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Sample records for health belief model

  1. Applying the Health Belief Model to college students' health behavior

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hak-Seon; Ahn, Joo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate how university students' nutrition beliefs influence their health behavioral intention. This study used an online survey engine (Qulatrics.com) to collect data from college students. Out of 253 questionnaires collected, 251 questionnaires (99.2%) were used for the statistical analysis. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) revealed that six dimensions, "Nutrition Confidence," "Susceptibility," "Severity," "Barrier," "Benefit," "Behavioral Intention to Eat Healthy Food," and "Behavioral Intention to do Physical Activity," had construct validity; Cronbach's alpha coefficient and composite reliabilities were tested for item reliability. The results validate that objective nutrition knowledge was a good predictor of college students' nutrition confidence. The results also clearly showed that two direct measures were significant predictors of behavioral intentions as hypothesized. Perceived benefit of eating healthy food and perceived barrier for eat healthy food to had significant effects on Behavioral Intentions and was a valid measurement to use to determine Behavioral Intentions. These findings can enhance the extant literature on the universal applicability of the model and serve as useful references for further investigations of the validity of the model within other health care or foodservice settings and for other health behavioral categories. PMID:23346306

  2. Managing Dog Waste: Campaign Insights from the Health Belief Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Typhina, Eli; Yan, Changmin

    2014-01-01

    Aiming to help municipalities develop effective education and outreach campaigns to reduce stormwater pollutants, such as pet waste, this study applied the Health Belief Model (HBM) to identify perceptions of dog waste and corresponding collection behaviors from dog owners living in a small U.S. city. Results of 455 online survey responses…

  3. Social learning theory and the Health Belief Model.

    PubMed

    Rosenstock, I M; Strecher, V J; Becker, M H

    1988-01-01

    The Health Belief Model, social learning theory (recently relabelled social cognitive theory), self-efficacy, and locus of control have all been applied with varying success to problems of explaining, predicting, and influencing behavior. Yet, there is conceptual confusion among researchers and practitioners about the interrelationships of these theories and variables. This article attempts to show how these explanatory factors may be related, and in so doing, posits a revised explanatory model which incorporates self-efficacy into the Health Belief Model. Specifically, self-efficacy is proposed as a separate independent variable along with the traditional health belief variables of perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers. Incentive to behave (health motivation) is also a component of the model. Locus of control is not included explicitly because it is believed to be incorporated within other elements of the model. It is predicted that the new formulation will more fully account for health-related behavior than did earlier formulations, and will suggest more effective behavioral interventions than have hitherto been available to health educators. PMID:3378902

  4. The Effect of Education Based on Health Belief Model on Health Beliefs of Women with Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Javaheri Tehrani, Fereshteh; Nikpour, Soqra; Haji Kazemi, Eftekhar Alsadat; Sanaie, Neda; Shariat Panahi, Shabnam Alsadat

    2014-01-01

    Background: Urinary Tract Infection is one of the commonest infections which affect humans. Half of all women have a UTI in their lifetime and one fourth have recurrent infections. Health behaviours can help patients to prevent Urinary Tract Infection recurrence and changing beliefs is necessary for health behaviour change. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of education based on Health Belief Model on health beliefs of women with Urinary Tract Infection. Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study with pre-test and post-test design, conducted on 170 married women with Urinary Tract Infection, referred to selected hospital laboratories in Tehran. The laboratories were divided to experience and control groups. The data collection tool was a “self-administrated” questionnaire which was answered by samples of both groups, prior to the intervention and 12 weeks thereafter. The intervention (education based on Health Belief Model) was performed on the experiment group. Results: Based on the study results, after the intervention the average score of the perceived susceptibility (P<0.001), perceived severity (P<0.001), perceived benefits (P<0.001), cues to action (P<0.001) and health behaviours (P<0.001) of the experiment group showed a significant increase, compared to the control group, however, the average score of the perceived barriers (P=0.235) of the experiment group was not significantly different compared to the control group. Conclusion: The findings showed that education based on Health Belief Model was effective in promoting the health beliefs (except perceived barriers) and health behaviours of women with Urinary Tract Infection. Therefore, it can be suggested that the mentioned model can be used as one of the strategies for prevention of Urinary Tract Infection in women. PMID:25349840

  5. Integrating Health Belief Model and Technology Acceptance Model: An Investigation of Health-Related Internet Use

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Today, people use the Internet to satisfy health-related information and communication needs. In Malaysia, Internet use for health management has become increasingly significant due to the increase in the incidence of chronic diseases, in particular among urban women and their desire to stay healthy. Past studies adopted the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and Health Belief Model (HBM) independently to explain Internet use for health-related purposes. Although both the TAM and HBM have their own merits, independently they lack the ability to explain the cognition and the related mechanism in which individuals use the Internet for health purposes. Objective This study aimed to examine the influence of perceived health risk and health consciousness on health-related Internet use based on the HBM. Drawing on the TAM, it also tested the mediating effects of perceived usefulness of the Internet for health information and attitude toward Internet use for health purposes for the relationship between health-related factors, namely perceived health risk and health consciousness on health-related Internet use. Methods Data obtained for the current study were collected using purposive sampling; the sample consisted of women in Malaysia who had Internet access. The partial least squares structural equation modeling method was used to test the research hypotheses developed. Results Perceived health risk (β=.135, t 1999=2.676) and health consciousness (β=.447, t 1999=9.168) had a positive influence on health-related Internet use. Moreover, perceived usefulness of the Internet and attitude toward Internet use for health-related purposes partially mediated the influence of health consciousness on health-related Internet use (β=.025, t 1999=3.234), whereas the effect of perceived health risk on health-related Internet use was fully mediated by perceived usefulness of the Internet and attitude (β=.029, t 1999=3.609). These results suggest the central role of

  6. The Bicycle Helmet Attitudes Scale: Using the Health Belief Model to Predict Helmet Use among Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Thomas P.; Ross, Lisa Thomson; Rahman, Annalise; Cataldo, Shayla

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined bicycle helmet attitudes and practices of college undergraduates and developed the Bicycle Helmet Attitudes Scale, which was guided by the Health Belief Model (HBM; Rosenstock, 1974, in Becker MH, ed. "The Health Belief Model and Personal Health Behavior". Thorofare, NJ: Charles B. Slack; 1974:328-335) to predict…

  7. Designing a bone health and soy focus group discussion guide based on the health belief model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Focus groups were used to assess the knowledge and skills of women in order to support curricula development. The Health Belief Model was applied to the discussion guide to enhance focus group findings and applications. Constructs related to perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers...

  8. Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory in Predicting Water Saving Behaviors in Yazd, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Momayyezi, Mahdieh; Ghaneian, Mohammad Taghi

    2012-01-01

    Background: People's behaviors and intentions about healthy behaviors depend on their beliefs, values, and knowledge about the issue. Various models of health education are used in deter¬mining predictors of different healthy behaviors but their efficacy in cultural behaviors, such as water saving behaviors, are not studied. The study was conducted to explain water saving beha¬viors in Yazd, Iran on the basis of Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory. Methods: The cross-sectional study used random cluster sampling to recruit 200 heads of households to collect the data. The survey questionnaire was tested for its content validity and reliability. Analysis of data included descriptive statistics, simple correlation, hierarchical multiple regression. Results: Simple correlations between water saving behaviors and Reasoned Action Theory and Health Belief Model constructs were statistically significant. Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory constructs explained 20.80% and 8.40% of the variances in water saving beha-viors, respectively. Perceived barriers were the strongest Predictor. Additionally, there was a sta¬tistically positive correlation between water saving behaviors and intention. Conclusion: In designing interventions aimed at water waste prevention, barriers of water saving behaviors should be addressed first, followed by people's attitude towards water saving. Health Belief Model constructs, with the exception of perceived severity and benefits, is more powerful than is Reasoned Action Theory in predicting water saving behavior and may be used as a framework for educational interventions aimed at improving water saving behaviors. PMID:24688927

  9. Validating the revised Health Belief Model for young families: implications for nurses' health promotion practice.

    PubMed

    Roden, Janet

    2004-12-01

    By modifying the Health Belief Model (HBM) nurses can provide health promotion guidance for families through the revised HBM for young families. The constructs 'perceived behavioral control' and 'behavioral intention' from Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior were added to the HBM to provide a health orientation. An initial qualitative study informed the second quantitative study through thematic data obtained by interviewing parents about family health. The second comparative study of low and high socioeconomic status families of preschool-aged children living in western Sydney, Australia, measured family health through the Parental Health Behavior Questionnaire (PHBQ). After a small pilot study, the researcher distributed 150 questionnaires to center directors from preschools, kindergartens and long day care, who then handed out questionnaires to interested parents. Data collection occurred in 1998 with consenting parents returning the questionnaires for collection by the researchers. A convenience sample of 103 was obtained with a 69% return rate. Analysis was undertaken through MANCOVA. Justification for validity occurred through logical analysis and hypothesis testing, based on the literature, while reliability was acknowledged by undertaking Cronbach coefficient alphas on small variable clusters. Results support the constructs 'perceived behavioral control' and 'behavioral intention' in the revised model, suggesting that for families of different socioeconomic background, differences emerge in terms of their perceived control over their child's health and the initiation of health behaviors for their child. Recommendations for further research are for refinement of the PHBQ, new research with different families, and further testing of all the model constructs. PMID:15507045

  10. The "Health Belief Model" Applied to Two Preventive Health Behaviors Among Women from a Rural Pennsylvania County. AE & RS 115.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazen, Mary E.

    In order to test the usefulnes of the Health Belief Model (a model designed to measure health practices, attitudes, and knowledge), a survey of Potter County, Pennsylvania was conducted, and 283 responses from adult females without chronic illnesses were analyzed. The dependent variables employed were regulating diet and getting regular exercise.…

  11. The Health Belief Model, Sexual Behaviors, and HIV Risk among Taiwanese Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Peter; Simoni, Jane M.; Zemon, Vance

    2005-01-01

    In this first investigation of Taiwanese sexual behaviors in the United States, 144 Taiwanese students completed an online anonymous survey. Demographics, health belief model (HBM) constructs, and acculturation were examined as predictors of sexual behaviors over the last year. Analyses indicated that participants who reported a higher number of…

  12. Understanding Weight Management Perceptions in First-Year College Students Using the Health Belief Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Das, Bhibha M.; Evans, Ellen M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine weight management barriers, using the Health Belief Model, in first-year college students. Participants: First-year college students (n = 45), with data collected in April, May, and November 2013. Methods: Nominal group technique sessions (n = 8) were conducted. Results: First-year students recognize benefits to weight…

  13. Osteoporosis Prevention in College Women: Application of the Expanded Health Belief Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Lorraine Silver

    2002-01-01

    Examined personal characteristics and expanded health belief model (EHBM) constructs associated with osteoporosis- protective behaviors among college women. Survey results indicated that the EHBM was useful in evaluating osteoporosis- protective behavior. High numbers of women did not meet current exercise and calcium guidelines. Exercise…

  14. Using the Health Belief Model to Predict Bystander Behavior among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blavos, Alexis A.; Glassman, Tavis; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Diehr, Aaron; Deakins, Bethany

    2014-01-01

    This investigation used the Health Belief Model (HBM) to examine perceived barriers and benefits college students hold concerning medical amnesty. Researchers employed a cross-sectional research design with 369 students completing the survey (97% response rate). A path analysis revealed that college students are more likely to seek help during an…

  15. Toward a Reconceptualization of Communication Cues to Action in the Health Belief Model: HIV Test Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattson, Marifran

    1999-01-01

    Examines the persuasive communication of HIV test counselors as cues to action in clients' decisions to practice safer sex. Indicates hypothesized relationships inherent in the Health Belief Model were not supported for the pre-HIV test survey, but the post-HIV test survey reported compliance with safer-sex recommendations. Finds use of certain…

  16. Effect of health belief model and health promotion model on breast cancer early diagnosis behavior: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ersin, Fatma; Bahar, Zuhal

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is an important public health problem on the grounds that it is frequently seen and it is a fatal disease. The objective of this systematic analysis is to indicate the effects of interventions performed by nurses by using the Health Belief Model (HBM) and Health Promotion Model (HPM) on the breast cancer early diagnosis behaviors and on the components of the Health Belief Model and Health Promotion Model. The reveiw was created in line with the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination guide dated 2009 (CRD) and developed by York University National Institute of Health Researches. Review was conducted by using PUBMED, OVID, EBSCO and COCHRANE databases. Six hundred seventy eight studies (PUBMED: 236, OVID: 162, EBSCO: 175, COCHRANE:105) were found in total at the end of the review. Abstracts and full texts of these six hundred seventy eight studies were evaluated in terms of inclusion and exclusion criteria and 9 studies were determined to meet the criteria. Samplings of the studies varied between ninety four and one thousand six hundred fifty five. It was detected in the studies that educations provided by taking the theories as basis became effective on the breast cancer early diagnosis behaviors. When the literature is examined, it is observed that the experimental researches which compare the concepts of Health Belief Model (HBM) and Health Promotion Model (HPM) preoperatively and postoperatively and show the effect of these concepts on education and are conducted by nurses are limited in number. Randomized controlled studies which compare HBM and HPM concepts preoperatively and postoperatively and show the efficiency of the interventions can be useful in evaluating the efficiency of the interventions. PMID:22320955

  17. Effects of Education Based on Health Belief Model on Dietary Behaviors of Iranian Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Khoramabadi, M.; Dolatian, M.; Hajian, S.; Zamanian, M.; Taheripanah, R.; Sheikhan, Z.; Mahmoodi, Z.; Seyedi-Moghadam, A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Mothers and children are the most vulnerable members of every society. As a result many deaths occur in these two groups, so caring for these two groups is very important. Today, it is believed that the health of an infant is related to the health of their mother. Maintaining a healthy weight before pregnancy, and optimal weight gain during pregnancy by appropriate and sufficient nutrition, are two effective measures for the prevention of low birth weight.To provide successful health interventions, it is essential to design and implement effective health education programs. Successful education also depends on the proper use of theories and models in health education. The Health Belief Model is a model that illustrates the relationship between beliefs and health, and it is based on the hypothesis that preventive health behavior consists of personal beliefs. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of training on the Health Belief Model on dietary behaviors of a sample of pregnant Iranian women. Materials and Methods: This study was a randomized controlled clinical trial, involving 130 pregnant women who attended two health care centers of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. Data was collected by a structured questionnaire in three parts and seven sub-scales (including demographic characteristics, knowledge and dietary behaviors) based on the Health Belief Model. Principles of education were based on the Health Belief Model and performed twice during two-hour sessions in the intervention group. Women in the control group received routine care and did not receive training on the above model. In order to evaluate the intervention, the previously mentioned questionnaire was administered one month after completion of the intervention, and filled by participants in both groups. Data were analyzed by SPSS software and reported with diagrams and tables. Results: The mean score for each variable before the intervention, except for the

  18. Knowledge, beliefs and preventive behaviors regarding Influenza A in students: a test of the health belief model

    PubMed Central

    Najimi, Arash; Golshiri, Parastoo

    2013-01-01

    Background: The higher prevalence rate of influenza A among adolescence emphasizes the importance of preventative strategies among this age group of population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the preventive behaviors of high school students regarding type A influenza, in Shahrekord, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 313 high school students were enrolled. Preventive behaviors of influenza A was evaluated by components of the Health Belief Model (HBM), using a questionnaire which its reliability was verified through a pilot study (alpha score 0.8). Data analysis was done by descriptive statistics, independent t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient. Findings: Mean age of the students was 16.31 years. Knowledge, perceived severity and perceived barriers were in the modest level among the students. The highest scores were related to perceived susceptibility (75.4%) and perceived benefit (55.6%). Mass media was the main source of their information regarding influenza A. Conclusion: Considering the findings of this study and the relation between HBM components and the preventive behaviors of students, it seems that using HBM could be useful in improving preventive behaviors of influenza A among the studied population. PMID:24083273

  19. Utilizing the health belief model to assess vaccine acceptance of patients on hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Adams, Angela; Hall, Mellisa; Fulghum, Janis

    2014-01-01

    Vaccine rates in patients on hemodialysis are substantially lower than the Healthy People 2020 targets. The purpose of this study is to utilize the perceptions and cues for action constructs of the Health Belief Model (HBM) to assess the attitudes of patients receiving outpatient hemodialysis regarding acceptance of the seasonal influenza, pneumococcal, and hepatitis B virus vaccines. Vaccine acceptance is defined as receiving the vaccine. Study findings suggest age, perceived susceptibility, and perceived severity increase the odds of getting some vaccines. Findings have implications for the development of patient education materials, interdisciplinary team assessments, and plan of care strategies to increase vaccine acceptance. PMID:25244894

  20. Skin Cancer Protective Behaviors among the Elderly: Explaining Their Response to a Health Education Program Using the Health Belief Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmel, Sara; And Others

    1996-01-01

    In 4 kibbutzim, 43 adults over 60 completed a questionnaire on sun-exposure protective behaviors before and 2 weeks and 4 months after a skin cancer intervention. Beliefs about skin cancer did not change, but beliefs about the value of health and internal health locus of control changed significantly. (SK)

  1. A Critical Feminist Perspective of the Health Belief Model: Implications for Nursing Theory, Research, Practice, and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Linda W.

    1995-01-01

    Most nursing research is based on empiricism or logical positivism; the social behaviorist approach of the Health Belief Model does little to promote awareness or examine power issues. A critical feminist perspective aids understanding of health practices based on contextual knowledge and a holistic approach. (JOW)

  2. Oral health beliefs in diverse populations.

    PubMed

    Nakazono, T T; Davidson, P L; Andersen, R M

    1997-05-01

    Using data from population-based samples of adults participating in the ICS-II USA study, and using principal components analysis, we constructed oral health belief measures corresponding to the Health Belief Model (HBM) dimensions. Tests of validity and reliability were performed. Scales measuring perceived benefit of preventive practices and seriousness of oral disease had the highest validity and reliability. We used multiple regression analysis to examine sociodemographic predictors of perceived benefits of preventive practices. Race-ethnicity and age cohort were significant predictors among Baltimore and San Antonio adults. White adults and middle-aged persons in both research locations were more likely to believe in the benefit of preventive practices. Female gender, higher educational attainment, and better self-rated health were significant indicators of more positive oral health beliefs in every research location. Results also characterize persons who place lower value on preventive practices (i.e., males, less-educated persons, and those reporting poorer self-rated health). The design of effective dental public health messages and outreach efforts requires an analysis of the individual's health orientation and the factors influencing oral health beliefs. Oral health education interventions designed to improve health beliefs should contain an evaluation component for assessing the impact of education on health practices and oral health status. PMID:9549989

  3. Testicular Self-Examination: A Test of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClenahan, Carol; Shevlin, Mark; Adamson, Gary; Bennett, Cara; O'Neill, Brenda

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the utility and efficiency of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and the health belief model (HBM) in predicting testicular self-examination (TSE) behaviour. A questionnaire was administered to an opportunistic sample of 195 undergraduates aged 18-39 years. Structural equation modelling indicated that, on the…

  4. Breast cancer screening behaviors among Korean American immigrant women: findings from the Health Belief Model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Yun; Stange, Mia Ju; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the utilization of clinical breast examinations (CBEs) and mammograms among Korean American immigrant women and investigated how the six constructs of Health Belief Model (HBM) are associated with the receipt of breast cancer screening. Using a quota sampling strategy, 202 Korean American immigrant women were recruited in metropolitan areas in the northeastern United States. Approximately 64% of the participants reported having had at least one CBE in their lifetime, and about 81% of the sample had undergone at least one mammogram in their lifetime. Women who perceived themselves to be susceptible to breast cancer were more likely to have undergone a CBE, and women who had lower barriers to screening or demonstrated a higher level of confidence were more likely than their counterparts to undergo a mammogram. Findings suggest that HBM constructs such as susceptibility, barriers, and confidence should be considered when designing interventions aimed at promoting breast cancer screening. PMID:24848345

  5. Behavioral Modification Regarding Liver Fluke and Cholangiocarcinoma with a Health Belief Model Using Integrated Learning.

    PubMed

    Phatisena, Panida; Eaksanti, Tawatchai; Wichantuk, Pitsanee; Tritipsombut, Jaruwan; Kaewpitoon, Soraya J; Rujirakul, Ratana; Wakkhuwattapong, Parichart; Tongtawee, Taweesak; Matrakool, Likit; Panpimanmas, Sukij; Norkaew, Jun; Kujapun, Jirawoot; Chavengkun, Wasugree; Kompor, Porntip; Pothipim, Mali; Ponphimai, Sukanya; Padchasuwan, Natnapa; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to modify behavior regarding liver fluke and cholangiocarcinoma prevention in Chumphuang district, Nakhon Ratchasima province, Thailand through integrated learning. A total of 180 participants were included through purposive selection of high-risk scores on verbal screening. Participants attended the health education program which applied the health belief model included family based, knowledge station based, academic merit based and community based learning. Data were collected using a questionnaire composed of 4 parts: 1) personal information, 2) knowledge, 3) perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers, 4) practice regarding liver fluke and cholangiocarcinoma prevention. The result revealed that the majority were female (79.9%), age ≥60 years old (33.2%), primary school educational level (76.1%), and agricultural occupation (70.1%). The mean scores of knowledge, perception, and practice to liver fluke and cholangiocarcinoma prevention, before participated the integrative learning were low, moderate, and low, respectively. Meanwhile, the mean score of knowledge, perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers, and practice regarding liver fluke and cholangiocarcinoma prevention, were higher with statistical significance after participation in the integrated learning. This finding indicates that health education programs may successfully modify health behavior in the rural communities. Therefore they may useful for further work behavior modification in other epidemic areas. PMID:27356708

  6. Evaluation of Three Osteoporosis Prevention Programs for Young Women: Application of the Health Belief Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lein, Donald H.; Turner, Lori; Wilroy, Jereme

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of theory-based osteoporosis prevention programs on calcium and vitamin D intakes and osteoporosis health beliefs in young women. Methods: Women (N = 152) aged 19 to 25 years were randomly assigned to one of 3 groups: a brochure group (n = 51), a computer-tailored program group…

  7. A Comprehensive Test of the Health Belief Model in the Prediction of Condom Use among African American College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winfield, Evelyn B.; Whaley, Arthur L.

    2002-01-01

    Tested an expanded version of the Health Belief Model (HBM) in predicting condom use among heterosexual African American college students. Overall, only the core HBM explained a significant amount of variance in condom use. Perceived barriers and gender significantly predicted condom use. Perceived barriers mediated the correlation between gender…

  8. Effectiveness of self-management promotion educational program among diabetic patients based on health belief model

    PubMed Central

    Jalilian, Farzad; Motlagh, Fazel Zinat; Solhi, Mahnaz; Gharibnavaz, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Diabetes is a chronic disease; it can cause serious complications. Diabetes self-management is essential for prevention of disease complications. This study was conducted to evaluate self-management promotion educational program intervention efficiency among diabetic patients in Iran and health belief model (HBM) was applied as a theoretical framework. Materials and Methods: Overall, 120 Type 2 diabetic patients referred to rural health centers in Gachsaran, Iran participated in this study as randomly divided into intervention and control group. This was a longitudinal randomized pre- and post-test series control group design panel study to implement a behavior modification based intervention to promotion self-management among diabetic patients. Cross-tabulation and t-test by using SPSS statistical package, version 16 was used for the statistical analysis. Results: Mean age was 55.07 years (SD = 9.94, range: 30-70). Our result shows significant improvements in average response for susceptibility, severity, benefit and self-management among intervention group. Additionally, after intervention, average response of the barrier to self-management was decreased among intervention group. Conclusion: Our result showed education program based on HBM was improve of self-management and seems implementing these programs can be effective in the and prevention of diabetes complications. PMID:24741654

  9. Application of the Health Belief Model to Teach Complementary Feeding Messages in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tariku, Befikadu; Whiting, Susan J; Mulualem, Demmelash; Singh, Pragya

    2015-01-01

    In Ethiopia many women do not practice appropriate complementary feeding (CF). The Health Belief Model (HBM) asserts that change in behavior is determined after consideration of severity, benefit, and barriers to change. This study examined the effectiveness of 3 months of HBM-based education compared to the traditional (didactic) method on CF practices of mothers, with no education as control, using three randomized groups. One hundred sixty-six mother-infant (6-18 months) pairs were recruited. At baseline and after intervention, knowledge, perceptions, and practices about CF and related areas were determined. It was only diet diversity that increased significantly in the HBM group (from 3.05±0.94 food groups to 3.79±0.82, p<.05) while the other two groups had no change. Improvements in food groups were most noticeable as legumes & nuts (from 35.6% use to 83.9% in HBM group). Thus, nutrition education about diet diversity improvement needs to be conducted promotes behavior change. PMID:26075935

  10. Comparison between the Health Belief Model and Subjective Expected Utility Theory: predicting incontinence prevention behaviour in post-partum women.

    PubMed

    Dolman, M; Chase, J

    1996-08-01

    A small-scale study was undertaken to test the relative predictive power of the Health Belief Model and Subjective Expected Utility Theory for the uptake of a behaviour (pelvic floor exercises) to reduce post-partum urinary incontinence in primigravida females. A structured questionnaire was used to gather data relevant to both models from a sample antenatal and postnatal primigravida women. Questions examined the perceived probability of becoming incontinent, the perceived (dis)utility of incontinence, the perceived probability of pelvic floor exercises preventing future urinary incontinence, the costs and benefits of performing pelvic floor exercises and sources of information and knowledge about incontinence. Multiple regression analysis focused on whether or not respondents intended to perform pelvic floor exercises and the factors influencing their decisions. Aggregated data were analysed to compare the Health Belief Model and Subjective Expected Utility Theory directly. PMID:9238593

  11. Effect of Health Literacy on the Utilization of Advance Directives Based on the Health Belief Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henkelman, Wallace J.

    2010-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that only a small proportion of individuals in the United States complete advance directives as part of their planning for end-of-life care. This study sought to determine if health literacy is a significant factor in advance directive completion as has been posited by previous researchers. Analysis of the data collected…

  12. The Effect of an Educational Program Based on Health Belief Model on Preventing Osteoporosis in Women

    PubMed Central

    Jeihooni, Ali Khani; Hidarnia, Alireza; Kaveh, Mohammad Hossein; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Askari, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disease. The study's objective is to investigate the effect of an educational program based on Health Belief Model (HBM) on preventing osteoporosis in women. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 120 patients (60 experimental and 60 control) who were registered under the health centers in Fasa City, Fars Province, Iran, were selected in 2014. A questionnaire consisting of demographic information, HBM constructs was used to measure nutrition and walking performance for the prevention of osteoporosis before, immediately after intervention, and 6 months later. Bone mineral density (BMD) was recorded at the lumbar spine and femur before and 6 months after intervention. Results: The mean age of women participated in the study was 41.75 ± 5.4 years for the experimental group, and 41.77 ± 5.43 years for the control group. The mean body mass index was 22.44 ± 3.30 for the experimental group and 22.27 ± 3.05 for the control group. The average number of women deliveries for the experimental group was 2.57 ± 1.47 and 2.50 ± 1.19 for the control group. There is no significant difference between the two groups in education level (P = 0.771), marital status (P = 0.880), occupation (P = 0.673), breastfeeding (P = 0.769), smoking (P = 0.315), history of osteoporosis in the family (P = 0.378), history of special diseases (P = 0.769), and records of bone densitometry (P = 0.543). Immediately and 6 months after intervention, the experimental group showed a significant increase in the knowledge, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, self-efficacy, internal cues to action, nutrition, and walking performance compared to the control group. Six months after intervention, the value of lumbar spine BMD T-score in the experimental group increased to 0.127, while in the control group it reduced to −0.043. The value of the hip BMD T-score in the intervention group increased

  13. Direct-to-consumer advertising of predictive genetic tests: a health belief model based examination of consumer response.

    PubMed

    Rollins, Brent L; Ramakrishnan, Shravanan; Perri, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising of predictive genetic tests (PGTs) has added a new dimension to health advertising. This study used an online survey based on the health belief model framework to examine and more fully understand consumers' responses and behavioral intentions in response to a PGT DTC advertisement. Overall, consumers reported moderate intentions to talk with their doctor and seek more information about PGTs after advertisement exposure, though consumers did not seem ready to take the advertised test or engage in active information search. Those who perceived greater threat from the disease, however, had significantly greater behavioral intentions and information search behavior. PMID:25120046

  14. Association between health beliefs and health behavior in early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bödecs, Tamás; Horváth, Boldizsár; Szilágyi, Eniko; Diffellné Németh, Marietta; Sándor, János

    2011-11-01

    Folate-supplementation significantly reduces the risk of neural tube defects. The aim of this research was to reveal associations between health beliefs and folate -supplementation as well as other elements of health behavior among Hungarian women early in their pregnancy. Three-hundred and seven women in early pregnancy completed the second part of Health and Illness Scale. Factor structure of health beliefs was established and associations of factors with pregnancy planning, folate-intake, vitamin-intake, smoking-habits and alcohol-consumption were tested. A six factor health model was formulated; the factor named 'mental capacities and abilities' was associated with greater chance on folate-intake, vitamin-intake and prepared pregnancy, as well as a reduced chance of smoking. The factors 'destiny', 'measures aiming at prevention', and 'relatives and acquaintances' related to lower chance on folate-intake. The health belief factor representing Internal Health Locus of Control was associated with more than one component of healthy behavior, while factors of external dimensions (Powerful Others Health Locus of Control and Chance Health Locus of Control) were predictive on unhealthy behavioral tendencies. New approaches aiming to shift one's health beliefs and health locus of control from external causes to internal dimensions are needed in order to reach greater openness towards health-improving interventions. PMID:20957513

  15. Using the health belief model to develop culturally appropriate weight-management materials for African-American women.

    PubMed

    James, Delores C S; Pobee, Joseph W; Oxidine, D'lauren; Brown, Latonya; Joshi, Gungeet

    2012-05-01

    African-American women have the highest prevalence of adult obesity in the United States. They are less likely to participate in weight-loss programs and tend to have a low success rate when they do so. The goal of this project was to explore the use of the Health Belief Model in developing culturally appropriate weight-management programs for African-American women. Seven focus groups were conducted with 50 African-American women. The Health Belief Model was used as the study's theoretical framework. Participants made a clear delineation between the terms healthy weight, overweight, and obese. Sexy, flirtatious words, such as thick, stacked, and curvy were often used to describe their extra weight. Participants accurately described the health risks of obesity. Most believed that culture and genetics made them more susceptible to obesity. The perceived benefits of losing weight included reduced risk for health problems, improved physical appearance, and living life to the fullest. Perceived barriers included a lack of motivation, reliable dieting information, and social support. Motivators to lose weight included being diagnosed with a health problem, physical appearance, and saving money on clothes. Self-efficacy was primarily affected by a frustrated history of dieting. The data themes suggest areas that should be addressed when developing culturally appropriate weight-loss messages, programs, and materials for African-American women. PMID:22709771

  16. Health beliefs and folk models of diabetes in British Bangladeshis: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Helman, Cecil; Chowdhury, A Mu’min

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To explore the experience of diabetes in British Bangladeshis, since successful management of diabetes requires attention not just to observable behaviour but to the underlying attitudes and belief systems which drive that behaviour. Design: Qualitative study of subjects’ experience of diabetes using narratives, semi-structured interviews, focus groups, and pile sorting exercises. A new qualitative method, the structured vignette, was developed for validating researchers’ understanding of primary level culture. Subjects: 40 British Bangladeshi patients with diabetes, and 10 non-Bangladeshi controls, recruited from primary care. Result: Several constructs were detected in relation to body image, cause and nature of diabetes, food classification, and knowledge of complications. In some areas, the similarities between Bangladeshi and non-Bangladeshi subjects were as striking as their differences. There was little evidence of a fatalistic or deterministic attitude to prognosis, and most informants seemed highly motivated to alter their diet and comply with treatment. Structural and material barriers to behaviour change were at least as important as “cultural” ones. Conclusion: Bangladeshi culture is neither seamless nor static, but some widely held beliefs and behaviours have been identified. Some of these have a potentially beneficial effect on health and should be used as the starting point for culturally sensitive diabetes education. PMID:9550958

  17. The effect of an instructional program based on health belief model in decreasing cesarean rate among primiparous pregnant mothers

    PubMed Central

    Hassani, Laleh; Aghamolaei, Teamur; Ghanbarnejad, Amin; Dadipoor, Sakineh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Although cesarean section has saved many mothers’ and infants’ lives, the problem is in its increasing prevalence. According to recent statistics, the current rate of cesarean in Iran is in fact 3–4 times as more than the standard rate defined by WHO. Therefore, the present study is aimed to estimate the effect of an instructional program based on health belief model on reducing cesarean rate among primiparous pregnant women. Materials and Methods: In this semi-experimental research, 60 primiparous women who had visited Bandar Abbas Healthcare Centers were selected as the subjects. They were in their 26–30th week of pregnancy. They were selected in a multi-stage cluster sampling method (a combination of clustering and simple randomization), and were divided into two groups, subjects and control group. The data were gathered using a valid and reliable questionnaire. The instructional intervention was done after the completion of the pretest questionnaire based on the sub-constructs of the health belief model in six instructional sessions. 1 month after the intervention, posttest questionnaires were completed by the subjects in both groups. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, standard deviation, independent t-test, and paired t-test. The significance level was set at <0.05. Results: Two groups had a significant difference between awareness score, perceived sensitivity, intensity, benefits, barriers, self-efficacy, and the performance (P < 0.001). In the experimental group, nine subjects (30%) had a natural delivery. Conclusion: According to the findings of the current research, an instructional program illuminated (designed) by the health belief model can significantly influence pregnant women's awareness, intention, and choice of delivery type. PMID:27512693

  18. Using the Health Belief Model to develop educational strategies to improve pertussis vaccination rates among preschool staff.

    PubMed

    Dardis, Melissa R; Koharchik, Linda S; Dukes, Shari

    2015-01-01

    The number of pertussis or "whooping cough" cases has steadily increased in the United States in the last 20 years. Many of the cases are adults who have not kept up with current vaccination recommendations. Adults are unknowingly exposing susceptible infants and unvaccinated children to this potentially deadly disease. Pertussis can spread rapidly, especially in household, daycare, and school settings. This pilot study examines how school nurses can be instrumental in improving staff immunization rates for pertussis by using the Health Belief Model as a framework for educational strategies. PMID:25626237

  19. Impact of Educational Intervention on Patients Behavior with Smear-positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis: A Study Using the Health Belief Model

    PubMed Central

    Jadgal, Khair Mohammad; Nakhaei-Moghadam, Tayebeh; Alizadeh-Seiouki, Hadi; Zareban, Iraj; Sharifi-Rad, Javad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Tuberculosis is a single-agent infectious disease, which is the major cause of death around the world. Approximately one third of the world’s population is infected with tuberculosis (TB) bacilli and at risk of developing active TB. The purpose of this study was determined the impact of education based on health belief model in promoting behavior of smear-positive pulmonary TB among patients in Chabahar city, Iran. Material and methods: Of the 80 smear-positive pulmonary TB who referred to health centers in Chabahar voluntarily participated in this interventional study. The data collected using questionnaire based on health belief model. The data were analyzed by using paired t-test, independent t-test, pearson correlation and chi-square test with SPSS 16. Results: The cognitive skills were increased significantly from 6.10 to 6.88 after intervention. All behavioral skills were increased significantly from 2.08 to 2.88 after implementing the intervention. Perceived severity was increased from11.08to12.19 significantly. Percepted benefits were enhanced significantly from 11.48 to 12.23. Mean percepted barrier was decreased significantly from 17.52 to 16.68. Conclusion: Findings demonstrated that implementing educational intervention programs can increase the level of knowledge and behavior of patients regarding smear- positive pulmonary TB initiatives. PMID:26543411

  20. Improving Breast Cancer Preventive Behavior among Female Medical Staff: The Use of Educational Intervention based on Health Belief Model

    PubMed Central

    TORBAGHAN, Ameneh Eskandari-; FARMANFARMA, Khadijah Kalan-; MOGHADDAM, Alireza Ansari-; ZAREI, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancer prevalent among women worldwide. Preventive behaviors such as early diagnosis through screening tests play an important role in prevention and control of the disease. This study aimed to determine the effects of educational intervention using a health belief model on breast cancer preventive behaviors. Methods: This interventional study was conducted on 130 female employees of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences who were randomly divided into intervention and control groups. A questionnaire, made and validated by the researcher, was completed before and one month after training by the study subjects. Data were analysed using regression analysis, independent sample T-test, chi-square and Pearson’s correlation coefficient using the SPSS software 18. Results: There were significant changes in the training group, following educational intervention in the awareness construct and in some constructs of the model including perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, and perceived barriers, as well as in practice compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, perceived barriers remained as the only predictor in the model, such that for every unit increase in this variable, the behavior score increased by 18%. Conclusion: The use of educational intervention based on Health Belief Model had positive effect on knowledge of breast cancer preventive behaviors among participants. PMID:25977633

  1. A critical feminist perspective of the health belief model: implications for nursing theory, research, practice, and education.

    PubMed

    Thomas, L W

    1995-01-01

    The health care system is in a state of crisis, and nursing is in a unique position to influence the decisions that are made regarding health care reform. However, without transforming our ways of knowing and being, the changes that are needed to meet the challenges of the future may not become a reality. Nursing theory, research, and practice reflect the historical, social, and political ideologies of western tradition. Consequently, the knowledge gained from the majority of nursing research has primarily developed from an empiricism or logical positivist philosophy. The underlying assumption of this school of thought is that only empirically quantifiable and measurable matters yield the truth, suggesting that there is only one reality. Because one cannot be socially critical as an empiricist, nurse educators have begun to question the adequacy of the empiricist philosophy and method of research for meeting changing societal demands. Social behavioral theories in general and the Health Belief Model in particular have frequently guided nursing research in an attempt to increase knowledge of health-related behaviors. Too often these theories have done little to increase our knowledge of women and people of color. For the most part, they have contributed to the oppression of individuals and groups. A critical feminist perspective can be useful in the understanding of health practices that are based on contextual knowledge. The purpose of this article is to increase awareness and understanding of the underlying assumptions, constraints, and contradictions that are embedded within social behavioral theories such as the Health Belief Model.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7665800

  2. Attitudes of Hungarian asthmatic and COPD patients affecting disease control: empirical research based on Health Belief Model

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Judit

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Patient non-adherence to treatment is a major problem across most chronic diseases. In COPD and asthma treatments it is a complex issue because people need to make behavioral and lifestyle changes while taking medications. Poor adherence results in increased rates of morbidity and mortality, more frequent hospitalizations, and ultimately higher healthcare expenditures. Materials and methods: The objective of the study was to assess asthmatic and COPD patient's attitudes toward adherence in Hungary. Health Belief Model was used to help explain reasons of non-adherence. The results of the study should provide additional support to understanding health-related behaviors and to developing health related programs enhancing adherence of asthmatic and COPD patients. 145 diagnosed COPD patients and 161 diagnosed asthmatic patients were involved in 6 pulmonary centers. The questions were designed to measure Health Belief Model dimensions A 1–5 point verbal Likert scale was used. As a second stage, the answers were compared with the registered patient's personal health data available in pulmonary center's documentation. The data was analyzed using SPSS software. Results: More than 32% of patients are very interested in new asthma or COPD research results, but their main information source is physician. The trust toward the physician is very high. Patients accept treatments and rarely ask questions. Respondents are cooperative but sometimes fail to follow therapeutic recommendations. There is no willingness to join self-help groups or associations. Discussion: The paternalistic approach was generally accepted, moreover expected by the patients from the physicians. It is important to train patients, increase their self-efficacy, responsibility and involve them into self-management programs. Both physicians and patients should be trained how to communicate—this approach can lead to increased understanding and better adherence. PMID:24312052

  3. The use of facemasks to prevent respiratory infection: a literature review in the context of the Health Belief Model

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Shin Wei; Moey, Kirm Seng Peter; Tan, Ngiap Chuan

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Acute respiratory infections are prevalent and pose a constant threat to society. While the use of facemasks has proven to be an effective barrier to curb the aerosol spread of such diseases, its use in the local community is uncommon, resulting in doubts being cast on its effectiveness in preventing airborne infections during epidemics. We thus aimed to conduct a literature review to determine the factors that influence the use of facemasks as a primary preventive health measure in the community. METHODS A search for publications relating to facemask usage was performed on Medline, PubMed, Google, World Health Organization and Singapore government agencies’ websites, using search terms such as ‘facemask’, ‘mask’, ‘influenza’, ‘respiratory infection’, ‘personal protective equipment’, ‘disease prevention’, ‘compliance’ and ‘adherence’. Findings were framed under five components of the Health Belief Model perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, perceived severity, perceived barriers and cues to action. RESULTS We found that individuals are more likely to wear facemasks due to the perceived susceptibility and perceived severity of being afflicted with life-threatening diseases. Although perceived susceptibility appeared to be the most significant factor determining compliance, perceived benefits of mask-wearing was found to have significant effects on mask-wearing compliance as well. Perceived barriers include experience or perception of personal discomfort and sense of embarrassment. Media blitz and public health promotion activities supported by government agencies provide cues to increase the public’s usage of facemasks. CONCLUSION Complex interventions that use multipronged approaches targeting the five components of the Health Belief Model, especially perceived susceptibility, are needed to increase the use of facemasks in the community. Further studies are required to evaluate the effectiveness of

  4. Professional Preparation: Multicultural Health Beliefs in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Linda Sue

    1982-01-01

    A course dealing with the health beliefs of Hispanics, American Indians, and Anglo Americans was developed at the University of New Mexico. An ethnically diverse class visited different cultural settings in the Southwest to study beliefs about religion, nutrition, folk medicine, and other customs affecting health practices. (PP)

  5. The Effect of Health Belief Model-Based Education on Knowledge and Prostate Cancer Screening Behaviors: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Zare, Maryam; Ghodsbin, Fariba; Jahanbin, Iran; Ariafar, Ali; Keshavarzi, Sareh; Izadi, Tayyebe

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prostate cancer has been reported as the second leading cause of cancer death among men in 2013. Prevention and early detection of cancer are considered as critical factors in controlling the disease and increasing the survival of patients. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effect of Health Belief Model (HBM)-based education on knowledge and prostate cancer screening behaviors in a randomized controlled trial. Methods: This study was a non-blinded randomized controlled trial. We enrolled 210 men aged 50-70. Balanced block randomization method was used to randomize the final participants who had inclusion criteria into intervention (n=93) and control (n=87) groups. The participants of the intervention group attended training workshops based on HBM. Data were collected using three questionnaires, i.e. demographic questionnaire, Prostate Cancer Screening-Health Belief Model Scale (PCS-HBMS), and the Knowledge about Prostate Cancer Screening questionnaire, all given before and immediately one month after the intervention. Results: The mean scores of the perceived susceptibility, severity, barriers and benefits increased significantly after the intervention (P>0.05) in the intervention group. In the control group, such a difference was reported only for perceived susceptibility (P>0.05). The rate of participation in prostate cancer screening in the intervention group increased from 7.5% to 24% and 43.3% one month and three months after the intervention, respectively. Conclusion: Our findings showed that the health education programs designed based on HBM could positively affect prostate cancer preventive behaviors of individuals by improving their knowledge level and leaving positive effects on perceived susceptibility and severity as well as considering the perceived barriers, benefits and health motivations. Trial Registration Number: IRCT2013090911691N3 PMID:26793731

  6. How Experience Shapes Health Beliefs: The Case of Influenza Vaccination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahrabani, Shosh; Benzion, Uri

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the impact of past experience with influenza and the influenza vaccine on four categories of the Health Belief Model: beliefs about susceptibility to contracting influenza, severity of illness, perceived benefits of the vaccine in preventing influenza, and perceived barriers to getting vaccinated. The study population comprised…

  7. Conditional health threats: health beliefs, decisions, and behaviors among adults.

    PubMed

    Ronis, D L

    1992-01-01

    We combined the health belief model with the theory of subjective expected utility to derive hypotheses about the relations among health beliefs and preventive decisions. The central implication of this combination of theories is the importance of conceptualizing, measuring, and communicating about health threats in ways that are clearly conditional on action. It is important to distinguish, for example, between how susceptible to a disease a person thinks he or she would be if that person were and were not to take a preventive action. An experimental study of judgments about a hypothetical preventive action was conducted to test many of the theoretically derived hypotheses. A correlation study of dental flossing behavior was conducted to test the hypotheses as they apply to overt behavior rather than to judgment. Results of both studies supported most of the tested hypotheses, especially those related to the conditional conceptualization of health threats. Implications for theory, research methods, and practical applications are discussed. PMID:1582381

  8. Factors Predicting Fecal Occult Blood Testing among Residents of Bushehr, Iran, Based on the Health Belief Model.

    PubMed

    Ghobadi Dashdebi, Kamel; Noroozi, Azita; Tahmasebi, Rahim

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major cause of mortality worldwide. Fecal occult blood testing has proven a very effective screening tool for early detection and mortality reduction. The aim of this study was to determine predictors factors related to fecal occult blood testing using the Health Belief Model method among residents of Bushehr, Iran. A cross sectional study was performed on a sample of 600 men and women more than 50 years of age. The sample was selected by a convenience method from patients referred to public and private laboratories throughout the city. Each subject filled out a questionnaire which was designed and developed based on Health Belief Model constructs. Statistical analysis was conducted using ANOVA, T-test, chi-square test, and logistic regression. Fecal occult blood tests were performed on 179 (29.8%) out of 600 subjects, of which 95 patients (58.1%) did a periodic examination test and 84 patients (46.9%) had a doctor's advice for testing. According to the logistic regression model, the perceived barriers (P=0.0, Exp(B)= 0.3), perceived benefits (P <0.01, Exp(B)= 1.9) and self-efficacy (P<0.01, Exp(B)= 1.6) were predictive factors related to occult blood testing among subjects.The results showed that reducing people's perception of barriers to testing, increasing perceived benefits of screening, and reinforcing self efficacy can have major effect in increasing the rate of fecal occult blood screening for colorectal cancer prevention. PMID:27165201

  9. [Condom use among heterosexuals: a comparison of the theory of planned behavior, the health belief model and protection motivation theory].

    PubMed

    Bakker, A B; Buunk, B P; Siero, F W

    1993-10-01

    In the Netherlands, the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991), the health belief model (Janz and Becker, 1984), and the protection-motivation theory (Rogers, 1983) were compared for predicting condom use intentions because of AIDS. The 641 respondents were given two questionnaires: one for themselves and another one for a friend, partner, or acquaintance. 514 (80%) of them returned completed forms. 60% of these (307) persons were encouraged to answer and return another questionnaire, thus the final sample consisted of 821 responses. 711 individuals (481 women aged 15-91 years and 230 men aged 15-85 years) admitted having had heterosexual intercourse. 75% had had more than one sex partner in the previous 5 years. 45% had had sex at least once with someone other than their regular partner. Multivariance analysis of variance of promiscuity and condom use revealed that men exhibited more risky sex practices than women (p .001), had more sex partners in the previous 5 years than women (p .01), had more single sexual encounters with other persons than the regular sex partner than women (p .001), and they used condoms less often than women (p .01). 119 respondents had experienced sexually transmitted diseases and 165 had taken HIV tests. The difference between men and women also showed up in terms of their ideas, perceptions, and feelings about condom use when the three theoretical models were considered (p .001). The variables used in the theory of planned behavior explained the variance in intended condom use for 36% of women and 43% of men. The health belief model explained intended condom use only for 15% of women and 32% of men, while the cost-benefit analysis explained it for 9% of women and 18% of men. The protection-motivation theory explained intended condom use variance for 32% of women and 41% of men, but not all variables were included in the model. Fear from AIDS was correlated with inquisitive behavior and with seriousness (both p .001). PMID:12291420

  10. Nutrition education based on health belief model improves dietary calcium intake among female students of junior high schools.

    PubMed

    Naghashpour, Mahshid; Shakerinejad, Ghodratollah; Lourizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Hajinajaf, Saeedeh; Jarvandi, Farzaneh

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the effects of a nutrition education programme based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) on knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of dietary calcium in female students. In this interventional study, 188 students were placed into intervention (95) and control (93) groups. The intervention group participated in a nutrition education programme. Students in both the groups completed KAP and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at baseline and after two and three months of follow-up respectively. The data were analyzed by independent and paired t-tests. Those who received the intervention were found to have better attitude (p=0.049) and practice (p=0.005) scores compared to the controls. The HBM constructs, including perceived susceptibility (p=0.006), perceived severity (p=0.001), perceived benefits (p=0.002), perceived barriers (p=0.001), and taking health action (p=0.02) scores, were also significantly higher. The findings support the effectiveness of nutrition education based on the HBM in improving the knowledge, attitude, and practice relating to calcium intake among adolescent students. PMID:25395905

  11. Factors related to adopting healthy behaviors by patients with tuberculosis in Isfahan: Application of health belief model

    PubMed Central

    Johari, Maryam; Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Alahverdipoor, Hamid; Hasanzade, Akbar; Farid, Fariba

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis complex. It is one of the most common infectious diseases largely resulting from the patient's lifestyle. The purpose of the present study is to investigate factors related with adopting health behaviors by patients with tuberculosis based on the health belief model. Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional study was performed on 196 patients with tuberculosis. Data was collected using a 47-item, self-designed, questionnaire. Cronbach's alpha was calculated as 73.9. The Pearson test was used to study the correlation between independent variables and adopting a healthy behavior. Results: The mean score for adopting healthy behaviors by patients was 87.52 ± 13.8. The Pearson correlation test indicated a statistically significant relation between adopting healthy behaviors and scores of knowledge (P < 0.001, r = 0.536), perceived susceptibility (P < 0.001, r = 0.36), perceived benefits (P < 0.001, r = 0.347), and perceived barriers (P = 0.046, r = 0.143). Conclusion: Direct relationship was found between adoptinga healthy behavior and scores of knowledge, perceived susceptibility, and perceived benefit. Although the results of this study can be the basis of educational interventions, any generalizations should be performed cautiously. PMID:25250352

  12. Development and validation of a health belief model based instrument for measuring factors influencing exercise behaviors to prevent osteoporosis in pre-menopausal women (HOPE)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The health belief model (HBM) is the most commonly used conceptual framework for evaluating osteoporosis health belief and behaviors. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of a health belief model based questionnaire for exercise behavior for preventing osteoporosis among women aged 30 years and over. Methods This was a cross sectional study of a convenience sample of women aged 30 years and over in Tehran, Iran using a theory-based instrument (HOPE). The instrument contained 39 items covering issues relate to osteoporosis prevention behavior. In this methodological study, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used for psychometric evaluation. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) was used to evaluate the reliability of the scale. Results In all 240 women participated in the study. The mean age of participant was 39.2 ± 7.8 years. The initial analysis extracted nine factors for the questionnaire that jointly accounted for 66.5% of variance observed. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the data obtained was fit with Health Belief Model (HBM) and self-regulation construct (X2 = 1132.80, df = 629, P < 0.0001, CFI = 0.94, GFI = 0.91, RMSEA = 0.05 and SRMR = 0.06). The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the subscales ranged from 0.72 to 0.90 and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) ranged from 0.71 to 0.98; well above acceptable thresholds. Conclusions The HOPE was found to be appropriate instrument for measuring health belief and self-regulation for prevention of osteoporosis. PMID:24581300

  13. Determinants of breast self-examination performance among Iranian women: an application of the health belief model.

    PubMed

    Noroozi, Azita; Jomand, Tayyebh; Tahmasebi, Rahim

    2011-06-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers among women. Screening behavior rates are low in the world. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to investigate breast self-examination (BSE) rate and the relationships of Health Belief Model (HBM) constructs for predicting BSE. Path analysis was used to examine both one-way direct and indirect effects of HBM factors on BSE in this population (N = 382). Data were collected by a part of Champion's HBM Scale (CHBMS) and a self-administered questionnaire. The results showed that 7.6% of the participants reported performing BSE regularly. The final model provided a good fit to the data, with 13 variables explaining 62% of the variance in BSE. Perceived self-efficacy was intermediate construct between modifying factors and HBM constructs. Also, perceived self-efficacy and perceived benefits were the most highly related to BSE. The results suggest that HBM is a useful framework for identifying factors influencing the use of BSE in Iranian women. PMID:20859775

  14. The Health Beliefs of Migrant Farmworker Parents: An Ethnographic Exploration.

    PubMed

    Newton, Alexis M

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the health beliefs of migrant farmworkers parents by approaching and interviewing the sample population in a health clinic where they seek care for their children. It is impossible to plan, implement care, or create health care delivery models without knowledge of health beliefs. An understanding of parental health beliefs in the vulnerable population of migrant farmworkers will assure a more informed approach to health matters of their children, while also improving health care delivery and providing culturally specific health care models. Collecting data in locations historically proven to generate trust and respect supported the objectives of this research study and promoted direct engagement with a group that is often misunderstood and marginalized. Twenty migrant farmworkers parents were interviewed during growing season in the largely agricultural setting of Weld County, Colorado. Associated variables/phenomena determining health beliefs include parental decision-making regarding children's health maintenance, injury prevention, and health care. The overarching theme that emerged from the data was pride in having healthy children with major themes of respect, convenience and inhibition/suppression. PMID:25980656

  15. Effects of Application of Social Marketing Theory and the Health Belief Model in Promoting Cervical Cancer Screening among Targeted Women in Sisaket Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Wichachai, Suparp; Songserm, Nopparat; Akakul, Theerawut; Kuasiri, Chanapong

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a major public health problem in Thailand, being ranked second only to breast cancer. Thai women have been reported to have a low rate of cervical cancer screening (27.7% of the 80% goal of WHO). We therefore aimed to apply the social marketing theory and health belief model in promoting cervical cancer screening in Kanthararom District, Sisaket Province. A total of 92 from 974 targeted women aged 3060 years were randomly divided into two groups. The experimental group underwent application of social marketing theory and a health belief model program promoting cervical cancer screening while the control group received normal services. Two research tools were used: (1) application of social marketing theory and health belief model program and (2) questionnaire used to evaluate perceptions of cervical cancer. Descriptive and inferential statistics including paired sample ttest and independent ttest were used to analyze the data. After the program had been used, the mean score of perception of cervical cancer of experimental group was at a higher level (x=4.09; S.D. =0.30), than in the control group (x=3.82; S.D. =0.20) with statistical significance (p<0.001). This research demonstrated an appropriate communication process in behavioral modification to prevent cervical cancer. It can be recommended that this program featuring social marketing and the health belief model be used to promote cervical cancer screening in targeted women and it can be promoted as a guideline for other health services, especially in health promotion and disease prevention. PMID:27510000

  16. Use of the Health Belief Model to Study Patient Perceptions of Antimicrobial Stewardship in the Acute Care Setting.

    PubMed

    Heid, Cydney; Knobloch, Mary Jo; Schulz, Lucas T; Safdar, Nasia

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To identify themes associated with patient perceptions of antibiotic use and the role of patients in inpatient antimicrobial stewardship. DESIGN We conducted semi-structured interviews with 30 hospitalized patients using the Health Belief Model as the framework for questions and analysis. SETTING An academic tertiary care hospital in Madison, Wisconsin. PARTICIPANTS A total of 30 general medicine inpatients receiving at least 1 anti-infective medication were interviewed. RESULTS Participants recognized antibiotic resistance as a serious public health threat but expressed low perceived susceptibility to being personally affected by antibiotic resistance. Views of susceptibility were influenced by a high degree of trust in physicians and misperceptions regarding the mechanisms underlying resistance. Participants expressed high self-efficacy and a desire to be involved in their health care. Perceived roles for patients in preventing the inappropriate use of antibiotics ranged from asking questions and speaking up about concerns to active involvement in decision making regarding antibiotic treatments. Few participants reported being offered the opportunity to engage in such shared decision making while hospitalized. CONCLUSIONS Our findings suggest an important role for patients in improving antibiotic use in hospitals. However, patient engagement has not been recognized as a critical component of antimicrobial stewardship programs. Our study suggests that the likelihood of patient engagement in stewardship practices is currently limited by low perceived susceptibility and lack of cues to act. Further investigation into how patients may be engaged as good stewards of antibiotics may reveal new ways to improve antibiotic prescribing practices in the inpatient setting. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:576-582. PMID:26809477

  17. A Review of the Literature: Use of the Health Belief Model in Sickle Cell Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo-Gamble, Tilicia L.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with sickle cell disease experience a life-time of morbidity as well as a decreased lifespan. Since African Americans are disproportionately affected by the disease, sickle cell contributes to growing health disparities within this population. Thus, addressing issues related to the disease presents an increased need for health…

  18. Coping style, health beliefs, and breast self-examination.

    PubMed

    Barron, C R; Houfek, J F; Foxall, M J

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the role of coping style in women's practice of breast self-examination (BSE). The framework was adapted from the Cognitive Transactional Model of Stress and Coping and the Health Belief Model. The convenience sample consisted of 269 women recruited from an employee list of a medical center and a membership list of a professional nurses' group. Survey booklets were distributed via interdepartmental or U.S. mail and contained measures of trait anxiety and defensiveness and questions related to health beliefs, BSE practice, and demographics. The sample was categorized by coping style (i.e., repressive, true high anxious, defensive high anxious, or true low anxious), and data were analyzed via MANOVAs, ANOVAs, and hierarchical regression. Results indicated that coping style predicted BSE practice (i.e., proficiency, frequency) and health beliefs of barriers, confidence, seriousness, and susceptibility. The findings provide nurses with information for developing interventions to foster BSE. PMID:9233171

  19. A lifestyle to prevent or combat the metabolic syndrome among Japanese workers: analyses using the health belief model and the multidimensional health locus of control.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Yasushi; Okada, Mitsushi; Tsunoda, Masashi; Satoh, Toshihiko; Aizawa, Yoshiharu

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the predictors significantly associated with a lifestyle to prevent or combat the metabolic syndrome among Japanese workers. We conducted an anonymous self-administered questionnaire survey and analyzed the resulting data using multiple linear regression analysis. The dependent variable was a lifestyle to prevent or combat the metabolic syndrome (7-point scale). Independent variables were: subjects' basic attributes (age, gender, blue or white collar worker, with or without a family physician), Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (7-point scale for each item), with or without the metabolic syndrome being pointed out or not by healthcare providers, and 4 items regarding the metabolic syndrome produced with reference to the Health Belief Model (7-point scale for each item). Those independent variables were all included in this model. The analysis shows the older workers, white-collar workers, and workers who had the metabolic syndrome pointed out by healthcare providers had appropriate lifestyles. Those with high scores in Powerful Others Health Locus of Control also had appropriate lifestyles. Those who realized that the metabolic syndrome was a life-threatening disease and who knew practical ways to prevent or combat the metabolic syndrome also had appropriate lifestyles. Our findings can be applied to various types of medical education regarding the metabolic syndrome. PMID:21372436

  20. The Effect of Maternal Health Beliefs on Utilization of Childhood Preventive Health Services and Child Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinsley, Barbara J.

    Relationships among mothers' beliefs and values concerning their children's health, utilization of childhood preventive health services, and children's health status were examined. Mothers' health beliefs were measured with Parental Health Belief scales developed to explore three factors: (1) mothers' degree of perceived control or internality…

  1. Utilizing the Health Belief Model to predicting female middle school students' behavioral intention of weight reduction by weight status

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Weight reduction behavior is common among adolescent girls. The present study examined the status of weight reduction behavior and factors affecting the behavioral intention of weight reduction using the Health Belief Model (HBM) for female middle school students by weight category. Survey data was collected from three girl's middle schools in Gyeongju, Korea. A total of 299 female middle school students participated in this study. The questionnaire had questions about general characteristics, weight reduction behavior, and variables of HBM (perceived threat, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, cues to action, self-efficacy in dietary life and exercise, and behavioral intention of weight reduction). Descriptive statistics, Chi-square tests, ANOVA, and multiple regression analysis were applied to analyze the variables. A higher percentage of students in the overweight group attempted weight reduction than those in the underweight and the normal weight groups (P < 0.001). Among students who had attempted weight reduction, 73% tried diet therapy, while 78% tried exercise. Students in the normal and overweight groups showed significantly higher threat (P < 0.01) and cues to action (P < 0.001) than those in the underweight group. As for perceived benefits, barriers, and self-efficacy in dietary life and exercise, there were no significant differences among weight groups. Students in the overweight group showed the strongest intention of weight reduction and there were significant differences among the three weight groups (P < 0.001). Perceive threat (P < 0.01), cues to action (P < 0.001), and perceived self-efficacy (P < 0.01) were significantly associated to behavioral intention of weight reduction for all respondents. For the underweight group, perceived threat (P < 0.05) and perceived self-efficacy (P < 0.01) were the significant variables. For the overweight group, cue to action was the significant variable (P < 0.05). PMID:21994529

  2. Osteoporosis Health Beliefs among Younger and Older Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, C. Shanthi; McLeod, William; Kennedy, Laura; McLeod, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare osteoporosis health beliefs among different age and gender groups. This study used a cross-sectional design, involved 300 participants that represent both genders and three age groups (18 to 25, 30 to 50, and 50-plus), and assessed osteoporosis health beliefs using the Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale…

  3. Effect of Public Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior on Willingness to Undergo Colorectal Cancer Screening Using the Health Belief Model

    PubMed Central

    Almadi, Majid A.; Mosli, Mahmoud H.; Bohlega, Mohamed S.; Al Essa, Mohanned A.; AlDohan, Mohammed S.; Alabdallatif, Turki A.; AlSagri, Turki Y.; Algahtani, Faleh A.; Mandil, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: Success of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is dependent in part on the proportion of uptake by the targeted population. We aimed in this study to identify factors that were associated with willingness to undergo CRC screening based on the health belief model (HBM). Patients and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study among citizens of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Demographic data collected included gender, age, education, marital status, employment status, a history of CRC in the family or knowing a friend with CRC, as well as income. A questionnaire was developed in Arabic based on the HBM and included enquiries on knowledge about CRC symptoms and risk factors, types of CRC screening tests, perceived risk of CRC, previously undergoing CRC screening, intent to undergo CRC screening, perceived barriers to CRC screening, perceived severity of CRC, as well as attitudes toward CRC and its screening. Results: Five hundred participants were included. The mean age was 41.0 years (SD 10.7). Males were 50% and only 6.7% of those between 50 and 55 years of age had undergone CRC screening. Of those surveyed, 70.7% were willing to undergo CRC screening. Also, 70.5% thought that CRC is curable, 73.3% believed it was preventable, whereas 56.7% thought it was a fatal disease. Neither gender, level of education, occupation, income, marital status, nor general knowledge about CRC was found to be associated with the willingness to undergo CRC screening. Recognizing that colonoscopy was a screening test (OR 1.55, 95% CI; 1.04–2.29) was associated with a strong desire to undergo CRC screening while choosing a stool-based test was associated with not willing to undergo CRC screening (OR 0.59, 95%CI; 0.38–0.91). Conclusion: We found that the majority of those interviewed were willing to undergo CRC screening and identified a number of barriers as well as potential areas that could be targeted in the promotion of CRC screening uptake if such a national program were to

  4. Chinese health beliefs of older Chinese in Canada.

    PubMed

    Lai, Daniel W L; Surood, Shireen

    2009-02-01

    Objectives. This study examines the cultural health beliefs held by older Chinese in Canada. Methods. Chinese surnames are randomly selected from the local Chinese telephone directories. Telephone screening is then conducted to identify eligible Chinese people 55 years of age or older to take part in a face-to-face interview to complete a structured survey questionnaire. Results. The results of exploratory factor analysis indicate that the health beliefs of the older Chinese are loaded onto three factors related to beliefs about traditional health practices, beliefs about traditional Chinese medicine, and beliefs about preventive diet. Education, religion, country of origin, length of residency in Canada, and city of residency are the major correlates of the various Chinese health beliefs scales. Discussion. The findings support the previous prescriptive knowledge about Chinese health beliefs and illustrate the intragroup sociocultural diversity that health practitioners should acknowledge in their practice. PMID:19144968

  5. Determinants of adherence to self-care behavior among women with type 2 diabetes: an explanation based on health belief model

    PubMed Central

    Karimy, Mahmood; Araban, Marzieh; Zareban, Iraj; Taher, Mohammad; Abedi, Ahmadreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Self-care is an essential element in treating a person with diabetes; and managing diabetes is of prime importance. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictors of adherence to self-care behavior among women with Type 2 diabetes. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 210 female patients aged 30 to 60. Data collection tool was an anonymous valid and reliable questionnaire designed based on the Health Belief Model (HBM), which acquired information about the followings: Perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, barriers, self-efficacy and diabetes self-care behavior. Data were analyzed by t-test, chisquare and regression analysis. Results: The multiple regression models revealed 59.9% of the variance of self-care behavior with self-efficacy, perceived barrier, benefit and susceptibility. Additionally, the highest weight for β (β=0.87) was found for self-efficacy. Self-care behavior was positively correlated with all HBM variables except for perceived barriers showing a negative correlation. Conclusion: The Health Belief Model may be used as a framework to design intervention programs in an attempt to improve adherence to self-care behaviors of women with diabetes. In addition, the results indicated that self-efficacy might play a more crucial role in developing self-care behaviors than t other HBM components. Therefore, if the focus is placed on self-efficacy when developing educational programs, it may increase the likelihood of adherence to self-care behavior. PMID:27493912

  6. Injury Related Risk Behaviour: A Health Belief Model-Based Study of Primary School Students in a Safe Community in Shanghai

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ling-Ling; Dalal, Koustuv; Wang, Shu-Mei

    2013-01-01

    Aim To explore the relationship between Health belief model (HBM) and children and adolescents' unintentional injury risk behavior, to add some useful information for injury prevention. Methodology We investigated injury related health risk behavior and health belief status of students at primary schools grade 3 to 4, in a Safe Community, in Shanghai. Self-administered injury questionnaires were used to investigate risk behavior of students and HBM factors. Principal Findings The prevalence of risk behavior among students reported in this community was high. HBM scores showed differences between two groups of students classified by whether they had risk behavior or not. Self-efficacy was highly related with the status of socio-psychological behavior. Significance HBM has been widely used in explaining the disease-related behavior; however, it has been seldom used in injury-related behavior. The study demonstrated important relation of HBM to students' injury issues, and HBM could explain injury related behavior as well, especially for traffic injury-related behavior. When developing injury prevention strategies, we can take it into account. PMID:23950963

  7. The Health Belief Model: A Qualitative Study to Understand High-risk Sexual Behavior in Chinese Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    PubMed

    Li, Xianhong; Lei, Yunxiao; Wang, Honghong; He, Guoping; Williams, Ann Bartley

    2016-01-01

    The Health Belief Model (HBM) has been widely used to explain rationales for health risk-taking behaviors. Our qualitative study explored the applicability of the HBM to understand high-risk sexual behavior in Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM) and to elaborate each component of the model. HIV knowledge and perception of HIV prevalence contributed to perceived susceptibility. An attitude of treatment optimism versus hard life in reality affected perceived severity. Perceived barriers included discomfort using condoms and condom availability. Perceived benefits included prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted illnesses. Sociocultural cues for Chinese MSM were elaborated according to each component. The results demonstrated that the HBM could be applied to Chinese MSM. When used with this group, it provided information to help develop a population- and disease-specific HBM scale. Results of our study also suggested behavioral interventions that could be used with Chinese MSM to increase condom use. PMID:26604043

  8. Heat Waves and Climate Change: Applying the Health Belief Model to Identify Predictors of Risk Perception and Adaptive Behaviours in Adelaide, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Akompab, Derick A.; Bi, Peng; Williams, Susan; Grant, Janet; Walker, Iain A.; Augoustinos, Martha

    2013-01-01

    Heat waves are considered a health risk and they are likely to increase in frequency, intensity and duration as a consequence of climate change. The effects of heat waves on human health could be reduced if individuals recognise the risks and adopt healthy behaviours during a heat wave. The purpose of this study was to determine the predictors of risk perception using a heat wave scenario and identify the constructs of the health belief model that could predict adaptive behaviours during a heat wave. A cross-sectional study was conducted during the summer of 2012 among a sample of persons aged between 30 to 69 years in Adelaide. Participants’ perceptions were assessed using the health belief model as a conceptual frame. Their knowledge about heat waves and adaptive behaviours during heat waves was also assessed. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the predictors of risk perception to a heat wave scenario and adaptive behaviours during a heat wave. Of the 267 participants, about half (50.9%) had a high risk perception to heat waves while 82.8% had good adaptive behaviours during a heat wave. Multivariate models found that age was a significant predictor of risk perception. In addition, participants who were married (OR = 0.21; 95% CI, 0.07–0.62), who earned a gross annual household income of ≥$60,000 (OR = 0.41; 95% CI, 0.17–0.94) and without a fan (OR = 0.29; 95% CI, 0.11–0.79) were less likely to have a high risk perception to heat waves. Those who were living with others (OR = 2.87; 95% CI, 1.19–6.90) were more likely to have a high risk perception to heat waves. On the other hand, participants with a high perceived benefit (OR = 2.14; 95% CI, 1.00–4.58), a high “cues to action” (OR = 3.71; 95% CI, 1.63–8.43), who had additional training or education after high school (OR = 2.65; 95% CI, 1.25–5.58) and who earned a gross annual household income of ≥$60,000 (OR = 2.66; 95% CI, 1.07–6.56) were more likely to have good

  9. A study guided by the Health Belief Model of the predictors of breast cancer screening of women ages 40 and older.

    PubMed Central

    Fulton, J P; Buechner, J S; Scott, H D; DeBuono, B A; Feldman, J P; Smith, R A; Kovenock, D

    1991-01-01

    In late 1987, a total of 852 Rhode Island women ages 40 and older were interviewed by telephone (78 percent response rate) to measure their use of breast cancer screening and to investigate potential predictors of use. Predictors included the women's socioeconomic status, use of medical care, a provider's reported recommendations for screening, and the women's health beliefs about breast cancer and mammography. The Health Belief Model guided the construction of the interview questions and data analysis. Logistic regression was used to identify leading independent predictors of breast cancer screening according to contemporary recommendations: reporting that a medical provider had ever recommended a screening mammogram (odds ratio [OR] = 18.77), having received gynecological care in the previous year (OR = 4.92), having a regular source of gynecological care (OR = 2.63), having ever had a diagnostic mammogram (OR = 2.32), and perceiving mammography as safe enough to have annually (OR = 1.93). The findings suggest that programs intended to increase the use of breast cancer screening should include "inreach" and "outreach" elements; inreach to patients with established patient-provider relationships, by assuring that physicians recommend screening to all eligible patients, and outreach to all eligible women, by helping them overcome barriers to effective primary care, and by promoting mammography, emphasizing its effectiveness and safety. The findings also suggest that socioeconomically disadvantaged women, who are less likely to be screened than other women, should become special targets of inreach and outreach interventions. PMID:1908592

  10. Investigating the effect of an education plan based on the health belief model on the physical activity of women who are at risk for hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Hoseini, Habibollah; Maleki, Fatemeh; Moeini, Mahin; Sharifirad, Gholam Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hypertension is the main risk factor of many diseases and the main reason of death all over the world. Because the signs of hypertension are not clear, people do not feel its dangers and do not believe they are at risk. This problem makes preventing hypertension a great challenge for the health system. One factor that is related to lifestyle and is effective in preventing hypertension is increasing exercise. The aim of this study is investigate the effect of an education plan based on the health belief model on the physical activity of women who are at risk for hypertension. Materials and Methods: This is a field experimental study. Field of study was two health care centers in Isfahan, which were selected through simple random sampling. Ninety-two females who were at risk for hypertension were the subjects of study. Subjects were selected through systematic sampling. Beck questionnaire was used to evaluate the physical activity of both experimental and control group subjects before and 2 months after the intervention. The intervention plan was three education sections that were conducted in 4 weeks. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistical tests and inferential tests of repetitive variance analysis and t-test through SPSS. Results: The results showed that the average of physical activity increased significantly in the intervention group 2 months after education (P = 0.03). Conclusions: The findings of the study confirm the efficiency of education plan based on the health belief model on the physical activity of women who are at risk for hypertension. PMID:25558264

  11. Beliefs about breastfeeding: a statewide survey of health professionals.

    PubMed

    Barnett, E; Sienkiewicz, M; Roholt, S

    1995-03-01

    A statewide project was implemented in 1993 to increase breastfeeding among low-income women in North Carolina through improved institutional policies and practices and professional lactation-management skills. A survey designed to ascertain professional beliefs about breastfeeding was mailed to 31 hospitals and 25 public health agencies. A total of 2209 health professionals completed the survey and met the study selection criteria. Nutritionists and pediatricians were most likely to have positive beliefs about breastfeeding, whereas hospital nurses were most likely to have negative beliefs. Personal breastfeeding experience contributed to positive beliefs. Professionals were least convinced of the emotional benefits of breastfeeding. Those with negative beliefs were most likely to advocate complete infant weaning from the breast before nine months of age. Although most health professionals had positive beliefs about breastfeeding, differences by profession, work environment, and personal breastfeeding experience indicate the need for comprehensive training in lactation management, and improvements in hospital and public health clinic environments. PMID:7741946

  12. Effects of Group Training Based on the Health Belief Model on Knowledge and Behavior Regarding the Pap Smear Test in Iranian Women: a Quasi-Experimental Study.

    PubMed

    Shobeiri, Fatemeh; Javad, Masoumeh Taravati; Parsa, Parisa; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah

    2016-01-01

    The Pap smear test is recommended for early diagnosis of cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge and behavior regarding the Pap smear test based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) in women referred to premarital counseling classes, Hamadan, Iran. This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 330 women, who were allocated randomly to two case and control groups (n=165). Two educational session classes were performed in the case group. Two stages in before and after intervention groups were evaluated. Analysis of data was performed by SPSS/16.0, using t-test, x2, and McNemar's test. P-values <0.05 were regarded as significant. There was no significant difference between the mean scores of the various structures of this model in two groups before the intervention. However, after the intervention there were significant increase in mean score of knowledge and all variables of HBM in the intervention group(<0.001). The findings of this study highlight the important role of education about cervical cancer on changing women's beliefs about cervical screening. PMID:27356705

  13. Factors Affecting Intention among Students to Be Vaccinated against A/H1N1 Influenza: A Health Belief Model Approach

    PubMed Central

    Teitler-Regev, Sharon; Shahrabani, Shosh; Benzion, Uri

    2011-01-01

    The outbreak of A/H1N1 influenza (henceforth, swine flu) in 2009 was characterized mainly by morbidity rates among young people. This study examined the factors affecting the intention to be vaccinated against the swine flu among students in Israel. Questionnaires were distributed in December 2009 among 387 students at higher-education institutions. The research questionnaire included sociodemographic characteristics and Health Belief Model principles. The results show that the factors positively affecting the intention to take the swine flu vaccine were past experience with seasonal flu shot and three HBM categories: higher levels of perceived susceptibility for catching the illness, perceived seriousness of illness, and lower levels of barriers. We conclude that offering the vaccine at workplaces may raise the intention to take the vaccine among young people in Israel. PMID:22229099

  14. Effects of health belief model-based video training about risk factors on knowledge and attitude of myocardial infarction patients after discharge

    PubMed Central

    Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Borhani, Fariba; Asadi, Neda

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ischemic heart diseases are the most common cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to assess the effects of video training about risk factors based on health belief model on knowledge and attitude of myocardial infarction patients after discharge. METHODS: This was a quasi-experimental study conducted in 2010. Eighty patients were randomly assigned to either intervention or control group. Data was collected by a researcher-made questionnaire. RESULTS: Study results showed that the mean score of knowledge about disease, diet, physical activity and perceived benefit, severity, and susceptibility after video training was increased significantly. CONCLUSIONS: Using videos for educating myocardial infarction patients is a useful method for preventing recurrence of the disease. PMID:22091231

  15. Application of the Health Belief Model to U.S. Magazine Text and Image Coverage of Skin Cancer and Recreational Tanning (2000-2012).

    PubMed

    McWhirter, Jennifer E; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie

    2016-01-01

    The health belief model (HBM) has been widely used to inform health education, social marketing, and health communication campaigns. Although the HBM can explain and predict an individual's willingness to engage in positive health behaviors, its application to, and penetration of the underlying constructs into, mass media content has not been well characterized. We examined 574 articles and 905 images about skin cancer and tanning risks, behaviors, and screening from 20 U.S. women's and men's magazines (2000-2012) for the presence of HBM constructs: perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, self-efficacy, and cues to action. Susceptibility (48.1%) and severity (60.3%) information was common in text. Perceived benefits (36.4%) and barriers (41.5%) to prevention of skin cancer were fairly equally mentioned in articles. Self-efficacy (48.4%) focused on sunscreen use. There was little emphasis on HBM constructs related to early detection. Few explicit cues to action about skin cancer appeared in text (12.0%) or images (0.1%). HBM constructs were present to a significantly greater extent in text versus images (e.g., severity, 60.3% vs. 11.3%, respectively, χ(2) = 399.51, p < .0001; benefits prevention, 36.4% vs. 8.0%, respectively, χ(2) = 184.80, p < .0001), suggesting that readers are not visually messaged in ways that would effectively promote skin cancer prevention and early detection behaviors. PMID:26940663

  16. Health beliefs about bottled water: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Lorna A; Cain, Owen L; Mullally, Ryan A; Holliday, Kathryn S; Wernham, Aaron GH; Baillie, Paul D; Greenfield, Sheila M

    2009-01-01

    Background There has been a consistent rise in bottled water consumption over the last decade. Little is known about the health beliefs held by the general public about bottled water as this issue is not addressed by the existing quantitative literature. The purpose of this study was to improve understanding of the public's health beliefs concerning bottled mineral water, and the extent to which these beliefs and other views they hold, influence drinking habits. Methods A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews, with 23 users of the Munrow Sports Centre on the University of Birmingham campus. Results Health beliefs about bottled water could be classified as general or specific beliefs. Most participants believed that bottled water conferred general health benefits but were unsure as to the nature of these. In terms of specific health beliefs, the idea that the minerals in bottled water conferred a health benefit was the most commonly cited. There were concerns over links between the plastic bottle itself and cancer. Participants believed that bottled water has a detrimental effect on the environment. Convenience, cost and taste were influential factors when making decisions as to whether to buy bottled water; health beliefs were unimportant motivating factors. Conclusion The majority of participants believed that bottled water has some health benefits. However, these beliefs played a minor role in determining bottled water consumption and are unlikely to be helpful in explaining recent trends in bottled water consumption if generalised to the UK population. The health beliefs elicited were supported by scientific evidence to varying extents. Most participants did not feel that bottled water conferred significant, if any, health benefits over tap water. PMID:19545357

  17. Glycemic control, self-care behaviors, and psychosocial factors among insulin treated diabetics: a test of an extended health belief model.

    PubMed

    Aalto, A M; Uutela, A

    1997-01-01

    The relations of diet adherence (DA) and self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) to metabolic control, as measured with glycosylated hemoglobin A(tc) (GHbA(tc), and correlates of self-care were examines among a type I diabetic sample (n = 423). The Health Belief Model (HBM), supplemented by other factors (locus of control, self-efficacy, health value, and social support), was used as a theoretical model. In multiple regression analyses both DA (p<.01) and SMBG (p<.001). SMBG showed strong associations with self-efficacy in SMBG (p,.001) and net benefits of SMBG (p<.001). The revised models explained 14% and 21% of the variation in DA and SMBG, respectively. The results suggest that although perceived net benefits are important determinants of both SMBG and DA, DA is also related to diabetes support, whereas SMBG is more strongly related to perceived self-efficacy. Thus self-care regimen should be planned individually for diabetic patients. PMID:16250728

  18. Health beliefs and carer burden in first episode psychosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Carer burden is high during First Episode Psychosis (FEP) and evidence suggests that this is a predictor of poor long-term outcome. However our understanding of factors associated with higher burden is poor. We propose that carers’ cultural backgrounds and health belief models will influence their perceived burden of care, over and above that explained by severity of illness. Methods Patients with FEP and their primary Carers were recruited from the Early Intervention Service. Patients and Carers completed a range of validated measures, self-report ethnicity and demographic information together with the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control and Caregiver Burden Inventory. Results Significant correlations were found between carer burden and health beliefs, which differed by ethnicity and gender. High physical burden was experienced by Black carers with an external locus of control; time restrictions and emotional burden correlated with an external locus of control in Asian carers. For White carers, external locus of control correlated with time dependence burden. In all ethnic groups female carers experienced more time dependency, physical and developmental burden. No significant correlations were found between patient measures of severity or duration of illness and carer burden. Conclusions The type of burden experienced by carers differed between gender and ethnicity and was related to their health belief models. Thus the explanation and understanding of illness appears to be more salient than simply a patient’s severity of illness when considering the development of carer burden. Interventions to tackle high carer burden, and thus expressed emotion to improve outcome in patients, may need increasing focus here. PMID:24913656

  19. An investigation into the effect of health belief model-based education on healthcare behaviors of nursing staff in controlling nosocomial infections

    PubMed Central

    Zeigheimat, Farzaneh; Ebadi, Abbas; Rahmati-Najarkolaei, Fatemeh; Ghadamgahi, Fahimeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Health-care acquired infections are significant given the risks and costs they impose. All previous studies indicate a poor level of knowledge and performance among the nurses in hospital infections; as such, educating nurses can play an important role in infection control. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of the health belief model (HBM) in making nurses adopting health-care behaviors needed to control nosocomial infections (Nis). Materials and Methods: The participants of the study were 135 nurses from two hospitals in Mashhad, Iran. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. The questionnaire consisted of seven parts. The intervention group received four 45 min educational programs, both in individual and collective forms. After a 2-month interval, a post-test was conducted to see whether any difference has been resulted. Results: There was a significant relationship between knowledge (P = 0.001), perceived threat (P = 0.004), perceived benefits (P = 0.001), and practices (P = 0.001) in comparing to control and experimental groups after intervention. For the experimental and control groups, the most frequent cues to action at the preintervention stage were, respectively, related to the period of studying at university and in-service classes. Conclusion: According to this study, HBM-based education can increase knowledge, perceived threat, and perceived benefits of nurses. Additionally, it can reduce perceived barriers and improve the control of NIs among nurses. PMID:27500176

  20. Oral Health-related Beliefs, Behaviors, and Outcomes through the Life Course.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, J M; Zeng, J; Foster Page, L A; Baker, S R; Ramrakha, S; Thomson, W M

    2016-07-01

    Complex associations exist among socioeconomic status (SES) in early life, beliefs about oral health care (held by individuals and their parents), and oral health-related behaviors. The pathways to poor adult oral health are difficult to model and describe, especially due to a lack of longitudinal data. The study aim was to explore possible pathways of oral health from birth to adulthood (age 38 y). We hypothesized that higher socioeconomic position in childhood would predict favorable oral health beliefs in adolescence and early adulthood, which in turn would predict favorable self-care and dental attendance behaviors; those would lead to lower dental caries experience and better self-reported oral health by age 38 y. A generalized structural equation modeling approach was used to investigate the relationship among oral health-related beliefs, behaviors in early adulthood, and dental health outcomes and quality of life in adulthood (age, 38 y), based on longitudinal data from a population-based birth cohort. The current investigation utilized prospectively collected data on early (up to 15 y) and adult (26 and 32 y) SES, oral health-related beliefs (15, 26, and 32 y), self-care behaviors (15, 28, and 32 y), oral health outcomes (e.g., number of carious and missing tooth surfaces), and oral health-related quality of life (38 y). Early SES and parental oral health-related beliefs were associated with the study members' oral health-related beliefs, which in turn predicted toothbrushing and dental service use. Toothbrushing and dental service use were associated with the number of untreated carious and missing tooth surfaces in adulthood. The number of untreated carious and missing tooth surfaces were associated with oral health-related quality of life. Oral health toward the end of the fourth decade of life is associated with intergenerational factors and various aspects of people's beliefs, SES, dental attendance, and self-care operating since the childhood years

  1. Predictors of Condom Use Behaviors Based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) among Female Sex Workers: A Cross-Sectional Study in Hubei Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jinzhu; Song, Fujian; Ren, Shuhua; Wang, Yan; Wang, Liang; Liu, Wei; Wan, Ying; Xu, Hong; Zhou, Tao; Hu, Tian; Bazzano, Lydia; Sun, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Background HIV infection related to commercial sexual contact is a serious public health issue in China. The objectives of the present study are to explore the predictors of condom use among female sex workers (FSWs) in China and examine the relationship between Health Belief Model (HBM) constructs. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional study was conducted in two cities (Wuhan and Suizhou) in Hubei Province, China, between July 2009 and June 2010. A total of 427 FSWs were recruited through mediators from the ‘low-tier’ entertainment establishments. Data were obtained by self-administered questionnaires. Structural equation models were constructed to examine the association. We collected 363 valid questionnaires. Within the context of HBM, perceived severity of HIV mediated through perceived benefits of condom use had a weak effect on condom use (r = 0.07). Perceived benefits and perceived barriers were proximate determinants of condom use (r = 0.23 and r = −0.62, respectively). Self-efficacy had a direct effect on perceived severity, perceived benefits, and perceived barriers, which was indirectly associated with condom use behaviors (r = 0.36). Conclusions/Significance The HBM provides a useful framework for investigating predictors of condom use behaviors among FSWs. Future HIV prevention interventions should focus on increasing perceived benefits of condom use, reducing barriers to condoms use, and improving self-efficacy among FSWs. PMID:23185355

  2. Health beliefs and behaviors of Saudi women.

    PubMed

    Ide, B A; Sanli, T

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes perceptions of familiarity with symptoms and beliefs about illnesses based on interviews with 50 Saudi women. The sample was young, with 82% under the age of 40, and not well educated by Western standards, with one-third being illiterate and 80% having no more than a primary school education. More than half lived in households of six or more. Although there was greater awareness of germs as causative factors in illness than previous studies in Saudi Arabia had demonstrated, beliefs in multiple causes, including religious beliefs about disease causation, persisted. There was an apparent lack of understanding of specific causes of various illnesses or of the rationale for preventive measures. This lack of understanding may be related to the low education levels and/or deeply ingrained cultural beliefs. PMID:1475998

  3. Factorial structure of two health belief measures among older adults.

    PubMed

    Robinson-Whelen, S; Storandt, M

    1992-06-01

    Confirmatory factor analysis of Wallston's Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale and Krantz's Health Opinion Survey was conducted using 197 nondiabetic and 171 diabetic older adults. Qualified support was found for the 3-factor structure of the Wallston measure when applied to older adults. The Krantz model provided a less-than-adequate representation of the older sample's data. When the items from these 2 measures were combined, a 4-factor structure was found. Multisample simultaneous factor analyses using LISREL revealed that the factor structures of the Wallston and the Krantz measures fit the diabetic and the nondiabetic samples fairly equivalently. Despite the similarities in factor structures, diabetic individuals reported greater belief in powerful others and less desire for behavioral involvement in the health-care process than did nondiabetics. PMID:1610510

  4. The Effect of an Educational Intervention Program on the Adoption of Low Back Pain Preventive Behaviors in Nurses: An Application of the Health Belief Model.

    PubMed

    Sharafkhani, Naser; Khorsandi, Mahboobeh; Shamsi, Mohsen; Ranjbaran, Mehdi

    2016-02-01

    Study Design Randomized controlled trial. Objective The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of a theory-based educational intervention program on the level of knowledge and Health Belief Model (HBM) constructs among nurses in terms of the adoption of preventive behaviors. Methods This pretest/posttest quasi-experimental study was conducted on 100 nurses who were recruited through the multistage sampling method. The nurses were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. The participants were evaluated before and 3 months after the educational intervention. A multidimensional questionnaire was prepared based on the theoretical structures of the HBM to collect the data. Data analysis was performed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results There was no significant difference in the mean values of HBM constructs prior to the intervention between the intervention and control groups. However, after the administration of the educational program, the mean scores of knowledge and HBM constructs significantly increased in the intervention group when compared with the control group (p < 0.0001). Conclusion The results of the current study revealed that the educational intervention based on the HBM was effective in improving the nurses' scores of knowledge and HBM constructs; therefore, theory-based health educational strategies are suggested as an effective alternative to traditional educational interventions. PMID:26835199

  5. Behavioral health providers' beliefs about health information exchange: a statewide survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess behavioral health providers' beliefs about the benefits and barriers of health information exchange (HIE). Methods Survey of a total of 2010 behavioral health providers in a Midwestern state (33% response rate), with questions based on previously reported open-ended beliefs elicitation interviews. Results Factor analysis resulted in four groupings: beliefs that HIE would improve care and communication, add cost and time burdens, present access and vulnerability concerns, and impact workflow and control (positively and negatively). A regression model including all four factors parsimoniously predicted attitudes toward HIE. Providers clustered into two groups based on their beliefs: a majority (67%) were positive about the impact of HIE, and the remainder (33%) were negative. There were some professional/demographic differences between the two clusters of providers. Discussion Most behavioral health providers are supportive of HIE; however, their adoption and use of it may continue to lag behind that of medical providers due to perceived cost and time burdens and concerns about access to and vulnerability of information. PMID:22184253

  6. Women's Attitudes and Health Beliefs toward Osteoporosis Screening in a Community Pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Deo, Priyanka; Nayak, Rajesh; Rajpura, Jigar

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine women's attitudes and health beliefs towards osteoporosis screening in a community pharmacy setting, utilizing the theoretical framework of Health Belief Model. A nonexperimental, cross-sectional research design, examining a convenience sample of women aged 18 and over, from several New York City senior care centers, a church, and a university campus in New York, was employed to assess the study objectives. Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale questionnaire was used to study the attitudes and health beliefs of participants towards bone mineral density screening in community pharmacy. From the study, it was observed that perceptions of severity and susceptibility towards osteoporosis and subjects' demographic characteristics did not seem to significantly influence the decision to screen in a community pharmacy setting. The perceptions of benefits of community pharmacy-based osteoporosis screening and the perceived barriers were found to be of greater importance in women's decisions to engage in osteoporosis-specific preventive behavior. PMID:23781392

  7. Oral health beliefs in adolescence and oral health in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, J M; Thomson, W M; Poulton, R

    2006-04-01

    According to theory, health beliefs are related to health behaviors. We investigated whether individuals who hold favorable oral-health-related beliefs over time have better adult oral health than those who do not. Beliefs about the efficacy of water fluoridation, keeping the mouth clean, avoiding sweet foods, visiting the dentist, using dental floss, and using fluoridated toothpaste were assessed in a birth cohort at ages 15, 18, and 26 years. At each age, the majority of participants endorsed the importance of each practice. However, there was also evidence of instability across time. Individuals who held stable favorable dental beliefs from adolescence through adulthood had fewer teeth missing due to caries, less periodontal disease, better oral hygiene, better self-rated oral health, and more restorations. Dental beliefs can change between adolescence and young adulthood, and these changes are related to oral health. In particular, unfavorable dental health beliefs are related to poorer oral health. PMID:16567555

  8. Enhancing health knowledge, health beliefs, and health behavior in Poland through a health promoting television program series.

    PubMed

    Chew, Fiona; Palmer, Sushma; Slonska, Zofia; Subbiah, Kalyani

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the impact of a health promoting television program series on health knowledge and the key factors of the health belief model (HBM) that have led people to engage in healthy behavior (exercising, losing weight, changing eating habits, and not smoking/quitting smoking). Using data from a posttest comparison field study with 15) viewers and 146 nonviewers in Poland, we found that hierarchical regression analysis showed stronger support for the HBM factors of efficacy, susceptibility, seriousness, and salience in their contribution toward health behavior among television viewers compared with nonviewers. Cues to action variables (including television viewing) and health knowledge boosted efficacy among viewers. Without the advantage of receiving health information from the television series, nonviewers relied on their basic disease fears on one hand, and interest in good health on the other to take steps toward becoming healthier. A health promoting television series can increase health knowledge and enhance health beliefs, which in turn contribute to healthy behaviors. PMID:12166872

  9. The effectiveness of nutrition education: Applying the Health Belief Model in child-feeding practices to use pulses for complementary feeding in Southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mulualem, Demmelash; Henry, Carol J; Berhanu, Getenesh; Whiting, Susan J

    2016-01-01

    Complementary foods (CFs) in Ethiopia are cereal based and adding locally grown pulses (legumes) to CF would provide needed nutrients. To assess the effects of nutrition education (NEd) using Health Belief Model (HBM) in promoting pulses for CF, a 6-month quasi-experimental study was conducted in 160 mother-child pairs. Knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) questions were given to mothers at baseline, midline, and endline, along with anthropometric measurements of children. NEd involving discussions and recipe demonstrations was given twice monthly for 6 months to the intervention group (n = 80) while control mothers received usual education. At baseline, mothers' KAP scores were low at both sites; at 3 and 6 months of NEd, mean KAP scores of mothers increased (p < 0.05) compared to the control site. Significant improvements in children's mean weight, weight for height, and weight for age occurred in the intervention site only. Nutritional status of children improved after providing mothers with pulse-based NEd. PMID:27065308

  10. Influenza Vaccination Uptake and Associated Factors among Elderly Population in Hong Kong: The Application of the Health Belief Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mo, P. K. H.; Lau, J. T. F.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of influenza on elderly can be severe and fatal. Influenza vaccination (IV) has been shown to be effective in reducing influenza-related complications, but the IV uptake among elderly in Hong Kong remains low. This study investigated the prevalence and factors associated with IV among Chinese elderly in Hong Kong using the Health Belief…

  11. Determinants of Behavior of Students as Pedestrian and Car Occupants in Relation to Traffic Laws in 2013, Gorgan, Iran; An Application of Health Belief Model

    PubMed Central

    Heshmati, Hashem; Behnampour, Nasser; Binaei, Golnaz; Khajavai, Samane

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the behavioral pattern of Golestan University of Medical Science (GUMS) students as pedestrian and car occupants in relation to traffic law based on Health Belief Model. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed during 2012 in GUMS. A total of 370 students of GUMS were selected using multi-stage sampling method  including stratified and  random  sampling. Data were collected by using a reliable and valid questionnaire. All the participants filled the questionnaire and the data was extracted according to previously described method. Data were analyzed by using SPSS 18 Software. Descriptive statistic and Spearman correlation was used for analyzing the data. Results: Mean age of the participants was 20.92±1.98 (range 17-32) years. Mean score of perceived susceptibility was 81.87±17.18, being in desirable level. Mean score of perceived severity was 73.39±18.4, being also in desirable level. Mean score of perceived benefits was 77.22 ±16.13, which was also assumed to be in desirable level. Mean score of perceived barriers was 53.46±16.27, assumed as moderate level. In the same way the mean score of practice was 66.17±17.51, so practice in students was in moderate level. Television was the most important cues to action. Conclusion: Perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits regarding safety behaviors was in good level but perceived barriers and behavior was in moderate level and according to the importance of Television, we recommended appropriate intervention such as health education and advocacy, especially through national Television. PMID:27162879

  12. Application of the health belief model and social cognitive theory for osteoporosis preventive nutritional behaviors in a sample of Iranian women

    PubMed Central

    Jeihooni, Ali Khani; Hidarnia, Alireza; Kaveh, Mohammad Hossein; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Askari, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disease. The purpose of this study is to investigate the health belief model (HBM) and social cognitive theory (SCT) for osteoporosis preventive nutritional behaviors in women. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 120 patients who were women and registered under the health centers in Fasa City, Fars Province, Iran were selected. A questionnaire consisting of HBM constructs and the constructs of self-regulation and social support from SCT was used to measure nutrition performance. Bone mineral density was recorded at the lumbar spine and femur. The intervention for the experimental group included 10 educational sessions of 55-60 min of speech, group discussion, questions and answers, as well as posters and educational pamphlets, film screenings, and PowerPoint displays. Data were analyzed using SPSS 19 via Chi-square test, independent t-test, and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) at a significance level of 0.05. Results: After intervention, the experimental group showed a significant increase in the HBM constructs, self-regulation, social support, and nutrition performance, compared to the control group. Six months after the intervention, the value of lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) T-score increased to 0.127 in the experimental group, while it reduced to −0.043 in the control group. The value of the hip BMD T-score increased to 0.125 in the intervention group, but it decreased to −0.028 in the control group. Conclusions: This study showed the effectiveness of HBM and constructs of self-regulation and social support on adoption of nutrition behaviors and increase in the bone density to prevent osteoporosis. PMID:27095985

  13. Mental health nurses' beliefs about smoking by mental health facility inpatients.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Michael; Floyd, Sue; Forrest, Rachel; Marshall, Bob

    2013-08-01

    This study examined beliefs of mental health nurses about smoking by clients, nurses, and visitors in inpatient facilities and identified the influence of years of experience, smoke-free status, and workplace on these beliefs. Data were collected by a survey, distributed via a nursing newsletter with approximately 600 members. Descriptive statistics and cross-tabulations explored the data. A total of 104 responses were received. Smoke-free status made significant differences to nurses' beliefs relating to prohibition of smoking for clients, staff, and visitors; concern about the effects of passive smoking; the role of smoking in the development of therapeutic relationships; smoking as a source of patient pleasure; and the role of smoking in symptom management. That half of the nurses who responded believe that smoking is helpful in the creation of therapeutic relationships is of concern. The nurse plays an important role model in promoting smoke-free lifestyles amongst clients, and the effects of positive role modelling could be lost if nurses continue to smoke with clients. The negative impacts of smoking on the physical health of mental health inpatients is considerable and well documented, and the creation of smoke-free inpatient mental health services can help to address these. PMID:22897708

  14. Smoking among Vietnamese health professionals: knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and health care practice.

    PubMed

    Dao, Thi Minh An; Nguyen, Van Huy; Dao, Ngoc Phong

    2008-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate smoking patterns and compare knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes, as well as explore predictors of smoking status among Vietnamese health professionals. A global survey questionnaire on tobacco use among health professionals by the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention was adapted for data collection. Data from 2151 health workers from the 3 largest hospitals--each of which is located in South, Central, and North Vietnam, respectively--were collected using quantitative methods. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used in the data analysis. Smoking prevalence among Vietnamese health professionals is 13.4%, dominant among male health professionals compared with female counterparts (35.6% vs 1.8%), and significantly varies by regions. Physicians and dentists display a greater smoking proportion than nurses (23.0%, 10.5%, and 7.7%, respectively). The findings highlight the importance of improving and promoting beliefs of health professionals about being role models for their patients by not smoking. Special attention should be given to the following slogan: "Health professionals should act as nonsmoking role models for their patients and the public." This message should be incorporated into cigarette restriction regulations and policies at hospitals and recognized as one of the effective measures in cigarette control in the hospital context. PMID:19124294

  15. Psychological and Educational Intervention to Improve Tuberculosis Treatment Adherence in Ethiopia Based on Health Belief Model: A Cluster Randomized Control Trial

    PubMed Central

    Shojaeizadeh, Davoud; Tol, Azar; Garmaroudi, Gholamreza; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Kebede, Abebaw; Ejeta, Luche Tadesse; Kassa, Desta; Klinkenberg, Eveline

    2016-01-01

    Background Treatment non-adherence results in treatment failure, prolonged transmission of disease and emergence of drug resistance. Although the problem widely investigated, there remains an information gap on the effectiveness of different methods to improve treatment adherence and the predictors of non-adherence in resource limited countries based on theoretical models. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of psychological counseling and educational intervention on tuberculosis (TB) treatment adherence based on Health Belief Model (HBM). Methodology A cluster randomized control trial was conducted in Addis Ababa from May to December, 2014. Patients were enrolled into study consecutively from 30 randomly selected Health Centers (HCs) (14 HCs intervention and 16 HCs control groups). A total of 698 TB patients, who were on treatment for one month to two months were enrolled. A structured questionnaire was administered to both groups of patients at baseline and endpoint of study. Control participants received routine directly-observed anti-TB therapy and the intervention group additionally received combined psychological counseling and adherence education. Treatment non-adherence level was the main outcome of the study, and multilevel logistic regression was employed to assess the impact of intervention on treatment adherence. Results At enrollment, the level of non-adherence among intervention (19.4%) and control (19.6%) groups was almost the same. However, after intervention, non-adherence level decreased among intervention group from 19.4 (at baseline) to 9.5% (at endpoint), while it increased among control group from 19.4% (baseline) to 25.4% (endpoint). Psychological counseling and educational interventions resulted in significant difference with regard to non-adherence level between intervention and control groups (Adjusted OR = 0.31, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) (0.18–0.53), p < 0.001)). Conclusion Psychological counseling and educational interventions

  16. Health Belief Factors and Dispositional Optimism as Predictors of STD and HIV Preventive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zak-Place, Jennifer; Stern, Marilyn

    2004-01-01

    Identifying factors predictive of youth's engaging in preventive behaviors related to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and HIV remains a prominent public health concern. The utility of the Health Belief Model (HBM) continues to be suggested in identifying preventive behaviors. This study sought to examine the full HBM, including self-efficacy,…

  17. Use of Health Belief Model Variables To Examine Self-Reported Food Handling Behaviors in a Sample of U.S. Adults Attending a Tailgate Event.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Jennifer A; Hughes, Susan M; Liu, Pei

    2015-12-01

    Unsafe food handling behaviors are common among consumers, and, given the venue, individuals attending a tailgating event may be at risk for foodborne illness. The objective of this study was to measure the association between Health Belief Model variables and self-reported usual food handling behaviors in a convenience sample of men and women at a tailgate event. Participants (n = 128) completed validated subscales for self-reported food handling behaviors (i.e., cross-contamination, sanitation), perceived threat of foodborne illness (i.e., perceived severity, perceived susceptibility), and safe food handling cues to action (i.e., media cues, educational cues). Perceived severity of foodborne illness was associated with safer behaviors related to sanitation (r = 0.40; P < 0.001) and cross-contamination (r = 0.33; P = 0.001). Perceived severity of foodborne illness was also associated with exposure to safe food handling media cues (r = 0.20; P = 0.027) but not with safe food handling educational cues. A large proportion of participants reported that they never or seldom (i) read newspaper or magazine articles about foodborne illness (65.6%); (ii) read brochures about safe ways to handle food (61.7%); (iii) see store displays that explain ways to handle food (51.6%); or (iv) read the "safe handling instructions" on packages of raw meat and poultry (46.9%). Perceived severity of foodborne illness was positively related to both dimensions of safe food handling as well as with safe food handling media cues. Except for the weak correlation between media cues and perceived severity, the relationships between safe food handling cues and perceived threat, as well as between safe food handling cues and behaviors, were nonsignificant. This finding may be due, in part, to the participants' overall low exposure to safe food handling cues. The overall results of this study reinforce the postulate that perceived severity of foodborne illness may influence food handling behaviors

  18. The impacts of a health belief model-based educational program on adopting self-care behaviors in pemphigus vulgaris patients

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Roya; Tol, Azar; Moradi, Azita; Baikpour, Masoud; Hossaini, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Since pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a chronic disease and regarding its autoimmune nature, patients need to adopt self-care behaviors. This study aimed to assess the impacts of an educational program based on health belief model (HBM) on adopting self-care behaviors among patients with PV referred to Razi Hospital. Materials and Methods: Eighty-eight patients with PV were randomized in an educational intervention study in two groups in 2013–2014. The intervention group attended a 6 months self-care educational program in a specialized outpatient clinic, in addition to the regular care presented for both groups. To collect information about demographic characteristics, PV-related variables, and HBM constructs items, a self-designed questionnaire was used. Data were analyzed by SPSS 20. A P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Increase in perceived susceptibility, severity, and benefits score were significantly higher in intervention group compared with controls when adjusting for the difference in baseline scores of these HBM constructs and house ownership and employment status distribution in two groups using ANCOVA (P < 0.001). Furthermore, after intervention, the decrease in perceived barriers’ scores was significantly more than controls (P < 0.001), However, the decrease in cues to action score was not found significant (P = 0.380). Discussion: The results of this study show the effects of an HBM-based educational program as a tertiary preventive measure on adopting self-care behaviors in patients that can help them achieve self-efficacy in controlling their disease and enhancing their treatment process. PMID:27462647

  19. Determinants and beliefs of health information mavens among a lower-socioeconomic position and minority population.

    PubMed

    Kontos, Emily Z; Emmons, Karen M; Puleo, Elaine; Viswanath, K

    2011-07-01

    People of lower-socioeconomic position (SEP) and most racial/ethnic minorities face significant communication challenges which may negatively impact their health. Previous research has shown that these groups rely heavily on interpersonal sources to share and receive health information; however, little is known about these lay sources. The purpose of this paper is to apply the concept of a market maven to the public health sector with the aims of identifying determinants of high health information mavenism among low-SEP and racial/ethnic minority groups and to assess the information they may be sharing based on their own health beliefs. Data for this study were drawn from the baseline survey (n = 325) of a US randomized control intervention study aimed at eliciting an understanding of Internet-related challenges among lower-SEP and minority individuals. Regression models were estimated to distinguish significant determinants of health information mavenism among the sample. Similarly, bivariate and logistic multivariable models were estimated to determine the association between health information mavenism and accurate health beliefs relating to diet, physical activity and smoking. The data illustrate that having a larger social network, being female and being older were important factors associated with higher mavenism scores. Additionally being a moderate consumer of general media as well as fewer years in the US and lower language acculturation were significant predictors of higher mavenism scores. Mavens were more likely than non-mavens to maintain accurate beliefs regarding diet; however, there was no distinction between physical activity and smoking beliefs between mavens and non-mavens. These results offer a unique understanding of health information mavenism which could better leverage word-of-mouth health communication efforts among lower-SEP and minority groups in order to reduce communication inequalities. Moreover, the data indicate that health

  20. Determinants and beliefs of health information mavens among a lower-socioeconomic position and minority population

    PubMed Central

    Emmons, Karen M.; Puleo, Elaine; Viswanath, K.

    2011-01-01

    People of lower-socioeconomic position (SEP) and most racial/ethnic minorities face significant communication challenges which may negatively impact their health. Previous research has shown that these groups rely heavily on interpersonal sources to share and receive health information; however, little is known about these lay sources. The purpose of this paper is to apply the concept of a market maven to the public health sector with the aims of identifying determinants of high health information mavenism among low-SEP and racial/ethnic minority groups and to assess the information they may be sharing based on their own health beliefs. Data for this study were drawn from the baseline survey (n=325) of a US randomized control intervention study aimed at eliciting an understanding of Internet-related challenges among lower-SEP and minority individuals. Regression models were estimated to distinguish significant determinants of health information mavenism among the sample. Similarly, bivariate and logistic multivariable models were estimated to determine the association between health information mavenism and accurate health beliefs relating to diet, physical activity and smoking. The data illustrate that having a larger social network, being female and being older were important factors associated with higher mavenism scores. Additionally being a moderate consumer of general media as well as fewer years in the US and lower language acculturation were significant predictors of higher mavenism scores. Mavens were more likely than non-mavens to maintain accurate beliefs regarding diet; however, there was no distinction between physical activity and smoking beliefs between mavens and non-mavens. These results offer a unique understanding of health information mavenism which could better leverage word-of-mouth health communication efforts among lower-SEP and minority groups in order to reduce communication inequalities. Moreover, the data indicate that health information

  1. The roles of past behavior and health beliefs in predicting medication adherence to a statin regimen

    PubMed Central

    Molfenter, Todd D; Bhattacharya, Abhik; Gustafson, David H

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Current medication-adherence predictive tools are based on patient medication-taking beliefs, but studying past behavior may now be a more explanatory and accessible method. This study will evaluate if past medication-refill behavior for a statin regimen is more predictive of medication adherence than patient medication-taking health beliefs. Patients and methods: This prospective longitudinal study was implemented in a national managed care plan in the United States. A group of 1433 statin patients were identified and followed for 6 months. Medication-taking health beliefs, collected from self-reported mail questionnaires, and past medication-refill behavior, using proportion of days covered (PDC), were collected prior to 6-month follow-up. Outcomes were measured using categorical PDC variable (of adherence, PDC ≥ 85%, versus nonadherence, PDC < 85%), with model fit estimated using receiver operator characteristic analysis. Results: The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve for past behavior (Az = 0.78) was significantly greater (P < 0.05) than for patient health beliefs (Az = 0.69), indicating that past prescription-refill behavior is a better predictor of medication adherence than prospective health beliefs. Among health beliefs, the factor most related to medication adherence was behavioral intent (odds ratio, 5.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.84 to 15.06). The factor most strongly related to behavioral intent was impact of regimen on daily routine (odds ratio, 3.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.41 to 7.74). Conclusion: Electronic medical records and community health-information networks may make past prescription-refill rates more accessible and assist physicians with managing medication-regimen adherence. Health beliefs, however, may still play an important role in influencing medication-taking behaviors. PMID:23055697

  2. Health professionals' beliefs about domestic abuse and the issue of disclosure: a critical incident technique study.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Julie; Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Kroll, Thilo; Duncan, Fiona

    2013-09-01

    Domestic abuse is increasingly recognised as a serious, worldwide public health concern. There is a significant body of literature regarding domestic abuse, but little is known about health professionals' beliefs about domestic abuse disclosure. In addition, the intersection between health professionals' beliefs and abused women's views remains uninvestigated. We report on a two-phase, qualitative study using Critical Incident Technique (CIT) that aimed to explore community health professionals' beliefs about domestic abuse and the issue of disclosure. We investigated this from the perspectives of both health professionals and abused women. The study took place in Scotland during 2011. The study was informed theoretically by the Common Sense Model of Self-Regulation of Health and Illness (CSM). This model is typically used in disease-orientated research. In our innovative use, however, CSM was used to study the social phenomenon, domestic abuse. The study involved semi-structured, individual CIT interviews with health professionals and focus groups with women who had experienced domestic abuse. Twenty-nine health professionals (Midwives, Health Visitors and General Practitioners) participated in the first phase of the study. In the second phase, three focus groups were conducted with a total of 14 women. Data were analysed using a combination of an inductive classification and framework analysis. Findings highlight the points of convergence and divergence between abused women's and health professionals' beliefs about abuse. Although there was some agreement, they do not always share the same views. For example, women want to be asked about abuse, but many health professionals do not feel confident or comfortable discussing the issue. Overall, the study shows the dynamic interaction between women's and health professionals' beliefs about domestic abuse and readiness to discuss and respond to it. Understanding these complex dynamics assists in the employment of

  3. Perceptions and health beliefs of Greek nursing students about breast self-examination: A descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Lavdaniti, Maria

    2015-12-01

    Breast self-examination is a screening option for young women. Among students, knowledge about breast self-examination ranges from insufficient to average. This descriptive study was planned in order to determine the health beliefs and perceptions of nursing students regarding breast self-examinations. We recruited 538 nursing students in a single Higher Technological Educational Institute in Greece. Data were collected using the Champion's Health Belief Model Scale. Parametric tests were used in the data analysis. We found significant differences in the results of the subscales of Champion's Health Belief Model Scale on comparing people with respect to nationality, previous education about breast self-examination, smoking status and semester in which they were studying. The 'confidence' subscale was positively associated with the frequency of breast self-examination. The results of the present study demonstrated that nursing students have knowledge about breast-self examination but inadequate practice. PMID:24724812

  4. Predictors of Bovine TB Risk Behaviour amongst Meat Handlers in Nigeria: A Cross-Sectional Study Guided by the Health Belief Model

    PubMed Central

    Hambolu, Dupe; Freeman, Jenny; Taddese, Henock B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Bovine Tuberculosis (bTB) is still a serious public health threat in developing countries. The aim of this study is to determine the social and cognitive factors predicting one of the risk behaviours amongst meat handlers in Nigeria, namely, eating Fuku Elegusi. This is the practice of eating the visibly infected parts of the lung in-order to convince customers to buy meat. The study is guided by the health belief model (HBM). Methods This is a cross-sectional study of 349 randomly selected meat handlers in Oko-Oba Abattoir, in Lagos State. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analysis were employed to determine perceptions and prevalence of risk behaviours and to identify predictors of eating Fuku Elegusi. Results Just over a quarter (28.1%) of the study participants knew that eating Fuku Elegusi could be a source of bTB in humans. The prevalence of eating Fuku Elegusi was found to be 22%. Across all knowledge indicators related to bTB, those who don't eat Fuku Elegusi exhibited better knowledge. Strong predictors of eating Fuku Elegusi were: being male (OR: 2.39, 95% CI: 1.10 to 5.19; p = 0.03), not knowing that eating Fuku Elegusi exposes to bTB (OR: 3.72, 95% CI: 1.69 to 8.22; p = 0.001), and the perception that one cannot sell meat without tasting it (perceived barrier) (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.13 to 1.60; p = 0.001). Lower risk of eating Fuku Elegusi was predicted by perceived susceptibility to bTB due to another risk behaviour, namely, not washing hands after handling meat (OR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.64 to 0.96; p-value = 0.021). Television and radio were the most acceptable media for TB prevention messages (78.5% and 75.6% respectively). Conclusion Meat handlers in developing countries bear high risk to bTB owing to prevailing social and cognition determinants. Findings were largely consistent with the propositions of HBM. PMID:23409127

  5. Association of health beliefs and colonoscopy use among survivors of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Salz, Talya; Brewer, Noel T.; Sandler, Robert S.; Weiner, Bryan J.; Martin, Christopher F.; Weinberger, Morris

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Clinical practice guidelines recommend ongoing testing (surveillance) for colorectal cancer survivors because they remain at risk for both local recurrences and second primary tumors. However, survivors often do not receive colorectal cancer surveillance. We used the Health Belief Model (HBM) to identify health beliefs that predict intentions to obtain routine colonoscopies among colorectal cancer survivors. Methods We completed telephone interviews with 277 colorectal cancer survivors who were diagnosed four years earlier, between 2003 and 2005, in North Carolina. The interview measured health beliefs, past preventive behaviors, and intentions to have a routine colonoscopy in the next five years. Results In bivariate analyses, most HBM constructs were associated with intentions. In multivariable analyses, greater perceived likelihood of colorectal cancer (OR=2.00, 95% CI=1.16–3.44) was associated with greater intention to have a colonoscopy. Survivors who already had a colonoscopy since diagnosis also had greater intentions of having a colonoscopy in the future (OR=9.47, 95% CI=2.08–43.16). Conclusions Perceived likelihood of colorectal cancer is an important target for further study and intervention to increase colorectal cancer surveillance among survivors. Other health beliefs were unrelated to intentions, suggesting that the health beliefs of colorectal cancer survivors and asymptomatic adults may differ due to the experience of cancer. PMID:19760152

  6. The Development and Testing of the Instructional Beliefs Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Keith; Martin, Matthew M.; Myers, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the Instructional Beliefs Model which forwards that teacher behaviors, student characteristics, and course-specific structural issues combine to influence students' instructional beliefs. Through these instructional beliefs, the first-order variables influence student learning outcomes. Three studies were conducted to…

  7. African American Women's Beliefs, Coping Behaviors, and Barriers to Seeking Mental Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Earlise C.; Clark, Le Ondra; Heidrich, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about African American women's beliefs about mental illness. In this qualitative study we employed the Common Sense Model (CSM) to examine African American women's beliefs about mental illness, coping behaviors, barriers to treatment seeking, and variations in beliefs, coping, and barriers associated with aging. Fifteen community-dwelling African American women participated in individual interviews. Dimensional analysis, guided by the CSM, showed that participants believed general, culturally specific, and age-related factors can cause mental illness. They believed mental illness is chronic, with negative health outcomes. Participants endorsed the use of prayer and counseling as coping strategies, but were ambivalent about the use of medications. Treatment-seeking barriers included poor access to care, stigma, and lack of awareness of mental illness. Few age differences were found in beliefs, coping behaviors, and barriers. Practice and research implications are discussed. PMID:19843967

  8. Health Professionals’ Attitudes and Beliefs About Breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Radzyminski, Sharon; Callister, Lynn Clark

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this descriptive study was to investigate how health-care providers perceived their role in breastfeeding and maternal support. Data was collected via interviews of 53 health-care professionals that provided care to breastfeeding women. The emerging themes included (a) understanding the benefits of breastfeeding: often lacking current knowledge, (b) lacking consistency: gaps between knowledge of benefits and actual clinical practice, (c) not knowing how to help: lack of assessment and therapeutic skills, and (d) understanding the barriers to breastfeeding: how health-care providers can make a difference. Data analysis suggests inconsistencies between the health-care provider’s perceived support and behaviors, lack of knowledge, and significant lack of skill in the assessment and management of breastfeeding couples. PMID:26957893

  9. Metacognition Beliefs and General Health in Predicting Alexithymia in Students

    PubMed Central

    Babaei, Samaneh; Varandi, Shahryar Ranjbar; Hatami, Zohre; Gharechahi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The present study was conducted to investigate the role of metacognition beliefs and general health in alexithymia in Iranian students. Methods: This descriptive and correlational study included 200 participants of high schools students, selected randomly from students of two cities (Sari and Dargaz), Iran. Metacognitive Strategies Questionnaire (MCQ-30); the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and Farsi Version of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) were used for gathering the data. Using the Pearson’s correlation method and regression, the data were analyzed. Results: The findings indicated significant positive relationships between alexithymia and all subscales of general health. The highest correlation was between alexithymia and anxiety subscale (r=0.36, P<0.01). Also, there was a significant negative relationship between alexithymia and some metacognitive strategies. The highest significant negative relationship was seen between alexithymia and the sub-scale of risk uncontrollability (r=-0.359, P < 0.01). Based on the results of multiple regressions, three predictors explained 21% of the variance (R2=0. 21, F=7.238, P<0.01). It was found that anxiety subscale of General Health significantly predicted 13% of the variance of alexithymia (β=0.36, P<0.01) and risk uncontrollability subscale of Metacognition beliefs predicted about 8% of the variance of alexithymia (β=-0.028, P<0.01). Conclusions: The findings demonstrated that metacognition beliefs and general health had important role in predicting of alexithymia in students. PMID:26383206

  10. A Health Belief Interview for Clinical Geriatrics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakowski, William; Dengiz, Alan N.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a brief nine-item interview, designed for use by practitioners. Based upon results from field-testing with 65 ambulatory geriatric patients, the instrument can be used as an aid to assess health and treatment perceptions in clinical settings. Responses to specific items may also suggest broader areas for follow-up discussion. (JAC)

  11. Stroke-Related Knowledge, Lifestyle Behaviours and Health Beliefs in Singaporean Chinese: Implications for Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Wai Pong; Yeung, Meredith; Loh, Susan; Lee, Mina; Ghazali, F.; Chan, C. J.; Feng, S.; Liew, Y. V.; Seah, P. F.; Wee, J.; Wang, J.; Huang, X.; Dean, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to describe stroke-related knowledge (risk factors, warning signs and emergency response), lifestyle behaviours and health beliefs among Singaporean Chinese, and to identify any factors associated with such knowledge, behaviours and beliefs. Design: This was a cross-sectional study design employing…

  12. Family burdens, Chinese health beliefs, and the mental health of Chinese caregivers in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Tsui, Helen Kam Pui; Pearson, Veronica; Chen, Eric Yu Hai; Chiu, Siu Ning

    2004-12-01

    This study explored the types of family burdens, mental health and Chinese health beliefs of Chinese caregivers with relatives suffering from a serious mental illness. It also examined the impacts of these beliefs on caregivers' burdens and mental health. A structured questionnaire was administered to 125 Chinese caregivers in out-patient clinics in Hong Kong. Measures included distress (General Health Questionnaire), family burdens and belief in traditional Chinese medicine. Family burdens exerted a significant impact on the mental health of caregivers. Significant differences were found between believers and non-believers of traditional Chinese medical beliefs in terms of financial burdens, disruptions to family interactions and decline in physical health. No [corrected] moderating effect of Chinese health beliefs on family burdens and mental health was found. The lack of a moderating effect of health belief on family burdens may be related to caregivers' changes in perspectives from a traditional Chinese cultural perspective to a psychosocial and personality perspective. Implications for research and service development are discussed. PMID:15709648

  13. Mental Health Beliefs Amongst Emirati Female College Students.

    PubMed

    Al-Darmaki, Fatima; Thomas, Justin; Yaaqeib, Saad

    2016-02-01

    Recent epidemiological data from Arabian Gulf nations suggest that mental health problems such as depression and anxiety have a relatively high prevalence, particularly amongst women. However, despite the widespread morbidity, treatment seeking for mental health problems is low. Mental health beliefs amongst female Emirati college students were explored. A questionnaire exploring perceptions about the causes, consequences and best forms of intervention for mental health problems was administered to 70 participants. Data revealed that social and environmental factors were given the most weight in terms of etiology. Social stigma was the most frequently identified barrier to help seeking. Religious practices were commonly reported as an approach to cope with mental health problems and to maintain good psychological health. Most participants reported willingness to seek help from a healthcare professional. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for improving the quality and accessibility of mental health services in the gulf region. PMID:26286081

  14. Traditional Health Beliefs and Practices Among Lower Class Black Americans

    PubMed Central

    Snow, Loudell F.

    1983-01-01

    The medical belief system of lower class black Americans reflects their social, political and economic marginality in the larger society. A moderate life-style is regarded as the basis for good health with special emphasis on protecting one's body from cold, keeping it clean inside and out and maintaining a proper diet. Illnesses and other life events are classified as “natural” or “unnatural.” Natural illnesses result from the effects of cold, dirt and improper diet on the body causing changes in the blood. A number of beliefs about blood and its functions have important clinical implications for the treatment of hypertension and venereal disease and for family planning. Natural illnesses also result from divine punishment and serve as an instrument of social control. Unnatural illnesses are the result of witchcraft and reflect conflict in the social network. It is believed that physicians do not understand and cannot effectively treat such illnesses, but a variety of traditional healers offer help to the victims. Physicians must elicit such beliefs if they are to interact effectively and sensitively with black patients. Social change is required, however, to eliminate the feelings of powerlessness at the root of many of the health problems of poor black Americans. PMID:6364570

  15. AIDS and traditional health beliefs and practices of black women.

    PubMed

    Flaskerud, J H; Rush, C E

    1989-01-01

    This study examines whether traditional health beliefs and practices of black Americans reported in the literature were consistent with those of a target population of low-income black women in Los Angeles County and describes how these traditional classifications of illness and healing practices were related to their understanding of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). A qualitative approach was used to gather the data in unstructured interviews. Content analysis was used to classify data. Sources of illness and remedies identified by the women were divided into two categories: natural and supernatural. Natural sources included cold, impurities, diet, weakness, lack of moderation, and stress. Supernatural sources included illnesses allowed by God, witchcraft, and evil influences. Remedies included antidotes, food, medicines, prayer, and healing. Analysis of the relationship of AIDS to traditional beliefs revealed that AIDS had been integrated into the traditional conceptualization of illness, health practices, and healing, and was attributed to both natural and supernatural causes. Prevention, prayer, and spiritual healing were recommended as remedies. Implications were that AIDS education, prevention, and treatment programs be within the context of traditional belief system. PMID:2748354

  16. Beyond belief.

    PubMed

    Cromby, John

    2012-10-01

    Psychology, including health psychology, frequently invokes the concept of belief but almost never defines it. Drawing upon scholarship associated with the 'affective turn', this article argues that belief might usefully be understood as a structure of socialized feeling, contingently allied to discursive practices and positions. This conceptualization is explained, and its implications for health psychology discussed with respect to research on religiosity and spirituality and debates about the value of social cognition models such as the theory of planned behaviour. PMID:22947889

  17. Predicting Health Care Utilization among Latinos: Health Locus of Control Beliefs or Access Factors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Jesus, Maria; Xiao, Chenyang

    2014-01-01

    There are two competing research explanations to account for Latinos' underutilization of health services relative to non-Latino Whites in the United States. One hypothesis examines the impact of health locus of control (HLOC) beliefs, while the other focuses on the role of access factors on health care use. To date, the relative strength of…

  18. Making sense of perceptions of risk of diseases and vaccinations: a qualitative study combining models of health beliefs, decision-making and risk perception

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Maintaining high levels of childhood vaccinations is important for public health. Success requires better understanding of parents' perceptions of diseases and consequent decisions about vaccinations, however few studies have considered this from the theoretical perspectives of risk perception and decision-making under uncertainty. The aim of this study was to examine the utility of subjective risk perception and decision-making theories to provide a better understanding of the differences between immunisers' and non-immunisers' health beliefs and behaviours. Methods In a qualitative study we conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with 45 Australian parents exploring their experiences and perceptions of disease severity and susceptibility. Using scenarios about 'a new strain of flu' we explored how risk information was interpreted. Results We found that concepts of dread, unfamiliarity, and uncontrollability from the subjective perception of risk and ambiguity, optimistic control and omission bias from explanatory theories of decision-making under uncertainty were useful in understanding why immunisers, incomplete immunisers and non-immunisers interpreted severity and susceptibility to diseases and vaccine risk differently. Immunisers dreaded unfamiliar diseases whilst non-immunisers dreaded unknown, long term side effects of vaccines. Participants believed that the risks of diseases and complications from diseases are not equally spread throughout the community, therefore, when listening to reports of epidemics, it is not the number of people who are affected but the familiarity or unfamiliarity of the disease and the characteristics of those who have had the disease that prompts them to take preventive action. Almost all believed they themselves would not be at serious risk of the 'new strain of flu' but were less willing to take risks with their children's health. Conclusion This study has found that health messages about the risks of disease

  19. Congolese and Somali beliefs about mental health services.

    PubMed

    Piwowarczyk, Linda; Bishop, Hillary; Yusuf, Abdirahman; Mudymba, Francine; Raj, Anita

    2014-03-01

    Despite high levels of traumatic exposure, refugees often do not seek mental health services upon resettlement. The purpose of this study was to examine both concepts of mental illness in addition to attitudes and beliefs about treatment as well as potential barriers to accessing mental health services. To that end, qualitative research was done using focus groups with Congolese and Somali men and women in the United States (n = 48) in addition to a community survey with women from those communities (n = 296) administered by staff of a community-based organization. Mental health concerns, although identified, were often dealt with first in the communities themselves with the help of family or friends. Great emphasis was placed on their respective communities of faith. The actual role of mental health professionals was not well understood, and there was apparent hesitancy to use services, which also relates to issues of stigma. PMID:24566506

  20. Parents’ Health Beliefs Influence Breastfeeding Patterns among Iranian Women

    PubMed Central

    Parsa, Parisa; Masoumi, Zahra; Parsa, Nakisa; Parsa, Bita

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine factors related to breastfeeding and its perceived health benefits among Iranian mothers. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed using 240 postpartum women who were selected randomly from eight public health care centers in Hamadan, Iran, in 2012. Mothers who breastfed (BF) and mothers who never breastfed (NBF) were given a structured questionnaire to collect their demographic data and information regarding their health beliefs and attitude towards child-rearing. Descriptive and logistic regression were used for data analysis. Results The mean length of breastfeeding was 11.6 (standard deviation=12.5) weeks. There was no difference in demographic variables, such as age, type of medical insurance, number of living children, employment, education, and household income (p>0.050), between mothers that breastfed and those that did not. Mothers’ perception of the severity of child illness was higher in those who breastfed than those who never breastfed (p=0.050). In contrast, BF mothers had higher perceived confidence of medical care to prevent diseases (p<0.050) and a higher perception of reverse parent-child roles than NBF mothers (p<0.050). Conclusion Mothers’ health beliefs and attitude to parenting has a significant role in choosing to breastfeed. Physicians and healthcare providers may provide supportive information that influence a mother’s breastfeeding behavior. PMID:26171125

  1. [Childhood diarrhea in rural Nicaragua: beliefs and traditional health practices].

    PubMed

    Gorter, A C; Sánchez, G; Pauw, J; Pérez, R M; Sandiford, P; Smith, G D

    1995-11-01

    In Nicaragua, the principal cause of infant mortality is diarrhea, which is responsible for 40% of these deaths annually. This statistic reflects the low usage of health services and oral rehydration therapy (ORT). In an effort to improve the situation, several studies were carried out in Villa Carlos Fonseca municipio. This report describes two of those studies, one ethnographic and the other epidemiologic (conducted in 1989 and 1990, respectively), to find out beliefs and traditional health practices and their influence on the way in which mothers responded to their children's diarrheal illness. The ethnographic study involved interviewing 70 mothers with an average age of 28 years who had children under 2 years of age. The children represented two groups: one at high risk for diarrhea and the other at low risk. The objectives were to learn the traditional names for diarrhea, the perception of risk, and the treatments that were used. The epidemiologic study included 391 mothers over 14 years of age with one or more children under age 5 years, of whom 215 had had diarrhea in the two weeks preceding the survey. The objectives were to describe local beliefs and health practices and to determine the incidence of diarrheas according to the diagnosis made by the mothers. At least 12 types of diarrhea were identified, for which terms such as "empacho" and "sol de vista" were used. In most cases, the mothers had more confidence in folkloric treatments that they themselves or the traditional healers (curanderos) applied than in the services offered at health centers. This attitude limited their use of health services and ORT, although it was observed that in certain cases traditional treatments were used in combination with those of western medicine. There was a direct but nonsignificant correlation between the level of schooling of the mothers and the frequency with which they visited the health center. The authors suggest the effects of massages, herbal baths, and other

  2. Teacher Change Beliefs: Validating a Scale with Structural Equation Modelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kin, Tai Mei; Abdull Kareem, Omar; Nordin, Mohamad Sahari; Wai Bing, Khuan

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to validate a substantiated Teacher Change Beliefs Model (TCBM) and an instrument to identify critical components of teacher change beliefs (TCB) in Malaysian secondary schools. Five different pilot test approaches were applied to ensure the validity and reliability of the instrument. A total of 936 teachers from…

  3. Adolescents' Attainability and Aspiration Beliefs for Famous Musician Role Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivaldi, Antonia; O'Neill, Susan A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the role that adolescents' competence beliefs and subjective task values for music have in relation to their aspirations and expectations for becoming like their musician role models. A total of 381 adolescents (aged 13-14) completed a questionnaire about their competence beliefs and values for music, the musicians they admired…

  4. Born Fat: The Relations Between Weight Changeability Beliefs and Health Behaviors and Physical Health.

    PubMed

    Parent, Mike C; Alquist, Jessica L

    2016-06-01

    Although some popular press and nonscholarly sources have claimed that weight is largely unchangeable, the relationship between this belief and objective measures of health remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that people who believe weight is unchangeable will have poorer objective and subjective health, and fewer exercise behaviors and poorer eating habits, than people who believe weight is changeable. Participants were 4,166 men and 4,655 women enrolled in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in the 2007 to 2010 iterations. Believing that weight was uncontrollable was negatively related to exercise and healthful dietary practices and positively related to unhealthful eating. Lack of exercise and unhealthful eating were, in turn, associated with poor physical health. Age, but not gender, moderated the relationships between belief in weight changeability and exercise behaviors, healthful eating, and unhealthful eating. This study suggests that believing weight is unchangeable is associated with poor health behaviors and poorer physical health. PMID:26351266

  5. Prostate cancer health and cultural beliefs of black men: The Florida Prostate Cancer Disparity Project

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Since behavioral factors are significant determinants of population health, addressing prostate cancer (CaP)-related health beliefs and cultural beliefs are key weapons to fight this deadly disease. This study investigated the health beliefs and cultural beliefs of black men relative to CaP, and the key socio-demographic correlates of these beliefs. Methods The study design was a cross-sectional survey of 2,864 Florida black men, age 40 to 70, on their perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, attitude, outcomes beliefs, perceived behavioral control, CaP fatalism, religiosity, temporal orientation, and acculturation relative to CaP screening and prevention. Results The men reported favorable attitude and positive outcome beliefs, but moderate perceived behavioral control, CaP susceptibility and CaP severity. They also had low level of acculturation, did not hold fatalistic beliefs about CaP, had high religious coping skills and had high future time perspective. Several demographic variables were found to be associated with health beliefs and cultural beliefs. Discussion Our study provides rich data with regard to the health and cultural beliefs that might serve to inform the development of CaP control initiative for US-born and foreign-born black men. PMID:21992652

  6. Born Fat: The Relations between Weight Changeability Beliefs and Health Behaviors and Physical Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, Mike C.; Alquist, Jessica L.

    2016-01-01

    Although some popular press and nonscholarly sources have claimed that weight is largely unchangeable, the relationship between this belief and objective measures of health remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that people who believe weight is unchangeable will have poorer objective and subjective health, and fewer exercise behaviors and…

  7. The Association of Health Literacy with Illness and Medication Beliefs among Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kale, Minal S.; Federman, Alex D.; Krauskopf, Katherine; Wolf, Michael; O’Conor, Rachel; Martynenko, Melissa; Leventhal, Howard; Wisnivesky, Juan P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Low health literacy is associated with low adherence to self-management in many chronic diseases. Additionally, health beliefs are thought to be determinants of self-management behaviors. In this study we sought to determine the association, if any, of health literacy and health beliefs among elderly individuals with COPD. Methods We enrolled a cohort of patients with COPD from two academic urban settings in New York, NY and Chicago, IL. Health literacy was measured using the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Using the framework of the Self-Regulation Model, illness and medication beliefs were measured with the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (B-IPQ) and Beliefs about Medications Questionnaire (BMQ). Unadjusted analyses, with corresponding Cohen’s d effect sizes, and multiple logistic regression were used to assess the relationships between HL and illness and medication beliefs. Results We enrolled 235 participants, 29% of whom had low health literacy. Patients with low health literacy were more likely to belong to a racial minority group (p<0.001), not be married (p = 0.006), and to have lower income (p<0.001) or education (p<0.001). In unadjusted analyses, patients with low health literacy were less likely to believe they will always have COPD (p = 0.003, Cohen’s d = 0.42), and were more likely to be concerned about their illness ((p = 0.04, Cohen’s d = 0.17). In analyses adjusted for sociodemographic factors and other health beliefs, patients with low health literacy were less likely to believe that they will always have COPD (odds ratio [OR]: 0.78, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.65–0.94). In addition, the association of low health literacy with expressed concern about medications remained significant (OR: 1.20, 95% CI: 1.05–1.37) though the association of low health literacy with belief in the necessity of medications was no longer significant (OR: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.82–1.04). Conclusions In this cohort of urban

  8. Feeling Frugal: Socioeconomic Status, Acculturation, and Cultural Health Beliefs among Women of Mexican Descent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borrayo, Evelinn A.; Jenkins, Sharon Rae

    2003-01-01

    Investigates influences of acculturation, socioeconomic status (SES), and cultural health beliefs on Mexican-descent women's preventive health behaviors. In 5 focus group interviews sampling across levels of acculturation and SES, women expressing more traditional Mexican health beliefs about breast cancer screening were of lower SES and were less…

  9. Modeling Physiological Data with Deep Belief Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dan; Shang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Feature extraction is key in understanding and modeling of physiological data. Traditionally hand-crafted features are chosen based on expert knowledge and then used for classification or regression. To determine important features and pick the effective ones to handle a new task may be labor-intensive and time-consuming. Moreover, the manual process does not scale well with new or large-size tasks. In this work, we present a system based on Deep Belief Networks (DBNs) that can automatically extract features from raw physiological data of 4 channels in an unsupervised fashion and then build 3 classifiers to predict the levels of arousal, valance, and liking based on the learned features. The classification accuracies are 60.9%, 51.2%, and 68.4%, respectively, which are comparable with the results obtained by Gaussian Naïve Bayes classifier on the state-of-the-art expert designed features. These results suggest that DBNs can be applied to raw physiological data to effectively learn relevant features and predict emotions. PMID:25165501

  10. Beliefs about health and illness in latin-american migrants with diabetes living in sweden.

    PubMed

    Hjelm, Katarina; Bard, Karin

    2013-01-01

    The study explored beliefs about health and illness in Latin American migrants diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM) living in Sweden, and investigated the influence on health-related behavior including self-care and care-seeking behavior. Migrants are particularly affected in the diabetes pandemia. Beliefs about health and illness determine health-related behaviour and health but no studies have been found on Latin American migrants with DM. An explorative study design with focus-group interviews of nine persons aged 36-77 years from a diabetes clinic was used. Health was described from a pathogenetic or a salutogenetic perspective: 'freedom from disease or feeling of well-being', and being autonomous and able to work. Economic hardship due to expenses for medications and food for DM affected health. Individual factors such as diet, exercise and compliance with advice, and social factors with good social relations and avoidance of stress, often caused by having experienced severe events related to migrational experiences, were considered important for maintaining health and could cause DM. Disturbed relations to others (social factors), punishment by God or Fate (supernatural factors), intake of diuretics and imbalance between warmth and cold (natural factors) were also perceived as causes. A mix of biomedical and traditional explanations and active self-care behaviour with frequent use of herbs was found. It is important to assess the individual's beliefs, and health professionals, particularly nurses, should incorporate discussions of alternative treatments and other components of explanatory models and co-operate with social workers to consider influence of finances and migrational experiences on health. PMID:23802030

  11. Predictors of HIV-test utilization in PMTCT among antenatal care attendees in government health centers: institution-based cross-sectional study using health belief model in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Workagegn, Fikremariam; Kiros, Getachew; Abebe, Lakew

    2015-01-01

    Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is the most dramatic epidemic of the century that has claimed over two decades more than 3 million deaths. Sub-Saharan Africa is heavily affected and accounts for nearly 70% of all cases. Mother-to-child transmission of HIV is responsible for 20% of all HIV transmissions. With no preventive interventions, 50% of HIV infections are transmitted from HIV-positive mothers to newborns. HIV-testing is central to prevent vertical transmission. Despite, awareness campaigns, prevention measures, and more recently, promotion of antiviral regimens, the prevalence of cases and deaths is still rising and the prevalence of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) voluntary counseling test (VCT) use remains low. This study identifies predictors and possible barriers of HIV-testing among antenatal care attendees based on the health belief model (HBM) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods The study was an institution-based cross-sectional survey conducted from September 1 to September 30, 2013. A total of 308 individuals were interviewed using structured questionnaires adopted and modified from similar studies. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews. A logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with HIV-test use. Results In spite of satisfactory knowledge on HIV/AIDS transmission, participants are still at high risk of contracting the infection, wherein only 51.8% tested for HIV; among the married, only 84.1% and among the gestational age of third trimester, 34.1% mothers tested for HIV. Based on the HBM, failure to use PMTCT-HIV-test was related to its perceived lack of net benefit (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.34, confidence interval [CI] [0.19–0.58], P<0.001), but interviewees with high perceived self-efficacy were 1.9 times more likely to use HIV-test (AOR =1.90, CI [1.09–3.33], P<0.05). Conclusion and recommendation This study identifies perceived

  12. English- and Spanish-speaking Latina mothers' beliefs about food, health, and mothering.

    PubMed

    Gomel, Jessica N; Zamora, Angela

    2007-10-01

    Parent beliefs regarding food, health, and child feeding behaviors among Latinos have not been well-documented. A series of eight focus groups were conducted with English-speaking and Spanish-speaking low-income Latina mothers of preschoolers to investigate their beliefs regarding how food and food preparation are related to their children's health and to their own roles as mothers. Systematic content analysis using NUDIST 6 revealed seven themes discussed by the focus groups. Integration of these themes revealed three major areas of consideration: (1) a lack of connection between the domains of eating, overweight, and health outcomes; (2) the role of parent modeling of eating behaviors; and (3) the use of feeding strategies that may not be conducive to the development of healthy eating behaviors. Furthermore, the data suggest that there are important distinctions among Latinos based on language preference, and that a "one-size-fits-all" approach to modeling Latino mothers' feeding beliefs may not be appropriate. PMID:17347890

  13. Health beliefs and promotion of HIV-preventive intentions among teenagers: a Scottish perspective.

    PubMed

    Abraham, C; Sheeran, P; Spears, R; Abrams, D

    1992-01-01

    Beliefs concerning the spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and preventive behaviors were examined in a sample of 351 sexually active Scottish teenagers. A postal questionnaire, including measures of variables specified by the health belief model (HBM) and preventive intentions, was employed. The relation between HBM measures and reported endorsement of HIV-preventive intentions was investigated. Results indicated that, in general, respondents intended to use condoms with new sexual partners. The majority also intended to carry condoms if they thought they might have sex with a new partner and to ask potential partners about their previous sexual history. Multiple-regression analyses showed that measures of health beliefs, gender, age, sexual experience, and previous condom use accounted for 17.8% to 24.3% of the variance in reported preventive intentions. Perceived barriers to preventive behaviors were found to be important predictors. However, the overall pattern of results raised questions concerning the adequacy of the HBM as a model of the determinants of HIV-preventive intentions, and the need for an extended model is discussed. Separate analyses were conducted for men and women and for 16- and 18-year-olds, and the implications for modeling intention formation in these subgroups are considered. The relevance of these findings to HIV-preventive campaigns is also discussed. PMID:1286655

  14. Somali immigrant women and the American health care system: discordant beliefs, divergent expectations, and silent worries.

    PubMed

    Pavlish, Carol Lynn; Noor, Sahra; Brandt, Joan

    2010-07-01

    The civil war in Somalia resulted in massive resettlement of Somali refugees. The largest diaspora of Somali refugees in the United States currently reside in Minnesota. Partnering with three community organizations in 2007-8, we implemented the Community Connections and Collaboration Project to address health disparities that Somali refugees experienced. Specifically, we examined factors that influenced Somali women's health experiences. Utilizing a socio-ecological perspective and a social action research design, we conducted six community-based focus groups with 57 Somali women and interviewed 11 key informants including Somali healthcare professionals. Inductively coding, sorting and reducing data into categories, we analyzed each category for specific patterns. The categorical findings on healthcare experiences are reported here. We found that Somali women's health beliefs related closely to situational factors and contrasted sharply with the biological model that drives Western medicine. These discordant health beliefs resulted in divergent expectations regarding treatment and healthcare interactions. Experiencing unmet expectations, Somali women and their healthcare providers reported multiple frustrations which often diminished perceived quality of health care. Moreover, silent worries about mental health and reproductive decision making surfaced. To provide high quality, transcultural health care, providers must encourage patients to voice their own health explanations, expectations, and worries. PMID:20494500

  15. Development and initial validation of a measure of metacognitive beliefs in health anxiety: The MCQ-HA.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Robin; Wells, Adrian

    2015-12-30

    Metacognitive beliefs have been shown to correlate with emotional disorders and more recently have been implicated in health anxiety. Research exploring these beliefs have tended to use the Metacognition Questionnaire (MCQ), which is a general measure. To facilitate research on the metacognitive model applied to health anxiety the present study reports on the development and initial evaluation of a new specific metacognitive measure of health anxiety, the Metacognitions Questionnaire-Health Anxiety (MCQ-HA). Principal components analysis identified 14 suitable items to be explored. Subsequent exploratory factor analysis of the MCQ-HA identified three factors: "Beliefs that Thoughts can cause Illness", "Beliefs about Biased thinking", and "Beliefs that Thoughts are Uncontrollable". Confirmatory factor analysis supported the three factor model with all selected goodness-of-fit statistics equivalent to or better than recommended values. Preliminary evidence suggests good internal-consistency, incremental, convergent and discriminant validity in relation to associated measures. The MCQ-HA appears to be a potentially useful predictor of health anxiety. PMID:26626951

  16. Modeling Spanish Mood Choice in Belief Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Jason R.

    2013-01-01

    This work develops a computational methodology new to linguistics that empirically evaluates competing linguistic theories on Spanish verbal mood choice through the use of computational techniques to learn mood and other hidden linguistic features from Spanish belief statements found in corpora. The machine learned probabilistic linguistic models…

  17. Teachers' Beliefs about Mental Health Needs in Inner City Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Heather J.; Gouze, Karen; Lim, Karen G.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To survey teachers' beliefs about mental health service needs in inner city elementary schools. Method: A total of 119 teachers from six elementary schools in a major city in the midwestern United States were surveyed to assess their beliefs about the major mental health problems facing their schools, the major barriers to surmounting…

  18. Race and Beliefs about Mental Health Treatment Among Anxious Primary Care Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Justin; Sullivan, Greer; Chavira, Denise A.; Stein, Murray B.; Craske, Michelle G.; Golinelli, Daniella; Roy-Byrne, Peter P.; Sherbourne, Cathy D.

    2013-01-01

    Large racial disparities in the utilization of mental health care persist. Differences in treatment preferences could partially explain the differences in care between minority and non-minority populations. We compared beliefs about mental illness and treatment preferences among adult African Americans, Hispanics, Asian Americans, Native Americans, and whites, with diagnosed anxiety disorders. Measures of beliefs about mental illness and treatment were drawn from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication and from our previous work. There were no significant differences between African-Americans’ and whites’ beliefs. Hispanics’ and Native Americans’ beliefs were most distinctive, but the differences were small in magnitude. Across race/ethnicity, the associations between beliefs and service use were generally weak and statistically insignificant. Differences in illness beliefs and treatment preferences do not fully explain the large, persistent racial disparities in mental health care. Other crucial barriers to quality care exist in our health care system and our society as a whole. PMID:23407203

  19. Beliefs and attitudes of French family practitioners toward depression: the impact of training in mental health

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Joanna L.; Pommié, Christelle; Cogneau, Joël; Haddad, Mark; Ritchie, Karen A.; Mann, Anthony H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study, in a sample of French Family Practitioners (FPs), beliefs and attitudes toward depression and how they vary according to training received in mental health. Methods The Depression Attitude Questionnaire (DAQ) was completed by 468 FPs from all regions of France, recruited by pharmaceutical company representatives to attend focus groups on the management of depression in general practice. Results A three factor model was derived from the DAQ, accounting for 37.7% of the total variance. The correlations between individual items of each component varied from 0.4 to 0.65 with an overall internal consistency of 0.47 (Cronbach’s alpha). FPs had an overall neutral position on component 1, professional ease, a positive view on the origins of depression and its amenability to change (component 2), and a belief in the necessity of medication and the benefit of antidepressant therapy (component 3). Training in mental health, specifically through continuing medical education and postgraduate psychiatric hospital training, was significantly and positively associated with both professional ease and a medication approach to treating depression. Conclusion this study is the first description of the beliefs and attitudes of French FPs towards depression using a standardized measure, the DAQ, despite the instrument’s limited psychometric properties. It shows the positive effect of training in mental health on attitudes towards depression. PMID:21675343

  20. Cross-cultural medicine and diverse health beliefs. Ethiopians abroad.

    PubMed Central

    Hodes, R

    1997-01-01

    A large number of Ethiopians reside abroad as refugees, immigrants, or students. To provide adequate care, physicians must understand their beliefs about health and medicine. To Ethiopians, health is an equilibrium between the body and the outside. Excess sun is believed to cause mitch ("sunstroke"), leading to skin disease. Blowing winds are thought to cause pain wherever they hit. Sexually transmitted disease is attributed to urinating under a full moon. People with buda, "evil eye," are said to be able to harm others by looking at them. Ethiopians often complain of rasehn, "my head" (often saying it burns); yazorehnyal, "spinning" (not a true vertigo); and libehn, "my heart" (usually indicating dyspepsia rather than a cardiac problem). Most Ethiopians have faith in traditional healers and procedures. In children, uvulectomy (to prevent presumed suffocation during pharyngitis in babies), the extraction of lower incisors (to prevent diarrhea), and the incision of eyelids (to prevent or cure conjunctivitis) are common. Circumcision is performed on almost all men and 90% of women. Ethiopians do bloodletting for moygnbagegn, a neurologic disease that includes fever and syncope. Chest pain is treated by cupping. Ethiopians often prefer injections to tablets. Bad news is usually given to families of patients and not the patients themselves. Zar is a form of spirit possession treated by a traditional healer negotiating with the alien spirit and giving gifts to the possessed patient. Health education must address Ethiopian concerns and customs. Images Figure 1. PMID:9074336

  1. Evaluation of the Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale in Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Hee; Lee, Young-Sang; Byun, Dong Won; Jang, Seyeon; Jeon, Dong-Su

    2013-01-01

    Background The Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale (OHBS) is a 42-item questionnaire designed to assess susceptibility, seriousness, calcium benefits, calcium barriers, exercise benefits, exercise barriers, and health motivation related to osteoporosis. We aimed to evaluate its psychometric properties to enable the provision of educational tips regarding osteoporosis. Methods All women who had visited the department of obstetrics and gynecology (OBGYN) and whose bone mineral density was measured from January 2010 to December 2011 were enrolled by interview using the OHBS. We also evaluated the women's general clinical characteristics. Results One hundred seventy-seven women were enrolled in the present study. In the present study, the barriers to calcium intake subscale had the lowest mean score (15.03±3.02), and the Benefit of Exercise subscale had the highest (23.02±3.03). The scores for participants in their 20s were significantly higher than scores for those in their 70s on the Benefits of Exercise subscale and Barriers to Exercise subscale (P=0.014 and P=0.022, respectively). Conclusions Education for health motivation to prevent osteoporosis is important for young women. Additional systematic education programs are needed for the general population. PMID:24524052

  2. An integrated model of communication influence on beliefs

    PubMed Central

    Eveland, William P.; Cooper, Kathryn E.

    2013-01-01

    How do people develop and maintain their beliefs about science? Decades of social science research exist to help us answer this question. The Integrated Model of Communication Influence on Beliefs presented here combines multiple theories that have considered aspects of this process into a comprehensive model to explain how individuals arrive at their scientific beliefs. In this article, we (i) summarize what is known about how science is presented in various news and entertainment media forms; (ii) describe how individuals differ in their choices to be exposed to various forms and sources of communication; (iii) discuss the implications of how individuals mentally process information on the effects of communication; (iv) consider how communication effects can be altered depending on background characteristics and motivations of individuals; and (v) emphasize that the process of belief formation is not unidirectional but rather, feeds back on itself over time. We conclude by applying the Integrated Model of Communication Influence on Beliefs to the complex issue of beliefs about climate change. PMID:23940328

  3. Modeling the Evolution of Beliefs Using an Attentional Focus Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Marković, Dimitrije; Gläscher, Jan; Bossaerts, Peter; O'Doherty, John; Kiebel, Stefan J

    2015-10-01

    For making decisions in everyday life we often have first to infer the set of environmental features that are relevant for the current task. Here we investigated the computational mechanisms underlying the evolution of beliefs about the relevance of environmental features in a dynamical and noisy environment. For this purpose we designed a probabilistic Wisconsin card sorting task (WCST) with belief solicitation, in which subjects were presented with stimuli composed of multiple visual features. At each moment in time a particular feature was relevant for obtaining reward, and participants had to infer which feature was relevant and report their beliefs accordingly. To test the hypothesis that attentional focus modulates the belief update process, we derived and fitted several probabilistic and non-probabilistic behavioral models, which either incorporate a dynamical model of attentional focus, in the form of a hierarchical winner-take-all neuronal network, or a diffusive model, without attention-like features. We used Bayesian model selection to identify the most likely generative model of subjects' behavior and found that attention-like features in the behavioral model are essential for explaining subjects' responses. Furthermore, we demonstrate a method for integrating both connectionist and Bayesian models of decision making within a single framework that allowed us to infer hidden belief processes of human subjects. PMID:26495984

  4. Modeling the Evolution of Beliefs Using an Attentional Focus Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Marković, Dimitrije; Gläscher, Jan; Bossaerts, Peter; O’Doherty, John; Kiebel, Stefan J.

    2015-01-01

    For making decisions in everyday life we often have first to infer the set of environmental features that are relevant for the current task. Here we investigated the computational mechanisms underlying the evolution of beliefs about the relevance of environmental features in a dynamical and noisy environment. For this purpose we designed a probabilistic Wisconsin card sorting task (WCST) with belief solicitation, in which subjects were presented with stimuli composed of multiple visual features. At each moment in time a particular feature was relevant for obtaining reward, and participants had to infer which feature was relevant and report their beliefs accordingly. To test the hypothesis that attentional focus modulates the belief update process, we derived and fitted several probabilistic and non-probabilistic behavioral models, which either incorporate a dynamical model of attentional focus, in the form of a hierarchical winner-take-all neuronal network, or a diffusive model, without attention-like features. We used Bayesian model selection to identify the most likely generative model of subjects’ behavior and found that attention-like features in the behavioral model are essential for explaining subjects’ responses. Furthermore, we demonstrate a method for integrating both connectionist and Bayesian models of decision making within a single framework that allowed us to infer hidden belief processes of human subjects. PMID:26495984

  5. The Relationship between Pain Beliefs and Physical and Mental Health Outcome Measures in Chronic Low Back Pain: Direct and Indirect Effects.

    PubMed

    Baird, Andrew; Sheffield, David

    2016-01-01

    Low back pain remains a major health problem with huge societal cost. Biomedical models fail to explain the disability seen in response to reported back pain and therefore patients' beliefs, cognitions and related behaviours have become a focus for both research and practice. This study used the Pain Beliefs Questionnaire and had two aims: To examine the extent to which pain beliefs are related to disability, anxiety and depression; and to assess whether those relationships are mediated by pain self-efficacy and locus of control. In a sample of 341 chronic low back pain patients, organic and psychological pain beliefs were related to disability, anxiety and depression. However, organic pain beliefs were more strongly related to disability and depression than psychological pain beliefs. Regression analyses revealed that these relationships were in part independent of pain self-efficacy and locus of control. Further, mediation analyses revealed indirect pathways involving self-efficacy and, to a lesser extent chance locus of control, between organic pain beliefs, on the one hand, and disability, anxiety and depression, on the other. In contrast, psychological pain beliefs were only directly related to disability, anxiety and depression. Although longitudinal data are needed to corroborate our findings, this study illustrates the importance of beliefs about the nature of pain and beliefs in one's ability to cope with pain in determining both physical and mental health outcomes in chronic low back pain patients. PMID:27548244

  6. Beliefs about treatment of mental health problems among Cambodian American children and parents.

    PubMed

    Daley, Tamara C

    2005-12-01

    Beliefs about treatment of mental health problems are a critical area for examination among immigrant and refugee populations. Data on treatment of child problems have been conspicuously absent from the literature. This study examines explanatory models of treatment among 40 second-generation Cambodian children aged 8-18 and their parents in the US. Comparisons of perceptions of intervention for an externalizing problem (gang-related behavior) and an internalizing problem (depression) are made in a group of children who have received mental health services, their parents, and a matched community sample. A significant interaction between respondent and group membership was present in the perception that these problems could be helped, and contrary to past findings among Asian Americans, both children and parents generally endorsed the use of mental health services. Data about actual experiences with mental health services are used to help explain the findings and suggest implications for treatment of Cambodian-American youth. PMID:15996805

  7. Religious beliefs and HIV / AIDS / STD health promotion.

    PubMed

    Solomon, S

    1996-01-01

    Most people are raised in an environment that espouses a religion. Religions use different codes to structure people's lives. These codes contribute to the enforcement of societal discipline. Some religious laws bestow privileges to men (e.g., polygamy), which may make women more vulnerable to HIV/sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). These laws do not reflect the great changes in lifestyles. Communities still condemn people with HIV/AIDS as deserving the infection because they are immoral. Some community members, proclaiming religion as their justification, control the content of health education by limiting health education to sexual abstinence and fidelity. Should not religions also support the promotion of condom use? Everyone needs to learn about HIV/AIDS and to have access to preventive methods. Educators and counselors must avoid moralizing, but should instead offer people different options to protect themselves and others. Health educators should emphasize those religious codes and edicts with positive values relevant to the HIV/AIDS pandemic. No religious law calls for ostracizing individuals. Religious laws prohibit stigmatization, discrimination, prejudice, and ill-treatment. Religions tend to call for tolerance. They are founded on a universal belief of duty to support all suffering persons and to help them receive the best possible care and treatment. Thus, religion can help make HIV infection an acceptable social condition. On the grounds of edict or morality, religion cannot be a non-participant. In many cases, religion has restored respect, dignity, and understanding for persons with HIV/AIDS. Many religious groups provide care for such persons. PMID:12291633

  8. Health Beliefs and Regimen Adherence of the American Indian Diabetic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Patricia; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examines compliance with a medical and behavioral regimen by 60 American Indian diabetics, as it relates to demographic and medical variables, attitudes, perceived beliefs of others, and coping strategies. Concludes that the patient's perceptions of significant others' belief is the best predictor of overall adherence. Contains 29 references. (SV)

  9. Health Beliefs of College Students Born in the United States, China, and India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothstein, William G.; Rajapaksa, Sushama

    2003-01-01

    The authors surveyed 243 urban public university students who were born in the United States, China, and India to compare the health beliefs of the China-born, India-born, and US-born students. Although the China- and India-born students shared beliefs in many preventive and therapeutic practices of Western medicine with the US-born students, they…

  10. Influence of a screening navigation program on social inequalities in health beliefs about colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Vallet, Fanny; Guillaume, Elodie; Dejardin, Olivier; Guittet, Lydia; Bouvier, Véronique; Mignon, Astrid; Berchi, Célia; Salinas, Agnès; Launoy, Guy; Christophe, Véronique

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the study was to test whether a screening navigation program leads to more favorable health beliefs and decreases social inequalities in them. The selected 261 noncompliant participants in a screening navigation versus a usual screening program arm had to respond to health belief measures inspired by the Protection Motivation Theory. Regression analyses showed that social inequalities in perceived efficacy of screening, favorable attitude, and perceived facility were reduced in the screening navigation compared to the usual screening program. These results highlight the importance of health beliefs to understand the mechanism of screening navigation programs in reducing social inequalities. PMID:25549659

  11. Health Beliefs as Predictors of Breast Cancer Screening Behaviour in a Group of Female Employees in Shiraz

    PubMed Central

    Aflakseir, Abdulaziz; Abbasi, Parinaz

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of the present study was to investigate the frequency of getting such health screenings as mammography and breast self-examination among a group of women and also to identify the role of health beliefs in predicting mammography practice. Methods The data were collected from a convenience sample of 113 female staff at the University of Shiraz and Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. The participants completed the Champion Health Beliefs Scale (CHBS) designed to measure patients' perception on mammography of breast cancer screening. The scale assesses health beliefs components such as perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits of mammography screening, and perceived barriers to mammography screening. The participants also answered several questions on practicing Breast Self-Examination (BSE), mammography screening behaviours and health factors such as family history of cancer, and physicians' recommendation for mammography. Results The results indicated that 51% of women had BSE, and only 21% had a mammogram. Logistic regression showed that physician's recommendation, and the perceived barriers significantly predicted mammography screening, explaining 27% of the total variance of mammography practice. The participants who saw fewer barriers to have a mammogram and those who had been recommended to have one by their physician were more likely to get it. The present study provides some supports for the health beliefs model. Conclusions Data indicated that perceived barriers to have a mammogram predicted not getting one, and physicians' recommendation predicted getting a mammogram by women. PMID:25628831

  12. Are diet-specific compensatory health beliefs predictive of dieting intentions and behaviour?

    PubMed

    Radtke, Theda; Kaklamanou, Daphne; Scholz, Urte; Hornung, Rainer; Armitage, Christopher J

    2014-05-01

    Compensatory Health Beliefs (CHBs) - beliefs that an unhealthy behaviour can be compensated for by healthy behaviour - are hypothesised to be activated automatically to help people resolve conflicts between their desires (e.g. eat chocolate) and their long-term goals (e.g. dieting). The aim of the present research was to investigate diet-specific CHBs within the context of a theoretical framework, the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA), to examine the extent to which diet-specific CHBs contribute to dieting intentions and dietary intake. Seventy-five dieting women were recruited in Switzerland and England and were asked to complete measures of diet-specific CHBs, risk perception, outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, intention, and behaviour. Path modelling showed that, overall, diet-specific CHBs were not related to dieting intentions (β=.10) or behaviour (β=.06) over and above variables specified in the HAPA. However, risk perception moderated the relationship between diet-specific CHBs and intention (β=.26). Diet-specific CHBs positively predicted intention in women with high risk perception, but not in women with low risk perception. This positive relationship might be explained by the assumption that CHBs play different roles at different stages of the health-behaviour change process. Future studies should further examine moderators and stage-specific differences of the associations between CHBs, intention and health-behaviour change. PMID:24472827

  13. Modeling belief systems with scale-free networks.

    PubMed

    Antal, Miklós; Balogh, László

    2009-12-01

    The evolution of belief systems has always been a focus of cognitive research. In this paper, we delineate a new model describing belief systems as a network of statements considered true. Testing the model with a small number of parameters enabled us to reproduce a variety of well-known mechanisms ranging from opinion changes to development of psychological problems. The self-organizing opinion structure showed a scale-free degree distribution. The novelty of our work lies in applying a convenient set of definitions allowing us to depict opinion network dynamics in a highly favorable way, which resulted in a scale-free belief network. As an additional benefit, we listed several conjectural consequences in a number of areas related to thinking and reasoning. PMID:19394794

  14. Life course epidemiology: Oral health-related beliefs, behaviors, and outcomes through the life course.

    PubMed

    2016-08-26

    '..self-reported oral health by the age of 38 y... is influenced by intergenerational factors and various aspects of our beliefs, socioeconomic position, dental attendance, and self-care, which operate over the years since childhood.' PMID:27561575

  15. Vegan lifestyle behaviors: an exploration of congruence with health-related beliefs and assessed health indices.

    PubMed

    Dyett, Patricia A; Sabaté, Joan; Haddad, Ella; Rajaram, Sujatha; Shavlik, David

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate health belief as a major motive for diet and lifestyle behaviors of 100 vegans in the United States; and to determine congruence with selected health and nutrition outcomes. Response data from an administered questionnaire was analyzed. Statistical analyses determined the most common factors influencing diet choice; the number of vegans practicing particular lifestyle behaviors; body mass index; and prevalence of self-reported chronic disease diagnoses. Nutrient intakes were analyzed and assessed against Dietary Reference Intakes. Health was the most reported reason for diet choice (47%). In the health belief, animal welfare, and religious/other motive categories, low percentages of chronic disease diagnoses were reported: 27%, 11%, and 15%, respectively. There were no significant differences in health behaviors and indices among vegan motive categories, except for product fat content choices. Within the entire study population, health-related vegan motive coincided with regular exercise; 71% normal BMI (mean=22.6); minimal alcohol and smoking practices; frequently consumed vegetables, nuts, and grains; healthy choices in meal types, cooking methods, and low-fat product consumption; and adequate intakes for most protective nutrients when compared to reference values. But incongruence was found with 0% intake adequacy for vitamin D; and observation of excessive sodium use. PMID:23583444

  16. Ethnicity and health beliefs with respect to cancer: a critical review of methodology.

    PubMed Central

    Pfeffer, N.; Moynihan, C.

    1996-01-01

    This paper considers methodological issues raised by investigations into the relationship between health beliefs with respect to cancer and ethnicity. Because what people will proffer in response to a question about their health beliefs and ethnicity depends amongst other things, on the time and place of asking, and the identity, purpose and methodological approach of the person posing the question, we have focused exclusively on British material; also the practical issues discussed are largely relevant to Britain only. PMID:8782803

  17. Beliefs of Health Care Providers, Lay Health Care Providers and Lay Persons in Nigeria Regarding Hypertension. A Systematic Mixed Studies Review

    PubMed Central

    Akinlua, James Tosin; Meakin, Richard; Fadahunsi, Philip; Freemantle, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypertension is a major health risk factor for mortality globally, resulting in about 13% of deaths worldwide. In Nigeria, the high burden of hypertension remains an issue for urgent attention. The control of hypertension, among other factors, is strongly determined by personal beliefs about the illness and recommended treatment. Objective The aim of this review is to systematically synthesize available data from all types of studies on beliefs of the Nigerian populace about hypertension Methods We searched the following electronic databases; Medline, EMBase, PsycInfo, AMED from their inception till date for all relevant articles. A modified Kleinman’s explanatory model for hypertension was used as a framework for extraction of data on beliefs about hypertension. Results The search yielded a total of 3,794 hits from which 16 relevant studies (2 qualitative, 11 quantitative and 3 mixed methods studies) met the inclusion criteria for the review. Overall, most health care providers (HCPs) believe that stress is a major cause of hypertension. Furthermore, reported cut-off point for uncomplicated hypertension differed widely among HCPs. Lay Health Care Providers such as Patent Medicine Vendors’ beliefs about hypertension seem to be relatively similar to health care professionals in areas of risk factors for hypertension, course of hypertension and methods of treatment. Among Lay persons, misconception about hypertension was quite high. Although some Nigerians believed that life style habits such as alcohol intake, exercise levels, cigarette smoking were risk factors for developing hypertension, there was discordance between belief and practice of control of risk factors. However, beliefs across numerous ethnic groups and settings (urban/rural) in Nigeria have not been explored. Conclusion In order to achieve control of hypertension in Nigeria, interventions should be informed, among other factors, by adequate knowledge of beliefs regarding hypertension

  18. Modelling between Epistemological Beliefs and Constructivist Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çetin-Dindar, Ayla; Kirbulut, Zübeyde Demet; Boz, Yezdan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to model the relationship between pre-service chemistry teachers' epistemological beliefs and their preference to use constructivist-learning environment in their future class. The sample was 125 pre-service chemistry teachers from five universities in Turkey. Two instruments were used in this study. One of the…

  19. Religious practices, beliefs, and mental health: Variations across Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Sternthal, Michelle J.; Williams, David R.; Musick, Marc A.; Buck, Anna C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We examined whether Black Americans and Hispanic Americans experienced greater mental health benefits from religious involvement than White Americans, and whether these benefits would be mediated through three psychosocial factors—social support, meaning and forgiveness. Methods Utilizing data from a probability sample of Chicago-based adults (n=3103), ethnicity-stratified multivariate regression models estimated the association of religiosity with depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and major depressive disorder. Models controlled for potential confounders and psychosocial mediators. Results Contrary to our hypotheses, religiously involved Black Americans and Hispanic Americans did not experience greater mental health benefits than their White counterparts. For White Americans alone, service attendance was inversely related to depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and major depressive disorder. Religious saliency was consistently associated with worse mental health for Hispanic Americans only. However, both meaning and forgiveness conferred mental health benefits for all three groups. Conclusions The benefits of specific aspects of religious involvement vary across ethnicity. Caution is necessary in any effort to bring religion into the health domain. Our findings, if replicated, suggest that initiatives that facilitate a sense of purpose or forgiveness are likely to prove promising in improving mental health, regardless of race or ethnicity. PMID:22296590

  20. A proposed health model: a step before model confirmation.

    PubMed

    Gauff, J F

    1992-01-01

    Health marketers have devoted extensive conceptual and empirical effort toward explaining and predicting individuals' health-related decisions. This paper proposes a health behavior model by combining the health belief model and the theory of planned behavior model. Recent modifications of the Fishbein and Ajzen (1975) model are discussed and an extension is introduced to better explain goal pursuit. These revisions (Bagozzi and Warshaw 1990) are incorporated in the proposed model. PMID:10124784

  1. Racial Differences in Beliefs About the Effectiveness and Necessity of Mental Health Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Anglin, Deidre M.; Alberti, Philip M.; Link, Bruce G.; Phelan, Jo C.

    2014-01-01

    Members of racial/ethnic minority groups are less likely than Caucasians to access mental health services despite recent evidence of more favorable attitudes regarding treatment effectiveness. The present study explored this discrepancy by examining racial differences in beliefs about how the natural course and seriousness of mental illnesses relate to perceived treatment effectiveness. The analysis is based on a nationally representative sample of 583 Caucasian and 82 African American participants in a vignette experiment about people living with mental illness. While African Americans were more likely than Caucasians to believe that mental health professionals could help individuals with schizophrenia and major depression, they were also more likely to believe mental health problems would improve on their own. This belief was unrelated to beliefs about treatment effectiveness. These findings suggest that a belief in treatment effectiveness may not increase service utilization among African Americans who are more likely to believe treatment is unnecessary. PMID:18612808

  2. Urban and rural immigrant Latino youths' and adults' knowledge and beliefs about mental health resources.

    PubMed

    García, Carolyn Marie; Gilchrist, Lauren; Vazquez, Gabriela; Leite, Amy; Raymond, Nancy

    2011-06-01

    Immigrant Latino youth experience mental health problems in the U.S. Cultural beliefs and knowledge may influence help-seeking behaviors. Two hundred thirty-four immigrant Latino respondents between 12 and 44 years of age completed a questionnaire assessing knowledge of and cultural beliefs regarding mental health resources for adolescents, symptoms, and help-seeking. Multivariate analyses showed that rural respondents were significantly less likely to know of mental health resources than urban-based immigrant Latinos. Knowledge and belief outcomes were also affected by age, gender, and length of time living in the community. Immigrant Latinos appear willing to seek professional help for mental health problems but may not know how to access this type of care, or may lack available services. Future research to inform interventions that increase awareness of accessible mental health services is suggested. Findings support systems-level changes including increased availability of culturally-specific mental health services, especially in rural areas. PMID:20835762

  3. [The logic of a traditional health belief: solar eclipse and pregnancy in Ocuituco, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Castro, R

    1995-01-01

    An analysis of the logic of one of the commonest health beliefs in rural areas of Mexico is made, taking as a starting point testimonies collected in the area of Ocuituco, in the state of Morelos. This belief suggests that a pregnant woman is in danger of having a harelipped baby during a solar eclipse. The importance of the knowledge about the logic of this kind of beliefs is discussed from a public health perspective. These beliefs are associated with specific forms of suffering and give way to particular preventive measures which must be taken into account if the efficacy of health programs is to be increased. The interrelation of these beliefs with other traditional elements (such as the "loss of the shadow" and the "hot-cold theory") is discussed. Also, some of the already existing interpretations of this belief which seek to link the "loss of the shadow" with the solar eclipse belief are reviewed. Finally, an alternative interpretation of this belief is made from a structuralist methodological perspective. This interpretation is grounded in the Nahuatl myth on the creation of the sun and the moon, and in an analysis of the nature of rabbits in the Nahuatl culture, according to historic secondary sources. It is suggested that the belief about the danger of a solar eclipse must be interpreted in connection to the "hot-cold theory", but not to the "loss of the shadow". This paper concludes by emphasizing the importance of this type of research within the public health field, as it enables us both to understand the underlying logic of this type of conceptions, and to reinforce the dialogue between modern and alternative medicine, so that the daily encounter between these two types of medicine can be facilitated. PMID:7502155

  4. Illness beliefs in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kinderman, Peter; Setzu, Erika; Lobban, Fiona; Salmon, Peter

    2006-10-01

    Beliefs about health and illness shape emotional responses to illness, health-related behaviour and relationships with health-care providers in physical illness. Researchers are beginning to study the illness beliefs of people with psychosis, primarily using models developed in relation to physical illness. It is likely that modifications to these models will be necessary if they are to apply to mental disorders, and it is probable that some of the assumptions underlying the models will be inappropriate. In particular, different dimensions of understanding may be present in mental illness in comparison to those identified in physical illness. The present study examines the beliefs of 20 patients in the UK diagnosed with schizophrenia, including 10 currently psychotic inpatients and 10 outpatients in remission, about their experiences, using qualitative interviews and thematic analysis. Patients currently experiencing psychosis did not identify their experiences as separable 'illnesses' and did not have 'illness beliefs'. Patients currently in a period of remission appraised their experiences as distinct from their own normal behaviour, but used conceptual frameworks of understanding that deviated significantly from conventional 'health belief' models. Patients' ways of understanding mental illness did not parallel those described in physical illnesses. Methods for assessing beliefs about mental illness should therefore not be transferred directly from studies of beliefs about physical illness, but should be tailored to the nature of patients' beliefs about mental illness. PMID:16777306

  5. Physical activity patterns and its influencing factors among high school students of Izeh city: Application of some constructs of health belief model

    PubMed Central

    Salahshuri, Arash; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Hassanzadeh, Akbar; Mostafavi, Firoozeh

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study has been conducted to identify the roles of self-efficacy, benefits of and barriers to physical activity, and its relationship with physical activity in male and female high school students in the city of Izeh, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive analytical study, 500 students (200 boys and 300 girls) from high schools of Izeh city during the period 2011-2012 were chosen using the multistage random sampling method. The data for this study was acquired through a multisectional questionnaire that included sections as follows: Demographic characteristics, self-efficacy, and perceived benefits and barriers. The gathered data was then studied and analyzed. Statistical tests such as independent t-tests, Spearman's correlation, Pearson's correlation coefficient and linear regression were used to interpret and analyze the data. Results: Data analysis showed that the mean age of male participants was 15.67 ± 0.95 years and females 15.86 ± 1.16 years. The average weekly time of physical activity in male students was 424.74 ± 158.48 min and in females 186.63 ± 90.59 min. The mean scores for self-efficacy and perceived benefits of physical activity were significantly higher in boys as compared to girls. There was a positive and significant correlation between the mean scores for perceived self-efficacy and the weekly time in male students spent on physical activity as well as the mean scores for perceived benefits and the weekly time spent on physical activity in both genders. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that many factors influence students’ physical activity; however, the role of these factors is not identical in the two genders. An understanding of these factors helps educationalists and other health experts design appropriate interventions. PMID:24741665

  6. Cultural Beliefs, Intimate Partner Violence and Mental Health Functioning among Vietnamese Women

    PubMed Central

    Do, Khanh Ngoc; Weiss, Bahr; Pollack, Amie

    2013-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women occurs in all countries, with wide-ranging negative effects, including on mental health. IPV rates vary widely across countries, however, suggesting cultural factors may play a role in IPV. The primary purpose of the present study was to assess relations among IPV, mental health symptoms, and cultural beliefs among Vietnamese women, focusing on moderator effects of cultural beliefs on relations between IPV and mental health. IPV, anxious and depressive mental health symptoms, and culturally-related beliefs about IPV were cross-sectionally assessed in 105 married adult Vietnamese women randomly selected from public population registries in five provinces. IPV was significantly correlated with anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation. Relations were moderated by wives’ culturally-related beliefs about abuse (e.g., relations between IPV and mental health symptoms were smaller for women who believed that nothing could be done about abuse). Findings suggest that when attempting to prevent or treat effects of IPV, it will be important to consider that certain beliefs about IPV generally viewed as maladaptive (e.g., nothing can be done about abuse) may have adaptive effects, at least in the short-term, on relations between IPV and mental health functioning. PMID:24358448

  7. Mental health literacy: a cross-cultural approach to knowledge and beliefs about depression, schizophrenia and generalized anxiety disorder

    PubMed Central

    Altweck, Laura; Marshall, Tara C.; Ferenczi, Nelli; Lefringhausen, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Many families worldwide have at least one member with a behavioral or mental disorder, and yet the majority of the public fails to correctly recognize symptoms of mental illness. Previous research has found that Mental Health Literacy (MHL)—the knowledge and positive beliefs about mental disorders—tends to be higher in European and North American cultures, compared to Asian and African cultures. Nonetheless quantitative research examining the variables that explain this cultural difference remains limited. The purpose of our study was fourfold: (a) to validate measures of MHL cross-culturally, (b) to examine the MHL model quantitatively, (c) to investigate cultural differences in the MHL model, and (d) to examine collectivism as a predictor of MHL. We validated measures of MHL in European American and Indian samples. The results lend strong quantitative support to the MHL model. Recognition of symptoms of mental illness was a central variable: greater recognition predicted greater endorsement of social causes of mental illness and endorsement of professional help-seeking as well as lesser endorsement of lay help-seeking. The MHL model also showed an overwhelming cultural difference; namely, lay help-seeking beliefs played a central role in the Indian sample, and a negligible role in the European American sample. Further, collectivism was positively associated with causal beliefs of mental illness in the European American sample, and with lay help-seeking beliefs in the Indian sample. These findings demonstrate the importance of understanding cultural differences in beliefs about mental illness, particularly in relation to help-seeking beliefs. PMID:26441699

  8. Mental health literacy: a cross-cultural approach to knowledge and beliefs about depression, schizophrenia and generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Altweck, Laura; Marshall, Tara C; Ferenczi, Nelli; Lefringhausen, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Many families worldwide have at least one member with a behavioral or mental disorder, and yet the majority of the public fails to correctly recognize symptoms of mental illness. Previous research has found that Mental Health Literacy (MHL)-the knowledge and positive beliefs about mental disorders-tends to be higher in European and North American cultures, compared to Asian and African cultures. Nonetheless quantitative research examining the variables that explain this cultural difference remains limited. The purpose of our study was fourfold: (a) to validate measures of MHL cross-culturally, (b) to examine the MHL model quantitatively, (c) to investigate cultural differences in the MHL model, and (d) to examine collectivism as a predictor of MHL. We validated measures of MHL in European American and Indian samples. The results lend strong quantitative support to the MHL model. Recognition of symptoms of mental illness was a central variable: greater recognition predicted greater endorsement of social causes of mental illness and endorsement of professional help-seeking as well as lesser endorsement of lay help-seeking. The MHL model also showed an overwhelming cultural difference; namely, lay help-seeking beliefs played a central role in the Indian sample, and a negligible role in the European American sample. Further, collectivism was positively associated with causal beliefs of mental illness in the European American sample, and with lay help-seeking beliefs in the Indian sample. These findings demonstrate the importance of understanding cultural differences in beliefs about mental illness, particularly in relation to help-seeking beliefs. PMID:26441699

  9. The Efficacy of Cigarette Warning Labels on Health Beliefs in the United States and Mexico

    PubMed Central

    MUTTI, SEEMA; HAMMOND, DAVID; REID, JESSICA L.; THRASHER, JAMES F.

    2013-01-01

    Concern over health risks is the most common motivation for quitting smoking. Health warnings on tobacco packages are among the most prominent interventions to convey the health risks of smoking. Face-to-face surveys were conducted in Mexico (n=1,072), and a web-based survey was conducted in the US (n=1,449) to examine the efficacy of health warning labels on health beliefs. Respondents were randomly assigned to view two sets of health warnings (each with one text-only warning and 5–6 pictorial warnings) for two different health effects. Respondents were asked whether they believed smoking caused 12 different health effects. Overall, the findings indicate high levels of health knowledge in both countries for some health effects, although significant knowledge gaps remained; for example: less than half of respondents agreed that smoking causes impotence and less than one third agreed that smoking causes gangrene. Mexican respondents endorsed a greater number of correct beliefs about the health impact of smoking than the US sample. In both countries, viewing related health warning labels increased beliefs about the health risks of smoking, particularly for less well-known health effects, such as gangrene, impotence, and stroke. PMID:23905611

  10. The effect of graphics on environmental health risk beliefs, emotions, behavioral intentions, and recall.

    PubMed

    Severtson, Dolores J; Henriques, Jeffrey B

    2009-11-01

    Lay people have difficulty understanding the meaning of environmental health risk information. Visual images can use features that leverage visual perception capabilities and semiotic conventions to promote meaningful comprehension. Such evidence-based features were employed to develop two images of a color-coded visual scale to convey drinking water test results. The effect of these images and a typical alphanumeric (AN) lab report were explored in a repeated measures randomized trial among 261 undergraduates. Outcome measures included risk beliefs, emotions, personal safety threshold, mitigation intentions, the durability of beliefs and intentions over time, and test result recall. The plain image conveyed the strongest risk message overall, likely due to increased visual salience. The more detailed graded image conveyed a stronger message than the AN format only for females. Images only prompted meaningful risk reduction intentions among participants with optimistically biased safety threshold beliefs. Fuzzy trace theory supported some findings as follow. Images appeared to promote the consolidation of beliefs over time from an initial meaning of safety to an integrated meaning of safety and health risk; emotion potentially shaped this process. Although the AN report fostered more accurate recall, images were related to more appropriate beliefs and intentions at both time points. Findings hinted at the potential for images to prompt appropriate beliefs independent of accurate factual knowledge. Overall, results indicate that images facilitated meaningful comprehension of environmental health risk information and suggest foci for further research. PMID:19886946

  11. Managerial and professional beliefs influencing public health privatization: results of a national survey of local health department directors.

    PubMed

    Keane, Christopher; Marx, John; Ricci, Edmund

    2003-03-01

    This article describes managerial and professional beliefs underlying decisions to privatize public health services. We drew a stratified, nationally representative sample of local health departments and interviewed 347 department directors by telephone. We used logistic regression to establish the independent effects of various beliefs on the decision to privatize. Over half of directors did not believe that there was valid evidence that privatization results in more efficient performance, and those who believed there was such evidence were not more likely to privatize. However, directors held professional and managerial beliefs that influenced their decision to privatize. Directors most likely to privatize were those who believed that local health departments should exclusively focus on the core public health functions, those who asserted that public health should become involved in an increasingly diverse array of social problems, and those who believed that employees should be used on a temporary and contractual, rather than permanent, basis wherever possible. PMID:12751313

  12. The Relation of Exercise Habits to Health Beliefs and Knowledge about Osteoporosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taggart, Helen M.; Connor, Sara E.

    1995-01-01

    Surveys of the relationship between female college students' exercise habits and their knowledge about osteoporosis and health beliefs indicated that age positively correlated with knowledge level, awareness of personal susceptibility, and motivation for general health behaviors. Older subjects believed the barriers to exercise were greater than…

  13. The Role of Perceived Stress and Health Beliefs on College Students' Intentions to Practice Mindfulness Meditation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizer, Carol Ann; Fagan, Mary Helen; Kilmon, Carol; Rath, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Understanding why individuals decide to participate in mindfulness-based practices can aid in the development of effective health promotion outreach efforts. Purpose: This study investigated the role of health beliefs and perceived stress on the intention to practice mindfulness meditation among undergraduate college students. Methods:…

  14. Beliefs about Promoting Cognitive Health among Filipino Americans Who Care for Persons with Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laditka, Sarah B.; Tseng, Winston; Price, Anna E.; Ivey, Susan L.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Liu, Rui; Wu, Bei; Logsdon, Rebecca G.; Beard, Renee L.

    2012-01-01

    We examined beliefs about promoting cognitive health among Filipino Americans who care for persons with dementia, their awareness of media information about cognitive health, and their suggestions for communicating such information to other caregivers. We conducted three focus groups (25 participants). The constant comparison method compared…

  15. Model Checking Degrees of Belief in a System of Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raimondi, Franco; Primero, Giuseppe; Rungta, Neha

    2014-01-01

    Reasoning about degrees of belief has been investigated in the past by a number of authors and has a number of practical applications in real life. In this paper we present a unified framework to model and verify degrees of belief in a system of agents. In particular, we describe an extension of the temporal-epistemic logic CTLK and we introduce a semantics based on interpreted systems for this extension. In this way, degrees of beliefs do not need to be provided externally, but can be derived automatically from the possible executions of the system, thereby providing a computationally grounded formalism. We leverage the semantics to (a) construct a model checking algorithm, (b) investigate its complexity, (c) provide a Java implementation of the model checking algorithm, and (d) evaluate our approach using the standard benchmark of the dining cryptographers. Finally, we provide a detailed case study: using our framework and our implementation, we assess and verify the situational awareness of the pilot of Air France 447 flying in off-nominal conditions.

  16. Health literacy and beliefs among a community cohort with and without chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Andrew M; Jordan, Joanne E; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Burnett, Angus F; O'Sullivan, Peter B; Chua, Jason Y Y; Osborne, Richard H; Straker, Leon M

    2010-08-01

    Health literacy, the ability to seek, understand and utilise health information, is important for good health. Suboptimal health literacy has been associated with poorer health outcomes in many chronic conditions although this has not been studied in chronic low back pain (CLBP). We examined the health literacy of individuals with CLBP using a mixed methods approach. One-hundred and seventeen adults, comprising 61 with no history of CLBP and 56 with CLBP (28 with low and high disability, respectively, as determined by a median split in Oswestry scores) participated. Data regarding severity of pain, LBP-related disability, fear avoidance, beliefs about LBP and pain catastrophizing were collected using questionnaires. Health literacy was measured using the Short-form Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA). A sub-sample of 36 participants with CLBP also participated in in-depth interviews to qualitatively explore their beliefs about LBP and experiences in seeking, understanding and using information related to LBP. LBP-related beliefs and behaviours, rather than pain intensity and health literacy skills, were found to be important correlates of disability related to LBP. Individuals with CLBP-high disability had poorer back pain beliefs and increased fear avoidance behaviours relating to physical activity. Health literacy (S-TOFHLA) was not related to LBP beliefs and attitudes. Qualitatively, individuals with CLBP-high disability adopted a more passive coping style and had a pathoanatomic view of their disorder compared to individuals with CLBP-low disability. While all participants with CLBP had adequate health literacy scores (S-TOFHLA), qualitative data highlighted difficulties in seeking, understanding and utilising LBP information. PMID:20603025

  17. Maladaptive health beliefs, illness-related self-regulation and the role of the information provided by physicians.

    PubMed

    Karademas, Evangelos C; Paschali, Antonia; Hadjulis, Michael; Papadimitriou, Angela

    2016-06-01

    This prospective study in 119 patients with cardiovascular diseases aimed to examine whether (a) illness representations mediate the relation of general maladaptive health beliefs to patients' coping behaviours and (b) these relations are moderated by the patients' perception of the amount of information provided by their physicians. Personal control and illness coherence mediated the relation of maladaptive health beliefs to coping behaviour. The amount of the provided information buffered the negative relation of maladaptive health beliefs to illness representations and coping. Thus, the detrimental effect of general maladaptive health beliefs may be counterbalanced by the amount of information provided by physicians. PMID:25104783

  18. Accuracy of Loopy belief propagation in Gaussian models.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Yu; Watanabe, Sumio

    2009-05-01

    This paper considers the loopy belief propagation (LBP) algorithm applied to Gaussian graphical models. It is known for Gaussian belief propagation that, if LBP converges, LBP computes the exact posterior means but incorrect variances. In this paper, we analytically derive the posterior variances for some special structured graphs and clarify the accuracy of LBP. For the graphs of a single cycle, we derive a rigorous solution for the posterior variances and thereby find the quantity that determines the accuracy of LBP. Based on this result, we state a necessary condition for LBP convergence. The quantity above also plays an important role in graphs of a single cycle with arbitrary trees. For arbitrary topological graphs, we consider the situation where correlations between any pair of nodes are comparatively small and show analytically the principal values that determine the accuracy of LBP. PMID:19243911

  19. The Influence of Environmental Hazard Maps on Risk Beliefs, Emotion, and Health-related Behavioral Intentions

    PubMed Central

    Severtson, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    To test a theoretical explanation of how attributes of mapped environmental health hazards influence health-related behavioral intentions and how beliefs and emotion mediate the influences of attributes, 24 maps were developed that varied by four attributes of a residential drinking water hazard: level, proximity, prevalence, and density. In a factorial design, student participants (N=446) answered questions for a subset of maps. Hazard level and proximity had the largest influences on intentions to test water and mitigate exposure. Belief in the problem’s seriousness mediated attributes’ influence on intention to test drinking water, and perceived susceptibility mediated the influence of attributes on intention to mitigate risk. Maps with carefully illustrated attributes of hazards may promote appropriate health-related risk beliefs, intentions, and behavior. PMID:23533022

  20. The influence of environmental hazard maps on risk beliefs, emotion, and health-related behavioral intentions.

    PubMed

    Severtson, Dolores J

    2013-08-01

    To test a theoretical explanation of how attributes of mapped environmental health hazards influence health-related behavioral intentions and how beliefs and emotion mediate the influences of attributes, 24 maps were developed that varied by four attributes of a residential drinking water hazard: level, proximity, prevalence, and density. In a factorial design, student participants (N = 446) answered questions about a subset of maps. Hazard level and proximity had the largest influences on intentions to test water and mitigate exposure. Belief in the problem's seriousness mediated attributes' influence on intention to test drinking water, and perceived susceptibility mediated the influence of attributes on intention to mitigate risk. Maps with carefully illustrated attributes of hazards may promote appropriate health-related risk beliefs, intentions, and behavior. PMID:23533022

  1. Oral health-related cultural beliefs for four racial/ethnic groups: Assessment of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Butani, Yogita; Weintraub, Jane A; Barker, Judith C

    2008-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess information available in the dental literature on oral health-related cultural beliefs. In the US, as elsewhere, many racial/ethnic minority groups shoulder a disproportionate burden of oral disease. Cultural beliefs, values and practices are often implicated as causes of oral health disparities, yet little is known about the breadth or adequacy of literature about cultural issues that could support these assertions. Hence, this rigorous assessment was conducted of work published in English on cultural beliefs and values in relation to oral health status and dental practice. Four racial/ethnic groups in the US (African-American, Chinese, Filipino and Hispanic/Latino) were chosen as exemplar populations. Methods The dental literature published in English for the period 1980–2006 noted in the electronic database PUBMED was searched, using keywords and MeSH headings in different combinations for each racial/ethnic group to identify eligible articles. To be eligible the title and abstract when available had to describe the oral health-related cultural knowledge or orientation of the populations studied. Results Overall, the majority of the literature on racial/ethnic groups was epidemiologic in nature, mainly demonstrating disparities in oral health rather than the oral beliefs or practices of these groups. A total of 60 relevant articles were found: 16 for African-American, 30 for Chinese, 2 for Filipino and 12 for Hispanic/Latino populations. Data on beliefs and practices from these studies has been abstracted, compiled and assessed. Few research-based studies were located. Articles lacked adequate identification of groups studied, used limited methods and had poor conceptual base. Conclusion The scant information available from the published dental and medical literature provides at best a rudimentary framework of oral health related ideas and beliefs for specific populations. PMID:18793438

  2. Treatment beliefs, health behaviors and their association with treatment outcome in type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    von Arx, Lill-Brith Wium; Gydesen, Helge; Skovlund, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Objective While the prevalence of type 2 diabetes is growing, it is increasingly well recognized that treatment outcomes in primary care practice are often suboptimal. The aim of this study is to examine the extent to which treatment beliefs and health behaviors predict diabetes health outcome as measured by glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level, blood pressure, and lipid profile. Research design and methods This was a large-scale cross-sectional, registry-based study involving a well-defined type 2 diabetes population, in the county of Funen, Denmark. Registry data were combined with a 27-item self-reported survey administered to all insulin-treated people in the registry (n=3160). The survey was constructed to operationalize key concepts of diabetes management, diabetes treatment beliefs, and health behaviors. Results In total, 1033 respondents answered the survey. The majority of treatment beliefs and health behaviors examined were predictors of glycemic control and, to a large extent, lipid profile. Absence from, or a low frequency of, self-measured blood glucose, non-adherence to general medical advice and the prescribed treatment, a low primary care utilization, and perceived low treatment efficacy were factors positively associated with HbA1c levels, s-cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein. Conversely, infrequent self-measured blood glucose was associated with a significantly higher likelihood of having a blood pressure below 130/80 mm Hg. Perceived low treatment efficacy was the only health belief associated with poorer levels of health outcome other than HbA1c. Conclusions Health behaviors were stronger predictors for health outcomes than treatment beliefs. Self-reported adherence to either the treatment regimen or general medical advice most consistently predicted both glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:27110367

  3. Mental Health Clinicians’ Beliefs About the Biological, Psychological, and Environmental Bases of Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Woo-kyoung; Proctor, Caroline C.; Flanagan, Elizabeth H.

    2010-01-01

    The current experiments examine mental health clinicians’ beliefs about biological, psychological, and environmental bases of the DSM-IV-TR mental disorders and the consequences of those causal beliefs for judging treatment effectiveness. Study 1 found a large negative correlation between clinicians’ beliefs about biological bases and environmental/psychological bases, suggesting that clinicians conceptualize mental disorders along a single continuum spanning from highly biological disorders (e.g., autistic disorder) to highly nonbiological disorders (e.g., adjustment disorders). Study 2 replicated this finding by having clinicians list what they thought were the specific causes of nine familiar mental disorders and rate their bio–psycho–environmental bases. Study 3 further found that clinicians believe medication to be more effective for biologically based mental disorders and psychotherapy to be more effective for psychosocially based mental disorders. These results demonstrate that even expert mental health clinicians make strong distinctions between psychological and biological phenomena. PMID:20411158

  4. Health Beliefs and Practices Related to Dengue Fever: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Li Ping; AbuBakar, Sazaly

    2013-01-01

    Background This qualitative study aimed to provide an in-depth understanding of the meaning of dengue fever (DF) amongst people living in a dengue endemic region, dengue prevention and treatment-seeking behaviours. The Health Belief Model was used as a framework to explore and understand dengue prevention behaviours. Methods A total of 14 focus group discussions were conducted with 84 Malaysian citizens of different socio-demographic backgrounds between 16th December, 2011 and 12th May, 2012. Results The study revealed that awareness about DF and prevention measures were high. The pathophysiology of dengue especially dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) were rarely known; as a result, it was seen as deadly by some but was also perceived as easily curable by others without a basis of understanding. Young adults and elderly participants had a low perception of susceptibility to DF. In general, the low perceived susceptibility emerged as two themes, namely a perceived natural ability to withstand infection and a low risk of being in contact with the dengue virus vector, Aedes spp. mosquitoes. The barriers to sustained self-prevention against dengue prevention that emerged in focus groups were: i) lack of self-efficacy, ii) lack of perceived benefit, iii) low perceived susceptibility, and iv) unsure perceived susceptibility. Low perceived benefit of continued dengue prevention practices was a result of lack of concerted action against dengue in their neighborhood. Traditional medical practices and home remedies were widely perceived and experienced as efficacious in treating DF. Conclusion Behavioural change towards attaining sustainability in dengue preventive practices may be enhanced by fostering comprehensive knowledge of dengue and a change in health beliefs. Wide use of unconventional therapy for DF warrants the need to enlighten the public to limit their reliance on unproven alternative treatments. PMID:23875045

  5. Comparison of health risk behavior, awareness, and health benefit beliefs of health science and non-health science students: An international study.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; Yung, Tony K C; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Rehman, Rehana

    2016-06-01

    This study determines the differences in health risk behavior, knowledge, and health benefit beliefs between health science and non-health science university students in 17 low and middle income countries. Anonymous questionnaire data were collected in a cross-sectional survey of 13,042 undergraduate university students (4,981 health science and 8,061 non-health science students) from 17 universities in 17 countries across Asia, Africa, and the Americas. Results indicate that overall, health science students had the same mean number of health risk behaviors as non-health science university students. Regarding addictive risk behavior, fewer health science students used tobacco, were binge drinkers, or gambled once a week or more. Health science students also had a greater awareness of health behavior risks (5.5) than non-health science students (4.6). Linear regression analysis found a strong association with poor or weak health benefit beliefs and the health risk behavior index. There was no association between risk awareness and health risk behavior among health science students and an inverse association among non-health science students. PMID:26538523

  6. The Role of Health Beliefs in the Regimen Adherence and Metabolic Control of Adolescents and Adults with Diabetes Mellitus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownlee-Duffeck, Martha; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined the role of health beliefs in diabetic regimen adherence and metabolic control. Health beliefs accounted for a statistically significant portion of the variance in both. For older patients perceived benefits of adhering to the diabetic regimen was most significant. For younger patients costs figured prominently in adherence and perceived…

  7. Assessing Medical Students' Awareness of and Sensitivity to Diverse Health Beliefs Using a Standardized Patient Station.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robins, Lynne S.; White, Casey B.; Alexander, Gwen L.; Gruppen, Larry D.; Grum, Cyril M.

    2001-01-01

    Assessed students' competence in addressing the health beliefs and cultural concerns of a standardized patient, an African American woman with diabetes, during a clinical interview. Found that minority students displayed greater competence in addressing the patient's concerns about altering culturally-based dietary behaviors; white students…

  8. Communicating with Risk Takers: Information Sources and Health Attitudes, Beliefs, and Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, M. A.; And Others

    Seven studies explored the relationships between risk-taking predispositions and health attitudes, beliefs, and involvement. Data were gathered from surveys, and from lab and field experiments on 1,323 subjects. Findings indicated five risk-taking factors: adventurousness, rebelliousness, impulsiveness, physical risk taking, and unconventional…

  9. Health behavior models and oral health: a review.

    PubMed

    Hollister, M Catherine; Anema, Marion G

    2004-01-01

    Dental hygienists help their clients develop health promoting behaviors, by providing essential information about general health, and oral health in particular. Individual health practices such as oral self-care are based on personal choices. The guiding principles found in health behavior models provide useful methods to the oral health care providers in promoting effective individual client behaviors. Theories provide explanations about observable facts in a systematic manner. Research regarding health behavior has explored the effectiveness and applicability of various health models in oral health behavior modification. The Health Belief Model, Transtheoretical Model and Stages of Change, Theory of Reasoned Action, Self-Efficacy, Locus of Control, and Sense of Coherence are examples of models that focus on individuals assuming responsibility for their own health. Understanding the strengths of each and their applicability to health behaviors is critical for oral health care providers who work with patients to adopt methods and modify behaviors that contribute to good oral health. This paper describes health behavior models that have been applied to oral health education, presents a critical analysis of the effectiveness of each model in oral health education, and provides examples of application to oral health education. PMID:16201062

  10. Health Education and Sensitivity to Cultural, Religious, and Ethnic Beliefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galli, Nicholas; And Others

    1987-01-01

    This article examines conflicts occurring between health education with various students' cultural, religious, and ethnic backgrounds through the example of the religous teachings of Judaism. Suggestions for health educators are offered to prevent instruction from leading to conflict between home and school values. (Author/CB)

  11. Cultural beliefs about health professionals and perceived empathy influence continuity of cancer screening following a negative encounter.

    PubMed

    Amador, Jael A; Flynn, Patricia M; Betancourt, Hector

    2015-10-01

    Negative health care encounters have implications for preventive medical services and continuity of health care. This study examined cultural and interpersonal psychological factors involved in health care interactions that may ameliorate the detrimental effects of negative encounters. A mixed-methods approach was implemented to examine the relations among positive cultural beliefs about health professionals, perceived professional empathy, interpersonal emotions, and continuity of cancer screening among 237 Latin American (Latino) and non-Latino White (Anglo) American women who reported a negative health care encounter. Multi-group structural equation modeling revealed that for Latino and Anglo women, positive cultural beliefs about health professionals in general were associated with higher perceptions of empathy regarding a professional involved in a negative encounter. In addition, for Latino women, perceptions of higher professional empathy and less negative emotions were associated with better continuity of cancer screening. Interventions designed to improve professionals' empathy skills and diverse patients' perceptions of professionals could improve patient-professional relations. PMID:26032574

  12. The complexity of model checking for belief revision and update

    SciTech Connect

    Liberatore, P.; Schaerf, M.

    1996-12-31

    One of the main challenges in the formal modeling of common-sense reasoning is the ability to cope with the dynamic nature of the world. Among the approaches put forward to address this problem are belief revision and update. Given a knowledge base T, representing our knowledge of the {open_quotes}state of affairs{close_quotes} of the world of interest, it is possible that we are lead to trust another piece of information P, possibly inconsistent with the old one T. The aim of revision and update operators is to characterize the revised knowledge base T{prime} that incorporates the new formula P into the old one T while preserving consistency and, at the same time, avoiding the loss of too much information in this process. In this paper we study the computational complexity of one of the main computational problems of belief revision and update: deciding if an interpretation M is a model of the revised knowledge base.

  13. Beliefs about Racism and Health among African American Women with Diabetes: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Julie A.; Osborn, Chandra Y.; Mendenhall, Emily A.; Budris, Lisa M.; Belay, Sophia; Tennen, Howard A.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to racism has been linked to poor health outcomes. Little is known about the impact of racism on diabetes outcomes. This study explored African American (AA) women’s beliefs about how racism interacts with their diabetes self-management and control. Four focus groups were conducted with a convenience sample of 28 adult AA women with type 2 diabetes who were recruited from a larger quantitative study on racism and diabetes. The focus group discussions were transcribed verbatim and analyzed by the authors. Women reported that exposure to racism was a common phenomenon, and their beliefs did in fact link racism to poor health. Specifically, women reported that exposure to racism caused physiological arousal including cardiovascular and metabolic perturbations. There was consensus that physiological arousal was generally detrimental to health. Women also described limited, and in some cases maladaptive, strategies to cope with racist events including eating unhealthy food choices and portions. There was consensus that the subjective nature of perceiving racism and accompanying social prohibitions often made it impossible to address racism directly. Many women described anger in such situations, and the tendency to internalize anger and other negative emotions, only to find that the negative emotions would be reactivated repeatedly with exposure to novel racial stressors, even long after the original racist event remitted. AA women in this study believed that racism affects their diabetes self-management and control. Health beliefs can exert powerful effects on health behaviors and may provide an opportunity for health promotion interventions in diabetes. PMID:21528110

  14. The factors associated with the belief that vegetarian diets provide health benefits.

    PubMed

    Lea, Emma; Worsley, Anthony

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the factors associated with the belief that vegetarian diets provide health benefits. A random population mail survey about food choice was conducted among a sample of 1000 South Australians. An additional (non-random) survey of 106 vegetarians and semi-vegetarians was also conducted, giving a total of 707 participants from both samples. The main predictors of the belief that vegetarian diets provide health benefits for all respondents were found to be the belief that meat is neither healthy nor necessary and frequent searching for information on healthy eating. However, there were differences between vegetarians, non-vegetarians and semi-vegetarians. In particular, health issues were relatively more important for semi-vegetarians and vegetarians, while knowledge and convenience issues were most important for non-vegetarians. The results have important implications for public health. Many South Australians perceive that health benefits are associated with eating a vegetarian diet, which may also apply to plant-based diets in general. However, if non-vegetarians are to obtain some of the health benefits associated with the consumption of a plant-based diet, they require information on the preparation of quick and easy plant- based meals. PMID:14505993

  15. Development of a Bayesian Belief Network Runway Incursion Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Lawrence L.

    2014-01-01

    In a previous paper, a statistical analysis of runway incursion (RI) events was conducted to ascertain their relevance to the top ten Technical Challenges (TC) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Aviation Safety Program (AvSP). The study revealed connections to perhaps several of the AvSP top ten TC. That data also identified several primary causes and contributing factors for RI events that served as the basis for developing a system-level Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) model for RI events. The system-level BBN model will allow NASA to generically model the causes of RI events and to assess the effectiveness of technology products being developed under NASA funding. These products are intended to reduce the frequency of RI events in particular, and to improve runway safety in general. The development, structure and assessment of that BBN for RI events by a Subject Matter Expert panel are documented in this paper.

  16. Health beliefs and attitudes of Latino immigrants: rethinking acculturation as a constant.

    PubMed

    Villar, Maria Elena; Concha, Maritza; Zamith, Rodrigo

    2012-10-01

    Health disparities among Latinos have been associated with acculturation, but there is a lack of consensus about how acculturation variables translate into health beliefs that can be used to target attitude and behavior change interventions. Transcripts from three qualitative studies including 64 Latino immigrant adults were analyzed through inductive reasoning to assess relationships between more or less acculturated attitudes, and demographic variables. In the three topic areas of gender roles, sex education, and seeking professional help, attitudes ranged from conservative (less acculturated) to liberal (more acculturated), but did not seem associated with age, education or years in the United States. When dealing with specific health topics, it is not possible to infer specific attitudes, strength of attitudes or level of acculturation of intervention recipients. To develop sound, culturally competent interventions, it is necessary to assess the targets' beliefs and attitudes and tailor messages in specific contexts. PMID:22350810

  17. Charting the Eccles' Expectancy-Value Model from Mothers' Beliefs in Childhood to Youths' Activities in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpkins, Sandra D.; Fredricks, Jennifer A.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2012-01-01

    The Eccles' expectancy-value model posits that a cascade of mechanisms explain associations between parents' beliefs and youths' achievement-related behaviors. Specifically, parents' beliefs predict parents' behaviors; in turn, parents' behaviors predict youths' motivational beliefs, and youths' motivational beliefs predict their behaviors. This…

  18. High School Students' Scientific Epistemological Beliefs, Self-Efficacy in Learning Physics and Attitudes toward Physics: A Structural Equation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapucu, Serkan; Bahçivan, Eralp

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are some theoretical evidences that explain the relationships between core beliefs (i.e., epistemological beliefs) and peripheral beliefs (self-efficacy in learning) in the literature. The close relationships of such type of beliefs with attitudes are also discussed by some researchers. Constructing a model that investigates…

  19. Gender differences on osteoporosis health beliefs and related behaviors in non-academic community Chinese.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yin-Ping; Xia, Ru-Yi; Zhang, Bei; Zhang, Feng; Zhao, Xin-Shuang; Zhang, Lu-Lu; Li, Hao

    2014-06-01

    Osteoporosis represents the major public health concern worldwide. The purpose of this study was to assess osteoporosis beliefs and actual performance of osteoporosis preventive behaviors in non-academic community Chinese population and to explore whether the differences exist in community females and males. A cross sectional study including 137 females and 122 males was conducted in four non-academic communities of Xi'an city during November 2012, selected by multi-stage sampling method. Self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. The respondents' mean age was 56.06 ± 5.81 years. 35.5% of the participants had a bone mineral density test. The participants exhibit relatively low osteoporosis health beliefs. The total health belief score was 63.30 ± 8.55 and 64.13 ± 6.47 in females and males respectively. There was significant gender differences in the subscales of Perceived seriousness (p = 0.03), Perceived barriers to exercise (p = 0.004) and Perceived motivation (p = 0.01). Participants had low frequencies of preventive practices. Gender differences were revealed in current smoking and alcohol intake, soybean food intake, smoking history (p < 0.001), alcohol intake history (p = 0.001), meat or egg intake (p = 0.019). The findings from the study suggest an increased awareness of this major public health problem in non-academic Chinese and the scope for enhancing osteoporosis intervention considering the gender difference. PMID:24399160

  20. Health inequalities in European cities: perceptions and beliefs among local policymakers

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Joana; Pons-Vigués, Mariona; Bécares, Laia; Burström, Bo; Gandarillas, Ana; Domínguez-Berjón, Felicitas; Diez, Èlia; Costa, Giuseppe; Ruiz, Milagros; Pikhart, Hynek; Marinacci, Chiara; Hoffmann, Rasmus; Santana, Paula; Borrell, Carme

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the knowledge and beliefs of public policymakers on social inequalities in health and policies to reduce them in cities from different parts of Europe during 2010 and 2011. Design Phenomenological qualitative study. Setting 13 European cities. Participants 19 elected politicians and officers with a directive status from 13 European cities. Main outcome Policymaker's knowledge and beliefs. Results Three emerging discourses were identified among the interviewees, depending on the city of the interviewee. Health inequalities were perceived by most policymakers as differences in life-expectancy between population with economic, social and geographical differences. Reducing health inequalities was a priority for the majority of cities which use surveys as sources of information to analyse these. Bureaucracy, funding and population beliefs were the main barriers. Conclusions The majority of the interviewed policymakers gave an account of interventions focusing on the immediate determinants and aimed at modifying lifestyles and behaviours in the more disadvantaged classes. More funding should be put towards academic research on effective universal policies, evaluation of their impact and training policymakers and officers on health inequalities in city governments. PMID:24871536

  1. Doing masculinity, not doing health? a qualitative study among dutch male employees about health beliefs and workplace physical activity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Being female is a strong predictor of health promoting behaviours. Workplaces show great potential for lifestyle interventions, but such interventions do not necessarily take the gendered background of lifestyle behaviours into account. A perspective analyzing how masculine gender norms affect health promoting behaviours is important. This study aims to explore men's health beliefs and attitudes towards health promotion; in particular, it explores workplace physical activity in relation to masculine ideals among male employees. Methods In the Fall of 2008, we interviewed 13 white Dutch male employees aged 23-56 years. The men worked in a wide range of professions and occupational sectors and all interviewees had been offered a workplace physical activity program. Interviews lasted approximately one to one-and-a-half hour and addressed beliefs about health and lifestyle behaviours including workplace physical activity, as well as normative beliefs about masculinity. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Two normative themes were found: first, the ideal man is equated with being a winner and real men are prepared to compete, and second, real men are not whiners and ideally, not vulnerable. Workplace physical activity is associated with a particular type of masculinity - young, occupied with looks, and interested in muscle building. Masculine norms are related to challenging health while taking care of health is feminine and, hence, something to avoid. Workplace physical activity is not framed as a health measure, and not mentioned as of importance to the work role. Conclusions Competitiveness and nonchalant attitudes towards health shape masculine ideals. In regards to workplace physical activity, some men resist what they perceive to be an emphasis on muscled looks, whereas for others it contributes to looking self-confident. In order to establish a greater reach among vulnerable employees such as ageing men, worksite health promotion

  2. Healthcare Access and Health Beliefs of the Indigenous Peoples in Remote Amazonian Peru

    PubMed Central

    Brierley, Charlotte K.; Suarez, Nicolas; Arora, Gitanjli; Graham, Devon

    2014-01-01

    Little is published about the health issues of traditional communities in the remote Peruvian Amazon. This study assessed healthcare access, health perceptions, and beliefs of the indigenous population along the Ampiyacu and Yaguasyacu rivers in north-eastern Peru. One hundred and seventy-nine adult inhabitants of 10 remote settlements attending health clinics were interviewed during a medical services trip in April 2012. Demographics, health status, access to healthcare, health education, sanitation, alcohol use, and smoke exposure were recorded. Our findings indicate that poverty, household overcrowding, and poor sanitation remain commonplace in this group. Furthermore, there are poor levels of health education and on-going barriers to accessing healthcare. Healthcare access and health education remain poor in the remote Peruvian Amazon. This combined with poverty and its sequelae render this population vulnerable to disease. PMID:24277789

  3. Healthcare access and health beliefs of the indigenous peoples in remote Amazonian Peru.

    PubMed

    Brierley, Charlotte K; Suarez, Nicolas; Arora, Gitanjli; Graham, Devon

    2014-01-01

    Little is published about the health issues of traditional communities in the remote Peruvian Amazon. This study assessed healthcare access, health perceptions, and beliefs of the indigenous population along the Ampiyacu and Yaguasyacu rivers in north-eastern Peru. One hundred and seventy-nine adult inhabitants of 10 remote settlements attending health clinics were interviewed during a medical services trip in April 2012. Demographics, health status, access to healthcare, health education, sanitation, alcohol use, and smoke exposure were recorded. Our findings indicate that poverty, household overcrowding, and poor sanitation remain commonplace in this group. Furthermore, there are poor levels of health education and on-going barriers to accessing healthcare. Healthcare access and health education remain poor in the remote Peruvian Amazon. This combined with poverty and its sequelae render this population vulnerable to disease. PMID:24277789

  4. Witchcraft and Biopsychosocial Causes of Mental Illness: Attitudes and Beliefs About Mental Illness Among Health Professionals in Five Countries.

    PubMed

    Stefanovics, Elina A; He, Hongbo; Cavalcanti, Maria; Neto, Helio; Ofori-Atta, Angelo; Leddy, Meaghan; Ighodaro, Adesuwa; Rosenheck, Robert

    2016-03-01

    This study examines the intercorrelation of measures reflecting beliefs about and attitudes toward people with mental illness in a sample of health professionals (N = 902) from five countries: Brazil, China, Ghana, Nigeria, and the United States, and, more specifically, the association of beliefs in supernatural as contrasted with biopsychosocial causes of mental illness. Factor analysis of a 43-item questionnaire identified four factors favoring a) socializing with people with mental illness; b) normalizing their roles in society; c) belief in supernatural causes of mental illness (e.g., witchcraft, curses); and d) belief in biopsychosocial causes of mental illness. Unexpectedly, a hypothesized negative association between belief in supernatural and biopsychosocial causation of mental illness was not found. Belief in the biopsychosocial causation was weakly associated with less stigmatized attitudes towards socializing and normalized roles. PMID:26745309

  5. Finding audiences, changing beliefs: the structure of research use in Canadian health policy.

    PubMed

    Lomas, J

    1990-01-01

    The impact of research information depends on its ability to change beliefs or policy assumptions within the relevant audiences. As a hybrid of American and British systems, Canada's chosen decision-making structure for policy-making and its legislative framework for health insurance make these audiences unclear and not readily accessible. This factor and historical characteristics of the research community which made them only partially responsive to the values of decisionmakers provide an explanation for the limited past use of research information in Canadian health policy. More recently, improved responsiveness by researchers and an emerging definition of the audiences by legislative policymakers are bringing about a gradual increase in the potential impact of research at the levels of administrative and clinical policy. Because of continuing decision-making constraints on legislative policy, however, impact at this level is predicted to remain diffuse, with only cautious acceptance of the changes in beliefs implied by research. PMID:2273216

  6. Psychometric Properties on Lecturers' Beliefs on Teaching Function: Rasch Model Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mofreh, Samah Ali Mohsen; Ghafar, Mohammed Najib Abdul; Omar, Abdul Hafiz Hj; Mosaku, Monsurat; Ma'ruf, Amar

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the psychometric analysis of lecturers' beliefs on teaching function (LBTF) survey using Rasch Model analysis. The sample comprised 34 Community Colleges' lecturers. The Rasch Model is applied to produce specific measurements on the lecturers' beliefs on teaching function in order to generalize results and inferential…

  7. Modeling the Relationships among Students' Motivational Beliefs, Metacognitive Strategy Use, and Effort Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sungur, Semra

    2007-01-01

    In this study, a path model was utilised to model the relationships among motivational beliefs, metacognitive strategy use, and effort regulation in science courses. There were 391 high-school students participating in the study. The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire was used to measure students' motivational beliefs, metacognitive…

  8. Modeling Teacher Beliefs and Practices in Context: A Multimethods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishino, Takako

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship among Japanese high school teachers' beliefs, their practices, and socioeducational factors regarding communicative language teaching (CLT). A multimethods approach was used consisting of a survey, interviews, and class observations. A Teacher Beliefs Questionnaire was sent to 188 randomly selected Japanese…

  9. The role of anticipated regret and health beliefs in HPV vaccination intentions among young adults.

    PubMed

    Christy, Shannon M; Winger, Joseph G; Raffanello, Elizabeth W; Halpern, Leslie F; Danoff-Burg, Sharon; Mosher, Catherine E

    2016-06-01

    Although cognitions have predicted young adults' human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine decision-making, emotion-based theories of healthcare decision-making suggest that anticipatory emotions may be more predictive. This study examined whether anticipated regret was associated with young adults' intentions to receive the HPV vaccine above and beyond the effects of commonly studied cognitions. Unvaccinated undergraduates (N = 233) completed a survey assessing Health Belief Model (HBM) variables (i.e., perceived severity of HPV-related diseases, perceived risk of developing these diseases, and perceived benefits of HPV vaccination), anticipatory emotions (i.e., anticipated regret if one were unvaccinated and later developed genital warts or HPV-related cancer), and HPV vaccine intentions. Anticipated regret was associated with HPV vaccine intentions above and beyond the effects of HBM variables among men. Among women, neither anticipated regret nor HBM variables showed consistent associations with HPV vaccine intentions. Findings suggest that anticipatory emotions should be considered when designing interventions to increase HPV vaccination among college men. PMID:26782668

  10. The effects of health perception on living health belief, living satisfaction and wellbeing-oriented activities according to swimming participation with middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bo-Ae; Oh, Deuk-Ja

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to examine the effects of health perception on health belief, life satisfaction, and wellbeing-oriented activities according to swimming participation with middle-aged women. First, the subvariables of health perception, health interest and health concern, did exert significant effects on the subvariables of health belief, perceived benefit and perceived disability. Health interest and health concern also showed significant effects on the subvariables of life satisfaction and wellbeing-oriented activities, exercise orientation and hobby orientation, as well. Second, the subvariables of health perception, resistance and sensitivity, indicated significant effects on the subvariable of health belief, perceived disability, and they also showed significant effects on life satisfaction, too. Also, resistance-sensitivity had significant effects on the subvariables of wellbeing-oriented activities, mental health orientation and hobby orientation, too. PMID:24278888

  11. Factors in Medical Student Beliefs about Electronic Health Record Use

    PubMed Central

    Harle, Christopher A.; Gruber, Laura A.; Dewar, Marvin A.

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare providers’ ongoing investment in electronic health records (EHRs) necessitates an understanding of physicians’ expectations about using EHRs. Such understanding may aid educators and administrators when utilizing scarce resources during EHR training and implementation activities. This study aimed to link individual medical student characteristics to their perceptions of EHRs’ ease of use and usefulness. This study employed a cross-sectional survey of 126 third-year medical students at a large southeastern university. Using a questionnaire designed for this study and containing previously validated items, the study team measured and related students’ expectations about EHR ease of use and usefulness to their computer self-efficacy, openness to change, personality traits, and demographic characteristics. On a seven-point scale, men reported, on average, ease-of-use scores that were 0.71 higher than women's (p < .001). Also, increased computer self-efficacy related to higher expectations of EHR ease of use (p < .01) and usefulness (p < .05). Openness-to-change scores were also associated with higher expectations of EHR ease of use (p < .01) and usefulness (p < .001). Finally, a more conscientious personality was positively associated with EHR ease of use (p < .01). Our findings suggest that medical educators and administrators may consider targeting EHR management strategies on the basis of individual differences. Enhanced training and support interventions may be helpful to women or to clinicians with lower computer self-efficacy, lower openness to change, or less conscientious personalities. Also, current and future physicians who rate higher in terms of self-efficacy, openness to change, or conscientiousness may be useful as champions of EHR use among their peers. PMID:24808813

  12. Modeling the Relations among Students' Epistemological Beliefs, Motivation, Learning Approach, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kizilgunes, Berna; Tekkaya, Ceren; Sungur, Semra

    2009-01-01

    The authors proposed a model to explain how epistemological beliefs, achievement motivation, and learning approach related to achievement. The authors assumed that epistemological beliefs influence achievement indirectly through their effect on achievement motivation and learning approach. Participants were 1,041 6th-grade students. Results of the…

  13. Modeling as Moral Education: Documenting, Analyzing, and Addressing a Central Belief of Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanger, Matthew N.; Osguthorpe, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports belief survey data from 92 preservice teachers responding to questions about the moral work of teaching. Those data reveal that participants commonly express the belief that modeling is a primary means by which moral education occurs. The survey responses are analyzed to show a number of themes regarding the nature of preservice…

  14. Instructional Dissent in the College Classroom: Using the Instructional Beliefs Model as a Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBelle, Sara; Martin, Matthew M.; Weber, Keith

    2013-01-01

    We examined the impact of instructor characteristics and student beliefs on students' decisions to enact instructional dissent using the Instructional Beliefs Model (IBM) as a framework. Students (N = 244) completed survey questionnaires assessing their perceptions of instructors' clarity, nonverbal immediacy, and affirming style, as well as their…

  15. Health beliefs related to diarrhea in Haitian children: building transcultural nursing knowledge.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, S M; Cobb, A K

    1990-01-01

    Regardless of where they live or under what circumstances, mothers throughout the world seem to have a compelling desire to provide the best possible health care for their children (Huston, 1979). Haitian mothers living in the Dominican Republic were no exception. The health beliefs and practices of these mothers related primarily to diarrhea among their children which demonstrated a concern and resourcefulness that is commendable. The results of this study clearly indicate the importance of transcultural nurses conducting culturally relevant research as a basis to develop sound health programs in developing countries. Diarrhea was identified as the single most important threat to a child's health in these communities. That mothers did not know about the correct ingredients and/or proportions for oral rehydration solutions (Western views) was of interest. Although the Dominican government makes some commercial packets of ORS, most of the women interviewed did not have ready access to this product. This finding reflected the need for transcultural nurses to offer to teach mothers how to make ORS using the sugar, salt, and water they had available. Since the mothers' perception that diarrhea was a dangerous threat to their children's health, was verified by childhood mortality statistics in the bateys, it would seem that ORS could make a significant impact on the health status of the children. Breastfeeding also was a major health belief factor associated with the treatment of diarrhea. Even though the majority of mothers believed breast feeding should be continued if a child had diarrhea, a number believed it should be discontinued. Nurses working with CHWs will need to emphasize the importance of breastfeeding and help them to develop creative ways of communicating this information to the mothers. The second most dangerous threat to the child identified by the mothers was respiratory ailments. This suggests a new area of concentration for future research and

  16. Causal thinking after a tsunami wave: karma beliefs, pessimistic explanatory style and health among Sri Lankan survivors.

    PubMed

    Levy, Becca R; Slade, Martin D; Ranasinghe, Padmini

    2009-03-01

    In 2004, one of the largest earthquakes ever recorded led to a tsunami devastating two-thirds of the Sri Lankan coastline. We examined whether certain causal beliefs (attributional style and karma, a Buddhist concept used to explain bad events) are associated with tsunami survivors experiencing PTSD and poor health about six months later. Previous studies of causal beliefs associated with illness following the same traumatic event have focused on Western countries and none have considered the role of karma. We interviewed 264 Sri Lankan tsunami survivors. As predicted, we found that belief in karma and a pessimistic explanatory style are independently associated with poor health and a pessimistic explanatory style is associated with PTSD, after adjusting for relevant factors. Thus, both universal and more culturally specific beliefs may contribute to coping following a natural disaster. PMID:19229624

  17. Bayesian Belief Networks Approach for Modeling Irrigation Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriyas, S.; McKee, M.

    2012-12-01

    Canal operators need information to manage water deliveries to irrigators. Short-term irrigation demand forecasts can potentially valuable information for a canal operator who must manage an on-demand system. Such forecasts could be generated by using information about the decision-making processes of irrigators. Bayesian models of irrigation behavior can provide insight into the likely criteria which farmers use to make irrigation decisions. This paper develops a Bayesian belief network (BBN) to learn irrigation decision-making behavior of farmers and utilizes the resulting model to make forecasts of future irrigation decisions based on factor interaction and posterior probabilities. Models for studying irrigation behavior have been rarely explored in the past. The model discussed here was built from a combination of data about biotic, climatic, and edaphic conditions under which observed irrigation decisions were made. The paper includes a case study using data collected from the Canal B region of the Sevier River, near Delta, Utah. Alfalfa, barley and corn are the main crops of the location. The model has been tested with a portion of the data to affirm the model predictive capabilities. Irrigation rules were deduced in the process of learning and verified in the testing phase. It was found that most of the farmers used consistent rules throughout all years and across different types of crops. Soil moisture stress, which indicates the level of water available to the plant in the soil profile, was found to be one of the most significant likely driving forces for irrigation. Irrigations appeared to be triggered by a farmer's perception of soil stress, or by a perception of combined factors such as information about a neighbor irrigating or an apparent preference to irrigate on a weekend. Soil stress resulted in irrigation probabilities of 94.4% for alfalfa. With additional factors like weekend and irrigating when a neighbor irrigates, alfalfa irrigation

  18. Crisis of conscience: reconciling religious health care providers' beliefs and patients' rights.

    PubMed

    White, K A

    1999-07-01

    In this note, Katherine A. White explores the conflict between religious health care providers who provide care in accordance with their religious beliefs and the patients who want access to medical care that these religious providers find objectionable. Specifically, she examines Roman Catholic health care institutions and HMOs that follow the Ethical and Religious Directives for Catholic Health Care Services and considers other religious providers with similar beliefs. In accordance with the Directives, these institutions maintain policies that restrict access to "sensitive" services like abortion, family planning, HIV counseling, infertility treatment, and termination of life-support. White explains how most state laws protecting providers' right to refuse treatments in conflict with religious principles do not cover this wide range of services. Furthermore, many state and federal laws and some court decisions guarantee patients the right to receive this care. The constitutional complication inherent in this provider-patient conflict emerges in White's analysis of the interaction of the Free Exercise and Establishment Clauses of the First Amendment and patients' right to privacy. White concludes her note by exploring the success of both provider-initiated and legislatively mandated compromise strategies. She first describes the strategies adopted by four different religious HMOs which vary in how they increase or restrict access to sensitive services. She then turns her focus to state and federal "bypass" legislation, ultimately concluding that increased state supervision might help these laws become more viable solutions to provider-patient conflicts. PMID:10558539

  19. Breakfast habits, beliefs and measures of health and wellbeing in a nationally representative UK sample.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Sue; Halsey, Lewis G; McMeel, Yvonne; Huber, Jörg W

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to report UK adult breakfasting habits, beliefs and the relationship of both with measures of personality, health and wellbeing including physical activity and body mass index (BMI). A nationally representative sample of 1068 adults completed a web-based survey, combining standardised scales and self-designed questionnaire statements. Sixty-four percent of respondents consumed breakfast daily whilst 6% never ate breakfast. Breakfasting frequency was found to correlate with conscientiousness, wellbeing and age and general health. The survey found that breakfast eaters strongly believe that breakfast helps weight control and weight loss. Breakfast eaters were more likely to partake in vigorous exercise, although there was no significant difference in BMI. Multi-variate analysis identified conscientiousness, cognitive restraint and age as making unique contributions to predicting breakfast frequency. This study provides further support for the view that breakfast eating is likely to be a proxy-variable for a healthy lifestyle. The role of breakfast and related beliefs should be taken into consideration in breakfast behaviour research, interventions and health and wellbeing campaigns. PMID:23032303

  20. Health Care Workers' Beliefs and Practices Around Pap Screening for Adolescents Seeking Contraception.

    PubMed

    Gabzdyl, Elizabeth; Engstrom, Janet L; McFarlin, Barbara L

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents often avoid seeing a health care provider to obtain contraception because they do not want to undergo a pelvic exam and Pap screening for fear of stress, pain or embarrassment. The purpose of this quality improvement project was to study health care workers, attitudes and beliefs about Pap screening and to educate them on the latest evidence-based guidelines, with the hope of ultimately decreasing unnecessary screening. Results showed a modest reduction in the frequency of Pap screening; however, many adolescents continued to undergo unnecessary Pap screening. The reluctance of health care workers to change their practice demonstrates the need for better methods of translating evidence-based guidelines into practice. PMID:26058904

  1. A Conceptual Model of Relationships among Constructivist Learning Environment Perceptions, Epistemological Beliefs, and Learning Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozkal, Kudret; Tekkaya, Ceren; Cakiroglu, Jale; Sungur, Semra

    2009-01-01

    This study proposed a conceptual model of relationships among constructivist learning environment perception variables (Personal Relevance, Uncertainty, Critical Voice, Shared Control, and Student Negotiation), scientific epistemological belief variables (fixed and tentative), and learning approach. It was proposed that learning environment…

  2. A model of multi-agent consensus for vague and uncertain beliefs

    PubMed Central

    Crosscombe, Michael; Lawry, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Consensus formation is investigated for multi-agent systems in which agents’ beliefs are both vague and uncertain. Vagueness is represented by a third truth state meaning borderline. This is combined with a probabilistic model of uncertainty. A belief combination operator is then proposed, which exploits borderline truth values to enable agents with conflicting beliefs to reach a compromise. A number of simulation experiments are carried out, in which agents apply this operator in pairwise interactions, under the bounded confidence restriction that the two agents’ beliefs must be sufficiently consistent with each other before agreement can be reached. As well as studying the consensus operator in isolation, we also investigate scenarios in which agents are influenced either directly or indirectly by the state of the world. For the former, we conduct simulations that combine consensus formation with belief updating based on evidence. For the latter, we investigate the effect of assuming that the closer an agent’s beliefs are to the truth the more visible they are in the consensus building process. In all cases, applying the consensus operators results in the population converging to a single shared belief that is both crisp and certain. Furthermore, simulations that combine consensus formation with evidential updating converge more quickly to a shared opinion, which is closer to the actual state of the world than those in which beliefs are only changed as a result of directly receiving new evidence. Finally, if agent interactions are guided by belief quality measured as similarity to the true state of the world, then applying the consensus operator alone results in the population converging to a high-quality shared belief. PMID:27547020

  3. Pregnant Women's Infant Oral Health Knowledge and Beliefs: Influence of Having Given Birth and of Having a Child in the Home.

    PubMed

    Baker, Suzanne D; Quiñonez, Rocio B; Boggess, Kim; Phillips, Ceib

    2016-06-01

    Introduction Prenatal oral health interventions can positively impact maternal and child oral health, yet limited information exists concerning how to best educate pregnant women about infant oral health. Our objective was to examine the influence of having given birth on pregnant women's infant oral health knowledge and beliefs. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of data collected from a cross-sectional survey of pregnant women ≥18 years old attending UNC's Ultrasound Clinic. Four binomial items were categorized as infant knowledge (IK) and five rated on a Likert scale (1-5) as infant belief (IB). Overall IK and IB scores were calculated, averaging the items within each construct. Respondents were categorized into two groups: multiparous (N = 268), women having at least one previous live birth and a child between 2 and 6 years old, or nulliparous (N = 186), women with no previous live births or a child between 2 and 6 years old. Regression models for IK and IB were conducted using SAS 9.2 with maternal demographic characteristics, dental utilization, and birth history as explanatory variables (p ≤ 0.05). Results IK was affected by race (p = 0.04), mother's oral health self-rating (p = 0.0002), and birth history (p < 0.0001). On average, IK was 0.12 units higher in subjects with a history of giving birth, adjusting for explanatory variables. IB was influenced by maternal oral health beliefs (p = 0.002) and history of access to dental care (p = 0.0002). IB did not differ based on birth history (p = 0.17). Discussion The influence of birth history on pregnant women's infant oral health knowledge and beliefs can be considered in future intervention designs to maximize available resources. PMID:26961141

  4. Breast Cancer Screening Knowledge and Perceived Health Beliefs among Immigrant Women in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jiyoung; Lee, Se Kyung; Lee, Jeonghui; Choi, Min-Young; Jung, Seung Pil; Kim, Min Kook; Kim, Sangmin; Nam, Seok Jin; Lee, Jeong Eon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Recently, through international marriage, immigrant women have rapidly increased throughout Korea. This study was performed to identify health beliefs and practices related to breast cancer screening in immigrant women in Korea. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out between March and July 2012, and study population included immigrant females from six other Asian countries (Cambodia, China, Japan, Mongolia, Vietnam, and the Philippines). We surveyed 197 women and categorized them into four groups according to home countries. The questionnaire consisted of 55 items, including demographic and socioeconomic factors, breast cancer-related knowledge regarding risk factors and symptoms, beliefs and attitudes towards health and breast cancer, perceived susceptibility, barriers, and benefits of screening. Results Japanese participants were significantly older and had resided in Korea for more years than other country-of-origin groups (all p<0.001), and showed higher screening rates without statistical significance (p=0.392). In multivariate analysis, country of origin showed a significant correlation with knowledge (p=0.001), positive beliefs (p=0.002), and perceived benefits (p=0.025) of breast cancer screening. The group with the lowest household income showed a significantly lower score of perceived benefits (p=0.022). Through analysis to identify factors affecting participation in screening mammography, we found that education level (p=0.009), occupation status (p=0.006), and Korean language fluency (p=0.002) were independent predictors for screening behavior. Conclusion This study identified conditions related to breast cancer screening knowledge, perception, and behavior of immigrant women in Korea. The results reflect the need for increased social aids to remove barriers to medical services and more educational programs to facilitate higher rates of screening. PMID:25320627

  5. The Impact of Electronic Health Records on Healthcare Professional's Beliefs and Attitudes toward Face to Face Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickles, Kenneth Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The impact of electronic health records on healthcare professional's beliefs and attitudes toward face to face communication during patient and provider interactions was examined. Quantitative survey research assessed user attitudes towards an electronic health record system and revealed that healthcare professionals from a wide range of…

  6. Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs, and Personal Practices regarding Colorectal Cancer Screening among Health Care Professionals in Rural Colorado: A Pilot Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rim, Sun Hee; Zittleman, Linda; Westfall, John M.; Overholser, Linda; Froshaug, Desiree; Coughlin, Steven S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study reports the baseline knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and personal practices of health care professionals regarding colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in the High Plains Research Network (HPRN) of rural Colorado prior to a community-based educational intervention. It also examines the association between health care staff members'…

  7. Chinese-Australian women's beliefs about cancer: implications for health promotion.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Cannas; Sullivan, Gerard

    2006-01-01

    Ethnicity and culture play significant roles in determining how an individual is likely to understand and explain cancer, which, in turn, is posited to have an impact on cancer screening behavior. Chinese women in Western countries are consistently reported to have low participation rates in mammographic screening. This may be related to the fact that women of Chinese ancestry have different images and beliefs about cancer, which can have implications for participation in health promotion programs regarding cancer prevention and early detection. To investigate this issue, a qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with 20 Chinese-Australian women was conducted. Embedded in the women's images of cancer were notions associated with fear, mystery, contagion, and stigma. Based on information provided by the women who participated in this study, 6 domains of folk explanations about the causes of cancer were identified: lifestyle, stress, environment, genes, unknown causes, and destiny. These beliefs should be considered in the design of breast health promotion programs because they are likely to have a bearing on Chinese-Australian women's attitudes regarding the value they perceive of cancer screening. PMID:17006106

  8. Exploring knowledge, belief and experiences in sexual and reproductive health in immigrant Hispanic women.

    PubMed

    Quelopana, Ana M; Alcalde, Cristina

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the transformation of immigrant women's knowledge, belief and experience with regard to sexual and reproductive health after living in the US. Four focus groups (N = 24) were held with Hispanic women ≥18 years old. We identified two main themes (Fertility/Knowledge and Gender power) with five subthemes (Sex education, Contraception and unintended pregnancy, Men versus women, Intimate partner violence, and Immigrating to the US). Most of these women were raised in a very restricted family context where talking about sex was viewed as sinful. In spite of their own experiences of sexual silence and the consequences to their lives, women valued the positive changes achieved by immigrating to the US; they felt empowered to make their own decisions regarding reproductive health. PMID:23475348

  9. Creating Neoliberal Citizens in Morocco: Reproductive Health, Development Policy, and Popular Islamic Beliefs.

    PubMed

    Hughes Rinker, Cortney

    2015-01-01

    Self-governance and responsibility are two traits associated with neoliberal citizenship in scholarly and popular discourses, but little of the literature on this topic focuses on North Africa. My goal, in this article, is not only to fill this void but also to complicate understandings of neoliberalism through an examination of the relationship between reproductive health care, development policy, and popular Islamic beliefs in Morocco. My discussion is based on fieldwork in Rabat, Morocco, which included observations in health clinics, interviews with patients and staff, and visits to patients' homes. By analyzing the childbearing and childrearing practices of Moroccan women who visited the clinics, I pose that neoliberal logic cannot be predefined or understood as a monolithic concept. I demonstrate that women were active in their own governance and accountable for their reproductive behaviors, but they did so because of their understandings of what Islam says about fertility and motherhood. PMID:24892231

  10. Exploring Smoking Cessation Attitudes, Beliefs, and Practices in Occupational Health Nursing.

    PubMed

    Ganz, Ollie; Fortuna, Grace; Weinsier, Stephanie; Campbell, Kay; Cantrell, Jennifer; Furmanski, William L

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore occupational health nurses' attitudes, beliefs, and practices regarding the delivery of smoking cessation services to workers. The study included 707 members of the American Association of Occupational Health Nurses (AAOHN) who completed a one-time survey during the fall of 2012. Results indicated that occupational health nurses believed that evidence-based treatments are at least somewhat effective and that they should provide smoking cessation services to their workers; however, a majority of occupational health nurses reported that they did not have appropriate smoking cessation training or guidelines in their workplaces. Occupational health nurses would benefit from training in the use of smoking cessation guidelines and evidence-based smoking cessation interventions, which could be used in their clinical practice. Employers should ensure that workplace policies, such as providing coverage for cessation services, facilitate smokers' efforts to quit. Employers can benefit from many of these policies through cost savings via reduced health care costs and absenteeism. PMID:26187173

  11. Autonomous Motivation Is Not Enough: The Role of Compensatory Health Beliefs for the Readiness to Change Stair and Elevator Use

    PubMed Central

    Radtke, Theda; Rackow, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    Compensatory health beliefs (CHBs) are beliefs that an unhealthy behavior can be compensated with a healthy behavior. In line with the CHBs model, the aim of this study was twofold. First, the study investigated the relationship between autonomous motivation and CHBs that physical inactivity can be compensated by taking the stairs instead of the elevator. Second, the study focused on the associations between CHBs and readiness to use the stairs more often and stair and elevator use. Thus, a cross-sectional online questionnaire was designed that was filled out by 135 participants. Path analysis showed that individuals with stronger autonomous motivation to use the stairs strongly agreed that sedentary behavior could be compensated by taking the stairs instead of the elevator. Moreover, CHBs were positively related to readiness to change behavior, but not to self-reported stair and elevator use. Even though future research is necessary to replicate these findings, autonomous motivation seems to have a positive impact on CHBs which, in turn, might boost an intended behavior change. Thus, promoting possible compensation of physical inactivity might foster the readiness to change the unhealthy behavior. PMID:25464134

  12. Health Beliefs, Treatment Preferences and Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Asthma, Smoking and Lung Cancer Self-Management in Diverse Black Communities

    PubMed Central

    George, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this literature review is to characterize unconventional health beliefs and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for asthma, smoking and lung cancer as those that are likely safe and those that likely increase risk in diverse Black communities. These findings should provide the impetus for enhanced patient-provider communication that elicits patients’ beliefs and self-management preferences so that they may be accommodated, or when necessary, reconciled through discussion and partnership. Methods Original research articles relevant to this topic were obtained by conducting a literature search of the PubMed Plus, PsychINFO and SCOPUS databases using combinations of the following search terms: asthma, lung cancer, emphysema, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), smoking, beliefs, complementary medicine, alternative medicine, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), explanatory models, African American, and Black. Results Using predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria, 51 original research papers were retained. Taken together, they provide evidence that patients hold unconventional beliefs about the origins of asthma and lung cancer and the health risks of smoking, have negative opinions of standard medical and surgical treatments, and have favorable attitudes about using CAM. All but a small number of CAM and health behaviors were considered safe. Conclusions When patients’ unconventional beliefs and preferences are not identified and discussed, there is an increased risk that standard approaches to self-management of lung disease will be sub-optimal, that potentially dangerous CAM practices might be used and that timely medical interventions may be delayed. Practice implications Providers need effective communication skills as the medical dialogue forms the basis of patients’ understanding of disease and self-management options. The preferred endpoint of such discussions should be agreement around an

  13. Beliefs About Tobacco, Health, and Addiction Among Adults in Cambodia: Findings from a National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Yel, Daravuth; Bui, Anthony; Job, Jayakaran S.; Knutsen, Synnove; Singh, Pramil N.

    2012-01-01

    There remains a very high rate of smoked and smokeless tobacco use in the Western Pacific Region. The most recent findings from national adult tobacco surveys indicate that very few daily users of tobacco intend to quit tobacco use. In Cambodia, a nation that is predominantly Buddhist, faith-based tobacco control programs have been implemented where, under the fifth precept of Buddhism that proscribes addictive behaviors, monks were encouraged to quit tobacco and temples have been declared smoke-free. In the present study, we included items on a large national tobacco survey to examine the relation between beliefs (faith-based, other) about tobacco, health, and addiction among adults (18 years and older). In a stratified, multistage cluster sample (n = 13,988) of all provinces of Cambodia, we found that (1) 88–93% believe that Buddhist monks should not use tobacco, buy tobacco, or be offered tobacco during a religious ceremony; (2) 86–93% believe that the Wat (temple) should be a smoke-free area; (3) 93–95% believe that tobacco is addictive in the same way as habits (opium, gambling, alcohol) listed under the fifth precept of Buddhism; and (4) those who do not use tobacco are significantly more likely to cite a Buddhist principle as part of their anti-tobacco beliefs. These data indicate that anti-tobacco sentiments are highly prevalent in the Buddhist belief system of Cambodian adults and are especially evident among non-users of tobacco. Our findings indicate that faith-based initiatives could be an effective part of anti-tobacco campaigns in Cambodia. PMID:21948146

  14. Health beliefs and practices in an isolated polygamist community of southern Utah.

    PubMed

    Miller, Anne Catherine; Karkazis, Katrina

    2013-06-01

    Short Creek is a largely closed and isolated community on the border between Utah and Arizona, made up of the sister towns of Hildale, Utah, and Colorado City, Arizona. Beginning from childhood, the 6,000 or so members of the Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (FLDS) are brought up in a lifestyle of plural marriage, meaning a marriage among one man and more than one woman, and are surrounded by their peers in "the covenant." A lifestyle of plural marriage is likely to affect the health of community members, but its effects have not been studied because of the community's isolation and distrust of outsiders. This paper addresses several questions that arise in contemplating the health of the Short Creek community: What are the health beliefs in this community, and what are their historical bases? Where do families seek medical care, and for what or at what threshold of illness or injury? What is the attitude of care providers serving this community, and how are the providers viewed by the community? More broadly, this paper examines the ways in which polygamy configures health. In order to meet this objective, this paper aims first to provide a brief account of this community's history and demographic profile, followed by a discussion of health care in this community and how it is affected by the practice of plural marriage, with the data comprised of qualitative interviews with health care providers to the community. The goals of this project are to gain a rich, historically nuanced understanding of the health of community members, and to identify directions for further academic and policy research. Our findings indicate that health in this community is shaped by limited resources, an attitude of health fatalism, and a profound insularity and corresponding isolation from the outside world. PMID:22438183

  15. The influence of mapped hazards on risk beliefs: A proximity-based modeling approach

    PubMed Central

    Severtson, Dolores J.; Burt, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Interview findings suggest perceived proximity to mapped hazards influences risk beliefs when people view environmental hazard maps. For dot maps, four attributes of mapped hazards influenced beliefs: hazard value, proximity, prevalence, and dot patterns. In order to quantify the collective influence of these attributes for viewers' perceived or actual map locations, we present a model to estimate proximity-based hazard or risk (PBH) and share study results that indicate how modeled PBH and map attributes influenced risk beliefs. The randomized survey study among 447 university students assessed risk beliefs for 24 dot maps that systematically varied by the four attributes. Maps depicted water test results for a fictitious hazardous substance in private residential wells and included a designated “you live here” location. Of the nine variables that assessed risk beliefs, the numerical susceptibility variable was most consistently and strongly related to map attributes and PBH. Hazard value, location in or out of a clustered dot pattern, and distance had the largest effects on susceptibility. Sometimes, hazard value interacted with other attributes, e.g. distance had stronger effects on susceptibility for larger than smaller hazard values. For all combined maps, PBH explained about the same amount of variance in susceptibility as did attributes. Modeled PBH may have utility for studying the influence of proximity to mapped hazards on risk beliefs, protective behavior, and other dependent variables. Further work is needed to examine these influences for more realistic maps and representative study samples. PMID:22053748

  16. Health Beliefs and Perceptions of Trachoma in Communities on the Bijagos Archipelago of Guinea Bissau

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Katie; Hutchins, Harry; Baio, Aramata; Cassama, Eunice; Nabicassa, Meno; Bailey, Robin; Last, Anna R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: The World Health Organization aims to eliminate blinding trachoma by 2020 using the SAFE strategy: Surgery for trichiasis, Antibiotics, Facial cleanliness and Environmental improvement. Trachoma is hyperendemic on the remote Bijagos Archipelago of Guinea-Bissau, West Africa. Sociocultural factors remain unexplored here, despite their potential impact on disease control, particularly through the “F” and “E” aspects. By examining these, we aim to illuminate this population's unreported health beliefs, hygiene behaviors and disease perceptions. This understanding will help to optimize future public health interventions, and guide the distribution of limited healthcare resources. Methods: Two unmatched interview series were conducted 1 year apart on Bubaque Island in the Bijagos Archipelago; one in rural villages using purposive snowball sampling, the other in a semi-urban settlement, using random-cluster sampling. Interviews were conducted and recorded in Kriolu, the local dialect, by a supervised local field assistant before translation into English for conventional content analysis. Results: Trachoma was unheard of in either series, despite ongoing local trachoma research. A heterogeneous range of disease etiology and preventative measures were suggested, but the importance of hygiene was more widely reported by semi-urban interviewees. Although western medicine was well regarded, traditional practices continued, particularly in the rural populations. Conclusions: Differences in knowledge, beliefs and behaviors were apparent between the two series. Despite widespread rudimentary knowledge of disease prevention, targeted education might benefit both communities, particularly basic hygiene education for rural communities. Healthcare access should also be improved for rural populations. The impact of these measures could be assessed by future fieldwork. PMID:26158577

  17. Systematic review of beliefs, behaviours and influencing factors associated with disclosure of a mental health problem in the workplace

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Stigma and discrimination present an important barrier to finding and keeping work for individuals with a mental health problem. This paper reviews evidence on: 1) employment-related disclosure beliefs and behaviours of people with a mental health problem; 2) factors associated with the disclosure of a mental health problem in the employment setting; 3) whether employers are less likely to hire applicants who disclose a mental health problem; and 4) factors influencing employers' hiring beliefs and behaviours towards job applicants with a mental health problem. Methods A systematic review was conducted for the period 1990-2010, using eight bibliographic databases. Meta-ethnography was used to provide a thematic understanding of the disclosure beliefs and behaviours of individuals with mental health problem. Results The searches yielded 8,971 items which was systematically reduced to 48 included studies. Sixteen qualitative, one mixed methods and seven quantitative studies were located containing evidence on the disclosure beliefs and behaviours of people with a mental health problem, and the factors associated with these beliefs and behaviours. In the meta-ethnography four super-ordinate themes were generated: 1) expectations and experiences of discrimination; 2) other reasons for non-disclosure; 3) reasons for disclosure; and 4) disclosure dimensions. Two qualitative, one mixed methods and 22 quantitative studies provided data to address the remaining two questions on the employers perspective. Conclusions By presenting evidence from the perspective of individuals on both sides of the employment interaction, this review provides integrated perspective on the impact of disclosure of a mental health problem on employment outcomes. PMID:22339944

  18. Behavioral Health Providers and Electronic Health Records: An Exploratory Beliefs Elicitation and Segmentation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shank, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    The widespread adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) is a public policy strategy to improve healthcare quality and reduce accelerating health care costs. Much research has focused on medical providers' perceptions of EHRs, but little is known about those of behavioral health providers. This research was informed by the theory of reasoned…

  19. How Religious Beliefs and Practices Influence the Psychological Health of Catholic Priests.

    PubMed

    Isacco, Anthony; Sahker, Ethan; Krinock, Elizabeth; Sim, Wonjin; Hamilton, Deanna

    2016-07-01

    Roman Catholic diocesan priests are a subgroup of men with unique religious and spiritual roles, beliefs, and practices. This qualitative study of 15 priests from the mid-Atlantic area of the United States focused on how priests' relationship with God and promises of celibacy and obedience influenced their psychological health. Using a consensual qualitative research (CQR) design, the analysis revealed that participants described their relationship with God as central to their health and contributing to positive outcomes (e.g., sense of connection and support). The influence of their promises of celibacy and obedience were linked to both positive outcomes (e.g., decreased stress, improved relationships) and negative outcomes (e.g., internal conflict, depression/loneliness). This study highlighted the central role that priests' relationship with God has on positive psychological health. Future research is necessary to understand how to maximize the positive effects and minimize the negative effects of priests' promises of celibacy and obedience, which would benefit programs aimed at supporting priests' psychological health. PMID:25617141

  20. Nutrition and bone health: turning knowledge and beliefs into healthy behaviour.

    PubMed

    Rizzoli, R; Abraham, C; Brandi, M-L

    2014-01-01

    Primary osteoporosis prevention requires healthy behaviours, such as regular physical exercise and adequate dietary intakes of calcium, vitamin D and protein. Calcium and vitamin D can decrease postmenopausal bone loss and prevent fracture risk. However, there is still a high prevalence of calcium and vitamin D insufficiency in women aged 50+ years. Dietary sources of these nutrients are the preferred choice, and dairy products represent a valuable dietary source of calcium due to the high content, high absorptive rate and relatively low cost. Furthermore, dairy products also contain other key nutrients including vitamin D, phosphorus and protein that contribute to bone health. Studies of women's beliefs and behaviours with respect to osteoporosis highlight poor knowledge of the importance of dietary nutrient intakes and low concern regarding bone health. Osteoporosis educational programmes exist to help women change behaviours relevant to bone health. Such programmes can have positive influences on women's knowledge, attitudes, perceived norms, motivation and behaviours. Increased awareness of the consequences of low calcium and vitamin D intakes may promote women's attitudes towards dietary sources, in particular dairy products, and lead to better adherence to health recommendations. Increasing dietary nutrient intakes through educational initiatives should be further developed to aid the prevention of osteoporosis and the efficacy of osteoporosis management. PMID:24059908

  1. Relationship Between Health Literacy, Knowledge of Health Status, and Beliefs about HIV/AIDS Transmission among Ryan White Clients in Miami

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooss, Angela; Brock-Getz, Petra; Ladner, Robert; Fiano, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between health literacy, knowledge of health status, and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) transmission beliefs among recipients of Ryan White care. Design: Quota and convenience sampled, quantitative analysis captured with closed and…

  2. Immigrant Caregivers of Young Children: Oral Health Beliefs, Attitudes, and Early Childhood Caries Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Finnegan, Deborah A; Rainchuso, Lori; Jenkins, Susan; Kierce, Erin; Rothman, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    The incidence of early childhood caries (ECC) is a global public health concern. The oral health knowledge of a caregiver can affect a child's risk for developing ECC. An exploratory study of the oral health knowledge and behaviors among caregivers of children 6 years of age and younger was conducted with a convenience sample of adults (n = 114) enrolled in English language or high school equivalency examination courses. The majority of study participants were born in Asia (47 %). Other birth regions included South America (16 %), Caribbean (16 %), Africa (10 %), and Central America (6 %). Study findings showed caregivers with low oral health knowledge were more likely to engage in behaviors that increase a child's risk for developing ECC. A statistically significant relationship was found between participants' rating of their child's dental health as poor and the belief that children should not be weaned from the nursing bottle by 12 months of age (P = 0.002), brushing should not begin upon tooth eruption (P = 0.01), and fluoride does not strengthen teeth and prevent dental caries (P = 0.005). Subjects who pre-chewed their child's food also exhibited behaviors including sharing eating utensils or a toothbrush with their child (P < 0.001). Additional caregiver behaviors included providing their child with a bottle containing cariogenic liquids in a crib (P < 0.001). As a result of this research, it is pertinent that culturally sensitive oral health promotion programs are developed and implemented to raise awareness and reduce the risk of dental disease among immigrant populations. PMID:26370378

  3. Cultural Variations in Parental Health Beliefs, Knowledge, and Information Sources Related to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussing, Regina; Gary, Faye A.; Mills, Terry L.; Garvan, Cynthia Wilson

    2007-01-01

    This study explores cultural variance in parental health beliefs, knowledge, and information sources related to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Structured interviews were completed by a representative community sample of 1,615 parents, including an ADHD knowledge and perceptions survey, behavioral questionnaires, and inquiries…

  4. Men's and Women's Health Beliefs Differentially Predict Coronary Heart Disease Incidence in a Population-Based Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korin, Maya Rom; Chaplin, William F.; Shaffer, Jonathan A.; Butler, Mark J.; Ojie, Mary-Jane; Davidson, Karina W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine gender differences in the association between beliefs in heart disease preventability and 10-year incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) in a population-based sample. Methods: A total of 2,688 Noninstitutionalized Nova Scotians without prior CHD enrolled in the Nova Scotia Health Study (NSHS95) and were followed for 10…

  5. Enhancing Teachers' Beliefs and Practices through Problem-Based Learning Focused on Pertinent Issues of Environmental Health Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haney, Jodi J.; Wang, Jing; Keil, Chris; Zoffel, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined teachers' beliefs and classroom practices during a 2-year professional development program that required middle-school teachers to develop, implement, and revise problem-based, interdisciplinary curricula focusing on locally relevant environmental health issues. The results of the study indicate that over the course of the…

  6. Regret in Later Life: Exploring Relationships between Regret Frequency, Secondary Interpretive Control Beliefs, and Health in Older Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newall, Nancy E.; Chipperfield, Judith G.; Daniels, Lia M.; Hladkyj, Steven; Perry, Raymond P.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined what older people regret, and the relationships between regret, health and life satisfaction. The study also explored the role of secondary interpretive control beliefs in relation to regret. Participants (N = 228; 79-98 years old) were asked to report on the content and frequency of their regret, secondary interpretive…

  7. Effects of participation in swimming lessons on health perception and belief.

    PubMed

    Oh, Deuk-Ja; Lee, Bo-Ae

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of the degree of participation in swimming lessons and the participation styles on health perception and belief. To do this, several analyses were conducted-statistical analysis, frequency analysis, factorial analysis, reliability analysis, correlation analysis, and regression analysis-using SPSS 18.0. A total of 300 copies of the questionnaire were distributed and after excluding those that are considered invalid, only 278 copies were used for the study. As a result, first, for the participants for "30 min-1 h," "1 h-2 h," and "more than 2 h" in time and "2-3 times a week" and "4-5 times a week" in frequency, swimming lessons in types had a significant effect on health interest and health concern. Second, participants for "30 min-1 h" and "1 h-2 h" in time and "hard' in intensity had a significant effect on resistance and sensitivity. Third, all frequencies and intensities excluding the participants for "15 min-30 min." and "swimming lessons" in types had a significant effect on perceived benefit. Fourth, all participants for a time period did not have a significant effect on the perceived disability, but they all had a significant effect on the former in terms of frequency and intensity. This being said, however, the participating types did not have any a significant effect. PMID:25830144

  8. PHYSICIANS' BELIEFS ABOUT USING EMR AND CPOE: IN PURSUIT OF A CONTEXTUALIZED UNDERSTANDING OF HEALTH IT USE BEHAVIOR

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To identify and describe physicians' beliefs about use of electronic medical records (EMR) and computerized provider order entry (CPOE) for inpatient and outpatient care, to build an understanding of what factors shape information technology (IT) use behavior in the unique context of health care delivery. Methods Semi-structured qualitative research interviews were carried out, following the beliefs elicitation approach. Twenty physicians from two large Midwest US hospitals participated. Physicians were asked questions to elicit beliefs and experiences pertaining to their use of EMR and CPOE. Questions were based on a broad set of behavior-shaping beliefs and the methods commonly used to elicit those beliefs. Results Qualitative analysis revealed numerous themes related to the perceived emotional and instrumental outcomes of EMR and CPOE use; perceived external and personal normative pressure to use those systems; perceived volitional control over use behavior; perceived facilitators and barriers to system use; and perceptions about the systems and how they were implemented. EMR and CPOE were commonly believed to both improve and worsen the ease and quality of personal performance, productivity and efficiency, and patient outcomes. Physicians felt encouraged by employers and others to use the systems but also had personal role-related and moral concerns about doing so. Perceived facilitators and barriers were numerous and had their sources in all aspects of the work system. Conclusion Given the breadth and detail of elicited beliefs, numerous design and policy implications can be identified. Additionally, the findings are a first step toward developing a theory of health IT acceptance and use contextualized to the unique setting of health care. PMID:20071219

  9. The Effect of Teacher Beliefs on Student Competence in Mathematical Modeling--An Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mischo, Christoph; Maaß, Katja

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an intervention study whose aim was to promote teacher beliefs about mathematics and learning mathematics and student competences in mathematical modeling. In the intervention, teachers received written curriculum materials about mathematical modeling. The concept underlying the materials was based on constructivist ideas and…

  10. Epistemological Beliefs and Knowledge Sharing in Work Teams: A New Model and Research Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Frankie J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a knowledge-sharing model that explains individual members' motivation to share knowledge (knowledge donation and knowledge collection). Design/methodology/approach: The model is based on social-constructivist theories of epistemological beliefs, learning and distributed cognition, and is organized…

  11. Barriers and Opportunities: A Community-Based Participatory Research Study of Health Beliefs Related to Diabetes in a US Marshallese Community

    PubMed Central

    Hallgren, Emily Ann; McElfish, Pearl Anna; Rubon-Chutaro, Jellesen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the beliefs and perceptions related to type 2 diabetes (diabetes) that influence diabetes self-management behaviors for Marshallese in the U.S. Utilizing the Health Belief Model as a theoretical framework, researchers seek to better understand the underlying beliefs that motivate or impede diabetes self-management behaviors. Methods The community-based participatory research (CBPR) collaborative engaged in 14 months of preliminary fieldwork and conducted two tiers of focus groups for this project as part of our long-term commitment to reducing health inequalities in the Marshallese community. The CBPR team conducted an initial round of two exploratory focus groups (n=15). Based on the knowledge gained, researchers held a second round of focus groups (n=13) focused on health beliefs regarding diabetes. All participants were Marshallese, aged 18 and older, and included men and women. Participants either had a diagnosis of diabetes or were a caretaker of someone with diabetes. Results The findings elucidate the structural and non-structural barriers to successful diabetes self-management for Marshallese in the US. Barriers include: eating differently than the rest of the family, social stigma of diabetes, transportation, cost, lack of access to healthcare, as well as cultural and language barriers. Conclusions While there are significant barriers to improving diabetes self-management, there are also areas of opportunity including family and peer reinforcement to encourage proper diabetes management behaviors and a growing community desire to lift the stigma of diabetes. The CBPR team offers recommendations to make diabetes management interventions more culturally appropriate and effective for the Marshallese population. PMID:25398722

  12. Information Behaviour, Health Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Health Behaviour in Icelanders' Everyday Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palsdottir, Agusta

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study is to gather knowledge about how different groups of Icelanders take advantage of information about health and lifestyle in their everyday life. Method: A random sample of 1,000 people was used in the study and data was gathered as a postal survey. Response rate was 50.8%. Analysis: K-means cluster analysis was…

  13. Predictors of addiction treatment providers' beliefs in the disease and choice models of addiction.

    PubMed

    Russell, Christopher; Davies, John B; Hunter, Simon C

    2011-03-01

    Addiction treatment providers working in the United States (n = 219) and the United Kingdom (n = 372) were surveyed about their beliefs in the disease and choice models of addiction, as assessed by the 18-item Addiction Belief Scale of J. Schaler (1992). Factor analysis of item scores revealed a three-factor structure, labeled "addiction is a disease," "addiction is a choice," and "addiction is a way of coping with life," and factor scores were analyzed in separate hierarchical multiple regression analyses. Controlling for demographic and addiction history variables, treatment providers working in the United States more strongly believe addiction is a disease, whereas U.K.-based providers more strongly believe that addiction is a choice and a way of coping with life. Beliefs that addiction is a disease were stronger among those who provide for-profit treatment, have stronger spiritual beliefs, have had a past addiction problem, are older, are members of a group of addiction professionals, and have been treating addiction longer. Conversely, those who viewed addiction as a choice were more likely to provide public/not-for-profit treatment, be younger, not belong to a group of addiction professionals, and have weaker spiritual beliefs. Additionally, treatment providers who have had a personal addiction problem in the past were significantly more likely to believe addiction is a disease the longer they attend a 12-step-based group and if they are presently abstinent. PMID:21036516

  14. Supernatural beliefs, aetiological models and help seeking behaviour in patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep; Kulhara, Parmanand; Nehra, Ritu

    2012-01-01

    Background: Few studies have evaluated the supernatural beliefs of patients with schizophrenia. This study aimed to study the personal beliefs, aetiological models and help seeking behaviour of patients with schizophrenia using a self-rated questionnaire. Materials and Methods: Seventy three patients returned the completed supernatural Attitude questionnaire. Results: 62% of patients admitted that people in their community believed in sorcery and other magico-religious phenomena. One fourth to half of patients believed in ghosts/evil spirit (26%), spirit intrusion (28.8%) and sorcery (46.6%). Two-third patients believed that mental illness can occur either due to sorcery, ghosts/evil spirit, spirit intrusion, divine wrath, planetary/astrological influences, dissatisfied or evil spirits and bad deeds of the past. 40% of the subjects attributed mental disorders to more than one of these beliefs. About half of the patients (46.6%) believed that only performance of prayers was sufficient to improve their mental status. Few patients (9.6%) believed that magico-religious rituals were sufficient to improve their mental illness but about one-fourth (24.7%) admitted that during recent episode either they or their caregivers performed magico-religious rituals. Conclusion: Supernatural beliefs are common in patients with schizophrenia and many of them attribute the symptoms of mental disorders to these beliefs. PMID:23766578

  15. Assessing sensor reliability for multisensor data fusion within the transferable belief model.

    PubMed

    Elouedi, Zied; Mellouli, Khaled; Smets, Philippe

    2004-02-01

    This paper presents a method for assessing the reliability of a sensor in a classification problem based on the transferable belief model. First, we develop a method for the evaluation of the reliability of a sensor when considered alone. The method is based on finding the discounting factor minimizing the distance between the pignistic probabilities computed from the discounted beliefs and the actual values of data. Next, we develop a method for assessing the reliability of several sensors that are supposed to work jointly and their readings are aggregated. The discounting factors are computed on the basis of minimizing the distance between the pignistic probabilities computed from the combined discounted belief functions and the actual values of data. PMID:15369123

  16. A Transferrable Belief Model Representation for Physical Security of Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    David Gerts

    2010-07-01

    This work analyzed various probabilistic methods such as classic statistics, Bayesian inference, possibilistic theory, and Dempster-Shafer theory of belief functions for the potential insight offered into the physical security of nuclear materials as well as more broad application to nuclear non-proliferation automated decision making theory. A review of the fundamental heuristic and basic limitations of each of these methods suggested that the Dempster-Shafer theory of belief functions may offer significant capability. Further examination of the various interpretations of Dempster-Shafer theory, such as random set, generalized Bayesian, and upper/lower probability demonstrate some limitations. Compared to the other heuristics, the transferrable belief model (TBM), one of the leading interpretations of Dempster-Shafer theory, can improve the automated detection of the violation of physical security using sensors and human judgment. The improvement is shown to give a significant heuristic advantage over other probabilistic options by demonstrating significant successes for several classic gedanken experiments.

  17. Breast Health Intervention Effects on Knowledge and Beliefs Over Time Among Chinese American Immigrants--a Randomized Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Lee-Lin, Frances; Pedhiwala, Nisreen; Nguyen, Thuan; Menon, Usha

    2015-09-01

    Chinese American immigrant women, nonadherent with mammography in the past 12 months, (N = 300) were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial designed to change knowledge and beliefs and increase mammogram use. This report describes intervention effects on changes in knowledge and beliefs between the control and educational groups over four time points (baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months). Variables measured included knowledge, perceived susceptibility, perceived general barriers to mammography, perceived benefits to mammography, and four cultural barriers to mammography (crisis orientation, modesty, use of Eastern medicine, reliance on others). At all three post-intervention time points, women in the education group had significantly higher knowledge scores than those in the control group, regardless of whether they had completed a mammogram during the study. Women in the education group reported higher perceived susceptibility to breast cancer at 3-month post-intervention. At 3- and 6-month post-intervention, regardless of mammogram screening completion, women reported lower concerns about modesty related to mammography when compared to the control group. By the 12-month post-intervention, women in the education group reported significantly fewer perceived barriers than the control group. A targeted breast health program successfully changed breast health knowledge and beliefs that were sustained for up to 6-12 months. Education targeted to women's knowledge and beliefs has significant potential for decreasing disparity in mammogram use among Chinese American immigrant women. PMID:25200949

  18. [Health care professionals' attitudes and beliefs towards older back pain patients. Analysis of the assessment methods and research gaps].

    PubMed

    Laekeman, M; Leonhardt, C

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, the influence of doctors' and therapists' attitudes and beliefs for the treatment of chronic low back pain patients has been increasingly investigated. Attitudes and beliefs of health care providers have been identified as important contributors for an activity based, guideline-oriented therapeutic approach and different questionnaires were developed to evaluate this interaction. Recent reviews discuss the quality of those questionnaires as well as the impact of attitudes towards therapeutic choices and activity recommendations by health care professionals. This article summarizes these results and illuminates transferability of existing questionnaires to older patients with back pain. A literature review shows that most studies were conducted with physiotherapists and general practitioners. At present the most thoroughly investigated tool for its psychometric validity is the Pain Attitudes and Beliefs Scale (PABS). The PABS could be a suitable instrument for examinations regarding therapist attitudes towards older pain patients by using more age-neutral wording. Concluding from the literature, an additional methodological assessment tool could be the utilization of case vignettes. However, those case vignettes, which had been used in studies in England, should be translated and culturally adapted before its application in Germany. Overall, it must be assumed that attitudes and beliefs of clinicians are also important in the care of older patients in pain. With regards to activity recommendations, ageism and the special situation of older people should also be taken into account including possible risk of falling, multimorbidity, polypharmacy, and cognitive impairment. These topics should all be considered in adapted or newly developed questionnaires for the evaluation of attitudes and beliefs of health care providers regarding back pain in older persons. PMID:26232189

  19. The Effect of Changes in Health Beliefs Among African-American and Rural White Church Congregants Enrolled in an Obesity Intervention: A Qualitative Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Diane J; Turner, Monique M; Pratt-Chapman, Mandi; Kashima, Kanako; Hargreaves, Margaret K; Dignan, Mark B; Hébert, James R

    2016-06-01

    Church interventions can reduce obesity disparities by empowering participants with knowledge and skills within an established community. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Biomedical/Obesity Reduction Trial (BMORe) and investigate changes in health beliefs among obese adult participants. Ten pre-/post-intervention focus groups applying the Health Belief Model conducted in two African-American churches in Tennessee (n = 20) and South Carolina (n = 20), and one rural Appalachian church in Kentucky (n = 21). Two independent coders using NVivo analyzed transcribed audio data and notes. Participants' health status of being overweight/obese and having comorbidities of diabetes and high blood pressure motivated enrollment in BMORe. Initially participants voiced low self-efficacy in cooking healthy and reading food labels. BMORe made participants feel "empowered" after 12 weeks compared to initially feeling "out of control" with their weight. Participants reported improvements in emotional health, quality of life, and fewer medications. During post-intervention focus groups, participants reported increased self-efficacy through family support, sharing healthy eating strategies, and having accountability partners. Solidarity and common understanding among BMORe participants led focus group attendees to comment how their peers motivated them to stay in the program for 12 weeks. Long-term barriers include keeping the weight off by maintaining habits of exercise and healthy eating. Implementation of pre-/post-intervention focus groups is an innovative approach to evaluate an obesity intervention and track how changes in health beliefs facilitated behavior change. This novel approach shows promise for behavioral interventions that rely on participant engagement for sustained effectiveness. PMID:26601845

  20. Toward a Tripartite Model of L2 Reading Strategy Use, Motivations, and Learner Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Hiromori, Tomohito; Nakayama, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The present study proposes a tripartite model of L2 reading strategy use, reading motivations, and general learner beliefs by examining the relationships among them in an L2 context. Reading strategy instruction was performed for 360 first-year university students enrolled in a reading-based course, in expectation of affecting their motivations…

  1. School Counselor Beliefs about ASCA National Model School Counseling Program Components Using the SCPCS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatch, Trish; Chen-Hayes, Stuart F.

    2008-01-01

    A study of 3,000 school counselors was undertaken to assess their beliefs about necessary components of a school counseling program. This study was part of the database that the American School Counselor Association used to develop "The ASCA National Model: A Framework for School Counseling Programs." The School Counseling Program Component Scale…

  2. A Mixed-Method Study: Assessing the BAR Model's Impact on Preservice Teachers' Efficacy Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rethlefsen, Ann Lyle; Park, Hyesung

    2011-01-01

    This study took place at a mid-sized, Midwestern university located in a mid-sized town. The researchers developed the BAR model to teach mathematics methods both in the classroom and in the field. The preservice teachers took Enochs, Smith, and Huinker's Mathematics Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Instrument (MTEBI) on the first and last day of class.…

  3. Belief in the "free choice" model of homosexuality: a correlate of homophobia in registered nurses.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, Christopher W

    2007-01-01

    A great amount of social science research has supported the positive correlation between heterosexuals' belief in the free choice model of homosexuality and homophobia. Heterosexuals who believe gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) persons consciously choose their sexual orientation and practice a lifestyle conducive to that choice are much more likely to possess discriminatory, homophobic, homonegative, and heterosexist beliefs. In addition, these individuals are less likely to support gay rights initiatives such as nondiscrimination policies or same-sex partner benefits in the workplace or hate crime enhancement legislation inclusive of GLBT persons. Although researchers have demonstrated this phenomenon in the general population, none have specifically assessed it in the nursing workforce. The purpose of this study was to examine registered nurses' overall levels of homophobia and attitudes toward a workplace policy protective of gays and lesbians. These variables were then correlated with belief in the free choice model of homosexuality. Results indicated that belief in the free choice model of homosexuality was the strongest predictor of homophobia in nurses. Implications for nursing leadership and management, nursing education, and future research are discussed. PMID:19042903

  4. Beliefs in traditional Chinese medicine efficacy among Chinese Americans: implications for mental health service utilization.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lawrence H; Corsini-Munt, Serena; Link, Bruce G; Phelan, Jo C

    2009-03-01

    We examined how community attitudes towards traditional Chinese conceptions of health and Western dichotomization of illness might affect perceptions of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) efficacy in order to identify factors underlying psychiatric service underutilization among Chinese-Americans. We administered an experimental vignette to assess perceived illness, severity, and beliefs of TCM efficacy for physical and psychiatric disorders among 90 Chinese-Americans ascertained through a national telephone survey. Perceived illness severity was unrelated to assessment of TCM effectiveness. However, psychiatric conditions tended to be viewed as distinct from physical disorders, and TCM use was endorsed as less effective for psychiatric illnesses when compared with physical illnesses. Furthermore, differences in perceived TCM efficacy appeared to be magnified among US-born respondents, with US-born respondents endorsing lower efficacy for psychiatric disorders than foreign-born respondents. These findings suggest that TCM use for psychiatric disorders may decrease with Westernization, but might delay access to psychiatric services among first-generation immigrants. PMID:19282690

  5. Using the Health Belief Model to Examine the Link between HPV Knowledge and Self-Efficacy for Preventive Behaviors of Male Students at a Two-Year College in New York City.

    PubMed

    Grace-Leitch, Lisa; Shneyderman, Yuliya

    2016-01-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common and easily transmitted sexually transmitted infections in the United States; infected individuals are frequently unaware that they are carriers, and transmission occurs unknowingly. Infection can lead to genital warts or cervical, penile, anal, or oral cancer. The object of this study was to examine the link between HPV knowledge and self-efficacy for preventive behaviors among college students as well as HPV vaccine acceptability. A cross-sectional survey of students at a two-year college in New York City was conducted electronically. The current study focuses on male students (N = 120). We found that HPV knowledge was low among this sample, but that self-efficacy and vaccine acceptability were high. Self-efficacy and perceived susceptibility to HPV predicted vaccine acceptability, but not condom use. The challenge for health care practitioners and health educators is to provide focused, comprehensive education about HPV without causing undue fear. PMID:27337625

  6. Health promotion: the impact of beliefs of health benefits, social relations and enjoyment on exercise continuation.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, G; Wikman, J M; Jensen, C J; Schmidt, J F; Gliemann, L; Andersen, T R

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore how and why participants in structured exercise intervention programs continue or stop exercising after the program is finished. We conducted four focus group interviews with four groups of middle-aged and elderly men (total n = 28) who had participated in exercise interventions involving playing either a team sport (football) or a more individually focused activity (spinning and crossfit). Our results show that different social, organizational and material structures inherent in the different activities shape the subjects' enjoyment of exercise participation, as well as their intention and ability to continue being active. In conclusion, team sport activities seem to be intrinsically motivating to the participants through positive social interaction and play. They are therefore more likely to result in exercise continuation than activities that rely primarily on extrinsic motivation such as the expectation of improved health and well-being. PMID:24944133

  7. The impact of migration on health beliefs and behaviours: the case of Ethiopian refugees in the UK.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Rena; Lay, Maggie; Lees, Shelley; Gebrehiwot, Alem

    2003-10-01

    The Research Centre for Transcultural Studies in Health, Middlesex University and the Ethiopian Community Centre in the UK conducted a study to explore the migration experiences of Ethiopian refugees in the UK and the impact of this on their health beliefs and behaviours. Data was collected via: i) semi-structured interviews were conducted with Ethiopians refugees and asylum seekers and Ethiopian professionals providing services for Ethiopian refugees; ii) a semi-structured questionnaire; iii) a documentary analysis of newspaper articles concerning refugees; and iv) an ethnohistory of Ethiopia. The findings revealed that Ethiopian refugees place a stronger emphasis on externalised factors influencing health (such as happiness and good social relations) than they did in Ethiopia. The study found that participants fled Ethiopia due to oppression, violence, fear and poverty; and once in the UK experience poor housing, unemployment, racism and isolation, all of which impact on their health status. Whilst it is difficult to ascertain how these factors affect health beliefs it is probable that these negative experiences and the consequent unhappiness they have caused have highlighted to them the relationship between health and subjective well-being, something that people who have not suffered such life traumas may take for granted. In the UK Ethiopian refugees are more likely to seek Western medicine than they did in Ethiopia, which reflects both acculturation and differences in health resources. This study highlights that Ethiopian refugees, require holistic health care that addresses all their needs--physical, mental, spiritual, environmental and social-cultural. Nurses should understand that many refugees have had traumatic experiences and continue to live in desperate circumstances. Thus nurses should be aware of the experiences, needs and beliefs of refugees and address their own cultural competence. PMID:14649526

  8. Myths, beliefs and perceptions about mental disorders and health-seeking behavior in Delhi, India

    PubMed Central

    Kishore, Jugal; Gupta, Avni; Jiloha, Ram Chander; Bantman, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the myths, beliefs and perceptions about mental disorders and health-seeking behavior in general population and medical professionals of India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with a sample of 436 subjects (360 subjects from urban and rural communities of Delhi and 76 medical professionals working in different organizations in Delhi). A pre-tested questionnaire consisting items on perceptions, myths, and beliefs about causes, treatment, and health-seeking behavior for mental disorders was used. The collected data were statistically analyzed using computer software package Epi-info. Appropriate tests of significance were applied to detect any significant association. Results: The mental disorders were thought to be because of loss of semen or vaginal secretion (33.9% rural, 8.6% urban, 1.3% professionals), less sexual desire (23.7% rural, 18% urban), excessive masturbation (15.3% rural, 9.8% urban), God's punishment for their past sins (39.6% rural, 20.7% urban, 5.2% professionals), and polluted air (51.5% rural, 11.5% urban, 5.2% professionals). More people (37.7%) living in joint families than in nuclear families (26.5%) believed that sadness and unhappiness cause mental disorders. 34.8% of the rural subjects and 18% of the urban subjects believed that children do not get mental disorders, which means they have conception of adult-oriented mental disorders. 40.2% in rural areas, 33.3% in urban areas, and 7.9% professionals believed that mental illnesses are untreatable. Many believed that psychiatrists are eccentric (46.1% rural, 8.4% urban, 7.9% professionals), tend to know nothing, and do nothing (21.5% rural, 13.7% urban, 3.9% professionals), while 74.4% of rural subjects, 37.1% of urban subjects, and 17.6% professionals did not know that psychiatry is a branch of medicine. More people in rural areas than in urban area thought that keeping fasting or a faith healer can cure them from mental illnesses, whereas

  9. Intentions of Chiropractic Interns Regarding use of Health Promotion in Practice: Applying Theory of Reasoned Action to Identify Attitudes, Beliefs, and Influencing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Marion W.; Ndetan, Harrison; Williams, Ronald D.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The theory of reasoned action is a health behavioral theory that has been used to predict personal health behaviors and intentions as well as those of providers delivering health care. The purpose of this study was to determine interns' future practices regarding the use of health promotion using this model to develop survey questions and to determine attitudes and perceived influences on their prospective behaviors in general, toward the use of health promotion once in practice. Methods: Across the course of one year, all graduating interns at a chiropractic college were queried with a 20 question survey designed using the theory of reasoned action. Frequencies and inferential statistics were performed including prediction modeling using logistic regression. Results: A majority (>85%) of interns indicated they would use health promotion in practice. Differences were noted based on perceived skill levels, perception of educational emphasis, various normative beliefs, and gender. Conclusion: Most interns will use some form of health promotion in practice. Normative influences including those seen as key influencers are as powerful a predictor as perceived education or skill levels on future practice of health promotion. PMID:19390679

  10. Race/Ethnicity and Primary Language: Health Beliefs about Colorectal Cancer Screening in a Diverse, Low-Income Population

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Alison Tytell; Ko, Linda K.; Janz, Nancy; Gupta, Shivani; Inadomi, John

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is an important cause of cancer death in adults in the U.S.; screening is effective but underutilized, particularly among minorities. The purpose of this paper was to explore whether health belief model (HBM) constructs pertaining to CRC screening differ by race/ethnicity and primary language. Data were from the baseline surveys of 933 participants (93.5%) in a randomized trial promoting CRC screening in San Francisco. Composite scores for each construct were created from multiple items, dichotomized for analysis, and analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Most participants were Asian (29.7%) or Hispanic (34.3%), and many were non-English speakers. Non-English speaking Hispanics (p<.001) and English-speaking Asians (p=.002) reported lower perceived susceptibility than non-Hispanic Whites (NHW). Non-English speaking Hispanics reported more and non-English speaking Asians fewer perceived barriers (psychological and structural) than NHW. Understanding how different populations think about CRC screening may be critical in promoting screening in diverse populations. PMID:26320917

  11. Enhancing Student Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs about Models and Conceptual Understanding through a Model-Based Inquiry Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soulios, Ioannis; Psillos, Dimitris

    2016-01-01

    In this study we present the structure and implementation of a model-based inquiry teaching-learning sequence (TLS) integrating expressive, experimental and exploratory modelling pedagogies in a cyclic manner, with the aim of enhancing primary education student teachers' epistemological beliefs about the aspects, nature, purpose and change of…

  12. The influence of beliefs about health and illness on foot care in ugandan persons with diabetic foot ulcers.

    PubMed

    Hjelm, Katarina; Beebwa, Esther

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is becoming pandemic, particularly affecting Sub-Saharan Africa, and the prevalence of complications is increasing. Diabetic foot disorders are a major source of morbidity and disability. Delay in the health care process due to patients' beliefs may have deleterious consequences for limb and life in persons with diabetic foot ulcers. No previous studies of beliefs about health and illness in persons with diabetic foot ulcers living in Africa have been found. The aim of the study was to explore beliefs about health and illness among Ugandans with diabetic foot ulcers that might affect self-care and care seeking behaviour. In an explorative study with consecutive sample semi-structured interviews were held with 14 Ugandan men and women, aged 40-79, with diabetic foot ulcer. Knowledge was limited about causes, management and prevention of diabetic foot ulcers. Foot ulcers were often detected as painful sores, perceived to heal or improve, and led to stress and social isolation due to smell and reduced mobility. Most lacked awareness of the importance of complete daily foot care and seldom practised self-care. Health was described as absence of disease and pain. Many feared future health and related it to contact with nurses in the professional sector from whom they sought information, blood tests and wound dressings and desired better organised diabetes clinics offering health education and more opening hours. Many have an underutilised potential for self-care and need education urgently, delivered in well-organised diabetes clinics working to raise awareness of the threat and prevent foot ulcers. PMID:24039644

  13. A Scoping Review of Maternal and Child Health Clinicians Attitudes, Beliefs, Practice, Training and Perceived Self-Competence in Environmental Health

    PubMed Central

    Massaquoi, Lamin Daddy; Edwards, Nancy Christine

    2015-01-01

    Clinicians regularly assess, diagnose and manage illnesses which are directly or indirectly linked to environmental exposures. Yet, various studies have identified gaps in environmental assessment in routine clinical practice. This review assessed clinicians’ environmental health practices, attitudes and beliefs, and competencies and training. Relevant articles were sought using a systematic search strategy using five databases, grey literature and a hand search. Search strategies and protocols were developed using tailored mesh terms and keywords. 43 out of 11,291 articles were eligible for inclusion. Clinicians’ attitudes and beliefs towards environmental health and routine clinical practice were generally positive, with most clinicians believing that environmental hazards affect human health. However, with the exception of tobacco smoke exposure, environmental health assessment was infrequently part of routine clinical practice. Clinicians’ self-competence in environmental assessment was reported to be inadequate. Major challenges were the time required to complete an assessment, inadequate training and concerns about negative patients’ responses. Clinicians have strong positive attitudes and beliefs about the importance of environmental health assessments. However, more concerted and robust strategies will be needed to support clinicians in assuming their assessment and counselling roles related to a wider range of environmental hazards. PMID:26690461

  14. Enhancing student teachers' epistemological beliefs about models and conceptual understanding through a model-based inquiry process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soulios, Ioannis; Psillos, Dimitris

    2016-05-01

    In this study we present the structure and implementation of a model-based inquiry teaching-learning sequence (TLS) integrating expressive, experimental and exploratory modelling pedagogies in a cyclic manner, with the aim of enhancing primary education student teachers' epistemological beliefs about the aspects, nature, purpose and change of models as well as their conceptual understanding of light phenomena related to properties of optical fibres. The subjects were 16 prospective primary teachers involved in modelling activities, employing both hands-on experiments and computer modelling activities, based on the application of the ray model. Student teachers were tested before and after the implementation of the TLS by semi-structured interviews and a written questionnaire. Results show that before the TLS most students adopted epistemologically naïve realistic beliefs about models, whereas after the TLS there was an overall significant transition from naïve to more sophisticated epistemological beliefs, as well as significant improvements in their conceptual knowledge about light phenomena. Nevertheless, the relation between epistemological beliefs and conceptual understanding seems to be aspect-dependent, so our evidence suggests that more educational effort is required in order to establish a coherent relationship between them.

  15. A Belief-Based Model of Air Traffic Controllers Performing Separation Assurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landry, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    A model of an air traffic controller performing a separation assurance task was produced. The model was designed to be simple to use and deploy in a simulator, but still provide realistic behavior. The model is based upon an evaluation of the safety function of the controller for separation assurance, and utilizes fast and frugal heuristics and belief networks to establish a knowledge set for the controller model. Based on this knowledge set, the controller acts to keep aircraft separated. Validation results are provided to demonstrate the model s performance.

  16. Language Beliefs and the Polynomic Model for Corsican

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwood, Robert

    2011-01-01

    As part of the attempts to revitalise Corsican, a regional language of France, and to reverse the language shift to French, language activists and academics have sought to apply the model of a polynomic language to what is considered as one language, but what is, in fact, a number of different Corsicans, each with varying levels of mutual…

  17. Beliefs Held by Associate Degree Nursing Students about Role Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellinger, Kathleen; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Reports on a study of the professional socialization of associate degree nursing (ADN) students. Reviews previous research on the process of nursing socialization. Presents study findings based on responses from 1,877 nursing students in 20 ADN programs, focusing on students' characteristics and ideal and actual role models. (DMM)

  18. A Bayesian belief network approach for assessing uncertainty in conceptual site models at contaminated sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, Nanna I.; Binning, Philip J.; McKnight, Ursula S.; Tuxen, Nina; Bjerg, Poul L.; Troldborg, Mads

    2016-05-01

    A key component in risk assessment of contaminated sites is in the formulation of a conceptual site model (CSM). A CSM is a simplified representation of reality and forms the basis for the mathematical modeling of contaminant fate and transport at the site. The CSM should therefore identify the most important site-specific features and processes that may affect the contaminant transport behavior at the site. However, the development of a CSM will always be associated with uncertainties due to limited data and lack of understanding of the site conditions. CSM uncertainty is often found to be a major source of model error and it should therefore be accounted for when evaluating uncertainties in risk assessments. We present a Bayesian belief network (BBN) approach for constructing CSMs and assessing their uncertainty at contaminated sites. BBNs are graphical probabilistic models that are effective for integrating quantitative and qualitative information, and thus can strengthen decisions when empirical data are lacking. The proposed BBN approach facilitates a systematic construction of multiple CSMs, and then determines the belief in each CSM using a variety of data types and/or expert opinion at different knowledge levels. The developed BBNs combine data from desktop studies and initial site investigations with expert opinion to assess which of the CSMs are more likely to reflect the actual site conditions. The method is demonstrated on a Danish field site, contaminated with chlorinated ethenes. Four different CSMs are developed by combining two contaminant source zone interpretations (presence or absence of a separate phase contamination) and two geological interpretations (fractured or unfractured clay till). The beliefs in each of the CSMs are assessed sequentially based on data from three investigation stages (a screening investigation, a more detailed investigation, and an expert consultation) to demonstrate that the belief can be updated as more information

  19. A Bayesian belief network approach for assessing uncertainty in conceptual site models at contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Nanna I; Binning, Philip J; McKnight, Ursula S; Tuxen, Nina; Bjerg, Poul L; Troldborg, Mads

    2016-05-01

    A key component in risk assessment of contaminated sites is in the formulation of a conceptual site model (CSM). A CSM is a simplified representation of reality and forms the basis for the mathematical modeling of contaminant fate and transport at the site. The CSM should therefore identify the most important site-specific features and processes that may affect the contaminant transport behavior at the site. However, the development of a CSM will always be associated with uncertainties due to limited data and lack of understanding of the site conditions. CSM uncertainty is often found to be a major source of model error and it should therefore be accounted for when evaluating uncertainties in risk assessments. We present a Bayesian belief network (BBN) approach for constructing CSMs and assessing their uncertainty at contaminated sites. BBNs are graphical probabilistic models that are effective for integrating quantitative and qualitative information, and thus can strengthen decisions when empirical data are lacking. The proposed BBN approach facilitates a systematic construction of multiple CSMs, and then determines the belief in each CSM using a variety of data types and/or expert opinion at different knowledge levels. The developed BBNs combine data from desktop studies and initial site investigations with expert opinion to assess which of the CSMs are more likely to reflect the actual site conditions. The method is demonstrated on a Danish field site, contaminated with chlorinated ethenes. Four different CSMs are developed by combining two contaminant source zone interpretations (presence or absence of a separate phase contamination) and two geological interpretations (fractured or unfractured clay till). The beliefs in each of the CSMs are assessed sequentially based on data from three investigation stages (a screening investigation, a more detailed investigation, and an expert consultation) to demonstrate that the belief can be updated as more information

  20. Development of a Health Information Technology Acceptance Model Using Consumers’ Health Behavior Intention

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background For effective health promotion using health information technology (HIT), it is mandatory that health consumers have the behavioral intention to measure, store, and manage their own health data. Understanding health consumers’ intention and behavior is needed to develop and implement effective and efficient strategies. Objective To develop and verify the extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) in health care by describing health consumers’ behavioral intention of using HIT. Methods This study used a cross-sectional descriptive correlational design. We extended TAM by adding more antecedents and mediating variables to enhance the model’s explanatory power and to make it more applicable to health consumers’ behavioral intention. Additional antecedents and mediating variables were added to the hypothetical model, based on their theoretical relevance, from the Health Belief Model and theory of planned behavior, along with the TAM. We undertook structural equation analysis to examine the specific nature of the relationship involved in understanding consumers’ use of HIT. Study participants were 728 members recruited from three Internet health portals in Korea. Data were collected by a Web-based survey using a structured self-administered questionnaire. Results The overall fitness indices for the model developed in this study indicated an acceptable fit of the model. All path coefficients were statistically significant. This study showed that perceived threat, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use significantly affected health consumers’ attitude and behavioral intention. Health consumers’ health status, health belief and concerns, subjective norm, HIT characteristics, and HIT self-efficacy had a strong indirect impact on attitude and behavioral intention through the mediators of perceived threat, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use. Conclusions An extended TAM in the HIT arena was found to be valid to describe health

  1. Belief-propagation algorithm and the Ising model on networks with arbitrary distributions of motifs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, S.; Goltsev, A. V.; Dorogovtsev, S. N.; Mendes, J. F. F.

    2011-10-01

    We generalize the belief-propagation algorithm to sparse random networks with arbitrary distributions of motifs (triangles, loops, etc.). Each vertex in these networks belongs to a given set of motifs (generalization of the configuration model). These networks can be treated as sparse uncorrelated hypergraphs in which hyperedges represent motifs. Here a hypergraph is a generalization of a graph, where a hyperedge can connect any number of vertices. These uncorrelated hypergraphs are treelike (hypertrees), which crucially simplifies the problem and allows us to apply the belief-propagation algorithm to these loopy networks with arbitrary motifs. As natural examples, we consider motifs in the form of finite loops and cliques. We apply the belief-propagation algorithm to the ferromagnetic Ising model with pairwise interactions on the resulting random networks and obtain an exact solution of this model. We find an exact critical temperature of the ferromagnetic phase transition and demonstrate that with increasing the clustering coefficient and the loop size, the critical temperature increases compared to ordinary treelike complex networks. However, weak clustering does not change the critical behavior qualitatively. Our solution also gives the birth point of the giant connected component in these loopy networks.

  2. Diabetes Beliefs among Low-Income, White Residents of a Rural North Carolina Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Skelly, Anne H.; Gesler, Wilbert M.; Dougherty, Molly C.

    2005-01-01

    Context: Every social group shares beliefs about health and illness. Knowledge and understanding of these health beliefs are essential for education programs to address health promotion and illness prevention. Purpose: This analysis describes the diabetes Explanatory Models of Illness (EMs) of low-income, rural, white Southerners who have not been…

  3. Association between Psychological Flexibility and Health Beliefs in the Uptake of Influenza Vaccination among People with Chronic Respiratory Diseases in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Kin Wai; Mak, Yim Wah

    2016-01-01

    It is common for elderly people and those with such chronic disorders as respiratory diseases to suffer severe complications from influenza, a viral infection. The voluntary uptake of vaccination is vital to the effectiveness of influenza prevention efforts. The Health Belief Model (HBM) is the most commonly used framework in the field of vaccination behavior to explain the decision that people make to accept or refuse vaccination. In addition, psychological flexibility is considered helpful in causing people to be open to adopting new practices that are consistent with their values. This study examined the role of psychological flexibility and health beliefs in predicting the uptake of influenza vaccination among people in Hong Kong. Eligible participants were Hong Kong permanent residents aged 18 years or above with a history of chronic respiratory diseases (CRD). A convenience sample of 255 patients was recruited to participate in a cross-sectional survey in which HBM components and factors of psychological flexibility were assessed. The following variables were found to be significant predictors of vaccination: age, smoking status, comorbidity, previous hospitalization, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, and psychological flexibility. Enhancing psychological flexibility might be a potential new direction for motivating people to accept influenza vaccination. PMID:26805870

  4. Mutually Dependent Health Beliefs Associated with Breast Self-Examination in British Female University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umeh, Kanayo; Jones, Leonnie

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Whereas research suggests young women's beliefs about breast cancer (susceptibility/severity) and its early detection (barriers/benefits) reliably distinguish breast self-examiners from nonexaminers, this study assessed whether these impressions are interreliant, especially in the context of familial risk. Participants: The sample…

  5. Health Beliefs about Osteoporosis and Osteoporosis Screening in Older Women and Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nayak, Smita; Roberts, Mark S.; Chang, Chung-Chou H.; Greenspan, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine older adults' beliefs about osteoporosis and osteoporosis screening to identify barriers to screening. Design: Cross-sectional mailed survey. Setting: Western Pennsylvania. Methods: Surveys were mailed to 1,830 women and men aged 60 years and older. The survey assessed socio-demographic characteristics, osteoporosis and…

  6. The Effect of Religious Belief on the Mental Health Status and Suicide Probability of Women Exposed to Violence.

    PubMed

    Güngörmüş, Zeynep; Tanrıverdi, Derya; Gündoğan, Tuğba

    2015-10-01

    It is known that violence against women is an important health problem both in the world and in Turkey (World Health Organization 2005; General Directorate on the Status of Women 2008). Religion is an important factor in preventing suicide and mental disorders by increasing one's ability to cope with events, channeling his/her perspective on life and the future toward a more positive path satisfying people about topics such as the need to be safe, the need for meaning and the reason for creation (Altuntop 2005). Hence, the objective of our study was to determine the effects of religious belief on the mental health status and suicide probabilities of women exposed to violence in Turkey. The study used a descriptive design. The study sample consisted of 135 women who have suffered violence who were consecutively admitted to the Department of Emergency of a State Hospital due to exposed to violence. They entered the study based on their acceptance to the questionnaire. The belief levels of women are based on their own statements and they are all Muslims. The data were collected using a questionnaire form, the Suicide Probability Scale and Brief Symptom Inventory. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 18.0. Statistical analyses were used percentage calculation, chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis test. In conclusion, a negative relationship was determined between the religious belief levels of women exposed to violence in Turkey and their moods and suicide probabilities. Hence, nurses who can stay alone with women for long periods of time can provide advancement in the determination and prevention of suicides decreasing depression via specific methods and overcoming hopelessness. PMID:24833159

  7. Community Knowledge, Health Beliefs, Practices and Experiences Related to Dengue Fever and Its Association with IgG Seropositivity

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Li Ping; AbuBakar, Sazaly; Chinna, Karuthan

    2014-01-01

    Background Demographic, economic and behavioural factors are central features underpinning the successful management and biological control of dengue. This study aimed to examine these factors and their association with the seroprevalence of this disease. Methodology We conducted a cross-sectional telephone survey of households in a 3 km radius of the schools where we had conducted serological tests on the student population in a previous study. Households were surveyed about their socio-demographics, knowledge, practices, and Health Belief Model (HBM) constructs. The results were then associated with the prevalence rate of dengue in the community, as marked by IgG seropositivity of the students who attended school there. Results A total of 1,400 complete responses were obtained. The community's IgG seropositivity was significantly positively associated with high household monthly income, high-rise residential building type, high surrounding vegetation density, rural locality, high perceived severity and susceptibility, perceived barriers to prevention, knowing that a neighbour has dengue, frequent fogging and a higher level of knowledge about dengue. In the multivariate analyses, three major correlates of the presence of IgG seropositivity in the community: (1) high-rise residential apartment house type or condominium buildings; (2) the main construct of the HBM, perceived severity and susceptibility; and (3) the additional constructs of the HBM, lack of preventive measures from the community level and having a neighbour with dengue as a cue to action. Weak correlations were found between self-practices to prevent dengue and the level of dengue seropositivity in the community, and between HBM constructs and knowledge (r = 0.09). Conclusions The residential environment factor and the constructs of the HBM are useful and important elements in developing interventions to prevent and control dengue. The study also sheds light on the importance of the need for

  8. Do Student Evaluations of University Reflect Inaccurate Beliefs or Actual Experience? A Relative Rank Model

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Gordon D A; Wood, Alex M; Ogden, Ruth S; Maltby, John

    2015-01-01

    It was shown that student satisfaction ratings are influenced by context in ways that have important theoretical and practical implications. Using questions from the UK's National Student Survey, the study examined whether and how students' expressed satisfaction with issues such as feedback promptness and instructor enthusiasm depends on the context of comparison (such as possibly inaccurate beliefs about the feedback promptness or enthusiasm experienced at other universities) that is evoked. Experiment 1 found strong effects of experimentally provided comparison context—for example, satisfaction with a given feedback time depended on the time's relative position within a context. Experiment 2 used a novel distribution-elicitation methodology to determine the prior beliefs of individual students about what happens in universities other than their own. It found that these beliefs vary widely and that students' satisfaction was predicted by how they believed their experience ranked within the distribution of others' experiences. A third study found that relative judgement principles also predicted students' intention to complain. An extended model was developed to show that purely rank-based principles of judgement can account for findings previously attributed to range effects. It was concluded that satisfaction ratings and quality of provision are different quantities, particularly when the implicit context of comparison includes beliefs about provision at other universities. Quality and satisfaction should be assessed separately, with objective measures (such as actual times to feedback), rather than subjective ratings (such as satisfaction with feedback promptness), being used to measure quality wherever practicable. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25620847

  9. High school students' scientific epistemological beliefs, self-efficacy in learning physics and attitudes toward physics: a structural equation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapucu, Serkan; Bahçivan, Eralp

    2015-05-01

    Background: There are some theoretical evidences that explain the relationships between core beliefs (i.e., epistemological beliefs) and peripheral beliefs (self-efficacy in learning) in the literature. The close relationships of such type of beliefs with attitudes are also discussed by some researchers. Constructing a model that investigates these relationships by considering theoretical and empirical evidences can empower researchers to discuss these relationships more comprehensively. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships among Turkish high school students' scientific epistemological beliefs, self-efficacy in learning physics and their attitudes toward physics. Sample: A total of 632 high school students participated in this study; however, 269 female and 229 male (a total of 498) high school students' data were used. Design and methods: Three distinct instruments that measure scientific epistemological beliefs, self-efficacy in learning physics and attitudes toward physics were combined into a unique questionnaire form and it was distributed to high school students. To explore the relationships among these variables, structural equation modeling was used. Results: The results showed that scientific epistemological belief dimensions uncovered by the nature of knowing (source and justification) significantly and positively related to both self-efficacy in learning physics and attitudes toward other important physics dimensions. Additionally, self-efficacy in learning physics significantly and positively predicted attitudes toward multiple physics dimensions (importance, comprehension and requirement). However, epistemological belief dimensions related to the nature of knowledge (certainty and development) did not have significant impact on self-efficacy in learning physics or attitudes toward physics. Conclusions: This study concludes that there are positive and significant relationships among Turkish high school students' scientific

  10. Health Educators: Role Modeling and Smoking Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Andrew J. J.; Galli, Nicholas

    1985-01-01

    Examined cigarette smoking among health educators, their views about the effects of this behavior upon their audiences and beliefs about smoking in light of their professional role. Smokers and nonsmokers were significantly less included than former smokers to feel the role of health education is to convince people not to smoke. (Author/ABL)

  11. Portuguese women's knowledge and health beliefs about cervical cancer and its screening.

    PubMed

    Laranjeira, Carlos António

    2013-01-01

    Currently little is known about Portuguese women's knowledge and beliefs about cervical cancer screening, so this information is crucial to the success of cervical cancer screening programs. The intention of this study was to describe the knowledge and beliefs of women in Portugal. In-depth, face-to-face, individual interviews were conducted. Twenty-five females were recruited, the age range was 30 to 60. The results showed a lack of knowledge on cervical cancer and the Pap smear test. From a public policy point of view, it may be important to further explore the extent to which perceived barriers to screening will affect screening uptake when a national screening program is implemented. PMID:23461350

  12. Military Exceptionalism or Tobacco Exceptionalism: How Civilian Health Leaders' Beliefs May Impede Military Tobacco Control Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Malone, Ruth E.

    2013-01-01

    Smoking impairs the readiness and performance of military personnel, yet congressional opposition has thwarted military tobacco control initiatives. Involvement of civilian organizations might alter this political dynamic. We interviewed 13 leaders of national civilian public health and tobacco control organizations to explore their perspectives on military tobacco control, inductively analyzing data for themes. Leaders believed that military tobacco use was problematic but lacked specific knowledge. Most supported smoke-free policies and prohibiting smoking in uniform; however, they opposed banning tobacco use, arguing that it would violate smokers’ rights. Most leaders inappropriately applied civilian models of policy development to the military context. A tobacco-free military is unlikely to be achieved without military–civilian partnerships that include educating civilian health leaders about military policy development and implementation. PMID:23409898

  13. An exploration of health beliefs and attitudes of smokers with vascular disease who participate in or decline a smoking cessation program.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Kim E; Aish, Arlene

    2002-09-01

    The descriptive cross-sectional aspect of this study compared a group of smokers with peripheral arterial disease who chose to participate in a smoking intervention with a group of smokers with peripheral arterial disease who declined to participate. The longitudinal aspect of this study used Ajzen and Fishbein's(1) Theory of Reasoned Action, Keeney's(2) Expected Utility Decision Theory, and Prochaska and DiClemente's(3) Transtheoretical Model of Change to describe the influence of this smoking cessation program on the beliefs and attitudes about smoking in group 1. Smokers completed a smoking beliefs questionnaire with vascular disease at baseline and after 13 weeks of smoking cessation intervention. Smokers who did not want to participate in the smoking cessation program also completed this questionnaire for comparison. Statistically significant differences were found to differentiate people who enrolled in the smoking cessation program from those who did not. Subjects in group 2 smoked less per day, were less educated, were less often diagnosed as having peripheral arterial disease, were found to be more in the precontemplation stage of change in smoking cessation, cared more about what their physician and family thought they should do, and perceived themselves to be at less risk for developing more severe circulatory problems if they did not quit smoking. After 13 weeks, participants in both groups 1 and 2 were found to smoke significantly less per day. No support was found for the expectation that the smoking intervention would influence stage of change in smoking behavior or attitudes and beliefs about the risks of smoking to the participants' health after 13 weeks. PMID:12370691

  14. Health beliefs and practices of young people in a multicultural community: Findings from a child-centered ethnography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeve, Suzanne

    2009-12-01

    This dissertation presents an analysis of the health-related beliefs and behaviors of thirteen fourth, fifth, and sixth grade children, as evidenced through photo self-documentation, semistructured interview responses, and more than a year of ethnographic observations in home, school, and other settings. The ethnic, language, and socioeconomic backgrounds of the children and their families vary widely. I focus on three research questions: (1) How do children and families come to understand personal health, including related nutritional topics, in a multicultural community? (2) What are some of the main developmental influences on their learning---including its relation to their understanding of science and their life circumstances? (3) How do the understandings of children and families connect to health and nutritional behaviors? The analysis shows greater diversity in the meanings these young people assigned to the concepts "healthy" and "unhealthy" than has been acknowledged in significant segments of the existing literature. The findings also show that children draw extensively on experiences from formal schooling and their non-school everyday lives and practices in talking about health-related concepts. Case studies of two children detail the specific ways in which health-related learning takes shape in their home, school, and community environments. The dissertation concludes with implications of these findings for science education, such as increasing the amount and conceptual sophistication of content related to health in the science classroom, in accordance with a broader emphasis on making science teaching relevant to students' local and personal contexts.

  15. Health Care Professionals’ Beliefs About Using Wiki-Based Reminders to Promote Best Practices in Trauma Care

    PubMed Central

    Bilodeau, Andrea; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Aubin, Karine; Lavoie, André; Lapointe, Jean; Poitras, Julien; Croteau, Sylvain; Pham-Dinh, Martin; Légaré, France

    2012-01-01

    Background Wikis are knowledge translation tools that could help health professionals implement best practices in acute care. Little is known about the factors influencing professionals’ use of wikis. Objectives To identify and compare the beliefs of emergency physicians (EPs) and allied health professionals (AHPs) about using a wiki-based reminder that promotes evidence-based care for traumatic brain injuries. Methods Drawing on the theory of planned behavior, we conducted semistructured interviews to elicit EPs’ and AHPs’ beliefs about using a wiki-based reminder. Previous studies suggested a sample of 25 EPs and 25 AHPs. We purposefully selected participants from three trauma centers in Quebec, Canada, to obtain a representative sample. Using univariate analyses, we assessed whether our participants’ gender, age, and level of experience were similar to those of all eligible individuals. Participants viewed a video showing a clinician using a wiki-based reminder, and we interviewed participants about their behavioral, control, and normative beliefs—that is, what they saw as advantages, disadvantages, barriers, and facilitators to their use of a reminder, and how they felt important referents would perceive their use of a reminder. Two reviewers independently analyzed the content of the interview transcripts. We considered the 75% most frequently mentioned beliefs as salient. We retained some less frequently mentioned beliefs as well. Results Of 66 eligible EPs and 444 eligible AHPs, we invited 55 EPs and 39 AHPs to participate, and 25 EPs and 25 AHPs (15 nurses, 7 respiratory therapists, and 3 pharmacists) accepted. Participating AHPs had more experience than eligible AHPs (mean 14 vs 11 years; P = .04). We noted no other significant differences. Among EPs, the most frequently reported advantage of using a wiki-based reminder was that it refreshes the memory (n = 14); among AHPs, it was that it provides rapid access to protocols (n = 16). Only 2 EPs

  16. Models of health and disease.

    PubMed

    Tamm, M E

    1993-09-01

    This paper describes and analyses six models of health and disease. These are: religious, biomedical, psychosomatic, humanistic, existential and transpersonal. Of these six models, only one was unequivocally reductionist: the biomedical. The others were all holistic. The religious, humanistic and transpersonal models could be considered as health models, the biomedical, psychosomatic and existential models as disease or illness models. The different models were assumed to depict different, but related, ways of representing health and disease. It is probable that different groups in society, including the different groups in the health service--doctors, nurses and patients--look at health and illness from partly different models. This is considered to have significant implications for the health service. PMID:8217913

  17. Dynamic causal modelling of electrographic seizure activity using Bayesian belief updating.

    PubMed

    Cooray, Gerald K; Sengupta, Biswa; Douglas, Pamela K; Friston, Karl

    2016-01-15

    Seizure activity in EEG recordings can persist for hours with seizure dynamics changing rapidly over time and space. To characterise the spatiotemporal evolution of seizure activity, large data sets often need to be analysed. Dynamic causal modelling (DCM) can be used to estimate the synaptic drivers of cortical dynamics during a seizure; however, the requisite (Bayesian) inversion procedure is computationally expensive. In this note, we describe a straightforward procedure, within the DCM framework, that provides efficient inversion of seizure activity measured with non-invasive and invasive physiological recordings; namely, EEG/ECoG. We describe the theoretical background behind a Bayesian belief updating scheme for DCM. The scheme is tested on simulated and empirical seizure activity (recorded both invasively and non-invasively) and compared with standard Bayesian inversion. We show that the Bayesian belief updating scheme provides similar estimates of time-varying synaptic parameters, compared to standard schemes, indicating no significant qualitative change in accuracy. The difference in variance explained was small (less than 5%). The updating method was substantially more efficient, taking approximately 5-10min compared to approximately 1-2h. Moreover, the setup of the model under the updating scheme allows for a clear specification of how neuronal variables fluctuate over separable timescales. This method now allows us to investigate the effect of fast (neuronal) activity on slow fluctuations in (synaptic) parameters, paving a way forward to understand how seizure activity is generated. PMID:26220742

  18. Dynamic causal modelling of electrographic seizure activity using Bayesian belief updating

    PubMed Central

    Cooray, Gerald K.; Sengupta, Biswa; Douglas, Pamela K.; Friston, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Seizure activity in EEG recordings can persist for hours with seizure dynamics changing rapidly over time and space. To characterise the spatiotemporal evolution of seizure activity, large data sets often need to be analysed. Dynamic causal modelling (DCM) can be used to estimate the synaptic drivers of cortical dynamics during a seizure; however, the requisite (Bayesian) inversion procedure is computationally expensive. In this note, we describe a straightforward procedure, within the DCM framework, that provides efficient inversion of seizure activity measured with non-invasive and invasive physiological recordings; namely, EEG/ECoG. We describe the theoretical background behind a Bayesian belief updating scheme for DCM. The scheme is tested on simulated and empirical seizure activity (recorded both invasively and non-invasively) and compared with standard Bayesian inversion. We show that the Bayesian belief updating scheme provides similar estimates of time-varying synaptic parameters, compared to standard schemes, indicating no significant qualitative change in accuracy. The difference in variance explained was small (less than 5%). The updating method was substantially more efficient, taking approximately 5–10 min compared to approximately 1–2 h. Moreover, the setup of the model under the updating scheme allows for a clear specification of how neuronal variables fluctuate over separable timescales. This method now allows us to investigate the effect of fast (neuronal) activity on slow fluctuations in (synaptic) parameters, paving a way forward to understand how seizure activity is generated. PMID:26220742

  19. Parental Health Beliefs, Socio-demographics, and Healthcare Recommendations Influence Micronutrient Supplementation in Youth with Celiac Disease.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Michelle R; Alzaben, Abeer S; Enns, Simone E; Marcon, Margaret A; Turner, Justine; Mager, Diana R

    2016-03-01

    To identify parental influences affecting micronutrient supplementation in children and adolescents (2-18 years of age) with Celiac Disease (CD), a multi-method (survey, focus groups) study was conducted. A 35-item questionnaire consisting of open- and closed-ended questions was launched nationally via Canadian Celiac Association internet sites. Five focus groups were conducted using a semi-structured interview guide. The survey and semi-structured interview guide content was vetted for face and content validity. Thematic analyses were conducted on the focus group content and open-ended survey questions, and χ(2) and Fischer's exact analysis were performed on closed-ended survey data. Survey respondents were predominantly mothers (97%) of female children (80 F, 49 M) between the ages of 9-12 (31%) with CD, residing in western provinces (55%) with a combined family income ≥$100 000/year (63%). Seventy-seven percent of parental respondent's children or adolescents consumed micronutrient supplements, for 1-5 years (52%), 7 days a week (65%), as both multi-vitamin and single vitamin preparations (40%). Parental influences on child micronutrient use included health beliefs and knowledge, parental supplement use, supplement characteristics, age of child (above or below 13 years), household routines, and provincial residential status (P < 0.05). Parents relied on health professional recommendation (69%; MD, RD) and the internet (21%) as sources of information regarding child micronutrient supplementation. Parental health beliefs and knowledge, socio-demographic factors, and practitioner recommendation influence micronutrient supplement use in children and adolescents with CD. PMID:26567875

  20. Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices and Beliefs about Medical Male Circumcision (MMC) among a Sample of Health Care Providers in Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Dévieux, Jessy G.; Saxena, Anshul; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Jean-Gilles, Michèle; Madhivanan, Purnima; Gaston, Stéphanie; Rubens, Muni; Theodore, Harry; Deschamps, Marie-Marcelle; Koenig, Serena P.; Pape, Jean William

    2015-01-01

    Background Haiti has the highest number of people living with HIV infection in the Caribbean/Latin America region. Medical male circumcision (MMC) has been recommended to help prevent the spread of HIV. We sought to assess knowledge, attitudes, practices and beliefs about MMC among a sample of health care providers in Haiti. Methods A convenience sample of 153 health care providers at the GHESKIO Centers in Haiti responded to an exploratory survey that collected information on several topics relevant to health providers about MMC. Descriptive statistics were calculated for the responses and multivariable logistic regression was conducted to determine opinions of health care providers about the best age to perform MMC on males. Bayesian network analysis and sensitivity analysis were done to identify the minimum level of change required to increase the acceptability of performing MMC at age less than 1 year. Results The sample consisted of medical doctors (31.0%), nurses (49.0%), and other health care professionals (20.0%). Approximately 76% showed willingness to offer MMC services if they received training. Seventy-six percent believed that their male patients would accept circumcision, and 59% believed infancy was the best age for MMC. More than 90% of participants said that MMC would reduce STIs. Physicians and nurses who were willing to offer MMC if provided with adequate training were 2.5 (1.15–5.71) times as likely to choose the best age to perform MMC as less than one year. Finally, if the joint probability of choosing “the best age to perform MMC” as one year or older and having the mistaken belief that "MMC prevents HIV entirely" is reduced by 63% then the probability of finding that performing MMC at less than one year acceptable to health care providers is increased by 35%. Conclusion Participants demonstrated high levels of knowledge and positive attitudes towards MMC. Although this study suggests that circumcision is acceptable among certain health

  1. Probability of inconsistencies in theory revision. A multi-agent model for updating logically interconnected beliefs under bounded confidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenmackers, S.; Vanpoucke, D. E. P.; Douven, I.

    2012-01-01

    We present a model for studying communities of epistemically interacting agents who update their belief states by averaging (in a specified way) the belief states of other agents in the community. The agents in our model have a rich belief state, involving multiple independent issues which are interrelated in such a way that they form a theory of the world. Our main goal is to calculate the probability for an agent to end up in an inconsistent belief state due to updating (in the given way). To that end, an analytical expression is given and evaluated numerically, both exactly and using statistical sampling. It is shown that, under the assumptions of our model, an agent always has a probability of less than 2% of ending up in an inconsistent belief state. Moreover, this probability can be made arbitrarily small by increasing the number of independent issues the agents have to judge or by increasing the group size. A real-world situation to which this model applies is a group of experts participating in a Delphi-study.

  2. Urban Dwelling American Indian Adolescent Girls’ Beliefs Regarding Health Care Access and Trust

    PubMed Central

    Martyn, Kristy K.; Momper, Sandra L.

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous people, specifically American Indians (AI), have historically had a greater mistrust of the medical system compared to their White counterparts. The purpose of this paper is to explore the perceptions of AI adolescent girls living in an urban, Midwest area about health care providers, health care systems, and access to health care as related to sexual health care. Using grounded theory methodology, twenty 15-19 year old AI girls participated in talking circles and individual interviews. Two distinct themes emerged related to sexual health care: 1) AI adolescent girls trust their health care providers and the health care system; and 2) Access to health care is critical to practicing safe sex and obtaining information about healthy sexual practices. These findings are unique and may help health care providers and social workers providing care and support to the urban adolescent AI girl. PMID:25541597

  3. Evaluation of risk from acts of terrorism :the adversary/defender model using belief and fuzzy sets.

    SciTech Connect

    Darby, John L.

    2006-09-01

    Risk from an act of terrorism is a combination of the likelihood of an attack, the likelihood of success of the attack, and the consequences of the attack. The considerable epistemic uncertainty in each of these three factors can be addressed using the belief/plausibility measure of uncertainty from the Dempster/Shafer theory of evidence. The adversary determines the likelihood of the attack. The success of the attack and the consequences of the attack are determined by the security system and mitigation measures put in place by the defender. This report documents a process for evaluating risk of terrorist acts using an adversary/defender model with belief/plausibility as the measure of uncertainty. Also, the adversary model is a linguistic model that applies belief/plausibility to fuzzy sets used in an approximate reasoning rule base.

  4. Determining Liverpool Adolescents' Beliefs and Attitudes in Relation to Oral Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, E.; Ashcroft, A.; Platt, M. J.

    2006-01-01

    Poor oral health is an important public health issue. Adolescents represent a challenging group in terms of oral health because they have vulnerable permanent teeth erupting at a time when they are establishing their independence from parental influence. Preventing oral disease by attempting to influence the behaviours that impact adversely on…

  5. Attitudes and Beliefs of Nonspecialist and Specialist Trainee Health and Physical Education Teachers toward Obese Children: Evidence for "Anti-Fat" Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynagh, Marita; Cliff, Ken; Morgan, Philip J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess the beliefs and attitudes of preservice health and physical education (HPE) specialist and nonspecialist schoolteachers toward obese children. Methods: A total of 177 nonspecialist and 62 HPE specialist trainee teachers completed a series of pen-and-paper validated measures of attitudes and beliefs…

  6. Correlates of VA mental health treatment utilization among OEF/OIF/OND veterans: Resilience, stigma, social support, personality, and beliefs about treatment.

    PubMed

    DeViva, Jason C; Sheerin, Christina M; Southwick, Steven M; Roy, Alicia M; Pietrzak, Robert H; Harpaz-Rotem, Ilan

    2016-05-01

    Veterans of Operations Iraqi Freedom/Enduring Freedom/New Dawn (OEF/OIF/OND) tend not to engage in mental health care. Identifying modifiable factors related to mental health service utilization could facilitate development of interventions to increase utilization. The current study examined the relationship between mental health care utilization and measures of PTSD symptoms, resilience, stigma, beliefs about mental health care, perceived barriers to mental health care, posttraumatic growth and meaning, social support, and personality factors in a sample of 100 OEF/OIF/OND veterans with PTSD symptoms referred to VA mental health care. Participants who received psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy (PP) scored higher on measures of PTSD symptoms, stigma, and adaptive beliefs about mental health treatment, and lower on measures of resilience, postdeployment social support, emotional stability, and conscientiousness, than participants who received no treatment (NT). Participants who received psychotherapy only (PT) scored higher on a measure of PTSD symptoms than NT participants. PT participants scored higher on an emotional stability measure and lower on measures of PTSD symptoms and stigma than PP participants. Multinomial logistic regression including all variables significantly related to treatment utilization indicated that PTSD symptoms and adaptive beliefs about psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy were higher in the PT and PP groups than in the NT group, and concerns about discrimination were higher in the PP group than the NT group. Interventions targeting beliefs about mental health care could increase mental health treatment utilization among OEF/OIF/OND veterans. Concerns about stigma may affect the utilization process differently at different decision points. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26237497

  7. Curanderismo: Demystifying the Health Beliefs and Practices of Elderly Mexican Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applewhite, Steven Lozano

    1995-01-01

    Elderly Mexican Americans (n=25) participated in ethnographic interviews about folk healing and its influence on health care behaviors. Participants relied on modern medicine to treat serious injuries but still considered folk healing a viable alternative when modern health care was unsatisfactory or ineffective. (JBJ)

  8. University Health Center Providers' Beliefs about Discussing and Recommending Sexual Health Prevention to Women College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jozkowski, Kristen N.; Geshnizjani, Alireza; Middlestadt, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual health concerns such as sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancy remain substantial health problems faced by young adults, especially college women. University healthcare providers may be instrumental in increasing female patients' involvement in preventative sexual health behaviors, however little research has examined…

  9. The influence of health literacy on colorectal cancer screening knowledge, beliefs and behavior.

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Neeraja B.; Dwyer, Kathleen A.; Mulvaney, Shelagh A.; Dietrich, Mary S.; Rothman, Russell L.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if health literacy is associated with knowledge of colorectal cancer (CRC) and CRC screening tests, with perceived benefits and barriers to CRC screening, with perceived risk of CRC, with reported self-efficacy for completing CRC screening and with receipt of CRC tests. METHODS: A convenience sample of 99 subjects completed a health literacy assessment, the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM) and a structured interview. RESULTS: Limited or inadequate health literacy was significantly associated with less knowledge about CRC and CRC screening and with more reported barriers to completing fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) and colonoscopy in multivariate analysis. Health literacy was not associated with perceived benefits or reported self-efficacy for completing FOBT or colonoscopy, with perceived risk of developing CRC or with completing CRC tests. However, our small sample size limited our power to detect differences. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with limited health literacy have less knowledge about CRC and CRC screening and report more barriers to completing FOBT and colonoscopy. Interventions to improve CRC screening should consider the health literacy of patients, especially when addressing barriers to screening. Future studies are needed to better define the role of health literacy in CRC screening. PMID:17987913

  10. Understanding infant feeding beliefs, practices and preferred nutrition education and health provider approaches: an exploratory study with Somali mothers in the USA.

    PubMed

    Steinman, Lesley; Doescher, Mark; Keppel, Gina A; Pak-Gorstein, Suzinne; Graham, Elinor; Haq, Aliya; Johnson, Donna B; Spicer, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore Somali mothers' beliefs and practices around infant feeding and education, towards developing a culturally informed infant nutrition curriculum for health providers. Four focus groups were conducted to explore: (1) beliefs about infant feeding, hunger and ideal weight; (2) feeding practices; (3) nutrition education approaches; and (4) provider/mother interactions. Thirty-seven Somali mother participants identified the following themes within these topics: (1) strategies for assessing hunger, satiety and when to feed; shared beliefs that plump babies are healthy, leading to worry about infant weight; (2) context of breast milk adequacy, difficulties breastfeeding and environmental and cultural barriers to breastfeeding, leading to nearly universal early supplementation with formula; (3) preferred education approaches include provider visits with interpreters, Somali language educational materials and advice from older, experienced family members; and (4) desired health provider skills include: listening, explaining, empathy, addressing specific concerns, repeating important information, offering preventive advice and sufficient visit time. This study presents knowledge about Somali beliefs and practices that can directly guide discussions with these families. Given that these infants appear on a trajectory towards obesity, influencing infant feeding practices in the Somali community is a good upstream approach to preventing obesity. These findings will underpin a new infant nutrition curriculum for health providers. PMID:20055931

  11. Understanding infant feeding beliefs, practices and preferred nutrition education and health provider approaches: an exploratory study with Somali mothers in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Steinman, Lesley; Doescher, Mark; Keppel, Gina A.; Pak-Gorstein, Suzinne; Graham, Elinor; Haq, Aliya; Johnson, Donna B.; Spicer, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore Somali mothers’ beliefs and practices around infant feeding and education, towards developing a culturally informed infant nutrition curriculum for health providers. Four focus groups were conducted to explore: (1) beliefs about infant feeding, hunger and ideal weight; (2) feeding practices; (3) nutrition education approaches; and (4) provider/mother interactions. Thirty-seven Somali mother participants identified the following themes within these topics: (1) strategies for assessing hunger, satiety and when to feed; shared beliefs that plump babies are healthy, leading to worry about infant weight; (2) context of breast milk adequacy, difficulties breastfeeding and environmental and cultural barriers to breastfeeding, leading to nearly universal early supplementation with formula; (3) preferred education approaches include provider visits with interpreters, Somali language educational materials and advice from older, experienced family members; and (4) desired health provider skills include: listening, explaining, empathy, addressing specific concerns, repeating important information, offering preventive advice and sufficient visit time. This study presents knowledge about Somali beliefs and practices that can directly guide discussions with these families. Given that these infants appear on a trajectory towards obesity, influencing infant feeding practices in the Somali community is a good upstream approach to preventing obesity. These findings will underpin a new infant nutrition curriculum for health providers. PMID:20055931

  12. Isms dimensions: toward a more comprehensive and integrative model of belief-system components.

    PubMed

    Saucier, Gerard

    2013-05-01

    Psychological research on beliefs, values, worldview, and ideology has been limited by inadequate structural models to organize the plethora of constructs. The present studies investigate the potential of a dimensional model based on lexical, dictionary-represented -ism concepts to form an organizing structural model. Four isms factors found previously in college samples are shown to replicate in community-sample data with better controls for acquiescent responding. But analyses also reveal a 5th factor involving egalitarianism and inequality-aversion, increasing the comprehensiveness of the structural model. Relations of frequently used constructs (values, authoritarianism, social dominance orientation) to the isms dimensions are detailed, demonstrating both the integrative and value-adding potentials of the model. The possibility of potential additional nonlexical factors (Trust in Government, Ethnocentrism, Xenophobia, and Nativism) is evaluated. Factors identified in these studies are demonstrated to show interesting relations with political-party preference, subjective well-being, and change over time in the Big Five personality dimensions. PMID:23607535

  13. Nursing opinion leadership: a preliminary model derived from philosophic theories of rational belief.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Christine A; Whall, Ann L

    2013-10-01

    Opinion leaders are informal leaders who have the ability to influence others' decisions about adopting new products, practices or ideas. In the healthcare setting, the importance of translating new research evidence into practice has led to interest in understanding how opinion leaders could be used to speed this process. Despite continued interest, gaps in understanding opinion leadership remain. Agent-based models are computer models that have proven to be useful for representing dynamic and contextual phenomena such as opinion leadership. The purpose of this paper is to describe the work conducted in preparation for the development of an agent-based model of nursing opinion leadership. The aim of this phase of the model development project was to clarify basic assumptions about opinions, the individual attributes of opinion leaders and characteristics of the context in which they are effective. The process used to clarify these assumptions was the construction of a preliminary nursing opinion leader model, derived from philosophical theories about belief formation. PMID:24034158

  14. The influence of social niche on cultural niche construction: modelling changes in belief about marriage form in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lipatov, Mikhail; Brown, Melissa J; Feldman, Marcus W

    2011-03-27

    With introduction of social niche effects into a model of cultural change, the frequency of a practice cannot predict the frequency of its underlying belief. The combination of a general model with empirical data from a specific case illustrates the importance of collaboration between modellers and field researchers, and identifies the type of quantitative data necessary for analysing case studies. Demographic data from colonial-period household registers in Taiwan document a shift in marriage form within 40 years, from a mixture of uxorilocal marriages and virilocal marriages to the latter's dominance. Ethnographic data indicate marriage-related beliefs, costs, ethnic effects and colonial policies as well as the importance of horizontal cultural transmission. We present a formal model for the effects of moral beliefs about marriage and a population economic index on the decline of uxorilocal marriage. We integrate empirical marriage rates and an estimated economic index to produce five projections of the historical frequencies of one belief. These projections demonstrate how economic development may affect a cultural niche. They also indicate the need for future research on the relationship between wealth and cultural variability, the motivational force of cultural versus social factors, and the process of cultural niche construction. PMID:21320903

  15. The influence of social niche on cultural niche construction: modelling changes in belief about marriage form in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lipatov, Mikhail; Brown, Melissa J.; Feldman, Marcus W.

    2011-01-01

    With introduction of social niche effects into a model of cultural change, the frequency of a practice cannot predict the frequency of its underlying belief. The combination of a general model with empirical data from a specific case illustrates the importance of collaboration between modellers and field researchers, and identifies the type of quantitative data necessary for analysing case studies. Demographic data from colonial-period household registers in Taiwan document a shift in marriage form within 40 years, from a mixture of uxorilocal marriages and virilocal marriages to the latter's dominance. Ethnographic data indicate marriage-related beliefs, costs, ethnic effects and colonial policies as well as the importance of horizontal cultural transmission. We present a formal model for the effects of moral beliefs about marriage and a population economic index on the decline of uxorilocal marriage. We integrate empirical marriage rates and an estimated economic index to produce five projections of the historical frequencies of one belief. These projections demonstrate how economic development may affect a cultural niche. They also indicate the need for future research on the relationship between wealth and cultural variability, the motivational force of cultural versus social factors, and the process of cultural niche construction. PMID:21320903

  16. Quantum science in secondary chemistry: Influence of teachers' beliefs and knowledge on the use of interactive computer models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robblee, Karen M.

    Current science education reform efforts promote inquiry-based learning, a goal that requires appropriate tools and instructional approaches. This study investigated the influence of the beliefs and knowledge of four experienced secondary chemistry teachers in their use of new instructional software that generates models of atoms and molecules based on quantum mechanics. The software, which was developed through a National Science Foundation funded project, Quantum Science Across Disciplines (QSAD), was designed to promote inquiry learning. Qualitative research methods were used for this multiple case study. Data from surveys, interviews, and extended classroom observations revealed a close correlation between a teacher's model of the learner and his or her model of teaching. Combined models of learner and teacher had the greatest influence on their decisions about implementing QSAD software. Teachers who espoused a constructivist model of learning and related models of teaching used the software to promote student investigations and inductive approaches to learning. Other factors that appeared to support the use of inquiry methods included sufficient time for students to investigate phenomena, the extent of the teacher's pedagogical content knowledge, and the amount of training using QSAD software. The Views-On-Science-Technology-Society (VOSTS) instrument was used to compare the informants' beliefs about the epistemology of science to their classroom practices. Data related to the role of teachers' beliefs about scientific knowledge were inconclusive, and VOSTS results were inconsistent with the informants' stated beliefs. All four cases revealed that the teachers acted as agents of the school culture. In schools that promoted development of critical thinking, questioning, and self-direction in students, teachers were more likely to use a variety of instructional methods and emphasize construction of knowledge. These findings suggest that educational reform

  17. Soliciting scientific information and beliefs in predictive modeling and adaptive management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glynn, P. D.; Voinov, A. A.; Shapiro, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    Post-normal science requires public engagement and adaptive corrections in addressing issues with high complexity and uncertainty. An adaptive management framework is presented for the improved management of natural resources and environments through a public participation process. The framework solicits the gathering and transformation and/or modeling of scientific information but also explicitly solicits the expression of participant beliefs. Beliefs and information are compared, explicitly discussed for alignments or misalignments, and ultimately melded back together as a "knowledge" basis for making decisions. An effort is made to recognize the human or participant biases that may affect the information base and the potential decisions. In a separate step, an attempt is made to recognize and predict the potential "winners" and "losers" (perceived or real) of any decision or action. These "winners" and "losers" include present human communities with different spatial, demographic or socio-economic characteristics as well as more dispersed or more diffusely characterized regional or global communities. "Winners" and "losers" may also include future human communities as well as communities of other biotic species. As in any adaptive management framework, assessment of predictions, iterative follow-through and adaptation of policies or actions is essential, and commonly very difficult or impossible to achieve. Recognizing beforehand the limits of adaptive management is essential. More generally, knowledge of the behavioral and economic sciences and of ethics and sociology will be key to a successful implementation of this adaptive management framework. Knowledge of biogeophysical processes will also be essential, but by definition of the issues being addressed, will always be incomplete and highly uncertain. The human dimensions of the issues addressed and the participatory processes used carry their own complexities and uncertainties. Some ideas and principles are

  18. Knowledge, attitude and beliefs towards HIV/AIDS among students of health institutes in Sana'a city.

    PubMed

    Al-Rabeei, N A; Dallak, A M; Al-Awadi, F G

    2012-03-01

    Students of health-related subjects have an important role in national strategies on HIV/AIDS prevention. This study assessed the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs towards HIV/AIDS among students at health institutes in Sana'a city, Yemen. A descriptive cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted on 600 students selected by cluster sampling. Students had a moderate level of HIV/AIDS knowledge (an average of 67.6% were correct on all items). Nevertheless, 82.3% knew that HIV could be transmitted by sexual intercourse without a condom, 87.5% from syringes, 71.8% from infected blood and 80.7% from mother to child. Misconceptions about how HIV is transmitted (e.g. hugging and kissing or sharing food, swimming pools and classrooms) were found among 41.5% of the students. Attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS showed that 59.8% of students were accepting and positive. There was a common opinion among respondents that HIV-infected persons needed to be punished (65.5%) and isolated (41.0%); however, 86.8% were willing to care for an HIV-infected person. PMID:22574474

  19. HPV knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among Northern Plains American Indian adolescents, parents, young adults, and health professionals.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Grimminger, Delf; Frerichs, Leah; Black Bird, Arlene E; Workman, Karen; Dobberpuhl, Mitchell; Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu

    2013-06-01

    Native American women in the Northern Plains have a high prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) and high incidence of cervical disease and cervical cancer. HPV vaccination coverage is shown to be lower among nonwhite populations and disparity populations. We assessed HPV knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs towards HPV and HPV vaccination during a community-based participatory research project among tribal youth, young adults, parents, and health professionals. In 2009, we recruited a total of 73 individuals to participate in four tribal focus groups: tribal health providers, (n=10), Indian Health Service providers (n=7), young adult women ages 19-26 (n=22), girls (14-18) (n=18), and parents (n=16). Of these, 62 (84.93 %) completed a survey, which included 10 healthcare providers, 22 young adults, 14 teens, and 16 parents. We employed a qualitative thematic analysis of focus group transcript data and conducted frequency analysis of survey data, which were both reviewed and triangulated by a Community Advisory Board. Based on the results of this study, the tribal community advisory board identified local tribal settings for interventions to increase HPV vaccination coverage through health education classes and a school-based vaccination clinic. In addition to tribal community-wide education events to increase awareness of HPV disease, the HPV vaccine, provider-specific training was identified as a potential intervention. These community-based focus group findings underscore the importance of locally and cultural tailored educational interventions to further increase HPV knowledge and HPV vaccination among disparate populations like American Indian adolescent and young adult women. PMID:23564429

  20. Development of a Bayesian Belief Network Runway Incursion and Excursion Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Lawrence L.

    2014-01-01

    In a previous work, a statistical analysis of runway incursion (RI) event data was conducted to ascertain the relevance of this data to the top ten Technical Challenges (TC) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Aviation Safety Program (AvSP). The study revealed connections to several of the AvSP top ten TC and identified numerous primary causes and contributing factors of RI events. The statistical analysis served as the basis for developing a system-level Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) model for RI events, also previously reported. Through literature searches and data analysis, this RI event network has now been extended to also model runway excursion (RE) events. These RI and RE event networks have been further modified and vetted by a Subject Matter Expert (SME) panel. The combined system-level BBN model will allow NASA to generically model the causes of RI and RE events and to assess the effectiveness of technology products being developed under NASA funding. These products are intended to reduce the frequency of runway safety incidents/accidents, and to improve runway safety in general. The development and structure of the BBN for both RI and RE events are documented in this paper.

  1. Application of GIS based data driven evidential belief function model to predict groundwater potential zonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nampak, Haleh; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Manap, Mohammad Abd

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to exploit potential application of an evidential belief function (EBF) model for spatial prediction of groundwater productivity at Langat basin area, Malaysia using geographic information system (GIS) technique. About 125 groundwater yield data were collected from well locations. Subsequently, the groundwater yield was divided into high (⩾11 m3/h) and low yields (<11 m3/h) respectively, based on the groundwater classification standard recommended by Department of Mineral and Geosciences (JMG), Malaysia. Out of all of the borehole data, only 60 wells possessed higher yield at ⩾ 11 m3/h. Further, these wells were randomly divided into a testing dataset 70% (42 wells) for training the model and the remaining 30% (18 wells) was used for validation purpose. To perform cross validation, the frequency ratio (FR) approach was applied into remaining groundwater wells with low yield to show the spatial correlation between the low potential zones of groundwater productivity. A total of twelve groundwater conditioning factors that affect the storage of groundwater occurrences were derived from various data sources such as satellite based imagery, topographic maps and associated database. Those twelve groundwater conditioning factors are elevation, slope, curvature, stream power index (SPI), topographic wetness index (TWI), drainage density, lithology, lineament density, land use, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), soil and rainfall. Subsequently, the Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence model was applied to prepare the groundwater potential map. Finally, the result of groundwater potential map derived from belief map was validated using testing data. Furthermore, to compare the performance of the EBF result, logistic regression model was applied. The success-rate and prediction-rate curves were computed to estimate the efficiency of the employed EBF model compared to LR method. The validation results demonstrated that the success

  2. Correlates of hot day air-conditioning use among middle-aged and older adults with chronic heart and lung diseases: the role of health beliefs and cues to action.

    PubMed

    Richard, Lucie; Kosatsky, Tom; Renouf, Annie

    2011-02-01

    Extreme ambient heat is a serious public health threat, especially for the elderly and persons with pre-existing health conditions. Although much of the excess mortality and morbidity associated with extreme heat is preventable, the adoption of effective preventive strategies is limited. The study reported here tested the predictive power of selected components of the Health Belief Model for air-conditioning (AC) use among 238 non-institutionalized middle-aged and older adults with chronic heart failure and/or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease living in Montréal, Canada. Respondents were recruited through clinics (response rate 71%) and interviews were conducted in their homes or by telephone. Results showed that 73% of participants reported having a home air conditioner. The average number of hours spent per 24-hour period in air-conditioned spaces during heat waves was 14.5 hours (SD = 9.4). Exploratory structural equation modeling showed that specific beliefs about the benefits of and drawbacks to AC as well as internal cues to action were predictive of its level of use, whereas the perceived severity of the effects of heat on health was not. The findings are discussed in light of the need to adequately support effective response to extreme heat in this vulnerable population. PMID:21068164

  3. Gender Differences in Osteoporosis Health Beliefs and Knowledge and Their Relation to Vigorous Physical Activity in University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gammage, Kimberley L.; Gasparotto, Jennifer; Mack, Diane E.; Klentrou, Panagiota

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this cross-sectional investigation was to examine (1) gender differences in osteoporosis-related knowledge and beliefs and (2) if these beliefs could predict vigorous physical activity behavior in university students. Participants: Male (n = 176) and female (n = 351) university students participated in the study. Methods:…

  4. High School Students' Epistemological Beliefs, Conceptions of Learning, and Self-Efficacy for Learning Biology: A Study of Their Structural Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadi, Özlem; Dagyar, Miray

    2015-01-01

    The current work reveals the data of the study which examines the relationships among epistemological beliefs, conceptions of learning, and self-efficacy for biology learning with the help of the Structural Equation Modeling. Three questionnaires, the Epistemological Beliefs, the Conceptions of Learning Biology and the Self-efficacy for Learning…

  5. Positive beliefs and privacy concerns shape the future for the Personally Controlled Electronic Health Record.

    PubMed

    Lehnbom, E C; Douglas, H E; Makeham, M A B

    2016-01-01

    The uptake of the Personally Controlled Electronic Health Record (PCEHR) has been slowly building momentum in Australia. The purpose of the PCEHR is to collect clinically important information from multiple healthcare providers to provide a secure electronic record to patients and their authorised healthcare providers that will ultimately enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of healthcare delivery. Reasons for the slow uptake of the PCEHR and future directions to improve its usefulness is discussed later. PMID:26813902

  6. Swimming pool, respiratory health, and childhood asthma: should we change our beliefs?

    PubMed

    Uyan, Z S; Carraro, S; Piacentini, G; Baraldi, E

    2009-01-01

    Swimming is often recommended as a sport because of its several benefits to health. It is also recommended in asthmatic children as a sport with a lower potential for prompting exercise-induced asthma. However, there is growing interest in the potentially harmful effects of repeated respiratory tract exposure to chlorinated products and the problem of possible swimming-related health hazards is gaining importance at international level. It is already known that acute exposure to chlorine gas as in swimming pool accidents causes lung damage and also that elite swimmers may have increased airway inflammation and bronchial hyperreactivity, probably as a result of repeated exposure to chlorine derivatives. Recently some studies have been conducted to investigate whether repeated exposure to chlorine by-products in recreational swimmers might also lead to lung damage. In addition, some studies have been lately published on the even more debated issue of the possible harmful effects of baby swimming on respiratory health. This article reviews and discusses data from the literature on the effects of chlorine derivatives in different categories of people routinely attending swimming pools. The need for longitudinal studies is emphasized to definitely clarify any role of chlorinated swimming pool attendance in the development of asthma in recreational swimmers. PMID:19061232

  7. Communication models in environmental health.

    PubMed

    Guidotti, Tee L

    2013-01-01

    Communication models common in environmental health are not well represented in the literature on health communication. Risk communication is a systematic approach to conveying essential information about a specific environmental issue and a framework for thinking about community risk and the alternatives for dealing with it. Crisis communication is intended to provide essential information to people facing an emergency in order to mitigate its effects and to enable them to make appropriate decisions, and it is primarily used in emergency management. Corporate communication is intended to achieve a change in attitude or perception of an organization, and its role in environmental health is usually public relations or to rehabilitate a damaged reputation. Environmental health education is a more didactic approach to science education with respect to health and the environment. Social marketing uses conventional marketing methods to achieve a socially desirable purpose but is more heavily used in health promotion generally. Communication models and styles in environmental health are specialized to serve the needs of the field in communicating with the community. They are highly structured and executed in different ways but have in common a relative lack of emphasis on changing personal or lifestyle behavior compared with health promotion and public health in general and a tendency to emphasize content on specific environmental issues and decision frameworks for protecting oneself or the community through collective action. PMID:23898914

  8. HealthScope: a model for a low cost health education program using commercial television.

    PubMed Central

    Braun, K L; Conybeare, C R

    1995-01-01

    HealthScope is a health education based on the Health Belief Model that uses television and print materials. It was designed for a number of agendas--(a) a desire by health educators to provide health information to a broad audience at a reasonable cost (b) a desire by the local medical association to promote its role in prevention and primary care, and (c) a desire by commercial television to expand its coverage of local health issues in a cost-effective way. In its summer series, HealthScope included 10 weekly television programs that focused on various aspects of disease prevention and health promotion and answered viewers' questions on the air. Each program was followed by a bank of physicians answering questions on the telephone for 90 minutes. Corresponding fact sheets were distributed through a local pharmacy chain. A "healthy weekend" sweepstakes contest also was held. Intermediate outcome measures indicated that HealthScope had a broad reach and stimulated viewers to seek additional information about health. At the same time, the program generated revenue for the commercial television station. PMID:7638337

  9. Attitudes and beliefs toward biobehavioural research participation: voices and concerns of urban adolescent females receiving outpatient mental health treatment

    PubMed Central

    Brawner, Bridgette M.; Volpe, Ellen M.; Stewart, Jennifer M.; Gomes, Melissa M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Biobehavioural research methodology can be invasive and burdensome for participants—particularly adolescents with mental illnesses. Human biological researchers should consider how methodological impositions may hinder adolescent research participation. However, literature on adolescent’s voices and concerns toward biobehavioural research participation is virtually non-existent. Aim This study was designed to determine adolescents’ perceptions of participation in research involving the collection of biomarkers via blood, saliva and/or urine samples. Subjects and methods Urban adolescent females (aged 12–19) receiving outpatient mental health treatment (n = 37) participated in focus groups with concurrent survey administration to explore attitudes, beliefs and willingness/intentions toward biobehavioural research participation. Results Participants had favourable attitudes toward biobehavioural research and were amenable to provide each specimen type. Mistrust for research emerged, however, and concerns related to privacy and confidentiality were expressed. Conclusion Participant recruitment is a critical component in study design and implementation; this includes knowledge of population-specific recruitment barriers and facilitators. This innovative paper provides a context for the research participants’ decision-making process, strategies to allay fears and concerns and concrete areas to target in research-related interventions. Although the findings are from a specific, US-based sample, the implications warrant replication of the research in other geosocial settings. PMID:23822716

  10. Primary care provider practices and beliefs related to cervical cancer screening with the HPV test in Federally Qualified Health Centers

    PubMed Central

    Roland, K.B.; Benard, V.B.; Greek, A.; Hawkins, N.A.; Manninen, D.; Saraiya, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Cervical cancer screening using the human papillomavirus (HPV) test and Pap test together (co-testing) is an option for average-risk women ≥30 years of age. With normal co-test results, screening intervals can be extended. The study objective is to assess primary care provider practices, beliefs, facilitators and barriers to using the co-test and extending screening intervals among low-income women. Method Data were collected from 98 providers in 15 Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) clinics in Illinois between August 2009 and March 2010 using a cross-sectional survey. Results 39% of providers reported using the co-test, and 25% would recommend a three-year screening interval for women with normal co-test results. Providers perceived greater encouragement for co-testing than for extending screening intervals with a normal co-test result. Barriers to extending screening intervals included concerns about patients not returning annually for other screening tests (77%), patient concerns about missing cancer (62%), and liability (52%). Conclusion Among FQHC providers in Illinois, few administered the co-test for screening and recommended appropriate intervals, possibly due to concerns over loss to follow-up and liability. Education regarding harms of too-frequent screening and false positives may be necessary to balance barriers to extending screening intervals. PMID:23628517

  11. Knowledge, Beliefs, and Health Care Practices Relating to Treatment of HIV in Vellore, India

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Ira B.; Wanke, Christine A.; Selvakumar, A.; John, K.R.; Isaac, Rita

    2009-01-01

    Abstract In India, little is known about health care-seeking behavior among HIV-infected individuals. Similarly, little is known about how HIV is being treated in the community, in particular by Indian Systems of Medicine (ISM) providers. Therefore, while ART implementation programs continue to expand, it is important to determine whether the knowledge, attitudes, and treatment practices of HIV-infected individuals and their health care providers are aligned with current treatment recommendations. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with persons with HIV (n = 9 men and 17 women), family members of persons with HIV (n = 14 men and 3 women), and ISM providers (n = 7). Many of the patients we studied turned at some point to ISM providers because they believed that such practitioners offer a cure for HIV. ISM treatments sometimes had negative impacts including side effects, unchecked progression of an underlying illness, and financial depletion. Indian women tended to be less knowledgeable about HIV and HIV treatments, and had less access to financial and other resources, than men. Finally, most of the ISM providers reported dangerous misconceptions about HIV transmission, diagnosis, and treatment. While the existence of ART in India is potentially of great benefit to those with HIV infection, this study shows that a variety of social, cultural and governmental barriers may interfere with the effective use of these therapies. Partnerships between the allopathic and traditional/complementary health sectors in research, policy, and practice are essential in building comprehensive HIV/AIDS treatment strategies. PMID:19519232

  12. Dietary health behaviour and beliefs among university students from 26 low, middle and high income countries.

    PubMed

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of six healthy dietary behaviours and associated factors in university students from 26 low, middle and high income countries. In a cross-sectional survey, we used a self-administered questionnaire (largely based on the European Health and Behaviour Survey) among 19503 undergraduate university students (mean age 20.8, Standard deviation=2.8, age range of 16-30 years) from 27 universities in 26 countries. Results indicated that for a total of six healthy dietary behaviours, overall, students scored a mean of 2.8 healthy dietary behaviours. More female than male students indicated healthy dietary behaviours. In multivariate linear regression among men and women, living in an upper middle income or high income country, dieting to lose weight, the high importance of dietary health benefits, high non-organized religious activity, high physical activity and currently a non-tobacco user were associated with the healthy dietary behaviour index. The study found a high prevalence of relatively poor dietary healthy behaviours. PMID:26693760

  13. Consistent condom use among juvenile detainees: the role of individual differences, social bonding, and health beliefs.

    PubMed

    Broaddus, Michelle R; Bryan, Angela

    2008-01-01

    This study takes the perspective that condom use may be a non-continuous variable, and that the endpoint of consistent condom use is an important focus of study both in terms of public health considerations and theoretically. As consistent condom use is the ultimate goal for prevention of the spread of HIV and STDs among those who are sexually active, special attention needs to be paid to those who have accomplished that goal, especially among high-risk populations. Guided by theories of resiliency, and using consistent condom use as a marker of the broader sexual health resiliency construct, condom promotive factors are used to predict consistent condom use among detained adolescents. Consistent condom users appear to be a distinct sub-population. Likely to be male, they are also likely to have higher self-esteem, higher optimism, and lower sensation seeking and impulsive decision making. They are likely to be in school and to live with both biological parents. Finally, they are likely to have positive attitudes towards condoms and report having friends and peers who feel the same way. PMID:17578661

  14. The role of television viewing and direct experience in predicting adolescents’ beliefs about the health risks of fast-food consumption

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Cristel Antonia; Buhrau, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Background Fast-food advertising abounds on television (TV), and programs targeting youth often display fast-food consumption but rarely with any negative consequences. Cultivation research maintains that cumulative exposure to TV influences audiences’ views of and beliefs about the real world. Thus, the amount of TV adolescents watch is likely to bias their views of the consequences of eating fast food. This research posits that this relationship varies as a function of adolescents’ actual experience with fast food. Method Two cross-sectional surveys conducted in the cultivation research tradition assess the relationship between the amount of adolescents’ regular exposure to TV and their beliefs about the risks and benefits of eating fast food. Teenage children of members of online panels reported hours of TV viewing, beliefs about the consequences of eating fast food, and their frequency of fast-food consumption. Results In both studies, beliefs about health risks of fast-food consumption vary as a function of the amount of TV watched. Heavy TV viewers have less negative and more positive beliefs about the consequences of fast-food consumption than light viewers. As direct experience with fast food increases, the relationship between TV viewing and risk perceptions weakens, but the relationship between TV viewing and positive perceptions strengthens. These moderated relationships remain when we control for physical activity (Study 1) and the density of fast-food restaurants in respondents’ geographical area (Study 2). Conclusion Given the role of TV viewing in biasing perceptions of the consequences of eating fast food, public health researchers and practitioners should carefully monitor and perhaps regulate the amount of fast-food advertising on TV and the content of TV programs. PMID:26009205

  15. Breast Self-Examination Beliefs and Practices, Ethnicity, and Health Literacy: Implications for Health Education to Reduce Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armin, Julie; Torres, Cristina Huebner; Vivian, James; Vergara, Cunegundo; Shaw, Susan J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to quantitatively and qualitatively examine breast cancer screening practices, including breast self-examination (BSE), and health literacy among patients with chronic disease. Design: A prospective, multi-method study conducted with a targeted purposive sample of 297 patients with diabetes and/or hypertension from four…

  16. Power and Politics in the Global Health Landscape: Beliefs, Competition and Negotiation Among Global Advocacy Coalitions in the Policy-Making Process

    PubMed Central

    McDougall, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Background: Advocacy coalitions play an increasingly prominent role within the global health landscape, linking actors and institutions to attract political attention and resources. This paper examines how coalitions negotiate among themselves and exercise hidden forms of power to produce policy on the basis of their beliefs and strategic interests. Methods: This paper examines the beliefs and behaviours of health advocacy coalitions using Sabatier’s Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF) as an informal theoretical lens. Coalitions are further explored in relation to the concept of transnational advocacy networks (Keck and Sikkink) and of productive power (Shiffman). The ACF focuses on explaining how policy change takes place when there is conflict concerning goals and technical approaches among different actors. This study uses participant observation methods, self-reported survey results and semi-structured qualitative interviews to trace how a major policy project of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) era, the Global Strategy for Women’s and Children’s Health, was constructed through negotiations among maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) and sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) advocacy coalitions. Results: The Global Strategy represented a new opportunity for high-level political attention. Despite differing policy beliefs, MNCH and SRHR actors collaborated to produce this strategy because of anticipated gains in political attention. While core beliefs did not shift fundamentally and collaboration was primarily a short-term tactical response to a time-bound opportunity, MNCH actors began to focus more on human rights perspectives and SRHR actors adopted greater use of quantifiable indicators and economic argumentation. This shift emphasises the inherent importance of SRHR to maternal and child health survival. Conclusion: As opportunities arise, coalitions respond based on principles and policy beliefs, as well as to perceptions of

  17. Modeling EEG Waveforms with Semi-Supervised Deep Belief Nets: Fast Classification and Anomaly Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Wulsin, D. F.; Gupta, J. R.; Mani, R.; Blanco, J. A.; Litt, B.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical electroencephalography (EEG) records vast amounts of human complex data yet is still reviewed primarily by human readers. Deep Belief Nets (DBNs) are a relatively new type of multi-layer neural network commonly tested on two-dimensional image data, but are rarely applied to times-series data such as EEG. We apply DBNs in a semi-supervised paradigm to model EEG waveforms for classification and anomaly detection. DBN performance was comparable to standard classifiers on our EEG dataset, and classification time was found to be 1.7 to 103.7 times faster than the other high-performing classifiers. We demonstrate how the unsupervised step of DBN learning produces an autoencoder that can naturally be used in anomaly measurement. We compare the use of raw, unprocessed data—a rarity in automated physiological waveform analysis—to hand-chosen features and find that raw data produces comparable classification and better anomaly measurement performance. These results indicate that DBNs and raw data inputs may be more effective for online automated EEG waveform recognition than other common techniques. PMID:21525569

  18. Modeling electroencephalography waveforms with semi-supervised deep belief nets: fast classification and anomaly measurement.

    PubMed

    Wulsin, D F; Gupta, J R; Mani, R; Blanco, J A; Litt, B

    2011-06-01

    Clinical electroencephalography (EEG) records vast amounts of human complex data yet is still reviewed primarily by human readers. Deep belief nets (DBNs) are a relatively new type of multi-layer neural network commonly tested on two-dimensional image data but are rarely applied to times-series data such as EEG. We apply DBNs in a semi-supervised paradigm to model EEG waveforms for classification and anomaly detection. DBN performance was comparable to standard classifiers on our EEG dataset, and classification time was found to be 1.7-103.7 times faster than the other high-performing classifiers. We demonstrate how the unsupervised step of DBN learning produces an autoencoder that can naturally be used in anomaly measurement. We compare the use of raw, unprocessed data--a rarity in automated physiological waveform analysis--with hand-chosen features and find that raw data produce comparable classification and better anomaly measurement performance. These results indicate that DBNs and raw data inputs may be more effective for online automated EEG waveform recognition than other common techniques. PMID:21525569

  19. Modeling electroencephalography waveforms with semi-supervised deep belief nets: fast classification and anomaly measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wulsin, D. F.; Gupta, J. R.; Mani, R.; Blanco, J. A.; Litt, B.

    2011-06-01

    Clinical electroencephalography (EEG) records vast amounts of human complex data yet is still reviewed primarily by human readers. Deep belief nets (DBNs) are a relatively new type of multi-layer neural network commonly tested on two-dimensional image data but are rarely applied to times-series data such as EEG. We apply DBNs in a semi-supervised paradigm to model EEG waveforms for classification and anomaly detection. DBN performance was comparable to standard classifiers on our EEG dataset, and classification time was found to be 1.7-103.7 times faster than the other high-performing classifiers. We demonstrate how the unsupervised step of DBN learning produces an autoencoder that can naturally be used in anomaly measurement. We compare the use of raw, unprocessed data—a rarity in automated physiological waveform analysis—with hand-chosen features and find that raw data produce comparable classification and better anomaly measurement performance. These results indicate that DBNs and raw data inputs may be more effective for online automated EEG waveform recognition than other common techniques.

  20. Model Child Care Health Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Susan; Smith, Herberta

    Drawn from a review of policies at over 100 child care programs nationwide, the model health policies presented in this report are intended for adaptation and selective use by out-of-home child care facilities. Following an introduction, the report presents model policy forms with blanks for adding individualized information for the following…

  1. Attitudes and beliefs about mental illness among church-based lay health workers: experience from a prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission trial in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Iheanacho, Theddeus; Kapadia, Daniel; Ezeanolue, Chinenye O.; Osuji, Alice A.; Ogidi, Amaka G.; Ike, Anulika; Patel, Dina; Stefanovics, Elina; Rosenheck, Robert; Obiefune, Michael; Ezeanolue, Echezona E.

    2016-01-01

    Common mental disorders are prevalent in Nigeria. Due to stigma and a limited number of trained specialists, only 10% of adults with mental illness in Nigeria receive any care. The Healthy Beginning Initiative is a community-based maternal/child health program that includes screening for perinatal depression and was implemented by lay, volunteer, church-based health advisors (CHAs). The aim of the study was to assess the beliefs and attitudes about mental illness among the CHAs. The study used a cross-sectional survey of 57 CHAs, who completed a 43-item, self-administered questionnaire that assessed their beliefs and attitudes about mental illness. The response rate was 71%. Respondents were mostly female (79%), married (83%) and aged 40–49 years (M = 41.16 SD = 10.48). Most endorsed possession by evil spirits (84%), traumatic events (81%) and witchcraft (60%) as causes of mental illness. A majority (69%) believed that people with mental illness were a nuisance, and less than half (46%) believed that mental disorders were illnesses like any other illness. It is concluded that stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs about mental illness are common among the CHAs. Training for lay health workers in Nigeria should include education on the known bio-psycho-social basis of mental disorders and the role of social inclusion in recovery. PMID:26807146

  2. Development and Execution of the RUNSAFE Runway Safety Bayesian Belief Network Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Lawrence L.

    2015-01-01

    One focus area of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is to improve aviation safety. Runway safety is one such thrust of investigation and research. The two primary components of this runway safety research are in runway incursion (RI) and runway excursion (RE) events. These are adverse ground-based aviation incidents that endanger crew, passengers, aircraft and perhaps other nearby people or property. A runway incursion is the incorrect presence of an aircraft, vehicle or person on the protected area of a surface designated for the landing and take-off of aircraft; one class of RI events simultaneously involves two aircraft, such as one aircraft incorrectly landing on a runway while another aircraft is taking off from the same runway. A runway excursion is an incident involving only a single aircraft defined as a veer-off or overrun off the runway surface. Within the scope of this effort at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), generic RI, RE and combined (RI plus RE, or RUNSAFE) event models have each been developed and implemented as a Bayesian Belief Network (BBN). Descriptions of runway safety issues from the literature searches have been used to develop the BBN models. Numerous considerations surrounding the process of developing the event models have been documented in this report. The event models were then thoroughly reviewed by a Subject Matter Expert (SME) panel through multiple knowledge elicitation sessions. Numerous improvements to the model structure (definitions, node names, node states and the connecting link topology) were made by the SME panel. Sample executions of the final RUNSAFE model have been presented herein for baseline and worst-case scenarios. Finally, a parameter sensitivity analysis for a given scenario was performed to show the risk drivers. The NASA and LaRC research in runway safety event modeling through the use of BBN technology is important for several reasons. These include: 1) providing a means to clearly

  3. Developing School Health Services in Massachusetts: A Public Health Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheetz, Anne H.

    2003-01-01

    In 1993 the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH) began defining essential components of school health service programs, consistent with the public health model. The MDPH designed and funded the Enhanced School Health Service Programs to develop 4 core components of local school health services: (a) strengthening the administrative…

  4. French-language version of the World Health Organization quality of life spirituality, religiousness and personal beliefs instrument

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A valid assessment of spirituality and religiousness is necessary for clinical and research purposes. We developed and assessed the validity of a French-language version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Spirituality, Religiousness and Personal Beliefs Instrument (WHOQOL-SRPB). Methods The SRPB was translated into French according to the methods recommended by the WHOQOL group. An Internet survey was conducted in 561 people in 2010, with follow-up 2 weeks later (n = 231, 41%), to assess reliability, factor structure, social desirability bias and construct validity of this scale. Tests were performed based on item-response theory. Results A modal score of 1 (all answers=”not at all”) was observed for Faith (in 34% of participants), Connectedness (27%), and Spiritual Strength (14%). All scales had test-retest reliability coefficients ≥0.7. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients were high for all subscales (0.74 to 0.98) and very high (>0.9) for three subscales (Connectedness, Spiritual Strength and Faith). Scores of Faith, Connectedness, Spiritual Strength and Meaning of Life were higher for respondents with religious practice than for those who had no religious practice. No association was found between SRPB and age or sex. The Awe subscale had a low information function for all levels of the Awe latent trait and may benefit from inclusion of an additional item. Conclusions The French language version of the SRPB retained many properties of the original version. However, the SRPB could be improved by trimming redundant items. The strength of SRPB relies on its multinational development and validation, allowing for cross-cultural comparisons. PMID:22515747

  5. Salt Intake and Health Risk in Climate Change Vulnerable Coastal Bangladesh: What Role Do Beliefs and Practices Play?

    PubMed Central

    Rasheed, Sabrina; Siddique, A. K.; Sharmin, Tamanna; Hasan, A. M. R.; Hanifi, S. M. A.; Iqbal, M.; Bhuiya, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Background High salt consumption is an important risk factor of elevated blood pressure. In Bangladesh about 20 million people are at high risk of hypertension due to climate change induced saline intrusion in water. The objective of this study is to assess beliefs, perceptions, and practices associated with salt consumption in coastal Bangladesh. Methods The study was conducted in Chakaria, Bangladesh between April-June 2011. It was a cross sectional mixed method study. For the qualitative study 6 focus group discussions, 8 key informant interviews, 60 free listing exercises, 20 ranking exercises and 10 observations were conducted. 400 adults were randomly selected for quantitative survey. For analysis we used SPSS for quantitative data, and Anthropac and Nvivo for qualitative data. Results Salt was described as an essential component of food with strong cultural and religious roots. People described both health benefits and risks related to salt intake. The overall risk perception regarding excessive salt consumption was low and respondents believed that the cooking process can render the salt harmless. Respondents were aware that salt is added in many foods even if they do not taste salty but did not recognize that salt can occur naturally in both foods and water. Conclusions In the study community people had low awareness of the risks associated with excess salt consumption and salt reduction strategies were not high in their agenda. The easy access to and low cost of salt as well as unrecognised presence of salt in drinking water has created an environment conducive to excess salt consumption. It is important to design general messages related to salt reduction and test tailored strategies especially for those at high risk of hypertension. PMID:27044049

  6. Knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis among US Air Force Health Care Providers.

    PubMed

    Hakre, Shilpa; Blaylock, Jason M; Dawson, Peter; Beckett, Charmagne; Garges, Eric C; Michael, Nelson L; Danaher, Patrick J; Scott, Paul T; Okulicz, Jason F

    2016-08-01

    Providers are central to effective implementation of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Primary care providers (PCP) and infectious disease physicians (ID) in the US Air Force (USAF) participated in a cross-sectional survey regarding knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs toward HIV PrEP. Characteristics associated with PrEP knowledge were assessed in univariate and multivariate analyses.Among 403 (40% of 1015 providers) participants, 9% (PCP 383, ID 20) ever prescribed PrEP. In univariate analysis, years in practice, number of HIV-infected patients treated in the past 12 months, past prescription of antiretrovirals for HIV prevention, frequency of prescribing PrEP in the past 12 months, and ever being questioned by a patient about PrEP were associated with PrEP knowledge (P < 0.05). In multivariate analysis, providers who had ever prescribed antiretrovirals to prevent HIV (AOR: 2.37, 95% CI: 1.27-4.42) had greater odds of high PrEP knowledge. Despite concerns about medication side effects (overall 67%: PCP 68%, ID 85%) and prescribing PrEP without clear evidence (overall 60%: PCP 65%, ID 62%), 64% (PCP 65%, ID 85%) of participants indicated PrEP should be offered in the Military Health System and 68% (PCP 70%, ID 100%) disagreed with the statement that their patient population was not at risk for HIV infection.Successful PrEP implementation in the USAF will require continued education and training of primary care providers to improve knowledge and mitigate concerns about PrEP. PMID:27512869

  7. Knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis among US Air Force Health Care Providers

    PubMed Central

    Hakre, Shilpa; Blaylock, Jason M; Dawson, Peter; Beckett, Charmagne; Garges, Eric C; Michael, Nelson L; Danaher, Patrick J; Scott, Paul T; Okulicz, Jason F

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Providers are central to effective implementation of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Primary care providers (PCP) and infectious disease physicians (ID) in the US Air Force (USAF) participated in a cross-sectional survey regarding knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs toward HIV PrEP. Characteristics associated with PrEP knowledge were assessed in univariate and multivariate analyses. Among 403 (40% of 1015 providers) participants, 9% (PCP 383, ID 20) ever prescribed PrEP. In univariate analysis, years in practice, number of HIV-infected patients treated in the past 12 months, past prescription of antiretrovirals for HIV prevention, frequency of prescribing PrEP in the past 12 months, and ever being questioned by a patient about PrEP were associated with PrEP knowledge (P < 0.05). In multivariate analysis, providers who had ever prescribed antiretrovirals to prevent HIV (AOR: 2.37, 95% CI: 1.27–4.42) had greater odds of high PrEP knowledge. Despite concerns about medication side effects (overall 67%: PCP 68%, ID 85%) and prescribing PrEP without clear evidence (overall 60%: PCP 65%, ID 62%), 64% (PCP 65%, ID 85%) of participants indicated PrEP should be offered in the Military Health System and 68% (PCP 70%, ID 100%) disagreed with the statement that their patient population was not at risk for HIV infection. Successful PrEP implementation in the USAF will require continued education and training of primary care providers to improve knowledge and mitigate concerns about PrEP. PMID:27512869

  8. Ontological confusions but not mentalizing abilities predict religious belief, paranormal belief, and belief in supernatural purpose.

    PubMed

    Lindeman, Marjaana; Svedholm-Häkkinen, Annika M; Lipsanen, Jari

    2015-01-01

    The current research tested the hypothesis that the abilities for understanding other people's minds give rise to the cognitive biases that underlie supernatural beliefs. We used structural equation modeling (N=2789) to determine the roles of various mentalizing tendencies, namely self-reported affective and cognitive empathy (i.e., mind reading), actual cognitive and affective empathic abilities, hyper-empathizing, and two cognitive biases (core ontological confusions and promiscuous teleology) in giving rise to supernatural beliefs. Support for a path from mentalizing abilities through cognitive biases to supernatural beliefs was weak. The relationships of mentalizing abilities with supernatural beliefs were also weak, and these relationships were not substantially mediated by cognitive biases. Core ontological confusions emerged as the best predictor, while promiscuous teleology predicted only a small proportion of variance. The results were similar for religious beliefs, paranormal beliefs, and for belief in supernatural purpose. PMID:25460380

  9. Chemistry Teachers' Emerging Expertise in Inquiry Teaching: The Effect of a Professional Development Model on Beliefs and Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushton, Gregory T.; Lotter, Christine; Singer, Jonathan

    2011-02-01

    This study investigates the beliefs and practices of seven high school chemistry teachers as a result of their participation in a year-long inquiry professional development (PD) project. An analysis of oral interviews, written reflections, and in-class observations were used to determine the extent to which the PD affected the teachers' beliefs and practice. The data indicated that the teachers developed more complete conceptions of classroom inquiry, valued a "phenomena first" approach to scientific investigations, and viewed inquiry approaches as helpful for facilitating improved student thinking. Analysis of classroom observations with the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol indicated that features of the PD were observed in the teachers' practice during the academic year follow-up. Implications for effective science teacher professional development models are discussed.

  10. THE TECHNOLOGY ACCEPTANCE MODEL: ITS PAST AND ITS FUTURE IN HEALTH CARE

    PubMed Central

    HOLDEN, RICHARD J.; KARSH, BEN-TZION

    2009-01-01

    Increasing interest in end users’ reactions to health information technology (IT) has elevated the importance of theories that predict and explain health IT acceptance and use. This paper reviews the application of one such theory, the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), to health care. We reviewed 16 data sets analyzed in over 20 studies of clinicians using health IT for patient care. Studies differed greatly in samples and settings, health ITs studied, research models, relationships tested, and construct operationalization. Certain TAM relationships were consistently found to be significant, whereas others were inconsistent. Several key relationships were infrequently assessed. Findings show that TAM predicts a substantial portion of the use or acceptance of health IT, but that the theory may benefit from several additions and modifications. Aside from improved study quality, standardization, and theoretically motivated additions to the model, an important future direction for TAM is to adapt the model specifically to the health care context, using beliefs elicitation methods. PMID:19615467

  11. Cultural evolution of a belief controlling human mate choice: dynamic modeling of the hinoeuma superstition in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Cinthia Marie; Iwasa, Yoh

    2012-09-21

    We develop a simple cultural dynamics model to dicuss the spread of the hinoeuma superstition in Japan. A large drop in the number of newborn babies observed in 1966 was attributed mainly to parents' avoiding having a child born in a hinoeuma year. Presumably, Japanese parents were afraid that a daughter born in 1966 (a hinoeuma year) might later have difficulty finding a mate. We construct mathematical models to examine whether the hinoeuma superstition would likely become extinct or be stably maintained in the population. We classify members of a population according to whether they believed the hinoeuma superstition (believer or nonbeliever), their gender (male or female), and their year of birth (born in a hinoeuma year or not). We compare several cases that differ according to (1) whether the belief in the superstition was transmitted to children by matrilineal, patrilineal, or Mendelian inheritance; (2) which parent controlled the timing of pregnancy and childbirth (maternal or paternal birth control); and (3) the probability of birth control failure. Our results show that the hinoeuma superstition is likely to spread if the mother has a strong influence on birth control and on the belief of their children. In contrast, if birth control is paternal and the belief is passed down from father to child, the hinoeuma superstition is likely to become extinct. In between these extremes, whether the superstition becomes extinct or fixed in the population depends on the initial frequency of believers in the population. PMID:22705179

  12. Prediction of groundwater flowing well zone at An-Najif Province, central Iraq using evidential belief functions model and GIS.

    PubMed

    Al-Abadi, Alaa M; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Shahid, Shamsuddin

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study is to delineate groundwater flowing well zone potential in An-Najif Province of Iraq in a data-driven evidential belief function model developed in a geographical information system (GIS) environment. An inventory map of 68 groundwater flowing wells was prepared through field survey. Seventy percent or 43 wells were used for training the evidential belief functions model and the reset 30 % or 19 wells were used for validation of the model. Seven groundwater conditioning factors mostly derived from RS were used, namely elevation, slope angle, curvature, topographic wetness index, stream power index, lithological units, and distance to the Euphrates River in this study. The relationship between training flowing well locations and the conditioning factors were investigated using evidential belief functions technique in a GIS environment. The integrated belief values were classified into five categories using natural break classification scheme to predict spatial zoning of groundwater flowing well, namely very low (0.17-0.34), low (0.34-0.46), moderate (0.46-0.58), high (0.58-0.80), and very high (0.80-0.99). The results show that very low and low zones cover 72 % (19,282 km(2)) of the study area mostly clustered in the central part, the moderate zone concentrated in the west part covers 13 % (3481 km(2)), and the high and very high zones extended over the northern part cover 15 % (3977 km(2)) of the study area. The vast spatial extension of very low and low zones indicates that groundwater flowing wells potential in the study area is low. The performance of the evidential belief functions spatial model was validated using the receiver operating characteristic curve. A success rate of 0.95 and a prediction rate of 0.94 were estimated from the area under relative operating characteristics curves, which indicate that the developed model has excellent capability to predict groundwater flowing well zones. The produced map of groundwater

  13. Hearing loss prevention for carpenters: part 1 - using health communication and health promotion models to develop training that works.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Carol Merry; Stephenson, Mark R

    2011-01-01

    In phase 1 of a large multiyear effort, health communication and health promotion models were used to develop a comprehensive hearing loss prevention training program for carpenters. Additionally, a survey was designed to be used as an evaluation instrument. The models informed an iterative research process in which the authors used key informant interviews, focus groups, and early versions of the survey tool to identify critical issues expected to be relevant to the success of the hearing loss prevention training. Commonly held attitudes and beliefs associated with occupational noise exposure and hearing losses, as well as issues associated with the use or non-use of hearing protectors, were identified. The training program was then specifically constructed to positively shape attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions associated with healthy hearing behaviors - especially those associated with appropriate hearing protector use. The goal was to directly address the key issues and overcome the barriers identified during the formative research phase. The survey was finalized using factor analysis methods and repeated pilot testing. It was designed to be used with the training as an evaluation tool and thus could indicate changes over time in attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions regarding hearing loss prevention. Finally, the training program was fine tuned with industry participation so that its delivery would integrate seamlessly into the existing health and safety training provided to apprentice carpenters. In phase 2, reported elsewhere in this volume, the training program and the survey were tested through a demonstration project at two sites. PMID:21368436

  14. Translating Resuscitation Guidelines into Practice: Health Care Provider Attitudes, Preferences and Beliefs Regarding Pediatric Fluid Resuscitation Performance

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Melissa J.; Manan, Asmaa

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Children who require fluid resuscitation for the treatment of shock present to tertiary and non-tertiary medical settings. While timely fluid therapy improves survival odds, guidelines are poorly translated into clinical practice. The objective of this study was to characterize the attitudes, preferences and beliefs of health care providers working in acute care settings regarding pediatric fluid resuscitation performance. Methods A single-centre survey study was conducted at McMaster Children's Hospital from January to May, 2012. The sampling frame (n = 115) included nursing staff, physician staff and subspecialty trainees working in Pediatric Emergency Medicine (PEM) or Pediatric Critical Care Medicine (PCCM). A self-administered questionnaire was developed and assessed for face validity prior to distribution. Eligible participants were invited at 0, 2, and 4 weeks to complete a web-based version of the survey. A follow-up survey administration phase was conducted to improve the response rate. Results Response rate was 72.2% (83/115), with 83% (68/82) self-identifying as nursing staff and 61% (50/82) as PCCM providers. Resuscitation experience, frequency of shock management, and years in specialty, were similar between PCCM and PEM responders. Physicians and nurses had differing opinions regarding the most effective method to achieve rapid fluid resuscitation in young children presenting in shock (p<0.001). Disagreement also existed regarding the age and size of patients in whom rapid infuser devices, such as the Level-1 Rapid Infuser, should be used (p<0.001). Providers endorsed a number of potential concerns related to the use of rapid infuser devices in children, and only 14% of physicians and 55% of nursing staff felt that they had received adequate training in the use of such devices (p = 0.005). Conclusions There is a lack of consensus among health care providers regarding how pediatric fluid resuscitation guidelines should be

  15. The Theory-based Influence of Map Features on Risk Beliefs: Self-reports of What is Seen and Understood for Maps Depicting an Environmental Health Hazard

    PubMed Central

    Vatovec, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Theory-based research is needed to understand how maps of environmental health risk information influence risk beliefs and protective behavior. Using theoretical concepts from multiple fields of study including visual cognition, semiotics, health behavior, and learning and memory supports a comprehensive assessment of this influence. We report results from thirteen cognitive interviews that provide theory-based insights into how visual features influenced what participants saw and the meaning of what they saw as they viewed three formats of water test results for private wells (choropleth map, dot map, and a table). The unit of perception, color, proximity to hazards, geographic distribution, and visual salience had substantial influences on what participants saw and their resulting risk beliefs. These influences are explained by theoretical factors that shape what is seen, properties of features that shape cognition (pre-attentive, symbolic, visual salience), information processing (top-down and bottom-up), and the strength of concrete compared to abstract information. Personal relevance guided top-down attention to proximal and larger hazards that shaped stronger risk beliefs. Meaning was more local for small perceptual units and global for large units. Three aspects of color were important: pre-attentive “incremental risk” meaning of sequential shading, symbolic safety meaning of stoplight colors, and visual salience that drew attention. The lack of imagery, geographic information, and color diminished interest in table information. Numeracy and prior beliefs influenced comprehension for some participants. Results guided the creation of an integrated conceptual framework for application to future studies. Ethics should guide the selection of map features that support appropriate communication goals. PMID:22715919

  16. Using Computer Visualization Models in High School Chemistry: The Role of Teacher Beliefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robblee, Karen M.; Garik, Peter; Abegg, Gerald L.; Faux, Russell; Horwitz, Paul

    This paper discusses the role of high school chemistry teachers' beliefs in implementing computer visualization software to teach atomic and molecular structure from a quantum mechanical perspective. The informants in this study were four high school chemistry teachers with comparable academic and professional backgrounds. These teachers received…

  17. Mastery of Negative Affect: A Hierarchical Model of Emotional Self-Efficacy Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Di Giunta, Laura; Pastorelli, Concetta; Eisenberg, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Building on previous studies that formulated measures for assessing self-efficacy beliefs regarding the management of anger/irritation and despondency/sadness, we developed 3 new scales to assess perceived self-efficacy in managing fear, shame/embarrassment, and guilt. In Study 1, the internal and construct validity of the 5 aforementioned…

  18. A Constructivist Connectionist Model of Transitions on False-Belief Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthiaume, Vincent G.; Shultz, Thomas R.; Onishi, Kristine H.

    2013-01-01

    How do children come to understand that others have mental representations, e.g., of an object's location? Preschoolers go through two transitions on verbal false-belief tasks, in which they have to predict where an agent will search for an object that was moved in her absence. First, while three-and-a-half-year-olds usually fail at approach…

  19. The Effects of Teachers Teaching Teachers, an Indiana Staff Development Model, on Educator Attitudes and Beliefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, Edward T.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect Teachers Teaching Teachers, a staff development project incorporating peer coaching methods, had on public school educators' attitudes and beliefs toward various personal and professional components. Forty-four teachers, administrators, and other school personnel participated in the Teachers…

  20. Beliefs, Practices, and Reflection: Exploring a Science Teacher's Classroom Assessment through the Assessment Triangle Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Edward G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the Assessment Practices Framework and how I used it to study a high school Chemistry teacher as she designed, implemented, and learned from a chemistry lab report. The framework consists of exploring three teacher-centered components of classroom assessment (assessment beliefs, practices, and reflection) and analyzing…

  1. Cognitive Network Modeling as a Basis for Characterizing Human Communication Dynamics and Belief Contagion in Technology Adoption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutto, Clayton; Briscoe, Erica; Trewhitt, Ethan

    2012-01-01

    Societal level macro models of social behavior do not sufficiently capture nuances needed to adequately represent the dynamics of person-to-person interactions. Likewise, individual agent level micro models have limited scalability - even minute parameter changes can drastically affect a model's response characteristics. This work presents an approach that uses agent-based modeling to represent detailed intra- and inter-personal interactions, as well as a system dynamics model to integrate societal-level influences via reciprocating functions. A Cognitive Network Model (CNM) is proposed as a method of quantitatively characterizing cognitive mechanisms at the intra-individual level. To capture the rich dynamics of interpersonal communication for the propagation of beliefs and attitudes, a Socio-Cognitive Network Model (SCNM) is presented. The SCNM uses socio-cognitive tie strength to regulate how agents influence--and are influenced by--one another's beliefs during social interactions. We then present experimental results which support the use of this network analytical approach, and we discuss its applicability towards characterizing and understanding human information processing.

  2. Grounded spatial belief revision.

    PubMed

    Nejasmic, Jelica; Bucher, Leandra; Knauff, Markus

    2015-05-01

    Beliefs frequently undergo revisions, especially when new pieces of information are true but inconsistent with current beliefs. In previous studies, we showed that linguistic asymmetries provided by relational statements, play a crucial role in spatial belief revision. Located objects (LO) are preferably revised compared to reference objects (RO), known as the LO-principle. Here we establish a connection between spatial belief revision and grounded cognition. In three experiments, we explored whether imagined physical object properties influence which object is relocated and which remains at its initial position. Participants mentally revised beliefs about the arrangements of objects which could be envisaged as light and heavy (Experiment 1), small and large (Experiment 2), or movable and immovable (Experiment 3). The results show that intrinsic object properties are differently taken into account during spatial belief revision. Object weight did not alter the LO-principle (Experiment 1), whereas object size was found to influence which object was preferably relocated (Experiment 2). Object movability did not affect relocation preferences but had an effect on relocation durations (Experiment 3). The findings support the simulation hypothesis within the grounded cognition approach and create new connections between the spatial mental model theory of reasoning and the idea of grounded cognition. PMID:25796056

  3. The Nature and Predictive Value of Mothers’ Beliefs Regarding Infants’ and Toddlers’ TV/Video Viewing: Applying the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Vaala, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    Viewing television and video programming has become a normative behavior among US infants and toddlers. Little is understood about parents’ decision-making about the extent of their young children’s viewing, though numerous organizations are interested in reducing time spent viewing among infants and toddlers. Prior research has examined parents’ belief in the educational value of TV/videos for young children and the predictive value of this belief for understanding infant/toddler viewing rates, though other possible salient beliefs remain largely unexplored. This study employs the integrative model of behavioral prediction (Fishbein & Ajzen, 2010) to examine 30 maternal beliefs about infants’ and toddlers’ TV/video viewing which were elicited from a prior sample of mothers. Results indicate that mothers tend to hold more positive than negative beliefs about the outcomes associated with young children’s TV/video viewing, and that the nature of the aggregate set of beliefs is predictive of their general attitudes and intentions to allow their children to view, as well as children’s estimated viewing rates. Analyses also uncover multiple dimensions within the full set of beliefs, which explain more variance in mothers’ attitudes and intentions and children’s viewing than the uni-dimensional index. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:25431537

  4. The Nature and Predictive Value of Mothers' Beliefs Regarding Infants' and Toddlers' TV/Video Viewing: Applying the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction.

    PubMed

    Vaala, Sarah E

    2014-01-01

    Viewing television and video programming has become a normative behavior among US infants and toddlers. Little is understood about parents' decision-making about the extent of their young children's viewing, though numerous organizations are interested in reducing time spent viewing among infants and toddlers. Prior research has examined parents' belief in the educational value of TV/videos for young children and the predictive value of this belief for understanding infant/toddler viewing rates, though other possible salient beliefs remain largely unexplored. This study employs the integrative model of behavioral prediction (Fishbein & Ajzen, 2010) to examine 30 maternal beliefs about infants' and toddlers' TV/video viewing which were elicited from a prior sample of mothers. Results indicate that mothers tend to hold more positive than negative beliefs about the outcomes associated with young children's TV/video viewing, and that the nature of the aggregate set of beliefs is predictive of their general attitudes and intentions to allow their children to view, as well as children's estimated viewing rates. Analyses also uncover multiple dimensions within the full set of beliefs, which explain more variance in mothers' attitudes and intentions and children's viewing than the uni-dimensional index. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:25431537

  5. Improve Knowledge, Beliefs and Behavior of Undergraduate Female Nursing Students in Al-Alzhar University toward Breast Self-Examination Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Mohsen, Afaf S. Abd; El-Maksoud, Mona M. Abd

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is a public health problem that is most common form of cancer among females in both developed and developing world, The Health Belief Model (HBM) has been used as a theoretical framework to study Breast Self-Examination and other breast cancer detection behaviors. The aim of this study: Was to improve knowledge, beliefs and behavior…

  6. Latent constructs of the autobiographical memory questionnaire: a recollection-belief model of autobiographical experience.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Joseph M; Broadbridge, Carissa L

    2013-01-01

    Many researchers employ single-item scales of subjective experiences such as imagery and confidence to assess autobiographical memory. We tested the hypothesis that four latent constructs, recollection, belief, impact, and rehearsal, account for the variance in commonly used scales across four different types of autobiographical memory: earliest childhood memory, cue word memory of personal experience, highly vivid memory, and most stressful memory. Participants rated each memory on scales hypothesised to be indicators of one of four latent constructs. Multi-group confirmatory factor analyses and structural analyses confirmed the similarity of the latent constructs of recollection, belief, impact, and rehearsal, as well as the similarity of the structural relationships among those constructs across memory type. The observed pattern of mean differences between the varieties of autobiographical experiences was consistent with prior research and theory in the study of autobiographical memory. PMID:23013492

  7. A New DST-Belief Theoretic Project Selection Model for Multi-Criteria Decision Support System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakshi, Tuli; Sinharay, Arindam; Sarkar, Bijan; Sanyal, Subir Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Decision-making problem is co-related to quality and availability of the information. Innovative algorithms are proposed as a mathematical problem-solving technique to work in uncertainty-based decision science domain. Evidence-based theory of Dempster-Shafer (DST) is an effective mathematical tool to deal with uncertainty in the decision-making procedure. The current research exposition on new decision-making method based on DST of evidence, quantification evidence preference from different multiple criteria defined by belief function has been presented. They have developed a new framework that tackles the challenges and borne out of uncertainty both in criteria and in alternative levels. The proposed hybridized MCDM tool developed upon fuzzy domain uses plausibility and theory of belief function to construct decision on uncertain and imprecise information. The proposed method can be well fitted for real-life application. An illustrative example establishes the effectiveness of the aforesaid method.

  8. Dietary beliefs and eating patterns influence metabolic health in type 2 diabetes: A clinic-based study in urban North India

    PubMed Central

    Colles, Susan L.; Singh, Shweta; Kohli, Chhavi; Mithal, Ambrish

    2013-01-01

    Background: Almost 15% of India's urban adult populace now lives with type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to characterize the eating patterns, knowledge, beliefs, and determinants of food choice, and assess associations with the metabolic health among urban Asian Indians with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 258 individuals (mean age 55.7 ± 10 years; body mass index 27.1 ± 4.8 kg/m2; diabetes duration 10.1 ± 6.5 years) attending two out-patient clinics in New Delhi, India. Food-related information was collected during a semi-structured interview. Clinical, anthropometric, and biochemical data were recorded. Results: Beliefs related to health and diabetes played a role determining food choice and dietary patterns; erroneous views were associated with the poor food choices and greater metabolic perturbations. Average consumption of fruits/vegetables was low. Intakes were positively associated with intentions to manage diabetes; inversely associated with the waist circumference and negatively correlated with one's degree of personal responsibility for food choice. Household saturated fat usage was common. High fat intakes were positively associated with the taste preference, ratings of perceived “health-value;” waist circumference, glycosylated haemoglobin percentage (HbA1c%) and lipids. Conclusions: Strategies to enhance diabetes control among Asian Indians are required and should encourage fruit/vegetable intake, personal accountability, and consider individual beliefs and preferences. Greater emphasis and resources directed to regular dietary and behavioral counseling may assist. PMID:24381886

  9. Belief about nicotine selectively modulates value and reward prediction error signals in smokers.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiaosi; Lohrenz, Terry; Salas, Ramiro; Baldwin, Philip R; Soltani, Alireza; Kirk, Ulrich; Cinciripini, Paul M; Montague, P Read

    2015-02-24

    Little is known about how prior beliefs impact biophysically described processes in the presence of neuroactive drugs, which presents a profound challenge to the understanding of the mechanisms and treatments of addiction. We engineered smokers' prior beliefs about the presence of nicotine in a cigarette smoked before a functional magnetic resonance imaging session where subjects carried out a sequential choice task. Using a model-based approach, we show that smokers' beliefs about nicotine specifically modulated learning signals (value and reward prediction error) defined by a computational model of mesolimbic dopamine systems. Belief of "no nicotine in cigarette" (compared with "nicotine in cigarette") strongly diminished neural responses in the striatum to value and reward prediction errors and reduced the impact of both on smokers' choices. These effects of belief could not be explained by global changes in visual attention and were specific to value and reward prediction errors. Thus, by modulating the expression of computationally explicit signals important for valuation and choice, beliefs can override the physical presence of a potent neuroactive compound like nicotine. These selective effects of belief demonstrate that belief can modulate model-based parameters important for learning. The implications of these findings may be far ranging because belief-dependent effects on learning signals could impact a host of other behaviors in addiction as well as in other mental health problems. PMID:25605923

  10. Promoting Advance Care Planning as Health Behavior Change: Development of Scales to Assess Decisional Balance, Medical and Religious Beliefs, and Processes of Change

    PubMed Central

    Fried, Terri R.; Redding, Colleen A.; Robbins, Mark L.; Paiva, Andrea; O'Leary, John R.; Iannone, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To develop measures representing key constructs of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) of behavior change as applied to advance care planning (ACP) and to examine whether associations between these measures replicate the relationships posited by the TTM. Methods Sequential scale development techniques were used to develop measures for Decisional Balance (Pros and Cons of behavior change), ACP Values/Beliefs (religious beliefs and medical misconceptions serving as barriers to participation), Processes of Change (behavioral and cognitive processes used to foster participation) based on responses of 304 persons age ≥ 65 years. Results Items for each scale/subscale demonstrated high factor loading (> .5) and good to excellent internal consistency (Cronbach α .76–.93). Results of MANOVA examining scores on the Pros, Cons, ACP Values/Beliefs, and POC subscales by stage of change for each of the six behaviors were significant, Wilks' λ= .555–.809, η2=.068–.178, p ≤ .001 for all models. Conclusion Core constructs of the TTM as applied to ACP can be measured with high reliability and validity. Practice Implications Cross-sectional relationships between these constructs and stage of behavior change support the use of TTM-tailored interventions to change perceptions of the pros and cons of participation in ACP and promote the use of certain processes of change in order to promote older persons' engagement in ACP. PMID:21741194

  11. An empirical assessment of pain beliefs.

    PubMed

    Williams, D A; Thorn, B E

    1989-03-01

    Pain beliefs represent patients' own conceptualizations of what pain is and what pain means for them. Such beliefs may be discordant with current scientific understanding and may serve to adversely affect compliance with modern methods of chronic pain treatment. This study attempts to assess several of the core dimensions around which pain beliefs develop and examines the relationship between pain beliefs and behavioral manifestations of the pain experience. An empirically and factorially derived product of this study, the Pain Beliefs and Perceptions Inventory (PBAPI) assess 3 dimensions of pain beliefs: (1) self-blame, (2) perception of pain as mysterious, and (3) beliefs about the duration of pain. These core pain beliefs were found to be predictive of subjective pain intensity, multidisciplinary chronic pain treatment compliance, poor self-esteem, somatization and psychological distress, and associated with attributions about health locus of control. PMID:2710564

  12. Further insight into the role of metacognitive beliefs in schizophrenia and OCD patients: testing a mediation model.

    PubMed

    Bortolon, Catherine; Larøi, Frank; Stephan, Yannick; Capdevielle, Delphine; Yazbek, Hanan; Boulenger, Jean-Philippe; Gely-Nargeot, Marie-Christine; Raffard, Stéphane

    2014-12-15

    This study explored the mediation effect of metacognitive beliefs on the relationship between intrusive thoughts and emotional distress in schizophrenia (N=49) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) (N=35). Intrusive thoughts impact on anxiety and depression through beliefs about uncontrollability and danger of thoughts in schizophrenia. Negative beliefs in general mediated the effect of intrusive thoughts on anxiety in obsessive-compulsive disorder. The results suggest that metacognitive beliefs may be a vulnerability factor for emotional and psychological disorder. PMID:25150921

  13. The influence of uncertain map features on risk beliefs and perceived ambiguity for maps of modeled cancer risk from air pollution

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    Maps are often used to convey information generated by models, for example, modeled cancer risk from air pollution. The concrete nature of images, such as maps, may convey more certainty than warranted for modeled information. Three map features were selected to communicate the uncertainty of modeled cancer risk: (a) map contours appeared in or out of focus, (b) one or three colors were used, and (c) a verbal-relative or numeric risk expression was used in the legend. Study aims were to assess how these features influenced risk beliefs and the ambiguity of risk beliefs at four assigned map locations that varied by risk level. We applied an integrated conceptual framework to conduct this full factorial experiment with 32 maps that varied by the three dichotomous features and four risk levels; 826 university students participated. Data was analyzed using structural equation modeling. Unfocused contours and the verbal-relative risk expression generated more ambiguity than their counterparts. Focused contours generated stronger risk beliefs for higher risk levels and weaker beliefs for lower risk levels. Number of colors had minimal influence. The magnitude of risk level, conveyed using incrementally darker shading, had a substantial dose-response influence on the strength of risk beliefs. Personal characteristics of prior beliefs and numeracy also had substantial influences. Bottom-up and top-down information processing suggest why iconic visual features of incremental shading and contour focus had the strongest visual influences on risk beliefs and ambiguity. Variations in contour focus and risk expression show promise for fostering appropriate levels of ambiguity. PMID:22985196

  14. Application of Health Promotion Theories and Models for Environmental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Edith A.; Baldwin, Grant T.; Israel, Barbara; Salinas, Maria A.

    2004-01-01

    The field of environmental health promotion gained new prominence in recent years as awareness of physical environmental stressors and exposures increased in communities across the country and the world. Although many theories and conceptual models are used routinely to guide health promotion and health education interventions, they are rarely…

  15. "Are They Becoming More Reflective and/or Efficacious?" A Conceptual Model Mapping How Teachers' Self-Efficacy Beliefs Might Grow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Conceptual models can fulfil important educative roles, particularly in fields where there are few such models and where constructs are confused, as in research into teachers' self-efficacy beliefs. In this area, one model developed in the late twentieth century subsequently became dominant, but seems flawed. This article addresses criticisms of…

  16. A belief-based model for characterizing the spread of awareness and its impacts on individuals' vaccination decisions

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Shang; Liu, Jiming

    2014-01-01

    During an epidemic, individuals' decisions on whether or not to take vaccine may affect the dynamics of disease spread and, therefore, the effectiveness of disease control. Empirical studies have shown that such decisions can be subjected to individuals' awareness about disease and vaccine, such as their perceived disease severity and vaccine safety. The aim of this paper is to gain a better understanding of individuals' vaccination behaviour by modelling the spread of awareness in a group of socially connected individuals and examining the associated impacts on their vaccination decision-making. In our model, we examine whether or not individuals will get vaccinated as well as when they would. In doing so, we consider three possible decisions from an individual, i.e. to accept, to reject, and yet to decide, and further associate them with a set of belief values. Next, we extend the Dempster–Shafer theory to characterize individuals' belief value updates and their decision-making, having incorporated the awareness obtained from their connected neighbours. Furthermore, we examine two factors that will affect individuals' vaccination decisions: (i) reporting rates of disease- and vaccine-related events, and (ii) fading coefficient of awareness spread. By doing so, we can assess the impacts of awareness spread by evaluating the vaccination dynamics in terms of the number of vaccinated individuals. The results have demonstrated that the former influences the ratio of vaccinated individuals, whereas the latter affects the time when individuals decide to take vaccine. PMID:24598205

  17. Cognitive biases explain religious belief, paranormal belief, and belief in life's purpose.

    PubMed

    Willard, Aiyana K; Norenzayan, Ara

    2013-11-01

    Cognitive theories of religion have postulated several cognitive biases that predispose human minds towards religious belief. However, to date, these hypotheses have not been tested simultaneously and in relation to each other, using an individual difference approach. We used a path model to assess the extent to which several interacting cognitive tendencies, namely mentalizing, mind body dualism, teleological thinking, and anthropomorphism, as well as cultural exposure to religion, predict belief in God, paranormal beliefs and belief in life's purpose. Our model, based on two independent samples (N=492 and N=920) found that the previously known relationship between mentalizing and belief is mediated by individual differences in dualism, and to a lesser extent by teleological thinking. Anthropomorphism was unrelated to religious belief, but was related to paranormal belief. Cultural exposure to religion (mostly Christianity) was negatively related to anthropomorphism, and was unrelated to any of the other cognitive tendencies. These patterns were robust for both men and women, and across at least two ethnic identifications. The data were most consistent with a path model suggesting that mentalizing comes first, which leads to dualism and teleology, which in turn lead to religious, paranormal, and life's-purpose beliefs. Alternative theoretical models were tested but did not find empirical support. PMID:23974049

  18. Illness causal beliefs in Turkish immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Minas, Harry; Klimidis, Steven; Tuncer, Can

    2007-01-01

    acculturative influences. Different types of causal beliefs are held in relation to somatic or mental illness, and a variety of apparently logically incompatible beliefs may be concurrently held. Illness causal beliefs are dynamic and are related to demographic, modernizing, and acculturative factors, and to the current presence of illness. Any assumption of uniformity of illness causal beliefs within a community, even one that is relatively culturally homogeneous, is likely to be misleading. A better understanding of the diversity, and determinants, of illness causal beliefs can be of value in improving our understanding of illness experience, the clinical process, and in developing more effective health services and population health strategies. PMID:17645806

  19. The Relationships among Chinese Practicing Teachers' Epistemic Beliefs, Pedagogical Beliefs and Their Beliefs about the Use of ICT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Feng; Chai, Ching Sing; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Lee, Min-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationships among practicing teachers' epistemic beliefs, pedagogical beliefs and their beliefs about the use of ICT through survey methodology. Participants were 396 high school practicing teachers from mainland China. The path analysis results analyzed via structural equation modelling technique…

  20. Community breastfeeding attitudes and beliefs.

    PubMed

    Vari, Patty; Vogeltanz-Holm, Nancy; Olsen, Glenn; Anderson, Cindy; Holm, Jeffrey; Peterson, Heidi; Henly, Susan

    2013-07-01

    The cultural norms of a society have a powerful influence over health behavior decisions such as choosing an infant feeding method. The objective of this study was to explore the community breastfeeding perspective by examining breastfeeding attitudes and beliefs, experiences, and behaviors of a U.S. university community through an online survey. Linear and logistic regressions were used to determine predictors of those who had breastfed and those with positive breastfeeding attitudes and beliefs. Through the findings, the researchers suggest that exposure to breastfeeding and increasing positive breastfeeding attitudes and beliefs are important as the focus for public breastfeeding campaigns. PMID:23391135

  1. LinguisticBelief and PoolEvidence

    SciTech Connect

    DARBY, JOHN

    2008-03-11

    LinguisticBelief allows the creation and analysis of combinations of linguistic variables with epistemic uncertainty for decision making. The model is solved using approximate reasoning to implement the belief/plausibility measure of uncertainty for combinations of variables expressed as purely linguistic fuzzy sets. PoolEvidence pools evidence for linguistic variables from many experts for input into LinguisticBelief.

  2. Parent-Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health Communication Is Very Limited and Associated with Adolescent Poor Behavioral Beliefs and Subjective Norms: Evidence from a Community Based Cross-Sectional Study in Eastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Introduction While parent-adolescent sexual and reproductive health (SRH) communication is one potential source of SRH information for adolescents, it appears to be inadequately practiced in Ethiopia. This study was designed to investigate the factors that limit or improve parent-adolescent SRH communication in Harar, Eastern Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was done on 4,559 adolescents of age 13–18. SRH communication was measured using a nine-item scale whose response ranged from “not at all” to “always.” Summated composite score ranging from 0–36 was generated; higher score indicates high SRH communication. A median value of the composite score was 4 out of the possible 36 with an Interquartile Range (IQR) of 7. Respondents were ranked as very poor, poor and satisfactory communicators based on 33rd and 67th percentiles values. Generalized ordered logit model was applied to investigate the factors associated with SRH communication. Results Results showed that the adolescents who were more likely to practice poor-very poor/very poor SRH communication were those who had poor behavioral beliefs on and poor subjective norms of communicating sexual issues with parents and those who perceived their parents’ reproductive health (RH) knowledge as poor. Nonetheless, the probability of poor-very poor/very poor SRH communication was less with high adolescent-parent communication quality, television co-viewing and discussions, and self-disclosure. Conclusions Curtailing the adolescents’ underlying poor beliefs and norms, and improving adolescent-parent communication quality, self-disclosure, and television co-viewing and discussions are essential to engage the parents in sexual and reproductive health education of the adolescents. PMID:26167860

  3. Acceptance of health information technology in health professionals: an application of the revised technology acceptance model.

    PubMed

    Ketikidis, Panayiotis; Dimitrovski, Tomislav; Lazuras, Lambros; Bath, Peter A

    2012-06-01

    The response of health professionals to the use of health information technology (HIT) is an important research topic that can partly explain the success or failure of any HIT application. The present study applied a modified version of the revised technology acceptance model (TAM) to assess the relevant beliefs and acceptance of HIT systems in a sample of health professionals (n = 133). Structured anonymous questionnaires were used and a cross-sectional design was employed. The main outcome measure was the intention to use HIT systems. ANOVA was employed to examine differences in TAM-related variables between nurses and medical doctors, and no significant differences were found. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the predictors of HIT usage intentions. The findings showed that perceived ease of use, but not usefulness, relevance and subjective norms directly predicted HIT usage intentions. The present findings suggest that a modification of the original TAM approach is needed to better understand health professionals' support and endorsement of HIT. Perceived ease of use, relevance of HIT to the medical and nursing professions, as well as social influences, should be tapped by information campaigns aiming to enhance support for HIT in healthcare settings. PMID:22733680

  4. Changing Pre-Service Mathematics Teachers' Beliefs about Using Computers for Teaching and Learning Mathematics: The Effect of Three Different Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karatas, Ilhan

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effect of three different computer integration models on pre-service mathematics teachers' beliefs about using computers in mathematics education. Participants included 104 pre-service mathematics teachers (36 second-year students in the Computer Oriented Model group, 35 fourth-year students in the Integrated Model…

  5. The theory of reasoned action as parallel constraint satisfaction: towards a dynamic computational model of health behavior.

    PubMed

    Orr, Mark G; Thrush, Roxanne; Plaut, David C

    2013-01-01

    The reasoned action approach, although ubiquitous in health behavior theory (e.g., Theory of Reasoned Action/Planned Behavior), does not adequately address two key dynamical aspects of health behavior: learning and the effect of immediate social context (i.e., social influence). To remedy this, we put forth a computational implementation of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) using artificial-neural networks. Our model re-conceptualized behavioral intention as arising from a dynamic constraint satisfaction mechanism among a set of beliefs. In two simulations, we show that constraint satisfaction can simultaneously incorporate the effects of past experience (via learning) with the effects of immediate social context to yield behavioral intention, i.e., intention is dynamically constructed from both an individual's pre-existing belief structure and the beliefs of others in the individual's social context. In a third simulation, we illustrate the predictive ability of the model with respect to empirically derived behavioral intention. As the first known computational model of health behavior, it represents a significant advance in theory towards understanding the dynamics of health behavior. Furthermore, our approach may inform the development of population-level agent-based models of health behavior that aim to incorporate psychological theory into models of population dynamics. PMID:23671603

  6. Mental Health Difficulties and Help-Seeking Beliefs within a Sample of Female Partners of UK Veterans Diagnosed with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Dominic; Palmer, Emily; Busuttil, Walter

    2016-01-01

    In the UK there is a paucity of research about the needs of partners who are supporting ex-service personnel with mental health difficulties. In this study, we surveyed the mental health needs and barriers to help-seeking within a sample of partners of UK veterans who had been diagnosed with PTSD. Our sample included 100 participants. Forty-five percent met criteria for alcohol problems, 39% for depression, 37% for generalised anxiety disorder and 17% for symptoms of probable PTSD. Participants who met case criteria for depression, anxiety and problems with alcohol were more likely to report a greater number of help-seeking barriers. Participants who were experiencing mental health difficulties were more likely to endorse barriers connected to stigmatising beliefs than those associated with practical issues around accessing mental health services. The evidence presented suggests there may be a considerable burden of mental illness within this population. It would seem prudent to conduct further work to understand how best to address this clinical need. PMID:27490576

  7. Mental Health Difficulties and Help-Seeking Beliefs within a Sample of Female Partners of UK Veterans Diagnosed with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Dominic; Palmer, Emily; Busuttil, Walter

    2016-01-01

    In the UK there is a paucity of research about the needs of partners who are supporting ex-service personnel with mental health difficulties. In this study, we surveyed the mental health needs and barriers to help-seeking within a sample of partners of UK veterans who had been diagnosed with PTSD. Our sample included 100 participants. Forty-five percent met criteria for alcohol problems, 39% for depression, 37% for generalised anxiety disorder and 17% for symptoms of probable PTSD. Participants who met case criteria for depression, anxiety and problems with alcohol were more likely to report a greater number of help-seeking barriers. Participants who were experiencing mental health difficulties were more likely to endorse barriers connected to stigmatising beliefs than those associated with practical issues around accessing mental health services. The evidence presented suggests there may be a considerable burden of mental illness within this population. It would seem prudent to conduct further work to understand how best to address this clinical need. PMID:27490576

  8. School climate and teachers' beliefs and attitudes associated with implementation of the positive action program: a diffusion of innovations model.

    PubMed

    Beets, Michael W; Flay, Brian R; Vuchinich, Samuel; Acock, Alan C; Li, Kin-Kit; Allred, Carol

    2008-12-01

    Teacher- and school-level factors influence the fidelity of implementation of school-based prevention and social character and development (SACD) programs. Using a diffusion of innovations framework, the relationships among teacher beliefs and attitudes towards a prevention/SACD program and the influence of a school's administrative support and perceptions of school connectedness, characteristics of a school's climate, were specified in two cross-sectional mediation models of program implementation. Implementation was defined as the amount of the programs' curriculum delivered (e.g., lessons taught), and use of program-specific materials in the classroom (e.g., ICU boxes and notes) and in relation to school-wide activities (e.g., participation in assemblies). Teachers from 10 elementary schools completed year-end process evaluation reports for year 2 (N = 171) and 3 (N = 191) of a multi-year trial. Classroom and school-wide material usage were each favorably associated with the amount of the curriculum delivered, which were associated with teachers' attitudes toward the program which, in turn, were related to teachers' beliefs about SACD. These, in turn, were associated with teachers' perceptions of school climate. Perceptions of school climate were indirectly related to classroom material usage and both indirectly and directly related to the use of school-wide activities. Program developers need to consider the importance of a supportive environment on program implementation and attempt to incorporate models of successful school leadership and collaboration among teachers that foster a climate promoting cohesiveness, shared visions, and support. PMID:18780182

  9. Development and Psychometric Testing of the Iceland-Family Illness Beliefs Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Gisladottir, Margret; Svavarsdottir, Erla Kolbrun

    2016-08-01

    Illness beliefs affect how individuals and families deal with illness. A valid and reliable instrument has not yet been developed to measure "illness beliefs" in family nursing research and clinical practice. This article describes the purpose, reliability, validity, and the potential clinical and research applications of a new instrument, the Iceland-Family Illness Beliefs Questionnaire (ICE-FIBQ). The ICE-FIBQ is a short, self-report measure of an individual's beliefs about illness. Drawing from an advanced nursing practice model called the Illness Beliefs Model, the instrument was developed to measure illness beliefs about (a) cause of illness, that is, etiology; (b) control of illness on family and control of family on illness; (c) effect of illness on the individual and family; (d) illness suffering; and (e) support received from health care professionals during illness. The instrument was tested on 139 family caregivers of adolescents/youth with an illness or a disorder. Exploratory factor analysis reduced the original questionnaire from eight to seven items with a one-factor solution (Cronbach's α = .780). Confirmatory factor analysis supported the one-factor solution (Cronbach's α = .789). Further research is needed to determine concurrent validity with other illness belief/illness perception scales and if the instrument is sensitive to capture change in illness beliefs following family nursing intervention. PMID:27496811

  10. How risky is it to use e-cigarettes? Smokers' beliefs about their health risks from using novel and traditional tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Pepper, Jessica K; Emery, Sherry L; Ribisl, Kurt M; Rini, Christine M; Brewer, Noel T

    2015-04-01

    We sought to understand smokers' perceived likelihood of health problems from using cigarettes and four non-cigarette tobacco products (NCTPs: e-cigarettes, snus, dissolvable tobacco, and smokeless tobacco). A US national sample of 6,607 adult smokers completed an online survey in March 2013. Participants viewed e-cigarette use as less likely to cause lung cancer, oral cancer, or heart disease compared to smoking regular cigarettes (all p < .001). This finding was robust for all demographic groups. Participants viewed using NCTPs other than e-cigarettes as more likely to cause oral cancer than smoking cigarettes but less likely to cause lung cancer. The dramatic increase in e-cigarette use may be due in part to the belief that they are less risky to use than cigarettes, unlike the other NCTPs. Future research should examine trajectories in perceived likelihood of harm from e-cigarette use and whether they affect regular and electronic cigarette use. PMID:25348584

  11. How risky is it to use e-cigarettes? Smokers’ beliefs about their health risks from using novel and traditional tobacco products

    PubMed Central

    Emery, Sherry L.; Ribisl, Kurt M.; Rini, Christine M.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2015-01-01

    We sought to understand smokers’ perceived likelihood of health problems from using cigarettes and four non-cigarette tobacco products (NCTPs: e-cigarettes, snus, dissolvable tobacco, and smokeless tobacco). A US national sample of 6,607 adult smokers completed an online survey in March 2013. Participants viewed e-cigarette use as less likely to cause lung cancer, oral cancer, or heart disease compared to smoking regular cigarettes (all p < .001). This finding was robust for all demographic groups. Participants viewed using NCTPs other than e-cigarettes as more likely to cause oral cancer than smoking cigarettes but less likely to cause lung cancer. The dramatic increase in e-cigarette use may be due in part to the belief that they are less risky to use than cigarettes, unlike the other NCTPs. Future research should examine trajectories in perceived likelihood of harm from e-cigarette use and whether they affect regular and electronic cigarette use. PMID:25348584

  12. Implementation of Mexico's Health Promotion Operational Model.

    PubMed

    Santos-Burgoa, Carlos; Rodríguez-Cabrera, Lucero; Rivero, Lilia; Ochoa, Jorge; Stanford, Adriana; Latinovic, Ljubica; Rueda, Gretel

    2009-01-01

    Mexico is undergoing profound health reform, extending health insurance to previously uninsured populations and changing the way health care services are delivered. Legislation enacted in 2003 and implemented in 2004 mandated funding and infrastructure that will allow 52% of Mexico's population to access medical care at no cost by 2010. This ambitious social reform has not been without challenges, particularly financial sustainability. Health promotion, because of its potential to prevent or delay chronic diseases and injuries and their associated costs, is a key component of health care reform. In 2006, the Ministry of Health's General Directorate of Health Promotion developed the Health Promotion Operational Model. Based on Ottawa Charter functions, the model integrates health promotion activities within the overall health care system. The main goal of this model is to build strong human capital and to improve organizational capacity for health promotion starting at the local level by training health care personnel to implement health promotion activities. Organizational development workshops started in 2006, and implementation plans in all 32 Mexican states were in place by end of 2008. PMID:19080038

  13. Beliefs about language development: construct validity evidence.

    PubMed

    Donahue, Mavis L; Fu, Qiong; Smith, Everett V

    2012-01-01

    Understanding language development is incomplete without recognizing children's sociocultural environments, including adult beliefs about language development. Yet there is a need for data supporting valid inferences to assess these beliefs. The current study investigated the psychometric properties of data from a survey (MODeL) designed to explore beliefs in the popular culture, and their alignment with more formal theories. Support for the content, substantive, structural, generalizability, and external aspects of construct validity of the data were investigated. Subscales representing Behaviorist, Cognitive, Nativist, and Sociolinguistic models were identified as dimensions of beliefs. More than half of the items showed a high degree of consensus, suggesting culturally-transmitted beliefs. Behaviorist ideas were most popular. Bilingualism and ethnicity were related to Cognitive and Sociolinguistic beliefs. Identifying these beliefs may clarify the nature of child-directed speech, and enable the design of language intervention programs that are congruent with family and cultural expectations. PMID:23270979

  14. Modeling the Interrelationships among Pre-Service Science Teachers' Understanding and Acceptance of Evolution, Their Views on Nature of Science and Self-Efficacy Beliefs regarding Teaching Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akyol, Gulsum; Tekkaya, Ceren; Sungur, Semra; Traynor, Anne

    2012-01-01

    This study proposed a path model of relationships among understanding and acceptance of evolution, views on nature of science, and self-efficacy beliefs regarding teaching evolution. A total of 415 pre-service science teachers completed a series of self-report instruments for the specified purpose. After the estimation of scale scores using…

  15. Analysis of the Relation between Academic Procrastination, Academic Rational/Irrational Beliefs, Time Preferences to Study for Exams, and Academic Achievement: A Structural Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balkis, Murat; Duru, Erdinc; Bulus, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relations between academic rational/irrational beliefs, academic procrastination, and time preferences to study for exams and academic achievement by using the structural equation model. The sample consisted of 281 undergraduate students who filled in questionnaires at the 7-week-long summer course.…

  16. Measurement of math beliefs and their associations with math behaviors in college students.

    PubMed

    Hendy, Helen M; Schorschinsky, Nancy; Wade, Barbara

    2014-12-01

    Our purpose in the present study was to expand understanding of math beliefs in college students by developing 3 new psychometrically tested scales as guided by expectancy-value theory, self-efficacy theory, and health belief model. Additionally, we identified which math beliefs (and which theory) best explained variance in math behaviors and performance by college students and which students were most likely to have problematic math beliefs. Study participants included 368 college math students who completed questionnaires to report math behaviors (attending class, doing homework, reading textbooks, asking for help) and used a 5-point rating scale to indicate a variety of math beliefs. For a subset of 84 students, math professors provided final math grades. Factor analyses produced a 10-item Math Value Scale with 2 subscales (Class Devaluation, No Future Value), a 7-item single-dimension Math Confidence Scale, and an 11-item Math Barriers Scale with 2 subscales (Math Anxiety, Discouraging Words). Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that high levels of the newly discovered class devaluation belief (guided by expectancy-value theory) were most consistently associated with poor math behaviors in college students, with high math anxiety (guided by health belief model) and low math confidence (guided by self-efficacy theory) also found to be significant. Analyses of covariance revealed that younger and male students were at increased risk for class devaluation and older students were at increased risk for poor math confidence. PMID:25133460

  17. The Role of Competence and Value Beliefs in Students' Daily Emotional Experiences: A Multilevel Test of a Transactional Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Wondimu; Minnaert, Alexander; van der Werf, Greetje; Kuyper, Hans

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the mutual influence of relatively stable personal competence and value beliefs and lesson specific appraisals of competence and value on daily emotional experiences of students in the classroom context. Personal competence and value beliefs were measured by means of questionnaire whereas appraisals and daily emotions were…

  18. "Sex Education Should be Taught, Fine... But We Make Sure They Control Themselves:" Teachers' Beliefs and Attitudes towards Young People's Sexual and Reproductive Health in a Ugandan Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iyer, Padmini; Aggleton, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Although schools have been identified as important settings in which young people's sexual and reproductive health (SRH) can be promoted, there has been limited research into the role of teachers in delivering sex education programmes. This paper describes findings from a qualitative study of teachers' beliefs and attitudes towards young…

  19. Beliefs, perceptions and health-seeking behaviours in relation to cervical cancer: a qualitative study among women in Uganda following completion of an HPV vaccination campaign

    PubMed Central

    Hasahya, Olivia Topister; Berggren, Vanja; Sematimba, Douglas; Nabirye, Rose Chalo; Kumakech, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Uganda. Despite earlier information campaigns to introduce human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination, which also targeted cervical cancer, misinterpretation and misunderstanding of the subject remain high. Women in Uganda present with cervical cancer at an advanced stage due to poor health-seeking behaviours, with an associated high mortality rate. This project explored beliefs, attitudes, perceptions, and health-seeking behaviours in relation to cervical cancer among women in Uganda after an HPV vaccination project had been rolled out. Design A qualitative study design was used, with six focus group discussions (FGDs) that included 36 women, aged 25–49 years, with no previous history of cervical cancer symptoms or diagnosis. The women were interviewed in February and March 2013. The transcribed data was analysed using content analysis. Results Three themes emerged: feeling unprotected and unsafe, misbelief and wondering about cervical cancer, and fear of the testing procedure. Participating women had heard of cervical cancer but preferred to wait to access cervical cancer screening until symptom debut. Conclusions There are still barriers to cervical cancer screening among women in Uganda, where there is a need for culture-specific, sensitive information and interventions to address the issues of improving the cervical cancer screening uptake among these women. Societal context needs to be taken into account when implementing community-based health education. PMID:26895145

  20. The Implications of Death for Health: A Terror Management Health Model for Behavioral Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldenberg, Jamie L.; Arndt, Jamie

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces a terror management health model (TMHM). The model integrates disparate health and social psychology literatures to elucidate how the conscious and nonconscious awareness of death can influence the motivational orientation that is most operative in the context of health decisions. Three formal propositions are presented.…

  1. Community health needs assessment with precede-proceed model: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ying; Cao, Jia; Lin, Hui; Li, Daikun; Wang, Yang; He, Jia

    2009-01-01

    Background Community health services in China have developed over the last few decades. In order to use limited health resources more effectively, we conducted a community health needs assessment. This aimed to provide an understanding of the community's health problems and the range of potential factors affecting risk behaviours for the priority health problems. Methods We used the precede-proceed model for the needs assessment. Triangulation of data, methods and researchers were employed in data collection. Results Main findings include: cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) were identified as the priority health problems in the study communities; risk factors associated with CVDs included smoking, physical inactivity and unhealthy eating behaviours, particularly amongst male residents with low education level; factors negatively affecting behaviours were classified into predisposing factors (limited knowledge, beliefs and lack of perceived needs), enabling factors (limited access to health promotion activities, unawareness of health promotion, lack of work-site and school health promotion, absence of health promotion related policy) and reinforcing factors (culture). Policies and organization were not perfect; there were limited staff skilled in providing health promotion in the community. Conclusion CVDs were identified by the communities as priority health problems. Future health programs should focus on smoking, physical inactivity and unhealthy eating behaviours. Behaviour change strategies should take predisposing factors, enabling factors and reinforcing factors into consideration. Policies, organization and human resource need strengthening. PMID:19814832

  2. A Population Health Model for Integrated Assessment Models

    SciTech Connect

    Pitcher, Hugh M.; Ebi, Kristie L.; Brenkert, Antoinette L.

    2008-05-01

    This paper presents the initial results of a project to develop a population health model so we can extend the scenarios included in the IPCC's Special Report on Emissions Scenarios to include population health status.

  3. A comparative study on the landslide susceptibility mapping using evidential belief function and weights of evidence models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiqing; Li, Wenping; Wu, Yanli; Pei, Yabing; Xing, Maolin; Yang, Dongdong

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to produce landslide susceptibility map of a landslide-prone area (Daguan County, China) by evidential belief function (EBF) model and weights of evidence (WoE) model to compare the results obtained. For this purpose, a landslide inventory map was constructed mainly based on earlier reports and aerial photographs, as well as, by carrying out field surveys. A total of 194 landslides were mapped. Then, the landslide inventory was randomly split into a training dataset; 70% (136 landslides) for training the models and the remaining 30% (58 landslides) was used for validation purpose. Then, a total number of 14 conditioning factors, such as slope angle, slope aspect, general curvature, plan curvature, profile curvature, altitude, distance from rivers, distance from roads, distance from faults, lithology, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), sediment transport index (STI), stream power index (SPI), and topographic wetness index (TWI) were used in the analysis. Subsequently, landslide susceptibility maps were produced using the EBF and WoE models. Finally, the validation of landslide susceptibility map was accomplished with the area under the curve (AUC) method. The success rate curve showed that the area under the curve for EBF and WoE models were of 80.19% and 80.75% accuracy, respectively. Similarly, the validation result showed that the susceptibility map using EBF model has the prediction accuracy of 80.09%, while for WoE model, it was 79.79%. The results of this study showed that both landslide susceptibility maps obtained were successful and would be useful for regional spatial planning as well as for land cover planning.

  4. Pediatrician Interventions and Thirdhand Smoke Beliefs of Parents

    PubMed Central

    Drehmer, Jeremy E.; Ossip, Deborah J.; Rigotti, Nancy A.; Nabi, Emara; Woo, Heide; Wasserman, Richard C.; Chang, Yuchiao; Winickoff, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Thirdhand smoke is residual tobacco smoke contamination that remains after a cigarette is extinguished. A national study indicates that adults’ belief that thirdhand smoke (THS) harms children is associated with strict household no-smoking policies. The question of whether pediatricians can influence THS beliefs has not been assessed. Purpose To identify prevalence of THS beliefs and associated factors among smoking parents, and the association of pediatrician intervention on parent belief that THS is harmful to their children. Methods Exit interview data were collected from 1980 parents following a pediatric office visit. Parents' level of agreement or disagreement that THS can harm the health of babies and children was assessed. A multivariate logistic regression model was constructed to identify whether pediatricians’ actions were independently associated with parental belief that THS can harm the health of babies and children. Data were collected from 2009 to 2011, and analyses were conducted in 2012. Results Ninety-one percent of parents believed that THS can harm the health of babies and children. Fathers (AOR 0.59 [95% CI=0.42, 0.84]) and parents who smoked >10 cigarettes per day (AOR 0.63 [95% CI=0.45, 0.88]) were less likely to agree with this statement. In contrast, parents who received advice (AOR 1.60 [95% CI=1.04, 2.45]) to have a smokefree home or car or to quit smoking and parents who were referred (AOR 3.42 [95% CI=1.18, 9.94]) to a “quitline” or other cessation program were more likely to agree that THS can be harmful. Conclusions Fathers and heavier smokers were less likely to believe that THS is harmful. However, pediatricians’ actions to encourage smoking parents to quit or adopt smokefree home or car policies were associated with parental beliefs that THS harms children. PMID:23079177

  5. Applying business management models in health care.

    PubMed

    Trisolini, Michael G

    2002-01-01

    Most health care management training programmes and textbooks focus on only one or two models or conceptual frameworks, but the increasing complexity of health care organizations and their environments worldwide means that a broader perspective is needed. This paper reviews five management models developed for business organizations and analyses issues related to their application in health care. Three older, more 'traditional' models are first presented. These include the functional areas model, the tasks model and the roles model. Each is shown to provide a valuable perspective, but to have limitations if used in isolation. Two newer, more 'innovative' models are next discussed. These include total quality management (TQM) and reengineering. They have shown potential for enabling dramatic improvements in quality and cost, but have also been found to be more difficult to implement. A series of 'lessons learned' are presented to illustrate key success factors for applying them in health care organizations. In sum, each of the five models is shown to provide a useful perspective for health care management. Health care managers should gain experience and training with a broader set of business management models. PMID:12476639

  6. Evolution of Religious Beliefs

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Humans may be distinguished from all other animals in having beliefs about the causal interaction of physical objects. Causal beliefs are a developmental primitive in human children; animals, by contrast, have very few causal beliefs. The origin of human causal beliefs comes from the evolutionary advantage it gave in relation to complex tool making and use. Causal beliefs gave rise religion and mystical thinking as our ancestors wanted to know the causes of events that affected their lives.

  7. Evolution of Religious Beliefs

    SciTech Connect

    2009-08-13

    Humans may be distinguished from all other animals in having beliefs about the causal interaction of physical objects. Causal beliefs are a developmental primitive in human children; animals, by contrast, have very few causal beliefs. The origin of human causal beliefs comes from the evolutionary advantage it gave in relation to complex tool making and use. Causal beliefs gave rise religion and mystical thinking as our ancestors wanted to know the causes of events that affected their lives.

  8. Undergraduate Engineering Students' Beliefs, Coping Strategies, and Academic Performance: An Evaluation of Theoretical Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Pei-Hsuan; Sullivan, Jeremy R.; Sass, Daniel A.; Guerra, Norma S.

    2012-01-01

    Research has identified factors associated with academic success by evaluating relations among psychological and academic variables, although few studies have examined theoretical models to understand the complex links. This study used structural equation modeling to investigate whether the relation between test anxiety and final course grades was…

  9. Attitudes and beliefs about hepatitis B vaccination among gay men: the Birmingham Measurement Study.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; Hergenrather, Kenneth C

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to develop reliable and valid quantitative measures of the beliefs and attitudes toward hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination among gay men, using a community-based participatory research approach. A convenience sample of 358 gay men was recruited in two gay bars. Exploratory factor analysis performed on the first split-half sample was used to assess the factor structure from five scales measuring beliefs about HBV vaccination. The scales were based on constructs from the health belief model and the social cognitive theory. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed on the remaining half-sample using structural equation modeling. Multivariable analysis further validated the scales. These findings propose standardized measures that may be useful in assessing the beliefs and attitudes of gay men toward HBV vaccination to guide intervention design and evaluation. PMID:18928048

  10. College Student Alcohol Use and Abuse: Social Norms, Health Beliefs, and Selected Socio-Demographic Variables as Explanatory Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champion, Denisha A.; Lewis, Todd F.; Myers, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Surgeon General described college alcohol abuse as the most significant public health concern on university campuses (DHHS, 2007). Social norms have been identified as a strong predictor of college drinking and yet programs based on norms have had limited effectiveness in changing drinking behavior. Other theoretical explanations, such as…

  11. Perceptions and Beliefs about the Role of Physical Activity and Nutrition on Brain Health in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Sara; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Mathews, Anna E.; Laditka, James N.; Laditka, Sarah B.; Logsdon, Rebecca G.; Sahyoun, Nadine; Robare, Joseph F.; Liu, Rui

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine older adults' perceptions of the link between physical activity (PA) and nutrition to the maintenance of cognitive health. Design and Methods: Forty-two focus groups (FGs) were conducted with 396 ethnically diverse (White, African American, American Indian, Chinese, Vietnamese, and Hispanic) community-dwelling older adults. FGs…

  12. Identifying the HIV Testing Beliefs of Healthcare Provider Staff at a University Student Health Center: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Cornelia A.

    2012-01-01

    This research project examined the views and perceptions of healthcare provider staff regarding HIV testing and the implementation of HIV testing as a routine part of medical practice in a university student health center at a Historically Black College or University (HBCU). This study further explored whether healthcare provider staff promoted…

  13. Beliefs about using an outdoor pool: Understanding perceptions of place in the context of a recreational environment to improve health.

    PubMed

    Middlestadt, Susan E; Anderson, Austin; Ramos, William D

    2015-07-01

    Following the Reasoned Action Approach, an online survey of 74 outdoor pool users illustrates how a theory-based behavioral analysis can be used to identify people's perceptions of a place in their environment. Regression analysis of close-ended data demonstrated that intention "to use the outdoor pool next summer season" was predicted (R(2)=.636, p<.0001) from the weighted combination of attitude (β=.663, p<.0001) and perceived control (β=.197, p<.05). The importance of attitude suggests that use can be encouraged by addressing advantages. The content analysis of open-ended elicitation data revealed that users believed that pool use provides physical, social, and emotional advantages and could be made easier by modifying facility parameters. Implications for promoting and designing public health spaces to attract users to aquatic environments and to improve health are discussed. PMID:25863180

  14. Framing the impact of culture on health: a systematic review of the PEN-3 cultural model and its application in public health research and interventions

    PubMed Central

    Iwelunmor, Juliet; Newsome, Valerie; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This paper reviews available studies that applied the PEN-3 cultural model to address the impact of culture on health behaviors. Methods We search electronic databases and conducted a thematic analysis of empirical studies that applied the PEN-3 cultural model to address the impact of culture on health behaviors. Studies were mapped to describe their methods, target population and the health behaviors or health outcomes studied. Forty-five studies met the inclusion criteria. Results The studies reviewed used the PEN-3 model as a theoretical framework to centralize culture in the study of health behaviors and to integrate culturally relevant factors in the development of interventions. The model was also used as an analysis tool, to sift through text and data in order to separate, define and delineate emerging themes. PEN-3 model was also significant with exploring not only how cultural context shapes health beliefs and practices, but also how family systems play a critical role in enabling or nurturing positive health behaviors and health outcomes. Finally, the studies reviewed highlighted the utility of the model with examining cultural practices that are critical to positive health behaviors, unique practices that have a neutral impact on health and the negative factors that are likely to have an adverse influence on health. Discussion The limitations of model and the role for future studies are discussed relative to the importance of using PEN-3 cultural model to explore the influence of culture in promoting positive health behaviors, eliminating health disparities and designing and implementing sustainable public health interventions. PMID:24266638

  15. Personal Globe Inventory: Measurement of the Spherical Model of Interests and Competence Beliefs. Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracey, Terence J. G.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the development of the Personal Globe Inventory, based on a spherical model of interests, which contains 18 scales representing people/things, data/ideas, and prestige dimensions of occupations. Discusses tests of reliability and construct validity and provides five sample interpretations of its use. (Contains 69 references.) (SK)

  16. The Relations between Implicit Intelligence Beliefs, Autonomous Academic Motivation, and School Persistence Intentions: A Mediation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renaud-Dubé, Andréanne; Guay, Frédéric; Talbot, Denis; Taylor, Geneviève; Koestner, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This study attempts to test a model in which the relation between implicit theories of intelligence and students' school persistence intentions are mediated by intrinsic, identified, introjected, and external regulations. Six hundred and fifty students from a high school were surveyed. Contrary to expectations, results from ESEM analyses indicated…

  17. Simulation modeling for the health care manager.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Michael H

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the use of simulation software to solve administrative problems faced by health care managers. Spreadsheet add-ins, process simulation software, and discrete event simulation software are available at a range of costs and complexity. All use the Monte Carlo method to realistically integrate probability distributions into models of the health care environment. Problems typically addressed by health care simulation modeling are facility planning, resource allocation, staffing, patient flow and wait time, routing and transportation, supply chain management, and process improvement. PMID:19668066

  18. Knowledge and beliefs among health care workers regarding hepatitis B infection and needle stick injuries at a tertiary care hospital, karachi.

    PubMed

    Habib, Faiza; Khan, Durreshahwar K; Shan-E-Abbas; Bhatti, Faiza; Zafar, Afia

    2011-05-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a recognized occupational risk for health care workers (HCWs). This study aimed to assess the knowledge and beliefs of HCWs regarding HBV transmission and needle stick injuries (NSIs). A cross-sectional questionnaire based KAP study was conducted at Civil Hospital, Karachi, during the period of January to September 2006. HCWs were inquired about possible modes of HBV transmission and association with NSIs. Data were entered using EpiInfo 6.04d software. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 12.5 software. A total of 343 HCWs participated, and those answered at least 5 correct modes of HBV transmission were considered knowledgeable. Knowledgeable group was more likely to report NSIs (p < 0.006), more vaccinated (p < 0.001) and were also more likely to attend awareness session (p < 0.009). Overall knowledge were inadequate and behaviour and attitude towards clinical practices were found compromised. To reduce the occupational risk, effort should be focused to establish effective infection control program and training of staff. PMID:21575529

  19. Reconstruction of a Real World Social Network using the Potts Model and Loopy Belief Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Bisconti, Cristian; Corallo, Angelo; Fortunato, Laura; Gentile, Antonio A.; Massafra, Andrea; Pellè, Piergiuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to test the adoption of a statistical model derived from Condensed Matter Physics, for the reconstruction of the structure of a social network. The inverse Potts model, traditionally applied to recursive observations of quantum states in an ensemble of particles, is here addressed to observations of the members' states in an organization and their (anti)correlations, thus inferring interactions as links among the members. Adopting proper (Bethe) approximations, such an inverse problem is showed to be tractable. Within an operational framework, this network-reconstruction method is tested for a small real-world social network, the Italian parliament. In this study case, it is easy to track statuses of the parliament members, using (co)sponsorships of law proposals as the initial dataset. In previous studies of similar activity-based networks, the graph structure was inferred directly from activity co-occurrences: here we compare our statistical reconstruction with such standard methods, outlining discrepancies and advantages. PMID:26617539

  20. [Health for refugees - the Bremen model].

    PubMed

    Mohammadzadeh, Zahra; Jung, Felicitas; Lelgemann, Monika

    2016-05-01

    The Bremen model recognizes that refugee health care has to go beyond merely checking for the prevalence of contagious diseases. Elementary health care offered in the reception centre and transitory facilities is based on voluntary acceptance by the refugees. At the same time, legal requirements for the medical reception of refugees are observed. In addition, doctors performing the initial medical examination are enabled to cover acute care on the spot. During the preliminary phase of immigration refugees are allowed to see a doctor in their facility repeatedly. After a certain time, they are provided with a health card permitting limited access to regular care outside of their facility. The current rise of refugee numbers affects the situation of Bremen health care for adult as well as juvenile refugees. In spite of the increase, health care standards are maintained by means of the health card. From 2011 to 2014, "Factors influencing health status and contact with health services" averaged 29.6 % in the health check data. Diseases of the respiratory system (18.1 %) and "symptoms, signs and abnormal findings not elsewhere classified" (16.9 %) ranked second and third, respectively. Diseases of the digestive system (6.1 %) of the musculoskeletal system (6 %) and of the skin and subcutaneous tissue (3.6 %) followed. Infectious diseases such as HIV infections, hepatitis or tuberculosis were seldom. PMID:27098974

  1. Beliefs and knowledge in chemistry teacher development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veal, William R.

    2004-03-01

    The primary objective of this research was to establish a link between preservice, secondary chemistry teachers' knowledge base and beliefs about teaching. The case study followed two preservice chemistry teachers through their methods course, practicum experience, and student teaching internship. Pedagogical content knowledge vignettes, following a microgenetic model, and other data sources were used to monitor participants' conceptual change over time. Participants had well-intentioned beliefs about teaching and chemistry. The interaction of epistemologies and beliefs was determined to be synergistic, such that they remained separate epistemological ideas. The beliefs about content were not changed whereas those for teaching did change; one focused on epistemic understanding and the other on subjective realization.

  2. Public Health Action Model for Cancer Survivorship

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Angela R.; Buchanan, Natasha D.; Fairley, Temeika L.; Smith, Judith Lee

    2016-01-01

    Long-term objectives associated with cancer survivors have been suggested by Healthy People 2020, including increasing the proportion of survivors living beyond 5 years after diagnosis and improving survivors’ mental and physical health-related quality of life. Prior to reaching these objectives, several intermediate steps must be taken to improve the physical, social, emotional, and financial well-being of cancer survivors. Public health has a role in developing strategic, actionable, and measurable approaches to facilitate change at multiple levels to improve the lives of survivors and their families. The social ecological model has been used by the public health community as the foundation of multilevel intervention design and implementation, encouraging researchers and practitioners to explore methods that promote internal and external changes at the individual, interpersonal, organizational, community, and policy levels. The survivorship community, including public health professionals, providers, policymakers, survivors, advocates, and caregivers, must work collaboratively to identify, develop, and implement interventions that benefit cancer survivors. The National Action Plan for Cancer Survivorship highlights public health domains and associated strategies that can be the impetus for collaboration between and among the levels in the social ecological model and are integral to improving survivor outcomes. This paper describes the Public Health Action Model for Cancer Survivorship, an integrative framework that combines the National Action Plan for Cancer Survivorship with the social ecological model to demonstrate how interaction among the various levels may promote better outcomes for survivors. PMID:26590641

  3. Model Child Care Health Policies. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Susan S.

    Drawn from a review of policies at over 100 child care programs nationwide, this document compiles model health policies intended for adaptation and selective use by out-of-home child care facilities. Following an introduction, the document presents model policy forms with blanks for adding individualized information for the following areas: (1)…

  4. Deconstructing the notion of 'belief' in psychology: commentary on 'beyond belief'.

    PubMed

    Santiago-Delefosse, Marie

    2012-10-01

    The article by John Cromby raises pertinent issues concerning the exclusively cognitive approach of 'belief' as well as regarding the very variable and vague definition of this notion. Beliefs in the area of Health do not stem from the mere cognitive sector. They are not purely discursive in nature either. Beliefs are rooted in experienced embodiment and influenced by the unique story of each subject. However, the reader sometimes regrets the lack of development on the nature of the links between three different levels: the cognitive, the affective and the social one. The notion of 'belief' in Psychology remains to be deconstructed. PMID:22912504

  5. Function Model for Community Health Service Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Peng; Pan, Feng; Liu, Danhong; Xu, Yongyong

    In order to construct a function model of community health service (CHS) information for development of CHS information management system, Integration Definition for Function Modeling (IDEF0), an IEEE standard which is extended from Structured Analysis and Design(SADT) and now is a widely used function modeling method, was used to classifying its information from top to bottom. The contents of every level of the model were described and coded. Then function model for CHS information, which includes 4 super-classes, 15 classes and 28 sub-classed of business function, 43 business processes and 168 business activities, was established. This model can facilitate information management system development and workflow refinement.

  6. Irrational Beliefs in Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, R. Eric

    1977-01-01

    To examine the hypothesis that certain types of irrational beliefs covary with the severity of depression, 156 undergraduates completed the Beck Depression Inventory and R. G. Jone's Irrational Beliefs Test (IBT). (Author)

  7. Do larger graphic health warnings on standardised cigarette packs increase adolescents’ cognitive processing of consumer health information and beliefs about smoking-related harms?

    PubMed Central

    White, Victoria; Williams, Tahlia; Faulkner, Agatha; Wakefield, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the impact of plain packaging of cigarettes with enhanced graphic health warnings on Australian adolescents’ cognitive processing of warnings and awareness of different health consequences of smoking. Methods Cross-sectional school-based surveys conducted in 2011 (prior to introduction of standardised packaging, n=6338) and 2013 (7–12 months afterwards, n=5915). Students indicated frequency of attending to, reading, thinking or talking about warnings. Students viewed a list of diseases or health effects and were asked to indicate whether each was caused by smoking. Two—‘kidney and bladder cancer’ and ‘damages gums and teeth’—were new while the remainder had been promoted through previous health warnings and/or television campaigns. The 60% of students seeing a cigarette pack in previous 6 months in 2011 and 65% in 2013 form the sample for analysis. Changes in responses over time are examined. Results Awareness that smoking causes bladder cancer increased between 2011 and 2013 (p=0.002). There was high agreement with statements reflecting health effects featured in previous warnings or advertisements with little change over time. Exceptions to this were increases in the proportion agreeing that smoking was a leading cause of death (p<0.001) and causes blindness (p<0.001). The frequency of students reading, attending to, thinking or talking about the health warnings on cigarette packs did not change. Conclusions Acknowledgement of negative health effects of smoking among Australian adolescents remains high. Apart from increased awareness of bladder cancer, new requirements for packaging and health warnings did not increase adolescents’ cognitive processing of warning information.

  8. Using the Health Belief Model to Understand School Nurse Asthma Management.

    PubMed

    Quaranta, Judith E; Spencer, Gale A

    2015-12-01

    Ten million children in the United States have asthma. Since children are in school about 6 hr a day, school nurses are positioned to intervene and influence asthma outcomes. A descriptive correlational study was designed to investigate performance of school nurses' asthma management behaviors in relationship to asthma knowledge, asthma attitude, asthma self-efficacy, and rating of importance of asthma management behaviors. Results indicated that asthma attitude, asthma self-efficacy, and rating of importance of asthma management behaviors were associated with performance of asthma management behaviors. The higher the rating of importance of asthma management behaviors, the more likely school nurses were to perform the behaviors (p < .05). Higher levels of asthma self-efficacy were associated with performance of asthma management behaviors, indicating the importance of strengthening school nurses' asthma self-efficacy in asthma management. By understanding factors influencing performance of asthma management behaviors by school nurses, interventions can be implemented to increase asthma management behaviors, leading to improved outcomes for students with asthma. PMID:26324467

  9. Using the Health Belief Model to Understand School Nurse Asthma Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quaranta, Judith E.; Spencer, Gale A.

    2015-01-01

    Ten million children in the United States have asthma. Since children are in school about 6 hr a day, school nurses are positioned to intervene and influence asthma outcomes. A descriptive correlational study was designed to investigate performance of school nurses' asthma management behaviors in relationship to asthma knowledge, asthma attitude,…

  10. Methods to elicit experts' beliefs over uncertain quantities: application to a cost effectiveness transition model of negative pressure wound therapy for severe pressure ulceration.

    PubMed

    Soares, Marta O; Bojke, Laura; Dumville, Jo; Iglesias, Cynthia; Cullum, Nicky; Claxton, Karl

    2011-08-30

    We can use decision models to estimate cost effectiveness, quantify uncertainty regarding the adoption decision and provide estimates of the value of further research. In many cases, the existence of only limited data with which to populate a decision model can mean that a cost-effectiveness analysis either does not proceed or may misrepresent the degree of uncertainty associated with model inputs. An example is the case of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) used to treat severe pressure ulceration, for which the evidence base is limited and sparse. There is, however, substantial practical experience of using this treatment and its comparators. We can capture this knowledge quantitatively to inform a cost-effectiveness model by eliciting beliefs from experts. This paper describes the design and conduct of an elicitation exercise to generate estimates of multiple uncertain model inputs and validate analytical assumptions for a decision model on the use of NPWT. In designing the exercise, the primary focus was the use of elicitation to inform decision models (multistate models), where representations of uncertain beliefs need to be probabilistically coherent. This paper demonstrates that it is feasible to collect formally elicited evidence to inform decision models. PMID:21748773

  11. Peirce on Educational Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Torill

    2005-01-01

    This article contends that Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914) may enhance our understanding of educational beliefs and that Peirce's logic may be a tool to distinguish between a dogmatic and a pragmatic justification of such beliefs. The first part of the article elaborates on Peirce's comprehension of beliefs as mediated, socially situated and…

  12. Epistemological Beliefs of Apprentices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinn, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Whereas the epistemological beliefs of learners of general subjects has been the focus of many studies in the past, so far, little is known about the beliefs of apprentices on knowledge and the acquiring of knowledge. The present study analysed the first level of epistemological beliefs of students in industrial and technical professions and their…

  13. Developing a Structural Model on the Relationship among Motivational Beliefs, Self-Regulated Learning Strategies, and Achievement in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fadlelmula, Fatma Kayan; Cakiroglu, Erdinc; Sungur, Semra

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the interrelationships among students' motivational beliefs (i.e. achievement goal orientations, perception of classroom goal structure, and self-efficacy), use of self-regulated learning strategies (i.e. elaboration, organization, and metacognitive self-regulation strategies), and achievement in mathematics, by proposing and…

  14. Chemistry Teachers' Emerging Expertise in Inquiry Teaching: The Effect of a Professional Development Model on Beliefs and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, Gregory T.; Lotter, Christine; Singer, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the beliefs and practices of seven high school chemistry teachers as a result of their participation in a year-long inquiry professional development (PD) project. An analysis of oral interviews, written reflections, and in-class observations were used to determine the extent to which the PD affected the teachers' beliefs…

  15. Belief biases and volatility of assets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei-Sun, Wen-Zou, Hui

    2014-10-01

    Based on an overlapping generation model, this paper introduces the noise traders with belief biases and rational traders. With an equilibrium analysis, this paper examines the volatility of risky asset. The results show that the belief biases, the probability of economy state, and the domain capability are all the factors that have effects on the volatility of the market.

  16. Thirdhand Smoke Beliefs of Parents

    PubMed Central

    Drehmer, Jeremy E.; Ossip, Deborah J.; Nabi-Burza, Emara; Rigotti, Nancy A.; Hipple, Bethany; Woo, Heide; Chang, Yuchiao

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if the belief that thirdhand smoke is harmful to children is associated with smoking parents’ attitudes, home or car smoking policies, and quitting behaviors. METHODS: Data from a national randomized controlled trial, Clinical Effort Against Secondhand Smoke Exposure, assessed thirdhand smoke beliefs of 1947 smoking parents in an exit survey after a pediatric office visit in 10 intervention and 10 control practices. Twelve-month follow-up data were collected from 1355 parents. Multivariable logistic regression determined whether belief that thirdhand smoke harms the health of children is independently associated with parental behaviors and attitudes 12 months later. A χ2 test assessed whether parents who disagreed that thirdhand smoke is harmful were more likely to make a quit attempt if they later believed that thirdhand smoke is harmful. RESULTS: Belief at the exit survey that thirdhand smoke is harmful was independently associated with having a strictly enforced smoke-free home policy (adjusted odds ratio: 2.05; 95% CI: 1.37–3.05) and car policy (adjusted odds ratio: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.04–2.74) at the 12-month follow-up. A significantly higher percentage (71% vs 50%) of parents who did not hold the thirdhand smoke harm belief at baseline made at least 1 quit attempt if they agreed that thirdhand smoke is harmful at the 12-month follow-up (P = .02). CONCLUSIONS: Thirdhand smoke harm belief was associated with a strictly enforced smoke-free home and car and attempts to quit smoking. Sensitizing parents to thirdhand smoke risk could facilitate beneficial tobacco control outcomes. PMID:24590745

  17. Understanding Business Models in Health Care.

    PubMed

    Sharan, Alok D; Schroeder, Gregory D; West, Michael E; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2016-05-01

    The increasing focus on the costs of care is forcing health care organizations to critically look at their basic set of processes and activities, to determine what type of value they can deliver. A business model describes the resources, processes, and cost assumptions that an organization makes that will lead to the delivery of a unique value proposition to a customer. As health care organizations are beginning to transform their structure in preparation for a value-based delivery system, understanding business model theory can help in the redesign process. PMID:27018909

  18. Breast Cancer Screening Beliefs among Older Korean American Women

    PubMed Central

    Eun, Young; Lee, Eunice E.; Kim, Mi Ja; Fogg, Louis

    2011-01-01

    Korean American women’s breast cancer screening rates are low, and the rates among older Korean American women are even lower. This article describes health beliefs related to older Korean American women’s screening behaviors, comparing them to beliefs of younger Korean American women. The 73 women age 65 and older had significantly different health beliefs than the 114 women between ages 40 and 64. Further, older women’s perceptions of the seriousness of the disease and benefits of and barriers to taking action to prevent the disease predated their screening behaviors. Interventions to change the health beliefs of older Korean American women are suggested. PMID:19715259

  19. Health Behavior Theories and Research: Implications for Suicidal Individuals' Treatment Linkage and Adherence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gipson, Polly; King, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Treatment linkage and adherence to psychotherapeutic interventions can be challenging with suicidal individuals. Health behavior theories, specifically the Health Belief Model, Stages of Change, and Theory of Planned Behavior, focus on individuals' beliefs, their readiness to change, their perceptions of illness severity and "threat," their…

  20. Confidence in one's social beliefs: implications for belief justification.

    PubMed

    Koriat, Asher; Adiv, Shiri

    2012-12-01

    Philosophers commonly define knowledge as justified true beliefs. A heated debate exists, however, about what makes a belief justified. In this article, we examine the question of belief justification from a psychological perspective, focusing on the subjective confidence in a belief that the person has just formed. Participants decided whether to accept or reject a proposition depicting a social belief, and indicated their confidence in their choice. The task was repeated six times, and choice latency was measured. The results were analyzed within a Self-Consistency Model (SCM) of subjective confidence. According to SCM, the decision to accept or reject a proposition is based on the on-line sampling of representations from a pool of representations associated with the proposition. Respondents behave like intuitive statisticians who infer the central tendency of a population based on a small sample. Confidence depends on the consistency with which the belief was supported across the sampled representations, and reflects the likelihood that a new sample will yield the same decision. The results supported the assumption of a commonly shared population of representations associated with each proposition. Based on this assumption, analyses of within-person consistency and cross-person consensus provided support for the model. As expected, choices that deviated from the person's own modal judgment or from the consensually held judgment took relatively longer to form and were associated with relatively lower confidence, presumably because they were based on non-representative samples. The results were discussed in relation to major epistemological theories--foundationalism, coherentism and reliabilism. PMID:22995400

  1. Self-Efficacy Beliefs as Predictors of Loneliness and Psychological Distress in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Prem S.; Debats, Dominique L.

    2002-01-01

    Sociodemographic variables, social support, and physical health have been used previously in a few predictor models of loneliness and psychological distress in late life. The present study, however, was designed to test the hypothesis that self-efficacy beliefs of elderly persons are significantly stronger predictors of loneliness and…

  2. Participation in Prevention Programs for Dating Violence: Beliefs about Relationship Violence and Intention to Participate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelius, Tara L.; Sullivan, Kieran T.; Wyngarden, Nicole; Milliken, Jennifer C.

    2009-01-01

    This study utilizes the Health Belief Model (HBM) to examine the factors related to the intention to participate in prevention programming for dating violence. Perceptions of susceptibility to future violence and the benefits of prevention programming appear to be the strongest predictors of participation in prevention programs. Perceptions of the…

  3. Degradation Modelling for Health Monitoring Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stetter, R.; Witczak, M.

    2014-12-01

    Condition-monitoring plays an increasingly important role for technical processes in order to improve reliability, availability, maintenance and lifetime of equipment. With increasing demands for efficiency and product quality, plus progress in the integration of automatic control systems in high-cost mechatronic and critical safety processes, the field of health monitoring is gaining interest. A similar research field is concerned with an estimation of the remaining useful life. A central question in these fields is the modelling of degradation; degradation is a process of a gradual and irreversible accumulation of damage which will finally result in a failure of the system. This paper is based on a current research project and explores various degradation modelling techniques. These results are explained on the basis of an industrial product - a system for the generation of health status information for pump systems. The result of this fuzzy-logic based system is a single number indicating the current health of a pump system.

  4. Health Promoting Hospitals Model in Iran

    PubMed Central

    YAGHOUBI, Maryam; JAVADI, Marzieh; BAHADORI, Mohammadkarim; RAVANGARD, Ramin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hospitals are the central entity of each health care system and Health Promoting Hospitals (HPH) was launched by WHO in 1988. However, there has not been any accurate and detailed model for establishing a HPH in Iran up to now. Therefore, this study aimed to determine factors affecting the establishment of a health promoting hospital in Iran using factor analysis method. Methods: This applied, cross-sectional and descriptive-analytical study was conducted in Iran in four steps. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was used for determining factors affecting the establishment of a HPH. Results: Society (0.97) and Policy (0.74) had the highest regression weights (effects) and management had the lowest one. Conclusion: Community assessment was the most important dimension of proposed conceptual model for establishing a HPH. PMID:27141499

  5. Diversifying the Health Professions: A Model Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ralston, Penny A.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To describe a university-based mentoring program in the food and nutritional sciences that addresses the need for multicultural professionals in allied health fields. Methods: The conceptual model for the program includes inputs (goals, resources), transformational process (professional development, social support and recognition) and…

  6. ATMOSPHERIC HEALTH EFFECTS FRAMEWORK (AHEF) MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Atmospheric and Health Effects Framework (AHEF) is used to assess theglobal impacts of substitutes for ozone-depleting substances (ODS). The AHEF is a series of FORTRAN modeling modules that collectively form a simulation framework for (a) translating ODS production into emi...

  7. Mastery Learning: A Model for Allied Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, James A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reports the methods and philosophy used in developing a mastery learning model at the University of Missouri-Columbia to insure that allied health students in the physical therapy and occupational therapy programs learn the concepts of anatomy essential to the rest of the curriculum. (MF)

  8. Older Adults’ Common Sense Models of Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Ip, Edward H.; Chapman, Christine; Kirk, Julienne K.; Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Investigate the importance of viewing belief systems about health maintenance holistically. Methods Qualitative (N=74) and quantitative data (N=95) were obtained from multi-ethnic rural-dwelling older adults with diabetes to characterize their Common Sense Models (CSMs) of diabetes. Results There is a discrete number of CSMs held by older adults, each characterized by unique clusters of diabetes-related knowledge and beliefs. Individuals whose CSM was shaped by biomedical knowledge were better able to achieve glycemic control. Conclusions Viewing individuals’ health beliefs incrementally or in a piece-meal strategy may be less effective for health behavior change than focusing on beliefs holistically. PMID:21683021

  9. Hybrid Modeling Improves Health and Performance Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Scientific Monitoring Inc. was awarded a Phase I Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) project by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center to create a new, simplified health-monitoring approach for flight vehicles and flight equipment. The project developed a hybrid physical model concept that provided a structured approach to simplifying complex design models for use in health monitoring, allowing the output or performance of the equipment to be compared to what the design models predicted, so that deterioration or impending failure could be detected before there would be an impact on the equipment's operational capability. Based on the original modeling technology, Scientific Monitoring released I-Trend, a commercial health- and performance-monitoring software product named for its intelligent trending, diagnostics, and prognostics capabilities, as part of the company's complete ICEMS (Intelligent Condition-based Equipment Management System) suite of monitoring and advanced alerting software. I-Trend uses the hybrid physical model to better characterize the nature of health or performance alarms that result in "no fault found" false alarms. Additionally, the use of physical principles helps I-Trend identify problems sooner. I-Trend technology is currently in use in several commercial aviation programs, and the U.S. Air Force recently tapped Scientific Monitoring to develop next-generation engine health-management software for monitoring its fleet of jet engines. Scientific Monitoring has continued the original NASA work, this time under a Phase III SBIR contract with a joint NASA-Pratt & Whitney aviation security program on propulsion-controlled aircraft under missile-damaged aircraft conditions.

  10. Residents' Awareness of Folk Medicine Beliefs of Their Mexican Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mull, J. Dennis; Mull, Dorothy S.

    1981-01-01

    A study is presented that documents widespread unfamiliarity with traditional health beliefs among 30 residents who had been caring for Mexican patients in a Southern California clinic for periods ranging from one to three years. It is suggested that formal curricular material on health beliefs and practices should be provided. (MLW)

  11. Immunization Attitudes and Beliefs Among Parents: Beyond a Dichotomous Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gust, Deborah; Brown, Cedric; Sheedy, Kristine; Hibbs, Beth; Weaver, Donna; Nowak, Glen

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To better understand differences among parents in their attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors regarding childhood immunizations and health-related issues. Methods: Forty-four survey variables assessing attitudes and beliefs about immunizations and health were analyzed. The K-means clusters technique was used to identify homogeneous groups…

  12. Modeling social influences on human health.

    PubMed

    Karelina, Kate; DeVries, A Courtney

    2011-01-01

    Social interactions have long-term physiological, psychological, and behavioral consequences. Social isolation is a well-recognized but little understood risk factor and prognostic marker of disease; it can have profoundly detrimental effects on both mental and physical well-being, particularly during states of compromised health. In contrast, the health benefits associated with social support (both reduced risk and improved recovery) are evident in a variety of illnesses and injury states; however, the mechanisms by which social interactions influence disease pathogenesis remain largely unidentified. The substantial health impact of the psychosocial environment can occur independently of traditional disease risk factors and is not accounted for solely by peer-encouraged development of health behaviors. Instead, social interactions are capable of altering shared pathophysiological mechanisms of multiple disease states in distinct measurable ways. Converging evidence from animal models of injury and disease recapitulates the physiological benefits of affiliative social interactions and establishes several endogenous mechanisms (inflammatory signals, glucocorticoids, and oxytocin) by which social interactions influence health outcomes. Taken together, both clinical and animal research are undoubtedly necessary to develop a complete mechanistic understanding of social influences on health. PMID:21097660

  13. Personal Perspective: A Worksite Health Promotion Model for Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy, James M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Proposes an approach to school health education that implements key features of the worksite health promotion model, summarizing the general program characteristics for school health education and worksite health promotion, explaining the school-based health promotion model, discussing social marketing, and examining program and educational…

  14. Motivational antecedent beliefs of endurance, strength, and flexibility activities.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Ryan E; Blanchard, Chris M; Matheson, Deborah Hunt

    2007-03-01

    Research into the correlates of physical activity has focused almost exclusively on physical activity as an omnibus construct. Health Canada and the American College of Sports Medicine, however, advocate physical activity in terms of performing regular endurance, strength, and flexibility activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the absolute and relative contributions of behavioral, normative, and control beliefs associated with endurance, strength, and flexibility activities within a theory of planned behavior (TPB) structure. Participants were 185 undergraduates who completed measures of the TPB and a 2-week follow-up of endurance, strength, and flexibility behavior. Results using structural equation modeling and Hotelling's t-tests for dependent correlations identified different motivational antecedents for each type of physical activity (p < .05). Endurance behavior was influenced exclusively by behavioral beliefs, flexibility behavior was influenced by normative and control beliefs, and strength behavior was influenced by key behavioral, normative, and control beliefs. The different motivational profiles for each physical activity allude to the importance of tailoring interventions by physical activity type. PMID:17365895

  15. Feature and Statistical Model Development in Structural Health Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Inho

    All structures suffer wear and tear because of impact, excessive load, fatigue, corrosion, etc. in addition to inherent defects during their manufacturing processes and their exposure to various environmental effects. These structural degradations are often imperceptible, but they can severely affect the structural performance of a component, thereby severely decreasing its service life. Although previous studies of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) have revealed extensive prior knowledge on the parts of SHM processes, such as the operational evaluation, data processing, and feature extraction, few studies have been conducted from a systematical perspective, the statistical model development. The first part of this dissertation, the characteristics of inverse scattering problems, such as ill-posedness and nonlinearity, reviews ultrasonic guided wave-based structural health monitoring problems. The distinctive features and the selection of the domain analysis are investigated by analytically searching the conditions of the uniqueness solutions for ill-posedness and are validated experimentally. Based on the distinctive features, a novel wave packet tracing (WPT) method for damage localization and size quantification is presented. This method involves creating time-space representations of the guided Lamb waves (GLWs), collected at a series of locations, with a spatially dense distribution along paths at pre-selected angles with respect to the direction, normal to the direction of wave propagation. The fringe patterns due to wave dispersion, which depends on the phase velocity, are selected as the primary features that carry information, regarding the wave propagation and scattering. The following part of this dissertation presents a novel damage-localization framework, using a fully automated process. In order to construct the statistical model for autonomous damage localization deep-learning techniques, such as restricted Boltzmann machine and deep belief network

  16. Improving global health education: development of a Global Health Competency Model.

    PubMed

    Ablah, Elizabeth; Biberman, Dorothy A; Weist, Elizabeth M; Buekens, Pierre; Bentley, Margaret E; Burke, Donald; Finnegan, John R; Flahault, Antoine; Frenk, Julio; Gotsch, Audrey R; Klag, Michael J; Rodriguez Lopez, Mario Henry; Nasca, Philip; Shortell, Stephen; Spencer, Harrison C

    2014-03-01

    Although global health is a recommended content area for the future of education in public health, no standardized global health competency model existed for master-level public health students. Without such a competency model, academic institutions are challenged to ensure that students are able to demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) needed for successful performance in today's global health workforce. The Association of Schools of Public Health (ASPH) sought to address this need by facilitating the development of a global health competency model through a multistage modified-Delphi process. Practitioners and academic global health experts provided leadership and guidance throughout the competency development process. The resulting product, the Global Health Competency Model 1.1, includes seven domains and 36 competencies. The Global Health Competency Model 1.1 provides a platform for engaging educators, students, and global health employers in discussion of the KSAs needed to improve human health on a global scale. PMID:24445206

  17. Improving Global Health Education: Development of a Global Health Competency Model

    PubMed Central

    Ablah, Elizabeth; Biberman, Dorothy A.; Weist, Elizabeth M.; Buekens, Pierre; Bentley, Margaret E.; Burke, Donald; Finnegan, John R.; Flahault, Antoine; Frenk, Julio; Gotsch, Audrey R.; Klag, Michael J.; Lopez, Mario Henry Rodriguez; Nasca, Philip; Shortell, Stephen; Spencer, Harrison C.

    2014-01-01

    Although global health is a recommended content area for the future of education in public health, no standardized global health competency model existed for master-level public health students. Without such a competency model, academic institutions are challenged to ensure that students are able to demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) needed for successful performance in today's global health workforce. The Association of Schools of Public Health (ASPH) sought to address this need by facilitating the development of a global health competency model through a multistage modified-Delphi process. Practitioners and academic global health experts provided leadership and guidance throughout the competency development process. The resulting product, the Global Health Competency Model 1.1, includes seven domains and 36 competencies. The Global Health Competency Model 1.1 provides a platform for engaging educators, students, and global health employers in discussion of the KSAs needed to improve human health on a global scale. PMID:24445206

  18. e-Health: remote health care models in peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Struijk, Dirk G

    2012-01-01

    A general review is given on advantages and disadvantages of the various forms of e-Health. The sparse available literature on e-Health and peritoneal dialysis is discussed. It is concluded that in general e-Health interventions lead to small but to moderate positive effects on primary health outcomes, although the evidence still is not fully convincing. PMID:22652719

  19. Analytic thinking reduces belief in conspiracy theories.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Voracek, Martin; Stieger, Stefan; Tran, Ulrich S; Furnham, Adrian

    2014-12-01

    Belief in conspiracy theories has been associated with a range of negative health, civic, and social outcomes, requiring reliable methods of reducing such belief. Thinking dispositions have been highlighted as one possible factor associated with belief in conspiracy theories, but actual relationships have only been infrequently studied. In Study 1, we examined associations between belief in conspiracy theories and a range of measures of thinking dispositions in a British sample (N=990). Results indicated that a stronger belief in conspiracy theories was significantly associated with lower analytic thinking and open-mindedness and greater intuitive thinking. In Studies 2-4, we examined the causational role played by analytic thinking in relation to conspiracist ideation. In Study 2 (N=112), we showed that a verbal fluency task that elicited analytic thinking reduced belief in conspiracy theories. In Study 3 (N=189), we found that an alternative method of eliciting analytic thinking, which related to cognitive disfluency, was effective at reducing conspiracist ideation in a student sample. In Study 4, we replicated the results of Study 3 among a general population sample (N=140) in relation to generic conspiracist ideation and belief in conspiracy theories about the July 7, 2005, bombings in London. Our results highlight the potential utility of supporting attempts to promote analytic thinking as a means of countering the widespread acceptance of conspiracy theories. PMID:25217762

  20. Modeling the structure of the attitudes and belief scale 2 using CFA and bifactor approaches: Toward the development of an abbreviated version.

    PubMed

    Hyland, Philip; Shevlin, Mark; Adamson, Gary; Boduszek, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The Attitudes and Belief Scale-2 (ABS-2: DiGiuseppe, Leaf, Exner, & Robin, 1988. The development of a measure of rational/irrational thinking. Paper presented at the World Congress of Behavior Therapy, Edinburg, Scotland.) is a 72-item self-report measure of evaluative rational and irrational beliefs widely used in Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy research contexts. However, little psychometric evidence exists regarding the measure's underlying factor structure. Furthermore, given the length of the ABS-2 there is a need for an abbreviated version that can be administered when there are time demands on the researcher, such as in clinical settings. This study sought to examine a series of theoretical models hypothesized to represent the latent structure of the ABS-2 within an alternative models framework using traditional confirmatory factor analysis as well as utilizing a bifactor modeling approach. Furthermore, this study also sought to develop a psychometrically sound abbreviated version of the ABS-2. Three hundred and thirteen (N = 313) active emergency service personnel completed the ABS-2. Results indicated that for each model, the application of bifactor modeling procedures improved model fit statistics, and a novel eight-factor intercorrelated solution was identified as the best fitting model of the ABS-2. However, the observed fit indices failed to satisfy commonly accepted standards. A 24-item abbreviated version was thus constructed and an intercorrelated eight-factor solution yielded satisfactory model fit statistics. Current results support the use of a bifactor modeling approach to determining the factor structure of the ABS-2. Furthermore, results provide empirical support for the psychometric properties of the newly developed abbreviated version. PMID:23734905

  1. Stressors, Quality of the Child-Caregiver Relationship, and Children's Mental Health Problems After Parental Death: The Mediating Role of Self-System Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N.; Ayers, Tim S.

    2006-01-01

    Investigated whether three self-system beliefs, fear of abandonment, coping efficacy, and self-esteem, mediated the relations of stressors and caregiver-child relationship quality with concurrent and prospective internalizing and externalizing problems in a sample of children who had experienced parental death in the previous 2.5 years. The…

  2. Top-Down Feedback in an HMAX-Like Cortical Model of Object Perception Based on Hierarchical Bayesian Networks and Belief Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Dura-Bernal, Salvador; Wennekers, Thomas; Denham, Susan L.

    2012-01-01

    Hierarchical generative models, such as Bayesian networks, and belief propagation have been shown to provide a theoretical framework that can account for perceptual processes, including feedforward recognition and feedback modulation. The framework explains both psychophysical and physiological experimental data and maps well onto the hierarchical distributed cortical anatomy. However, the complexity required to model cortical processes makes inference, even using approximate methods, very computationally expensive. Thus, existing object perception models based on this approach are typically limited to tree-structured networks with no loops, use small toy examples or fail to account for certain perceptual aspects such as invariance to transformations or feedback reconstruction. In this study we develop a Bayesian network with an architecture similar to that of HMAX, a biologically-inspired hierarchical model of object recognition, and use loopy belief propagation to approximate the model operations (selectivity and invariance). Crucially, the resulting Bayesian network extends the functionality of HMAX by including top-down recursive feedback. Thus, the proposed model not only achieves successful feedforward recognition invariant to noise, occlusions, and changes in position and size, but is also able to reproduce modulatory effects such as illusory contour completion and attention. Our novel and rigorous methodology covers key aspects such as learning using a layerwise greedy algorithm, combining feedback information from multiple parents and reducing the number of operations required. Overall, this work extends an established model of object recognition to include high-level feedback modulation, based on state-of-the-art probabilistic approaches. The methodology employed, consistent with evidence from the visual cortex, can be potentially generalized to build models of hierarchical perceptual organization that include top-down and bottom-up interactions, for

  3. Revising beliefs based in evidence versus affect: Effects on knowledge acquisition and conceptual change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Thomas D.

    Theoretical treatments on the issue of conceptual change have paid little attention to the distinction between acquiring knowledge that conflicts with prior beliefs and revising prior beliefs in light of that new knowledge. Models of conceptual change that fail to make the knowledge-belief distinction can produce faulty predictions and interpretations, and prevent us from discovering the factors that independently impact knowledge acquisition and belief revision. Beliefs vary widely in whether they are based in coherence with known evidence and conceptual representations versus their promotion of affective values and goals. Study 1 provided empirical demonstrations of the prevalence of affect-based beliefs, the high degree of both between- and within-person variability in belief basis, and the validity of self-reports in assessing that variation. Study 2 supported present arguments about why the popular educational constructs of personal epistemology are not useful for understanding the evidence-affect basis of beliefs. This variability in belief basis represents variability in the coherence and specificity of the conceptual structure underlying different beliefs. Thus, the effects of prior beliefs on knowledge acquisition and subsequent belief revision may depend upon the underlying evidence-affect basis of prior beliefs. Study 1 provided data suggesting that belief revision is a separate process and not a mere by-product of acquiring belief-conflicting knowledge, and that revision is less likely when prior beliefs are initially held for affective reasons. Study 3 supported current predictions that comprehension of belief-conflicting and belief-consistent information is better when prior beliefs are evidence- rather than affect-based. In addition, the comprehension of belief-conflicting and belief-consistent information was equivalent. The widespread, but previously untested, assumption that prior beliefs impede the learning of belief-conflicting information may

  4. Singaporean beliefs about HIV and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Bishop, G D

    1996-12-01

    As part of an in-home survey, 429 Singaporeans responded to questions concerning beliefs about AIDS as a disease and the ways in which one can contract HIV. The results indicated that, although many held realistic beliefs, identifiable biases and misconceptions were present. Virtually all respondents were aware that HIV is contracted through sexual contact as well as the sharing of needles during IV drug use. However, many respondents believed that it is either somewhat or very likely for HIV to be transmitted through casual contact, by giving blood, or from mosquitoes and other insects. Also, many expressed the belief that persons with AIDS are identifiable through visible symptoms or membership in high risk groups and a significant percentage indicated a lack of concern about the disease. Implications for understanding AIDS beliefs and for health education are discussed. PMID:9104063

  5. Organizational capacity for community development in regional health authorities: a conceptual model.

    PubMed

    Germann, Kathy; Wilson, Doug

    2004-09-01

    The value of community development (CD) practices is well documented in the health promotion literature; it is a foundational strategy outlined in the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. Despite the importance of collaborative action with communities to enhance individual and community health and well-being, there exists a major gap between the evidence for CD and the actual extent to which CD is carried out by health organizations. In this paper it is argued that the gap exists because we have failed to turn the evaluative gaze inward-to examine the capacity of health organizations themselves to facilitate CD processes. This study was designed to explicate key elements that contribute to organizational capacity for community development (OC-CD). Twenty-two front-line CD workers and managers responsible for CD initiatives from five regional health authorities in Alberta, Canada, were interviewed. Based on the study findings, a multidimensional model for conceptualizing OC-CD is presented. Central to the model are four inter-related dimensions: (i) organizational commitment to CD, rooted in particular values and beliefs, leadership and shared understanding of CD; (ii) supportive structures and systems, such as job design, flexible planning processes, evaluation mechanisms and collaborative processes; (iii) allocation of resources for CD; and (iv) working relationships and processes that model CD within the health organization. These four dimensions contribute to successful CD practice in numerous ways, but perhaps most importantly by supporting the empowerment and autonomy of the pivotal organizational player in health promotion practice: the front-line worker. PMID:15306613

  6. Determinants of health literacy and health behavior regarding infectious respiratory diseases: a pathway model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Health literacy has been defined as the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand the basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions. Currently, few studies have validated the causal pathways of determinants of health literacy through the use of statistical modeling. The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate a health literacy model at an individual level that could best explain the determinants of health literacy and the associations between health literacy and health behaviors even health status. Methods Skill-based health literacy test and a self-administrated questionnaire survey were conducted among 3222 Chinese adult residents. Path analysis was applied to validate the model. Results The model explained 38.6% of variance for health literacy, 11.7% for health behavior and 2.3% for health status: (GFI = 0.9990; RMR = 0.0521; χ2 = 10.2151, P = 0.1159). Education has positive and direct effect on prior knowledge (β = 0.324) and health literacy (β = 0.346). Health literacy is also affected by prior knowledge (β = 0.245) and age (β = -0.361). Health literacy is a direct influencing factor of health behavior (β = 0.101). The most important factor of health status is age (β = 0.107). Health behavior and health status have a positive interaction effect. Conclusion This model explains the determinants of health literacy and the associations between health literacy and health behaviors well. It could be applied to develop intervention strategies to increase individual health literacy, and then to promote health behavior and health status. PMID:23521806

  7. Identifying critical sun-protective beliefs among Australian adults.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Kyra; White, Katherine M; McD Young, Ross; Hawkes, Anna L; Starfelt, Louise C; Leske, Stuart

    2012-10-01

    We investigated critical beliefs to target in interventions aimed at improving sun-protective behaviours of Australian adults, a population at risk for skin cancer. Participants (N = 816) completed a Theory of Planned Behaviour belief-based questionnaire and a 1-week follow-up of sun-protective behaviour. A range of behavioural, normative and control beliefs correlated with sun-protective behaviour, with no and only minimal differences observed in correlations between beliefs and behaviour by gender and age, respectively. A range of key beliefs made independent contributions to behaviour; however, the behavioural belief about being less likely to tan (β = 0.09); normative belief about friends (β = 0.20); and control beliefs about forgetfulness (β = -0.14), inconvenience (β = -0.17), knowing I will be in the sun for a long time (β = 0.16) and more fashionable sun-protective clothing (β = 0.13) were significant critical beliefs guiding people's sun-protective behaviour. Our study fills a gap in the literature by investigating an at-risk population for skin cancer and using an established theoretical framework to identify critical beliefs that guide Australian adults' decisions to sun protect. Attention to these critical beliefs will assist health campaigns and interventions aimed at combating the increasing rates of skin cancer for adults. PMID:22949500

  8. Inherited or Behavior? What Causal Beliefs about Obesity Are Associated with Weight Perceptions and Decisions to Lose Weight in a US Sample?

    PubMed Central

    Fleary, Sasha A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To identify the extent to which (1) beliefs about obesity and obesity-related behaviors distinguish individuals based on weight perception (WP) and (2) beliefs about obesity predict perceived health status and WP and how these in turn predict decisions to try to lose weight. Method. 7456 noninstitutionalized US adults (Mage = 54.13, SDage = 16.93; 61.2% female; 75.9% White) completed the 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey. Multinomial logistic regressions and structural equation modeling were used to accomplish study objectives. Results. Age, gender, information-seeking, health status, belief that obesity is inherited, and knowledge of fruits and vegetables recommendations distinguished participants based on WP. Beliefs about obesity predicted health status, WP, and trying to lose weight in the general model. The models varied based on gender, race/ethnicity, education, and weight misperception. Conclusion. This study supports the role of beliefs about obesity, WP, and health perceptions in individuals' decisions and actions regarding weight management. This study increases our understanding of gender, race/ethnicity, education, and weight misperceptions differences in decisions to lose weight. This knowledge may lead to targeted interventions, rather than “one size fits all” interventions, to promote health and prevent obesity.

  9. Proposing an Operational Definition of Science Teacher Beliefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutner, Todd L.; Markman, Arthur B.

    2016-07-01

    Much research has shown that a science teacher's beliefs are related to their teaching practice. This line of research has often defined "belief" epistemologically. That is, beliefs are often defined relative to other mental constructs, such as knowledge, dispositions, or attitudes. Left unspecified is the role beliefs play in cognition and how they come to influence science teachers' classroom practice. As such, researchers and science teacher educators have relied on an (at times, implicit) assumption that there is a direct causal relationship between teachers' beliefs and classroom practice. In this paper, we propose an operational, as opposed to epistemological, definition of belief. That is, we are explicit about the role a belief plays in science teachers' cognition and how that leads to classroom practice. We define a belief as a mental representation that influences the practice of a teacher if and only if the belief is active in cognition. We then turn our attention to two limitations in the literature on that have arisen via previous definitions and assumptions regarding science teacher beliefs, showing how defining beliefs operationally helps think about these issues in new ways. The two limitations surround: (1) the difficulty in precisely delineating belief from knowledge; and (2) the interconnectedness of beliefs such that they draw meaning from one another. We then show how our definition of beliefs is congruent with other models of teacher cognition reported in the literature. Finally, we provide implications arising from this definition of belief for both science teacher educators and those who conduct research on the beliefs of both preservice and in-service science teachers.

  10. The Bureau of Health Education's Elementary School Health Curriculum Project, Berkeley Model, and the American Lung Association - Bureau of Health Education's Primary Grades Health Curriculum Project, Seattle Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Disease Control (DHEW/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    This document describes two models for an early school health curriculum project. These two projects were initiated with the aim of increasing effective cooperation of public health personnel work with public schools in teaching health maintenance and prevention of disease. The Berkeley Project worked with students of grade three through grade…

  11. Old Beliefs = Taimaknaqtat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Minnie Aliitchak; And Others

    Written in English and Upper Kobuk Inupiaq Eskimo, the booklet presents several examples of Eskimo "old beliefs" to be taught to younger people providing them with a greater understanding of the elders and what governs their actions and behavior. Topics of "old beliefs" pertain to babies, women, young girls and boys, bears, beavers, animal spirit,…

  12. Health Insurance, Medical Care, and Health Outcomes: A Model of Elderly Health Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Zhou; Gilleskie, Donna B.; Norton, Edward C.

    2009-01-01

    Prescription drug coverage creates a change in medical care consumption, beyond standard moral hazard, arising both from the differential cost-sharing and the relative effectiveness of different types of care. We model the dynamic supplemental health insurance decisions of Medicare beneficiaries, their medical care demand, and subsequent health…

  13. [A transdisciplinary model for public health research].

    PubMed

    Betancourt, José Aureliano

    2013-11-01

    Human resources education for health workers has been predominantly discipline-oriented and fragmented, influencing research design and, in turn, scientific output. Several authors argue that university education should transition from disciplinarity to transdisciplinarity. To gather the theoretical underpinnings for this subject of international interest, a literature search was conducted in the PubMed, EBSCO, and SciELO databases in 2012, using the terms "transdisciplinary and translational research" in Spanish and English. The majority of authors believe that identifying problems from different perspectives by specialists and community members and leaders will be conducive to more effective intersectoral interventions. They suggest undertaking organizational change to reshape reshaping work styles and self-organizational forms of scientific activity. Finally, a transdisciplinary model for public health research has been proposed that is based on traditional project design tools, but with variations borrowed from a complex systems approach. PMID:24553764

  14. A scalable climate health justice assessment model

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Yolanda J.; Grineski, Sara E.; Collins, Timothy W.; Kim, Young-An

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a scalable “climate health justice” model for assessing and projecting incidence, treatment costs, and sociospatial disparities for diseases with well-documented climate change linkages. The model is designed to employ low-cost secondary data, and it is rooted in a perspective that merges normative environmental justice concerns with theoretical grounding in health inequalities. Since the model employs International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) disease codes, it is transferable to other contexts, appropriate for use across spatial scales, and suitable for comparative analyses. We demonstrate the utility of the model through analysis of 2008–2010 hospitalization discharge data at state and county levels in Texas (USA). We identified several disease categories (i.e., cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, heat-related, and respiratory) associated with climate change, and then selected corresponding ICD-9 codes with the highest hospitalization counts for further analyses. Selected diseases include ischemic heart disease, diarrhea, heat exhaustion/cramps/stroke/syncope, and asthma. Cardiovascular disease ranked first among the general categories of diseases for age-adjusted hospital admission rate (5286.37 per 100,000). In terms of specific selected diseases (per 100,000 population), asthma ranked first (517.51), followed by ischemic heart disease (195.20), diarrhea (75.35), and heat exhaustion/cramps/stroke/syncope (7.81). Charges associated with the selected diseases over the 3-year period amounted to US$5.6 billion. Blacks were disproportionately burdened by the selected diseases in comparison to non-Hispanic whites, while Hispanics were not. Spatial distributions of the selected disease rates revealed geographic zones of disproportionate risk. Based upon a downscaled regional climate-change projection model, we estimate a >5% increase in the incidence and treatment costs of asthma attributable to

  15. The Infant Parent Training Institute: A Developmental Model for Training Infant Mental Health Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arons, Judith; Epstein, Ann; Sklan, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The Infant Parent Training Institute (IPTI) at Jewish Family and Children's Service of Greater Boston offers integrated clinical and theoretical infant mental health training. The curriculum reflects the belief that nurturing and reflective relationships promote optimal learning and growth. A specialty in infant mental health requires knowledge…

  16. ‘The average Scottish man has a cigarette hanging out of his mouth, lying there with a portion of chips’: prospects for change in Scottish men's constructions of masculinity and their health-related beliefs and behaviours

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, R.; Hunt, K.; Hart, G.

    2009-01-01

    Men's apparent resistance to recommended health practices and their engagement with ‘high-risk’ behaviours has been associated with an increased risk of morbidity or mortality. Recent work has highlighted the need to think critically about the health-promoting behaviours that men appear reluctant to engage in, as well as examining those they embrace, and explore the gendered meanings that men attribute to their beliefs and behaviours. This article presents men's discussions of the ‘practices of masculinity’ and examines their relation to, and implications for, men's health-related behaviours as articulated in 15 focus group discussions (59 participants in total). The data capture both the experiences of men who felt pressured to engage in behaviours that may be harmful to their health in order to appear masculine and the accounts of those who regarded themselves as freer to embrace salutogenic health practices. Less is known about the circumstances that might encourage men to re-think their engagement in performances of masculinity that have potentially detrimental effects on their health. The data presented here suggest that ageing, illness, and fatherhood were some of the experiences that prompted men to re-evaluate their health practices. PMID:20352030

  17. Self-Regulation, Self-Efficacy and Health Behavior Change in Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdie, Nola; McCrindle, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    Presents an overview of self-regulation models: theory of planned behavior, protection motivation theory, health belief model, action control theory, transtheoretical model of behavior change, health action process, and precaution adoption process. Applies models to health behavior change in older adults with cardiovascular disease or diabetes.…

  18. Level of distress, somatisation and beliefs on health-disease in newly arrived immigrant patients attended in primary care centres in Catalonia and definition of professional competences for their most effective management: PROMISE Project

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Newly arrived immigrant patients who frequently use primary health care resources have difficulties in verbal communication. Also, they have a system of beliefs related to health and disease that makes difficult for health care professionals to comprehend their reasons for consultation, especially when consulting for somatic manifestations. Consequently, this is an important barrier to achieve optimum care to these groups. The current project has two main objectives: 1. To define the different stressors, the level of distress perceived, and its impact in terms of discomfort and somatisation affecting the main communities of immigrants in our area, and 2. To identify the characteristics of cross-cultural competence of primary health care professionals to best approach these reasons for consultation. Methods/Design It will be a transversal, observational, multicentre, qualitative-quantitative study in a sample of 980 people from the five main non-European Union immigrant communities residing in Catalonia: Maghrebis, Sub-Saharans, Andean South Americans, Hindustanis, and Chinese. Sociodemographic data, level of distress, information on the different stressors and their somatic manifestations will be collected in specific questionnaires. Through a semi-structured interview and qualitative methodology, it will be studied the relation between somatic manifestations and particular beliefs of each group and how these are associated with the processes of disease and seeking for care. A qualitative methodology based on individual interviews centred on critical incidents, focal groups and in situ questionnaires will be used to study the cross-cultural competences of the professionals. Discussion It is expected a high level of chronic stress associated with the level of somatisations in the different non-European Union immigrant communities. The results will provide better knowledge of these populations and will improve the comprehension and the efficacy of the

  19. Solution focused nursing: a fitting model for mental health nurses working in a public health paradigm.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    The Australian Federal Government health agenda is advocating an extension of public health principles across all levels of the health sector. Since mental health nurses have long been proponents of public health and health promoting behaviours, an opportunity exists for this specialty of nursing to extend their influence and contribution within health. Solution focused nursing (SFN), a model that emerged from mental health practice, offers a framework to assist mental health nurses and leaders to more clearly practise public health principles within nursing and articulate that practice - for it is in the articulation of practice that nurses and nursing is made visible and valued. This paper aims to expand on and reiterate the SFN model, showing how it connects to public health principles and develops the mental health nurse's role - particularly in those clinical areas that require more than medical management and illness stabilization. PMID:20509799

  20. Assessment of the Health IT Usability Evaluation Model (Health-ITUEM) for Evaluating Mobile Health (mHealth) Technology

    PubMed Central

    Brown, William; Yen, Po-Yin; Rojas, Marlene; Schnall, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Background Over two decades of research has been conducted using mobile devices for health related behaviors yet many of these studies lack rigor. There are few evaluation frameworks for assessing the usability of mHealth, which is critical as the use of this technology proliferates. As the development of interventions using mobile technology increase, future work in this domain necessitates the use of a rigorous usability evaluation framework. Methods We used two exemplars to assess the appropriateness of the Health IT Usability Evaluation Model (Health-ITUEM) for evaluating the usability of mHealth technology. In the first exemplar, we conducted 6 focus group sessions to explore adolescents’ use of mobile technology for meeting their health Information needs. In the second exemplar, we conducted 4 focus group sessions following an Ecological Momentary Assessment study in which 60 adolescents were given a smartphone with pre-installed health-related applications (apps). Data Analysis We coded the focus group data using the 9 concepts of the Health-ITUEM: Error prevention, Completeness, Memorability, Information needs, Flexibility/Customizability, Learnability, Performance speed, Competency, Other outcomes. To develop a finer granularity of analysis, the nine concepts were broken into positive, negative, and neutral codes. A total of 27 codes were created. Two raters (R1 & R2) initially coded all text and a third rater (R3) reconciled coding discordance between raters R1 and R2. Results A total of 133 codes were applied to Exemplar 1. In Exemplar 2 there were a total of 286 codes applied to 195 excerpts. Performance speed, Other outcomes, and Information needs were among the most frequently occurring codes. Conclusion Our two exemplars demonstrated the appropriateness and usefulness of the Health-ITUEM in evaluating mobile health technology. Further assessment of this framework with other study populations should consider whether Memorability and Error prevention

  1. Illness beliefs of Chinese American immigrants with major depressive disorder in a primary care setting.

    PubMed

    Chen, Justin A; Hung, Galen Chin-Lun; Parkin, Susannah; Fava, Maurizio; Yeung, Albert S

    2015-02-01

    Underutilization of mental health services in the U.S. is compounded among racial/ethnic minorities, especially Chinese Americans. Culturally based illness beliefs influence help-seeking behavior and may provide insights into strategies for increasing utilization rates among vulnerable populations. This is the first large descriptive study of depressed Chinese American immigrant patients' illness beliefs using a standardized instrument. 190 depressed Chinese immigrants seeking primary care at South Cove Community Health Center completed the Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue, which probes different dimensions of illness beliefs: chief complaint, labeling of illness, stigma perception, causal attributions, and help-seeking patterns. Responses were sorted into categories by independent raters and results compared to an earlier study at the same site and using the same instrument. Contrary to prior findings that depressed Chinese individuals tend to present with primarily somatic symptoms, subjects were more likely to report chief complaints and illness labels related to depressed mood than physical symptoms. Nearly half reported they would conceal the name of their problem from others. Mean stigma levels were significantly higher than in the previous study. Most subjects identified psychological stress as the most likely cause of their problem. Chinese immigrants' illness beliefs were notable for psychological explanations regarding their symptoms, possibly reflecting increased acceptance of Western biomedical frameworks, in accordance with recent research. However, reported stigma regarding these symptoms also increased. As Asian American immigrant populations increasingly accept psychological models of depression, stigma may become an increasingly important target for addressing disparities in mental health service utilization. PMID:25563074

  2. [An offspring of love. Freud on belief].

    PubMed

    Will, Herbert

    2006-01-01

    This paper elucidates Freud's ideas of belief and believing. By investigating the semantic field, it discusses the place of his theory of religion in the context of his thought. It argues for a consistent model which does not stem from antireligious prejudice but meshes with his whole thinking. For Freud religious belief was a special case of the general attitude of believing. He situated it within a three-stage development of the individual as well as of humanity, starting with a state of magical-animistic thinking in autoerotism and narcissism and leading, via object-dependency and a belief in omnipotent parental figures, to emancipation through rationality and critical judgement. The origin of belief in wishing accounts for the believer's lack of judgement and submission to religious authorities. In the end some of the advantages and disadvantages of Freud's model are highlighted. PMID:17333718

  3. Fusion of Pedigreed Preferential Relations as Beliefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Yoshitaka; Tojo, Satoshi

    Belief fusion, instead of AGM belief revision, was first proposed to solve the problem of inconsistency, that arised from repetitive application of the operation when agents' knowledge were amalgamated. In the preceding work of Maynard-Reid II and Shoham, the fusion operator is applied to belief states, which is total preorders over possible worlds which is based on the semantics of belief revision. Moreover, they introduced the pedigreed belief state, which represented multiple sources of belief states, ordered by a credibility ranking. However in the theory, all the sources must be totally ordered and thus applicable area is quite restrictive. In this paper, we realize the fusion operator of multiple agents for partially ordered sources. When we consider such a partial ranking over sources, there is no need to restrict that each agent has total preorders over possible worlds. The preferential model, based on the semantics on nonmonotonic reasoning, allows each agent to have strict partial orders over possible worlds. Especially, such an order is called a preferential relation, that prescribes a world is more plausible than the other. Therefore, we introduce an operation which combines multiple preferential relations of agents. In addition, we show that our operation can properly include the ordinary belief fusion.

  4. Rethinking the learning of belief network probabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Musick, R.

    1996-03-01

    Belief networks are a powerful tool for knowledge discovery that provide concise, understandable probabilistic models of data. There are methods grounded in probability theory to incrementally update the relationships described by the belief network when new information is seen, to perform complex inferences over any set of variables in the data, to incorporate domain expertise and prior knowledge into the model, and to automatically learn the model from data. This paper concentrates on part of the belief network induction problem, that of learning the quantitative structure (the conditional probabilities), given the qualitative structure. In particular, the current practice of rote learning the probabilities in belief networks can be significantly improved upon. We advance the idea of applying any learning algorithm to the task of conditional probability learning in belief networks, discuss potential benefits, and show results of applying neural networks and other algorithms to a medium sized car insurance belief network. The results demonstrate from 10 to 100% improvements in model error rates over the current approaches.

  5. Integration of five health behaviour models: common strengths and unique contributions to understanding condom use.

    PubMed

    Reid, Allecia E; Aiken, Leona S

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this research was to select from the health belief model (HBM), theories of reasoned action (TRA) and planned behaviour (TPB), information-motivation-behavioural skills model (IMB) and social cognitive theory (SCT) the strongest longitudinal predictors of women's condom use and to combine these constructs into a single integrated model of condom use. The integrated model was evaluated for prediction of condom use among young women who had steady versus casual partners. At Time 1, all constructs of the five models and condom use were assessed in an initial and a replication sample (n = 193, n = 161). Condom use reassessed 8 weeks later (Time 2) served as the main outcome. Information from IMB, perceived susceptibility, benefits, and barriers from HBM, self-efficacy and self-evaluative expectancies from SCT, and partner norm and attitudes from TPB served as indirect or direct predictors of condom use. All paths replicated across samples. Direct predictors of behaviour varied with relationship status: self-efficacy significantly predicted condom use for women with casual partners, while attitude and partner norm predicted for those with steady partners. Integrated psychosocial models, rich in constructs and relationships drawn from multiple theories of behaviour, may provide a more complete characterisation of health protective behaviour. PMID:21678166

  6. [Antecedents of the Catalan health model].

    PubMed

    Sabaté i Casellas, Ferran

    2015-11-01

    The Catalan healthcare model is a particular way of addressing public health contingencies of the population as a whole, based on an organizational tradition that brings together stakeholders, such as the civil society, local government, the church, mutual care societies, public and private foundations, which for centuries have worked in coordination and complemented each other to provide quality public healthcare, far and beyond merely catering to the poor or those passing through. This model is based on a selfless, public spirited concept of society, achieved through a vocation to form social agreements, preserved in Catalan civil law. During the 3 periods of self-government Catalonia has enjoyed throughout the twentieth century, it has adapted to the economic, social, and scientific conditions, which define modern society, without sacrificing its fundamental features, thereby achieving a remarkable level of efficiency together with significant social consensus. PMID:26711054

  7. Gastrointestinal tract modelling in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Dong-Hua; Zhao, Jing-Bo; Gregersen, Hans

    2009-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the system of organs within multi-cellular animals that takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste. The various patterns of GI tract function are generated by the integrated behaviour of multiple tissues and cell types. A thorough study of the GI tract requires understanding of the interactions between cells, tissues and gastrointestinal organs in health and disease. This depends on knowledge, not only of numerous cellular ionic current mechanisms and signal transduction pathways, but also of large scale GI tissue structures and the special distribution of the nervous network. A unique way of coping with this explosion in complexity is mathematical and computational modelling; providing a computational framework for the multilevel modelling and simulation of the human gastrointestinal anatomy and physiology. The aim of this review is to describe the current status of biomechanical modelling work of the GI tract in humans and animals, which can be further used to integrate the physiological, anatomical and medical knowledge of the GI system. Such modelling will aid research and ensure that medical professionals benefit, through the provision of relevant and precise information about the patient’s condition and GI remodelling in animal disease models. It will also improve the accuracy and efficiency of medical procedures, which could result in reduced cost for diagnosis and treatment. PMID:19132766

  8. Young Children's Understanding of Fact Beliefs versus Value Beliefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flavell, John H.

    Three studies compared 3-year-olds' ability to attribute fact beliefs and value beliefs to another person when these beliefs differed from the children's. Value beliefs concerned the tastes and smells of substances, and whether stimuli were pretty or not. Numbers of subjects involved in the three studies were 32, 16, and 20. The consistent finding…

  9. A cognitive account of belief: a tentative road map

    PubMed Central

    Connors, Michael H.; Halligan, Peter W.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decades, delusions have become the subject of growing and productive research spanning clinical and cognitive neurosciences. Despite this, the nature of belief, which underpins the construct of delusions, has received little formal investigation. No account of delusions, however, would be complete without a cognitive level analysis of belief per se. One reason for this neglect is the assumption that, unlike more established and accessible modular psychological process (e.g., vision, audition, face-recognition, language-processing, and motor-control systems), beliefs comprise more distributed and therefore less accessible central cognitive processes. In this paper, we suggest some defining characteristics and functions of beliefs. Working back from cognitive accounts of delusions, we consider potential candidate cognitive processes that may be involved in normal belief formation. Finally, we advance a multistage account of the belief process that could provide the basis for a more comprehensive model of belief. PMID:25741291

  10. Empowered Consumers and the Health Care Team: A Dynamic Model of Health Informatics.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Peggy J; Myneni, Sahiti

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a dynamic new model of health informatics. Within the model, the focus of health informatics changes from the provider to the consumer and incorporates the dynamic relationship of technological change to health care. Bioinformatics is the scientific discipline that is translated into care through the practice of health informatics. The loci of health informatics practices are the consumer (consumer informatics), the patient (clinical informatics), and the community (public health informatics). The continuum from individual to community interacts with and contributes to health care technology, which is represented as a constantly changing progressive wave. PMID:26836991

  11. Paranormal beliefs of Latvian college students: a Latvian version of the revised paranormal belief scale.

    PubMed

    Utinans, A; Ancane, G; Tobacyk, J J; Boyraz, G; Livingston, M M; Tobacyk, J S

    2015-02-01

    A Latvian version of the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale (RPBS) was completed by 229 Latvian university students. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed six relatively independent factors labeled Magical Abilities, Psychokinesis, Traditional Religious Belief, Superstition, Spirit Travel, and Extraordinary Life Forms. Based on the motivational-control model, it was hypothesized that the societal stressors affecting Latvian society during the last 50 yr. have led to a reduced sense of personal control which, in turn, has resulted in increased endorsement of paranormal beliefs to re-establish a sense of control. The motivational-control hypothesis was not supported. Results indicated that (except for Traditional Religious Belief in women), the majority of these students were disbelievers in paranormal phenomena. As hypothesized, Latvian women reported significantly greater paranormal belief than men. PMID:25621674

  12. Interhemispheric interaction and beliefs on our origin: degree of handedness predicts beliefs in creationism versus evolution.

    PubMed

    Niebauer, Christopher Lee; Christman, Stephen D; Reid, Scott A; Garvey, Kilian J

    2004-10-01

    It has been suggested that strongly handed individuals have attenuated systems for updating beliefs compared to mixed handers (Niebauer, Aselage, & Schutte, 2002). The current research extended this theory to individual differences in updating beliefs concerning our origins. Although the theory of evolution has gained overwhelming success in the sciences, a significant percentage of the population believes in biblical creationist accounts of human origins that are inconsistent with accepted, contemporary scientific views. If strongly handed individuals possess attenuated systems for updating beliefs, they might be more likely to believe in creationism. In two studies, strongly handed participants were more likely to believe in creationism while mixed-handed participants were more likely to believe in evolution. A model of how interhemispheric interaction functions in maintaining and updating beliefs is discussed. Specifically, mixed-handedness seems to be associated with a lower threshold for updating beliefs. PMID:15513240

  13. Analysis of Multiple Partially Ordered Responses to Belief Items with Don't Know Option.

    PubMed

    Ip, Edward H; Chen, Shyh-Huei; Quandt, Sara A

    2016-06-01

    Understanding beliefs, values, and preferences of patients is a tenet of contemporary health sciences. This application was motivated by the analysis of multiple partially ordered set (poset) responses from an inventory on layman beliefs about diabetes. The partially ordered set arises because of two features in the data-first, the response options contain a Don't Know (DK) option, and second, there were two consecutive occasions of measurement. As predicted by the common sense model of illness, beliefs about diabetes were not necessarily stable across the two measurement occasions. Instead of analyzing the two occasions separately, we studied the joint responses across the occasions as a poset response. Few analytic methods exist for data structures other than ordered or nominal categories. Poset responses are routinely collapsed and then analyzed as either rank ordered or nominal data, leading to the loss of nuanced information that might be present within poset categories. In this paper we developed a general class of item response models for analyzing the poset data collected from the Common Sense Model of Diabetes Inventory. The inferential object of interest is the latent trait that indicates congruence of belief with the biomedical model. To apply an item response model to the poset diabetes inventory, we proved that a simple coding algorithm circumvents the requirement of writing new codes such that standard IRT software could be directly used for the purpose of item estimation and individual scoring. Simulation experiments were used to examine parameter recovery for the proposed poset model. PMID:25479822

  14. The mental health clinic: a new model

    PubMed Central

    FAVA, GIOVANNI A.; PARK, SEUGN K.; DUBOVSKY, STEVEN

    2008-01-01

    The role of psychiatrists into public mental health clinics has been hampered by a perceived restriction of the psychiatrist's role to prescribing and sign-ing forms, limiting opportunities to engage in the kind of integrated care that attracted many physicians to this specialty. We propose a revision of the current model in a direction that maximizes the expertise of this specialist as well as other clinicians in the health care team. The basic unit would consist of a psychiatrist (with adequate background both in psychopharmacology and psychotherapy), an internist and four clinical psychotherapists, who may provide evidence-based treatment after the initial evaluation of the psychiatrist. Its functioning would emphasize repeated assessments, sequential combi-nation of treatments, and close coordination of team members. Re-invigorating the role of the psychiatrist in the context of a team in which role assign-ments are clear could result in better outcomes and enhanced recruitment of psychiatrists into the public sector. PMID:18836544

  15. How parents process child health and nutrition information: A grounded theory model.

    PubMed

    Lovell, Jennifer L

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate low-income parents' experiences receiving, making meaning of, and applying sociocultural messages about childhood health and nutrition. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents from 16 low-income Early Head Start families. Verbatim interview transcripts, observations, field notes, documentary evidence, and follow-up participant checks were used during grounded theory analysis of the data. Data yielded a potential theoretical model of parental movement toward action involving (a) the culture and context influencing parents, (b) parents' sources of social and cultural messages, (c) parental values and engagement, (d) parental motivation for action, (e) intervening conditions impacting motivation and application, and (f) parent action taken on the individual and social levels. Parent characteristics greatly impacted the ways in which parents understood and applied health and nutrition information. Among other implications, it is recommended that educators and providers focus on a parent's beliefs, values, and cultural preferences regarding food and health behaviors as well as his/her personal/family definition of "health" when framing recommendations and developing interventions. PMID:26626822

  16. Compelling Belief: The Culture of American Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arons, Stephen

    Majority control of schooling undercuts the freedoms of expression and belief which are central to the First Amendment and to the political health of our society. In education, First Amendment rights can only be guaranteed insofar as choice is actually available to dissenting families. However, battles over public orthodoxy are observable in…

  17. Constructing a Swiss health space model of self-perceived health.

    PubMed

    Lengen, Charis; Blasius, Jörg

    2007-07-01

    This study aims to analyse the relationship between self-reported health characteristics and to explore latent cultural structures in the Swiss health survey. Based on categorical principal component analysis, a conceptual model of 'health space' was constructed which can be interpreted as a collective perception of health. The first dimension of the constructed health space model reflects the 'level of general health', and the second dimension the 'composition of physical and mental health symptoms'. These dimensions may reflect deeply rooted cultural structures--the good vs. bad dichotomy as a generic categorization scheme of human thought and the body/mind dualism. These latent structures provide a framework of the health space model and allow a better interpretation of the relationships of health perception characteristics and its related socio-demographic aspects. PMID:17475384

  18. Breast Cancer Cause Beliefs: Chinese, Korean, and Mexican American Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Patricia; Lim, Jung-Won; Wang-Letzkus, Ming; Flores, Katrina F.; Allen, Kristi M.; Castañeda, Sheila F.; Talavera, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined causal attribution beliefs about breast cancer and the influence that these beliefs exert on health behavior change among breast cancer survivors (BCS). Focus groups with Chinese (n = 21), Korean (n = 11), and Mexican American (n = 9) BCS recruited through community- and hospital-based support groups were conducted. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and translated into English for thematic content analysis. Three themes concerning beliefs about breast cancer cause common to all three groups included (a) stress, (b) diet, and (c) fatalism. Causal beliefs corresponded to behavioral changes with women describing efforts to improve their diet and manage their stress. Ethnic minority BCS adhere to beliefs about what caused their cancer that influence their health behaviors. Providing quality health care to ethnically diverse cancer survivors requires cultural sensitivity to patients’ beliefs about the causes of their cancer and awareness of how beliefs influence patients’ health behaviors post diagnosis. PMID:25001237

  19. Health Blief Model-based intervention to improve nutritional behavior among elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Hejar Abdul; Motalebi, Seyedeh Ameneh

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Nutrition is a determinant factor of health in elderly people. Independent living in elderly people can be maintained or enhanced by improvement of nutritional behavior. Hence, the present study was conducted to determine the impact of Health Belief Model (HBM)-based intervention on the nutritional behavior of elderly women. SUBJECTS/METHODS Cluster-random sampling was used to assess the sample of this clinical trial study. The participants of this study attended a 12-week nutrition education program consisting of two (2) sessions per week. There was also a follow-up for another three (3) months. Smart PLS 3.5 and SPSS 19 were used for structural equation modeling, determination of model fitness, and hypotheses testing. RESULTS The findings indicate that intervention had a significant effect on knowledge improvement as well as the behavior of elderly women. The model explained 5 to 70% of the variance in nutritional behavior. In addition, nutritional behavior was positively affected by the HBM constructs comprised of perceived susceptibility, self-efficacy, perceived benefits, and barriers after the intervention program. CONCLUSION The results of this study show that HBM-based educational intervention has a significant effect in improving nutritional knowledge and behavior among elderly women. PMID:27247733

  20. An Information Systems Model of the Determinants of Electronic Health Record Use

    PubMed Central

    Messeri, P.; Khan, S.; Millery, M.; Campbell, A.; Merrill, J.; Shih, S.; Kukafka, R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The prominence given to universal implementation of electronic health record (EHR) systems in U.S. health care reform, underscores the importance of devising reliable measures of factors that predict medical care providers’ use of EHRs. This paper presents an easily administered provider survey instrument that includes measures corresponding to core dimensions of DeLone and McClean’s (D & M) model of information system success. Methods Study data came from self-administered surveys completed by 460 primary care providers, who had recently begun using an EHR. Results Based upon assessment of psychometric properties of survey items, a revised D&M causal model was formulated that included four measures of the determinants of EHR use (system quality, IT support, ease of use, user satisfaction) and five indicators of provider beliefs about the impact on an individual’s clinical practice. A structural equation model was estimated that demonstrated a high level of inter-correlation between the four scales measuring determinants of EHR use. All four variables had positive association with each of the five individual impact measures. Consistent with our revised D&M model, the association of system quality and IT support with the individual impact measures was entirely mediated by ease of use and user satisfaction. Conclusions Survey research provides important insights into provider experiences with EHR. Additional studies are in progress to investigate how the variables constructed for this study are related to direct measures of EHR use. PMID:23874357