Professional behaviors are an integral part of clinical practice in all allied health and medical fields. A systematic process for instruction, the education, and development of professional behaviors, cannot be taught in the same way that memorization of human anatomy or medical terminology is taught. One cannot expect professional behaviors to just appear in an individual upon graduation and entry into a health care field. Professional behavior development is an essential component of physical therapy professional education and is clearly defined through the guiding documents of the American Physical Therapy Association, which include 'A Normative Model of Physical Therapist Professional Education,' 'Evaluative Criteria for Accreditation of Education Programs for the Preparation of Physical Therapists,' and the 'Guide to Physical Therapist Practice.' Building a comprehensive and progressive curricular thread for professional behaviors can pose a challenge for a professional program and the core faculty. This paper will present a curricular model of weaving professional behaviors into a core entry-level professional curriculum using a specific curricular thread, activities for different levels of students, and assessment at each point in the path. This paper will demonstrate the potential for universal application of a professional behaviors. PMID:19759999
Integratedbehavioralhealth care (IBHC) is a model of mental health care service delivery that seeks to reduce stigma and service utilization barriers by embedding mental health professionals into the primary care team. This study explored whether IBHC service referrals, utilization, and outcomes were comparable for Latinos and non-Latino White primary care patients. Data for the current study were collected from 793 consecutive patients (63.8% Latino; M age = 29.02 years [SD = 17.96]; 35.1% under 18 years; 65.3% women; 54.3% uninsured) seen for behavioralhealth services in 2 primary care clinics during a 10.5 month period. The most common presenting concerns were depression (21.6%), anxiety (18.5%), adjustment disorder (13.0%), and externalizing behavior problems (9.8%). Results revealed that while Latino patients had significantly lower self-reported psychiatric distress, significantly higher clinician-assigned global assessment of functioning scores, and fewer received a psychiatric diagnosis at their initial visit compared to non-Latino White patients, both groups had comparable utilization rates, comparable and clinically significant improvements in symptoms (Cohen’s d values > .50), and expressed high satisfaction with integratedbehavioral services. These data provide preliminary evidence suggesting integration of behavioralhealth services into primary care clinics may help reduce mental health disparities for Latinos. PMID:25309845
Bridges, Ana J.; Andrews, Arthur R.; Villalobos, Bianca T.; Pastrana, Freddie A.; Cavell, Timothy A.; Gomez, Debbie
The close interplay between mental health and physical health makes it critical to integrate mental and behavioralhealth considerations into all aspects of public health and medical disaster management. Therefore, the National Biodefense Science Board (NBSB) convened the Disaster Mental Health Subcommittee to assess the progress of the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) in integrating mental and behavioralhealth into disaster and emergency preparedness and response activities. One vital opportunity to improve integration is the development of clear and directive national policy to firmly establish the role of mental and behavioralhealth as part of a unified public health and medical response to disasters. Integration of mental and behavioralhealth into disaster preparedness, response, and recovery requires it to be incorporated in assessments and services, addressed in education and training, and founded on and advanced through research. Integration must be supported in underlying policies and administration with clear lines of responsibility for formulating and implementing policy and practice. PMID:22490938
Pfefferbaum, Betty; Flynn, Brian W; Schonfeld, David; Brown, Lisa M; Jacobs, Gerard A; Dodgen, Daniel; Donato, Darrin; Kaul, Rachel E; Stone, Brook; Norwood, Ann E; Reissman, Dori B; Herrmann, Jack; Hobfoll, Stevan E; Jones, Russell T; Ruzek, Josef I; Ursano, Robert J; Taylor, Robert J; Lindley, David
The need for behavioral healthcare for the poor and indigent is well documented in rural North Carolina, and integratedbehavioral healthcare--that is, mental health screening and treatment offered as part of primary care services--has proven a very effective and efficient method to improve patients' health. In 2000, the Buncombe County Health Center (BCHC) began a grant-funded program treating depressed patients in its public health clinics and school health programs. The Health Center used the opportunity to send a team to the Management Academy for Public Health to learn business principles that could be applied to the challenge of sustaining this program as part of its ongoing public health service delivery for the county. Using their business plan from the Management Academy, the BCHC sought funding from various stakeholders, and, through their support, was able to institute a fully integratedbehavioralhealth program in 2004. The BCHC has now joined forces with other partners in the state to address statewide policy changes in support of such programs. These efforts are an example of how a community health center can apply entrepreneurial thinking and strategic business planning to improve healthcare and effect wide-ranging change. PMID:16912608
Extensive research supports the biopsychosocial model, but the current health care system generally operates according to a model of mind-body dualism. Integrated primary behavioralhealth care offers an alternative to this dualism. This paper describes the University of Louisville Graduate Psychology Education (GPE) program, a pre-doctoral integrated primary behavioralhealth care training program. This program emphasizes four shared psychosocial determinants
Tamara L. Newton; Janet Woodruff-Borden; Barbara A. Stetson
To address the local health care needs of both patients and primary care providers in Montana, an integrated primary care and behavioralhealth family practice clinic was developed. In this paper we describe our experience with integrating mental health and substance abuse services into a primary care setting (a community health center) while…
OBJECTIVE To compare former pediatric residents’ perceptions of their training in behavioralhealth care and collaboration from two separate continuity clinic sites within one training program that used either conventional or integrated models of behavioralhealth care. METHODS Residents of a single pediatric residency were assigned to one of two continuity clinic sites at the beginning of training. At one site, psychology fellows and faculty were integrated into the pediatric continuity clinic teams. At the other site, conventional patterns of behavioralhealth referral (that is, referral to outside specialists) and consultation continued. We surveyed fifteen years of graduates (N=245) from both clinic settings using a mailed 34-item instrument that queried alumni about their experiences during training and their comfort after training with behavioralhealth care and collaboration. RESULTS A total of 174 alumni (71%) returned completed questionnaires. Overall, there were significant differences between graduates in the two groups. Residents who trained and practiced alongside behavioralhealth fellows and faculty were significantly more likely to have reported consulting with, meeting with, and planning treatment with a behavioralhealth provider during residency, and more often reported that their continuity clinic experience prepared them for collaborating with behavioralhealth providers, yet only somewhat more often believed that the overall residency training prepared them for handling behavioralhealth issues in their current practice. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that an integrated training milieu can enhance pediatric education in the management of behavioralhealth problems and collaboration with behavioralhealth specialists. PMID:21169773
Garfunkel, Lynn C.; Pisani, Anthony R.; leRoux, Pieter; Siegel, David M.
and behavior have reciprocal effects and expression of bio-behavioral relationships is dependent on context highest when studied in meaningful social contexts Biological systems are networked and multi, and holds equity in Salimetrics LLC and Salivabio LLC. These relationships are managed by the policies
This article describes a process for integratinghealthbehavior and social science theories with practice-based insights using participatory systems thinking and diagramming methods largely inspired by system dynamics methods. This integration can help close the gap between research and practice in health education and healthbehavior by offering…
Gillen, Emily M.; Hassmiller Lich, Kristen; Yeatts, Karin B.; Hernandez, Michelle L.; Smith, Timothy W.; Lewis, Megan A.
As rates of preventable chronic diseases and associated costs continue to rise, there has been increasing focus on strategies to support behavior change in healthcare. Health coaching and motivational interviewing are synergistic but distinct approaches that can be effectively employed to achieve this end. However, there is some confusion in the literature about the relationship between these two approaches. The purpose of this review is to describe a specific style of health coaching—integrativehealth coaching—and motivational interviewing, including their origins, the processes and strategies employed, and the ways in which they are similar and different. We also provide a case example of how integrativehealth coaching and motivational interviewing might be employed to demonstrate how these approaches are synergistic but distinct from each other in practice. This information may be useful for both researchers and clinicians interested in investigating or using behavior change interventions to improve health and cost outcomes in chronic disease. PMID:24416683
The rapid growth in the use of smartphones has opened a new world of opportunities for use in behavioralhealth care. Mobile phone software applications (apps) are available for a variety of useful tasks to include symptom assessment, psychoeducation, resource location, and tracking of treatment progress. The latest two-way communication functionality of smartphones also brings new capabilities for telemental health.
David D. Luxton; Russell A. McCann; Nigel E. Bush; Matthew C. Mishkind; Greg M. Reger
"Safe Passage: Astronaut Care for Exploration Missions," (Ball JR, Evans CH, eds. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 2001) draws attention to behavioralhealth, an overarching topic that subsumes psychological, interpersonal, and cultural adaptation in space. On December 2-3, 2003, the University of California, Davis, was the site of a NASA-funded workshop entitled "New Directions in BehavioralHealth: Integrating Research and Application." The purpose of the Workshop was to promote fruitful dialogue between researchers and operational personnel in the interests of expanding our understanding of behavioralhealth on Exploration missions including a return to the Moon and a voyage to Mars. This paper presents an overview of the rationale and findings of that workshop. PMID:15943189
The integration of behavioralhealth (BH) and primary care services has been the subject of considerable attention for almost a decade. Such work has been motivated by the prevalence of chronic health problems in persons with BH conditions and correspondingly high rates of early death. Service integration efforts typically included cross-referral or bidirectional efforts to add some features of primary care to specialty BH settings or the reverse. This article proposes a third approach based on full service and financial integration and shows how it differs substantially from the other 2 models. This new model has the potential to bring much-needed BH services to persons served in primary care settings who have these conditions, while fostering integrated services in specialty settings for those with the most severe mental or substance use conditions. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act could provide a valuable opportunity to implement this third model. PMID:24573665
The fundamental aim of healthcare reform is twofold: to provide health insurance coverage for most of the citizens currently uninsured, thereby granting them access to healthcare; and to redesign the overall healthcare system to provide better care and achieve the triple aim (better health for the population, better healthcare for individuals, and at less cost). The foundation for this improved system will rest on a redesigned (i.e., sufficiently comprehensive and integrated) system of primary care, with which all other providers, services, and sites of care are associated. The Patient-Centered Medical Home (PCMH) and its congeners are the best current examples of the kind of primary care that can achieve the triple aim, if they can become sufficiently comprehensive and can adequately integrate services. This means fully integratingbehavioral healthcare into the PCMH, a difficult task under the most favorable circumstances. Creating functioning accountable care organizations is an even more daunting task: this requires new principles of collaborating and financing and the current prototypes have generally failed to incorporate behavioral healthcare sufficient to meet even the basic needs of the target population. This paper will discuss (1) the case for and the difficulties associated with integratingbehavioral healthcare into primary care at three levels: the practice, the state, and the nation; and (2) how this looks clinically, operationally, and financially. PMID:24073136
Levey, Shandra M Brown; Miller, Benjamin F; Degruy, Frank Verloin
Using the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES), this research examined several healthbehaviors and the health status of Mexican American women. This study focused on determining the relative impact of social contextual factors: age, socioeconomic status, quality of life indicators, and urban\\/rural residence on (a) healthbehaviors (smoking, obesity and alcohol use) and (b) health status (physician's assessment
We evaluated the Starting Early Starting Smart (SESS) national initiative to integratebehavioralhealth services (parenting, mental health, and drug treatment) into the pediatric health care setting for families with young children. Data are presented from five pediatric care (PC) sites, drawing from families at risk due to demographic and…
Morrow, Connie E.; Mansoor, Elana; Hanson, K. Lori; Vogel, April L.; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Genatossio, Carolyn Seval; Windham, Amy; Bandstra, Emmalee S.
Objective. In recent years, New Mexico has prioritized integrated treatment for cooccurring mental health and substance use disorders within its public behavioralhealth system. This report describes factors likely to be important when implementing evidence-based practices (EBPs) in community agencies. Methods. Our mixed-method research design consisted of observations, semistructured interviews, and surveys undertaken with employees at 14 agencies at baseline and after 18 months. We developed four-agency typologies based on iterative coding and analysis of observations and interviews. We then examined survey data from employees at the four exemplar agencies to validate qualitative findings. Results. Financial resources and strong leadership impacted agency capacity to train providers and implement EBPs. Quantitative analysis of service provider survey responses from these agencies (N = 38) supported qualitative findings and demonstrated significant mean score differences in leadership, organizational climate, and attitudes toward EBPs in anticipated directions. Conclusion. The availability of strong leadership and financial resources were key components to initial implementation success in this study of community agencies in New Mexico. Reliance only on external funding poses risks for sustainment when demoralizing work climates precipitate employee turnover. Strong agency leadership does not always compensate for deficient financial resources in vulnerable communities. PMID:24772411
Bonham, Caroline A.; Sommerfeld, David; Willging, Cathleen; Aarons, Gregory A.
Background: Adaptive healthbehavior changes following cancer diagnosis and treatment are associated with better psychological and physical\\u000a well-being. However, little is known about the roles that psychosocial factors play in facilitating or inhibiting these changes.\\u000a A better understanding of healthbehavior change will allow the development of more effective interventions.Purpose: Our goal was to conduct a systematic and exhaustive review
Background Childhood obesity is a ‘wicked’ public health problem that is best tackled by an integrated approach, which is enabled by integrated public health policies. The development and implementation of such policies have in practice proven to be difficult, however, and studying why this is the case requires a tool that may assist local policy-makers and those assisting them. A comprehensive framework that can help to identify options for improvement and to systematically develop solutions may be used to support local policy-makers. Discussion We propose the ‘Behavior Change Ball’ as a tool to study the development and implementation of integrated public health policies within local government. Based on the tenets of the ‘Behavior Change Wheel’ by Michie and colleagues (2011), the proposed conceptual framework distinguishes organizational behaviors of local policy-makers at the strategic, tactical and operational levels, as well as the determinants (motivation, capability, opportunity) required for these behaviors, and interventions and policy categories that can influence them. To illustrate the difficulty of achieving sustained integrated approaches, we use the metaphor of a ball in our framework: the mountainous landscapes surrounding the ball reflect the system’s resistance to change (by making it difficult for the ball to roll). We apply this framework to the problem of childhood obesity prevention. The added value provided by the framework lies in its comprehensiveness, theoretical basis, diagnostic and heuristic nature and face validity. Summary Since integrated public health policies have not been widely developed and implemented in practice, organizational behaviors relevant to the development of these policies remain to be investigated. A conceptual framework that can assist in systematically studying the policy process may facilitate this. Our Behavior Change Ball adds significant value to existing public health policy frameworks by incorporating multiple theoretical perspectives, specifying a set of organizational behaviors and linking the analysis of these behaviors to interventions and policies. We would encourage examination by others of our framework as a tool to explain and guide the development of integrated policies for the prevention of wicked public health problems. PMID:23597122
Psychology and other behavioralhealth professions have amassed a broad empirical and clinical literature suggesting many\\u000a medical presentations are best responded to with the addition of evidence based behavioral interventions. Despite this, psychology\\u000a has not achieved a regular presence as part of medical practice. We suggest specific reasons for the current state of affairs\\u000a including clinical, operational, societal labels, financial
Disparities in Latino utilization of mental health services have been documented for some years. Factors such as stigma, low rates of health insurance, paucity of culturally competent providers, and linguistic inaccessibility have contributed to this underutilization. The documented tendency of many Latinos to experience the mind and body as a unified whole, often referred to as "non-dualism"; provides a unique opportunity to address these disparities in utilization. This article advocates a specific model of engagement of Latinos into a continuum of needed behavioralhealth services via the primary care clinic, and suggests a variety of clinical and administrative outcome measures for evaluating the effectiveness of the model. The model centers on the inclusion of a behavioralhealth specialist who is "nested" within the primary care team. The preparation and perspectives of clinically trained social workers make them ideal for this role. PMID:19042495
Although experts in early childhood mental health services make clear the need to infuse mental health services into all program components, many have suggested that the mental health services in the majority of Head Start programs are narrowly focused and that mental health consultants are often used in limited ways (see D. J. Cohen, Solnit, & Wohlford, 1997; E. Cohen
The Applied Research Program supports surveys designed to assess the prevalence of individual and societal risk factors and healthbehaviors that mediate cancer incidence, morbidity, mortality, and survival.
Disparities in Latino utilization of mental health services have been documented for some years. Factors such as stigma, low rates of health insurance, paucity of culturally competent providers, and linguistic inaccessibility have contributed to this underutilization. The documented tendency of many Latinos to experience the mind and body as a unified whole, often referred to as “non-dualism,” provides a unique
The project goal is to develop behavioralhealth prevention and maintenance system for continued crew health, safety, and performance for exploration missions. The basic scope includes a) Operationally-relevant research related to clinical cognitive and behavioralhealth of crewmembers; b) Ground-based studies using analog environments (Antarctic, NEEMO, simulations, and other testbeds; c) ISS studies (ISSMP) focusing on operational issues related to behavioralhealth outcomes and standards; d) Technology development activities for monitoring and diagnostic tools; and e) Cross-disciplinary research (e.g., human factors and habitability research, skeletal muscle, radiation).
While previous research has identified that leaders' safety expectations and safety actions are important in fostering occupational safety, research has yet to demonstrate the importance of leader alignment between safety expectations and actions for improving occupational safety. We build on safety climate literature and theory on behavioralintegrity to better understand the relationship between the leader's behavioralintegrity regarding safety and work-related injuries. In a time-lagged study of 658 nurses, we find that behavioralintegrity for high safety values is positively associated with greater reporting of fewer and less severe occupational injuries. The effects of behavioralintegrity regarding safety can be better understood through the mediating mechanisms of safety compliance and psychological safety toward one's supervisor. We discuss the implications of our findings for future research on safety climate. PMID:24099159
Halbesleben, Jonathon R B; Leroy, Hannes; Dierynck, Bart; Simons, Tony; Savage, Grant T; McCaughey, Deirdre; Leon, Matthew R
The Integrative Cardiac Health Project (ICHP) aims to lead the way in Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Prevention by conducting novel research utilizing a Systems Biology / personalized medicine design to discover and develop practical, effective and preempti...
The Integrative Cardiac Health Project (ICHP) aims to lead the way in Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Prevention by conducting novel research utilizing a Systems Biology / personalized medicine design to discover and develop practical, effective and preempti...
The Integrative Cardiac Health Project (ICHP) aims to lead the way in Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Prevention by conducting novel research utilizing a Systems Biology / personalized medicine design to discover and develop practical, effective and preempti...
Environmental degradation seriously affects human health. Thus, a close relationship exists between the protection of ecosystem integrity and wilderness on one hand, and human health on the other. However, there is an overarching, holistic perspective in laws and regulations--as well as morality--to to maintain a healthy relationship between the two. Problem areas focused on in this paper are: (a) climate change and global warming; (b) food production; and (c) global equity. This paper argues for the principle of integrity, which provides an holistic perspective, suggested as a better approach than that of current regulations to mitigate against associated threats to human health. PMID:8693347
The field of behavioral science has produced myriad data on healthbehavior change strategies and leveraged such data into effective human-delivered interventions to improve health. Unfortunately, the impact of traditional healthbehavior change interventions has been heavily constrained by patient and provider burden, limited ability to measure and intervene upon behavior in real time, variable adherence, low rates of implementation, and poor third-party coverage. Digital health technologies, including mobile phones, sensors, and online social networks, by being available in real time, are being explored as tools to increase our understanding of healthbehavior and to enhance the impact of behavioral interventions. The recent explosion of industry attention to the development of novel health technologies is exciting but has far outpaced research. This Special Section of Translational Behavioral Medicine, Smartphones, Sensors, and Social Networks: A New Age of HealthBehavior Change features a collection of studies that leverage health technologies to measure, change, and/or understand healthbehavior. We propose five key areas in which behavioral science can improve the impact of digital health technologies on public health. First, research is needed to identify which health technologies actually impact behavior and health outcomes. Second, we need to understand how online social networks can be leveraged to impact healthbehavior on a large scale. Third, a team science approach is needed in the developmental process of health technologies. Fourth, behavioral scientists should identify how a balance can be struck between the fast pace of innovation and the much slower pace of research. Fifth, behavioral scientists have an integral role in informing the development of health technologies and facilitating the movement of health technologies into the healthcare system. PMID:24073178
Structural health monitoring is the implementation of a damage detection strategy for aerospace, civil and mechanical engineering infrastructure. Typical damage experienced by this infrastructure might be the development of fatigue cracks, degradation of structural connections, or bearing wear in rotating machinery. The goal of the research effort reported herein is to develop a robust and cost-effective structural health monitoring solution by integrating and extending technologies from various engineering and information technology disciplines. It is the authors opinion that all structural health monitoring systems must be application specific. Therefore, a specific application, monitoring welded moment resisting steel frame connections in structures subjected to seismic excitation, is described along with the motivation for choosing this application. The structural health monitoring solution for this application will integrate structural dynamics, wireless data acquisition, local actuation, micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology, and statistical pattern recognition algorithms. The proposed system is based on an assessment of the deficiencies associated with many current structural health monitoring technologies including past efforts by the authors. This paper provides an example of the integrated approach to structural health monitoring being undertaken at Los Alamos National Laboratory and summarizes progress to date on various aspects of the technology development.
Mental illness and alcohol and other drug disorders account for more disability than any other medical problem. One of the systems most affected by these disorders in the United States is the criminal justice system. This article provides an overview of the problem of behavioralhealth disorders in the justice system in addition to innovative programs that are contributing to
In this lesson, students become better aware of how their personal behavior and the environment can have a considerable impact on their health in general, particularly the health of their skin. In this exercise, students draw a model of a healthy and unhealthy person. This prompts a discussion on behavior and environmental behaviors that affect health. They also learn what good health is and the benefits of a healthy lifestyle. Finally, the students determine their skin types.
American Association for the Advancement of Science (American Association for the Advancement of Science;)
In this article, I make the case for using an integrative approach to health, broadly defined as social, emotional, mental,\\u000a and physical well-being; for studying health among the young as an important marker for future health and well-being across\\u000a the life course; and for understanding health disparities among the young as both causes and consequences of social stratification.\\u000a An integrative
People are inherently driven by the need to form and maintain relationships, and these affiliation goals can influence healthbehaviors in two ways: (a) indirectly, by increasing a person’s attention to others and subsequently leaving them more likely to emulate the healthbehaviors of others (social contagion); (b) directly, by leading people to be more likely to engage in healthbehaviors they perceive as helping them to form and maintain relationships with others (self-initiated behavioral engagement). In this review, we discuss the evidence for the catalyzing role of affiliation goals in these two processes for a variety of positive (e.g., exercising, smoking-cessation) and detrimental healthbehaviors (e.g., binge drinking and eating, needle sharing). Additionally, we discuss individual difference factors that may temporarily or chronically activate affiliation goals and ultimately impact healthbehaviors. Affiliation goals hold many implications for future work, and for improving interventions. PMID:22140401
National survey data were used to assess whether child welfare agency ties to behavioralhealth care providers improved placement stability for adolescents served by both systems. Adolescents initially at home who were later removed tended to have fewer moves when child welfare and behavioralhealth were in the same larger agency. Joint training of child welfare and behavioralhealth staff was negatively associated with numbers of moves as well as numbers of days out of home. PMID:22894016
National survey data were used to assess whether child welfare agency ties to behavioralhealth care providers improved placement stability for adolescents served by both systems. Adolescents initially at home who were later removed tended to have fewer moves when child welfare and behavioralhealth were in the same larger agency. Joint training…
RESEARCH ABSTRACT Operating Engineers (heavy equipment operators in construction) may be at particular risk for heart disease and cancer related to their exposure to environmental dust and smoking, the sedentary nature of their job, and long hours of exposure to the sun. The aim of this study was to characterize the healthbehaviors of Operating Engineers. This cross-sectional survey from a convenience sample of Operating Engineers (N = 498) used validated instruments to measure smoking, drinking, diet, exercise, sleep, and sun exposure. Univariate and bivariate analyses to detect differences by age were conducted. The sample scored significantly worse on all five healthbehaviors compared to population norms. Those who were older were less likely to smoke and chew tobacco and more likely to eat fruits and vegetables. Many were interested in services to improve their healthbehaviors. Healthbehavior interventions are needed and wanted by Operating Engineers. PMID:21688764
Duffy, Sonia A.; Missel, Amanda L.; Waltje, Andrea H.; Ronis, David L.; Fowler, Karen E.; Hong, OiSaeng
The Integrative Cardiac Health Project (ICHP) aims to lead the way in Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Prevention by conducting novel research utilizing a Systems Biology / personalized medicine design to discover and develop practical, effective and preempti...
Two experiments with rats examined the dynamics of well-learned response sequences when reinforcement contingencies were changed. Both experiments contained four phases, each of which reinforced a 2-response sequence of lever presses until responding was stable. The contingencies then were shifted to a new reinforced sequence until responding was again stable. Extinction-induced resurgence of previously reinforced, and then extinguished, heterogeneous response sequences was observed in all subjects in both experiments. These sequences were demonstrated to be integratedbehavioral units, controlled by processes acting at the level of the entire sequence. Response-level processes were also simultaneously operative. Errors in sequence production were strongly influenced by the terminal, not the initial, response in the currently reinforced sequence, but not by the previously reinforced sequence. These studies demonstrate that sequence-level and response-level processes can operate simultaneously in integratedbehavioral units. Resurgence and the development of integratedbehavioral units may be dissociated; thus the observation of one does not necessarily imply the other. PMID:17345948
and dependence smoking #12;Characteristics of Health-Compromising Behavior ! Many of these behaviors share a window of vulnerability in adolescence ! Drinking to excess ! Smoking ! Illicit drug use ! Unsafe sex: Conditioning process is involved so that environmental cues trigger intense desire #12;What Is Substance
Interdisciplinary integration of health professions education (e.g. pharmacy, medicine, dentistry, nursing, and podiatry) is examined in light of the pros (societal usefulness and cost effectiveness) and cons (justifiable professional boundaries and other concerns). Characteristics of an integrated cluster of individualized, cross-disciplinary…
Although mental illness treatment protocols exist, the organization and financing of screening and treatment services inhibit access. These challenges are compounded for refugees, immigrants, and other groups vulnerable due to their ethnicity, race, or culture. By creating a system-wide, collaborative, integrated model that recognizes and addresses critical clinical and economic aspects in the delivery of services, high quality, evidence-based care
Concern about the behavioral effects of spaceflight can be traced back a half century to the earliest preparatory bioastronautics experiments in the mid-1 950s. A central focus of the first primate suborbital flights, as well as the orbital chimpanzee pretest flights of Project Mercury, was the effects of such stressful ventures on the learned performances of these space behavioralhealth pioneers. The hiatus in spaceflight behavioralhealth experimental investments that followed these early initiatives began with the advent of the 'human astronaut' era of the mid-1960s, and has dominated the last several decades. Contemporary concerns in this regard have most recently been articulated by a turn-of-the-century Committee of the Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, providing a visionary view of space medicine during travel beyond Earth orbit. This 2-yr study focused on those most complex behavioralhealth interactions involving humans in extreme, isolated, and confined microsocieties-areas that have not received the necessary level of attention. The evident behavioralhealth issues raised by the prospect of long-duration exploratory missions beyond Earth orbit, including performance and general living conditions, recovery and support systems, and the screening, selection, and training of candidate participants are reviewed and discussed. PMID:15943190
Social and behavioral history is increasingly recognized as integral for understanding important determinants of disease and critical for patient care, research, clinical guidelines, and public health policies. Social and behavioral history information in the public health domain, specifically large public health surveys, has not been well described. In this study, a content analysis was performed and information model constructed and contrasted with clinically-based models for each of three widely used public health surveys: BRFSS (Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System), NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey), and NHIS (National Health Interview Survey). Survey items were predominantly related to alcohol use, drug use, occupation, and tobacco use. Although the clinical social history information model was similar, public health social history demonstrated additional complexity in coding temporality, degree of exposure, and certainty. Our results give insight into ongoing efforts to integrate clinical and public health information resources for improving and measuring health. PMID:23304335
Melton, Genevieve B.; Manaktala, Sharad; Sarkar, Indra Neil; Chen, Elizabeth S.
Healthbehavior theories state that social environments influence healthbehaviors, but theories of how this occurs are relatively underdeveloped. This article systematically surveys community social capital concepts in healthbehavior literature and proposes a conceptual framework that integrates these concepts into existing behavioral theory.…
Samuel, Laura J.; Commodore-Mensah, Yvonne; Dennison Himmelfarb, Cheryl R.
Enhanced Composites Integrity Through Structural Health Monitoring Victor Giurgiutiu & Constantinos Abstract This paper discusses the topic of how the integrity of safety-critical structural composites can integrity. Structural health monitoring . Piezoelectric wafer active sensors . SHM . NDE . PWAS 1
, Dartmouth College #12;The Application of mHealth to BehavioralHealth Â· mhealth tools targeting behavioral, mental health, medication-taking, health promotion/wellness). Â· They may include applications Health Disorders Mental health and substance use disorders are common in the U.S. Â· Approx. 1 in 4 to 1
Traditional health communication interventions have often failed to show significant changes in people's behaviors. Guidance from social semiotic frameworks suggests that health communication interventions can be improved by incorporating greater participation by the intended audiences of users, paying greater attention to social contexts, and increasing broad use of integrated multimedia dissemination strategies. The use of eHealth communication has great promise
41581 Health Psychology (3) or SOC 42563 Sociology in Health and Health Care (3) 3 Health ScienceRoadmap: IntegratedHealth Studies - Health Sciences Â Bachelor of Science [EH-BS-IHS-HLSC] College of Education, Health and Human Services School of Health Sciences Catalog Year: 2013Â2014 Page 1 of 3 | Last
41581 Health Psychology (3) or SOC 42563 Sociology in Health and Health Care (3) 3 Health ScienceRoadmap: IntegratedHealth Studies - Health Sciences Â Bachelor of Science [EH-BS-IHS-HLSC] College of Education, Health and Human Services School of Health Sciences Catalog Year: 2012Â2013 Page 1 of 3 | Last
\\u000a Integration of autonomous object-oriented systems requires the integration of object structure and object behavior. Past research\\u000a in the integration of autonomous object-oriented systems has so far mainly addressed integration of object structure. During\\u000a our research we have identified business process correspondences and have given proper integration operators. So far these\\u000a integration operators are suited for creating generalized models but not
Georg Grossmann; Yikai Ren; Michael Schrefl; Markus Stumptner
Master of Public Health Curriculum HealthBehavior and Education Concentration HBED 310 Social Anthropology and Public Health HBED 344 Workshop Development HMPD 316 Marketing in Healthcare HMPD 317 and Behavioral Foundations of Public Health ENHL 300 Introduction to Environmental Health PBHL 310 Research
The biopsychosocial model describes interactions between psychosocial and biological factors in the etiology and progression of disease. How an individual interprets and responds to the environment determines responses to stress, influences healthbehaviors, contributes to the neuroendocrine and immune response, and may ultimately affect health outcomes. Health psychology interventions are designed to modulate the stress response and improve healthbehaviors
A study examined the use of sensory integration techniques to reduce the maladaptive behaviors that interfered with the learning of nine high school students with mental impairments attending a special school. Maladaptive behaviors identified included rocking, toe walking, echolalia, resistance to change, compulsive behaviors, aggression,…
that fit your lifestyle and schedule #12;Exercise: Benefits 1) Physical Health Benefits: ! ! Increases.! 3) Economic Benefits: reduces absenteeism, health costs, increases job satisfaction.! #12;ExerciseHealth-Enhancing Behaviors Chapter Four Exercise Promotion Accident Prevention Cancer- Related
SCHOOL OF PUBLIC HEALTH Department of Behavioral and Community Health Undergraduate Internship activities carried out in a community/public health organization. The internship (HLTH 491) is a 12 credit
The role of psychosocial protective factors in adolescent health-enhancing behaviors—healthy diet, regular exercise, adequate sleep, good dental hygiene, and seatbelt use—was investigated among 1,493 Hispanic, White, and Black high school students in a large, urban school district. Both proximal (health-related) and distal (conventionality-related) protective factors have significant positive relations with health-enhancing behavior and with the development of health-enhancing behavior. In
Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) describes a set of system capabilities that in aggregate perform: determination of condition for each system element, detection of anomalies, diagnosis of causes for anomalies, and prognostics for future anomalies and system behavior. The ISHM should also provide operators with situational awareness of the system by integrating contextual and timely data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) as needed. ISHM capabilities can be implemented using a variety of technologies and tools. This chapter provides an overview of ISHM contributing technologies and describes in further detail a novel implementation architecture along with associated taxonomy, ontology, and standards. The operational ISHM testbed is based on a subsystem of a rocket engine test stand. Such test stands contain many elements that are common to manufacturing systems, and thereby serve to illustrate the potential benefits and methodologies of the ISHM approach for intelligent manufacturing.
Six: [15 Credit Hours] NURS 45010 Health Care Policy and Delivery Systems or NURS 46000 Health Care Policy 3 NURS 46000 regional campuses only Human Development Elective 3 See note 2 on page 2 HealthRoadmap: IntegratedHealth Studies Â Health Services Â Bachelor of Science [EH-BS-IHS-HLSV] College
BACKGROUND: Most school health education programs focus on a single behavioral domain. Integrative programs that address multiple behaviors may be more efficient, but only if the elements of change are similar for these behaviors. The objective of this study was to examine which effective elements of school health education are similar across three particular behavioral domains. METHODS: A systematic review
Louk WH Peters; Gerjo Kok; Geert TM Ten Dam; Goof J Buijs; Theo GWM Paulussen
Education and mental healthintegration will be advanced when the goal of mental health includes effective schooling and the goal of effective schools includes the healthy functioning of students. To build a solid foundation for this reciprocal agenda, especially within the zeitgeist of recent educational reforms, a change in the fundamental framework within which school mental health is conceptualized is needed. This change involves acknowledging a new set of priorities, which include: the use of naturalistic resources within schools to implement and sustain effective supports for students' learning and emotional/behavioralhealth; inclusion of integrated models to enhance learning and promote health; attention to improving outcomes for all students, including those with serious emotional/behavioral needs; and strengthening the active involvement of parents. A strong research agenda to support these new priorities is essential. PMID:20309623
Atkins, Marc S; Hoagwood, Kimberly E; Kutash, Krista; Seidman, Edward
The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a public health educational campaign to reduce backyard mosquito-larval habitats. Three communities each, within two New Jersey counties, were randomly selected to receive: (1) both education and mosquito control, (2) education only, and (3) no education or mosquito control. Four separate educational events included a 5-day elementary school curriculum in the spring, and three door to door distributions of educational brochures. Before and after each educational event, the numbers of mosquito-larval container habitats were counted in 50 randomly selected homes per study area. Container surveys allowed us to measure source reduction behavior. Although we saw reductions in container habitats in sites receiving education, they were not significantly different from the control. Our results suggest that traditional passive means of public education, which were often considered the gold standard for mosquito control programs, are not sufficient to motivate residents to reduce backyard mosquito-larval habitats. PMID:21655124
Healthbehavior may be influenced by age, beliefs, and symptomatology. To examine age-related health beliefs and behaviors with respect to six diseases (the common cold, colon-rectal cancer, lung cancer, heart attack, high blood pressure, and senility), 396 adults (196 males, 200 females) divided into three age groups completed a questionnaire…
Oral health inequities for older adults warrant new models of interprofessional education and collaborative practice. The Innovations in Interprofessional Oral Health: Technology, Instruction, Practice and Service curricular model at Bouvé College of Health Sciences aims to transform health professions education and primary care practice to meet global and local oral health challenges. Innovations in simulation and experiential learning help to advance interprofessional education and integrate oral health care as an essential component of comprehensive primary health care. The Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly clinic is an exemplary model of patient-centeredness and interprofessional collaborative practice for addressing unmet oral health needs of its patient population. PMID:25201545
Dolce, Maria C; Aghazadeh-Sanai, Nona; Mohammed, Shan; Fulmer, Terry T
There is a substantial unmet need for mental health and substance abuse services in the USA. In 2009, the Institute of Medicine recommended increased early identification and intervention for young people with mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders. With the expansion of integrated models in primary care settings, we now have the chance to improve outcomes for young people with mental health conditions, just as we have by improving the early identification and treatment of other preventable and/or treatable conditions such as obesity, asthma, or HIV. This is a moment of great opportunity to fundamentally change how young people access mental health care in our country. Through strategic integration of care, we can increase access to care for those who would not seek out mental health services because of the stigma or inconvenience of reaching out to a mental health provider; we can identify those who need care earlier and reduce the impact of mental illness on individuals, family, and community through early identification and treatment; and we can purposefully embed integration into provider training programs for both primary care and mental health providers to ensure sustainability. PMID:24912970
\\u000a Behaviors such as tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity (or a sedentary lifestyle) and diet are major determinants\\u000a of health because of their causal effects on cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and many other chronic diseases (The World\\u000a Health Report, 2002). Some other health-related behaviors such as the abuse of narcotic drugs (which lead to premature death\\u000a for a variety of reasons)
The aim of this study was to determine the predictors of health risk behaviors of adolescents. A cross-sectional and descriptive design was used. A convenience sample of 436 undergraduate students was recruited from departments and faculties of Atatürk University. The researcher visited university departments 5 working days each week to conduct interviews with the students. The students were asked to complete a questionnaire in their classrooms. The data analysis used multivariate testing to identify predictors of health risk behaviors. The mean score on the health risk behavior scale indicated that the participants sometimes engaged in risky behaviors concerning diet, anger, stress, and disease prevention. The adolescents frequently engaged in risky behavior concerning medical compliance and beliefs about masculinity. Demographically, age, gender, income, and education level of demographic characteristics of the adolescents and, in terms of health status, healthbehaviors and the experience of a serious disease were significant predictors of adolescent health risk behaviors. In this study, some demographic characteristics were predictors for health risk behaviors, in general, of adolescents. PMID:24722616
Since 1994, integrating human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted disease (HIV/STD) services with primary health care, as part of reproductive health, has been advocated to address two major public health problems: to control the spread of HIV; and to improve women's reproductive health. However, integration is unlikely to succeed because primary health care and the political context within which this approach is taking place are unsuited to the task. In this paper, a historical comparison is made between the health systems of Ghana, Kenya and Zambia and that of South Africa, to examine progress on integration of HIV/STD services since 1994. Our findings indicate that primary health care in Ghana, Kenya and Zambia has been used mainly by women and children and that integration has meant adding new activities to these services. For the vertical programmes which support these services, integration implies enhanced collaboration rather than merged responsibility. This compromise between comprehensive rhetoric and selective reality has resulted in little change to existing structures and processes; problems with integration have been exacerbated by the activities of external donors. By comparison, in South Africa integration has been achieved through political commitment to primary health care rather than expanding vertical programmes (top-down management systems). The rhetoric of integration has been widely used in reproductive health despite lack of evidence for its feasibility, as a result of the convergence of four agendas: improving family planning quality; the need to improve women's health; the rapid spread of HIV; and conceptual shifts in primary health care. International reproductive health actors, however, have taken little account of political, financial and managerial constraints to implementation in low-income countries. PMID:10534902
of mHealth and behavioralhealth. Dr. Marsch discussed the vast prevalence and impact of behavioral systems focused on the integration of behavioral and physical health). The first panelist, Dr. David with a variety of functions including health care scheduling, appointment reminders, goal tracking, assessment
This poster reviews the working of the BehavioralHealth and Performance (BHP) group, which supports the research element which manages an integrated program for future space flight. The BHP operations group supports astronauts and their families in all phases of the International Space Station Mission, and post mission effects.
The social and behavioral sciences are at a crossroads in public health. In this paper, we attempt to describe a path toward the further integration of the natural and behavioral sciences with respect to the study of behavior and health. Three innovations are proposed. First, we extend and modify the “stream of causation” metaphor along two axes: time, and levels
Addresses the impact of patients' beliefs about health care on their decisions to follow medical advice and to undertake different actions to prevent illness. Concludes that among other things, doctors need to become more willing to modify their treatment plans according to patient needs. (VLC)
In this article, several views of the terms integration, integrated, and integrative are considered with the hopes that this brief review will help to raise awareness, clarify various uses of these terms, and add to the continuing discussion of integration and how we might improve health care. Models of integrative care, views of integration, and samples of different interpretations and
Demographic analysis has been the primary form of analysis connected with health care coverage decisions. This paper reviews past demographic research and shows the need to use behavioral analyses for health care coverage policy decisions. A behavioral model based research study is presented and a case is made for integrated study into why consumers make health care coverage decisions. PMID:10106848
This paper describes the institutional background in Latin American integration in both the economy and health, and proposes a systematization of possible healthintegration modalities. Facilitating and inhibiting factors for integration according to each modality are identified, and their feasibility is discussed in the present context. The structure and functioning of MERCOSUR health structures (Ministerial Meeting and Sub-group 11) are briefly described, as well as the advances achieved to date, reflecting on the possible causes of uneven progress in different areas. PMID:17625643
The prevalence of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and other related behavioralhealth conditions among active duty service members and their families has grown over 100% in the past six years and are now estimated ...
The prevalence of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and other related behavioralhealth conditions among active duty service members and their families has grown over 100% in the past six years and are estimated to ...
This article describes an effort to promote improvement in the quality and relevance of behavioralhealth workforce education by identifying and disseminating information on innovative training efforts. A national call for nominations was issued, seeking innovations in the education of behavioralhealth providers, consumers, and family members. A review committee evaluated each nomination on four dimensions: novelty, significance, transferability, and effectiveness. Nineteen innovations were selected for recognition, all of which are briefly described. PMID:15586848
O'Connell, Maria J; Morris, John A; Hoge, Michael A
34 nursery school teachers, 40 primary school teachers, and 40 parents of primary school children were interviewed. Based on the results of these interviews, standardized questionnaires were developed and answered by 100 mothers of primary school children. Main results are as follows. Most of the nursery school teachers, primary school teachers, and mothers don't show great interest in health-related information, despite the fact that they lack knowledge in this area. Health risks which children could be educated to know, like unhealthy nutrition, are underestimated, whereas ecological risks which cannot be affected are overrated. Nursery and primary school teachers hold that parents are responsible for the health education of their children. Consequently, health-related behaviour in kindergarten and health-related teaching in school are unsatisfactory. Mothers, however, expect schools to teach health-related topics concerning dependencies of all sorts--nicotine, alcohol, illegal drugs, and medication. Nursery school teachers as well as mothers demonstrate little systematic control and few sanctions when it comes to teaching children hygienic behaviour. Therefore, most children show satisfactory preventive behaviour only with regard to brushing their teeth. There are clear deficits in other areas. The mothers act only partly as good role models--for example, many mothers smoke when their children are around. Additionally, mothers don't regularly talk to their children about health-related topics. PMID:9409920
The objectives of the study were to describe the oral health status and treatment needs of the 5- to 6-year-old and 12-year-old children in Southern China; to describe the patterns of oral healthbehaviors, knowledge, and attitudes among the 12-year-olds; and to assess the effects of socio-behavioral factors on the 12-year-old children's dental caries experiences. The study sample was comprised
M. C. M. Wong; E. C. M. Lo; E. Schwarz; H. G. Zhang
process theory alcohol abuse and dependence smoking #12;Characteristics of Health-Compromising Behavior Many of these behaviors share a window of vulnerability in adolescence Drinking to excess Smoking so that environmental cues trigger intense desire #12;What Is Substance Dependence? Addiction
Few researchers have examined where African American men obtain, process, and use health information. A thematic analysis of data from eighteen exploratory focus groups conducted with 154 urban African American men aged 32 years and older revealed that men received health information from a variety of sources, including health professionals, media, and members of their social networks. At times, information raised their awareness of health issues, but trust in the source of the information influenced how this information was perceived. Medical professionals were the most common source of health information, but family members were the most trusted source of health information. Health problems and social support increased men's motivation to use health information in order to improve their health and healthy behaviors. These findings illustrate that it is critical to identify factors that influence what information men choose to believe and follow or decide to ignore. PMID:22178902
Griffith, Derek M; Ellis, Katrina R; Ober Allen, Julie
Despite increasing evidence that depression and other psychologic risk factors promote atherosclerosis and adverse cardiac events, practice guidelines for integrating psychologic considerations into the management of cardiac patients are currently lacking. This review explores how application of psychologic principles may help physicians to implement three basic approaches for improving the behavioral management of cardiac patients. The first is the identification and reduction of barriers to following behavioral recommendations, including the presence of negative mood states and other psychologic factors. Patients often self-manage negative moods through unhealthy behaviors such as smoking or eating. However, replacement of these behaviors with more health-promoting behaviors such as exercise and stress management techniques is often difficult and may require active assistance. Second, physicians should help provide patients with external support systems such as referral to support groups or telephone follow ups, when necessary. Such external supports, however, often require other approaches for long-term maintenance of new healthbehaviors. Third, a motivational literature suggests that physicians can promote patient self-management by formulating health goals in a manner that satisfies "basic psychologic needs" such as the needs for autonomy and competency. Satisfaction of these needs increases "vitality" (a positive state of energy and enthusiasm). Motivation can also be enhanced by creating an emotional attachment to health goals. A case example is provided to illustrate the application of these concepts in clinical practice, and future directions are discussed, including a potential healthcare model that could make the behavioral management of patients more feasible in cardiac practice. PMID:15953806
This study examined the unique contributions of masculinity and men's perceptions of the normativeness of men's and women's healthbehaviors in predicting men's self-reported healthbehaviors. One hundred and forty men aged 18–78 were recruited from 27 unmoderated and moderated Internet listservs of potential interest to men. They completed measures on-line assessing masculinity, their perceptions of normative healthbehaviors for
Examined cigarette smoking among health educators, their views about the effects of this behavior upon their audiences and beliefs about smoking in light of their professional role. Smokers and nonsmokers were significantly less included than former smokers to feel the role of health education is to convince people not to smoke. (Author/ABL)
Objective: To explore older adults' (55-70 years) health information-seeking behaviors. Methods: Using a qualitative methodology, based on grounded theory, data were collected using in-depth interviews. Participants were community-living, older adults in Toronto, Canada who independently seek nutrition and health information. Interview transcripts…
Homoeopathy is a therapy which involves many components and three main agents: the patient, with his or her condition and personal characteristics; the medication used, with its composition and manufacturing procedure; and the physician, with his or her approach to treatment and concepts of health. The development of research and evaluation structures, combined with a critical education in the discipline, would help to improve practices and define homoeopathy's potential role in relation to the other therapies, both conventional and unconventional, used in Western health systems. PMID:10083716
The integration of behavioralhealth and primary care has received much attention in the literature. Behavioralhealth providers\\u000a (BHPs) in integrated settings are faced with different treatment constraints than those who work in specialty mental health.\\u000a The existing literature focuses on what BHPs should do in primary care settings; however, little research exists specifying what BHPs are actually doing. This
Jennifer S. Funderburk; Dawn E. Sugarman; Allison K. Labbe; Amy Rodrigues; Stephen A. Maisto; Bruce Nelson
This article critiques the current health care system and presents a new conceptual model that offers the potential for an integratedhealth care system in the future. Health care currently consists of parallel care systems based on the competing conceptual frameworks of the medical model and the psychosocial model. It is argued that psychosocial factors must be included in an integrated system. Research literature is reviewed that documents the need for, the therapeutic effectiveness of, and the medical cost-offset benefits of mental and behavioralhealth interventions. The Health and Human Risk Management Model is described and illustrated with a case example as well as research outcomes from its implementation at United HealthCare Corporation. PMID:10154064
theory Â incentive salience Â frontal executive effects alcohol abuse and dependence smoking #12 in adolescence " Drinking to excess " Smoking " Illicit drug use " Unsafe sex " Risk-taking behaviors " Tanning: Conditioning process is involved so that environmental cues trigger intense desire #12;What Is Substance
theory Â incentive salience Â frontal executive effects alcohol abuse and dependence smoking #12 in adolescence Drinking to excess Smoking Illicit drug use Unsafe sex Risk-taking behaviors Tanning process is involved so that environmental cues trigger intense desire #12;What Is Substance Dependence
The impact of stress on mental health in high-risk occupations may be mitigated by organizational factors such as leadership. Studies have documented the impact of general leadership skills on employee performance and mental health. Other researchers have begun examining specific leadership domains that address relevant organizational outcomes, such as safety climate leadership. One emerging approach focuses on domain-specific leadership behaviors that may moderate the impact of combat deployment on mental health. In a recent study, US soldiers deployed to Afghanistan rated leaders on behaviors promoting management of combat operational stress. When soldiers rated their leaders high on these behaviors, soldiers also reported better mental health and feeling more comfortable with the idea of seeking mental health treatment. These associations held even after controlling for overall leadership ratings. Operational stress leader behaviors also moderated the relationship between combat exposure and soldier health. Domain-specific leadership offers an important step in identifying measures to moderate the impact of high-risk occupations on employee health. PMID:25160794
Adler, Amy B; Saboe, Kristin N; Anderson, James; Sipos, Maurice L; Thomas, Jeffrey L
Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) is a system engineering discipline that addresses the design, development, operation, and lifecycle management of components, subsystems, vehicles, and other operational systems with the purpose of maintaining nominal system behavior and function and assuring mission safety and effectiveness under off-nominal conditions. NASA missions are often conducted in extreme, unfamiliar environments of space, using unique experimental spacecraft. In these environments, off-nominal conditions can develop with the potential to rapidly escalate into mission- or life-threatening situations. Further, the high visibility of NASA missions means they are always characterized by extraordinary attention to safety. ISHM is a critical element of risk mitigation, mission safety, and mission assurance for exploration. ISHM enables: In-space maintenance and repair; a) Autonomous (and automated) launch abort and crew escape capability; b) Efficient testing and checkout of ground and flight systems; c) Monitoring and trending of ground and flight system operations and performance; d) Enhanced situational awareness and control for ground personnel and crew; e) Vehicle autonomy (self-sufficiency) in responding to off-nominal conditions during long-duration and distant exploration missions; f) In-space maintenance and repair; and g) Efficient ground processing of reusable systems. ISHM concepts and technologies may be applied to any complex engineered system such as transportation systems, orbital or planetary habitats, observatories, command and control systems, life support systems, safety-critical software, and even the health of flight crews. As an overarching design and operational principle implemented at the system-of-systems level, ISHM holds substantial promise in terms of affordability, safety, reliability, and effectiveness of space exploration missions.
Background Assessing patient-reported healthbehaviors is a critical first step to prioritizing prevention in primary care. We assessed the feasibility of point-of-care behavioralhealth assessment in nine diverse primary care practices, including four federally-qualified health centers (FQHCs), four Practice-based Research Network (PBRN) practices, and a Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) practice. Methods In this prospective mixed-methods study, practices were asked to integrate a standardized paper-based healthbehavior and mental health assessment into their workflow for 50 or more patients. We used three data sources to examine the implementation process: 1) patient responses to the health assessment, 2) patient feedback surveys about how assessments were used during encounters, and 3) post-implementation interviews. Results Most (71%) non-urgent patients visiting the participating practices during the implementation period completed the health assessment, but reach varied by practice (range: 59-88%). Unhealthy diet, sedentary lifestyle, and stress were the most common patient problems with similar frequencies observed across practices. The median number of “positive screens” per patient was similar across FQHCs (3.7-positives, SD=1.8), PBRN practices (3.8-positives, SD=1.9), and the VA clinic (4.1-positives, SD=2.0). Primary care clinicians discussed assessment results with patients about half of the time (54%), with considerable between practice variation (range: 13%-66% with lowest use among FQHC clinicians). Although clinicians were interested in routinely implementing assessments, many reported not feeling confident of having resources or support to address all patients’ behavioralhealth needs. Conclusions Primary care practices will need to revamp their patient-reported data collection processes in order to integrate routine healthbehavior assessments. Implementation support will be required if health assessments are to be actively used as part of routine primary care. PMID:24808114
Developments over the past decade in psychology, in medicine, in funding institutions such as the National Institutes of Health, and in industry make clear that the rapidly growing areas of behavioral medicine and behavioralhealth are presenting psychology and its sister professions with new opportunities for training, research, and practice. Specific developments within psychology leading to the establishment of the
Background: As members of interdisciplinary teams, school nurses provide behavioralhealth services. Studies indicate that school nurses may lack sufficient continuing education in adolescent behavioralhealth and in the management of behavioralhealth emergencies, specifically. We conducted this study to describe the adolescent behavioralhealth…
Ramos, Mary M.; Greenberg, Cynthia; Sapien, Robert; Bauer-Creegan, Judith; Hine, Beverly; Geary, Cathy
The article deals with the results of study of health preserving behavior of 310 students of senior classes of high schools of town of Jukovsky of Moskovskaya oblast. The higher level of prevalence of harmful habits among adolescents is revealed. It is emphasized that among girls the prevalence of harmful habits is not at large lower than among boys. The lower level of medical activities of respondents is explained by mistrusting physicians of curative preventive establishments, fear of queues, self-confidence in one's own knowledge and low level of medical awareness. The priority of physical culture and sport in the life of adolescents is reducing. The reorientation of trends in modern fashion to the behavior stereotypes with motional activities restriction occurs. The making of conditions to develop consistent health preserving behavior can become the most important reserve of preservation and enhancement of adolescents' health. PMID:20731146
The purpose of this study is to estimate the proportion of adolescents meeting Healthy People 2020 healthbehavior recommendations for the prevention of chronic disease and to determine the association between mental health status (depression and/or conduct problems) and the likelihood of meeting these recommendations. The data used for this study are from the 2010 Washington State Healthy Youth Survey. Descriptive statistics and linear regression were utilized to estimate the proportion of adolescents meeting recommendations and associations between youth mental health status indicators and health-promoting behaviors. A small minority (5.8 %) of youth met all six recommendations in domains of tobacco abstinence, substance use abstinence, daily physical activity, breakfast consumption, weight below obese levels, and adequate sleep, though most (84.3 %) met at least three. At the aggregate level, the proportion of Washington State youth who met Healthy People 2020 guidelines exceeded targets, with the exception of substance use abstinence. A minority of youth reported guideline levels of daily physical activity (23.3 %) and sleep (39.8 %). Mental health status was strongly associated with the number of health-promoting behaviors adolescents endorsed. Interventions to increase the adoption of sleep hygiene and exercise habits should be added to an integrative positive youth development framework within school-, community-, and primary care-based adolescent health initiatives. Attention to adolescent mental health and shared risk factors may be critical for reducing barriers to healthy behavior. PMID:24114409
The current intervention trend for many of the mental health and behavioral problems faced by today's youth is an integrative approach that involves the community, families, and schools. Clinical assessment for serious mental health and behavioral problems can be an important component in the development of school-based screening programs. The…
Parental incarceration is associated with mental and physical health problems in children, yet little research directly tests mechanisms through which parental incarceration could imperil child health. We hypothesized that the incarceration of a woman or her romantic partner in the year before birth constituted an additional hardship for already-disadvantaged women, and that these additionally vulnerable women were less likely to engage in positive perinatal healthbehaviors important to infant and early childhood development. We analyzed 2006-2010 data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment and Monitoring System to assess the association between incarceration in the year prior to the birth of a child and perinatal maternal hardships and behaviors. Women reporting incarceration of themselves or their partners in the year before birth of a child had .86 the odds (95 % CI .78-.95) of beginning prenatal care in the first trimester compared to women not reporting incarceration. They were nearly twice as likely to report partner abuse and were significantly more likely to rely on WIC and/or Medicaid for assistance during pregnancy. These associations persist after controlling for socioeconomic measures and other stressors, including homelessness and job loss. Incarceration of a woman or her partner in the year before birth is associated with higher odds of maternal hardship and poorer perinatal healthbehaviors. The unprecedented scale of incarceration in the US simultaneously presents an underutilized public health opportunity and constitutes a social determinant of health that may contribute to disparities in early childhood development. PMID:24615355
Dumont, Dora M; Wildeman, Christopher; Lee, Hedwig; Gjelsvik, Annie; Valera, Pamela; Clarke, Jennifer G
PURPOSE: This study characterizes food insecure California women and examines their health status outcomes and risk behaviors.METHODS: The study uses data from the 2000 California Women's Health Survey (CWHS), an annual telephone survey of women ages 18 and older. The six-question USDA food security scale was used to assess the food security of the 4,012 respondents.RESULTS: Among all California women,
This research analyzes the influence of selected social psychological factors (health locus of control and health value), social support factors (influence of parents and peers, organizational involvement, and reliance on others during stressful times), and health-specific factors (recent health crisis and self-assessment of health status) on participation in health protective behaviors by males and females. While much research has focused on identifying determinative factors (often with inconsistent findings), little research has been directed to understanding if and how predictive factors vary by gender. Data for the research were obtained from personal interviews with 167 undergraduate college students collected during the fall semester of their freshman year and again during their sophomore year. Female students averaged statistically significant more health protective behaviors than did male students, and increased involvement in HPBs from their freshman to sophomore years (while male students' participation declined). Among the factors studied, peer practices (collected in time 2) is a statistically significant predictor for both males and females. Value placed on health predicts for females but not males, while grade point average predicts for males but not females. Overall, females and high GPA males are most likely to engage in HPBs. PMID:1492412
Objective The study objective is to determine whether transitioning from paper to electronic health records (EHR) impacted behavioralhealth screening rates in a large northeast pediatric practice. Methods The study setting is a pediatric practice with 7 pediatricians serving about 6000 patients. The population is diverse (54% non-white, 40% publicly insured or self-pay and 31% non-English speakers). An interrupted times series design (ITS) was used to evaluate the impact of EHR implementation on behavioralhealth screening rates. The main outcome measure was the rate of behavioralhealth screening 18 months before and 36 months after EHR implementation. Results The rate of behavioralhealth screening increased from 70% to 91% during the baseline period. The training period (6 months) prior to EHR-based behavioralhealth screening was associated with a 28% decline in adjusted screening rates (84% to 64%). Only 50% of eligible youth were screened in the first month of EHR-based screening. It took more than three years for the screening rate to recover to baseline levels – climbing to 82% by April 2008. Conclusions Practice changes resulting from EHR adoption were highly disruptive to needed care and took several years to resolve completely. Transferring data input to medical assistants was necessary to improve compliance. It is likely that compliance with primary care HEDIS standards and Medicaid performance measures will be similarly affected as EHRs are implemented across the nation. While there are some benefits from implementing a fully automated medical record, the unintended effects on care following implementation must be acknowledged. PMID:22267253
Competency-based training approaches are being used more in healthcare to guide curriculum content and ensure accountability and outcomes in the educational process. This article provides an overview of the state of competency development in the field of behavioralhealth. Specifically, it identifies the groups and organizations that have conducted and supported this work, summarizes their progress in defining and assessing
Michael A. Hoge; Manuel Paris; Hoover Adger; Cherry V. Finn; Larry Fricks; Kenneth J. Gill; Judith Haber; Marsali Hansen; D. J. Ida; Linda Kaplan; William F. Northey; Maria J. O’Connell; Anita L. Rosen; Zebulon Taintor; Janis Tondora; Alexander S. Young
This report is to present the work that was performed during the summer in the Advance Computing Application office. The NFFP (NASA Faculty Fellow Program) had ten summer faculty members working on IVHM (Integrated Vehicle Health Management) technologies. The objective of this project was two-fold: 1) to become familiar with IVHM concepts and key demonstrated IVHM technologies; and 2) to integrate the research that has been performed by IVHM faculty members into the MASTLAB (Marshall Avionic Software Test Lab). IVHM is a NASA-wide effort to coordinate, integrate and apply advanced software, sensors and design technologies to increase the level of intelligence, autonomy, and health state of future vehicles. IVHM is an important concept because it is consistent with the current plan for NASA to go to the moon, mars, and beyond. In order for NASA to become more involved in deep exploration, avionic systems will need to be highly adaptable and autonomous.
The implementation of an integrated system health management (ISHM) capability is fundamentally linked to the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system. It is akin to having a team of experts who are all individually and collectively observing and analyzing a complex system, and communicating effectively with each other in order to arrive at an accurate and reliable assessment of its health. In this paper, concepts, procedures, and approaches are presented as a foundation for implementing an intelligent systems ]relevant ISHM capability. The capability stresses integration of DIaK from all elements of a system. Both ground-based (remote) and on-board ISHM capabilities are compared and contrasted. The information presented is the result of many years of research, development, and maturation of technologies, and of prototype implementations in operational systems.
Objective: To model typical trajectories for improvement among patients treated in an integrated primary care behavioralhealth service, multilevel models were used to explore the relationship between baseline mental health impairment level and eventual mental health functioning across follow-up appointments. Method: Data from 495 primary care…
Bryan, Craig J.; Corso, Meghan L.; Corso, Kent A.; Morrow, Chad E.; Kanzler, Kathryn E.; Ray-Sannerud, Bobbie
The 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) has a number of important features for individuals who are involved with the criminal justice system. Among the most important changes is the expansion of Medicaid to more adults. The current study estimates that 10% of the total Medicaid expansion could include individuals who have experienced recent incarceration. The ACA also emphasizes the importance of mental health and substance abuse benefits, potentially changing the landscape of behavioralhealth treatment providers willing to serve criminal justice populations. Finally, it seeks to promote coordinated care delivery. New care delivery and appropriate funding models are needed to address the behavioralhealth and other chronic conditions experienced by those in criminal justice and to coordinate care within the complex structure of the justice system itself. PMID:24807645
We performed one of the first systematic, population-based surveys of women in Amish culture. We used these data to examine health status and health risks in a representative sample of 288 Amish women ages 18-45 living in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, in particular for risks associated with preterm and low birthweight infants, compared with a general population sample of 2,002 women
Kirk Miller; Berwood Yost; Sean Flaherty; Marianne M. Hillemeier; Gary A. Chase; Carol S. Weisman; Anne-Marie Dyer
This is a compiled list of resources (e.g., peer-reviewed articles, competencies and standards, teaching materials) for health professional students, educators, and health professionals to learn more about issues affecting individuals at a population level, to become more familiar with other population health issues, to integrate public health into
Most traditional conceptions of reinforcement are based on a simple causal model in which responding is strengthened by the presentation of a reinforcer. I argue that reinforcement is better viewed as the outcome of constraint of a functioning causal system comprised of multiple interrelated causal sequences, complex linkages between causes and effects, and a set of initial conditions. Using a simplified system conception of the reinforcement situation, I review the similarities and drawbacks of traditional reinforcement models and analyze the recent contributions of cognitive, regulatory, and ecological approaches. Finally, I show how the concept of behavior systems can begin to incorporate both traditional and recent conceptions of reinforcement in an integrative approach. PMID:8354963
Race, ethnicity, and cultural attitudes and practices are among the variables that influence healthbehaviors, including adaptive healthbehaviors. The following discussions highlight the important role of social conditions in shaping healthbehaviors and the central role of family in promoting health across the Asian, Hispanic, Native American, and African American ethnic groups. Factors that may lead to health-damaging behaviors are also discussed. The need for additional research that identifies correlations among physiological, social, and behavioral factors and healthbehaviors, as well as underlying mechanisms, is called for. PMID:8654341
Health systems around the world are implementing integrated care strategies to improve quality, reduce or maintain costs, and improve the patient experience. Yet few practical tools exist to aid leaders and managers in building the prerequisites to integrated care, namely a shared vision, clear roles and responsibilities, and a common understanding of how the vision will be realized. Outcome mapping may facilitate stakeholder alignment on the vision, roles, and processes of integrated care delivery via participative and focused dialogue among diverse stakeholders on desired outcomes and enabling actions. In this paper, we describe an outcome-mapping exercise we conducted at a Local HealthIntegration Network in Ontario, Canada, using consensus development conferences. Our preliminary findings suggest that outcome mapping may help stakeholders make sense of a complex system and foster collaborative capital, a resource that can support information sharing, trust, and coordinated change toward integration across organizational and professional boundaries. Drawing from the theoretical perspectives of complex adaptive systems and collaborative capital, we also outline recommendations for future outcome-mapping exercises. In particular, we emphasize the potential for outcome mapping to be used as a tool not only for identifying and linking strategic outcomes and actions, but also for studying the boundaries, gaps, and ties that characterize social networks across the continuum of care. PMID:23526058
Tsasis, Peter; Evans, Jenna M; Forrest, David; Jones, Richard Keith
It was hypothesized that a person's estimates of the preventability of health problems would be related to healthbehaviors such that a person who engages in healthfulbehavior should make higher estimates of preventability. A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between causal attribution of health problems and health-related…
This article introduces a terror management health model (TMHM). The model integrates disparate health and social psychology literatures to elucidate how the conscious and nonconscious awareness of death can influence the motivational orientation that is most operative in the context of health decisions. Three formal propositions are presented. Proposition 1 suggests that conscious thoughts about death can instigate health-oriented responses
Background Individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are more likely to undertake harmful healthbehaviors like substance use. Less is known about the association of PTSD with healthfulbehaviors such as healthy diet and exercise. The purpose of this study was to examine differences across physical health indicators and healthbehaviors in individuals with and without PTSD. Methods A cross-sectional, case–control study of health indicators and self-reported healthbehaviors in a community and military veteran sample was used. Results Based on a structured psychiatric interview, 25 participants had PTSD, and the remaining 55 without PTSD served as the comparison group. Participants were 40 years old on average and 45% were female. Multivariate analysis of variance analyses revealed that participants with PTSD had significantly higher body mass index (p = 0.004), had more alcohol use (p = 0.007), and reported fewer minutes of vigorous exercise (p = 0.020) than those without PTSD. Chi-square analysis of diet content and eating behavior constructs found that individuals with PTSD ate fewer fruits (p = 0.035) and had more guilt after overeating (p = 0.006). Conclusions These findings replicate prior research on the link between PTSD and negative health outcomes and engagement in harmful healthbehaviors and highlight the need for further examination of the association between PTSD and other healthbehaviors like diet content, eating behaviors, and exercise. PMID:24070007
Using a variety of data sets from two countries, we examine possible explanations for the relationship between education and healthbehaviors, known as the education gradient. We show that income, health insurance, and family background can account for about 30 percent of the gradient. Knowledge and measures of cognitive ability explain an additional 30 percent. Social networks account for another 10 percent. Our proxies for discounting, risk aversion, or the value of future do not account for any of the education gradient, and neither do personality factors such as a sense of control of oneself or over one’s life. PMID:19963292
HSDM Presents: "Integrating Oral Health and Primary Care" A3 Advancement Â· Achievement Health, Mental Health, and Primary Care for the Elderly" Lisa Thompson, DMD Clinical Instructor in Oral Health Policy and Epidemiology Harvard School of Dental Medicine 4:00 pm "Integrating Oral Health
In this paper we describe intervention science as it applies to psychosocial behavioralhealth interventions and its effects on the growing evidence assessment infrastructure. In the process we discuss parallels with intervention science in industry and physical healthcare. Emerging government policies in the United States, such as Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's National Registry of Evidence-Based Programs and
Rat Behavioral Thermoregulation Integrates With Nonshivering Thermogenesis During Postnatal without shivering. The rat pup's primary source of nonshivering thermogenesis is the sympathetically after birth. While infant behavioral thermoregulation and BAT thermogenesis have been extensively
This paper identifies work needed by developers to make integrated system health management (ISHM) technology ready and by programs to make mission infrastructure ready for this technology. This paper examines perceptions of ISHM technologies and experience in legacy programs. Study methods included literature review and interviews with representatives of stakeholder groups. Recommendations address 1) development of ISHM technology, 2) development of ISHM engineering processes and methods, and 3) program organization and infrastructure for ISHM technology evolution, infusion and migration.
The process of integratinghealth and welfare plans during an M&A is challenging. At the same time, it can be exciting and possibly even desirable for the growth of a benefits plan. An M&A can be the vehicle for ushering in changes that would not be possible under the current employers' plans. It gives additional leverage with vendors. It may supply the momentum to clear up nagging problems or to address underlying benefits concerns. PMID:11372498
The major morbidities and mortalities of adolescents are related to preventable risky behaviors, but how, when, and in whom these behaviors develop in early adolescence is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine which set of risk factors and protective resources of school-age children were best predictors of health-risk behaviors in early adolescence. A longitudinal, cohort sequential design was used with a diverse sample of 1,934 children in grades 4 through 8. Parents provided demographic and neighborhood data for children through a mailed survey. Children completed valid scales annually at schools, using audio-computer-assisted self-interviewing (A-CASI) technology. Significant gender and racial/ethnic differences were found in carrying a weapon and using alcohol. Higher perceived levels of stress increased the risk for alcohol use as did riding in a car with a driver who was drinking. Healthbehaviors exhibited while in 4th through 6th grades protected early adolescents from alcohol use and riding in a car with a driver who was drinking. A parent's education and perceived safety in neighborhood protected against carrying a weapon and smoking. Many findings are similar to those of national samples, but others show positive differences in this localized sample, over 50% of whom were Latino. Protective resources suggest numerous nursing interventions to promote healthy adolescent development. PMID:21568625
Web-based social networking applications have become increasingly important in recent years. The current applications in the healthcare sphere can support the health management, but to date there is no patient-controlled integrator. This paper proposes a platform called Multiple Profile Manager (MPM) that enables a user to create and manage an integrated profile that can be shared across numerous social network sites. Moreover, it is able to facilitate the collection of personal healthcare data, which makes a contribution to the development of public health informatics. Here we want to illustrate how patients and physicians can be benefited from enabling the platform for online social network sites. The MPM simplifies the management of patients' profiles and allows health professionals to obtain a more complete picture of the patients' background so that they can provide better health care. To do so, we demonstrate a prototype of the platform and describe its protocol specification, which is an XMPP (Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol)  extension, for sharing and synchronising profile data (vCard²) between different social networks. PMID:21893917
The use of pesticides on the farm is largely governed by voluntary behavior. It is important to understand what drives farmer’s behavior of pesticide use. Health belief models in public health and social psychology argue that persons who have had adverse health experiences are likely to undertake greater preventive behavior which was tested here. We drew a survey of 163
Objective: To introduce item response theory (IRT) to healthbehavior researchers by contrasting it with classical test theory and providing an example of IRT in healthbehavior. Method: Demonstrate IRT by fitting the 2PL model to substance-use survey data from the Adolescent Health Risk Behavior questionnaire (n = 1343 adolescents). Results: An…
Warne, Russell T.; McKyer, E. J. Lisako; Smith, Matthew L.
There is a pressing need for an effective means of transforming healthbehaviors. Obesity, anxiety and other behavior-generated health conditions result in billions of dollars of healthcare costs and a great deal of human suffering. Technology innovations are rapidly presenting new delivery mechanisms that can be harnessed to influence healthbehaviors. The mobile platform is a uniquely persuasive delivery medium
Sunny Consolvo; Kendra Markle; Kevin Patrick; Kara Chanasyk
Behavioralhealth disorders result in significant economic loss through costs associated with inpatient admissions, lost work days and reduction in at-work productivity. Additionally, over 30% of health plan members with complex health issues have at least one behavioralhealth issue driving cost risk. This paper looks at graphical representations of cost as part of an effort to develop an overall
The implementation of an integrated system health management (ISHM) capability is fundamentally linked to the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system. Management implies storage, distribution, sharing, maintenance, processing, reasoning, and presentation. ISHM is akin to having a team of experts who are all individually and collectively observing and analyzing a complex system, and communicating effectively with each other in order to arrive at an accurate and reliable assessment of its health. In this chapter, concepts, procedures, and approaches are presented as a foundation for implementing an ISHM capability relevant to intelligent systems. The capability stresses integration of DIaK from all elements of a system, emphasizing an advance toward an on-board, autonomous capability. Both ground-based and on-board ISHM capabilities are addressed. The information presented is the result of many years of research, development, and maturation of technologies, and of prototype implementations in operational systems.
BHP Program Element Goal: Identify, characterize, and prevent or reduce behavioralhealth and performance risks associated with space travel, exploration and return to terrestrial life. BHP Requirements: a) Characterize and assess risks (e.g., likelihood and consequences). b) Develop tools and technologies to prevent, monitor, and treat adverse outcomes. c) Inform standards. d) Develop technologies to: 1) reduce risks and human systems resource requirements (e.g., crew time, mass, volume, power) and 2) ensure effective human-system integration across exploration mission.
This article introduces a terror management health model (TMHM). The model integrates disparate health and social psychology literatures to elucidate how the conscious and nonconscious awareness of death can influence the motivational orientation that is most operative in the context of health decisions. Three formal propositions are presented.…
Background: Responses to the chronic disease epidemic have predominantly been standardized in their approach to date. Barriers to better health outcomes remain, and effective management requires patient-specific data and disease state knowledge be presented in methods that foster clinical decision-making and patient self-management. Mobile technology provides a new platform for data collection and patient–provider communication. The mobile device represents a personalized platform that is available to the patient on a 24/7 basis. Mobile-integrated therapy (MIT) is the convergence of mobile technology, clinical and behavioral science, and scientifically validated clinical outcomes. In this article, we highlight the lessons learned from functional integration of a Food and Drug Administration-cleared type 2 diabetes MIT into the electronic health record (EHR) of a multiphysician practice within a large, urban, academic medical center. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with integration stakeholder groups: mobile and EHR software and information technology teams, clinical end users, project managers, and business analysts. Interviews were summarized and categorized into lessons learned using the Architecture for Integrated Mobility® framework. Results: Findings from the diverse stakeholder group of a MIT–EHR integration project indicate that user workflow, software system persistence, environment configuration, device connectivity and security, organizational processes, and data exchange heuristics are key issues that must be addressed. Conclusions: Mobile-integrated therapy that integrates patient self-management data with medical record data provides the opportunity to understand the potential benefits of bidirectional data sharing and reporting that are most valuable in advancing better health and better care in a cost-effective way that is scalable for all chronic diseases. PMID:23759392
Peeples, Malinda M.; Iyer, Anand K.; Cohen, Joshua L.
Secondary HIV prevention, or “positive prevention,” is concerned with reducing HIV transmission risk behavior and optimizing the health and quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). The association between mental health and HIV transmission risk (i.e., sexual risk and poor medication adherence) is well established, although most of this evidence is observational. Further, a number of efficacious mental health treatments are available for PLWHA yet few positive prevention interventions integrate mental health treatment. We propose that mental health treatment, including behavioral and pharmacologic interventions, can lead to reductions in HIV transmission risk behavior and should be a core component of secondary HIV prevention. We present a conceptual model and recommendations to guide future research on the effect of mental health treatment on HIV transmission risk behavior among PLWHA. PMID:20013043
Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Watt, Melissa H.; Drabkin, Anya S.; Meade, Christina S.; Hansen, Nathan B.; Pence, Brian W.
Background: Latinos experience disproportionate negative health status and health care access. Expanding understanding of factors impacting Latino immigrant health is imperative. Purpose: This study identified health-seeking behaviors among Latinas in a large Midwestern city with rapid immigrant population growth. Health-seeking behaviors like…
Rojas-Guyler, Liliana; King, Keith A.; Montieth, Brigid A.
In this study, psychological conditions of pro-health lifestyle behavior have been analyzed. A first research group consisted of 88 healthy people (44 males, 44 females) aged 19-39. Psychological analysis showed a positive correlation between the internal locus of control and adherence to healthy diets; a correlation extending to the knowledge about healthy food. Social exclusion appeared to reduce the possibility of reaping new knowledge about healthy diets and was negatively correlated with the tendency of using healthy diet or dietary supplements. A second group consisted of 70 women aged 20-65. The subjects in this group were oriented towards using a diet which reduces body mass; pro-health both physical and psychological objectives other than body mass reduction were secondary in this study. General self-esteem and physical self-esteem were found to be positively correlated with the involvement in physical activities and satisfaction from dietary intervention. These outcomes were negatively correlated with body mass. The study shows that the efficiency of prevention is related to the locus of control, self-efficacy expectation, faith in the result, and self-esteem. The information about the interconnections among these variables may be useful in building preventive behavioral programs. PMID:22826083
, IN 47405 Phone: 812-855-9663 FAX 812-855-0411 E-mail: email@example.com and behaviorally distinct dark-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Editor: Susan U. Linville #12;2 Cocaine Addiction Relapse is a major issue when treating cocaine addiction, with compulsive drug- seeking behavior contributing to the problem. In order
Integrating social psychological research with work in child development, this study explored relationships between system justification (Jost & Banaji, 1994), maternal mental health and child externalizing behavior among low-income immigrants and racial/ethnic minorities. Dominican, Mexican and African-American families (N = 239) were assessed when children were 14-, 24- and 36-months old. SEM was used to explore longitudinal relationships between maternal system justification and mental health and associations with child behavior. Earlier mental health was negatively related to later system justification and system justification was negatively related to children’s externalizing behavior. Implications for system justification theory, child development and immigration are discussed. PMID:25035527
OBJECTIVE. Little is known about how physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior, and various adolescent health risk behaviors are associated. The objective of this study was to examine relationships between PA and sedentary behavior patterns and an array of risk behaviors, including leading causes of adolescent morbidity\\/mortality. METHODS. Nationally representative self-reported data were collected (National Lon- gitudinal Study of Adolescent Health;
For those in health education, the year 1969 marked the debut of "School Health Review," the forerunner to the current "American Journal of Health Education." The inaugural issue of "School Health Review," in September of 1969 included the article, "Changing Healthbehavior in Youth," by Dr. Godfrey M. Hochbaum. This article reviews the 1969…
Valois, Robert F.; Zullig, Keith J.; Young, Michael; Kammermann, Sandra K.
Persons with comorbid medical disorders, along with substance use disorders and mental illness, present complex treatment needs that are seldom addressed. Chronic physical illness negatively affects treatment participation and retention, decreasing effectiveness. Studies documenting higher medical morbidity and mortality in such persons have long been available. Less is known about their healthbehaviors. Respondents (n = 418) at a community
Sandra M. Gallagher; Audrey J. Brooks; Patricia E. Penn
This study assessed the association of lifestyle and clinical healthbehaviors with prostate specific antigen (PSA) tests. The study used cross-sectional data from the 2002 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). We used Stata 8.0 to take into account the complex sample design in analyses. Both lifestyle and clinical healthbehaviors…
One hundred fifteen women were interviewed during their pregnancy. They were asked “What healthbehavior changes have you made since you became pregnant?”; This is the first study reported in the United States to allow women to identify their own healthbehaviors. In previous studies, women responded to the behaviors that the researchers listed on questionnaires. The women in our
Examines the literature on prevention to establish what psychosocial factors are associated with various types of actions and the degree to which different types of preventive healthbehaviors are related. The relevance of health psychology to the study of prevention is discussed. Major explanations for the behaviors are outlined, including sociocultural or normative approaches, cognitively based models, and behavioral perspectives.
Health promotion must be emphasized to achieve the World Health Organization goal of health for all. Since the global population is aging rapidly, ComCare elder health-promoting service was developed by the Taiwan Institute for Information Industry in 2011. Based on the Pender health promotion model, ComCare service offers five categories of health-promoting functions to address the everyday needs of seniors: nutrition management, social support, exercise management, health responsibility, stress management. To assess the overall ComCare service and to improve understanding of the health-promoting behavior of elders, this study analyzed health-promoting behavioral data automatically collected by the ComCare monitoring system. In the 30638 session records collected for 249 elders from January, 2012 to March, 2013, behavior patterns were identified by fuzzy c-mean time series clustering algorithm combined with autocorrelation-based representation schemes. The analysis showed that time series data for elder health-promoting behavior can be classified into four different clusters. Each type reveals different health-promoting needs, frequencies, function numbers and behaviors. The data analysis result can assist policymakers, health-care providers, and experts in medicine, public health, nursing and psychology and has been provided to Taiwan National Health Insurance Administration to assess the elder health-promoting behavior.
Obesity, mood, and associated behaviors spread within social networks . Facebook, the primary representation of these networks, shapes our perceptions of social norms and the expectations we set for ourselves. As such, Facebook holds potential to influence healthbehaviors of individuals and improve public health. This panel explores that potential from a variety of perspectives including psychology, public health, privacy,
Margaret E. Morris; Sunny Consolvo; Sean A. Munson; Kevin Patrick; Janice Y. Tsai; Adam D. I. Kramer
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between older adults' religiosity, sense of meaning in life, and healthbehavior. Three dimensions of religiosity were assessed: religious orientation (intrinsic and extrinsic), sanctification of the body, and relationship with God. Five healthbehaviors were measured: smoking, exercise, taking responsibility for one's own health, nutritious eating, and stress management. In
This study links heart disease worry with self initiated changes in diet and exercise health protective behaviors (HPB), among blacks and whites. Utilizing the concept 'vulnerability', from the Health Belief Model, it is hypothesized that worry about heart disease will more readily translate into diet and exercise healthbehaviors for blacks than for whites. The data come from a national
This study aimed to examine the socioeconomic disparities in health-related behaviors and to assess if behaviors eliminate socioeconomic disparities in oral health in a nationally representative sample of adult Americans. Data are from the US Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988–1994). Behaviors were indicated by smoking, dental visits, frequency of eating fresh fruits and vegetables and extent of
Wael Sabbah; Georgios Tsakos; Aubrey Sheiham; Richard G. Watt
Prevention of cancer risk behaviors before they become embedded in an individual's life is crucial. Health-related behaviors should be viewed for their embeddedness, critical aspects of which are (a) the complexity of the behavior itself; (.b) factors, both biological and psychological, within the individual communicator; (c) and external situational or sociocultural factors. The more extensively a behavior is embedded, the more difficult it will be to alter. Relative levels of embeddedness of the risk behavior and its entanglement with other nonrisky behaviors will evolve and change throughout one's life course. Smoking across the life span provides an excellent example of a thoroughly integrated, embedded behavior. How smoking is embedded with other behaviors changes from adolescence, where biological factors may be less salient and habit strength less pronounced, through adulthood, where habit strength is greater but health concerns are a more predictive factor. Researchers can produce more focused communication interventions by examining how health-endangering behaviors are embedded among benign behaviors or among other potentially dangerous behaviors. Ideally, the pattern of healthbehavior embeddedness should be analyzed prior to developing intervention communication strategies. PMID:12742768
Background Overall cancer incidence rates decreased in the most recent time period in both men and women, largely due to improvements in surgical therapeutic approaches (tertiary prevention) and screening programs (secondary prevention), but differences in cancer incidence and survival according to socioeconomic status are documented worldwide. Health risk behaviors, defined as habits or practices that increase an individual’s likelihood of harmful health outcomes, are thought to mediate such inequalities. Discussion Obesity has been related with increased cancer incidence and mortality due to imbalance of leptin and adiponectin which are connected to activation of PI3K, MAPK, and STAT3 pathways and decreasing insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and mTOR signaling via activation of 5 AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), respectively. Physical activity has been associated to prevent cancer by the aforementioned obesity-related mechanisms, but also increasing level of circulating vitamin D, which has been related to lower risk of several cancers, and increasing prostaglandin F2a and reducing prostaglandin E2, which are both related with cancer prevention and promotion, respectively. A large number of different substances may induce themselves a direct cytotoxicity and mutagenic action on cells by smoking, whereas alcohol promote immune suppression, the delay of DNA repair, inhibition of the detoxification of carcinogens, the production of acetaldehyde, and the contribution to abnormal DNA methylation. The combined smoking and alcohol drinking habits have been shown to increase cancer risk by smoke action of increasing the acetaldehyde burden following alcohol consumption and alcohol action of enhancing the activation of various procarcinogens contained in tobacco smoke. Conclusions Interventions at the social level may be done to increase awareness about cancer risks and promote changing in unhealthy behaviors. PMID:24267900
Behavior, the roles of behavior in health, health promotion, health, quality of life, and death are all context-dependent.\\u000a This paper begins with a review of behavioral and ecological models, emphasizing their shared emphasis on context. It then\\u000a turns to genetics and the importance of contexts in understanding genetic influences. Jumping from genes to geography, it\\u000a examines how spatial analysis provides
We present the IntegratedBehavior Change Model, a comprehensive multitheory model outlining the psychological factors and processes that impact physical activity behavior. The model integrates hypotheses from social-cognitive, motivational, dual-phase, and dual-systems theories. We provide the theoretical basis for the model and demonstrate its utility in driving future research and developing effective interventions to promote physical activity. PMID:24508739
Examined the relation of psychosocial and behavioral conventionality-unconventionality to health-related behavior in cross-sectional data from 1,588 male and female 7th to 12th graders. Conventionalityunconventionality was represented by personality, perceived social environment, and behavior variables selected from the social-psychological framework of problem-behavior theory (R. Jessor & S. L. Jessor, 1977). Greater psychosocial conventionality correlates with more regular involvement in health-related behavior
The integrity and health of society's life-supporting ecosystems establishes a fundamental constraint on economic growth and development. Energy Systems Theory provides a theoretical basis for defining, measuring and interpreting the concepts of ecological integrity and ecosystem...
34180 Human Resource Management 3 PSYC 41581 Health Psychology (3) or SOC 42563 Sociology of HealthRoadmap: IntegratedHealth Studies Â Health Care Administration and Systems - Bachelor of Science [EH-BS-IHS-HCAS] College of Education, Health, and Human Services School of Health Sciences Catalog
This paper estimates whether marriage can improve health outcomes for African-Americans through changes in risky healthbehaviors\\u000a like smoking, drinking, and drug use. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent Health and propensity\\u000a score matching methodology to account for the potential selection bias, the results show that marriage does lead to a reduction\\u000a in risky healthbehaviors, specifically
Adolescent healthbehaviors, especially health risk behaviors, have previously been linked to distal (i.e., family economic pressure) and proximal (i.e., parental support) contributors. However, few studies have examined both types of contributors along with considering health promoting and health risk behaviors separately. The present study investigated the influences of family economic hardship, supportive parenting as conceptualized by self-determination theory, and individual psychosocial and behavioral characteristics (i.e., mastery and delinquency, respectively) on adolescents' health promoting and health risk behaviors. We used structural equation modeling to analyze longitudinal data from a sample of Caucasian adolescent children and their mothers and fathers (N = 407, 54 % female) to examine direct and indirect effects, as well as gender symmetry and asymmetry. Findings suggest that family economic pressure contributed to adolescent mastery and delinquency through supportive parenting. Further, supportive parenting indirectly affected adolescent health risk behaviors only through delinquency, whereas supportive parenting indirectly influenced health promoting behaviors only through mastery, suggesting different developmental pathways for adolescent health risk and health promoting behaviors. Testing for gender symmetry of the full model showed that maternal and paternal parenting contributed to females' health risk behaviors directly, while maternal and paternal parenting contributed to males' health risk behaviors through delinquency. Gender symmetry was largely unsupported. The study highlights key direct and indirect pathways to adolescent health risk and health promoting behaviors within a family stress model and self-determination theory framework, and also highlights important gender differences in these developmental pathways. PMID:24254978
Despite considerable research demonstrating associations of conscientiousness and neuroticism with health-related behavior, our understanding of how and why these traits are related to lifestyle is limited. This study examined the social regulation of healthbehavior in a probability sample of 509 household residents who completed a Random Digit Dial (RDD) telephone survey. Results suggest that the social regulation of healthbehavior experienced by highly conscientious individuals has more to do with their own internalized notions of responsibility and obligation to others than to specific actions by others aimed at influencing their health habits. In contrast, individuals with higher neuroticism experience more overt attempts by others to influence their health habits but have more negative affective and behavioral responses to these social influence attempts. Findings suggest that elucidating the distinct social influence processes that operate for conscientiousness and neuroticism may further understanding of how these traits are related to healthbehaviors and status. PMID:16902235
This article introduces a terror management health model (TMHM). The model integrates disparate health and social psychology literatures to elucidate how the conscious and nonconscious awareness of death can influence the motivational orientation that is most operative in the context of health decisions. Three formal propositions are presented. Proposition 1 suggests that conscious thoughts about death can instigate health-oriented responses aimed at removing death-related thoughts from current focal attention. Proposition 2 suggests that the unconscious resonance of death-related cognition promotes self-oriented defenses directed toward maintaining, not one's health, but a sense of meaning and self-esteem. The last proposition suggests that confrontations with the physical body may undermine symbolic defenses and thus present a previously unrecognized barrier to health promotion activities. In the context of each proposition, moderators are proposed, research is reviewed, and implications for health promotion are discussed. PMID:18954213
Good health significantly improves a person's quality of life. However, people with intellectual disabilities disproportionately have more health problems than the general population. Further complicating the matter is that people with more severe disabilities often cannot verbalize health complications they are experiencing, which leads to health problems being undiagnosed and untreated. It is plausible these conditions can interact with reinforcement contingencies to maintain problem behavior because of the increased incidence of health problems among people with intellectual disabilities. This paper reviews common health problems influencing problem behavior and reinforcement processes. A clear implication of this review is the need for comprehensive functional assessments of problem behavior involving behavior analysts and health professionals. PMID:22532888
Integratedhealth systems are considered part of the solution to the challenge of sustaining Canada’s healthcare system. This systematic literature review was undertaken to guide decision-makers and others to plan for and implement integratedhealth systems. This review identified 10 universal principles of successfully integrated healthcare systems which may be used by decision-makers to assist with integration efforts. These principles define key areas for restructuring and allow organizational flexibility and adaptation to local context. The literature does not contain a one-size-fits-all model or process for successful integration, nor is there a firm empirical foundation for specific integration strategies and processes. PMID:20057244
Suter, Esther; Oelke, Nelly D.; Adair, Carol E.; Armitage, Gail D.
Purpose Depression and health risk behaviors in adolescents are leading causes of preventable morbidity and mortality. Primary care visits provide prime opportunities to screen and provide preventive services addressing risk behaviors/conditions. This study evaluated the co-occurrence of depression and health risk behaviors (focusing on smoking, drug and alcohol misuse, risky sexual behavior, and obesity-risk) with the goal of informing preventive service strategies. Methods Consecutive primary care patients (n=217), ages 13 to 18 years, selected to over-sample for depression, completed a Health Risk Behavior Survey and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children and Adolescents (DISC) depression module. Results Youths with DISC-defined past-year depression were significantly more likely to report risk across multiple risk-areas, Wald X2(1)=14.39, p<.001, and to have significantly higher rates of past-month smoking, X2(1)=5.86, p=.02, substance misuse, X2(1)=15.12, p<.001, risky sex, X2 (1) =5.04, p=.03, but not obesity-risk, X2 (1) =0.19, p=.66. Cross-sectional predictors of risk behaviors across risk areas were similar. Statistically significant predictors across all risk domains included: youths’ expectancies about future risk behavior; attitudes regarding the risk behavior; and risk behaviors in peers/others in their environments. Conclusions Depression in adolescents is associated with a cluster of health risk behaviors that likely contribute to the high morbidity and mortality associated with both depression and health risk behaviors. Consistent with the United States National Prevention Strategy (2011) and the focus on integratedbehavioral and medical health care, results suggest the value of screening and preventive services using combination strategies that target depression and multiple areas of associated health risk. PMID:25309826
Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Zeledon, Luis Roberto; D'Amico, Elizabeth; LaBorde, Anne; Anderson, Martin; Avina, Claudia; Arslanian, Talin; Do, Minh-Chau; Harwood, Jessica; Shoptaw, Steven
Relations among measures of adolescent behavior were examined to determine whether cigarette smoking fits into a structure of problem behaviors—behaviors that involve norma- tive transgression—or a structure of health-related behaviors, or both. In an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of 1782 male and female high school adolescents, four first-order problem behavior latent variables—sexual intercourse experience, alcohol abuse, illicit drug use,
Relations among measures of adolescent behavior were examined to determine whether cigarette smoking fits into a structure of problem behaviors—behaviors that involve normative transgression—or a structure of health-related behaviors, or both. In an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of 1782 male and female high school adolescents, four first-order problem behavior latent variables—sexual intercourse experience, alcohol abuse, illicit drug use, and
There has been a recent focus on the processes that underlie intervention delivery for children and adolescents throughout\\u000a the Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) literature. Certain process variables have been associated with treatment outcome among\\u000a youth receiving CBT. Data for these process variables including: the therapeutic alliance or therapeutic relationship, child\\u000a and parent involvement, other child and therapist variables, and issues of
This article discusses risk behaviors, seem- ingly voluntary actions of individuals that have adverse health consequences. The central theme is to examine these behaviors from two contrasting perspectives, that of the individual and that of the population as a whole. It is argued that distinguishing between individual and pop- ulation views is important for understanding and inter- preting health risk
This book examines the relationship between adolescent risk-taking behaviors and health. The health-related problems of adolescents frequently are manifestations of social, economic, or behavioral factors. Following an overview (Siegal), the chapters in the first section of the book explore general and conceptual issues: (1) "Epidemiology of…
A survey of health risk behaviors was administered to a representative sample of 7,776 Idaho students in grades 8-12. Respondents were 86% White, 6% Hispanic, 4% American Indian, 3% Asian, and 2% Black. These rural adolescents reported that they had engaged in some health risk behaviors at rates comparable to those of other U.S. adolescents: 57%…
Objective: To identify the informed-consent issues when conducting adolescent healthbehavior research. Methods: A literature review was conducted across diverse academic fields about the informed-consent issues that were relevant to adolescent healthbehavior research. Results: Issues included defining consent, assent and permission, minimal…
Objective: Stress in pregnancy predicts earlier birth and lower birth weight. The authors investigated whether pregnancy-specific stress contributes uniquely to birth outcomes compared with general stress, and whether prenatal healthbehaviors explain this association. Design: Three structured prenatal interviews (N = 279) assessing state anxiety, perceived stress, life events, pregnancy-specific stress, and healthbehaviors. Main Outcome Measures: Gestational age at
Marci Lobel; Dolores Lacey Cannella; Jennifer E. Graham; Carla DeVincent; Jayne Schneider; Bruce A. Meyer
Objective: The objective of this study was to identify benefit limits, di- agnostic exclusions, and service exclusions of private behavioralhealth care plans that can influence the delivery of care to children. Methods: A total of 128 commercial, employment-based behavioralhealth plans were examined for types of benefit limits, service exclusions, and diag - nostic exclusions applicable to children. Results:
Pamela B. Peele; Judith R. Lave; Kelly J. Kelleher
Job Title Therapist Employer/ Agency Raney, Raney & Associates BehavioralHealth Job Description Program Services: Community Mental Health Summary of Duties: Therapist to provide cognitive Behavioral are to provide therapy in individual, family and/or group setting. The ideal candidate will have experience
Background Mental health problems are prevalent and costly in working populations. Workplace interventions to address common mental health problems have evolved relatively independently along three main threads or disciplinary traditions: medicine, public health, and psychology. In this Debate piece, we argue that these three threads need to be integrated to optimise the prevention of mental health problems in working populations. Discussion To realise the greatest population mental health benefits, workplace mental health intervention needs to comprehensively 1) protect mental health by reducing work–related risk factors for mental health problems; 2) promote mental health by developing the positive aspects of work as well as worker strengths and positive capacities; and 3) address mental health problems among working people regardless of cause. We outline the evidence supporting such an integrated intervention approach and consider the research agenda and policy developments needed to move towards this goal, and propose the notion of integrated workplace mental health literacy. Summary An integrated approach to workplace mental health combines the strengths of medicine, public health, and psychology, and has the potential to optimise both the prevention and management of mental health problems in the workplace. PMID:24884425
Introduction Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States, and disparities in cardiovascular health exist among African Americans, American Indians, Hispanics, and Filipinos. The Community Health Worker Health Disparities Initiative of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) includes culturally tailored curricula taught by community health workers (CHWs) to improve knowledge and heart-healthy behaviors in these racial/ethnic groups. Methods We used data from 1,004 community participants in a 10-session curriculum taught by CHWs at 15 sites to evaluate the NHLBI’s health disparities initiative by using a 1-group pretest–posttest design. The curriculum addressed identification and management of cardiovascular disease risk factors. We used linear mixed effects and generalized linear mixed effects models to examine results. Results Average participant age was 48; 75% were female, 50% were Hispanic, 35% were African American, 8% were Filipino, and 7% were American Indian. Twenty-three percent reported a history of diabetes, and 37% reported a family history of heart disease. Correct pretest to posttest knowledge scores increased from 48% to 74% for heart healthy knowledge. The percentage of participants at the action or maintenance stage of behavior change increased from 41% to 85%. Conclusion Using the CHW model to implement community education with culturally tailored curricula may improve heart health knowledge and behaviors among minorities. Further studies should examine the influence of such programs on clinical risk factors for cardiovascular disease. PMID:24524426
Behavior plays an important role in health promotion. Exercise, smoking cessation, medication adherence, and other healthy behavior can help prevent, or even treat, some diseases. Consequently, interventions that promote healthy behavior have become increasingly common in health care settings. Many of these interventions award incentives contingent upon preventive health-related behavior. Incentive-based interventions vary considerably along several dimensions, including who is targeted in the intervention, which behavior is targeted, and what type of incentive is used. More research on the quantitative and qualitative features of many of these variables is still needed to inform treatment. However, extensive literature on basic and applied behavior analytic research is currently available to help guide the study and practice of incentive-based treatment in health care. In this integrated review, we discuss how behavior analytic research and theory can help treatment providers design and implement incentive-based interventions that promote healthy behavior. PMID:24672264
Meredith, Steven E; Jarvis, Brantley P; Raiff, Bethany R; Rojewski, Alana M; Kurti, Allison; Cassidy, Rachel N; Erb, Philip; Sy, Jolene R; Dallery, Jesse
requirement if not satisfied earlier Semester Six: [15 Credit Hours] NURS 45010 Health Care Policy and Delivery Systems or NURS 46000 Health Care Policy 3 NURS 46000 regional campuses only Human Development for the Health Professions 3 PHIL 40005 Health Care Ethics 3 General Electives (upper division) 9 Should
Social capital and health research has emerged as a focus of contemporary behavioral epidemiology, while intervention research is seeking more effective measures to increase health protective behaviors and decrease health-risk behaviors. In this review we explored current literature on social capital and health outcomes at the micro-, mesa-, and macro-levels with a particular emphasis on research that incorporates a social capital framework, and adolescent and young adult engagement in risk behaviors. These data indicate that across a broad range of socio-cultural and economic contexts, social capital can affect individuals’ risk for negative health outcomes and their engagement in risk behaviors. Further research is needed which should focus on differentiating and measuring positive and negative social capital within both mainstream and alternative social networks, assessing how social constructions of gender, ethnicity, and race – within specific cultural contexts – mediate the relationship between social capital and risk and/or protective behaviors. This new research should integrate the existing research within historical socioeconomic and political conditions. In addition, social capital scales need to be developed to be both culturally and developmentally appropriate for use with adolescents living in a diversity of settings. Despite the proliferation of social capital research, the concept remains underutilized in both assessment and intervention development for adolescents’ and young adults’ engagement in risk behaviors and their associated short- and long-term poor health outcomes. PMID:23243387
Integrated Toxicology and Environmental Health Program (ITEHP) Fall 2013 Seminar Series Fridays 31 Rapidly Emerging Nanomaterials: Insuring Human and Environmental Health Kirby Horton Hall, Duke Chemistry: Environmental Influences on Neuroendocrine Development and Behavior Nov 15 Sherine Chan, Ph
Objective The federal government boosted support for community health centers in medically underserved areas in 2002–2007. This investigation compared trends in behavioralhealth services provided by community health centers nationwide during the first several years of that initiative with immediately prior trends. Methods Data were extracted from the Health Resources and Services Administration’s Uniform Data System on community health centers for 1998–2007 (2007, N=1,067). Regression analyses revealed trends in individual community health centers’ likelihood of providing on-site specialty mental health care, crisis services, and substance abuse treatment. Aggregate data were used to show national trends in numbers of behavioralhealth encounters, patients, and encounters per patient. Results The number of federally funded community health centers increased 43% between 2001 and 2007, from 748 to 1,067, over twice the annual growth rate between 1998 and 2001. However, trends in individual community health centers’ likelihood of providing different types of behavioralhealth care were generally consistent across the two time periods. In 2007, 77% of community health centers offered specialty mental health services, 20% offered 24-hour crisis intervention services, and 51% offered substance abuse treatment. The mean number of mental health encounters per mental health patient at community health centers in 2007 was 2.9. Conclusions The behavioralhealth care safety net has widened through rapid recent growth in the number of community health centers as well as a continuing increase in the proportion offering specialty mental health services. PMID:20675833
Wells, Rebecca; Morrissey, Joseph P.; Lee, I-Heng; Radford, Andrea
The health status and leisure behavior of victims of sexual assault were studied. Data concerning present illness symptoms, past illness symptoms, negative healthbehavior, family health history, and female reproductive physiology illness symptoms were obtained and analyzed. Sexual assault victims were similar to nonvictims demographically except…
Health-care-seeking behaviors related to bowel complaints may vary between ethnic groups. A survey of a nonpatient population in El Paso, Texas, was conducted in order to examine differences in health care behavior related to bowel dysfunction, and in the perception of health and bowel function, in Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites. Data from 905 subjects who were either Hispanic (580) or
Marc J. Zuckerman; Luis G. Guerra; Douglas A. Drossman; Jaime A. Foland; Gavin G. Gregory
Undergraduate students increase their understanding of human geography and become aware of their community's health ecology by examining the degree and geographical pattern of dog-associated health hazards in Athens, Georgia, and by studying the behavioral patterns and attitudes of Athens's residents that might be causally related to these health…
Objective: To explore the sexual and reproductive healthbehaviors of students from 13 community college campuses in California. Participants: Heterosexual college students, ages 18 to 24, who have had sexual intercourse (N = 4,487). Methods: The American College Health Association's National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA) survey was…
Trieu, Sang Leng; Bratton, Sally; Marshak, Helen Hopp
Background: Peer mentoring can be a powerful complement to health instruction. Mentoring has been used to change healthbehaviors and promote sustainable lifestyle patterns in adults and, more recently, among adolescents. Purpose: This article reviews the use of peer mentoring to promote health practices and describes how this approach can be used…
Uses ecological systems theory as a foundation for integratinghealth care and its public policy issues into family and consumer sciences classrooms. Offers teachers alternative perspectives on consumer behavior changes and needs in heath care systems and policies. Contains 24 references. (JOW)
With reference to the national health systems in Germany and the UK we must acknowledge that it was in particular Bismarck's Reform, originally directed toward a solidarity among the socially weak, which entailed in its development a marked redistribution via progressive health fees and standardized health services. In view of Alfred Marshall's original expectations this has resulted in a specific integration of the socially weak and with some difference for nationally tax-financed and social security financed health systems to a genuine contribution towards integration of modern society. An open research question is whether as a consequence of solidarity and integration through health systems there is a decline of social inequality for health. Equally open is the question as to the socio-structural and economic consequences the expansion of modern health systems has. PMID:10838787
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) has set the tone for a radically revised health landscape in America that focuses on community-based care. Our health care system, however, has neither the infrastructure ...
Psychology has made significant strides in developing ap- plications relevant to public health. However, improve- ments are still needed to integrate psychology into the public health infrastructure. The challenge .(or public health is to recognize psychology's special contributions to poli~T and \\
Consumer Health Informatics (CHI) means different things to patients, health professionals, and health care systems. A broader perspective on this new and rapidly developing field will enable us to understand and better apply its advances. This article provides an overview of CHI discussing its evolution and driving forces, along with advanced applications such as Personal Health Records, Internet transmission of personal health data, clinical e-mail, online pharmacies, and shared decision-making tools. Consumer Health Informatics will become integrated with medical care, electronic medical records, and patient education to impact the whole process and business of health care. PMID:12238015
This article describes innovative service delivery models and clinical strategies that support the social-emotional development of young children and their families in the pediatric primary care setting. By understanding the trends affecting well-child care, early childhood providers will be better equipped to partner with their pediatric…
Many developing countries are undergoing industrialization and modernization, which has produced both positive and negative implications for health. This study was designed to adapt a well-known health measure to an Arab-Muslim population and to derive health promotion data for primary health care program planning for women in Jordan. A convenience sample of 512 literate females in Jordan was recruited from community settings such as secondary schools (teachers), primary health care centers (nursing staff and patients), universities (faculty and staff), colleges, and office worksites using an Arabic translated version of the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP) instrument. Subjects scored highest on self-actualization, interpersonal support, and nutrition but scored lower on the exercise and health responsibility domains. Unmarried women, however, scored higher on exercise and stress management. These findings support the development of educational efforts to increase women's awareness of relationships between lifestyle and health for both themselves and for their families. PMID:10889633
Assessed the prevalence of dieting, investigating clusters of risk behaviors among adolescents. Data from the 1999 South Carolina Youth Risk Behavior Survey indicated that weight control behaviors related to several other important healthbehaviors. Differences existed between adolescents who used extreme weight loss measures and moderate dieters…
Rafiroiu, Anca Codruta; Sargent, Roger G.; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Drane, Wanzer J.; Valois, Robert F.
The mechanisms by which animals manage sensorimotor integration and coordination of different behaviors can be investigated in robot models. In previous work the first author has build a robot that localizes sound based on close modeling of the auditory and neural system in the cricket. It is known that the cricket combines its response to sound with other sensorimotor activities such as an optomotor reflex and reactions to mechanical stimulation for the antennae and cerci. Behavioral evidence suggests some ways these behaviors may be integrated. We have tested the addition of an optomotor response, using an analog VLSI circuit developed by the second author, to the sound localizing behavior and have shown that it can, as in the cricket, improve the directness of the robot's path to sound. In particular it substantially improves behavior when the robot is subject to a motor disturbance. Our aim is to better understand how the insect brain functions in controlling complex combinations of behavior, with the hope that this will also suggest novel mechanisms for sensory integration on robots.
Discussions of health care delivery and payment reforms have largely been silent about how behavioralhealth could be incorporated into reform initiatives. This paper draws attention to four patient populations defined by the severity of their behavioralhealth conditions and insurance status. It discusses the potentials and limitations of three prominent models promoted by the Affordable Care Act to serve populations with behavioralhealth conditions: the Patient-Centered Medical Home, the Health Home initiative within Medicaid, and the Accountable Care Organization. To incorporate behavioralhealth into health reform, policymakers and practitioners may consider embedding in the reform efforts explicit tools-accountability measures and payment designs-to improve access to and quality of care for patients with behavioralhealth needs. PMID:23188486
Bao, Yuhua; Casalino, Lawrence P; Pincus, Harold Alan
We systematically searched 9 biomedical and social science databases (1980-2012) for primary and secondary interventions that prevented or reduced 2 or more adolescent health risk behaviors (tobacco use, alcohol use, illicit drug use, risky sexual behavior, aggressive acts). We identified 44 randomized controlled trials of universal or selective interventions and were effective for multiple health risk behaviors. Most were school based, conducted in the United States, and effective for multiple forms of substance use. Effects were small, in line with findings for other universal prevention programs. In some studies, effects for more than 1 health risk behavior only emerged at long-term follow-up. Integrated prevention programs are feasible and effective and may be more efficient than discrete prevention strategies. PMID:24625172
Hale, Daniel R; Fitzgerald-Yau, Natasha; Viner, Russell Mark
The application of behavioral economics to health and health care has captured the imagination of policymakers across the political spectrum. The idea is that many people are irrational in predictable ways, and that this both contributes to unhealthy behaviors like smoking and holds one of the keys to changing those behaviors. Because health care costs continue to increase, and a substantial portion of costs are incurred because of unhealthy behaviors, employers and insurers have great interest in using financial incentives to change behaviors. However, it is in the details that complexity and controversies emerge. Who should the targets be, and what outcomes should be rewarded? How should incentives be structured, to maximize their effectiveness and minimize unintended consequences? In what situations should we be intervening to affect decisions by people who may prefer to be obese or to smoke, and in what situations should we accept their preferences? To begin to answer these questions, the Penn-CMU Roybal P30 Center on Behavioral Economics and Health held its first annual Behavioral Economics and Health Symposium on March 24-25, 2011 with support from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. The symposium drew more than 50 researchers, scholars, and health professionals from a variety of disciplines, including medicine, public health, economics, law, management, marketing, and psychology. They heard perspectives on behavioral economics from public and private funders, the CEO of the University of Pennsylvania Health System, and the CEO of stickK.com, a start-up company that uses online, voluntary commitment contracts to help people achieve their goals. Participants formed eight working groups to review the current state-of-the-art in a variety of clinical contexts and to consider how behavioral economics could inform a research agenda to improve health. This Issue Brief summarizes the findings of these working groups and the symposium. PMID:21949955
Background Despite the 1991 reforms of the health system in Zambia, mental health is still given low priority. This is evident from the fragmented manner in which mental health services are provided in the country and the limited budget allocations, with mental health services receiving 0.4% of the total health budget. Most of the mental health services provided are curative in nature and based in tertiary health institutions. At primary health care level, there is either absence of, or fragmented health services. Aims The aim of this paper was to explore health providers' views about mental healthintegration into primary health care. Methods A mixed methods, structured survey was conducted of 111 health service providers in primary health care centres, drawn from one urban setting (Lusaka) and one rural setting (Mumbwa). Results There is strong support for integrating mental health into primary health care from care providers, as a way of facilitating early detection and intervention for mental health problems. Participants believed that this would contribute to the reduction of stigma and the promotion of human rights for people with mental health problems. However, health providers felt they require basic training in order to enhance their knowledge and skills in providing health care to people with mental health problems. Recommendations It is recommended that health care providers should be provided with basic training in mental health in order to enhance their knowledge and skills to enable them provide mental health care to patients seeking help at primary health care level. Conclusion Integrating mental health services into primary health care is critical to improving and promoting the mental health of the population in Zambia. PMID:20653981
Ecological Modelling 140 (2001) 1Â8 Integrating ecology with human demography, behavior an urgent need to integrate ecology with human demography, behavior, and socioeconomics in order; Human demography; Human behavior; Sociology; Economics; Modeling; Simulation. www
Since the foundation of the People's Republic of China in 1949, there has been remarkable developments in public health in the country. These achievements are primarily attributed to the public health services and patriotic public health campaigns, although the contribution of high-technology medical applications is also recognized. However, along with the recent socio-economic developments and scientific and technological progress, medical disciplines have become more and more specialized, and clinical and preventive medicine have become further separated from each other. Conventional Chinese wisdom says 'when long divided they must unite, when long united they must divide'. At the onset of the new round of reforms of health care in China, it seems important to revisit the discussions on the urgency for integration of health sciences in medicine in China. Several issues and viewpoints on integrating medicine are discussed in this paper. The biopsychosocial model for health calls for broad integration. Primary care development in China requires integration in education and practice, and in treatment and prevention. Control of chronic diseases requires integrated and united action. Integration of traditional Chinese medicine with Western medicine requires creativity. The integration perspective should be instilled in the minds of medical students. Integration also entails integrated practice. After all, integration entails integrated education and practice in public health education. Changing the current public health education system still has a long way to go. True integration requires integration of concepts, policies, resources and measures, as well as changes in the organization of health care including public health, prevention and treatment. This needs to be a systematic process. Finally, success of integration relies on social mobilization, advocacy, promotion and attention of the entire society. PMID:21168177
Li, L M; Tang, J L; Lv, J; Jiang, Y; Griffiths, S M
Investigates the relationship of depression to health risk behaviors and health perceptions in Korean college students. The level of students' depression predicted alcohol consumption, symptom pattern, and physical health. Students who were more depressed reported more symptoms and perceived their health as worse than those who were less…
NASA is focusing considerable efforts on technology development for Integrated Vehicle Health Management systems. The research in this area is targeted toward increasing aerospace vehicle safety and reliability, while reducing vehicle operating and maintenance costs. Onboard, real-time sensing technologies that can provide detailed information on structural integrity are central to such a health management system. This paper describes a number of sensor technologies currently under development for integrated vehicle health management. The capabilities, current limitations, and future research needs of these technologies are addressed.
Prosser, W. H.; Brown, T. L.; Woodard, S. E.; Fleming, G. A.; Cooper, E. G.
Concepts from disciplines such as Biochemistry, Genetics, Cellular and Molecular Biology are essential to the understanding and treatment of an elevated number of illnesses, but often they are studied separately, with no integration between them. This article proposes a model for basic sciences integration based on problem-based learning (PBL) and…
Azzalis, L. A.; Giavarotti, L.; Sato, S. N.; Barros, N. M. T.; Junqueira, V. B. C.; Fonseca, F. L. A.
Health experts describe lifestyle as one of the most important factors influencing health. Adolescents and young adults have been identified as a population that engages in high-risk behaviors. The purposes of this study were to determine the healthbehaviors of undergraduate African American nursing students and compare the results to findings from studies of other college students. A convenience sample of 214 undergraduate African American nursing students participated in the study. The Health Style: A Self-Test, a Likert-type scale consisting of six behaviors, was used for data collection. Descriptive statistics and analysis of variance were used to analyze the data. Over 80% of the sample had excellent scores for cigarette smoking, alcohol and drug use, and safety behaviors. Over 60% had good scores for nutrition and stress control behaviors. Fifty-one percent of the sample had low scores for exercise and fitness behaviors indicating they are taking unnecessary risk with their health. Compared to other findings, these findings were consistent in all areas except alcohol and drug use. Early identification of at-risk behaviors among nursing students can contribute to the development and implementation of programs by faculty that foster healthy lifestyle behaviors throughout the life span. PMID:10876466
The purpose of this study was to examine the similarity of outcomes from three different treatment integrity (TI) methods, and to identify the method which best corresponded to the assessment of a child's behavior. Six raters were recruited through individual contact via snowball sampling. A modified intervention component list and 19 video clips…
We examined the effects of individualized video modeling on the accurate implementation of behavioral interventions using a multiple baseline design across 3 teachers. During video modeling, treatment integrity improved above baseline levels; however, teacher performance remained variable. The addition of verbal performance feedback increased…
DiGennaro-Reed, Florence D.; Codding, Robin; Catania, Cynthia N.; Maguire, Helena
Background Federally Qualified Health Centers are expanding to increase access for millions of more Americans with a goal of doubling capacity to serve 40 million people. Health centers provide a lot of behavioralhealth services but many have difficulty accessing mental health and substance use professionals for their patients. To meet the needs of the underserved and newly insured it is important to better estimate how many behavioralhealth professionals are needed. Methods Using health center staffing data and behavioralhealth service patterns from the 2010 Uniform Data System and the 2010 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, we estimated the number of patients likely to need behavioralhealth care by insurance type, the number of visits likely needed by health center patients annually, and the number of full time equivalent providers needed to serve them. Results More than 2.5 million patients, 12 or older, with mild or moderate mental illness, and more than 357,000 with substance abuse disorders, may have gone without needed behavioralhealth services in 2010. This level of need would have required more than 11,600 full time providers. This translates to approximately 0.9 licensed mental health provider FTE, 0.1 FTE psychiatrist, 0.4 FTE other mental health staff, and 0.3 FTE substance abuse provider per 2,500 patients. These estimates suggest that 90% of current centers could not access mental health services or provide substance abuse services to fully meet patients’ needs in 2010. If needs are similar after health center expansion, more than 27,000 full time behavioralhealth providers will be needed to serve 40 million medical patients, and grantees will need to increase behavioralhealth staff more than four-fold. Conclusions More behavioralhealth is seen in primary care than in any other setting, and health center clients have greater behavioralhealth needs than typical primary care patients. Most health centers needed additional behavioralhealth services in 2010, and this need will be magnified to serve 40 million patients. Further testing of these workforce models are needed, but the degree of current underservice suggests that we cannot wait to move on closing the gap. PMID:23816353
The primary purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of a brief, multi-healthbehavior intervention integrating physical\\u000a activity and alcohol use prevention messages for high school-aged adolescents. A total of 604 participants, 335 9th and 269\\u000a 11th grade students from a suburban high school in northeast Florida participated in this study. A randomized control trial\\u000a was conducted with
Michele J. Moore; Carlo C. DiClemente; Rhonda Bledsoe; Edessa Jobli
Providing a unified treatment approach to meet the substance abuse and mental health needs of clients is the preferred model for addressing co-occurring disorders. We developed a group-based cognitive-behavioral (CBT) integrated treatment for depression and substance use disorders (SUD) that could be delivered by counselors in SUD treatment settings and evaluated its feasibility and acceptability. We conducted an in-depth case
Karen Chan Osilla; Kimberly A. Hepner; Ricardo F. Muñoz; Stephanie Woo; Katherine Watkins
SAMHSA's support of behavioralhealth systems serving service members, veterans, and their families Page 1 SAMHSA's support of behavioralhealth systems serving service members, veterans Aligata, SAMHSA's support of behavioralhealth systems serving service members, veterans
Issues of institutional identity and integrity in Roman Catholic health care institutions have been addressed at the level of individual institutions as well as by organizations of Catholic health care providers and at various levels in the Church hierarchy. The papers by Carol Taylor, C.S.F.N., Thomas Shannon, Kevin O'Rourke, O.P., Gerard Magill in this volume provide a significant contribution to concerns of Roman Catholic health care institutions as they face the challenges of providing health care in a secular, pluralistic, market-driven economy. One way to understand institutional integrity is as a measure of the coherence between what an institution identifies as its commitments (its stated moral character), what an institution does (its manifest moral character) and an institution's fundamental moral commitments (its deep moral character). The essays in this volume support this model of integrity. Although it is not their explicit focus, the four essays together provide a vision of institutional integrity for Catholic health care institutions. Each author focuses on one of the three central aspects of integrity: what one identifies as one's commitments (Taylor), how one's actions reflect one's values (Shannon and Magill), and what one is or what one values at a deep level (O'Rourke). I will offer a brief overview of the ways in which the integrity of Catholic health care institutions has been addressed. Then I will consider the four essays and show how each offers an analysis of one of the three critical elements of integrity. PMID:11899994
Background A mental health advantage has been observed among adolescents in urban areas. This prospective study tests whether cultural integration measured by cross-cultural friendships explains a mental health advantage for adolescents. Methods A prospective cohort of adolescents was recruited from 51 secondary schools in 10 London boroughs. Cultural identity was assessed by friendship choices within and across ethnic groups. Cultural integration is one of four categories of cultural identity. Using gender-specific linear-mixed models we tested whether cultural integration explained a mental health advantage, and whether gender and age were influential. Demographic and other relevant factors, such as ethnic group, socio-economic status, family structure, parenting styles and perceived racism were also measured and entered into the models. Mental health was measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire as a ‘total difficulties score’ and by classification as a ‘probable clinical case’. Results A total of 6643 pupils in first and second years of secondary school (ages 11–13 years) took part in the baseline survey (2003/04) and 4785 took part in the follow-up survey in 2005–06. Overall mental health improved with age, more so in male rather than female students. Cultural integration (friendships with own and other ethnic groups) was associated with the lowest levels of mental health problems especially among male students. This effect was sustained irrespective of age, ethnicity and other potential explanatory variables. There was a mental health advantage among specific ethnic groups: Black Caribbean and Black African male students (Nigerian/Ghanaian origin) and female Indian students. This was not fully explained by cultural integration, although cultural integration was independently associated with better mental health. Conclusions Cultural integration was associated with better mental health, independent of the mental health advantage found among specific ethnic groups: Black Caribbean and some Black African male students and female Indian students. PMID:22366123
Bhui, Kamaldeep S; Lenguerrand, Erik; Maynard, Maria J; Stansfeld, Stephen A; Harding, Seeromanie
Purpose Rural US adults have increased risk of poor outcomes after cancer, including increased cancer mortality. Rural-urban differences in healthbehaviors have been identified in the general population and may contribute to cancer health disparities, but have not yet been examined among US survivors. We examined rural-urban differences in healthbehaviors among cancer survivors and associations with self-reported health and health-related unemployment. Methods We identified rural (n=1,642) and urban (n=6,162) survivors from the cross-sectional National Health Interview Survey (2006–2010) and calculated the prevalence of smoking, physical activity, overweight/obesity, and alcohol consumption. Multivariable models were used to examine the associations of fair/poor health and health-related unemployment with healthbehaviors and rural-urban residence. Results The prevalence of fair/poor health (rural 36.7%, urban 26.6%), health-related unemployment (rural 18.5%, urban 10.6%), smoking (rural 25.3%, urban 15.8%), and physical inactivity (rural 50.7%, urban 38.7%) was significantly higher in rural survivors (all p<.05); alcohol consumption was lower (rural 46.3%, urban 58.6%), and there were no significant differences in overweight/obesity (rural 65.4%, urban 62.6%). All healthbehaviors were significantly associated with fair/poor health and health-related unemployment in both univariate and multivariable models. After adjustment for behaviors, rural survivors remained more likely than urban survivors to report fair/poor health (OR= 1.21, 95%CI 1.03–1.43) and health-related unemployment (OR= 1.49, 95%CI 1.18–1.88). Conclusions Rural survivors may need tailored, accessible health promotion interventions to address health compromising behaviors and improve outcomes after cancer. PMID:23677333
Weaver, Kathryn E.; Palmer, Nynikka; Lu, Lingyi; Case, L. Douglas; Geiger, Ann M.
The IntegratedHealth Interview Series (IHIS) is a public data repository that harmonizes four decades of the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). The NHIS is the premier source of information on the health of the U.S. population. Since 1957 the survey has collected information on healthbehaviors, health conditions, and health care access. The long running time series of the NHIS is a powerful tool for health research. However, efforts to fully utilize its time span are obstructed by difficult documentation, unstable variable and coding definitions, and non-ignorable sample re-designs. To overcome these hurdles the IHIS, a freely available and web-accessible resource, provides harmonized NHIS data from 1969-2010. This paper describes the challenges of working with the NHIS and how the IHIS reduces such burdens. To demonstrate one potential use of the IHIS we examine utilization patterns in the U.S. from 1972-2008. PMID:22463071
This viewgraph presentation reviews the performance errors associated with sleep loss, fatigue and psychomotor factors during manned space flight. Short and long term behavioralhealth factors are also addressed
The Man-machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) is an integrated human performance modeling software tool that is based on mechanisms that underlie and cause human behavior. A PC-Windows version of MIDAS has been created that integrates the anthropometric character "Jack (TM)" with MIDAS' validated perceptual and attention mechanisms. MIDAS now models multiple simulated humans engaging in goal-related behaviors. New capabilities include the ability to predict situations in which errors and/or performance decrements are likely due to a variety of factors including concurrent workload and performance influencing factors (PIFs). This paper describes a new model that predicts the effects of microgravity on a mission specialist's performance, and its first application to simulating the task of conducting a Life Sciences experiment in space according to a sequential or parallel schedule of performance.
This paper argues that a behavioral analysis of psychological health is useful and appropriate. Such an analysis will allow us to better evaluate intervention outcomes without resorting only to the assessment of pathological behavior, thus providing an alternative to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual system of conceptualizing behavior. The goals of such an analysis are to distinguish between people and outcomes using each term of the three-term contingency as a dimension to consider. A brief review of other efforts to define psychological health is provided. Laboratory approaches to a behavioral analysis of healthy behavior are presented along with shortcomings in our science that impede our analysis. Finally, we present some of the functional characteristics of psychological health that we value. PMID:22478160
Follette, William C.; Bach, Patricia A.; Follette, Victoria M.
The college years offer an opportunity for new experiences, personal freedom, and identity development; however, this period is also noted for the emergence of risky healthbehaviors that place college students at risk for health problems. Affiliation with on-campus organizations such as fraternities or sororities may increase a student's risk given the rituals and socially endorsed behaviors associated with Greek organizations. In this study, we examined alcohol and drug use, smoking, sexual behavior, eating, physical activity, and sleeping in 1595 college students (n = 265 Greek members, n = 1330 non-Greek members). Results show Greek members engaged in more risky healthbehaviors (e.g., alcohol use, cigarette smoking, sexual partners, and sex under the influence of alcohol or drugs) than non-Greek members. Greek and non-Greek members did not differ in condom use, unprotected sex, eating, and physical activity behaviors. Implications for prevention and intervention strategies among Greek members are discussed. PMID:17999173
Scott-Sheldon, Lori A. J.; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.
The college years offer an opportunity for new experiences, personal freedom, and identity development; however, this period is also noted for the emergence of risky healthbehaviors that place college students at risk for health problems. Affiliation with on-campus organizations such as fraternities or sororities may increase a students' risk given the rituals and socially endorsed behaviors associated with Greek organizations. In this study, we examined alcohol and drug use, smoking, sexual behavior, eating, physical activity, and sleeping in 1,595 college students (n = 265 Greek members, n = 1,330 non-Greek members). Results show Greek members engaged in more risky healthbehaviors (e.g., alcohol use, cigarette smoking, sexual partners, and sex under the influence of alcohol or drugs) than non-Greek members. Greek and non-Greek members did not differ in condom use, unprotected sex, eating, and physical activity behaviors. Implications for prevention and intervention strategies among Greek members are discussed. PMID:17999173
Scott-Sheldon, Lori A J; Carey, Kate B; Carey, Michael P
Large literatures have shown important links between the quantity of completed education and health outcomes on one hand and the quality or selectivity of schooling on a host of adult outcomes, such as wages, on the other hand. However, little research attempts to produce evidence of the link between school quality and health. The paper presents…
institutions, social norms, health care, and technology interact to determine technological advances in health the cost to develop artificial limbs is the best way for society to spend its research dollars. Possible are technological advances determined? By society? By insurance firm officials? By government officials? By all
Care. Throughout this semester you will hear leading experts discuss how societal institutions, social norms, health care, and technology interact to determine technological advances in health care sectors artificial limbs is the best way for society to spend its research dollars. Possible questions you could
Background Finland has since 1972 had a primary health care system based on health centres run and funded by the local public authorities called ‘municipalities’. On the world map of primary health care systems, the Finnish solution claims to be the most health centre oriented and also the widest, both in terms of the numbers of staff and also of different professions employed. Offering integrated care through multi-professional health centres has been overshadowed by exceptional difficulties in guaranteeing a reasonable access to the population at times when they need primary medical or dental services. Solutions to the problems of access have been found, but they do not seem durable. Description of policy practice During the past 10 years, the health centres have become a ground of active development structural change, for which no end is in sight. Broader issues of municipal and public administration structures are being solved through rearranging primary health services. In these rearrangements, integration with specialist services and with social services together with mergers of health centres and municipalities are occurring at an accelerated pace. This leads into fundamental questions of the benefits of integration, especially if extensive integration leads into the threat of the loss of identity for primary health care. Discussion This article ends with some lessons to be learned from the situation in Finland for other countries. PMID:19590612
School health education has been and still is guided by a number of different and often competing philosophical orientations. The field seems to be moving toward a skills-based philosophy, but the adoption of this approach is taking place with little discussion or analysis in the professional health education literature. The purpose of this…
Governali, Joseph F.; Hodges, Bonni C.; Videto, Donna M.
It has been argued that rigid thinking about the types and progression of research needed to evaluate health promotion interventions has stymied the process by which research is translated to action. This argument is particularly salient in the field of HIV/AIDS prevention. We examined microbicide research and identified challenges that obstruct the integration of clinical trial and behavioral and social science research, thereby reinforcing linear programs of research. We found that behavioral and social science research can both support microbicide clinical trial performance and anticipate the information most needed for a rapid and successful introduction of future microbicide products. PMID:16317214
Background: The purpose of this study is to compare the mental health risk profile and health utilization behaviors of adolescent school-based health center (SBHC) users and nonusers and discuss the role that SBHCs can play in addressing adolescent health needs. Methods: The sample included 4640 students in grades 9 and 11 who completed the…
??Osteoporosis knowledge, health beliefs, and preventive behaviors among old aged population at South Taiwan. Purpose: To assess Osteoporosis, health beliefs and preventative behaviors of Osteoporosis… (more)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the healthbehavior of a town ' s community leaders and other issues associated with that behavior. Structured questionnaires designed by the researchers were used to collect data at a meeting for the announcement of community building; they were filled out in the 10 or 20 minutes before the meeting began and 70 valid responses were received. The SPSS for Window version 10.0 software package was used for data analysis. The results of the study showed that the community leaders demonstrated higher standards of health-protective behaviors (i.e. elder/adult checkups, Pap smear exam and breast self-examination) than others living in the community. Variables such as gender, educational level, self-perceived health status, number of chronic illnesses were correlated with different types of dietary behavior. Subjects who were 40 years old and over, educated to junior high school or lower, who had performed less than one year of community service and were free of chronic illness engaged in relatively regular exercise. Subjects who had performed more than one year of community service were more likely to utilize the preventive services provided by national health insurance. It is recommended that public health nurses improve their cooperation with community leaders over providing health -related activities in order to promote better healthbehavior on the part of such leaders. PMID:15208774
Li-Chun, Chang; I-Chuan, Li; Bi-Ying, Hsiao; Wan-En, Cheng; Shu-Feng, Lin
Aliteracy is defined as the quality or state of being able to read but the lack of interest in doing so; aliterates can read, but they never read for the love of reading. Aliteracy is said to be prevalent among college students. Also prevalent among college students are risk behaviors that contribute to poor health. Problem behavior theory links a…
Examines the relationship of social problem solving to healthbehaviors as reported by 126 undergraduate students. Findings revealed significant relationships between elements of social problem solving and wellness and accident prevention behaviors, and traffic and substance risk taking. However, correlations revealed differences between men and…
Objective: To examine the impact of prenatal cocaine exposure and maternal behavioralhealth (recent drug use and psychological functioning) on child behavior at age 5 years. Method: In this longitudinal investigation, maternal report of child behavior was assessed using the Achen- bach Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) in 140 cocaine-exposed and 181 noncocaine-exposed (61 alcohol, to- bacco, and\\/or marijuana-exposed, and 120
Veronica H. Accornero; Connie E. Morrow; Emmalee S. Bandstra; Arnise L. Johnson; James C. Anthony
Health costs in the US have risen at astronomic rates, rising from 4.6% of the GNP in 1950 to 8.3% in 1975. Yet, despite the compounding costs of medical care, the health of the population has not improved significantly since 1950, when viewed from the standpoint of increased longevity or decrease in the incidence of the major causes of death
This study examined several aspects of the health of university athletes. Five areas of concern were targeted for investigation: general health background, use of drugs and alcohol, weight and eating behaviors, stress, and use of helping resources. The authors developed a questionnaire and used it to survey 27 varsity athletic teams at a major private university. The incidence of injuries
Rosemary Selby; Harvey M. Weinstein; Tracy Stewart Bird
This study surveyed 267 university athletes to identify sources of stress for student athletes and sex differences among athletes with respect to health-related behaviors and attitudes. Specific recommendations based on the findings are made for health professionals who work with college athletes. (IAH)
Objective: This study examines personal healthbehaviors and wellness, health-related lifestyles, and prevention screening practices among licensed physicians. Methods: An anonymous questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of 1,875 physicians practicing in California. Data from 763 returned questionnaires (41%) were analyzed. Results: Our data…
Bazargan, Mohsen; Makar, Marian; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Ani, Chizobam; Wolf, Kenneth E.
Young adults (ages 18-24) are especially vulnerable to homelessness in the United States, and those experiencing homelessness exhibit high prevalence for many kinds of abuse and negative health outcomes. This article reviews common behavioralhealth issues facing homeless youth and assesses collective wisdom on effective treatments and services for this vulnerable population. On the whole, the research remains focused on
Suzanne Zerger; Aaron J. Strehlow; Adi V. Gundlapalli
Prior research on the association of mental health and behavior problems with academic achievement is limited because it does not consider multiple problems simultaneously, take co-occurring problems into account, and control for academic aptitude. We addressed these limitations using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health…
This semester-long activity requires students to reflect on their own strengths and weaknesses in attempting to take on a personally meaningful healthbehavior change challenge. This assignment affords them the opportunity to take a deeper look at theory and health concepts learned throughout the semester and to see how it has informed their own…
Beginning in 1983, a national poll has been conducted annually to assess the extent to which the American public engaged in a core of 21 recommended health seeking behaviors. For the third consecutive year a national sample of approximately 1250 adults were interviewed concerning their self-reported compliance with a basic core of 21 health…
of Memphis4 } Ubiquitous Healthcare } Personal lab in the pocket } Cell phone continuously assesses health: Echocardiogram, MRI } Personal medical assistant/therapist on the phone } Knows of latest health research directly cause 53% deaths } Modifiable behaviors are the strongest determinant } Stress & addictive
Negotiating Task Interruptions with Virtual Agents for HealthBehavior Change Timothy Bickmore,daniel,crespof,email@example.com ABSTRACT Virtual health counseling agents on mobile devices need to be able to interrupt their users when activities. This paper presents the results of a study which compares four strategies used by a virtual agent
stimulus, bar cues ---> drinking, smoking D. Broad spectrum CBT Self-control of Behavior Contingency reinforcement contingencies and cues involved in the acquisition and maintenance of healthbehaviors. Health, subjective urge to smoke, record & chart behavior - graph it, diary B. Classical Conditioning -Pavlov, CS, US
This paper discusses theory and practice integration in health communication. It starts from addressing the significance of integrating theory and practice from both practical necessities and theoretical supports. Then, this paper addresses current existing problems including research is hardly problem-based, unwilling to share research results, difficult to connect to research, and practitioners seldom use formulated theory and research results. Following
A multidisciplinary team of researchers at the Center for the Promotion of Health in the New England Workplace (CPH-NEW) developed an evidence-based approach to address three recognized challenges to workplace programs designed to improve employee health: establishing employee ownership, integrating with work organization, and sustainability. The two main innovations being introduced in combination were (1) integrating traditional workplace health protection (e.g., ergonomics, industrial hygiene) with health promotion (e.g., assisting workers in improving healthbehaviors) and (2) introducing a bottom-up participatory model for engaging employees in innovative iterative design efforts to enhance both components of this integrated program. In the program, which was modeled after participatory ergonomics programs, teams of workers engage in the iterative design of workplace interventions to address their prioritized health concerns with the support of a multilevel steering committee. The integrated approach being tested can complement existing worksite safety and health initiatives and promote organizational learning, with expected synergistic effects. PMID:19618804
Henning, Robert; Warren, Nicholas; Robertson, Michelle; Faghri, Pouran; Cherniack, Martin
This research develops an integrated systems model of entrepreneurship management as a method for achieving health care organizational survival and growth. Specifically, it analyzes current health care environment challenges, identifies roles of managers and discusses organizational theories that are relevant to the health care environment, outlines the role of entrepreneurship in health care, and describes the entrepreneurial manager in the entrepreneurial management process to produce desirable organizational outcomes. The study concludes that as current health care environment continues to show intense competition, entrepreneurial managers are responsible for creating innovations, managing change, investing in resources, and recognizing opportunities in the environment to increase organizational viability. PMID:16583849
Purpose In a diverse group of early adolescents, this study explores the co-occurrence of a broad range of health risk behaviors: alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use; physical inactivity; sedentary computing/gaming; and the consumption of low-nutrient energy-dense food. We tested differences in the associations of unhealthy behaviors over time, and by gender, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Methods Participants were 8360 students from 16 middle schools in California (50% female; 52% Hispanic, 17% Asian, 16% White, and 15% Black/multiethnic/other). Behaviors were measured with surveys in Spring 2010 and Spring 2011. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess if an underlying factor accounted for the covariance of multiple behaviors, and composite reliability methods were used to determine the degree to which behaviors were related. Results The measured behaviors were explained by two moderately correlated factors: a ‘substance use risk factor’ and an ‘unhealthy eating and sedentary factor’. Physical inactivity did not reflect the latent factors as expected. There were few differences in the associations among these behaviors over time or by demographic characteristics. Conclusions Two distinct, yet related groups of health compromising behaviors were identified that could be jointly targeted in multiple healthbehavior change interventions among early adolescents of diverse backgrounds. PMID:24858838
de la Haye, Kayla; D'Amico, Elizabeth J.; Miles, Jeremy N. V.; Ewing, Brett; Tucker, Joan S.
Reviews the popularity of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) approaches in health education, suggesting a proposed CAM course for health education professional preparation and offering a course outline which can be used as a self- standing course or integrated into existing courses. It includes a proposed course description and goals,…
In this paper we develop a methodology for integrating the health effects from exposure to air pollution into the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, a computable general equilibrium model of the economy that has been widely used to study climate change policy. The approach incorporates market and non-market effects of air pollution on human health, and is
? Abstract Stressors have a major influence upon mood, our sense of well-being, behavior, and health. Acute stress responses in young, healthy individuals may be adaptive and typically do not impose a health burden. However, if the threat is unremit- ting, particularly in older or unhealthy individuals, the long-term effects of stressors can damage,health. The relationship between,psychosocial stressors and disease
Education and mental healthintegration will be advanced when the goal of mental health includes effective schooling and the\\u000a goal of effective schools includes the healthy functioning of students. To build a solid foundation for this reciprocal agenda,\\u000a especially within the zeitgeist of recent educational reforms, a change in the fundamental framework within which school mental\\u000a health is conceptualized is
Marc S. AtkinsKimberly; Kimberly E. Hoagwood; Krista Kutash; Edward Seidman
Background The prevalence and severity of obesity have increased among children and adolescents. While the medical and psychosocial consequences of youth obesity have been well-documented, less information exists on the association of overweight/obesity with health risk behaviors, which are considered to be a primary threat to adolescent health. Objectives This study examined the association of overweight and obesity with health-risk behaviors among U.S. youth. Methods Self-reported height and weight, substance use, violence and bullying were assessed in a nationally representative sample of students aged 11 to 17 years (N=7825) who participated in the 2005/6 HealthBehaviors in School-Aged Children survey. Data were analyzed in 2009. Results Significant gender and age differences in the relationship of overweight/obesity with risk behaviors were observed. Overweight and obesity were significantly associated with substance use among girls only: frequent smoking and drinking were associated with overweight and obesity among younger girls, whereas they were associated with obesity among older girls. Frequent smoking and cannabis use were associated with overweight among younger girls only. Relationships between violent behavior and overweight/obesity were mainly observed among boys: Younger obese boys were more likely to be victims of bullying, whereas older obese boys were more likely to carry weapons, compared to boys of normal weight. Conclusions Overweight and obese youth are at risk of developing health compromising behaviors which may compound medical and social problems associated with excess weight. PMID:20171527
Farhat, Tilda; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Simons-Morton, Bruce
This study links heart disease worry with self initiated changes in diet and exercise health protective behaviors (HPB), among blacks and whites. Utilizing the concept 'vulnerability', from the Health Belief Model, it is hypothesized that worry about heart disease will more readily translate into diet and exercise healthbehaviors for blacks than for whites. The data come from a national probability survey of families in the United States (N = 1167). The findings indicate substantial support for the hypothesis when both race and socioeconomic status (SES) are considered. Among whites, heart disease worry has no effect on health protective behavior. For blacks, worry about heart disease does have a pronounced effect on HPB, but only among lower SES blacks. A test for interaction indicates that the low SES black slope is significantly different than the slopes in the other race-SES categories. These findings contrast sharply with much of the traditional (system contact) prevention literature which depicts lower SES minority populations as less active in preventive behavior. A system barriers explanation is explored, which argues that lower SES minority persons turn to HPB as an alternative to impersonal public medicine. There was no support for this explanation; rather, lower SES blacks involved in health protective behavior express more confidence in the health care system. PMID:3738559
Background Lifestyle-related diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and some cancers represent the greatest global health threat. Greater insight into health needs and beliefs, using broad community samples, is vital to reduce the burden of chronic disease. This study aimed to investigate gender, age, screening practices, health beliefs, and perceived future health needs for healthy ageing. Methods Random probability sampling using self-completion surveys in 1456 adults residing in Australia. Results Screening behaviors were associated with gender and age. Men and women >51 years were more likely (27%) to have screening health checks than those <50 years (2%). Factors nominated to influence health were lifestyle (92%), relationships (82%), and environment (80%). Women were more likely to nominate preparedness to have an annual health check, willingness to seek advice from their medical practitioner and to attend education sessions. Numerous health fears were associated with ageing, however participants were more likely to have a financial (72%) rather than a health plan (42%). More women and participants >51 years wanted information regarding illness prevention than men or those aged <30 years. Conclusion Age and gender are associated with health related behaviors. Optimal health is perceived as a priority, yet often this perception is not translated into preventative action. These findings will inform future research and policy makers as we strive towards a healthier ageing society and the prevention of chronic disease. PMID:19563685
Deeks, Amanda; Lombard, Catherine; Michelmore, Janet; Teede, Helena
Prior research has established clear links between social support, loneliness, and various health outcomes. This study was designed to test several theoretically derived explanations for such associations. A survey of 265 adults ages 19–85 years was conducted with measures of social support, loneliness, stress, healthbehaviors, and general health. Results showed that loneliness was more strongly associated with number of
In response to veterans' needs in the context of recent deployments, the Veterans Affairs (VA) health system has increased the number of its facilities and caregivers and has pioneered changes in policy and programs. We review significant recent initiatives to improve access to behavioralhealth services in the VA health system. PMID:21678688
Kudler, Harold; Straits-Tröster, Kristy; Brancu, Mira
Previous research documents increased health problems, somatic complaints, and negative healthbehaviors among victims of physical and sexual violence. This study extended existing literature by examining the unique effects of partner psychological abuse on physical health and the moderating effects of approach and avoidance coping strategies. Psychological abuse was positively related to illegal drug use, physical and role limitations, negative
Erin S. Straight; Felicity W. K. Harper; Ileana Arias
This study used the Interaction Model of Client HealthBehavior (IMCHB) as a conceptual guide to explain the correlates of children's diet and physical activity and explore the relationships of sex with their diet and physical activity of the school-aged child. A descriptive correlational study was conducted on 371 fifth-grade students and their parents. Information on the family's demographics, health
Men who have sex with men (MSM) appear to experience barriers to health care compared with general population men. This report examines individual differences in health care access within a diverse sample of urban MSM (N = 871). The authors examined demographic differences in health care access and the relation between access and health-related attitudes, healthbehaviors, and HIV transmission risk. They operationalized health care access in terms of three indicators: perceived barriers, insurance status, and recent medical visit. Twenty-seven percent (n = 227) of MSM reported zero or one health care access indicator. African American and Latino race/ethnicity, lower income, and HIV-unknown status were associated with limited health care access. Limited health care access was related to health care attitudes (mistrust in the health care system and difficulty disclosing MSM status to providers), general healthbehaviors (smoking, never being HIV-tested, and drug abuse), and sexual risk-related variables (low self-efficacy for sexual safety, consistent drug use during sex, and HIV transmission risk). Overall, among MSM, less health care access relates to several adverse psychological constructs and healthbehaviors. Researchers and public health officials should address limited health care access, and its consequences, in this population. PMID:22505573
McKirnan, David J; Du Bois, Steve N; Alvy, Lisa M; Jones, Kyle
Dietary choice is a complex mechanism that is influenced by multiple internal and external factors that impact individuals across the life span. The study was designed to examine how individuals make snack food choices based on integration of food motives (cues), appropriateness (nutritional index) as functions of nutritional knowledge, food-related motives, and information processing styles. Community college students participated in
Over the last few years, there has been increased awareness and use of complementary/alternative therapies (CAM) in many countries without the health care infrastructure to support it. The National Centre for Complementary and Alternative Medicine referred to the combining of mainstream medical therapies and CAM as integrative medicine. The creation of integrativehealth care teams will definitely result in redefining roles, but more importantly in a change in how services are delivered. The purpose of this paper is to describe a model of the necessary health care agency resources to support an integrative practice model. A logic model is used to depict the findings of a review of current evidence. Logic models are designed to show relationships between the goals of a program or initiative, the resources to achieve desired outputs and the activities that lead to outcomes. The four major resource categories necessary for implementing integrative care are within the domains of a) professional and research development, b) health human resource planning, c) regulation and legislation and d) practice and management in clinical areas. It was concluded that the system outcomes from activities within these resource categories should lead to freedom of choice in health care; a culturally sensitive health care system and a broader spectrum of services for achieving public health goals. PMID:21614155
Recent studies indicate that socioeconomic inequalities in health extend into the elderly population, even within the most highly developed welfare states. One potential explanation for socioeconomic inequalities in health focuses on the role of healthbehaviors, but little is known about the degree to which healthbehaviors account for health inequalities among older adults, in particular. Using data from the Health and Retirement Study (N = 19,245), this study examined the degree to which four behavioral risk factors - smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, and heavy drinking - are associated with socioeconomic position among adults aged 51 and older, and whether these behaviors mediate socioeconomic differences in mortality, and the onset of disability among those who were disability-free at baseline, over a 10-year period from 1998 to 2008. Results indicate that the odds of both smoking and physical inactivity are higher among persons with lower wealth, with similar stratification in obesity, but primarily among women. The odds of heavy drinking decrease at lower levels of wealth. Significant socioeconomic inequalities in mortality and disability onset are apparent among older men and women; however, the role that healthbehaviors play in accounting for these inequalities differs by age and gender. For example, these healthbehaviors account for between 23 and 45% of the mortality disparities among men and middle aged women, but only about 5% of the disparities found among women over 65 years. Meanwhile, these healthbehaviors appear to account for about 33% of the disparities in disability onset found among women survivors, and about 9-14% among men survivors. These findings suggest that within the U.S. elderly population, behavioral risks such as smoking and physical inactivity contribute moderately to maintaining socioeconomic inequalities in health. As such, promoting healthier lifestyles among the socioeconomically disadvantaged older adults should help to reduce later life health inequalities. PMID:24560224
Shaw, Benjamin A; McGeever, Kelly; Vasquez, Elizabeth; Agahi, Neda; Fors, Stefan
The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) and the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) have a long history of supporting investigator-initiated research and research training to enhance the scientific understanding of and effective interventions for a range of problems associated with youth violence. New technologies are emerging and basic research has promise for increasing our understanding of how biological
Background Recent studies show several health-related behaviors to cluster in adolescents. This has important implications for public health. Interrelated behaviors have been shown to be most effectively targeted by multimodal interventions addressing wider-ranging improvements in lifestyle instead of via separate interventions targeting individual behaviors. However, few previous studies have taken into account a broad, multi-disciplinary range of health-related behaviors and connected these behavioral patterns to health-related outcomes. This paper presents an analysis of the clustering of a broad range of health-related behaviors with relevant demographic factors and several health-related outcomes in adolescents. Methods Self-report questionnaire data were collected from a sample of 2,690 Dutch high school adolescents. Behavioral patterns were deducted via Principal Components Analysis. Subsequently a Two-Step Cluster Analysis was used to identify groups of adolescents with similar behavioral patterns and health-related outcomes. Results Four distinct behavioral patterns describe the analyzed individual behaviors: 1- risk-prone behavior, 2- bully behavior, 3- problematic screen time use, and 4- sedentary behavior. Subsequent cluster analysis identified four clusters of adolescents. Multi-problem behavior was associated with problematic physical and psychosocial health outcomes, as opposed to those exerting relatively few unhealthy behaviors. These associations were relatively independent of demographics such as ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status. Conclusions The results show that health-related behaviors tend to cluster, indicating that specific behavioral patterns underlie individual healthbehaviors. In addition, specific patterns of health-related behaviors were associated with specific health outcomes and demographic factors. In general, unhealthy behavior on account of multiple health-related behaviors was associated with both poor psychosocial and physical health. These findings have significant meaning for future public health programs, which should be more tailored with use of such knowledge on behavioral clustering via e.g. Transfer Learning. PMID:24305509
This article addresses the question of whether literacy could be mediating the relationships of schooling to maternal healthbehavior in populations undergoing demographic transition. Recent studies in which literacy was directly assessed suggest a literacy pathway to demographic change. The literacy skills of 167 urban and rural mothers of school-aged children in Lalitpur District of the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal were assessed by tests of reading comprehension, academic language proficiency, health media skills and health narrative skill, as part of studies in the urban and rural communities that included a maternal interview and ethnographic fieldwork on the contexts of family life, health care and female schooling. Regression analysis of the data indicates the retention of literacy skills in adulthood and their influence on healthbehavior; ethnographic evidence shows that selective bias in school attainment does not account for the results. Further direct assessment studies are recommended. PMID:14672599
LeVine, Robert A; LeVine, Sarah E; Rowe, Meredith L; Schnell-Anzola, Beatrice
A triarchic organization of behavior, building on Skinner's description of respondents and operants, is proposed by introducing a third class of behavior called 'emergents.' Emergents are new responses, never specifically reinforced, that require operations more complex than association. Some of these operations occur naturally only in animals above a minimum level of brain complexity, and are developed in an interaction between treatment and organismic variables. (Here complexity is defined in terms of relative levels of hierarchical integration made possible both by the amount of brain, afforded both by brain-body allometric relationships and by encephalization, and, also, the elaboration of dendritic and synaptic connections within the cortex and connections between various parts/regions of the brain.) Examples of emergents are discussed to advance this triarchic view, of behavior. The prime example is language. This triarchic view reflects both the common goals and the cumulative nature of psychological science.
Rumbaugh, Daune M.; Washburn, David A.; Hillix, William A.
Aim To compare healthbehavior patterns of adolescents in Lithuania with healthbehavior of adolescents in European Union (EU) in 2001/2002. Methods The study was carried out in conformity with the methodology of HealthBehavior in School-aged Children: a World Health Organization cross-national study. Three country representative samples of schoolchildren, aged 11, 13, and 15, were surveyed in 25 EU countries and regions in 2001/2002 school year. The study instrument was a standardized questionnaire that included questions on alcohol consumption, smoking, illegal drugs use, physical activity, and other patterns of healthbehavior. The rate or mean values of the targeted healthbehavior of Lithuanian students were assessed and compared to those calculated as an average for the EU countries and regions. Results We found an early onset of alcohol consumption among Lithuanian boys. Lithuanian boys and girls across all age groups reported being drunk two and more times more often than their peers from other EU member states. Lithuanian 15-year-old boys smoked more often that did their European peers, while girls smoke more rarely. The prevalence of drugs (marihuana group) use among Lithuanian students is relatively low: the prevalence of drug use among 15-year-olds in Lithuania is two times lower than the prevalence in other EU countries and regions (11.2% vs 24.5% for boys and 4.5% vs 18.3% for girls, respectively). Physical activity of Lithuanian adolescents is rather high in comparison with their EU peers, although many students watch television for ?4 hours a day. Lithuanian students did not eat sweets often, or drank soft drinks (Coca Cola and other), and they ate fruits and had breakfast every school day. With respect to hygienic habits, approximately only one in 3 boys and every second girl brushed their teeth more than once a day. Conclusions There are healthbehavior differences between adolescents in Lithuania and those in other EU countries. The disparities among healthbehavior of young people in EU countries and regions require Lithuanian and EU health policy to develop initiatives aimed at decreasing healthbehavior inequalities. PMID:16625702
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Support for this research was provided by NIH grants R01-MH56318 and R01-HD31067 to Charles Turner. The authors wish to thank Joseph Catania ofthe University of California at San Francisco for collaboration in early phases of the design of this study and for access to the public use dataset from his 1996 National Survey of Sexual Health. The authors also
S. M. Rogers; W. C. Miller; C. F. Turner; J. Ellen; J. Zenilman; R. Rothman; M. Villarroel; A. Al-Tayyib; P. Leone; C. Gaydos; L. Ganapathi; M. Hobbs; D. Kanouse
Musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and mental health are all associated with the physical and psychosocial conditions of work, as well as with individual healthbehaviors. An integrated approach to workplace health-promotion programs should include attention to the work environment, especially in light of recent findings that work organization influences so-called lifestyle or healthbehaviors. Macroergonomics provides a framework to improve both physical and organizational features of work and, in the process, to empower individual workers. The Center for the Promotion of Health in the New England Workplace (CPH-NEW) is a research-to-practice effort examining the effectiveness of worksite programs that combine occupational safety and health--especially ergonomics--with health promotion, emphasizing the contribution of work organization to both. Two intervention studies are underway in three different sectors: health care, corrections, and manufacturing. Each study features participatory structures to facilitate employee input into health goal-setting, program design and development, and evaluation, with the goal of enhanced effectiveness and longer-term sustainability. PMID:19618803
Consumer-driven health care is a misnomer. Notwithstanding the enormous role the individual consumer has to play in reshaping the U.S. health care delivery system, this article will focus on the employer as the key driver of change and innovation in the consumerism revolution. American Standard provides a case study of how one major employer has evaluated health care in the context of its business and aggressively integrated consumerism and health into the core of its business. Other companies will appropriately execute consumerism strategies in a fashion consistent with their own needs, culture, resources and populations. However, the principles supporting those strategies will be very much consistent. PMID:16827541
Despite decades of research, recognition and treatment of mental illness and its comorbidities still remain a significant public health problem in the United States. Ethnic minorities are identified as a population that is vulnerable to mental health disparities and face unique challenges pertaining to mental health care. Psychiatric illness is associated with great physical, emotional, functional, and societal burden. The primary health care setting may be a promising venue for screening, assessment, and treatment of mental illnesses for ethnic minority populations. We propose a comprehensive, innovative, culturally centered integrated care model to address the complexities within the health care system, from the individual level, which includes provider and patient factors, to the system level, which includes practice culture and system functionality issues. Our multidisciplinary investigative team acknowledges the importance of providing culturally tailored integrativehealth care to holistically concentrate on physical, mental, emotional, and behavioral problems among ethnic minorities in a primary care setting. It is our intention that the proposed model will be useful for health practitioners, contribute to the reduction of mental health disparities, and promote better mental health and well-being for ethnic minority individuals, families, and communities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25383991
BACKGROUND: Amount of sleep is an important indicator of health and well-being in children and adolescents. Adequate sleep (AS: adequate sleep is defined as 6–8 hours per night regularly) is a critical factor in adolescent health and health-related behaviors. The present study was based on a health promotion project previously conducted on adolescents in Tao-Yuan County, Taiwan. The aim was
Integratingbehavioralhealth into primary healthcare offers multiple advantages for patients and health professionals. This model requires a new skill set for all healthcare professionals that is not emphasized in current educational models. The new skills include interprofessional team-based care competencies and expanded patient care competencies. Health professionals must learn new ways to efficiently and effectively address healthbehavior change, and manage behavioralhealth issues such as depression and anxiety. Learning environments that co-train mental health and primary care professionals facilitate acquisition of both teamwork and patient care competencies for mental health and primary care professional trainees. Family Medicine Residency programs provide an excellent opportunity for co-training. This article serves as a "how to" guide for residency programs interested in developing a co-training program. Necessary steps to establish and maintain a program are reviewed, as well as goals and objectives for a co-training curriculum and strategies to overcome barriers and challenges in co-training models. PMID:24261270
Ruddy, Nancy Breen; Borresen, Dorothy; Myerholtz, Linda
Objectives The National Environmental Policy Act and related state laws require many public agencies to analyze and disclose potentially significant environmental effects of agency actions, including effects on human health. In this paper we review the purpose and procedures of environmental impact assessment (EIA), existing regulatory requirements for health effects analysis, and potential barriers to and opportunities for improving integration of human health concerns within the EIA process. Data sources We use statutes, regulations, guidelines, court opinions, and empirical research on EIA along with recent case examples of integratedhealth impact assessment (HIA)/EIA at both the state and federal level. Data synthesis We extract lessons and recommendations for integrated HIA/EIA practice from both existing practices as well as case studies. Conclusions The case studies demonstrate the adequacy, scope, and power of existing statutory requirements for health analysis within EIA. The following support the success of integrated HIA/EIA: a proponent recognizing EIA as an available regulatory strategy for public health; the openness of the agency conducting the EIA; involvement of public health institutions; and complementary objectives among community stakeholders and health practitioners. We recommend greater collaboration among institutions responsible for EIA, public health institutions, and affected stakeholders along with guidance, resources, and training for integrated HIA/EIA practice. PMID:18709140
The Healthy Howard Health Plan (HHHP) is an innovative health access plan providing healthcare and health coaching to previously uninsured adults in Howard County, Maryland. HHHP members who enrolled in HHHP between January 2009 to June 2010 are followed over time using a variety of self-reported data collection tools including a health risk assessment (HRA), the SF-12, a measure of health status, and the PAM, patient activation measure. We describe their unmet health needs, demographics, health status and behaviors at baseline and we describe changes in health-related behaviors over time. Demographic and baseline HRA results for 700 individuals who enrolled over the first 18 months reveal HHHP members generally were racially diverse (white: 37 %; African American: 23 %, and Asian: 30 %), married (50 %) females (59 %). Most (62 %) have a family income between 121 and 200 % of the federal poverty level, and were without health insurance for more than 1 year (56 %). Self-reported health and behaviors for 163 plan members who completed initial and follow up HRAs revealed increases in physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and health status. Statistically significant differences were found in patient activation from baseline to follow up (44 vs 58 %, p value 0.0005). Patient demographics, health status, and healthbehaviors of these newly insured Americans may help policy makers and care providers prepare to meet their needs. We noted improvements in certain self-reported healthbehaviors and health status, suggesting participation in the Plan is associated with positive health impacts for some Plan members. PMID:23014801
McDonald, Eileen M; Frattaroli, Shannon; Edsall Kromm, Elizabeth; Ma, Xia; Pike, Maureen; Holtgrave, David
Policymakers' understanding of and ability to reduce health disparities are pivotal for health promotion worldwide. This study aimed to verify the behavioral pathways leading to oral health disparities. Oral examinations were conducted for 1782 randomly selected preschoolers (3-6 yrs), and 1576 (88.4%) participants were followed up after 12 months. Parents were surveyed on their knowledge (K), attitude (A), and practices (P) regarding their children's oral health homecare (infant feeding, diet, and oral hygiene) and dental attendance. Structural equation modeling substantiated the links between specific KAs and corresponding practices, while generic KA did not affect practices. KAP pathways partly explained the ethnic and socio-economic disparities in oral health. Deprivation had a direct effect (not mediated by KA) on dental attendance, but not on oral health homecare. Ethnicity directly influenced oral health homecare practices, but not dental attendance. These behavioral pathways, furthering our understanding of health disparity, may have practical implications for health promotion and policy-making. PMID:20554887
Gao, X-L; Hsu, C-Y S; Xu, Y C; Loh, T; Koh, D; Hwarng, H B
Preventive and health promoting behaviors in pregnant minority women can be used to develop approaches to encourage healthy lifestyle and optimal utilization of health services, and to obtain better outcomes of pregnancy. Using the Health Promotion Model as a theoretical framework, this study employed a cross-sectional survey design to investigate factors that related to healthbehaviors of low-income pregnant Mexican American and African American women in selected sites in the southeast portion of the state of Texas. Results showed that Mexican American women had a significantly higher mean on the Powerful Others Locus of Control measure than the African American women. For African American subjects, the strongest effect was exerted by the social support variable, which had a negative effect on the healthbehavior variable. Findings suggest that more studies are needed to identify specific determinants of health promoting activities during pregnancy in ethnic minority groups. Designing programs that would motivate early involvement of low-income pregnant minority women in health care should be a top priority for professionals in maternity practice. PMID:17420521
Esperat, Christine; Du Feng; Yan Zhang; Owen, Donna
The increasing number of papers during the last years reveals an existence of effect of geophysical factors on human health. The subject of this paper is to present some results obtained confirming this effect and short review of some scientific opinions about mechanisms, according to which geomagnetic field (GMF) variations could influence on human. We have investigated the influence of geomagnetic disturbances on physiological parameters of healthy people as well as the relationship with dynamic of myocardial infarction. Although there are objective difficulties, investigations in that field will be extremely useful for protecting man from harmful effects of geophysical factors.
Services Provision Â Review of Current Practice Drivers & Barriers to Integrated Working Nuffield Centre' no incentives to change `it won't work here' `it won't work now' sense of momentum - `the time is now' baggageIntegration of Health and Social Services Provision Â Review of Current Practice Drivers & Barriers
Health coaching is an emerging behavioral intervention to improve outcomes in chronic disease management and prevention; however, no studies have investigated its utility in postpartum women who have gained excess weight during pregnancy. A 32-year-old primigravida woman who was overweight at conception and gained 23 lbs more than Institute of Medicine recommendations for her pre-pregnancy body mass index participated in a 6-month personalized health planning with integrativehealth coaching (PHPIHC) intervention. The intervention included a baseline health risk assessment review with a healthcare provider and eight biweekly, 30-minute telephonic health coaching sessions. The participant demonstrated improvement in physical activity, energy expenditure, knowledge, and confidence to engage in healthpromoting behaviors. Although the participant did not reach the target weight by completion of the health coaching sessions, follow up 8 months later indicated she achieved the target goal (within 5% of prepregnancy weight). This case report suggests that PHP-IHC can support postpartum women in returning to pre-pregnancy weight after gaining excess gestational weight. Future research and clinical trials are needed to determine the best timing, length, and medium (online, in-person, telephonic) of PHP-IHC for postpartum women. PMID:24278848
The search for useful model systems to study sensory processing in vertebrate nervous systems has resulted in many neuroethological studies investigating the roles played by a single sensory modality in a given behavior. However, animals behaving in a complex, three-dimensional environment receive a large amount of information from external and internal receptor arrays. Clearly, the integration of sensory afference arising from different modalities into a coherent 'gestalt' of the world is essential to the behaviors of most animals. Over the past several years researchers in my laboratory have examined the roles played by the visual and lateral line sensory systems in organizing the feeding behavior of two species of predatory teleost fishes, the largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides and the muskellunge, Esox masquinongy. The free-field feeding behaviors of these fishes was studied quantitatively in intact animals and compared to animals in which the lateral line and visual systems had been selectively suppressed. The data show that both bass and muskie employ similar approach and strike behaviors. Vision is crucial to the initial detection of, and orientation to, prey. Lateral line and vision together determine the optimum distance and angular deviation for the initiation of a rapid strike toward the prey. Blinded animals are able to strike accurately at prey at very close ranges and small angular deviations, indicating that this modality presents sufficient information to direct the behavior during the final phases of the strike. The results demonstrate that there is a hierarchy of senses involved in feeding behavior, with different modalities playing critical roles in succeeding phases. PMID:12138338
Adult Hispanic immigrants are at a greater risk of experiencing the negative outcomes related to low health literacy, as they confront cultural and language barriers to the complex and predominately monolingual English-based U.S. health system. One approach that has the potential for simultaneously addressing the health, literacy, and language needs of Hispanics is the combination of health literacy and English as a second language (ESL) instruction. The purpose of the project was to evaluate the feasibility of using ESL instruction as a medium for improving health literacy among Hispanic immigrants. Objectives included the development, implementation, and evaluation of an interdisciplinary health literacy/ESL curriculum that integrates theories of health literacy and healthbehavior research and practice, sociocultural theories of literacy and communication, and adult learning principles. This article describes the curriculum development process and provides preliminary qualitative data on learners’ experiences with the curriculum. Results indicate that the curriculum was attractive to participants and that they were highly satisfied with both the format and content. The curriculum described here represents one example of an audience-centered approach designed to meet the specific health and literacy needs of the Hispanic population on the U.S.–Mexico border. The combination of ESL and health literacy contributed to a perceived positive learning experience among participants. Interdisciplinary approaches to health literacy are recommended. PMID:22982707
The purpose of this study was to determine levels of oral health knowledge and factors associated with adequate oral health knowledge in adults with diabetes. A convenience sample of 253 adult US residents with diabetes completed an oral health survey to assess their knowledge. Results showed that only 47% of the participants answered five or more (out of a maximum of seven) oral health knowledge items related to diabetes correctly. Participants who received oral health information related to diabetes have 2.9 times the odds of possessing adequate oral health knowledge (i.e., answered five or more items correctly) compared to participants who did not received that information controlling for education and race (OR = 2.86, 95% CI 1.26–6.24, P = 0.008). Given that oral health information provided by health professionals (dental and/or medical) contributes to improve oral health knowledge among adults with diabetes, health professionals should take the opportunity to educate patients with diabetes about the oral manifestations (e.g., dry mouth) and complications (e.g., periodontitis and oral candidiasis) of diabetes and to promote proper oral healthbehaviors. PMID:19800143
Yuen, Hon K.; Wolf, Bethany J.; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; Magruder, Kathryn M.; Salinas, Carlos F.; London, Steven D.
Compounded progesterone (P?) is a product that, from a clinical experience-based perspective, effectively relieves a range of symptoms. In contrast, from a conventional evidence-based medicine perspective, P? is ineffective. As P? is not a product prescribed by conventional medicine, it is unlikely to be prescribed by family doctors, which increases the barriers to utilization. Utilization of medicines is influenced by many contextual and individual characteristics. The Behavioral Model of Health Services Use provides a multidimensional framework to conceptualize utilization of health services including medicine use. The 4 main components of this model are: contextual characteristics, individual characteristics, healthbehaviors and outcomes. This paper reports on the application of The Behavioral Model of Health Services Use to medicines and shows how it can be applied to the use of P?. The model enables some of the positive reinforcement that contributes to women continuing to use P? to be explained. The Behavioral Model of Health Services Use was found to offer the potential to identify and then address issues with access to prescription medicines. PMID:24055136
the validity and reliability of data collected from 1,992 Indiana middle and high school students with the Adolescent Health Risk Behavior Survey (AHRBS) instrument. The AHRBS instrument was created using the Biopsychosocial Model (BPSM) theoretical framework...
The practice of mindfulness is increasingly being integrated into Western clinical practice within the context of psychotherapy and stress management. Although it is based in ancient Buddhist philosophy, there remains confusion about the definition, antecedents, processes, and outcomes of mindfulness practice. This article reviews the literature on mindfulness, with a focus upon a clearer definition and understanding of the processes and integration into psychiatric mental health nursing practice. PMID:19766927
In psychotherapy research, practice, and training, there remains marked controversy about the merits of theoretical purism (i.e., model specific), versus integration, as well as how such principles may be represented in practice. Adding to the confusion is that many attributes of the therapeutic relationship, processes in therapy, and techniques have been popularized in the context of one or two theoretical approaches, but are incorporated into the practice of many approaches. This article demonstrates the various ways in which three core interventions (i.e., activity scheduling, self-monitoring, and identification, evaluation, and modification of thoughts) can be applied within the context of different cognitive and behavioral therapeutic models. It also demonstrates the role of in-session therapist language in describing the theoretical basis and processes underpinning therapeutic interventions. Case examples are presented to illustrate therapy provided by two hypothetical clinicians, Therapist A and Therapist B. Whether or not a practitioner elects to practice integrative psychotherapy, we advocate for consistency in the theoretical approach through the course of a service for a particular patient. Implications are outlined and discussed within the context of the current state of cognitive and behaviorally focused psychotherapies and integrative psychotherapy. PMID:24000858
Petrik, Alexandra M; Kazantzis, Nikolaos; Hofmann, Stefan G
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated whether altruistic social interest behaviors such as engaging in helping others were associated with better physical and mental health in a stratified random sample of 2016 members of the Presbyterian Church throughout the United States.\\u000aMETHODS: Mailed questionnaires evaluated giving and receiving help, prayer activities, positive and negative religious coping, and self-reported physical and mental health.
Carolyn E. Schwartz; Janice Bell Meisenhelder; Yunsheng Ma; George W. Reed
To assess factors that affect the adoption of healthy lifestyles among a variety of active Israeli seniors, a survey was conducted in 2002 at the Peiluyada, a physical activity-oriented health fair for seniors held annually in Israel from 1995 to 2002. A multi-language, self-administered questionnaire, assessing predisposing factors, barriers and health-protective behaviors, was fielded to potential participants. Response rate at
Anat A. Shemesh; Iris Rasooly; Pamela Horowitz; John Lemberger; Yosefa Ben-Moshe; Josefa Kachal; Josepha Danziger; A. Mark Clarfield; Elliot Rosenberg
Background: Parents and teachers involvement reinforce health promotion programs for children's health. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate mothers’ lifestyle behavior and its association with children's oral health. Materials and Methods: The study was a cross sectional study on 383 children and their mothers who were selected from 6 primary schools in Tehran, Iran. Mothers and children who participated in this study were asked to complete a questionnaire containing demographic questions, knowledge of oral health, attitude towards the oral healthbehavior, and oral healthbehaviors. Furthermore, the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S) and Community Periodontal Index (CPI) were assessed by two calibrated dentists. Data were analyzed with multilevel mixed model analyses. Results: The average age of the children and their mothers were 11.6 and 38.4 years, respectively. Mothers’ higher knowledge, higher educational status, positive attitude, higher frequent oral healthbehaviors, lower DMFT and lower CPI were all associated significantly with children’s higher oral health status. Conclusions: The results suggest that to improve children’s oral health, educational interventions should focus on both children and mothers to obtain a more promising outcome. PMID:24719751
Nourijelyani, Keramat; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Eshraghian, Mohammad Reza; Mohammad, Kazem; Rahimi Foroushani, Abbas; Pakpour, Amir
The current enthusiasm over the prospect of space tourism and the belief among many that such civilian spaceflight is imminent are characterized herein. There are many concerns about screening and certifying passengers for future spaceflight. Efforts by several organizations to propose such screening are cited. The problem with some of these proposals, which treat all types of spaceflight the same, is that they are so restrictive that too few people would be eligible for space travel to have a viable tourism industry. However, not all types of spaceflight are the same, so the distinctions between them need to be clarified. Of the five types of spaceflight described, one is proposed as the most likely to be the first significant phase of space tourism: long-term microgravity flight in low Earth orbit. But because of human problems with long-term exposure to microgravity, this phase requires rather conservative screening and extensive training. However, prior to discussing the passenger issues related to this early phase of space tourism, the reasons why Earth-like gravity, as well as microgravity, must be made available to spacefarers before space tourism can take place on a grand scale need to be explained. Finally, major passenger medical and behavioral issues of the first phase of orbital space tourism-long-term microgravity flight-are discussed. PMID:15943209
Context Millions of uninsured Americans ostensibly have insurance available to them—many at very low cost—but do not take it up. Traditional economic analysis is based on the premise that these are rational decisions, but it is hard to reconcile observed enrollment patterns with this view. The policy prescriptions that the traditional model generates may thus fail to achieve their goals. Behavioral economics, which integrates insights from psychology into economic analysis, identifies important deviations from the traditional assumptions of rationality and can thus improve our understanding of what drives health insurance take-up and improved policy design. Methods Rather than a systematic review of the coverage literature, this article is a primer for considering issues in health insurance coverage from a behavioral economics perspective, supplementing the standard model. We present relevant evidence on decision making and insurance take-up and use it to develop a behavioral approach to both the policy problem posed by the lack of health insurance coverage and possible policy solutions to that problem. Findings We found that evidence from behavioral economics can shed light on both the sources of low take-up and the efficacy of different policy levers intended to expand coverage. We then applied these insights to policy design questions for public and private insurance coverage and to the implementation of the recently enacted health reform, focusing on the use of behavioral insights to maximize the value of spending on coverage. Conclusions We concluded that the success of health insurance coverage reform depends crucially on understanding the behavioral barriers to take-up. The take-up process is likely governed by psychology as much as economics, and public resources can likely be used much more effectively with behaviorally informed policy design. PMID:22428694
Baicker, Katherine; Congdon, William J; Mullainathan, Sendhil
Background: Health maintenance and promotion are the fundamental prerequisites to community development. The best time for establishing healthy lifestyle habits is during adolescence. Objectives: Due to importance of health promotion behaviors in adolescents, this study was conducted to investigate health-promoting behaviors and its associated factors among high school students in Rasht, Iran. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 424 students during the first semester of the year 2012. We employed the multistage sampling design to recruit from private and public high schools in Rasht, Iran. The data collection instrument was a self-report questionnaire consisting of two parts. The first part of instrument was consisted of demographic questionnaire and the second part was adolescent health promotion scale (AHPS) questionnaire. AHPS questionnaire was consisted of six dimensions (nutrition, social support, health responsibility, life appreciation, physical activity, and stress management) to measure health promoting lifestyles. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS 16 software employing ANOVA (analysis of variance) test, t-test, Mann-Whitney, and the Kruskal-Wallis. Results: The score of total Adolescent Health Promotion Scale were 3.58 ± 0.52 (possible range was 1-5). The highest score was in life appreciation dimension (3.99 ± 0.068) and the lowest score was in health responsibility dimension. Moreover, Significant associations were found between the adolescent health promotion Scale with age (P < 0.001), gender (P < 0.003), school grade (P < 0.011), father’s educational level (P < 0.045), mother’s educational level (P < 0.021), and mother’s occupation (P < 0.008). Conclusions: Female and older students are at higher risk of developing unhealthy lifestyle. Consequently, healthcare providers, health instructors, schoolteachers, and families must pay more attention to these students. Moreover, as most of lifelong healthy and unhealthy lifestyle habits are established during adolescence, developing effective health promotion and disease prevention strategies for adolescents seems crucial.
Context For three decades, experts have been stressing the importance of law to the effective operation of public health systems. Most recently, in a 2011 report, the Institute of Medicine recommended a review of state and local public health laws to ensure appropriate authority for public health agencies; adequate access to legal counsel for public health agencies; evaluations of the health effects and costs associated with legislation, regulations, and policies; and enhancement of research methods to assess the strength of evidence regarding the health effects of public policies. These recommendations, and the continued interest in law as a determinant of health system performance, speak to the need for integrating the emerging fields of Public Health Law Research (PHLR) and Public Health Systems and Services Research (PHSSR). Methods Expert commentary. Findings This article sets out a unified framework for the two fields and a shared research agenda built around three broad inquiries: (1) the structural role of law in shaping the organization, powers, prerogatives, duties, and limitations of public health agencies and thereby their functioning and ultimately their impact on public health (“infrastructure”); (2) the mechanisms through which public health system characteristics influence the implementation of interventional public health laws (“implementation”); and (3) the individual and system characteristics that influence the ability of public health systems and their community partners to develop and secure enactment of legal initiatives to advance public health (“innovation”). Research to date has laid a foundation of evidence, but progress requires better and more accessible data, a new generation of researchers comfortable in both law and health research, and more rigorous methods. Conclusions The routine integration of law as a salient factor in broader PHSSR studies of public health system functioning and health outcomes will enhance the usefulness of research in supporting practice and the long-term improvement of system performance. PMID:22709392
Burris, Scott; Mays, Glen P; Douglas Scutchfield, F; Ibrahim, Jennifer K
We have investigated the usefulness of environmental health indicators for the evaluation of environmental health in Korea. We also assessed the association between environmental contamination and health outcomes by integrating indicators into a composite measure. We selected health-related environmental indicators and environment-related health status indicators. The data were obtained from published statistical data from the period 2008–2009. Both synthesized measures of environmental indicators and health status indicators were calculated using Strahll’s taxonometric methods. The range of values determined by this method is 0–1, with higher values representing a better situation in the given area. The study area consisted of 16 large administrative areas within Korea. The arithmetic mean of the synthesized measure of environmental indicators was 0.348 (SD = 0.151), and that of the synthesized measure of health status indicators was 0.708 (SD = 0.107). The correlation coefficient between the synthesized measures of environmental indicators and health status indicators was 0.69 (95% CI: 0.28–0.88). Comparisons between local communities based on integrated indicators may provide useful information for decision-makers, allowing them to identify priorities in pollutant mitigation policies or in improvement actions for public health. Integrated indicators are also useful to describe the relationships between environmental contamination and health effects. PMID:23892549
Objective. Little is known about the dental health and healthbehavior of patients referred for open-heart surgery because of severe heart disease. Yet, coronary atherosclerosis has been suggested to be an inflammatory disease in which chronic dental infections may trigger pathogenic mechanisms in the walls of arteries. In epidemiological studies periodontal disease in particular has been linked with coronary heart
Jukka H. Meurman; Markku Qvarnström; Sok-Ja Janket; Pekka Nuutinen
Objective To reduce health disparities, behavioralhealth interventions must reach subcultural groups and demonstrate effectiveness in improving their healthbehaviors and outcomes. One approach to developing such health interventions is to culturally adapt original evidence-based interventions. The goals of the paper are to (a) describe consensus on the stages involved in developing cultural adaptations, (b) identify common elements in cultural adaptations, (c) examine evidence on the effectiveness of culturally enhanced interventions for various health conditions, and (d) pose questions for future research. Method Influential literature from the past decade was examined to identify points of consensus. Results There is agreement that cultural adaptation can be organized into five stages: information gathering, preliminary design, preliminary testing, refinement, and final trial. With few exceptions, reviews of several health conditions (e.g., AIDS, asthma, diabetes) concluded that culturally enhanced interventions are more effective in improving health outcomes than usual care or other control conditions. Conclusion Progress has been made in establishing methods for conducting cultural adaptations and providing evidence of their effectiveness. Future research should include evaluations of cultural adaptations developed in stages, tests to determine the effectiveness of cultural adaptations relative to the original versions, and studies that advance our understanding of cultural constructs’ contributions to intervention engagement and efficacy. PMID:22289132
Background: Despite the widespread use of written health education materials as interventions, relatively few studies have adequately evaluated the effectiveness of such materials on changing healthcare behaviors in the general population.Setting\\/ Participants: The study consisted of ten matched pairs of small rural towns in New South Wales, Australia, with a total combined population of approximately 25,000 in both the intervention
Sallie Anne Newell; Rob William Sanson-Fisher; Afaf Girgis; Heather Maree Davey
This study examined the priority healthbehaviors among Chinese youth by administering a questionnaire to 1,917 undergraduates enrolled in three universities in China. The response rate was 89.7%. This survey found that 75.2% of the participants tried cigarettes at least once during their lifetime, over half had their first cigarette and alcoholic…
This study examined the priority healthbehaviors of South African youth by administering a questionnaire to 635 undergraduate students enrolled in a large metropolitan university in South Africa. Results indicate that 65.5% of the participants tried cigarettes at least once during their lifetime, over 15.2% had their first cigarette and 31.2% had…
The power and performance model of sport stresses a sport ethic of doing "whatever it takes" to win (Coakley, 2004). Uncritical acceptance of this model may lead to various health-compromising behaviors. Employing achievement goal theory, we examine why female athletes may adopt the power and performance approach. An ego motivational climate and a…
The power and performance model of sport stresses a sport ethic of doing “whatever it takes” to win (Coakley, 2004). Uncritical acceptance of this model may lead to various health-compromising behaviors. Employing achievement goal theory, we examine why female athletes may adopt the power and performance approach. An ego motivational climate and a strong social approval goal orientation may encourage
This response to five excellent commentaries is intended to clarify some issues in research on healthbehavior change that appear to be ambiguous or con- troversial, such as the debate about stage models versus continuum models or the search for moderators and mediators. The assumption of stages can be useful, but the quest for truly existing stages is considered fruitless
Virtual health counseling agents on mobile devices need to be able to interrupt their users when it is time for them to engage in healthy behaviors, such as scheduled medication taking or exercise. However, these real-time reminders often represent task interruptions for individuals who are engaged in work activities. This paper presents the results of a study which compares four
Timothy W. Bickmore; Daniel Mauer; Francisco Crespo; Thomas Brown
Over the past decade, a new paradigm in behavioralhealth care has emerged. It places emphasis on cost control, evidence-based practice, patient safety, access to care, treatment relevance for diverse populations, consumerism, and quality of care. Unfortunately, graduate education and training programs have had difficulty keeping pace with the dramatic changes in the field. As a consequence, there is concern
Michael A. Hoge; Selby Jacobs; Richard Belitsky; Scott Migdole
Given the disease and cost burdens, Multiple HealthBehavior Research represents the future of preventive medicine. Growing evidence in this special issue and beyond indicates that simultaneous and sequential interventions can be effective. The challenge for the future is to make such interventions more effective, cost effective and less demanding. Co-variation represents one innovative approach in which effective change on
Self-presentation has been shown to play a role in the performance of a variety of potentially health-damaging behaviors such as substance abuse, exercise avoidance, failing to wear protective sports equipment, and failing to seek medical treatment (Leary, Tchividjian, & Kraxberger, 1994; Martin, Leary, & Rejeski, 2000). Using the two component model of impression management (Leary & Kowalski, 1990) as an
A 3-year study compared 52 undergraduate nursing students with 93 education majors and with the general population. No significant differences among students on 9 healthbehaviors appeared. Compared with the general population, nursing students had inadequate time for sleep, exercise, and eating breakfast. (Contains 77 references.) (SK)
This article assesses the consequences of poverty between a child's prenatal year and 5th birthday for several adult achievement, health, and behavior outcomes, measured as late as age 37. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (1,589) and controlling for economic conditions in middle childhood and adolescence, as well as demographic…
Duncan, Greg J.; Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.; Kalil, Ariel
The current study focuses on the psychological effects of statin medications. Specifically, this study examines the health related beliefs and behaviors that may be altered by the consumption of this fast acting class of life saving drugs. Although the statin class of medication generally produces favorable physiological results, as evidenced by reduced levels of serum cholesterol, and in some case
This study used cluster analysis to identify three patterns of sexual health risk behaviors in a sample of adult rape survivors (N = 102). Women in the 1st cluster (high risk) reported substantial increases from pre- to postrape in their frequency of sexual activity, number of sexual partners, infrequency of condom use, and frequency of using alcohol and\\/or drugs during
Objective: The investigators examined relations between mindfulness and healthbehaviors in college students, as well as the role of stress in mediating these effects. Participants: Participants were 553 undergraduates (385 females; mean age = 18.8 years, SD = 2.1) recruited from a university in the northeastern United States. Methods:…
This study examines whether offering sex education to young teenagers affects several measures of adolescent sexual behavior and health: virginity status, contraceptive use, frequency of intercourse, likelihood of pregnancy, and probability of contracting a sexually transmitted disease. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent…
Background. While HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Vietnam has received increasing attention, most studies focus on HIV knowledge and established risk factors such as injection drug use. This paper proposes to address HIV risk among MSM from an integrated approach to preventive care that takes into account syndemic conditions such as substance use, mental health, and stigma, the latter of which prevents MSM from accessing health services. Method. Current studies related to MSM in Vietnam from 2000 onwards, gathered from peer-reviewed as well as non-peer-reviewed sources, were examined. Results. HIV and STI prevalence among MSM varied significantly by location, and yet HIV prevalence has increased significantly over the past few years. Most studies have focused on sexual risk behaviors, paying little attention to the broad spectrum of sexual health, including noninjecting drug use, heavy alcohol consumption, high rates of mental health distress and anxiety, and stigma. Conclusion. Future research and interventions targeting MSM in Vietnam should address their vulnerability to HIV from an integrated approach that pays attention to both sexual health and syndemic conditions. PMID:23119171
Background. While HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Vietnam has received increasing attention, most studies focus on HIV knowledge and established risk factors such as injection drug use. This paper proposes to address HIV risk among MSM from an integrated approach to preventive care that takes into account syndemic conditions such as substance use, mental health, and stigma, the latter of which prevents MSM from accessing health services. Method. Current studies related to MSM in Vietnam from 2000 onwards, gathered from peer-reviewed as well as non-peer-reviewed sources, were examined. Results. HIV and STI prevalence among MSM varied significantly by location, and yet HIV prevalence has increased significantly over the past few years. Most studies have focused on sexual risk behaviors, paying little attention to the broad spectrum of sexual health, including noninjecting drug use, heavy alcohol consumption, high rates of mental health distress and anxiety, and stigma. Conclusion. Future research and interventions targeting MSM in Vietnam should address their vulnerability to HIV from an integrated approach that pays attention to both sexual health and syndemic conditions. PMID:23119171
This study examines whether offering sex education to young teenagers affects several measures of adolescent sexual behavior and health: virginity status, contraceptive use, frequency of intercourse, likelihood of pregnancy, and probability of contracting a sexually transmitted disease. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, I find that while sex education is associated with adverse health outcomes, there is little evidence of a causal link after controlling for unobserved heterogeneity via fixed effects and instrumental variables. These findings suggest that those on each side of the ideological debate over sex education are, in a sense, both correct and mistaken. Opponents are correct in observing that sex education is associated with adverse health outcomes, but are generally incorrect in interpreting this relationship causally. Proponents are generally correct in claiming that sex education does not encourage risky sexual activity, but are incorrect in asserting that investments in typical school-based sex education programs produce measurable health benefits. PMID:16989033
Minnesota's 1994 health care reform legislation authorized the establishment of community integrated service networks (CISNs) and health care provider cooperatives, which were envisioned as new health care delivery models that could be successfully implemented in rural areas of the state. Four CISNs are licensed, and three organizations are incorporated as health care provider cooperatives. Many of the policy issues Minnesota has faced regarding the development of CISNs and health care provider cooperatives in rural areas are similar to those raised by current Medicare reform proposals. PMID:9143900
The purpose of this study is to contribute to the conceptual understanding and practical application of social integration theory to healthbehaviors. We test whether community involvement in AIDS and GLBT organizations moderates the relationship of racial and homosexual stigmata to sexual risk behavior among gay and bisexual men and transgender persons of Latin American origin or descent. We use structural equation modeling to analyze data from a sample of 643 individuals recruited via respondent-driven sampling. Among those not involved in community organizations, homosexual and racial stigmata are related to sexual activity under the influence of alcohol and drugs, which is linked to sexual risk behavior. Among the involved group, the stigmata are not linked to sexual activity under the influence of alcohol and drugs, or to sexual risk behavior. The moderating role of community involvement seems to be more salient in those currently involved than those ever involved. PMID:20420293
Ramirez-Valles, Jesus; Kuhns, Lisa M.; Campbell, Richard T.; Diaz, Rafael M.
Background A major effort is underway to integrate primary and community care in Canada's western province of British Columbia and in Fraser Health, its largest health authority. Integrated care is a critical component of Fraser Health's planning, to meet the challenges of caring for a growing, elderly population that is presenting more complex and chronic medical conditions. Description of integrated practice An integrated care model partners family physicians with community-based home health case managers to support frail elderly patients who live at home. It is resulting in faster response times to patient needs, more informed assessments of a patient's state of health and pro-active identification of emerging patient issues. Early results The model is intended to improve the quality of patient care and maintain the patients’ health status, to help them live at home confidently and safely, as long as possible. Preliminary pilot data measuring changes in home care services is showing positive trends when it comes to extending the length of a person's survival/tenure in the community (living in their home vs. admitted to residential care or deceased). Conclusion Fraser Health's case manager–general practitioner partnership model is showing promising results including higher quality, appropriate, coordinated and efficient care; improved patient, caregiver and physician interactions with the system; improved health and prevention of acute care visits by senior adult patients. PMID:24648834
Park, Grace; Miller, Diane; Tien, George; Sheppard, Irene; Bernard, Michael
This article introduces the Major Contribution on integratinghealth and vocational psychology, using persons with HIV who have work-related concerns as an example. The authors describe the demographics associated with HIV disease and new treatments that have allowed people with HIV to remain healthy and continue working, or consider returning to…
Werth, James L., Jr.; Borges, Nicole J.; McNally, Christopher J.; Maguire, Colleen P.; Britton, Paula J.
This case study describes 1 international student's treatment experience with an integratedhealth program on a college campus. This program uses a multidisciplinary, mind-body approach, which incorporates individual counseling, primary care, psychiatric consultation, a mindfulness-based cognitive therapy class, and a meditation group.
Tucker, Cary; Sloan, Sarah K.; Vance, Mary; Brownson, Chris
The importance of proving that sustainable design and engineering improves health, productivity, and quality of life has never been more important. To this end, the Center for Building Performance and Diagnostics (CBPD) at Carnegie Mellon University, in collaboration with the Advanced Building Systems Integration Consortium * , have been actively developing sustainable design guidelines and a database of laboratory, field,
A comfortable health monitoring system named WEALTHY is presented. The system is based on a textile wearable interface implemented by integrating sensors, electrodes, and connections in fabric form, advanced signal processing techniques, and modern telecommunication systems. Sensors, electrodes and connections are realized with conductive and piezoresistive yarns. The sensorized knitted fabric is produced in a one step process. The purpose
Physical function is a significant component of health-related quality of life among older adults. Potential correlates of healthy aging, including healthbehaviors and social network characteristics, were examined among 56,436 US women aged 55–72 in 1992. Healthy aging was assessed by maintenance of physical function measured by four sub-scales of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form (SF)-36 Health Survey: physical
Yvonne L. Michael; Graham A. Colditz; Eugenie Coakley; Ichiro Kawachi
This study aimed to explain the relationships among health literacy, healthbehavior, and health status, using a newly developed skills-based measure of health literacy regarding respiratory infectious diseases. This instrument was designed to measure individuals' reading, understanding, and calculating ability, as well as their oral communication and Internet-based information-seeking abilities. A pilot survey was conducted with 489 residents in Beijing, China, to test the reliability and validity of the new measure. Next, a larger study with 3,222 residents in three cities with multistage stratified cluster sampling was implemented to validate a latent variable model (goodness of fit index = 0.918, root mean square residual = 0.076). In this model higher educational attainment (? = 0.356) and more health knowledge (? = 0.306) were positively and directly associated with greater health literacy skill, while age was negatively associated with it (? = - 0.341). Age (? = 0.201) and health knowledge (? = 0.246) had positive and direct relationship with healthbehavior, which was, in turn, positively associated with health status (? = 0.209). The results illustrate the complex relationships among these constructs and should be considered when developing respiratory intervention strategies to promote healthbehavior and health status. PMID:25315592
Sun, Xinying; Yang, Shuaishuai; Fisher, Edwin B; Shi, Yuhui; Wang, Yanling; Zeng, Qingqi; Ji, Ying; Chang, Chun; Du, Weijing
This slide presentation reviews the research into the BehavioralHealth and Performance (BHP) of the Human Research Program. The program element goal is to identify, characterize and prevent or reduce behavioralhealth and performance risks associated with space travel, exploration, and return to terrestrial life. To accomplish this goal the program focuses on applied research that is designed to yield deliverables that reduce risk. There are several different elements that are of particular interest: Behavioral Medicine, Sleep, and team composition, and team work. In order to assure success for NASA missions the Human Research Program develops and validate the standards for each of the areas of interest. There is discussion of the impact on BHP while astronauts are on Long Duration Missions. The effort in this research is to create tools to meet the BHP concerns, these prospective tools are reviewed.
In the face of severe financial challenges and demands to improve quality and service to patients, many community health centers (CHCs) have aligned or integrated with other CHCs, physician groups, or hospitals. Yet the nature of and rationale for these organizational decisions are not well understood. Our research applied an organizational theoretical framework to test whether strategic adaptation theory or institutional theory best describes the integration activity of CHCs in Ohio. We collected primary data from case studies of seven CHCs selected for geographic representation and studied December 2000-January 2001. Semi-structured interviews and a case study database supported our chain of evidence. We found that CHC integration activity was substantial (five of seven CHCs integrated) and extremely varied. Consistent with strategic adaptation theory, we determined that CHC integration actions were predominantly center-specific, rational responses to environmental challenges and were initiated to improve operations or financial performance. Rarely did CHCs initiate major organizational change merely to mimic other CHC actions, as might have been expected of highly institutionalized organizations. Understanding the basis for CHCs' strategic decisions while monitoring financial health will remain critical as lawmakers and administrators work to develop policies that both maintain progress made and improve primary care access for the poor, the uninsured, and those with special health care needs served by these important safety net providers. PMID:16520510
Mortality rates are lower for married individuals than they are for unmarried individuals, and marriage seems to be even more beneficial to men than women in this regard. A theoretical model of social integration and social control is developed to explain why this may occur. Drawing from this model, I hypothesize that marriage may be beneficial to health because many
Objective: There is a dearth of studies on the mechanisms of multiple risk behaviors, even though these behaviors are significant public health issues. The authors investigated whether healthbehavior interventions have transfer or compensatory effects on other healthbehaviors. Participants and Methods: The authors looked at transfer and…
Nigg, Claudio Renato; Lee, Hye-ryeon; Hubbard, Amy E.; Min-Sun, Kim
Objective 1) To synthesize the current observational evidence for the association between sedentary behavior and health outcomes using information from systematic reviews. 2) To assess the methodological quality of the systematic reviews found. Methodology/Principal Findings Medline; Excerpta Medica (Embase); PsycINFO; and Web of Science were searched for reviews published up to September 2013. Additional publications were provided by Sedentary Behaviour Research Network members. The methodological quality of the systematic reviews was evaluated using recommended standard criteria from AMSTAR. For each review, improper use of causal language in the description of their main results/conclusion was evaluated. Altogether, 1,044 review titles were identified, 144 were read in their entirety, and 27 were included. Based on the systematic reviews with the best methodological quality, we found in children and adolescents, strong evidence of a relationship between time spent in sedentary behavior and obesity. Moreover, moderate evidence was observed for blood pressure and total cholesterol, self-esteem, social behavior problems, physical fitness and academic achievement. In adults, we found strong evidence of a relationship between sedentary behavior and all-cause mortality, fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. In addition, there is moderate evidence for incidence rates of ovarian, colon and endometrial cancers. Conclusions This overview based on the best available systematics reviews, shows that sedentary behavior may be an important determinant of health, independently of physical activity. However, the relationship is complex because it depends on the type of sedentary behavior and the age group studied. The relationship between sedentary behavior and many health outcomes remains uncertain; thus, further studies are warranted. PMID:25144686
de Rezende, Leandro Fornias Machado; Rodrigues Lopes, Mauricio; Rey-Lopez, Juan Pablo; Matsudo, Victor Keihan Rodrigues; Luiz, Olinda do Carmo
The purpose of this study was to examine Rogers' protection motivation theory and aspects of Janis and Mann's conflict theory in the context of AIDS-related healthbehavior. Subjects were 84 heterosexual men and women and 147 homosexual men with multiple sexual partners; LISREL's path-analysis techniques were used to evaluate the goodness of fit of the structural equation models. Protection motivation theory did fit the data but had considerably more explanatory power for heterosexual than for homosexual subjects (49 vs. 22%, respectively). When coping styles were added, different patterns of findings were found among both groups. Adding variables such as social norms and previous behavior increased the explained variance to 73% for heterosexual subjects and to 44% for homosexual subjects. It was concluded that although protection motivation theory did fit the data fairly adequately, expanding the theory with other variables--especially those related to previous behavior--could improve our understanding of AIDS-related healthbehavior. PMID:1744908
A new study of parents' health, medical care, and health-related behavior finds that large numbers of parents at all income levels take part in risky behaviors that are harmful to their own health and are likely to harm the health of their children. These behaviors include smoking, heavy drinking, and being overweight and sedentary. Risky…
The present study examined whether high levels of drinking are negatively associated with the likelihood of engaging in health-enhancing behaviors and positively associated with the likelihood of engaging in health-compromising behaviors. It was hypothesized that higher levels of drinking would be associated with more negative indicators of psychological health. Healthbehaviors of 183 college freshmen were assessed with the Computerized
Eleanor L. Kim; Mary E. Larimer; Denise D. Walker; G. Alan Marlatt
Background Co-occurrence of different behaviors was investigated using the theoretical underpinnings of the Transtheoretical Model, the Theory of Triadic Influence and the concept of Transfer.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Purpose To investigate relationships between different healthbehaviors' stages of change, how behaviors group, and whether study\\u000a participants cluster in terms of their behaviors.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method Relationships across stages for different behaviors were assessed in three studies with N?=?3,519,
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services is working with selected state and local health departments, academic centers, and others to develop an environmental public health tracking initiative to improve geographic and temporal surveillance of environmental hazards, exposures, and related health outcomes. The objective is to support policy strategies and interventions for disease prevention by communities and environmental health agencies at the federal, state, and local levels. The first 3 years of the initiative focused on supporting states and cities in developing capacity, information technology infrastructure, and pilot projects to demonstrate electronic linkage of environmental hazard or exposure data and disease data. The next phase requires implementation across states. This transition could provide opportunities to further integrate research, surveillance, and practice through attention to four areas. The first is to develop a shared and transparent knowledge base that draws on environmental health research and substantiates decisions about what to track and the interpretation of results. The second is to identify and address information needs of policy and stakeholder audiences in environmental health. The third is to adopt mechanisms for coordination, decision making, and governance that can incorporate and support the major entities involved. The fourth is to promote disease prevention by systematically identifying and addressing population-level environmental determinants of health and disease. PMID:16835047
Kyle, Amy D; Balmes, John R; Buffler, Patricia A; Lee, Philip R
Research on whether health education, specifically personal health classes affects behavior change is inconclusive. In this study, a sample of students from two large southeastern universities enrolled in a required personal health course and an elective personal health course were administered the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey…
Smith, Theresa M. Enyeart; Skaggs, Gary E.; Redican, Kerry J.
Altered reactivity to stress, either in the direction of exaggerated reactivity or diminished reactivity, may signal a dysregulation of systems intended to maintain homeostasis and a state of good health. Evidence has accumulated that diminished reactivity to psychosocial stress may signal poor health outcomes. One source of diminished cortisol and autonomic reactivity is the experience of adverse rearing during childhood and adolescence. The Oklahoma Family Health Patterns Project has examined a cohort of 426 healthy young adults with and without a family history of alcoholism. Regardless of family history, persons who had experienced high degrees of adversity prior to age 16 had a constellation of changes including reduced cortisol and heart rate reactivity, diminished cognitive capacity, and unstable regulation of affect, leading to behavioral impulsivity and antisocial tendencies. We present a model whereby this constellation of physiological, cognitive, and affective tendencies is consistent with altered central dopaminergic activity leading to changes in brain function that may foster impulsive and risky behaviors. These in turn may promote greater use of alcohol other drugs along with adopting poor healthbehaviors. This model provides a pathway from early life adversity to low stress reactivity that forms a basis for risky behaviors and poor health outcomes. PMID:23085387
Vertical or integratedhealth programmes? The consequences for the laboratory information firstname.lastname@example.org #12;Vertical or integratedhealth programmes? The consequences for the laboratory information system to integrate the information systems. Keywords: health information systems, clinical laboratories, integration
Purpose There is growing evidence that young men who have sex with men (YMSM) may be at increased risk for a wide range of health and mental health problems. Methods An audio-computer assisted survey was administered to a large, ethnically diverse sample of 526 YMSM (ages 18 to 24 years) recruited from bars, clubs, and other social venues using a venue-based probability sampling method. Results Subjects reported a range of health and mental health problems, and involvement in health-compromising behaviors, such as overweight/obesity, depression, suicidal thoughts/attempts, and many were found to have high rates of sexually transmitted infections. Moreover, many reported not having insurance coverage and/or limited access to care. Conclusions Many of the health concerns and risks reported by these young men are preventable and can be addressed by any number of sectors, including health care and social service providers, religious organizations, schools, and employers. PMID:17367727
Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of cancer-related behavioral risk factors among female cancer survivors, relative to women without a previous diagnosis of cancer. Methods In a large cohort of 19,948 women presenting for screening mammography, questionnaires on healthbehaviors were administered. Results 18,510 had detailed history on healthbehaviors and previous cancer history. Overall 2,713 (14.7%) reported a previous cancer history. We found statistically significant results indicating cancer survivors were less likely than those with no cancer history to: report their overall health as “excellent” (13.6% vs. 21.5%), to engage in moderate or strenuous exercise (56.5% vs. 63.3%), and to use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) (57.4% vs. 60.2%). Conversely, cancer survivors were more likely to be current smokers (6.3% vs. 5.5%) rate their overall health as “poor” (15.8% vs. 9.1%), and to report more weight gain over time. Among cancer survivors, differences also emerged by type of primary cancer. For example, cervical cancer survivors (n=370) were most likely to report being current smokers (15.7%) and regular alcohol users (71.7%) compared to other survivors. Ovarian (n=185) and uterine (n=262) cancer survivors most frequently reported being obese (41% and 34.4% respectively). Cervical cancer survivors reported the largest weight gain (4.9 lbs at 5 yrs and 13.4 lbs at 10 yrs). Conclusions These results suggest opportunities for tailored behavioralhealth risk factor interventions for specific populations of cancer survivors. PMID:21293247
Rausch, Sarah M.; Millay, Shannon; Scott, Chris; Pruthi, Sandhya; Clark, Matthew M.; Patten, Christi; Stan, Daniela; Sellers, Thomas; Vachon, Celine
Background Various forms of community disorder are associated with health outcomes but little is known about how dynamic context where an adolescent spends time relates to her health-related behaviors. Objective Assess whether exposure to contexts associated with crime (as a marker of community disorder) correlates with self-reported health-related behaviors among adolescent girls. Methods Girls (N?=?52), aged 14–17, were recruited from a single geographic urban area and monitored for 1 week using a GPS-enabled cell phone. Adolescents completed an audio computer-assisted self-administered interview survey on substance use (cigarette, alcohol, or marijuana use) and sexual intercourse in the last 30 days. In addition to recorded home and school address, phones transmitted location data every 5 minutes (path points). Using ArcGIS, we defined community disorder as aggregated point-level Unified Crime Report data within a 200-meter Euclidian buffer from home, school and each path point. Using Stata, we analyzed how exposures to areas of higher crime prevalence differed among girls who reported each behavior or not. Results Participants lived and spent time in areas with variable crime prevalence within 200 meters of their home, school and path points. Significant differences in exposure occurred based on home location among girls who reported any substance use or not (p 0.04) and sexual intercourse or not (p 0.01). Differences in exposure by school and path points were only significant among girls reporting any substance use or not (p 0.03 and 0.02, respectively). Exposure also varied by school/non-school day as well as time of day. Conclusions Adolescent travel patterns are not random. Furthermore, the crime context where an adolescent spends time relates to her health-related behavior. These data may guide policy relating to crime control and inform time- and space-specific interventions to improve adolescent health. PMID:24278107
Wiehe, Sarah E.; Kwan, Mei-Po; Wilson, Jeff; Fortenberry, J. Dennis
The authors found the behavioral factors that influence the organization members' compliance with the information security policy in organizations on the basis of neutralization theory, Theory of planned behavior, and protection motivation theory. Depending on the theory of planned behavior, members' attitudes towards compliance, as well as normative belief and self-efficacy, were believed to determine the intention to comply with the information security policy. Neutralization theory, a prominent theory in criminology, could be expected to provide the explanation for information system security policy violations. Based on the protection motivation theory, it was inferred that the expected efficacy could have an impact on intentions of compliance. By the above logical reasoning, the integrativebehavioral model and eight hypotheses could be derived. Data were collected by conducting a survey; 194 out of 207 questionnaires were available. The test of the causal model was conducted by PLS. The reliability, validity, and model fit were found to be statistically significant. The results of the hypotheses tests showed that seven of the eight hypotheses were acceptable. The theoretical implications of this study are as follows: (1) the study is expected to play a role of the baseline for future research about organization members' compliance with the information security policy, (2) the study attempted an interdisciplinary approach by combining psychology and information system security research, and (3) the study suggested concrete operational definitions of influencing factors for information security policy compliance through a comprehensive theoretical review. Also, the study has some practical implications. First, it can provide the guideline to support the successful execution of the strategic establishment for the implement of information system security policies in organizations. Second, it proves that the need of education and training programs suppressing members' neutralization intention to violate information security policy should be emphasized. PMID:24971373
of Preventive Medicine at Northwestern University Faculty Positions (Rank Open). The Center for Behavior and Health and the Behavioral Medicine Division, Department of Preventive Medicine at Northwestern seeks health. In addition to behavioral scientists and physicians, the Department of Preventive Medicine's 45
Background Most school health education programs focus on a single behavioral domain. Integrative programs that address multiple behaviors may be more efficient, but only if the elements of change are similar for these behaviors. The objective of this study was to examine which effective elements of school health education are similar across three particular behavioral domains. Methods A systematic review of reviews of the effectiveness of school-based health promotion programs was conducted for the domains of substance abuse, sexual behavior, and nutrition. The literature search spanned the time period between 1995 and October 2006 and included three databases, websites of review centers and backward search. Fifty-five reviews and meta-analyses met predetermined relevance and publication criteria and were included. Data was extracted by one reviewer and checked by a second reviewer. A standardized data extraction form was used, with detailed attention to effective elements pertaining to program goals, development, content, methods, facilitator, components and intensity. Two assessors rated the quality of reviews as strong, moderate or weak. We included only strong and moderate reviews in two types of analysis: one based on interpretation of conflicting results, the other on a specific vote-counting rule. Results Thirty six reviews were rated strong, 6 moderate, and 13 weak. A multitude of effective elements was identified in the included reviews and many elements were similar for two or more domains. In both types of analysis, five elements with evidence from strong reviews were found to be similar for all three domains: use of theory; addressing social influences, especially social norms; addressing cognitive-behavioral skills; training of facilitators; and multiple components. Two additional elements had positive results in all domains with the rule-based method of analysis, but had inconclusive results in at least one domain with the interpretion-based method of analysis: parent involvement and a larger number of sessions. Conclusion Five effective elements of school health promotion were found to be similar across the three behavioral domains examined (substance abuse, sexual behavior, nutrition). An integrative program that addresses the three domains seems feasible. The five elements are primary candidates to include in programs targeting these behaviors. PMID:19523195
Peters, Louk WH; Kok, Gerjo; Ten Dam, Geert TM; Buijs, Goof J; Paulussen, Theo GWM
Objective To determine the extent to which the elimination of behavioralhealth benefits for selected beneficiaries of Oregon's Medicaid program affected general medical expenditures among enrollees using outpatient mental health and substance abuse treatment services. Data Source/Study Setting Twelve months of claims before and 12 months following a 2003 policy change, which included the elimination of the behavioralhealth benefit for selected Oregon Medicaid enrollees. Study Design We use a difference-in-differences approach to estimate the change in general medical expenditures following the 2003 policy change. We compare two methodological approaches: regression with propensity score weighting; and one-to-one covariate matching. Principal Findings Enrollees who had accessed the substance abuse treatment benefit demonstrated substantial and statistically significant increases in expenditures. Individuals who accessed the outpatient mental health benefit demonstrated a decrease or no change in expenditures, depending on model specification. Conclusions Elimination of the substance abuse benefit led to increased medical expenditures, although this offset was still smaller than the total cost of the benefit. In contrast, individuals who accessed the outpatient mental health benefit did not exhibit a similar increase, although these individuals did not include a portion of the Medicaid population with severe mental illnesses. PMID:18384360
McConnell, K John; Wallace, Neal T; Gallia, Charles A; Smith, Jeanene A
Problem: Preventive interventions to reduce occupational injuries and health problems in farmers require the identification of factors that contribute to unsafe and health damaging behavior. This paper describes the development and validation of a self–report questionnaire, which measures the determinants of occupational health-related behaviors in farmers. Method: A representative sample of 283 Flemish farmers completed a provisional 135 item questionnaire
This article describes the process used by a large U.S. manufacturing company to successfully integrate full-service primary care centers at two locations. The company believed that by providing employees with health promotion and disease prevention services, including screening, early diagnosis, and uncomplicated illness treatment, its health care costs could be significantly reduced while saving employees money. To accurately demonstrate the cost-effectiveness of adding primary care to existing occupational health services, a thorough financial analysis projected the return on investment (ROI) of the program. Decisions were made about center size, the scope of services, and staffing. A critical part of the ROI analysis involved evaluating employee health claim data to identify the actual cost of health care services for each center and the projected costs if the services were provided on-site. The pilot initiative included constructing two on-site health center facilities staffed with primary care physicians, nurse practitioners, physical therapists, and other health care professionals. Key outcome metrics from the pilot clinics exceeded goals in three of four categories. In addition, clinic use after 12 months far exceeded benchmarks for similar clinics. Most importantly, the pilot clinics were operating with a positive cash flow within the first year and demonstrated an increasingly positive ROI. PMID:21188796
Background An integrated sense of professionalism enables health professionals to draw on relevant knowledge in context and to apply a set of professional responsibilities and ethical principles in the midst of changing work environments [1,2]. Inculcating professionalism is therefore a critical goal of health professional education. Two multi-professional courses for first year Health Science students at the University of Cape Town, South Africa aim to lay the foundation for becoming an integratedhealth professional . In these courses a diagram depicting the domains of the integratedhealth professional is used to focus the content of small group experiential exercises towards an appreciation of professionalism. The diagram serves as an organising framework for conceptualising an emerging professional identity and for directing learning towards the domains of 'self as professional' [4,5]. Objective This paper describes how a diagrammatic representation of the core elements of an integratedhealth professional is used as a template for framing course content and for organising student learning. Based on the assumption that all health care professionals should be knowledgeable, empathic and reflective, the diagram provides students and educators with a visual tool for investigating the subjective and objective dimensions of professionalism. The use of the diagram as an integrating point of reference for individual and small group learning is described and substantiated with relevant literature. Conclusion The authors have applied the diagram with positive impact for the past six years with students and educators reporting that "it just makes sense". The article includes plans for formal evaluation. Evaluation to date is based on preliminary, informal feedback on the value of the diagram as a tool for capturing the domains of professionalism at an early stage in the undergraduate education of health professional students. PMID:18005420
The Integrative Model for Environmental Health (IMEH) has guided research, literature reviews, and practice initiatives since 2002. This paper presents the Modified IMEH that was developed based on using the IMEH as a guiding conceptual framework in a community-based participatory research environmental health project. Concepts from the Model of Risk Information Seeking and Processing as well as emergent themes from the data analysis were instrumental in this process. The Modified IMEH alters the structure of the IMEH in that the Vulnerability and Epistemological Domains are more prominent and feedback between domains is included. PMID:23452111
Polivka, Barbara J.; Chaudry, Rosemary; Mac Crawford, J.; Wilson, Robyn; Galos, Dylan
Past empirical evidence has suggested that a positive supervisor feedback environment may enhance employees' organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). In this study, we aim to extend previous research by proposing and testing an integrative model that examines the mediating processes underlying the relationship between supervisor feedback environment and employee OCB. Data were collected from 259 subordinate-supervisor dyads across a variety of organizations in Taiwan. We used structural equation modeling to test our hypotheses. The results demonstrated that supervisor feedback environment influenced employees' OCB indirectly through (1) both positive affective-cognition and positive attitude (i.e., person-organization fit and organizational commitment), and (2) both negative affective-cognition and negative attitude (i.e., role stressors and job burnout). Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:21166326
Part of a three-volume document, this volume is concerned with providing source data about the activities of mental health nursing personnel as the activities relate to patient care and contains abstracts of more than 4,000 critical behaviors of psychiatric attendants in 50 psychiatric hospitals, general hospitals with psychiatric units, and…
Part of a three-volume document, this volume is concerned with providing source data about the activities of mental health nursing personnel as these activities relate to patient care, and contains abstracts of more than 4,000 critical behaviors of psychiatric nurses in 50 psychiatric hospitals, general hospitals with psychiatric units, and…
Background: Chronic disease risk factors tend to cooccur. Purpose: This study examined the cooccurrence of 8 negative healthbehaviors in a representative sample of urban adolescents to inform educational interventions. Methods: The prevalence, cooccurrence, and clustering of suicide attempt, lifetime history of sexual activity, tobacco use, cell…
Coleman, Casey; Wileyto, E. Paul; Lenhart, Clare M.; Patterson, Freda
The purpose of this study was to examine Rogers' protection motivation theory and aspects of Janis and Mann's conflict theory in the context of AIDS-related healthbehavior. Subjects were 84 heterosexual men and women and 147 homosexual men with multiple sexual partners; LISREL's path-analysis techniques were used to evaluate the goodness of fit of the structural equation models. Protection motivation
The social and physical environments have long since been recognized as important determinants of health. People in urban settings are exposed to a variety of health hazards that are interconnected with their health effects. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have underlined the multidimensional nature of poverty and the connections between health and social conditions and present an opportunity to move beyond narrow sectoral interventions and to develop comprehensive social responses and participatory processes that address the root causes of health inequity. Considering the complexity and magnitude of health, poverty, and environmental issues in cities, it is clear that improvements in health and health equity demand not only changes in the physical and social environment of cities, but also an integrated approach that takes into account the wider socioeconomic and contextual factors affecting health. Integrated or multilevel approaches should address not only the immediate, but also the underlying and particularly the fundamental causes at societal level of related health issues. The political and legal organization of the policy-making process has been identified as a major determinant of urban and global health, as a result of the role it plays in creating possibilities for participation, empowerment, and its influence on the content of public policies and the distribution of scarce resources. This paper argues that it is essential to adopt a long-term multisectoral approach to address the social determinants of health in urban settings. For comprehensive approaches to address the social determinants of health effectively and at multiple levels, they need explicitly to tackle issues of participation, governance, and the politics of power, decision making, and empowerment. PMID:17393340
After a difficult transition from the previous vendor to the Massachusetts BehavioralHealth Partnership (MBHP), Year 6 was a year of stability and incremental changes for the Massachusetts BehavioralHealth Program. This assessment of Year 6 is based on interviews with key players, data provided by the MBHP, a survey of providers, as well as on the fifth year of an ongoing review of the program. Results indicate that enrollment grew, and new services were developed in response to identified needs. Providers considered access, utilization, and quality of care to be the same or better than a year earlier. Coordination improved, but was not optimal. Clinical and overall decisions with MBHP were collaborative or negotiated and less hierarchical in manner than the previous year. Providers rated MBHP better than other managed care organizations on quality of care and utilization review decisions, access, flexibility, and administration. PMID:11194120
The goal of NASA BHP is to identify, characterize, and prevent or reduce behavioralhealth and performance risks associated with space travel, exploration, and return to terrestrial life. The NASA BehavioralHealth and Performance Operations Group (BHP Ops) supports astronauts and their families before, during, and after a long-duration mission (LDM) on the ISS. BHP Ops provides ISS crews with services such as preflight training (e.g., psychological factors of LDM, psychological support, cross-cultural); preflight, in-flight, and postflight support services, including counseling for astronauts and their families; and psychological support such as regular care packages and a voice-over IP phone system between crew members and their families to facilitate real-time one-on-one communication.
In 2005, New Mexico implemented a unique reform in managed behavioralhealth services that seeks to ensure delivery of consumer-driven, recovery-oriented care to low-income individuals. Distinguishing features of the reform are the Local Collaboratives (LCs), regionally based community organizations designed by state government to represent behavioralhealth concerns of New Mexico's diverse cultural populations. We examine community response to the LCs, focusing on two broad sets of themes derived from 18 months of ethnographic fieldwork. The first set—structure and function—encompasses several issues: predominance of provider versus consumer voice; insufficient resources to support internal operations; imposition of state administrative demands; and perceived lack of state response to LC efforts. The second set—participation and collaboration—reveals how problems of information flow and other logistical factors impact involvement in LCs and how the construction of “community” introduced under this initiative exacerbates tensions across localities with varied histories and populations. PMID:19764315
Kano, Miria; Willging, Cathleen E.; Rylko-Bauer, Barbara
Abstract Many investigators are considering developing videogames for health (video-G4Hs) but have questions about how to get started. This report provides guidance for investigators considering a G4H as a behavioral intervention procedure from a team of experienced G4H developers. Thirteen commonly asked questions are answered, including defining a G4H, considerations in developing a team, considerations in G4H design, and anticipating unintended consequences. PMID:24443708
Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate oral health attitude and behavior of a group of Turkish children aged between 6-12 years Methods: A sample of 139 children attending Marmara University Dentistry School (MUDS) Department of Pediatrics Dentistry between December 2002 to April 2003 was selected. Results: The mean age for girls was 8.82 yr (SD=2.06) and for
The relation among healthbehaviors, social support, and community morale—attitudes toward one’ community, such as attachment\\u000a and social participation—was examined in 597 adults living in a Japanese community. Logistic models revealed that strong spousal\\u000a support was related to reduced alcohol drinking and enhanced family support was related to a reduction in smoking. The support\\u000a of friends was positively associated with
\\u000a Behavioral healthcare involves the collection, utilization, and disclosure of sensitive information pertaining to mental illness\\u000a and substance use disorders. Though the public perception of mental illness has shifted in recent years, patients remain more\\u000a hesitant to seek treatment for mental health issues than for physical illness due to stigma and fear of discrimination1 and the potential for emotional, professional, social,
This study examined the longitudinal association between contextual stress and health risk behaviors and the role of protective\\u000a factors in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural\\u000a equation modeling was used to create a latent variable measuring contextual stress (community violence, neighborhood disorder,\\u000a and experiences with racial discrimination). Contextual stress in 8th grade was
Nikeea Copeland-Linder; Sharon F. Lambert; Yi-Fu Chen; Nicholas S. Ialongo
Previous literature suggests that the adolescent at risk to engage in substance use and other negative health-related behaviors is deviant in a negative sense (i.e., rebellious, antisocial, and alienated from traditional institutions). However, some researchers have distinguished between two types of deviance-a true autonomy and independence that is more positive and constructive, and a reactant “anticonformity” that is more negative
Laurie Chassin; Clark C. Presson; Steven J. Sherman
Individuals can now obtain their personal genomic information via direct-to-consumer genetic testing, but what, if any, impact will this have on their lifestyle and health? A recent longitudinal cohort study of individuals who underwent consumer genome scanning found minimal impacts of testing on risk-reducing lifestyle behaviors, such as diet and exercise. These results raise an important question: is personal genomic information likely to beneficially impact public health through motivation of lifestyle behavioral change? In this article, we review the literature on lifestyle behavioral change in response to genetic testing for common disease susceptibility variants. We find that only a few studies have been carried out, and that those that have been done have yielded little evidence to suggest that the mere provision of genetic information alone results in widespread changes in lifestyle healthbehaviors. We suggest that further study of this issue is needed, in particular studies that examine response to multiplex testing for multiple genetic markers and conditions. This will be critical as we anticipate the wide availability of whole-genome sequencing and more comprehensive phenotyping of individuals. We also note that while simple communication of genomic information and disease susceptibility may be sufficient to catalyze lifestyle changes in some highly motivated groups of individuals, for others, additional strategies may be required to prompt changes, including more sophisticated means of risk communication (e.g., in the context of social norm feedback) either alone or in combination with other promising interventions (e.g., real-time wireless health monitoring devices). PMID:22199991
Bloss, Cinnamon S; Madlensky, Lisa; Schork, Nicholas J; Topol, Eric J
Abstract English: This study examined the priority healthbehaviors among Chinese youth by administering a questionnaire to 1,917 undergraduates,enrolled in three universities in China. The response ratewas,89.7%. This survey found that 75.2% of the participants tried cigarettes at least once during their lifetime, over half had their first cigarette and alcoholic drink before age 15, and over 80% had their
Pesticides have a role in public health as part of sustainable integrated mosquito management. Other components of such management include surveillance, source reduction or prevention, biological control, repellents, traps, and pesticide-resistance management. We assess the future use of mosquito control pesticides in view of niche markets, incentives for new product development, Environmental Protection Agency registration, the Food Quality Protection Act, and improved pest management strategies for mosquito control. PMID:11266290
There has been a substantial decrease in the prevalence of caries in younger age groups in the western world during the last 15 years. A corresponding increase has been reported regarding use of preventive remedies. Since prevention and control of dental disease is highly dependent upon personal behavior, investigations of dental healthbehaviors within subgroups of the population are important for future preventive strategies. Occurrence and changes in individual dental healthbehaviors in Norway were studied through four sets of cross-sectional data collected in 1981, 1983, 1985, and 1987. Personal interviews performed by trained interviewers were held with probability samples, each of about 1400 persons, covering the Norwegian population aged 15 and above. During the 6-yr period the proportion of individuals who brushed their teeth and used fluoride dentifrice every day increased. The number of people who used toothpicks or dental floss every day also increased from 1981 to 1985. A marked decrease was, however, observed in use of interdental remedies from 1985 to 1987. Daily use of dental floss was reduced by 10 percent points. Logistic regression showed that the reduction in the probability of using interdental aids was most pronounced among those with few teeth. Lower importance attached to dental health education, at all levels, combined with difficult economic times since 1987, might account for the decrease in daily use of interdental aids in Norway. PMID:1742984
Prior to the Columbia STS 107 disaster in 2003, the Johnson Space Center s BehavioralHealth and Performance Group (BHP) became involved in Space Shuttle Operations on an as needed basis, occasionally acting as a consultant and primarily addressing crew-crew personality conflicts. The BHP group also assisted with astronaut selection at every selection cycle beginning in 1991. Following STS 107, an event that spawned an increased need of behavioralhealth support to STS crew members and their dependents, BHP services to the Space Shuttle Program were enhanced beginning with the STS 114 Return to Flight mission in 2005. These services included the presence of BHP personnel at STS launches and landings for contingency support, a BHP briefing to the entire STS crew at L-11 months, a private preflight meeting with the STS Commander at L-9 months, and the presence of a BHP consultant at the L-1.5 month Family Support Office briefing to crew and family members. The later development of an annual behavioralhealth assessment of all active astronauts also augmented BHP s Space Shuttle Program specific services, allowing for private meetings with all STS crew members before and after each mission. The components of each facet of these BHP Space Shuttle Program support services will be presented, along with valuable lessons learned, and with recommendations for BHP involvement in future short duration space missions
Previous studies have shown that adolescent religious participation is negatively associated with risky healthbehaviors such as cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and illicit drug use. One explanation for these findings is that religion directly reduces risky behaviors because churches provide youths with moral guidance or with strong social networks that reinforce social norms. An alternative explanation is that both religious participation and risky healthbehaviors are driven by some common unobserved individual trait. We use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and implement an instrumental variables approach to identify the effect of religious participation on smoking, binge drinking, and marijuana use. Following Gruber (2005), we use a county-level measure of religious market density as an instrument. We find that religious market density has a strong positive association with adolescent religious participation, but not with secular measures of social capital. Upon accounting for unobserved heterogeneity, we find that religious participation continues to have a significant negative effect on illicit drug use. On the contrary, the estimated effects of attendance in instrumental variables models of binge drinking and smoking are statistically imprecise. PMID:20882576
Using a multidimensional assessment of health literacy (the Cancer Message Literacy Test-Listening, the Cancer Message Literacy Test-Reading, and the Lipkus Numeracy Scale), the authors assessed a stratified random sample of 1013 insured adults (40–70 years of age). The authors explored whether low health literacy across all 3 domains (n = 111) was associated with sets of variables likely to affect engagement in cancer prevention and screening activities: (a) attitudes and behaviors relating to health care encounters and providers, (b) attitudes toward cancer and health, (c) knowledge of cancer screening tests, and (d) attitudes toward health related media and actual media use. Adults with low health literacy were more likely to report avoiding doctor's visits, to have more fatalistic attitudes toward cancer, to be less accurate in identifying the purpose of cancer screening tests, and more likely to avoid information about diseases they did not have. Compared with other participants, those with lower health literacy were more likely to say that they would seek information about cancer prevention or screening from a health care professional and less likely to turn to the Internet first for such information. Those with lower health literacy reported reading on fewer days and using the computer on fewer days than did other participants. The authors assessed the association of low health literacy with colorectal cancer screening in an age-appropriate subgroup for which colorectal cancer screening is recommended. In these insured subjects receiving care in integratedhealth care delivery systems, those with low health literacy were less likely to be up to date on screening for colorectal cancer, but the difference was not statistically significant. PMID:24093358
Morris, Nancy S.; Field, Terry S.; Wagner, Joann L.; Cutrona, Sarah L.; Roblin, Douglas W.; Gaglio, Bridget; Williams, Andrew E.; Han, Paul J. K.; Costanza, Mary E.; Mazor, Kathleen M.
Several recent prospective analyses involving community-based populations have demonstrated a protective effect on survival\\u000a for frequent attendance at religious services. How such involvement increases survival are unclear. To test the hypothesis\\u000a that religious attendance might serve to improve and maintain good healthbehaviors, mental health, and social relationships,\\u000a changes and consistencies in these variables were studied between 1965 and 1994
William J. Strawbridge; Sarah J. Shema; Richard D. Cohen; George A. Kaplan
An Institute of Medicine committee examined the links between biological, psychosocial, and behavioral factors and health; reviewed effective applications of behavioral interventions (individual behavior, families, organizations, communities, and society); and discussed the production and maintenance of behavior change. The paper presents a…
Pellmar, Terry C.; Brandt, Edward N., Jr.; Baird, Macaran A.
This article explores the health policy repercussions of countries' regional integration into the European Union. The aim is to review the regulation of access in other countries, with the conclusion of the single European market and the free circulation of persons, services, goods, and capital. The article begins by reviewing the various forms of integration and describes the expansion and institutionalization of Community agencies. The repercussions of European integration on health policies and regulation of access are analyzed. Market impacts on health result from Treaty directives and internal policy adjustments to free circulation. Health services access is gradually regulated and granted by rulings. Projects along borders illustrate the dynamics where differences are used to achieve comprehensive care. In the oldest integration experience, the market regulation has generated intentional and non-intentional impacts on the health policies of member states, regardless of the organizational model. Knowledge and analysis of this experience signals challenges for the Southern Cone Common Market (Mercosur) and adds to future debates and decisions. PMID:16917576
The Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) plays a vital role in financing behavioralhealth services for low-income children. This study examines behavioralhealth benefit design and management in separate CHIP programs on the eve of federal requirements for behavioralhealth parity. Even before parity implementation, many state CHIP programs did not impose service limits or cost sharing for behavioralhealth benefits. However, a substantial share of states imposed limits or cost sharing that might hinder access to care. The majority of states use managed care to administer behavioralhealth benefits. It is important to monitor how states adapt their programs to comply with parity. PMID:21461975
Beardslee, William R.; Greenfield, Shelly F.; Meara, Ellen
To assess factors that affect the adoption of healthy lifestyles among a variety of active Israeli seniors, a survey was conducted in 2002 at the Peiluyada, a physical activity-oriented health fair for seniors held annually in Israel from 1995 to 2002. A multi-language, self-administered questionnaire, assessing predisposing factors, barriers and health-protective behaviors, was fielded to potential participants. Response rate at the event was 51%. Hebrew and Arabic speakers generally characterized their health as good to very good, while Russian speakers' health was rated only poor to fair. Over 80% engaged in regular physical activity, were satisfied with their diet, and conformed to international nutritional recommendations. Vaccination coverage against influenza (81%) and pneumocccocus (58%) was highest among Arabic speakers, and lowest among Russian speakers (33.5% and 12%, respectively). Higher age (> or =75 years) was significantly associated with receiving a vaccination against influenza. Major barriers to exercise included low motivation and poor physical health or disability. Health-related dietary restrictions were the leading nutritional barrier. Prominent barriers to vaccination included concerns about vaccine effectiveness (39%) and side effects (29%). Leading cues to action were a recommendation from one's doctor (67%) and from a healthcare worker (51%). PMID:17764762
The proliferation of lotteries and casinos has led to increased participation in gambling. Older adults who have opportunities to gamble may be vulnerable to gambling problems, and incarcerated older adults may be the most vulnerable. Furthermore, research has linked decreased health to gambling problems. This study compared perceived health and gambling problems among 43 incarcerated older adults from two county jails in the midwestern United States. Results from the South Oaks Gambling Screen indicated 48.83% of the sample scored in the problem or pathological range. Short Form-36 results were compared with U.S. norms for ages 55 to 64 and showed significantly lower perceived health scores on Role-Physical, Bodily Pain, Mental Health, Social Functioning, and Role-Emotional subscales. The problem and pathological gamblers showed significantly lower social functioning than the recreational gamblers. Assessment of health conditions and gambling behaviors is important for quantifying current and anticipated burdens of these conditions on correctional health care systems and the community. PMID:22801820
Kerber, Cindy H; Hickey, Kari L; Astroth, Kim M; Kim, MyoungJin
A cross-sectional, convenient sample of adolescents (N = 2101) from 8 states were queried regarding interest in tattooing. Permanent markings and blood-borne diseases were reasons respondents refrain from tattooing, yet 55% (n = 1159) expressed an interest in tattooing. Tattooed adolescents in the sample (10%, n = 213) responded with their experiences. Tattooing was frequently done around the 9th grade and as early as 8 years of age; over half (56%, n = 120) report academic grades of As and Bs. Potential health risks and definite psychosocial findings of purchase and possession risks were evident, building on data from a similar 1994 study by Armstrong and McConnell. Health providers and educators should initiate applicable health education and become community adolescent advocates regarding this risk-taking behavior. Findings indicate that adolescents who want a tattoo will obtain one, regardless of money, regulations, or risks. Adolescents view the tattoos as objects of self-identity and body art, whereas adults perceive the markings as deviant behavior. Informed decision-making could be promoted in health education by incorporating information about the possibility of blood-borne diseases, permanent markings, and themselves as growing and changing people. PMID:9419914
Women worldwide confront two frequently concurrent reproductive health challenges: the need for contraception and for protection from sexually transmitted infections, importantly HIV/AIDS. While conception and infection share the same anatomical site and mode of transmission, there are no reproductive health technologies to date that simultaneously address that reality. Relevant available technologies are either contraceptive or anti-infective, are limited in number, and require different modes of administration and management. These “single-indication” technologies do not therefore fully respond to what is a substantial reproductive health need intimately linked to pivotal events in many women's lives. This paper reviews an integrated attempt to develop multipurpose prevention technologies—“MPTs”—products explicitly designed to simultaneously address the need for both contraception and protection from sexually transmitted infections. It describes an innovative and iterative MPT product development strategy with the following components: identifying different needs for such technologies and global variations in reproductive health priorities, defining “Target Product Profiles” as the framework for a research and development “roadmap,” collating an integrated MPT pipeline and characterizing significant pipeline gaps, exploring anticipated regulatory requirements, prioritizing candidates for problem-solving and resource investments, and implementing an ancillary advocacy agenda to support this breadth of effort. PMID:23533733
Harrison, P. F.; Hemmerling, A.; Romano, J.; Whaley, K. J.; Young Holt, B.
Three projects were funded under the national Mental HealthIntegration Program (MHIP) in 1999, each of which employed a different model aimed at improving linkages between disparate parts of the mental health system. A national evaluation framework guided local evaluations of these projects, and this paper presents a synthesis of the findings. For providers, the projects improved working relationships, created learning opportunities and increased referral and shared care opportunities. For consumers and carers, the projects resulted in a greater range of options and increased continuity of care. For the wider system, the projects achieved significant structural and cultural change. Cost-wise, there were no increases in expenditure, and even some reductions. Many of the lessons from the projects (and their evaluations) may be generalised to other mental health settings and beyond. PMID:15865570
Eagar, Kathy; Pirkis, Jane E; Owen, Alan; Burgess, Philip M; Posner, Natasha; Perkins, David A
Background Health system weaknesses in Africa are broadly well known, constraining progress on reducing the burden of both communicable and non-communicable disease (Afr Health Monitor, Special issue, 2011, 14-24), and the key challenges in leadership, governance, health workforce, medical products, vaccines and technologies, information, finance and service delivery have been well described (Int Arch Med, 2008, 1:27). This paper uses focus group methodology to explore health worker perspectives on the challenges posed to integration of mental health into primary care by generic health system weakness. Methods Two ninety minute focus groups were conducted in Nyanza province, a poor agricultural region of Kenya, with 20 health workers drawn from a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the impact of a mental health training programme for primary care, 10 from the intervention group clinics where staff had received the training programme, and 10 health workers from the control group where staff had not received the training). Results These focus group discussions suggested that there are a number of generic health system weaknesses in Kenya which impact on the ability of health workers to care for clients with mental health problems and to implement new skills acquired during a mental health continuing professional development training programmes. These weaknesses include the medicine supply, health management information system, district level supervision to primary care clinics, the lack of attention to mental health in the national health sector targets, and especially its absence in district level targets, which results in the exclusion of mental health from such district level supervision as exists, and the lack of awareness in the district management team about mental health. The lack of mental health coverage included in HIV training courses experienced by the health workers was also striking, as was the intensive focus during district supervision on HIV to the detriment of other health issues. Conclusion Generic health system weaknesses in Kenya impact on efforts for horizontal integration of mental health into routine primary care practice, and greatly frustrate health worker efforts. Improvement of medicine supplies, information systems, explicit inclusion of mental health in district level targets, management and supervision to primary care are likely to greatly improve primary care health worker effectiveness, and enable training programmes to be followed by better use in the field of newly acquired skills. A major lever for horizontal integration of mental health into the health system would be the inclusion of mental health in the national health sector reform strategy at community, primary care and district levels rather than just at the higher provincial and national levels, so that supportive supervision from the district level to primary care would become routine practice rather than very scarce activity. Trial registration Trial registration ISRCTN 53515024 PMID:24079756
POSITION ANNOUNCEMENT Public Service Assistant: Integrated Pest Management and Forest Health Program Coordinator - The Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health University of Georgia Position: Twelve month, non- tenure track Public Service Assistant with responsibilities in Integrated Pest
Background Healthbehavior interventions using periodic prompts have utilized technology, such as the Internet, that allows messages to be sent to participants in cost-effective ways. To our knowledge, no comprehensive evidence review has been performed specifically to evaluate the effectiveness of communicating regular messages and to examine how characteristics of the prompts change the effectiveness of programs aimed at reminding people to adopt healthy behaviors, maintain those they already practice, and cease unhealthy behaviors. Objective A systematic literature review was performed to investigate the effectiveness of limited contact interventions targeting weight loss, physical activity, and/or diet that provided periodic prompts regarding behavior change for health promotion. The review sought to identify specific characteristics of these interventions that may be associated with superior results. Methods Electronic literature searches were performed between February and April, 2008. Articles were included if periodic prompts were used as an intervention or a component of an intervention, a behavioral or biological outcome measure was used, and an ongoing health promotion behavior was targeted. A rating system was applied to each study to provide a quantitative representation of the quality of the evidence provided by each article. Results There were 19 articles with a combined sample size of 15,655 that met the inclusion criteria, and 11 studies reported positive findings regarding the utility of periodic prompts. Several articles showed enhanced effectiveness when prompts were frequent and personal contact with a counselor was included. Long-term behavior change and health improvements were not examined by this review because of a lack of long-term follow-up in the literature. Conclusions In light of promising results of most studies, additional research on limited contact interventions targeting healthbehaviors including weight loss, physical activity, and/or diet is merited that utilizes rigorous methods including control groups; follow-up data collection; and testing of prompt frequencies, specific intervention components, or prompt characteristics. Future research would be especially valuable if it improves understanding of the most effective types of periodic prompts for fostering long-term behavior change in order to maximize use of this tool in limited contact health promotion programs. Specifically, various types of communication technology should be used and evaluated to expand and refine their use. PMID:19632970
This study assessed the prevalence of healthbehaviors among non-academic staff at a Midwestern U.S. university. A sample of 627 women and 237 men completed a web survey for the study. Most of the healthbehaviors showed no sex difference. Healthbehaviors of drinking, smoking, and irregular breakfast eating were significantly associated with…
Many adolescents' health problems arise from preventable behaviors, such as unprotected sexual intercourse and the use of tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs. The 1992 Washington State Survey of Adolescent HealthBehaviors (WSSAHB) was created in order to collect information on a variety of healthbehaviors among students in the state of…
??Although integrity has been found to significantly predict job performance and counterproductive behaviors, the constructs that underlie it have remained unclear. Personality, specifically conscientiousness, has… (more)
Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) systems for aerospace vehicles, is the process of assessing, preserving, and restoring system functionality across flight and techniques with sensor and communication technologies for spacecraft that can generate responses through detection, diagnosis, reasoning, and adapt to system faults in support of Integrated Intelligent Vehicle Management (IIVM). These real-time responses allow the IIVM to modify the affected vehicle subsystem(s) prior to a catastrophic event. Furthermore, this framework integrates technologies which can provide a continuous, intelligent, and adaptive health state of a vehicle and use this information to improve safety and reduce costs of operations. Recent investments in avionics, health management, and controls have been directed towards IIVM. As this concept has matured, it has become clear that IIVM requires the same sensors and processing capabilities as the real-time avionics functions to support diagnosis of subsystem problems. New sensors have been proposed, in addition to augment the avionics sensors to support better system monitoring and diagnostics. As the designs have been considered, a synergy has been realized where the real-time avionics can utilize sensors proposed for diagnostics and prognostics to make better real-time decisions in response to detected failures. IIVM provides for a single system allowing modularity of functions and hardware across the vehicle. The framework that supports IIVM consists of 11 major on-board functions necessary to fully manage a space vehicle maintaining crew safety and mission objectives. These systems include the following: Guidance and Navigation; Communications and Tracking; Vehicle Monitoring; Information Transport and Integration; Vehicle Diagnostics; Vehicle Prognostics; Vehicle Mission Planning, Automated Repair and Replacement; Vehicle Control; Human Computer Interface; and Onboard Verification and Validation. Furthermore, the presented framework provides complete vehicle management which not only allows for increased crew safety and mission success through new intelligence capabilities, but also yields a mechanism for more efficient vehicle operations.
Paris, Deidre; Trevino, Luis C.; Watson, Michael D.
OBJECTIVE: To study the ways in which allocating the risk for behavioralhealth care expenses between employers and a managed behavioralhealth organization affects costs and the use of services. DATA SOURCES: Claims from 87 plans that cover mental health and substance abuse services covering over one million member years in 1996/1997. STUDY DESIGN: Multi-part regression models for health care cost are used. Dependent variables are health care costs decomposed into access to any care, costs per user, any inpatient use, costs per outpatient user, and costs per inpatient user. The study compares full-risk plans, in which the managed care organization provides managed care services and acts as the insurer by assuming the risk for claims costs, with contracts in which the managed care organization only manages care (for a fixed administrative fee) and the employer retains the risk for claims. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Full-risk plans are not statistically significantly different from non-risk plans in terms of any mental health specialty use or hospitalization rates, but costs per user are significantly lower, in particular for inpatients. CONCLUSIONS: Risk contracts do not affect initial access to mental health specialty care or hospitalization rates, but patients in risk contracts have lower costs, either because of lower intensity of care or because they are treated by less expensive providers. PMID:11055447
Many of the strategic planning studies worldwide have made recommendations to the policy makers on the steps to be taken in eliminating the perceived shortages of physician workforce or in improving their distribution and retention. Policy makers have also considered various policy interventions to ensure adequate numbers of physicians. This study reviewed the research evidence and health policy decisions taken from 2000 to 2010 in Lithuania and evaluated the chronological links over time between scientific recommendations and policy decisions. From the analysis it would seem that Lithuania's success in retaining physicians between 2000 and 2010 was influenced by the timely implementation of particular research recommendations, such as increased salaries and increased enrolment to physician training programmes. In addition were the health policy interventions such as health sector reform, change in the legal status of medical residents and establishment of professional re-entry programmes. Based on this evidence it is recommended that policy makers in Lithuania as well as in other countries should consider comprehensive and systematic health policy approaches that combine and address various aspects of physician training, retention, geographic mal-distribution and emigration. Implementation of such an inclusive policy however is impossible without the integration of research into strategic decision making in workforce planning and effective health policy interventions. PMID:23415057
Traditionally, undergraduate medical education is divided into preclinical and clinical years, with basic sciences taught during the first years and clinical sciences taught during the latter years. In an effort to better integrate the basic and clinical sciences in undergraduate medical education, and focus on women's health, we have developed a new interdisciplinary fourth-year elective at the University of Michigan
Amphibian behavioral endocrinology has focused on reproductive social behavior and communication in frogs and newts. Androgens and estrogens are critical for the expression of male and female behavior, respectively, and their effects are relatively clear. Corticosteroids have significant modulatory effects on the behavior of both sexes, as does the peptide neuromodulator arginine vasotocin in males, but their effects and interactions with gonadal steroids are often complex and difficult to understand. Recent work has shown that the gonadal hormones and social behavior are mutually reinforcing: engaging in social interactions increases hormone levels just as increasing hormone levels change behavior. The reciprocal interactions of hormones and behavior, as well as the complex interactions among gonadal steroids, adrenal steroids, and peptide hormones have implications for the maintenance and evolution of natural social behavior, and suggest that a deeper understanding of both endocrine mechanisms and social behavior would arise from field studies or other approaches that combine behavioral endocrinology with behavioral ecology. PMID:16023646
Wilczynski, Walter; Lynch, Kathleen S.; O'Bryant, Erin L.
The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare and its public health institutes are collaborating with Asia Australia Mental Health on an innovative community mental health development project designed to enhance initiatives under the District Mental Health Program and increase accessibility of essential community mental health services. The project is an exciting opportunity to create positive change in meeting the challenges of community mental health care in India. It recognizes that no one single model of care can be applied to all the community in the country and that locally appropriate models working in close partnership with local communities is required. Targeted and skill-based training programs are useful to build local leadership capacity in implementing quality and culturally appropriate community mental health services.
This article examines how everyday media use and interpersonal communication for health information could influence healthbehaviors beyond intervention or campaign contexts. The authors argue that interpersonal communication works as an independent information channel and mediates the relation between media channels and healthbehaviors. In addition, the authors investigate whether interpersonal communication differently influences the relation between media connections and healthbehaviors for more and less educated individuals. Using data from the 2008 Annenberg National Health Communication Survey, the authors show that multiple communication channels for health information encourage health-enhancing behaviors but do not have significant relations with health-threatening behaviors. Interpersonal communication is directly linked to health-enhancing behaviors, but it also mediates the influence of individuals' multichannel media environment on health-enhancing behaviors. The mediating role of interpersonal health communication was only significant for less educated people. In addition, among media channels, television was a more important instigator of health-related conversations with family and friends for the less educated group. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings, as well as suggestions for future research directions, are discussed. PMID:23647475
This study integrated risk-benefit analysis with prospect theory with the overall objective of identifying the type of management behavior represented by farmers' choices of mastitis control options (MCOs). Two exploratory factor analyses, based on 163 and 175 Swedish farmers, respectively, highlighted attitudes to MCOs related to: (1) grouping cows and applying milking order to prevent spread of existing infection and (2) working in a precautionary way to prevent mastitis occurring. This was interpreted as being based on (1) reactive management behavior on detection of udder-health problems in individual cows and (2) proactive management behavior to prevent mastitis developing. Farmers' assessments of these MCOs were found to be based on asymmetrical evaluations of risks and benefits, suggesting that farmers' management behavior depends on their individual reference point. In particular, attitudes to MCOs related to grouping cows and applying milking order to prevent the spread of mastitis once infected cows were detected were stronger in the risk domain than in the benefit domain, in accordance with loss aversion. In contrast, attitudes to MCOs related to working in a precautionary way to prevent cows from becoming infected in the first place were stronger in the benefit domain than in the risk domain, in accordance with reverse loss aversion. These findings are of practical importance for farmers and agribusiness and in public health protection work to reduce the current extensive use of antibiotics in dairy herds. PMID:24372180
Introduction: Health promotion behavior is one of the main criteria for determining health that is recognized as the basic factor in catching numerous diseases. Observing such behaviors by the elderly prevents affliction to various diseases and has potential effect in promoting health and increasing the elderly quality of life. This research was done for the aim of determining effective factors on health promotion behaviors and health status in the elderly of the Dena province. Materials and Methods: One hundred twenty elderly of over 65 years of age were selected randomly to do this descriptive-analytical study (cross-sectional type). The questionnaire regarding health promoting lifestyle profile 2 (HPLP2) was used for measuring the rate of health promotion behaviors. The data was collected by personal interviews and face to face method for completing the relevant questionnaire and was analyzed by SPSS software version 20 and also proper tests. Results: The average score of the elderly health promotion behaviors in the Dena province (143.8) indicated the acceptable level of performing health promoting behaviors in this group, such that 85% of the elderly had intermediate health promoting behaviors and 15% had proper behaviors. Also, the results showed that the average score of the physical activity and nutrition sub-measuring conditions was lower than the average score of other sub measures of prevention had the highest average. Moreover, comparison of the correlation of health promotion behaviors with the sub-measures showed that apart from the healthy nutrition sub-measure, all the other sub-measures have significant correlation with health promotion behaviors. Conclusion: From the findings of this study, the authors recommend health providers to promote elderly health promotion behaviors in all communities by identifying health promotion behaviors in other parts of the country, and also designing suitable intervention programs based on effective factors on health promotion behaviors of the elderly people. PMID:25013833
The meaning of terms Integrated and Integrative are described variously by an amalgam of latest scientific advances with ancient healing systems, of complementary medicine and biomedicine, and sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS. It means seamless good quality care between hospital and primary care. They provoke approval mostly from patients and disapproval mostly from advocates of science and evidence-based medicine. The Institute of Applied Dermatology in Kasaragod, Kerala, India has championed a mix of Biomedicine, Yoga and herbals from Ayurvedic medicine, partly based on publications from the Department of Dermatology of the University of Oxford. In Oxford dermatology, acceptance of value of integrative medicine (IM) is demonstrated, especially in wound healing and the skin's blood supply. This has long featured in the university's research program. A variety of approaches to the practice of medicine are illustrated with reference to Osler, Garrod, and Doll. IM is believed to underlie contemporarily best practice. Particular emphasis is given to the control of heat, pain, redness, and swelling, all manifestations of inflammation, and the importance of emotion as a stimulus or inhibitor carried by neural pathways. These may explain some unbelievable Asian practices and one of the many roles of Yoga. The concept of Integrative is expanded to include care of the earth and nutrition, the hazards of climate change, Gardens for Health, do (k) no (w) harm as a key to good practice. PMID:23716803
The launch site processing flow involves operations such as functional verification, preflight servicing and launch. These operations often include hazards that must be controlled to protect human life and critical space hardware assets. Existing command and control capabilities are limited to simple limit checking durig automated monitoring. Contingency actions are highly dependent on human recognition, decision making, and execution. Many opportunities for Integrated System Health Engineering and Management (ISHEM) exist throughout the processing flow. This paper will present the current human-centered approach to health management as performed today for the shuttle and space station programs. In addition, it will address some of the more critical ISHEM needs, and provide recommendations for future implementation of ISHEM at the launch site.
Waterman, Robert D.; Langwost, Patricia E.; Waterman, Susan J.
Previous research showed that conscientiousness (social dependability) in childhood predicted longevity in an archival prospective cohort study of bright children first studied by Terman in the 1920s (H. S. Friedman et al., 1993). Possible behavioral mechanisms for this robust association are now examined by gathering cause of death information and by considering the possible mediating influences of drinking alcohol, smoking, and overeating. Survival analyses (N = 1,215) suggest that the protective effect of conscientiousness is not primarily due to accident avoidance and cannot be mostly explained by abstinence from unhealthy substance intake. Conscientiousness may have more wide-ranging effects on health-relevant activities. PMID:7738772
Friedman, H S; Tucker, J S; Schwartz, J E; Martin, L R; Tomlinson-Keasey, C; Wingard, D L; Criqui, M H
Healthbehaviors such as eating and exercising have been linked to stress in many studies, and researchers suggest that these links are in large part due to the use of healthbehaviors to cope with stress. However, healthbehaviors in the context of coping have received relatively little research attention. In this paper, we briefly survey the literature linking stress, coping, and healthbehaviors, noting that very little research has explicitly examined healthbehaviors as coping with stress. We address critical theoretical and methodological issues that arise in applying a stress and coping perspective to healthbehaviors. We conclude with potential directions for interventions, including the need for conceptually solid and methodologically rigorous research and the development of new measures, and with suggestions for future research. The concepts of self-regulation and stress management and their implications in healthbehavior research and interventions are also discussed. PMID:24192138
NASA is reviewing various propulsion technologies for exploring space. The requirements are examined for one enabling propulsion technology: Integrated Controls and Health Monitoring (ICHM) for Chemical Transfer Propulsion (CTP). Functional requirements for a CTP-ICHM system are proposed from tentative mission scenarios, vehicle configurations, CTP specifications, and technical feasibility. These CTP-ICHM requirements go beyond traditional reliable operation and emergency shutoff control to include: (1) enhanced mission flexibility; (2) continuously variable throttling; (3) tank-head start control; (4) automated prestart and post-shutoff engine check; (5) monitoring of space exposure degradation; and (6) product evolution flexibility. Technology development plans are also discussed.
Implementation of integrated system health management (ISHM) capability is fundamentally linked to the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system. It is akin to having a team of experts who are all individually and collectively observing and analyzing a complex system, and communicating effectively with each other in order to arrive to an accurate and reliable assessment of its health. We present concepts, procedures, and a specific approach as a foundation for implementing a credible ISHM capability. The capability stresses integration of DIaK from all elements of a system. The intent is also to make possible implementation of on-board ISHM capability, in contrast to a remote capability. The information presented is the result of many years of research, development, and maturation of technologies, and of prototype implementations in operational systems (rocket engine test facilities). The paper will address the following topics: 1. ISHM Model of a system 2. Detection of anomaly indicators. 3. Determination and confirmation of anomalies. 4. Diagnostic of causes and determination of effects. 5. Consistency checking cycle. 6. Management of health information 7. User Interfaces 8. Example implementation ISHM has been defined from many perspectives. We define it as a capability that might be achieved by various approaches. We describe a specific approach that has been matured throughout many years of development, and pilot implementations. ISHM is a capability that is achieved by integrating data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) that might be distributed throughout the system elements (which inherently implies capability to manage DIaK associated with distributed sub-systems). DIaK must be available to any element of a system at the right time and in accordance with a meaningful context. ISHM Functional Capability Level (FCL) is measured by how well a system performs the following functions: (1) detect anomalies, (2) diagnose causes, (3) predict future anomalies/failures, and (4) provide the user with an integrated awareness about the condition of every element in the system and guide user decisions.
This paper presents a new method for modeling health impacts caused by earthquake damage which allows for integrating key social impacts on individual health and health-care systems and for implementing these impacts in quantitative systemic seismic vulnerability analysis. In current earthquake casualty estimation models, demand on health-care systems is estimated by quantifying the number of fatalities and severity of injuries based on empirical data correlating building damage with casualties. The expected number of injured people (sorted by priorities of emergency treatment) is combined together with post-earthquake reduction of functionality of health-care facilities such as hospitals to estimate the impact on healthcare systems. The aim here is to extend these models by developing a combined engineering and social science approach. Although social vulnerability is recognized as a key component for the consequences of disasters, social vulnerability as such, is seldom linked to common formal and quantitative seismic loss estimates of injured people which provide direct impact on emergency health care services. Yet, there is a consensus that factors which affect vulnerability and post-earthquake health of at-risk populations include demographic characteristics such as age, education, occupation and employment and that these factors can aggravate health impacts further. Similarly, there are different social influences on the performance of health care systems after an earthquake both on an individual as well as on an institutional level. To link social impacts of health and health-care services to a systemic seismic vulnerability analysis, a conceptual model of social impacts of earthquakes on health and the health care systems has been developed. We identified and tested appropriate social indicators for individual health impacts and for health care impacts based on literature research, using available European statistical data. The results will be used to develop a socio-physical model of systemic seismic vulnerability that enhances the further understanding of societal seismic risk by taking into account social vulnerability impacts for health and health-care system, shelter, and transportation.
Health Psychology Exam 1 Learning Objectives 1. Chapter 1 1) Define health psychology and behavioral medicine. What are the four areas of focus in Health Psychology? 2) Describe how philosophical) Explain what factors contributed to the rise of health psychology. Include discussion of changing patterns
The maritime occupational health services in Spain are overviewed, and their coordination for seafarers and fishermen within the integrated governmental "Maritime Health Programme", which as from 1984 has been supervised by the Labour and Social Affairs Ministry. The institution in charge is the "Instituto Social de la Marina" (ISM) in Madrid (Mariners' Social Institute) established in 1919, which has organised a network of specialised health institutions in ports. They provide medical assistance on board ships and coastal preventive services for maritime workers. There is the Radio Medical Advice Centre in Madrid, local centres in ports, centres abroad, hospital ships and a repatriation centre. All of them are connected in a centralised database net of shared medical records in a confidential computerised system. Another institution is "Sanidad Exterior" which is related to vaccinations and hygienic problems in harbours. There is also a non profit national scientific medical organisation, the Spanish Society of Maritime Medicine (SEMM) established in 1989, and another society of Naval Medicine founded in 1995. There are also groups of specialists in underwater medicine and health problems of divers. A separate article is published on the SEMM and its activities. PMID:11817826
This study examined the effectiveness of training community mental health therapists in motivational interviewing (MI) adapted to treat clients with co-occurring disorders. Ten therapists with high caseloads of culturally diverse clients in two different community mental health settings fulfilled all study requirements. MI training consisted of a two-day didactic and experiential workshop followed by eight biweekly small group supervision (coaching) sessions. Using an interrupted time series design, 156 randomly selected therapy sessions involving 28 clients were coded for assessment of therapist fidelity to MI at multiple points in time, both pre- and post-training. Employing hierarchical linear modeling analysis, significant improvement in MI skill was observed after training on five of six key therapist ratings, and on the sole client rating (client change talk) that was examined. Importantly, the present study demonstrates training-related proficiency in motivational interviewing using: (a) a representative sample of mental health therapists from the community; (b) a protocol emphasizing adherence to a mental health treatment regimen as well as management of substance use behavior for clients with co-occurring disorders; (c) repeated random observations of therapy sessions; (d) measurement of training-related changes in clinician skills and self motivational statements by clients. Findings of this effectiveness study compared favorably with efficacy literature on MI training. PMID:16289396
Schoener, Eugene P; Madeja, Cheryl L; Henderson, Melinda J; Ondersma, Steven J; Janisse, James J
Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) and the Comprehensive, Continuous, Integrated System of Care (CCISC) are two models for delivering services to homeless persons with complex behavioralhealth needs. This quasi-experimental study presents preliminary data comparing these two programs. The first program was based out of a community mental health center and utilized the ACT model of care with supported housing (ACT-SH),
M. Scott Young; Colleen Clark; Kathleen Moore; Blake Barrett
Purpose The purpose of this study was to (1) describe healthbehaviors and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of Latina and Asian-American\\u000a breast cancer survivors (BCS), (2) estimate possible culturally driven predictors of healthbehaviors and HRQOL, and (3) compare\\u000a pathways for predicting healthbehaviors and HRQOL between the two groups.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods Secondary data were used to investigate healthbehaviors
Jung-won Lim; Patricia Gonzalez; Ming F. Wang-Letzkus; Kimlin T. Ashing-Giwa
Many individuals with dementia and problem behavior are served in nursing home settings long before health issues necessitate constant medical care. Alternative community-based adult day health care programs allow individuals with dementia to remain in their home with their families at a substantially reduced cost; however, many adult day programs face the same difficulties in managing problem behavior as family
Grant Title: TRANSLATING BASIC BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCE DISCOVERIES INTO INTERVENTIONS of Research: Support interdisciplinary teams of basic and applied biological, behavioral and/or social science discoveries in basic behavioral and/or social science research by developing and refining novel health
Environmental health research is a relatively new scientific area with much interdisciplinary collaboration. Regardless of which human population is included in field studies (e.g., general population, working population, children, elderly, vulnerable sub-groups, etc.) their conduct must guarantee well acknowledged ethical principles. These principles, along with codes of conduct, are aimed at protecting study participants from research-related undesired effects and guarantee research integrity. A central role is attributed to the need for informing potential participants (i.e., recruited subjects who may be enrolled in a study), obtaining their written informed consent to participate, and making them aware of their right to refuse to participate at any time and for any reason. Data protection is also required and communication of study findings must respect participant's willingness to know or not know. This is specifically relevant for studies including biological markers and/or storing biological samples that might be analysed years later to tackle research objectives that were specified and communicated to participants at the time of recruitment or that may be formulated after consent was obtained. Integrity is central to environmental health research searching for causal relations. It requires open communication and trust and any violation (i.e., research misconduct, including fabrication or falsification of data, plagiarism, conflicting interests, etc.) may endanger the societal trust in the research community as well as jeopardize participation rates in field projects. PMID:18541075
Merlo, Domenico Franco; Vahakangas, Kirsi; Knudsen, Lisbeth E
A sound basis to guide the community in the conception and implementation of ISHM (Integrated System Health Management) capability in operational systems was provided. The concept of "ISHM Model of a System" and a related architecture defined as a unique Data, Information, and Knowledge (DIaK) architecture were described. The ISHM architecture is independent of the typical system architecture, which is based on grouping physical elements that are assembled to make up a subsystem, and subsystems combine to form systems, etc. It was emphasized that ISHM capability needs to be implemented first at a low functional capability level (FCL), or limited ability to detect anomalies, diagnose, determine consequences, etc. As algorithms and tools to augment or improve the FCL are identified, they should be incorporated into the system. This means that the architecture, DIaK management, and software, must be modular and standards-based, in order to enable systematic augmentation of FCL (no ad-hoc modifications). A set of technologies (and tools) needed to implement ISHM were described. One essential tool is a software environment to create the ISHM Model. The software environment encapsulates DIaK, and an infrastructure to focus DIaK on determining health (detect anomalies, determine causes, determine effects, and provide integrated awareness of the system to the operator). The environment includes gateways to communicate in accordance to standards, specially the IEEE 1451.1 Standard for Smart Sensors and Actuators.
Influencing consumer behavior is a difficult and often resource-intensive undertaking, with success usually requiring identifying, describing, and understanding target audiences; solid product and/or service positioning relative to competitors; and significant media and communication resources. Integrated marketing communication (IMC) is a new way of organizing and managing persuasive communication tools and functions which involves realigning communications to consider the flow of information from an organization from the viewpoint of end consumers. Although the application of IMC to social marketing remains relatively unexplored, the IMC literature and recent efforts by the US Centers for Disease Prevention and Control suggest that integrated communication approaches have much to offer social marketing and health communication efforts. IMC, IMC and social marketing, and implications of IMC for public and private sector social marketing programs are discussed. PMID:12348831
Nowak, G; Cole, G; Kirby, S; Freimuth, V; Caywood, C
Technology management has assumed a role of vital importance in today's health care environment. Capital reserves and operating income have been stretched by pervasive and expensive technologies, while overall reimbursement has been reduced. It is imperative for hospitals to develop and consistently use technology management processes that begin prior to a technology's introduction in the hospital and continue throughout its life cycle. At Samaritan Health System (SHS), an integratedhealth care delivery system based in Phoenix, technology management provides tools to improve decision making and assist in the system's integration strategy as well as control expenses. SHS uses a systemwide technology-specific plan to guide acquisition and/or funding decisions. This plan describes how particular technologies can help achieve SHS' organizational goals such as promoting system integration and/or improving patient outcomes while providing good economic value. After technologies are targeted in this systemwide plan they are prioritized using a two-stage capital prioritization process. The first stage of the capital prioritization process considers the quantitative and qualitative factors critical for equitable capital distribution across the system. The second stage develops a sense of ownership among the parties that affect and are affected by the allocation at a facility level. This process promotes an efficient, effective, equitable, and defensible approach to resource allocation and technology decision making. Minimizing equipment maintenance expenditures is also an integral part of technology management at SHS. The keys to reducing maintenance expenditures are having a process in place that supports a routine fiscal evaluation of maintenance coverage options and ensuring that manufacturers are obligated to provide critical maintenance resources at the time of equipment purchase. Maintenance service options under consideration in this report include full-service contracts with the manufacturer, insurance coverage, time and materials, and independent service vendors/in-house support. Careful consideration of all the ramifications of each option is warranted because there are substantial cost differences among these methods. At SHS, technology management efforts resulted in equipment purchases and maintenance negotiations representing savings of more than $1.5 million in a single year. SHS undertakes an intensive review of purchases and maintenance expenditures, using the techniques described in this report, with the objective of reducing expenses by 10% per year. This report describes the technology management methods that SHS uses to achieve these results. PMID:10139509
We describe a model for new and senior faculty members, integrating a behavioral approach to enhancing teaching skills with research from the field of positive psychology on virtues and character strengths. The Teacher Behaviors Checklist (Keeley, Smith, & Buskist, 2006) identifies target behaviors amenable to modification, derived from…
Introduction The recent history of integratedhealth care in Sweden is explored in this article, focusing on the first decade of the 2000s. In addition, there are some reflections about successes and setbacks in this development and challenges for the next decade. Description of policy and practice The first efforts to integratehealth care in Sweden appeared in the beginning of the 1990s. The focus was on integration of intra-organisational processes, aiming at a more cost-effective health care provision. Partly as a reaction to the increasing economism at that time, there was also a growing interest in quality improvement. Out of this work emerged the ‘chains of care’, integrating all health care providers involved in the care of specific patient groups. During the 2000s, many county councils have also introduced inter-organisational systems of ‘local health care’. There has also been increasing collaboration between health professionals and other professional groups in different health and welfare services. Discussion and conclusion Local health care meant that the chains of care and other forms of integration and collaboration became embedded in a more integrative context. At the same time, however, policy makers have promoted free patient choice in primary health care and also mergers of hospitals and clinical departments. These policies tend to fragment the provision of health care and have an adverse effect on the development of integrated care. As a counterbalance, more efforts should be put into evaluation of integratedhealth care, in order to replace political convictions with evidence concerning the benefits of such health care provision. PMID:21677844
Integration of mental health into primary care is essential to meet population needs yet faces many challenges if such projects are to achieve impact and be sustainable in low income countries alongside other competing priorities. This paper describes the rationale and progress of a collaborative project in Kenya to train primary care and community health workers about mental health and integrate mental health into their routine work, Within a health systems strengthening approach. So far 1877 health workers have been trained. The paper describes the multiple challenges faced by the project, and reviews the mechanisms deployed which have strengthened its impact and sustainability to date. PMID:22477921
This cross-sectional study aimed to provide an assessment of the needs for health promotion in university freshmen, based on lifestyle variables and the interest in health-promoting activities. A questionnaire survey was performed using a sample of 288 male and 362 female university freshmen from 19 to 33 years of age. Male students were significantly more likely to engage in drug-taking behaviors, referring to alcohol and cannabis use, and had a higher body mass index. No gender difference was noted in the numbers of regular smokers. Preventive behaviors with respect to healthy nutrition and dental hygiene were reported more often in females, whereas the duration of physical activity per week and the use of condoms with a new sexual partner showed no gender difference. There was a strong demand for group health-oriented programs (79.5% of respondents). Substantial proportions of students had a high interest in individual counseling aiming at stress management (24.5%), healthy nutrition (19.3%) and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (18.2%). Women expressed a greater interest in most programs than men. Multivariate regression analyses showed that a disposition for alcohol abuse was the strongest predictor of interest in health counseling in male students (p < 0.001), while psychosocial stress was the most important predictor in female students (p < 0.001). From the prevalence of health risks and the students' interest in health promotion programs it was concluded that there is a strong need for health promotion in the university setting in Germany. Results suggested that individuals at risk would probably benefit most from an individual counseling program. PMID:11356753
Pressure ulcers frequently occur in patients with limited mobility, for example, people with advanced age and patients wearing casts or prostheses. Mobile information communication technologies can help implement ulcer care protocols and the monitoring of patients with high risk, thus preventing or improving these conditions. This article presents a mobile pressure ulcer monitoring platform (mULCER), which helps control a patient's ulcer status during all stages of treatment. Beside its stand-alone version, it can be integrated with electronic health record systems as mULCER synchronizes ulcer data with any electronic health record system using HL7 standards. It serves as a tool to integrate nursing care among hospital departments and institutions. mULCER was experimented with in different mobile devices such as LG Optimus One P500, Samsung Galaxy Tab, HTC Magic, Samsung Galaxy S, and Samsung Galaxy i5700, taking into account the user's experience of different screen sizes and processing characteristics. PMID:24255053
Rodrigues, Joel J P C; Pedro, Luís M C C; Vardasca, Tomé; de la Torre-Díez, Isabel; Martins, Henrique M G
website, a personal health record (Microsoft HealthVault  or, for- merly, Google Health [10 of the collection and sharing of their personal health information collected using mobile health (mHealth) devices mHealth. We investigated users' will- ingness to share their personal information, collected using mHealth
The recent growth in consumer autonomy in health care accompanied by the surge in the use of new media for health information gathering has led to an increasing schol- arly interest in understanding the consumer health information search construct. This article explores consumer health information seeking in the realm of the primary sources of health information used by consumers. Based
As US populations become increasing diverse, healthcare professionals are facing a heightened challenge to provide cross-cultural care. To date, medical education around the world has developed specific curricula on cultural competence training in acknowledgement of the importance of culturally sensitive and grounded services. This article proposes to move forward by integrating the concept of cultural humility into current trainings, in which we believe, is vital in complementing the current model, and better prepare future professionals to address health challenges with culturally appropriate care. Based on the works of Chinese philosophers, cultural values and the contemporary Chinese immigrants' experience, we hereby present the QIAN (Humbleness) curriculum: the importance of self-Questioning and critique, bi-directional cultural Immersion, mutually Active-listening, and the flexibility of Negotiation. The principles of the QIAN curriculum reside not only between the patient and the healthcare professional dyad, but also elicit the necessary support of family, health care system as well as the community at large. The QIAN curriculum could improve practice and enhance the exploration, comprehension and appreciation of the cultural orientations between healthcare professionals and patients which ultimately could improve patient satisfaction, patient-healthcare professional relationship, medical adherence and the reduction of health disparities. QIAN model is highly adaptable to other cultural and ethnic groups in multicultural societies around the globe. Incorporating its framework into the current medical education may enhance cross-cultural clinical encounters. PMID:21161680
Economic declines and their associated stress, shortage of financial resources, and changes in available time can impair healthbehaviors. This study tested the association between change in working hours, change in employment status, and financial strain and healthbehaviors measured after the 2008 recession after controlling for pre-recession levels of the healthbehaviors. The moderating influences of demographic factors and pre-recession levels of the healthbehaviors on the association between change in working hours and employment status and financial strain and the healthbehaviors were also tested. Participants (N = 3984) were from a longitudinal study of a U.S. Midwestern community-based sample. Regression analyses tested the unique relations between change in hours worked per week, change in employment status, and financial strain and five healthbehaviors over and above demographic factors and pre-recession levels of the same behavior. Models included predictor by covariate interactions. Participants who reported higher levels of financial strain engaged in lower levels of all but one of the five healthbehaviors, but there were no significant main effects of a change in the number of hours worked per week or change in employment status. Significant interactions revealed moderation of these relations by demographic characteristics, but findings differed across healthbehaviors. Financial strain negatively affected engagement in multiple healthy behaviors. Promoting the maintenance of healthy behaviors for disease prevention is an important public health goal during times of economic decline. PMID:23726210
Macy, Jonathan T; Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C
Economic declines and their associated stress, shortage of financial resources, and changes in available time can impair healthbehaviors. This study tested the association between change in working hours, change in employment status, and financial strain and healthbehaviors measured after the 2008 recession after controlling for pre-recession levels of the healthbehaviors. The moderating influences of demographic factors and pre-recession levels of the healthbehaviors on the association between change in working hours and employment status and financial strain and the healthbehaviors were also tested. Participants (N = 3984) were from a longitudinal study of a U.S. Midwestern community-based sample. Regression analyses tested the unique relations between change in hours worked per week, change in employment status, and financial strain and five healthbehaviors over and above demographic factors and pre-recession levels of the same behavior. Models included predictor by covariate interactions. Participants who reported higher levels of financial strain engaged in lower levels of all but one of the five healthbehaviors, but there were no significant main effects of a change in the number of hours worked per week or change in employment status. Significant interactions revealed moderation of these relations by demographic characteristics, but findings differed across healthbehaviors. Financial strain negatively affected engagement in multiple healthy behaviors. Promoting the maintenance of healthy behaviors for disease prevention is an important public health goal during times of economic decline. PMID:23726210
Macy, Jonathan T.; Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C.
Many studies focus on healthbehavior within the context of intimate ties. However, this literature is limited by reliance on gender socialization theory and a focus on straight (i.e., heterosexual) marriage. We extend this work with an analysis of relationship dynamics around healthbehavior in 20 long-term straight marriages as well as 15 gay and 15 lesbian long-term cohabiting partnerships in the United States (N = 100 individual in-depth interviews). We develop the concept of "healthbehavior work" to align activities done to promote healthbehavior with theories on unpaid work in the home. Respondents in all couple types describe specialized healthbehavior work, wherein one partner works to shape the other partner's healthbehavior. In straight couples, women perform the bulk of specialized healthbehavior work. Most gay and lesbian respondents-but few straight respondents--also describe cooperative healthbehavior work, wherein partners mutually influence one another's healthbehaviors. Findings suggest that the gendered relational context of an intimate partnership shapes the dynamics of and explanations for healthbehavior work. PMID:22227238
Many studies focus on healthbehavior within the context of intimate ties. However, this literature is limited by reliance on gender socialization theory and a focus on straight (i.e., heterosexual) marriage. We extend this work with an analysis of relationship dynamics around healthbehavior in 20 long-term straight marriages as well as 15 gay and 15 lesbian long-term cohabiting partnerships in the United States (N=100 individual in-depth interviews). We develop the concept of “healthbehavior work” to align activities done to promote healthbehavior with theories on unpaid work in the home. Respondents in all couple types describe specialized healthbehavior work, wherein one partner works to shape the other partner’s healthbehavior. In straight couples, women perform the bulk of specialized healthbehavior work. Most gay and lesbian respondents—but few straight respondents—also describe cooperative healthbehavior work, wherein partners mutually influence one another’s healthbehaviors. Findings suggest that the gendered relational context of an intimate partnership shapes the dynamics of and explanations for healthbehavior work. PMID:22227238
This study examined several aspects of the health of university athletes. Five areas of concern were targeted for investigation: general health background, use of drugs and alcohol, weight and eating behaviors, stress, and use of helping resources. The authors developed a questionnaire and used it to survey 27 varsity athletic teams at a major private university. The incidence of injuries was high; one third of the 247 student athletes surveyed reported sport-related injuries. Alcohol was much more frequently used than other drugs, and use tended to decrease during the competitive season. Significant differences between men and women athletes were found in off-season alcohol and marijuana use. Anabolic steroid abuse did not appear to be a major problem for this athlete population. Issues of diet, weight, and body image were found to be significantly different for women than for men. Although the incidence of bulimia and anorexia was low for both female and male athletes, it was clear that female athletes brought to their sport heightened concern for body image. The authors discuss the psychological and interpersonal implications that these findings have for the adjustment of female athletes. Injury and academics were perceived as the most stressful factors for both men and women, whereas weight and diet issues were a major stress factor for one third of the women. Given these data, specific recommendations are made for health professionals who work with co