Science.gov

Sample records for health current efforts

  1. Linking the oceans to public health: current efforts and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Kite-Powell, Hauke L; Fleming, Lora E; Backer, Lorraine C; Faustman, Elaine M; Hoagland, Porter; Tsuchiya, Ami; Younglove, Lisa R; Wilcox, Bruce A; Gast, Rebecca J

    2008-01-01

    We review the major linkages between the oceans and public health, focusing on exposures and potential health effects due to anthropogenic and natural factors including: harmful algal blooms, microbes, and chemical pollutants in the oceans; consumption of seafood; and flooding events. We summarize briefly the current state of knowledge about public health effects and their economic consequences; and we discuss priorities for future research. We find that: • There are numerous connections between the oceans, human activities, and human health that result in both positive and negative exposures and health effects (risks and benefits); and the study of these connections comprises a new interdisciplinary area, "oceans and human health." • The state of present knowledge about the linkages between oceans and public health varies. Some risks, such as the acute health effects caused by toxins associated with shellfish poisoning and red tide, are relatively well understood. Other risks, such as those posed by chronic exposure to many anthropogenic chemicals, pathogens, and naturally occurring toxins in coastal waters, are less well quantified. Even where there is a good understanding of the mechanism for health effects, good epidemiological data are often lacking. Solid data on economic and social consequences of these linkages are also lacking in most cases. • The design of management measures to address these risks must take into account the complexities of human response to warnings and other guidance, and the economic tradeoffs among different risks and benefits. Future research in oceans and human health to address public health risks associated with marine pathogens and toxins, and with marine dimensions of global change, should include epidemiological, behavioral, and economic components to ensure that resulting management measures incorporate effective economic and risk/benefit tradeoffs. PMID:19025677

  2. Quality Improvement Efforts in Pediatric Oral Health.

    PubMed

    Ng, Man Wai

    2016-04-01

    Quality improvement (QI) and measurement are increasingly used in health care to improve patient care and outcomes. Despite current barriers in oral health measurement, there are nascent QI and measurement efforts emerging. This paper describes the role that QI and measurement can play in improving oral health care delivery in clinical practice by presenting a QI initiative that aimed to test and implement a chronic disease management approach to address early childhood caries. PMID:27265978

  3. Current Environmental Efforts in Ohio School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Timothy Alan

    In an effort to better describe the environmental education needs of the secondary schools in the State of Ohio, this thesis sought to determine whether or not Ohio high schools were incorporating environmental education into their curricula. Educators from 100 randomly selected high schools were administered questionnaires in 1982-83, and again…

  4. Qualitative Evaluation of Health Information Exchange Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Ash, Joan S.; Guappone, Kenneth P.

    2007-01-01

    Because most health information exchange (HIE) initiatives are as yet immature, formative evaluation is recommended so that what is learned through evaluation can be immediately applied to assist in HIE development efforts. Qualitative methods can be especially useful for formative evaluation because they can guide ongoing HIE growth while taking context into consideration. This paper describes important HIE-related research questions and outlines appropriate qualitative research techniques for addressing them. PMID:17904914

  5. Importance of investigating epigenetic alterations for industry and regulators: An appraisal of current efforts by the Health and Environmental Sciences Institute.

    PubMed

    Miousse, Isabelle R; Currie, Richard; Datta, Kaushik; Ellinger-Ziegelbauer, Heidrun; French, John E; Harrill, Alison H; Koturbash, Igor; Lawton, Michael; Mann, Derek; Meehan, Richard R; Moggs, Jonathan G; O'Lone, Raegan; Rasoulpour, Reza J; Pera, Renee A Reijo; Thompson, Karol

    2015-09-01

    Recent technological advances have led to rapid progress in the characterization of epigenetic modifications that control gene expression in a generally heritable way, and are likely involved in defining cellular phenotypes, developmental stages and disease status from one generation to the next. On November 18, 2013, the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) held a symposium entitled "Advances in Assessing Adverse Epigenetic Effects of Drugs and Chemicals" in Washington, D.C. The goal of the symposium was to identify gaps in knowledge and highlight promising areas of progress that represent opportunities to utilize epigenomic profiling for risk assessment of drugs and chemicals. Epigenomic profiling has the potential to provide mechanistic information in toxicological safety assessments; this is especially relevant for the evaluation of carcinogenic or teratogenic potential and also for drugs that directly target epigenetic modifiers, like DNA methyltransferases or histone modifying enzymes. Furthermore, it can serve as an endpoint or marker for hazard characterization in chemical safety assessment. The assessment of epigenetic effects may also be approached with new model systems that could directly assess transgenerational effects or potentially sensitive stem cell populations. These would enhance the range of safety assessment tools for evaluating xenobiotics that perturb the epigenome. Here we provide a brief synopsis of the symposium, update findings since that time and then highlight potential directions for future collaborative efforts to incorporate epigenetic profiling into risk assessment. PMID:26134581

  6. Current Reform Efforts in Mathematics Education. ERIC/CSMEE Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Thomas G.

    The current reform effort in mathematics education has its roots in the decade of the 1980's and the national reports that focused attention on an impending crisis in education, particularly in mathematics and science. Within this context, dozens of individual reform efforts have been initiated in recent years. Many have focused on the development…

  7. Utah's First Joint Effort in Vocational Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprague, Richard F.

    1976-01-01

    Describes a tri-district program (in Utah's Granite, Jordan, and Murray school districts) to expand the health career program, which involved 62 field trips scouring the area's hospitals and health care centers, and student work experience opportunities, to expose students from 13 high schools to occupations beyond the traditional doctor and…

  8. Agricultural safety efforts by county health departments in Wisconsin.

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, L J; Schuler, R T; Wilkinson, T L; Skjolaas, C A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to improve the agriculture safety prevention efforts of county health departments in Wisconsin by examining current programs, staffs' perceptions of the farm safety problem, and the need for new resources. METHODS: A survey instrument was completed by a professional staff member of the local health department in each of Wisconsin's 69 counties. RESULTS: Usable responses were obtained from 84% of the counties. Forty-five percent of the responding staff members conducted some agricultural safety and health programs, most often health screenings or group meetings conducted collaboratively with county agricultural Extension agents. There were no major differences in county demographics or other service provision variables between staff members who conducted programs and those who did not. Staff members perceived the largest barriers to better safety as lack of staff time and difficulty getting farmers to attend safety programs. Most failed to place more emphasis on training agricultural workers to permanently correct hazards than on training them to work safely around hazards. However, the staff members ranked safety inspection checklists as the most needed new material and ranked Extension agents and farmers as the most appropriate people to conduct inspections using such checklists. CONCLUSION: County public health professionals want more staff time and new materials to increase the effectiveness of their agricultural safety efforts. Encouraging agricultural workers and family members to identify and correct hazards would be a more effective use of staff time than training people to work safely around hazards. PMID:8837633

  9. Current Status of the DPOSS Effort at Caltech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odewahn, S. C.

    1998-05-01

    We discuss the current status of a three-color survey of fields of the digitized Second Palomar Observatory Sky Survey (DPOSS). Eventually, the DPOSS catalogs will be released to the astronomical community. The final catalog will contain an estimated minimum of 50,000,000 (50 million) galaxies, and over 2,000,000,000 (2 billion) stars, down to the equivalent blue limiting magnitude of 22., and with star-galaxy classifications accurate to 90% or better down to the equivalent blue magnitude of 21. An important addition is a program to collect extensive CCD calibration data in the Gunn gri system with the Palomar 60". This represents a considerable advance over other, currently existing optical sky surveys based on large-format photographic plates. A great variety of scientific projects should become possible using this major data set, including the following: studies of galaxy clustering and of the large-scale structure in the low-redshift universe, as tests of structure formation models; galaxy counts at moderate depth, as a function of magnitudes, colors, and morphology, to be used in tests of galaxy evolution over the past few Gigayears; a search for high redshift (z > 4) quasars, and active galactic nuclei at lower redshifts; mass optical identifications of radio, IR, and x-ray sources; generation of objectively defined catalogs of clusters and groups of galaxies; a search for previously unknown sparse globular clusters and dwarf spheroidal galaxies; cataloging of low surface brightness galaxies; a search for objects with peculiar colors or variability; and many others. In particular, we review efforts to perform automatic galaxy classification using artificial neural network image classifiers. This powerful technique is used to map a multivariate photometric parameter space to the revised Hubble system of galaxy classification. We present a new morphological classification approach using Fourier image models to identify barred and ringed spiral systems.

  10. Maternal immunization efforts of the National Institutes of Health.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Fran A; Koso-Thomas, Marion; Isaacs, Maggie Brewinski; Piper, Jeanna; Read, Jennifer; Nesin, Mirjana

    2015-11-25

    Over the last 35 years, efforts at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to protect mothers and their infants against infectious diseases have involved a bench-to-bedside approach. Basic and translational research that provided a foundation for clinical trials of vaccines in pregnancy include natural history and vaccine antigen identification studies. Development of laboratory assays and reagents have been funded by NIAID; these are critical for the advancement of vaccine candidates through the preclinical and clinical steps along the maternal immunization research pathway to support vaccine efficacy. Animal models of maternal immunization have been developed to evaluate efficacy of vaccine candidates. Clinical studies required development of maternal immunization protocols to address specific pregnancy related issues, for enrollment and safety assessment of mothers and their infants. NIH has organized and participated in meetings, workshops and other collaborative efforts with partners have advanced maternal immunization efforts. Partners have included many institutes and offices at NIH as well as other Department of Health and Human Services agencies and offices (Food and Drug Administration, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Vaccine Program Office), World Health Organization, academic investigators, Biotech and pharmaceutical companies, and nonprofit organizations such as the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. These research and development partnership are essential for advancing maternal immunization. Continued efforts are needed to promote maternal immunization to protect pregnant women and their infants against vaccine-preventable infectious disease, especially in resource-limited settings where the burden of infections is high. PMID:26458798

  11. Current Health Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gay, John; And Others

    The basic premise of this text is that, in addition to the presentation of basic cognitive and affective information, health education should go one step further by assisting student in developing decision-making skills. The text begins by offering the student a basic foundation of what is meant by health and how this meaning applies to the world,…

  12. Making the connection: Federal efforts on climate change and health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balbus, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The 3rd National Climate Assessment highlights four key messages regarding the linkages between human health and climate change. There are many different ways in which climate change affects health, and some impacts are already being felt in the United States. People and places differ in their vulnerability to the health impacts of climate change. Adaptation measures are available for many health impacts in the US, but they may not be able to completely prevent impacts, especially if climate change becomes more severe in the future. And many measures undertaken to limit greenhouse gas emissions or increase resilience to climate impacts in other sectors have the potential to improve, or in some cases, harm, human health. This presentation will review the findings of the 3rd National Climate Assessment with regards to human health and describe ongoing and future efforts to more comprehensively assess the health impacts of climate change in the United States and provide information for helping to protect public health from climate impacts.

  13. Overview of Current and Planned CMB Ballooning Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanany, Shaul

    2016-03-01

    Balloon-borne experiments have a unique role in probing the polarization of the CMB. They enable access to frequencies that can not be probed by ground-based instruments, they can straight-forwardly measure signals on large angular scales, and they serve as test-beds for technologies that are ultimately used on space missions. With these roles in mind, I will discuss the status of the three NASA-funded experiments EBEX, SPIDER and PIPER, and their complementarity with ground-based efforts. I will also discuss plans for next generation instruments, with which the detector count is expected to increase by another factor of 10 to about 10,000.

  14. Results and current status of the NPARC alliance validation effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Towne, Charles E.; Jones, Ralph R.

    1996-01-01

    The NPARC Alliance is a partnership between the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and the USAF Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) dedicated to the establishment of a national CFD capability, centered on the NPARC Navier-Stokes computer program. The three main tasks of the Alliance are user support, code development, and validation. The present paper is a status report on the validation effort. It describes the validation approach being taken by the Alliance. Representative results are presented for laminar and turbulent flat plate boundary layers, a supersonic axisymmetric jet, and a glancing shock/turbulent boundary layer interaction. Cases scheduled to be run in the future are also listed. The archive of validation cases is described, including information on how to access it via the Internet.

  15. Social Entrepreneurship in Religious Congregations’ Efforts to Address Health Needs

    PubMed Central

    Werber, Laura; Mendel, Peter J.; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Examine how religious congregations engage in social entrepreneurship as they strive to meet health-related needs in their communities. Design Multiple case studies. Setting Los Angeles County, California. Participants Purposive sample of 14 congregations representing diverse races-ethnicities (African American, Latino, and white) and faith traditions (Jewish and various Christian). Method Congregations were recruited based on screening data and consultation of a community advisory board. In each congregation, researchers conducted interviews with clergy and lay leaders (n=57); administered a congregational questionnaire; observed health activities, worship services, and neighborhood context; and reviewed archival information. Interviews were analyzed using a qualitative, code-based approach. Results Congregations’ health-related activities tended to be episodic, small in scale, and local in scope. Trust and social capital played important roles in congregations’ health initiatives, providing a safe, confidential environment and leveraging resources from – and for – faith-based and secular organizations in their community networks. Congregations also served as “incubators” for members to engage in social entrepreneurship. Conclusion Although the small scale of congregations’ health initiatives suggest they may not have the capacity to provide the main infrastructure for service provision, congregations can complement the efforts of health and social providers with their unique strengths. Specifically, congregations are distinctive in their ability to identify unmet local needs, and congregations’ position in their communities permit them to network in productive ways. PMID:23875986

  16. Emerging Infections Program Efforts to Address Health Equity

    PubMed Central

    Vugia, Duc J.; Bennett, Nancy M.; Moore, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    The Emerging Infections Program (EIP), a collaboration between (currently) 10 state health departments, their academic center partners, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, was established in 1995. The EIP performs active, population-based surveillance for important infectious diseases, addresses new problems as they arise, emphasizes projects that lead to prevention, and develops and evaluates public health practices. The EIP has increasingly addressed the health equity challenges posed by Healthy People 2020. These challenges include objectives to increase the proportion of Healthy People–specified conditions for which national data are available by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status as a step toward first recognizing and subsequently eliminating health inequities. EIP has made substantial progress in moving from an initial focus on monitoring social determinants exclusively through collecting and analyzing data by race/ethnicity to identifying and piloting ways to conduct population-based surveillance by using area-based socioeconomic status measures. PMID:26291875

  17. Facets of job effort in bus driver health: deconstructing "effort" in the effort-reward imbalance model.

    PubMed

    Tse, John L M; Flin, Rhona; Mearns, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    This research aimed to test the relative value of developing and using job-specific facets of effort and testing them using J. Siegrist's (1996) effort-reward imbalance (ERI) theory to extend understanding of how one might determine job strain in urban bus driving. In addition, the interactive effects of the ERI model are further investigated to address the lack of research into the relationships of the model's constructs. Using focus groups and published papers, a measure of bus driver effort was created, which was subsequently completed by 186 male U.K. bus drivers as part of a questionnaire study. The results were factor analyzed to create 4 facets of effort, which demonstrated additional variance in predicting strain, above and beyond J. Siegrist's original effort construct. One facet, workload and fatigue, was observed to be a particularly important contributor to strain. The analyses further indicated that the ERI model's assumptions that ERI creates job strain could not be completely upheld, although poorer levels of reward and higher levels of overcommitment were strong main predictors of job strain. Research and applied implications are considered. PMID:17257066

  18. Current efforts and trends in the treatment of NASH.

    PubMed

    Ratziu, Vlad; Goodman, Zachary; Sanyal, Arun

    2015-04-01

    Of all the aspects of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the slowest advances have occurred in the therapeutic field. Thirty-five years after its formal description and after 15 years of intense scrutiny from researchers worldwide, there is still no approved drug for the treatment of non-alcoholic steatohepatits (NASH). In the meantime, progress in the understanding of pathophysiology, diagnosis - both invasive and non-invasive, epidemiology and even natural history have been substantial or, at times, spectacular. In contrast, hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy underwent constant improvement and even before the great acceleration of the past few years, patients were already being offered approved therapies that were increasingly more efficient. What then explains such a slow pace of therapeutic advances in NASH, and will this change in the near future? Here we will review commonly-held myths that have diverted attention from therapy of NASH, obstacles that have slowed down industrial development of drugs for this indication, and recent achievements that will create better conditions for drug development programs. We will also briefly review current knowledge of non-pharmacological and pharmacological management in this early era of NASH therapies. PMID:25920092

  19. Enteric disease surveillance under the AFHSC-GEIS: Current efforts, landscape analysis and vision forward

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The mission of the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS) is to support global public health and to counter infectious disease threats to the United States Armed Forces, including newly identified agents or those increasing in incidence. Enteric diseases are a growing threat to U.S. forces, which must be ready to deploy to austere environments where the risk of exposure to enteropathogens may be significant and where routine prevention efforts may be impractical. In this report, the authors review the recent activities of AFHSC-GEIS partner laboratories in regards to enteric disease surveillance, prevention and response. Each partner identified recent accomplishments, including support for regional networks. AFHSC/GEIS partners also completed a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) survey as part of a landscape analysis of global enteric surveillance efforts. The current strengths of this network include excellent laboratory infrastructure, equipment and personnel that provide the opportunity for high-quality epidemiological studies and test platforms for point-of-care diagnostics. Weaknesses include inconsistent guidance and a splintered reporting system that hampers the comparison of data across regions or longitudinally. The newly chartered Enterics Surveillance Steering Committee (ESSC) is intended to provide clear mission guidance, a structured project review process, and central data management and analysis in support of rationally directed enteric disease surveillance efforts. PMID:21388567

  20. Recent sexually transmitted disease prevention efforts and their implications for AIDS health education.

    PubMed

    Solomon, M Z; DeJong, W

    1986-01-01

    In the absence of a cure or vaccine for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) educational and social marketing efforts to reduce the transmission of Human T-lymphotropic type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV) are currently our best hope for controlling the disease. Since 1983, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) has funded a series of research studies to determine whether education efforts can successfully motivate the adoption of key behaviors relevant to the control of a variety of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Analysis of the first two studies which are now completed, and preliminary data from a third study, have documented dramatic changes in behavior, knowledge, and attitudes among clients in inner-city public health clinics. The authors describe the principles and underlying assumptions that have guided the design of their STD initiatives, drawing special attention to the implications for AIDS health education efforts. PMID:3781857

  1. Supporting Gang Violence Prevention Efforts: A Public Health Approach for Nurses

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, Dawn D.; Logan, J.E.; Schneiderman, Janet U.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of gang violence on a youth’s risk for death or injury is tremendous. Prevention of complex societal problems, such as gang violence, requires a substantial effort and commitment from many sectors and disciplines. Nurses are uniquely positioned to help lead such efforts. Understanding the public health perspective to gang violence may be an important tool for nurses attempting to prevent this problem. The public health approach has four key components: defining and monitoring the problem; identifying risk, protective, and promoting factors; developing and evaluating interventions; and dissemination. This article outlines these components, current research on gang violence, and concludes by summarizing critical challenges for nurses to consider as they contribute to public health initiatives to prevent gang violence. PMID:26752944

  2. 75 FR 51831 - Request for Measures of Health Plan Efforts To Address Health Plan Members' Health Literacy Needs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Request for Measures of Health Plan Efforts To Address Health Plan Members' Health Literacy Needs AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and...

  3. Impact of health savings accounts on precautionary savings, demand for health insurance and prevention effort.

    PubMed

    Steinorth, Petra

    2011-03-01

    The paper examines the influence of health savings accounts (HSAs) on optimal savings, insurance demand and prevention effort over the course of a lifetime. This paper adds to the literature by investigating HSAs as both a form of insurance and as saving vehicle in an expected utility framework. Assuming no regulatory constraints on the deductible, we show that individuals voluntarily choose a positive deductible and increase their savings with HSAs. If the government-imposed minimum deductible becomes too great, however, individuals may instead choose to remain in traditional insurance. We determine the effect of HSAs on prevention effort. We find that an increased tax subsidy may worsen moral hazard issues. Assuming partial risk aversion to be less than or equal to one, individuals will either invest less in the health preservation effort and more money in the HSA or vice versa. However, they will never increase both effort and savings simultaneously as was intended when HSAs were introduced. PMID:21349595

  4. Improving Child Health Services: Lessons Learned from Nine Community Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, William D.

    One of the major reasons many children do not receive efficient, effective health care is that much of public spending for child health services has been funneled through categorical funding programs. The Child Health Initiative provided an opportunity to learn how different communities would approach improving child health services through…

  5. Biologically hazardous agents at work and efforts to protect workers' health: a review of recent reports.

    PubMed

    Rim, Kyung-Taek; Lim, Cheol-Hong

    2014-06-01

    Because information on biological agents in the workplace is lacking, biological hazard analyses at the workplace to securely recognize the harmful factors with biological basis are desperately needed. This review concentrates on literatures published after 2010 that attempted to detect biological hazards to humans, especially workers, and the efforts to protect them against these factors. It is important to improve the current understanding of the health hazards caused by biological factors at the workplace. In addition, this review briefly describes these factors and provides some examples of their adverse health effects. It also reviews risk assessments, protection with personal protective equipment, prevention with training of workers, regulations, as well as vaccinations. PMID:25180133

  6. Biologically Hazardous Agents at Work and Efforts to Protect Workers' Health: A Review of Recent Reports

    PubMed Central

    Rim, Kyung-Taek; Lim, Cheol-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Because information on biological agents in the workplace is lacking, biological hazard analyses at the workplace to securely recognize the harmful factors with biological basis are desperately needed. This review concentrates on literatures published after 2010 that attempted to detect biological hazards to humans, especially workers, and the efforts to protect them against these factors. It is important to improve the current understanding of the health hazards caused by biological factors at the workplace. In addition, this review briefly describes these factors and provides some examples of their adverse health effects. It also reviews risk assessments, protection with personal protective equipment, prevention with training of workers, regulations, as well as vaccinations. PMID:25180133

  7. Resident Assistant Training Program for Increasing Alcohol, Other Drug, and Mental Health First-Aid Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Thombs, Dennis L.; Gonzalez, Jennifer M. Reingle; Osborn, Cynthia J.; Rossheim, Matthew E.; Suzuki, Sumihiro

    2014-01-01

    In college and university residence halls, resident assistants (RAs) are expected to serve as first-aid providers to students who may have alcohol, other drug, mental health, and academic problems. Despite this responsibility, evidence-based, first-aid programs have not been developed and tested for the RA workforce. The current study examined effects of an investigational first-aid program designed specifically for RAs. The online Peer Hero Training program is a novel approach to RA training in its use of interactive video dramatizations of incidents involving substance-using or distressed residents. A 9-month randomized trial conducted on 8 U.S. campuses compared RAs who participated in the Peer Hero Training program to RAs who received training-as-usual. Participation in the Peer Hero Training program significantly increased RA first-aid efforts for residential students who may have had alcohol, other drug, mental health, or academic problems six months after baseline. Compared to those in the training-as-usual condition, RAs in the Peer Hero Training program made more than 10 times as many first-aid efforts for possible alcohol problems, almost 14 times the number of first-aid efforts for possible drug use, almost 3 times the number of first-aid efforts for possible mental health problems, and 3 times the number of first-aid efforts for academic problems. There was no evidence that measured RA attitudes mediated the effects of the intervention. Results of this preliminary evaluation trial suggest that online training using interactive video dramatizations is a viable approach to strengthening RAs’ ability to provide alcohol, other drug, and mental health first-aid to undergraduates. PMID:25322950

  8. Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: Current Canadian Efforts and Analysis of Gaps

    PubMed Central

    Poole, Nancy; Schmidt, Rose A.; Green, Courtney; Hemsing, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Effective prevention of risky alcohol use in pregnancy involves much more than providing information about the risk of potential birth defects and developmental disabilities in children. To categorize the breadth of possible initiatives, Canadian experts have identified a four-part framework for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) prevention: Level 1, public awareness and broad health promotion; Level 2, conversations about alcohol with women of childbearing age and their partners; Level 3, specialized support for pregnant women; and Level 4, postpartum support for new mothers. In order to describe the level of services across Canada, 50 Canadian service providers, civil servants, and researchers working in the area of FASD prevention were involved in an online Delphi survey process to create a snapshot of current FASD prevention efforts, identify gaps, and provide ideas on how to close these gaps to improve FASD prevention. Promising Canadian practices and key areas for future action are described. Overall, Canadian FASD prevention programming reflects evidence-based practices; however, there are many opportunities to improve scope and availability of these initiatives. PMID:27199560

  9. Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: Current Canadian Efforts and Analysis of Gaps.

    PubMed

    Poole, Nancy; Schmidt, Rose A; Green, Courtney; Hemsing, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Effective prevention of risky alcohol use in pregnancy involves much more than providing information about the risk of potential birth defects and developmental disabilities in children. To categorize the breadth of possible initiatives, Canadian experts have identified a four-part framework for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) prevention: Level 1, public awareness and broad health promotion; Level 2, conversations about alcohol with women of childbearing age and their partners; Level 3, specialized support for pregnant women; and Level 4, postpartum support for new mothers. In order to describe the level of services across Canada, 50 Canadian service providers, civil servants, and researchers working in the area of FASD prevention were involved in an online Delphi survey process to create a snapshot of current FASD prevention efforts, identify gaps, and provide ideas on how to close these gaps to improve FASD prevention. Promising Canadian practices and key areas for future action are described. Overall, Canadian FASD prevention programming reflects evidence-based practices; however, there are many opportunities to improve scope and availability of these initiatives. PMID:27199560

  10. Current Awareness in Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Disease Control (DHEW/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    Included in this annotated bibliography on health education are journal articles, monographs, and government reports. Topics covered are patient education, community health education, school health education, sex education, lifestyle, general health education, research and evaluation, smoking, self-care, and other miscellaneous areas. It contains…

  11. Informal payments and health worker effort: a quantitative study from Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Lindkvist, Ida

    2013-10-01

    Informal payments-payments made from patients to health personnel in excess of official fees--are widespread in low-income countries. It is not obvious how such payments affect health worker effort. On the one hand, one could argue that because informal payments resemble formal pay for performance schemes, they will incite higher effort in the health sector. On the other hand, health personnel may strategically adjust their base effort downwards to maximise patients' willingness to pay informally for extra services. To explore the relationship between informal payments and health worker effort, we use a unique data set from Tanzania with over 2000 observations on the performance of 156 health workers. Patient data on informal payments are used to assess the likelihood that a particular health worker accepts informal payment. We find that health workers who likely accept payments do not exert higher average effort. They do however have a higher variability in the effort they exert to different patients. These health workers are also less sensitive to the medical condition of the patient. A likely explanation for these findings is that health workers engage in rent seeking and lower baseline effort to induce patients to pay. PMID:23188621

  12. Perceived extrinsic mortality risk and reported effort in looking after health: testing a behavioral ecological prediction.

    PubMed

    Pepper, Gillian V; Nettle, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    Socioeconomic gradients in health behavior are pervasive and well documented. Yet, there is little consensus on their causes. Behavioral ecological theory predicts that, if people of lower socioeconomic position (SEP) perceive greater personal extrinsic mortality risk than those of higher SEP, they should disinvest in their future health. We surveyed North American adults for reported effort in looking after health, perceived extrinsic and intrinsic mortality risks, and measures of SEP. We examined the relationships between these variables and found that lower subjective SEP predicted lower reported health effort. Lower subjective SEP was also associated with higher perceived extrinsic mortality risk, which in turn predicted lower reported health effort. The effect of subjective SEP on reported health effort was completely mediated by perceived extrinsic mortality risk. Our findings indicate that perceived extrinsic mortality risk may be a key factor underlying SEP gradients in motivation to invest in future health. PMID:24990431

  13. Consumer Involvement in Evaluation and Quality Assurance Efforts: Review of Current Efforts in the Field of Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashline, Melissa

    This review of the professional and programmatic literature in the field of developmental disabilities focuses on ways in which individuals with developmental disabilities and their families are becoming increasingly involved in program evaluation and quality assurance efforts. Three major movements are having an impact on this activity: state and…

  14. The Medical Education Partnership Initiative: PEPFAR's effort to boost health worker education to strengthen health systems.

    PubMed

    Mullan, Fitzhugh; Frehywot, Seble; Omaswa, Francis; Sewankambo, Nelson; Talib, Zohray; Chen, Candice; Kiarie, James; Kiguli-Malwadde, Elsie

    2012-07-01

    The early success of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) in delivering antiretroviral medications in poor countries unmasked the reality that many lacked sufficient health workers to dispense the drugs effectively. The 2008 reauthorization of PEPFAR embraced this challenge and committed to supporting the education and training of thousands of new health workers. In 2010 the program, with financial support from the US National Institutes of Health and administrative support from the Health Resources and Services Administration, launched the Medical Education Partnership Initiative to fund thirteen African medical schools and a US university. The US university would serve as a coordinating center to improve the quantity, quality, and retention of the schools' graduates. The program was not limited to training in the delivery of services for patients with HIV/AIDS. Rather, it was based on the principle that investment in medical education and retention would lead to health system strengthening overall. Although results are limited at this stage, this article reviews the opportunities and challenges of the first year of this major transnational medical education initiative and considers directions for future efforts and reforms, national governmental roles, and the sustainability of the program over time. PMID:22778346

  15. Current knowledge of US metal and nonmetal miner health: Current and potential data sources for analysis of miner health status

    PubMed Central

    Yeoman, K. M.; Halldin, C. N.; Wood, J.; Storey, E.; Johns, D.; Laney, A. S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Little is known about the current health status of US metal and nonmetal (MNM) miners, in part because no health surveillance systems exist for this population. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is developing a program to characterize burden of disease among MNM miners. This report discusses current knowledge and potential data sources of MNM miner health. Recent national surveys were analyzed, and literature specific to MNM miner health status was reviewed. No robust estimates of disease prevalence were identified, and national surveys did not provide information specific to MNM miners. Because substantial gaps exist in the understanding of MNM miners' current health status, NIOSH plans to develop a health surveillance program for this population to guide intervention efforts to reduce occupational and personal risks for chronic illness. PMID:25658684

  16. Environmental Health Data in Europe: Current Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, A. W., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    These papers presented at a World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe (WHO/EURO) Consultation explore current approaches to environmental health data in Europe. Topics discussed include unified environmental health databases, the use of national hospital registers, health statistics in small areas, expert systems, chemical databases,…

  17. Current efforts on developing an HWIL synthetic environment for LADAR sensor testing at AMRDEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hajin J.; Cornell, Michael C.; Naumann, Charles B.

    2005-05-01

    Efforts in developing a synthetic environment for testing LADAR sensors in a hardware-in-the-loop simulation are continuing at the Aviation and Missile Research, Engineering, and Development Center (AMRDEC) of the U.S. Army Research, Engineering and Development Command (RDECOM). Current activities have concentrated on developing the optical projection hardware portion of the synthetic environment. These activities range from system level design down to component level testing. Of particular interest have been schemes for generating the optical signals representing the individual pixels of the projection. Several approaches have been investigated and tested with emphasis on operating wavelength, intensity dynamic range and uniformity, and flexibility in pixel waveform generation. This paper will discuss some of the results from these current efforts at RDECOM's Advanced Simulation Center (ASC).

  18. The Number Of Health Information Exchange Efforts Is Declining, Leaving The Viability Of Broad Clinical Data Exchange Uncertain.

    PubMed

    Adler-Milstein, Julia; Lin, Sunny C; Jha, Ashish K

    2016-07-01

    The diffusion of health information exchange (HIE), in which clinical data are electronically linked to patients in many different care settings, is a top priority for policy makers. To drive HIE, community and state efforts were federally funded to broadly engage providers in exchanging data in ways that improved patient care. To assess the current landscape, we conducted a national survey of community and state HIE efforts soon after federal funding ended. We found 106 operational HIE efforts that, as a group, engaged more than one-third of all US providers in 2014. However, the number of operational HIE efforts is down from 119 in 2012, representing the first decline observed since the tracking of these efforts began in 2006. Only half of operational efforts reported being financially viable, and all efforts reported a variety of barriers to continuation. These findings raise important questions about whether the current vision for HIE efforts will allow for the broad exchange of clinical data, or whether alternative approaches would be more successful. PMID:27385245

  19. Recent Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention Efforts and Their Implications for AIDS Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Mildred Zeldes; DeJong, William

    1986-01-01

    The authors describe the principles and underlying assumptions that have guided the design of their STD (sexually transmitted diseases) initiatives, drawing special attention to the implications for AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) health education efforts. (Author/CT)

  20. Adult Basic Education and Health Literacy: Program Efforts and Perceived Student Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackert, Michael; Poag, Meg

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This project examined health literacy efforts among adult basic education providers in Central Texas. Methods: A survey was conducted with all adult literacy providers in Central Texas (N = 58). Results: Most programs provide health-related information. Literacy programs see needs for helping students communicate with doctors, filling…

  1. Public health information and statistics dissemination efforts for Indonesia on the Internet

    PubMed Central

    Hanani, Febiana; Kobayashi, Takashi; Jo, Eitetsu; Nakajima, Sawako; Oyama, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To elucidate current issues related to health statistics dissemination efforts on the Internet in Indonesia and to propose a new dissemination website as a solution. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted. Sources of statistics were identified using link relationship and Google™ search. Menu used to locate statistics, mode of presentation and means of access to statistics, and available statistics were assessed for each site. Assessment results were used to derive design specification; a prototype system was developed and evaluated with usability test. Results: 49 sources were identified on 18 governmental, 8 international and 5 non-government websites. Of 49 menus identified, 33% used non-intuitive titles and lead to inefficient search. 69% of them were on government websites. Of 31 websites, only 39% and 23% used graph/chart and map for presentation. Further, only 32%, 39% and 19% provided query, export and print feature. While >50% sources reported morbidity, risk factor and service provision statistics, <40% sources reported health resource and mortality statistics. Statistics portal website was developed using Joomla!™ content management system. Usability test demonstrated its potential to improve data accessibility. Discussion and conclusion: In this study, government’s efforts to disseminate statistics in Indonesia are supported by non-governmental and international organizations and existing their information may not be very useful because it is: a) not widely distributed, b) difficult to locate, and c) not effectively communicated. Actions are needed to ensure information usability, and one of such actions is the development of statistics portal website. PMID:23569612

  2. Reallocating resources: how should the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guide disinvestment efforts in the National Health Service?

    PubMed

    Pearson, Steven; Littlejohns, Peter

    2007-07-01

    The recent acute budgetary pressures within the English National Health Service (NHS) have accentuated calls for targeted disinvestment thereby eliminating ineffective or low-value services to provide resources that can be reallocated toward more cost-effective purposes. This challenge extends beyond allocating new resources wisely, a goal that has been, since its inception, the primary focus of the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). But on 6 September 2006, the Department of Health announced a new mandate for NICE to help the NHS identify interventions that are not effective. This paper discusses current NICE efforts to support value in the NHS and then explores the policy options available to the Institute as it prepares to launch a programme to meet the NHS request for guidance on disinvestment. All of the possible options present challenges. NICE will need to collaborate in new ways with partners inside, and perhaps outside, the NHS. However, the Institute has an established reputation for rigour, transparency and political durability that makes it well qualified to sustain public support in the face of difficult decisions. Disinvestment will provide a stern test of these qualities. PMID:17716419

  3. Current perspectives: the impact of cyberbullying on adolescent health

    PubMed Central

    Nixon, Charisse L

    2014-01-01

    Cyberbullying has become an international public health concern among adolescents, and as such, it deserves further study. This paper reviews the current literature related to the effects of cyberbullying on adolescent health across multiple studies worldwide and provides directions for future research. A review of the evidence suggests that cyberbullying poses a threat to adolescents’ health and well-being. A plethora of correlational studies have demonstrated a cogent relationship between adolescents’ involvement in cyberbullying and negative health indices. Adolescents who are targeted via cyberbullying report increased depressive affect, anxiety, loneliness, suicidal behavior, and somatic symptoms. Perpetrators of cyberbullying are more likely to report increased substance use, aggression, and delinquent behaviors. Mediating/moderating processes have been found to influence the relationship between cyberbullying and adolescent health. More longitudinal work is needed to increase our understanding of the effects of cyberbullying on adolescent health over time. Prevention and intervention efforts related to reducing cyberbullying and its associated harms are discussed. PMID:25177157

  4. Overview of the current spectroscopy effort on the Livermore electron beam ion traps

    SciTech Connect

    Beiersdorfer, P.; Lopez-Urrutia, J.C.; Brown, G.

    1995-06-29

    An overview is given of the current spectroscopic effort on the Livermore electron beam ion trap facilities. The effort focuses on four aspects: spectral line position, line intensity, temporal evolution, and line shape. Examples of line position measurements include studies of the K-shell transitions in heliumlike Kr{sup 34+} and the 2s-2p intrashell transitions in lithiumlike Th{sup 87+} and U{sup 89+}, which provide benchmark values for testing the theory of relativistic and quantum electrodynamical contributions in high-Z ions. Examples of line intensity measurements are provided by measurements of the electron-impact excitation and dielectronic recombination cross sections of heliumlike transition-metal ions Ti{sup 20+} through CO{sup 25+}. A discussion of radiative lifetime measurements of metastable levels in heliumlike ions is given to illustrate the time-resolved spectroscopy techniques in the microsecond range. The authors also present a measurement of the spectral lineshape that illustrates the very low ion temperatures that can be achieved in an EBIT.

  5. Sexual orientation change efforts among current or former LDS church members.

    PubMed

    Dehlin, John P; Galliher, Renee V; Bradshaw, William S; Hyde, Daniel C; Crowell, Katherine A

    2015-04-01

    This study examined sexual orientation change efforts (SOCE) by 1,612 individuals who are current or former members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS). Data were obtained through a comprehensive online survey from both quantitative items and open-ended written responses. A minimum of 73% of men and 43% of women in this sample attempted sexual orientation change, usually through multiple methods and across many years (on average). Developmental factors associated with attempts at sexual orientation change included higher levels of early religious orthodoxy (for all) and less supportive families and communities (for men only). Among women, those who identified as lesbian and who reported higher Kinsey attraction scores were more likely to have sought change. Of the 9 different methods surveyed, private and religious change methods (compared with therapist-led or group-based efforts) were the most common, started earlier, exercised for longer periods, and reported to be the most damaging and least effective. When sexual orientation change was identified as a goal, reported effectiveness was lower for almost all of the methods. While some beneficial SOCE outcomes (such as acceptance of same-sex attractions and reduction in depression and anxiety) were reported, the overall results support the conclusion that sexual orientation is highly resistant to explicit attempts at change and that SOCE are overwhelmingly reported to be either ineffective or damaging by participants. PMID:24635593

  6. Current Technology Development Efforts on the International X-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, David

    2011-01-01

    The International X-ray Observatory (IXO) is a collaboration between NASA, ESA, and JAXA which is under study for launch in 2021. IXO will be a large 6600 kilogram Great Observatory-class mission which will build upon the legacies of the Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray observatories. There is an extensive ongoing effort to raise the technology readiness level of the X-ray mirror from TRL 3 to TRL 6 in the next decade. Improvements have recently been made in the area of positioning and bonding mirrors on the nanometer scale and developing metals and composites with a matching coefficient of thermal expansion to the glass X-ray mirrors. On the mission systems side, the NASA reference design has been through a preliminary coupled loads analysis and a STOP analysis of the flight mirror assembly has been initiated. An impact study was performed comparing launching IXO on an Ariane 5 or a U.S. EELV. This paper will provide a snapshot of NASA's current observatory configuration and summarize the progress of these various technology and design efforts.

  7. Systematic review of current efforts to quantify the impacts of climate change on undernutrition.

    PubMed

    Phalkey, Revati K; Aranda-Jan, Clara; Marx, Sabrina; Höfle, Bernhard; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2015-08-18

    Malnutrition is a challenge to the health and productivity of populations and is viewed as one of the five largest adverse health impacts of climate change. Nonetheless, systematic evidence quantifying these impacts is currently limited. Our aim was to assess the scientific evidence base for the impact of climate change on childhood undernutrition (particularly stunting) in subsistence farmers in low- and middle-income countries. A systematic review was conducted to identify peer-reviewed and gray full-text documents in English with no limits for year of publication or study design. Fifteen manuscripts were reviewed. Few studies use primary data to investigate the proportion of stunting that can be attributed to climate/weather variability. Although scattered and limited, current evidence suggests a significant but variable link between weather variables, e.g., rainfall, extreme weather events (floods/droughts), seasonality, and temperature, and childhood stunting at the household level (12 of 15 studies, 80%). In addition, we note that agricultural, socioeconomic, and demographic factors at the household and individual levels also play substantial roles in mediating the nutritional impacts. Comparable interdisciplinary studies based on primary data at a household level are urgently required to guide effective adaptation, particularly for rural subsistence farmers. Systemization of data collection at the global level is indispensable and urgent. We need to assimilate data from long-term, high-quality agricultural, environmental, socioeconomic, health, and demographic surveillance systems and develop robust statistical methods to establish and validate causal links, quantify impacts, and make reliable predictions that can guide evidence-based health interventions in the future. PMID:26216952

  8. Systematic review of current efforts to quantify the impacts of climate change on undernutrition

    PubMed Central

    Phalkey, Revati K.; Aranda-Jan, Clara; Marx, Sabrina; Höfle, Bernhard; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition is a challenge to the health and productivity of populations and is viewed as one of the five largest adverse health impacts of climate change. Nonetheless, systematic evidence quantifying these impacts is currently limited. Our aim was to assess the scientific evidence base for the impact of climate change on childhood undernutrition (particularly stunting) in subsistence farmers in low- and middle-income countries. A systematic review was conducted to identify peer-reviewed and gray full-text documents in English with no limits for year of publication or study design. Fifteen manuscripts were reviewed. Few studies use primary data to investigate the proportion of stunting that can be attributed to climate/weather variability. Although scattered and limited, current evidence suggests a significant but variable link between weather variables, e.g., rainfall, extreme weather events (floods/droughts), seasonality, and temperature, and childhood stunting at the household level (12 of 15 studies, 80%). In addition, we note that agricultural, socioeconomic, and demographic factors at the household and individual levels also play substantial roles in mediating the nutritional impacts. Comparable interdisciplinary studies based on primary data at a household level are urgently required to guide effective adaptation, particularly for rural subsistence farmers. Systemization of data collection at the global level is indispensable and urgent. We need to assimilate data from long-term, high-quality agricultural, environmental, socioeconomic, health, and demographic surveillance systems and develop robust statistical methods to establish and validate causal links, quantify impacts, and make reliable predictions that can guide evidence-based health interventions in the future. PMID:26216952

  9. The MICRO-BOSS scheduling system: Current status and future efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadeh, Norman M.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, a micro-opportunistic approach to factory scheduling was described that closely monitors the evolution of bottlenecks during the construction of the schedule and continuously redirects search towards the bottleneck that appears to be most critical. This approach differs from earlier opportunistic approaches, as it does not require scheduling large resource subproblems or large job subproblems before revising the current scheduling strategy. This micro-opportunistic approach was implemented in the context of the MICRO-BOSS factory scheduling system. A study comparing MICRO-BOSS against a macro-opportunistic scheduler suggests that the additional flexibility of the micro-opportunistic approach to scheduling generally yields important reductions in both tardiness and inventory. Current research efforts include: adaptation of MICRO-BOSS to deal with sequence-dependent setups and development of micro-opportunistic reactive scheduling techniques that will enable the system to patch the schedule in the presence of contingencies such as machine breakdowns, raw materials arriving late, job cancellations, etc.

  10. A Serviced-based Approach to Connect Seismological Infrastructures: Current Efforts at the IRIS DMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahern, Tim; Trabant, Chad

    2014-05-01

    As part of the COOPEUS initiative to build infrastructure that connects European and US research infrastructures, IRIS has advocated for the development of Federated services based upon internationally recognized standards using web services. By deploying International Federation of Digital Seismograph Networks (FDSN) endorsed web services at multiple data centers in the US and Europe, we have shown that integration within seismological domain can be realized. By deploying identical methods to invoke the web services at multiple centers this approach can significantly ease the methods through which a scientist can access seismic data (time series, metadata, and earthquake catalogs) from distributed federated centers. IRIS has developed an IRIS federator that helps a user identify where seismic data from global seismic networks can be accessed. The web services based federator can build the appropriate URLs and return them to client software running on the scientists own computer. These URLs are then used to directly pull data from the distributed center in a very peer-based fashion. IRIS is also involved in deploying web services across horizontal domains. As part of the US National Science Foundation's (NSF) EarthCube effort, an IRIS led EarthCube Building Block's project is underway. When completed this project will aid in the discovery, access, and usability of data across multiple geoscienece domains. This presentation will summarize current IRIS efforts in building vertical integration infrastructure within seismology working closely with 5 centers in Europe and 2 centers in the US, as well as how we are taking first steps toward horizontal integration of data from 14 different domains in the US, in Europe, and around the world.

  11. Testing the Feasibility of Developmental Asset Measures on College Students to Guide Health Promotion Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zullig, Keith J.; Ward, Rose Marie; King, Keith A.; Patton, Jon M.; Murray, Karen A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the reliability and validity of eight developmental asset measures among a stratified, random sample (N = 540) of college students to guide health promotion efforts. The sample was randomly split to produce exploratory and confirmatory samples for factor analysis using principal axis factoring and…

  12. Association between health worker motivation and healthcare quality efforts in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ghana is one of the sub-Saharan African countries making significant progress towards universal access to quality healthcare. However, it remains a challenge to attain the 2015 targets for the health related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) partly due to health sector human resource challenges including low staff motivation. Purpose This paper addresses indicators of health worker motivation and assesses associations with quality care and patient safety in Ghana. The aim is to identify interventions at the health worker level that contribute to quality improvement in healthcare facilities. Methods The study is a baseline survey of health workers (n = 324) in 64 primary healthcare facilities in two regions in Ghana. Data collection involved quality care assessment using the SafeCare Essentials tool, the National Health Insurance Authority (NHIA) accreditation data and structured staff interviews on workplace motivating factors. The Spearman correlation test was conducted to test the hypothesis that the level of health worker motivation is associated with level of effort by primary healthcare facilities to improve quality care and patient safety. Results The quality care situation in health facilities was generally low, as determined by the SafeCare Essentials tool and NHIA data. The majority of facilities assessed did not have documented evidence of processes for continuous quality improvement and patient safety. Overall, staff motivation appeared low although workers in private facilities perceived better working conditions than workers in public facilities (P <0.05). Significant positive associations were found between staff satisfaction levels with working conditions and the clinic’s effort towards quality improvement and patient safety (P <0.05). Conclusion As part of efforts towards attainment of the health related MDGs in Ghana, more comprehensive staff motivation interventions should be integrated into quality improvement strategies especially

  13. Current and future efforts toward the prevention of type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Laura; Schatz, Desmond

    2016-07-01

    Great strides have been made in our understanding of the natural history of 'pre-type 1' diabetes as well as in the post diagnosis period. For now, an inability to successfully prevent the disease limits screening outside of the research setting. While studies of both humans with various levels of risk for type 1 diabetes as well as animal models for the disease have increased our understanding of the disorder, the development of a safe and effective therapeutic intervention capable of reversing or preventing type 1 diabetes remains elusive. Worldwide primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention studies have been undertaken and both past and current studies are extensively reviewed in this manuscript. Intervention studies in new-onset and established type 1 diabetes patients have to date shown fairly limited success with most effects seen within the first 6-12 months post therapy. Long-term outcome remains to be determined. Improved and innovative trial designs, more rapid testing of both antigen specific and combination therapies in different populations (at-risk, new-onset, and established type 1 diabetes), continuing to fill the mechanistic voids in the etiopathogenesis of type 1 diabetes, and the development of validated biomarkers will hasten efforts toward reversing and preventing the disease. For successful prevention, therapy must be safe and must target not only effective control of the autoimmune process culminating in type 1 diabetes but also protection or replacement of lost β-cell function. PMID:27411441

  14. Raising Sexual Minority Youths’ Health Levels by Incorporating Resiliencies Into Health Promotion Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Egan, James E.; Coulter, Robert W. S.; Friedman, M. Reuel; Stall, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Myriad health inequities that sexual minority youths (SMYs) experience have been documented over the past several decades. Evidence demonstrates that these are not a result of intrinsic characteristics; rather, they result from high levels of adversity that SMYs experience. Despite the pervasive marginalization that SMYs face, there is also evidence of great resilience within this population. It seems likely that if a culture of marginalization produces health inequities in SMYs, a culture of acceptance and integration can work to produce resiliencies. We have described how promoting forms of acceptance and integration could work to promote resilient SMYs despite an overarching culture of marginalization. Building on SMYs’ resiliencies may potentiate the effectiveness of health promotion interventions to reduce health disparities within this population. PMID:24328652

  15. California's historic effort to reduce the stigma of mental illness: the Mental Health Services Act.

    PubMed

    Clark, Wayne; Welch, Stephanie N; Berry, Sandra H; Collentine, Ann M; Collins, Rebecca; Lebron, Dorthy; Shearer, Amy L

    2013-05-01

    In a historic effort to reduce the stigma of mental illness, California voters approved the Mental Health Services Act in 2004. The law funds a comprehensive statewide prevention initiative that places stigma and discrimination reduction at its center, with 25 projects providing interventions at the institutional, societal, and individual levels. Stakeholders selected specific strategies from the research-based California Strategic Plan on Reducing Stigma and Discrimination. Strategies range from social marketing to increase public knowledge to capacity building at the local level, including training that emphasizes participation by consumers of mental health services and cultural competence. Collectively, these strategies aim to foster permanent change in the public perception of mental illness and in the individual experience of stigma. We examined the context, planning, programming, and evaluation of this effort. PMID:23488486

  16. Current health issues in Korean adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    During the adolescent period, they experience rapid physical, emotional, cognitive developments while they establish their lifestyle and habitual routines that strongly influence adult health and life. Recent rapid economic growth in Korea, and the earlier onset of physical, sexual, and psychological maturation of adolescents, has resulted in changes in the health status of adolescents from many years ago. Risk-taking behaviors such as drinking alcohol, smoking, and sexual experiences are critical issues that affect the health of, adolescents. Therefore, it is important for pediatricians to note the that risk-taking behaviors of adolescents in Korea that are caused by individual psychosocial factors. This review article illustrates the current health status of Korean adolescents and provides an overview of risk-taking behaviors, to inform pediatricians about some of the key issues. PMID:22232620

  17. The case of the missing secretary: DHEW's failed efforts to create a Cabinet secretary of health.

    PubMed Central

    Silver, G A

    1997-01-01

    In response to professional and political pressures in 1967, an incident occurred at the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare that illustrates the delicacy and complexity of the legislative process. In an effort to bypass interest group influences, the undersecretary of the Department undertook a maneuver that backfired and frustrated an opportunity that might have resulted in the establishment of a Cabinet office of Health. In addition to demonstrating the sensitivity of the legislative process, and the dangers of overconfidence in dealing with the process, the events also offer moral guidance: too stubborn, idealistic convictions of good people, however well intentioned the actions, may serve to defeat the desired ends. PMID:9146455

  18. Swimming upstream: the challenges and rewards of evaluating efforts to address inequities and reduce health disparities.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Dana; Docto, Lindsay; Peters, Jessica; Lamb, Anne Kelsey; Brindis, Claire

    2013-06-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities in the health of Americans are widespread and persistent in the United States despite improvements in the health of Americans overall. Increasingly, strategies for reducing disparities have focused on addressing the factors that contribute to - if not fundamentally underlie - health disparities: social, economic, and environmental inequities, which limit access to resources and cause unhealthy exposures. As public health shifts to interventions that seek to improve the circumstances of disproportionately affected populations and achieve equity through policy change, alternative methods to evaluate these efforts are also required. This paper presents an example of such approaches to addressing asthma disparities through Regional Asthma Management and Prevention's (RAMP) programmatic efforts and an evaluation of these activities. The paper describes RAMP's targets and strategies, as well as the specific evaluation methods applied to each, including activity tracking, observations, surveys, key informant interviews, and case studies. Preliminary evaluation findings are presented, as are lessons learned about the efficacy of the evaluation design features - both its strengths and shortcomings. Findings discussed are intended to contribute to the growing literature that provides evidence for the application of emerging approaches to evaluation that reflect non-traditional public health and support others interested in expanding or replicating this work. PMID:23416287

  19. Advancing Efforts to Achieve Health Equity: Equity Metrics for Health Impact Assessment Practice

    PubMed Central

    Heller, Jonathan; Givens, Marjory L.; Yuen, Tina K.; Gould, Solange; Benkhalti Jandu, Maria; Bourcier, Emily; Choi, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Equity is a core value of Health Impact Assessment (HIA). Many compelling moral, economic, and health arguments exist for prioritizing and incorporating equity considerations in HIA practice. Decision-makers, stakeholders, and HIA practitioners see the value of HIAs in uncovering the impacts of policy and planning decisions on various population subgroups, developing and prioritizing specific actions that promote or protect health equity, and using the process to empower marginalized communities. There have been several HIA frameworks developed to guide the inclusion of equity considerations. However, the field lacks clear indicators for measuring whether an HIA advanced equity. This article describes the development of a set of equity metrics that aim to guide and evaluate progress toward equity in HIA practice. These metrics also intend to further push the field to deepen its practice and commitment to equity in each phase of an HIA. Over the course of a year, the Society of Practitioners of Health Impact Assessment (SOPHIA) Equity Working Group took part in a consensus process to develop these process and outcome metrics. The metrics were piloted, reviewed, and refined based on feedback from reviewers. The Equity Metrics are comprised of 23 measures of equity organized into four outcomes: (1) the HIA process and products focused on equity; (2) the HIA process built the capacity and ability of communities facing health inequities to engage in future HIAs and in decision-making more generally; (3) the HIA resulted in a shift in power benefiting communities facing inequities; and (4) the HIA contributed to changes that reduced health inequities and inequities in the social and environmental determinants of health. The metrics are comprised of a measurement scale, examples of high scoring activities, potential data sources, and example interview questions to gather data and guide evaluators on scoring each metric. PMID:25347193

  20. Concerted Efforts to Control or Eliminate Neglected Tropical Diseases: How Much Health Will Be Gained?

    PubMed Central

    Hontelez, Jan A. C.; Bakker, Roel; Blok, David J.; Cai, Rui; Houweling, Tanja A. J.; Kulik, Margarete C.; Lenk, Edeltraud J.; Luyendijk, Marianne; Matthijsse, Suzette M.; Redekop, William K.; Wagenaar, Inge; Jacobson, Julie; Nagelkerke, Nico J. D.; Richardus, Jan H.

    2016-01-01

    Background The London Declaration (2012) was formulated to support and focus the control and elimination of ten neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), with targets for 2020 as formulated by the WHO Roadmap. Five NTDs (lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminths and trachoma) are to be controlled by preventive chemotherapy (PCT), and four (Chagas’ disease, human African trypanosomiasis, leprosy and visceral leishmaniasis) by innovative and intensified disease management (IDM). Guinea worm, virtually eradicated, is not considered here. We aim to estimate the global health impact of meeting these targets in terms of averted morbidity, mortality, and disability adjusted life years (DALYs). Methods The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2010 study provides prevalence and burden estimates for all nine NTDs in 1990 and 2010, by country, age and sex, which were taken as the basis for our calculations. Estimates for other years were obtained by interpolating between 1990 (or the start-year of large-scale control efforts) and 2010, and further extrapolating until 2030, such that the 2020 targets were met. The NTD disease manifestations considered in the GBD study were analyzed as either reversible or irreversible. Health impacts were assessed by comparing the results of achieving the targets with the counterfactual, construed as the health burden had the 1990 (or 2010 if higher) situation continued unabated. Principle Findings/Conclusions Our calculations show that meeting the targets will lead to about 600 million averted DALYs in the period 2011–2030, nearly equally distributed between PCT and IDM-NTDs, with the health gain amongst PCT-NTDs mostly (96%) due to averted disability and amongst IDM-NTDs largely (95%) from averted mortality. These health gains include about 150 million averted irreversible disease manifestations (e.g. blindness) and 5 million averted deaths. Control of soil-transmitted helminths accounts for one third of all

  1. Current status of fiber optic gyro efforts for space applications in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitani, Shinji; Mizutani, Tadahito; Sakai, Shin-ichiro

    2016-05-01

    In response to the maturation of Fiber Optic Gyro technologies, FOGs are being used in various applications. Also in Japan, the demand for FOG is high, and is used in some space applications. In this paper, we introduce examples of Japanese products that apply to space-use. It also describes some efforts for high-grade navigation use in Japan.

  2. Current Policies and Policy Efforts for the Education of Gifted Children in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mammadov, Sakhavat

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the existing policies and policy efforts in the field of gifted education in Turkey. A content analysis of the state policy documents and semistructured interviews with two policy actors were conducted to explore the strengths and weaknesses of the policies regarding the education of gifted children. The findings revealed…

  3. Effort-Reward Imbalance and Mental Health Problems in 1074 German Teachers, Compared with Those in the General Population.

    PubMed

    Hinz, Andreas; Zenger, Markus; Brähler, Elmar; Spitzer, Silvia; Scheuch, Klaus; Seibt, Reingard

    2016-08-01

    High degrees of premature retirement among teachers warrant investigating the occupational burden and the mental health status of this profession. A sample of 1074 German teachers participated in this study. Two samples of the general population (N = 824 and N = 792) were used as comparison groups. Work distress was assessed with the Effort-Reward-Imbalance questionnaire, and mental health problems were measured with the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Teachers reported more effort-reward imbalance (M = 0.64) compared with the general population (M = 0.57), and they perceived more mental health problems (GHQ: M = 12.1) than the comparison group (M = 9.5). School type was not associated with work stress and mental health. Teachers with leading functions perceived high degrees of effort and reward, resulting in a moderate effort-reward ratio and no heightened mental health problems. Teachers working full time reported more effort than teachers working part time, but the reward mean values of both groups were similar. This results in a somewhat unfavourable effort-reward ratio of teachers working full time. Moreover, teachers working full time reported more mental health problems. The results support the appropriateness of the effort-reward conception, applied to the profession of teachers. The higher degree of effort-reward imbalance and the level of mental health problems warrant preventive measures. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25053122

  4. Random sample community-based health surveys: does the effort to reach participants matter?

    PubMed Central

    Messiah, Antoine; Castro, Grettel; Rodríguez de la Vega, Pura; Acuna, Juan M

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Conducting health surveys with community-based random samples are essential to capture an otherwise unreachable population, but these surveys can be biased if the effort to reach participants is insufficient. This study determines the desirable amount of effort to minimise such bias. Design A household-based health survey with random sampling and face-to-face interviews. Up to 11 visits, organised by canvassing rounds, were made to obtain an interview. Setting Single-family homes in an underserved and understudied population in North Miami-Dade County, Florida, USA. Participants Of a probabilistic sample of 2200 household addresses, 30 corresponded to empty lots, 74 were abandoned houses, 625 households declined to participate and 265 could not be reached and interviewed within 11 attempts. Analyses were performed on the 1206 remaining households. Primary outcome Each household was asked if any of their members had been told by a doctor that they had high blood pressure, heart disease including heart attack, cancer, diabetes, anxiety/ depression, obesity or asthma. Responses to these questions were analysed by the number of visit attempts needed to obtain the interview. Results Return per visit fell below 10% after four attempts, below 5% after six attempts and below 2% after eight attempts. As the effort increased, household size decreased, while household income and the percentage of interviewees active and employed increased; proportion of the seven health conditions decreased, four of which did so significantly: heart disease 20.4–9.2%, high blood pressure 63.5–58.1%, anxiety/depression 24.4–9.2% and obesity 21.8–12.6%. Beyond the fifth attempt, however, cumulative percentages varied by less than 1% and precision varied by less than 0.1%. Conclusions In spite of the early and steep drop, sustaining at least five attempts to reach participants is necessary to reduce selection bias. PMID:25510887

  5. [French national health insurance. The current situation].

    PubMed

    Huguier, Michel; Lagrave, Michel; Marcelli, Aline; Rossignol, Claude; Tillement, Jean-Paul

    2010-06-01

    An audit of the French national health insurance system would be justified by economic considerations alone, but this would risk overlooking the notions of solidarity and freedom to which the French are rightly attached. European comparisons suggest, however, that our system could be made more efficient without undermining public health. The national health insurance system allows each member of the population to receive high-quality medical care. Practitioners have near-total freedom of prescription and practice. Medical care contributes to the ongoing increase in life expectancy, which is currently 73 years and second only to Japan. Healthcare is also a source of a million jobs. Macro-economic spending controls have failed, owing to medical progress and population aging, and also to medical consumerism favored by an unprecedented range of examinations and treatments, the increasing reimbursement of medical care, and the extension of direct payment by the insurer. Many ineffective measures have been implemented, such as tarification according to activity, and hospital certification. Health spending is also increased unnecessarily by bureaucratisation of healthcare spending and the transfer of professionals to posts for which they are not qualified. Some controversial medical prescriptions are not adequately controlled by the health service. Many reforms are based on over-optimistic economic predictions that fail to take related overheads into account. Lobbying by special interests groups undermines reform and the public interest. Too many independent administrative bodies have been created, and many are less efficient than the public structures they replaced. In sum, the French national health insurance system has become less and less efficient over the years. PMID:21513139

  6. [Evaluation of world health: current status].

    PubMed

    Berthet, E

    1985-12-01

    In this first article dedicated to the balance of the world health, the author gives the main reasons which explain the spectacular growth of the world population. From 1950 to 1984, population increased by 93% shifting from 2.5 to 4.8 thousand millions among which 3.5 are living in Third World countries and 1.3 in industrialized ones. Then he studies the factors which originate the inequality of men in the face of disease and death, and gives some details on causes for mortality to-day. In industrialized countries, three fourth of deaths are due to two diseases, which are cardio-vascular diseases (48%), and cancer (19%), while in Third World countries, the major risk factors are transmissible diseases, malnutrition and lack of environmental hygiene. Infantile mortality makes it clear; out of 122 millions children born in 1980, according to WHO evaluation, more than 10 millions die before they get one year old, and 5 millions between one and five years of age. This inequality of people in the face of life and death is one of the biggest scandals of our time, especially because we have the technical means to reduce it. It will require a considerable effort from governments, international organizations and NGOs to reach the WHO object of "Health for All by the year 2000". These prospects for the future will be developed in the second part of this article to be published in a next issue of Hygie. PMID:4093135

  7. Development of a state-wide health sciences information network: a cooperative effort.

    PubMed Central

    Pride, R B; Keiter, L; Bub, K

    1983-01-01

    A cooperative effort by a regional medical library (RML) program, a college of human medicine, a university library system, and numerous individual health care institutions to develop a network for the delivery of health sciences information within the state of Wyoming is described. This development consisted of four phases: collection building, training of library managers, consortia formation, and establishment of a state-based network management mechanism. Significant characteristics of the project include the high level of cooperation exerted by many different agencies and institutions, the participation by all acute-care institutions within the state, the initial large expenditure of funds to build resources within individual institutions, and the system development approach to the delivery of RML services that this project represents. PMID:6626799

  8. What Predicts Dissemination Efforts Among Public Health Researchers in the United States?

    PubMed Central

    Stamatakis, Katherine A.; Jacobs, Julie A.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We identified factors related to dissemination efforts by researchers to non-research audiences to reduce the gap between research generation and uptake in public health practice. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of 266 researchers at universities, the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and CDC. We identified scientists using a search of public health journals and lists from government-sponsored research. The scientists completed a 35-item online survey in 2012. Using multivariable logistic regression, we compared self-rated effort to disseminate findings to non-research audiences (excellent/good vs. poor) across predictor variables in three categories: perceptions or reasons to disseminate, perceived expectation by employer/funders, and professional training and experience. Results One-third of researchers rated their dissemination efforts as poor. Many factors were significantly related to whether a researcher rated him/herself as excellent/good, including obligation to disseminate findings (odds ratio [OR] = 2.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1, 6.8), dissemination important for their department (OR=2.3, 95% CI 1.2, 4.5), dissemination expected by employer (OR=2.0, 95% CI 1.2, 3.2) or by funder (OR=2.1, 95% CI 1.3, 3.2), previous work in a practice/policy setting (OR=4.4, 95% CI 2.1, 9.3), and university researchers with Prevention Research Center affiliation vs. NIH researchers (OR=4.7, 95% CI 1.4, 15.7). With all variables in the model, dissemination expected by funder (OR=2.0, 95% CI 1.2, 3.1) and previous work in a practice/policy setting (OR=3.5, OR 1.7, 7.1) remained significant. Conclusions These findings support the need for structural changes to the system, including funding agency priorities and participation of researchers in practice- and policy-based experiences, which may enhance efforts to disseminate by researchers. PMID:24982539

  9. Community-based efforts in health promotion in indigenous villages on the Thailand-Myanmar border.

    PubMed

    Suk, Ann N

    2016-03-01

    This case study of mainly Karen and Mon communities in Kanchanaburi Province, western Thailand, offers insight into the challenges that these rural villages face with regard to food security and environmental health issues. As non-Thai communities, these villages receive little support from the Thai government, and are often vulnerable in terms of access to food markets, infrastructure, and education and livelihood opportunities. This discussion further considers the involvement of Pattanarak Foundation, a Thai NGO, in health promotion and economic development in these villages as an example of a community partnership at the grassroots level. Examining Pattanarak's efforts to build skills in household vegetable gardening and livestock-raising, raise awareness about child nutrition issues, and improve community sanitation illustrates the value of a participatory process, and also demonstrates some of the challenges associated with on-the-ground health promotion in disadvantaged rural communities. Applying a community-based participatory research (CBPR) framework to pursue partnerships between communities, NGOs, and researchers may offer an avenue for effective interventions to improve health in marginalized communities. PMID:26953703

  10. Barriers to, Efforts in, and Optimization of Integrated One Health Surveillance: A Review and Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Uchtmann, Nathaniel; Herrmann, John Arthur; Hahn, Edwin C; Beasley, Val Richard

    2015-06-01

    Insufficient data from existing surveillance systems underlie societal tolerance of acute and slow-onset health disasters that threaten, harm, and kill vast numbers of humans, animals, and plants. Here we describe barriers to integrated "One Health" surveillance, including those related to a lack of medical services, professional divisions, incompatible vocabularies, isolated data sets, and territorial borders. We draw from publications of experts who justify broader and more integrated surveillance, education, and stewardship focused on preventing and mitigating disease emergence and re-emergence. In addition, we highlight efforts from Illinois, the United States and the broader world, pointing to examples of relevant education; ways to acquire, compile, and analyze diagnostic and syndromic data; mapping of diseases of humans and animals; and rapid communication of findings and recommendations. For the future, we propose using needed outcomes for health and sustainability to set priorities for One Health programs of education, surveillance, and stewardship. Professionals and paraprofessionals should gather, interpret, and widely communicate the implications of data, not only on infectious diseases, but also on toxic agents, malnutrition, ecological damage, the grave impacts of warfare, societal drivers underlying these problems, and the effectiveness of specific countermeasures. PMID:25894955

  11. The Dissemination and Implementation of Evidence-Based Psychological Treatments: A Review of Current Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHugh, R. Kathryn; Barlow, David H.

    2010-01-01

    Recognizing an urgent need for increased access to evidenced-based psychological treatments, public health authorities have recently allocated over $2 billion to better disseminate these interventions. In response, implementation of these programs has begun, some of it on a very large scale, with substantial implications for the science and…

  12. Knowledge Translation Efforts in Child and Youth Mental Health: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    SCHACHTER, HOWARD M.; BENNETT, LINDSAY M.; McGOWAN, JESSIE; LY, MYLAN; WILSON, ANGELA; BENNETT, KATHRYN; BUCHANAN, DON H.; FERGUSSON, DEAN; MANION, IAN

    2012-01-01

    The availability of knowledge translation strategies that have been empirically studied and proven useful is a critical prerequisite to narrowing the research-to-practice gap in child and youth mental health. Through this review the authors sought to determine the current state of scientific knowledge of the effectiveness of knowledge translation approaches in child and youth mental health by conducting a systematic review of the research evidence. The findings and quality of the 12 included studies are discussed. Future work of high methodological quality that explores a broader range of knowledge translation strategies and practitioners to which they are applied and that also attends to implementation process is recommended. PMID:22830938

  13. A Survey of Current Rotorcraft Propulsion Health Monitoring Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Irebert R.; Dempsey, Paula J.; Simon, Donald L.

    2012-01-01

    A brief review is presented on the state-of-the-art in rotorcraft engine health monitoring technologies including summaries on current practices in the area of sensors, data acquisition, monitoring and analysis. Also, presented are guidelines for verification and validation of Health Usage Monitoring System (HUMS) and specifically for maintenance credits to extend part life. Finally, a number of new efforts in HUMS are summarized as well as lessons learned and future challenges. In particular, gaps are identified to supporting maintenance credits to extend rotorcraft engine part life. A number of data sources were consulted and include results from a survey from the HUMS community, Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) documents, American Helicopter Society (AHS) papers, as well as references from Defence Science & Technology Organization (DSTO), Civil Aviation Authority (CAA), and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).

  14. Current and potential technologies for the detection of radionuclide signatures of proliferation (R and D efforts)

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, R.W.; Wogman, N.A.

    1993-03-01

    A country with the goal of developing nuclear weapons could pursue their ambition in several ways. These could range from the purchase or theft of a weapon or of the principal weapons components to a basic development program which may independently produce all the materials and components which are necessary. If the latter approach were pursued, there would be many signatures of such an effort and the more definitive of these include the actual materials which would be produced in each phase of the fuel cycle/weapons production process. By identifying the more definitive signatures and employing appropriate environmental sampling and analysis techniques for their observation, including imaging procedures, it should be possible to detect nuclear proliferation processes. Possible proliferation processes include: uranium acquisition through fuel fabrication; uranium enrichment for weapons production; reactor operation for plutonium production; fuel reprocessing for plutonium extraction; weapons fabrication; and uranium 233 production. Each of these are briefly discussed. The technologies for the detection of proliferation signatures which are in concept or research and development phase are: whole air beta counter; radiokrypton/xenon separator/analyzer; I-129 detector; isotope analyzer; deuterium/tritium analysis by IR/Raman spectroscopy and scintillation counting; noble gas daughter analysis; and airborne radionuclide collector/analyzer.

  15. Patient experience of care in the safety net: Current efforts and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Zuckerman, Katharine E.; Wong, Alicia; Teleki, Stephanie; Edgman-Levitan, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Measuring the patient’s experience of care (PEC) fosters the delivery of patient-centered services and increases health care quality. Most pay-for-performance and public reporting programs focus on care provided to insured populations, excluding the uninsured. Using qualitative research methods, we interviewed leaders of California safety-net practices to assess how they measure PEC and the measurement barriers they encounter. Most had unmet needs for assistance with data collection and quality improvement strategies for their patient population. Tailored measurement and quality improvement resources, coupled with policy mandates to give all patients a voice, would improve the quality of patient-centered care in safety-net organizations. PMID:22415288

  16. Current concepts on airborne particles and health

    SciTech Connect

    Mauderly, J.L.

    1994-11-01

    Epidemiological evidence of associations between environmental particulate concentrations and both acute and chronic health effects has grown with numerous recent studies conducted in the US and other countries. An association between short-term changes in particulate levels and acute mortality now seems certain. The association is consistent among studies and coherent among indicators of mortality and morbidity. Effects observed at surprisingly low pollution levels have raised concern for current exposures even in modestly polluted cities. Toxicology did not predict the acute mortality effect, and causal mechanisms are difficult to rationalize. Present data suggest that the fine fraction of particulate pollution is more toxic than larger particles, but the contribution of specific particulate species is poorly understood.

  17. Current Awareness in Health Education. Experimental Issue No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Disease Control (DHEW/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    This annotated bibliography on health education contains citations of current journal articles, monographs, conference proceedings, reports, and nonpublished items. The following topics are covered: community health education; health education methodology; health education policy issues; health education training and development; health promotion/…

  18. The MICRO-BOSS scheduling system: Current status and future efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadeh, Norman M.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, a micro-opportunistic approach to factory scheduling was described that closely monitors the evolution of bottlenecks during the construction of the schedule, and continuously redirects search towards the bottleneck that appears to be most critical. This approach differs from earlier opportunistic approaches, as it does not require scheduling large resource subproblems or large job subproblems before revising the current scheduling strategy. This micro-opportunistic approach was implemented in the context of the MICRO-BOSS factory scheduling system. A study comparing MICRO-BOSS against a macro-opportunistic scheduler suggests that the additional flexibility of the micro-opportunistic approach to scheduling generally yields important reductions in both tardiness and inventory.

  19. Tree nut allergy: risk factors for development, mitigation of reaction risk and current efforts in desensitization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mona; Burks, A Wesley; Green, Todd D

    2015-05-01

    Allergy to tree nuts has grown widespread among patients, specifically in the pediatric population, in recent years. In this review, we evaluate and summarize the literature specific to development and treatment of tree nut allergy. The cause of tree nut allergy, such as most food allergies, is unknown; there are theories regarding maternal dietary factors as well as sensitization related to cross-reactivity to peanut allergens. The gold standard for the diagnosis of tree nut allergy is the double-blind, placebo-controlled, oral food challenge; however, simpler and more cost-effective diagnostic methods, such as the skin prick test and serum-specific IgE are often used as a supplement for diagnosis. Management of tree nut allergy consists of dietary avoidance and using epinephrine to manage serious allergic reactions. Alternative therapeutic methods, such as oral and sublingual immunotherapy and modification of allergenic proteins are being explored to develop safer, more effective and long-lasting management of tree nut allergy. We comment on the current studies involving risk factors for sensitization, diagnosis and management of tree nut allergy. PMID:25824522

  20. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; Yakama Indian Nation, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, Gregory

    2003-05-01

    This document represents the FY2002 BPA contract Statement of Work for the Yakama Nation (YN) portion of the project entitled 'Assessment of current and potential salmonid production in Rattlesnake Creek associated with restoration efforts'. The purpose of the project is to complete detailed surveys of water quality, fish populations, habitat conditions and riparian health in the Rattlesnake Creek sub-basin of the White Salmon River in south central Washington. Results of the surveys will be used to establish Rattlesnake Creek sub-basin baseline environmental factors prior to anticipated removal of Condit Dam in 2006 and enable cost-effective formulation of future watershed restoration strategies.

  1. An Overview of NASA's Current Materials Development Efforts for Mars EDL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, Robin A.; Gasch, Matthew; Calomino, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Current roadmaps point to landing heavy masses (cargo, followed by manned vehicles) on Mars in the 2030's and the existing entry, descent and landing (EDL) technology will not be sufficient to facilitate such missions. In 2009 the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) established the Entry, Descent and Landing Technology Development Project (EDL TDP), to be managed programmatically at Langley Research Center (LaRC) and technically a Ames Research Center (ARC). The purpose of the project is to further the technologies required to land heavy (approximately 40 metric ton) masses on Mars to facilitate exploration. The EDL TDP contains three technical elements. They are: 1) Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) development 2) Modeling and Tools (MAT) development 3) Supersonic Retropropulsion (SRP) development The primary goals of the EDL TDP TPS element is to design and develop TPS materials capable of withstanding the severe aerothermal loads associated with aerocapture and entry into the Martian atmosphere while significantly decreasing the TPS mass fraction contribution to the entry system. Significant advancements in TPS materials technology are needed in order to enable heavy mass payloads to be successfully landed on the Martian surface for robotic precursors and subsequent human exploration missions. The EDL TDP TPS element is further divided into two different TPS concepts for Mars EDL those being: 1) Rigid TPS for a mid L/D aeroshell with the capability to withstand dual pulsed heating environments as high as 500 W/square cm for aerocapture and 130 W/square cm for entry 2) Flexible TPS for a deployable aerodynamic decelerator with the capability to withstand dual pulsed heating environments as high as 120 W/square cm for aerocapture and 30 W/square cm for entry NASA, along with its vendors, has begun developing and testing materials for each of the deceleration approaches. These include multi-layer rigid ablators and flexible ablative materials. In order

  2. Data mining mining data: MSHA enforcement efforts, underground coal mine safety, and new health policy implications

    SciTech Connect

    Kniesner, T.J.; Leeth, J.D.

    2004-09-15

    Using recently assembled data from the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) we shed new light on the regulatory approach to workplace safety. Because all underground coal mines are inspected quarterly, MSHA regulations will not be ineffective because of infrequent inspections. From over 200 different specifications of dynamic mine safety regressions we select the specification producing the largest MSHA impact. Even using results most favorable to the agency, MSHA is not currently cost effective. Almost 700,000 life years could be gained for typical miners if a quarter of MSHA's enforcement budget were reallocated to other programs (more heart disease screening or defibrillators at worksites).

  3. Integrating High-Resolution Datasets to Target Mitigation Efforts for Improving Air Quality and Public Health in Urban Neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Shandas, Vivek; Voelkel, Jackson; Rao, Meenakshi; George, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Reducing exposure to degraded air quality is essential for building healthy cities. Although air quality and population vary at fine spatial scales, current regulatory and public health frameworks assess human exposures using county- or city-scales. We build on a spatial analysis technique, dasymetric mapping, for allocating urban populations that, together with emerging fine-scale measurements of air pollution, addresses three objectives: (1) evaluate the role of spatial scale in estimating exposure; (2) identify urban communities that are disproportionately burdened by poor air quality; and (3) estimate reduction in mobile sources of pollutants due to local tree-planting efforts using nitrogen dioxide. Our results show a maximum value of 197% difference between cadastrally-informed dasymetric system (CIDS) and standard estimations of population exposure to degraded air quality for small spatial extent analyses, and a lack of substantial difference for large spatial extent analyses. These results provide the foundation for improving policies for managing air quality, and targeting mitigation efforts to address challenges of environmental justice. PMID:27527205

  4. Integrating High-Resolution Datasets to Target Mitigation Efforts for Improving Air Quality and Public Health in Urban Neighborhoods

    PubMed Central

    Shandas, Vivek; Voelkel, Jackson; Rao, Meenakshi; George, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Reducing exposure to degraded air quality is essential for building healthy cities. Although air quality and population vary at fine spatial scales, current regulatory and public health frameworks assess human exposures using county- or city-scales. We build on a spatial analysis technique, dasymetric mapping, for allocating urban populations that, together with emerging fine-scale measurements of air pollution, addresses three objectives: (1) evaluate the role of spatial scale in estimating exposure; (2) identify urban communities that are disproportionately burdened by poor air quality; and (3) estimate reduction in mobile sources of pollutants due to local tree-planting efforts using nitrogen dioxide. Our results show a maximum value of 197% difference between cadastrally-informed dasymetric system (CIDS) and standard estimations of population exposure to degraded air quality for small spatial extent analyses, and a lack of substantial difference for large spatial extent analyses. These results provide the foundation for improving policies for managing air quality, and targeting mitigation efforts to address challenges of environmental justice. PMID:27527205

  5. Identifying research priorities for health care priority setting: a collaborative effort between managers and researchers

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Neale; Mitton, Craig; Peacock, Stuart; Cornelissen, Evelyn; MacLeod, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    Background To date there has been relatively little published about how research priorities are set, and even less about methods by which decision-makers can be engaged in defining a relevant and appropriate research agenda. We report on a recent effort in British Columbia to have researchers and decision-makers jointly establish an agenda for future research into questions of resource allocation. Methods The researchers enlisted decision-maker partners from each of British Columbia's six health authorities. Three forums were held, at which researchers and decision-makers from various levels in the health authorities considered possible research areas related to three key focus areas: (1) generation and use of decision criteria and measurement of 'benefit' against such criteria; (2) identification of so-called 'disinvestment' opportunities; and (3) evaluation of the effectiveness of priority setting procedures. Detailed notes were taken from each forum and synthesized into a set of qualitative themes. Results Forum participants suggested that future research into healthcare priority setting would benefit from studies that were longitudinal, comparative, and/or interdisciplinary. As well, participants identified two broad theme areas in which specific research projects were deemed desirable. First, future research might usefully consider how formal priority setting and resource allocation projects are situated within a larger organizational and political context. Second, additional research efforts should be devoted to better understanding and improving the actual implementation of priority setting frameworks, particularly with respect to issues of change management and the resolution of impediments to action on recommendations for resource allocation. Conclusion We were able to validate the importance of initial areas posed to the group and observed emergence of additional concerns and directions of critical importance to these decision-makers at this time. It is

  6. Micronutrient Action Plan Instructional Tool (MAPit): A Training Tool to Support Public Health Professionals' Efforts to Eliminate Micronutrient Malnutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbon, Suzanne; Nsubuga, Peter; Knowles, Jacky; Bobrow, Emily; Parvanta, Ibrahim; Timmer, Arnold; van der Haar, Frits

    2006-01-01

    Micronutrient malnutrition (MM) is a global health problem that affects the national socioeconomic stability of an affected country. This article describes a multimedia training tool, the Micronutrient Action Plan instructional tool (MAPit), which has been designed to support public health professionals' efforts to eliminate MM. An overview and…

  7. Health Promotion Efforts as Predictors of Physical Activity in Schools: An Application of the Diffusion of Innovations Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glowacki, Elizabeth M.; Centeio, Erin E.; Van Dongen, Daniel J.; Carson, Russell L.; Castelli, Darla M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Implementing a comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP) effectively addresses public health issues by providing opportunities for physical activity (PA). Grounded in the Diffusion of Innovations model, the purpose of this study was to identify how health promotion efforts facilitate opportunities for PA. Methods: Physical…

  8. Seeing through the Smoke: A collaborative, multidisciplinary effort to address the interplay between wildfire, climate, air quality, and health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brey, S. J.; Fischer, E. V.; Pierce, J. R.; Ford, B.; Lassman, W.; Pfister, G.; Volckens, J.; Gan, R.; Magzamen, S.; Barnes, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to wildfire smoke plumes represents an episodic, uncertain, and potentially growing threat to public health in the western United States. The area burned by wildfires in this region has increased over recent decades, and the future of fires within this region is largely unknown. Future fire emissions are intimately linked to future meteorological conditions, which are uncertain due to the variability of climate model outputs and differences between representative concentration pathways (RCP) scenarios. We know that exposure to wildfire smoke is harmful, particularly for vulnerable populations. However the literature on the heath effects of wildfire smoke exposure is thin, particularly when compared to the depth of information we have on the effects of exposure to smoke of anthropogenic origin. We are exploring the relationships between climate, fires, air quality and public health through multiple interdisciplinary collaborations. We will present several examples from these projects including 1) an analysis of the influence of fire on ozone abundances over the United States, and 2) efforts to use a high-resolution weather forecasting model to nail down exposure within specific smoke plumes. We will also highlight how our team works together. This discussion will include examples of the university structure that facilitates our current collaborations, and the lessons we have learned by seeking stakeholder input to make our science more useful.

  9. Japan's efforts to promote global health using satellite remote sensing data from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency for prediction of infectious diseases and air quality.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Tamotsu; Kuze, Akihiko; Sobue, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Aya; Yamamoto, Kazuhide; Oyoshi, Kei; Imaoka, Keiji; Fukuda, Toru

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we review the status of new applications research of the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) for global health promotion using information derived from Earth observation data by satellites in cooperation with inter-disciplinary collaborators. Current research effort at JAXA to promote global public health is focused primarily on the use of remote sensing to address two themes: (i) prediction models for malaria and cholera in Kenya, Africa; and (ii) air quality assessment of small, particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3). Respiratory and cardivascular diseases constitute cross-boundary public health risk issues on a global scale. The authors report here on results of current of a collaborative research to call attention to the need to take preventive measures against threats to public health using newly arising remote sensing information from space. PMID:25599641

  10. Current Literature Related to Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Lawrence W., Ed.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Documents in this bibliography are grouped into fifteen categories under four broad headings. The first heading, health problems, contains documents which cover several aspects of a given type or class of health problems. The categories listed under this heading are: chronic disorders; acute episodes; mental and personality disorders; pregnancy,…

  11. Establishing cause for developing and implementing a broad-based marketing effort for the health education field.

    PubMed

    Stellefson, Michael; Barry, Adam; Chaney, Beth H; Chaney, J Don; Hanik, Bruce

    2011-05-01

    What exactly is health education? Professionals with advanced degrees in health education have most likely encountered questions such as these either during introductory coursework or from those inquiring about the field. These queries can prove quite perplexing when asked by individuals who are unaware of the health education profession. Because the act of marketing health education is crucial to the sustainability of the field, the purpose of this article is to (a) explore the issue of describing and promoting health education, (b) establish ideas that can facilitate the provision of coordinated marketing efforts, and (c) offer marketing management and implementation principles that can assist in marketing both health education and health educators. Based on this discussion, the authors suggest building mainstream consensus in regards to marketing message development and implementation to better position health education. PMID:19815656

  12. Health literacy: applying current concepts to improve health services and reduce health inequalities.

    PubMed

    Batterham, R W; Hawkins, M; Collins, P A; Buchbinder, R; Osborne, R H

    2016-03-01

    The concept of 'health literacy' refers to the personal and relational factors that affect a person's ability to acquire, understand and use information about health and health services. For many years, efforts in the development of the concept of health literacy exceeded the development of measurement tools and interventions. Furthermore, the discourse about and development of health literacy in public health and in clinical settings were often substantially different. This paper provides an update about recently developed approaches to measurement that assess health literacy strengths and limitations of individuals and of groups across multiple aspects of health literacy. This advancement in measurement now allows diagnostic and problem-solving approaches to developing responses to identified strengths and limitations. In this paper, we consider how such an approach can be applied across the diverse range of settings in which health literacy has been applied. In particular, we consider some approaches to applying health literacy in the daily practice of health-service providers in many settings, and how new insights and tools--including approaches based on an understanding of diversity of health literacy needs in a target community--can contribute to improvements in practice. Finally, we present a model that attempts to integrate the concept of health literacy with concepts that are often considered to overlap with it. With careful consideration of the distinctions between prevailing concepts, health literacy can be used to complement many fields from individual patient care to community-level development, and from improving compliance to empowering individuals and communities. PMID:26872738

  13. MEDICAID: Stronger Efforts Needed To Ensure Children's Access to Health Screening Services. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Kathryn G.

    In response to Committee requests from the U.S. House of Representatives, the Government Accounting Office examined the extent to which children in Medicaid are receiving Early and Periodic Screening Diagnostic and Treatment (EPSDT) services. State efforts to improve service delivery and federal government efforts to ensure that state Medicaid…

  14. The current status of the Korean student health examination

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Recent trends place an emphasis on school health care, the ultimate goal of which is to protect, maintain, and promote students' health. School health care is a program that integrates health care services, health education, health counseling, and local social health services. The student health examination (SHE) system is a part of school health care and schools and communities must be available to provide professional health services. Pediatricians also have important roles as experts in both school health care and the SHE system. In this article, the history of school health care, its legal basis, and the current status of the SHE system in Korea are reviewed. Furthermore, sample surveys from the past few years are reviewed. Through this holistic approach, future directions are proposed for the improvement of SHE and school health care. PMID:24019840

  15. Public health services and systems research: current state of finance research.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Richard C; Bernet, Patrick M; Costich, Julia F

    2012-11-01

    There is a growing recognition that the US public health system should strive for efficiency-that it should determine the optimal ways to utilize limited resources to improve and protect public health. The field of public health finance research is a critical part of efforts to understand the most efficient ways to use resources. This article discusses the current state of public health finance research through a review of public health finance literature, chronicles important lessons learned from public health finance research to date, discusses the challenges faced by those seeking to conduct financial research on the public health system, and discusses the role of public health finance research in relation to the broader endeavor of Public Health Services and Systems Research. PMID:23023275

  16. Health Inequalities Policy in Korea: Current Status and Future Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-il

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, health inequalities have become an important public health concern and the subject of both research and policy attention in Korea. Government reports, as well as many epidemiological studies, have provided evidence that a wide range of health outcomes and health-related behaviors are socioeconomically patterned, and that the magnitude of health inequalities is even increasing. However, except for the revised Health Plan 2010 targets for health equity, few government policies have explicitly addressed health inequalities. Although a number of economic and social policies may have had an impact on health inequalities, such impact has scarcely been evaluated. In this review, we describe the current status of research and policy on health inequalities in Korea. We also suggest future challenges of approaches and policies to reduce health inequalities and highlight the active and intensive engagement of many policy sectors and good evidence for interventions that will make meaningful reduction of health inequalities possible. PMID:22661869

  17. Current Issues in Mental Health Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanter, Arlene S.

    The development of mental health law has been rapid. Courts have recognized new rights and have taken away others. For institutionalized individuals, the exact parameters of the right to treatment and community placement and to refuse medication have begun to be clarified. Yet lack of resources as well as prejudice continue to prevent people with…

  18. Malaria in Uganda: challenges to control on the long road to elimination. I. Epidemiology and current control effort

    PubMed Central

    Yeka, Adoke; Gasasira, Anne; Mpimbaza, Arthur; Achan, Jane; Nankabirwa, Joaniter; Nsobya, Sam; Staedke, Sarah G.; Donnelly, Martin J.; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Talisuna, Ambrose; Dorsey, Grant; Kamya, Moses R.; Rosenthal, Philip J.

    2012-01-01

    In the recent past there have been several reports of successes in malaria control, leading some public health experts to conclude that Africa is witnessing an epidemiological transition, from an era of failed malaria control to progression from successful control to elimination. Successes in control have been attributed to increased international donor support leading to increased intervention coverage. However, these changes are not uniform across Africa. In Uganda, where baseline transmission is very high and intervention coverage not yet to scale, the malaria burden is not declining and has even likely increased in the last decade. In this article we present perspectives for the future for Uganda and other malaria endemic countries with high baseline transmission intensity and significant health system challenges. For these high burden areas,malaria elimination is currently not feasible, and early elimination programs are inappropriate, as they would further fragment already fragmented and inefficient malaria control systems. Rather, health impacts will be maximized by aiming to achieve universal coverage of proven interventions in the context of a strengthened health system. PMID:21756863

  19. The 50th Anniversary of the International Indian Ocean Expedition: An Update on Current Planning Efforts and Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, Raleigh; D'Adamo, Nick; Burkill, Peter; Urban, Ed; Bhikajee, Mitrasen

    2014-05-01

    The International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE) was one of the greatest international, interdisciplinary oceanographic research efforts of all time. Planning for the IIOE began in 1959 and the project officially continued through 1965, with forty-six research vessels participating under fourteen different flags. The IIOE motivated an unprecedented number of hydrographic surveys (and repeat surveys) over the course of the expedition covering the entire Indian Ocean basin. And it was an interdisciplinary endeavor that embraced physical oceanography, chemical oceanography, meteorology, marine biology, marine geology and geophysics. The end of 2015 will mark the 50th Anniversary of the completion of the IIOE. In the 50 years since the IIOE three fundamental changes have taken place in ocean science. The first is the deployment of a broad suite of oceanographic sensors on satellites that have dramatically improved the characterization of both physical and biological oceanographic variability. The second is the emergence of new components of the ocean observing system, most notably remote sensing and Argo floats. And the third is the development of ocean modeling in all its facets from short-term forecasting to seasonal prediction to climate projections. These advances have revolutionized our understanding of the global oceans, including the Indian Ocean. Compared to the IIOE era, we now have the capacity to provide a much more integrated picture of the Indian Ocean, especially if these new technologies can be combined with targeted and well-coordinated in situ measurements. In this presentation we report on current efforts to motivate an IIOE 50th Anniversary Celebration (IIOE-2). We envision this IIOE-2 as a 5-year expedition and effort beginning in 2015 and continuing through to 2020. An important objective of our planning efforts is assessing ongoing and planned research activities in the Indian Ocean in the 2015 to 2020 time frame, with the goal of embracing and

  20. Leveraging the nation's anti-bioterrorism investments: foundation efforts to ensure a revitalized public health system.

    PubMed

    Hearne, Shelley A; Segal, Laura M

    2003-01-01

    The emerging potential threats of bioterrorism combined with critical existing epidemics facing the United States call for immediate and urgent attention to the U.S. public health system. The foundation world is helping to answer that call and is sounding the alarm that our health defenses must be able to do "double duty" to protect us from the full spectrum of modern health threats. This Special Report presents a selective sample of recent and ongoing grant activities designed to revitalize and modernize the public health infrastructure, which is vital to protecting the nation's health and ensuring its safety. PMID:12889772

  1. Lipidomics in vascular health: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Kolovou, Genovefa; Kolovou, Vana; Mavrogeni, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the mechanisms that convert a healthy vascular wall to an atherosclerotic wall is of major importance since the consequences may lead to a shortened lifespan. Classical risk factors (age, smoking, obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia) may result in the progression of atherosclerotic lesions by processes including inflammation and lipid accumulation. Thus, the evaluation of blood lipids and the full lipid complement produced by cells, organisms, or tissues (lipidomics) is an issue of importance. In this review, we shall describe the recent progress in vascular health research using lipidomic advances. We will begin with an overview of vascular wall biology and lipids, followed by a short analysis of lipidomics. Finally, we shall focus on the clinical implications of lipidomics and studies that have examined lipidomic approaches and vascular health. PMID:26109865

  2. A Study of National Physician Organizations’ Efforts to Reduce Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Peek, Monica E.; Wilson, Shannon C.; Bussey-Jones, Jada; Lypson, Monica; Cordasco, Kristina; Jacobs, Elizabeth A.; Bright, Cedric; Brown, Arleen F.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To characterize national physician organizations’ efforts to reduce health disparities and identify organizational characteristics associated with such efforts. Method This cross-sectional study was conducted between September 2009 and June 2010. The authors used two-sample t tests and chi-square tests to compare the proportion of organizations with disparity-reducing activities between different organizational types (e.g., primary care versus subspecialty organizations, small [<1,000 members] versus large [>5,000 members]). Inclusion criteria required physician organizations to be (1) focused on physicians, (2) national in scope, and (3) membership based. Results The number of activities per organization ranged from 0 to 22. Approximately half (53%) of organizations had 0 or 1 disparity-reducing activities. Organiza-tional characteristics associated with having at least 1 disparity-reducing effort included membership size (88% of large groups versus 58% of small groups had at least 1 activity; P = .004) and the presence of a health disparities committee (95% versus 59%; P < .001). Primary care (versus subspecialty) organizations and racial/ethnic minority physician organizations were more likely to have disparity-reducing efforts, although findings were not statistically significant. Common themes addressed by activities were health care access, health care disparities, workforce diversity, and language barriers. Common strategies included education of physicians/trainees and patients/general public, position statements, and advocacy. Conclusions Despite the national priority to eliminate health disparities, more than half of national physician organizations are doing little to address this problem. Primary care and minority physician organizations, and those with disparities committees, may provide leadership to extend the scope of disparity-reduction efforts. PMID:22534593

  3. Privatization of Public Services: Organizational Reform Efforts in Public Education and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Gollust, Sarah E.; Jacobson, Peter D.

    2006-01-01

    The public health and the public education systems in the United States have encountered problems in quality of service, accountability, and availability of resources. Both systems are under pressure to adopt the general organizational reform of privatization. The debate over privatization in public education is contentious, but in public health, the shift of functions from the public to the private sector has been accepted with limited deliberation. We assess the benefits and concerns of privatization and suggest that shifting public health functions to the private sector raises questions about the values and mission of public health. Public health officials need to be more engaged in a public debate over the desirability of privatization as the future of public health. PMID:17008563

  4. Current trends and problems in health screening

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, J. M. G.

    1973-01-01

    Automation in clinical chemistry is a powerful tool. Like most innovations it is posing many questions as well as resolving some. Its use in population screening has led to questioning the validity of the old system of `normal values' and to the search for better methods of indicating the significance of laboratory tests. This in itself is likely to have a good effect in that it is leading to a rigorous examination of the clinical value in diagnosis of the ever increasing number of laboratory tests. The ease and cheapness with which laboratory screening can be carried out is in itself a danger; it can readily lead to an increasingly large diagnostic effort but diminishing returns, including some inconvenience or even harm to a fair proportion of the people screened. It is, therefore, important to examine thoroughly, through population surveys and intervention studies, the validity of all novel forms of prescriptive screening, including those of clinical chemistry. Cheapness of testing needs to be examined in the wider context of the overall cost-effectiveness of screening. Images PMID:4593600

  5. DOD Health Care. Additional Efforts Needed To Verify Physicians' Qualifications. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    The Department of Defense's (DOD) efforts to assure that its physicians are qualified to perform their assigned duties are discussed. Five sections include: introduction; additional actions needed to help assure that military physicians have proper qualifications; hospital credentialing and privileging systems needed to comply with DOD…

  6. Effort-reward imbalance at work and pre-clinical biological indices of ill-health: the case for salivary immunoglobulin A.

    PubMed

    Bathman, Lauren Marjorie; Almond, Jacinta; Hazi, Agnes; Wright, Bradley James

    2013-10-01

    Physiological indices of stress and ill-health (cortisol and salivary immunoglobulin A) were assessed to determine if they were predicted by Siegrist's effort-reward imbalance model (ERI) with an aim of identifying employees at risk of illness. Male Australian dairy farmers (N=66) completed the Perceived Stress Scale, Work related Questions II & III, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised--Short and demographic questions and provided morning saliva samples (at awakening and 30 min post awakening) on a working day, which were subsequently analysed for cortisol and salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA) concentration levels. A high percentage (45.5%) of the sample reported an imbalance between efforts and rewards in the workplace that may place them 'at risk' for ill-health. After controlling for disposition, sIgA scores were more successfully predicted by the ERI than the cortisol assessments. Although both efforts and rewards were significantly associated with sIgA, efforts were most strongly associated. The dispositional trait overcommitment, did not moderate the experience of stress on the physiologic indices. The current investigation supports the continued use of sIgA in studies that use biomarkers to assess occupational stress. ERI ratio scores >1 aligned with previous findings that suggest elevated risk of illness for these employees. PMID:23743258

  7. Patterns of Reasons for Taiwanese Adults' Health Information-Seeking Efforts: A Latent Class Analysis Approach.

    PubMed

    Wei, Mi-Hsiu

    2016-07-01

    The aims of this study were to use latent class analysis (LCA) to identify subgroups of adults in Taiwan based on their reasons for seeking health information and to explore predictors of subgroup membership. A questionnaire survey of 752 adults from 25 communities in Taiwan was conducted. LCA was used to identify distinct classes of participants; latent class regression was performed to identify factors predicting latent class membership. Three classes emerged through LCA. The Health-Improving Group (50.40%) reported high probabilities of reasons relevant to improving their or someone else's health but low probabilities of reasons relevant to patient-provider interaction. The Active Group (32.98%) showed high probabilities of almost all of the reasons for seeking health information. The Passive Group (16.62%) showed low probabilities across all of the reasons. Compared to the Health-Improving Group, the Active Group was significantly more likely to have higher education and perceive higher information-seeking self-efficacy. The individuals in the Passive Group were significantly more likely to be male, be younger, have lower health literacy, and have fewer years of education than those in the Health-Improving Group. This LCA approach can provide important information on how communication strategies should be applied to different population subgroups. PMID:27315197

  8. Whole grains health claims in the USA and other efforts to increase whole-grain consumption.

    PubMed

    Marquart, Len; Wiemer, Kathryn L; Jones, Julie M; Jacob, Brenda

    2003-02-01

    In response to the 1990 Nutrition Labeling and Education Act, the Food and Drug Administration approved seven health claims that addressed the relationship between broad food categories and risk of certain chronic diseases. These claims are based on scientific consensus that includes epidemiological, animal and clinical research. The Food and Drug Administration also established a process to petition for new health claims that address substance-disease relationships supported by adequate scientific and specific regulatory requirements. The whole grain-cancer and heart disease authoritative statement health claim approved in July 1999 followed a completely different process mandated by the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997. It is based on an authoritative statement made by a government body that represents scientific consensus and is supported by other scientific agencies and organizations. The scientific basis for the claim published in Diet and Health reflects a comprehensive and deliberative review of epidemiological, animal and human studies by the National Academy of Sciences Committee on Diet and Health. Health claims used on whole grain products can attract the attention of health-conscious consumers and are important tools in communicating health messages. However, the US public consumes substantially fewer whole-grain servings than recommended by US dietary guidance. Reasons given by consumers for not purchasing wholegrain foods include colour, price, softness, texture, moisture content and taste. Developing tastier value-added wholegrain foods along with simple coordinated messages from industry, the scientific community, public health experts and government will help consumers identify, purchase and consume more wholegrain products. PMID:12749340

  9. Current Calibration Efforts and Performance of the HST Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph: Echelle Flux Calibration, the BAR5 Occulter, and Lamp Lifetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monroe, TalaWanda R.; Aloisi, Alessandra; Debes, John H.; Jedrzejewski, Robert I.; Lockwood, Sean A.; Peeples, Molly S.; Proffitt, Charles R.; Riley, Allyssa; Walborn, Nolan R.

    2016-06-01

    The variety of operating modes of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) continues to allow STIS users to obtain unique, high quality observations and cutting-edge results 19 years after its installation on HST. STIS is currently the only instrument available to the astronomy community that allows high spectral and spatial resolution spectroscopy in the FUV and NUV, including echelle modes. STIS also supports solar-blind imaging in the FUV. In the optical, STIS provides long-slit, first-order spectra that take advantage of HST's superb spatial resolution, as well as several unique unfiltered coronagraphic modes, which continue to benefit the exoplanet and debris-disk communities. The STIS instrument team monitors the instrument’s health and performance over time to characterize the effects of radiation damage and continued use of the detectors and optical elements. Additionally, the STIS team continues to improve the quality of data products for the user community. We present updates on efforts to improve the echelle flux calibration of overlapping spectral orders due to changes in the grating blaze function since HST Servicing Mission 4, and efforts to push the contrast limit and smallest inner working angle attainable with the coronagraphic BAR5 occulter. We also provide updates on the performance of the STIS calibration lamps, including work to maintain the accuracy of the wavelength calibration for all modes.

  10. Current Efforts to Develop Alternate "TB 700-2" Test Protocols for the Hazard Classification of Large Rocket Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Daniel F.; Bennett, Robert R.; Graham, Kenneth J.; Boggs, Thomas L.; Atwood, Alice I.; Butcher, A. Garn

    2002-04-01

    When the Department of Defense (DoD) revised Technical Bulletin (TB) 700-2, NAVSEAINST 8020.8B, TO 11A-1-47, DLAR 8220.12 hazard classification guidelines in January 1998, it significantly changed the procedures used to determine the explosive classification of rocket motors, to be shipped or placed in DoD storage facilities. The revised test protocols outlined in this document, (hereafter referred to as TB 700-2) are far more conservative and costly to implement than the previous ones. These changes could have a profound impact on the solid rocket community and in particular those involved with the research and development and manufacture of large (less than or = 304.8-millimeter (less than or = 12-inch)) diameter solid rocket motors (SRMs). The ramifications may include higher development costs and limitations on performance improvements. This paper outlines current efforts of the solid rocket community to develop acceptable alternate test protocols for large rocket motors that could fulfill the intent of TB 700-2 and be considered by the Department of Defense Explosive Safety Board (DDESB) for incorporation into a future revision to TB 700-2.

  11. Current Efforts to Develop Alternate "TB 700-2" Test Protocols for the Hazard Classification of Large Rocket Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Daniel F.; Bennett, Robert R.; Graham, Kenneth J.; Boggs, Thomas L.; Atwood, Alice I.

    1998-01-01

    When the Department of Defense (DoD) revised Technical Bulletin (TB) 700-2, NAVSEAINST 8020.8B, TO 11A-1-47, DLAR 8220.12 hazard classification guidelines in January 1998 1, it significantly changed the procedures used to determine the explosive classification of rocket motors, to be shipped or placed in DoD storage facilities. The revised test protocols outlined in this document, (hereafter referred to as TB 700-2) are far more conservative and costly to implement than the previous ones. These changes could have a profound impact on the solid rocket community and in particular those involved with the research and development and manufacture of large (greater than or equal 304.8-millimeter (greater than or equal l2-inch)) diameter solid rocket motors (SRMs). The ramifications may include higher development costs and limitations on performance improvements. This paper outlines current efforts of the solid rocket community to develop acceptable alternate test protocols for large rocket motors that could fulfill the intent of TB 700-2 and be considered by the Department of Defense Explosive Safety Board (DDESB) for incorporation into a future revision to TB 700-2.

  12. Current Efforts to Develop Alternate "TB700-2" Test Protocols for the Hazard Classification of Large Rocket Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Daniel F.; Bennett, Robert R.; Graham, Kenneth J.; Boggs, Thomas L.; Atwood, Alice I.

    2001-09-01

    When the Department of Defense (DoD) revised Technical Bulletin (TB) 700-2, NAVSEAINST 8020.8B, TO 11A-1-47, DLAR 8220.12 hazard classification guidelines in January 1998 1, it significantly changed the procedures used to determine the explosive classification of rocket motors, to be shipped or placed in DoD storage facilities. The revised test protocols outlined in this document, (hereafter referred to as TB 700-2) are far more conservative and costly to implement than the previous ones. These changes could have a profound impact on the solid rocket community and in particular those involved with the research and development and manufacture of large (equal to or greater than) 304.8-millimeter (equal to or greater than 12-inch diameter solid rocket motors (SRMs). The ramifications may include higher development costs and limitations on performance improvements. This paper outlines current efforts of the solid rocket community to develop acceptable alternate test protocols for large rocket motors that could fulfill the intent of TB 700-2 and be considered by the Department of Defense Explosive Safety Board (DDESB) for incorporation into a future revision to TB 700-2.

  13. Current status and future perspectives for psychiatry/mental health research in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Carla; Tohen, Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    Working towards mentally healthy societies is fundamental for Latin American countries, in order to keep the pace of development. Although awareness about the importance of mental health research is increasing in Latin America, the mismatch between needs and investment (the 10/90 gap) is still present. During recent years, many initiatives have been fostered to promote mental health research in the region. This paper summarizes the information collected through those efforts, in addition to presenting the current state of research in the field of psychiatry and mental health in Latin American countries. Future perspectives for the field in the region are discussed in terms of funding, research priorities and research resources, as well as the potential of Latin American countries to insert themselves within global psychiatry/mental health research efforts. PMID:20874069

  14. Poverty and Health Disparities for American Indian and Alaska Native Children: Current Knowledge and Future Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Sarche, Michelle; Spicer, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This report explores the current state of knowledge regarding inequalities and their effect on American Indian and Alaska Native children, underscoring gaps in our current knowledge and the opportunities for early intervention to begin to address persistent challenges in young American Indian and Alaska Native children’s development. This overview documents demographic, social, health, and health care disparities as they affect American Indian and Alaska Native children, the persistent cultural strengths that must form the basis for any conscientious intervention effort, and the exciting possibilities for early childhood interventions. PMID:18579879

  15. Nursing participation in health care reform efforts of 1993 to 1994: advocating for the national community.

    PubMed

    Rubotzky, A M

    2000-12-01

    This report of a postmodern feminist oral history tells a contemporary story of the success of nursing in overcoming the impediments of tradition, organizing and acting as an identifiable group, and speaking out with clarity as advocates for the health of American society. This was an important historical, transitional, and celebratory time for nursing. Continuing advocacy for health care for all Americans requires developing expertise in both traditional and feminist leadership, understanding how political theories and history affect policy development, and active participation in American democracy. Future actions require incorporation of lessons from the recent past. PMID:11104322

  16. Metrics in Urban Health: Current Developments and Future Prospects.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Amit; Gray, Chelsea Bettina; Ross, Alex; Kano, Megumi

    2016-01-01

    The research community has shown increasing interest in developing and using metrics to determine the relationships between urban living and health. In particular, we have seen a recent exponential increase in efforts aiming to investigate and apply metrics for urban health, especially the health impacts of the social and built environments as well as air pollution. A greater recognition of the need to investigate the impacts and trends of health inequities is also evident through more recent literature. Data availability and accuracy have improved through new affordable technologies for mapping, geographic information systems (GIS), and remote sensing. However, less research has been conducted in low- and middle-income countries where quality data are not always available, and capacity for analyzing available data may be limited. For this increased interest in research and development of metrics to be meaningful, the best available evidence must be accessible to decision makers to improve health impacts through urban policies. PMID:26789382

  17. Geographical Information Systems and Health: Current State and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and how they can be used. It reviews the current state of GIS use in health care before identifying the barriers to more pervasive use of GIS in health. Finally, it makes recommendations for the direction of health GIS research over the next decade and concludes with a call to action to health informatics researchers to stop ignoring a tool and methodology that has such immense potential for improving the health of our communities. PMID:22844644

  18. Occupational health priorities for health standards: the current NIOSH approach.

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, J L; Rose, V E

    1979-01-01

    Government agencies responsible for protecting the public from the adverse effects of toxic chemicals must set priorities for research, regulatory action, protocol testing, and monitoring due to the vast number of toxic chemicals and the limited resources available to these agencies. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) must set priorities for research on hazards encountered in the workplace. Priorities are also utilized by NIOSH in preparing criteria for recommended occupational standards which are forwarded to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), U.S. Department of Labor, for possible promulgation. For various reasons, including rapidly changing conditions in the American workplace, NIOSH has instituted a revised priorities program. In the future, NIOSH research and recommended standards activities will focus not only on individual chemicals, but also on industries, occupations, chemical classes, and general industrial processes. NIOSH has also implemented a new program which will allow recommended control procedures for certain chemicals to be forwarded to OSHA in a shorter time period than has been experienced previously. PMID:434273

  19. Health Education Efforts in Uncertain Times: Helping to Ensure Healthy Pregnancies in a Time of Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Alina L.; Weber, Mary Kate; Kilker, Katie P.; Dang, Elizabeth P.; Lindsey, Lisa L. Massi

    2007-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina caused immense upheaval and disrupted many lives. Among those affected were pregnant women. A public service announcement, website content, and a fact sheet were developed to inform pregnant women about the issues that could potentially affect their health and that of their babies. The aim of these products was to provide health…

  20. Preventing Health Care-Associated Infections: Connecting North Carolina's Patients to National Efforts.

    PubMed

    Moore, Zack; Billings, Corrianne; DeRienzo, Chris

    2016-01-01

    With increased federal and state attention to prevention and control of health care-associated infections (HAIs), broad multifacility collaboratives have emerged to guide providers' work at the bedside. This commentary reviews how HAI prevention flows from federal-level guidance through state leadership and into hospitals, connecting governance to its impact on North Carolina's patients. PMID:27621344

  1. Assessing the public health effects of global warming: New and ongoing international efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Patz, J.

    1995-03-01

    The major health outcomes resulting from global warming are expected to occur through alterations in temperature, weather patterns, and sea-level rise. Potential impacts may include increases in heat-related morbidity and mortality, spread of vector-borne diseases, threatened food and fresh water supply, and infrastructural pressures due to extreme weather events and forced human migration. Extensive international coordination will be required both to assess and possibly mitigate these worldwide health ramifications. International organizations have begun to assembly research and monitoring initiatives. CLIMEDAT is a new database sponsored by the World Health Organization to specifically help network international scientists addressing the health-related aspects of global climate change. Under the World Meteorological Organization`s World Climate Program, monitoring systems such as the Global Climate, Global Ocean, and Global Terrestrial Observing Systems are aiding in the global and regional assessment of climate and ecosystem change. The International council of Scientific Unions is encouraging multidisciplinary involvement at several levels; projects include the World Climate Research Program, the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program, the Human Dimensions Program, and Diversitas (which addresses the role of biodiversity change). The mitigating options of reducing greenhouse gas emissions combined with maximizing carbon dioxide sinks will further require full North/South cooperation.

  2. Co-ordinated interdisciplinary efforts on research in animal production and health.

    PubMed

    Houe, Hans

    2003-01-01

    The objectives are to review results and experiences from interdisciplinary research projects in Research Centre for the Management of Animal Production and Health (CEPROS) concerning scientific content, organisation, and collaboration. The Centre has been founded as a result of an agreement between four institutions: the Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences (DIAS), the Danish Veterinary Laboratory (DVL), the Danish Veterinary Institute for Virus Research (DVIV) and The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University (KVL). CEPROS is a "research centre without walls" and is physically located as an integrated part of the four institutions named above. The Centre has close collaboration with the industry. The superior goals of the Centre are to co-ordinate fundamental and applied research and simultaneously integrate the veterinary and the production oriented livestock research within animal health and welfare, taking into consideration the production economics and reduced use of medication. The assignment of the Centre is to initiate and carry out research, aiming to investigate the influence of breeding and production systems on animal health and welfare as well as on production and product quality. The Centre has since 1997 established 16 interdisciplinary research projects dealing with cattle, pigs, poultry, or mink. The scientific content can be divided into three research clusters: A. Management of animal production and health in production systems, B: Pathogenesis of production diseases, and C. Animal health economics. In Cluster A, the physical environments of production systems have been investigated, broader definitions of the concept health have been established and used in identification of risk factors. Cluster B has investigated physiological, immunological and genetic mechanisms behind development of production diseases and how to apply this knowledge in disease prevention. The cluster in animal health economics has developed decision support tools

  3. The Emergence of Ebola as a Global Health Security Threat: From ‘Lessons Learned’ to Coordinated Multilateral Containment Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Sarathi; Kelkar, Dhanashree; Galwankar, Sagar C.; Papadimos, Thomas J.; Stawicki, Stanislaw P.; Arquilla, Bonnie; Hoey, Brian A.; Sharpe, Richard P.; Sabol, Donna; Jahre, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    First reported in remote villages of Africa in the 1970s, the Ebolavirus was originally believed to be transmitted to people from wild animals. Ebolavirus (EBOV) causes a severe, frequently fatal hemorrhagic syndrome in humans. Each outbreak of the Ebolavirus over the last three decades has perpetuated fear and economic turmoil among the local and regional populations in Africa. Until now it has been considered a tragic malady confined largely to the isolated regions of the African continent, but it is no longer so. The frequency of outbreaks has increased since the 1970s. The 2014 Ebola outbreak in Western Africa has been the most severe in history and was declared a public health emergency by the World Health Organization. Given the widespread use of modern transportation and global travel, the EBOV is now a risk to the entire Global Village, with intercontinental transmission only an airplane flight away. Clinically, symptoms typically appear after an incubation period of approximately 11 days. A flu-like syndrome can progress to full hemorrhagic fever with multiorgan failure, and frequently, death. Diagnosis is confirmed by detection of viral antigens or Ribonucleic acid (RNA) in the blood or other body fluids. Although historically the mortality of this infection exceeded 80%, modern medicine and public health measures have been able to lower this figure and reduce the impact of EBOV on individuals and communities. The treatment involves early, aggressive supportive care with rehydration. Core interventions, including contact tracing, preventive initiatives, active surveillance, effective isolation and quarantine procedures, and timely response to patients, are essential for a successful outbreak control. These measures, combined with public health education, point-of-care diagnostics, promising new vaccine and pharmaceutical efforts, and coordinated efforts of the international community, give new hope to the Global effort to eliminate Ebola as a public

  4. The emergence of ebola as a global health security threat: from 'lessons learned' to coordinated multilateral containment efforts.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Sarathi; Kelkar, Dhanashree; Galwankar, Sagar C; Papadimos, Thomas J; Stawicki, Stanislaw P; Arquilla, Bonnie; Hoey, Brian A; Sharpe, Richard P; Sabol, Donna; Jahre, Jeffrey A

    2014-10-01

    First reported in remote villages of Africa in the 1970s, the Ebolavirus was originally believed to be transmitted to people from wild animals. Ebolavirus (EBOV) causes a severe, frequently fatal hemorrhagic syndrome in humans. Each outbreak of the Ebolavirus over the last three decades has perpetuated fear and economic turmoil among the local and regional populations in Africa. Until now it has been considered a tragic malady confined largely to the isolated regions of the African continent, but it is no longer so. The frequency of outbreaks has increased since the 1970s. The 2014 Ebola outbreak in Western Africa has been the most severe in history and was declared a public health emergency by the World Health Organization. Given the widespread use of modern transportation and global travel, the EBOV is now a risk to the entire Global Village, with intercontinental transmission only an airplane flight away. Clinically, symptoms typically appear after an incubation period of approximately 11 days. A flu-like syndrome can progress to full hemorrhagic fever with multiorgan failure, and frequently, death. Diagnosis is confirmed by detection of viral antigens or Ribonucleic acid (RNA) in the blood or other body fluids. Although historically the mortality of this infection exceeded 80%, modern medicine and public health measures have been able to lower this figure and reduce the impact of EBOV on individuals and communities. The treatment involves early, aggressive supportive care with rehydration. Core interventions, including contact tracing, preventive initiatives, active surveillance, effective isolation and quarantine procedures, and timely response to patients, are essential for a successful outbreak control. These measures, combined with public health education, point-of-care diagnostics, promising new vaccine and pharmaceutical efforts, and coordinated efforts of the international community, give new hope to the Global effort to eliminate Ebola as a public

  5. [Health promotion policy and urban planning: joint efforts for the development of healthy cities].

    PubMed

    Sperandio, Ana Maria Girotti; Francisco, Lauro Luiz; Mattos, Thiago Pedrosa

    2016-06-01

    The National Health Promotion Policy (PNPS) defines strategies for devising inter-sectoral public policies that ensure the development of healthy cities. Urban planning constitutes a tool to improve the quality of life and enhance health promotion. Using the studies and cooperation actions conducted by the Urban Research Laboratory (LABINUR/FEC-Unicamp) as a reference, this article describes relevant aspects of the PNPS that have an interface with urban planning policies in Brazil. An increase in interdisciplinary and inter-sectoral measures related to the new PNPS after the passing of Ordinance 2.446/14 was identified, which include: mobility and accessibility; safe development (sanitation, housing and transport); healthy eating with social inclusion and reduction of poverty (community vegetable gardens); corporal activities and physical exercise and the enhancement of urban spaces. The conclusion drawn is that social participation, inter-sectoral activities and the role of the university are important aspects for the promotion of healthy cities. PMID:27276542

  6. Military Exceptionalism or Tobacco Exceptionalism: How Civilian Health Leaders' Beliefs May Impede Military Tobacco Control Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Malone, Ruth E.

    2013-01-01

    Smoking impairs the readiness and performance of military personnel, yet congressional opposition has thwarted military tobacco control initiatives. Involvement of civilian organizations might alter this political dynamic. We interviewed 13 leaders of national civilian public health and tobacco control organizations to explore their perspectives on military tobacco control, inductively analyzing data for themes. Leaders believed that military tobacco use was problematic but lacked specific knowledge. Most supported smoke-free policies and prohibiting smoking in uniform; however, they opposed banning tobacco use, arguing that it would violate smokers’ rights. Most leaders inappropriately applied civilian models of policy development to the military context. A tobacco-free military is unlikely to be achieved without military–civilian partnerships that include educating civilian health leaders about military policy development and implementation. PMID:23409898

  7. Comprehensive Yet Scalable Health Information Systems for Low Resource Settings: A Collaborative Effort in Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Braa, Jørn; Kanter, Andrew S.; Lesh, Neal; Crichton, Ryan; Jolliffe, Bob; Sæbø, Johan; Kossi, Edem; Seebregts, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    We address the problem of how to integrate health information systems in low-income African countries in which technical infrastructure and human resources vary wildly within countries. We describe a set of tools to meet the needs of different service areas including managing aggregate indicators, patient level record systems, and mobile tools for community outreach. We present the case of Sierra Leone and use this case to motivate and illustrate an architecture that allows us to provide services at each level of the health system (national, regional, facility and community) and provide different configurations of the tools as appropriate for the individual area. Finally, we present a, collaborative implementation of this approach in Sierra Leone. PMID:21347003

  8. The Current and Projected Taxpayer Shares of US Health Costs

    PubMed Central

    Woolhandler, Steffie

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated taxpayers’ current and projected share of US health expenditures, including government payments for public employees’ health benefits as well as tax subsidies to private health spending. Methods. We tabulated official Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services figures on direct government spending for health programs and public employees’ health benefits for 2013, and projected figures through 2024. We calculated the value of tax subsidies for private spending from official federal budget documents and figures for state and local tax collections. Results. Tax-funded health expenditures totaled $1.877 trillion in 2013 and are projected to increase to $3.642 trillion in 2024. Government’s share of overall health spending was 64.3% of national health expenditures in 2013 and will rise to 67.1% in 2024. Government health expenditures in the United States account for a larger share of gross domestic product (11.2% in 2013) than do total health expenditures in any other nation. Conclusions. Contrary to public perceptions and official Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services estimates, government funds most health care in the United States. Appreciation of government’s predominant role in health funding might encourage more appropriate and equitable targeting of health expenditures. PMID:26794173

  9. Fostering reflective trust between mothers and community health nurses to improve the effectiveness of health and nutrition efforts: An ethnographic study in Ghana, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Ackatia-Armah, Nana M; Addy, Nii Antiaye; Ghosh, Shibani; Dubé, Laurette

    2016-06-01

    As the global health agenda shifts from the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the need for effective preventive health efforts has gained prominence, particularly in low-income regions with poor health and nutrition outcomes. To address needs in communities with limited access to health services and personnel, it is important to develop strategies that can improve the effectiveness of nurses as they interact with the populations they serve. We contribute to informing such strategies by explaining how mothers' "reflective trust" in community health nurses develops as a key influencer in their health-related decision-making and behavior. Between December 2012 and June 2013, our ethnographic study gathered data in three adjacent rural and semi-rural communities in Ghana's Eastern Region, using interviews with 39 nursing mothers, three focus groups - with mothers, health-workers, and community leaders - as well as 941 h of participant observation. We focused on interactions between mothers and nurses, highlighting tensions between communities' traditions and messages that nurses bring, which are often based on modern science. We also investigated how mothers come to exhibit reflective trust in the nurses to make sense of traditional and scientific knowledge on infant feeding, and integrate them into their own feeding decisions. Our findings have global implications for effectively sustaining and scaling health and nutrition efforts through community approaches. PMID:27131046

  10. Comparing global alcohol and tobacco control efforts: network formation and evolution in international health governance.

    PubMed

    Gneiting, Uwe; Schmitz, Hans Peter

    2016-04-01

    Smoking and drinking constitute two risk factors contributing to the rising burden of non-communicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries. Both issues have gained increased international attention, but tobacco control has made more sustained progress in terms of international and domestic policy commitments, resources dedicated to reducing harm, and reduction of tobacco use in many high-income countries. The research presented here offers insights into why risk factors with comparable levels of harm experience different trajectories of global attention. The analysis focuses particular attention on the role of dedicated global health networks composed of individuals and organizations producing research and engaging in advocacy on a given health problem. Variation in issue characteristics and the policy environment shape the opportunities and challenges of global health networks focused on reducing the burden of disease. What sets the tobacco case apart was the ability of tobacco control advocates to create and maintain a consensus on policy solutions, expand their reach in low- and middle-income countries and combine evidence-based research with advocacy reaching beyond the public health-centered focus of the core network. In contrast, a similar network in the alcohol case struggled with expanding its reach and has yet to overcome divisions based on competing problem definitions and solutions to alcohol harm. The tobacco control network evolved from a group of dedicated individuals to a global coalition of membership-based organizations, whereas the alcohol control network remains at the stage of a collection of dedicated and like-minded individuals. PMID:26733720

  11. Expanding and sustaining integrated health care-community efforts to reduce diabetes disparities.

    PubMed

    Chin, Marshall H; Goddu, Anna P; Ferguson, Molly J; Peek, Monica E

    2014-11-01

    To reduce racial and ethnic disparities in diabetes care and outcomes, it is critical to integrate health care and community approaches. However, little work describes how to expand and sustain such partnerships and initiatives. We outline our experience creating and growing an initiative to improve diabetes care and outcomes in the predominantly African American South Side of Chicago. Our project involves patient education and activation, a quality improvement collaborative with six clinics, provider education, and community partnerships. We aligned our project with the needs and goals of community residents and organizations, the mission and strategic plan of our academic medical center, various strengths and resources in Chicago, and the changing health care marketplace. We use the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Finding Answers: Disparities Research for Change conceptual model and the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research to elucidate how we expanded and sustained our project within a shifting environment. We recommend taking action to integrate health care with community projects, being inclusive, building partnerships, working with the media, and understanding vital historical, political, and economic contexts. PMID:25359247

  12. Expanding and Sustaining Integrated Health Care–Community Efforts to Reduce Diabetes Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Marshall H.; Goddu, Anna P.; Ferguson, Molly J.; Peek, Monica E.

    2014-01-01

    To reduce racial and ethnic disparities in diabetes care and outcomes, it is critical to integrate health care and community approaches. However, little work describes how to expand and sustain such partnerships and initiatives. We outline our experience creating and growing an initiative to improve diabetes care and outcomes in the predominantly African American South Side of Chicago. Our project involves patient education and activation, a quality improvement collaborative with six clinics, provider education, and community partnerships. We aligned our project with the needs and goals of community residents and organizations, the mission and strategic plan of our academic medical center, various strengths and resources in Chicago, and the changing health care marketplace. We use the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Finding Answers: Disparities Research for Change conceptual model and the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research to elucidate how we expanded and sustained our project within a shifting environment. We recommend taking action to integrate health care with community projects, being inclusive, building partnerships, working with the media, and understanding vital historical, political, and economic contexts. PMID:25359247

  13. Health reform in Finland: current proposals and unresolved challenges.

    PubMed

    Saltman, Richard B; Teperi, Juha

    2016-07-01

    The Finnish health care system is widely respected for its pilot role in creating primary-care-led health systems. In the early 1990s, however, a severe economic downturn in Finland reduced public funding and weakened the Finnish system's deeply decentralized model of health care administration. Recent Bank of Finland projections forecasting several decades of slow economic growth, combined with the impact of an aging population, appear to make major reform of the existing public system inevitable. Over the last several years, political attention has focused mostly on administrative consolidation inside the public sector, particularly integration of health and social services. Current proposals call for a reformed health sector governance structure based on a new meso-level configuration of public administration. In addition, Finland's national government has proposed replacing the current multi-channel public funding structure (which includes health insurance subsidies for occupational health services) with a single-channel public funding structure. This commentary examines several key issues involved in reforming the delivery structure of the Finnish health care system. It also explores possible alternative strategies to reform current funding arrangements. The article concludes with a brief discussion of implications from this Finnish experience for the wider health reform debate. PMID:26865494

  14. Electronic Health Records and US Public Health: Current Realities and Future Promise

    PubMed Central

    Parrish, R. Gibson; Ross, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) could contribute to improving population health in the United States. Realizing this potential will require understanding what EHRs can realistically offer to efforts to improve population health, the requirements for obtaining useful information from EHRs, and a plan for addressing these requirements. Potential contributions of EHRs to improving population health include better understanding of the level and distribution of disease, function, and well-being within populations. Requirements are improved population coverage of EHRs, standardized EHR content and reporting methods, and adequate legal authority for using EHRs, particularly for population health. A collaborative national effort to address the most pressing prerequisites for and barriers to the use of EHRs for improving population health is needed to realize the EHR’s potential. PMID:23865646

  15. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report VII, Volume 4. Safety and health plan

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    The Safety and Health Plan recognizes the potential hazards associated with the Project and has been developed specifically to respond to these risks in a positive manner. Prevention, the primary objective of the Plan, starts with building safety controls into the process design and continues through engineering, construction, start-up, and operation of the Project facilities and equipment. Compliance with applicable federal, state, and local health and safety laws, regulations, and codes throughout all Project phases is required and assured. The Plan requires that each major Project phase be thoroughly reviewed and analyzed to determine that those provisions required to assure the safety and health of all employees and the public, and to prevent property and equipment losses, have been provided. The Plan requires followup on those items or situations where corrective action needs were identified to assure that the action was taken and is effective. Emphasis is placed on loss prevention. Exhibit 1 provides a breakdown of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc.'s (ASFI's) Loss Prevention Program. The Plan recognizes that the varied nature of the work is such as to require the services of skilled, trained, and responsible personnel who are aware of the hazards and know that the work can be done safely, if done correctly. Good operating practice is likewise safe operating practice. Training is provided to familiarize personnel with good operational practice, the general sequence of activities, reporting requirements, and above all, the concept that each step in the operating procedures must be successfully concluded before the following step can be safely initiated. The Plan provides for periodic review and evaluation of all safety and loss prevention activities at the plant and departmental levels.

  16. Organised crime and the efforts to combat it: a concern for public health

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the public health impacts of the income-generating activities of organised crime. These range from the traditional vice activities of running prostitution and supplying narcotics, to the newer growth areas of human trafficking in its various forms, from international supply of young people and children as sex workers through deceit, coercion or purchase from family, through to smuggling of migrants, forced labour and the theft of human tissues for transplant, and the sale of fake medications, foodstuffs and beverages, cigarettes and other counterfeit manufactures. It looks at the effect of globalisation on integrating supply chains from poorly-regulated and impoverished source regions through to their distant markets, often via disparate groups of organised criminals who have linked across their traditional territories for mutual benefit and enhanced profit, with both traditional and newly-created linkages between production, distribution and retail functions of cooperating criminal networks from different cultures. It discusses the interactions between criminals and the structures of the state which enable illegal and socially undesirable activities to proceed on a massive scale through corruption and subversion of regulatory mechanisms. It argues that conventional approaches to tackling organised crime often have deleterious consequences for public health, and calls for an evidence-based approach with a focus on outcomes rather than ideology. PMID:21078158

  17. Organised crime and the efforts to combat it: a concern for public health.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Lucy; McKee, Martin

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the public health impacts of the income-generating activities of organised crime. These range from the traditional vice activities of running prostitution and supplying narcotics, to the newer growth areas of human trafficking in its various forms, from international supply of young people and children as sex workers through deceit, coercion or purchase from family, through to smuggling of migrants, forced labour and the theft of human tissues for transplant, and the sale of fake medications, foodstuffs and beverages, cigarettes and other counterfeit manufactures. It looks at the effect of globalisation on integrating supply chains from poorly-regulated and impoverished source regions through to their distant markets, often via disparate groups of organised criminals who have linked across their traditional territories for mutual benefit and enhanced profit, with both traditional and newly-created linkages between production, distribution and retail functions of cooperating criminal networks from different cultures. It discusses the interactions between criminals and the structures of the state which enable illegal and socially undesirable activities to proceed on a massive scale through corruption and subversion of regulatory mechanisms. It argues that conventional approaches to tackling organised crime often have deleterious consequences for public health, and calls for an evidence-based approach with a focus on outcomes rather than ideology. PMID:21078158

  18. Strengthening the capacities of a national health authority in the effort to mitigate health inequity-the Israeli model.

    PubMed

    Horev, Tuvia; Avni, Shlomit

    2016-01-01

    The need for a national policy to mitigate health inequity has been recognized in scientific research and policy papers around the world. Despite the moral duty and the social, medical, and economic logic behind this goal, much difficulty surfaces in implementing national policies that propose to attain it. This is mainly due to an implementation gap that originates in the complex interventions that are needed and the lack of practical ability to translate knowledge into practices and policy tools. The article describes the Israeli attempt to design and implement a national strategic plan to mitigate health inequity. It describes the basic assumptions and objectives of the plan, its main components, and various examples of interventions implemented. Limitations of the Israeli policy and future challenges are discussed as well. Based on the Israeli experience, the article then sketches a generic framework for national-level action to mitigate inequalities in health and in the healthcare system. The framework suggests four main focal points as well as an outline of the main stakeholders that a national policy should take into consideration as agents of change. The Israeli policy and the generic framework presented in the article may serve researchers, decision-makers, and health officials as a case study on ways in which prevalent approaches toward the issue of health inequality may be translated into policy practice. PMID:27529023

  19. Efforts of a Kansas Foundation to Increase Physical Activity and Improve Health by Funding Community Trails, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, Katie M.; Lightner, Joseph; Oestman, Katherine B.; Kaczynski, Andrew T.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Trails are associated with increased physical activity; however, little is known about the process of building trails by various types of organizations. From 2005 through 2012 the Sunflower Foundation: Health Care for Kansans (Sunflower) funded multiple organizations to construct 70 trails of varying lengths and surfaces in municipalities, schools, and communities across Kansas. The purpose of this study was to assess the process of developing and implementing community trail projects across Kansas with funding from a public foundation. Methods In 2012, we stratified funded organizations by type and conducted proportional random sampling to select 20 key informants from those organizations to participate in structured telephone interviews. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Two researchers coded interview transcripts according to issues identified by participants. Results Issues associated with trail-building identified as important were collaboration among groups, unexpected construction costs, champions for the project, and level of difficulty of construction. Participants indicated that trails facilitated physical activity. Trails were integrated into communities through events such as walking events and other promotional efforts; these efforts were thought to increase trail use. The perceived outcomes of building the trails included providing the community with a physical activity resource, inspiring the community to start additional trail projects, and increasing the physical activity of local residents. Conclusion Sunflower’s funding was instrumental in developing trail projects to provide new physical activity resources across Kansas. Public health practitioners seeking to increase physical activity should seek funding from foundations that focus on health. PMID:25427316

  20. Services Oriented Architectures and Rapid Deployment of Ad-Hoc Health Surveillance Systems: Lessons from Katrina Relief Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Mirhaji, Parsa; Casscells, S. Ward; Srinivasan, Arunkumar; Kunapareddy, Narendra; Byrne, Sean; Richards, David; Arafat, Raouf

    2006-01-01

    During the Hurricane Katrina relief efforts, a new city was born overnight within the City of Houston to provide accommodation and health services for thousands of evacuees deprived of food, rest, medical attention, and sanitation [1]. The hurricane victims had been exposed to flood water, toxic materials, physical injury, and mental stress. This scenario was an invitation for a variety of public health hazards, primarily infectious disease outbreaks. Early detection and monitoring of morbidity and mortality among evacuees due to unattended health conditions was an urgent priority and called for deployment of real-time surveillance to collect and analyze data at the scene, and to enable and guide appropriate response and planning activities [2]. To address this need, the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHSC) and the Houston Department of Health and Human Services (HDHHS) deployed an ad hoc surveillance system overnight by leveraging Internet-based technologies and Services Oriented Architecture (SOA) [3, 4]. The system was post-coordinated through the orchestration of Web Services such as information integration, natural language processing, UMLS terminology services, syndromic case finding, and online analytical processing (OLAP) [5]. Here we will report the use of Internet-based and distributed architectures in providing timely, novel, and customizable solutions just in time for unprecedented events such as natural disasters. PMID:17238405

  1. An Innovative Approach to Developing a Cultural Competency Curriculum; Efforts at the John A. Burns School of Medicine, Department of Native Hawaiian Health

    PubMed Central

    Kamaka, Martina L; Kaulukukui, C Malina

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Initial efforts to teach cultural competency at the University of Hawai‘i John A. Burns School of Medicine began in the late 1990s through the Native Hawaiian Center of Excellence. With the formation of the Department of Native Hawaiian Health in 2003, cultural competency training was added as a key area of focus for the department. A multidisciplinary team was formed to do the ground work. Physicians (Family Medicine and Internal Medicine) and an administrator (MBA now at Queens Medical Center) from the Department of Native Hawaiian Health were joined by a cultural anthropologist (Department of Family Medicine and Community Health), a social worker (UH Myron B. Thompson School of Social Work), and a retired DrPH/Registered Dietician from the State Department of Health to form the cultural competency curriculum team. All but one of the team members is Native Hawaiian. Discussion As cultural competency training is a relatively new, rapidly developing field, there is no consensus on how to teach it. The department decided early on to focus on a variety of methodologies using Native Hawaiian health as the curriculum's foundation. Many different paths were taken toward the development of the present curriculum which utilized different components within the medical school's curriculum. This paper describes the process and development of a cultural competency training curriculum at the University of Hawai‘i medical school. Recent literature recommendations by experts in the field reinforce the current curricular content that resulted from this developmental process. PMID:22235152

  2. Inventing the Right to Know: Herbert Abrams's Efforts to Democratize Access to Workplace Health Hazard Information in the 1950s.

    PubMed

    Derickson, Alan

    2016-02-01

    In the 1980s, the right-to-know movement won American workers unprecedented access to information about the health hazards they faced on the job. The precursors and origins of these initiatives to extend workplace democracy remain quite obscure. This study brings to light the efforts of one of the early proponents of wider dissemination of information related to hazard recognition and control. Through his work as a state public health official and as an advisor to organized labor in the 1950s, Herbert Abrams was a pioneer in advocating not only broader sharing of knowledge but also more expansive rights of workers and their organizations to act on that knowledge. PMID:26691112

  3. New insights from direct monitoring of turbidity currents; and a proposal for co-ordinating international efforts at a series of global "turbidity current test sites"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talling, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Turbidity currents, and other types of submarine sediment density flow, arguably redistribute more sediment across the surface of the Earth than any other flow process. It is now over 60 years since the seminal publication of Kuenen and Migliorini (1950) in which they made the link between sequences of graded bedding and turbidity currents. The deposits of submarine sediment density flows have been described in numerous locations worldwide, and this might lead to the view that these flows are well understood. However, it is sobering to note quite how few direct measurements we have from these submarine flows in action. Sediment concentration is the critical parameter controlling such flows, yet it has never been measured directly for flows that reach and build submarine fans. How then do we know what type of flow to model in flume tanks, or which assumptions to use to formulate numerical simulations or analytical models? It is proposed here that international efforts are needed for an initiative to monitor active turbidity currents at a series of 'test sites' where flows occur frequently. The flows evolve significantly, such that source to sink data are needed. We also need to directly monitor flows in different settings with variable triggering factors and flow path morphologies because their character can vary significantly. Such work should integrate numerical and physical modelling with the collection of field observations in order to understand the significance of field observations. Such an international initiative also needs to include coring of deposits to link flow processes to deposit character, because in most global locations flow behaviour must be inferred from deposits alone. Collection of seismic datasets is also crucial for understanding the larger-scale evolution and resulting architecture of these systems, and to link with studies of subsurface reservoirs. Test site datasets should thus include a wide range of data types, not just from direct flow

  4. Programmatic Efforts at the National Institutes of Health to Promote and Support the Careers of Women in Biomedical Science

    PubMed Central

    Bunker Whittington, Kjersten; Cassidy, Sara K.B.; Filart, Rosemarie; Cornelison, Terri L.; Begg, Lisa; Austin Clayton, Janine

    2016-01-01

    Although women have reached parity at the training level in the biological sciences and medicine, they are still significantly underrepresented in the professoriate and in mid- and senior-level life science positions. Considerable effort has been devoted by individuals and organizations across science sectors to understanding this disparity and to developing interventions in support of women’s career development. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) formed the Office of Research on Women’s Health (ORWH) in 1990 with the goals of supporting initiatives to improve women’s health and providing opportunities and support for the recruitment, retention, reentry, and sustained advancement of women in biomedical careers. Here, the authors review several accomplishments and flagship activities initiated by the NIH and ORWH in support of women’s career development during this time. These include programming to support researchers returning to the workforce after a period away (Research Supplements to Promote Reentry into Biomedical and Behavioral Research Careers), career development awards made through the Building Interdisciplinary Research Careers in Women’s Health program, and trans-NIH involvement and activities stemming from the NIH Working Group on Women in Biomedical Careers. These innovative programs have contributed to advancement of women by supporting the professional and personal needs of women in science. The authors discuss the unique opportunities that accompany NIH partnerships with the scientific community, and conclude with a summary of the impact of these programs on women in science. PMID:27191836

  5. Programmatic Efforts at the National Institutes of Health to Promote and Support the Careers of Women in Biomedical Science.

    PubMed

    Plank-Bazinet, Jennifer L; Bunker Whittington, Kjersten; Cassidy, Sara K B; Filart, Rosemarie; Cornelison, Terri L; Begg, Lisa; Austin Clayton, Janine

    2016-08-01

    Although women have reached parity at the training level in the biological sciences and medicine, they are still significantly underrepresented in the professoriate and in mid- and senior-level life science positions. Considerable effort has been devoted by individuals and organizations across science sectors to understanding this disparity and to developing interventions in support of women's career development. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) formed the Office of Research on Women's Health (ORWH) in 1990 with the goals of supporting initiatives to improve women's health and providing opportunities and support for the recruitment, retention, reentry, and sustained advancement of women in biomedical careers. Here, the authors review several accomplishments and flagship activities initiated by the NIH and ORWH in support of women's career development during this time. These include programming to support researchers returning to the workforce after a period away (Research Supplements to Promote Reentry into Biomedical and Behavioral Research Careers), career development awards made through the Building Interdisciplinary Research Careers in Women's Health program, and trans-NIH involvement and activities stemming from the NIH Working Group on Women in Biomedical Careers. These innovative programs have contributed to advancement of women by supporting the professional and personal needs of women in science. The authors discuss the unique opportunities that accompany NIH partnerships with the scientific community, and conclude with a summary of the impact of these programs on women in science. PMID:27191836

  6. Effect of Community Engagement Interventions on Patient Safety and Risk Reduction Efforts in Primary Health Facilities: Evidence from Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Alhassan, Robert Kaba; Nketiah-Amponsah, Edward; Spieker, Nicole; Arhinful, Daniel Kojo; Ogink, Alice; van Ostenberg, Paul; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Patient safety and quality care remain major challenges to Ghana’s healthcare system. Like many health systems in Africa, this is largely because demand for healthcare is outstripping available human and material resource capacity of healthcare facilities and new investment is insufficient. In the light of these demand and supply constraints, systematic community engagement (SCE) in healthcare quality assessment can be a feasible and cost effective option to augment existing quality improvement interventions. SCE entails structured use of existing community groups to assess healthcare quality in health facilities. Identified quality gaps are discussed with healthcare providers, improvements identified and rewards provided if the quality gaps are closed. Purpose This paper evaluates whether or not SCE, through the assessment of health service quality, improves patient safety and risk reduction efforts by staff in healthcare facilities. Methods A randomized control trail was conducted in 64 primary healthcare facilities in the Greater Accra and Western regions of Ghana. Patient risk assessments were conducted in 32 randomly assigned intervention and control facilities. Multivariate multiple regression test was used to determine effect of the SCE interventions on staff efforts towards reducing patient risk. Spearman correlation test was used to ascertain associations between types of community groups engaged and risk assessment scores of healthcare facilities. Findings Clinic staff efforts towards increasing patient safety and reducing risk improved significantly in intervention facilities especially in the areas of leadership/accountability (Coef. = 10.4, p<0.05) and staff competencies (Coef. = 7.1, p<0.05). Improvement in service utilization and health resources could not be attributed to the interventions because these were outside the control of the study and might have been influenced by institutional or national level developments between the

  7. Research results from a registry supporting efforts to improve maternal and child health in low and middle income countries.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Robert L; McClure, Elizabeth M; Bose, Carl L; Jobe, Alan H; Belizán, José M

    2015-01-01

    The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development created and continues to support the Global Network for Women's and Children's Health Research, a partnership between research institutions in the US and low-middle income countries. This commentary describes a series of 15 papers emanating from the Global Network's Maternal and Newborn Health Registry. Using data from 2010 to 2013, the series of papers describe nearly 300,000 pregnancies in 7 sites in 6 countries - India (2 sites), Pakistan, Kenya, Zambia, Guatemala and Argentina. These papers cover a wide range of topics including several dealing with efforts made to ensure data quality, and others reporting on specific pregnancy outcomes including maternal mortality, stillbirth and neonatal mortality. Topics ranging from antenatal care, adolescent pregnancy, obstructed labor, factors associated with early initiation of breast feeding and maintenance of exclusive breast feeding and contraceptive usage are presented. In addition, case studies evaluating changes in mortality over time in 3 countries - India, Pakistan and Guatemala - are presented. In order to make progress in improving pregnancy outcomes in low-income countries, data of this quality are needed. PMID:26032486

  8. Complex systems thinking and current impasses in health disparities research.

    PubMed

    Diez Roux, Ana V

    2011-09-01

    Complex systems approaches have received increasing attention in public health because reductionist approaches yield limited insights in the context of dynamic systems. Most discussions have been highly abstract. There is a need to consider the application of complex systems approaches to specific research questions. I review the features of population health problems for which complex systems approaches are most likely to yield new insights, and discuss possible applications of complex systems to health disparities research. I provide illustrative examples of how complex systems approaches may help address unanswered and persistent questions regarding genetic factors, life course processes, place effects, and the impact of upstream policies. The concepts and methods of complex systems may help researchers move beyond current impasse points in health disparities research. PMID:21778505

  9. Gender relations and health research: a review of current practices

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The importance of gender in understanding health practices and illness experiences is increasingly recognized, and key to this work is a better understanding of the application of gender relations. The influence of masculinities and femininities, and the interplay within and between them manifests within relations and interactions among couples, family members and peers to influence health behaviours and outcomes. Methods To explore how conceptualizations of gender relations have been integrated in health research a scoping review of the existing literature was conducted. The key terms gender relations, gender interactions, relations gender, partner communication, femininities and masculinities were used to search online databases. Results Through analysis of this literature we identified two main ways gender relations were integrated in health research: a) as emergent findings; and b) as a basis for research design. In the latter, gender relations are included in conceptual frameworks, guide data collection and are used to direct data analysis. Conclusions Current uses of gender relations are typically positioned within intimate heterosexual couples whereby single narratives (i.e., either men or women) are used to explore the influence and/or impact of intimate partner gender relations on health and illness issues. Recommendations for advancing gender relations and health research are discussed. This research has the potential to reduce gender inequities in health. PMID:22151578

  10. Nd:YAG Laser-Based Dual-Line Detection Rayleigh Scattering and Current Efforts on UV, Filtered Rayleigh Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otugen, M. Volkan; Popovic, Svetozar

    1996-01-01

    Ongoing research in Rayleigh scattering diagnostics for variable density low speed flow applications and for supersonic flow measurements are described. During the past several years, the focus has been on the development and use of a Nd:YAG-based Rayleigh scattering system with improved signal-to-noise characteristics and with applicability to complex, confined flows. This activity serves other research projects in the Aerodynamics Laboratory which require the non-contact, accurate, time-frozen measurement of gas density, pressure, and temperature (each separately), in a fairly wide dynamic range of each parameter. Recently, with the acquisition of a new seed-injected Nd:YAG laser, effort also has been directed to the development of a high-speed velocity probe based on a spectrally resolved Rayleigh scattering technique.

  11. Is the current public health message on UV exposure correct?

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Robyn M.; Repacholi, Mike H.; McMichael, Anthony J.

    2006-01-01

    Current sun safety messages stress the importance of sun protection in avoiding the consequences of excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR), such as skin cancers, cataracts and other eye diseases, and viral infections caused by UV-induced immunosuppression. However, adequate exposure to UVR has an important role in human health, primarily through UV-induced production of vitamin D, a hormone essential to bone health. Vitamin D insufficiency may be associated with increased risks of some cancers, autoimmune diseases and mental health disorders such as schizophrenia. Here, we review the evolution of current sun exposure practices and sun-safe messages and consider not only the benefits, but also the detrimental effects that such messages may have. UVR-induced vitamin D production can be inhibited by factors such as deep skin pigmentation, indoor lifestyles, older age, sun avoidance behaviours and clothing habits that limit skin exposure, with deleterious consequences for health. There is some early evidence that sun-safe messages are beginning to cause a decrease in skin cancer rates in young people. After the widespread promotion of sun safety, it may now be appropriate to refine public health messages to take better account of variations between groups and their susceptibility to the dangers and benefits of sun exposure. PMID:16799733

  12. Surface-mounted periodic field eddy current sensors for structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldfine, Neil J.; Zilberstein, Vladimir A.; Schlicker, Darrell E.; Sheiretov, Yanko; Walrath, Karen; Washabaugh, Andrew P.; Van Otterloo, Douglas

    2001-07-01

    Surface mountable eddy current sensors are a revolutionary new concept in nondestructive inspection. These eddy current sensors can be mounted, like a strain gage, at critical locations for detection of crack initiation and monitoring of crack growth. This can be accomplished on a fatigue test article, as well as on in-service aircraft or other structures (patents pending). The mountable periodic field eddy current sensors, described in this paper, can be used as a replacement for standard eddy-current sensors without introducing new requirements. This is not the case with other proposed health monitoring sensors. For critical structures, substantially reduced inspection costs and life extension is possible with permanently mounted eddy current sensors. This is particularly true for difficult-to-access locations that require surface preparation (e.g., sealant or insulation removal) and disassembly when conventional eddy current testing is performed. By enabling eddy current testing in areas currently not accessible to conventional inspection, such as locations deep in an aircraft structure, damage tolerance can be achieved with low cost inspections. Embedded versions might even be mounted between layers, such as in a lapjoint. Surface mountable eddy current sensors are suitable for on-line monitoring and in-service inspections. This paper provides an introduction to surface mountable eddy current sensors, presents specific results from fatigue coupon tests and describes upcoming full-scale aircraft fatigue tests. Also, ongoing efforts to implement this technology on commercial and military aircraft are described. This research has been funded in part by the U.S. Navy, U.S. Air Force, JENTEK Sensors, Inc., and Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company. The goal of this paper is to provide a basic understanding of surface mounted eddy current sensor capabilities and potential, and to promote their broader use in fatigue testing, aircraft health monitoring as well as for

  13. A blessing in disguise? Empowering Catholic health care institutions in the current health care environment.

    PubMed

    Zimbelman, J

    2000-01-01

    Health care institutions, including Roman Catholic institutions, are in a time of crisis. This crisis may provide an important opportunity to reinvigorate Roman Catholic health care. The current health care crisis offers Roman Catholic health care institutions a special opportunity to rethink their fundamental commitments and to plan for the future. The author argues that what Catholic health care institutions must first do is articulate the nature of their identity and their commitments. By a renewed commitment to the praxis of health care on their own distinctive terms, Roman Catholic health care institutions may reestablish a vision of human nature and human service in an increasingly secular society. Health care could then reclaim its place as a powerful setting for the expression of Roman Catholic faith, life and witness. PMID:17209253

  14. Using Web 2.0 for health promotion and social marketing efforts: lessons learned from Web 2.0 experts.

    PubMed

    Dooley, Jennifer Allyson; Jones, Sandra C; Iverson, Don

    2014-01-01

    Web 2.0 experts working in social marketing participated in qualitative in-depth interviews. The research aimed to document the current state of Web 2.0 practice. Perceived strengths (such as the viral nature of Web 2.0) and weaknesses (such as the time consuming effort it took to learn new Web 2.0 platforms) existed when using Web 2.0 platforms for campaigns. Lessons learned were identified--namely, suggestions for engaging in specific types of content creation strategies (such as plain language and transparent communication practices). Findings present originality and value to practitioners working in social marketing who want to effectively use Web 2.0. PMID:24878406

  15. Neck pain patients’ preference scores for their current health

    PubMed Central

    Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Bayoumi, Ahmed M.; Côté, Pierre; Llewellyn-Thomas, Hilary; Hurwitz, Eric L.; Krahn, Murray

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To elicit neck pain (NP) patients’ preference scores for their current health, and investigate the association between their scores and NP disability. Methods Rating scale scores (RSs) and standard gamble scores (SGs) for current health were elicited from chronic NP patients (n = 104) and patients with NP following a motor vehicle accident (n = 116). Patients were stratified into Von Korff Pain Grades: Grade I (low-intensity pain, few activity limitations); Grade II (high-intensity pain, few activity limitations); Grade III (pain with high disability levels, moderate activity limitations); and Grade IV (pain with high disability levels, several activity limitations). Multivariable regression quantified the association between preference scores and NP disability. Results Mean SGs and RSs were as follows: Grade I patients: 0.81, 0.76; Grade II: 0.70, 0.60; Grade III: 0.64, 0.44; Grade IV: 0.57, 0.39. The association between preference scores and NP disability depended on type of NP and preference-elicitation method. Chronic NP patients’ scores were more strongly associated with depressive symptoms than with NP disability. In both samples, NP disability explained little more than random variance in SGs, and up to 51% of variance in RSs. Conclusion Health-related quality-of-life is considerably diminished in NP patients. Depressive symptoms and preference-elicitation methods influence preference scores that NP patients assign to their health. PMID:20349212

  16. Current Trends in Health Insurance Systems: OECD Countries vs. Japan

    PubMed Central

    SASAKI, Toshiyuki; IZAWA, Masahiro; OKADA, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the longest extension in life expectancy in the world has been observed in Japan. However, the sophistication of medical care and the expansion of the aging society, leads to continuous increase in health-care costs. Medical expenses as a part of gross domestic product (GDP) in Japan are exceeding the current Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) average, challenging the universally, equally provided low cost health care existing in the past. A universal health insurance system is becoming a common system currently in developed countries, currently a similar system is being introduced in the United States. Medical care in Japan is under a social insurance system, but the injection of public funds for medical costs becomes very expensive for the Japanese society. In spite of some urgently decided measures to cover the high cost of advanced medical treatment, declining birthrate and aging population and the tendency to reduce hospital and outpatients’ visits numbers and shorten hospital stays, medical expenses of Japan continue to be increasing. PMID:25797778

  17. Identifying Opportunities to Increase HIV Testing among Mexican Migrants: A Call to Step Up Efforts in Health Care and Detention Settings

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Donate, Ana P.; Rangel, Maria Gudelia; Rhoads, Natalie; Zhang, Xiao; Hovell, Melbourne; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; González-Fagoaga, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    HIV testing and counseling is a critical component of HIV prevention efforts and core element of current “treatment as prevention” strategies. Mobility, low education and income, and limited access to health care put Latino migrants at higher risk for HIV and represent barriers for adequate levels of HIV testing in this population. We examined correlates of, and missed opportunities to increase, HIV testing for circular Mexican migrants in the U.S. We used data from a probability-based survey of returning Mexican migrants (N=1161) conducted in the border city of Tijuana, Mexico. We estimated last 12-months rates of HIV testing and the percentage of migrants who received other health care services or were detained in an immigration center, jail, or prison for 30 or more days in the U.S., but were not tested for HIV. Twenty-two percent of migrants received HIV testing in the last 12 months. In general, utilization of other health care services or detention for 30 or more days in the U.S. was a significant predictor of last 12-months HIV testing. Despite this association, we found evidence of missed opportunities to promote testing in healthcare and/or correctional or immigration detention centers. About 27.6% of migrants received other health care and/or were detained at least 30 days but not tested for HIV. Health care systems, jails and detention centers play an important role in increasing access to HIV testing among circular migrants, but there is room for improvement. Policies to offer opt-out, confidential HIV testing and counseling to Mexican migrants in these settings on a routine and ethical manner need to be designed and pilot tested. These policies could increase knowledge of HIV status, facilitate engagement in HIV treatment among a highly mobile population, and contribute to decrease incidence of HIV in the host and receiving communities. PMID:25860261

  18. Identifying opportunities to increase HIV testing among mexican migrants: a call to step up efforts in health care and detention settings.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Donate, Ana P; Rangel, Maria Gudelia; Rhoads, Natalie; Zhang, Xiao; Hovell, Melbourne; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; González-Fagoaga, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    HIV testing and counseling is a critical component of HIV prevention efforts and core element of current "treatment as prevention" strategies. Mobility, low education and income, and limited access to health care put Latino migrants at higher risk for HIV and represent barriers for adequate levels of HIV testing in this population. We examined correlates of, and missed opportunities to increase, HIV testing for circular Mexican migrants in the U.S. We used data from a probability-based survey of returning Mexican migrants (N=1161) conducted in the border city of Tijuana, Mexico. We estimated last 12-months rates of HIV testing and the percentage of migrants who received other health care services or were detained in an immigration center, jail, or prison for 30 or more days in the U.S., but were not tested for HIV. Twenty-two percent of migrants received HIV testing in the last 12 months. In general, utilization of other health care services or detention for 30 or more days in the U.S. was a significant predictor of last 12-months HIV testing. Despite this association, we found evidence of missed opportunities to promote testing in healthcare and/or correctional or immigration detention centers. About 27.6% of migrants received other health care and/or were detained at least 30 days but not tested for HIV. Health care systems, jails and detention centers play an important role in increasing access to HIV testing among circular migrants, but there is room for improvement. Policies to offer opt-out, confidential HIV testing and counseling to Mexican migrants in these settings on a routine and ethical manner need to be designed and pilot tested. These policies could increase knowledge of HIV status, facilitate engagement in HIV treatment among a highly mobile population, and contribute to decrease incidence of HIV in the host and receiving communities. PMID:25860261

  19. Current Physical and Mental Health of Former Collegiate Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Zachary Y.; DeFreese, J.D.; Marshall, Stephen W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is a dearth of research on the current health of former collegiate athletes. Purpose: To examine the current health and related correlates in a cohort of former collegiate athletes who played in a diverse range of men’s and women’s sports with various levels of contact. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Former collegiate athletes (N = 3657) were asked to complete an online questionnaire addressing sports history, medical history, and demographics. The questionnaire also included the Veterans RAND 12-Item Health Survey (VR-12), which yielded 2 composite scores for physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) health. The VR-12 PCS and MCS scores were compared with published US normative data using t tests and analyses of variance. Results: Mean PCS and MCS scores of the 797 respondents with complete data (21.9% of target sample; average, 14.5 years since last played collegiate sport) were 53.0 ± 6.1 and 51.7 ± 9.4, respectively. When stratified by age and sex, PCS and MCS scores were similar to normative scores in the United States. Lower PCS scores were associated with sustaining ≥3 concussions, playing in collision sports during college, and sustaining a career-ending injury (all, P < .001). No association was found between concussion and MCS scores (P = .06). Among former collegiate athletes, prevalent medical conditions included anxiety (16.2%), hypercholesterolemia/high cholesterol (10.6%), and depression (10.4%). Additionally, 5.8% screened positive for alcohol dependence, and 5.8% screened positive for disordered eating (eg, binge eating, purging). These findings were more prevalent than those reported by the World Health Organization as representative of the US population. Conversely, there was a lower prevalence of depression, bipolar disorders, and attention deficit disorder, with or without hyperactivity (ADD/ADHD), than in the World Health Organization US population data sample. Conclusion: Former collegiate

  20. Infant nutrition and lifelong health: current perspectives and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Robinson, S M

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the role and importance of nutrition in early postnatal life, as an influence on lifelong vulnerability to poor health, is an important part of current research. We need to be able to define optimal patterns of infant feeding, not just to support growth and development in infancy, but also as determinants of later health. To date, much of the focus on the long-term effects of infant nutrition has been on milk feeding, to compare breast and formula feeding and to evaluate the effects of exclusivity, timing and duration of feeding different types of milk in infancy; other aspects of infant feeding such as age at introduction of solid foods and type of weaning diet have received less attention, and relatively little is known about their links to later health. Contemporary data are needed to enable us to move beyond explanation of historical infant feeding data in order to understand and predict health outcomes in future generations. Ongoing and new population studies, that include infants from diverse settings, will be key to providing generalizable data that can be used to define optimal feeding practice. There are some methodological challenges ahead, although significant progress has already been made, and further progress is envisaged in the future. In particular, the opportunity to bring together epidemiological studies and new mechanistic insights that will help identify key aspects of infant nutrition and their causal effects offer great promise both in moving this field forward as well as the potential for health benefits for future generations. PMID:26088394

  1. Current status of health promotion activities in four midwest cities.

    PubMed

    Weisbrod, R R; Bracht, N F; Pirie, P L; Veblen-Mortenson, S

    1991-01-01

    Community-wide surveys were conducted in Winona and St. Cloud, MN, Eau Claire, WI, and Sioux Falls, SD, in 1986 and 1987 to determine the current status of the supply and demand of health promotion activities in nine categories. Supply and demand indicators were conceptualized and defined as program options (different activities in a coded list) and participation (registrations). An annual inventory of all health promotion activities in each community was complied from interviews with providers of such activities. Interviews of probable community providers was followed by a nomination process to identify others. Providers at worksites were interviewed in a separate study with matching data endpoints. Results show that exercise programs have the highest levels of options and participation in all four cities. On the supply side of total programs offered, there was similarity in rates among three of the cities, with only Winona offering more health promotion opportunities. There was similarity also in the areas of health where most programs are offered, favoring exercise, followed by the heart disease risk factor areas of screening, smoking cessation, and nutrition education. On the demand side of participation, there was similarity in total participation rates among three of the four cities with Sioux Falls showing substantially higher demand. Exercise showed the highest participation in all cities, but there was little similarity among the cities in ranking participation in the other areas of health promotion. In the four cities combined, high levels of program options with low participation were characteristic of smoking cessation. In contrast, low levels of program options and high participation were shown in chemical dependency. Worksites are the main providers of health promotion programs for adults, with schools and colleges also major program providers. Educational organizations account for the largest percentage of total participation in health promotion

  2. Application of health-based screening levels to ground-water quality data in a state-scale pilot effort

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toccalino, Patricia L.; Norman, Julia E.; Phillips, Robyn H.; Kauffman, Leon J.; Stackelberg, Paul E.; Nowell, Lisa H.; Krietzman, Sandra J.; Post, Gloria B.

    2004-01-01

    A state-scale pilot effort was conducted to evaluate a Health-Based Screening Level (HBSL) approach developed for communicating findings from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program in a human-health context. Many aquifers sampled by USGS are used as drinking-water sources, and water-quality conditions historically have been assessed by comparing measured contaminant concentrations to established drinking-water standards and guidelines. Because drinking-water standards and guidelines do not exist for many analyzed contaminants, HBSL values were developed collaboratively by the USGS, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, and Oregon Health & Science University, using USEPA toxicity values and USEPA Office of Water methodologies. The main objective of this report is to demonstrate the use of HBSL approach as a tool for communicating water-quality data in a human-health context by conducting a retrospective analysis of ground-water quality data from New Jersey. Another important objective is to provide guidance on the use and interpretation of HBSL values and other human-health benchmarks in the analyses of water-quality data in a human-health context. Ground-water samples collected during 1996-98 from 30 public-supply, 82 domestic, and 108 monitoring wells were analyzed for 97 pesticides and 85 volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The occurrence of individual pesticides and VOCs was evaluated in a human-health context by calculating Benchmark Quotients (BQs), defined as ratios of measured concentrations of regulated compounds (that is, compounds with Federal or state drinking-water standards) to Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) values and ratios of measured concentrations of unregulated compounds to HBSL values. Contaminants were identified as being of potential human-health concern if maximum detected concentrations were within a factor of 10 of the associated MCL or HBSL

  3. The Built Environment and Child Health: An Overview of Current Evidence.

    PubMed

    Gascon, Mireia; Vrijheid, Martine; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2016-09-01

    Urbanization and the shaping of the built environment have provided a number of socioeconomic benefits, but they have also brought unwanted side effects on health. We aimed to review the current epidemiological evidence of the associations between the built environment, closely related exposures, and child health. We focused on growth and obesity, neuropsychological development, and respiratory and immune health. We used existing review articles and supplemented these with relevant work published and not included in existing reviews. The present review shows that there is good evidence for an association between air pollution and fetal growth restriction and respiratory health, whereas for other exposure and outcome combinations, further evidence is needed. Future studies should make efforts to integrate the different built environment features and to include the evaluation of environments other than home, as well as accessibility, qualitative and perception assessment of the built environment, and, if possible, with improved and standardized tools to facilitate comparability between studies. Efforts are also needed to conduct longitudinal and intervention studies and to understand potential mechanisms behind the associations observed. Finally, studies in low- and middle-income countries are needed. PMID:27220615

  4. Veterinary public health in India: current status and future needs.

    PubMed

    Ghatak, S; Singh, B B

    2015-12-01

    Veterinary public health (VPH) assumes huge significance in developing countries such as India. However, the implementation of VPH services throughout the country is still in its infancy. From 1970 onwards, many institutes, national and international organisations, professional societies, policies and personalities have contributed towards the development of VPH in India. Nevertheless, there is an urgent need to develop VPH still further as there are many issues, such as high population density, the re-emergence of zoonotic pathogens, environmental pollution and antimicrobial resistance, that require attention. The time has surely come to involve all stakeholders, ranging from primary producers (e.g., farmers) to policy-makers, so as to garner support for the holistic implementation of VPH services in India. To improve VPH activities and services, science-based policies enforced through stringent regulation are required to improve human, animal and environmental health. The emergence of the 'One Health' concept has ushered in new hopes for the resurrection of VPH in India. Applying tools such as the World Organisation for Animal Health (OlE) Day One Competencies and the OlE Tool for the Evaluation of Performance of Veterinary Services (PVS Tool) is essential to improve the quality of national Veterinary Services and to identify gaps and weaknesses in service provision, which can be remedied to comply with the OlE international standards. VPH initiatives started modestly but they continue to grow. The present review is focused on the current status and future needs of VPH in India. PMID:27044147

  5. Sweetened beverages and health: current state of scientific understandings.

    PubMed

    Rippe, James M; Saltzman, Edward

    2013-01-01

    This article summarizes the presentations from the "Sweetened Beverages and Health: Current State of Scientific Understandings" symposium held at the ASN Annual Meeting in Boston, MA on April 23, 2013. The metabolic and health effects of sugar-sweetened beverages were discussed from a variety of points of view by 5 different presenters. Dr. David Allison drew a distinction between conjecture and proof related to sweetened beverages and obesity. Dr. Richard Mattes discussed differences between solid and liquid calories. Dr. Miguel Alonso-Alonso reviewed potential contributions of functional neuroimaging, particularly as they relate to whether sugar is potentially "addictive." Dr. Kimber Stanhope discussed work related to experiments comparing fructose to glucose. Dr. James Rippe presented evidence from randomized controlled trials from his research organization showing no differences among high-fructose corn syrup, sucrose, glucose, or fructose at normal human consumption amounts. PMID:24038246

  6. Prognostics and Health Management of Wind Turbines: Current Status and Future Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Shuangwen

    2015-12-14

    Prognostics and health management is not a new concept. It has been used in relatively mature industries, such as aviation and electronics, to help improve operation and maintenance (O&M) practices. In the wind industry, prognostics and health management is relatively new. The level for both wind industry applications and research and development (R&D) has increased in recent years because of its potential for reducing O&M cost of wind power, especially for turbines installed offshore. The majority of wind industry application efforts has been focused on diagnosis based on various sensing and feature extraction techniques. For R&D, activities are being conducted in almost all areas of a typical prognostics and health management framework (i.e., sensing, data collection, feature extraction, diagnosis, prognosis, and maintenance scheduling). This presentation provides an overview of the current status of wind turbine prognostics and health management that focuses on drivetrain condition monitoring through vibration, oil debris, and oil condition analysis techniques. It also discusses turbine component health diagnosis through data mining and modeling based on supervisory control and data acquisition system data. Finally, it provides a brief survey of R&D activities for wind turbine prognostics and health management, along with future opportunities.

  7. Psychologists in public health: Historical aspects and current challenges.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Neto, João L; Henriques, Mariana A

    2016-03-01

    This article presents the historical context of the insertion of psychology, as a profession, in health policies in Brazil, in order to understand its current challenges. Analysis was based on a non-systematic literature review about professional training, practice, and research in psychology. Three challenges were identified: working in high social vulnerability contexts, practice in multidisciplinary teams and the need to expand the research agenda. We conclude that dealing with these challenges will depend on the area's capacity to reinvent itself and become more permeable to interdisciplinary dialogue. PMID:26987823

  8. Glass Property Models and Constraints for Estimating the Glass to be Produced at Hanford by Implementing Current Advanced Glass Formulation Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Vienna, John D.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Skorski, Daniel C.; Matyas, Josef

    2013-07-31

    Recent glass formulation and melter testing data have suggested that significant increases in waste loading in HLW and LAW glasses are possible over current system planning estimates. The data (although limited in some cases) were evaluated to determine a set of constraints and models that could be used to estimate the maximum loading of specific waste compositions in glass. It is recommended that these models and constraints be used to estimate the likely HLW and LAW glass volumes that would result if the current glass formulation studies are successfully completed. It is recognized that some of the models are preliminary in nature and will change in the coming years. Plus the models do not currently address the prediction uncertainties that would be needed before they could be used in plant operations. The models and constraints are only meant to give an indication of rough glass volumes and are not intended to be used in plant operation or waste form qualification activities. A current research program is in place to develop the data, models, and uncertainty descriptions for that purpose. A fundamental tenet underlying the research reported in this document is to try to be less conservative than previous studies when developing constraints for estimating the glass to be produced by implementing current advanced glass formulation efforts. The less conservative approach documented herein should allow for the estimate of glass masses that may be realized if the current efforts in advanced glass formulations are completed over the coming years and are as successful as early indications suggest they may be. Because of this approach there is an unquantifiable uncertainty in the ultimate glass volume projections due to model prediction uncertainties that has to be considered along with other system uncertainties such as waste compositions and amounts to be immobilized, split factors between LAW and HLW, etc.

  9. Investigation of Current Methods to Identify Helicopter Gear Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Lewicki, David G.; Le, Dy D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of current vibration methods used to identify the health of helicopter transmission gears. The gears are critical to the transmission system that provides propulsion, lift and maneuvering of the helicopter. This paper reviews techniques used to process vibration data to calculate conditions indicators (CI s), guidelines used by the government aviation authorities in developing and certifying the Health and Usage Monitoring System (HUMS), condition and health indicators used in commercial HUMS, and different methods used to set thresholds to detect damage. Initial assessment of a method to set thresholds for vibration based condition indicators applied to flight and test rig data by evaluating differences in distributions between comparable transmissions are also discussed. Gear condition indicator FM4 values are compared on an OH58 helicopter during 14 maneuvers and an OH58 transmission test stand during crack propagation tests. Preliminary results show the distributions between healthy helicopter and rig data are comparable and distributions between healthy and damaged gears show significant differences.

  10. Investigation of Current Methods to Identify Helicopter Gear Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Lewicki, David G.; Le, Dy D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of current vibration methods used to identify the health of helicopter transmission gears. The gears are critical to the transmission system that provides propulsion, lift and maneuvering of the helicopter. This paper reviews techniques used to process vibration data to calculate conditions indicators (CI's), guidelines used by the government aviation authorities in developing and certifying the Health and Usage Monitoring System (HUMS), condition and health indicators used in commercial HUMS, and different methods used to set thresholds to detect damage. Initial assessment of a method to set thresholds for vibration based condition indicators applied to flight and test rig data by evaluating differences in distributions between comparable transmissions are also discussed. Gear condition indicator FM4 values are compared on an OH58 helicopter during 14 maneuvers and an OH58 transmission test stand during crack propagation tests. Preliminary results show the distributions between healthy helicopter and rig data are comparable and distributions between healthy and damaged gears show significant differences.

  11. NASA Efforts on Nanotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2003-01-01

    An overview of the field of nanotechnology within the theme of "New efforts in Nanotechnology Research," will be presented. NASA's interest, requirements and current efforts in this emerging field will be discussed. In particular, NASA efforts to develop nanoelectronic devices, fuel cells, and other applications of interest using this novel technology by collaborating with academia will be addressed. Progress on current collaborations in this area with the University of Puerto Rico will be highlighted.

  12. The COHERENT collaboration: an effort to observe coherent, elastic, neutral-current neutrino-nucleus scattering at the Spallation Neutron Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rich, Grayson; Coherent Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    The phenomenon of coherent, neutral-current scattering of neutrinos from nuclei was first proposed by D.Z. Freedman in 1974, who posited that an effort to observe this effect experimentally ``may be an act of hubris'' owing to extreme experimental difficulties. Taking advantage of technologies which have come to maturity and new experience gained in the intervening 40 years, the newly-formed COHERENT collaboration seeks to measure for the first time coherent, elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CE ν NS). Using neutrinos created by stopped pions at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, several detector systems will be deployed to limit systematic uncertainties and unambiguously observe the N2 -dependence on the cross section. The current status of the efforts of the collaboration will be addressed, focusing on detector technologies and calibration of these detectors for low-energy nuclear recoils. We will also discuss the longer-term physics goals of the collaboration, including astrophysical implications of the measurements and the use CE ν NS as a probe to search for non-standard neutrino interactions and as a way to measure the weak mixing angle.

  13. Health Benefits 101: The University of Kentucky's Effort to Improve Lives, Control Costs and Offer a Sustainable Benefits Package

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Joey

    2008-01-01

    A few years ago, the University of Kentucky found itself faced with unsustainable trends in retiree health care costs, as well as the rising cost of health care in general. This article provides an overview of the process and decisions made by the University of Kentucky to effect positive change in its health benefits for employees, retirees and…

  14. Assessing the Impact of School-Based Health Centers on Academic Achievement and College Preparation Efforts: Using Propensity Score Matching to Assess School-Level Data in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bersamin, Melina; Garbers, Samantha; Gaarde, Jenna; Santelli, John

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the association between school-based health center (SBHC) presence and school-wide measures of academic achievement and college preparation efforts. Publicly available educational and demographic data from 810 California public high schools were linked to a list of schools with an SBHC. Propensity score matching, a method to…

  15. Current status of medical radiation exposure in Korea - recent efforts to develop a radiation exposure control system focussed on justification and optimisation.

    PubMed

    Do, K-H; Jung, S E

    2016-06-01

    Radiation exposure from diagnostic medical imaging has increased in Korea. Radiological societies play a key role in radiation safety issues in Korea, including guidelines, accreditation, advocacy, scientific activity, and education. Any medical radiation exposure must be justified, and examinations using ionising radiation must be optimised. Education of referring physicians and radiologists is also important for justification. Medical physicists and radiographers have an important role to play in quality management and optimisation. Regulations are essential to control medical radiation exposure. Therefore, national organisations have made a significant effort to regulate and monitor medical radiation exposure using guidelines, accreditation, and even the law. Medical radiation exposure must be controlled, and this could be achieved by continuous interest from health professionals and organisations. PMID:27026586

  16. A Six-Year Predictive Test of Adolescent Family Relationship Quality and Effortful Control Pathways to Emerging Adult Social and Emotional Health

    PubMed Central

    Fosco, Gregory M.; Caruthers, Allison S.; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined how a multimethod (youth report, parent report, direct observation) assessment of family relationship quality (cohesion and conflict) in adolescence (age 16 –17) predicted growth and maintenance of effortful control across ages 17, 22, and 23 years old, and, ultimately, subjective well-being, emotional distress, and aggressive behavior in emerging adulthood (23). A diverse sample of 792 youth at age 17 and their families, and youth at ages 22 and 23, were studied to examine family cohesion and conflict and the growth and maintenance of effortful control as predictors of emerging adult social and emotional health. Results indicated that family cohesion and conflict during late adolescence and mean-level effortful control at age 22 each served as unique pathways to emerging adult adjustment. These findings underscore the importance of family functioning during adolescence and the maintenance of effortful control into emerging adulthood for understanding adjustment during the emerging adulthood period. PMID:22709261

  17. Prior and current costs in capitated health plans: the effects of health status at enrollment.

    PubMed

    Manton, K G; Newcomer, R; Lowrimore, G R; Vertrees, J C

    1996-05-01

    We compared the prior and current costs of persons age 65 and older enrolling in a Social/Health Maintenance Organization in each of four sites with samples of persons using standard Medicare benefits in each site. Analyses were adjusted for individual health differences using case mix scores. Costs were examined in the year before S/HMO enrollment or prior to the sampling of a person using regular Medicare services as well as costs during the study. Costs during the study are analyzed using a two-stage procedure where first the propensity to enroll in a S/HMO is modeled and then costs derived from either Medicare sources or shadow prices assigned to service units provided in a S/HMO are modeled. The costs for case mix groups with different health and functional characteristics varied significantly. Cost differences between case mix classes differed between the S/HMO and FFS populations. PMID:10160557

  18. The current state of public health in China.

    PubMed

    Lee, Liming

    2004-01-01

    In the past 50 years, China has made great achievements in controlling infectious diseases and improving the public's health and hygiene. However, in the twenty-first century, owing to the negative effects brought on by aging of the population and the burdens of diseases, urbanization, industrialization, and globalization, Chinese public health officials are encountering greater difficulties than ever. Old operating models of public health cannot meet present requirements. The main problems are poor capacity to respond to public health emergencies, severe inequality of health care services, and lagging development of public health information systems. Public health in China can gradually meet the requirements of social development and the increasing public demand for health care services only when the public health is directed by informatization, globalization, technification, and humanization. PMID:15015923

  19. The search for value in health care: a review of the National Committee for Quality Assurance efforts.

    PubMed

    Ohldin, Andrea; Mims, Adrienne

    2002-05-01

    Large employers formed the National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA) to ensure value to healthcare purchasers. Value in healthcare is a function of quality divided by costs. Through NCQA's role as an accrediting agency for healthcare organizations and the development of performance measures, Health Plan Employer Data and Information Set (HEDIS), gains toward defining the value of health services have materialized. An analysis of the impact of HEDIS data collection on physician practices and the influence of HEDIS data on employer, employee, and governmental health plan selections is examined. This study consisted of a general review, from 1993 to 2001, of HealthStar databases, PubMed databases, and the NCQA website. NCQA accreditation is accepted as an important industry milestone for health plans, credentials verification organizations, and physician organizations. The data for HEDIS is collected from health plan administrative data repositories, whereas health plan members' clinical data may be collected by chart abstraction in physician offices. Data collection in physician offices consumes administrative resources from physician practices and health plans. As commercial and governmental insurers move toward greater adoption of HEDIS measures, complex implications are created for physician practices and vulnerable populations. There are lingering questions regarding the improvements in quality of care for medically underserved populations and physician practice costs attributable to HEDIS. PMID:12069214

  20. Hookah and Cigarette Smoking among African American College Students: Implications for Campus Risk Reduction and Health Promotion Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Brittni D.; Cunningham-Williams, Renee M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify individual and institutional risks and protections for hookah and cigarette smoking among African American (AA) college students. Participants: AA college students (N = 1,402; mean age = 20, range = 18-24 years; 75% female) who completed the Fall 2012 American College Health Association--National College Health Assessment…

  1. Angel of human health: current research updates in toad medicine

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qian; Zhou, Xuanxuan; Zhang, Meng; Bi, Linlin; Miao, Shan; Cao, Wei; Xie, Yanhua; Sun, Jiyuan; Tang, Haifeng; Li, Ying; Miao, Qing; Wang, Siwang

    2015-01-01

    There are currently 34 genera and 410 species of toads in the world. The medicinal parts of toads mainly include their venom, skin, and clothing. The toad’s venom and skin possess the same chemical components, mainly the toad venom lactone class, and their pharmacological effects primarily include the maintenance of strong heart, antitumor, antivirus, anti-infection, and analgesic effects. So far, the produces from the medicinal raw materials of the toad are widely used clinically around the world, especially in China, Japan, and South Korea. About 50 varieties of medicines are used in the clinical treatment of various complicated diseases in China, such as “Liushen pills” which was popular in the whole world. Toads are mainly used in treating malignant tumors (e.g., liver cancer, gastric cancer, esophageal cancer, colon cancer, cervical cancer, among others), and some major diseases such as hepatitis B. Despite the therapeutic effects of toad-derived medicines on human health, there is insufficient research and development of toad-derived medicines by leading drug companies. In order to harness the beneficial effects of the resources of the toad species, it is the responsibility of global pharmaceutical researchers to develop and generate economically feasible toad-derived therapeutic products, while promoting maximum protection to the resources of the toad species. PMID:25755824

  2. 42 CFR 457.80 - Current State child health insurance coverage and coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Current State child health insurance coverage and coordination. 457.80 Section 457.80 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Introduction;...

  3. 42 CFR 457.80 - Current State child health insurance coverage and coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Current State child health insurance coverage and coordination. 457.80 Section 457.80 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Introduction;...

  4. 42 CFR 457.80 - Current State child health insurance coverage and coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Current State child health insurance coverage and coordination. 457.80 Section 457.80 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Introduction;...

  5. 42 CFR 457.80 - Current State child health insurance coverage and coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Current State child health insurance coverage and coordination. 457.80 Section 457.80 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Introduction;...

  6. MTBE: THE CURRENT STATUS OF HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will provide an update on recent evaluations of the environmental and health issues surrounding the use of MTBE in gasoline in the United States and elsewhere. Several public health bodies around the world have recently evaluated aspects of the health risks of ...

  7. Advanced Health Management of a Brushless Direct Current Motor/Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickett, R. D.

    2003-01-01

    This effort demonstrates that health management can be taken to the component level for electromechanical systems. The same techniques can be applied to take any health management system to the component level, based on the practicality of the implementation for that particular system. This effort allows various logic schemes to be implemented for the identification and management of failures. By taking health management to the component level, integrated vehicle health management systems can be enhanced by protecting box-level avionics from being shut down in order to isolate a failed computer.

  8. Building relationships with physicians. Internal marketing efforts help strengthen organizational bonds at a rural health care clinic.

    PubMed

    Peltier, J W; Boyt, T; Westfall, J E

    1997-01-01

    Physician turnover is costly for health care organizations, especially for rural organizations. One approach management can take to reduce turnover is to promote physician loyalty by treating them as an important customer segment. The authors develop an information--oriented framework for generating physician loyalty and illustrate how this framework has helped to eliminate physician turnover at a rural health care clinic. Rural health care organizations must develop a more internal marketing orientation in their approach to establishing strong relationship bonds with physicians. PMID:10173904

  9. Mobile-health: A review of current state in 2015.

    PubMed

    Silva, Bruno M C; Rodrigues, Joel J P C; de la Torre Díez, Isabel; López-Coronado, Miguel; Saleem, Kashif

    2015-08-01

    Health telematics is a growing up issue that is becoming a major improvement on patient lives, especially in elderly, disabled, and chronically ill. In recent years, information and communication technologies improvements, along with mobile Internet, offering anywhere and anytime connectivity, play a key role on modern healthcare solutions. In this context, mobile health (m-Health) delivers healthcare services, overcoming geographical, temporal, and even organizational barriers. M-Health solutions address emerging problems on health services, including, the increasing number of chronic diseases related to lifestyle, high costs of existing national health services, the need to empower patients and families to self-care and handle their own healthcare, and the need to provide direct access to health services, regardless of time and place. Then, this paper presents a comprehensive review of the state of the art on m-Health services and applications. It surveys the most significant research work and presents a deep analysis of the top and novel m-Health services and applications proposed by industry. A discussion considering the European Union and United States approaches addressing the m-Health paradigm and directives already published is also considered. Open and challenging issues on emerging m-Health solutions are proposed for further works. PMID:26071682

  10. Innovative remote monitoring of plant health for environmental applications: A joint effort between EPCOT{reg_sign} and the DOE

    SciTech Connect

    Robitaille, H.; Capelle, G.; Di Benedetto, J.

    1996-12-31

    In September of 1994, the US Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management, Office of Science and Technology for (OST) and Epcot{reg_sign} in the WALT DISNEY WORLD{reg_sign} Resort (Epcot) signed an agreement to cooperate on the research, development, and public communication and display of environmental technologies. Although Epcot and OST have distinctive missions, certain areas of their respective research and development efforts are common, including the integration of remote sensors with robotics platforms, airborne surveys for environmental characterization and monitoring, and ground based measurements of vegetation stress. The first area of cooperative R&D pursued under the agreement is the evaluation of laser-induced fluorescence imaging (LIFI), a technology developed by OST and proven effective for uranium detection. This paper describes the efforts being conducted under the Epcot-OST agreement and presents initial results. An appendix describing LIFI technology is also included.

  11. Growth of health maintenance organisations in Nigeria and the potential for a role in promoting universal coverage efforts.

    PubMed

    Onoka, Chima A; Hanson, Kara; Mills, Anne

    2016-08-01

    There has been growing interest in the potential for private health insurance (PHI) and private organisations to contribute to universal health coverage (UHC). Yet evidence from low and middle income countries remains very thin. This paper examines the evolution of health maintenance organisations (HMOs) in Nigeria, the nature of the PHI plans and social health insurance (SHI) programmes and their performance, and the implications of their business practices for providing PHI and UHC-related SHI programmes. An embedded case study design was used with multiple subunits of analysis (individual HMOs and the HMO industry) and mixed (qualitative and quantitative) methods, and the study was guided by the structure-conduct-performance paradigm that has its roots in the neo-classical theory of the firm. Quantitative data collection and 35 in-depth interviews were carried out between October 2012 to July 2013. Although HMOs first emerged in Nigeria to supply PHI, their expansion was driven by their role as purchasers in the government's national health insurance scheme that finances SHI programmes, and facilitated by a weak accreditation system. HMOs' characteristics distinguish the market they operate in as monopolistically competitive, and HMOs as multiproduct firms operating multiple risk pools through parallel administrative systems. The considerable product differentiation and consequent risk selection by private insurers promote inefficiencies. Where HMOs and similar private organisations play roles in health financing systems, effective regulatory institutions and mandates must be established to guide their behaviours towards attainment of public health goals and to identify and control undesirable business practices. Lessons are drawn for policy makers and programme implementers especially in those low and middle-income countries considering the use of private organisations in their health financing systems. PMID:27322911

  12. Collection development and outsourcing in academic health sciences libraries: a survey of current practices.

    PubMed Central

    Blecic, D D; Hollander, S; Lanier, D

    1999-01-01

    Academic health sciences libraries in the United States and Canada were surveyed regarding collection development trends, including their effect on approval plan and blanket order use, and use of outsourcing over the past four years. Results of the survey indicate that serials market forces, budgetary constraints, and growth in electronic resources purchasing have resulted in a decline in the acquisition of print items. As a result, approval plan use is being curtailed in many academic health sciences libraries. Although use of blanket orders is more stable, fewer than one-third of academic health sciences libraries report using them currently. The decline of print collections suggests that libraries should explore cooperative collection development of print materials to ensure access and preservation. The decline of approval plan use and the need for cooperative collection development may require additional effort for sound collection development. Libraries were also surveyed about their use of outsourcing. Some libraries reported outsourcing cataloging and shelf preparation of books, but none reported using outsourcing for resource selection. The reason given most often for outsourcing was that it resulted in cost savings. As expected, economic factors are driving both collection development and outsourcing practices. PMID:10219477

  13. Collection development and outsourcing in academic health sciences libraries: a survey of current practices.

    PubMed

    Blecic, D D; Hollander, S; Lanier, D

    1999-04-01

    Academic health sciences libraries in the United States and Canada were surveyed regarding collection development trends, including their effect on approval plan and blanket order use, and use of outsourcing over the past four years. Results of the survey indicate that serials market forces, budgetary constraints, and growth in electronic resources purchasing have resulted in a decline in the acquisition of print items. As a result, approval plan use is being curtailed in many academic health sciences libraries. Although use of blanket orders is more stable, fewer than one-third of academic health sciences libraries report using them currently. The decline of print collections suggests that libraries should explore cooperative collection development of print materials to ensure access and preservation. The decline of approval plan use and the need for cooperative collection development may require additional effort for sound collection development. Libraries were also surveyed about their use of outsourcing. Some libraries reported outsourcing cataloging and shelf preparation of books, but none reported using outsourcing for resource selection. The reason given most often for outsourcing was that it resulted in cost savings. As expected, economic factors are driving both collection development and outsourcing practices. PMID:10219477

  14. [The Discursive Analysis of Mental Health Promotion Efforts Targeting Community-Dwelling Young Adults at High Risk of Mental Illness].

    PubMed

    Hsiung, Der-Yun; Yang, Tzu-Ching; Ma, Wei-Fen

    2015-08-01

    The mental health of adolescents and young adults is an issue of concern worldwide due to the increase in violent incidents that have been perpetrated by members of this age group. Young people at high-risk of mental disability are easily ignored. Therefore, social tensions in society have increased due to safety issues arising from the problems that are associated with mental disabilities in this population. This paper discusses the importance of early identification and early prevention of mental disabilities in high-risk young people, defines high-risk mental illness, and identifies the various subcategories of mental diseases. Based on our review of the literature, the present paper suggests targeting young people in high-risk categories with health promotion that addresses the following six health-promotion lifestyle habits: engaging in regular exercise, eating a balanced diet, managing stress, engaging in social relationships, taking responsibility for personal health, and fulfilling self-actualization. This discursive analysis discusses these strategies as safe and sustained interventions for adolescents and young adults that may improve self-awareness and thus maintain health and enhance opportunities to promote an ideal health status. PMID:26242431

  15. Direct-to-Consumer Marketing: A Complementary Approach to Traditional Dissemination and implementation Efforts for Mental Health and Substance Abuse Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Sara J.

    2014-01-01

    The overall chasm between those who need treatment for mental health and substance abuse (M/SU) and those who receive effective treatment consists of two, interrelated gaps: the research-to-practice gap and the treatment gap. Prior efforts to disseminate evidence-based practice (EBP) for M/SU have predominantly targeted the research-to-practice gap, by focusing efforts toward treatment providers. This article introduces direct-to-consumer (DTC) marketing that targets patients and caregivers as a complementary approach to existing dissemination efforts. Specific issues discussed include: rationale for DTC marketing based on the concept of push versus pull marketing; overview of key stakeholders involved in DTC marketing; and description of the Marketing Mix planning framework. The applicability of these issues to the dissemination of EBP for M/SU is discussed. PMID:25937710

  16. Toxin-producing cyanobacteria in freshwater: a review of the problems, impact on drinking water safety, and efforts for protecting public health.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Melissa Y; Liang, Song; Lee, Jiyoung

    2013-02-01

    Cyanobacteria have adapted to survive in a variety of environments and have been found globally. Toxin-producing cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CHABs) have been increasing in frequency worldwide and pose a threat to drinking and recreational water. In this study, the prevalence, impact of CHABs and mitigation efforts were reviewed, focusing on the Lake Erie region and Ohio's inland lakes that have been impacted heavily as an example so that the findings can be transferrable to other parts of the world that face the similar problems due to the CHABs in their freshwater environments. This paper provides a basic introduction to CHABs and their toxins as well as an overview of public health implications including exposure routes, health effects, and drinking water issues, algal bloom advisory practices in Ohio, toxin measurements results in Ohio public water supplies, and mitigation efforts. PMID:23456705

  17. Health maintenance organizations: structure, performance, and current issues for employee health benefits design.

    PubMed

    Gold, M

    1991-03-01

    After summarizing the origins and key principles of HMOs, including the current characteristics of the HMO industry, this article reviews the evidence of HMO performance in the areas of benefits design, utilization and cost effectiveness, quality of care and consumer satisfaction, and selection and overall employer satisfaction. Outstanding issues and concerns, from the perspective of employee health benefits design, include issues such as assuring a fair price for HMO benefits, employer contribution methods, HMO diversification, and cost escalation and the search for value. Results of research studies have been generally positive about HMO performance on benefits, cost effectiveness, quality, and consumer satisfaction, and more mixed on employer satisfaction. As employers address concerns, some changes are likely in the methods used to integrate HMOs into a health benefits strategy. Because the issues involved in these changes are numerous and complex, careful consideration and design are desirable to assure that the net impact of any change is positive and consistent with overall goals. PMID:1903152

  18. The response of 1578 school leavers to a campaign combining commercial, Health Boards' and GDPs' sponsorship in an effort to improve dental attendance.

    PubMed

    Craven, R; Blinkhorn, A S; Schou, L

    1993-03-20

    A dental health promotion campaign was developed by Forth Valley Health Board in conjunction with the Scottish Health Education Group and the Department of Marketing at Strathclyde University. The aim was to encourage dental attendance among early school leavers. The emphasis was on the contribution of dental care to appearance and attractiveness. To highlight the importance of appearance, a major clothing retailer offered discounts on clothes to participants who made a dental visit. The impact of the campaign was evaluated by a questionnaire 3 months after its close. Recall of the campaign was high at 62% and 16% actually initiated a dental visit. However, only 2% claimed that the campaign was their main reason for attending. The project demonstrated the feasibility of collaboration between a commercial company and a health board in a health promotion effort. The results underline the difficulties in initiating a behaviour change, overcoming apathy and modifying the lack of felt need for dental care among the age group concerned. It does, however, suggest that there is potential for a more prolonged marketing effort. PMID:8448061

  19. The US health care system: Part 1: Our current system.

    PubMed

    Nuwer, M R; Esper, G J; Donofrio, P D; Szaflarski, J P; Barkley, G L; Swift, T R

    2008-12-01

    The US health care crisis is of great concern to American neurologists. The United States has the world's most expensive health care system yet one-sixth of Americans are uninsured. The cost and volume of procedures is expanding, while reimbursement for office visits is declining. Pharmaceutical costs, durable goods, and home health care are growing disproportionately to other services. Carriers spend more for their own administration and profit than on payments to physicians. This first article on the US health care system identifies problems and proposes solutions, many of which are championed by the American Academy of Neurology through its legislative and regulatory committees. PMID:18971443

  20. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; Underwood Conservation District, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Stampfli, Steve

    2004-02-01

    The White Salmon River Watershed Enhancement Project (WSRWEP) began in 1993 through efforts of the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), local stakeholders and various agencies. Early accomplishments of the project included the formation of a multi-stakeholder watershed management committee (WMC) and technical advisory committee (TAC), completion of several baseline assessments, drafting of a watershed management plan, and beginning implementation of the plan. Since inception, the effort has utilized the support of various government/private grants, and local in-kind contributions to accomplish project goals. The WMC and its partners utilize a four-pronged approach for achieving watershed enhancement: on-ground restoration, extension of technical and financial assistance to cooperators, community and environmental education, and assessment/monitoring to develop strategies and track the success of ongoing work. Project activities are generally targeted to sub-basins and stream reaches within the White Salmon watershed that exhibit important water quality and fish/wildlife habitat problems. Such project prioritization is being conducted with the active input of both the White Salmon WMC and TAC. An important current phase of the WSRWEP targets detailed monitoring and assessment of the Rattlesnake Creek sub-basin, and is the focus of this report. The 'Assessment of Rattlesnake Creek in Relation to Restoration Efforts' project (BPA Project ID Number 21009) was identified and prioritized for accomplishment by the White Salmon River TAC in January of 2000. Rationale for the project stemmed from the group's realization that Condit Dam on the lower White Salmon is scheduled for removal, or fish passage retrofitting, within the near future. Given this eventuality, the TAC identified the current lack of understanding regarding both potential anadromous habitat and existing native fish and habitat conditions above Condit Dam (RM 3.2) as an important need. In response to the

  1. ELECTRONIC HEALTH IN GHANA: CURRENT STATUS AND FUTURE PROSPECTS

    PubMed Central

    Afarikumah, Ebenezer

    2014-01-01

    The health-care system in Ghana is similar to those in other developing countries and access to health services for remote communities is extremely limited. In July, 2010, the Government of Ghana launched the national e health strategy. A number of international organizations have initiated various pilot projects, including disseminating and collecting data, education initiatives and telemedicine. In addition, several institutions and organizations are dedicated to the promotion of e-health and a range of Web-based health consultancy services have begun. The main objective of this study is to provide an overview of eHealth activities in Ghana. It was a daunting task, not least because of the need to gather information on eHealth projects and initiatives in Ghana, as there is no existing repository of such information. Through literature search in Africa journals online, Hinari, Medline, Google.com, Journal of Telemedicine and e-Health, Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, Journal of Medical Internet Research and Interaction with eHealth experts, followed up with some of the authors' for directions to other projects, and following the references in some articles. A total of twenty-two (22) pilot projects have been identified in Ghana. Mobile devices in use range from PDAs to simple phones and smart phones. The key findings of this research are that there are about 22 eHealth project at various stages of implementation in Ghana. Some of these projects have wind up and others are still being implemented. Mobile devices in use range from PDAs to simple mobile phones and smart phones. Most of the projects have been donor initiated. Data collection started in March 2010 to June 2013. Although eHealth seems to have a limited role in Ghana at present, there is growing interest in the opportunities it may offer in terms of improving the delivery and access to services, especially in remote locations. Recommendations for further research are provided. PMID:24678382

  2. Electronic health in ghana: current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Afarikumah, Ebenezer

    2014-01-01

    The health-care system in Ghana is similar to those in other developing countries and access to health services for remote communities is extremely limited. In July, 2010, the Government of Ghana launched the national e health strategy. A number of international organizations have initiated various pilot projects, including disseminating and collecting data, education initiatives and telemedicine. In addition, several institutions and organizations are dedicated to the promotion of e-health and a range of Web-based health consultancy services have begun. The main objective of this study is to provide an overview of eHealth activities in Ghana. It was a daunting task, not least because of the need to gather information on eHealth projects and initiatives in Ghana, as there is no existing repository of such information. Through literature search in Africa journals online, Hinari, Medline, Google.com, Journal of Telemedicine and e-Health, Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, Journal of Medical Internet Research and Interaction with eHealth experts, followed up with some of the authors' for directions to other projects, and following the references in some articles. A total of twenty-two (22) pilot projects have been identified in Ghana. Mobile devices in use range from PDAs to simple phones and smart phones. The key findings of this research are that there are about 22 eHealth project at various stages of implementation in Ghana. Some of these projects have wind up and others are still being implemented. Mobile devices in use range from PDAs to simple mobile phones and smart phones. Most of the projects have been donor initiated. Data collection started in March 2010 to June 2013. Although eHealth seems to have a limited role in Ghana at present, there is growing interest in the opportunities it may offer in terms of improving the delivery and access to services, especially in remote locations. Recommendations for further research are provided. PMID:24678382

  3. Mobile Devices in Health Education: Current Use and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ducut, Erick; Fontelo, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The increasing amount of new scientific information made available by computers and the Internet is demonstrated by the growing number of available health sciences journals. Medical students, nursing students, those in other health science disciplines, and clinicians need to make information more manageable and accessible, especially at the point…

  4. Men's Health Promotion in Canada: Current Context and Future Direction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Steve; Galdas, Paul M.; McCreary, Donald R.; Oliffe, John L.; Tremblay, Gilles

    2009-01-01

    The issue of "men's health", and how best to promote it, has been gaining increasing attention in both academic and media arenas across the globe. Whilst commentaries on the state of health promotion for men have been provided in countries including Australia and the United Kingdom, no corresponding Canadian-specific insights have yet been…

  5. Current Directions in Videoconferencing Tele-Mental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Lisa K.; Frueh, B. Christopher; Grubaugh, Anouk L.; Egede, Leonard; Elhai, Jon D.

    2009-01-01

    The provision of mental health services via videoconferencing tele-mental health has become an increasingly routine component of mental health service delivery throughout the world. Emphasizing the research literature since 2003, we examine: 1) the extent to which the field of tele-mental health has advanced the research agenda previously suggested; and 2) implications for tele-mental health care delivery for special clinical populations. Previous findings have demonstrated that tele-mental health services are satisfactory to patients, improve outcomes, and are probably cost effective. In the very small number of randomized controlled studies that have been conducted to date, tele-mental health has demonstrated equivalent efficacy compared to face-to-face care in a variety of clinical settings and with specific patient populations. However, methodologically flawed or limited research studies are the norm, and thus the research agenda for tele-mental health has not been fully maximized. Implications for future research and practice are discussed. PMID:20161010

  6. [Electronic health strategies in The Americas: current situation and perspectives].

    PubMed

    D Agostino, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of the Strategy and Plan of Action on eHealth (2012-2017) is to contribute to sustainable development of health systems of member states. Its adoption aims to improve quality and access to health services through the use of information and communication technologies (ICT), the implementation of digital literacy programs and access to quality information to advance towards more informed, equitable, competitive and democratic societies. PAHO/WHO considers that in society, free and equal access to health information should be a fundamental right of individuals. Access to information, knowledge sharing and use of information and communication technology in the health sector continues to grow and is driving significant changes in the way people interact with health services and among themselves in social networks and through the use of mobile devices (mHealth). This hyper-connected society, or information society, brings new challenges and opportunities related to the use of massive data (Big Data) that forces us to rethink our relationship with reality and the traditional ways of managing health information. PMID:26338398

  7. The Current State of Health Care for People with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breslin, Mary Lou; Yee, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    The National Council on Disabilities (NCD) undertook this study in 2007 to focus the nation's attention on the health care disparities experienced by people with disabilities, and to provide information and recommendations that can help to eliminate health care inequities for people with disabilities. Among the key findings were that: (1) People…

  8. Consumer health plan choice: current knowledge and future directions.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, D P; Chernew, M; Lave, J R

    1997-01-01

    A keystone of the competitive strategy in health insurance markets is the assumption that "consumers" can make informed choices based on the costs and quality of competing health plans, and that selection effects are not large. However, little is known about how individuals use information other than price in the decision making process. This review summarizes the state of knowledge about how individuals make choices among health plans and outlines an agenda for future research. We find that the existing literature on health plan choice is no longer sufficient given the widespread growth and acceptance of managed care, and the increased proportion of consumers' income now going toward the purchase of health plans. Instead, today's environment of health plan choice requires better understanding of how plan attributes other than price influence plan choice, how other variables such as health status interact with plan attributes in the decision making process, and how specific populations differ from one another in terms of the sensitivity of their health plan choices to these different types of variables. PMID:9143729

  9. Blueberries and Human Health: A Review of Current Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Renewed interest in the health functionality of blueberry (i.e., Vaccinium species with blue surface color) has led to research in several areas including neuroscience, cardiovascular health, cancer chemoprevention and aging. This article reviews these new directions in blueberry research, with emph...

  10. Updating the evidence base on the operational costs of supplementary immunization activities for current and future accelerated disease control, elimination and eradication efforts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    relative ease of vaccine administration (i.e. orally, or by injection), and differences in disease-specific programmatic approaches. The assessment of SIA budgets by cost component illustrates that four cost drivers make up the largest proportion of costs across all vaccines: human resources, program management, social mobilization, and vehicles and transportation. These findings suggest that SIAs leverage existing health system infrastructure, reinforcing the fact that strong routine immunization programs are an important pre-requisite for achieving ADC/E/E goals. Conclusions The results presented here will be useful for national and global-level actors involved in planning, budgeting, resource mobilization, and financing of SIAs in order to create more realistic assessments of resource requirements for both existing ADC/E/E efforts as well as for new vaccines that may deploy a catch-up campaign-based delivery component. However, limitations of our analysis suggest a need to conduct further research into operational costs of SIAs. Understanding the changing face of delivery costs and cost structures for SIAs will continue to be critical to avoid funding gaps and in order to improve vaccination coverage, reduce health inequities, and achieve the ADC/E/E goals many of which have been endorsed by the World Health Assembly and are included in the Decade of Vaccines Global Vaccine Action Plan. PMID:24450832

  11. Keep Kids in School: A Collaborative Community Effort to Increase Compliance with State-Mandated Health Requirements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Valerie; Salzeider, Christine; Holzum, Laura; Milbrandt, Tracy; Zahnd, Whitney; Puczynski, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is important that collaborative relationships exist in a community to improve access to needed services for children. Such partnerships foster preventive services, such as immunizations, and other services that protect the health and well-being of all children. Methods: A collaborative relationship in Illinois involving an academic…

  12. The mediating effect of effort-reward imbalance in household and family work on the relationship between education and women's health.

    PubMed

    Sperlich, Stefanie; Geyer, Siegfried

    2015-04-01

    Occupational stress as a key determinant for explaining health inequalities has been well established while the impact of stress related to family work has rarely been considered. This study investigates whether stress in household and family work may contribute to health inequalities in women. We used a population-based sample of German mothers (n = 3129) to determine the total, direct and indirect effects of education on somatic complaints by means of OLS regression-based mediation models. Inference about indirect effects was determined by 95% bias corrected bootstrap confidence intervals. Education was assessed by a measure combining school education and vocational training. Stress was measured using the adopted effort-reward-imbalance (ERI) questionnaire for household and family work. The von Zerssen list of somatic complaints was used as measure of subjective health. We found a significant total effect of education on somatic complaints (p ≤ 0.001) as well as significant indirect effects through 'effort' (p = 0.006) and 'reward' in household and family work (p ≤ 0.001). However, the subscales of ERI pointed into different directions: while levels of 'effort' increased with women's educational attainment, levels of distress related to low 'reward' decreased with higher levels of education. Our findings suggest that the effect of women's education on somatic complaints is mediated through stress related to low reward for household and family work. In particular, lack of 'societal esteem' for household and family work contributed to health disadvantages in lower educated mothers. We conclude that research on health inequality would benefit from taking stressful experiences in household and family work greater into account. PMID:25753286

  13. Currently employed public health administrators: are they prepared?

    PubMed

    Boedigheimer, S F; Gebbie, K M

    2001-01-01

    Challenges to the public health system come from shifting expectations of government, economic cycles, and demographic changes. Public health administrators, charged with the responsibility of both leading and managing their agencies, those who are recognized as having significant management responsibility and influence over programs and hold positions of leadership, must be prepared. The skills needed by administrators were identified using a focus group approach. The critical skills identified include public health values, epidemiology and advocacy, organizational management, cultural competency, coalition building, communications, managing change, strategic thinking and planning, Informatics, and team building. Potential action steps were also identified. PMID:11141621

  14. [The Rockefeller Foundation and its efforts toward a reorientation of German medicine and public health in the 1950s].

    PubMed

    Schleiermacher, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    The Rockefeller Foundation invested substantial funds into promoting the development of public health as a discipline and a re-orientation of medical training in West Germany to support the democratization of German society. Not limiting itself to the simple provision of literature, the Foundation pursued a two-pronged strategy. Firstly, the Foundation organized a program for German university physicians and public health officers to visit various universities and teaching hospitals in the USA and Canada. A second aim was to establish training institutes for postgraduate physicians. However, rather than simply imposing the US model, the Foundation intended to adapt it to the German context, in the form of a postgraduate course for physicians that integrated practical experience with a university setting. My research to date shows that the Foundation's activities did not meet with much enthusiasm from German medical professionals. Intellectual, cultural, cognitive and political differences impaired constructive collaboration between the Foundation's staff and local practitioners and academics. PMID:20629435

  15. Current issues in occupational health nursing. A Canadian perspective.

    PubMed

    Hunter, C

    1991-07-01

    The National Association of Occupational Health Nurses is still in its infancy and is striving to become an interest group under the umbrella of the Canadian Nurses Association. This will bring together the provincial associations in a common goal of promoting worker health and safety. The diversity of the country and the sheer magnitude of the various occupations of Canadians reflect the need for the occupational health nurse to be well educated and kept abreast of new developments. Changes in the worksite echo changes in health and safety legislation that will help to improve conditions in the workplace. Future challenges arise from changes in the work force and the nature of work and include: ergonomic issues, job stress, older workers, EAPs, and increased competition. PMID:2069607

  16. Divorce and Health: Current Trends and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Sbarra, David A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Social relationships play a vital role in health and wellbeing, and it follows that loss experiences can be highly stressful for some people. This paper reviews what is known about the association between marital separation, divorce and health outcomes. METHODS Key findings in the area of divorce and health are discussed, and the review outlines a series of specific questions for future research. In particular, the paper integrates research in social epidemiology with research in social psychophysiology. The former approach provides a broad-based estimate of the association between marital status and health outcomes, whereas the latter approach studies mechanisms of action and individual differences associated with increased risk for poor outcomes. RESULTS The experience of separation or divorce confers risk for poor health outcomes, including a 23% higher mortality rate. However, most people cope well and are resilient after their marriage or long-term relationship ends. Despite the fact that resilience is the most common response, a small percentage of people (approximately 10–15%) struggle quite substantially, and it appears that the overall elevated adverse health risks are driven by the poor functioning of this group. Several candidate mechanisms and novel (ambulatory) assessment techniques are discussed that may elucidate the poor outcomes among people who adapt poorly to separation. CONCLUSIONS To increase knowledge on the association between divorce and health, three primary areas require more research: (a) genetic and third variable explanations for divorce-related health outcomes; (b) better studies of objective social behavior following separation; and, (c) increased attention to interventions targeting high risk adults. PMID:25829240

  17. Special communication: China's first historic efforts to develop a tobacco control advocacy workforce via schools of public health.

    PubMed

    Yang, T; Yang, X; Lv, Q; Zhao, Q; Ke, X

    2009-10-01

    This paper provides an overview of a recent 18-month project which set out for the first time to introduce training on tobacco control into the curricula of public health courses in Chinese universities. The aim was to produce graduates with appropriate knowledge and skills to be effective in advocating for policies that could lead to the reduction of tobacco use. Results from this initial project involving seven universities have been encouraging and the new curriculum is to be implemented, with some changes, on a wider scale throughout China. Each of the universities also successfully introduced a smoke-free campus policy and the aim is to extend this policy. PMID:19622521

  18. Health information exchange, biosurveillance efforts, and emergency department crowding during the spring 2009 H1N1 outbreak in New York City.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Jason S; Genes, Nicholas; Kuperman, Gilad; Chason, Kevin; Richardson, Lynne D

    2010-03-01

    Novel H1N1 influenza spread rapidly around the world in spring 2009. Few places were as widely affected as the New York metropolitan area. Emergency departments (EDs) in the region experienced daily visit increases in 2 distinct temporal peaks, with means of 36.8% and 60.7% over baseline in April and May, respectively, and became, in a sense, the "canary in the coal mine" for the rest of the country as we braced ourselves for resurgent spread in the fall. Biosurveillance efforts by public health agencies can lead to earlier detection, potentially forestalling spread of outbreaks and leading to better situational awareness by frontline medical staff and public health workers as they respond to a crisis, but biosurveillance has traditionally relied on manual reporting by hospital administrators when they are least able: in the midst of a public health crisis. This article explores the use of health information exchange networks, which enable the secure flow of clinical data among otherwise unaffiliated providers across entire regions for the purposes of clinical care, as a tool for automated biosurveillance reporting. Additionally, this article uses a health information exchange to assess H1N1's effect on ED visit rates and discusses preparedness recommendations and lessons learned from the spring 2009 H1N1 experience across 11 geographically distinct EDs in New York City that participate in the health information exchange. PMID:20079955

  19. Shift Work and Health: Current Problems and Preventive Actions

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of the problems to be tackled nowadays by occupational health with regards to shift work as well as the main guidelines at organizational and medical levels on how to protect workers' health and well-being. Working time organization is becoming a key factor on account of new technologies, market globalization, economic competition, and extension of social services to general populations, all of which involve more and more people in continuous assistance and control of work processes over the 24 hours in a day. The large increase of epidemiological and clinical studies on this issue document the severity of this risk factor on human health and well being, at both social and psychophysical levels, starting from a disruption of biological circadian rhythms and sleep/wake cycle and ending in several psychosomatic troubles and disorders, likely also including cancer, and extending to impairment of performance efficiency as well as family and social life. Appropriate interventions on the organization of shift schedules according to ergonomic criteria and careful health surveillance and social support for shift workers are important preventive and corrective measures that allow people to keep working without significant health impairment. PMID:22953171

  20. Human health problems associated with current agricultural food production.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Ramesh V

    2008-01-01

    Scientific and technological developments in the agricultural sectors in the recent past has resulted in increased food production and at the same time led to certain public health concerns. Unseasonal rains at the time of harvest and improper post harvest technology often results in agricultural commodities being contaminated with certain fungi and results in the production of mycotoxins. Consumption of such commodities has resulted in human disease outbreaks. Naturally occurring toxins, inherently present in foods and either consumed as such or mixed up with grains, had been responsible for disease outbreaks. Other possible causes of health concern include the application of various agrochemicals such as pesticides and the use of antibiotics in aquaculture and veterinary practices. Foodborne pathogens entering the food chain during both traditional and organic agriculture pose a challenge to public health. Modern biotechnology, producing genetically modified foods, if not regulated appropriately could pose dangers to human health. Use of various integrated food management systems like the Hazard Analysis and critical control system approach for risk prevention, monitoring and control of food hazards are being emphasized with globalization to minimise the danger posed to human health from improper agricultural practices. PMID:18296310

  1. Shift work and health: current problems and preventive actions.

    PubMed

    Costa, Giovanni

    2010-12-01

    The paper gives an overview of the problems to be tackled nowadays by occupational health with regards to shift work as well as the main guidelines at organizational and medical levels on how to protect workers' health and well-being. Working time organization is becoming a key factor on account of new technologies, market globalization, economic competition, and extension of social services to general populations, all of which involve more and more people in continuous assistance and control of work processes over the 24 hours in a day. The large increase of epidemiological and clinical studies on this issue document the severity of this risk factor on human health and well being, at both social and psychophysical levels, starting from a disruption of biological circadian rhythms and sleep/wake cycle and ending in several psychosomatic troubles and disorders, likely also including cancer, and extending to impairment of performance efficiency as well as family and social life. Appropriate interventions on the organization of shift schedules according to ergonomic criteria and careful health surveillance and social support for shift workers are important preventive and corrective measures that allow people to keep working without significant health impairment. PMID:22953171

  2. [Environmental health in Mexico: current situation and future prospects].

    PubMed

    Riojas-Rodríguez, Horacio; Schilmann, Astrid; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Finkelman, Jacobo

    2013-12-01

    Environmental health has been established in Mexico as a discipline since the early nineties resuming the sanitarian tradition developed over the past century and incorporating new knowledge generated by environmental toxicology and epidemiology. During the last decade there has been some progress in reviewing and updating the regulations, designing programs and policies to reduce exposure to pollutants and consolidating research groups and teaching in the area. However, the most prevalent problems previously diagnosed still remain and new risks have emerged due to environmental degradation (air pollution, toxics exposure and climate change among others) have been incorporated. If this trend persists, the environmental risks will continue to increase and multiply. The environmental health governance in Mexico has to be redesigned involving a transectoral approach. Future proposals might include: establishment of a National Environmental Health Program, update the situational diagnosis at national and regional level, strengthening teaching and graduate programs in environmental health as well as increase support for research in the area and development of an integrated environmental health surveillance system. PMID:24715017

  3. Effort to regulate acid aerosol pollution, based on new human health data, still up in the air

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, M.F.

    1990-08-01

    Acid aerosols in the atmosphere are having acute short- and long-term respiratory effects. That is the view of David V. Bates, MD, who spoke recently at the World Conference on Lung Health in Boston, Mass. Bates, who is professor emeritus of medicine in the Department of Health Care and Epidemiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, has spent nearly 40 years in studies that make him, according to colleagues, the guru of respiratory physiology. Acid aerosols are colloidal suspensions of hydrogen ion-containing particles that form the misty air pollution called summer haze. They are generated commonly by sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide emissions from coalfired industrial plants. The emissions are transformed into ammonium bisulfate or sulfuric acid and nitric acid, well-known air pollutants. In the ambient air they mix with ozone. Although researchers do not yet have the sort of massive and unidirectional proof that there is for cigarette smoking causing lung cancer, Bates says, if you want early detection and early action to ameliorate the situation, the kinds of indicators that are now positive are very important indeed.

  4. [Policy, planning and health management: the current understanding].

    PubMed

    Paim, Jairnilson Silva; Teixeira, Carmen Fontes

    2006-08-01

    This work provides a literature review of Policy, Planning and Health Management between 1974 and 2005. Information is presented from previous research and publications, incorporating the production contained within the LILACS database from the last five years. The emergence of studies in these sub-themes is described in an attempt to associate them with political circumstances, with particular emphasis on: the Sanitary Reform Process, the construction of the National Health System and the reorientation of health practices. The particularities of the production in this field are discussed and the need for historical and epistemological work in Brazil is emphasized. The practical challenges impose techno-scientific expertise and, primarily, socio-political militancy on individual and collective subjects. PMID:16924306

  5. Infant oral health is the current standard of care.

    PubMed

    Sacheti, Anubha; Ng, Man Wai; Ramos-Gomez, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Despite professional recommendations calling for earlier first dental visits, Massachusetts children, on average, have their first dental visit at 3 years of age. This article will discuss the age-one dental visit and early establishment of a dental home. The components of an infant oral health visit will be outlined, including how to efficiently and effectively perform a caries risk assessment and a successful knee-to-knee exam. All dentists are challenged to improve their collective standard of care by incorporating infant oral health into their practices. PMID:23311041

  6. Assessing the Impact of School-Based Health Centers on Academic Achievement and College Preparation Efforts: Using Propensity Score Matching to Assess School-Level Data in California.

    PubMed

    Bersamin, Melina; Garbers, Samantha; Gaarde, Jenna; Santelli, John

    2016-08-01

    This study examines the association between school-based health center (SBHC) presence and school-wide measures of academic achievement and college preparation efforts. Publicly available educational and demographic data from 810 California public high schools were linked to a list of schools with an SBHC. Propensity score matching, a method to reduce bias inherent in nonrandomized control studies, was used to select comparison schools. Regression analyses, controlling for proportion of English-language learners, were conducted for each outcome including proportion of students participating in three College Board exams, graduation rates, and meeting university graduation requirements. Findings suggest that SBHC presence is positively associated with college preparation outcomes but not with academic achievement outcomes (graduation rates or meeting state graduation requirements). Future research must examine underlying mechanisms supporting this association, such as school connectedness. Additional research should explore the role that SBHC staff could have in supporting college preparation efforts. PMID:27009589

  7. Assessing the Impact of School Based Health Centers on Academic Achievement and College Preparation Efforts: Using Propensity Score Matching to Assess School-Level Data in California

    PubMed Central

    Bersamin, Melina; Garbers, Samantha; Gaarde, Jenna; Santelli, John

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the association between School-Based Health Center (SBHC) presence and school-wide measures of academic achievement and college preparation efforts. Publicly available educational and demographic data from 810 California public high schools were linked to a list of schools with an SBHC. Propensity score matching, a method to reduce bias inherent in non-randomized control studies, was used to select comparison schools. Regression analyses, controlling for proportion of English Language Learners, was conducted for each outcome including: proportion of students participating in three College Board Exams, graduation rates, and meeting University graduation requirements. Findings suggest that SBHC presence is positively associated with college preparation outcomes, but not with academic achievement outcomes (graduation rates or meeting state graduation requirements). Future research must examine underlying mechanisms supporting this association, such as school connectedness. Additional research should explore the role that SBHC staff could have in supporting college preparation efforts. PMID:27009589

  8. Do current sports nutrition guidelines conflict with good oral health?

    PubMed

    Broad, Elizabeth M; Rye, Leslie A

    2015-01-01

    For optimal athletic performance, an athlete requires good oral health to reduce the risk of oral pain, inflammation, and infection and thereby minimize the use of analgesics and antimicrobial agents. Increased intake, frequency, and dental contact time of carbohydrate-rich foods, sports nutrition products, and acidic carbohydrate-containing sports and energy drinks may contribute to risks of dental erosion, caries, and inflammatory periodontal conditions in the athlete, especially when he or she also exhibits dehydration and poor oral hygiene habits. Examining the athlete before he or she begins participating in a sport allows the dental care provider to determine the patient's existing oral health, hygiene, and susceptibility to risk factors for erosion, caries, and inflammatory periodontal disease. This oral profile, in conjunction with the individual athlete's dietary needs, can be used to establish a treatment and preventive program, including oral health education. Good oral hygiene practices and application of topical fluoride, especially via fluoridated toothpastes and topical fluoride varnishes, must be available to the athlete. Rinsing with water or a neutral beverage after exposure to carbohydrates or acidic sports nutrition products may reduce carbohydrate contact time and bring oral pH levels back to neutral more quickly, reducing the risk of caries and erosion. Finally, the dentist should encourage the athlete to consult with an experienced sports dietitian to ensure that principles of sports nutrition are being appropriately applied for the type, frequency, and duration of exercise in consideration of the individual's oral health needs. PMID:26545270

  9. Infectious Diseases: Current Issues in School and Community Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, Wilma; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Some children in American schools have known and unknown communicable diseases, including herpes, cytomegalovirus, AIDS, mononucleosis, pinworms, and hepatitis. This article examines major public health issues, school responsibility, preventative measures (like basic hygiene), and the need for more effective community education programs. A disease…

  10. Keeping Current. Library Media Specialists: Addressing the Student Health Epidemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buddy, Juanita

    2005-01-01

    Health and educational leaders are sounding the alarm about the unhealthy condition of many students in America's K-12 schools. Each day, new scientific studies confirm that "The majority of American youth are sedentary and do not eat well. Sixteen percent of school-aged children and adolescents--or nine million--are overweight, a figure that has…

  11. [Analysis of health concept in low-educated workers of 4 European Union countries for improving efforts to preserve health at workplace].

    PubMed

    Vanadzin'sh, I A; Eglite, M E; Sprudzha, D R; Korzeniovska, E; Pukhal'skiĭ, K; Zellane, M D; Lakisha, S I; Konova, Sh Z; Bake, M Ia; Martinsone, I Iu

    2011-01-01

    Study carried out in 4 EC countries revealed significant differences in attitude towards health between two examined groups of workers with various education levels, and between countries. Low-educated workers, when compared to more educated workers, are different in acceptable information sources on health state and in general view of study. PMID:21506376

  12. The emergence and current performance of a health research system: lessons from Guinea Bissau

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about how health research systems (HRS) in low-income countries emerge and evolve over time, and how this process relates to their performance. Understanding how HRSs emerge is important for the development of well functioning National Health Research Systems (NHRS). The aim of this study was to assess how the HRS in Guinea Bissau has emerged and evolved over time and how the present system functions. Methods We used a qualitative case-study methodology to explore the emergence and current performance of the HRS, using the NHRS framework. We reviewed documents and carried out 39 in-depth interviews, ranging from health research to policy and practice stakeholders. Using an iterative approach, we undertook a thematic analysis of the data. Results The research practices in Guinea Bissau led to the emergence of a HRS with both local and international links and strong dependencies on international partners and donors. The post-colonial, volatile and resource-dependent context, changes in donor policies, training of local researchers and nature of the research findings influenced how the HRS evolved. Research priorities have mostly been set by 'expatriate' researchers and focused on understanding and reducing child mortality. Research funding is almost exclusively provided by foreign donors and international agencies. The training of Guinean researchers started in the mid-nineties and has since reinforced the links with the health system, broadened the research agenda and enhanced local use of research. While some studies have made an important contribution to global health, the use of research within Guinea Bissau has been constrained by the weak and donor dependent health system, volatile government, top-down policies of international agencies, and the controversial nature of some of the research findings. Conclusions In Guinea Bissau a de facto 'system' of research has emerged through research practices and co-evolving national and

  13. Associations of Extrinsic and Intrinsic Components of Work Stress with Health: A Systematic Review of Evidence on the Effort-Reward Imbalance Model

    PubMed Central

    Siegrist, Johannes; Li, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Mainstream psychological stress theory claims that it is important to include information on people’s ways of coping with work stress when assessing the impact of stressful psychosocial work environments on health. Yet, some widely used respective theoretical models focus exclusively on extrinsic factors. The model of effort-reward imbalance (ERI) differs from them as it explicitly combines information on extrinsic and intrinsic factors in studying workers’ health. As a growing number of studies used the ERI model in recent past, we conducted a systematic review of available evidence, with a special focus on the distinct contribution of its intrinsic component, the coping pattern “over-commitment”, towards explaining health. Moreover, we explore whether the interaction of intrinsic and extrinsic components exceeds the size of effects on health attributable to single components. Results based on 51 reports document an independent explanatory role of “over-commitment” in explaining workers’ health in a majority of studies. However, support in favour of the interaction hypothesis is limited and requires further exploration. In conclusion, the findings of this review support the usefulness of a work stress model that combines extrinsic and intrinsic components in terms of scientific explanation and of designing more comprehensive worksite stress prevention programs. PMID:27104548

  14. Associations of Extrinsic and Intrinsic Components of Work Stress with Health: A Systematic Review of Evidence on the Effort-Reward Imbalance Model.

    PubMed

    Siegrist, Johannes; Li, Jian

    2016-04-01

    Mainstream psychological stress theory claims that it is important to include information on people's ways of coping with work stress when assessing the impact of stressful psychosocial work environments on health. Yet, some widely used respective theoretical models focus exclusively on extrinsic factors. The model of effort-reward imbalance (ERI) differs from them as it explicitly combines information on extrinsic and intrinsic factors in studying workers' health. As a growing number of studies used the ERI model in recent past, we conducted a systematic review of available evidence, with a special focus on the distinct contribution of its intrinsic component, the coping pattern "over-commitment", towards explaining health. Moreover, we explore whether the interaction of intrinsic and extrinsic components exceeds the size of effects on health attributable to single components. Results based on 51 reports document an independent explanatory role of "over-commitment" in explaining workers' health in a majority of studies. However, support in favour of the interaction hypothesis is limited and requires further exploration. In conclusion, the findings of this review support the usefulness of a work stress model that combines extrinsic and intrinsic components in terms of scientific explanation and of designing more comprehensive worksite stress prevention programs. PMID:27104548

  15. [The current perspectives regarding the burden on mental health caregivers].

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Lucilene; Vieira, Mariana Verderoce; Ricci, Maira Aparecida Malagutti; Mazza, Rafael Severio

    2012-04-01

    A systematic literature review was performed regarding the burden on mental health caregivers. The studies were selected from the Virtual Health Library - Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde (BVS), using the keyword caregiver burden. The main criteria for this study were: full-text articles published between 2000 and 2010, in Portuguese, English or Spanish; indexed on the BVS databases; which investigated the burden of mental health caregivers, and had caregivers as the main subject. The analysis was performed considering the following: title, year of publication, objectives, methodological approach, instruments and main results. The analysis of 114 full-text articles showed the predominant objectives were the burden on informal caregivers and the validation of psychometric scales, particularly the Zarit Scale. Some studies showed an association between high levels of burden, feelings of guilt and depressive symptoms. On the other hand, psycho-educational interventions were indicated as having a positive impact. This theme has a growing scientific interest and there is a need for deeper studies addressing formal caregivers. PMID:22576559

  16. Exposure information in environmental health research: Current opportunities and future directions for particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, Thomas E.; Ryan, P. Barry; Ozkaynak, Haluk

    2007-02-01

    Understanding and quantifying outdoor and indoor sources of human exposure are essential but often not adequately addressed in health-effects studies for air pollution. Air pollution epidemiology, risk assessment, health tracking and accountability assessments are examples of health-effects studies that require but often lack adequate exposure information. Recent advances in exposure modeling along with better information on time-activity and exposure factors data provide us with unique opportunities to improve the assignment of exposures for both future and ongoing studies linking air pollution to health impacts. In September 2006, scientists from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) along with scientists from the academic community and state health departments convened a symposium on air pollution exposure and health in order to identify, evaluate, and improve current approaches for linking air pollution exposures to disease. This manuscript presents the key issues, challenges and recommendations identified by the exposure working group, who used cases studies of particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutant exposure to evaluate health-effects for air pollution. One of the over-arching lessons of this workshop is that obtaining better exposure information for these different health-effects studies requires both goal-setting for what is needed and mapping out the transition pathway from current capabilities to meeting these goals. Meeting our long-term goals requires definition of incremental steps that provide useful information for the interim and move us toward our long-term goals. Another over-arching theme among the three different pollutants and the different health study approaches is the need for integration among alternate exposure assessment approaches. For example, different groups may advocate exposure indicators, biomonitoring, mapping methods (GIS), modeling, environmental media

  17. California's "5 a day--for better health!" campaign: an innovative population-based effort to effect large-scale dietary change.

    PubMed

    Foerster, S B; Kizer, K W; Disogra, L K; Bal, D G; Krieg, B F; Bunch, K L

    1995-01-01

    The annual toll of diet-related diseases in the United States is similar to that taken by tobacco, but less progress has been achieved in reaching the Public Health Service's Healthy People 2000 objectives for improving food consumption than for reducing tobacco use. In 1988, the California Department of Health Services embarked upon an innovative multi-year social marketing program to increase fruit and vegetable consumption. The 5 a Day--for Better Health! Campaign had several distinctive features, including its simple, positive, behavior-specific message to eat 5 servings of fruits and vegetables every day as part of a low-fat, high fiber diet; its use of mass media; its partnership between the state health department and the produce and supermarket industries; and its extensive use of point-of-purchase messages. Over its nearly three years of operation in California, the 5 a Day Campaign appears to have raised public awareness that fruits and vegetables help reduce cancer risk, increased fruit and vegetable consumption in major population segments, and created an ongoing partnership between public health and agribusiness that has allowed extension of the campaign to other population segments, namely children and Latino adults. In 1991 the campaign was adopted as a national initiative by the National Cancer Institute and the Produce for Better Health Foundation. By 1994, over 700 industry organizations and 48 states, territories, and the District of Columbia were licensed to participate. Preventive medicine practitioners and others involved in health promotion may build upon the 5 a Day Campaign experience in developing and implementing efforts to reach the nation's dietary goals. PMID:7632448

  18. Vitamin D in health and disease: Current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Despite the numerous reports of the association of vitamin D with a spectrum of development, disease treatment and health maintenance, vitamin D deficiency is common. Originating in part from the diet but with a key source resulting from transformation by exposure to sunshine, a great deal of the population suffers from vitamin D deficiency especially during winter months. It is linked to the treatment and pathogenesis and/or progression of several disorders including cancer, hypertension, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, muscle weakness and diabetes. This widespread deficiency of Vitamin D merits consideration of widespread policies including increasing awareness among the public and healthcare professionals. PMID:21143872

  19. EOS imaging versus current radiography: A health technology assessment study

    PubMed Central

    Mahboub-Ahari, Alireza; Hajebrahimi, Sakineh; Yusefi, Mahmoud; Velayati, Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Background: EOS is a 2D/3D muscle skeletal diagnostic imaging system. The device has been developed to produce a high quality 2D, full body radiographs in standing, sitting and squatting positions. Three dimensional images can be reconstructed via sterEOS software. This Health Technology Assessment study aimed to investigate efficacy, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of new emerged EOS imaging system in comparison with conventional x-ray radiographic techniques. Methods: All cost and outcome data were assessed from Iran's Ministry of Health Perspective. Data for clinical effectiveness was extracted using a rigorous systematic review. As clinical outcomes the rate of x-ray emission and related quality of life were compared with Computed Radiography (CR) and Digital Radiography (DR). Standard costing method was conducted to find related direct medical costs. In order to examine robustness of the calculated Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratios (ICERs) we used two-way sensitivity analysis. GDP Per capita of Islamic Republic of Iran (2012) adopted as cost-effectiveness threshold. Results: Review of related literature highlighted the lack of rigorous evidence for clinical outcomes. Ultra low dose EOS imaging device is known as a safe intervention because of FDA, CE and CSA certificates. The rate of emitted X-ray was 2 to 18 fold lower for EOS compared to the conventional techniques (p<0.001). The Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratio for EOS relative to CR calculated $50706 in baseline analysis (the first scenario) and $50714, $9446 respectively for the second and third scenarios. Considering the value of neither $42146 as upper limit, nor the first neither the second scenario could pass the cost-effectiveness threshold for Iran. Conclusion: EOS imaging technique might not be considered as a cost-effective intervention in routine practice of health system, especially within in-patient wards. Scenario analysis shows that, only in an optimum condition such as lower

  20. Genetic Analyses in Health Laboratories: Current Status and Expectations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finotti, Alessia; Breveglieri, Giulia; Borgatti, Monica; Gambari, Roberto

    Genetic analyses performed in health laboratories involve adult patients, newborns, embryos/fetuses, pre-implanted pre-embryos, pre-fertilized oocytes and should meet the major medical needs of hospitals and pharmaceutical companies. Recent data support the concept that, in addition to diagnosis and prognosis, genetic analyses might lead to development of personalized therapy. Novel frontiers in genetic testing involve the development of single cell analyses and non-invasive assays, including those able to predict outcome of cancer pathologies by looking at circulating tumor cells, DNA, mRNA and microRNAs. In this respect, PCR-free diagnostics appears to be one of the most interesting and appealing approaches.

  1. Common data elements for research on traumatic brain injury and psychological health: current status and future development.

    PubMed

    Whyte, John; Vasterling, Jennifer; Manley, Geoffrey T

    2010-11-01

    The National Institute of Neurologic Disorders and Stroke, Defense Centers of Excellence for Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury, National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research, and Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center jointly supported an effort to develop common data elements (CDEs, ie, consensus-based content domains of importance and recommended ways to measure them) for research on traumatic brain injury and psychological health. The authors served as participants in this effort as well as editors of the resulting articles. This article describes the current status of this multiagency endeavor, the obstacles encountered, and possible directions for future development. Challenges that occurred within the working groups that developed the CDE recommendations and similarities and differences among the articles that describe those recommendations were reviewed. Across all of the working groups, there were challenges in striking a balance between specificity in recommendations to researchers and the need to tailor the selection of variables to specific study aims. The domains addressed by the different working groups varied in the research available to guide the selection of important content areas to be measured and the specific tools for measuring them. The working groups also addressed this challenge in somewhat different ways. The CDE effort must enhance consensus among researchers with similar interests while not stifling innovation and scientific rigor. This will require regular updating of the recommendations and may benefit from more standardized criteria for the selection of important content areas and measurement tools across domains. PMID:21044713

  2. Human Factors and Health Information Technology: Current Challenges and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Kannampallil, T. G.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives Recent federal mandates and incentives have spurred the rapid growth, development and adoption of health information technology (HIT). While providing significant benefits for better data integration, organization, and availability, recent reports have raised questions regarding their potential to cause medication errors, decreased clinician performance, and lowered efficiency. The goal of this survey article is to (a) examine the theoretical and foundational models of human factors and ergonomics (HFE) that are being advocated for achieving patient safety and quality, and their use in the evaluation of healthcare systems; (b) and the potential for macroergonomic HFE approaches within the context of current research in biomedical informatics. Methods We reviewed literature (2007-2013) on the use of HFE approaches in healthcare settings, from databases such as Pubmed, CINAHL, and Cochran. Results Based on the review, we discuss the systems-oriented models, their use in the evaluation of HIT, and examples of their use in the evaluation of EHR systems, clinical workflow processes, and medication errors. We also discuss the opportunities for better integrating HFE methods within biomedical informatics research and its potential advantages. Conclusions The use of HFE methods is still in its infancy - better integration of HFE within the design lifecycle, and quality improvement efforts can further the ability of informatics researchers to address the key concerns regarding the complexity in clinical settings and develop HIT solutions that are designed within the social fabric of the considered setting. PMID:25123724

  3. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of electrochemical capacitors for advanced vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect

    Vimmerstedt, L J; Hammel, C J

    1997-04-01

    Electrochemical capacitors are a candidate for traction power assists in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Other advanced automotive applications, while not the primary focus of current development efforts, are also possible. These include load leveling high-energy batteries, power conditioning electronics, electrically hated catalysts, electric power steering, and engine starter power. Higher power and longer cycle life are expected for electrochemical capacitors than for batteries. Evaluation of environmental, health, and safety (EH and S) issues of electrochemical capacitors is an essential part of the development and commercialization of electrochemical capacitors for advanced vehicles. This report provides an initial EH and S assessment. This report presents electrochemical capacitor electrochemistry, materials selection, intrinsic material hazards, mitigation of those hazards, environmental requirements, pollution control options, and shipping requirements. Most of the information available for this assessment pertains to commercial devices intended for application outside the advanced vehicle market and to experiment or prototype devices. Electrochemical capacitors for power assists in HEVs are not produced commercially now. Therefore, materials for advanced vehicle electrochemical capacitors may change, and so would the corresponding EH and S issues. Although changes are possible, this report describes issues for likely electrochemical capacitor designs.

  4. Dietary copper and human health: Current evidence and unresolved issues.

    PubMed

    Bost, Muriel; Houdart, Sabine; Oberli, Marion; Kalonji, Esther; Huneau, Jean-François; Margaritis, Irène

    2016-05-01

    Although copper (Cu) is recognized as an essential trace element, uncertainties remain regarding Cu reference values for humans, as illustrated by discrepancies between recommendations issued by different national authorities. This review examines human studies published since 1990 on relationships between Cu intake, Cu balance, biomarkers of Cu status, and health. It points out several gaps and unresolved issues which make it difficult to assess Cu requirements. Results from balance studies suggest that daily intakes below 0.8mg/day lead to net Cu losses, while net gains are consistently observed above 2.4mg/day. However, because of an incomplete collection of losses in all studies, a precise estimation of Cu requirements cannot be derived from available data. Data regarding the relationship between Cu intake and potential biomarkers are either too preliminary or inconclusive because of low specificity or low sensitivity to change in dietary Cu over a wide range of intakes. Results from observation and intervention studies do not support a link between Cu and a risk of cardiovascular disease, cognitive decline, arthritis or cancer for intakes ranging from 0.6 to 3mg/day, and limited evidence exists for impaired immune function in healthy subjects with a very low (0.38mg/day) Cu intake. However, data from observation studies should be regarded with caution because of uncertainties regarding Cu concentration in various foods and water. Further studies that accurately evaluate Cu exposure based on reliable biomarkers of Cu status are needed. PMID:27049134

  5. Current status of yoga in mental health services.

    PubMed

    Varambally, Shivarama; Gangadhar, B N

    2016-06-01

    Yoga (derived from 'yuj' which means to yoke together or unite) has been used for millennia as a tool for self-improvement, with the ultimate goal of uniting the individual consciousness with the universal. The physical elements of yoga, although seen as necessary in the path to achieve the goal, they were not considered as the endpoint for a practitioner. Sage Patanjali, who codified the practices into an eight-limbed model (Ashtanga yoga) in the Patanjali Yoga Sutras, makes it clear that the target of yoga is primarily the mind. However, in the modern world, yoga practices have become immensely popular as aids to improve health. Yoga-based practices are being extensively used as therapeutic ingredients, alone or as adjuncts to other therapies in a variety of disorders, both physical and mental. There is now strong evidence to suggest that yoga-based interventions are beneficial in several lifestyle disorders. Recent research has also shown significant benefits in mental disorders such as depression, anxiety, and psychosis. This paper discusses the place of yoga as one of the therapeutic strategies in the holistic approach to mental disorders, and the challenges inherent to research in this area. PMID:27067548

  6. Music therapy in cardiac health care: current issues in research.

    PubMed

    Hanser, Suzanne B

    2014-01-01

    Music therapy is a service that has become more prevalent as an adjunct to medical practice-as its evidence base expands and music therapists begin to join the cardiology team in every phase of care, from the most serious cases to those maintaining good heart health. Although applications of music medicine, primarily listening to short segments of music, are capable of stabilizing vital signs and managing symptoms in the short-term, music therapy interventions by a qualified practitioner are showing promise in establishing deeper and more lasting impact. On the basis of mind-body approaches, stress/coping models, the neuromatrix theory of pain, and entrainment, music therapy capitalizes on the ability of music to affect the autonomic nervous system. Although only a limited number of randomized controlled trials pinpoint the efficacy of specific music therapy interventions, qualitative research reveals some profound outcomes in certain individuals. A depth of understanding related to the experience of living with a cardiovascular disease can be gained through music therapy approaches such as nonverbal music psychotherapy and guided imagery and music. The multifaceted nature of musical responsiveness contributes to strong individual variability and must be taken into account in the development of research protocols for future music therapy and music medicine interventions. The extant research provides a foundation for exploring the many potential psychosocial, physiological, and spiritual outcomes of a music therapy service for cardiology patients. PMID:23535529

  7. Creating supportive nutrition environments for population health impact and health equity: an overview of the Nutrition and Obesity Policy Research and Evaluation Network's efforts.

    PubMed

    Blanck, Heidi M; Kim, Sonia A

    2012-09-01

    Childhood obesity is a major threat to individual health and society overall. Policies that support healthier food and beverage choices have been endorsed by many decision makers. These policies may reach a large proportion of the population or in some circumstances aim to reduce nutrition disparities to ensure health equity. The Nutrition and Obesity Policy Research and Evaluation Network (NOPREN) evaluates policy as a tool to improve food and beverage environments where Americans live, work, play, and learn. The network aspires to address research and evaluation gaps related to relevant policies, create standardized research tools, and help build the evidence base of effective policy solutions for childhood obesity prevention with a focus on reach, equity, cost effectiveness, and sustainability. PMID:22898166

  8. Herbal extracts in oral health care - A review of the current scenario and its future needs

    PubMed Central

    Chandra Shekar, Byalakere Rudraiah; Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Suma, Shankarappa; Thakur, Rupesh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral diseases are among the major public health problems and the commonest of chronic diseases that affect mankind. The application of natural products for the control of oral diseases is considered as an interesting alternative to synthetic antimicrobials due to their lower negative impact, and for the effort to overcome primary or secondary resistance to the drug during therapy. Objective: To review the current evidence on the antimicrobial efficacy of 10 plant extracts on dental caries and plaque microorganisms. Materials and Methods: A comprehensive literature search was made by one of the authors for 2 months in PubMed, PubMed Central, MEDLINE, LILACS/BBO, Cochrane database of systematic reviews, SCIENCE DIRECT, and Google scholar databases. The results from the relevant published literatures are discussed. Summary and Conclusion: The extracts of Azadirachta Indica, Ocimum sanctum, Murraya koenigii L., Acacia nilotica, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Mangifera indica, Psidium guajava, Rosa indica, and Aloe barbadensis Miller have all been found to inhibit certain dental caries and periodontal pathogens. The current evidence is on individual plant extracts against bacteria involved in either caries or periodontitis. “Herbal shotgun” or “synergistic multitarget effects” are the terms used for the strategy of combining different extracts. The research assessing the antimicrobial efficacy of a combination of these plant extracts against dental caries and periodontal pathogens is the need of the hour, and such research will aid in the development of a novel, innovative method that can simultaneously inhibit two of the most common dental diseases of mankind, besides slowing the development of drug resistance. PMID:26392704

  9. Phytoestrogens and human health effects: weighing up the current evidence.

    PubMed

    Humfrey, C D

    1998-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are naturally occurring plant compounds which have oestrogenic and/or anti-oestrogenic activity. They are present in many human foodstuffs including beans, sprouts, cabbage, spinach, soyabean, grains and hops. The main classes are the isoflavones, coumestans and lignans. This review assesses the evidence that these substances may have adverse and/or beneficial impacts on the risk of several hormone-dependent diseases in humans. Evidence from studies of various animal species has demonstrated that ingestion of high levels of phytoestrogens can produce adverse effects on reproductive endpoints including fertility. Studies in laboratory animals have also shown that exposure to high doses of phytoestrogens during development can adversely affect brain differentiation and reproductive development in rodents, but may also have possible beneficial effects. In humans, there is a lack of information concerning the possible effects of high doses of phytoestrogens in infants and this should be addressed as a matter of priority so that any risks (or benefits) can be established. In adults, no current data exist to suggest that consumption of phytoestrogens at the levels normally encountered in the diet is likely to be harmful. Epidemiological studies suggest that foodstuffs containing phytoestrogens may have a beneficial role in protecting against a number of chronic diseases and conditions. For cancer of the prostate, colon, rectum, stomach and lung, the evidence is most consistent for a protective effect resulting from a high intake of grains, legumes, fruits and vegetables; it is not possible to identify particular food types or components that may be responsible. Dietary intervention studies indicate that in women soya and linseed may have beneficial effects on the risk of breast cancer and may help to alleviate postmenopausal symptoms. For osteoporosis, tentative evidence suggests phytoestrogens may have similar effects in maintaining bone density to those

  10. Monitoring Health, Activity and Fitness in Physical Education: Its Current and Future State of Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cale, Lorraine; Harris, Jo; Chen, Ming Hung

    2014-01-01

    Various government policies, strategies and responses in England over the years have highlighted schools and physical education to be instrumental in addressing health and the focus on health has been strengthened within subsequent revisions of the National Curriculum. Whilst this might seem encouraging, concerns have been expressed that such…