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1

"Mens Sana": The Growth of Mental Health in the American College Health Association  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1910, the first college mental health service sought to help college students with personality development and building a healthy mind. In 1920, the meeting that founded the American College Health Association (ACHA) identified "mental hygiene" as important, although a separate Mental Health Section was not established in ACHA until 1957.…

Kraft, David P.

2009-01-01

2

A Comprehensive Critique of the American College Health Association's National College Health Assessment Survey Instrument  

E-print Network

There are many instruments used to identify health behaviors of a population. Used by both practitioners and researchers, one such instrument is the American College Health Association’s National College Health Assessment (ACHA NCHA). While...

Rahn, Rhonda

2014-07-17

3

Copyright 2008 All Rights Reserved. The ACHA-NCHA supports the health of the campus community  

E-print Network

Use 7 F. Sexual Behavior 10 G. Nutrition and Exercise 12 H. Depression 13 IV. Demographics and Student students, providing the college health and higher education fields with a vast spectrum of research and prevention and wellness services for the nation's 17 million college students. For more information about

Gleeson, Joseph G.

4

Evaluating California Campus Tobacco Policies Using the American College Health Association Guidelines and the Institutional Grammar Tool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To measure comprehensiveness of California campus tobacco policies. Participants: Sixteen campuses representing different regions, institution types, and policies. Research occurred June-August 2013. Methods: Comprehensiveness was scored using American College Health Association's (ACHA) "Position Statement on Tobacco."…

Roditis, Maria L.; Wang, Donna; Glantz, Stanton A.; Fallin, Amanda

2015-01-01

5

Health-Related Barriers to Learning among Graduate Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report the perceived impact of various health concerns on the academic performance of health sciences graduate students. Design/methodology/approach: The American College Health Association's National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA), a 58-item anonymous survey, was distributed to all graduate health

Kernan, William; Bogart, Jane; Wheat, Mary E.

2011-01-01

6

American College Health Association  

MedlinePLUS

... CDC ACHA Annual Meeting > Download the 2015 Annual Meeting Preliminary Program [pdf] to view session and event information! > The Workshop and General Sessions Abstract Book [pdf] and Poster Abstract Book [pdf] are ...

7

Health promotion is the science and art of helping people change their lifestyle to move toward a state of optimal health (O'Donnell, 1986, p.4). Optimal health is defined  

E-print Network

and Promotion Majors Health Education and Promotion What Can I Do With a Degree In... Preventative health Performance, Health Care Administration Professional Schools: Medicine (M.D. or O.D.), Chiropractics, Physical Health Association http://www.acha.org/ American College of Sports Medicine http://www.acsm.org American

Ghajar, Afshin J.

8

Sexual and Reproductive Health Behaviors of California Community College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To explore the sexual and reproductive health behaviors of students from 13 community college campuses in California. Participants: Heterosexual college students, ages 18 to 24, who have had sexual intercourse (N = 4,487). Methods: The American College Health Association's National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA) survey was…

Trieu, Sang Leng; Bratton, Sally; Marshak, Helen Hopp

2011-01-01

9

Community College Student Mental Health: A Comparative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores community college student mental health by comparing the responses of California community college and traditional university students on the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II (ACHA-NCHA II). Using MANOVA, we compared community college and traditional university students, examining…

Katz, Daniel Seth; Davison, Karen

2014-01-01

10

Rural Health Association  

E-print Network

Montana Rural Health Association Phone: 406-994-6004 Fax: 406-994-5653 E-mail: MRHA 170520 Bozeman, Montana 59717-0520 Montana Rural Health Association Membershipdesignation.Membershipisrenewedonan annualbasis.PleasemakecheckspayabletoMontanaRuralHealth

Maxwell, Bruce D.

11

Effect of Irish potato starch, yeast and sprouted soybean flour on the quality of acha bread  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to report on a study to produce wheatless bread from acha\\/fonio (Digitaria exilis) flour with sprouted soybean flour (SSF) using Irish potato starch (IPS) as gluten replacer and determine the sensory qualities of the product. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Acha bread (AB) was baked from acha flour with varying quantities of yeast and IPS

Victoria Adaora Jideani; Rosemary Aina Salami; Israel Afam Jideani

2008-01-01

12

Lucas-Kanade Without Iterative Warping Alex Rav-Acha  

E-print Network

Lucas-Kanade Without Iterative Warping Alex Rav-Acha School of Computer Science and Engineering A significant part of the parametric motion computa- tion methods are based on the algorithm proposed by Lu- cas&Kanade motion analysis initially proposed by Lucas & Kanade [8], and later adapted for parametric mo- tion

Peleg, Shmuel

13

American Health Information Management Association  

MedlinePLUS

... a healthcare organization that demonstrates outstanding health information management across its organization and community. Submit your nomination ... YouTube Copyright © 2014 by The American Health Information Management Association. All Rights Reserved.

14

American Public Health Association  

MedlinePLUS

... be our Acting Dep Sec. She's a great manager & will be one of the highest ranking #nur… ... Sciences | Social and Behavioral Sciences / HSPH Research Program Manager | University of California Davis Health System Community Public ...

15

Effect of acha (Digitaria exilis staph) and millet (Pennisetum typhodium) grain on kunun zaki  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acha and millet were cleaned, steeped in water, washed and spiced. Dry, granulated sweet potato was added and wet milled to produce a slurry. Two-thirds of the slurry were gelatinized by the addition of boiled water and allowed to stand for two hours before the temperature was dropped to 50°C. The third part of the fresh slurry was added, mixed

J. A. Ayo

2004-01-01

16

LUCAS-KANADE WITHOUT ITERATIVE WARPING Alex Rav-Acha Shmuel Peleg  

E-print Network

LUCAS-KANADE WITHOUT ITERATIVE WARPING Alex Rav-Acha Shmuel Peleg School of Computer Science,peleg}@cs.huji.ac.il ABSTRACT Many methods for motion computation and object tracking are based on the Lucas-Kanade (LK analysis proposed by Lucas & Kanade [1] still dominates the field of motion analysis. It is widely used

Peleg, Shmuel

17

Appl. Comput. Harmon. Anal. 17 (2004) 259276 www.elsevier.com/locate/acha  

E-print Network

images. Our definition of the discrete X-ray transform is shown to be exact and geometrically faithful of the underlying image, and then use this Fourier slice theorem to derive an algorithm that computes the discrete X-rayAppl. Comput. Harmon. Anal. 17 (2004) 259­276 www.elsevier.com/locate/acha 3D discrete X-ray

Averbuch, Amir

18

The National Mental Health Association  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As it approaches its 100th anniversary in 2009, the National Mental Health Association (NMHA) remains the countryâ??s oldest and largest nonprofit organization that deals with all aspects of mental health and mental illness. First-time users of their site will find that their homepage contains copious amounts of material related to their advocacy efforts, along with materials that deal with helping a loved one who may be suffering the effects of mental illness. The â??Need Info?â?ť area is a good place to start for these types of materials, as it provides access to information on treatment resources, support groups, and fact sheets. Visitors can also elect to sign up for one (or several) of their helpful email updates, which include work on related legislation, and mental health news coverage.

2006-01-01

19

Nutritive value of baobab milk (gubdi) and mixtures of baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) and hungry rice, acha (Digitaria exilis) flours.  

PubMed

The baobab milk and fermented baobab/acha flour mixtures were analyzed chemically for their proximate, ascorbate, mineral and antinutrient composition. The dry pulp scraped from baobab fruits was kneaded, made into solution, extracted through cheese-cloth and stored frozen until analyzed. The acha and baobab grains were cleaned, fermented for 24 to 120 hours, dried and hammermilled into fine flours. The unfermented flours served as controls. The standard assay methods of AOAC were selected for use for the analysis of the nutrients and the antinutrients. The mixtures were composed of 70% acha and 30% baobab flours (70:30 protein basis). The baobab milk contained more protein (1.5%) and minerals (Fe, 17.8 mg; Ca 134.2 mg) than those of human milk (protein, 1.3%, Fe, 0.2 mg, Ca 30 mg) and cow milk (Fe, 0.1 mg; Ca 1.20 mg) and most leading national commercial infant formulas e.g. cerelac (Fe, 10.0 mg). The composite flours contained more nutrients than the baobab or the acha flour alone. The BF96 had greater advantage over other BF flours as a supplement to acha. The mixtures are within the reach of lower income group and can be incorporated into their diets. PMID:7855083

Obizoba, I C; Anyika, J U

1994-09-01

20

Association Between Health Beliefs and Health Behavior in Early Pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Folate-supplementation significantly reduces the risk of neural tube defects. The aim of this research was to reveal associations\\u000a between health beliefs and folate -supplementation as well as other elements of health behavior among Hungarian women early\\u000a in their pregnancy. Three-hundred and seven women in early pregnancy completed the second part of Health and Illness Scale.\\u000a Factor structure of health beliefs

Tamás Bödecs; Boldizsár Horváth; Enik? Szilágyi; Marietta Diffellné Németh; János Sándor

21

International Health Economics Association (iHEA)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Health Economics Association (iHEA) is devoted to increasing "communication among health economists." The web site provides information about the association and a searchable directory of health economists. Both eHEAL and HEAL, the electronic and print newsletter of iHEA can be found at the site. The newsletters provide listings of job openings, conferences, calls for papers and new research initiatives. Past issues of both newsletters are available at the site. Users can benefit from the exemplary collection of links to health economics sites.

1997-01-01

22

Health Conditions Associated with Psoriasis  

MedlinePLUS

... comorbidities associated with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis below. Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis Cancer A number of studies ... liver disease (NAFLD) , according to recently published studies. Psoriasis Only Kidney Disease People with severe psoriasis are ...

23

Chemical and organoleptic evaluation of biscuits made from mixtures of hungry rice, acha ( Digitaria exilis ) sesame; ( Sesamum indicum ); and breadfruit ( Artocarpus atilis ) flours  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proximate, mineral and vitamin compositions of the biscuits prepared from mixtures of unprocessed and processed hungry rice (acha), sesame and breadfruit flours were evaluated. Processing included sprouting acha for 48 h, dehulling sesame and boiling breadfruit for 10 min. The samples were milled into fine flours and combined in ratios of 70:15:15, 60:25:15 and 60:15:25 (protein basis) of sesame,

N. M. Nnam; M. O. Nwokocha

2003-01-01

24

Prevention of health care-associated infections.  

PubMed

Health care-associated infections cause approximately 75,000 deaths annually, in addition to increasing morbidity and costs. Over the past decade, a downward trend in health care-associated infections has occurred nationwide. Basic prevention measures include administrative support, educating health care personnel, and hand hygiene and isolation precautions. Prevention of central line- or catheter-associated infections begins with avoidance of unnecessary insertion, adherence to aseptic technique when inserting, and device removal when no longer necessary. Specific recommendations for preventing central line-associated bloodstream infections include use of chlorhexidine for skin preparation, as a component of dressings, and for daily bathing of patients in intensive care units. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections are the most common device-related health care-associated infection. Maintaining a closed drainage system below the patient reduces the risk of infection. To prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia, which is associated with high mortality, mechanically ventilated patients should be placed in the semirecumbent position and receive antiseptic oral care. Prevention of surgical site infections includes hair removal using clippers, glucose control, and preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis. Reducing transmission of Clostridium difficile and multidrug-resistant organisms in the hospital setting begins with hand hygiene and contact precautions. Institutional efforts to reduce unnecessary antibiotic prescribing are also strongly recommended. Reducing rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection can be achieved through active surveillance cultures and decolonization therapy with mupirocin. PMID:25251230

Hsu, Vincent

2014-09-15

25

Health effects associated with waterpipe smoking  

PubMed Central

Objective It is widely held that waterpipe smoking (WPS) is not associated with health hazards. However, several studies have documented the uptake of several toxicants and carcinogens during WPS that is strongly associated with harmful health effects. This paper reviews the literature on the health effects of WPS. Data sources Three databases-PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE-were searched until August 2014 for the acute and long-term health effects of WPS using the terms ‘waterpipe’ and its synonyms (hookah, shisha, goza, narghileh, arghileh and hubble-bubble) in various spellings. Study selection We included original clinical studies, case reports and systematic reviews and focused on clinical human studies. ?10% of the identified studies met the selection criteria. Data extraction Data were abstracted by all three authors and summarised into tables. Abstracted data included study type, results and methodological limitations and were analysed jointly by all three authors. Data synthesis WPS acutely leads to increased heart rate, blood pressure, impaired pulmonary function and carbon monoxide intoxication. Chronic bronchitis, emphysema and coronary artery disease are serious complications of long-term use. Lung, gastric and oesophageal cancer are associated with WPS as well as periodontal disease, obstetrical complications, osteoporosis and mental health problems. Conclusions Contrary to the widely held misconception, WPS is associated with a variety of adverse short-term and long-term health effects that should reinforce the need for stronger regulation. In addition, this review highlights the limitations of the published work, which is mostly cross-sectional or retrospective. Prospective studies should be undertaken to assess the full spectrum of health effects of WPS, particularly in view of its growing popularity and attractiveness to youth. PMID:25661414

El-Zaatari, Ziad M; Chami, Hassan A; Zaatari, Ghazi S

2015-01-01

26

78 FR 56711 - Health Insurance Exchanges; Application by the Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care To Be a Recognized Accrediting...Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care (AAAHC) to be a recognized accrediting...Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care's (AAAHC) request for...

2013-09-13

27

The human microbiota associated with overall health.  

PubMed

Abstract Human body harbors diverse microbes, the main components include bacteria, eukaryotes and viruses. Emerging evidences show that the human microbiota is intrinsically linked with overall health. The development of next-generation sequencing provides an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the complex microbial communities that are associated with the human body. Many factors like host genetics and environmental factors have a major impact on the composition and dynamic changes of human microbiota. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the relationship between human health and human microbiota (skin, nasal, throat, oral, vaginal and gut microbiota), then to focus on the factors modulating the composition of the microbiota and the future challenges to manipulate the microbiota for personalized health. PMID:23914990

Xu, Xiaofei; Wang, Zhujun; Zhang, Xuewu

2015-03-01

28

Public Health Issues Associated with Small Drinking Water Systems  

E-print Network

Public Health Issues Associated with Small Drinking Water Systems Not Regulated by the Safe Drinking Water Act From: Nonfederally Regulated Drinking Water Systems: State and Local Public Health ...........................................................................................5 Priority Environmental Public Health Challenges for Small Drinking Water Systems

29

Associations Between Attachment Representations and Health Behaviors in Late Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we tested the associations among attachment ratings and health behaviors by relationship status. For individuals in relationships, attachment security was associated positively with health promotion and quality sleep and negatively with risk behaviors; fearfulness was associated positively with risk behaviors. With the exception of sleep behaviors, associations with security and fearfulness were reversed for single participants. Associations

Elaine Scharfe; Deborah Eldredge

2001-01-01

30

LSU Health Sciences Center School of Allied Health Professions Alumni Association  

E-print Network

5-1 LSU Health Sciences Center School of Allied Health Professions Alumni Association Constitution University Health Sciences Center ­ New Orleans School of Allied Health (SAHP) Alumni Association and to instill pride within the greater allied health community of students, faculty, staff, parents, and alumni

31

Space Radiation and its Associated Health Consequences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During space travel, astronauts are exposed to energetic particles of a complex composition and energy distribution. For the same amount of absorbed dose, these particles can be much more effective than X- or gamma rays in the induction of biological effects, including cell inactivation, genetic mutations, cataracts, and cancer induction. Several of the biological consequences of space radiation exposure have already been observed in astronauts. This presentation will introduce the space radiation environment and discuss its associated health risks. Accurate assessment of the radiation risks and development of respective countermeasures are essential for the success of future exploration missions to the Moon and Mars.

Wu, Honglu

2007-01-01

32

Association Between Sexual Health and Delivery Mode  

PubMed Central

Introduction Female sexual function changes considerably during pregnancy and the postpartum period. In addition, women's physical and mental health, endocrine secretion, and internal and external genitalia vary during these times. However, there are limited studies on the relationship between delivery and sexual function. Aim The present study aimed to demonstrate the association between sexual function and delivery mode. Methods Mothers who delivered a single baby at term were recruited for the study, and 435 mothers were analyzed. Main Outcome Measures The Female Sexual Function Questionnaire (SFQ28) scores and mothers' backgrounds were assessed at 6 months after delivery. Results The delivery mode affected the SFQ28 partner domain. Episiotomy affected the arousal (sensation) domain. Multiple regression analysis revealed that maternal age and cesarean section were significantly associated with several SHQ28 domains. Conclusion This study suggests that routine episiotomies at delivery should be avoided to improve postpartum maternal sexual function. Maternal age and cesarean section were found to affect postpartum sexual health. PMID:25548646

Song, Mihyon; Ishii, Hiroshi; Toda, Masahiro; Tomimatsu, Takuji; Katsuyama, Hironobu; Nakamura, Takafumi; Nakai, Yuichiro; Shimoya, Koichiro

2014-01-01

33

American Urological Association: UrologyHealth.org  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established in 1902, the American Urological Association (AUA) works to "promote the highest standards of urological clinical care through education, research and in the formulation of health care policy." In line with the educational component of its mission, AUA developed this website as an information resource for patients. The website offers sections for both Adult and Pediatric Conditions. These sections provide information about a range of conditions and/or diseases under the broad categories of Bladder, Adrenal & Kidney Diseases, Cancers, Inflammations & Infections, Stones, and more. The site also provides a search engine, printer-friendly formats, an online directory service for locating urologists, and a quite extensive glossary of urology-related terms.

34

Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care  

MedlinePLUS

... HIPAA compliance Federal and State Regulations/Legislative Resources Health Care Resources Press Releases Contact Us Find a Health Care Organization Accreditation Programs General information Application for survey ...

35

Pediatric mental health problems and associated burden on families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 20% of children in the United States have mental health problems. The factors associated with childhood mental health problems and the associated burdens on families are not well understood. Therefore, our goals were to profile mental health problems in children to identify disparities, and to quantify and identify correlates of family burden. We used the National Survey of Children's

Amy J. Houtrow; Megumi J. Okumura

2011-01-01

36

Factors Associated with Physician Discussion of Health Behaviors with Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behaviors developed in adolescence influence health later in life. The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of health care provider's discussion of health behaviors with overweight and non-overweight adolescents and identify demographic and health behaviors related to exercise, hours of television viewing, and weight issues associated with these discussions. A Cross sectional survey of urban adolescents was

Won S. Choi; Edward F. Ellerbeck; Harsohena Kaur; Niaman Nazir; Jasjit S. Ahluwalia

2006-01-01

37

Directions to: University Health Associates Physician Office Center  

E-print Network

Directions to: · University Health Associates Physician Office Center · West Virginia University Patteson Drive (WV 705). At the third light, turn right into the WVU Health Sciences Center. Overhead signs

Mohaghegh, Shahab

38

Associations between Indigenous Australian oral health literacy and self-reported oral health outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To determine oral health literacy (REALD-30) and oral health literacy-related outcome associations, and to calculate if oral health literacy-related outcomes are risk indicators for poor self-reported oral health among rural-dwelling Indigenous Australians. METHODS: 468 participants (aged 17-72 years, 63% female) completed a self-report questionnaire. REALD-30 and oral health literacy-related outcome associations were determined through bivariate analysis. Multivariate modelling was

Eleanor J Parker; Lisa M Jamieson

2010-01-01

39

Frequent job change and associated health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contemporary labour market is widely regarded as having become more “flexible”. It is proposed that such flexibility is a characteristic of employment histories which will have effects on psychosocial status, health-related behaviour, and physical health. Recent increases in flexibility are unlikely to have accumulated over sufficient portions of individual employment histories for any effect on health to be apparent,

Chris Metcalfe; George Davey Smith; Jonathan A. C. Sterne; Pauline Heslop; John Macleod; Carole Hart

2003-01-01

40

Copyright 2014, National Environmental Health Association (www.neha.org). Environmental Health  

E-print Network

..........................................16 ADVANCEMENT OF THE PRACTICE Environmental Health Literacy in Support of Social ActionCopyright 2014, National Environmental Health Association (www.neha.org). JOURNAL OF Environmental Health Dedicated to the advancement of the environmental health professional Volume 77, No. 1 July

41

History of the American College Health Association  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following Dr. Edward Hitchcock's lead at Amherst College in 1861, soon other institutions of higher education established physical education departments that evolved into independent college health programs. As the field of college health expanded, leaders from numerous campuses began meeting to share information and discuss formation of a…

Mack, Rachel

2011-01-01

42

Social capital, health behaviours and health: a population-based associational study  

PubMed Central

Background Social capital is associated with health behaviours and health. Our objective was to explore how different dimensions of social capital and health-related behaviours are associated, and whether health behaviours mediate this association between social capital and self-rated health and psychological well-being. Methods We used data from the Health 2000 Survey (n=8028) of the adult population in Finland. The response rate varied between 87% (interview) and 77% (the last self-administered questionnaire). Due to item non-response, missing values were replaced using multiple imputation. The associations between three dimensions of social capital (social support, social participation and networks, trust and reciprocity) and five health behaviours (smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, vegetable consumption, sleep) were examined by using logistic regression and controlling for age, gender, education, income and living arrangements. The possible mediating role of health behaviours in the association between social capital and self-rated health and psychological well-being was also analysed with a logistic regression model. Results Social participation and networks were associated with all of the health behaviours. High levels of trust and reciprocity were associated with non-smoking and adequate duration of sleep, and high levels of social support with adequate duration of sleep and daily consumption of vegetables. Social support and trust and reciprocity were independently associated with self-rated health and psychological well-being. Part of the association between social participation and networks and health was explained by physical activity. Conclusions Irrespective of their social status, people with higher levels of social capital – especially in terms of social participation and networks – engage in healthier behaviours and feel healthier both physically and psychologically. PMID:23805881

2013-01-01

43

Roadmap: Environmental Health and Safety Occupational Health and Industrial Hygiene Associate of Applied Science  

E-print Network

Chemistry 2 Fulfills Kent Core Basic Sciences EVHS 20092 Environmental Technology Internship I 3 PH 30004Roadmap: Environmental Health and Safety ­ Occupational Health and Industrial Hygiene ­ Associate EVHS 10001 Environmental Technology I (3) or PH 10001 Introduction to Public Health (3) 3 Students

Khan, Javed I.

44

Roadmap: Environmental Health and Safety -Occupational Health and Industrial Hygiene -Associate of Applied Science  

E-print Network

Environmental Technology I or PH 10001 Introduction to Public Health 1 3 EVHS 10004 Toxicology 3 EVHS 10010 Environmental Earth Science 3 KBS Semester Four [14 Credits] CHEM 10052 Introduction to Organic Chemistry 2 KBSRoadmap: Environmental Health and Safety - Occupational Health and Industrial Hygiene - Associate

Khan, Javed I.

45

Copyright 2012, National Environmental Health Association (www.neha.org) Environmental Health  

E-print Network

' Copyright 2012, National Environmental Health Association (www.neha.org) JOURNAL ................................................................................................................8 International Perspectives: Mold Growth in On-Reserve Homes in Canada: The Need for Research OF Environmental Health Dedicated to the advancement of the environmental health professional Volume 74, No. 6

46

Health Effects Associated with Water Fluoridation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion is presented concerning fluoridation of water supplies. Correlation between fluoride in drinking water and improved dental health is reviewed. Relationship is expressed between fluoridation and reduced tooth decay. Use of fluoride in treating skeletal disorders is discussed. Author advocates fluoridating water supplies. (SA)

Richmond, Virginia L.

1979-01-01

47

SASKATCHEWAN HEALTH-CARE AUXILIARIES ASSOCIATION Bursary Application  

E-print Network

SASKATCHEWAN HEALTH-CARE AUXILIARIES ASSOCIATION Bursary Application This bursary is awarded to a student entering the second year of a Registered Nursing Education Program in Saskatchewan. It is awarded

Peak, Derek

48

Endovascular Embolization of Distal Anterior Choroidal Artery Aneurysms Associated with Moyamoya Disease  

PubMed Central

Summary We evaluated the feasibility of endovascular embolization for the management of distal anterior choroidal artery (AChA) aneurysms associated with moyamoya disease and performed a literature review to summarize their clinical features and treatment. We describe two cases of moyamoya disease-associated distal AChA aneurysms treated by endovascular embolization. In both cases, a good outcome was observed. We performed a MEDLINE (1980-2010) search which identified 13 similar cases. Our analysis of the clinical data from these 15 cases led us to conclude that (i) endovascular embolization is an effective and feasible treatment for distal AChA aneurysms associated with moyamoya disease; (ii) aneurysm location and the preservation of the parent artery are two major prognostic factors for moyamoya disease-associated distal AChA aneurysms subjected to craniotomy or endovascular therapy; (iii) the parent artery should be preserved when the aneurysm is located in the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle, but sacrificed when it is located in the trigone of the lateral ventricle. PMID:21162774

Yang, S.; Yu, J.-L.; Wang, H.-L.; Wang, B.; Luo, Q.

2010-01-01

49

Health Care Costs Associated with Violence in Pennsylvania 1994  

E-print Network

Health Care Costs Associated with Violence in Pennsylvania 1994 March 2000 Health Services Research Camp Hill, PA #12;The Impact of Violence in Pennsylvania i Executive Summary Violence is a recognized and significant issue in the United States and Pennsylvania. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, violence appeared

Songer, Thomas J.

50

Adult Congenital Heart Association  

MedlinePLUS

... Grant Funders Careers Store | Blog | Espanol | Contact Us Heart to Heart Where You Live ACHA and our local partners ... to connect with others with CHD. Register Today Heart to Heart Ambassadors Ambassadors connect ACHA patient and ...

51

Travelers' Health: Animal-Associated Hazards  

MedlinePLUS

... such as diphenhydramine, steroids, pain medication, and antibiotics. BIRDS Ill birds have been associated with cases of highly pathogenic ... geese, pigeons, turkeys, and quail) or any wild birds and should avoid settings where avian influenza A ( ...

52

Polity and health care expenditures: the association among 159 nations.  

PubMed

This paper hypothesized that democratic nations, as characterized by Polity IV Project regime scores, spend more on health care than autocratic nations and that the association reported here is independent of other demographic, health system or economic characteristics of nations. WHO Global Observatory data on 159 nations with roughly 98% of the world's population were examined. Regime scores had significant, direct and independent associations with each of four measures of health care expenditure. For every unit increment in a nation's regime score toward a more democratic authority structure of governance, we estimated significant (p<0.05) increments in the percent of GDP expended on health care (+0.14%), percent of general government expenditures targeted to health care (+0.25%), total per capita expenditures on health (+34.4Int$) and per capita general government expenditures (+22.4Int$), while controlling for a population's age distribution, life expectancy, health care workforce and system effectiveness and gross national income. Moreover, these relationships were found to persist across socio-economic development levels. The finding that practices of health care expenditure and authority structures of government co-vary is instructive about the politics of health and the challenges of advancing global health objectives. PMID:23856538

Gregorio, Leah E; Gregorio, David I

2013-03-01

53

Healthcare – associated infections: A public health problem  

PubMed Central

Disinfection and sterilization in hospitals, is of increasing concern. Nosocomial infections can be defined as those occurring within 48 hours of hospital admission, 3 days of discharge or 30 days of an operation. They affect 1 in 10 patients admitted to hospital. Nosocomial infections are associated with a great deal of morbidity, mortality, and increased financial burden PMID:23271847

Revelas, Angela

2012-01-01

54

78 FR 77470 - Health Insurance Exchanges; Approval of an Application by the Accreditation Association for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care (AAAHC) To Be a Recognized Accrediting...Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care (AAAHC) for recognition as an...Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care (AAAHC) to be a recognized...

2013-12-23

55

Is Personality Associated with Health Care Use by Older Adults?  

PubMed Central

Context The patterns of health care utilization in the United States pose well-established challenges for public policy. Although economic and sociological research has resulted in considerable knowledge about what influences the use of health services, the psychological literature in this area is underdeveloped. Importantly, it is not known whether personality traits are associated with older adults’ use of acute and long-term care services. Methods Data were collected from 1,074 community-dwelling seniors participating in a Medicare demonstration. First they completed a self-report questionnaire measuring the “Big Five” personality traits: Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. During the next two years, the participants maintained daily journals of their use of health care services. We used regression models based on the Andersen behavioral model of health care utilization to test for associations. Findings Our hypothesis that higher Neuroticism would be associated with greater health care use was confirmed for three services—probability of any emergency department (ED) use, likelihood of any custodial nursing home use, and more skilled nursing facility (SNF) days for SNF users—but was disconfirmed for hospital days for those hospitalized. Higher Openness to Experience was associated with a greater likelihood of custodial home care use, and higher Agreeableness and lower Conscientiousness with a higher probability of custodial nursing home use. For users, lower Openness was associated with more ED visits and SNF days, and lower Conscientiousness with more ED visits. For many traits with significant associations, the predicted use was 16 to 30 percent greater for people high (low) versus low (high) in specific traits. Conclusions Personality traits are associated with Medicare beneficiaries’ use of many expensive health care services, findings that have implications for health services research and policy. Accordingly, person-centered interventions, population-based translational effectiveness programs, and other personalized approaches that leverage the profound advances in personality psychology in recent decades should be considered. PMID:24028697

Friedman, Bruce; Veazie, Peter J; Chapman, Benjamin P; Manning, Willard G; Duberstein, Paul R

2013-01-01

56

Home Foreclosure, Health, and Mental Health: A Systematic Review of Individual, Aggregate, and Contextual Associations  

PubMed Central

Background The U.S. foreclosure crisis intensified markedly during the Great Recession of 2007-09, and currently an estimated five percent of U.S. residential properties are more than 90 days past due or in the process of foreclosure. Yet there has been no systematic assessment of the effects of foreclosure on health and mental health. Methods and Findings I applied systematic search terms to PubMed and PsycINFO to identify quantitative or qualitative studies about the relationship between home foreclosure and health or mental health. After screening the titles and abstracts of 930 publications and reviewing the full text of 76 articles, dissertations, and other reports, I identified 42 publications representing 35 unique studies about foreclosure, health, and mental health. The majority of studies (32 [91%]) concluded that foreclosure had adverse effects on health or mental health, while three studies yielded null or mixed findings. Only two studies examined the extent to which foreclosure may have disproportionate impacts on ethnic or racial minority populations. Conclusions Home foreclosure adversely affects health and mental health through channels operating at multiple levels: at the individual level, the stress of personally experiencing foreclosure was associated with worsened mental health and adverse health behaviors, which were in turn linked to poorer health status; at the community level, increasing degradation of the neighborhood environment had indirect, cross-level adverse effects on health and mental health. Early intervention may be able to prevent acute economic shocks from eventually developing into the chronic stress of foreclosure, with all of the attendant benefits this implies for health and mental health status. Programs designed to encourage early return of foreclosed properties back into productive use may have similar health and mental health benefits. PMID:25849962

Tsai, Alexander C.

2015-01-01

57

Chaos as a Social Determinant of Child Health: Reciprocal Associations?  

PubMed Central

This study informs the social determinants of child health by exploring an understudied aspect of children’s social contexts: chaos. Chaos has been conceptualized as crowded, noisy, disorganized, unpredictable settings for child development (Evans et al., 2010). We measure chaos at two levels of children’s ecological environment - the microsystem (household) and the mesosystem (work-family-child care nexus) – and at two points in early childhood (ages 3 and 5). Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N=3288), a study of predominantly low-income women and their partners in large US cities, we develop structural equation models that assess how maternal-rated child health (also assessed at ages 3 and 5) is associated with latent constructs of chaos, and whether there are important reciprocal effects. Autoregressive crosslagged path analysis suggest that increasing chaos (at both the household and maternal work levels) is associated with worse child health, controlling for key confounders like household economic status, family structure, and maternal health status. Child health has little effect on chaos, providing further support for the hypothesis that chaos is an important social determinant of child health in this sample of relatively disadvantaged children. This suggests child health may be improved by supporting families in ways that reduce chaos in their home and work/family environments, and that as researchers move beyond SES, race, and family structure to explore other sources of health inequalities, chaos and its proximate determinants may be a promising avenue for future research. PMID:23541250

Schmeer, Kammi K.; Taylor, Miles

2013-01-01

58

Chaos as a social determinant of child health: Reciprocal associations?  

PubMed

This study informs the social determinants of child health by exploring an understudied aspect of children's social contexts: chaos. Chaos has been conceptualized as crowded, noisy, disorganized, unpredictable settings for child development (Evans, Eckenrode, & Marcynyszyn, 2010). We measure chaos at two levels of children's ecological environment - the microsystem (household) and the mesosystem (work-family-child care nexus) - and at two points in early childhood (ages 3 and 5). Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 3288), a study of predominantly low-income women and their partners in large US cities, we develop structural equation models that assess how maternal-rated child health (also assessed at ages 3 and 5) is associated with latent constructs of chaos, and whether there are important reciprocal effects. Autoregressive cross-lagged path analysis suggest that increasing chaos (at both the household and maternal work levels) is associated with worse child health, controlling for key confounders like household economic status, family structure, and maternal health status. Child health has little effect on chaos, providing further support for the hypothesis that chaos is an important social determinant of child health in this sample of relatively disadvantaged children. This suggests child health may be improved by supporting families in ways that reduce chaos in their home and work/family environments, and that as researchers move beyond SES, race, and family structure to explore other sources of health inequalities, chaos and its proximate determinants may be a promising avenue for future research. PMID:23541250

Kamp Dush, Claire M; Schmeer, Kammi K; Taylor, Miles

2013-10-01

59

Position Statement on Tobacco on College and University Campuses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American College Health Association (ACHA) acknowledges and supports the findings of the Surgeon General that tobacco use in any form, active and/or passive, is a significant health hazard. ACHA further recognizes that environmental tobacco smoke has been classified as a Class-A carcinogen and that there is no safe level of exposure to…

Journal of American College Health, 2009

2009-01-01

60

Position Statement on Tobacco on College and University Campuses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American College Health Association (ACHA) acknowledges and supports the findings of the Surgeon General that tobacco use in any form, active and/or passive, is a significant health hazard. ACHA further recognizes that environmental tobacco smoke has been classified as a Class-A carcinogen and that there is no safe level of exposure to…

Journal of American College Health, 2012

2012-01-01

61

Factors Associated with Health Care Access for Mississippi Children with Special Health Care Needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: This purpose of the study was to examine the factors associated with access to routine care and to specialty care for Mississippi children with special health care needs (CSHCN). Methods: We analyzed data for Mississippi CSHCN from the 2001 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs. Using a modified version of Andersen and Aday’s Behavioral Model of

Debra J. Kane; Marianne E. Zotti; Deborah Rosenberg

2005-01-01

62

Environmental Health in the 21st Century: A Role for the National Environmental Health Association.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the public health ramifications of environmental management and how the National Environmental Health Association should play a role in addressing the issues on the Earth Summit agenda and the National Agenda for Environmental Quality. Explores the link between ecological ills, national and international trade, and related consumption of…

Walker, Bailus, Jr.

1992-01-01

63

Altruistic social interest behaviors are associated with better mental health  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated whether altruistic social interest behaviors such as engaging in helping others were associated with better physical and mental health in a stratified random sample of 2016 members of the Presbyterian Church throughout the United States.\\u000aMETHODS: Mailed questionnaires evaluated giving and receiving help, prayer activities, positive and negative religious coping, and self-reported physical and mental health.

Carolyn E. Schwartz; Janice Bell Meisenhelder; Yunsheng Ma; George W. Reed

2003-01-01

64

Associations Between Health Literacy and Established Predictors of Smoking Cessation  

PubMed Central

Objectives We examined associations between health literacy and predictors of smoking cessation among 402 low-socioeconomic status (SES), racially/ethnically diverse smokers. Methods Data were collected as part of a larger study evaluating smoking health risk messages. We conducted multiple linear regression analyses to examine relations between health literacy and predictors of smoking cessation (i.e., nicotine dependence, smoking outcome expectancies, smoking risk perceptions and knowledge, self-efficacy, intentions to quit or reduce smoking). Results Lower health literacy was associated with higher nicotine dependence, more positive and less negative smoking outcome expectancies, less knowledge about smoking health risks, and lower risk perceptions. Associations remained significant (P < .05) after controlling for demographics and SES-related factors. Conclusions These results provide the first evidence that low health literacy may serve as a critical and independent risk factor for poor cessation outcomes among low-socioeconomic status, racially/ethnically diverse smokers. Research is needed to investigate potential mechanisms underlying this relationship. PMID:23678912

Stewart, Diana W.; Adams, Claire E.; Cano, Miguel A.; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Li, Yisheng; Waters, Andrew J.; Wetter, David W.; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin

2013-01-01

65

Jessica Muilenburg wins American Public Health Association's 2012 Early Career Award  

E-print Network

Jessica Muilenburg wins American Public Health Association's 2012 Early Career Award Jessica Early Career Award by the American Public Health Association's Public Health Education and Health an associate professor in UGA's College of Public Health. By examining the intersection of an important public

Arnold, Jonathan

66

EPA/OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT'S NATIONAL HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS LABORATORY'S ASSOCIATE DIRECTOR FOR HEALTH INTERNET SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

This Internet site provides information about the Office of Research and Development's National Health and Environmental Effects Laboratory's Associate Director for Health (ADH) Internet site. The ADH is responsible for providing leadership for the health effects research program...

67

77 FR 70783 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Approval of the Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care (AAAHC) Application for Continuing...Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care (AAAHC) for continued recognition...determined by CMS. The Ambulatory Health Care's (AAAHC) current term of...

2012-11-27

68

[Association between social capital and oral health conditions and behavior].  

PubMed

The theory of social capital seeks to explain social inequality in health through the interaction of social, economic and environmental factors and has been associated with many health problems, though there is still little research in the area of oral health. The scope of this study was to evaluate the association between social capital and socio-demographic and behavioral factors related to oral health among schoolchildren aged from 15 to 19. A random sample of 1,417 adolescents filled out a self-administered survey and the data were descriptively analyzed (simple frequencies, central tendency and variability measurement) and inferential statistics (Pearson's chi-square test). The results showed that the social capital which is more prevalent among adolescents was intermediate level, as well as between each of its dimensions, except for social action where the majority were classified as lower-leveled. Among the variables analyzed, social capital was statistically associated only with sex, with women being more likely to be classified under the 'low social capital' label. This area still needs considerable research to increase theoretical-conceptual and methodological maturity in order to better understand the social contexts that are essential for formulating effective public health policies. PMID:24897493

Bezerra, Isabella Azevedo; Goes, Paulo Sávio Angeiras de

2014-06-01

69

Health effects associated with energy conservation measures in commercial buildings  

SciTech Connect

Indoor air quality can be impacted by hundreds of different chemicals. More than 900 different organic compounds alone have been identified in indoor air. Health effects that could arise from exposure to individual pollutants or mixtures of pollutants cover the full range of acute and chronic effects, including largely reversible responses, such as rashes and irritations, to the irreversible toxic and carcinogenic effects. These indoor contaminants are emitted from a large variety of materials and substances that are widespread components of everyday life. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with indoor air contaminants for the Bonneville Power Administration to aid the agency in the preparation of environmental documents. Results are reported in two volumes. Volume 1 summarizes the results of the search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with a selected list of indoor air contaminants. In addition, the report discusses potential health effects of polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorofluorocarbons. All references to the literature reviewed are found in this document Volume 2. Volume 2 provides detailed information from the literature reviewed, summarizes potential health effects, reports health hazard ratings, and discusses quantitative estimates of carcinogenic risk in humans and animals. Contaminants discussed in this report are those that; have been measured in the indoor air of a public building; have been measured (significant concentrations) in test situations simulating indoor air quality (as presented in the referenced literature); and have a significant hazard rating. 38 refs., 7 figs., 23 tabs.

Stenner, R.D.; Baechler, M.C.

1990-09-01

70

Health Effects Associated with Wastewater Treatment and Disposal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of the potential health effects associated with: (1) wastewater treatment plants; (2) land application of municipal wastewater; and (3) use of renovated water. This review covers the publications of 1976-77. A list of 96 references is also presented. (HM)

Kowal, N. E.; Pahren, H. R.

1978-01-01

71

Association between dental health and acute myocardial infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Known risk factors for coronary heart disease do not explain all of the clinical and epidemiological features of the disease. To examine the role of chronic bacterial infections as risk factors for the disease the association between poor dental health and acute myocardial infarction was investigated in two separate case-control studies of a total of 100 patients with acute myocardial

K. J. Mattila; M. S. Nieminen; V. V. Valtonen; V. P. Rasi; Y. A. Kesäniemi; S. L. Syrjälä; P. S. Jungell; M. Isoluoma; K. Hietaniemi; M. J. Jokinen

1989-01-01

72

Tracing technology in the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries  

PubMed Central

From the beginning of the association, technology and the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries (AAHSL) have been intertwined. Technology was the focus of one of the first committees. Innovative applications of technology have been employed in the operations of the association. Early applications of mini-computers were used in preparing the Annual Statistics. The association's use of network communications was among the first in the country and later applications of the Web have enhanced association services. For its members, technology has transformed libraries. The association's support of the early development of Integrated Advanced Information Management Systems (IAIMS) and of its recent reconceptualization has contributed to the intellectual foundation for this revolution. PMID:12883580

Guard, J. Roger; Peay, Wayne J.

2003-01-01

73

Distal and Proximal Factors of Health Behaviors and Their Associations with Health in Children and Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of the present paper was to analyze factors affecting distal and proximal health behavior within a biopsychosocial model for examining their interactions and associations with respect to health. Methods: Path analysis was based on the nationwide, cross-sectional German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (2003 to 2006). The data was collected from 4,529 participants with an average age of 9.45 years (SD = 4.01). Socio-demographic data, psychosocial factors and health behavior were assessed via questionnaire. Participants also underwent physical fitness tests and a medical examination. Results: Over the five levels of the model analyzed with socioeconomic status, immigration background, and rural-urban differences on the first level; physical activity of relatives and peers, intrinsic motivation, and quality of life on the second level; eating patterns, sedentary behavior, and physical activity on the third level; physical fitness and objective health on the fourth level; and health complaints and subjective health on the fifth level; direct, moderation, and mediation effects could be shown. Conclusions: Several distal and proximal factors are needed to take account of the multivariate complexity of health: e.g., immigration background affected health behaviors only indirectly and the effect of physical activity on objective health was mediated by physical fitness. PMID:23863614

Lämmle, Lena; Woll, Alexander; Mensink, Gert B. M.; Bös, Klaus

2013-01-01

74

The association of healthful diets and cognitive function: a review.  

PubMed

The association of diet with mild cognitive impairment has not been extensively studied. Consumption of a healthful diet may help to attenuate age-related decline in older adults. Published studies have suggested that greater adherence to a Mediterranean-style dietary pattern is associated with a lower risk of developing Alzheimer's disease and with a slower rate of cognitive decline with age. However, published findings are inconsistent. The discrepancies most likely can be explained by the variations in both dietary and cognitive methodologies. It is not clear how diet contributes to the development of neurocognitive changes with age. This review will update available knowledge on the relationship between adherence to healthful diets and cognition and document the need for researchers to adopt more coherent and uniform methodology to allow for better quantification of the association of diet with cognitive function. There appears to be a relationship between diet and cognition. PMID:24827060

Kuczmarski, Marie Fanelli; Allegro, Deanne; Stave, Emily

2014-01-01

75

Associations of muscular fitness with psychological positive health, health complaints, and health risk behaviors in Spanish children and adolescents.  

PubMed

We examined the association of muscular fitness with psychological positive health, health complaints, and health risk behaviors in 690 (n = 322 girls) Spanish children and adolescents (6-17.9 years old). Lower body muscular strength was assessed with the standing long jump test, and upper-body muscular strength was assessed with the throw basketball test. A muscular fitness index was computed by means of standardized measures of both tests. Psychosocial positive health, health complaints, and health risk behaviors were self-reported using the items of the Health Behavior in School-aged Children questionnaire. Psychological positive health indicators included the following: perceived health status, life satisfaction, quality of family relationships, quality of peer relationships, and academic performance. We computed a health complaints index from 8 registered symptoms: headache, stomach ache, backache, feeling low, irritability or bad temper, feeling nervous, difficulties getting to sleep, and feeling dizzy. The health risk behavior indicators studied included tobacco use, alcohol use, and getting drunk. Children and adolescents with low muscular fitness (below the mean) had a higher odds ratio (OR) of reporting fair (vs. excellent) perceived health status, low life satisfaction (vs. very happy), low quality of family relationships (vs. very good), and low academic performance (vs. very good). Likewise, children and adolescents having low muscular fitness had a significantly higher OR of reporting smoking tobacco sometimes (vs. never), drinking alcohol sometimes (vs. never), and getting drunk sometimes (vs. never). The results of this study suggest a link between muscular fitness and psychological positive health and health risk behavior indicators in children and adolescents. PMID:22158258

Padilla-Moledo, Carmen; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Ortega, Francisco B; Mora, Jesús; Castro-Pińero, José

2012-01-01

76

An examination of sociocultural factors associated with health and health care seeking among latina immigrants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the sociocultural factors associated with health maintenance and health care seeking among Latina immigrants. Data were collected from eight focus groups with 54 Latina immigrants between the ages of 19 and 62 (M=29.39.34). The PEN-3 model provided the framework for the study. Most of the participants came from Mexico; 46% had not

Isabel C. Garcés; Isabel C. Scarinci; Lynda Harrison

2006-01-01

77

UNDERSTANDING THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN MATERNAL EDUCATION AND USE OF HEALTH SERVICES IN GHANA: EXPLORING THE ROLE OF HEALTH KNOWLEDGE  

PubMed Central

Summary This paper examines the role of health knowledge in the association between mothers’ education and use of maternal and child health services in Ghana. The study uses data from a nationally representative sample of female respondents to the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. Ordered probit regression models evaluate whether women’s health knowledge helps to explain use of three specific maternal and child health services: antenatal care, giving birth with the supervision of a trained professional and complete child vaccination. The analyses reveal that mothers’ years of formal education are strongly associated with health knowledge; health knowledge helps explain the association between maternal education and use of health services; and, net of a set of stringent demographic and socioeconomic controls, mothers’ health knowledge is a key factor associated with use of health services. PMID:22377424

GREENAWAY, EMILY SMITH; LEON, JUAN; BAKER, DAVID P.

2013-01-01

78

Uncertainties associated with assessing the public health risk from Legionella  

PubMed Central

Legionella is an opportunistic pathogen of public health concern. Current regulatory and management guidelines for the control of this organism are informed by risk assessments. However, there are many unanswered questions and uncertainties regarding Legionella epidemiology, strain infectivity, infectious dose, and detection methods. This review follows the EnHealth Risk Assessment Framework, to examine the current information available regarding Legionella risk and discuss the uncertainties and assumptions. This review can be used as a tool for understanding the uncertainties associated with Legionella risk assessment. It also serves to highlight the areas of Legionella research that require future focus. Improvement of these uncertainties will provide information to enhance risk management practices for Legionella, potentially improving public health protection and reducing the economic costs by streamlining current management practices. PMID:25309526

Whiley, Harriet; Keegan, Alexandra; Fallowfield, Howard; Ross, Kirstin

2014-01-01

79

Characteristics Associated with Hospital Health IT Vendor Switching and Dropping  

PubMed Central

While a growing body of research has investigated the diffusion of health IT among providers, no empirical research has yet focused on health IT vendor switching by hospitals. Vendor switching is one indicator of a competitive commercial vendor market, and competition among vendors can spur innovations which contribute to better products over time. This study examines the interaction of hospitals with commercial vendors in the recent past to serve as a baseline for future investigations into how the federal health IT incentive program influences changes in the vendor market and vendor-provider relationships. We find that there has been considerable switching between vendors by hospitals, including some hospitals switching away from automated systems all together. Furthermore, our descriptive cross-sectional analysis reveals various hospital characteristics which are associated with vendor switching and dropping, including lower constraints on hospitals’ financial resources, nonprofit ownership, and having some form of integrated arrangement with physicians. PMID:22195131

Lammers, Eric J.; Zheng, Kai

2011-01-01

80

Association of Recent Incarceration with Traumatic Injury, Substance Use Related Health Consequences, and Health Care Utilization  

PubMed Central

Objective The higher risk of death among recently released inmates relative to the general population may be due to the higher prevalence of substance dependence among inmates or an independent effect of incarceration. We explored the effects of recent incarceration on health outcomes that may be intermediate markers for mortality. Methods Longitudinal multivariable regression analysis were conducted on interview data (baseline, 3, 6, and 12 month follow-up) from alcohol and/or drug dependent individuals (n=553) participating in a randomized clinical trial to test the effectiveness of chronic disease management for substance dependence in primary care. The main independent variable was recent incarceration (spending ?1 night in jail or prison in the past 3 months). The three main outcomes of this study were: any traumatic injury; substance use-related health consequences; and health care utilization defined as hospitalization (excluding addiction treatment or detoxification) and/or emergency department visit. Results Recent incarceration was not significantly associated with traumatic injury (adjusted odds ratio (AOR=0.98, 95%CI 0.65–1.49) or health care utilization (AOR=0.88, 95%CI: 0.64–1.20). However, recent incarceration was associated with higher odds for substance use-related health consequences (AOR=1.42, 95% CI: 1.02–1.98). Conclusions Among people with alcohol and/or drug dependence, recent incarceration was significantly associated with substance use-related health consequences but not injury or health care utilization after adjustment for covariates. These findings suggest that substance use related health consequences may be part of the explanation for the increased risk of death faced by former inmates. PMID:24365804

Redmond, Nicole; Hicks, LeRoi S.; Cheng, Debbie M.; Allensworth-Davies, Donald; Winter, Michael R.; Samet, Jeffrey H.; Saitz, Richard

2014-01-01

81

Water quality associated public health risk in Bo, Sierra Leone.  

PubMed

Human health depends on reliable access to safe drinking water, but in many developing countries only a limited number of wells and boreholes are available. Many of these water resources are contaminated with biological or chemical pollutants. The goal of this study was to examine water access and quality in urban Bo, Sierra Leone. A health census and community mapping project in one neighborhood in Bo identified the 36 water sources used by the community. A water sample was taken from each water source and tested for a variety of microbiological and physicochemical substances. Only 38.9% of the water sources met World Health Organization (WHO) microbial safety requirements based on fecal coliform levels. Physiochemical analysis indicated that the majority (91.7%) of the water sources met the requirements set by the WHO. In combination, 25% of these water resources met safe drinking water criteria. No variables associated with wells were statistically significant predictors of contamination. This study indicated that fecal contamination is the greatest health risk associated with drinking water. There is a need to raise hygiene awareness and implement inexpensive methods to reduce fecal contamination and improve drinking water safety in Bo, Sierra Leone. PMID:22350346

Jimmy, David H; Sundufu, Abu J; Malanoski, Anthony P; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Ansumana, Rashid; Leski, Tomasz A; Bangura, Umaru; Bockarie, Alfred S; Tejan, Edries; Lin, Baochuan; Stenger, David A

2013-01-01

82

Registered Nurses’ and Behavior Health Associates’ Responses to Violent Inpatient Interactions on Behavioral Health Units  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Violence carried out by patients against nursing staff unsettles and threatens coworkers as they care for individuals admitted to inpatient psychiatric units. OBJECTIVE: This study explored nursing staff’s individual and group responses to violent incidents performed by patients against caregivers. DESIGN: This qualitative study used focus groups to collect data from professional nurses and behavioral health associations (N =

Patti Rager Zuzelo; Staci Silver Curran; Mary Ann Zeserman

2012-01-01

83

Health care-associated hepatitis C virus infection  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a blood-borne pathogen that has a worldwide distribution and infects millions of people. Care-associated HCV infections represented a huge part of hepatitis C burden in the past via contaminated blood and unsafe injections and continue to be a serious problem of public health. The present review proposes a panorama of health care-associated HCV infections via the three mode of contamination that have been identified: (1) infected patient to non-infected patient; (2) infected patient to non-infected health care worker (HCW); and (3) infected HCW to non infected patient. For each condition, the circumstances of contamination are described together with the means to prevent them. As a whole, the more important risk is represented by unsafe practices regarding injections, notably with the improper use of multidose vials used for multiple patients. The questions of occupational exposures and infected HCWs are also discussed. In terms of prevention and surveillance, the main arm for combating care-associated HCV infections is the implementation of standard precautions in all the fields of cares, with training programs and audits to verify their good application. HCWs must be sensitized to the risk of blood-borne pathogens, notably by the use of safety devices for injections and good hygiene practices in the operating theatre and in all the invasive procedures. The providers performing exposed-prone procedures must monitor their HCV serology regularly in order to detect early any primary infection and to treat it without delay. With the need to stay vigilant because HCV infection is often a hidden risk, it can be hoped that the number of people infected by HCV via health care will decrease very significantly in the next years. PMID:25516637

Pozzetto, Bruno; Memmi, Meriam; Garraud, Olivier; Roblin, Xavier; Berthelot, Philippe

2014-01-01

84

Associations between health literacy and health outcomes in a predominantly low-income african american population with type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

Inadequate health literacy has been associated with poorer health behaviors and outcomes in individuals with diabetes or depression. This study was conducted to examine the associations between inadequate health literacy and behavioral and cardiometabolic parameters in individuals with type 2 diabetes and to explore whether these associations are affected by concurrent depression. The authors used cross-sectional data from a study of 343 predominantly African Americans with type 2 diabetes. Inadequate health literacy was significantly and modestly associated with diabetes knowledge (r = -0.34) but weakly associated with self-efficacy (r = 0.16) and depressive symptoms (r = 0.24). In multivariate regression models, there were no associations between health literacy and A1c, blood pressure, or body mass index or control of any of these parameters. There was no evidence that depression was an effect-modifier of the associations between health literacy and outcomes. Although inadequate health literacy was modestly associated with worse knowledge and weakly associated with self-efficacy, it was not associated with any of the cardiometabolic parameters the authors studied. Because this study showed no association between health literacy and behavioral and cardiometabolic outcomes, it is unseemly and premature to embark on trials or controlled interventions to improve health literacy for the purposes of improving patient-related outcomes in diabetes. PMID:25826448

Al Sayah, Fatima; Majumdar, Sumit R; Egede, Leonard E; Johnson, Jeffrey A

2015-05-01

85

Auditing health insurance reimbursement by constructing association rules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two months of reimbursement claim data of the admission patients from National Taiwan University Hospital have been used to be the training set (200 MB or so), a quick method has been used to find out the association rules among the illness, the examinations and treatments, the drugs, and the equipment. The filtered rules by setting the minimum support and the minimum confidence are used to screen out a month claimed data from the other hospital. Some unproper orders to the patients are able to checked out. In this paper, we will discuss the algorithm for generalizing association rule and the experiments of using the association rules to screen out the unproper orders in the health reimbursement claims.

Chiang, I.-Jen

2000-04-01

86

High-risk health behaviors associated with various dietary patterns.  

PubMed

We have previously identified dietary patterns among 1,475 male and 780 female normal healthy control subjects in a case-control study of cancer at various sites. In this paper we examine the presence, among persons exhibiting these dietary patterns, of individual health behaviors that may contribute to risks for cancer. Specifically we examine trimming of separable fat from meats, fats used in cooking and as additions to foods, alcohol consumption, and smoking. Results indicate that men and women differ in possession of these high-risk behaviors. Women are more likely to trim fat from meat, consume less alcohol, and have lower exposures to smoking. Their dietary patterns are more independent of the fats used. Several eating patterns are positively associated with total fat intake but differ in their associations with high-risk behaviors. These data suggest that assessing risk associated with dietary patterns sheds more light on disease relationships than studies of single nutrients. PMID:1796009

Randall, E; Marshall, J R; Graham, S; Brasure, J

1991-01-01

87

Health economics and the European Heart Rhythm Association.  

PubMed

The management of healthcare is becoming extremely complex in developed countries, as a result of increasing age of the population and increasing costs of care, coupled with diminishing resources due to global financial crisis. This situation threatens access to appropriate care, and a more or less explicit rationing of some types of treatment may occur in 'real world' clinical practice. This is particularly true for those treatments or interventions with a relatively high up-front cost, such as cardioverter defibrillators, devices for cardiac resynchronization therapy or ablation procedures for atrial fibrillation. The European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) is strongly convinced that the skills of electrophysiologists and cardiologists responsible for the management of rhythm disorders have to evolve, also embracing the knowledge of health economics, clinical epidemiology, health-care management and outcome research. These disciplines do not belong to what is considered as the conventional cultural background of physicians, but knowledge of comparative cost effectiveness and of other economic approaches nowadays appears fundamental for a dialogue with a series of stakeholders, such as policy makers, politicians, and administrators, involved in budgeting the activity of hospitals and health-care services, as well as in approaching health technology assessment. PMID:21518741

Vardas, Panos; Boriani, Giuseppe

2011-05-01

88

Cross-sectional schooling-health associations misrepresented causal schooling effects on adult health and health-related behaviors: Evidence from the Chinese Adults Twins Survey.  

PubMed

Adult health outcomes and health behaviors are often associated with schooling. However, such associations do not necessarily imply that schooling has causal effects on health with the signs or magnitudes found in the cross-sectional associations. Schooling may be proxying for unobserved factors related to genetics and family background that directly affect both health and schooling. Recently several studies have used within-monozygotic (MZ) twins methods to control for unobserved factors shared by identical twins. Within-MZ estimates for developed countries are generally smaller than suggested by cross-sectional associations, consistent with positive correlations between unobserved factors that determine schooling and those that determine health. This study contributes new estimates of cross-sectional associations and within-MZ causal effects using the Chinese Adults Twins Survey, the first study of its type for developing countries. The cross-sectional estimates suggest that schooling is significantly associated with adult health-related behaviors (smoking, drinking, exercising) but not with own or spouse health outcomes (general health, mental health, overweight, chronic diseases). However, within-MZ-twins estimators change the estimates for approximately half of these health indicators, in one case declining in absolute magnitudes and becoming insignificant and in the other cases increasing in absolute magnitudes. Within-MZ estimates indicate significant pro-health effects for at least one of the indicators for own health (better mental health), own health-related behaviors (less smoking) and spouse health (less overweight). PMID:25464872

Behrman, Jere R; Xiong, Yanyan; Zhang, Junsen

2015-02-01

89

Leadership skills are associated with health behaviours among Canadian children.  

PubMed

Life skills development is a core area for action in the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. The role of life skills in influencing health behaviours among children has received little attention in research. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship between self-leadership, as a model of life skills, and diet quality, physical activity, sleep duration and body weight. A provincially representative sample of 2328 grade 5 students (aged 10-11 years) was surveyed in Alberta, Canada. Self-leadership skills were assessed based on student responses indicating frequency of performing various leadership traits. Diet quality was based on responses to the Harvard Youth/Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaire and physical activity on responses to the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children. Sleep duration was assessed based on parent survey responses, and body mass index determined based on measured height and weight. Random effects regression models with children nested within schools were used to determine the associations. Higher self-leadership was associated with better diet quality (P < 0.01) and more physical activity (P < 0.01). Although not statistically significant, higher self-leadership was suggestive of healthier body weight status (OR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.66, 1.27). No association of self-leadership with sleep duration was found. The incorporation of leadership skill development may enhance the effectiveness of school-based health promotion programs. This study reinforces the importance of leadership skill promotion in the promotion of healthy eating and active living, which may help curb the obesity epidemic in the short term, and prevention of chronic diseases and mounting healthcare costs in the long term. PMID:25348102

Ferland, Adam; Chu, Yen Li; Gleddie, Doug; Storey, Kate; Veugelers, Paul

2015-03-01

90

Association between Health Service Use and Multiplex Genetic Testing  

PubMed Central

Context The identification of genetic variants associated with common disease is accelerating rapidly. “Multiplex tests” that give individuals feedback on large panels of genetic variants have proliferated. Availability of these test results may prompt consumers to use more healthcare services. Objective To examine whether offers of multiplex genetic testing increases healthcare utilization among healthy patients aged 25–40. Participants 1,599 continuously insured adults aged 25–40 were surveyed and offered a multiplex genetic susceptibility test (MGST) for eight common health conditions. Main Outcome Measure Healthcare utilization from automated records was compared in 12 month pre- and post-test periods among persons who completed a baseline survey only (68.7%), those who visited a study Web site but opted not to test (17.8%), and those who chose the MGST (13.6%). Results In the pre-test period, persons choosing genetic testing used an average of 1.02 physician visits per quarter compared to 0.93 and 0.82 for the other groups (p<0.05). There were no statistically significant differences by group in the pre-test use of any common medical tests or procedures associated with four common health conditions. When changes in physician and medical test/procedure use in the post-test period were compared among groups, no statistically significant differences were observed for any utilization category. Conclusions Persons offered and completing multiplex genetic susceptibility testing used more physician visits prior to testing, but testing was not associated with subsequent changes in use. This study supports that multiplex genetic testing offers can be provided directly to patients in such a way that use of health services are not inappropriately increased. PMID:22595941

Reid, Robert J.; McBride, Colleen M.; Alford, Sharon Hensley; Price, Cristofer; Baxevanis, Andreas D.; Brody, Lawrence C.; Larson, Eric B.

2012-01-01

91

The Association for Environmental Health and Sciences (AEHS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"The Association for Environmental Health and Sciences (AEHS) was created to facilitate communication and foster cooperation among professionals concerned with the challenge of soil protection and cleanup." The website features past and present surveys of States' Soil and Groundwater Cleanup Standards. Researchers can find out about upcoming conferences including the Annual West Coast Conference on Soil, Sediment, and Water. The site offers downloads of archived publications as well as links to relevant prominent journals. Interested visitors can locate membership materials at the web site as well.

92

N049 Associate Degree of Health & Community Care [Commencing Semester 1, 2014  

E-print Network

N049 Associate Degree of Health & Community Care [Commencing Semester 1, 2014] Student Name of Health & Community Care Policy COH10005 Health & Safety in Community Care COH10006 Partnerships in Health & Community Care COH10003 Managing Communication in the Health Care Industry COH10002 Understanding Community

Liley, David

93

Interoperability of electronic health records and personal health records: key interoperability issues associated with information exchange.  

PubMed

As patients receive medical care, their clinical history may be tracked and recorded by multiple electronic systems developed by independent vendors. Medical providers might use electronic health record (EHR) software tailored to the needs of trained medical personnel, whereas patients may interact with personal health records (PHR). The purpose of this essay is to identify the key interoperability issues associated with the information exchange between these two types of systems and offer an approach for enhancing interoperability. This article is part of a series of unpublished essays titled A Community View on How Personal Health Records Can Improve Patient Care and Outcomes in Many Healthcare Settings, a collaborative project of Northern Illinois Physicians For Connectivity and the Coalition for Quality and Patient Safety of Chicagoland. For further information on how you can obtain copies of the complete work, contact the principle Dr. Stasia Kahn at Stash5@sbcglobal.net. PMID:19663162

Pringle, Simone; Lippitt, Alex

2009-01-01

94

Reducing Cancer Health Disparities in the US-associated Pacific  

PubMed Central

Purpose To assess cancer prevention and control capacity in the US-associated Pacific Islands (USAPI, including American Samoa, Northern Mariana Islands, Micronesia, Guam, Marshall Islands, and Palau) and to support indigenous leadership in reducing cancer health disparities. Methods Jurisdiction-specific needs assessments were conducted to assess cancer prevention and control capacity and challenges, The Cancer Council of the Pacific islands (CCPI), an indigenous health leadership team from public health and medicine, was supported to review assessment findings, develop priorities, and build capacity to address recommendations. Results Capacity varied across jurisdictions, but generally there is limited ability to measure cancer burden and a lack of programs, equipment, and trained personnel to detect and treat cancer. Most cancers are diagnosed in late stages when survival is compromised and care is most costly. Jurisdictions also are challenged by geographic, social, and political constraints and multiple in-country demands for funding. Based on findings, strategies were developed by the CCPI to guide efforts, including fund seeking, to expand cancer prevention and control capacity in regionally appropriate ways. Conclusions Concerted planning, training, and funding efforts are needed to overcome challenges and upgrade capacity in cancer education, prevention, detection, and treatment in the USAPI. Indigenous leadership and local capacity building are essential to this process. PMID:17149100

Tsark, JoAnn U.; Braun, Kathryn L.

2010-01-01

95

Health care-associated infections in children after cardiac surgery.  

PubMed

Few recent studies have assessed the epidemiology of health care-associated infections (HAIs) in the pediatric population after cardiac surgery. A retrospective cohort study was performed to assess the epidemiology of several types of HAIs in children 18 years of age or younger undergoing cardiac surgery from July 2010 to June 2012. Potential pre-, intra-, and postoperative risk factors, including adherence to the perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis regimen at the authors' hospital, were assessed by multivariable analysis using Poisson regression models. Microorganisms associated with HAIs and their susceptibility patterns were described. Overall, 634 surgeries were performed, 38 (6 %) of which were complicated by an HAI occurring within 90 days after surgery. The HAIs included 7 central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs), 12 non-CLABSI bacteremias, 6 episodes of early postoperative infective endocarditis (IE), 9 surgical-site infections (SSIs), and 4 ventilator-associated pneumonias (VAPs). Mechanical ventilation (rate ratio [RR] 1.07 per day; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.03-1.11; p = 0.0002), postoperative transfusion of blood products (RR 3.12; 95 %, CI 1.38-7.06; p = 0.0062), postoperative steroid use (RR 3.32; 95 % CI 1.56-7.02; p = 0.0018), and continuation of antibiotic prophylaxis longer than 48 h after surgery (RR 2.56; 95 % CI 1.31-5.03; p = 0.0062) were associated with HAIs. Overall, 66.7 % of the pathogens associated with SSIs were susceptible to cefazolin, the perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis used by the authors' hospital. In conclusion, HAIs occurred after 6 % of cardiac surgeries. Bacteremia and CLABSI were the most common. This study identified several potentially modifiable risk factors that suggest interventions. Further studies should assess the role of improving adherence to perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis, the age of transfused red blood cells, and evidence-based guidelines for postoperative steroids. PMID:24996642

Turcotte, Rebecca F; Brozovich, Ava; Corda, Rozelle; Demmer, Ryan T; Biagas, Katherine V; Mangino, Diane; Covington, Lisa; Ferris, Anne; Thumm, Brian; Bacha, Emile; Smerling, Art; Saiman, Lisa

2014-12-01

96

The Association of Psychiatric Diagnoses, Health Service Use, and Expenditures in Children with Obesity-related Health Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To examine the association of psychiatric diagnoses and use of health care services in children with obesity-related health conditions. Method A retrospective, longitudinal design was used to examine Medicaid claims data. The data set consisted of 13,688 youth diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia, or obesity. Results The presence of any type of psychiatric diagnosis was associated

David M. Janicke; Jeffrey S. Harman; Kelly J. Kelleher; Jianyi Zhang

2007-01-01

97

Factors Associated With Health Care Access and Outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to (1) assess ethnic differences in health care access and health outcome between Asian Americans and Whites and between Asian American subgroups, (2) examine effects of cultural factors, and (3) investigate moderating effects of health risk behaviors between cultural characteristics and health care access and outcome. Data were derived from the 2007 California Health Interview Survey. Asian

Min-So Paek; Jung-Won Lim

2012-01-01

98

Associations of psychosocial working conditions with self-rated general health and mental health among municipal employees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To examine associations of job demands and job control, procedural and relational organizational fairness, and physical work load with self-rated general health and mental health. In addition, the effect of occupational class on these associations is examined. Methods: The data were derived from the Helsinki Health Study baseline surveys in 2001–2002. Respondents to cross-sectional postal surveys were middle-aged employees

Mikko Laaksonen; Ossi Rahkonen; Pekka Martikainen; Eero Lahelma

2006-01-01

99

Health effects associated with energy conservation measures in commercial buildings  

SciTech Connect

Indoor air quality can conceivably be impacted by hundreds of different chemicals. More than 900 different organic compounds alone have been identified in indoor air. The health effects that could potentially arise from exposure to individual pollutants or mixtures of pollutants cover the full range of acute and chronic effects, including largely reversible responses, such as rashes and irritations, as well as irreversible toxic and carcinogenic effects. These indoor contaminants are emitted from a large variety of materials and substances that are widespread components of everyday life. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with indoor air contaminants for the Bonneville Power Administration to aid the agency in the preparation of environmental documents. The results of this search are reported in two volumes. Volume 1 is a summary of the results of the literature search; Volume 2 is the complete results of the literature search and contains all references to the material reviewed. 16 tabs.

Stenner, R.D.; Baechler, M.C.

1990-09-01

100

Associations between the Five-Factor Model of Personality and Health Behaviors among College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: In fall 2006, the authors examined associations between the five-factor model of personality and several key health behaviors. Methods: College students (N = 583) completed the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment and the International Personality Item Pool Big Five short-form questionnaire. Results:…

Raynor, Douglas A.; Levine, Heidi

2009-01-01

101

Pat Ketcham, PhD, CHES Associate Director, Health Promotion at SHS since 2000  

E-print Network

Education, present · Consulting Editor, American Journal of College Health, present · Health EducationPat Ketcham, PhD, CHES Associate Director, Health Promotion at SHS since 2000 Educational Background · Doctor of Philosophy in Public Health from Oregon State University in 1998 · Master of Education

Tullos, Desiree

102

Are Interactional Behaviors Exhibited When the Self-Reported Health Question is Asked Associated with Health Status?*  

PubMed Central

The self-reported health question summarizes information about health status across several domains of health and is widely used to measure health because it predicts mortality well. We examine whether interactional behaviors produced by respondents and interviewers during the self-reported health question-answer sequence reflect complexities in the respondent’s health history. We observed more problematic interactional behaviors during question-answer sequences in which respondents reported worse health. Furthermore, these behaviors were more likely to occur when there were inconsistencies in the respondent’s health history, even after controlling for the respondent’s answer to the self-reported health question, cognitive ability, and sociodemographic characteristics. We also found that among respondents who reported “excellent” health, and to a lesser extent among those who reported their health was “very good,” problematic interactional behaviors were associated with health inconsistencies. Overall, we find evidence that the interactional behaviors exhibited during the question-answer sequence are associated with respondents’ health status. PMID:21927518

Garbarski, Dana; Schaeffer, Nora Cate; Dykema, Jennifer

2011-01-01

103

[Social class, psychosocial occupational risk factors, and the association with self-rated health and mental health in Chile].  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to analyze the association between social class and psychosocial occupational risk factors and self-rated health and mental health in a Chilean population. A cross-sectional study analyzed data from the First National Survey on Employment, Work, Quality of Life, and Male and Female Workers in Chile (N = 9,503). The dependent variables were self-rated health status and mental health. The independent variables were social class (neo-Marxist), psychosocial occupational risk factors, and material deprivation. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were performed. There were inequalities in the distribution of psychosocial occupational risk factors by social class and sex. Furthermore, social class and psychosocial occupational risk factors were associated with unequal distribution of self-rated health and mental health among the working population in Chile. Occupational health interventions should consider workers' exposure to socioeconomic and psychosocial risk factors. PMID:25388324

Rocha, Kátia Bones; Muntaner, Carles; Solar, Orielle; Borrell, Carme; Bernales, Pamela; González, María José; Ibańez, Ciro; Benach, Joan; Vallebuona, Clélia

2014-10-01

104

Factors Associated with American Indian Teens' Self-Rated Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Factors related to American Indian (AI) high school students' self-rated health were examined. Self rated health was measured as a single-item with a four-point response option ranging from poor to excellent health. Of the 574 participants, 19% reported "fair" or "poor" health, a percentage more than twice that for U.S. high school students in…

Parker, Tassy

2004-01-01

105

Self-rated Health among Pregnant Women: Associations with Objective Health Indicators, Psychological Functioning, and Serum Inflammatory Markers  

PubMed Central

Background Biobehavioral correlates of self-rated health in pregnancy are largely unknown. Purpose The goals of this study were to examine, in pregnant women, associations of self-rated health with 1) demographics, objective health status, health behaviors and psychological factors and 2) serum inflammatory markers. Methods In the 2nd trimester of pregnancy, 101 women provided a blood sample, completed measures of psychosocial stress, health status, and health behaviors, and received a comprehensive periodontal examination. Results The following independently predicted poorer self-rated health: 1) greater psychological stress, 2) greater objective health diagnoses, 3) higher body mass index, and 4) past smoking (versus never smoking). Poorer self-rated health was associated with higher serum interleukin-1? (p = .02) and marginally higher macrophage migration inhibitory factor (p = .06). These relationships were not fully accounted for by behavioral/psychological factors. Conclusions This study provides novel data regarding factors influencing subjective ratings of health and the association of self-rated health with serum inflammatory markers in pregnant women. PMID:23765366

Christian, Lisa M.; Iams, Jay; Porter, Kyle; Leblebicioglu, Binnaz

2013-01-01

106

Health-care-associated infection in Africa: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To assess the epidemiology of endemic health-care-associated infection (HAI) in Africa. Methods Three databases (PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and the WHO regional medical database for Africa) were searched to identify studies published from 1995 to 2009 on the epidemiology of HAI in African countries. No language restriction was applied. Available abstract books of leading international infection control conferences were also searched from 2004 to 2009. Findings The eligibility criteria for inclusion in the review were met by 19 articles, only 2 of which met the criterion of high quality. Four relevant abstracts were retrieved from the international conference literature. The hospital-wide prevalence of HAI varied between 2.5% and 14.8%; in surgical wards, the cumulative incidence ranged from 5.7% to 45.8%. The largest number of studies focused on surgical site infection, whose cumulative incidence ranged from 2.5% to 30.9%. Data on causative pathogens were available from a few studies only and highlighted the importance of Gram-negative rods, particularly in surgical site infection and ventilator-associated pneumonia. Conclusion Limited information is available on the endemic burden of HAI in Africa, but our review reveals that its frequency is much higher than in developed countries. There is an urgent need to identify and implement feasible and sustainable approaches to strengthen HAI prevention, surveillance and control in Africa. PMID:22084514

Bagheri Nejad, Sepideh; Allegranzi, Benedetta; Syed, Shamsuzzoha B; Ellis, Benjamin

2011-01-01

107

Health effects associated with cyanobacteria exposure among beach attendees in Puerto Rico  

EPA Science Inventory

Cyanobacteria and their toxins are associated with adverse human health effects, although among marine waters, the pyrrhophyta, including dinoflagellates are more recognized as health hazards. We recruited beach attendees during summer 2009, at Boquerón Beach, Puerto Rico...

108

Genome-wide association study of body height in African Americans: the Women's Health Initiative  

E-print Network

Genome-wide association study of body height in African Americans: the Women's Health Initiative of height in 8149 African- American (AA) women from the Women's Health Initiative. Genetic variants with P

Tang, Hua

109

Health-Wealth Association among Older Americans: Racial and Ethnic Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using five-year longitudinal data from the AHEAD survey, this study investigated the direction of association between health and wealth among elderly people. In particular, it focused on how this association varied across racial and ethnic groups. The study found that there was a significant nonmonotonic association between health and wealth and…

Lum, Terry

2004-01-01

110

Human health risk associated with brominated flame-retardants (BFRs).  

PubMed

The purposes of this review are to assess the human exposure and human and experimental evidence for adverse effects of brominated flame-retardants (BFRs) with specific focus on intake from seafood. The leakage of BFRs from consumer products leads to exposure of humans from fetal life to adulthood. Fish and fish products contain the highest levels of BFRs and dominate the dietary intake of frequent fish eaters in Europe, while meat, followed by seafood and dairy products accounted for the highest US dietary intake. House dust is also reported as an important source of exposure for children as well as adults. The levels of BFRs in the general North American populations are higher than those in Europe and Japan and the highest levels are detected in infants and toddlers. The daily intake via breast milk exceeds the RfD in 10% of US infants. BFRs including PBDEs, HBCDs and TBBP-A have induced endocrine-, reproductive- and behavior effects in laboratory animals. Furthermore, recent human epidemiological data demonstrated association between exposure to BFRs and similar adverse effects as observed in animal studies. Fish including farmed fish and crude fish oil for human consumption may contain substantial levels of BFRs and infants and toddlers consuming these products on a daily basis may exceed the tolerable daily intake suggesting that fish and fish oil alone represent a risk to human health. This intake comes in addition to exposure from other sources (breast milk, other food, house dust). Because potential harmful concentrations of BFRs and other toxicants occur in fish and fish products, research on a wider range of products is warranted, to assess health hazard related to the contamination of fish and fish products for human consumption. PMID:25454234

Lyche, Jan L; Rosseland, Carola; Berge, Gunnar; Polder, Anuschka

2015-01-01

111

National Association of County and City Health Officials  

MedlinePLUS

... will accept applications from March 1-31. More » » California Takes a Stand against E-cigarettes Dr. Ron ... the state health officer and director of the California Department of Public Health (CDPH), released a State ...

112

Health Effects Associated With Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The World Health Organization has identified ambient air pollution as a high public health priority, based on estimates of air pollution related death and disability-adjusted life years derived in its Global Burden of Disease initiative. The NERAM Colloquium Series on Health and Air Quality was initiated to strengthen the linkage between scientists, policymakers, and other stakeholders by reviewing the current

Jonathan Samet; Daniel Krewski

2007-01-01

113

The Associations between Health Literacy, Reasons for Seeking Health Information, and Information Sources Utilized by Taiwanese Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To determine the associations between health literacy, the reasons for seeking health information, and the information sources utilized by Taiwanese adults. Method: A cross-sectional survey of 752 adults residing in rural and urban areas of Taiwan was conducted via questionnaires. Chi-squared tests and logistic regression were used for…

Wei, Mi-Hsiu

2014-01-01

114

Copyright 2012, National Environmental Health Association (www.neha.org) Environmental Health  

E-print Network

...............................................................13 Decade Software.................................................55 HealthSpace USA Sweeps Software, Inc. ........................................43 Toledo-Lucas County Health Dept .....................................................................................................8 Arsenic and Lead in Juice: Apple, Citrus, and Apple

115

Associations and foundations in the field of health care and their role in the health system of Poland.  

PubMed

The article presents data on associations and foundations active in health care field in Poland, on the basis of a review of research done by Klon/Jawor Association and the Central Statistical Office. The article also applies to the issue of cooperation between NGOs and governmental adminstration in the health area and identifies lacking information that is necessary for better planning of national health policy. In Poland there are about three thousand associations and foundations whose main focus is the health care. In 2010, they accounted for about 7% of all non-governmental organizations. Results of representative nationwide surveys from 2008 and 2010 indicate that the NGO's active in the field of health care have, in most cases, legal form of associations. Almost half of the organizations declared national or international scope of action. Headquarters of most organizations were mainly in the cities, and only, one in twenty in the village. Most organizations were located in the mazowieckie province and a significant fraction of them was in Warsaw itself. Organizations were stood out by a relatively large number of personnel on the background of the entire NGO sector. Half of the organizations employed paid workers, the majority also collaborated with volunteers who were not members of the organization. More than a third of organizations dealt with the rehabilitation, therapy and long-term care, and about 1/3 dealt with prevention, health promotion and education, and blood donations. World Health Organization indicates the need for systematic collection of data about the role of the nongovernmental sector in health. In Poland, legal regulations require the public institutions and organizations to cooperate with NGOs to achieve health objectives. In spite of relevant data on NGOs in the field of health care in Poland, the necessary information to assess their potential are still lacking. Recognition of the capacity and limitations ofNGOs could enable better planning of national health policy. PMID:23745378

Piotrowicz, Maria; Cianciara, Dorota

2013-01-01

116

The Association of Health and Income in the Elderly: Experience from a Southern State of Brazil  

PubMed Central

Objectives In high income, developed countries, health status tends to improve as income increases, but primarily through the 50th-66th percentile of income. It is unclear whether the same limitation holds in middle income countries, and for both general assessments of health and specific conditions. Methods Data were obtained from Brazil, a middle income country. In-person interviews with a representative sample of community residents age ?60 (N=6963), in the southern state of Rio Grande do Sul, obtained information on demographic characteristics including household income and number of persons supported, general health status (self-rated health, functional status), depression, and seven physician-diagnosed, self-reported health conditions. Analyses used household income (adjusted for number supported and economies of scale) together with higher order income terms, and controlled for demographics and comorbidities, to ascertain nonlinearity between income and general and specific health measures. Results In fully controlled analyses income was associated with general measures of health (linearly with self-rated health, nonlinearly with functional status). For specific health measures there was a consistent linear association with depression, pulmonary disorders, renal disorders, and sensory impairment. For musculoskeletal, cardiovascular (negative association), and gastrointestinal disorders this association no longer held when comorbidities were controlled. There was no association with diabetes. Conclusion Contrary to findings in high income countries, the association of household-size-adjusted income with health was generally linear, sometimes negative, and sometimes absent when comorbidities were controlled. PMID:24058505

Fillenbaum, Gerda G.; Blay, Sergio L.; Pieper, Carl F.; King, Katherine E.; Andreoli, Sergio B.; Gastal, Fábio L.

2013-01-01

117

Association between Psychopathology and Physical Health Problems among Youth in Residential Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth in residential treatment settings often present with a complex combination of mental and physical health problems. Despite an emerging literature documenting significant associations between mental health and physical health, the relationship between these two areas of functioning has not been systematically examined in youth presenting to…

Nelson, Timothy D.; Smith, Tori R.; Duppong Hurley, Kristin; Epstein, Michael H.; Thompson, Ronald W.; Tonniges, Thomas F.

2013-01-01

118

Modifying effect of the County Level Health Indices on Cardiopulmonary Effects Associated with Wildfire Exposure  

EPA Science Inventory

Background and Aims: Socioeconomic status (SES) is a known risk factor for cardiopulmonary health and some studies suggest SES may be an effect modifier for health effects associated with exposure to air pollution. We investigated the synergistic impact of health disparities on ...

119

Position: Associate Director, Center for Global Women's Health Technologies, Duke University  

E-print Network

Position: Associate Director, Center for Global Women's Health Technologies, Duke University Start date: Fall 2014 Location: Duke University, Durham, NC The Center for Global Women's Health Technologies of Global Women's Health Technologies, which is a joint center between the Pratt School of Engineering

Ramanujam, Nimmi

120

American Association for Health Education (AAHE) 2011 Membership Survey: Summary of Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American Association for Health Education (AAHE), a national health education organization with the mission of advancing the profession of health education, launched the 2011 AAHE membership survey between October 13, 2011 and November 1, 2011, under the leadership of the AAHE Board of Directors and AAHE Staff. The primary objective of the…

Chaney, Elizabeth H.; Chavarria, Enmanuel; Stellefson, Michael L.; Birch, David A.; Spear, Caile

2012-01-01

121

The Association between Membership in the Sandwich Generation and Health Behaviors: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined the association between membership in the sandwich generation, defined as providing care to both children and parents or in-laws, and five health behaviors: checking the food label for health value when buying foods, using a seat belt, choosing foods based on health value, exercising regularly, and cigarette smoking.…

Chassin, Laurie; Macy, Jon T.; Seo, Dong-Chul; Presson, Clark C.; Sherman, Steven J.

2010-01-01

122

Psychol Med . Author manuscript The association of cognitive performance with mental health and physical  

E-print Network

performance has been associated with mental and physical health, but it is unknown whether the strength whether cognitive performance predicted mental and physical health from midlife to early old age. Methods and 2006. The age range included over the follow-up was from 40 to 75 years. Mental health and physical

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

123

Copyright 2012, National Environmental Health Association (www.neha.org) Environmental Health  

E-print Network

"...............................................................................................................26 Guest Commentary: There's an App for That?? Making Public Health Information Obtainable

124

Weight- and race-based bullying: Health associations among urban adolescents.  

PubMed

Stigma-based bullying is associated with negative mental and physical health outcomes. In a longitudinal study, surveys and physical assessments were conducted with mostly Black and Latino, socioeconomically disadvantaged, urban students. As hypothesized, greater weight- and race-based bullying each was significantly indirectly associated with increased blood pressure and body mass index, as well as decreased overall self-rated health across 2 years, through the mechanism of more negative emotional symptoms. Results support important avenues for future research on mechanisms and longitudinal associations of stigma-based bullying with health. Interventions are needed to reduce stigma-based bullying and buffer adolescents from adverse health effects. PMID:24155192

Rosenthal, Lisa; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Henderson, Kathryn E; Peters, Susan M; McCaslin, Catherine; Ickovics, Jeannette R

2015-04-01

125

Some Mobile Phone Associated Health Problems among Mobile Phone Workers at Zagazig City, Sharkia Governorate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although mobile telecommunications deliver enormous benefit to society, there are concerns whether its electric and magnetic field emissions are linked with cancer or other health hazards . Objectives: 1) determining some of the mobile phone(Mph) associated health problems. 2) identifying some of the risk factors associated with exposure to Mph. Subjects and methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted

Ahmed-Refat AG Refat; SafaaA El-Naggar; Naema S El-Laithy; Mona Aboel-Kheer

126

Associations Between the Five-Factor Model of Personality and Health Behaviors Among College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: In fall 2006, the authors examined associations between the five-factor model of personality and several key health behaviors. Methods: College students (N = 583) completed the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment and the International Personality Item Pool Big Five short-form questionnaire. Results: Highly conscientious individuals were more likely to wear seat belts, utilize alcohol-related harm reduction, exercise,

Douglas A. Raynor; Heidi Levine

2009-01-01

127

American Health Information Management Association Code of Ethics  

E-print Network

and the aggregate community of persons served in the healthcare system. Healthcare consumers are increasingly information. Core health information issues include what information should be collected; how the information and securing health information. Values to the healthcare team include promoting the quality and advancement

Zhou, Yaoqi

128

Dean of the College of Public Health is Stephen W. Wyatt. Linda J. Alexander is Associate Dean for Academic  

E-print Network

impacting the nation's health care system, the need for highly trained public health professionals, epidemiology, health behavior, health ser- vices management, and occupational/environ- mental healthDean of the College of Public Health is Stephen W. Wyatt. Linda J. Alexander is Associate Dean

MacAdam, Keith

129

Factors associated with fourth grade health education scores on the Maine Educational Assessment.  

PubMed

Data collected in 1994 on the health section of the fourth grade Maine Educational Assessment (MEA) were analyzed in this study. Correlational studies and analyses of variance tested significance of community, school, and teacher variables. A multiple regression analysis with a path model determined significant factors associated with achievement in health. The most salient finding was that students' overall ability--represented by achievement in the other MEA content areas--related strongly to achievement in health. Community socioeconomic status emerged as another significant influence on health scores. Type of health education program did not make a difference in scores, but any method of delivering health education, in contrast to no health education affected health scores significantly. Up to 30 minutes of instruction per week yielded the highest mean scores. The teachers' rating of the health program emerged as a pivotal variable. PMID:9048331

Stroble, L P

1997-02-01

130

Bone Health and Associated Metabolic Complications in Neuromuscular Diseases  

PubMed Central

Synopsis This article reviews the recent literature regarding bone health as it relates to the patient living with neuromuscular disease (NMD). Poor bone health with related morbidity is a significant problem for patients with NMD. Although the evidence addressing issues of bone health and osteoporosis have increased as a result of the Bone and Joint Decade, studies defining the scope of bone-related disease in NMD are scant. The available evidence is discussed focusing on abnormal calcium metabolism, increased fracture risk, and the prevalence of both scoliosis and hypovitaminosis D in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinal muscular atrophy. These problems appear common. Osteomalacia often complicates disease-related baseline osteoporosis and may reduce fracture risk if treated. Future directions are discussed, including the urgent need for studies to both determine the nature and extent of poor bone health, and to evaluate the therapeutic effect of available osteoporosis treatments in patients with NMD. PMID:23137737

Joyce, Nanette C.; Hache, Lauren P.; Clemens, Paula R.

2014-01-01

131

Factors associated with poor mental health status among homeless women with and without dependent children.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of mental health problems among a representative sample of homeless women with and without dependent children and determine if the effects of risk factors for mental health are modified by the presence of dependent children. Homeless women (n = 522) were recruited in 2004-2005 from shelters and meal programs in Toronto, Canada. Linear and logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with mental health status. Poor mental health was associated with low perceived access to social support, physical/sexual assault in the past 12 months, presence of a chronic health condition, and presence of a drug use problem in the past month. Efforts to improve mental health in this population will need to address the associated problems of victimization, substance abuse, and lack of social supports. PMID:23423484

Chambers, Catharine; Chiu, Shirley; Scott, Allison N; Tolomiczenko, George; Redelmeier, Donald A; Levinson, Wendy; Hwang, Stephen W

2014-07-01

132

Adequate sleep among adolescents is positively associated with health status and health-related behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Amount of sleep is an important indicator of health and well-being in children and adolescents. Adequate sleep (AS: adequate sleep is defined as 6–8 hours per night regularly) is a critical factor in adolescent health and health-related behaviors. The present study was based on a health promotion project previously conducted on adolescents in Tao-Yuan County, Taiwan. The aim was

Mei-Yen Chen; Edward K Wang; Yi-Jong Jeng

2006-01-01

133

A positive association between physical health practices and psychological well-being.  

PubMed

The association between psychological well-being (PWB) and health practices (HP) has not been explored. PWB is associated with age, income, education, and physical health. Physical health has been shown to relate to seven HP: sleep, physical exercise, breakfast, snacking, relative body weight, smoking, and alcohol consumption. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between PWB and these seven physical health practices. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional health survey of 6320 persons. PWB was measured as an overall score, with positive feelings and negative feelings as subscores. Each of the three PWB measures was related to favorable health practices. The clinical significance of this relationship remains to be determined. In addition, PWB was noted to improve with age. Although one cannot infer causal relations from cross-sectional data, physical health practices may be important mediators of the mind-body interaction. PMID:3259260

Wetzler, H P; Ursano, R J

1988-05-01

134

Does the Association with Psychosomatic Health Problems Differ between Cyberbullying and Traditional Bullying?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The association between mental health problems and traditional bullying is well known, whereas the strength of the association in cyberbullying is less known. This study aimed to compare the association between mutually exclusive groups of bullying involvement and psychosomatic problems as measured by the PsychoSomatic Problems scale. The sample…

Beckman, Linda; Hagquist, Curt; Hellstrom, Lisa

2012-01-01

135

The Association of Sleep Duration, Mental Health, and Health Risk Behaviors among U.S. Afghanistan/Iraq Era Veterans  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Short and long sleep duration have been linked with higher rates of comorbid medical and mental health issues, as well as increased mortality. The current study examined the association between sleep duration, mental health problems, and health risk behaviors in a large sample of U.S. Afghanistan/Iraq era veterans. Design: NA. Setting: Mid-Atlantic VA Medical Center(s). Patients/Participants: The sample (N = 1,640) included 20% women (n = 333) and had an average age of 37 years (SD = 10.0). Interventions: NA. Measurements and Results: Results from logistic regression analyses that included age, minority status, gender, military rank, number of deployments, combat exposure, and health risk behaviors as covariates indicated that very short sleep duration (? 5 h of sleep) and long sleep duration (? 9 h) were each associated with increased odds of current post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and smoking; while poor sleep quality was associated with PTSD, panic disorder (PD), MDD, suicidal ideation (SI), and risky drinking. Conclusions: Sleep duration may be an important marker for psychiatric and health risk behavior problems, and our results suggest that clinical assessment of sleep disturbance in this veteran group is warranted to assess for both short and long sleep. Citation: Swinkels CM; Ulmer CS; Beckam JC; Buse N; the VA Mid-Atlantic MIRECC Registry Workgroup; Calhoun PS. The association of sleep duration, mental health, and health risk behaviors among U.S. Afghanistan/Iraq era veterans. SLEEP 2013;36(7):1019-1025. PMID:23814338

Swinkels, Cindy M.; Ulmer, Christi S.; Beckham, Jean C.; Buse, Natalie; Calhoun, Patrick S.

2013-01-01

136

Social inequalities in the association between partner/marital status and health among workers in Spain.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study are to examine the association between partner/marital status and several health outcomes among workers and to assess whether it depends on gender and occupational social class. The sample was composed of all workers aged 21-64 years interviewed in the 2006 Spanish National Health Survey (8563 men and 5881 women). Partner/marital status had seven categories: married and living with the spouse (reference category), married and not living with the spouse, cohabiting, single and living with parents, single and not living with parents, separated/divorced and widowed. Four health outcomes were analysed: self-perceived health status, mental health, psychiatric drugs consumption and hypertension. Multiple logistic regression models stratified by sex and social class were fitted. Female manual workers who were cohabiting were more likely to report poor self-perceived health status, poor mental health status, psychiatric medication consumption and hypertension than their married and living with the spouse counterparts. In that group the prevalence of poor health outcomes was even higher when compared with single people. Among male non-manual workers, being married and not living with the spouse was associated with poor self-perceived health status, poor mental health status and hypertension. There were almost no differences in health between being married and the rest of partner/marital status categories for different combinations of gender and social class and, even, some groups of single people reported better health outcomes than people who were married. Our results show no evidence that being married and living with the spouse is unequivocally linked to better health status among Spanish workers. They emphasize the importance of not only considering marital status, but also partner status, as well as the role of gender, social class and the sociocultural context in the analysis of the association between family characteristics and health. PMID:21211876

Artazcoz, Lucia; Cortčs, Imma; Borrell, Carme; Escribŕ-Agüir, Vicenta; Cascant, Lorena

2011-02-01

137

Testing the association between social capital and health over time: a family-based design  

PubMed Central

Background The past decade has seen a vast increase in empirical research investigating associations between social capital and health outcomes. Literature reviews reveal ‘generalized trust’ and ‘social participation’ to be the most robust of the commonly used social capital proxies, both showing positive association with health outcomes. However, this association could be confounded by unmeasured factors, such as the shared environment. Currently, there is a distinct lack of social capital research that takes into account such residual confounding. Methods Using data from the United Kingdom’s British Household Panel Survey (BHPS) (waves thirteen to eighteen, N?=?6982), this longitudinal, multilevel study investigates the validity of the association between trust, social participation and self-rated health using a family-based design. As the BHPS samples on entire households, we employed ‘mean’ and ‘difference from the mean’ aggregate measures of social capital, the latter of which is considered a social capital measurement that is not biased by the shared environment of the household. We employed Generalized Estimating Equations for all analyses, our two-level model controlling for correlation at the household level. Results Results show that after adjusting for the shared environment of the household over a six year period, the association between social participation and self-rated health was fully attenuated (OR?=?0.97 (95% confidence interval 0.89-1.06)), while the association with trust remained significant (OR?=?1.11 (1.02-1.20)). Other health determinants, such as being a smoker, having no formal qualifications and being unemployed maintain their associations with poor self-rated health. Conclusions The association between social capital (specifically trust and social participation) and self-rated health appear to be confounded by shared environmental factors not previously considered by researchers. However, the association with trust remains, adding to existing empirical evidence that generalized trust may be an independent predictor of health. PMID:23866259

2013-01-01

138

Which modifiable health risks are associated with changes in productivity costs?  

PubMed

The purpose of this retrospective, longitudinal study was to assess longitudinal associations between modifiable health risks and workplace absenteeism and presenteeism and to estimate lost productivity costs. Across the 4-year study period (2007-2010), 17,089 unique employees from a large US computer manufacturer with a highly technical workforce completed at least 1 health risk assessment. Generalized estimating equation models were used to estimate the mean population-level absenteeism and presenteeism for 11 modifiable health risks and adjust for 9 sociodemographic and employment-related factors. Because patient age was highly correlated with several other variables, the analysis was stratified by age (<45 vs. ?45 years). For all ages, poor emotional health, inadequate exercise, tobacco use, and having a body mass index (BMI) greater than 35 (all P<.05) were consistently associated with both absenteeism and presenteeism. Having a BMI over 35 and poor emotional health were associated with the largest impact in absenteeism (0.46 days) and presenteeism (4.03 days), respectively. Younger and older workers had similar associations between health risks and presenteeism; however, hypertension, blood sugar, inadequate exercise, and alcohol were associated (P?.01) with greater absenteeism among older but not younger workers. The results suggest that productivity loss is strongly related to emotional health and obesity-related health risks (eg, BMI, exercise) but differs by age. These findings could help prioritize preventive health programs offered by employers at their worksite health centers. Given the aging of the US workforce, keeping older workers healthy and productive will be crucial to remaining competitive in the global economy. (Population Health Management 2015;18:30-38). PMID:25375893

Kirkham, Heather S; Clark, Bobby L; Bolas, Cheryl A; Lewis, Geraint Hywel; Jackson, Allison S; Fisher, Don; Duncan, Ian

2015-02-01

139

Association of Sedentary Behavior Time with Ideal Cardiovascular Health: The ORISCAV-LUX Study  

PubMed Central

Background Recently attention has been drawn to the health impacts of time spent engaging in sedentary behaviors. No studies have examined sedentary behaviors in relation to the newly defined construct of ideal cardiovascular health, which incorporates three health factors (blood pressure, total cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose) and four behaviors (physical activity, smoking, body mass index, diet). The purpose of this study was to examine associations between sedentary behaviors, including sitting time, and time spent viewing television and in front of a computer, with cardiovascular health, in a representative sample of adults from Luxembourg. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of 1262 participants in the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg study was conducted, who underwent objective cardiovascular health assessments and completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. A Cardiovascular Health Score was calculated based on the number of health factors and behaviors at ideal levels. Sitting time on a weekday, television time, and computer time (both on a workday and a day off), were related to the Cardiovascular Health Score. Results Higher weekday sitting time was significantly associated with a poorer Cardiovascular Health Score (p?=?0.002 for linear trend), after full adjustment for age, gender, education, income and occupation. Television time was inversely associated with the Cardiovascular Health Score, on both a workday and a day off (p?=?0.002 for both). A similar inverse relationship was observed between the Cardiovascular Health Score and computer time, only on a day off (p?=?0.04). Conclusion Higher time spent sitting, viewing television, and using a computer during a day off may be unfavorably associated with ideal cardiovascular health. PMID:24925084

Crichton, Georgina E.; Alkerwi, Ala'a

2014-01-01

140

Intimate Partner Violence Associated With Poor Health Outcomes in U.S. South Asian Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the associations between Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) victimization and health outcomes of South Asian women\\u000a in Greater Boston. To explore the nature of the health experiences of victimized women in this population. Cross-sectional\\u000a surveys with a community-based sample of women in relationships with males (n = 208) assessed demographics, IPV history, and health. In-depth interviews were conducted with

Elizabeth J. Himelfarb Hurwitz; Jhumka Gupta; Rosalyn Liu; Jay G. Silverman; Anita Raj

2006-01-01

141

Predisposing, Enabling, and Need Factors Associated with High Service Use in a Public Mental Health System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) To investigate the individual- and system-level characteristics associated with\\u000a high utilization of acute mental health services according to a widely-used theory of service use—Andersen’s Behavioral Model\\u000a of Health Service Use —in individuals enrolled in a large, public-funded mental health system; and (2) To document service\\u000a utilization by high use consumers prior to

Laurie A. Lindamer; Lin Liu; David H. Sommerfeld; David P. Folsom; William Hawthorne; Piedad Garcia; Gregory A. Aarons; Dilip V. Jeste

142

Demographics, health-related behaviors, eating habits and knowledge associated with vegetable intake in Japanese adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:To analyze demographic, health-related behaviors, eating habit and knowledge associated with vegetable intake.Methods:Secondary analyses using the dataset from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2003. Food intake data measured by the food-weighing method in one-day and a questionnaire assessed the dietary intake and health-related behaviors, eating habit and knowledge. This study was made in Japan. The data of 1742 men

A Wakita Asano; F Hayashi; M Miyoshi; Y Arai; K Yoshita; S Yamamoto; N Yoshiike

2009-01-01

143

Exploring the factors associated with preconception health behaviors among women of childbearing age: a naturalistic inquiry  

E-print Network

is important—using the analogy of preparing their house [body] for conception. Participants associated PCC with physical and nutritional behavior; few acknowledged the importance of mental health. While women believed PCC was important, the majority did...

Delissaint, Dieula

2009-05-15

144

Influence of air quality model resolution on uncertainty associated with health impacts  

E-print Network

We use regional air quality modeling to evaluate the impact of model resolution on uncertainty associated with the human health benefits resulting from proposed air quality regulations. Using a regional photochemical model ...

Thompson, Tammy M.

145

Heavy Internet use and its associations with health risk and health-promoting behaviours among Thai university students.  

PubMed

The Internet provides significant benefits for learning about the world, but excessive Internet use can lead to negative outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between heavy Internet use and health-promoting behaviour, health risk behaviour and health outcomes among university students. The sample included 860 undergraduate university students chosen at random from Mae Fah Luang University in Thailand. Of the participants, 27.3% were male and and 72.7% were female in the age range of 18-25 years (M age=20.1 years, SD=1.3). Overall, students spent on average 5.3 h (SD=2.6) per day on the internet, and 35.3% engaged in heavy internet use (6 or more hours per day). In multivariate logistic regression adjusting for sociodemographics, lack of dental check-ups, three health risk behaviours (sedentary lifestyle, illicit drug use and gambling) and three health outcomes [being underweight, overweight or obese and having screened positive for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)] were found to be associated with heavy Internet use. The results from this study may support the importance of developing early protective and preventive actions against problematic Internet use to promote university student health. PMID:24762639

Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; Apidechkul, Tawatchai

2014-01-01

146

Associations between Physical Activity and Health-Related Factors in a National Sample of College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine associations between meeting the current moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) recommendation and health-related factors in a national sample of college students. Participants: Participants (N = 67,861) completed the National College Health Assessment II during the Fall 2008/Spring 2009 academic year. Methods:…

Dinger, Mary K.; Brittain, Danielle R.; Hutchinson, Susan R.

2014-01-01

147

Preparing Newly Licensed Associate Degree Nurses to Work in Home Health Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes an innovative learning program, designed for associate degree nurse (ADN) graduates, developed at the visiting Nurse Service of New York (VNSNY) to expand its hiring pool of potential applicants to home health care nursing positions. The program, “Transitions to Home Health Care,” provides a strong emphasis on independent judgment, assessment skills, and collaboration with other professions and

Joan Chaya; Margaret Reilly; Denise Davin; Mari Moriarty; Valerie Nero-Reid; Peri Rosenfeld

2008-01-01

148

Novel coronavirus associated with severe respiratory disease: case definition and public health measures.  

PubMed

Two cases of rapidly progressive acute respiratory infection in adults associated with a novel coronavirus have generated an international public health response. The two infections were acquired three months apart, probably in Saudi Arabia and Qatar. An interim case definition has been elaborated and was published on the World Health Organization website on 25 September 2012. PMID:23041021

Danielsson, N; Catchpole, M

2012-01-01

149

Management and treatment of diarrhea in Honduran children: Factors associated with mothers' health care behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from the 1984 National Maternal-Child Health and Family Planning Survey in Honduras showed that one fifth (n = 711) of the children under five had experienced diarrhea on the day of the interview or the two days preceding the interview. The health care behaviors of the mothers of these children and the factors associated with these behaviors were the

Julia DeClerque; Patricia Bailey; Barbara Janowitz; Rosalie Dominik; Carlos Fiallos

1992-01-01

150

PM CONSTITUENT ROLES IN MASS ASSOCIATIONS WITH HEALTH EFFECTS IN PHILADELPHIA, PA  

EPA Science Inventory

An environmental and health database was constructed for Philadelphia, PA for the period 1992-1995 in order to assess the importance of PM components in mass associations with adverse health effects. PM data were collected by Harvard University for the U.S. EPA. Daily measureme...

151

Cumulative Adverse Financial Circumstances: Associations with Patient Health Status and Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines associations between cumulative adverse financial circumstances and patient health in a sample of 1,506 urban emergency department (ED) patients. Study participants completed a previously validated Social Health Survey between May and October 2009. Five categories of economic deprivation were studied: food insecurity, housing…

Bisgaier, Joanna; Rhodes, Karin V.

2011-01-01

152

Behavioral Health Outcomes Associated With Religious Faith and Media Exposure About Human Genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of scholars have speculated that religious people will be less likely than others to ascribe either fatalistic or deterministic powers to genes, opting instead to leave freedom as a choice for both God and humans. This research investigates the role of religious faith (RF) on behavioral health outcomes associated with informa- tion about genes and health, as well

Roxanne Parrott; Kami Silk; Janice Raup Krieger; Tina Harris; Celeste Condit

2004-01-01

153

The Effect of Maternal Depressive Symptomatology on Maternal Behaviors Associated With Child Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

National prevalence rates for depression among women are twofold compared with those of men, with women of childbearing age at greatest risk. Maternal depression not only negatively affects the health of the mother but may also influence the health and development of her offspring. This study examined the relationship between maternal depression and its influence on certain maternal behaviors associated

Jenn Leiferman

2002-01-01

154

Roadmap: Environmental Health and Safety Environmental Technology Associate of Applied Science  

E-print Network

CHEM 10050 Fundamentals of Chemistry 3 Fulfills Kent Core Basic Sciences EVHS 20001 Environmental Law 3Roadmap: Environmental Health and Safety ­ Environmental Technology ­ Associate of Applied Science Environmental Technology I (3) or PH 10001 Introduction to Public Health (3) 3 Students planning to enroll

Khan, Javed I.

155

Roadmap: Environmental Health and Safety -Environmental Technology -Associate of Applied Science  

E-print Network

Roadmap: Environmental Health and Safety - Environmental Technology - Associate of Applied Science [17 Credits] COMT 11000 Introduction to Computer Systems 3 EVHS 10001 Environmental Technology I or PH 10001 Introduction to Public Health 1 3 EVHS 10004 Toxicology 3 EVHS 10010 Industrial Hygiene I 4 US

Khan, Javed I.

156

Roadmap: Environmental Health and Safety -Environmental Safety and Security -Associate of Applied Science  

E-print Network

10001 Environmental Technology I or PH 10001 Introduction to Public Health 1 3 EVHS 10004 Toxicology 3 CHEM 10050 Fundamentals of Chemistry 3 KBS GEOL 21062 Environmental Earth Science 3 KBS ConcentrationRoadmap: Environmental Health and Safety - Environmental Safety and Security - Associate of Applied

Khan, Javed I.

157

General Practitioners' Understanding Pertaining to Reliability, Interactive and Usability Components Associated with Health Websites  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was undertaken to determine the level of understanding of Gold Coast general practitioners (GPs) pertaining to such criteria as reliability, interactive and usability components associated with health websites. These are important considerations due to the increased levels of computer and World Wide Web (WWW)/Internet use and health

Usher, Wayne

2009-01-01

158

Care Recipient Agreeableness Is Associated With Caregiver Subjective Physical Health Status  

PubMed Central

Objectives. The emotional and physical health consequences of caring for a family member are well documented. However, although personality has been shown to affect dyadic interactions and been linked with individual outcomes for both care recipients (CRs) and caregivers (CGs), the influence of CR personality on CG health remains unexplored. Method. This study investigated cross-sectional associations between CRs’ five-factor personality traits and CGs’ physical and emotional health in 312 dyads of older adults with disability and their informal CGs who participated in the Medicare Primary and Consumer-Directed Care Demonstration. Results. Regression models controlling for CG personality, strain, and sociodemographic characteristics and CR physical impairment and pain found that agreeableness in CRs was associated with better physical health among CGs. Facet-level analyses showed specific associations between the trust and compliance facets of CR agreeableness and CG physical health. Investigation of CR personality styles revealed that the “easygoing” (N?, A+) and “well-intentioned” (A+, C?) styles predicted better CG physical health; the “leaders” (E+, A?) style had the opposite effect. No significant associations were found between CR personality and CG mental health. Discussion. Results from this study reveal the value of considering CR personality in relation to CG health and highlight the importance of assessing dispositional qualities within the context of care provision and informal assistance. PMID:23231831

2013-01-01

159

Expectant Parents' Representations of Early Attachment Relationships: Associations With Mental Health and Family History  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between adult representations of early attachment relationships and history of individual and family mental health was examined in a sample of 233 expectant mothers and fathers. As predicted, security of attachment was linked to mental health. Parents classified as Preoccupied were more likely than other parents to report suicidal ideation, whereas parents classified as Unresolved more often reported

Shelley A. Riggs; Deborah Jacobvitz

2002-01-01

160

Roadmap: Environmental Health and Safety Environmental Safety and Security Associate of Applied Science  

E-print Network

Basic Sciences EVHS 20001 Environmental Law (3) or EVHS 20004 Environmental Health and Safety I (3 Fulfills Kent Core Basic Sciences PH 30007 Prevention and Control of Diseases 3 EVHS 20001 EnvironmentalRoadmap: Environmental Health and Safety ­ Environmental Safety and Security ­ Associate of Applied

Sheridan, Scott

161

Building associations between markers of environmental stressors and adverse human health impacts using frequent itemset mining  

EPA Science Inventory

Building associations between markers of exposure and effect using frequent itemset mining The human-health impact of environmental contaminant exposures is unclear. While some exposure-effect relationships are well studied, health effects are unknown for the vast majority of the...

162

School-Based Mental Health Services in Baltimore: Association with School Climate and Special Education Referrals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the association between school-based mental health services and two proposed but untested outcomes of these services: (a) school climate and (b) patterns of referrals to special education. Results from a climate survey found that teachers and staff in eight elementary schools with expanded school mental health (ESMH)…

Bruns, Eric J.; Walrath, Christine; Glass-Siegel, Marcia; Weist, Mark D.

2004-01-01

163

The American Mental Health Counselors Association: Reflection on 30 Historic Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American Mental Health Counselors Association (AMHCA) celebrated its 30th anniversary in May 2006. This article provides a synopsis of AMHCA's illustrious history, from its urgent beginnings in 1976 to its current status as the premier organization attending to the needs and representing the interests of mental health counselors in the United…

Colangelo, James J.

2009-01-01

164

Acute health effects of a fire associated with asbestos-containing fallout  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background In September 1994 in a disused leather factory in Tranmere, Wirral, England, there was a fire associated with asbestos-containing fallout in an urban area. This study aimed to describe the acute health effects of this acute environmental incident. Methods Descriptive epidemiology of acute health effects of the fire was based on solicitors' letters from compensation claimants, hospital admissions for

Stephen A. Bridgman

2000-01-01

165

Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Patterns Are Associated With Selected Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE. Little is known about how physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior, and various adolescent health risk behaviors are associated. The objective of this study was to examine relationships between PA and sedentary behavior patterns and an array of risk behaviors, including leading causes of adolescent morbidity\\/mortality. METHODS. Nationally representative self-reported data were collected (National Lon- gitudinal Study of Adolescent Health;

Melissa C. Nelson; Penny Gordon-Larsen

2009-01-01

166

Methods of Economic Valuation of The Health Risks Associated with Nanomaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The worldwide market for nanomaterials is growing rapidly, but relatively little is still known about the potential risks associated with these materials. The potential health hazards associated with exposure to nanomaterials may lead in the future to increased health costs as well as increased economic costs to the companies involved, as has happened in the past in the case of asbestos. Therefore, it is important to make an initial estimate of the potential costs associated with these health hazards, and to prepare ahead with appropriate health insurance for individuals and financial insurance for companies. While several studies have examined the environmental and health hazards of different nanomaterials by performing life cycle impact assessments, so far these studies have concentrated on the cost of production, and did not estimate the economic impact of the health hazards. This paper discusses methods of evaluating the economic impact of potential health hazards on the public. The proposed method is based on using life cycle impact assessment studies of nanomaterials to estimate the DALYs (Disability Adjusted Life Years) associated with the increased probability of these health hazards. The economic valuation of DALY's can be carried out based on the income lost and the costs of medical treatment. The total expected increase in cost depends on the increase in the statistical probability of each disease.

Shalhevet, S.; Haruvy, N.

167

Reexamining the Evidence of an Ecological Association between Income Inequality and Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several recent studies have reported a robust association between income inequality and aggregate health outcomes across countries and across U.S. states. However, most of these studies examine only a single cross-section of data and employ few (or even no) control variables. We examine the relation between income inequality and aggregate health outcomes across thirty countries over a four decade span

Jennifer M. Mellor; Jeffrey Milyo

2001-01-01

168

Enrollment in Physical Education Is Associated with Health-Related Behavior among High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Physical education (PE) plays a critical role in the healthy development of youth; however, the influence of PE classes in helping to provide students with health-related behavior patterns is not clear. This study aims to analyze whether participation in PE classes is associated with health-related behavior among high school students.…

Tassitano, Rafael M.; Barros, Mauro V. G.; Tenorio, Maria C. M.; Bezerra, Jorge; Florindo, Alex A.; Reis, Rodrigo S.

2010-01-01

169

Does Health Insurance and Seeing the Doctor Keep You Out of the Hospital? We obtain estimates of associations between health insurance and hospitalization and between  

E-print Network

0 Does Health Insurance and Seeing the Doctor Keep You Out of the Hospital? June 2011 We obtain estimates of associations between health insurance and hospitalization and between use of doctor visits the NHIS indicate that health insurance is positively associated with hospitalization; insurance

Mateo, Jill M.

170

Association of social determinants of health with self-rated health among Australian gay and bisexual men living with HIV.  

PubMed

Despite a vast improvement in the survival of people living with HIV (PLHIV) since the introduction of combination antiretroviral treatment (cART), little change in the self-rated health of PLHIV has been observed since the introduction of cART in Australia. Difficulties with attaining employment or achieving financial security have been noted as some of the key challenges still facing PLHIV in the post-cART era. As a result, we investigated the independent association of a number of key social determinants of health with self-rated health among HIV-positive gay and bisexual men in Australia. Data from two recent national, cross-sectional surveys of PLHIV (the HIV Futures 5 and 6 surveys) were used. Logistic regression was used to assess the independent association of ethnicity, region of residence, education level, employment status, after-tax income, experience of HIV-related discrimination, level of social support, relationship status and recent sexual activity with reporting good-excellent self-rated health, after adjusting for clinical factors and other social determinants of health. Multiple imputation was used to estimate missing data for variables with >5% missing data. Of the 1713 HIV-positive gay/bisexual men who responded to the HIV Futures 5 and 6 surveys, information on self-rated health was available for 99.3%. Close to three-quarters of these respondents (72.1%) reported their self-rated health as good or excellent; the remainder (27.9%) reported their self-rated health as poor or fair. In multivariable analysis involving 89.3% of respondents, being employed, reporting recent sexual activity, a greater number of sources of social support and a higher weekly after-tax income were found to be independently associated with reporting good-excellent self-rated health. Despite the inability of this study to detect causal associations, addressing barriers to employment and sexual activity, and mechanisms to increase social support, is likely to have positive health effects for PLHIV in Australia. PMID:23651416

Koelmeyer, Rachel; English, Dallas R; Smith, Anthony; Grierson, Jeffrey

2014-01-01

171

Suboptimal Maternal and Paternal Mental Health are Associated with Child Bullying Perpetration.  

PubMed

This study examines associations between maternal and paternal mental health and child bullying perpetration among school-age children, and whether having one or both parents with suboptimal mental health is associated with bullying. The 2007 National Survey of Children's Health, a nationally-representative, random-digit-dial survey, was analyzed, using a parent-reported bullying measure. Suboptimal mental health was defined as fair/poor (vs. good/very good/excellent) parental self-reported mental and emotional health. Of the 61,613 parents surveyed, more than half were parents of boys and were white, 20 % were Latino, 15 % African American, and 7 % other race/ethnicity. Suboptimal maternal (OR 1.4; 95 % CI 1.1-1.8) and paternal (OR 1.5; 95 % CI 1.1-2.2) mental health are associated with bullying. Compared with children with no parents with suboptimal mental health, children with only one or both parents with suboptimal mental health have higher bullying odds. Addressing the mental health of both parents may prove beneficial in preventing bullying. PMID:25096508

Shetgiri, Rashmi; Lin, Hua; Flores, Glenn

2015-06-01

172

Demand for emergency health service: factors associated with inappropriate use  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The inappropriate use of emergency room (ER) service by patients with non-urgent health problems is a worldwide problem. Inappropriate ER use makes it difficult to guarantee access for real emergency cases, decreases readiness for care, produces negative spillover effects on the quality of emergency services, and raises overall costs. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in a medium-sized city

Maria LV Carret; Anaclaudia G Fassa; Ichiro Kawachi

2007-01-01

173

Exercise participation and self-rated health: Do common genes explainthe association?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to investigate whether there is an association between exercise participation and self-rated\\u000a health and whether this association can be explained by common genes and\\/or common environmental influences. In a sample of\\u000a 5,140 Dutch adult twins and their non-twin siblings from 2,831 families, exercise participation (sedentaries, light or moderate,\\u000a vigorous exercisers) and self-rated health were

M. H. M. De Moor; J. H. Stubbe; D. I. Boomsma; E. J. C. De Geus

2007-01-01

174

Tobacco: Its historical, cultural, oral, and periodontal health association  

PubMed Central

This article provides information on the origin of tobacco and its subsequent spread throughout the world. In the era of the migration of communities, tobacco use gradually gained access and subsequently migrated along with the migrants, establishing in different locations. Probably at that time people were unaware of the health hazards and were using tobacco in treating certain ailments. Much has been known and written about tobacco in the context of oral and general health hazards but little has been explored and is known to many about where from and how this plant, which is now used in various forms, and speading widely. In what form, where, and how it had been served in religious rituals and considered for treatment or remedy of certain ailments in those days could not certainly be known. In the 21st century, people are considering hazardous tobacco as beneficial for their teeth, good for concentration of mind, and something which keeps them engaged. Even many professionals, though knowing the deleterious effects, are still using tobacco and gutkha in one or the other form. This article has been designed to revive the awareness for health hazards of tobacco and similar products. A pilot project questionnaire survey comprising this subject involving the educated mass has already been started and will be produced after analysis of data in part II of this paper. PMID:24478974

Mishra, Shanu; Mishra, M. B.

2013-01-01

175

On the empirical association between poor health and low socioeconomic status at old age.  

PubMed

Epidemiologic studies using mortality rates as indicators of health fail to find any meaningful association between poor health and low socioeconomic status in older age-groups, whereas economic studies using self-assessed health consistently find a significant positive correlation, even after controlling for self-reporting errors. Such contradictory results have not been reported for working age individuals. A simple explanation might be that the elderly samples on which the epidemiologic and economic studies are based come from different populations. However, this paper shows that similar contradictory results are obtained even when the same samples are used, simply by switching between self-assessed health and mortality as health indicators. An alternative explanation is proposed, namely that these health indicators yield different results because they relate to different ranges of the latent health variable at old age. PMID:11921318

Salas, Christian

2002-04-01

176

A Panel Analysis of the Strategic Association Between Information and Communication Technology and Public Health Delivery  

PubMed Central

Background In this exploratory research, we use panel data analysis to examine the correlation between Information and Communication Technology (ICTs) and public health delivery at the country level. Objective The goal of this exploratory research is to examine the strategic association over time between ICTs and country-level public health. Methods Using data from the World Development Indicators, we construct a panel data set of countries of five different income levels and look closely at the period from 2000 to 2008. The panel data analysis allows us to explore this dynamic relationship under the control for unobserved country-specific effects by using a fixed-effects estimation method. In particular,, we examine the association of five ICT factors with five public health indicators: adolescent fertility rate, child immunization coverage, tuberculosis case detected, life expectancy, and adult mortality rate. Results First, overall ICTs’ factors substantially improve a country’s public health delivery on the top of wealth effect. Second, among all the ICTs’ factors, accessibility is the only one that is associated with improvements in all aspects of public health delivery, while the contributions from the usage, quality, and applications are negligible. ICTs’ accessibility factor is associated with a considerable extension to life expectancy and reduced adult mortality rate. Third, all entity-specific factors are significant in each model, indicating that countries’ economic development level does influence their public health delivery. Conclusions Our results indicate that ICT accessibility has a strong association with effective delivery of public health. There are others, but the key strategic applications are eHealth and mHealth. The findings of this study will help government officials and public health policy makers to formulate strategic decisions regarding the best ICT investments and deployment. For example, the study shows that providing accessibility should be a critical focus. PMID:23089193

Wu, Sarah Jinhui

2012-01-01

177

Health worker factors associated with prescribing of artemisinin combination therapy for uncomplicated malaria in rural Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Improving malaria case management is partially dependent on health worker compliance with clinical guidelines. This study assessed health worker factors associated with correct anti-malarial prescribing practices at two sites in rural Tanzania. Methods Repeated cross-sectional health facility surveys were conducted during high and low malaria transmission seasons in 2010 and collected information on patient consultations and health worker characteristics. Using logistic regression, the study assessed health worker factors associated with correct prescription for uncomplicated malaria defined as prescription of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for patients with fever and Plasmodium falciparum asexual infection based on blood slide or malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) according to national treatment guidelines. Results The analysis included 685 patients with uncomplicated malaria who were seen in a health facility with ACT in stock, and 71 health workers practicing in 30 health facilities. Overall, 58% of malaria patients were correctly treated with ACT. Health workers with three or more years’ work experience were significantly more likely than others to prescribe correctly (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.9; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-7.1; p?=?0.019). Clinical officers (aOR 2.2; 95% CI 1.1-4.5; p?=?0.037), and nurse aide or lower cadre (aOR 3.1; 95% CI 1.3-7.1; p?=?0.009) were more likely to correctly prescribe ACT than medical officers. Training on ACT use, supervision visits, and availability of job aids were not significantly associated with correct prescription. Conclusions Years of working experience and health worker cadre were associated with correct ACT prescription for uncomplicated malaria. Targeted interventions to improve health worker performance are needed to improve overall malaria case management. PMID:24053679

2013-01-01

178

Edentulism and other variables associated with self-reported health status in Mexican adults  

PubMed Central

Background To determine if edentulism, controlling for other known factors, is associated with subjective self-report health status (SRH) in Mexican adults. Material/Methods We examined the SRH of 13 966 individuals 35 years and older, using data from the National Survey of Performance Assessment, a cross-sectional study that is part of the technical collaboration between the Ministry of Health of Mexico and the World Health Organization, which used the survey instrument and sampling strategies developed by WHO for the World Health Survey. Sociodemographic, socioeconomic, medical, and behavioral variables were collected using questionnaires. Self-reported health was our dependent variable. Data on edentulism were available from 20 of the 32 Mexican states. A polynomial logistic regression model adjusted for complex sampling was generated. Results In the SRH, 58.2% reported their health status as very good/good, 33.8% said they had a moderate health status, and 8.0% reported that their health was bad/very bad. The association between edentulism and SRH was modified by age and was significant only for bad/very bad SRH. Higher odds of reporting moderate health or poor/very poor health were found in women, people with lower socio-economic status and with physical disabilities, those who were not physically active, or those who were underweight or obese, those who had any chronic disease, and those who used alcohol. Conclusions The association of edentulism with a self-report of a poor health status (poor/very poor) was higher in young people than in adults. The results suggest socioeconomic inequalities in SRH. Inequality was further confirmed among people who had a general health condition or a disability. PMID:24852266

Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Pontigo-Loyola, América Patricia; Pérez-Campos, Eduardo; Hernández-Cruz, Pedro; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Martha; Maupomé, Gerardo

2014-01-01

179

Cancer Survivors’ Health Worries and Associations with Lifestyle Practices  

PubMed Central

This study examined among recently diagnosed breast and prostate cancer survivors (N = 678) associations between worry about a future diagnosis of heart disease or cancer and hypothetical and actual adherence to exercise and dietary guidelines. Greater worry about future illness was reported under the hypothetical scenario of non-adherence to guidelines relative to the scenario of adherence. Worry about potential heart disease was associated with actual adherence to guidelines, whereas worry about a potential cancer diagnosis was not. Findings suggest that the motivational properties of worry should be considered when developing interventions to reduce heart disease risk among cancer survivors. PMID:18987083

Mosher, Catherine E.; Lipkus, Isaac M.; Sloane, Richard; Kraus, William E.; Snyder, Denise Clutter; Peterson, Bercedis; Jones, Lee W.; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

2013-01-01

180

Copyright 2012, National Environmental Health Association (www.neha.org) Environmental Health  

E-print Network

and found that much room for improvement exists in the adoption and enforcement of tattooing laws. See page ................................................23 Toledo-Lucas County Health Dept.....................51 UCAR Visiting Scientist Programs

181

Self-Rated Health Status and Subjective Health Complaints Associated with Health-Promoting Lifestyles among Urban Chinese Women: A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aimed to investigate whether self-rated health status (SRH) and subjective health complaints (SHC) of urban Chinese women are associated with their health-promoting lifestyles (HPL). Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study on 8142 eligible Chinese participants between 2012 and 2013. Demographic and SHC data were collected. Each subject completed the SRH questionnaire and the Chinese version of the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II (HPLP-II). Correlation and binary regression analyses were performed to examine the associations of SRH and SHC with HPL. Results Both SRH and HPL of urban Chinese women were moderate. The most common complaints were fatigue (1972, 24.2%), eye discomfort (1571, 19.3%), and insomnia (1542, 18.9%). Teachers, highly educated subjects and elderly women had lower SRH scores, while college students and married women had better HPL. All items of HPLP-II were positively correlated with SRH (r = 0.127-0.533, P = 0.000) and negatively correlated with SHC to a significant extent (odds ratio [OR] = 1.40-11.37). Conclusions Aspects of HPL, particularly stress management and spiritual growth, are associated with higher SRH and lower SHC ratings among urban Chinese women. Physical activity and health responsibility are additionally related to reduced fatigue and nervousness. We believe that these findings will be instrumental in encouraging researchers and urban women to adopt better health-promoting lifestyles with different priorities in their daily lives. PMID:25671578

Cheng, Jingru; Wang, Tian; Li, Fei; Xiao, Ya; Bi, Jianlu; Chen, Jieyu; Sun, Xiaomin; Wu, Liuguo; Wu, Shengwei; Liu, Yanyan; Luo, Ren; Zhao, Xiaoshan

2015-01-01

182

Health care expenditures associated with pediatric pain-related conditions in the United States.  

PubMed

The primary objective of this study was to assess the impact of pediatric pain-related conditions on health care expenditures. We analyzed data from a nationally representative sample of 6- to 17-year-old children captured in the 2007 National Health Interview Survey and 2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Health care expenditures of children with pain-related conditions were compared with those of children without pain-related conditions. Pain-related conditions were associated with incremental health care expenditures of $1339 (95% confidence interval [CI], $248-$2447) per capita. Extrapolated to the nation, pediatric pain-related conditions were associated with $11.8 billion (95% CI, $2.18-$21.5 billion) in total incremental health care expenditures. The incremental health care expenditures associated with pediatric pain-related conditions were similar to those of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder ($9.23 billion; 95% CI, $1.89-$18.1 billion), but more than those associated with asthma ($5.35 billion; 95% CI, $0-$12.3 billion) and obesity ($0.73 billion; 95% CI, $6.28-$8.81 billion). Health care expenditures for pediatric pain-related conditions exert a considerable economic burden on society. Efforts to prevent and treat pediatric pain-related conditions are urgently needed. PMID:25734992

Groenewald, Cornelius B; Wright, Davene R; Palermo, Tonya M

2015-05-01

183

Potential Health Effects Associated with Dermal Exposure to Occupational Chemicals  

PubMed Central

There are a large number of workers in the United States, spanning a variety of occupational industries and sectors, who are potentially exposed to chemicals that can be absorbed through the skin. Occupational skin exposures can result in numerous diseases that can adversely affect an individual’s health and capacity to perform at work. In general, there are three types of chemical–skin interactions of concern: direct skin effects, immune-mediated skin effects, and systemic effects. While hundreds of chemicals (metals, epoxy and acrylic resins, rubber additives, and chemical intermediates) present in virtually every industry have been identified to cause direct and immune-mediated effects such as contact dermatitis or urticaria, less is known about the number and types of chemicals contributing to systemic effects. In an attempt to raise awareness, skin notation assignments communicate the potential for dermal absorption; however, there is a need for standardization among agencies to communicate an accurate description of occupational hazards. Studies have suggested that exposure to complex mixtures, excessive hand washing, use of hand sanitizers, high frequency of wet work, and environmental or other factors may enhance penetration and stimulate other biological responses altering the outcomes of dermal chemical exposure. Understanding the hazards of dermal exposure is essential for the proper implementation of protective measures to ensure worker safety and health. PMID:25574139

Anderson, Stacey E; Meade, B Jean

2014-01-01

184

Symptoms and Health Complaints and Their Association with Perceived Stressors among Students at Nine Libyan Universities  

PubMed Central

University students are exposed to many stressors. We assessed the associations between two stressors (educational related and general overall), socio-demographic characteristics (five variables), health behaviours/lifestyle factors (six variables), as well as religiosity and quality of life as independent variables, with self-reported symptoms/health complaints as dependent variables (eight health complaints). A sample of 2100 undergraduate students from nine institutions (six universities, three colleges) located in seven cities in Libya completed a general health questionnaire. The most prevalent symptoms were headaches, depressive mood, difficulties to concentrate and sleep disorder/insomnia that have been reported by 50%–60% of the students. The majority of students (62%) reported having had three or more symptoms sometimes or very often in the last 12 months. There was a positive association between perceived stressors and health symptoms, which remained significant after adjustment for gender and many other relevant factors for headache (OR 1.52; 95% CI 1.15–2.02), depressive mood (OR 2.20; 95% CI 1.64–2.94) and sleep disorder/ insomnia (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.19–2.03). Other factors independently associated with most health symptoms were female gender and poor self-perceived health. Stress management programmes and a reduction of educational related stressors might help to prevent stress-related symptoms and health complaints in this student population. PMID:25429678

El Ansari, Walid; Khalil, Khalid; Stock, Christiane

2014-01-01

185

The Unusual Suspects: Air Pollution Components and Associated Health Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the thesis was to investigate which physical, chemical or oxidative characteristics of ambient PM have the most consistent associations with acute cardio-respiratory effects in human volunteers. During the first phase of the RAPTES project (“Risk of Airborne Particles: a Toxicological-Epidemiological hybrid Study”) eight sites in the Netherlands that differed in local PM emission sources were chosen for

M. M. Strak

2012-01-01

186

The association between lower back pain and health status, work productivity, and health care resource use in Japan  

PubMed Central

Introduction This study investigated the effect of pain severity on health status, work productivity, health care resource use, and costs among respondents with lower back pain (LBP), in Japan. Materials and methods Data from the 2013 Japan National Health and Wellness Survey, a survey of Japanese adults, were analyzed (N=30,000). All respondents provided informed consent, and the protocol was institutional review board-approved. Respondents who reported experiencing LBP were propensity score–matched to those without LBP, based on demographics and health history. Using regression modeling, patients with mild, moderate, and severe pain were compared against matched controls, with respect to health status (Mental and Physical Component Summary scores, and health utilities from the Short Form®-36 Health Survey version 2), work productivity (Work Productivity and Activity Impairment – General Health version), health care resource use, and annual per-patient costs (estimated using published annual wages and resource use event costs). Results A total 1,897 patients reported experiencing LBP in the past month (6.32%); 52.45% reported their pain as mild, 32.79% as moderate, and 14.76% as severe. Increasing pain severity was associated with significantly lower levels of mental component scores (46.99 [mild], 42.93 [moderate], and 40.58 [severe] vs 48.10 [matched controls]), physical component scores (50.29 [mild], 46.74 [moderate], and 43.94 [severe] vs 52.93 [matched controls]), and health utilities (0.72 [mild], 0.66 [moderate], and 0.62 [severe] vs 0.76 [matched controls]) (all P<0.05). Indirect costs were significantly higher (P<0.05) among those with moderate (Ą1.69 million [MM] [equivalent to $17,000, based on United States dollar exchange rates on September 1, 2014]) and severe (Ą1.88 MM [$19,000]) pain, relative to matched controls (Ą0.95 MM [$9,500]). Direct costs were only marginally different (P=0.05) between those with severe pain and matched controls (Ą1.33 MM [$13,000] vs Ą0.54 MM [$5,000]). Conclusion Increasing pain severity among respondents with LBP was associated with significantly worse health status, to a clinically-relevant degree, along with greater indirect and direct costs, in Japan.

Sadosky, Alesia B; DiBonaventura, Marco; Cappelleri, Joseph C; Ebata, Nozomi; Fujii, Koichi

2015-01-01

187

Forest Cover Associated with Improved Child Health and Nutrition: Evidence from the Malawi Demographic and Health Survey and Satellite Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Healthy forests provide human communities with a host of important ecosystem services, including the provision of food, clean water, fuel, and natural medicines. Yet globally, about 13 million hectares of forests are lost every year, with the biggest losses in Africa and South America. As biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation due to deforestation continue at unprecedented rates, with concomitant loss of ecosystem services, impacts on human health remain poorly understood. Here, we use data from the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey, linked with satellite remote sensing data on forest cover, to explore and better understand this relationship. Our analysis finds that forest cover is associated with improved health and nutrition outcomes among children in Malawi. Children living in areas with net forest cover loss between 2000 and 2010 were 19% less likely to have a diverse diet and 29% less likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods than children living in areas with no net change in forest cover. Conversely, children living in communities with higher percentages of forest cover were more likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods and less likely to experience diarrhea. Net gain in forest cover over the 10-year period was associated with a 34% decrease in the odds of children experiencing diarrhea (P5.002). Given that our analysis relied on observational data and that there were potential unknown factors for which we could not account, these preliminary findings demonstrate only associations, not causal relationships, between forest cover and child health and nutrition outcomes. However, the findings raise concerns about the potential short- and long-term impacts of ongoing deforestation and ecosystem degradation on community health in Malawi, and they suggest that preventing forest loss and maintaining the ecosystems services of forests are important factors in improving human health and nutrition outcomes.

Johnson, Kiersten B.; Jacob, Anila; Brown, Molly Elizabeth

2013-01-01

188

Environmental impact and health risks associated with greywater irrigation: a case study  

E-print Network

Environmental impact and health risks associated with greywater irrigation: a case study Abstract There is an increasing trend to use greywater for irrigation in households. This is partly due to the notion risks associated with the use of greywater for irrigation on a small private farm. Over a three

Gross, Amit

189

Investigating the Associations among Overtime Work, Health Behaviors, and Health: A Longitudinal Study among Full-time Employees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  It has often been suggested that high levels of overtime lead to adverse health outcomes. One mechanism that may account for\\u000a this association is that working overtime leads to elevated levels of stress, which could affect worker’s behavioral decisions\\u000a or habits (such as smoking and lack of physical activity). In turn, this could lead to adverse health.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Purpose  The present study

Toon W. Taris; Jan Fekke Ybema; Debby G. J. Beckers; Marieke W. Verheijden; Sabine A. E. Geurts; Michiel A. J. Kompier

190

Factors associated with patient evaluation of health care.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to study the relationships among patient characteristics, characteristics of a health care encounter, and patients' evaluation of that encounter. On the basis of 1739 patient-provider encounters in eleven ambulatory care settings, three relatively independent correlates of patient satisfaction were found: age; community satisfaction; and the nature and degree of continuity of care which characterized the visit. Patients' sex, marital status, religion, and the number and kind of services provided were not related to the evaluations patients made. Greatest differences in patient satisfaction were from setting to setting, and these differences probably can be attributed to the types of patients which they recruit or service (i.e., age, level of community satisfaction) and setting policy and procedures regarding continuity of care. PMID:1044424

Linn, L S

1975-01-01

191

Historical Research: A Thematic Analysis of Convention and Conference Themes for Selected Professional Health Education Associations from 1975 to 2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many professional organizations and associations hold conventions and conferences on an annual basis. Health Education professional associations take part in this process. Using a historical research perspective, this article delineates conference themes for four prominent professional Health Education associations: the American Association for…

Black, Jill M.; Ubbes, Valerie A.

2009-01-01

192

Describing Local Boards of Health: Insights from the 2008 National Association of Local Boards of Health Survey  

PubMed Central

Objectives We examined findings from the 2008 National Association of Local Boards of Health Survey to provide information about this understudied entity to the public health community. Methods The survey instrument consisted of 196 items covering five parts: (1) demographics; (2) composition and organizational structure; (3) roles, responsibilities, and authorities; (4) telecommunications infrastructure; and (5) concerns and needs. The survey was sent to chairs of local boards of health (LBHs) in 2008 (n=3,276). After six months of follow-ups and reminders, and a month of data cleaning and screening, the final sample consisted of 870 respondents, for a return rate of 27%. Results LBHs tend to represent smaller communities and are primarily appointed. Governing and policy-making boards are more prevalent than advisory boards. Most boards do not have official websites or e-mail addresses of board members available to the public; however, most report the capability to receive training via webcasts. Boards express concerns and needs in a variety of areas, particularly public health law, strategic planning, and accreditation. Conclusion Little is known about the more than 3,000 LBHs across the United States that are often charged with making and enforcing public health law. This article is a first step toward providing the public health community with information about LBHs based on survey data. PMID:21553670

Patton, Dana; Moon, Charles E.; Jones, Jeff

2011-01-01

193

Factors associated with mental health services use among disconnected African-American young adult population.  

PubMed

Research related to mental health service use among vulnerable young adults is limited. This study used an expanded version of Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use to evaluate factors associated with the use of different types of mental health services among a sample of predominantly African-American 16-24 year olds (n?=?500) in an employment training program in Baltimore City. Results indicated that participants were more likely to have received mental health services in correctional facilities than in community- or school-based contexts. Use of mental health services in correctional facilities was significantly greater among males, those less than 18 years, and those who experienced more stressful events. Findings illustrate the need to develop seamless mental health services for vulnerable young adults in multiple contexts, including the criminal justice system. PMID:20571924

Maulik, Pallab K; Mendelson, Tamar; Tandon, S Darius

2011-04-01

194

Copyright 2014, National Environmental Health Association (www.neha.org). Environmental Health  

E-print Network

..........................................................................8 A Community Outbreak of Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhimurium Associated...................................................................................................36 Direct From CDC/EHSB: Tools to Improve Raw Chicken Handling at Restaurants: Report From San

195

Healthcare-associated infections: challenges to public health in Brazil  

PubMed Central

This study presents a critical evaluation of the scientific literature related to this subject, aiming to assess the policies and administrative issues regarding the prevention and magnitude of healthcare-associated infections and discuss the challenges for their prevention in Brazil. The topics discussed included historical and administrative issues, challenges imposed by the characteristics of the healthcare system and the territorial dimension, laboratorial support limitations, costs, institutional culture, professional qualification, and patient engagement. It is urgent to hold a nationwide discussion among government representatives, institutions, and healthcare workers and users to overcome these challenges.

Padoveze, Maria Clara; Fortaleza, Carlos Magno Castelo Branco

2014-01-01

196

Associations between positive body image and indicators of men's and women's mental and physical health.  

PubMed

Positive body image has been found to be associated with various beneficial health-related indicators among women. Yet, less is known about its health-related correlates among men. The goal of the current study was to examine associations between positive body image and various mental and physical health-related indicators in both men and women. Undergraduate students (N=284) from a non-residential college in the northeastern United States participated. Individuals with greater positive body image reported less depression, higher self-esteem, fewer unhealthy dieting behaviors, lower drive for muscularity, and greater intentions to protect their skin from UV exposure and damage. Gender did not moderate these associations; thus, connections between positive body image and health-related indicators were similar for women and men. Results suggest that positive body image has significant implications for health and well-being beyond objective body size. Health care providers should encourage positive body image because of its potential health benefits. PMID:25682474

Gillen, Meghan M

2015-03-01

197

Illness perceptions in patients receiving rheumatology rehabilitation: association with health and outcomes at 12 months  

PubMed Central

Background Illness perceptions have been found to change over time and following health care. Hence, addressing illness perceptions alongside existing health care interventions may be important for the sustainment of health gains following rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to measure the illness perceptions of patients receiving inpatient rheumatology rehabilitation and assess the association with aspects of health and outcomes at baseline, discharge and 12 months. Methods Patients with a rehabilitation stay of one week or more at three institutions in Norway in 2009 were invited to participate in the study. At baseline, discharge and 12 months, patients completed The Rheumatic Disease Illness Perception Questionnaire (RD-IPQ) which includes aspects of illness perceptions important to patients with rheumatic diseases. Stepwise regression analysis was used to assess associations between RD-IPQ scores and different aspects of health at baseline and follow-up after controlling for other aspects of health and sociodemographic variables. Results For the 134 patients included in the study, baseline RD-IPQ scores had a mean of 58.2 (SD 14.9) on a 0–100 scale, where 100 is the worst possible. Scores showed improvement after the rehabilitation stay which were maintained at 12 months. RD-IPQ scores were positively associated with health and outcomes. At baseline RD-IPQ scores were statistically significant in explaining variation in pain, physical function and SF-36 mental health scores. Baseline RD-IPQ scores were significant in explaining fatigue, pain, SF-36 role limitations and social function scores following rehabilitation and at 12 months. Conclusion Illness perceptions as measured by the RD-IPQ were associated with health and outcomes as measured by rheumatology-specific and generic instruments. The consideration of illness perceptions as a component of rehabilitation may be important in achieving desired outcomes. PMID:23324450

2013-01-01

198

Concurrent and Longitudinal Associations of Basal and Diurnal Cortisol with Mental Health Symptoms in Early Adolescence  

PubMed Central

Recent biosocial theories postulate that both biological risk and the social context influence the development of mental health problems (Boyce & Ellis, 2005). Guided by this framework, we examined whether basal cortisol and its diurnal rhythm were associated with mental health symptoms in early adolescence. Because cross-sectional and longitudinal investigations sometimes reveal different cortisol-mental health associations, we examined the association both concurrently and longitudinally when children transition to middle school, a time which entails a major change in social context from single to multiple teachers, classrooms, and sets of classmates. Salivary cortisol was measured three times a day (waking, afternoon, and bedtime) across three days when adolescents were 5th graders. Mental health was measured when adolescents were in 5th and 7th grades, just before and after the transition to middle school. To deal with the substantial comorbidity of internalizing and externalizing symptoms at this developmental stage, mental health measures distinguished overall symptom severity from the preponderance of internalizing vs. externalizing symptoms (i.e., directionality). A three-level Hierarchical Linear Model was used to extract basal cortisol and its diurnal rhythm separate from the day-to-day and within-the-day fluctuations in cortisol in response to daily experiences. Results were specific to symptom severity, suggesting that cortisol is a nonspecific risk factor for mental health symptoms in young adolescents. At 5th grade, low basal cortisol was associated with concurrent symptom severity. However, longitudinally, it was adolescents with high cortisol at 5th grade who were at risk for increasing mental health symptoms by 7th grade. Flat diurnal rhythms in 5th grade were related to levels of symptom severity at both 5th and 7th grades. Considering the change in social context, as defined by the transition to middle school, helped resolve seemingly inconsistent evidence that both hypo- and hyper-arousal were associated with mental health symptoms in early adolescence. PMID:18726897

Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Essex, Marilyn J.

2008-01-01

199

Copyright 2014, National Environmental Health Association (www.neha.org). Environmental Health  

E-print Network

Women: A Pilot Study on the Health Implications of its Practice and En vironmental Conditions........................45 ADVANCEMENT OF THE SCIENCE Hot Yoga Establishments in Local Communities Serving Pregnant Women..............................8 O-Chlorobenzylidene Malononitrile (CS Riot Control Agent) Exposure in a U.S. Army Basic Combat

200

The Association of Incarceration with Community Health and Racial Health Disparities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Bureau of Justice Statistics data indicate that the United States has the highest incarceration rate in the world, and substantial disparities exist between incarceration rates for Whites and minorities. Research on the impact of incarceration usually focuses on the sentenced individual and occasionally on the children of incarcerated parents. The health consequences of incarceration may also extend to other

Daniel J. Kruger; MA E. Hill De Loney

2009-01-01

201

Podiatric problems are associated with worse health status in persons with severe mental illness.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of self-reported podiatric impairments and their effect on health status in persons with severe mental illness. A sample of psychiatric outpatients (N=309) underwent interviews assessing medical conditions and health status with the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36). Podiatric health was assessed using nine items from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Eighty percent of patients reported at least one podiatric problem. The most common problems were foot pain (48%), nail disorders (35%) and corns/calluses (28%). Prevalence rates were 4-11 times higher than those reported by the general population in the 1990 NHIS. The total number of podiatric problems was inversely related to eight self-reported health status domains and both summary SF-36 scores (all P<==.0001). After controlling for sociodemographic factors, psychiatric illness and medical conditions, the total number of podiatric limitations remained significantly associated with lower patient ratings in four of the eight SF-36 domains and both summary scores. We concluded that persons with severe and persistent mental illness have markedly elevated rates of podiatric problems when compared to the general population group. These problems are associated with worsened self-perceived health status. Addressing podiatric health may be a successful way to improve the overall health of this population. PMID:15121351

Crews, Cynthia K; Vu, Kieu O; Davidson, Arthur J; Crane, Lori A; Mehler, Philip S; Steiner, John F

2004-01-01

202

Neurocognitive impairment is associated with lower health literacy among persons living with HIV infection.  

PubMed

This study sought to determine the effects of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) on health literacy, which encompasses the ability to access, understand, appraise, and apply health-related information. Participants included 56 HIV seropositive individuals, 24 of whom met Frascati criteria for HAND, and 24 seronegative subjects who were comparable on age, education, ethnicity, and oral word reading. Each participant was administered a brief battery of well-validated measures of health literacy, including the Expanded Numeracy Scale (ENS), Newest Vital Sign (NVS), Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM), and Brief Health Literacy Screen (BHLS). Results revealed significant omnibus differences on the ENS and NVS, which were driven by poorer performance in the HAND group. There were no significant differences on the REALM or the BHLS by HAND status. Among individuals with HAND, lower scores on the NVS were associated with greater severity of neurocognitive dysfunction (e.g., working memory and verbal fluency) and self-reported dependence in activities of daily living. These preliminary findings suggest that HAND hinders both fundamental (i.e., basic knowledge, such as numeracy) and critical (i.e., comprehension and application of healthcare information) health literacy capacities, and therefore may be an important factor in the prevalence of health illiteracy. Health literacy-focused intervention may play an important role in the treatment and health trajectories among persons living with HIV infection. PMID:25008384

Morgan, Erin E; Iudicello, Jennifer E; Cattie, Jordan E; Blackstone, Kaitlin; Grant, Igor; Woods, Steven Paul

2015-01-01

203

The association of health literacy with time in therapeutic range for patients on warfarin therapy.  

PubMed

Patients on warfarin therapy need to achieve and maintain anticoagulation control in order to experience the benefits of treatment while minimizing bleeding risk. Low health literacy skills may hinder patients' ability to use and adhere to warfarin in a safe and effective manner. The authors conducted this study to evaluate the relationship between health literacy and anticoagulation control among patients on chronic warfarin therapy. Participants were recruited from 2 diverse anticoagulation clinics in North Carolina. Time in therapeutic range (TTR) for warfarin therapy was used as a measure of anticoagulation control. Health literacy was assessed using the short form of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA). Of the 198 study participants, 51% had limited health literacy (S-TOFHLA score of 0-90) and 33% had poor anticoagulation control (TTR<50%). Participants with limited health literacy were less likely to correctly answer warfarin-related knowledge questions. Limited health literacy was significantly associated with TTR<50% (adjusted odds ratio=2.34, 95% CI [1.01, 5.46]). Findings indicate that limited health literacy is associated with poor anticoagulation control for patients on warfarin therapy. Lack of medication understanding may hinder the safe and effective use of this narrow therapeutic index drug. PMID:25315581

Oramasionwu, Christine U; Bailey, Stacy Cooper; Duffey, Kristin E; Shilliday, Betsy Bryant; Brown, Lori C; Denslow, Sheri A; Michalets, Elizabeth Landrum

2014-01-01

204

Eliminating LGBTIQQ Health Disparities: The Associated Roles of Electronic Health Records and Institutional Culture.  

PubMed

For all humans, sexual orientation and gender identity are essential elements of identity, informing how we plan and live our lives. The historic invisibility of sexual minorities in medicine has meant that these important aspects of their identities as patients have been ignored, with the result that these patients have been denied respect, culturally competent services, and proper treatment. Likely due to historic rejection and mistreatment, there is evidence of reluctance on the part of LGBT patients to disclose their sexual orientation (SO) or gender identity (GI) to their health care providers. There is some perception of risk in sharing SO and GI for many patients who have had bad prior experiences. Despite these risks, we argue that we can improve the quality of care provided this population only by encouraging them to self-identify and then using that information to improve quality of care. One strategy both to prompt patient self-identification and to store and use SO and GI data to improve care centers on the use of electronic health records. However, gathering SO and GI data in the EHR requires a workforce that knows both how to obtain and how to use that information. To develop these competencies, educational programs for health professionals must prepare students and educators to elicit and to use sexual orientation and gender identity information to improve care while simultaneously ensuring the safety of patients, trainees, and staff and faculty members as SO and GI become openly discussed and integral parts of ongoing medical discussion and care. As determination of SO and GI demographics becomes more common in health research, we will more fully understand the health risks for all the LGBTIQQ populations. PMID:25231788

Callahan, Edward J; Hazarian, Shea; Yarborough, Mark; Sánchez, John Paul

2014-09-01

205

The association of cognitive performance with mental health and physical functioning strengthens with age: The Whitehall II cohort  

E-print Network

1 The association of cognitive performance with mental health and physical functioning strengthens performance has been associated with mental and physical health, but it is unknown whether the strength whether cognitive performance predicted mental and physical health from midlife to early old age. Methods

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

206

Does Place of Education Matter? Contextualizing the Education and Health Status Association Among Asian Americans  

PubMed Central

The educational gradient in health is one of the most robust associations in social science research. Results of the current study indicate that, like the pattern observed among other racial and ethnic minority groups, the well-established educational gradient in health is attenuated among Asian Americans. We also show that the gradient association between educational attainment and self-rated health among Asian Americans depends on whether they receive the bulk of their education in the United States or abroad. Compared to the schooling received in the United States, being educated in a foreign country does not result in the same health payoffs for increasing educational attainment. Analysis of an extensive set of mediators indicates that a foreign education restricts economic opportunities, limits positive social interaction, and inhibits English language proficiency. We discuss the implications for Asian Americans, a group composed largely of immigrants who received their education outside the United States. PMID:19835099

WALTON, EMILY; TAKEUCHI, DAVID T.; HERTING, JERALD R.; ALEGRÍA, MARGARITA

2009-01-01

207

Individual, Interpersonal, and Institutional Level Factors Associated With the Mental Health of College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study investigates the individual, interpersonal, and institutional level factors that are associated with overall mental health among college students. Participants: Data are from an online cross-sectional survey of 2,203 students currently enrolled at a large public university. Methods: Mental health was ascertained using a subcomponent of the RAND Medical Outcomes Study functioning and well-being measures developed by the

DeAnnah R. Byrd; Kristen J. McKinney

2012-01-01

208

Factors Associated with Physical Activity among Spanish Youth through the National Health Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Physical inactivity is emerging as one of the largest public health problems throughout Europe. This study updates descriptive data on physical activity and the factors associated with it among the 6- to 15-year-old Spanish population during leisure time through the National Health Survey.Methods. This is a cross-sectional study from a representative sample of Spanish children's physical activity during their

Luisa Lasheras; Susana Aznar; Begońa Merino; Enrique Gil López

2001-01-01

209

The Association between Proximity to Animal Feeding Operations and Community Health: A Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundA systematic review was conducted for the association between animal feeding operations (AFOs) and the health of individuals living near AFOs.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsThe review was restricted to studies reporting respiratory, gastrointestinal and mental health outcomes in individuals living near AFOs in North America, European Union, United Kingdom, and Scandinavia. From June to September 2008 searches were conducted in PUBMED, CAB, Web-of-Science,

Annette M. OConnor; Brent Auvermann; Danelle Bickett-Weddle; Steve Kirkhorn; Jan M. Sargeant; Alejandro Ramirez; Susanna G. Von Essen

2010-01-01

210

Factors Associated with Both Mental Health and Juvenile Justice Involvement Among Children with Severe Emotional Disturbance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has highlighted the fact that there is an overrepresentation of children with mental health problems in the juvenile justice system. Thus, this study uses a clinical sample of children receiving mental health services to examine demographic (e.g., age, ethnicity), person- level (e.g., anxious and\\/or depressed), family-level (e.g., number of transitions in living situa- tions), and school-level factors associated

Kelly N. Graves; James M. Frabutt; Terri L. Shelton

2008-01-01

211

Does gender moderate associations among impulsivity and health-risk behaviors?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study explores the relations among gender, impulsivity and three health-risk behaviors relevant to young adults (tobacco use, alcohol problems and gambling problems) in a sample of 197 college-age individuals. We sought to determine whether impulsivity is associated with health-risk behaviors in the same ways for men and women. For tobacco use and gambling problems, men were at higher

Scott F. Stoltenberg; Bryan D. Batien; Denis G. Birgenheir

2008-01-01

212

Is hypoglycemia fear independently associated with health-related quality of life?  

PubMed

ObjectivePatients may fear the symptoms and consequences associated with hypoglycemia. We tested whether fear of hypoglycemia is independently associated with poorer health-related quality of life (HRQOL).Research design and methodsData were collected using direct-mail survey and enrollment information from adult commercial health plan enrollees with type 2 diabetes during a 12-month period (12/01/2008 to 11/30/2009). HRQOL was evaluated by the EuroQol (EQ)ż5D index and 12-item Short Form Health Survey Mental Component Summary (SF-12 MCS) and Physical Component Summary (SF-12 PCS). Fear of hypoglycemia was assessed using the Hypoglycemia Fear Survey (HFS). Two ordinary least-squares (OLS) models of HRQOL controlling for demographics and illness characteristics were specified, and OLS regression coefficients and statistical inferences were compared. Model 1 included 1 variable of hypoglycemia symptoms; Model 2 included both hypoglycemia symptoms and HFS score.ResultsOf 3999 patients contacted, 813 responded to the survey. Model 1: hypoglycemia symptoms alone were associated with worse HRQOL (SF-12 MCS and SF-12 PCS scores and EQ-5D utility score; all Pż<ż0.05). Model 2: hypoglycemia symptoms were significantly associated only with SF-12 MCS score. HFS total score was significantly associated with all 3 HRQOL scores. Hypoglycemia symptoms, Hispanic ethnicity, and longer diabetes duration were associated with greater hypoglycemia fear. Higher income, white race, and treatment without sulfonylurea or insulin were associated with less hypoglycemia fear (all Pż<ż0.05).ConclusionsIn addition to the effect of symptomatic hypoglycemia on HRQOL, fear of hypoglycemia was independently associated with lower overall health status and mental and physical health. PMID:25433668

Shi, Lizheng; Shao, Hui; Zhao, Yingnan; Thomas, Nina A

2014-11-30

213

Association between health worker motivation and healthcare quality efforts in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Ghana is one of the sub-Saharan African countries making significant progress towards universal access to quality healthcare. However, it remains a challenge to attain the 2015 targets for the health related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) partly due to health sector human resource challenges including low staff motivation. Purpose This paper addresses indicators of health worker motivation and assesses associations with quality care and patient safety in Ghana. The aim is to identify interventions at the health worker level that contribute to quality improvement in healthcare facilities. Methods The study is a baseline survey of health workers (n = 324) in 64 primary healthcare facilities in two regions in Ghana. Data collection involved quality care assessment using the SafeCare Essentials tool, the National Health Insurance Authority (NHIA) accreditation data and structured staff interviews on workplace motivating factors. The Spearman correlation test was conducted to test the hypothesis that the level of health worker motivation is associated with level of effort by primary healthcare facilities to improve quality care and patient safety. Results The quality care situation in health facilities was generally low, as determined by the SafeCare Essentials tool and NHIA data. The majority of facilities assessed did not have documented evidence of processes for continuous quality improvement and patient safety. Overall, staff motivation appeared low although workers in private facilities perceived better working conditions than workers in public facilities (P <0.05). Significant positive associations were found between staff satisfaction levels with working conditions and the clinic’s effort towards quality improvement and patient safety (P <0.05). Conclusion As part of efforts towards attainment of the health related MDGs in Ghana, more comprehensive staff motivation interventions should be integrated into quality improvement strategies especially in government-owned healthcare facilities where working conditions are perceived to be the worst. PMID:23945073

2013-01-01

214

Association of a Behaviorally Based High School Health Education Curriculum With Increased Exercise.  

PubMed

Increasing exercise in children and adolescents through academic classes is an understudied area. Potential benefits include associated improvements in health, psychosocial, and quality-of-life factors. A sample of 98 students (M age = 14.3) from high school health education classes received six, 40-min lessons incorporating cognitive-behavioral methods to increase exercise over 6 weeks. Significant within-group improvements in exercise, mood, and body satisfaction were found, with slightly larger effect sizes identified for the boys. Increase in exercise was significantly associated with reduced mood distress (? = -.17, p < .001). For the girls only, change in body satisfaction significantly mediated that relationship, and a reciprocal relationship between changes in mood and body satisfaction was also identified. Incorporation of lessons emphasizing goal setting and self-regulation within high school health education classes may foster increased exercise and associated improvements in mood and body satisfaction. For girls, the positive effects may reinforce one another. PMID:24902998

Annesi, James J; Trinity, John; Mareno, Nicole; Walsh, Stephanie M

2014-06-01

215

Health risks associated with residential exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation  

SciTech Connect

Extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation has received considerable attention recently as a possible threat to the health of persons living near high tension electric power lines, distribution substations, and even in close proximity to common household electric appliances. Results of epidemiological and laboratory research are examined to assess risks associated with magnetic fields generated by extremely low frequency electromagnetic sources. Health risks associated with such fields include a wide variety of ills ranging from disruption of normal circadian rhythms to childhood cancers. Risk assessment has been particularly difficult to determine in light of an ostensible lack of a dose-response relationship. Current media sensation fueled in part by an equivocal position adopted by the United States Environmental Protection Agency has contributed to the controversy. Recommendations for prudent avoidance of possible dangers are presented along with policy implications concerning health risks associated with magnetic fields.32 references.

Lamarine, R.J.; Narad, R.A. (Department of Health and Community Services, California State University, Chico (United States))

1992-10-01

216

[Health literacy in type 2 diabetics: associated factors and glycemic control].  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus patients must concentrate on self-care, with complex treatments and adequate health behavior in which such habits are a key factor. Due to the complexity of this issue, the importance of literacy in health arises. The goal of the study was to analyze factors associated with literacy in health and its relation with glycemic control in diabetic patients. It involved a study with 82 type 2 diabetic patients of both sexes and aged between 19 and 59 attended in the outpatient endocrinology ward of a public hospital, who filled out an abbreviated and translated version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (b-TOFHLA). Fasting glycaemia values and glycated hemoglobin were collected from the clinical history of the participants. Correlations, mean comparisons and linear regression models were tested. Inadequate literacy in health was encountered in 65.9% of the patients. The issues involved factors associated with the b-TOFHLA point scores were age and years of schooling. Global literacy did not explain the glycemic control, but the level of numeracy presented an association with this control. The results point to the need to improve the numeracy in health of the patients to obtain enhanced glycemic control, mainly in those with more advanced age and less years of schooling. PMID:25760126

Sampaio, Helena Alves de Carvalho; Carioca, Antônio Augusto Ferreira; Sabry, Maria Olganę Dantas; Santos, Patrícia Mariano Dos; Coelho, Maria Auristela Magalhăes; Passamai, Maria da Penha Baiăo

2015-03-01

217

Differences between family practices in the associations of patient characteristics with health care experiences.  

PubMed

When comparing health care providers, patient experience data are usually adjusted for case-mix associations to ensure fair comparisons. Previous studies in the United States showed that case-mix associations sometimes vary across health care providers. Such variation could indicate differential provider behavior for patient subgroups, in which case current adjustment techniques might be inappropriate. To see whether this variation is also apparent in a health care system different from the U.S. system, the authors analyzed Dutch patients' experiences with family practice care. Using multilevel random slope models, the associations between age, general health status, mental health status, education, sex, and ethnicity on one hand and reported experiences on the other hand were assessed across family practices. The authors found only five significant variances between case-mix coefficients, all for outcomes related to health care professionals' conduct. These findings correspond to previous U.S. findings, suggesting that the case-mix variations reported here and previously constitute a rather robust phenomenon. PMID:21536598

Damman, Olga C; de Boer, Dolf; Hendriks, Michelle; Meuwissen, Liesbeth E; Rademakers, Jany; Delnoij, Diana M J; Groenewegen, Peter P

2011-12-01

218

Barriers to care and service satisfaction following homicide loss: associations with mental health outcomes.  

PubMed

Homicide survivors are at increased risk for mental health problems, including depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and complicated grief. Therefore, improving access to community and mental health resources is critical for this population. The atuhors sought to examine barriers to accessing services and service satisfaction among 47 homicide survivors. Over half of the sample met criteria for a mental disorder, with depression being the most prevalent problem. Frequently endorsed barriers to care included financial barriers, inadequate information, and health-related problems. However, participants who engaged in services were generally satisfied with those services. Only depression was uniquely associated with worse overall service satisfaction. PMID:24766188

Williams, Joah L; Rheingold, Alyssa A

2015-01-01

219

Factors Associated With Americans' Ratings of Health Care Quality: What Do They Tell Us About the Raters and the Health Care System?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumer satisfaction ratings of health care quality represent a commonly used measure of health care performance. Identifying factors associated with ratings will help us understand the relative influence of individuals' sociodemographic and health characteristics on satisfaction level, thus informing policy making and clinical practice. Existing research has yielded mixed results on key predictors of consumer ratings. Using nationally representative data,

Wen-Ying Sylvia Chou; Lin Chun Wang; Lila J. Finney Rutten; Richard P. Moser; Bradford W. Hesse

2010-01-01

220

Being questioned and receiving advice about alcohol and smoking in health care: Associations with patients' characteristics, health behavior, and reported stage of change  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Alcohol habits are more rarely addressed than other health behavior topics in Swedish health care. This study examined whether differences between topics could be explained by their different associations with patient characteristics or by the differences in the prevalence of the disadvantageous health behavior, i.e., excessive alcohol use and smoking. The study moreover examined whether simply being asked questions

Kozma Ahacic; Peter Allebeck; Kerstin Damström Thakker

2010-01-01

221

Sociodemographic and Health-Related Risk Factors Associated with Tooth Loss Among Adults in Rhode Island  

PubMed Central

Introduction Oral health is an integral component of overall health and well-being. Very little Rhode Island state-level information exists on the determinants of tooth loss. The objective of this study was to systematically identify sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviors, health conditions and disabilities, and dental insurance coverage associated with tooth loss among noninstitutionalized adults in Rhode Island. Methods We analyzed Rhode Island’s 2008 and 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey data in 2011. The survey had 4 response categories for tooth loss: none, 1 to 5, 6 or more but not all, and all. We used multinomial logistic regression models to assess the relationship between 4 risk factor domains and tooth loss. Results An estimated 57.6% of Rhode Island adults had all their teeth, 28.9% had 1 to 5 missing teeth, 8.9% had 6 to 31 missing teeth, and 4.6% were edentulous. Respondents who had low income, low education, unhealthy behaviors (ie, were former or current smokers and did not engage in physical activity), chronic conditions (ie, diabetes and obesity) or disabilities, and no dental insurance coverage were more likely to have fewer teeth compared with their referent groups. However, the association of these variables with tooth loss was not uniform by age group. Conclusion Adults who report risky health behaviors or impaired health may be considered target subpopulations for prevention of tooth loss and promotion of good oral health. PMID:23537519

Okoro, Catherine A.; Oh, Junhie; Fuller, Deborah L.

2013-01-01

222

Food Insecurity is Associated with Adverse Health Outcomes Among Human Infants and Toddlers  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT The U.S. Household Food Security Scale, developed with federal support for use in national surveys, is an effective research,tool. This study uses these new,measures,to examine,associations,between,food insecurity and health outcomes,in young,children. The purpose,of this study was,to determine,whether,household,food insecurity is associated,with adverse health outcomes,in a sentinel population ages,36 mo. We conducted,a multisite retrospective cohort study with cross-sectional surveys at urban medical

J. Cook; D. Frank; C. Berkowitz; M. Black; P. Casey; D. Cutts; A. Meyers; N. Zaldivar; A. Skalicky; S. Lenenson; T. Heeren; M. Nord

2004-01-01

223

Postoperative recovery and its association with health-related quality of life among day surgery patients  

PubMed Central

Background Day surgery holds advantages for both the patient and the health care organization. However, recovery beyond the first postoperative week and following different types of surgery has not been explored to any greater degree. The current aims were to prospectively describe postoperative recovery and health-related quality of life among different groups of day surgery patients and to explore the association between postoperative recovery and health-related quality of life 30 days after discharge. Methods A consecutive sample of 607 adult day surgery patients undergoing orthopaedic, gynaecological or general surgery was included. Postoperative recovery was assessed on days 1, 7 and 14 using the Swedish Post-discharge Surgery Recovery scale and the Quality of Recovery-23 scale. The EQ-5D was used to assess health-related quality of life preoperatively and 30 days following discharge. A repeated measure ANOVA was conducted to evaluate postoperative recovery from day 1 to day 14 and between different surgical groups. Hierarchical multiple linear regression models were used to explore the association between postoperative recovery and health-related quality of life. Results Postoperative recovery improved from day 1 to 14 in all surgical groups (p<0.001). The orthopaedic patients had lower postoperative recovery on day 14 compared to the general and the gynaecological patients (p<0.001). Health-related quality of life was lower among orthopaedic patients (p<0.001), even if significant improvements over time were seen in all groups. Recovery on day 7 was associated with health-related quality of life 30 days after the day surgery (p<0.05). Conclusion Particularly orthopaedic day surgical patients seem to favour a closer follow-up in order to support recovery and thereby also positively influence health-related quality of life. PMID:23148514

2012-01-01

224

Copyright 2012, National Environmental Health Association (www.neha.org) Environmental Health  

E-print Network

.....................35 Underwriters Laboratories ....................................2 AdvAncement of the SCIENCE ......................................................................................24 Direct From CDC: Plain Language Summaries: A New EHS-Net Tool to Share Our Published Findings........................................................................................................................40 Your aSSoCIatIoN President's Message: Ethics and Integrity: Capstone Professional Tools

225

Factors Associated With Adoption of Health Information Technology: A Conceptual Model Based on a Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (HITECH) allocated $19.2 billion to incentivize adoption of the electronic health record (EHR). Since 2009, Meaningful Use Criteria have dominated information technology (IT) strategy. Health care organizations have struggled to meet expectations and avoid penalties to reimbursements from the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). Organizational theories attempt to explain factors that influence organizational change, and many theories address changes in organizational strategy. However, due to the complexities of the health care industry, existing organizational theories fall short of demonstrating association with significant health care IT implementations. There is no organizational theory for health care that identifies, groups, and analyzes both internal and external factors of influence for large health care IT implementations like adoption of the EHR. Objective The purpose of this systematic review is to identify a full-spectrum of both internal organizational and external environmental factors associated with the adoption of health information technology (HIT), specifically the EHR. The result is a conceptual model that is commensurate with the complexity of with the health care sector. Methods We performed a systematic literature search in PubMed (restricted to English), EBSCO Host, and Google Scholar for both empirical studies and theory-based writing from 1993-2013 that demonstrated association between influential factors and three modes of HIT: EHR, electronic medical record (EMR), and computerized provider order entry (CPOE). We also looked at published books on organizational theories. We made notes and noted trends on adoption factors. These factors were grouped as adoption factors associated with various versions of EHR adoption. Results The resulting conceptual model summarizes the diversity of independent variables (IVs) and dependent variables (DVs) used in articles, editorials, books, as well as quantitative and qualitative studies (n=83). As of 2009, only 16.30% (815/4999) of nonfederal, acute-care hospitals had adopted a fully interoperable EHR. From the 83 articles reviewed in this study, 16/83 (19%) identified internal organizational factors and 9/83 (11%) identified external environmental factors associated with adoption of the EHR, EMR, or CPOE. The conceptual model for EHR adoption associates each variable with the work that identified it. Conclusions Commonalities exist in the literature for internal organizational and external environmental factors associated with the adoption of the EHR and/or CPOE. The conceptual model for EHR adoption associates internal and external factors, specific to the health care industry, associated with adoption of the EHR. It becomes apparent that these factors have some level of association, but the association is not consistently calculated individually or in combination. To better understand effective adoption strategies, empirical studies should be performed from this conceptual model to quantify the positive or negative effect of each factor. PMID:25599673

DeShazo, Jonathan; Kim, Forest; Fulton, Lawrence

2014-01-01

226

Examining diet- and exercise-related communication in romantic relationships: associations with health behaviors.  

PubMed

This study examined the association between diet- and exercise-related social influence and support among romantic partners, as well as whether these variables were associated with their health behaviors. An Actor-Partner Mediator Model was used to examine these associations at the couple level (n = 192). Results indicated that individuals who felt their partners used more positive influence strategies also reported feeling more supported by their partners. Further, men who reported feeling more supported by their partners also engaged in healthier diet and exercise behaviors. Overall, the results suggested that people's perceptions of positive communication (i.e., influence and support) from their partners were generally more likely to be associated with their enactment of healthier behaviors. Implications for intrapersonal as well as interpersonal effects of influence, support, and health behaviors are discussed. PMID:24295060

Burke, Tricia J; Segrin, Chris

2014-01-01

227

Association between environmental contaminants and health outcomes in indigenous populations of the Circumpolar North  

PubMed Central

Background Since the 1990s, research has been carried out to monitor environmental contaminants and their effects on human health in the Arctic. Although evidence shows that Arctic indigenous peoples are exposed to higher levels of contaminants and do worse on several dimensions of health compared with other populations, the contribution of such exposures on adverse outcomes is unclear. Objective The purpose of this review is to provide a synopsis of the published epidemiological literature that has examined association between environmental contaminants and health outcomes in Arctic indigenous populations. Design A literature search was conducted in OVID Medline (1946-January 2014) using search terms that combined concepts of contaminant and indigenous populations in the Arctic. No language or date restrictions were applied. The reference lists of review articles were hand-searched. Results Of 559 citations, 60 studies were relevant. The studies fell under the following categories: paediatric (n=18), reproductive health (n=18), obstetrics and gynaecology (n=9), cardiology (n=7), bone health (n=2), oncology (n=2), endocrinology (n=2) and other (n=2). All studies, except one from Arctic Finland, were either from Nunavik or Greenland. Most studies assessed polychlorinated biphenyls (n=43) and organochlorine pesticides (n=29). Fewer studies examined heavy metals, perfluorinated compounds, or polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Details of study results for each health category are provided. Conclusions It is difficult to make conclusive statements about the effects of environmental contaminants on health due to mixed results, small number of studies and studies being restricted to a small number of regions. Meta-analytical synthesis of the evidence should be considered for priority contaminants and health outcomes. The following research gaps should be addressed in future studies: association of contaminants and health in other Arctic regions (i.e. Inuvialuit Settlement Region, Nunavut, Nunatsiavut, Alaska, European North and Russian North); assessment of contaminants on chronic diseases; inclusion of clinical endpoints in assessments; and assessment of the emerging contaminants of perfluorinated compounds and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. PMID:25491153

Singh, Kavita; Bjerregaard, Peter; Man Chan, Hing

2014-01-01

228

Association between reported alcohol intake and cognition: results from the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some, but not all, observational studies have suggested that moderate levels of alcohol intake may be associated with improved cognitive function and reduced risk of cognitive decline and dementia. The authors of this 1996-2002 study used data from the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study of postmenopausal combination hormone therapy to assess cross-sectional and prospective associations of self-reported alcohol intake with

Mark A. Espeland; Lin Gu; Kamal H. Masaki; Robert D. Langer; Laura H. Coker; Marcia L. Stefanick; Judith K. Ockene; Stephen R. Rapp

2005-01-01

229

Mastery of Mothering Skills and Satisfaction with Associated Health Services: An Ethnocultural Comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I examine the mastery of mothering skills and satisfaction with associated health services in women who had\\u000a recently given birth in Montreal (n = 33). I compare experience between women of two distinct ethnocultural groups: Anglophone Euro-Canadian and Anglophone Afro-Caribbean.\\u000a The overall aim is to discern differentials in the mastery of mothering skills and associated satisfaction with maternal and

Rob Whitley

2009-01-01

230

Fish Health Studies Associated with the Kingston Fly Ash Spill, Spring 2009 - Fall 2010  

SciTech Connect

On December 22, 2008, over 4 million cubic meters of fly ash slurry was released into the Emory River when a dike surrounding a solid waste containment area at the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant ruptured. One component of TVA's response to the spill is a biological monitoring program to assess short- and long-term ecological responses to the ash and associated chemicals, including studies on fish health and contaminant bioaccumulation. These studies were initiated in early Spring 2009 for the purposes of: (1) documenting the levels of fly ash-associated metals in various tissues of representative sentinel fish species in the area of the fly ash spill, (2) determining if exposure to fly ash-associated metals causes short, intermediate, or long-term health effects on these sentinel fish species, (3) assessing if there are causal relationships between exposure to metals and health effects on fish, (4) evaluating, along with information from other ecological and physicochemical studies, the nature and route of contaminant transfer though food chains into higher level consumers, (5) providing important information for the Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) for the Kingston fly ash project, and (6) serving as an important technology information transfer or model study focused on how to best evaluate the environmental effects of fly ash (and related environmental stressors), not only at the Kingston site, but also at sites on other aquatic systems where coal-fired generating stations are located. This report presents the results of the first two years of the fish health study. To date, fish health and bioaccumulation studies have been conducted from Spring 2009 though Fall 2011 and includes 6 seasonal studies: Spring 2009, Fall 2009, Spring 2010, Fall 2010, Spring 2011, and Fall 2011. Both the Spring and Fall studies have focused on 3-4 sentinel fish species that represent different feeding habits, behaviors, and home ranges. In addition to fish health and bioaccumulation, the Spring investigations also included reproductive integrity studies on the same fish used for bioaccumulation and fish health. In this report, results of the fish health studies from Spring 2009 through Fall 2010 are presented while an associated report will present the fish reproductive studies conducted during Spring 2009 and Spring 2010. A report on fish bioaccumulation was submitted to TVA in June 2011. The fish health study conducted in conjunction with the bioaccumulation and reproductive study is critical for assessing and evaluating possible causal relationships between contaminant exposure (bioaccumulation) and the response of fish to exposure as reflected by the various measurements of fish health.

Adams, Marshall [ORNL; Fortner, Allison M [ORNL

2012-05-01

231

Tech-Prep/Associate Degree Program Guide: Tech Prep Associate Degree Program, Business Administration Associate Degree Program, Office Administration Associate Degree Program, Allied Health Associate Degree Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Tech-Prep Associate Degree Program (TPAD) at the Community College of Rhode Island (CCRI) in Warwick, is a high school/community college partnership providing high school students with an alternative program of study focused on goal setting, basic academic skills development, and the skills needed to pursue a career in a technical, business or…

Marmaras, Judy; Neri, Pat

232

Handgrip Strength, Positive Affect, and Perceived Health Are Prospectively Associated with Fewer Functional Limitations among Centenarians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed the association between perceived health, fatigue, positive and negative affect, handgrip strength, objectively measured physical activity, body mass index, and self-reported functional limitations, assessed 6 months later, among 11 centenarians (age = 102 plus or minus 1). Activities of daily living, assessed 6 months prior to…

Franke, Warren D.; Margrett, Jennifer A.; Heinz, Melinda; Martin, Peter

2012-01-01

233

The Heart's Content : The Association between Positive Psychological Well-Being and Cardiovascular Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review investigates the association between positive psychological well-being (PPWB) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We also consider the mechanisms by which PPWB may be linked with CVD, focusing on the health behaviors (e.g., smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, sleep quality and quantity, and food consumption) and biological…

Boehm, Julia K.; Kubzansky, Laura D.

2012-01-01

234

Association between BDNF-rs6265 and obesity in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study is to examine a functional variant (rs6265) in the BDNF gene interacting with dietary intake modulate obesity traits in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study population. BDNF rs6265 was genotyped in 1147 Puerto Ricans (aged 45-75 years), and examined for association with o...

235

The association between gout and nephrolithiasis in men: The Health Professionals' Follow-Up Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between gout and nephrolithiasis in men: The Health Professionals' Follow-Up Study. Approximately 10 million adults in the United States have experienced the passage of a kidney stone, and up to 5 million have been diagnosed with gout by a physician. Previous reports have suggested that gout increases the risk for the development of kidney stones, but there are

Holly J. Kramer; Hyon K. Choi; Karen Atkinson; Meir Stampfer; Gary C. Curhan

2003-01-01

236

Irregular Breakfast Eating and Associated Health Behaviors: A Pilot Study among College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine prevalence of eating breakfast and associated health compromising behaviors. This study utilized a cross-sectional survey methodology. A purposive cluster sampling technique was utilized to collect data from a representative sample of college students in a Midwestern university in the U.S. A total of 1,257…

Thiagarajah, Krisha; Torabi, Mohammad R.

2009-01-01

237

Psychosocial, Environmental and Behavioral Factors Associated with Bone Health in Middle-School Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to identify the psychosocial, environmental and behavioral factors associated with calcium intake, physical activity and bone health in a cohort of adolescent girls. Baseline data (N = 718 girls, mean age: 11.6 plus or minus 0.4 years) from the Incorporating More Physical Activity and Calcium in Teens (IMPACT) study…

Sharma, Shreela V.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Kelder, Steven H.; Day, R. Sue; Hergenroeder, Albert

2009-01-01

238

The Association of Health-Related Fitness with Indicators of Academic Performance in Texas Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the associations between indicators of health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and body mass index) and academic performance (Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills). Partial correlations were generally stronger for cardiovascular fitness than body mass index and consistently stronger in the middle school…

Welk, Gregory J.; Jackson, Allen W.; Morrow, James R., Jr.; Haskell, William H.; Meredith, Marilu D.; Cooper, Kenneth H.

2010-01-01

239

CARDIOVASCULAR AND OTHER HEALTH EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH ARSENIC EXPOSURE IN INNER MONGOLIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Arsenic exposure is associated with cardiovascular and other health effects. The study objectives were to investigate the mode of action and to assess dose-response relationships of arsenic on cardiovascular, diabetic and carcinogenic effects in Ba Men, Inner Mongolia. Ba Men res...

240

ASSOCIATION OF NEONATAL SERUM IMMUNOGLOBULIN G1 CONCENTRATION WITH HEALTH AND PERFORMANCE IN BEEF CALVES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Objective--To evaluate associations between neonatal serum IgG1 concentration and pre- and postweaning morbidity and mortality rates and average daily gains (ADGs) in beef calves and define a cutoff point for serum IgG1 concentration necessary for optimal health and performance of beef calves. Desig...

241

Roadmap: Environmental Health and Safety Environmental Safety and Security Associate of Applied Science  

E-print Network

Sciences CHEM 10050 Fundamentals of Chemistry 3 Fulfills Kent Core Basic Sciences GEOL 21062 EnvironmentalRoadmap: Environmental Health and Safety ­ Environmental Safety and Security ­ Associate of Applied (18 credit hours): EVHS 20001 Environmental Law 3 EVHS 40006 Fire Prevention and Control 3 EVHS 20004

Khan, Javed I.

242

ARE ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES TO CHLOROPHENOXY HERBICIDES ASSOCIATED WITH AN INCREASE IN ADVERSE HUMAN HEALTH EFFECTS?  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: Associations between adverse health effects and environmental exposures are difficult to study because exposures may be widespread, low-dose in nature, and common throughout the study population. Individual risk-factor epidemiology may not be able to initially ident...

243

Mental Health Problems in Adults with Down Syndrome and Their Association with Life Circumstances  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focused on current life circumstances, previous life events, and engagement with productive and enjoyable activities. It examined the association of these variables with mental health problems and mood in a cohort of young adults with Down syndrome. Participants were 49 adults with Down syndrome (age range 20-31 years) and their…

Mallardo, Mariarosa; Cuskelly, Monica; White, Paul; Jobling, Anne

2014-01-01

244

The Association of Low Back Pain with Obesity in One of the Primary Health Care Centers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The present study was designed to assess the association between low back pain and obesity in patients attending one of the primary health care centers. Methods: A case control study of patients attending Marka Medical Center (Amman Jordan) was conducted over 7 months (Jan-Jul 1998). All patients with low back pain were included as cases and an equal number

Mohammed Halalsheh; Mohammed Tarawneh; Ziad Mahadine

245

Roadmap: Environmental Health and Safety Environmental Technology Associate of Applied Science  

E-print Network

Roadmap: Environmental Health and Safety ­ Environmental Technology ­ Associate of Applied Science Environmental Geology 3 Fulfills Kent Core Basic Sciences Semester Four: [14-15 Credit Hours] CHEM 10052 Social Sciences (3 credit hours) 3 Basic Sciences (3 credit hours) Fulfilled in this major with CHEM

Sheridan, Scott

246

Dietary & health predictors associated with overweight & obesity in young adults: the Bogalusa Heart Study  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We examined independent associations between diet and lifestyle behaviors; differences in markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); and self-reported health problems among normal weight (NW); overweight (OW), and obese (OB) young adults. Cross-sectional data on pa...

247

Association of adolescent risk behaviors with mental health symptoms in high school students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To examine the hypothesis that self-reported symptoms of depression and stress may be associated with other risk behaviors.Methods: A secondary data analysis of the 1992 Massachusetts Adolescent Health Survey involving a representative sample of 2224 ninth and twelfth grade students was performed. The dichotomous dependent variable was positive if the adolescent reported feeling depressed or stressed for 10 or

Traci L Brooks; Sion Kim Harris; Jeannie S Thrall; Elizabeth R Woods

2002-01-01

248

Associations between Dopamine and Serotonin Genes and Job Satisfaction: Preliminary Evidence from the Add Health Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous behavioral genetic studies have found that job satisfaction is partially heritable. We went a step further to examine particular genetic markers that may be associated with job satisfaction. Using an oversample from the National Adolescent Longitudinal Study (Add Health Study), we found 2 genetic markers, dopamine receptor gene DRD4 VNTR…

Song, Zhaoli; Li, Wendong; Arvey, Richard D.

2011-01-01

249

The factors associated with the belief that vegetarian diets provide health benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to examine the factors associated with the belief that vegetarian diets provide health benefits. A random population mail survey about food choice was conducted among a sample of 1000 South Australians. An additional (non-random) survey of 106 vegetarians and semi-vegetarians was also conducted, giving a total of 707 participants from both samples. The main

Emma Lea; Anthony Worsley

2003-01-01

250

Public health implications of the Bhopal disaster report to the Program Development Board, American Public Health Association  

SciTech Connect

The accidental release of methyl isocyanate (MIC) gas from a Union Carbide pesticide plant in Bhopal, India, in December 1984 now ranks as the worst industrial catastrophe in history. There is still no reliable estimate of the total number dead and injured. An estimated 100,000 to 200,000 people were exposed to a toxic plume of MIC that extended as far as 8 kilometers from the factory and covered and area of 40 square kilometers. The Program Development Board of the American Public Health Association (APHA) is charged with identifying those areas in which deficiencies in scientific knowledge exist in matters important to public health. In the present instance, merely defining the problem has been a formidable task, much less identifying the knowledge required to solve it. The first question is whether there is a need for APHA to concern itself with a subject that is already drawing considerable attention. APHA has recently issued position papers on some important issues that touch on the Bhopal tragedy and it would be wise to review these positions to see if they need any amendment in light of the Bhopal accident. The disaster in Bhopal has focused international public attention on occupational and environmental health, while at the same time the spectre of enormous financial liability has drawn serious attention on the part of industry to issues of health and safety. With the prevention of injury and disease as our central concern, the Bhopal Working Group undertook to identify the variety of public health problems raised by the Bhopal disaster.

Levenstein, C.; Ozonoff, D.; Boden, L.; Eisen, E.; Freudenberg, N.; Greaves, I.; Kleefield, S.; Kotelchuck, D.; Kriebel, D.; Laird, F.; Lewis, S.

1987-02-01

251

Associations between physical activity and mental health among bariatric surgical candidates  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aimed to examine associations between physical activity (PA) and mental health among adults undergoing bariatric surgery. Methods Cross sectional analysis was conducted on pre-operative data of 850 adults with ? class 2 obesity. PA was measured with a step activity monitor; mean daily steps, active minutes, and high-cadence minutes (proxy for moderate-vigorous intensity PA) were determined. Mental health functioning, depressive symptoms and treatment for depression or anxiety were measured with the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form, Beck Depression Inventory, and a study-specific questionnaire, respectively. Logistic regression analyses tested associations between PA and mental health indicators, controlling for potential confounders. Receiver operative characteristic analysis determined PA thresholds that best differentiated odds of each mental health indicator. Results Each PA parameter was significantly (P<.05) associated with a decreased odds of depressive symptoms and/or treatment for depression or anxiety, but not with impaired mental health functioning. After controlling for sociodemographics and physical health, only associations with treatment for depression and anxiety remained statistically significant. PA thresholds that best differentiated those who had vs. had not recently received treatment for depression or anxiety were <191 active minutes/day, <4750 steps/day, and <8 high-cadence minutes/day. Utilizing high-cadence minutes, compared to active minutes or steps, yielded the highest classification accuracy. Conclusion Adults undergoing bariatric surgery who meet relatively low thresholds of PA (e.g., ? 8 high-cadence minutes/day, representative of approximately one hour/week of moderate-vigorous intensity PA) are less likely to have recently received treatment for depression or anxiety compared to less active counterparts. PMID:23332532

King, Wendy C.; Kalarchian, Melissa A.; Steffen, Kristine J.; Wolfe, Bruce M.; Elder, Katherine A.; Mitchell, James E.

2013-01-01

252

Social network types and the health of older adults: Exploring reciprocal associations.  

PubMed

Social network types have been proved to have significant impacts on older population's health outcomes. However, the existing discoveries are still inconsistent, which may be attributed largely to the heterogeneous measures and methods scholars used and to the unidirectional causalities presumed in most research. This study addresses these gaps by using more-refined measures to explore whether the network types have differential impacts on older adults' health outcomes, and whether a reverse causal relationship exists between older adults' health conditions and the network types they adopted. Using data from three recent waves (2005, 2008, and 2012) of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (n = 4190), we constructed four network types using the K-means clustering method (i.e., diverse, friend, family, and restricted), and examined their impacts on a variety of health outcomes (i.e., physical, cognitive, psychological, and overall well-being). Our results demonstrate that there are strong reciprocal associations between these two factors. On the one hand, a diverse network type yielded the most beneficial health outcomes as measured by multiple health indicators, and the friend-focused network type is more beneficial than the family-focused network type in physical outcomes but not in psychological outcomes. On the other hand, we found that a decrease in all health indicators leads to withdrawal from more-beneficial network types such as a diversified network type, and a shift to less-beneficial network types such as family-focused or restricted networks. The understanding of this reciprocal association could encourage programs designed to enhance healthy aging to focus on improving the bridging social capital of older adults so that they can break the vicious cycle between network isolation and poor health conditions. PMID:25681715

Li, Ting; Zhang, Yanlong

2015-04-01

253

Economic Barriers To Improvement Of Human Health Associated With Wastewater Irrigation In The Mezquital Valley, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To improve public health, the United Nations' Johannesburg Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002 set Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of reducing by half the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and sanitation by 2015. The Mezquital Valley of Mexico is one of the places suffering serious human health problems such as ascariasis due to agricultural irrigation with untreated wastewater discharged by Mexico City. Despite the existence of serious health problems, wastewater treatment has not been installed due to economic barriers: the agricultural benefit of nutrients in the wastewater and cost of building and operating wastewater treatment plants. To develop solutions to this problem, the human health damage and the benefits of nutrient input were evaluated. The health impact caused by untreated wastewater reuse in the Mezquital Valley was estimated to be about 14 DALYs (disability-adjusted life year) per 100,000, which was 2.8 times higher than the DALYs lost by ascariasis in Mexico in 2002 estimated by WHO. The economic damage of the health impact was evaluated at 77,000 /year using willingness-to-pay (WTP) for reducing DALYs. The value of nutrient inputs (nitrogen and phosphorus) due to reuse of untreated wastewater was evaluated at 33 million /year using fertilizer prices. Therefore, attempts to decrease public health problems associated with reuse in the Mezquital Valley need to address losses of economic benefits associated with nutrients in sewage. In 2007, the Mexican Government announced plans to install wastewater treatment plants in this area. Although nutrient inputs in irrigated water is expected to decrease by 33% due to the wastewater treatment, farmers in the Mezquital Valley would still benefit from improved public health in the community and increases of crop values due to the ability to grow raw-eaten vegetables.

Yamagata, H.; Sedlak, D. L.

2008-12-01

254

Associations between frequency of tea consumption and health and mortality: evidence from old Chinese.  

PubMed

Tea consumption may be associated with reduced risk of morbidity and mortality; however, this association is not conclusive and has rarely been investigated among very old adults. The present study examines how self-reported frequency of tea consumption in daily life is associated with health and mortality among very old adults in China. The data are from a national longitudinal data set that included 32 606 individuals (13 429 men and 19 177 women) aged 65 years and older: 11 807 respondents aged 65 to 84 years and 20 799 respondents aged 85 years and older. A total of four measurements between 1998 and 2005 resulted in 51 668 observations. Hazard regressions showed that men who drink tea almost every day have a 10-20 % lower risk of death compared to their counterparts who seldom drink tea, after adjusting for numerous confounders including baseline health. This relationship was stronger in younger male elders aged 65 to 84 years than in the oldest-old men aged 85 years and older. However, frequency of tea consumption was not significantly associated with mortality in women. Our analyses further show that high frequency of tea consumption is significantly associated with reduced OR of disability in activities of daily living, cognitive impairment, self-rated poor health, cumulative health deficits and CVD in both young elders and the oldest-old, and in both men and women. These results suggest that the health benefit of drinking tea is universal. We conclude that frequent tea consumption probably helps one achieve healthy longevity and that men benefit more from such lifestyles. PMID:22243697

Qiu, Li; Sautter, Jessica; Gu, Danan

2012-11-14

255

The Oral History Program: II. Personal views of health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association.  

PubMed Central

The Medical Library Association Oral History Program uses accepted oral history techniques to collect and preserve interviews with members. The original taped interviews and transcripts are kept in the Medical Library Association archives and made available for research purposes; edited copies of the interviews are distributed through the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, and members are encouraged to borrow and read the histories. Summaries of forty-three interviews provide personal views on health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association. PMID:9681172

McKenzie, D; Pifalo, V

1998-01-01

256

The Oral History Program: III. Personal views of health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association.  

PubMed Central

The Medical Library Association Oral History Program uses accepted oral history techniques to collect and preserve interviews with members. The original taped interviews and transcripts are kept in the Medical Library Association archives and made available for research purposes; edited copies of the interviews are distributed through the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, and members are encouraged to borrow and read the histories. Summaries of forty-three interviews provide personal views on health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association. PMID:9803287

McKenzie, D; Pifalo, V

1998-01-01

257

ASSOCIATION OF PERSONAL AND WORKPLACE CHARACTERISTICS WITH REPORTED HEALTH SYMPTOMS OF 6771 GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES IN WASHINGTON, DC  

EPA Science Inventory

An indoor air quality questionnaire was completed by 6771 employees of two government agencies. egression analyses on 12 clusters of health symptoms indicated that both personal and workplace characteristics were associated with symptoms. he variables associated with the largest ...

258

75 FR 52355 - A Review of Information Published Since 1995 on Coal Mine Dust Exposures and Associated Health...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Prevention [Docket Number NIOSH-210] A Review of Information Published Since 1995 on Coal Mine Dust Exposures and Associated Health...Intelligence Bulletin entitled ``A Review of Information Published Since 1995 on Coal Mine Dust Exposures and Associated...

2010-08-25

259

Impacts of climate change on the population health associated with pluvial disaster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many metropolises located in lowlands suffer pluvial inundation disaster more than pluvial flood disaster. During the post-inundation period, some water-borne illnesses would be induced from the polluted area. For improving mitigation strategies, population health risk assessment is an important tool of post-inundation disaster management, especially in the countries suffering tropical cyclones and monsoon with high frequency. Locating in the hot zone of typhoon tracks in the Western Pacific, Taiwan suffers three to five typhoons annually. Furthermore, the trend of 24 global circulation models (GCMs) shows that climate change would enhance rainfall in Taiwan. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impacts of climate change on the population health associated with pluvial disaster. This study applies the concept that risk is composed by hazard and vulnerability to assess the risk of the population health associated with pluvial disaster. Stochastic simulation of bi-variate Gamma distribution is developed to downscale the GCMs' monthly data to extreme rainfall event scale in time domain. According to A1B scenario in short-term period of climate change, two-dimensional overland-flow coupled with drainage systems simulation is performed based on a design extreme rainfall event to calculate the impacts of climate change on pluvial hazard to population health, including flood depth, velocity and the duration of flood recession. The environmental vulnerability for population health is carried out according to the factors of resident and environment. The risk matrix is applied to show the risk by composing the inundation hazards and vulnerabilities associated with population health. The Taipei City, the Capital of Taiwan, is selected as the case study because the highest density of population in Taiwan causes high exposure to the risk of water-borne illnesses. Through assessing the impacts of climate change on the population health associated with pluvial disaster of the Taipei City, the analytical results of pluvial-induced health risk can provide useful information for setting mitigation strategies of post-inundation disaster management. Keywords: climate change, population health, pluvial disaster.

Pan, Tsung-Yi; Chang, Tsang-Jung; Cheng, Ke-Sheng; Lai, Jihn-Sung; Chang, Hsiang-Kuan; Wu, Yii-Chen; Ho, Hao-Wei

2013-04-01

260

Factors associated with establishment-based female sex workers accessing health care services in Shanghai.  

PubMed

Female sex workers are a priority population for HIV prevention and health promotion in China. This paper examines the patterns of and factors associated with the utilisation of HIV-related and general health services by establishment-based sex workers in Hongkou District, Shanghai. Participants were recruited through a three-stage sampling strategy and invited to self-complete a brief survey in 2012. The median age of the 400 participants included in the analyses was 33 years (range = 18-52 years old), with over three-quarters being married at the time of the survey. Participants were mostly internal migrants, more than half had lived in Shanghai for six months or longer and nearly two-thirds were working in an establishment with a total of less than five female sex workers. Routine physical examination and HIV testing were the most commonly accessed health services in the previous 12 months. Altogether, 347 women (86.8%) had actively sought, including 157 women had obtained, free health services mainly from local Community Health Service Centres (CHSCs) in the previous 12 months. The active seeking of free, largely CHSC-provided health services was associated with a longer duration of residence in Shanghai (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.55, 95% CI = 1.32-4.93; p < 0.01) and having tested for HIV in the previous 12 months (AOR = 3.68, 95% CI = 1.84-7.38; p < 0.001). Conversely, a higher annual income (AOR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.21-0.80; p < 0.01), working in a larger establishment (AOR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.20-0.79; p < 0.01) and knowing that HIV can be transmitted through blood transfusion with unscreened blood (AOR = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.05-0.91; p < 0.05) were associated with not actively seeking such services. Free, community-based health services are highly demanded by establishment-based female sex workers in Shanghai. Scaling-up of free and integrated health services provided by community-based health service providers in metropolitan areas in China and beyond holds promise for promoting health and well-being of female sex workers. PMID:25634590

Pan, Rong; Mao, Limin; He, Na; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Kun; Liao, Cuiqin; Tang, Xian; Gong, Xiangzhen; Blaxland, Megan; de Wit, John

2015-06-01

261

Risk Factors and Health Profiles of Recent Migrant Women Who Experienced Violence Associated with Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Violence associated with pregnancy is a major public health concern, but little is known about it in recent migrant women. This study looked at (1) risk factors for violence associated with pregnancy among newly arrived migrant women in Canada and (2) if those who experienced violence associated with pregnancy had a different health profile or use of healthcare services for themselves or their infants during pregnancy and up to 4 months postpartum compared to other childbearing migrant women. Methods Pregnant migrant women in Canada <5 years were recruited in 12 hospitals in 3 large cities between 2006 and 2009 and followed to 4 months postpartum. Data were collected on maternal background, migration history, violence associated with pregnancy, maternal and infant physical and mental health, and services used. Results Of a total of 774 pregnant migrant women, 59 (7.6%) women reported violence associated with pregnancy. Migrant women who experienced violence, compared to those who did not, were at increased risk of violence if they lived without a partner, were asylum seekers, migrated <2 years ago, or had less than high school education. Women who reported violence were less likely to have up-to-date vaccinations, take folic acid before pregnancy, more likely to commence prenatal care after 3 months gestation and to not use contraceptives after birth. They were also more likely to have a history of miscarriage and report more postpartum pain and increased bleeding. They were also more likely to have inadequate social support and report more depression, anxiety, somatization, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on standardized tests. No differences were found in the health status of the infants of women who experienced violence compared to those who did not. Conclusions Clinicians should sensitively ask recent migrant women (asylum seekers, refugees, and nonrefugee immigrants) about violence associated with pregnancy and appropriately assess, treat, and refer them. PMID:22900928

Gagnon, Anita J.; Merry, Lisa A.; Dennis, Cindy-Lee

2012-01-01

262

Health state utilities associated with adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder  

PubMed Central

Objectives With growing awareness of the importance of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment, cost-effectiveness analyses, including utilities, are needed to compare the value of treatment options. Although utilities have been reported for childhood ADHD, little is known about utilities representing adult ADHD. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to estimate utilities associated with adult ADHD. Methods Health-state descriptions of adult ADHD were drafted based on literature review, interviews with four clinicians, and clinical trial data. Health states were revised based on a pilot study with 26 participants. Final health states were rated in time trade-off interviews with general population respondents in London and Edinburgh, UK. Results A total of 158 participants completed interviews (mean age =47.0 years; 49.4% female; Edinburgh =80 participants). Mean (standard deviation [SD]) utilities were 0.82 (0.17), 0.68 (0.28), and 0.67 (0.28) for health states describing treatment responders (health state A), nonresponders (health state B), and untreated patients (health state C), respectively. Most participants rated health state A as preferable to B (n=92; 58.2%) and C (n=97; 61.4%). The majority rated B and C as equal (n=125; 79.1%). Paired Student’s t-tests found that A had a significantly greater mean utility than B (t=10.0; P<0.0001) and C (t=10.2; P<0.0001). Conclusion The current study provides utilities that may be used in cost–utility models of treatment for adult ADHD. Results reflected clear differences between health states representing treatment responders and nonresponders/untreated patients. Current utilities were comparable to those previously reported for childhood ADHD. PMID:25114511

Matza, Louis S; Devine, Mary K; Haynes, Virginia Sutton; Davies, Evan W; Kostelec, Jacqueline M; Televantou, Foula; Jordan, Jessica B

2014-01-01

263

I35W collapse, rebuild, and structural health monitoring - challenges associated with structural health monitoring of bridge systems  

SciTech Connect

During evening rush hour traffic on August 1, 2007, the major interstate highway bridge carrying I35W over the Mississippi River in Minneapolis catastrophically failed, tragically taking the lives of thirteen people and injuring many more. The steel truss bridge, constructed in 1967, was undergoing deck reconstruction during the collapse, and was estimated to carry more than 140,000 vehicles daily. This tragedy generated great interest in employment of structural health monitoring systems. The I35W St. Anthony Falls Bridge, a post-tensioned concrete box bridge constructed to replace the collapsed steel truss bridge, contains over 500 instruments to monitor the structural behavior. Numerical models of the bridge are being developed and calibrated to the collected data obtained from truck load tests and thermal effects. The data obtained over the first few years of monitoring are being correlated with the calibrated models and used to develop the baseline bridge behavior. This information is being used to develop a system to monitor and interpret the long-term behavior of the bridge. This paper describes the instrumentation, preliminary results from the data and model calibration, the plan for developing long-term monitoring capabilities, and the challenges associated with structural health monitoring of bridge systems. In addition, opportunities and directions for future research required to fully realize the objectives of structural health monitoring are described.

French, C. E.; Hedegaard, B.; Shield, C. K.; Stolarski, H. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

2011-06-23

264

Predisposing, enabling, and need factors associated with high service use in a public mental health system.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) To investigate the individual- and system-level characteristics associated with high utilization of acute mental health services according to a widely-used theory of service use-Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Service Use -in individuals enrolled in a large, public-funded mental health system; and (2) To document service utilization by high use consumers prior to a transformation of the service delivery system. We analyzed data from 10,128 individuals receiving care in a large public mental health system from fiscal years 2000-2004. Subjects with information in the database for the index year (fiscal year 2000-2001) and all of the following 3 years were included in this study. Using logistic regression, we identified predisposing, enabling, and need characteristics associated with being categorized as a single-year high use consumer (HU: >3 acute care episodes in a single year) or multiple-year HU (>3 acute care episodes in more than 1 year). Thirteen percent of the sample met the criteria for being a single-year HU and an additional 8% met the definition for multiple-year HU. Although some predisposing factors were significantly associated with an increased likelihood of being classified as a HU (younger age and female gender) relative to non-HUs, the characteristics with the strongest associations with the HU definition, when controlling for all other factors, were enabling and need factors. Homelessness was associated with 115% increase in the odds of ever being classified as a HU compared to those living independently or with family and others. Having insurance was associated with increased odds of being classified as a HU by about 19% relative to non-HUs. Attending four or more outpatient visits was an enabling factor that decreased the chances of being defined as a HU. Need factors, such as having a diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or other psychotic disorder or having a substance use disorder increased the likelihood of being categorized as a HU. Characteristics with the strongest association with heavy use of a public mental health system were enabling and need factors. Therefore, optimal use of public mental services may be achieved by developing and implementing interventions that address the issues of homelessness, insurance coverage, and substance use. This may be best achieved by the integration of mental health, intensive case management, and supportive housing, as well as other social services. PMID:21533848

Lindamer, Laurie A; Liu, Lin; Sommerfeld, David H; Folsom, David P; Hawthorne, William; Garcia, Piedad; Aarons, Gregory A; Jeste, Dilip V

2012-05-01

265

Modeling the Association Between Particle Constituents of Air Pollution and Health Outcomes  

PubMed Central

There is increasing interest in evaluating the association between specific fine-particle (particles with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 µm; PM2.5) constituents and adverse health outcomes rather than focusing solely on the impact of total PM2.5. Because PM2.5 may be related to both constituent concentration and health outcomes, constituents that are more strongly correlated with PM2.5 may appear more closely related to adverse health outcomes than other constituents even if they are not inherently more toxic. Therefore, it is important to properly account for potential confounding by PM2.5 in these analyses. Usually, confounding is due to a factor that is distinct from the exposure and outcome. However, because constituents are a component of PM2.5, standard covariate adjustment is not appropriate. Similar considerations apply to source-apportioned concentrations and studies assessing either short-term or long-term impacts of constituents. Using data on 18 constituents and data from 1,060 patients admitted to a Boston medical center with ischemic stroke in 2003–2008, the authors illustrate several options for modeling the association between constituents and health outcomes that account for the impact of PM2.5. Although the different methods yield results with different interpretations, the relative rankings of the association between constituents and ischemic stroke were fairly consistent across models. PMID:22850792

Mostofsky, Elizabeth; Schwartz, Joel; Coull, Brent A.; Koutrakis, Petros; Wellenius, Gregory A.; Suh, Helen H.; Gold, Diane R.; Mittleman, Murray A.

2012-01-01

266

Caregiving for ill dependents and its association with employee health risks and productivity.  

PubMed

This study examined the loss of productivity and health risk status associated with employees who provide care for an ill dependent. A total of 16,651 employees (23% response rate) of a major financial services company completed a confidential Health Risk Appraisal (HRA) that included an eight-item version of the Work Limitations Questionnaire and a self-report of time missed from work during the previous 2 weeks to care for an ill dependent. A total of 10.6% of the respondents reported an average of 7.7 hours absent from work during the previous 2-week period to provide care for an ill dependent. Caregiving also was associated with a significant increase in the number of health risks for the employee. As the demand for caregiving time increased, caregivers reported a significant increase in work limitations. Caregiving for an ill dependent is associated with increased absenteeism and significant work limitations while on the job. Programs and work organization that helps employees balance their caregiving responsibilities for ill dependents may have a positive effect on health and productivity. PMID:15602179

Burton, Wayne N; Chen, Chin-Yu; Conti, Daniel J; Pransky, Glenn; Edington, Dee W

2004-10-01

267

The association between self-rated health and mortality in different socioeconomic groups in the GAZEL cohort study  

E-print Network

The association between self-rated health and mortality in different socioeconomic groups-Manoux Abstract Objectives Self-rated-health (SRH) is considered a valid measure of health status as it has been shown to predict mortality in several studies. We examine

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

268

Is the Health and Wellbeing of University Students Associated with their Academic Performance? Cross Sectional Findings from the United Kingdom  

PubMed Central

This study explored the associations between health awareness, health behaviour, subjective health status, and satisfaction of students with their educational experience as independent variables and three outcomes of educational achievement as dependent variables. We undertook two simultaneous cross-sectional surveys among students from one University in the UK during 2008?2009. The first survey was a general health survey; the second survey measured students’ satisfaction with different aspects of their learning and teaching experience. Students’ registration numbers linked the responses of both questionnaires together, and subsequently linked the questionnaires to the university database to import the grades that students actually achieved in their studies. Generally, on average, students (N = 380) exhibited medium to high satisfaction with their educational experiences. In the multivariate regression analyses, students’ satisfaction with their educational experiences was not associated with any of the three indicators of educational achievement (actual module mark; perceived own performance; importance of achieving good grades). The associations of educational satisfaction, health, health behaviours, heath complaints and financial parameters with the three outcomes of educational achievement did not differ between male and female students. Each of the health, health behaviours, health complaints and financial parameters were selectively associated with only some but not all three indicators of student educational achievement. We conclude that the findings support a conceptual framework suggesting reciprocal relationships between health, health behaviour and educational achievement. Comprehensive health promotion programmes may have the potential to influence relevant predictors of educational achievement in university students. PMID:20616988

Ansari, Walid El; Stock, Christiane

2010-01-01

269

Does the evidence about health risks associated with nitrate ingestion warrant an increase of the nitrate standard for drinking water?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several authors have suggested that it is safe to raise the health standard for nitrate in drinking water, and save money on measures associated with nitrate pollution of drinking water resources. The major argument has been that the epidemiologic evidence for acute and chronic health effects related to drinking water nitrate at concentrations near the health standard is inconclusive. With

Hans JM van Grinsven; Mary H Ward; Nigel Benjamin; Theo M de Kok

2006-01-01

270

The ABC of Physical Activity for Health: A consensus statement from the British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our understanding of the relationship between physical activity and health is constantly evolving. Therefore, the British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences convened a panel of experts to review the literature and produce guidelines that health professionals might use. In the ABC of Physical Activity for Health, A is for All healthy adults, B is for Beginners, and C is

Gary ODonovan; Anthony J. Blazevich; Colin Boreham; Ashley R. Cooper; Helen Crank; Ulf Ekelund; Kenneth R. Fox; Paul Gately; Billie Giles-Corti; Jason M. R. Gill; Mark Hamer; Ian McDermott; Marie Murphy; Nanette Mutrie; John J. Reilly; John M. Saxton; Emmanuel Stamatakis

2010-01-01

271

Dean of the College of Public Health is Stephen W. Wyatt. William G. Pfeifle is Associate Dean for Academic  

E-print Network

Knight is Chair, Preventive Medicine and Environmental Health. Richard Kryscio is Chair, Biostatistics. JuliaDean of the College of Public Health is Stephen W. Wyatt. William G. Pfeifle is Associate Dean Costich is Chair, Health Services Management. Wayne Sanderson is Chair, Epidemiology. Pamela B. Teaster

MacAdam, Keith

272

Food Avoidance and Food Modification Practices of Older Rural Adults: Association with Oral Health Status and Implications for Service Provision  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Dietary variation is important for health maintenance and disease prevention among older adults. However, oral health deficits impair ability to bite and chew foods. This study examines the association between oral health and foods avoided or modified in a multiethnic rural population of older adults. It considers implications for…

Quandt, Sara A.; Chen, Haiying; Bell, Ronny A.; Savoca, Margaret R.; Anderson, Andrea M.; Leng, Xiaoyan; Kohrman, Teresa; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Arcury, Thomas A.

2010-01-01

273

Aberdeen Area Indian Health Service Environmental Health Program Review Conducted by: Indian Health Committee of the National Environmental Health Association (Aberdeen, South Dakota, May 23-27, 1977).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Indian Health Committee met in Aberdeen, South Dakota, during the week of May 23, 1977 to (1) review the environmental health services provided to the tribal units on the 15 Indian reservations located in North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska and Iowa, and (2) make recommendations for improvement or expansion of current programs, if needed. The…

Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Aberdeen, SD. Aberdeen Area Office.

274

Epigenetic Change (GATA-4 Gene Methylation) Is Associated With Health Status in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.  

PubMed

Gene methylation is an epigenetic change that involves a heritable modification of chromatin structure that alters gene expression without a change in DNA sequence. It has previously been shown that methylation of the GATA-4 gene promoter region in sputum DNA is associated with low lung function and increased odds of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) among smokers. Given these findings, we hypothesized that GATA-4 gene methylation in sputum DNA would be associated with low health status, as measured by the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), in subjects with COPD. Self-reported SGRQ, spirometry, and induced sputum samples were obtained from 168 COPD subjects from the Lovelace Smokers Cohort. GATA-4 gene methylation was evaluated in sputum DNA using nested methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Using general linear model with Poisson regression, we found that GATA-4 gene methylation was significantly associated with overall lower SGRQ health status (parameter estimate = .296, p < .001). This finding remained significant even after controlling for age, lung function, and other covariates. In an additional analysis using logistic regression and comparing extreme tertiles of overall SGRQ score, we confirmed that GATA-4 gene methylation was associated with a 3-fold increase in risk of poor health status (OR 2.95 and p = .028). The unexplored links between epigenetic changes and psychosocial factors such as health status are critical gaps in the literature. This study is the first to suggest that airway GATA-4 gene methylation status may independently predict health status in individuals with COPD. PMID:24973415

Meek, Paula M; Sood, Akshay; Petersen, Hans; Belinsky, Steven A; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes

2015-03-01

275

Worse than sticks and stones? Bullying is associated with altered HPA axis functioning and poorer health.  

PubMed

Adolescents (N=107; M=12.23 years, SD=1.09 months) participated in a two-part study examining peer victimization, neuroendocrine functioning, and physical health. In phase 1, adolescents completed questionnaires assessing peer victimization and health. They returned for phase 2 which consisted of two sessions. In session 1, adolescents learned to collect salivary cortisol samples; they collected four samples over 2 non-sports school days. In session 2, adolescents completed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in which they prepared and delivered a speech while cortisol was collected. Peer victimization predicted poor health outcomes and a flattened cortisol awakening response (CAR); this CAR was linked with health problems. During the TSST, victims reported more stress and exhibited altered cortisol levels. Higher cortisol immediately after the stressor and lower cortisol 30 min after the stressor were associated with more health problems. This study provides evidence that the relationship between peer victimization and poor physical health may be explained by differences in neuroendocrine functioning. PMID:21839567

Knack, Jennifer M; Jensen-Campbell, Lauri A; Baum, Andrew

2011-11-01

276

Factors associated with job satisfaction among commune health workers: implications for human resource policies  

PubMed Central

Background Job satisfaction among health workers is an important indicator in assessing the performance and efficiency of health services. Objective This study measured job satisfaction and determined associated factors among health workers in 38 commune health stations in an urban district and a rural district of Hanoi, Vietnam. A total of 252 health workers (36 medical doctors and 216 nurses and technicians; 74% female) were interviewed. A job satisfaction measure was developed using factor analysis, from which four dimensions emerged, namely ‘benefits and prospects,’ ‘facility and equipment,’ ‘performance,’ and ‘professionals.’ Results The results demonstrate that respondents were least satisfied with the following categories: salary and incentives (24.0%), benefit packages (25.1%), equipment (35.7%), and environment (41.8%). The average satisfaction score was moderate across four domains; it was the highest for ‘performance’ (66.6/100) and lowest for ‘facility and equipment’ (50.4/100). Tobit-censored regression models, constructed using stepwise selection, determined significant predictors of job satisfaction including age, areas of work and expertise, professional education, urban versus rural setting, and sufficient number of staff. Conclusion The findings highlight the need to implement health policies that focus on incentives, working conditions, workloads, and personnel management at grassroots level. PMID:23374700

Tran, Bach Xuan; Minh, Hoang Van; Hinh, Nguyen Duc

2013-01-01

277

The association of resilience with mental and physical health among older American Indians: the Native Elder Care Study.  

PubMed

We examined the association of resilience with measures of mental and physical health in a sample of older American Indians (AIs). A validated scale measuring resilience was administered to 185 noninstitutionalized AIs aged>=55 years. Unadjusted analyses revealed that higher levels of resilience were associated with lower levels of depressive symptomatology and chronic pain, and with higher levels of mental and physical health. Resilience remained significantly associated with depressive symptomatology after controlling for demographic and other health measures. Our findings suggest that resilience among older AIs has important implications for some aspects of mental and physical health. PMID:23824641

Schure, Marc B; Odden, Michelle; Goins, R Turner

2013-01-01

278

Factors associated with early menarche: results from the French Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Puberty is a transition period making physiological development a challenge adolescents have to face. Early pubertal development could be associated with higher risks of poor health. Our objective was to examine risk behaviours, physical and psychological determinants associated with early menarche (<11 years). METHODS: Early menarche was assessed in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children French cross-sectional survey. Data

Adrien Gaudineau; Virginie Ehlinger; Christophe Vayssiere; Beatrice Jouret; Catherine Arnaud; Emmanuelle Godeau

2010-01-01

279

Health Problems and Medical Utilization Associated With Gambling Disorders: Results From the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Pathologic gambling is believed to be associated with adverse health consequences, but no prior studies have rigorously evaluated these relationships. We sought to examine medical disorders and health service utilization associated with problem and pathologic gambling. Method: A total of 43,093 adults aged 18 years and older were evaluated in the 2001 to 2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol

BENJAMIN J. MORASCO; ROBERT H. PIETRZAK; CARLOS BLANCO; BRIDGET F. GRANT; DEBORAH HASIN; NANCY M. PETRY

2006-01-01

280

The Moderating Role of Centrality on Associations between Ethnic Identity Affirmation and Ethnic Minority College Students' Mental Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Prior literature has shown that ethnic affirmation, one aspect of ethnic identity, is positively associated with mental health. However, the associations between ethnic affirmation and mental health may vary depending how much importance individuals place on their ethnic group membership (ie, centrality). Methods: Using path analysis,…

Brittian, Aerika S.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Lee, Richard M.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Kim, Su Yeong; Weisskirch, Robert S.; Castillo, Linda G.; Whitbourne, Susan Krauss; Hurley, Eric A.; Huynh, Que-Lam; Brown, Elissa J.; Caraway, S. Jean

2013-01-01

281

Factors Associated with Health-Related Quality of Life Among Older People with Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Background: This study was conducted to determine which factors (clinical and demographic) are associated with mental and physical health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among people with multiple sclerosis (MS) aged 60 years and older. Methods: Data were collected at four MS centers on Long Island, New York, from a total of 211 patients. Three surveys were administered that collected demographic information and included validated questionnaires measuring quality of life (QOL), cognition, depression, and disability. Multivariate linear regression analyses examined the relationship between patient demographics and scores on standardized scales measuring mental and physical HRQOL (Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life–54). Variables included in the regression models were selected on the basis of the Andersen Healthcare Utilization model. This framework encompasses the multiple influences on health status, including predisposing characteristics, enabling resources, need, and health behavior. Results: We found that mental HRQOL was negatively associated with having a high school education or less, risk of neurologic impairment, physical disability, and depression. No variables were positively associated with mental HRQOL. Physical HRQOL was negatively associated with risk of neurologic impairment, physical disability, depression, and the comorbidity of thyroid disease. However, patient employment and, surprisingly, being widowed were positively associated with physical HRQOL. These findings are consistent with those of similar studies among younger patients in which lower HRQOL was associated with increased disability, depression, risk of neurologic impairment, and lower levels of education. Conclusions: The findings that patient employment and being widowed were associated with better physical HRQOL suggest that older patients have the ability to adapt and adjust to the challenges of MS over time. Clinicians should regularly screen for HRQOL in older patients with MS. PMID:24688350

Banker, Wendy M.; Clement, Lynn M.

2014-01-01

282

Eating Behaviors, Mental Health, and Food Intake are Associated with Obesity in Older Congregate Meal Participants  

PubMed Central

The relationship between eating behaviors, food intake, and mental health and the occurrence of obesity in older adults has rarely been investigated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to establish the associative links of these factors with two measures of obesity: class I obesity as indicated by body mass index (OB-BMI; BMI ? 30kg/m2) and class I obesity as indicated by waist circumference (OB-WC; WC ? 43 inches for men and ? 42 inches for women). Older adults participating in the Older American’s Act (OAA) congregate meal program (N = 113, mean age = 74 years, 74% female, 45% African American) were assessed. Eating behaviors (cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, and emotional eating), food groups group choices (sweets, salty snacks, and fruits), and mental health indices (depression, anxiety, and stress) were recorded by questionnaire and related to measured occurrence of OB-BMI and OB-WC. In a series of multivariate logistical regression models, we found cognitive restraint to be consistently and robustly associated with both measures of obesity. In the fully adjusted model, cognitive restraint, consumption of sweets, anxiety, and lack of depression were associated with OB-WC. In summary, we found an association of obesity with abnormal eating behaviors, certain food group intakes, and mental health symptoms in this population. These findings may guide the development of future weight management interventions in a congregate meal setting. PMID:25424510

Porter Starr, Kathryn N.; Fischer, Joan G.; Johnson, Mary Ann

2015-01-01

283

Association between market concentration of hospitals and patient health gain following hip replacement surgery  

PubMed Central

Objectives To assess the association between market concentration of hospitals (as a proxy for competition) and patient-reported health gains after elective primary hip replacement surgery. Methods Patient Reported Outcome Measures data linked to NHS Hospital Episode Statistics in England in 2011/12 were used to analyse the association between market concentration of hospitals measured by the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) and health gains for 337 hospitals. Results The association between market concentration and patient gain in health status measured by the change in Oxford Hip Score (OHS) after primary hip replacement surgery was not statistically significant at the 5% level both for the average patient and for those with more than average severity of hip disease (OHS worse than average). For 12,583 (49.1%) patients with an OHS before hip replacement surgery better than the mean, a one standard deviation increase in the HHI, equivalent to a reduction of about one hospital in the local market, was associated with a 0.104 decrease in patients’ self-reported improvement in OHS after surgery, but this was not statistically significant at the 5% level. Conclusions Hospital market concentration (as a proxy for competition) appears to have no significant influence (at the 5% level) on the outcome of elective primary hip replacement. The generalizability of this finding needs to be investigated. PMID:25213207

Pistollato, Michele; Charlesworth, Anita; Devlin, Nancy; Propper, Carol; Sussex, Jon

2015-01-01

284

Evaluation of potential health effects associated with serum polychlorinated biphenyl levels  

SciTech Connect

In late 1983, we conducted a cross-sectional epidemiologic study to evaluate persons at risk of exposure to three chemical waste sites by comparing clinical disease end points and clinical chemistry parameters with serum polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) levels. A total of 106 individuals participated in the study. The only statistically significant finding in regard to self-reported, physician-diagnosed health problems was a dose-response relationship between serum PCB levels and the occurrence of high blood pressure; however, this association failed to achieve statistical significance when we controlled for possible confounding effects of both age and smoking. Serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels were also higher in the group with elevated serum PCBs; additionally, there were isolated statistically significant correlations of serum aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT) with serum lipid fraction-adjusted PCB level and serum albumin and total bilirubin with serum PCB level. Although the ranges of serum levels reported herein from exposures to PCBs in the general environment are lower than those that have been associated with acute symptoms or illness in other studies, whether these levels are associated with long-term health risks is not known. Associations of such chronic, low-dose exposures with observable health effects as suggested by this study must be evaluated further before any final conclusions can be drawn.

Stehr-Green, P.A.; Welty, E.; Steele, G.; Steinberg, K.

1986-12-01

285

The Association of Health Literacy with Adherence and Outcomes in Moderate-Severe Asthma  

PubMed Central

Background Low health literacy is associated with poor outcomes in asthma and other diseases but the mechanisms governing this relationship are not well-defined. Objective To assess whether literacy is related to subsequent asthma self-management, measured as adherence to inhaled steroids, and asthma outcomes. Methods In a prospective longitudinal cohort study, numeric (Asthma Numeracy Questionnaire (ANQ)) and print literacy (Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA)) were assessed at baseline in adults with moderate or severe asthma for their impact on subsequent electronically monitored adherence and asthma outcomes (asthma control, asthma-related quality of life, and FEV1) over 26 weeks, using mixed-effects linear regression models. Results 284 adults participated: 48±14 years, 71% female, 70% African American, 6% Latino, mean FEV1 66% ± 19%, 86 (30%) with hospitalizations and 148 (52%) with ED visits for asthma in the prior year. Mean ANQ score (range 0–4) was 2.3 ± 1.2; mean S-TOFHLA score 31 ± 8 (range 0–36). In unadjusted analyses numeric and print literacy were associated with better adherence (p=0.01, p=0.08), asthma control (p=0.005, p <0.001), and quality of life (p<0.001, p<0.001). After controlling for age, sex, and race/ethnicity, the associations diminished and only quality of life (numeric: p=0.03, print p=0.006) and asthma control (print p=0.005) remained significantly associated with literacy. Race/ethnicity, income, and educational attainment were correlated (p<0.001). Conclusion While the relationship between literacy and health is complex, interventions which account for and address the literacy needs of patients may improve asthma outcomes. Clinical Implications/Key Summary In adults with moderate or severe asthma, higher health literacy scores were associated with better subsequent quality of life and asthma control. PMID:23591273

Apter, Andrea J.; Wan, Fei; Reisine, Susan; Bender, Bruce; Rand, Cynthia; Bogen, Daniel K.; Bennett, Ian M.; Bryant-Stephens, Tyra; Roy, Jason; Gonzalez, Rodalyn; Priolo, Chantel; Have, Thomas Ten; Morales, Knashawn H.

2013-01-01

286

Epidemiology and Outcomes of Health-care-Associated Pneumonia* Results From a Large US Database of Culture-Positive Pneumonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: Traditionally, pneumonia developing in patients outside the hospital is categorized as community acquired, even if these patients have been receiving health care in an outpatient facility. Accumulating evidence suggests that health-care-associated infections are distinct from those that are truly community acquired. Objective: To characterize the microbiology and outcomes among patients with culture-positive community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), health-care-associated pneumonia (HCAP), hospital-

Marin H. Kollef; Andrew Shorr; Ying P. Tabak; Vikas Gupta; Larry Z. Liu; R. S. Johannes

2005-01-01

287

Factors Associated With Health Service Utilization in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia: A Population-Based Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Understanding patterns of health service utilization can improve health care and increase use of health services. We examined patterns of health service utilization among residents of Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Methods A total of 500 adults were surveyed using paper-based questionnaires. The ?2 test and multiple logistic regression were used to identify associations between factors. Results 44.1% of respondents had visited a physician during the previous 12 months. After controlling for determinants, the significant predictors of utilization of health service were attention to health examinations (OR = 3.6, CI: 1.93–6.76), being married (OR = 2.7, CI: 1.50–4.72), being satisfied with the overall cleanliness of the hospital (OR = 2.4, CI: 1.12–5.19), being a nonsmoker (OR = 2.2, CI: 1.21–3.98), having periodic physical examinations (OR = 2.2, CI: 1.25–3.71), not being a hospital patient during the previous 3 years (OR = 2.1, CI: 1.22–3.73), having proper documentation (OR = 1.9, CI: 1.10–3.43), having medical insurance (OR = 1.9, CI: 1.96–3.28), not wanting to receive information on food and nutrition (OR = 0.6, CI: 0.36–0.96), having more than 5 household members (OR = 0.5, CI: 0.50–0.85), low income (OR = 0.5, CI: 0.30–0.85), lack of concern for food and nutrition (OR = 0.5, CI: 0.28–0.84), self-medication during the past 12 months (OR = 0.4, CI: 0.24–0.69), and desire for treatment abroad (OR = 0.4, CI: 0.20–0.60). Conclusions A number of health-related behaviors and sociodemographic factors were important predictors of health service utilization. PMID:23831715

Gan-Yadam, Amarsanaa; Shinohara, Ryoji; Sugisawa, Yuka; Tanaka, Emiko; Watanabe, Taeko; Hirano, Maki; Tomisaki, Etsuko; Morita, Kentaro; Onda, Yoko; Tokutake, Kentaro; Mochizuki, Yukiko; Matsumoto, Misako; Sugita, Chihiro; Anme, Tokie

2013-01-01

288

Gender-specific responses to social determinants associated with self-perceived health in Taiwan: A multilevel approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are well-documented gender differences in health. However, few studies have considered that the associations of personal and household characteristics with perceived health may vary between men and women because of their different socialized gender roles. This study investigates gender differences in health and addresses gender-specific responses to individual- and household-level determinants of health. We analyze the data of the

Duan-Rung Chen; Ly-Yun Chang; Meng-Li Yang

2008-01-01

289

Psychosocial Factors Associated With Routine Health Examination Scheduling and Receipt Among African American Men  

PubMed Central

Introduction African American men often fail to obtain routine health examinations, which increases the probability of disease detection, yet little is known about psychosocial factors that motivate scheduling and receipt among this group. Methods We used the Andersen model and theory of reasoned action as frameworks to evaluate the relative contribution of psychosocial factors to self-reported routine health examination scheduling and receipt in a cross-sectional sample of African American men (N = 386) recruited from barbershops (65.3%) and academic institutions/events (34.7%) in Michigan, Georgia, and North Carolina between 2003-2004 and 2007-2009. Participants completed measures assessing demographic factors, physical/mental health status, traditional male role norms, health-promoting male subjective norms, health value, and medical mistrust. Pearson's ?2, analysis of variance, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to investigate associations between these study factors and routine health examination scheduling and receipt in the past year. Results After final adjustment, the odds of scheduling a routine health examination were increased for men with a usual source of care (OR, 5.48; 95% CI, 3.06-9.78) and more health-promoting male subjective norms exposure (OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.02-2.04). Higher medical mistrust (OR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.09-0.76) and traditional male role norms (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.52-0.98) reduced the odds of routine health examination receipt. The odds of routine health examination receipt were increased among men who were older (OR=1.05; 95% CI, 1.01-1.10), had a usual source of care (OR, 2.91; 95% CI, 1.54-5.51) and reported more male subjective norms exposure (OR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.02-2.22). Conclusions Improving African American men's uptake of routine health examinations will require addressing medical mistrust, mitigating traditional masculine concerns about disclosing vulnerability, and leveraging male social networks. PMID:20437735

Hammond, Wizdom Powell; Matthews, Derrick; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

2010-01-01

290

Increased health burden associated with comorbid depression in older Brazilians with diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background The health burden associated with comorbid depression and diabetes in older community residents in middle income countries is unclear. Methods Data came from a statewide representative sample (N= 6,963, age ?60) in Brazil. Controlled polytomous logistic regression was used to determine whether four mutually exclusive groups (all possible combinations of the presence or absence of depression and diabetes) differed in sociodemographic characteristics, social resources, health behaviors, and selected health conditions. Results While 2.37% were expected to have comorbid depression/diabetes given sample base rates (depression: 20.92% [1457/6963]; diabetes: 11.35% [790/6959]), comorbidity was present in 3.62% (52.5% beyond expectation; P<0.0001; OR = 1.58, 95% Confidence Interval 1.29–1.95). Depression without diabetes was reported by17.3%, and diabetes without depression by 7.7%. In controlled analyses, the depression group had poorer socioeconomic status and health behaviors, and a greater likelihood of vascular, respiratory, and musculoskeletal problems than the diabetes group. Vascular, respiratory, and urinary problems were exacerbated in comorbid depression/diabetes; the comorbid group was also more likely to be female and younger. Limitations cross-sectional design. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study that explicitly reports on all four possible depression/diabetes combinations in an older representative community-resident sample, using controlled analyses to identify unique associations with sociodemographic characteristics and other health conditions. The burden of comorbid depression/diabetes in Brazil, a middle income country, appears to be comparable to that found in higher income countries. So, similarly, depression without diabetes had a greater odds of adverse sociodemographic and health conditions than diabetes without depression; comorbid depression/diabetes was more likely in women and young elderly, and the odds of vascular, respiratory, and urinary conditions was increased significantly. Attention to comorbid depression/diabetes as a unique entity is needed. PMID:21684613

Blay, S. L.; Fillenbaum, G.G.; Marinho, V.; Andreoli, S.B.; Gastal, F.L.

2013-01-01

291

Reducing Health Disparity in People with Intellectual Disabilities: A Report from Health Issues Special Interest Research Group of the International Association for the Scientific Study of Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Disparities in the health status and care experienced by people with intellectual disabilities are increasingly being recognized. This special report presents the results of an international expert consensus workshop held under the auspices of the Health Issues Special Interest Research Group of the International Association for the Scientific…

Scheepers, M.; Kerr, M.; O'Hara, D.; Bainbridge, D.; Cooper, S.-A.; Davis, R.; Fujiura, G.; Heller, T.; Holland, A.; Krahn, G.; Lennox, N.; Meaney, J.; Wehmeyer, M.

2005-01-01

292

Association of ventilation with health and other responses in commercial and institutional buildings  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents a summary of a review [1] of current literature on the associations of ventilation rates in non-residential and non-industrial buildings (primarily offices) with health and other human outcomes. Twenty studies, with close to 30,000 subjects, investigated the association of ventilation rates with human responses. (Twenty one studies investigating the association of carbon dioxide with human responses, although included in the previous review, are not summarized here.) Almost all studies including ventilation rates below 10 Ls{sup -1} per person found these ventilation rates to be associated in all building types with statistically significant worsening in one or more health or perceived air quality outcomes. Some studies comparing only ventilation rates above 10 Ls{sup -1} per person determined that increases in ventilation rate above 10 Ls{sup -1} per person, up to approximately 20 Ls{sup -1} per person, were associated with further significant decreases in the prevalence of SBS symptoms or with further significant improvements in perceived air quality. The studies reported relative risks of 1.5-2 for respiratory illnesses and 1.1-6 for sick building syndrome symptoms for low compared to high ventilation rates.

Seppanen, Olli; Fisk, William J.; Mendell, Mark J.

2000-08-01

293

The Association between Proximity to Animal Feeding Operations and Community Health: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background A systematic review was conducted for the association between animal feeding operations (AFOs) and the health of individuals living near AFOs. Methodology/Principal Findings The review was restricted to studies reporting respiratory, gastrointestinal and mental health outcomes in individuals living near AFOs in North America, European Union, United Kingdom, and Scandinavia. From June to September 2008 searches were conducted in PUBMED, CAB, Web-of-Science, and Agricola with no restrictions. Hand searching of narrative reviews was also used. Two reviewers independently evaluated the role of chance, confounding, information, selection and analytic bias on the study outcome. Nine relevant studies were identified. The studies were heterogeneous with respect to outcomes and exposures assessed. Few studies reported an association between surrogate clinical outcomes and AFO proximity. A negative association was reported when odor was the measure of exposure to AFOs and self-reported disease, the measure of outcome. There was evidence of an association between self-reported disease and proximity to AFO in individuals annoyed by AFO odor. Conclusions/Significance There was inconsistent evidence of a weak association between self-reported disease in people with allergies or familial history of allergies. No consistent dose response relationship between exposure and disease was observable. PMID:20224825

O'Connor, Annette M.; Auvermann, Brent; Bickett-Weddle, Danelle; Kirkhorn, Steve; Sargeant, Jan M.; Ramirez, Alejandro; Von Essen, Susanna G.

2010-01-01

294

A conditional expectation approach for associating ambient air pollutant exposures with health outcomes  

PubMed Central

Our research focuses on the association between exposure to an airborne pollutant and counts of emergency department visits attributed to a specific chronic illness. The motivating example for this analysis of measurement error in time series studies of air pollution and acute health outcomes was a study of emergency department visits from a 20-county Atlanta metropolitan statistical area from 1993–1999. The research presented illustrates the impact of using various surrogates for unobserved measurements of ambient concentrations at the zip code level. Simulation results indicate that the impact of measurement error on the association between pollutant exposure and a health outcome can be substantial. The proposed conditional expectation approach provided reliable estimates of the association and exhibited good confidence interval coverage for a variety of magnitudes of association. Use of a single-centrally located monitor, the arithmetic average, the nearest-neighbor monitor, and the inverse-distance weighted average surrogates resulted in biased estimates and poor coverage rates, especially for larger magnitudes of the association. A focus on obtaining reasonable exposure measurements within clearly defined subregions is important when the pollutant exposure of interest exhibits strong spatial variability. PMID:20161413

Wannemuehler, Kathleen A.; Lyles, Robert H.; Waller, Lance A.; Hoekstra, Robert M.; Klein, Mitchel; Tolbert, Paige

2009-01-01

295

Factors Associated with Attributions About Child Health Conditions and Social Distance Preference  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to better understand factors that account for the emergence and persistence of negative attitudes towards mental\\u000a health problems, attributions about and stigma towards children’s mental and physical illnesses were examined using National\\u000a Stigma Study—Children data. Parent blame attributions were most strongly associated with attention deficit disorder, environmental\\u000a causes with depression, and biology with asthma. Parent blame was more

Abraham MukoloCraig; Craig Anne Heflinger

2011-01-01

296

Associations between Green Space and Health in English Cities: An Ecological, Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Green space has been identified as a modifiable feature of the urban environment and associations with physiological and psychological health have been reported at the local level. This study aims to assess whether these associations between health and green space are transferable to a larger scale, with English cities as the unit of analysis. We used an ecological, cross-sectional study design. We classified satellite-based land cover data to quantify green space coverage for the 50 largest cities in England. We assessed associations between city green space coverage with risk of death from all causes, cardiovascular disease, lung cancer and suicide between 2002 and 2009 using Poisson regression with random effect. After adjustment for age, income deprivation and air pollution, we found that at the city level the risk of death from all causes and a priori selected causes, for men and women, did not significantly differ between the greenest and least green cities. These findings suggest that the local health effects of urban green space observed at the neighbourhood level in some studies do not transfer to the city level. Further work is needed to establish how urban residents interact with local green space, in order to ascertain the most relevant measures of green space. PMID:25775020

Bixby, Honor; Hodgson, Susan; Fortunato, Léa; Hansell, Anna; Fecht, Daniela

2015-01-01

297

Induced Abortion and Associated Factors in Health Facilities of Guraghe Zone, Southern Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Unsafe abortion is one of the major medical and public health problems in developing countries including Ethiopia. However, there is a lack of up-to-date and reliable information on induced abortion distribution and its determinant factors in the country. This study was intended to assess induced abortion and associated factors in health facilities of Guraghe zone, Southern Ethiopia. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted in eight health facilities in Guraghe zone. Client exit interview was conducted on 400 patients using a structured questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with induced abortion. Out of 400 women, 75.5% responded that the current pregnancy that ended in abortion is unwanted. However, only 12.3% of the respondents have admitted interference to the current pregnancy. Having more than four pregnancies (AOR?=?4.28, CI: (1.24–14.71)), age of 30–34 years (AOR?=?0.15, CI: (0.04–0.55)), primary education (AOR?=?0.26, CI: (0.13–0.88)), and wanted pregnancy (AOR?=?0.44, CI: (0.14–0.65)) were found to have association with induced abortion. The study revealed high level of induced abortion which is underpinned by high magnitude of unwanted pregnancy. There is requirement for widespread expansion of increased access to high quality family planning service and post-abortion care. PMID:24800079

Hambisa, Mitiku Teshome; Semahegn, Agumasie

2014-01-01

298

Associations between Green Space and Health in English Cities: An Ecological, Cross-Sectional Study.  

PubMed

Green space has been identified as a modifiable feature of the urban environment and associations with physiological and psychological health have been reported at the local level. This study aims to assess whether these associations between health and green space are transferable to a larger scale, with English cities as the unit of analysis. We used an ecological, cross-sectional study design. We classified satellite-based land cover data to quantify green space coverage for the 50 largest cities in England. We assessed associations between city green space coverage with risk of death from all causes, cardiovascular disease, lung cancer and suicide between 2002 and 2009 using Poisson regression with random effect. After adjustment for age, income deprivation and air pollution, we found that at the city level the risk of death from all causes and a priori selected causes, for men and women, did not significantly differ between the greenest and least green cities. These findings suggest that the local health effects of urban green space observed at the neighbourhood level in some studies do not transfer to the city level. Further work is needed to establish how urban residents interact with local green space, in order to ascertain the most relevant measures of green space. PMID:25775020

Bixby, Honor; Hodgson, Susan; Fortunato, Léa; Hansell, Anna; Fecht, Daniela

2015-01-01

299

Children exposed to the arrest of a family member: Associations with mental health  

PubMed Central

The arrest of a parent or other family member can be detrimental to children’s health. To study the impact of exposure to the arrest of a family member on children’s mental health and how said association may change across developmental periods, we examined baseline data for children (birth through 11 years) entering family-based systems of care (SOC). Children exposed to the arrest of a family member had experienced significantly more 5.38 (SD = 2.59) different types of potentially traumatic events (PTE) than children not exposed to arrest 2.84 (SD = 2.56). Multiple regression model results showed that arrest exposure was significantly associated with greater behavioral and emotional challenges after controlling for children’s age, gender, race/ethnicity, household income, caregiver’s education, parenting factors, and other PTE exposure. Further analyses revealed differences in internalizing and externalizing behaviors associated with arrest exposure across developmental levels. This study highlights some of the mental health challenges for children exposed to the arrest of a family member, while adding to our knowledge of how such an event affects children across different developmental periods. More trauma-informed, developmentally appropriate systems need to be in place at all levels to assist children and families experiencing arrest. PMID:24829537

Snyder, Frank J.; Kaufman, Joy S.; Finley, Meghan K.; Griffin, Amy; Anderson, Janet; Marshall, Tim; Radway, Susan; Stack, Virginia; Crusto, Cindy A.

2013-01-01

300

Oral health of elite athletes and association with performance: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background We aimed to systematically review the epidemiology of oral disease and trauma in the elite athlete population and to investigate the impact of oral health on sporting performance. Methods Authors searched Ovid MEDLINE (1950 to October 2013), Ovid EMBASE (1980 to October 2013), EBSCO SPORTDiscus (up to October 2013) and OpenGrey (http://www.opengrey.eu). No date or language restrictions were applied. Papers were included if they evaluated the oral health of professional athletes. The methodological quality of papers was evaluated using a modification of the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Results The literature search led to 9858 potentially relevant citations. Following a set of predefined exclusion criteria, 34 studies remained. Twenty-six studies reported on dental trauma, which ranged in prevalence from 14% to 47% varying by sport and country. Sixteen studies considered the oral health of athletes and reported high prevalence of oral diseases: dental caries 15–75%, dental erosion 36–85%, periodontal disease 15%. In four studies, a range between 5% and 18% of athletes reported negative impact of oral health or trauma on performance. The methodological quality of included studies was generally low. Conclusions Within the limits of the review, oral health of athletes is poor. We hypothesise that poor oral health associates with self-reported performance; however, this needs to be tested. Further studies on representative samples of athletes are needed to assess the size of the problem of poor oral health as well as to investigate the possible impact on performance using objective measures of performance. PMID:25388551

Ashley, P; Di Iorio, A; Cole, E; Tanday, A; Needleman, I

2015-01-01

301

Leisure time physical activity and health-related quality of life: Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies that relate change in physical activity to change in health-related quality of life in the general population are needed to confirm associations suggested by cross-sectional studies. In the present study, cross-sectional as well as longitudinal associations between leisure time physical activity and health-related quality of life were studied in an apparently healthy population. The present study showed cross-sectional associations

G. C. W. Wendel-Vos; A. J. Schuit; M. A. R. Tijhuis; D. Kromhout

2004-01-01

302

Adherence to the 2006 American Heart Association Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations for cardiovascular disease risk reduction is associated with bone health in older Puerto Ricans  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and osteoporosis are 2 major public health problems that share common pathophysiological mechanisms. It is possible that strategies to reduce CVD risk may also benefit bone health. We tested the hypothesis that adherence to the 2006 American Heart Association Diet and Li...

303

Health and health-related quality of life among treatment-seeking overweight and obese adults: associations with internalized weight bias  

PubMed Central

Background Weight bias is widespread and has numerous harmful consequences. The internalization of weight bias has been associated with significant psychological impairment. Other forms of discrimination, such as racial and anti-gay bias, have been shown to be associated with physical health impairment. However, research has not yet examined whether internalized weight bias is associated with physical as well as psychological impairment in health-related quality of life. Methods Participants included 120 treatment-seeking overweight and obese adults (mean body mass index = 35.09; mean age = 48.31; 68% female; 59% mixed or Asian ethnicity). Participants were administered measures of internalized weight bias and physical and mental health-related quality of life, and they were assessed for the presence of chronic medical conditions, use of prescription and non-prescription medications, and current exercise. Results Internalized weight bias was significantly correlated with health impairment in both physical (r = ?.25) and mental (r = ?.48) domains. In multivariate analyses controlling for body mass index, age, and other physical health indicators, internalized weight bias significantly and independently predicted impairment in both physical (? = ?.31) and mental (? = ?.47) health. Conclusions Internalized weight bias was associated with greater impairment in both the physical and mental domains of health-related quality of life. Internalized weight bias also contributed significantly to the variance in physical and mental health impairment over and above the contributions of BMI, age, and medical comorbidity. Consistent with the association between prejudice and physical health in other minority groups, these findings suggest a link between the effects of internalized weight-based discrimination and physical health. Research is needed on strategies to prevent weight bias and its internalization on both a societal and individual level. PMID:24764526

2013-01-01

304

The Association between Long Working Hours and Self-Rated Health  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study was conducted to determine the number of hours worked per week by full-time wage workers by using the data of the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study (KLIPS), which represents the domestic urban area household, and to determine the association between weekly working hours and the level of self-rated health. Methods We used data from the 11th KLIPS conducted in 2008. The subjects of this study were 3,699 full-time wage workers between the ages of 25 and 64 years. The association between weekly working hours and self-rated health was analyzed considering socio-demographic characteristics, work environment, and health-related behaviors. Results Among the workers, 29.7% worked less than 40 hours per week; 39.7%, more than 40 to 52 hours; 19.7%, more than 52 to 60 hours; and 10.9%, more than 60 hours per week. After controlling for socio-demographic variables, work environment-related variables, and health-related behavior variables, the odds ratio (OR) for poor self-rated health for the group working more than 40 hours and up to 52 hours was calculated to be 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.89-1.27) when the group working less than 40 hours per week was considered the reference. The OR for the group working more than 60 hours was 1.42 (95% CI, 1.10-1.83) and that for the group working more than 52 hours and up to 60 hours was 1.07 (95% CI, 0.86-1.33). After stratification by gender and tenure, the OR of the female workers group and that of the group with a tenure of more than 1 year were found to be significantly higher than those of the other groups. Conclusions This study showed that workers working more than 60 hours per week have a significantly higher risk of poor self-rated health than workers working less than 40 hours per week. This effect was more obvious for the female workers group and the group with a tenure of more than 1 year. In the future, longitudinal studies may be needed to determine the association between long working hours and various health effects in Korean workers. PMID:24472333

2014-01-01

305

Health status and quality of life in postpartum women: a systematic review of associated factors.  

PubMed

Since health care is becoming more and more patient centered, patient-reported outcomes such as quality of life (QOL) and health status (HS) are becoming increasingly important. The aim of this systematic review was to provide an overview of physical, psychological, and social domains of QOL and HS in postpartum women, and to assess which factors are associated with QOL and HS domains postpartum. A computerized literature search was performed using the PubMed, PsycINFO, and Cochrane databases. Studies were selected if the three domains of QOL or HS were measured in a (sub)group of postpartum women, by using validated standardized questionnaires. The methodological quality of the 66 included studies was examined by two independent reviewers. All three domains of QOL were impaired in postpartum women with urinary incontinence, with even worse QOL in women with mixed urinary incontinence. Mental QOL was impaired in women with urge urinary incontinence after cesarean section. Social QOL was decreased in HIV-positive women. HS was impaired in all three domains in postpartum depressed women. Physical HS was impaired after cesarean section for at least two months postpartum. Additional supportive interventions from health care social support were not associated with improved HS. Urinary incontinence and being HIV-positive seemed to be associated with impaired QOL. Postpartum depression and a cesarean section seemed to be associated with impaired HS. Prospective longitudinal research is needed in order to draw valid conclusions regarding postpartum HS and QOL, and the predictive value of the associated factors. PMID:25522118

Van der Woude, Daisy A A; Pijnenborg, Johanna M A; de Vries, Jolanda

2015-02-01

306

It Gets Better: Resolution of Internalized Homophobia over Time and Associations with Positive Health Outcomes among MSM  

PubMed Central

Health disparities research among gay and bisexual men has focused primarily on risk and deficits. However, a focus on resiliencies within this population may greatly benefit health promotion. We describe a pattern of resilience (internalized homophobia (IHP) resolution) over the life-course and its associations with current health outcomes. 1,541 gay and bisexual men from the Multi-Center AIDS Cohort study, an ongoing prospective study of the natural and treated histories of HIV, completed a survey about life-course events thought to be related to health. The majority of men resolved IHP over time independent of demographics. Men who resolved IHP had significantly higher odds of positive health outcomes compared to those who did not. These results provide evidence of resilience among participants that is associated with positive health outcomes. Understanding resiliencies and incorporating them into interventions may help to promote health and well-being among gay and bisexual men. PMID:23283578

Herrick, Amy L.; Stall, Ron; Chmiel, Joan S.; Guadamuz, Thomas E.; Penniman, Typhanye; Shoptaw, Steven; Ostrow, David; Plankey, Michael w.

2013-01-01

307

Is there an association between disease ignorance and self-rated health? The HUNT Study, a cross-sectional survey  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore whether awareness versus unawareness of thyroid dysfunction, diabetes mellitus or hypertension is associated with self-rated health. Design Large-scale, cross-sectional population-based study. The association between thyroid function, diabetes mellitus and blood pressure and self-rated health was explored by multiple logistic regression analysis. Setting The second survey of the Nord-Trřndelag Health Study, HUNT2, 1995–1997. Participants 33?734 persons aged 40–70?years. Primary outcome measures Logistic regression was used to estimate ORs for good self-rated health as a function of thyroid status, diabetes mellitus status and blood pressure status. Results Persons aware of their hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus or hypertension reported poorer self-rated health than individuals without such conditions. Women with unknown and subclinical hypothyroidism reported better self-rated health than women with normal thyroid status. In women and men, unknown and probable diabetes as well as unknown mild/moderate hypertension was not associated with poorer health. Furthermore, persons with unknown severe hypertension reported better health than normotensive persons. Conclusions People with undiagnosed but prevalent hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus and hypertension often have good self-rated health, while when aware of their diagnoses, they report reduced self-rated health. Use of screening, more sensitive tests and widened diagnostic criteria might have a negative effect on perceived health in the population. PMID:24871539

Jřrgensen, Pĺl; Langhammer, Arnulf; Krokstad, Steinar; Forsmo, Siri

2014-01-01

308

An Association between Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and Migraine Headaches—National Health Interview Survey, 2010  

PubMed Central

Background: Migraine headaches have not historically been considered a compression neuropathy. Recent studies suggest that some migraines are successfully treated by targeted peripheral nerve decompression. Other compression neuropathies have previously been associated with one another. The goal of this study is to evaluate whether an association exists between migraines and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), the most common compression neuropathy. Methods: Data from 25,880 respondents of the cross-sectional 2010 National Health Interview Survey were used to calculate nationally representative prevalence estimates and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of CTS and migraine headaches. Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% CI for the degree of association between migraines and CTS after controlling for known demographic and health-related factors. Results: CTS was associated with older age, female gender, obesity, diabetes, and smoking. CTS was less common in Hispanics and Asians. Migraine was associated with younger age, female gender, obesity, diabetes, and current smoking. Migraine was less common in Asians. Migraine prevalence was 34% in those with CTS compared with 16% in those without CTS (aOR, 2.60; 95% CI, 2.16–3.13). CTS prevalence in patients with migraine headache was 8% compared with 3% in those without migraine headache (aOR, 2.67; 95% CI, 2.22–3.22). Conclusions: This study is the first to demonstrate an association between CTS and migraine headache. Longitudinal and genetic studies with physician verification of migraine headaches and CTS are needed to further define this association.

Law, Huay-Zong; Amirlak, Bardia; Cheng, Jonathan

2015-01-01

309

Assessment of the Association of Health with the Liberalisation of Trade in Services under the World Trade Organisation  

PubMed Central

Background The liberalisation of trade in services which began in 1995 under the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) has generated arguments for and against its potential health effects. Our goal was to explore the relationship between the liberalisation of services under the GATS and three health indicators - life expectancy (LE), under-5 mortality (U5M) and maternal mortality (MM) - since the WTO was established. Methods and Findings This was a cross-sectional ecological study that explored the association in 2010 and 1995 between liberalisation and health (LE, U5M and MM), and between liberalisation and progress in health in the period 1995–2010, considering variables related to economic and social policies such as per capita income (GDP pc), public expenditure on health (PEH), and income inequality (Gini index). The units of observation and analysis were WTO member countries with data available for 2010 (n?=?116), 1995 (n?=?114) and 1995–2010 (n?=?114). We conducted bivariate and multivariate linear regression analyses adjusted for GDP pc, Gini and PEH. Increased global liberalisation in services under the WTO was associated with better health in 2010 (U5M: ?0.358 p<0.001; MM: ?0.338 p?=?0.001; LE: 0.247 p?=?0.008) and in 1995, after adjusting for economic and social policy variables. For the period 1995–2010, progress in health was associated with income equality, PEH and per capita income. No association was found with global liberalisation in services. Conclusions The favourable association in 2010 between health and liberalisation in services under the WTO seems to reflect a pre-WTO association observed in the 1995 data. However, this liberalisation did not appear as a factor associated with progress in health during 1995–2010. Income equality, health expenditure and per capita income were more powerful determinants of the health of populations. PMID:25078783

Umańa-Peńa, Román; Franco-Giraldo, Álvaro; Díaz, Carlos Álvarez-Dardet; Ruíz-Cantero, María Teresa; Gil-González, Diana; Hernández-Aguado, Ildefonso

2014-01-01

310

The Association of Health-Promoting Lifestyle With Quality of Life Among the Iranian Elderly  

PubMed Central

Background: As individuals live a longer life, health-promoting lifestyle (HPL) becomes even more essential, particularly with regard to maintaining functional independence and improving quality of life (QoL). Objectives: This study aimed to determine the association between QoL and HPL in the Iranian elderly living in Shiraz. Materials and Methods: This analytical cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 at retirement centers of Shiraz City, Iran. The sample included 500 elderly who aged > 60 years. Proportional stratified random sampling was used to select the elderly from retirement centers. QoL was assessed by the Farsi version of Short Form Health Survey questionnaire (SF-36) and HPL was measured by health-promoting lifestyle profile (HPLP II). Data were analyzed using independent-samples t test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson’s correlation, and stepwise multiple regression using SPSS 21. Results: There were significant differences in QoL in terms of sex, age, education, and marital status. There were significant differences in HPL in terms of gender, age and education (P < 0.05) There was a statistically significant association between QoL and HPL in the elderly (r = 0.42, P < 0.05). Based on HPLP II constructs, the significant predicting factors of QoL in the elderly consisted of spiritual growth, stress management, and physical activity (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Health providers should improve the QoL in the elderly by facilitating HPL through health-promoting interventions, which will maintain and increase physical activity, stress management, and spiritual growth. PMID:25593729

Rakhshani, Tayebeh; Shojaiezadeh, Davood; Lankarani, Kamran Bagheri; Rakhshani, Fatemeh; Kaveh, Mohammad Hossain; Zare, Najaf

2014-01-01

311

Job insecurity and its association with health among employees in the Taiwanese general population.  

PubMed

As employers respond to intensive global competition through the deregulation of labor, job insecurity has become a widespread problem. It has been shown to have significant health impacts in a growing number of workers, but less is known about its social distribution, the mechanisms through which it may act, and the moderating effects of gender, socioeconomic position, and company size. Utilizing data from a national survey of a representative sample of paid employees in Taiwan, we examined the prevalence of job insecurity and its associations with psychosocial work characteristics and health status. A total of 8705 men and 5986 women aged between 25 and 65 years old were studied. Information on perceived job insecurity, industrial and occupational types, psychosocial work characteristics as assessed by the Job Strain model, and various measures of health status were obtained by a self-administered questionnaire. The overall prevalence of job insecurity was high (50%). Job insecurity was more prevalent among employees with lower education attainment, in blue-collar and construction workers, those employed in smaller companies, and in older women. Insecure employees also reported lower job control, higher job demands, and poor workplace social support, as compared with those who held secure positions. Regression analyses showed that job insecurity was strongly associated with poor health, even with adjustment of age, job control, job demands, and work place social support. The deleterious effects of job insecurity appeared to be stronger in men than women, in women who held managerial or professional jobs than women in other employment grades, and in those working in larger companies than smaller ones. The findings of this study suggest that perceived job insecurity is an important source of stress, and it is accompanied with adverse psychosocial work conditions and poor health. High-risk groups were identified for further investigation. PMID:15847960

Cheng, Yawen; Chen, Chun-Wan; Chen, Chiou-Jong; Chiang, Tung-liang

2005-07-01

312

The association between vasomotor symptoms and metabolic health in peri- and postmenopausal women: a systematic review.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to systematically review studies describing the association between vasomotor symptoms and metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance in peri- and postmenopausal women. A systematic search of studies was performed in EMBASE, MEDLINE, Web-of-science, Scopus, PubMed publisher, Cochrane Library, Google scholar. To identify studies eligible for inclusion, the following criteria were defined: randomised trials, cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies investigating the association between vasomotor symptoms and metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance in peri- and postmenopausal women with natural menopause. Methodological quality was assessed using a modified NewCastle Ottawa Assessment Scale. After screening 2660 titles and abstracts, four studies, of which two cohort studies met the criteria of high methodological quality, were included in the review. Because of the heterogeneity and the limited number of studies, there is no sufficient evidence on the potential role of vasomotor symptoms in metabolic health. However, both high-quality cohort studies, with large study populations and adjustment for multiple confounding variables showed positive associations between vasomotor symptoms and insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. These findings suggest that there is an association between vasomotor symptoms and metabolic health outcomes. To confirm this and to strengthen the evidence, more high quality longitudinal research on this topic is needed. PMID:25532993

van Dijk, Gabriella M; Maneva, Manuela; Colpani, Veronica; Dhana, Klodian; Muka, Taulant; Jaspers, Loes; Kavousi, Maryam; Franco, Oscar H

2015-02-01

313

Alcohol, Binge Drinking and Associated Mental Health Problems in Young Urban Chileans  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore the link between alcohol use, binge drinking and mental health problems in a representative sample of adolescent and young adult Chileans. Methods Age and sex-adjusted Odds Ratios (OR) for four mental wellbeing measures were estimated with separate conditional logistic regression models for adolescents aged 15-20 years, and young adults aged 21-25 years, using population-based estimates of alcohol use prevalence rates from the Chilean National Health Survey 2010. Results Sixty five per cent of adolescents and 85% of young adults reported drinking alcohol in the last year and of those 83% per cent of adolescents and 86% of young adults reported binge drinking in the previous month. Adolescents who reported binging alcohol were also more likely, compared to young adults, to report being always or almost always depressed (OR 12.97 [95% CI, 1.86-19.54]) or to feel very anxious in the last month (OR 9.37 [1.77-19.54]). Adolescent females were more likely to report poor life satisfaction in the previous year than adolescent males (OR 8.50 [1.61-15.78]), feel always or almost always depressed (OR 3.41 [1.25-9.58]). Being female was also associated with a self-reported diagnosis of depression for both age groups (adolescents, OR 4.74 [1.49-15.08] and young adults, OR 4.08 [1.65-10.05]). Conclusion Young people in Chile self-report a high prevalence of alcohol use, binge drinking and associated mental health problems. The harms associated with alcohol consumption need to be highlighted through evidence-based prevention programs. Health and education systems need to be strengthened to screen and support young people. Focussing on policy initiatives to limit beverage companies targeting alcohol to young people will also be needed. PMID:25830508

Mason-Jones, Amanda J.; Cabieses, Báltica

2015-01-01

314

Meta-Analyses of the Associations of Respiratory Health Effectswith Dampness and Mold in Homes  

SciTech Connect

The Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academy of Sciences recently completed a critical review of the scientific literature pertaining to the association of indoor dampness and mold contamination with adverse health effects. In this paper, we report the results of quantitative meta-analysis of the studies reviewed in the IOM report. We developed point estimates and confidence intervals (CIs) to summarize the association of several respiratory and asthma-related health outcomes with the presence of dampness and mold in homes. The odds ratios and confidence intervals from the original studies were transformed to the log scale and random effect models were applied to the log odds ratios and their variance. Models were constructed both accounting for the correlation between multiple results within the studies analyzed and ignoring such potential correlation. Central estimates of ORs for the health outcomes ranged from 1.32 to 2.10, with most central estimates between 1.3 and 1.8. Confidence intervals (95%) excluded unity except in two of 28 instances, and in most cases the lower bound of the CI exceeded 1.2. In general, the two meta-analysis methods produced similar estimates for ORs and CIs. Based on the results of the meta-analyses, building dampness and mold are associated with approximately 30% to 80% increases in a variety of respiratory and asthma-related health outcomes. The results of these meta-analyses reinforce the IOM's recommendation that actions be taken to prevent and reduce building dampness problems.

Fisk, William J.; Lei-Gomez, Quanhong; Mendell, Mark J.

2006-01-01

315

Navajo Environmental Health Review by the National Environmental Health Association (Window Rock, Arizona, May 24-27, 1976).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Indian Health Committee met with key staff of the Indian Health Service (IHS) Area Office to review the environmental health services provided on the Navajo Reservation and make recommendations for improvement or expansion of current programs, if needed. Recommendations were made regarding environmental health and institutional personnel,…

Navajo Health Authority, Window Rock, AZ.

316

National Breakthrough Pain Study: prevalence, characteristics, and associations with health outcomes.  

PubMed

The National Breakthrough Pain Study is a large observational study that assessed breakthrough pain (BTP) in a population of commercially insured community-dwelling patients with opioid-treated chronic pain. Eligible patients were identified from an administrative claims database, and consenting patients were asked to complete a structured telephone interview and several validated questionnaires. Questionnaires assessed pain interference with function (Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form), health status (Short Form 12 [SF-12] Health Survey), disability (Sheehan Disability Scale), work performance (World Health Organization Health and Work Performance Questionnaire), and mood (Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 Screener [GAD-7] and Patient Health Questionnaire-2 [PHQ-2]). Of 2198 patients interviewed, 1278 patients had persistent pain controlled with opioid therapy; 1023 (80%) of these patients reported BTP. Patients had a median of 2.0 episodes of BTP per day (range, 1-50) and a median duration of BTP of 45 minutes (range, 1-720). Compared with patients without BTP, patients with BTP had more pain-related interference in function (Brief Pain Inventory, mean ± SD: 34.2 ± 15.6 vs 25.0 ± 15.7 [P < 0.001]), worse physical health (SF-12 physical component score: 29.9 ± 9.6 vs 35.1 ± 10.4 [P < 0.001]) and mental health (SF-12 mental component score: 47.4 ± 11.3 vs 49.3 ± 10.4 [P < 0.001]), more disability (Sheehan Disability Scale global impairment score: 15.1 ± 9.1 vs 10.6 ± 8.5; World Health Organization Health and Work Performance Questionnaire absolute absenteeism: 12.4 ± 59.9 vs 7.7 ± 44.9 hours [both P < 0.001]), and worse mood (GAD-7 score: 7.4 ± 5.9 vs 5.9 ± 5.4; PHQ-2 anhedonia score: 1.2 ± 1.1 vs 0.9 ± 1.0 [both P < 0.001]). In this population of community-dwelling patients with opioid-treated chronic pain, BTP was highly prevalent and associated with negative outcomes. This burden of illness suggests the need for specific treatment plans. PMID:25599446

Narayana, Arvind; Katz, Nathaniel; Shillington, Alicia C; Stephenson, Judith J; Harshaw, Qing; Frye, Carla B; Portenoy, Russell K

2015-02-01

317

Psychosocial risk factors in home and community settings and their associations with population health and health inequalities: A systematic meta-review  

PubMed Central

Background The effects of psychosocial risk factors on population health and health inequalities has featured prominently in epidemiological research literature as well as public health policy strategies. We have conducted a meta-review (a review of reviews) exploring how psychosocial factors may relate to population health in home and community settings. Methods Systematic review (QUORUM) of literature reviews (published in any language or country) on the health associations of psychosocial risk factors in community settings. The literature search included electronic and manual searches. Two reviewers appraised included reviews using criteria for assessing systematic reviews. Data from the more robust reviews were extracted, tabulated and synthesised. Results Thirty-one reviews met our inclusion criteria. These explored a variety of psychosocial factors including social support and networks, social capital, social cohesion, collective efficacy, participation in local organisations – and less favourable psychosocial risk factors such as demands, exposure to community violence or anti-social behaviour, exposure to discrimination, and stress related to acculturation to western society. Most of the reviews focused on associations between social networks/support and physical or mental health. We identified some evidence of favourable psychosocial environments associated with better health. Reviews also found evidence of unfavourable psychosocial risk factors linked to poorer health, particularly among socially disadvantaged groups. However, the more robust reviews each identified studies with inconclusive findings, as well as studies finding evidence of associations. We also identified some evidence of apparently favourable psychosocial risk factors associated with poorer health. Conclusion From the review literature we have synthesised, where associations have been identified, they generally support the view that favourable psychosocial environments go hand in hand with better health. Poor psychosocial environments may be health damaging and contribute to health inequalities. The evidence that underpins our understanding of these associations is of variable quality and consistency. Future research should seek to improve this evidence base, with more longitudinal analysis (and intervention evaluations) of the effects of apparently under-researched psychosocial factors such as control and participation within communities. Future policy interventions relevant to this field should be developed in partnership with researchers to enable a better understanding of psychosocial mechanisms and the effects of psychosocial interventions. PMID:18631374

Egan, Matt; Tannahill, Carol; Petticrew, Mark; Thomas, Sian

2008-01-01

318

The association between academic engagement and achievement in health sciences students  

PubMed Central

Background Educational institutions play an important role in encouraging student engagement, being necessary to know how engaged are students at university and if this factor is involved in student success point and followed. To explore the association between academic engagement and achievement. Methods Cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of 304 students of Health Sciences. They were asked to fill out an on-line questionnaire. Academic achievements were calculated using three types of measurement. Results Positive correlations were found in all cases. Grade point average was the academic rate most strongly associated with engagement dimensions and this association is different for male and female students. The independent variables could explain between 18.9 and 23.9% of the variance (p?

2013-01-01

319

Association between religiousness and blood donation among Brazilian postgraduate students from health-related areas  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to examine the association between religiousness and blood donation among postgraduate students. Methods The Portuguese-language version of the Duke University Religion Index was administered to a sample of 226 Brazilian students with ages ranging from 22 to 55 years. All study participants had completed undergraduate courses in health-related areas. Results In the present study, 23.5% of the students were regular donors. Organizational religiousness was found to be associated with attitudes related to blood donation. This study also shows evidence that regular blood donors have a higher intrinsic religiousness than subjects who donate only once and do not return. Conclusion This study shows that the attitudes concerning blood donation may have some association with religiosity. PMID:25031057

Zangiacomi Martinez, Edson; dos Santos Almeida, Rodrigo Guimarăes; Garcia Braz, Ana Carolina; Duarte de Carvalho, Antonio Carlos

2014-01-01

320

Associations of Health Risk Behaviors with School Absenteeism. Does Having Permission for the Absence Make a Difference?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Nearly 10% of students enrolled in US public schools are absent daily. Although previous research has shown associations of school absenteeism with participation in risk behaviors, it is unclear if these associations vary by whether the absence was excused. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of health risk…

Eaton, Danice K.; Brener, Nancy; Kann, Laura K.

2008-01-01

321

Many Pathways from Land Use to Health: Associations between Neighborhood Walkability and Active Transportation, Body Mass Index, and Air Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature shows single-use, low- density land development and discon- nected street networks to be positively associated with auto dependence and negatively associated with walking and transit use. These factors in turn appear to affect health by influencing physical activity, obesity, and emissions of air pollutants. We evaluated the association between a single index of walkability that incorporated land use

Lawrence D. Frank; James F. Sallis; Terry L. Conway; James E. Chapman; Brian E. Saelens; William Bachman

2006-01-01

322

Comparing measures of racial/ethnic discrimination, coping, and associations with health-related outcomes in a diverse sample.  

PubMed

Discrimination is detrimental to health behaviors and outcomes, but little is known about which measures of discrimination are most strongly related to health, if relationships with health outcomes vary by race/ethnicity, and if coping responses moderate these associations. To explore these issues, the current study assessed race/ethnic differences in five measures of race/ethnic discrimination, as well as emotional and behavioral coping responses, within a population-based sample of Whites, African Americans, Mexicans, and Puerto Ricans (n?=?1,699). Stratified adjusted logistic regression models were run to examine associations between the discrimination measures and mental, physical, and health behavior outcomes and to test the role of coping. Overall, 86 % of the sample reported discrimination. Puerto Ricans were more likely than Mexicans and Whites to report most types of discrimination but less likely than Blacks. Discrimination was most strongly related to depression and was less consistently (or not) associated with physical health and health behaviors. Differences by measure of discrimination and respondent race/ethnicity were apparent. No support was found to suggest that coping responses moderate the association between discrimination and health. More work is needed to understand the health effects of this widespread social problem. In addition, interventions attempting to reduce health disparities need to take into account the influence of discrimination. PMID:23430374

Benjamins, Maureen R

2013-10-01

323

Predictors associated with an efficient health information management in patients with cardiac surgery.  

PubMed

Because of the increasing number of cardiac patients all over the world, the importance of cardiac disease prevention is increasing. This study was attempted to identify the predictors associated with an efficient health information patients in two general hospitals located in Seoul from May 13 to June 13, 2012. The results were as follows: First, analysis of the percentage of nutrient intake in terms of meal pattern showed that the response rate of 47.9% in the case group at vegetable intake of 2 or 3 times per week was significantly higher than the response rate of 47.1% in the control group (X^{2}=9.08, p< 0.05), Second, the multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that efficiency of a health information management was significantly associated with female (OR=3.24, 95% Cl: 1.93-6.84), the subjects having abdominal obesity (OR=2.29, 95% Cl: 1.15-3.60). Therefore, the proposed framework will be helpful for health information system developers. PMID:24704643

Lee, Seong-Ran

2014-01-01

324

Diabetes, HIV and other health determinants associated with absenteeism among formal sector workers in Namibia  

PubMed Central

Background As countries in sub-Saharan Africa develop their economies, it is important to understand the health of employees and its impact on productivity and absenteeism. While previous studies have assessed the impact of single conditions on absenteeism, the current study evaluates multiple health factors associated with absenteeism in a large worker population across several sectors in Namibia. Methods From March 2009 to June 2010, PharmAccess Namibia conducted a series of cross-sectional surveys of 7,666 employees in 7 sectors of industry in Namibia. These included a self-reported health questionnaire and biomedical screenings for certain infectious diseases and non-communicable disease (NCD) risk factors. Data were collected on demographics, absenteeism over a 90-day period, smoking behavior, alcohol use, hemoglobin, blood pressure, blood glucose, cholesterol, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), HIV status, and presence of hepatitis B antigens and syphilis antibodies. The associations of these factors to absenteeism were ascertained using negative binomial regression. Results Controlling for demographic and job-related factors, high blood glucose and diabetes had the largest effect on absenteeism (IRR: 3.67, 95%CI: 2.06-6.55). This was followed by anemia (IRR: 1.59, 95%CI: 1.17-2.18) and being HIV positive (IRR: 1.47; 95%CI: 1.12-1.95). In addition, working in the fishing or services sectors was associated with an increased incidence of sick days (IRR: 1.53, 95%CI: 1.23-1.90; and IRR: 1.70, 95%CI: 1.32-2.20 respectively). The highest prevalence of diabetes was in the services sector (3.6%, 95%CI:-2.5-4.7). The highest prevalence of HIV was found in the fishing sector (14.3%, 95%CI: 10.1-18.5). Conclusion Both NCD risk factors and infectious diseases are associated with increased rates of short-term absenteeism of formal sector employees in Namibia. Programs to manage these conditions could help employers avoid costs associated with absenteeism. These programs could include basic health care insurance including regular wellness screenings. PMID:22257589

2012-01-01

325

Systematic review of epidemiological studies on health effects associated with management of solid waste  

PubMed Central

Background Management of solid waste (mainly landfills and incineration) releases a number of toxic substances, most in small quantities and at extremely low levels. Because of the wide range of pollutants, the different pathways of exposure, long-term low-level exposure, and the potential for synergism among the pollutants, concerns remain about potential health effects but there are many uncertainties involved in the assessment. Our aim was to systematically review the available epidemiological literature on the health effects in the vicinity of landfills and incinerators and among workers at waste processing plants to derive usable excess risk estimates for health impact assessment. Methods We examined the published, peer-reviewed literature addressing health effects of waste management between 1983 and 2008. For each paper, we examined the study design and assessed potential biases in the effect estimates. We evaluated the overall evidence and graded the associated uncertainties. Results In most cases the overall evidence was inadequate to establish a relationship between a specific waste process and health effects; the evidence from occupational studies was not sufficient to make an overall assessment. For community studies, at least for some processes, there was limited evidence of a causal relationship and a few studies were selected for a quantitative evaluation. In particular, for populations living within two kilometres of landfills there was limited evidence of congenital anomalies and low birth weight with excess risk of 2 percent and 6 percent, respectively. The excess risk tended to be higher when sites dealing with toxic wastes were considered. For populations living within three kilometres of old incinerators, there was limited evidence of an increased risk of cancer, with an estimated excess risk of 3.5 percent. The confidence in the evaluation and in the estimated excess risk tended to be higher for specific cancer forms such as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and soft tissue sarcoma than for other cancers. Conclusions The studies we have reviewed suffer from many limitations due to poor exposure assessment, ecological level of analysis, and lack of information on relevant confounders. With a moderate level confidence, however, we have derived some effect estimates that could be used for health impact assessment of old landfill and incineration plants. The uncertainties surrounding these numbers should be considered carefully when health effects are estimated. It is clear that future research into the health risks of waste management needs to overcome current limitations. PMID:20030820

2009-01-01

326

Factors associated with job satisfaction among Chinese community health workers: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background With the medical reform, the function of community health centres emerged to be more important recently in China. However, the health service capabilities were tremendously different between metropolitan cities and small cities. This study aims to clarify the level of job satisfaction of Chinese community health workers between a metropolitan (Shenyang) and a small city (Benxi) in Liaoning province and explore its associated factors. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted from December 2009 to February 2010. A multi-stage sample was used and a total of 2,100 Chinese community health workers from the two cities completed self-administered questionnaire pertaining to job satisfaction indicated by Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ), demographic characteristic and working situations, stress and job burnout. The effective response rate was 80.7%. Hierarchical regression analysis was performed to explore the related factors. All data analyses for the two cities were performed separately. Results The averages of overall job satisfaction score of Chinese community health workers were 67.17 in Shenyang and 69.95 in Benxi. Intrinsic job satisfaction and extrinsic job satisfaction among Chinese community health workers were significantly different between Shenyang and Benxi (p < 0.05). In Shenyang, hierarchical regression analysis showed that the fourth model explained 36%, 32% of the variance of intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfactions, respectively. In Benxi, the fourth model explained 48%, 52% of the variance of intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfactions, respectively. Three significant predictors of intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfactions for the two cities were the two dimensions (social support and decision latitude) of stress and cynicism of burnout. Conclusion From this study, the job satisfaction among Chinese community health workers in the two cities enjoyed a moderate level of job satisfactions, which represented they are not fully satisfied with their jobs. Community health workers in Shenyang had lower job satisfaction as compared to those in Benxi. This study strengthened the evidence that stress and burnout were important predictors of intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfactions. PMID:22111511

2011-01-01

327

Adolescent peer aggression and its association with mental health and substance use in an Australian cohort.  

PubMed

Prospective longitudinal birth cohort data was used to examine the association between peer aggression at 14 years and mental health and substance use at 17 years. A sample of 1590 participants from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) study were divided into mutually exclusive categories (victims, perpetrators, victim-perpetrators and uninvolved). Involvement in any type of peer aggression as a victim (10.1%), perpetrator (21.4%), or a victim-perpetrator (8.7%) was reported by 40.2% of participants. After adjusting for confounding factors, those who were a victim of peer aggression had increased odds of later depression and internalising symptoms whilst perpetrators of peer aggression were found to be at increased risk of depression and harmful alcohol use. Victim-perpetrators of peer aggression were more likely to have externalising behaviours at 17 years. These results show an independent temporal relationship between peer aggression and later mental health and substance use problems in adolescence. PMID:24331300

Moore, Sophie E; Norman, Rosana E; Sly, Peter D; Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Zubrick, Stephen R; Scott, James

2014-01-01

328

An Ecological Framework for Sexual Minority Women's Health: Factors Associated With Greater Body Mass.  

PubMed

In recent years, many studies have focused on the body of sexual minority women, particularly emphasizing their larger size. These studies rarely offer theoretically based explanations for the increased weight, nor study the potential consequences (or lack thereof) of being heavier. This article provides a brief overview of the multitude of factors that might cause or contribute to larger size of sexual minority women, using an ecological framework that elucidates upstream social determinants of health as well as individual risk factors. This model is infused with a minority stress model, which hypothesizes excess strain resulting from the stigma associated with oppressed minority identities such as woman, lesbian, bisexual, woman of color, and others. We argue that lack of attention to the upstream social determinants of health may result in individual-level victim blaming and interventions that do not address the root causes of minority stress or increased weight. PMID:25569747

Eliason, Michele J; Fogel, Sarah C

2015-07-01

329

Low back pain prevalence and associated factors in Iranian population: findings from the national health survey.  

PubMed

Background. There are very few studies that had a sample size sufficient to explore the association between factors related to low back pain in a representative sample of the Iranian population. Objective. To examine the relationship between sociodemographic factors, smoking, obesity, and low back pain in Iranian people. Methods. We used Iranian adults respondents (n = 25307) from the National Health Survey. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by using logistic regression. Results. The prevalence of low back pain was found in 29.3% of the studied sample. High age, female sex, being married, obesity, low-economic index, being smoker, in a rural residence, and low educational attainment, all increased the odds of low back pain. Conclusions. Our findings add to the evidence on the importance of obesity in relation to low back pain. These results can be used as a basis to reinforce health programs to prevent obesity. PMID:23024861

Biglarian, Akbar; Seifi, Behjat; Bakhshi, Enayatollah; Mohammad, Kazem; Rahgozar, Mehdi; Karimlou, Masoud; Serahati, Sara

2012-01-01

330

Low Back Pain Prevalence and Associated Factors in Iranian Population: Findings from the National Health Survey  

PubMed Central

Background. There are very few studies that had a sample size sufficient to explore the association between factors related to low back pain in a representative sample of the Iranian population. Objective. To examine the relationship between sociodemographic factors, smoking, obesity, and low back pain in Iranian people. Methods. We used Iranian adults respondents (n = 25307) from the National Health Survey. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by using logistic regression. Results. The prevalence of low back pain was found in 29.3% of the studied sample. High age, female sex, being married, obesity, low-economic index, being smoker, in a rural residence, and low educational attainment, all increased the odds of low back pain. Conclusions. Our findings add to the evidence on the importance of obesity in relation to low back pain. These results can be used as a basis to reinforce health programs to prevent obesity. PMID:23024861

Biglarian, Akbar; Seifi, Behjat; Bakhshi, Enayatollah; Mohammad, Kazem; Rahgozar, Mehdi; Karimlou, Masoud; Serahati, Sara

2012-01-01

331

Caretaker mental health and family environment factors are associated with adolescent psychiatric problems in a Vietnamese sample.  

PubMed

Little is known about risk factors for adolescent mental health in Vietnam. The present study investigated the relationship between caretaker mental health and adolescent mental health in a cross-sectional Vietnamese sample. Primary caretakers completed measures of their own mental distress and general health status using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20) as well as reports of adolescent mental health using the parent version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Multivariate regression models were used to examine the relationships between the caretaker and adolescent health variables. The demographic factors of age, sex, ethnicity, religious affiliation, and household wealth status demonstrated significant relationships with SDQ subscale scores. Caretaker mental health was positively associated with adolescent mental health, and this association remained significant even after accounting for other relevant demographic variables and caretaker general health status. Understanding correlates of adolescent mental health difficulties may help identify youth and families at risk for developing psychiatric problems and inform mental health interventions in Vietnam. PMID:25204862

Stratton, Kelcey Jane; Edwards, Alexis Christine; Overstreet, Cassie; Richardson, Lisa; Tran, Trinh Luong; Trung, Lam Tu; Tam, Nguyen Thanh; Tuan, Tran; Buoi, La Thi; Ha, Tran Thu; Thach, Tran Duc; Amstadter, Ananda Beth

2014-12-15

332

Microbial health risks associated with exposure to stormwater in a water plaza.  

PubMed

Climate change scenarios predict an increase of intense rainfall events in summer in Western Europe. Current urban drainage systems cannot cope with such intense precipitation events. Cities are constructing stormwater storage facilities to prevent pluvial flooding. Combining storage with other functions, such as recreation, may lead to exposure to contaminants. This study assessed the microbial quality of rainwater collected in a water plaza and the health risks associated with recreational exposure. The water plaza collects street run-off, diverges first flush to the sewer system and stores the rest of the run-off in the plaza as open water. Campylobacter, Cryptosporidium and Legionella pneumophila were the pathogens investigated. Microbial source tracking tools were used to determine the origin (human, animal) of the intestinal pathogens. Cryptosporidium was not found in any sample. Campylobacter was found in all samples, with higher concentrations in samples containing human Bacteroides than in samples with zoonotic contamination (15 vs 3.7 gc (genomic copies)/100 mL). In both cases, the estimated disease risk associated with Campylobacter and recreational exposure was higher than the Dutch national incidence. This indicates that the health risk associated with recreational exposure to the water plaza is significant. L. pneumophila was found only in two out of ten pond samples. Legionnaire's disease risks were lower than the Dutch national incidence. Presence of human Bacteroides indicates possible cross-connections with the CSS that should be identified and removed. PMID:25706222

Sales-Ortells, Helena; Medema, Gertjan

2015-05-01

333

The association between road traffic noise exposure, annoyance and health-related quality of life (HRQOL).  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between road traffic noise exposure, annoyance caused by different noise sources and validated health indicators in a cohort of 1375 adults from the region of Basel, Switzerland. Road traffic noise exposure for each study participant was determined using modelling, and annoyance from various noise sources was inquired by means of a four-point Likert scale. Regression parameters from multivariable regression models for the von Zerssen score of somatic symptoms (point symptom score increase per annoyance category) showed strongest associations with annoyance from industry noise (2.36, 95% CI: 1.54, 3.17), neighbour noise (1.62, 95% CI: 1.17, 2.06) and road traffic noise (1.53, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.96). Increase in modelled noise exposure by 10 dB(A) resulted in a von Zerssen symptom score increase of 0.47 (95% CI: -0.01, 0.95) units. Subsequent structural equation modelling revealed that the association between physical noise exposure and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is strongly mediated by annoyance and sleep disturbance. This study elucidates the complex interplay of different factors for the association between physical noise exposure and HRQOL. PMID:25489999

Héritier, Harris; Vienneau, Danielle; Frei, Patrizia; Eze, Ikenna C; Brink, Mark; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Röösli, Martin

2014-12-01

334

The Association between Road Traffic Noise Exposure, Annoyance and Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL)  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between road traffic noise exposure, annoyance caused by different noise sources and validated health indicators in a cohort of 1375 adults from the region of Basel, Switzerland. Road traffic noise exposure for each study participant was determined using modelling, and annoyance from various noise sources was inquired by means of a four-point Likert scale. Regression parameters from multivariable regression models for the von Zerssen score of somatic symptoms (point symptom score increase per annoyance category) showed strongest associations with annoyance from industry noise (2.36, 95% CI: 1.54, 3.17), neighbour noise (1.62, 95% CI: 1.17, 2.06) and road traffic noise (1.53, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.96). Increase in modelled noise exposure by 10 dB(A) resulted in a von Zerssen symptom score increase of 0.47 (95% CI: ?0.01, 0.95) units. Subsequent structural equation modelling revealed that the association between physical noise exposure and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is strongly mediated by annoyance and sleep disturbance. This study elucidates the complex interplay of different factors for the association between physical noise exposure and HRQOL. PMID:25489999

Héritier, Harris; Vienneau, Danielle; Frei, Patrizia; Eze, Ikenna C.; Brink, Mark; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Röösli, Martin

2014-01-01

335

Health and respirable particulate (PM10) air pollution: a causal or statistical association?  

PubMed Central

Numerous studies have reported weak but statistically significant acute health effects of particulate air pollution. The associations are observed at levels below the current U.S. standard of 150 micrograms/m3 (24 hr). Health effects include acute increased mortality from cardiopulmonary conditions and acute morbidity such as hospital admissions for related diseases. We reviewed recent epidemiology studies to evaluate whether criteria for causality are met, and we conclude that they are not. The weak associations are as likely to be due to confounding by weather, copollutants, or exposure misclassification as by ambient particulate matter (PM). The results from the same metropolitan areas are inconsistent, and PM explains such a small amount of the variability in mortality/morbidity that the association has little practical significance. Finally, experimental chamber studies of susceptible individuals exposed to PM concentrations well above 150 micrograms/m3 provide no evidence to support the morbidity/mortality findings. None of the criteria for establishing causality of the PM/mortality hypothesis are clearly met at ambient concentrations common in many U.S. cities. Images p838-a Figure 1. PMID:8875158

Gamble, J F; Lewis, R J

1996-01-01

336

Greek-Cypriot mental health nurses' professional satisfaction and association with mild psychiatric symptoms.  

PubMed

The present descriptive correlational study aims to explore among Greek-Cypriot mental health nurses (MHNs) the level of professional satisfaction, potential differences with regard to vocational characteristics, and associations with anxiety and depressive symptoms. A random sample of 225 Greek-Cypriot MHNs employed in hospital and community settings completed Hamilton's Anxiety Scale, Beck's Depression Inventory, and Stamps's Index of Work Satisfaction. Moderate levels of overall professional satisfaction of 4.38 (±0.58) were detected. Work experience was positively correlated with satisfaction from payment (? = 0.230, P < 0.0001). Men seemed to be more satisfied with organizational policies (P = 0.0043) and performed tasks (P = 0.027) than women. Nurses working in psychiatric clinics of general hospitals experienced higher levels of professional satisfaction in general, and more satisfaction from organizational policies, autonomy, and task requirements than nurses working in community settings, substance misuse programs, and community mental health centres (P = 0.001). Nurses working in acute/admission settings were the less satisfied, compared to nurses working in rehabilitation wards (P = 0.017). Professional satisfaction was associated with anxiety (? = 0.280, P < 0.0001) and depressive (? = 0.246, P < 0.0001) symptoms. Greek-Cypriot MHNs seem to get moderate satisfaction from their work, whilst professional satisfaction is associated with their psychological well-being. Targeted managerial interventions and longitudinal research are warranted. PMID:22897681

Karanikola, Maria N K; Kaite, Charis

2013-08-01

337

Integrated Text Mining and Chemoinformatics Analysis Associates Diet to Health Benefit at Molecular Level  

PubMed Central

Awareness that disease susceptibility is not only dependent on genetic make up, but can be affected by lifestyle decisions, has brought more attention to the role of diet. However, food is often treated as a black box, or the focus is limited to few, well-studied compounds, such as polyphenols, lipids and nutrients. In this work, we applied text mining and Naďve Bayes classification to assemble the knowledge space of food-phytochemical and food-disease associations, where we distinguish between disease prevention/amelioration and disease progression. We subsequently searched for frequently occurring phytochemical-disease pairs and we identified 20,654 phytochemicals from 16,102 plants associated to 1,592 human disease phenotypes. We selected colon cancer as a case study and analyzed our results in three directions; i) one stop legacy knowledge-shop for the effect of food on disease, ii) discovery of novel bioactive compounds with drug-like properties, and iii) discovery of novel health benefits from foods. This works represents a systematized approach to the association of food with health effect, and provides the phytochemical layer of information for nutritional systems biology research. PMID:24453957

Jensen, Kasper; Panagiotou, Gianni; Kouskoumvekaki, Irene

2014-01-01

338

The Association of Acculturation and Health Literacy, Numeracy and Health-Related Skills in Spanish-speaking Caregivers of Young Children  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the relationship among acculturation, literacy, and health skills in Latino caregivers of young children. Latino caregivers of children <30 months seeking primary care at four medical centers were administered measures of acculturation (SASH), functional health literacy (STOFHLA), numeracy (WRAT-3) and health-related skills (PHLAT Spanish). Child anthropomorphics and immunization status were ascertained by chart review. Caregivers (N = 184) with a median age of 27 years (IQR: 23–32) participated; 89.1 % were mothers, and 97.1 % had low acculturation. Lower SASH scores were significantly correlated (P < 0.01) with lower STOFHLA (? = 0.21), WRAT-3 (? = 0.25), and PHLAT Spanish scores (? = 0.34). SASH scores predicted PHLAT Spanish scores in a multivariable linear regression model that adjusted for the age of child, the age and gender of the caregiver, number of children in the family, the type of health insurance of the caregiver, and study site (adjusted ?: 0.84, 95 % CI 0.26–1.42, P = 0.005). This association was attenuated by the addition of literacy (adjusted ?: 0.66, 95 % CI 0.11–1.21, P = 0.02) or numeracy (adjusted ?: 0.50, 95 % CI ?0.04–1.04, P = 0.07) into the model. There was no significant association between acculturation and up-to-date child immunizations or a weight status of overweight/obese. Lower acculturation was associated with worse health literacy and diminished ability to perform child health-related skills. Literacy and numeracy skills attenuated the association between acculturation and child health skills. These associations may help to explain some child health disparities in Latino communities. PMID:22481307

White, Richard O.; Perrin, Eliana M.; Yin, H. Shonna; Sanders, Lee M.; Gayle, Eryka A.; Rothman, Russell L.

2012-01-01

339

Economic and Health Impacts Associated with a Salmonella Typhimurium Drinking Water Outbreak?Alamosa, CO, 2008  

PubMed Central

In 2008, a large Salmonella outbreak caused by contamination of the municipal drinking water supply occurred in Alamosa, Colorado. The objectives of this assessment were to determine the full economic costs associated with the outbreak and the long-term health impacts on the community of Alamosa. We conducted a postal survey of City of Alamosa (2008 population: 8,746) households and businesses, and conducted in-depth interviews with local, state, and nongovernmental agencies, and City of Alamosa healthcare facilities and schools to assess the economic and long-term health impacts of the outbreak. Twenty-one percent of household survey respondents (n?=?369/1,732) reported diarrheal illness during the outbreak. Of those, 29% (n?=?108) reported experiencing potential long-term health consequences. Most households (n?=?699/771, 91%) reported municipal water as their main drinking water source at home before the outbreak; afterwards, only 30% (n?=?233) drank unfiltered municipal tap water. The outbreak’s estimated total cost to residents and businesses of Alamosa using a Monte Carlo simulation model (10,000 iterations) was approximately $1.5 million dollars (range: $196,677–$6,002,879), and rose to $2.6 million dollars (range: $1,123,471–$7,792,973) with the inclusion of outbreak response costs to local, state and nongovernmental agencies and City of Alamosa healthcare facilities and schools. This investigation documents the significant economic and health impacts associated with waterborne disease outbreaks and highlights the potential for loss of trust in public water systems following such outbreaks. PMID:23526942

Ailes, Elizabeth; Budge, Philip; Shankar, Manjunath; Collier, Sarah; Brinton, William; Cronquist, Alicia; Chen, Melissa; Thornton, Andrew; Beach, Michael J.; Brunkard, Joan M.

2013-01-01

340

Association between Sleep and Breast Cancer Incidence among Postmenopausal Women in the Women's Health Initiative  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To determine whether the duration of sleep, sleep quality, insomnia, or sleep disturbance was associated with incident breast cancer in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Women enrolled in one of the Clinical Trial (CT) arms or the Observational Study (OS) from the WHI conducted in the United States. Participants: This study included 110,011 women age 50 to 79 years with no history of cancer. Measurements and Results: Typical sleep duration, sleep quality, and other self-reported sleep measures over the past 4 weeks were assessed during the screening visits for both the CT and OS participants. The presence of insomnia and level of sleep disturbance was calculated from an index of the WHI Insomnia Rating Scale. The outcome for this study was primary, invasive breast cancer. A total of 5,149 incident cases of breast cancer were identified in this study. No statistically significant associations were found between sleep duration, sleep quality, insomnia, or level of sleep disturbance with the risk of breast cancer after multivariable adjustment. A positive trend was observed for increasing sleeping duration with the risk of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer, but the association estimates for each sleep duration category were weak and nonsignificant. Conclusions: This study does not provide strong support for an association between self-reported sleep duration, sleep quality, insomnia, or sleep disturbance with the risk of breast cancer. Citation: Vogtmann E; Levitan EB; Hale L; Shikany JM; Shah NA; Endeshaw Y; Lewis CE; Manson JE; Chlebowski RT. Association between sleep and breast cancer incidence among postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative. SLEEP 2013;36(10):1437-1444. PMID:24082303

Vogtmann, Emily; Levitan, Emily B.; Hale, Lauren; Shikany, James M.; Shah, Neomi A.; Endeshaw, Yohannes; Lewis, Cora E.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Chlebowski, Rowan T.

2013-01-01

341

Interactions between Social/ behavioral factors and ADRB2 genotypes may be associated with health at advanced ages in China  

PubMed Central

Background Existing literature indicates that ADRB2 gene is associated with health and longevity, but none of previous studies investigated associations of carrying the ADRB2 minor alleles and interactions between ADRB2 genotypes and social/behavioral factors(GxE) with health outcomes at advanced ages. This study intends to fill in this research gap. Method We conducted an exploratory analysis, using longitudinal survey phenotype/genotype data from 877 oldest-old aged 90+. To estimate association of GxE interactions with health outcome, adjusted for the potential correlation between genotypes and social/behavioral factors and various other potentially confounding factors, we develop and test an innovative three-step procedure which combines logistic regression and structural equation methods. Results Interaction between regular exercise and carrying rs1042718 minor allele is significantly and positively associated with good cognitive function; interaction between regular exercise and carrying rs1042718 or rs1042719 minor allele is significantly and positively associated with self-reported good health; and interaction between social-leisure activities and carrying rs1042719 minor allele is significantly and positively associated with self-reported good health. Carrying rs1042718 or rs1042719 minor alleles is significantly and negatively associated with negative emotion, but the ADRB2 SNPs are not significantly associated with cognitive function and self-reported health. Our structural equation analysis found that, adjusted for the confounding effects of correlation of the ADRB2 SNPs with negative emotion, interaction between negative emotion and carrying rs1042718 or rs1042719 minor allele is significantly and negatively associated with cognitive function. The positive association of regular exercise and social-leisure activities with cognitive function and self-reported health, and negative association of negative emotion with cognitive function, were much stronger among carriers of rs1042718 or rs1042719 alleles, compared to the non-carriers. Conclusions The results indicate significant positive associations of interactions between social/behavioral factors and the ADRB2 genotypes with health outcomes of cognitive function and self-reported health, and negative associations of carrying rs1042718 or rs1042719 minor alleles with negative emotion, at advanced ages in China. Our findings are exploratory rather than causal conclusions. This study implies that near-future health promotion programs considering individuals’ genetic profiles, with appropriate protection of privacy/confidentiality, would yield increased benefits and reduced costs to the programs and their participants. PMID:24016068

2013-01-01

342

The Association of Income with Health Behavior Change and Disease Monitoring among Patients with Chronic Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Management of chronic diseases requires patients to adhere to recommended health behavior change and complete tests for monitoring. While studies have shown an association between low income and lack of adherence, the reasons why people with low income may be less likely to adhere are unclear. We sought to determine the association between household income and receipt of health behavior change advice, adherence to advice, receipt of recommended monitoring tests, and self-reported reasons for non-adherence/non-receipt. Methods We conducted a population-weighted survey, with 1849 respondents with cardiovascular-related chronic diseases (heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, stroke) from Western Canada (n?=?1849). We used log-binomial regression to examine the association between household income and the outcome variables of interest: receipt of advice for and adherence to health behavior change (sodium reduction, dietary improvement, increased physical activity, smoking cessation, weight loss), reasons for non-adherence, receipt of recommended monitoring tests (cholesterol, blood glucose, blood pressure), and reasons for non-receipt of tests. Results Behavior change advice was received equally by both low and high income respondents. Low income respondents were more likely than those with high income to not adhere to recommendations regarding smoking cessation (adjusted prevalence rate ratio (PRR): 1.55, 95%CI: 1.09–2.20), and more likely to not receive measurements of blood cholesterol (PRR: 1.72, 95%CI 1.24–2.40) or glucose (PRR: 1.80, 95%CI: 1.26–2.58). Those with low income were less likely to state that non-adherence/non-receipt was due to personal choice, and more likely to state that it was due to an extrinsic factor, such as cost or lack of accessibility. Conclusions There are important income-related differences in the patterns of health behavior change and disease monitoring, as well as reasons for non-adherence or non-receipt. Among those with low income, adherence to health behavior change and monitoring may be improved by addressing modifiable barriers such as cost and access. PMID:24722618

Campbell, David JT.; Ronksley, Paul E.; Manns, Braden J.; Tonelli, Marcello; Sanmartin, Claudia; Weaver, Robert G.; Hennessy, Deirdre; King-Shier, Kathryn; Campbell, Tavis; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R.

2014-01-01

343

Associations of Child Insomnia, Sleep Movement, and Their Persistence With Mental Health Symptoms in Childhood and Adolescence  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To examine the patterns of insomnia and sleep-related movement from ages 4.5 to 9 years, their concurrent associations with mental health symptoms in childhood, and the longitudinal associations of sleep-problem persistence with mental health symptoms at ages 9 and 18 years. Design: A 14-year prospective follow-up study. Assessments included maternal report on the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire at ages 4.5 and 9, and child mental health symptoms via maternal report at age 4.5, multi-informant (child, teacher, mother) report at age 9, and adolescent report at age 18. Setting: Community. Participants: A total of 396 children (51% female). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Sleep problems were more common at age 4.5 than 9; symptoms of insomnia and abnormal sleep movement both had persistence rates of 9–10%. At age 4.5, insomnia was associated with hostile-aggressive and hyperactive-distractible behavior, but there were no significant associations for sleep movement. At age 9, both insomnia and sleep movement were associated with symptoms of depression, externalizing, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Insomnia persistence was associated with symptoms of depression, externalizing, and ADHD at age 9 and anxiety and externalizing at age 18; sleep- movement persistence was associated with externalizing and ADHD at age 9, and ADHD at age 18. The age 18 persistence effects for insomnia and anxiety and for sleep movement and ADHD were significant when controlling for earlier mental health. Conclusions: Childhood insomnia and sleep movement are common and associated with mental health symptoms. Their persistence from middle to late childhood predicts associations with specific types of mental health symptoms at age 18. Citation: Armstrong JM, Ruttle PL, Klein MH, Essex MJ, Benca RM. Associations of child insomnia, sleep movement, and their persistence with mental health symptoms in childhood and adolescence. SLEEP 2014;37(5):901-909. PMID:24790268

Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Ruttle, Paula L.; Klein, Marjorie H.; Essex, Marilyn J.; Benca, Ruth M.

2014-01-01

344

FINE PARTICLES ARE MORE STRONGLY ASSOCIATED THAN COARSE PARTICLES WITH ACUTE REPIRATORY HEALTH EFFECTS IN SCHOOL CHILDREN  

EPA Science Inventory

Numerous studies have reported associations between airborne particles and a range of respiratory outcomes from symptoms to mortality. Current attention has been focused on the characteristics of these particles responsible for the adverse health effects. We have reanalyzed three...

345

The relationship between microbial DNA concentrations and swimming associated health effects at a tropical environment bathing beach  

EPA Science Inventory

The relationship between microbial DNA concentrations and swimming associated health effects at a tropical environment bathing beach. Timothy 1. Wade, presenter. Co-authors: Alfred P. Dufour, Kristen Brenner, Rich Haugland, Larry Wymer, Elizabeth Sams Fecal indicator bacteria (F...

346

Influence of air quality model resolution on uncertainty associated with health impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use regional air quality modeling to evaluate the impact of model resolution on uncertainty associated with the human health benefits resulting from proposed air quality regulations. Using a regional photochemical model (CAMx), we ran a modeling episode with meteorological inputs simulating conditions as they occurred during August through September 2006 (a period representative of conditions leading to high ozone), and two emissions inventories (a 2006 base case and a 2018 proposed control scenario, both for Houston, Texas) at 36, 12, 4 and 2 km resolution. The base case model performance was evaluated for each resolution against daily maximum 8-h averaged ozone measured at monitoring stations. Results from each resolution were more similar to each other than they were to measured values. Population-weighted ozone concentrations were calculated for each resolution and applied to concentration response functions (with 95% confidence intervals) to estimate the health impacts of modeled ozone reduction from the base case to the control scenario. We found that estimated avoided mortalities were not significantly different between the 2, 4 and 12 km resolution runs, but the 36 km resolution may over-predict some potential health impacts. Given the cost/benefit analysis requirements motivated by Executive Order 12866 as it applies to the Clean Air Act, the uncertainty associated with human health impacts and therefore the results reported in this study, we conclude that health impacts calculated from population weighted ozone concentrations obtained using regional photochemical models at 36 km resolution fall within the range of values obtained using fine (12 km or finer) resolution modeling. However, in some cases, 36 km resolution may not be fine enough to statistically replicate the results achieved using 2, 4 or 12 km resolution. On average, when modeling at 36 km resolution, an estimated 5 deaths per week during the May through September ozone season are avoided because of ozone reductions resulting from the proposed emissions reductions (95% confidence interval was 2-8). When modeling at 2, 4 or 12 km finer scale resolution, on average 4 deaths are avoided due to the same reductions (95% confidence interval was 1-7). Study results show that ozone modeling at a resolution finer than 12 km is unlikely to reduce uncertainty in benefits analysis for this specific region. We suggest that 12 km resolution may be appropriate for uncertainty analyses of health impacts due to ozone control scenarios, in areas with similar chemistry, meteorology and population density, but that resolution requirements should be assessed on a case-by-case basis and revised as confidence intervals for concentration-response functions are updated.

Thompson, T. M.; Selin, N. E.

2012-10-01

347

Health and safety problems associated with long working hours: a review of the current position.  

PubMed Central

The European Community Directive on Working Time, which should have been implemented in member states of the European Community by November 1996, contains several requirements related to working hours, including the right of employees to refuse to work more than 48 hours a week. The United Kingdom government attempted to oppose the Directive, arguing that there is no convincing evidence that hours of work should be limited on health and safety grounds. Much of the research in this area has focused on the problems of shiftworking and previous reviews have therefore tended to emphasise this aspect of working hours. However, there is much less information about the effects of overtime work, which is a central element of the terms of the Directive. This paper reviews the current evidence relating to the potential effects on health and performance of extensions to the normal working day. Several gaps in the literature are identified. Research to date has been restricted to a limited range of health outcomes--namely, mental health and cardiovascular disorders. Other potential effects which are normally associated with stress--for example, gastrointestinal disorders, musculoskeletal disorders, and problems associated with depression of the immune system, have received little attention. Also, there have been few systematic investigations of performance effects, and little consideration of the implications for occupational exposure limits of extensions to the working day. Existing data relate largely to situations where working hours exceed 50 a week and there is a lack of information on hours below this level, which is of direct relevance to the European Community proposal. Finally, it is clear from investigations relating to shiftwork that a range of modifying factors are likely to influence the level and nature of health and performance outcomes. These include the attitudes and motivation of the people concerned, the job requirements, and other aspects of the organisational and cultural climate. It is concluded that there is currently sufficient evidence to raise concerns about the risks to health and safety of long working hours. However, much more work is required to define the level and nature of those risks. PMID:9245942

Spurgeon, A; Harrington, J M; Cooper, C L

1997-01-01

348

Dairy food intake is positively associated with cardiovascular health: findings from Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg study.  

PubMed

Conflicting findings have been reported about dairy food consumption and risk for cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, few studies have examined dairy food intake in relation to cardiovascular health and the incorporation of lifestyle factors such as diet and physical activity. This study examined whether dairy food consumption was associated with cardiovascular health, recently defined by the American Heart Association. Data were analyzed from 1352 participants from the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg survey. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to measure intakes of milk, yogurt, cheese, dairy desserts, ice cream, and butter. Seven cardiovascular health metrics were assessed: smoking, body mass index, physical activity, diet, total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose. A total cardiovascular health score (CHS) was determined by summing the total number of health metrics at ideal levels. It was hypothesized that greater dairy food consumption (both low fat and whole fat) would be associated with better global cardiovascular health, as indicated by a higher CHS. Total dairy food intake was positively associated with the CHS. Higher intakes of whole fat milk, yogurt, and cheese were associated with better cardiovascular health. Even when controlling for demographic and dietary variables, those who consumed at least 5 servings per week of these dairy products had a significantly higher CHS than those who consumed these products less frequently. Higher total whole fat dairy food intake was also associated with other positive health behaviors, including being a nonsmoker, consuming the suggested dietary intakes of recommended foods, and having a normal body mass index. Increased dairy food consumption was associated with better cardiovascular health. PMID:25476191

Crichton, Georgina E; Alkerwi, Ala'a

2014-12-01

349

Personalized Risk Assessment of Drug-Related Harm Is Associated with Health Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background The Independent Scientific Committee on Drugs (ISCD) assigned quantitative scores for harm to 20 drugs. We hypothesized that a personalized, ISCD-based Composite Harm Score (CHS) would be associated with poor health outcomes in polysubstance users. Methods A prospective community sample (n=293) of adults living in marginal housing was assessed for substance use. The CHS was calculated based on the ISCD index, and the personal substance use characteristics over four weeks. Regression models estimated the association between CHS and physical, psychological, and social health outcomes. Results Polysubstance use was pervasive (95.8%), as was multimorbid illness (median 3, possible range 0–12). The median CHS was 2845 (interquartile range 1865–3977). Adjusting for age and sex, every 1000-unit CHS increase was associated with greater mortality (odds ratio [OR] 1.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07–2.01, p = 0.02), and persistent hepatitis C infection (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.02–1.67, p = 0.04). The likelihood of substance-induced psychosis increased 1.39-fold (95% CI 1.13–1.67, p = 0.001). The amount spent on drugs increased 1.51-fold (1.40–1.62, p < 0.001) and the odds of having committed a crime increased 1.74-fold (1.46–2.10, p < 0.001). Multimorbid illness increased 1.43-fold (95% CI 1.26–1.63, p < 0.001). Conclusions Greater CHS predicts poorer physical, psychological, and social health, and may be a useful quantitative, personalized measure of risk for drug-related harm. PMID:24223192

Jones, Andrea A.; Vila-Rodriguez, Fidel; Panenka, William J.; Leonova, Olga; Strehlau, Verena; Lang, Donna J.; Thornton, Allen E.; Wong, Hubert; Barr, Alasdair M.; Procyshyn, Ric M.; Smith, Geoffrey N.; Buchanan, Tari; Krajden, Mel; Krausz, Michael; Montaner, Julio S.; MacEwan, G. William; Nutt, David J.; Honer, William G.

2013-01-01

350

Clinical and economic outcomes for patients with health care-associated Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia.  

PubMed

While the increasing importance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as a pathogen in health care-associated S. aureus pneumonia has been documented widely, information on the clinical and economic consequences of such infections is limited. We retrospectively identified all patients admitted to a large U.S. urban teaching hospital between January 2005 and May 2008 with pneumonia and positive blood or respiratory cultures for S. aureus within 48 h of admission. Among these patients, those with suspected health care-associated pneumonia (HCAP) were identified using established criteria (e.g., recent hospitalization, admission from nursing home, or hemodialysis). Subjects were designated as having methicillin-resistant (MRSA) or methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) HCAP, based on initial S. aureus isolates. Initial therapy was designated "appropriate" versus "inappropriate" based on the expected susceptibility of the organism to the regimen received. We identified 142 patients with evidence of S. aureus HCAP. Their mean (standard deviation [SD]) age was 64.5 (17) years. Eighty-seven patients (61%) had initial cultures that were positive for MRSA. Most ( approximately 90%) patients received appropriate initial antibiotic therapy (86% for MRSA versus 91% for MSSA; P = 0.783). There were no significant differences between MRSA and MSSA HCAP patients in mortality (29% versus 20%, respectively), surgery for pneumonia (22% versus 20%), receipt of mechanical ventilation (60% versus 58%), or admission to the intensive care unit (79% versus 76%). Mean (SD) total charges per admission were universally high ($98,170 [$94,707] for MRSA versus $104,121 [$91,314]) for MSSA [P = 0.712]). Almost two-thirds of patients admitted to hospital with S. aureus HCAP have evidence of MRSA infection. S. aureus HCAP, irrespective of MRSA versus MSSA status, is associated with significant mortality and high health care costs, despite appropriate initial antibiotic therapy. PMID:20631118

Shorr, Andrew F; Haque, Nadia; Taneja, Charu; Zervos, Marcus; Lamerato, Lois; Kothari, Smita; Zilber, Sophia; Donabedian, Susan; Perri, Mary Beth; Spalding, James; Oster, Gerry

2010-09-01

351

Clinical and Economic Outcomes for Patients with Health Care-Associated Staphylococcus aureus Pneumonia ?  

PubMed Central

While the increasing importance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as a pathogen in health care-associated S. aureus pneumonia has been documented widely, information on the clinical and economic consequences of such infections is limited. We retrospectively identified all patients admitted to a large U.S. urban teaching hospital between January 2005 and May 2008 with pneumonia and positive blood or respiratory cultures for S. aureus within 48 h of admission. Among these patients, those with suspected health care-associated pneumonia (HCAP) were identified using established criteria (e.g., recent hospitalization, admission from nursing home, or hemodialysis). Subjects were designated as having methicillin-resistant (MRSA) or methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) HCAP, based on initial S. aureus isolates. Initial therapy was designated “appropriate” versus “inappropriate” based on the expected susceptibility of the organism to the regimen received. We identified 142 patients with evidence of S. aureus HCAP. Their mean (standard deviation [SD]) age was 64.5 (17) years. Eighty-seven patients (61%) had initial cultures that were positive for MRSA. Most (?90%) patients received appropriate initial antibiotic therapy (86% for MRSA versus 91% for MSSA; P = 0.783). There were no significant differences between MRSA and MSSA HCAP patients in mortality (29% versus 20%, respectively), surgery for pneumonia (22% versus 20%), receipt of mechanical ventilation (60% versus 58%), or admission to the intensive care unit (79% versus 76%). Mean (SD) total charges per admission were universally high ($98,170 [$94,707] for MRSA versus $104,121 [$91,314]) for MSSA [P = 0.712]). Almost two-thirds of patients admitted to hospital with S. aureus HCAP have evidence of MRSA infection. S. aureus HCAP, irrespective of MRSA versus MSSA status, is associated with significant mortality and high health care costs, despite appropriate initial antibiotic therapy. PMID:20631118

Shorr, Andrew F.; Haque, Nadia; Taneja, Charu; Zervos, Marcus; Lamerato, Lois; Kothari, Smita; Zilber, Sophia; Donabedian, Susan; Perri, Mary Beth; Spalding, James; Oster, Gerry

2010-01-01

352

The association between exaggeration in health related science news and academic press releases: retrospective observational study  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify the source (press releases or news) of distortions, exaggerations, or changes to the main conclusions drawn from research that could potentially influence a reader’s health related behaviour. Design Retrospective quantitative content analysis. Setting Journal articles, press releases, and related news, with accompanying simulations. Sample Press releases (n=462) on biomedical and health related science issued by 20 leading UK universities in 2011, alongside their associated peer reviewed research papers and news stories (n=668). Main outcome measures Advice to readers to change behaviour, causal statements drawn from correlational research, and inference to humans from animal research that went beyond those in the associated peer reviewed papers. Results 40% (95% confidence interval 33% to 46%) of the press releases contained exaggerated advice, 33% (26% to 40%) contained exaggerated causal claims, and 36% (28% to 46%) contained exaggerated inference to humans from animal research. When press releases contained such exaggeration, 58% (95% confidence interval 48% to 68%), 81% (70% to 93%), and 86% (77% to 95%) of news stories, respectively, contained similar exaggeration, compared with exaggeration rates of 17% (10% to 24%), 18% (9% to 27%), and 10% (0% to 19%) in news when the press releases were not exaggerated. Odds ratios for each category of analysis were 6.5 (95% confidence interval 3.5 to 12), 20 (7.6 to 51), and 56 (15 to 211). At the same time, there was little evidence that exaggeration in press releases increased the uptake of news. Conclusions Exaggeration in news is strongly associated with exaggeration in press releases. Improving the accuracy of academic press releases could represent a key opportunity for reducing misleading health related news. PMID:25498121

Vivian-Griffiths, Solveiga; Boivin, Jacky; Williams, Andy; Venetis, Christos A; Davies, Aimée; Ogden, Jack; Whelan, Leanne; Hughes, Bethan; Dalton, Bethan; Boy, Fred

2014-01-01

353

Time spent on health related activities associated with chronic illness: a scoping literature review  

PubMed Central

Background The management of health care, particularly for people with chronic conditions, combines the activities of health professionals, patients, informal carers and social networks that support them. Understanding the non-professional roles in health management requires information about the health related activities (HRA) that are undertaken by patients and informal carers. This understanding allows management planning that incorporates the capacity of patients and informal carers, as well as identifying the particular skills, knowledge and technical support that are necessary. This review was undertaken to identify how much time people with chronic illness and their informal carers spend on HRA. Methods Literature searches of three electronic databases (CINAHL, Medline, and PubMed) and two journals (Time and Society, Sociology of Health and Illness) were carried out in 2011 using the following search terms (and derivatives): chronic illness AND time AND consumer OR carer. The search was aimed at finding studies of time spent on HRA. A scoping literature review method was utilised. Results Twenty-two peer reviewed articles published between 1990 and 2010 were included for review. The review identified limited but specific studies about time use by people with a chronic illness and/or their carers. While illness work was seen as demanding, few studies combined inquiry about both defined tasks and defined time use. It also identified methodological issues such as consistency of definition and data collection methods, which remain unresolved. Conclusions While HRA are seen as demanding by people doing them, few studies have measured actual time taken to carry out a comprehensive range of HRA. The results of this review suggest that both patients with chronic illness and informal carers may be spending 2 hours a day or more on HRA. Illnesses such as diabetes may be associated with higher time use. More empirical research is needed to understand the time demands of self-management, particularly for those affected by chronic illness. PMID:23206340

2012-01-01

354

Social and psychological resources associated with health status in a representative sample of adults affected by the 2004 Florida hurricanes.  

PubMed

Overall health status after a disaster may be associated with long-term physical morbidity and mortality. Little is known about factors associated with overall health status in the aftermath of disasters. We examined self-rated health in relation to disaster characteristics, social resources, and post-disaster outcomes in a sample of adults who experienced the 2004 Florida hurricanes. We interviewed a representative sample of 1,452 adults aged 18 years and older residing in the 33 Florida counties that were in the direct path of at least one of the 2004 hurricanes (Charley, Frances, Ivan, Jeanne). Overall health status was assessed using a self-rating format known to be predictive of mortality. Poor self-rated health was endorsed by 14.6% of the sample. Final multivariable models showed that poor self-rated health was associated with older age (p < 0.001), extreme fear during the hurricane (p = 0.03), low social support (p = 0.03), and depression (p = 0.003) since the hurricane. Self-rated health following the Florida hurricanes was strongly associated with two variables (social support and depression) that potentially can be mitigated through targeted interventions after disasters. Future work should evaluate secondary prevention strategies that can address general health-related concerns in the wake of a disaster. PMID:19614556

Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Amstadter, Ananda B; Acierno, Ron; Kilpatrick, Dean G; Resnick, Heidi S; Tracy, Melissa; Galea, Sandro

2009-01-01

355

World Health Organization surveys to monitor HIV drug resistance prevention and associated factors in sentinel antiretroviral treatment sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that >2 million people will have started antiretroviral therapy (ART) by the end of 2006. As the development of some HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) is inevitable in populations taking ART, the emergence of HIVDR must be balanced against the benefits of providing ART, including improved health outcomes and decreased HIV\\/AIDS-associated morbidity and mortality. ART

Michael R Jordan; Diane E Bennett; Silvia Bertagnolio; Charles F Gilks; Donald Sutherland

2008-01-01

356

Associations between Psychosocial and Physiological Factors and Diabetes Health Indicators in Asian and Pacific Islander Adults with Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

The associations between psychosocial and physiological factors and diabetes' health indicators have not been widely investigated among Asians and Pacific Islanders. We hypothesize that health behaviour and depression are directly or indirectly associated with diabetes' health indicators such as BMI, glycemic control, general health, and diabetes quality of life. Our hypothesis was tested through a structural equation modelling (SEM) approach. Questionnaires that assessed health behaviour, depression, general health, diabetes quality of life, and haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), along with patients' demographic information, were obtained from 207 Asian and Pacific Islander adults with type 2 diabetes. IBM SPSS Amos 20 was used for the SEM analysis at 5% level of significance, and the goodness fit of the SEM model was also evaluated. The final SEM model showed that diet and exercise and foot care had positive associations, while depression had a negative association with diabetes' health indicators. The results highlighted the importance of exercise and depression in diabetes patients' BMI, glycemic control, general health, and quality of life, which provide evidence for the need to alleviate patients' depression besides education and training in diet and exercise in future intervention studies among Asians and Pacific Islanders with type 2 diabetes. PMID:24282635

Inouye, Jillian; Davis, Jim; Arakaki, Richard F.

2013-01-01

357

An Analysis of the External Environmental and Internal Organizational Factors Associated with Adoption of the Electronic Health Record  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite a Presidential Order in 2004 that launched national incentives for the use of health information technology, specifically the Electronic Health Record (EHR), adoption of the EHR has been slow. This study attempts to quantify factors associated with adoption of the EHR and Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) by combining multiple…

Kruse, Clemens Scott

2013-01-01

358

Exposure Patterns and Health Effects Associated with Swimming and Surfing in Polluted Marine Waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine bathing beaches are closed to the public whenever water quality fails to meet State and Federal standards. In this talk I will explore the science (and lack thereof!) behind these beach closures, including the health effects data upon which standards are based, shortcomings of the current approach used for testing and notification, and the high degree of spatial and temporal heterogeneity associated with human exposure to pollutants in these systems. The talk will focus on examples from Huntington Beach, where the speaker has conducted research over the past several years.

Grant, S. B.

2007-05-01

359

Patient and Physician Beliefs About Control over Health: Association of Symmetrical Beliefs with Medication Regimen Adherence  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND  Past work suggests that the degree of similarity between patient and physician attitudes may be an important predictor of\\u000a patient-centered outcomes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a OBJECTIVE  To examine the extent to which patient and provider symmetry in health locus of control (HLOC) beliefs was associated with\\u000a objectively derived medication refill adherence in patients with co-morbid diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HTN).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a PARTICIPANTS  Eighteen primary care physicians

Alan J. Christensen; M. Bryant Howren; Stephen L. Hillis; Peter Kaboli; Barry L. Carter; Jamie A. Cvengros; Kenneth A. Wallston; Gary E. Rosenthal

2010-01-01

360

Is change bad? Personality change is associated with poorer psychological health and greater metabolic syndrome in midlife  

PubMed Central

Objective Personality change is emerging as an important predictor of health and well-being. Extending previous research, we examined whether two types of personality change, directional and absolute, are associated with both subjective and objective indicators of health. Method Utilizing the longitudinal Midlife in the United States Survey (MIDUS) data, we examined whether both types of change over 10 years were associated with psychological well-being, self-reported global health, and the presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) components and diagnosis. Results Socially undesirable personality change (e.g., becoming less conscientious and more neurotic) and absolute personality change were independently associated with worse perceived health and well-being at Time 2. Notably, absolute personality change, regardless of the direction, was also associated with having a greater number of MetS components and a greater probability of diagnosis at Time 2. Conclusions In sum, too much personality change may be bad for one’s health: socially undesirable and absolute personality change were both associated with worse psychological health and worse metabolic profiles over 10 years. These findings suggest that personality change may contribute to psychological and physical health, and provide initial insight into potential intermediate links between personality change and distal outcomes such as mortality. PMID:22924900

Human, Lauren J.; Biesanz, Jeremy C.; Miller, Gregory E.; Chen, Edith; Lachman, Margie E.; Seeman, Teresa E.

2013-01-01

361

Are Demographic Characteristics, Health Care Access and Utilization, and Comorbid Conditions Associated With Hypertension Among US Adults?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundLittle is known about the factors associated with hypertension awareness, treatment, and control. We examined the association of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, risk factors, health care access and utilization, and hypertension awareness, treatment, and control.MethodsThe National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004, a continuous, annual survey of the civilian non-institutionalized US population. The sample comprised 4,816 hypertensive persons aged

Yechiam Ostchega; Jeffery P. Hughes; Jacqueline D. Wright; Margaret A. McDowell; Tatiana Louis

2008-01-01

362

Health problems presented in general practice by survivors before and after a fireworks disaster: associations with mental health care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To study the health problems presented to general practitioners by disaster survivors who received specialized ambulatory mental health care. Design: (Longitudinal) case-control study based on general practitioners' electronic medical records. Setting: General practice and a mental health institution (MHI) in Enschede, the Netherlands. Subject: A total of 728 adult disaster survivors who were registered in 30 study practices and

Dirk-Jan den Ouden; Anja J. E. Dirkzwager; C. J. IJzermans

2005-01-01

363

Internet Use Among Older Adults: Association With Health Needs, Psychological Capital, and Social Capital  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have identified socioeconomic status and health status as predictors of older adults’ computer and Internet use, but researchers have not examined the relationships between older adults’ health needs and psychological capital (emotional well-being and self-efficacy) and social capital (social integration/ties and support networks) to different types of Internet use. Objective This study examined (1) whether older adults’ health conditions and psychological and social capital differentiate Internet users from nonusers, and (2) whether the Internet users differed in their types of Internet use on the basis of their health conditions and psychological and social capital. Methods Data for this study came from the National Health and Aging Trends Study, which is based on a nationally representative sample of US Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years and older. The sample for this study were those who resided in the community in their own or others’ homes (N=6680). Binary logistic regression analysis was used to compare health needs, psychological capital, and social capital among (1) any type of Internet users and nonusers, (2) Internet users who engaged in health-related tasks and Internet users who did not, (3) Internet users who engaged in shopping/banking tasks and Internet users who did not, and (4) Internet users only used the Internet for email/texting and all other Internet users. Results Depressive and anxiety symptoms, measures of psychological capital, were negatively associated with Internet use among older adults (odds ratio [OR] 0.83, 95% CI 0.70-0.98, P=.03 and OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.65-0.97, P=.03, respectively), whereas most measures of social capital were positively associated with Internet use. Having more chronic medical conditions and engaging in formal volunteering increased the odds of Internet use for health-related tasks by 1.15 (95% CI 1.08-1.23, P<.001) and 1.28 (95% CI 1.05-1.57, P=.02), respectively, but anxiety symptoms decreased the odds (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.55-0.99, P=.05). Religious service attendance was negatively associated with Internet use for shopping/banking activities (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.62-0.91, P=.01). Anxiety symptoms increased the odds of using the Internet only for emails/texting (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.12-2.75, P=.02), but formal volunteering decreased the odds (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.43-0.92, P=.02). Other correlates of Internet use solely for emails/texting were older age (80-84 years and ?85 years), a black or “other” racial/ethnic background, a high school education or less than high school, and lower income. Conclusions The findings point to the importance of social capital in facilitating older adults’ learning and adoption of Internet technology. Older adults who used the Internet for email/texting purposes only were the most socially and economically disadvantaged group of Internet users. Computer/Internet training for older adults and computer/Internet use for various purposes need to consider the significant role their social capital can play. PMID:23681083

2013-01-01

364

Pool chemical-associated health events in public and residential settings - United States, 2003-2012, and Minnesota, 2013.  

PubMed

Pool chemicals are added to treated recreational water venues (e.g., pools, hot tubs/spas, and interactive fountains) primarily to protect public health by inactivating pathogens and maximizing the effectiveness of disinfection by controlling pH. However, pool chemicals also can cause injuries when handled or stored improperly. To estimate the number of emergency department (ED) visits for injuries associated with pool chemicals in the United States per year during 2003-2012, CDC analyzed data from the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission's National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS). This report summarizes the results of that analysis. In 2012 alone, an estimated 4,876 persons (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2,821-6,930) visited an ED for injuries associated with pool chemicals. Almost half of the patients were aged <18 years. This report also describes a pool chemical-associated health event that occurred in Minnesota in 2013, which sent seven children and one adult to an ED. An investigation by the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) determined the cause to be poor monitoring of or response to pool chemistry. Pool chemical-associated health events are preventable. CDC's Model Aquatic Health Code (MAHC) (1) is a resource that state and local agencies can use to optimize prevention of injuries and illnesses associated with public treated recreational water venues, including pool chemical-associated health events. PMID:24827410

Hlavsa, Michele C; Robinson, Trisha J; Collier, Sarah A; Beach, Michael J

2014-05-16

365

Non-medical prescription drug and illicit street drug use among young Swiss men and associated mental health issues.  

PubMed

Non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) is increasing among the general population, particularly among teenagers and young adults. Although prescription drugs are considered safer than illicit street drugs, NMUPD can lead to detrimental consequences. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between drug use (NMUPD on the one side, illicit street drugs on the other side) with mental health issues and then compare these associations. A representative sample of 5719 young Swiss men aged around 20 years filled in a questionnaire as part of the ongoing baseline Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors (C-SURF). Drug use (16 illicit street drugs and 5 NMUPDs, including sleeping pills, sedatives, pain killers, antidepressants, stimulants) and mental health issues (depression, SF12) were assessed. Simple and multiple linear regressions were employed. In simple regressions, all illicit and prescription drugs were associated with poorer mental health. In multiple regressions, most of the NMUPDs, except for stimulants, were significantly associated with poorer mental health and with depression. On the contrary, the only associations that remained significant between illicit street drugs and mental health involved cannabis. NMUPD is of growing concern not only because of its increasing occurrence, but also because of its association with depression and mental health problems, which is stronger than the association observed between these problems and illicit street drug use, excepted for cannabis. Therefore, NMUPD must be considered in screening for substance use prevention purposes. PMID:24447983

Baggio, Stéphanie; Studer, Joseph; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard

2014-01-01

366

Disgust Sensitivity Is Not Associated with Health in a Rural Bangladeshi Sample  

PubMed Central

Disgust can be considered a psychological arm of the immune system that acts to prevent exposure to infectious agents. High disgust sensitivity is associated with greater behavioral avoidance of disease vectors and thus may reduce infection risk. A cross-sectional survey in rural Bangladesh provided no strong support for this hypothesis. In many species, the expression of pathogen- and predator-avoidance mechanisms is contingent on early life exposure to predators and pathogens. Using childhood health data collected in the 1990s, we examined if adults with more infectious diseases in childhood showed greater adult disgust sensitivity: no support for this association was found. Explanations for these null finding and possible directions for future research are discussed. PMID:24977418

de Barra, Mícheál; Islam, M. Sirajul; Curtis, Val

2014-01-01

367

Gender differences in physical activity and fitness—association with self-reported health and health-relevant attitudes in a middle-aged Swiss urban population  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Switzerland lack of exercise is common. To improve physical exercise in both women and men, campaigns should consider the motivation for physical activity with respect to gender. This study explores the patterns of self-reported sport activity, habitual physical activity and physical fitness, and associated indicators of self-reported health, health-relevant attitudes, and resources in an urban Swiss population. Using the

K. Meyer; S. Niemann; T. Abel

2004-01-01

368

Occupational exposure to solid chemical agents in biomass-fired power plants and associated health effects.  

PubMed

Occupational exposure to aluminium, arsenic, lead, cadmium, and manganese can increase the risk of numerous neurophysiological changes in workers, and may lead to conditions resembling Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. However, although the health hazard aspect of these agents has been examined, biomass-fired power plant workers' exposure to them remains a neglected issue. The purpose of this study was to measure maintenance and ash removal workers' multiple exposures to inhalable dust, metals, and crystalline silica during their work tasks in biomass-fired power plants. Maintenance and ash removal workers were exposed to high inhalable dust concentrations inside biomass-fired boilers. The median air inhalable dust concentration in workers' breathing zones were 33 mg m(-3) and 120 mg m(-3) in ash removal and maintenance tasks, respectively. The median concentration of manganese (0.31 mg m(-3)) exceeded the occupational exposure limit in worker's breathing zone samples in maintenance tasks. The most evident exposure-associated health risk from multiple exposures to metals was that of cancer, followed by central nervous system disorders, lower respiratory tract irritation, and finally upper respiratory tract irritation. To avoid the above mentioned health effects, powered air respirators with ABEK+P3 cartridges and carbon monoxide gas detectors are recommended as the minimum requirement for these work tasks. A compressed air breathing apparatus is the best form of protection for the most demanding work phases inside boilers in biomass-fired power plants. PMID:24289933

Jumpponen, M; Rönkkömäki, H; Pasanen, P; Laitinen, J

2014-06-01

369

Psychosocial Factors of Different Health Behaviour Patterns in Adolescents: Association with Overweight and Weight Control Behaviours  

PubMed Central

Physical activity, nutrition, and sedentary behaviour combine to influence the risk of overweight among adolescents. This paper aims to identify psychosocial factors of different health behaviour patterns in adolescents and its association with overweight and weight control behaviours. The 3069 adolescents of both genders (average of 14.8 years old) from the 2010 Portuguese survey of Health Behaviour School-Aged Children (HBSC) answered the 2010 HBSC self-reported questionnaire. It used the cluster k-means (nonhierarchy method), qui-square, one-way ANOVA, and logistic regression. Three clusters with different behavioural patterns (physical activity, sedentary, and eating) composed the results obtained. The sedentary group (34%) had lower self-regulation, body satisfaction, health and wellness, family and classmates relationships, communication with the father than the other two groups. The active gamers (25%) had a smaller BMI but used more unhealthy weight control strategies than the other two groups. The healthy group (41%) was more motivated and more satisfied with school but was not different than the active gamers in most psychosocial variables. Differences were found between clusters for weight control behaviours and psychosocial variables. Different strategies for different patterns were necessary in order to promote obesity prevention and, simultaneously, target healthy lifestyle and wellbeing in adolescents. PMID:22811890

Veloso, Susana M.; Matos, Margarida G.; Carvalho, Marina; Diniz, José A.

2012-01-01

370

Costs associated with tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment in Yemen for patients and public health services.  

PubMed

This study determined the costs associated with tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and treatment for the public health services and patients in Sana'a, Yemen. Data were collected prospectively from 320 pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB patients (160 each) who were followed until completion of treatment. Direct medical and nonmedical costs and indirect costs were calculated. The proportionate cost to the patients for pulmonary TB and extrapulmonary TB was 76.1% arid 89.4% respectively of the total for treatment. The mean cost to patients for pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB treatment was US$ 108.4 and US$ 328.0 respectively. The mean cost per patient to the health services for pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB treatment was US$ 34.0 and US$ 38.8 respectively. For pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB, drug treatment represented 59.3% and 77.9% respectively of the total cost to the health services. The greatest proportionate cost to patients for pulmonary TB treatment was time away from work (67.5% of the total cost), and for extrapulmonary TB was laboratory and X-ray costs (55.5%) followed by transportation (28.6%). PMID:22768704

Othman, G Q; Ibrahim, M I M; Raja'a, Y A

2012-04-01

371

Health implications associated with exposure to farmed and wild sea turtles.  

PubMed

Exposure to sea turtles may be increasing with expanding tourism, although reports of problems arising from interaction with free-living animals appear of negligible human health and safety concern. Exposure both to wild-caught and captive-housed sea turtles, including consumption of turtle products, raises several health concerns for the public, including: microbiological (bacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi), macrobiological (macroparasites), and organic and inorganic toxic contaminants (biotoxins, organochlorines and heavy metals). We conducted a review of sea turtle associated human disease and its causative agents as well as a case study of the commercial sea turtle facility known as the Cayman Turtle Farm (which receives approximately 240,000 visitors annually) including the use of water sampling and laboratory microbial analysis which identified Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aeromonas spp., Vibrio spp. and Salmonella spp. Our assessment is that pathogens and toxic contaminants may be loosely categorized to represent the following levels of potential risk: viruses and fungi = very low; protozoan parasites = very low to low; metazoan parasites, bacteria and environmental toxic contaminants = low or moderate to high; and biotoxin contaminant = moderate to very high. Farmed turtles and their consumable products may constitute a significant reservoir of potential human pathogen and toxin contamination. Greater awareness among health-care professionals regarding both potential pathogens and toxic contaminants from sea turtles, as well as key signs and symptoms of sea turtle-related human disease, is important for the prevention and control of salient disease. PMID:23413410

Warwick, Clifford; Arena, Phillip C; Steedman, Catrina

2013-01-01

372

Second Conference of the African Health Economics and Policy Association: towards universal healthcare coverage in Africa.  

PubMed

This report discusses the key messages coming out of the papers presented at the second African Health Economics and Policy Association conference, with a particular focus on innovative and recent research results of interest to a wider audience. It also covers the scientific structure and organization of the conference, including the various sessions and key note speeches. The 3-day conference discussed the definition and scope as well as the key issues concerned, the challenges involved, and the role of leadership and country ownership in achieving universal health coverage in low-income countries. A special effort was also made to link the research outputs of the conference to policy-making in the region, through the participation of high-level decision-makers from countries as well as the production of policy briefs targeting policy-makers and based on the conference outputs and relevant research. Sub-themes of the conference included user fee removal and exemptions, covering those outside the formal sector, improved domestic funding of healthcare, purchasing of services and policy processes. The conference was attended by approximately 230 participants drawn from over 30 African countries as well as abroad, mostly from academia, research institutions, Ministries of Health and other relevant Government agencies, as well as donor and technical partners. PMID:21671694

Atim, Chris

2011-06-01

373

Associations between Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Factors and Health Outcomes in Women with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) is a widely used measure of subjective sleep disturbance in clinical populations, including individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although the severity of sleep disturbance is generally represented by a global symptom score, recent factor analytic studies suggest that the PSQI is better characterized by a two- or three-factor model than a one-factor model. This study examined the replicability of two- and three-factor models of the PSQI, as well as the relationship between PSQI factors and health outcomes, in a female sample with PTSD. Methods The PSQI was administered to 319 women with PTSD related to sexual or physical assault. Confirmatory factor analyses tested the relative fit of one-, two-, and three-factor solutions. Bivariate correlations were performed to examine the shared variance between PSQI sleep factors and measures of PTSD, depression, anger, and physical symptoms. Results Confirmatory factor analyses supported a 3-factor model with Sleep Efficiency, Perceived Sleep Quality, and Daily Disturbances as separate indices of sleep quality. The severity of symptoms represented by the PSQI factors was positively associated with the severity of PTSD, depression, and physical symptoms. However, these health outcomes correlated as much or more with the global PSQI score as with PSQI factor scores. Conclusions These results support the multidimensional structure of the PSQI. Yet, the global PSQI score has as much or more explanatory power as individual PSQI factors in predicting health outcomes. PMID:22542787

Casement, Melynda D.; Harrington, Kelly M.; Miller, Mark W.; Resick, Patricia A.

2012-01-01

374

Association of oral health related quality of life with dental anxiety and depression along with general health among people of Bhopal district, Madhya Pradesh  

PubMed Central

Background: To associate oral health related quality of life with dental anxiety and depression along with general health among people of Bhopal district, Madhya Pradesh. Materials & Methods: A cross sectional questionnaires based survey was conducted among the subjects of Bhopal district, Madhya Pradesh. The survey was carried among 101 subjects aging from 20-40 years. Subjects under investigation were belonging to various occupations. They were assigned a questionnaire. Questionnaire consisted of four parts, first part consists of socio-demographic data along with dental visiting habits, second part has OHqOL-questionnaire, third part has general health (sf-12) and fourth part has hospital anxiety and depression questionnaire. Questionnaire was used for assessment of OHqOL. It consists of 16 questions which takes into account both effect and impact of oral health on quality of life. Dental anxiety and depression was measured by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Each question was provided with four options and numbering ranging from 0-3. For general health consideration sf-12 v2 was being used, which calculates two values PCS and MCS giving result in percentage. Results: A large proportion of respondent perceived oral health as having an enhanced effect on their quality of life in all three aspects that is general health, social and psychological. This is in stark contrast to other studies, where only physical aspects of oral health were more frequently considered to have the greatest overall impact of life quality compared with items relating to social, psychological and general health aspects. Conclusion: Gender variations were not apparent in the study. Both genders were likely to perceive oral health as it is impacting strongly on their quality of life. No significant gender variations are seen. But both have specific oral health needs and are most likely to utilize dental services which may be the key in understanding oral health behavior, including dental attendance patterns. How to cite this article: Shet RG, Jain G, Maroli S, Srivastava KJ, Kasina SP, Shwetha GS. Association of oral health related quality of life with dental anxiety and depression along with general health among people of Bhopal district, Madhya Pradesh. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(6):1-8 . PMID:24453438

Shet, RGK; Jain, Gaurvi; Maroli, Sohani; Srivastava, Kirti Jajoo; Kasina, Sitaram Prasad; Shwetha, GS

2013-01-01

375

Emerging health risks associated with modern agriculture practices: a comprehensive study in India.  

PubMed

In order to enhance food production, India has adopted modern agriculture practices and achieved noteworthy success. This achievement was essentially the result of a paradigm shift in agriculture that included high inputs of agrochemicals, water, and widespread practice of monoculture, as well as bureaucratic changes that promoted these changes. There are very few comprehensive analyses of potential adverse health outcomes that may be related to these changes. The objective of this study is to identify health risks associated with modern agricultural practices in the southern Indian state of Karnataka. This study aims to compare high-input and low-input agricultural practices and the consequences for health of people in these communities. The fieldwork was conducted from May to August, 2009 and included a survey carried out in six villages. Data were collected by in-depth personal interviews among 240 households and key informants, field observations, laboratory analyses, and data from secondary sources. The study identified four major visible impacts: occupational hazards, vector borne diseases, changing nutritional status, and inequity in development. In the high-input area, mechanization has resulted in more occurrences of serious accidents and injuries. Ecological changes due to rice cultivation in this area have further augmented mosquito breeding, and there has been a surge in the incidence of Japanese encephalitis and malaria. The traditional coarse cereals (complex carbohydrates, high protein) have been replaced by mill-polished rice (simple carbohydrate, low protein). The prevalence of overweight (BMI>25) has emerged as a new public health challenge, and this is most evident in large-landholding households, especially in the high-input agriculture areas. In all agro-ecological areas, it was observed that women faced a greater risk of both extremes of under-nutrition and being overweight. Output-driven and market-oriented modern agricultural practices have changed the ecology and disease pattern in this area in India, and our survey indicated significant health effects associated with these changes. There is a need for more extensive epidemiological studies in order to know the full impact on diseases and to understand the complex causal relationships. PMID:22480534

Sarkar, Atanu; Aronson, Kristan J; Patil, Shantagouda; Hugar, Lingappa B; vanLoon, Gary W

2012-05-01

376

Factors Associated With Health-Related Quality of Life of Student Pharmacists  

PubMed Central

Objective. To assess the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of student pharmacists and explore factors related to HRQoL outcomes of student pharmacists in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program at a public university. Methods. A survey instrument was administered to all student pharmacists in a PharmD program at a public university to evaluate differences and factors related to the HRQoL outcomes of first-year (P1), second-year (P2), third-year (P3), and fourth-year (P4) student pharmacists in the college. The survey instrument included attitudes and academic-related self-perception, a 12-item short form health survey, and personal information components. Results. There were 304 students (68.6%) who completed the survey instrument. The average health state classification measure and mental health component scale (MCS-12) scores were significantly higher for P4 students when compared with the P1through P3 students. There was no difference observed in the physical component scale (PCS-12) scores among each of the 4 class years. Significant negative impact on HRQoL outcomes was observed in students with higher levels of confusion about how they should study (scale lack of regulation) and concern about not being negatively perceived by others (self-defeating ego orientation), while school satisfaction increased HRQoL outcomes (SF-6D, p<0.001; MCS-12, p=0.013). A greater desire to be judged capable (self-enhancing ego-orientation) and career satisfaction were positively associated with the PCS-12 scores (p<0.05). Conclusion. Factors associated with the HRQoL of student pharmacists were confusion regarding how to study, ego orientation, satisfaction with the chosen college of pharmacy, and career satisfaction. First-year through third-year student pharmacists had lower HRQoL as compared with P4 students and the US general population. Support programs may be helpful for students to maintain or improve their mental and overall health. PMID:24558275

Gubbins, Paul O.; Ragland, Denise; Flowers, Schwanda K.; Stowe, Cindy D.

2014-01-01

377

Factors associated with health risk behavior among school children in urban Vietnam  

PubMed Central

Background Health risk behavior among young people is a public health problem in Vietnam. In addition, road traffic injuries are the leading cause of death for those aged 15–29 years. The consequences can be devastating for adolescents and their families, and can create a significant economic burden on society. Objective The aim of this study was to identify protective and risk factors that may influence three health risk behaviors among school children: suicidal thinking (ST), drinking alcohol (DA), and underage motorbike driving (MD). Methods A cross-sectional survey of 972 adolescents (aged 12–15 years) was conducted in two secondary schools in Hanoi, Vietnam. The schools were purposely selected, one each from the inner city and a suburban area, from which classes (grade 6 to 8) were randomly selected. All students attending classes on survey days took part in the survey. The anonymous, self-completed questionnaire included measures of risk behavior, school connectedness, parental bonding, and other factors. Multivariable regression models were used to examine associations between the independent variables and the three health risk behaviors controlling for confounding factors. Results Young people in the inner city school reported a higher prevalence of all three risk behaviors than those in the suburban area (ST: 16.1% [95% confidence interval, or CI, 12.9–19.3] versus 4.6% [95% CI 2.7–6.5], p<0.001; DA: 20.3% [95% CI 16.8–23.8] versus 8.3% [95% CI 5.8–10.8], p<0.001, and MD: 10.1% [95% CI 7.4–12.8] versus 5.7% [95% CI 3.6–7.8], p<0.01). School connectedness and mother and father care appeared to be significant protective factors. For males, bullying in school was associated with suicidal thoughts, whereas for both males and females, school connectedness may be protective against suicidal ideation. Conclusion This study supports findings from other nations regarding suicidal thoughts and alcohol use, and appears to be one of the first to examine risk and protective factors forMD. Health promotion within schools should be introduced to improve students’ feelings of connectedness in combination with communication and education campaigns focusing on parental care and engaging teachers for the promotion of safer, supportive school environments. PMID:23336622

Phuong, Tran Bich; Huong, Nguyen Thanh; Tien, Truong Quang; Chi, Hoang Khanh; Dunne, Michael P.

2013-01-01

378

Respiratory Health Effects Associated with Restoration Work in Post-Hurricane Katrina New Orleans  

PubMed Central

Background. This study examines prevalence of respiratory conditions in New Orleans-area restoration workers after Hurricane Katrina. Methods. Between 2007 and 2010, spirometry and respiratory health and occupational questionnaire were administered to 791 New Orleans-area adults who mostly worked in the building construction and maintenance trades or custodial services. The associations between restoration work hours and lung function and prevalence of respiratory symptoms were examined by multiple linear regression, ?2, or multiple logistic regression. Results. 74% of participants performed post-Katrina restoration work (median time: 620 hours). Symptoms reported include episodes of transient fever/cough (29%), sinus symptoms (48%), pneumonia (3.7%), and new onset asthma (4.5%). Prevalence rate ratios for post-Katrina sinus symptoms (PRR?=?1.3; CI: 1.1, 1.7) and fever and cough (PRR?=?1.7; CI: 1.3, 2.4) were significantly elevated overall for those who did restoration work and prevalence increased with restoration work hours. Prevalence rate ratios with restoration work were also elevated for new onset asthma (PRR?=?2.2; CI: 0.8, 6.2) and pneumonia (PRR?=?1.3; CI: 0.5, 3.2) but were not statistically significant. Overall, lung function was slightly depressed but was not significantly different between those with and without restoration work exposure. Conclusions. Post-Katrina restoration work is associated with moderate adverse effects on respiratory health, including sinusitis and toxic pneumonitis. PMID:23365586

Rando, Roy J.; Lefante, John J.; Freyder, Laurie M.; Jones, Robert N.

2012-01-01

379

Potential Health Risks Associated to ICSI: Insights from Animal Models and Strategies for a Safe Procedure  

PubMed Central

Artificial reproductive techniques are currently responsible for 1.7–4% of the births in developed countries and intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (ICSI) is the most commonly used, accounting for 70–80% of the cycles performed. Despite being an invaluable tool for infertile couples, the technique bypasses several biological barriers that naturally select the gametes to achieve an optimal embryonic and fetal development. In this perspective, ICSI has been associated with an increased risk for diverse health problems, ranging from premature births and diverse metabolic disorders in the offspring to more severe complications such as abortions, congenital malformations, and imprinting disorders. In this review, we discuss the possible implications of the technique per se on these adverse outcomes and highlight the importance of several experiments using mammalian models to truthfully test these implications and to uncover the molecular base that origins these health problems. We also dissect the specific hazards associated to ICSI and describe some strategies that have been developed to mimic the gamete selection occurring in natural conception in order to improve the safety of the procedure. PMID:25478554

Sánchez-Calabuig, María Jesús; López-Cardona, Angela Patricia; Fernández-González, Raúl; Ramos-Ibeas, Priscila; Fonseca Balvís, Noelia; Laguna-Barraza, Ricardo; Pericuesta, Eva; Gutiérrez-Adán, Alfonso; Bermejo-Álvarez, Pablo

2014-01-01

380

The relationship between hand hygiene and health care-associated infection: it’s complicated  

PubMed Central

The reasoning that improved hand hygiene compliance contributes to the prevention of health care-associated infections is widely accepted. It is also accepted that high hand hygiene alone cannot impact formidable risk factors, such as older age, immunosuppression, admission to the intensive care unit, longer length of stay, and indwelling devices. When hand hygiene interventions are concurrently undertaken with other routine or special preventive strategies, there is a potential for these concurrent strategies to confound the effect of the hand hygiene program. The result may be an overestimation of the hand hygiene intervention unless the design of the intervention or analysis controls the effect of the potential confounders. Other epidemiologic principles that may also impact the result of a hand hygiene program include failure to consider measurement error of the content of the hand hygiene program and the measurement error of compliance. Some epidemiological errors in hand hygiene programs aimed at reducing health care-associated infections are inherent and not easily controlled. Nevertheless, the inadvertent omission by authors to report these common epidemiological errors, including concurrent infection prevention strategies, suggests to readers that the effect of hand hygiene is greater than the sum of all infection prevention strategies. Worse still, this omission does not assist evidence-based practice. PMID:25678805

McLaws, Mary-Louise

2015-01-01

381

Factors associated with the academic success of first year health science students.  

PubMed

The academic success of students is a priority for all universities. This study identifies factors associated with first year academic success (performance and retention) that can be used to improve the quality of the student learning experience. A retrospective cohort study was conducted with a census of all 381 full time students enrolled in the Bachelor of Health Science at The University of Western Australia since the inception of the course in the year 2000. Factors found to be associated with successful academic performance were high matriculation score, female sex, non-Indigenous status, attendance at a government secondary school, upfront payment of university fees and completion of secondary school English Literature. The most influential factor on first year academic performance was a high matriculation score. Retention into second year was found to be influenced by participation in the university mentor scheme, non-Indigenous status and first year university marks. The factor of most influence on student retention was first year university marks. Valuable information about the performance and retention of first year Bachelor of Health Science students is provided in this study which is relevant to the operational priorities of any university. PMID:18293093

Mills, Christina; Heyworth, Jane; Rosenwax, Lorna; Carr, Sandra; Rosenberg, Michael

2009-05-01

382

Association of Perceived Stigma and Mood and Anxiety Disorders: Results from the World Mental Health Surveys  

PubMed Central

Introduction We assessed the prevalence of perceived stigma among persons with mental disorders and chronic physical conditions in an international study. Methods Perceived stigma (reporting health-related embarrassment and discrimination) was assessed to adults reporting significant disability. Mental disorders were assessed with CIDI 3.0. Chronic conditions were ascertained by self-report. 80,737 household-residing adults participated in 17 population surveys in 16 countries. Results Perceived stigma was present in 13.5% (22.1% in developing and 11.7% in developed countries). Suffering from a depressive or an anxiety disorder (vs. no mental disorder) was associated with about a two-fold increase in the likelihood of stigma, while comorbid depression and anxiety was even more strongly associated (OR= 4.0, 95%CI= 3.1, 5.4). Chronic physical conditions showed a lower association. Conclusion Perceived stigma is frequent and strongly associated with mental disorders worldwide. Efforts to alleviate stigma among individuals with comorbid depression and anxiety are needed. PMID:18754833

Alonso, Jordi; Buron, Andrea; Bruffaerts, Ronny; He, Yanling; Posada-Villa, José; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Angermeyer, Mattias C.; Levinson, Daphna; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Tachimori, Hisateru; Mneimneh, Zeina N.; Medina-Mora, Ma Elena; Ormel, Johan; Scott, Kate Margaret; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Gluzman, Semyon; Lee, Sing; Vilagut, Gemma; Kessler, Ronald C.; Von Korff, Michael

2010-01-01

383

Religious Factors Associated with Alcohol Involvement: Results from the Mauritian Joint Child Health Project  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to examine religious factors associated with alcohol involvement in Mauritius. The three main religions on the island, Hinduism, Catholicism, and Islam, promote different views of the appropriate use of alcohol. Based on reference group theory, we hypothesized that both the content of a religion’s alcohol norms and an individual’s religious commitment would relate to alcohol use behavior. Methods Participants were from the Joint Child Health Project, a longitudinal study that has followed a birth cohort of 1,795 individuals since 1972 when they were 3 years old. All available participants (67%; 55% male) were assessed in mid-adulthood on religious variables, lifetime drinking, and lifetime alcohol use disorders. Results Across religions, individuals who viewed their religion as promoting abstinence were less likely to be drinkers. Religious commitment was associated with reduced probability of drinking only in those who viewed their religion as promoting abstinence. Among drinkers, abstention norms and religious commitment were not associated with lower likelihood of alcohol use disorders. In Catholics who viewed their religion as promoting abstinence and still were drinkers, high religious commitment was associated with increased risk for alcohol use disorders. Conclusions Predictions based on reference group theory were largely supported, with religious norms and commitment differentially related to alcohol use and problems both across religions and among individuals within religions. Findings highlight the importance of examining multiple aspects of religion to better understand the relationship of religion with alcohol behaviors. PMID:24332801

Luczak, Susan E.; Prescott, Carol A.; Dalais, Cyril; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

2014-01-01

384

Associations between different types of physical activity and teachers’ perceived mental, physical, and work-related health  

PubMed Central

Background The teaching profession is characterized by high levels of stress and physical complaints, which might be improved through regular participation in physical activity (PA). However, the effect of PA on mental and physical health is not always consistent and depends on the type of PA performed. The aim of this study was to examine the mental, physical, and work-related health of Flemish secondary school teachers and identify the impact on those health variables by demographic and teaching-related factors and various types of PA. Methods This study included an online survey conducted across a representative sample of secondary school teachers (n?=?1066, average age 40 years; 68 percent female). Level of PA and sitting time were estimated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and perceived mental health and physical health were estimated using the Short Form 36. Work-related factors such as job satisfaction, occupational stress, and absenteeism were also collected. T-tests, ANOVAs, and linear regression analyses were performed. Results Flemish secondary school teachers have poorer perceived mental and physical health than a general healthy population. This difference is particularly evident among female teachers, who reported lower perceived health, more occupational stress, and more absent days compared to their male colleagues. Higher participation in leisure-time PA was associated with a more positive perceived health. In contrast, higher levels of occupational PA and sitting time had a negative impact on perceived health. Total amount of PA, total amount of moderate-to-vigorous PA, transportation-related PA, and PA at home were not associated to teachers’ perceived health. Conclusion Because secondary school teachers’ levels of perceived health are low, they are an important target group for interventions aiming to improve health. Only leisure-time PA was associated with more positive perceived health. This finding may indicate that teachers performing more exercise during leisure time, or in a more autonomous way, may be more resistant to physical and mental health problems. Future research should verify whether promoting leisure-time PA among teachers has the potential to improve their mental and physical health, and counteract the negative associations between teachers’ health and their occupational PA. PMID:24885620

2014-01-01

385

The Association between Obesity and Health-Related Quality of Life among Urban Latinos  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine differences in health-related quality of life (HRQL) by obesity status in a community-based sample of urban Latinos. To determine if sex moderates the relationship between HRQL and obesity status in this cohort. Design, Setting and Participants Cross-sectional study of 202 foreign-born Latinos with low levels of acculturation, living in an urban setting. Main outcome measure Health-related quality of life by the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12). Methods Including the entire study cohort, t-tests were used to determine the unadjusted difference between obese and non-obese participants on SF-12 physical and mental functioning scores (PCS and MCS, respectively). Linear regression was used to estimate the adjusted difference in SF-12 scores between obese and non-obese participants after adjusting for potential confounders. The association between obesity status and HRQL summary scores were then assessed separately in men and women both with and without adjustment for potential confounders. Results There was a small but statistically significant unadjusted difference between obese and non-obese participants in the physical functioning domain of HRQL (?22.2, 95% CI ?4.0, ?.4), which was no longer significant in multivariate analysis (difference ?1.5, 95% CI ?3.3, .3). There were no significant differences in mental functioning scores in unadjusted or adjusted analyses. Sex did not moderate the relationship between obesity status and HRQL scores in stratified analyses. Conclusions Our results in an under-studied population suggest that obesity may have little impact on HRQL in urban Latinos. Future studies with larger and more diverse Latino populations are needed to further investigate the relationship between obesity and HRQL, and explore how acculturation impacts the association between these two factors. PMID:24620443

Wanat, Karolyn A.; Kovarik, Carrie L.; Shuman, Sara; Whitaker, Robert C.; Foster, Gary D.; O’Brien, Matthew J.

2014-01-01

386

Patterns and associates of cognitive function, psychosocial wellbeing and health in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive function, psychosocial wellbeing and health are important domains of function. Consistencies and inconsistencies in patterns of wellbeing across these domains may be informative about wellbeing in old age and the ways it is manifested amongst individuals. In this study we investigated whether there were groups of individuals with different profiles of scores across these domains. We also aimed to identify characteristics of any evident groups by comparing them on variables that were not used in identifying the groups. Methods The sample was the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936, which included 1091 participants born in 1936. They are a community-dwelling, narrow-age-range sample of 70-year-olds. Most had taken part in the Scottish Mental Survey 1947 at an average age of 11, making available a measure of childhood intelligence. We used latent class analysis (LCA) to explore possible profiles using 9 variables indicating cognitive functioning, psychosocial wellbeing and health status. Demographic, personality, and lifestyle variables – none of which were used in the LCA – were used to characterize the resulting profile groups. Results We accepted a 3-group solution, which we labeled High Wellbeing (65.3%), Low Cognition (20.3%), and Low Bio-Psychosocial (14.5%). Notably, the High Wellbeing group had significantly higher childhood IQ, lower Neuroticism scores, and a lower percentage of current smokers than the other 2 groups. Conclusion The majority of individuals were functioning generally well; however, there was evidence of the presence of groups with different profiles, which may be explained in part in terms of cognitive ability differences. Results suggested that higher life-long intelligence, personality traits associated with less mental distress, and basic health practices such as avoiding smoking are important associates of wellbeing in old age. PMID:24754844

2014-01-01

387

Factors Associated with Hemorrhoids in Korean Adults: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Although hemorrhoids are one of the most common anal diseases among Koreans, risk factors for hemorrhoids have not been well identified. Methods We analyzed the data from the 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) between 2007 and 2009. Study subjects were 17,228 participants of KNHANES who were aged 19 years or older. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate associations between hemorrhoids and probable risk factors. Results Overall prevalence of hemorrhoids among study subjects was 14.4%, being more prevalent among women (15.7%) than among men (13.0%). Obesity and abdominal obesity were associated with a higher risk of hemorrhoids with odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence intervals, 95% CI) of 1.13 (1.01 to 1.26) and 1.16 (1.04 to 1.30), respectively. Both self-reported depression (OR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.62 to 2.08) and physician diagnosed depression (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.35 to 2.17) were associated with significantly higher risk of hemorrhoids. No regular walking (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.23) and experience of pregnancy (OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.17 to 2.25) for women were also associated with higher risk of hemorrhoids. However, educational level, alcohol consumption, physical activities, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, fiber, fat intake, and energy intake were not associated with a risk of hemorrhoids. Low quality of life assessed with EuroQol-5 Dimension and EuroQol-Visual Analogue Scale was significantly associated with hemorrhoids. Conclusion This nationwide cross-sectional study of Korean adults suggests that obesity, abdominal obesity, depression, and past pregnancy may be risk factors for hemorrhoids and hemorrhoids affect quality of life negatively. PMID:25309703

Lee, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Hyo-Eun; Kang, Ji-Hun

2014-01-01

388

Factors associated with public awareness of the Crown Health Program in the Al-Jouf Region  

PubMed Central

Objectives: A community-based intervention, the Crown Health Project (CHP), was developed by the Ministry of Health. It was implemented on a small-scale in Al-Jouf Region in Northern Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to assess its feasibility and effectiveness so that it can be scaled up. This study primarily aimed at investigating factors associated with the awareness of CHP in order to improve subsequent campaigns for the program in Al-Jouf and other regions. A secondary aim was to assess possible changes of public awareness during intensification of the awareness campaign between October 2011 and May 2012. Methods: A pre- and post-questionnaire cross-sectional approach was undertaken, and the intervention was an awareness campaign. Variables collected included demographic characteristics (e.g., age, gender, education, occupation, urban/rural residence) and CHP awareness (its existence, sources of knowledge about CHP, its goals and objectives, its target diseases, location of activities, participation in such activities). Logistic regression was used to analyze the awareness of the program according to participant characteristics, with a time of the survey as a variable. Results: Awareness of the program was found to be 11 times higher among postsurvey respondents than presurvey respondents. Respondents of the second survey were better at correctly identifying “health education” as the main goal of the CHP (odds ratio [OR], 4.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.1–5.5), “noncommunicable diseases” as the main diseases targeted (OR, 4.8; 95% CI, 3.6–6.4) and “attention to health” as the purpose (OR, 6.0; 95% CI, 4.0–8.9). Conclusion: The different activities of the CHP were successful in dramatically increasing awareness of the CHP program in Al-Jouf. PMID:25657609

Memish, Ziad A.; Saeedi, Mohammad Y.; Al Madani, Ahmed J.; Junod, Bernard; Jamo, Abdelgadier; Abid, Omer; Alanazi, Faisal M.; Alrewally, Fayez G.; Mandil, Ahmed M. A.

2015-01-01

389

Is Violent Radicalisation Associated with Poverty, Migration, Poor Self-Reported Health and Common Mental Disorders?  

PubMed Central

Background Doctors, lawyers and criminal justice agencies need methods to assess vulnerability to violent radicalization. In synergy, public health interventions aim to prevent the emergence of risk behaviours as well as prevent and treat new illness events. This paper describes a new method of assessing vulnerability to violent radicalization, and then investigates the role of previously reported causes, including poor self-reported health, anxiety and depression, adverse life events, poverty, and migration and socio-political factors. The aim is to identify foci for preventive intervention. Methods A cross-sectional survey of a representative population sample of men and women aged 18–45, of Muslim heritage and recruited by quota sampling by age, gender, working status, in two English cities. The main outcomes include self-reported health, symptoms of anxiety and depression (common mental disorders), and vulnerability to violent radicalization assessed by sympathies for violent protest and terrorist acts. Results 2.4% of people showed some sympathy for violent protest and terrorist acts. Sympathy was more likely to be articulated by the under 20s, those in full time education rather than employment, those born in the UK, those speaking English at home, and high earners (>Ł75,000 a year). People with poor self-reported health were less likely to show sympathies for violent protest and terrorism. Anxiety and depressive symptoms, adverse life events and socio-political attitudes showed no associations. Conclusions Sympathies for violent protest and terrorism were uncommon among men and women, aged 18–45, of Muslim heritage living in two English cities. Youth, wealth, and being in education rather than employment were risk factors. PMID:24599058

Bhui, Kamaldeep; Warfa, Nasir; Jones, Edgar

2014-01-01

390

Fostering a strategic alliance between patients' associations and health care professionals.  

PubMed

The Laboratory for Medical Research and Consumer Involvement was established in 2005 at Mario Negri Institute, a nonprofit institute for pharmacological research, as a consequence of the increasing interest in boosting citizens' and patients' involvement in the health care debate. It has developed several projects with patients' associations, researchers, and clinicians. Its objectives are to foster a strategic alliance among health care professionals, patients, and their organizations, developing activities with different levels of involvement. Among the laboratory' s activities, the PartecipaSalute project has organized training courses for consumers, published a Web site disseminating evidence-based information and critical appraisal tools, and collected research priorities set by patients. Two consensus conferences have been organized, one dealing with brain injury patients' assistance and the other with hormone therapy and menopause. The quality of health information covered by different sources (press articles, Web sites, and brochures) has also been assessed. Seventy consumers attended the training courses from 2006 to 2008, and between January 2008 and June 2009 the PartecipaSalute Web site registered a mean of 30 500 single visits monthly. At the consensus conference Informing women on hormone replacement therapy, 7 members of the 14-member panel defining the final recommendations were lay people. Other data from the laboratory's main activities are given in this article. The criteria for selecting patients and their organizations, the methods of involvement, and evaluation of the impact of the activities are still open questions. We are now developing ways of evaluating our activities, and trying to boost citizens' and patients' participation in decisional settings, concerning health care assistance and research studies. PMID:20539149

Mosconi, Paola; Colombo, Cinzia

2010-01-01

391

Longitudinal Association between Body Mass Index and Health-Related Quality of Life  

PubMed Central

Objective Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important outcome in individuals with a high risk for cardiovascular diseases. We investigated the association of HRQoL and body mass index (BMI) as an indicator for obesity. Design Secondary longitudinal analysis of the ORBITAL study, an intervention study which included high-risk cardiovascular primary care patients with hypercholesterolemia and an indication for statin therapy. Methods HRQoL was determined with the generic Short Form (SF)-12 health status instrument. Body weight and height were assessed at baseline and at months 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36. We used a linear and a linear mixed-effects regression model to investigate the association between BMI and SF-12 summary scores at baseline as well as between change in BMI and SF-12 summary scores over 3 years. We adjusted for age, sex, smoking status, and in the longitudinal analysis also for the study arm and its interaction term with time. Results Of the 7640 participants who completed the baseline questionnaire, 6726 participants (mean age: 61 years) were analyzed. The baseline BMI was inversely associated with physical and mental SF-12 summary scores (? [95% CI] per 1 kg/m2: ?0.36 [?0.41; ?0.30] and ?0.05 [?0.11; ?0.00], respectively). A significant association between the change in BMI and physical SF-12 summary scores over time was only present in women (?0.18 [?0.27; ?0.09]) and only in obese participants (?0.19 [?0.29; ?0.10]). A change in BMI was directly associated with mental SF-12 summary scores (0.12 [0.06; 0.19]) in the total population. Conclusion Increases in BMI were associated with decreases in physical HRQoL, particularly in obese individuals and in women. In contrast, the mental HRQoL seemed to increase with increasing BMI over time. Thus, body weight management with respect to the HRQoL should be evaluated differentially by sex and body weight status. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00379249 PMID:24671104

Englert, Heike; Grittner, Ulrike; Berger, Hendrike; Sonntag, Frank; Völler, Heinz; Prugger, Christof; Wegscheider, Karl; Katus, Hugo A.; Willich, Stefan N.

2014-01-01

392

Adherence to the 2006 American Heart Association Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations for cardiovascular disease risk reduction is associated with bone health in older Puerto Ricans123  

PubMed Central

Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and osteoporosis are 2 major public health problems that share common pathophysiological mechanisms. It is possible that strategies to reduce CVD risk may also benefit bone health. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that adherence to the 2006 American Heart Association Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations (AHA-DLR) is associated with bone health. Design: We previously developed a unique diet and lifestyle score (American Heart Association Diet and Lifestyle Score; AHA-DLS) to assess adherence to the AHA-DLR. In a cross-sectional study of 933 Puerto Ricans aged 47–79 y, we modified the AHA-DLS to test associations with bone health. Bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral neck, trochanter, total hip, and lumbar spine (L2–L4) was measured by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results: For every 5-unit increase in the modified AHA-DLS, BMD at the femoral neck, trochanter, total hip, and lumbar spine (L2–L4) was associated with a 0.005–0.008-g/cm2 (P < 0.05) higher value. No component of the AHA-DLR alone was responsible for the observed positive associations. For every 5-unit increase in the modified AHA-DLS, the odds for osteoporosis or osteopenia at the trochanter, total hip, and lumbar spine (L2–L4) were lower by 14% (OR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.79, 0.92), 17% (OR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.92), and 9% (OR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.84, 0.99), respectively. Conclusions: Dietary guidelines for CVD risk reduction may also benefit bone health in this Hispanic cohort. Synchronizing dietary guidelines for these 2 common diseases may provide a simplified public health message. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01231958. PMID:24047918

Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Dawson-Hughes, Bess; Hannan, Marian T

2013-01-01

393

Association of changes in health-related quality of life in coronary heart disease with coronary procedures and sociodemographic characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Few studies have focused on the association between the sociodemographic characteristics of a patient with the change in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) following invasive coronary procedures, and the results remain inconclusive. The objective of the present study was to measure the temporal changes in HRQOL of patients with coronary heart disease, and assess how these changes are associated

Marijke Veenstra; Kjell I Pettersen; Arnfinn Rollag; Knut Stavem

2004-01-01

394

The Association of Resilience with Mental and Physical Health among Older American Indians: The Native Elder Care Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the association of resilience with measures of mental and physical health in a sample of older American Indians (AIs). A validated scale measuring resilience was administered to 185 noninstitutionalized AIs aged greater than or equal to 55 years. Unadjusted analyses revealed that higher levels of resilience were associated with lower…

Schure, Marc B.; Odden, Michelle; Goins, R. Turner

2013-01-01

395

The association of HIV\\/AIDS treatment side effects with health status, work productivity, and resource use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to stable incidence and improved survival rates, there are an increasing number of patients living with HIV\\/AIDS in the USA. Although highly effective, current antiretroviral therapies are associated with a variety of side effects. The role side effects play on health outcomes has not been fully examined. The current study assessed the association of medication side effects with (1)

Marco daCosta DiBonaventura; Shaloo Gupta; Michelle Cho; Joseph Mrus

2012-01-01

396

Exercise Dose, Exercise Adherence, and Associated Health Outcomes in the TIGER Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose To effectively evaluate activity-based interventions for weight management and disease risk reduction, objective and accurate measures of exercise dose are needed. This study examined cumulative exercise exposure defined by heart rate-based intensity, duration, and frequency as a measure of compliance with a prescribed exercise program and a predictor of health outcomes. Methods 1,150 adults (21.3 ± 2.7 yrs) completed a 15-week exercise protocol consisting of 30 min/day, three days/wk at 65–85% maximum heart rate reserve (HRR). Computerized HR monitor data were recorded at every exercise session (33,473 valid sessions). To quantify total exercise dose, duration for each session was adjusted for average exercise intensity (%HRR) to create a measure of intensity-minutes for each workout, which were summed over all exercise sessions to formulate a heart rate physical activity score (HRPAS). Regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between HRPAS and physiological responses to exercise training. Compliance with the exercise protocol based on achievement of the minimum prescribed HRPAS was compared to adherence defined by attendance. Results Using HRPAS, 868 participants were empirically defined as compliant, and 282 were non-compliant. HRPAS-based and attendance-based classifications of compliance and adherence differed for approximately 9% of participants. Higher HRPAS was associated with significant positive changes in body mass (p<0.001), BMI (p<0.001), waist and hip circumferences (p<0.001), percent body fat (%Fat, p<0.001), systolic blood pressure (p<0.011), resting heart rate (RHR, p<0.003), fasting glucose (p<0.001), and total cholesterol (p<.02). Attendance-based adherence was associated with body mass, hip circumference, %Fat, RHR, and cholesterol (p<0.05). Conclusions The HRPAS is a quantifiable measure of exercise dose associated with improvement in health indicators beyond that observed when adherence is defined as session attendance. PMID:23793231

Miller, Fred L.; O’Connor, Daniel P.; Herring, Matthew P.; Sailors, Mary H.; Jackson, Andrew S.; Dishman, Rodney K.; Bray, Molly S.

2013-01-01

397

Association of Serum Phosphate Levels with Aortic Valve Sclerosis and Annular Calcification: the Cardiovascular Health Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate mineral metabolism markers as potential risk factors for calcific aortic valve disease. Background Mineral metabolism disturbances are common among older people and may contribute to cardiac valvular calcification. Associations of serum mineral metabolism markers with cardiac valvular calcification have not been evaluated in a well-characterized general population of older adults. Methods We measured serum levels of phosphate, calcium, parathyroid hormone, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D in 1,938 Cardiovascular Health Study participants who were free of clinical cardiovascular disease and who underwent echocardiography measurements of aortic valve sclerosis (AVS), mitral annular calcification (MAC), and aortic annular calcification (AAC). We used logistic regression models to estimate associations of mineral metabolism markers with AVS, MAC, and AAC after adjustment for relevant confounding variables, including kidney function. Results The respective prevalences of AVS, MAC, and AAC were 54%, 39%, and 44%. Each 0.5 mg/dl higher serum phosphate concentration was associated with a greater adjusted odds of AVS (odds ratio 1.17, 95% confidence interval 1.04 to 1.31, p = 0.01), MAC (odds ratio 1.12, 95% confidence interval 1.00 to 1.26, p =0.05), and AAC (odds ratio 1.12, 95% confidence interval 0.99 to 1.25, p = 0.05). In contrast, serum calcium, parathyroid hormone, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations were not associated with aortic or mitral calcification. Conclusions Higher serum phosphate levels within the normal range are associated with valvular and annular calcification in a community-based cohort of older adults. Phosphate may be a novel risk factor for calcific aortic valve disease and warrants further study. PMID:21737022

Linefsky, Jason P.; O’Brien, Kevin D.; Katz, Ronit; de Boer, Ian H.; Barasch, Eddy; Jenny, Nancy S.; Siscovick, David S.; Kestenbaum, Bryan

2011-01-01

398

Associations between sports participation, adiposity and obesity-related health behaviors in Australian adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between organized sports participation, weight status, physical activity, screen time, and important food habits in a large nationally representative sample of Australian adolescents. Methods Nationally representative cross-sectional study of 12,188 adolescents from 238 secondary schools aged between 12 and 17 years (14.47 ± 1.25 y, 53% male, 23% overweight/obese). Participation in organized sports, compliance with national physical activity, screen time, and fruit and vegetable consumption guidelines, and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and high-fat foods were self-reported. Weight status and adiposity (BMI, waist circumference) were measured. Results Organized sports participation was higher among males and those residing in rural/remote areas. Underweight adolescents reported the lowest levels of participation. Higher levels of participation were associated with an increased likelihood of complying with national physical activity (OR = 2.07 [1.67-2.58]), screen time (OR = 1.48 [1.19-1.84]), and fruit and vegetable consumption guidelines (OR = 1.32 [1.05-1.67]). There was no association between organized sport participation and weight status, adiposity, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages or high-fat foods. Conclusions Participation in organized sports was associated with a greater likelihood to engage in a cluster of health behaviors, including meeting physical activity guidelines, electronic screen time recommendations, and fruit and vegetable consumption guidelines. However, participation in organized sports was not associated with unhealthy dietary behaviors including the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and high-fat foods. There is no association between participation in organized sports and likelihood to be overweight or obese. The role of sports in promoting healthy weight and energy balance is unclear. PMID:24088327

2013-01-01

399

Virus transfer proportions between gloved fingertips, soft berries, and lettuce, and associated health risks.  

PubMed

Multiple outbreaks of human norovirus (hNoV) have been associated with fresh produce, such as soft berries and lettuce. Even though food handlers are considered an important source for the introduction of hNoV into food chains, their contribution to public health risks associated with hNoV remains unknown. To assess to which extent food handlers contribute to the introduction and spread of hNoV in fresh produce chains quantitative virus transfer data are needed. We estimated transfer proportions of hNoV GI.4, GII.4, murine norovirus (MNV-1), a culturable surrogate of hNoV, and human adenovirus (hAdV-2), a human pathogen proposed as an indicator for human faecal pollution, between gloved fingertips and raspberries, strawberries, and lettuce, by quantitative RT-PCR and cell culture if applicable. Virus transfer proportions were corrected for virus-matrix specific recoveries, and variability and uncertainty of the parameters were estimated. Virus transfer from gloves to soft berries was generally lower as compared to lettuce, with mean transfer proportions ranging between 0.1 to 2.3% and 9 to 10% for infectious MNV-1 and hAdV-2, respectively. Transfer from produce to glove was mostly greater than transfer from glove to produce, adding to the likelihood of virus transfer due to cross contamination from contaminated produce via food handlers. HNoV GI.4 and hNoV GII.4 showed no significant difference between their mean transfer proportions. Using the estimated transfer proportions, we studied the impact of low and high transfer proportions on the public health risk, based on a scenario in which a food handler picked raspberries with contaminated fingertips. Given the made assumptions, we could show that for a pathogen as infectious as hNoV, low transfer proportions may pose a greater public health risk than high transfer proportions, due to a greater viral spread. We demonstrated the potential of food handlers in spreading hNoV in food chains, showing that prevention of virus contamination on food handlers' hands is crucial for food safety. Nevertheless, complete prevention of virus contamination on fresh produce cannot be achieved in reality, and reliable and effective intervention measures are consequently required. We estimated that, especially for low transfer proportions, a robust one log10-unit reduction of infectious hNoV on contaminated produce, and on food handlers' hands, could lower the public health risk substantially. Using the obtained data in quantitative risk assessment will aid in elucidating the contribution of food handlers in hNoV transmission. PMID:24029026

Verhaelen, Katharina; Bouwknegt, Martijn; Carratalŕ, Anna; Lodder-Verschoor, Froukje; Diez-Valcarce, Marta; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; Rutjes, Saskia A

2013-09-16

400

The association of health literacy with cervical cancer prevention knowledge and health behaviors in a multiethnic cohort of women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Our purpose was to describe the relationship between health literacy, ethnicity, and cervical cancer screening practices and to evaluate physician recognition of low literacy. Study Design: We studied a prospective cohort of English-speaking patients ?18 years (n = 529) in ambulatory women's clinics. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate demographics, health practices and beliefs, and knowledge regarding

Stacy T. Lindau; Cecilia Tomori; Tom Lyons; Lizbet Langseth; Charles L. Bennett; Patricia Garcia

2002-01-01

401

Occupational Safety and Health Symposia (37th American Medical Association Congress on Occupational Health. St. Louis, Missouri, 1977).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The papers compiled here were presented at the fourth symposium in a series designed to provide a continuing introduction to current aspects of occupational safety and health. The papers represent eight topics: (1) special health programs, (2) degenerative disease and injury of the back, (3) job stress and work performance, (4) role of industry in…

Douglass, Bruce E.; And Others

402

Political influence associates with cortisol and health among egalitarian forager-farmers  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives: Low social status increases risk of disease due, in part, to the psychosocial stress that accompanies feeling subordinate or poor. Previous studies report that chronic stress and chronically elevated cortisol can impair cardiovascular and immune function. We test whether lower status is more benign in small-scale, relatively egalitarian societies, where leaders lack coercive authority and there is minimal material wealth to contest. Methodology: Among Tsimane’ forager-horticulturalists of lowland Bolivia, we compare informal political influence among men with urinary cortisol, immune activation (innate and acquired), and morbidity as assessed during routine medical exams. Results: After controlling for potential confounds, we find that politically influential men have lower cortisol, and that this association is partly attributable to access to social support. Cortisol is positively associated with men’s income, which may reflect chronic psychosocial stress from market involvement. Greater influence is also associated with lower probability of respiratory infection, which is a frequent source of morbidity among Tsimane’. Among men who lost influence over a 4-year period, cortisol and probability of respiratory infection were higher the greater the decline in influence. Conclusions and implications: Deleterious effects of low status on health are not merely ‘diseases of civilization’ but may result from how (even subtle) status differences structure human behavior. PMID:25214482

von Rueden, Christopher R.; Trumble, Benjamin C.; Emery Thompson, Melissa; Stieglitz, Jonathan; Hooper, Paul L.; Blackwell, Aaron D.; Kaplan, Hillard S.; Gurven, Michael

2014-01-01

403

Health risk behavior pattern among students from Cartagena, Colombia: prevalence and associated variables.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and variables associated with the pattern of risky health behavior (PRHB) among adolescent students in Cartagena, Colombia. A cross-sectional study was designed to investigate PRHB in a random cluster sample of students from middle and high schools. The associations were adjusted by logistic regression. A total of 2,625 students participated in this research, with ages from 10 to 20 years, mean=13.8 years (SD=2.0), and 54.3% were women. A total of 332 students reported PRHB (12.7%, 95%CI 11.4-14.0). Age over 15 years (OR=2.19, 95%CI 1.72-2.79), not being heterosexual (OR=1.98, 95%CI 1.36-2.87), poor/mediocre academic performance (OR=1.87, 95%CI 1.47-2.38), family dysfunction (OR=1.78, 95%CI 1.40-2.28) and male gender (OR=1.58, 95%CI 1.24-2.01) were associated with PRHB. One in every eight students presented a PRHB. It is important to pay greater attention to students who are over 15 years of age, male, not heterosexual, with a poor/mediocre academic performance and a dysfunctional family. PMID:24310679

Cogollo, Zuleima; Gómez-Bustamante, Edna Margarita

2013-08-01

404

Problematic video game use: estimated prevalence and associations with mental and physical health.  

PubMed

A nationwide survey was conducted to investigate the prevalence of video game addiction and problematic video game use and their association with physical and mental health. An initial sample comprising 2,500 individuals was randomly selected from the Norwegian National Registry. A total of 816 (34.0 percent) individuals completed and returned the questionnaire. The majority (56.3 percent) of respondents used video games on a regular basis. The prevalence of video game addiction was estimated to be 0.6 percent, with problematic use of video games reported by 4.1 percent of the sample. Gender (male) and age group (young) were strong predictors for problematic use of video games. A higher proportion of high frequency compared with low frequency players preferred massively multiplayer online role-playing games, although the majority of high frequency players preferred other game types. Problematic use of video games was associated with lower scores on life satisfaction and with elevated levels of anxiety and depression. Video game use was not associated with reported amount of physical exercise. PMID:21342010

Mentzoni, Rune Aune; Brunborg, Geir Scott; Molde, Helge; Myrseth, Helga; Skouverře, Knut Joachim Mĺr; Hetland, Jřrn; Pallesen, Stĺle

2011-10-01

405

Rhinitis Associated with Pesticide Use Among Private Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study  

PubMed Central

Farmers commonly experience rhinitis but the risk factors are not well-characterized. The aim of this study was to analyze cross-sectional data on rhinitis in the past year and pesticide use from 21,958 Iowa and North Carolina farmers in the Agricultural Health Study, enrolled 1993–7, to evaluate pesticide predictors of rhinitis. Polytomous and logistic regression models were used to assess association between pesticide use and rhinitis while controlling for demographics and farm-related exposures. Sixty-seven % of farmers reported current rhinitis and 39% reported three or more rhinitis episodes. The herbicides glyphosate [Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.09, 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) = 1.05–1.13] and petroleum oil (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.05–1.19) were associated with current rhinitis and increased rhinitis episodes. Of the insecticides, 4 organophosphates (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dichlorvos, and malathion), carbaryl and use of permethrin on animals were predictors of current rhinitis. Diazinon was significant in the overall polytomous model and was associated with an elevated OR of 13+ rhinitis episodes (13+ episodes OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.09–1.38). The fungicide captan was also a significant predictor of rhinitis. Use of petroleum oil, malathion, permethrin and the herbicide metolachlor were significant in exposure-response polytomous models. Specific pesticides may contribute to rhinitis in farmers; agricultural activities did not explain these findings. PMID:20818537

Slager, Rebecca E.; Simpson, Sean L.; LeVan, Tricia D.; Poole, Jill A.; Sandler, Dale P.; Hoppin, Jane A.

2010-01-01

406

Endoscopic findings and associated risk factors in primary health care settings in Havana, Cuba.  

PubMed

INTRODUCTION Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, traditionally performed in Cuba in specialized hospitals, was decentralized to the primary health care level in 2004 to make it more patient-accessible. OBJECTIVES Describe frequency and distribution of the principal symptomatic diseases of the upper gastrointestinal tract and their relation to the main risk factors associated with each in a sample of urban adults who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in primary care facilities in Havana in selected months of 2007. METHODS A multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted, including 3556 patients seen in the primary health care network of Havana from May through November 2007. The endoscopies were performed at the 22 polyclinics (community health centers) providing this service. Diagnostic quality and accuracy were assessed by experienced gastroenterologists using a validated tool. Patients responded to a questionnaire with clinical, epidemiologic, and sociodemographic variables. Univariate and multivariate analyses (unconditional logistical regression) were used to identify associated risk factors. The significance level was set at p < 0.05 (or confidence interval excluding 1.0). RESULTS The diagnoses were: gastritis (91.6%), duodenitis (57.8%), hiatal hernia (46.5%), esophagitis (25.2%), duodenal ulcer (15.8%), gastric ulcer (6.2%) and malignant-appearing lesions (0.4%). Overall prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection was 58.4%. The main risk factors for duodenal ulcer were H. pylori infection (OR 2.70, CI 2.17-3.36) and smoking (OR 2.08, CI 1.68-2.58); and for gastric ulcer, H. pylori (OR 1.58, CI 1.17-2.15) and age ?60 years (OR 1.78, CI 1.28-2.47). H. pylori infection was the main risk factor for gastritis (OR 2.29, CI 1.79-2.95) and duodenitis (OR 1.58, CI 1.38-1.82); and age ?40 years for hiatal hernia (OR 1.57, CI 1.33-1.84). External evaluation was "very good" or "good" for 99.3% of endoscopic procedures and 97.9% of reports issued. CONCLUSIONS Gastrointestinal endoscopy performed in primary care yielded high quality results and important information about prevalence of the most common diseases of the upper GI tract and associated risk factors. This study provides a reference for new research and can inform objective recommendations for community-based interventions to prevent and control these diseases. The existence of a network of universally accessible diagnostic endoscopy services at the primary care level, will contribute to conducting further research. KEYWORDS Endoscopy, gastrointestinal diseases, upper GI tract, prevalence, risk factors, primary care, Cuba. PMID:22334110

Galbán, Enrique; Arús, Enrique; Periles, Ulises

2012-01-01

407

Association of Ventilation Rates and CO2 Concentrations with Health andOther Responses in Commercial and Institutional Buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews current literature on the associations of ventilation rates and carbon dioxide concentrations in non-residential and non-industrial buildings (primarily offices) with health and other human outcomes. Twenty studies, with close to 30,000 subjects, investigated the association of ventilation rates with human responses, and 21 studies, with over 30,000 subjects, investigated the association of carbon dioxide concentration with these

O. A. Seppänen; W. J. Fisk; M. J. Mendell

1999-01-01

408

Intimate Partner Violence and Its Association With Physical and Mental Health Symptoms Among Older Women in Germany.  

PubMed

Intimate partner violence is a commonly acknowledged health care issue. While numerous studies established the health implications of physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence among women of reproductive age, the evidence is scarce for older women and for other forms of intimate partner violence. This study, therefore, investigates the prevalence of intimate partner violence in its different forms and its association with physical and mental health symptoms of older women, using women of reproductive age as a reference group. This study is a cross-sectional study, utilizing data from a national representative survey of 10,264 German women aged 16 to 86 years. Rates of physical and sexual intimate partner violence in the last year decreased from 8% to 3% and 1% among women aged 16 to 49 years, 50 to 65 years, and 66 to 86 years, respectively. The prevalence of emotional and economic abuse and controlling behavior by partners remained nearly the same. All forms of intimate partner violence had significant associations with women's health symptoms, such as gastrointestinal, psychosomatic and psychological symptoms, and pelvic problems. Controlling behavior was most consistently associated with most health symptoms. Health and care professionals who screen women for intimate partner violence should, therefore, consider incorporating questions about controlling behavior as well, because this form of violence is not only frequent but also has multiple health outcomes among women across all ages. PMID:25392386

Stöckl, Heidi; Penhale, Bridget

2014-11-11

409

Do we develop public health leaders?- association between public health competencies and emotional intelligence: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Professional development of public health leaders requires a form of instruction which is competency-based to help them develop the abilities to address complex and evolving demands of health care systems. Concurrently, emotional intelligence (EI) is a key to organisational success. Our aim was twofold: i) to assess the relationship between the level of self-assessed public health and EI competencies among Master of European Public Health (MEPH) students and graduates at Maastricht University, and; ii) to determine the relationship between different groups of public health competencies and specific EI skills. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted including all recent MEPH graduates and students from 2009–2012, out of 67 eligible candidates N?=?51 were contacted and N?=?33 responded (11 males and 22 females; overall response: 64.7%).Two validated tools were employed: i) public health competencies self-assessment questionnaire, and; ii) Assessing Emotions Scale. Results Females scored higher than males in all seven domains of the self-assessed key public health competencies (NS) and emotional intelligence competences (P?=?0.022). Overall, the mean value of public health competencies was the lowest in students with “staff” preferences and the highest among students with mixed job preferences (P?health competencies and the overall emotional intelligence competencies (r?=?0.61, P?health specific competencies and EI attributes. It can contribute to the improvement of the educational content of PH curricula by rising awareness through self-assessment and supporting the identification of further educational needs related to leadership. PMID:24742091

2014-01-01

410

Change in self-reported health status among immigrants in the United States: associations with measures of acculturation.  

PubMed

Although acculturation may have positive effects for immigrants, including better socioeconomic profiles and increased occupational opportunities, their health profiles deteriorate with longer duration in the U.S. Prior research indicates that increasing acculturation is associated with some poorer health outcomes among immigrants in the U.S. However, most of these studies have used length of stay or English language proficiency as proxies for acculturation, and have mainly examined self-reported "current" health outcomes. This study advances knowledge on associations between acculturation and health among immigrants by explicitly examining self-reported "change" in health since immigration, in relation to acculturation-related variables. We use data from the New Immigrant Survey (NIS; 2003-2004), a cross-sectional study of legal immigrants to the U.S. In addition to testing more conventionally examined proxies of acculturation (length of stay and English proficiency), we also examine English language use and self-reported change in diet. Multivariable logistic regression analyses on 5,982 participants generally supported previous literature indicating a deleterious impact of acculturation, with increasing duration of stay and greater self-reported change in diet being associated with a poorer change in health since moving to the U.S. Although English language proficiency and use were associated with greater odds of reporting a worse change in health when examined individually, they were non-significant in multivariable models including all acculturation measures. Findings from this study suggest that when taking into account multiple measures of acculturation, language may not necessarily indicate unhealthy assimilation and dietary change may be a pathway leading to declines in immigrant health. Increasing duration in the U.S. may also reflect the adoption of unhealthy behaviors, as well as greater exposure to harmful sources of psychosocial stress including racial and anti-immigrant discrimination. Our study suggests that multiple indicators of acculturation may be useful in examining the effect of acculturation on changes in health among immigrants. PMID:24098515

Lee, Sunmin; O'Neill, Allison H; Ihara, Emily S; Chae, David H

2013-01-01

411

Change in Self-Reported Health Status among Immigrants in the United States: Associations with Measures of Acculturation  

PubMed Central

Although acculturation may have positive effects for immigrants, including better socioeconomic profiles and increased occupational opportunities, their health profiles deteriorate with longer duration in the U.S. Prior research indicates that increasing acculturation is associated with some poorer health outcomes among immigrants in the U.S. However, most of these studies have used length of stay or English language proficiency as proxies for acculturation, and have mainly examined self-reported “current” health outcomes. This study advances knowledge on associations between acculturation and health among immigrants by explicitly examining self-reported “change” in health since immigration, in relation to acculturation-related variables. We use data from the New Immigrant Survey (NIS; 2003-2004), a cross-sectional study of legal immigrants to the U.S. In addition to testing more conventionally examined proxies of acculturation (length of stay and English proficiency), we also examine English language use and self-reported change in diet. Multivariable logistic regression analyses on 5,982 participants generally supported previous literature indicating a deleterious impact of acculturation, with increasing duration of stay and greater self-reported change in diet being associated with a poorer change in health since moving to the U.S. Although English language proficiency and use were associated with greater odds of reporting a worse change in health when examined individually, they were non-significant in multivariable models including all acculturation measures. Findings from this study suggest that when taking into account multiple measures of acculturation, language may not necessarily indicate unhealthy assimilation and dietary change may be a pathway leading to declines in immigrant health. Increasing duration in the U.S. may also reflect the adoption of unhealthy behaviors, as well as greater exposure to harmful sources of psychosocial stress including racial and anti-immigrant discrimination. Our study suggests that multiple indicators of acculturation may be useful in examining the effect of acculturation on changes in health among immigrants. PMID:24098515

Lee, Sunmin; O’Neill, Allison H.; Ihara, Emily S.; Chae, David H.

2013-01-01

412

Associations of alcohol consumption and mental health with the prevalence of arthritis among US adults: data from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey.  

PubMed

The findings of association between alcohol consumption and arthritis are mixed while little is known about age differences in the associations of mental health and behavioral factors with arthritis. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of arthritis among US adults using data from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey. In total, 8,229 adults with arthritis and 26,256 controls were selected from the adult respondents. Weighted univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence intervals. The overall prevalence of arthritis was 22.1 %. The prevalence increased with age (6.8, 29.6, and 47.9 % for 18-49, 50-64, and 65+ years of age, respectively). The prevalence of mental problems was higher in cases than controls [4 vs. 1 % for serious psychological distress (SPD), 29 vs. 16 % for anxiety, and 26 vs. 11 % for depression, respectively]. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that being female, older age, smoking, alcohol consumption, obesity, SPD, depression, and anxiety were positively associated with arthritis. Stratified by age, SPD was associated with arthritis only in young adults (18-49 years old) while the ORs of anxiety and depression with arthritis decreased as age increased. Alcohol consumption revealed stronger associations in middle-aged adults and elderly. Using a large nationally representative sample in the USA, alcohol consumption, smoking, SPD, anxiety, and depression were associated with arthritis, and the associations varied across different age groups. PMID:24667977

Wang, Ke-Sheng; Liu, Xuefeng; Wang, Liang

2014-09-01

413