence measurements of metoprolol and health care utilization in older patients with heart failure  

PubMed Central

Objective Data from electronic dosing monitors and published pharmacokinetic parameters were used to derive medication adherence measures for immediate-release metoprolol and examine their association with health care utilization of outpatients aged 50 years or older with heart failure. Methods We used a 1-compartment model and published population pharmacokinetic parameters to estimate mean plasma metoprolol concentrations for patients treated for 6 to 12 months. In the absence of directly measured plasma concentrations, we calculated the intended mean plasma concentration (Cp?ave) under the assumption of perfect adherence to the prescribed dose and frequency of administration. Projected mean plasma concentrations (Cpave) were estimated by use of data from recorded dosing times. In addition to taking adherence (percentage of dose taken) and scheduling adherence (percentage of doses taken on schedule), we calculated the deviation from the intended exposure (?Cpave = Cp?ave ? Cpave) and the proportion of intended exposure achieved by the patient (Cpave/Cp?ave). We assessed the association between the adherence measures and the numbers of emergency department visits and hospital admissions experienced by the patients. Results Patients (N = 80) were aged 62 ± 8 years. Mean ?Cpave and Cpave/Cp?ave were 7.9 ng/mL (SD, 10.7) and 0.6 (SD, 0.3), respectively. Log-linear models adjusted for patient functional status indicated that greater deviation from the intended metoprolol exposure (?Cpave) was associated with increased numbers of emergency department visits (P < .0001) and hospital admissions (P < .0001). A higher proportion of intended exposure (Cpave/Cp?ave) corresponded to a reduced number of emergency department visits (P = .0204) and hospital admissions (P = .0093). Taking adherence was univariately associated with both emergency department visits and hospital visits (P < .0001 and P = .0010, respectively). Scheduling adherence was associated with the number of emergency department visits (P = .0181) but not with the number of hospital admissions (P = .1602). Model selection procedures consistently chose the proposed measures over taking adherence and scheduling adherence. Conclusion Deviation from the intended exposure and proportion of intended exposure achieved by the patient are valid adherence measures for immediate-release metoprolol and are associated with health care utilization. The potential utility of these measures for other ?-adrenergic antagonists and perhaps other cardiovascular drugs should be investigated.

Tu, Wanzhu; Morris, Andrew B.; Li, Jingjin; Wu, Jingwei; Young, James; Brater, D. Craig; Murray, Michael D.

2008-01-01

329

Longitudinal Association between Body Mass Index and Health-Related Quality of Life  

PubMed Central

Objective Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important outcome in individuals with a high risk for cardiovascular diseases. We investigated the association of HRQoL and body mass index (BMI) as an indicator for obesity. Design Secondary longitudinal analysis of the ORBITAL study, an intervention study which included high-risk cardiovascular primary care patients with hypercholesterolemia and an indication for statin therapy. Methods HRQoL was determined with the generic Short Form (SF)-12 health status instrument. Body weight and height were assessed at baseline and at months 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36. We used a linear and a linear mixed-effects regression model to investigate the association between BMI and SF-12 summary scores at baseline as well as between change in BMI and SF-12 summary scores over 3 years. We adjusted for age, sex, smoking status, and in the longitudinal analysis also for the study arm and its interaction term with time. Results Of the 7640 participants who completed the baseline questionnaire, 6726 participants (mean age: 61 years) were analyzed. The baseline BMI was inversely associated with physical and mental SF-12 summary scores (? [95% CI] per 1 kg/m2: ?0.36 [?0.41; ?0.30] and ?0.05 [?0.11; ?0.00], respectively). A significant association between the change in BMI and physical SF-12 summary scores over time was only present in women (?0.18 [?0.27; ?0.09]) and only in obese participants (?0.19 [?0.29; ?0.10]). A change in BMI was directly associated with mental SF-12 summary scores (0.12 [0.06; 0.19]) in the total population. Conclusion Increases in BMI were associated with decreases in physical HRQoL, particularly in obese individuals and in women. In contrast, the mental HRQoL seemed to increase with increasing BMI over time. Thus, body weight management with respect to the HRQoL should be evaluated differentially by sex and body weight status. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00379249

Englert, Heike; Grittner, Ulrike; Berger, Hendrike; Sonntag, Frank; Voller, Heinz; Prugger, Christof; Wegscheider, Karl; Katus, Hugo A.; Willich, Stefan N.

2014-01-01

330

Occupational Safety and Health Symposia (37th American Medical Association Congress on Occupational Health. St. Louis, Missouri, 1977).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The papers compiled here were presented at the fourth symposium in a series designed to provide a continuing introduction to current aspects of occupational safety and health. The papers represent eight topics: (1) special health programs, (2) degenerative disease and injury of the back, (3) job stress and work performance, (4) role of industry in…

Douglass, Bruce E.; And Others

331

Health state preferences associated with weight status in children and adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is a substantial public health problem. The extent to which health state preferences (utilities) are related to a child's weight status has not been reported. The aims of this study were (1) to use a generic health state classification system to measure health related quality of life and calculate health utilities in a convenience sample of children

Mandy B Belfort; John AF Zupancic; Katherine M Riera; Jane HG Turner; Lisa A Prosser

2011-01-01

332

Fundamental movement skills in children and adolescents: review of associated health benefits.  

PubMed

The mastery of fundamental movement skills (FMS) has been purported as contributing to children's physical, cognitive and social development and is thought to provide the foundation for an active lifestyle. Commonly developed in childhood and subsequently refined into context- and sport-specific skills, they include locomotor (e.g. running and hopping), manipulative or object control (e.g. catching and throwing) and stability (e.g. balancing and twisting) skills. The rationale for promoting the development of FMS in childhood relies on the existence of evidence on the current or future benefits associated with the acquisition of FMS proficiency. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the relationship between FMS competency and potential health benefits in children and adolescents. Benefits were defined in terms of psychological, physiological and behavioural outcomes that can impact public health. A systematic search of six electronic databases (EMBASE, OVID MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus and SportDiscus®) was conducted on 22 June 2009. Included studies were cross-sectional, longitudinal or experimental studies involving healthy children or adolescents (aged 3-18 years) that quantitatively analysed the relationship between FMS competency and potential benefits. The search identified 21 articles examining the relationship between FMS competency and eight potential benefits (i.e. global self-concept, perceived physical competence, cardio-respiratory fitness [CRF], muscular fitness, weight status, flexibility, physical activity and reduced sedentary behaviour). We found strong evidence for a positive association between FMS competency and physical activity in children and adolescents. There was also a positive relationship between FMS competency and CRF and an inverse association between FMS competency and weight status. Due to an inadequate number of studies, the relationship between FMS competency and the remaining benefits was classified as uncertain. More longitudinal and intervention research examining the relationship between FMS competency and potential psychological, physiological and behavioural outcomes in children and adolescents is recommended. PMID:21058749

Lubans, David R; Morgan, Philip J; Cliff, Dylan P; Barnett, Lisa M; Okely, Anthony D

2010-12-01

333

Placental Size Is Associated with Mental Health in Children and Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background The role of the placenta in fetal programming has been recognized as a highly significant, yet often neglected area of study. We investigated placental size in relation to psychopathology, in particular attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, in children at 8 years of age, and later as adolescents at 16 years. Methodology/Principal Findings Prospective data were obtained from The Northern Finland Birth Cohort (NFBC) 1986. Placental weight, surface area and birth weight were measured according to standard procedures, within 30 minutes after birth. ADHD symptoms, probable psychiatric disturbance, antisocial disorder and neurotic disorder were assessed at 8 years (n?=?8101), and ADHD symptoms were assessed again at 16 years (n?=?6607), by teachers and parents respectively. We used logistic regression analyses to investigate the association between placental size and mental health outcomes, and controlled for gestational age, birth weight, socio-demographic factors and medical factors, during gestation. There were significant positive associations between placental size (weight, surface area and placental-to-birth-weight ratio) and mental health problems in boys at 8 and 16 years of age. Increased placental weight was linked with overall probable psychiatric disturbance (at 8y, OR ?=?1.14 [95% CI ?=?1.04–1.25]), antisocial behavior (at 8 y, OR ?=?1.14 [95% CI ?=?1.03–1.27]) and ADHD symptoms (inattention-hyperactivity at 16y, OR ?=?1.19 [95% CI ?=?1.02–1.38]). No significant associations were detected among girls. Conclusions/Significance Compensatory placental growth may occur in response to prenatal insults. Such overgrowth may affect fetal development, including brain development, and ultimately contribute to psychopathology.

Khalife, Natasha; Glover, Vivette; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Taanila, Anja; Ebeling, Hanna; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Rodriguez, Alina

2012-01-01

334

Associations between early exposure to intimate partner violence, parental depression and subsequent mental health outcomes  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the association between parent reports of intimate partner violence (IPV) and depressive symptoms within the first 3 years of a child’s life with subsequent mental health conditions and psychotropic drug treatment. Design Prospective cohort study linking parental IPV and depression with subsequent billing and pharmacy data. Setting 4 pediatric clinics between November 2004 and June 2012 Patients/Participants 2,422 children Main Exposure Any report of IPV and/or parental depressive symptoms from birth to 3 years of age. Main Outcome Measures ICD-9 mental health diagnoses and any psychotropic drug treatment between 3 and 6 years of age. Results 2.4% of caregivers (n=58) reported both IPV and depressive symptoms before their children were 3 years of age, 3% (n=69) of caregivers reported IPV only, 29% (n=704) reported depressive symptoms only, and 65.7% (n=1,591) reported neither exposure. Children of parents reporting both IPV and depressive symptoms were more likely to have a diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (AOR 4.0; 95% CI: 1.5–10.9), even after adjusting for child gender, race/ethnicity, and insurance type. Children whose parents reported depressive symptoms were more likely to have been prescribed psychotropic medication (AOR 1.9; 95% CI: 1.0–3.4). Conclusions Exposure to both IPV and depression before 3 years is associated with preschool-onset ADHD; and early exposure to parental depression is associated with being prescribed psychotropic medication.

Bauer, Nerissa S.; Gilbert, Amy L.; Carroll, Aaron E.; Downs, Stephen M.

2014-01-01

335

Do we develop public health leaders?- association between public health competencies and emotional intelligence: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Professional development of public health leaders requires a form of instruction which is competency-based to help them develop the abilities to address complex and evolving demands of health care systems. Concurrently, emotional intelligence (EI) is a key to organisational success. Our aim was twofold: i) to assess the relationship between the level of self-assessed public health and EI competencies among Master of European Public Health (MEPH) students and graduates at Maastricht University, and; ii) to determine the relationship between different groups of public health competencies and specific EI skills. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted including all recent MEPH graduates and students from 2009–2012, out of 67 eligible candidates N?=?51 were contacted and N?=?33 responded (11 males and 22 females; overall response: 64.7%).Two validated tools were employed: i) public health competencies self-assessment questionnaire, and; ii) Assessing Emotions Scale. Results Females scored higher than males in all seven domains of the self-assessed key public health competencies (NS) and emotional intelligence competences (P?=?0.022). Overall, the mean value of public health competencies was the lowest in students with “staff” preferences and the highest among students with mixed job preferences (P?health competencies and the overall emotional intelligence competencies (r?=?0.61, P?health specific competencies and EI attributes. It can contribute to the improvement of the educational content of PH curricula by rising awareness through self-assessment and supporting the identification of further educational needs related to leadership.

2014-01-01

336

Associations of physical symptoms with perceived need for and use of mental health services among Latino and Asian Americans  

PubMed Central

Although many believe that low rates of perceived mental health need and service use among racial/ethnic minorities are due, in part, to somatization, data supporting this notion are lacking. This study examined two hypotheses: (1) increased physical symptoms are associated with lower perceived need for mental health services and actual service use; and (2) physical symptoms are most strongly associated with perceived mental health need and service use among first-generation individuals. Data come from the National Latino and Asian-American Study, a nationally-representative household survey in the United States conducted from 2002 to 2003. Participants reported on the presence of fourteen physical symptoms within the past year. Perceived mental health need was present for individuals who endorsed having an emotional or substance use problem or thinking they needed treatment for such a problem within the past year. After adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical covariates, the number of physical symptoms was positively associated with perceived mental health need and service, an effect that differed by generation. Among first-generation individuals, physical symptoms were associated with increased perceived need and service use. Physical symptoms were not significantly associated with perceived need or service use among third-generation Latinos, but were associated with service use among third-generation Asian-Americans. Physical symptoms do not appear to interfere with mental health problem recognition or service use. In contrast, individuals, especially of the first-generation, with more physical symptoms were more likely to perceive need for and utilize mental health services. Our findings do not support the notion that physical symptoms account for low rates of perceived mental health need and service use among Latino and Asian-Americans.

Bauer, Amy M.; Chen, Chih-Nan; Alegria, Margarita

2012-01-01

337

The association between accelerometer-measured patterns of sedentary time and health risk in children and youth: results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Self-reported screen time is associated with elevated health risk in children and youth; however, research examining the relationship between accelerometer-measured sedentary time and health risk has reported mixed findings. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between accelerometer-measured patterns of sedentary time and health risk in children and youth. Methods The results are based on 1,608 children and youth aged 6 to 19?years from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007–2009). Sedentary time was measured using the Actical accelerometer. Breaks in sedentary time and prolonged bouts of sedentary time lasting 20 to 120?minutes were derived for all days, weekend days and during the after-school period (i.e., after 3?pm on weekdays). Regression analyses were used to examine the association between patterns of sedentary time and body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure and non-HDL cholesterol. Results Boys accumulated more sedentary time on weekdays after 3?pm and had a higher number of breaks in sedentary time compared to girls. Overweight/obese boys (aged 6–19?years) accumulated more sedentary time after 3?pm on weekdays (282 vs. 259?min, p?associated with BMI and waist circumference in boys aged 11–14?years (p?associated with a 1.4?kg·m-2 higher BMI and a 3.4?cm higher waist circumference in 11–14?year old boys. No sedentary pattern variables differed between girls who were not overweight or obese and those who were overweight/obese and none of the sedentary pattern variables were associated with any health markers in girls. Conclusions The findings confirm results of other studies that reported accelerometer-measured sedentary time was not associated with health risk in children and youth. Even when the pattern and timing of sedentary time was examined relative to health markers, few associations emerged and were limited to boys aged 11–14?years.

2013-01-01

338

The Association of Resilience with Mental and Physical Health among Older American Indians: The Native Elder Care Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the association of resilience with measures of mental and physical health in a sample of older American Indians (AIs). A validated scale measuring resilience was administered to 185 noninstitutionalized AIs aged greater than or equal to 55 years. Unadjusted analyses revealed that higher levels of resilience were associated with lower…

Schure, Marc B.; Odden, Michelle; Goins, R. Turner

2013-01-01

339

Aortic Stiffness Is Associated With Visceral Adiposity in Older Adults Enrolled in the Study of Health, Aging, and Body Composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The central arteries stiffen with age, causing hemodynamic alterations that have been associated with cardiovascular events. Changes in body fat with age may be related to aortic stiffening. The association between vascular stiffness and body fat was evaluated in 2488 older adults (mean age, 74 years; 52% female; 40% black) enrolled in the Study of Health, Aging, and Body Composition

Kim Sutton-Tyrrell; Anne Newman; Eleanor M. Simonsick; Richard Havlik; Marco Pahor

340

PUBLIC HEALTH AND ECOLOGICAL INTERCONNECTIVITY: A CONDITIONAL PROBABILITY APPROACH ASSOCIATING DEGRADATION OF STREAMS AND INFANT MORTALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Effective public health policy should not be based solely on clinical, individualbased information, but requires a broad characterization of human health conditions across large geographic areas. For the most part, the necessary monitoring of human health to ...

341

Loneliness: Its Correlates and Association with Health Behaviours and Outcomes in Nine Countries of the Former Soviet Union  

PubMed Central

Background Research suggests that the prevalence of loneliness varies between countries and that feeling lonely may be associated with poorer health behaviours and outcomes. The aim of the current study was to examine the factors associated with loneliness, and the relationship between feeling lonely and health behaviours and outcomes in the countries of the former Soviet Union (FSU) – a region where loneliness has been little studied to date. Methods Using data from 18,000 respondents collected during a cross-sectional survey undertaken in nine FSU countries – Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine – in 2010/11, country-wise logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine: the factors associated with feeling lonely; the association between feeling lonely and alcohol consumption, hazardous drinking and smoking; and whether feeling lonely was linked to poorer health (i.e. poor self-rated health and psychological distress). Results The prevalence of loneliness varied widely among the countries. Being divorced/widowed and low social support were associated with loneliness in all of the countries, while other factors (e.g. living alone, low locus of control) were linked to loneliness in some of the countries. Feeling lonely was connected with hazardous drinking in Armenia, Kyrgyzstan and Russia but with smoking only in Kyrgyzstan. Loneliness was associated with psychological distress in all of the countries and poor self-rated health in every country except Kazakhstan and Moldova. Conclusions Loneliness is associated with worse health behaviours and poorer health in the countries of the FSU. More individual country-level research is now needed to formulate effective interventions to mitigate the negative effects of loneliness on population well-being in the FSU.

Stickley, Andrew; Koyanagi, Ai; Roberts, Bayard; Richardson, Erica; Abbott, Pamela; Tumanov, Sergei; McKee, Martin

2013-01-01

342

Association of Serum Phosphate Levels with Aortic Valve Sclerosis and Annular Calcification: the Cardiovascular Health Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate mineral metabolism markers as potential risk factors for calcific aortic valve disease. Background Mineral metabolism disturbances are common among older people and may contribute to cardiac valvular calcification. Associations of serum mineral metabolism markers with cardiac valvular calcification have not been evaluated in a well-characterized general population of older adults. Methods We measured serum levels of phosphate, calcium, parathyroid hormone, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D in 1,938 Cardiovascular Health Study participants who were free of clinical cardiovascular disease and who underwent echocardiography measurements of aortic valve sclerosis (AVS), mitral annular calcification (MAC), and aortic annular calcification (AAC). We used logistic regression models to estimate associations of mineral metabolism markers with AVS, MAC, and AAC after adjustment for relevant confounding variables, including kidney function. Results The respective prevalences of AVS, MAC, and AAC were 54%, 39%, and 44%. Each 0.5 mg/dl higher serum phosphate concentration was associated with a greater adjusted odds of AVS (odds ratio 1.17, 95% confidence interval 1.04 to 1.31, p = 0.01), MAC (odds ratio 1.12, 95% confidence interval 1.00 to 1.26, p =0.05), and AAC (odds ratio 1.12, 95% confidence interval 0.99 to 1.25, p = 0.05). In contrast, serum calcium, parathyroid hormone, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations were not associated with aortic or mitral calcification. Conclusions Higher serum phosphate levels within the normal range are associated with valvular and annular calcification in a community-based cohort of older adults. Phosphate may be a novel risk factor for calcific aortic valve disease and warrants further study.

Linefsky, Jason P.; O'Brien, Kevin D.; Katz, Ronit; de Boer, Ian H.; Barasch, Eddy; Jenny, Nancy S.; Siscovick, David S.; Kestenbaum, Bryan

2011-01-01

343

Association of Preventive Health Care with Atherosclerotic Heart Disease and Mortality in CKD  

PubMed Central

Chronic kidney disease (CKD, stages 1 to 4) affects approximately 13.1% of United States adults and leads to ESRD, cardiovascular disease, and premature death. Here, we assessed adherence to a subset of Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative preventive health care guidelines and identified associations between adherence and incident atherosclerotic heart disease (ASHD). Using the Medicare 5% data set, 1999 to 2005 (about 1.2 million patients per year), we created 3-yr rolling cohorts. We classified CKD and diabetes during year 1, assessed preventive care during year 2, and evaluated ASHD outcomes during year 3. We defined preventive care by the receipt of laboratory measurements (serum creatinine, lipids, calcium and phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, and, for patients with diabetes, hemoglobin A1c), influenza vaccination, and by at least one outpatient visit to a nephrologist. Among patients with CKD, 80% received ?2 serum creatinine tests during the year, and only 11% received parathyroid hormone testing. Cumulative incidence of the combined ASHD outcome was 25% and 11% for patients with and without prevalent cardiovascular disease, respectively. Except for serum creatinine testing, preventive care associated with lower ASHD rates in the subsequent year, ranging from 10% lower for those who received influenza vaccinations and ?2 A1c tests, to 43% lower for calcium-phosphorus assessment. Receiving ?2 serum creatinine tests associated with a 13% higher rate of ASHD. A higher number of preventive measures associated with lower rates of ASHD. In summary, these data support an association between preventive measures and reduced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

Snyder, Jon J.; Collins, Allan J.

2009-01-01

344

Rhinitis Associated with Pesticide Use Among Private Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study  

PubMed Central

Farmers commonly experience rhinitis but the risk factors are not well-characterized. The aim of this study was to analyze cross-sectional data on rhinitis in the past year and pesticide use from 21,958 Iowa and North Carolina farmers in the Agricultural Health Study, enrolled 1993–7, to evaluate pesticide predictors of rhinitis. Polytomous and logistic regression models were used to assess association between pesticide use and rhinitis while controlling for demographics and farm-related exposures. Sixty-seven % of farmers reported current rhinitis and 39% reported three or more rhinitis episodes. The herbicides glyphosate [Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.09, 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) = 1.05–1.13] and petroleum oil (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.05–1.19) were associated with current rhinitis and increased rhinitis episodes. Of the insecticides, 4 organophosphates (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dichlorvos, and malathion), carbaryl and use of permethrin on animals were predictors of current rhinitis. Diazinon was significant in the overall polytomous model and was associated with an elevated OR of 13+ rhinitis episodes (13+ episodes OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.09–1.38). The fungicide captan was also a significant predictor of rhinitis. Use of petroleum oil, malathion, permethrin and the herbicide metolachlor were significant in exposure-response polytomous models. Specific pesticides may contribute to rhinitis in farmers; agricultural activities did not explain these findings.

Slager, Rebecca E.; Simpson, Sean L.; LeVan, Tricia D.; Poole, Jill A.; Sandler, Dale P.; Hoppin, Jane A.

2010-01-01

345

Problematic video game use: estimated prevalence and associations with mental and physical health.  

PubMed

A nationwide survey was conducted to investigate the prevalence of video game addiction and problematic video game use and their association with physical and mental health. An initial sample comprising 2,500 individuals was randomly selected from the Norwegian National Registry. A total of 816 (34.0 percent) individuals completed and returned the questionnaire. The majority (56.3 percent) of respondents used video games on a regular basis. The prevalence of video game addiction was estimated to be 0.6 percent, with problematic use of video games reported by 4.1 percent of the sample. Gender (male) and age group (young) were strong predictors for problematic use of video games. A higher proportion of high frequency compared with low frequency players preferred massively multiplayer online role-playing games, although the majority of high frequency players preferred other game types. Problematic use of video games was associated with lower scores on life satisfaction and with elevated levels of anxiety and depression. Video game use was not associated with reported amount of physical exercise. PMID:21342010

Mentzoni, Rune Aune; Brunborg, Geir Scott; Molde, Helge; Myrseth, Helga; Skouverøe, Knut Joachim Mår; Hetland, Jørn; Pallesen, Ståle

2011-10-01

346

The Association Between Insurance Status and Cervical Cancer Screening in Community Health Centers: Exploring the Potential of Electronic Health Records for Population-Level Surveillance, 2008-2010  

PubMed Central

Introduction Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates in the United States have decreased 67% over the past 3 decades, a reduction mainly attributed to widespread use of the Papanicolaou (Pap) test for cervical cancer screening. In the general population, receipt of cervical cancer screening is positively associated with having health insurance. Less is known about the role insurance plays among women seeking care in community health centers, where screening services are available regardless of insurance status. The objective of our study was to assess the association between cervical cancer screening and insurance status in Oregon and California community health centers by using data from electronic health records. Methods We used bilevel log-binomial regression models to estimate prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for receipt of a Pap test by insurance status, adjusted for patient-level demographic factors and a clinic-level random effect. Results Insurance status was a significant predictor of cervical cancer screening, but the effect varied by race/ethnicity and age. In our study uninsured non-Hispanic white women were less likely to receive a Pap test than were uninsured women of other races. Young, uninsured Hispanic women were more likely to receive a Pap test than were young, fully insured Hispanic women, a finding not previously reported. Conclusion Electronic health records enable population-level surveillance in community health centers and can reveal factors influencing use of preventive services. Although community health centers provide cervical cancer screening regardless of insurance status, disparities persist in the association between insurance status and receipt of Pap tests. In our study, after adjusting for demographic factors, being continuously insured throughout the study period improved the likelihood of receiving a Pap test for many women.

Carlson, Matthew J.; Lapidus, Jodi A.; DeVoe, Jennifer E.

2013-01-01

347

Potential human health effect(s) of the metal uranium in the environment. Report on the known human health effects associated with the exposure to the metal uranium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Concern over the levels of the metal uranium in the environment as a result of industrial activities has been expressed by several Federal and State agencies. This concern is associated with potential human health effects of this metal on kidney function ...

1990-01-01

348

Urban river restoration: implications on channel sedimentation patterns and associated ecosystem and human health  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban river restoration, which alters the physical and hydraulic conditions of rivers, creates rivers favourable to increased sedimentation through greater sediment availability and heterogeneous flow patterns. Sediments, particularly finer-grained, store contaminants including metals which can have detrimental impacts upon aquatic ecosystems and potentially human health. This research therefore looks at the effect of urban river restoration practices upon sedimentation patterns, the associated changes in sediment metal storage and the potential impact upon river function and use in terms of the aquatic ecosystem and human health. Research was undertaken at four sites on urban rivers in London. The spatial extent of different bed sediment types (unvegetated gravel, sand, finer and sediment around in-channel vegetation) in adjacent restored and unrestored stretches was mapped in July 2010. Additionally, sediments were sampled through the year and analysed for a range of metals and sediment characteristics. Two sites (Chinbrook Meadows and Sutcliffe Park) showed a clear difference in bed sediment type channel cover between the restored and unrestored stretches. The majority of the concrete-lined unrestored stretch at Chinbrook Meadows had no sediment deposition, whereas the restored stretch had over half of the channel occupied by finer sediment either on the open channel bed or accumulated around in-channel vegetation. At Sutcliffe Park, the dominant bed sediment type in the restored stretch was finer sediment on the open bed and accumulated around in-channel vegetation, whereas in the unrestored stretch the dominant bed sediment type was gravel. At both sites there were significant differences in metal concentrations and sediment characteristics between bed sediment types. Metal concentrations, organic matter and % <63µm were generally higher in the finer sediment whether on the open bed or around in-channel vegetation. Total loadings of all metals were greater in the restored as opposed to the unrestored stretch at both sites, and this difference persisted after standardisation to loading/m2 of channel to account for differing channel dimensions. Metal concentrations at the two sites were analysed using sediment quality guidelines to assess the potential impact upon both the aquatic ecosystem (Environment Agency draft freshwater quality guidelines, 2008) and human health (Dutch Intervention Values for human, plant and/or animal life, 2009). Greater exceedances occurred for the ecological rather than the human health guidelines. Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were of greatest concern in terms of ecological sediment quality at Sutcliffe Park and Pb and Zn at Chinbrook Meadows. At Sutcliffe Park a greater proportion of samples exceeded the Predicted Effects Level (PEL) in the restored as opposed to the unrestored stretch; conversely at Chinbrook Meadows a greater proportion of samples in the unrestored stretch as opposed to the restored stretch exceeded the PEL. In terms of human health, exceedances only occurred for Cu and Zn at Sutcliffe Park, with the greater proportion being in the restored stretch. The results from this research will have implications for the design, management and maintenance of restored urban rivers in terms of fine sediment accumulation assessment, its quality and the associated potential impact upon ecosystem and human health.

Gibbs, H.; Gurnell, A.; Heppell, K.; Spencer, K.

2012-04-01

349

Self-rated health and associated factors among older South Africans: evidence from the study on global ageing and adult health  

PubMed Central

Background Population ageing has become significant in South African society, increasing the need to improve understandings of health and well-being among the aged. Objective To describe the self-reported ratings of overall health and functioning, and to identify factors associated with self-rated health among older South Africans. Design A national population-based cross-sectional survey, with a sample of 3,840 individuals aged 50 years and older, was completed in South Africa in 2008. Self-reported ratings of overall health and functioning were measured using a single self-reported health state covering nine health domains (used to generate the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) composite health state score). Disability was measured using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHODAS-II) activities of daily living (ADLs), instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), perceptions of well-being, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life index/metric (WHOQoL). Results Overall, more than three quarters (76.8%) of adults rated their health as moderate or good. On balance, men reported very good or good health more often than women (p<0.001). Older people (aged 70 years and above) reported significantly poorer health status than those aged 50–59 (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00–2.30). Indians and Blacks were significantly more likely to report poorer health status at (AOR=4.01; 95% CI 1.27–12.70) and (AOR=0.42; 95% CI 0.18–0.98; 30 p <0.045), respectively, compared to Whites. Respondents with primary education (AOR=1.83; 95% CI 1.19–2.80) and less than primary education (AOR=1.94; 95% CI 1.37–2.76) were more likely to report poorer health compared to those with secondary education. In terms of wealth status, those in low wealth quintile (AOR=2.02; 95% CI 1.14–3.57) and medium wealth quintile (AOR=1.47; 95% CI 1.01–2.13) were more likely to report poorer health status than those in high wealth quintile. Overall, the mean WHODAS-II score was 20%, suggesting a low level of disability. The mean WHOQoL score for females (Mean=51.5; SD=12.2) was comparable to that of males (Mean=49.1; SD=12.6). Conclusions The depreciation in health and daily functioning with increasing age is likely to increase demand for health care and other services as people grow older. There is a need for regular monitoring of the health status of older people to provide public health agencies with the data they need to assess, protect, and promote the health and well-being of older people.

Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Peltzer, Karl; Chirinda, Witness; Kose, Zamakayise; Hoosain, Ebrahim; Ramlagan, Shandir; Tabane, Cily; Davids, Adlai

2013-01-01

350

Associations of demographic variables and the Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana  

PubMed Central

Purpose Papanicolaou (Pap) smear services are available in most urban areas in Botswana. Yet most women in such areas do not screen regularly for cancer of the cervix. The purpose of this article is to present findings on the associations of demographic variables and Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana. Sample and methods The study included a convenience sample of 353 asymptomatic women aged 30 years and older who were living in Gaborone, Botswana. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and items of the Health Belief Model. Data analysis included descriptive statistics for demographic variables and bivariate and ordinal (logit) regression to determine the associations of demographic variables. Results Having health insurance and having a regular health care provider were significant predictors of whether or not women had a Pap smear. Women with health insurance were more likely to have had a Pap smear test than women without health insurance (91% vs 36%). Similarly, women who had a regular health care provider were more likely to have had a Pap smear test than women without a regular health care provider (94% vs 42%). Major barriers to screening included what was described as “laziness” for women who had ever had a Pap smear (57%) and limited information about Pap smear screening for women who had never had a Pap smear (44%). Conclusion There is a need for more information about the importance of the Pap smear test and for increased access to screening services in Botswana.

McFarland, Ditsapelo M

2013-01-01

351

Psychosocial Factors and Health-Risk Behaviors Associated with Hookah use among College Students  

PubMed Central

Introduction Prevalence of hookah or waterpipe smoking is increasing in the United States, particularly among college-aged students. Little research has examined the relationship between hookah smoking, other risk-seeking behaviors, and specific personality factors. The current study aims to address this gap in the literature. Methods A random sample of 10,000 students at two southeastern state universities were recruited to complete an online survey containing 230 questions assessing sociodemographics, other substance use, and psychosocial factors. Of students invited to participate, 2,206 (22.1%) returned a completed survey. Results Past 30-day hookah use was found among 6.8% (n=141) of the sample. Binary logistic regression indicated that, after controlling for age, ethnicity, and highest parental education, hookah use was associated with being male (p<.001), being a nondaily or daily smoker versus a nonsmoker (p<.001), more frequent alcohol consumption (p<.001), greater sensation seeking (p<.001), lower levels of conscientiousness (p<.001), and greater openness to experiences (p=.01). Conclusions Understanding the psychological and personality profiles of hookah users may allow public health practitioners and health care providers to identify high-risk individuals and design targeted interventions addressing users and those at risk for use.

Berg, Carla J.; Schauer, Gillian L.; Asfour, Omar A.; Thomas, Akilah N.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

2013-01-01

352

California Hospitals' Response to State and Federal Policies Related to Health Care-Associated Infections  

PubMed Central

In October 2008, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) denied payment for ten selected health care–associated infections (HAI). In January 2009, California enacted mandatory reporting of infection prevention processes and HAI rates. This longitudinal mixed-methods study examined the impact of federal and state policy changes on California hospitals. Data on structures, processes, and outcomes of care were collected pre- and post-policy changes. In-depth interviews with hospital personnel were performed after policy implementation. More than 200 hospitals participated with 25 personnel interviewed. We found significant increases in adoption of and adherence to evidence-based practices and decreased HAI rates (p < .05). Infection preventionists (IP) spent more time on surveillance and in their offices and less time on education and in other locations (p < .05). Qualitative data confirmed mandatory reporting had intended and unintended consequences and highlighted the importance of technology and organizational climate in preventing infections and the changing IPs’ role. This is especially relevant because the California Department of Public Health has since mandated hospitals to report data on 29 different for surgical site infections and a lawsuit has been filed to delay the implementation of these requirements.

Stone, Patricia W.; Pogorzelska, Monika; Graham, Denise; Jia, Haomiao; Uchida, Mayuko; Larson, Elaine L.

2011-01-01

353

Factors Associated With Hospital Utilization in the Elderly: From the Cardiovascular Health Study.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: Analyze clinical, accepted biochemical, physiologic, and socioeconomic risk factors and correlate them with hospital utilization in an elderly population. DESIGN: Prospective, observational study in a defined, randomly recruited population. PARTICIPANTS: 5201 Medicare participants enrolled in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS). METHODS: Medicare recipients were randomly assigned to participate in an observational study. Baseline data were compared to hospital admissions and days of hospitalization over four years. DATA ANALYSIS: Data were grouped by type of risk factor and analyzed by Tobit analysis and logistic regression. RESULTS: Baseline variables associated with hospital use (p is less than 0.0001) were history of CHF, stroke, angina, hypertension, ln (timed walk), ln (blocks walked/week), age, gender, and clinic site. Factors not entering the model (p is greater than 0.05) were income, education, smoking, diabetes, weight, dietary fat, marital status, depression, and measures of mental function. CONCLUSIONS: In the elderly, existing health status is the major determinant of hospitalization and overwhelms many classic "risk factors" for morbidity. PMID:11416456

Robbins, J. A.; Yanez, D.; Powe, N. R.; Savage, P. J.; Ives, D. G.; Gardin, J. M.; Lyles, M.

1998-05-01

354

Metal accumulation and health effects in raccoons (Procyon lotor) associated with coal fly ash exposure.  

PubMed

Approximately 5.4 million cubic yards of coal fly ash and water spilled into the Emory River embayment of Watts Bar Reservoir in east Tennessee on Dec 22, 2008. Raccoons were collected in 2009 and 2010 from the spill site (10/y) and unexposed areas (5/y) to determine whether metals and metalloids were accumulating in raccoons and if any negative health effects resulted from exposure to the spilled coal fly ash. Tissues were analyzed from each animal to determine the concentrations of 26 metals/metalloids. Complete blood cell counts (CBC), plasma biochemistry panels, and histopathology of select tissues also were performed. Results were analyzed by year and exposure status. Although significant differences were present in some tissues for some metals/metalloids, only arsenic in hair, iron in muscle, nickel in hair, selenium in hair and muscle, strontium in hair, and vanadium in hair and liver were increased in spill site animals (one or both years) compared with unexposed animals. No clinically important differences were observed between groups regarding CBC or plasma biochemistry analyses. Lesions were observed on histopathology in some tissues, but there was no difference in the prevalence of lesions between spill site and unexposed animals. There does not seem to be any important accumulation of metals/metalloids or negative health effects in raccoons associated with exposure to coal fly ash compared with unexposed animals. PMID:23292273

Souza, Marcy J; Ramsay, Edward C; Donnell, Robert L

2013-05-01

355

Visitor behaviour and public health implications associated with exotic pet markets: an observational study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To conduct on-site assessments of public health implications at key European pet markets. Design Observational study of visitor behaviour at stalls that displayed and sold animals, mainly amphibians and reptiles, to assess potential contamination risk from zoonotic pathogens. We noted initial modes of contact as ‘direct’ (handling animals) as well as ‘indirect’ (touching presumed contaminated animal-related sources) and observed whether these visitors subsequently touched their own head or mouth (H1), body (H2) or another person (H3). Setting Publicly accessible exotic animal markets in the UK, Germany and Spain. Participants Anonymous members of the public in a public place. Main outcome measures Occurrence and frequency of public contact (direct, indirect or no contact) with a presumed contaminated source. Results A total of 813 public visitors were observed as they attended vendors. Of these, 29 (3.6%) made direct contact with an animal and 222 (27.3%) made indirect contact with a presumed contaminated source, with subsequent modes of contact being H1 18.7%, H2 52.2% and H3 9.9%. Conclusions Our observations indicate that opportunities for direct and indirect contact at pet markets with presumed contaminated animals and inanimate items constitute a significant and major concern, and that public attendees are exposed to rapid contamination on their person, whether or not these contaminations become associated with any episode of disease involving themselves or others. These public health risks appear unresolvable given the format of the market environment.

Warwick, Clifford; Arena, Phillip C; Steedman, Catrina

2012-01-01

356

Health Outcomes Associated With Potentially Inappropriate Medication Use in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of potentially inappropriate medication use (PIMs) among community-dwelling older adults and the association between PIMs and health care outcomes. Participants were 17,971 individuals age 65 years and older. PIM use was defined by the Beers criteria. Drug-related problems (DRPs) were defined using ICD-9 codes. Forty percent of the 17,971 individuals filled at least 1 PIM prescription, and 13% filled 2 or more PIM prescriptions. Overall DRP prevalence among those with at least 1 PIM prescription was 14.3% compared to 4.7% in the non-PIM group (p < .001). In conclusion, preventing PIM use may be important for decreasing medication-related problems, which are increasingly being recognized as requiring an integrated interdisciplinary approach.

Fick, Donna M.; Mion, Lorraine C.; Beers, Mark H.; Waller, Jennifer L.

2008-01-01

357

Skin care as a tool in the prevention of health care-associated infection.  

PubMed

Keeping skin healthy is particularly important for patients and all health-care personnel as any break in the skin can potentially harbour bacteria that may become a cross-infection risk to patients. When skin is damaged it is more difficult to remove microrganisms even when staff follow the recommended technique for hand washing (Royal College of Nursing, 2000). Broken skin on patients increases the risk of developing a healthcare-associated infection (HAI) as microorganisms can penetrate the surface of broken skin and cause anything from boils to bacteraemia. The aim of this article is to discuss skin as a barrier to infection, and examine ways to maintain the integrity of both staff and patients' skin. It will also look at the effect damaged skin can have on hand hygiene compliance and how it can increase the need for intervention in patients with broken areas of skin if these areas then become infected. PMID:20453823

Bissett, Linda

2010-05-01

358

Health risk assessment of mercury and arsenic associated with consumption of fish from the Persian Gulf.  

PubMed

Concentrations of mercury and arsenic in fish from the Persian Gulf were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Concentrations of the metals in muscle samples were 0.049-0.402 ?g g(-1) for mercury and 0.168-0.479 ?g g(-1) for arsenic, with means of 0.133 and 0.312 ?g g(-1), respectively. The maximum daily consumption rate (grams per day) and meal consumption limit (meals per month) was calculated to estimate health risks associated with fish consumption. According to the results, the maximum allowable consumption rate varies between 8-56 and 15-96 g/day base on mercury and arsenic content, respectively. The results of this study indicate that the concentration of mercury and arsenic is well below the maximum permissible levels for mercury (0.5 ?g g(-1)) and arsenic (6 ?g g(-1)) according to international standards. PMID:24072527

Raissy, Mehdi; Ansari, Mahsa

2014-02-01

359

Skin microbiota: Microbial community structure and its potential association with health and disease  

PubMed Central

Skin, the largest human organ, is a complex and dynamic ecosystem inhabited by a multitude of microorganisms. Host demographics and genetics, human behavior, local and regional environmental characteristics, and transmission events may all potentially drive human skin microbiota variability, resulting in an alteration of microbial community structure. This alteration may have important consequences regarding health and disease outcomes among individuals. More specifically, certain diversity patterns of human microbiota may be predictive or diagnostic of disease. The purpose of this review is to briefly describe the skin microbiota, outline the potential determining factors driving its variability, posit the likelihood of an association between the resulting microbial community structure on the skin with disease outcomes among individuals, and finally, to present some challenges and implications for studying the skin microbiota.

Rosenthal, Mariana; Goldberg, Deborah; Aiello, Allison; Larson, Elaine; Foxman, Betsy

2011-01-01

360

Association of Health Sciences Reasoning Test Scores With Academic and Experiential Performance  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To assess the association of scores on the Health Sciences Reasoning Test (HSRT) with academic and experiential performance in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum. Methods. The HSRT was administered to 329 first-year (P1) PharmD students. Performance on the HSRT and its subscales was compared with academic performance in 29 courses throughout the curriculum and with performance in advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). Results. Significant positive correlations were found between course grades in 8 courses and HSRT overall scores. All significant correlations were accounted for by pharmaceutical care laboratory courses, therapeutics courses, and a law and ethics course. Conclusion. There was a lack of moderate to strong correlation between HSRT scores and academic and experiential performance. The usefulness of the HSRT as a tool for predicting student success may be limited.

McLaughlin, Jacqueline E.

2014-01-01

361

Association of health sciences reasoning test scores with academic and experiential performance.  

PubMed

Objectives. To assess the association of scores on the Health Sciences Reasoning Test (HSRT) with academic and experiential performance in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum. Methods. The HSRT was administered to 329 first-year (P1) PharmD students. Performance on the HSRT and its subscales was compared with academic performance in 29 courses throughout the curriculum and with performance in advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). Results. Significant positive correlations were found between course grades in 8 courses and HSRT overall scores. All significant correlations were accounted for by pharmaceutical care laboratory courses, therapeutics courses, and a law and ethics course. Conclusion. There was a lack of moderate to strong correlation between HSRT scores and academic and experiential performance. The usefulness of the HSRT as a tool for predicting student success may be limited. PMID:24850935

Cox, Wendy C; McLaughlin, Jacqueline E

2014-05-15

362

Psychiatric and medical comorbidities, associated pain, and health care utilization of patients prescribed buprenorphine.  

PubMed

This study describes the comorbidities and health care utilization of individuals treated with buprenorphine using the 2007-2009 MarketScan Research Databases. Buprenorphine recipients had a high prevalence of comorbidities associated with chronic pain, including back problems (42%), connective tissue disease (24-27%), and nontraumatic joint disorders (20-23%). Approximately 69% of recipients filled prescriptions for opioid agonist medications in the 6 months before buprenorphine initiation. Buprenorphine recipients were frequently diagnosed with anxiety (23-42%) and mood disorders (39-51%) and filled prescriptions for antidepressants (47-56%) and benzodiazepines (47-56%) at high rates. Surprisingly, only 53-54% of patients filling a prescription for buprenorphine had a coded opioid abuse/dependence diagnosis. Research is needed to better understand buprenorphine's effectiveness in the context of prescription drug abuse and the best way to coordinate services to address the patient's comorbid addiction, pain, and psychiatric illnesses. PMID:23265445

Mark, Tami L; Dilonardo, Joan; Vandivort, Rita; Miller, Kay

2013-01-01

363

Association of Ventilation Rates and CO2 Concentrations with Health andOther Responses in Commercial and Institutional Buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews current literature on the associations of ventilation rates and carbon dioxide concentrations in non-residential and non-industrial buildings (primarily offices) with health and other human outcomes. Twenty studies, with close to 30,000 subjects, investigated the association of ventilation rates with human responses, and 21 studies, with over 30,000 subjects, investigated the association of carbon dioxide concentration with these

O. A. Seppänen; W. J. Fisk; M. J. Mendell

1999-01-01

364

Dietary patterns of adolescents in Germany - Associations with nutrient intake and other health related lifestyle characteristics  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to identify dietary patterns among a representative sample of German adolescents and their associations with energy and nutrient intake, socioeconomic and lifestyle characteristics, and overweight status. Methods In the analysis, data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents were used. The survey included a comprehensive dietary history interview conducted among 1272 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years. Dietary patterns were determined with principal component analysis (PCA) based on 48 food groups, for boys and girls separately. Results Three dietary patterns among boys and two among girls were identified. Among boys, high adherence to the 'western' pattern was associated with higher age, lower socioeconomic status (SES), and lower physical activity level (PA). High adherence to the 'healthy' pattern among boys, but not among girls, was associated with higher SES, and higher PA. Among boys, high adherence to the 'traditional' pattern was associated with higher age. Among girls, high adherence to the 'traditional and western' pattern was associated with lower age, lower SES and more hours watching TV per day. The nutrient density of several vitamins and minerals, particularly of B-vitamins and calcium, increased with increasing scores of the 'healthy' pattern among both sexes. Conversely, with increasing scores of the 'western' pattern among boys, most nutrient densities decreased, particularly of fibre, beta-carotene, vitamin D, biotin and calcium. Among girls with higher scores of the 'traditional and western' pattern, nutrient densities of vitamin A, C, E, K and folate decreased. Among boys, high adherence to the 'traditional' pattern was correlated with higher densities of vitamin B12 and vitamin D and lower densities of fibre, magnesium and iron. No significant associations between dietary patterns and overweight were found. Conclusions Higher scores for dietary patterns characterized by higher consumption of take away food, meat, confectionary and soft drinks ('western' and 'traditional and western') were found particularly among 16- to 17-years old boys and among adolescents with lower SES. These patterns were also associated with higher energy density, higher percent of energy from unsaturated fatty acids and lower percent of energy from carbohydrates as well as lower nutrient densities of several vitamins and minerals. Therefore, nutritional interventions should try to focus more on adolescents with lower SES and boys in general.

2012-01-01

365

Association between BDNF rs6265 and Obesity in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study  

PubMed Central

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been associated with regulation of body weight and appetite. The goal of this study was to examine the interactions of a functional variant (rs6265) in the BDNF gene with dietary intake for obesity traits in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study. BDNF rs6265 was genotyped in 1147 Puerto Rican adults and examined for association with obesity-related traits. Men (n = 242) with the GG genotype had higher BMI (P = 0.009), waist circumference (P = 0.002), hip (P = 0.002), and weight (P = 0.03) than GA or AA carriers (n = 94). They had twice the risk of being overweight (BMI ? 25) relative to GA or AA carriers (OR = 2.08, CI = 1.02–4.23, and P = 0.043). Interactions between rs6265 and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) intake were associated with BMI, hip, and weight, and n-3?:?n-6 PUFA ratio with waist circumference in men. In contrast, women (n = 595) with the GG genotype had significantly lower BMI (P = 0.009), hip (P = 0.029), and weight (P = 0.027) than GA or AA carriers (n = 216). Women with the GG genotype were 50% less likely to be overweight compared to GA or AA carriers (OR = 0.05, CI = 0.27–0.91, and P = 0.024). In summary, BDNF rs6265 is differentially associated with obesity risk by sex and interacts with PUFA intake influencing obesity traits in Boston Puerto Rican men.

Ma, Xian-Yong; Qiu, Wei Qiao; Smith, Caren E.; Parnell, Laurence D.; Jiang, Zong-Yong; Ordovas, Jose M.; Tucker, Katherine L.; Lai, Chao-Qiang

2012-01-01

366

Association between BDNF rs6265 and obesity in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study.  

PubMed

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been associated with regulation of body weight and appetite. The goal of this study was to examine the interactions of a functional variant (rs6265) in the BDNF gene with dietary intake for obesity traits in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study. BDNF rs6265 was genotyped in 1147 Puerto Rican adults and examined for association with obesity-related traits. Men (n = 242) with the GG genotype had higher BMI (P = 0.009), waist circumference (P = 0.002), hip (P = 0.002), and weight (P = 0.03) than GA or AA carriers (n = 94). They had twice the risk of being overweight (BMI ? 25) relative to GA or AA carriers (OR = 2.08, CI = 1.02-4.23, and P = 0.043). Interactions between rs6265 and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) intake were associated with BMI, hip, and weight, and n-3?:?n-6 PUFA ratio with waist circumference in men. In contrast, women (n = 595) with the GG genotype had significantly lower BMI (P = 0.009), hip (P = 0.029), and weight (P = 0.027) than GA or AA carriers (n = 216). Women with the GG genotype were 50% less likely to be overweight compared to GA or AA carriers (OR = 0.05, CI = 0.27-0.91, and P = 0.024). In summary, BDNF rs6265 is differentially associated with obesity risk by sex and interacts with PUFA intake influencing obesity traits in Boston Puerto Rican men. PMID:23326649

Ma, Xian-Yong; Qiu, Wei Qiao; Smith, Caren E; Parnell, Laurence D; Jiang, Zong-Yong; Ordovas, Jose M; Tucker, Katherine L; Lai, Chao-Qiang

2012-01-01

367

Tree Nuts Are Inversely Associated with Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: The Adventist Health Study-2  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the relationships of nut consumption, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and obesity in the Adventist Health Study-2, a relatively healthy population with a wide range of nut intake. Research Design and Methods Cross-sectional analysis was conducted on clinical, dietary, anthropometric, and demographic data of 803 adults. MetS was defined according to the American Heart Association and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute diagnostic criteria. We assessed intake of total nuts, tree nuts and peanuts, and also classified subjects into low tree nut/low peanut (LT/LP), low tree/high peanut (LT/HP), high tree nut/high peanut (HT/HP), and high tree/low peanut (HT/LP) consumers. Odds ratios were estimated using multivariable logistic regression. Results 32% of subjects had MetS. Compared to LT/LP consumers, obesity was lower in LT/HP (OR?=?0.89; 95% CI?=?0.53, 1.48), HT/HP (OR?=?0.63; 95% CI?=?0.40, 0.99) and HT/LP (OR?=?0.54; 95% CI?=?0.34, 0.88) consumers, p for trend?=?0.006. For MetS, odds ratios (95% CI) were 0.77 (0.47, 1.28), 0.65 (0.42, 1.00) and 0.68 (0.43, 1.07), respectively (p for trend?=?0.056). Frequency of nut intake (once/week) had significant inverse associations with MetS (3% less for tree nuts and 2% less for total nuts) and obesity (7% less for tree nuts and 3% less for total nuts). Conclusions Tree nuts appear to have strong inverse association with obesity, and favorable though weaker association with MetS independent of demographic, lifestyle and dietary factors.

Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Haddad, Ella; Oda, Keiji; Fraser, Gary E.; Sabate, Joan

2014-01-01

368

Systematic Review: Health-related Characteristics of Elderly Hospitalized Patients and Nursing Home Residents Associated with Short-term Mortality  

PubMed Central

Background Studies have examined numerous risk factors for mortality in older persons, and a systematic review offers the opportunity to organize these factors into broader domains. Objective To identify the domains of health-related characteristics of older hospitalized patients and nursing home residents most strongly associated with short-term mortality. Data Sources Studies published in English in MEDLINE, Scopus, or Web of Science before August 1, 2010. Study Selection Prospective studies consisting of persons 65 years or older that evaluated the association between at least one health-related patient characteristic and mortality within one year in multivariable analysis. Data Extraction and Synthesis All health-related characteristics associated with mortality in multivariable analysis were extracted and categorized into domains. We noted the frequency, across individual studies, with which particular domains were associated with mortality in multivariable analysis. Results Thirty-three studies (28 studies involving hospitalized patients and 5 studies involving nursing home residents) reported a large number of characteristics associated with mortality, comprising seven domains: cognitive function, disease diagnosis, laboratory values, nutrition, physical function, pressure sores, and shortness of breath. Measures of physical function and nutrition were the domains most frequently associated with mortality up to one year for hospitalized patients and nursing home residents; measures of physical function, cognitive function, and nutrition were the domains most frequently associated with in-hospital mortality for hospitalized patients. Conclusion Among a large number of health-related characteristics of older persons shown to be associated with short-term mortality, measures of nutrition, physical function, and cognitive function were the domains of health most frequently associated with mortality. These domains provide easily measurable factors that may serve as helpful markers for patients at increased mortality risk.

Thomas, John M.; Cooney, Leo M.; Fried, Terri R.

2014-01-01

369

Associations between birth health, maternal employment, and child care arrangement among a community sample of mothers with young children.  

PubMed

Although a large body of literature exists on how different types of child care arrangements affect a child's subsequent health and sociocognitive development, little is known about the relationship between birth health and subsequent decisions regarding type of nonparental child care as well as how this relationship might be influenced by maternal employment. This study used data from the Los Angeles Families and Neighborhoods Survey (L.A.FANS). Mothers of 864 children (ages 0-5) provided information regarding birth weight, maternal evaluation of a child's birth health, child's current health, maternal employment, type of child care arrangement chosen, and a variety of socioeconomic variables. Child care options included parental care, relative care, nonrelative care, and daycare center. Multivariate analyses found that birth weight and subjective rating of birth health had similar effects on child care arrangement. After controlling for a child's age and current health condition, multinomial logit analyses found that mothers with children with poorer birth health are more likely to use nonrelative and daycare centers than parental care when compared to mothers with children with better birth health. The magnitude of these relationships diminished when adjusting for maternal employment. Working mothers were significantly more likely to use nonparental child care than nonemployed mothers. Results suggest that a child's health early in life is significantly but indirectly related to subsequent decisions regarding child care arrangements, and this association is influenced by maternal employment. Development of social policy aimed at improving child care service should take maternal and family backgrounds into consideration. PMID:24188296

Chiao, Chi; Chyu, Laura; Ksobiech, Kate

2014-01-01

370

Electronic medical records and the transgender patient: recommendations from the World Professional Association for Transgender Health EMR Working Group  

PubMed Central

Transgender patients have particular needs with respect to demographic information and health records; specifically, transgender patients may have a chosen name and gender identity that differs from their current legally designated name and sex. Additionally, sex-specific health information, for example, a man with a cervix or a woman with a prostate, requires special attention in electronic health record (EHR) systems. The World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH) is an international multidisciplinary professional association that publishes recognized standards for the care of transgender and gender variant persons. In September 2011, the WPATH Executive Committee convened an Electronic Medical Records Working Group comprised of both expert clinicians and medical information technology specialists, to make recommendations for developers, vendors, and users of EHR systems with respect to transgender patients. These recommendations and supporting rationale are presented here.

Deutsch, Madeline B; Green, Jamison; Keatley, JoAnne; Mayer, Gal; Hastings, Jennifer; Hall, Alexandra M

2013-01-01

371

Epidemiological associations of hearing impairment and health among a national cohort of 87,134 adults in Thailand  

PubMed Central

Socioeconomic and epidemiological effects of hearing impairment in middle income countries of Southeast Asia is still quite scarce. This study examines the association between hearing impairment and health outcomes in Thailand. Data derived from a cohort of 87,134 Open University adults aged 15-87 years residing throughout Thailand. Approximately 8.5% of cohort members reported trouble hearing, 0.13% reported being deaf. After adjusting for age and sex, poor self-assessed health was strongly associated with some trouble hearing [OR = 2.70, 95% CI 2.48-2.93] and deafness [OR = 3.08, 95% CI 1.73-5.50]. PAFs for hearing impairment were 12.9% for poor self-assessed health, 9.8% for poor psychological health, 3.3% for metabolic disorders, and 4.1% for cardiovascular conditions. There needs to be more attention on hearing impairment with regular check-ups and early detections.

Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Hogan, Anthony; Harley, David; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian C

2012-01-01

372

Differential access to digital communication technology: association with health and health survey recruitment within an African-American underserviced urban population.  

PubMed

Digital communication technologies (DCT), such as cell phones and the internet, have begun to replace more traditional technologies even in technology-poor communities. We characterized access to DCT in an underserved urban population and whether access is associated with health and study participation. A general probability community sample and a purposive high-turnover housing sample were recruited and re-interviewed after 3 months. Selected characteristics were compared by sample type and retention. Associations between DCT access and self-reported health were examined using multivariable logistic regression. Of 363 eligible individuals, 184 (general community?=?119; high-turnover housing?=?65) completed the baseline survey. Eighty-four percent of respondents had a cell phone and 62% had ever texted. Ever use of the internet was high (69%) overall, but frequency and years of internet use were higher in the general community sample. Self-reported fair or poor health was more common for residents of cell phone-only households and those with less frequent internet use. Technology use was similar for those retained and not retained. Overall, access to DCT was high in this underserved urban population but varied by sample type. Health varied significantly by DCT use, but study retention did not. These data have implications for incorporating DCT into health-related research in urban populations. PMID:21279451

Schneider, John; Makelarski, Jennifer A; Van Haitsma, Martha; Lipton, Rebecca B; Abramsohn, Emily; Lauderdale, Diane S; Lindau, Stacy Tessler

2011-06-01

373

Associations of job strain and working overtime with adverse health behaviors and obesity: evidence from the Whitehall II Study, Helsinki Health Study, and the Japanese Civil Servants Study.  

PubMed

Adverse health behaviors and obesity are key determinants of major chronic diseases. Evidence on work-related determinants of these behavioral risk factors is inconclusive, and comparative studies are especially lacking. We aimed to examine the associations between job strain, working overtime, adverse health behaviors, and obesity among 45-60-year-old white-collar employees of the Whitehall II Study from London (n=3,397), Helsinki Health Study (n=6,070), and the Japanese Civil Servants Study (n=2,213). Comparable data from all three cohorts were pooled, and logistic regression analysis was used, stratified by cohort and sex. Models were adjusted for age, occupational class, and marital status. Outcomes were unhealthy food habits, physical inactivity, heavy drinking, smoking, and obesity. In London, men reporting passive work were more likely to be physically inactive. A similar association was repeated among women in Helsinki. Additionally, high job strain was associated with physical inactivity among men in London and women in Helsinki. In London, women reporting passive work were less likely to be heavy drinkers and smokers. In Japan, men working overtime reported less smoking, whereas those with high job strain were more likely to smoke. Among men in Helsinki the association between working overtime and non-smoking was also suggested, but it reached statistical significance in the age-adjusted model only. Obesity was associated with working overtime among women in London. In conclusion, job strain and working overtime had some, albeit mostly weak and inconsistent, associations with adverse health behaviors and obesity in these middle-aged white-collar employee cohorts from Britain, Finland, and Japan. PMID:18261833

Lallukka, Tea; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi; Roos, Eva; Laaksonen, Elina; Martikainen, Pekka; Head, Jenny; Brunner, Eric; Mosdol, Annhild; Marmot, Michael; Sekine, Michikazu; Nasermoaddeli, Ali; Kagamimori, Sadanobu

2008-04-01

374

The American Psychiatric Association response to the "Joint principles: Integrating behavioral health care into the patient-centered medical home".  

PubMed

Comments on the article "Joint principles: Integrating behavioral health care into the patient-centered medical home" (see record 2014-24217-011). The American Psychiatric Association Workgroup on Integrated Care supports the recommendations made in these Joint Principles and recognizes the significant benefit of treating behavioral and general medical conditions concurrently. The workgroup offers comments on this effort as it pertains to health care in general and psychiatric practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24955687

Raney, Lori; Pollack, David; Parks, Joe; Katon, Wayne

2014-06-01

375

Strength, But Not Muscle Mass, Is Associated With Mortality in the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study Cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Although muscle strength and mass are highly correlated, the relationship between direct measures of low muscle mass (sarcopenia) and strength in association with mortality has not been examined. Methods. Total mortality rates were examined in the Health, Aging and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study in 2292 participants (aged 70-79 years, 51.6% women, and 38.8% black). Knee extension strength was

Anne B. Newman; Varant Kupelian; Marjolein Visser; Eleanor M. Simonsick; Bret H. Goodpaster; Stephen B. Kritchevsky; Frances A. Tylavsky; Susan M. Rubin; Tamara B. Harris

2006-01-01

376

Social Determinants of Health Associated with Self-Reported HIV Testing among Women  

PubMed Central

Background There currently is lack of knowledge about HIV testing practices in Iran. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the prevalence of self-reported HIV testing and its associated factors among women. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Sanandaj City, located in the west of Iran, in 2012. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaire including demographics characteristics and the main outcome variable was self-reported HIV testing. The univariate and multivariate logistic regression models using STATA software was used for data analysis. Results: A total of 1200 women were interviewed during the study (Response rate=87.5%). The mean age was 29.67 years (SD: 7.01 years), 49% were aged 28 years or younger, 39.2% were single, 16.9% were pregnant and 60% did not have academic education. The proportion of women that were HIV-tested was, 32.1% (CI 95%: 29.2%, 35.0%). HIV testing was associated with younger age, knowledge of HIV/AIDS, household wealth, pregnancy, academic education, occupation and duration time of occupation, rating of quality of health services and substance use history in her husband. Conclusion: The self-reported HIV testing rate among our sample women is 32.1%, lower than the HIV testing rate in other studies. Therefore, interventions to expand HIV testing and increase awareness of HIV risk are urgently needed in Iran.

REZAEIAN, Shahab; ESMAILNASAB, Nader

2013-01-01

377

Ear Infection and Its Associated Risk Factors, Comorbidity, and Health Service Use in Australian Children  

PubMed Central

This study investigates and identifies risk factors, comorbidity, and health service use related to ear infection in Australian children. Two cross-sectional analyses of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC) involved 4,983 children aged 4 to 5 years in 2004 and aged 10 to 11 years in 2010. Odds ratios (ORs) were analysed using bivariate logistic regression. The prevalence of parent-reported ear infection was 7.9% (394) among children aged 4 to 5 years and 3.3% (139) at 10 to 11 years. Our study found that risk factors associated with ear infection were indigenous status, not being breastfed, mother or father smoking at least once a day, and father's school completion at year 9 or lower. By age 10 to 11 years significantly reported comorbidities were tonsillitis (OR 4.67; P < 0.001), headache (OR 2.13; P = 0.006), and asthma (OR 1.67; P = 0.003) and ear infection was found to be associated with the use of pediatrician (OR 1.83; P = 0.031), other specialist (OR 2.12; P < 0.001), and early intervention services (OR 3.08; P = 0.010). This empirical evidence can be used to inform the development of intervention and management programs for ear infection.

Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Hogan, Anthony

2013-01-01

378

Associations between health-related physical fitness and obesity in Taiwanese youth.  

PubMed

This study examined associations between four health-related physical fitness measures and obesity in Taiwanese youth aged 10-18 years. Data from 13,500 school-aged youth were randomly selected from the "School Physical Fitness Database" of Taiwan by sex and age. Variables examined were height, body mass and performance on modified sit-and-reach (flexibility), bent-leg sit-up (abdominal muscular strength/endurance), standing long jump (lower body explosive strength) and distance run/walk (cardiorespiratory endurance). Adjusted logistic regression analyses were performed. Increased odds of being obese with decreased fitness levels were observed for lower body explosive strength and cardiorespiratory endurance in both sexes. The highest odds of being obese was found in the least fit quintile of cardiorespiratory endurance compared with the most fit quintile both in boys (Odds ratio, OR = 10.44; 95% confidence interval (CI), 7.94-13.73) and girls (OR = 5.40; 95% CI, 3.90-7.47). These findings suggest that in addition to cardiorespiratory fitness, lower body explosive strength is also associated with childhood and adolescent obesity. PMID:23734753

Liao, Yung; Chang, Shao-Hsi; Miyashita, Masashi; Stensel, David; Chen, Jui-Fu; Wen, Liang-Tsai; Nakamura, Yoshio

2013-01-01

379

Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is associated with cardiovascular risk factors: the Health 2000 Survey.  

PubMed

Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a novel candidate immunoinflammatory marker that has been reported to be associated with cardiometabolic risk factors and to predict adverse outcomes in individuals with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Despite being a member of the same pentraxin protein family as C-reactive protein (CRP), PTX3 probably reflects different aspects of CVD pathogenesis. In this study, we assessed plasma PTX3 correlates and determinants in the Health 2000 Survey population, which comprised n = 403 insulin-resistant subjects, n = 845 hypercholesterolaemic subjects and n = 311 hypertensive subjects, all aged between 46 and 76 years. In insulin-resistant subjects the PTX3 concentration was found to correlate directly with age, pulse pressure and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) enzyme activity and inversely with total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. In hypercholesterolaemic subjects, the PTX3 concentration correlated directly with HDL cholesterol, systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure, whereas in hypertensive subjects, the PTX3 concentration correlated directly with systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure and IDO activity. No correlation was observed between the concentrations of PTX3 and CRP, adiposity indicators or indicators of subclinical atherosclerosis in any of the subject groups. PTX3 concentration variations were attributed to variations in LDL cholesterol and IDO activity in insulin-resistant subjects and to pulse pressure in hypercholesterolaemic and hypertensive subjects. These results indicate that, in individuals at high risk of CVD, the PTX3 concentration is associated with cardiovascular risk factors but not with subclinical atherosclerosis. PMID:21391986

Jylhävä, J; Haarala, A; Kähönen, M; Lehtimäki, T; Jula, A; Moilanen, L; Kesäniemi, Y A; Nieminen, M S; Hurme, M

2011-05-01

380

Being questioned and receiving advice about alcohol and smoking in health care: Associations with patients' characteristics, health behavior, and reported stage of change  

PubMed Central

Background Alcohol habits are more rarely addressed than other health behavior topics in Swedish health care. This study examined whether differences between topics could be explained by their different associations with patient characteristics or by the differences in the prevalence of the disadvantageous health behavior, i.e., excessive alcohol use and smoking. The study moreover examined whether simply being asked questions about behavior, i.e., alcohol use or smoking, was associated with reported change. Methods The study was based on a cross-sectional postal survey (n = 4 238, response rate 56.5 percent) representative of the adult population in Stockholm County in 2003. Retrospective self-reports were used to assess health care visits during the past 12 months, the questions and advice received there, patients characteristics, health behavior, and the present stage of change. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the associations among the 68 percent who had visited health care. Results Among the health care visitors, 23 percent reported being asked about their alcohol habits, and 3 percent reported receiving advice or/and support to modify their alcohol use - fewer than for smoking, physical exercise, or diet. When regression models adjusted for patient characteristics, the differences between health behaviors in the extent of questioning and advice remained. However, when the models also adjusted for smoking and alcohol consumption there was no difference between smoking and alcohol-related advice. In fact one-third of the present smokers and two-fifths of the persons dependent on alcohol reported having receiving advice the previous 12 months. Those who reported being asked questions or receiving advice more often reported a decreased alcohol use and similarly intended to cease smoking within 6 months. Questions about alcohol use were moreover related to a later stage of stage of change independently of advice among women but not among men. Conclusions While most patients are never addressed, many in the target groups seem to be reached anyway. Besides advice, already addressing alcohol habits appears to be associated with change. The results also indicate that gender possibly plays a role in the relationship between advice and the stage of change.

2010-01-01

381

Child and family psychiatric and psychological factors associated with child physical health problems: results from the Boricua youth study.  

PubMed

To examine associations among Puerto Rican children's physical health problems and children's internalizing disorders, parental psychopathology and acculturative stress, and family factors. A population-based probability sample of 2491 Puerto Rican children, aged between 5 and 13 years, and caregivers from the South Bronx and the U.S. Commonwealth of Puerto Rico participated in this study. The parent version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-IV was used to assess children's internalizing disorders. Children's anxiety disorders, parental psychopathology, and acculturative stress were associated with childhood asthma, abdominal pain, and headaches. Children's depressive disorders, maternal acceptance, and family functioning were associated with abdominal pain and headaches. Parents of children living in Puerto Rico were more likely to report physical health problems in their children than in the Bronx. Children's internalizing disorders, parental psychopathology, and acculturative stress may be important areas to target among Puerto Rican children with physical health problems. PMID:20386256

Feldman, Jonathan M; Ortega, Alexander N; Koinis-Mitchell, Daphne; Kuo, Alice A; Canino, Glorisa

2010-04-01

382

A major challenge. Entrepreneurship characterizes the work of the Soviet Family Health Association.  

PubMed

The work of the Soviet Family Health Association (SFHA) is described. Created in January, 1989, the organization boasts 25 state-paid workers, and as of June 1991, membership of 15,000 corporate and individual members. Individual annual membership fee is 5 rubles, and entitles members to counseling and family planning (FP) services. The SFHA works in cooperation with the Commission on Family Planning Problems of the USSR's Academy of Sciences, and has been a member of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) since 1990. Association activities include lectures for students, newly-weds, adolescents, and working women on modern contraceptive methods; research on attitude regarding sex, sex behaviors, and the perceived need for effective contraception; clinical trials of contraceptive suitability for women; and the training of doctors in FP and contraceptives. Problems central to the SFHA's operations include insufficient service and examination equipment, a shortage of hard currency, and the small number of FP specialists in the country. Solutions to these obstacles are sought through collaboration with the government, non-governmental organizations in the Soviet Union, and international groups. The SFHA has a series of activities planned for 1991 designed to foster wider acceptance of FP. Increased FP services at industrial enterprises, establishing more FP centers throughout the Soviet Union, and studying FP programs in other countries are among Association targets for the year. Research on and promotion of contraceptives has been virtually stagnant since abortion was declared illegal in 1936. Catching up on these lost decades and remaining self-reliant are challenges to the SPHA. PMID:12284294

Manuilova, I A

1991-09-01

383

Molecular mapping to species level of the tonsillar crypt microbiota associated with health and recurrent tonsillitis.  

PubMed

The human palatine tonsils, which belong to the central antigen handling sites of the mucosal immune system, are frequently affected by acute and recurrent infections. This study compared the microbiota of the tonsillar crypts in children and adults affected by recurrent tonsillitis with that of healthy adults and children with tonsillar hyperplasia. An in-depth 16S rRNA gene based pyrosequencing approach combined with a novel strategy that included phylogenetic analysis and detection of species-specific sequence signatures enabled identification of the major part of the microbiota to species level. A complex microbiota consisting of between 42 and 110 taxa was demonstrated in both children and adults. This included a core microbiome of 12 abundant genera found in all samples regardless of age and health status. Yet, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria species, and Streptococcus pneumoniae were almost exclusively detected in children. In contrast, Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae was present in all samples. Obligate anaerobes like Porphyromonas, Prevotella, and Fusobacterium were abundantly present in children, but the species diversity of Porphyromonas and Prevotella was larger in adults and included species that are considered putative pathogens in periodontal diseases, i.e. Porphyromonas gingivalis, Porphyromonas endodontalis, and Tannerella forsythia. Unifrac analysis showed that recurrent tonsillitis is associated with a shift in the microbiota of the tonsillar crypts. Fusobacterium necrophorum, Streptococcus intermedius and Prevotella melaninogenica/histicola were associated with recurrent tonsillitis in adults, whereas species traditionally associated with acute tonsillitis like pyogenic streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus were scarce. The findings suggest that recurrent tonsillitis is a polymicrobial infection in which interactions within consortia of taxa play an etiologic role. The study contributes to the human microbiome data, to the understanding of